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Sample records for childhood maltreatment exhibit

  1. Childhood Maltreatment and Educational Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Elisa; Babchishin, Lyzon; Marquis, Robyn; Fréchette, Sabrina

    2015-10-01

    Children (0-18 years) with maltreatment histories are vulnerable to experiencing difficulties across multiple domains of functioning, including educational outcomes that encompass not only academic achievement but also mental well-being. The current literature review adopted Slade and Wissow's model to examine (1) the link between childhood maltreatment and academic achievement, (2) the link between childhood maltreatment and mental health outcomes (i.e., emotional and behavioral difficulties), and (3) the bidirectional relationship between childhood academic achievement and mental health. In addition, we reviewed variables that might influence or help explain the link between childhood maltreatment and educational outcomes, drawing on developmental perspectives and Bronfenbrenner's ecological model. Finally, whenever possible, we presented findings specific to maltreated children in out-of-home care to highlight the unique challenges experienced by this population. Results indicated that children with maltreatment histories often experience impairments in both their academic performance (e.g., special education, grade retention, lower grades) and mental well-being (e.g., anxiety, low mood, aggression, social skills deficits, poor interpersonal relationships). These impairments appeared to be particularly pronounced among maltreated children in out-of-home care. Findings, albeit sparse, also indicated that mental health difficulties are negatively associated with children's academic achievement and, similarly, that academic achievement deficits are linked with mental health problems. The link between childhood maltreatment and educational outcomes may be partly explained through the disruption of key developmental processes in children, such as attachment, emotion regulation, and sense of agency. As well, maltreatment characteristics and the functioning of various systems in which children are embedded (e.g., family, school, child welfare) can serve to positively

  2. Childhood Maltreatment and Headache Disorders.

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    Tietjen, Gretchen E

    2016-04-01

    Childhood maltreatment is substantiated in 12 % of children, but nearly 50 % adults recall having been neglected or abused as children. Maltreatment, especially emotional abuse, is associated with migraine. Dysregulation of the HPA axis, autonomic, immune, and metabolic systems appears to be a consequence of maltreatment, and is also reported in migraine. Areas of the brain structurally and functionally affected by childhood abuse and by migraine are also similar, and include the limbic system structures, which connect to pain regions in the brainstem. Putative mechanisms by which early life stress increases the likelihood of developing migraine include gene x environment interactions, in addition to epigenetic modifications via DNA methylation. These modifications are stable and may be transferred across generations, but they may also be reversed by some medications commonly used in migraine, including valproic acid and topiramate. PMID:26936357

  3. Sexually coercive behavior following childhood maltreatment.

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    Forsman, Mats; Johansson, Ada; Santtila, Pekka; Sandnabba, Kenneth; Långström, Niklas

    2015-01-01

    Child maltreatment is associated with adult sexually coercive behavior. The association may be causal or confounders that increase the risk of both childhood victimization and sexually coercive behavior might explain the observed links. We examined if childhood maltreatment was related to sexual coercion independently of familial (genetic or common family environment) risk factors, thereby addressing potential causality. Participants were 6,255 18 to 33-year-old twins from the Finnish population-based study "Genetics of Sex and Aggression" who responded to self-report questionnaires of child maltreatment and sexually coercive behavior. We used generalized estimating equations to elucidate risk of sexual coercion in maltreated compared to unrelated, non-maltreated individuals. To adjust for unmeasured familial factors, we used the co-twin control method and compared sexual coercion risk within maltreatment-discordant twin pairs. Further, we examined possible differential effects of maltreatment subtypes and compared mean differences in maltreatment summary scores between sexually coercive individuals and controls. Sexual coercion was moderately more common among individuals maltreated as children versus unrelated controls (38.3 vs. 22.8 %; age- and gender-adjusted odds ratio, aOR = 2.31, 95 % CI 1.75-3.05) and the risk increase remained similar within maltreatment-discordant twins (OR = 2.82, 95 % CI 1.42-5.61). Moreover, different maltreatment subtypes predicted sexual coercion equally well and effect sizes remained similar within discordant twin pairs. We conclude that associations between child maltreatment and sexual coercion are largely independent of shared familial confounds, consistent with a causal inference. Importantly, detection and targeted interventions for maltreated children should remain a priority to reduce societal sexually coercive behavior. PMID:24752790

  4. The influence of childhood maltreatment on adolescents’ academic performance

    OpenAIRE

    Slade, Eric P.; Wissow, Lawrence S.

    2007-01-01

    Evidence that childhood maltreatment is associated with emotional and behavioral problems throughout childhood suggests that maltreatment could lead to impaired academic performance in middle and high school. This article explores these effects using data on siblings. An index measure of the intensity of childhood maltreatment was included as a covariate in multivariate analyses of adolescents’ risk for school performance impairments. Family fixed effects were used to control for unobservable...

  5. Young Adults with Gambling Problems: The Impact of Childhood Maltreatment

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    Felsher, Jennifer R.; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.; Gupta, Rina

    2010-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment has been thought to be a significant risk factor in the development of gambling problems. Incorporating a developmental psychopathology perspective, 1,324 adolescents and young adults, age 17-22 years completed self-report measures on gambling behaviors, gambling severity, and childhood maltreatment. Problem gamblers…

  6. Childhood maltreatment predicts allostatic load in adulthood.

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    Widom, Cathy Spatz; Horan, Jacqueline; Brzustowicz, Linda

    2015-09-01

    Childhood maltreatment has been linked to numerous negative health outcomes. However, few studies have examined mediating processes using longitudinal designs or objectively measured biological data. This study sought to determine whether child abuse and neglect predicts allostatic load (a composite indicator of accumulated stress-induced biological risk) and to examine potential mediators. Using a prospective cohort design, children (ages 0-11) with documented cases of abuse and neglect were matched with non-maltreated children and followed up into adulthood with in-person interviews and a medical status exam (mean age 41). Allostatic load was assessed with nine physical health indicators. Child abuse and neglect predicted allostatic load, controlling for age, sex, and race. The direct effect of child abuse and neglect persisted despite the introduction of potential mediators of internalizing and externalizing problems in adolescence and social support and risky lifestyle in middle adulthood. These findings reveal the long-term impact of childhood abuse and neglect on physical health over 30 years later. PMID:25700779

  7. Childhood Maltreatment and Revictimization in a Homeless Population.

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    Edalati, Hanie; Krausz, Michael; Schütz, Christian G

    2016-09-01

    We examined the hypothesis that exposure to childhood maltreatment increases the vulnerability to Adult Victimization (AV) in a homeless population (N = 500). We also investigated the effects of specific types (emotional, physical, and sexual) and cumulative experience of childhood maltreatment on AV, and whether gender moderates these relationships. All three groups with AV experience (emotional, physical, and sexual) indicated higher exposure to childhood abuse and cumulative maltreatment, and those who were sexually victimized as an adult showed higher exposure to childhood neglect. In addition, exposure to childhood maltreatment had type-specific and cumulative effects on AV. Exposure to all types of childhood abuse maintained a strong direct association with AV, regardless of demographic characteristics, including age, ethnicity, marital status, education level, and housing situation. In addition, exposure to physical neglect showed a significant relationship with Adult Sexual Victimization. Cumulative experience of childhood maltreatment was consistently associated with cumulative risk of experiencing AV. Gender had no significant effect on these relationships. Findings suggest that intervention programs in homeless population should consider the history of childhood maltreatment and its characteristics to increase the effectiveness of intervention strategies for AV in this population. PMID:25814505

  8. The Prevalence of Four Types of Childhood Maltreatment in Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Christoffersen, Mogens N; Armour, Cherie; Lasgaard, Mathias; Andersen, Tonny E; Elklit, Ask

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of four types of childhood maltreatment in Denmark while taking into considerations how each of the types of maltreatment vary as a function of gender or child-protection status. Methods: Data were collected from a Danish national study conducted by The Danish National Centre for Social Research in 2008 and 2009. The study used a stratified random probability sample of young people aged 24 years. A sample of 4718 young adults were randomly selected by St...

  9. Childhood emotional maltreatment : impact on cognition and the brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmelen, Anne-Laura van

    2013-01-01

    When a child is often scolded or threatened by his parents (emotional abuse) and /or when a child is structurally ignored or isolated by his parents (emotional neglect) we call this childhood emotional maltreatment (CEM). CEM is the most common form of child abuse, however, CEM is also the most hidd

  10. Childhood maltreatment and amygdala connectivity in methamphetamine dependence: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Dean, Andy C.; Kohno, Milky; Hellemann, Gerhard; London, Edythe D.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Childhood maltreatment, a well-known risk factor for the development of substance abuse disorders, is associated with functional and structural abnormalities in the adult brain, particularly in the limbic system. However, almost no research has examined the relationship between childhood maltreatment and brain function in individuals with drug abuse disorders. Methods We conducted a pilot study of the relationship between childhood maltreatment (evaluated with the Childhood Traum...

  11. Mental health outcomes in HIV and childhood maltreatment: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Spies Georgina; Afifi Tracie O; Archibald Sarah L; Fennema-Notestine Christine; Sareen Jitender; Seedat Soraya

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background High rates of childhood maltreatment have been documented in HIV-positive men and women. In addition, mental disorders are highly prevalent in both HIV-infected individuals and victims of childhood maltreatment. However, there is a paucity of research investigating the mental health outcomes associated with childhood maltreatment in the context of HIV infection. The present systematic review assessed mental health outcomes in HIV-positive individuals who were victims of ch...

  12. The Dollars and Senselessness in Failing to Prioritize Childhood Maltreatment Prevention

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    Wekerle, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment captured medical attention almost 50 years ago. Reviews considering the evidence for published maltreatment prevention programming emerged about 20 years ago. In the second decade of the 21st century, evidence-based maltreatment prevention is a reality for at-risk groups; however, the research-to-practice and policy gap…

  13. Childhood maltreatment and violence: mediation through psychiatric morbidity.

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    González, Rafael A; Kallis, Constantinos; Ullrich, Simone; Barnicot, Kirsten; Keers, Robert; Coid, Jeremy W

    2016-02-01

    Childhood maltreatment is associated with multiple adverse outcomes in adulthood including poor mental health and violence. We investigated direct and indirect pathways from childhood maltreatment to adult violence perpetration and the explanatory role of psychiatric morbidity. Analyses were based on a population survey of 2,928 young men 21-34 years in Great Britain in 2011, with boost surveys of black and minority ethnic groups and lower social grades. Respondents completed questionnaires measuring psychiatric diagnoses using standardized screening instruments, including antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), drug and alcohol dependence and psychosis. Maltreatment exposures included childhood physical abuse, neglect, witnessing domestic violence and being bullied. Adult violence outcomes included: any violence, violence toward strangers and intimate partners (IPV), victim injury and minor violence. Witnessing domestic violence showed the strongest risk for adult violence (AOR 2.70, 95% CI 2.00, 3.65) through a direct pathway, with psychotic symptoms and ASPD as partial mediators. Childhood physical abuse was associated with IPV (AOR 2.33, 95% CI 1.25, 4.35), mediated by ASPD and alcohol dependence. Neglect was associated with violence toward strangers (AOR 1.73, 95% CI 1.03, 2.91), mediated by ASPD. Prevention of violence in adulthood following childhood physical abuse and neglect requires treatment interventions for associated alcohol dependence, psychosis, and ASPD. However, witnessing family violence in childhood had strongest and direct effects on the pathway to adult violence, with important implications for primary prevention. In this context, prevention strategies should prioritize and focus on early childhood exposure to violence in the family home. PMID:26803688

  14. Childhood maltreatment and intimate partner violence in dissociative disorder patients

    OpenAIRE

    Webermann, Aliya R.; Brand, Bethany L.; Chasson, Gregory S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Childhood maltreatment (CM) is a risk factor for subsequent intimate partner violence (IPV) in adulthood, with high rates of retrospectively reported CM among IPV victims and perpetrators. A theorized mechanism of the link between CM and IPV is dissociation. Dissociation may allow perpetrators of violence to remain emotionally distant from their behavior and minimize empathy toward those they victimize, enabling them to commit acts of violence similar to their own experiences. Ind...

  15. Intrusions of autobiographical memories in individuals reporting childhood emotional maltreatment

    OpenAIRE

    van Harmelen, Anne-Laura; Elzinga, Bernet M.; Rogier A. Kievit; Spinhoven, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Background: During childhood emotional maltreatment (CEM) negative attitudes are provided to the child (e.g., ‘‘you are worthless’’). These negative attitudes may result in emotion inhibition strategies in order to avoid thinking of memories of CEM, such as thought suppression. However, thought suppression may paradoxically enhance occurrences (i.e., intrusions) of these memories, which may occur immediately or sometime after active suppression of these memories. Objective: Until now, studies...

  16. Resilience and health among youths with documented childhood maltreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Maia, Ângela; Pinto, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to assess the current health among youths who were maltreated as a child and had received one of two different protective interventions (home vs. institutionalization). Methods: We assessed the childhood adversity, psychopathology, physical complaints and health risk behaviours of 136 youths who had been identified by Child Protective Services and 80 youth not identified (control). Findings: The groups were similar in terms of psychopathology, glob...

  17. Childhood maltreatment and the risk of pre-pregnancy obesity and excessive gestational weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesel, Jill C; Bodnar, Lisa M; Day, Nancy L; Larkby, Cynthia A

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate whether maternal history of childhood maltreatment was associated with pre-pregnancy obesity or excessive gestational weight gain. Pregnant women (n = 472) reported pre-pregnancy weight and height and gestational weight gain and were followed up to 16 years post-partum when they reported maltreatment on the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). CTQ score ranged from no maltreatment (25) to severe maltreatment (125). Prenatal mental health modified the association between CTQ score and maternal weight (P childhood may contribute to pre-pregnancy obesity and excessive gestational weight gain. PMID:25138565

  18. Hippocampal atrophy in major depression: a function of childhood maltreatment rather than diagnosis?

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    Opel, Nils; Redlich, Ronny; Zwanzger, Peter; Grotegerd, Dominik; Arolt, Volker; Heindel, Walter; Konrad, Carsten; Kugel, Harald; Dannlowski, Udo

    2014-11-01

    Reduced hippocampal volumes are probably the most frequently reported structural neuroimaging finding associated with major depressive disorder (MDD). However, it remains unclear whether altered hippocampal structure represents a risk factor for or a consequence of MDD. Reduced hippocampal volumes were consistently reported in subjects affected by childhood maltreatment. As the prevalence of childhood maltreatment is highly elevated in MDD populations, previous morphometric findings regarding hippocampal atrophy in MDD therefore might have been confounded by maltreatment experiences. The aim of this study was to differentiate the impact of childhood maltreatment from the influence of MDD diagnosis on hippocampal morphometry. Depressed patients (85) as well as 85 age- and sex-matched healthy controls underwent structural MRI. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire was administered to estimate experiences of childhood maltreatment. Hippocampal volume and surface structure was examined by the use of two independent methods, automated segmentation (FSL-FIRST) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM8). In line with existing studies, MDD patients showed reduced hippocampal volumes, and childhood maltreatment was consistently associated with hippocampal volume loss in both, patients and healthy controls. However, no analysis revealed significant morphological differences between patients and controls if maltreatment experience was regressed out. Our results suggest that hippocampal alterations in MDD patients may at least partly be traced back to higher occurrence of early-life adverse experiences. Regarding the strong morphometric impact of childhood maltreatment and its distinctly elevated prevalence in MDD populations, this study provides an alternative explanation for frequently observed limbic structural abnormalities in depressed patients. PMID:24924799

  19. Reports of Parental Maltreatment during Childhood in a United States Population-Based Survey of Homosexual, Bisexual, and Heterosexual Adults.

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    Corliss, Heather L.; Cochran, Susan D.; Mays, Vickie M.

    2002-01-01

    A study examined childhood maltreatment among 2917 heterosexual, homosexual, and bisexual adults. Homosexual/bisexual men reported higher rates than heterosexual men of childhood emotional and physical maltreatment by their mothers and major physical maltreatment by their fathers. Homosexual/bisexual women reported higher rates of major physical…

  20. Impact of Exposure to Childhood Maltreatment on Transitions to Alcohol Dependence in Women and Men

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    Oberleitner, Lindsay M.; Smith, Philip H.; Weinberger, Andrea H; Mazure, Carolyn M.; McKee, Sherry A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Childhood maltreatment decreases age of first use and speeds the transition from first use to dependence (i.e., telescoping) for alcohol use, however, it is currently unknown whether this influence is the same for men and women. Method Analyses were conducted with the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (n=34,653). Outcome variables included: age of alcohol initiation and time to onset of DSM-IV alcohol dependence. Predictor variables included: gender and childhood maltreatment. Linear and Poisson regression analyses were conducted. Results Results demonstrated that in regards to age of drinking initiation, individuals who experienced childhood maltreatment initiated 1 year earlier than those without maltreatment, however, there was no interaction of this relationship with gender. Regarding the time to dependence, it was found that women who experienced childhood maltreatment demonstrated telescoping (shorter time between onset and dependence) compared to women without maltreatment and men (both with and without maltreatment). Conclusion Women with a history of childhood maltreatment are particularly vulnerable to an accelerated time from initiation of alcohol use until dependence, a pattern indicative of increased negative alcohol related outcomes. Findings highlight the need for development of gender-specific prevention efforts and behavioral treatments to aid in early intervention of problematic alcohol use in women. PMID:26130105

  1. Mental health outcomes in HIV and childhood maltreatment: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spies Georgina

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High rates of childhood maltreatment have been documented in HIV-positive men and women. In addition, mental disorders are highly prevalent in both HIV-infected individuals and victims of childhood maltreatment. However, there is a paucity of research investigating the mental health outcomes associated with childhood maltreatment in the context of HIV infection. The present systematic review assessed mental health outcomes in HIV-positive individuals who were victims of childhood maltreatment. Methods A systematic search of all retrospective, prospective, or clinical trial studies assessing mental health outcomes associated with HIV and childhood maltreatment. The following online databases were searched on 25–31 August 2010: PubMed, Social Science Citation Index, and the Cochrane Library (the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and the Cochrane Developmental, Psychosocial and Learning Problems, HIV/AIDS, and Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis registers. Results We identified 34 studies suitable for inclusion. A total of 14,935 participants were included in these studies. A variety of mixed mental health outcomes were reported. The most commonly reported psychiatric disorders among HIV-positive individuals with a history of childhood maltreatment included: substance abuse, major depressive disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. An association between childhood maltreatment and poor adherence to antiretroviral regimens was also reported in some studies. Conclusion A broad range of adult psychopathology has been reported in studies of HIV-infected individuals with a history of childhood maltreatment. However, a direct causal link cannot be well established. Longer term assessment will better delineate the nature, severity, and temporal relationship of childhood maltreatment to mental health outcomes.

  2. A systematic review of childhood maltreatment assessments in population-representative surveys since 1990.

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    Wendy Hovdestad

    Full Text Available Population-representative surveys that assess childhood maltreatment and health are a valuable resource to explore the implications of child maltreatment for population health. Systematic identification and evaluation of such surveys is needed to facilitate optimal use of their data and to inform future research.To inform researchers of the existence and nature of population-representative surveys relevant to understanding links between childhood maltreatment and health; to evaluate the assessment of childhood maltreatment in this body of work.We included surveys that: 1 were representative of the non-institutionalized population of any size nation or of any geopolitical region ≥ 10 million people; 2 included a broad age range (≥ 40 years; 3 measured health; 4 assessed childhood maltreatment retrospectively; and 5 were conducted since 1990. We used Internet and database searching (including CINAHL, Embase, ERIC, Global Health, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Scopus, Social Policy and Practice: January 1990 to March 2014, expert consultation, and other means to identify surveys and associated documentation. Translations of non-English survey content were verified by fluent readers of survey languages. We developed checklists to abstract and evaluate childhood maltreatment content.Fifty-four surveys from 39 countries met inclusion criteria. Sample sizes ranged from 1,287-51,945 and response rates from 15%-96%. Thirteen surveys assessed neglect, 15 emotional abuse; 18 exposure to family violence; 26 physical abuse; 48 sexual abuse. Fourteen surveys assessed more than three types; six of these were conducted since 2010. In nine surveys childhood maltreatment assessments were detailed (+10 items for at least one type of maltreatment. Seven surveys' assessments had known reliability and/or validity.Data from 54 surveys can be used to explore the population health relevance of child maltreatment. Assessment of childhood maltreatment is not comprehensive but

  3. Adult mental health consequences of peer bullying and maltreatment in childhood: two cohorts in two countries

    OpenAIRE

    Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Copeland, William E; Costello, E. Jane; Wolke, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background The adult mental health consequences of childhood maltreatment are well documented. Maltreatment by peers (ie, bullying) has also been shown to have long-term adverse effects. We aimed to determine whether these effects are just due to being exposed to both maltreatment and bullying or whether bullying has a unique effect. Methods We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children in the UK (ALSPAC) and the Great Smoky Mountains Study in the USA (GSMS) lo...

  4. Child Maltreatment and Mediating Influences of Childhood Personality Types on the Development of Adolescent Psychopathology

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    Oshri, Assaf; Rogosch, Fred A.; Cicchetti, Dante

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate longitudinal risk processes linking early child maltreatment, childhood personality organizations, and adolescent maladaptation. In a sample of maltreated and nonmaltreated children ("N" = 400; 62.3% African American, 11.8% Hispanic; 40.8% girls), a tripartite personality typology based on…

  5. Unsafe at Any Age: Linking Childhood and Adolescent Maltreatment to Delinquency and Crime

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    Mersky, Joshua P.; Topitzes, James; Reynolds, Arthur J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This study compares the effects of childhood maltreatment and adolescent maltreatment on delinquency and crime, including violent and nonviolent offending. Methods: Data were derived from the Chicago Longitudinal Study, a prospective investigation of 1,539 underprivileged, minority subjects. Results: Results confirmed that rates of…

  6. Early Childhood Intervention Programs: Opportunities and Challenges for Preventing Child Maltreatment

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    Asawa, Lindsay E.; Hansen, David J.; Flood, Mary Fran

    2008-01-01

    Due to the destructive impact of child maltreatment and limited available funding to address its consequences, the value of preventive measures is evident. Early Childhood Intervention Programs (ECIPs) provide excellent opportunities to prevent and identify cases of child maltreatment, among other varied objectives. These programs are typically…

  7. Assessing the Family Dynamics of Childhood Maltreatment History with the Childhood Attachment and Relational Trauma Screen (CARTS)

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    Brown, Matthew; DePierro, Jonathan; D’Andrea, Wendy; Schore, Allan; Frewen, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background: Existing survey measures of childhood trauma history generally fail to take into account the relational-socioecological environment in which childhood maltreatment occurs. Variables such as the relationship between the perpetrator and the victim, the emotional availability of caregivers, witnessing the abuse of others, and the respondent’s own thoughts, feelings, and actions in response to maltreatment are rarely assessed by current measures.Methods: To address these concerns, the...

  8. Long-Term Effects of Childhood Maltreatment History on Gender-Related Personality Characteristics.

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    Rosen, Leora N.; Martin, Lee

    1998-01-01

    A survey of 1,060 male and 305 female soldiers examined associations of gender-related personality attributes with a history of child maltreatment. Childhood abuse was associated with the presence of negative gender-related attributes; childhood neglect was associated with absence of positive gender-related attributes; childhood sexual abuse was…

  9. The Relationship between Childhood Maltreatment and Opiate Dependency in Adolescence and Middle Age

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    Naqavi, Mohammad Reza; Mohammadi, Masood; Salari, Vahid; NAKHAEE, Nouzar

    2011-01-01

    Background Child maltreatment is a global phenomenon with possible serious long-term consequences. The present study aimed to determine the relationship between childhood maltreatment and opiate dependency in older age. Methods In this study, 212 opiate dependent individuals and 216 control subjects were selected consecutively. The data collection instrument was a questionnaire which consisted of background variables, General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12), and Childhood Trauma Questionnair...

  10. The relationship between adult health and childhood maltreatment, as moderated by anger and ethnic background.

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    Rapoza, Kimberly A; Wilson, Denise T; Widmann, Wendy A; Riley, Michelle A; Robertson, Thomas W; Maiello, Elizabeth; Villot, Nikisha; Manzella, Dana J; Ortiz-Garcia, Alberto L

    2014-03-01

    Childhood maltreatment, anger, and racial/ethnic background were examined in relation to physical health, psychological well-being, and blood pressure outcomes. This study used data from a diverse sample of African American, Latino, and Caucasian participants (N=198). Results from a series of multiple regressions indicated anger and total childhood maltreatment were robust predictors of poorer health. Although correlational analyses found maltreatment from the mother and father were associated with poorer health outcomes, when considered as part of the regression models, only a relationship between maltreatment from the mother and physical health was found. Greater anger scores were linked with lower blood pressure, particularly systolic blood pressure. Generally, more psychological and physical symptom reporting was found with greater anger scores, and higher levels of total maltreatment also predicted physical symptoms. The pattern of interactions indicated anger was more detrimental for African American participant's (and marginally so for Latino participant's) physical health. Interestingly, interactions also indicated total childhood maltreatment was related to fewer symptoms for Latino participants. Although child maltreatment may be viewed as a moral and/or human rights issue, this study provides evidence that it can also be viewed as a public health issue. Our study demonstrated that known health risk factors such as anger and maltreatment may operate in a different pattern dependent on ethnic/cultural background. The findings suggest health and health disparities research would benefit from greater exploration of the differential impact of certain moderating variables based on racial/ethnic background. PMID:24582658

  11. Childhood maltreatment and intimate partner violence in dissociative disorder patients

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    Aliya R. Webermann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood maltreatment (CM is a risk factor for subsequent intimate partner violence (IPV in adulthood, with high rates of retrospectively reported CM among IPV victims and perpetrators. A theorized mechanism of the link between CM and IPV is dissociation. Dissociation may allow perpetrators of violence to remain emotionally distant from their behavior and minimize empathy toward those they victimize, enabling them to commit acts of violence similar to their own experiences. Indeed, elevated rates of dissociation and dissociative disorders (DD have been found among IPV survivors and perpetrators. In addition, in pilot studies, DD clinicians have reported high levels of violent behavior among DD patients. Objective: The present study investigates IPV among DD patients with Dissociative Identity Disorder and Dissociative Disorder Not Otherwise Specified, a group with CM rates of 80–95% and severe dissociative symptoms. Methods: DD clinicians reported on rates of CM and IPV among 275 DD patients in outpatient treatment. DD patients also completed a self-report measure of dissociation. Analyses assessed the associations between CM typologies and IPV, as well as trait dissociation and IPV. Results: Physical and emotional child abuse were associated with physical IPV, and childhood witnessing of domestic violence (DV and childhood neglect were associated with emotional IPV. Conclusions: The present study is the first to provide empirical support for a possible CM to adult IPV developmental trajectory among DD patients. Future research is needed to better understand the link between CM and IPV among those with trauma and DD.

  12. Intrusions of autobiographical memories in individuals reporting childhood emotional maltreatment

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    Philip Spinhoven

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available During childhood emotional maltreatment (CEM negative attitudes are provided to the child (e.g., “you are worthless”. These negative attitudes may result in emotion inhibition strategies in order to avoid thinking of memories of CEM, such as thought suppression. However, thought suppression may paradoxically enhance occurrences (i.e., intrusions of these memories, which may occur immediately or sometime after active suppression of these memories.Until now, studies that examined suppressive coping styles in individuals reporting CEM have utilized self-report questionnaires. Therefore, it is unclear what the consequences will be of emotion inhibition styles on the intrusion of autobiographical memories in individuals reporting CEM.Using a thought suppression task, this study aimed to investigate the experience of intrusions during suppression of, and when no longer instructed to actively suppress, positive and negative autobiographical memories in individuals reporting Low, Moderate, and Severe CEM compared to No Abuse (total N = 83.We found no group differences during active suppression of negative and positive autobiographical memories. However, when individuals reporting Severe CEM were no longer instructed to suppress thinking about the memory, individuals reporting No Abuse, Low CEM, or Moderate CEM reported fewer intrusions of both positive and negative autobiographical memories than individuals reporting Severe CEM. Finally, we found that intrusions of negative memories are strongly related with psychiatric distress.The present study results provide initial insights into the cognitive mechanisms that may underlie the consequences of childhood emotional maltreatment and suggests avenues for successful interventions.For the abstract or full text in other languages, please see Supplementary files under Reading Tools online

  13. Association of oxytocin level and less severe forms of childhood maltreatment history among healthy Japanese adults involved with child care

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    Rie eMizuki; Takeo eFujiwara

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oxytocin (OT) is known to play a role in stress regulation. The association between childhood maltreatment history and neuropeptide OT concentration is inconsistent due to the varying degrees of severity of childhood maltreatment, among other contributing factors. Less severe forms of childhood maltreatment history might enhance OT concentrations as a response to coping with social stress within the family. The purpose of this study is to investigate the association between less s...

  14. Child Maltreatment and Women’s Adult Sexual Risk Behavior: Childhood Sexual Abuse as a Unique Risk Factor

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    Senn, Theresa E; Michael P. Carey

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated (a) whether childhood sexual abuse (CSA) was uniquely associated with adult sexual risk behavior, after controlling for other types of childhood maltreatment, and (b) whether there were additive or interactive effects of different types of maltreatment on adult sexual risk behavior. Participants were 414 women (M age = 28 years) attending a publicly-funded STD clinic. All women completed a computerized survey assessing childhood maltreatment (sexual, physical, psycholo...

  15. The Prospective Contribution of Childhood Maltreatment to Low Self-Worth, Low Relationship Quality, and Symptomatology across Adolescence: A Developmental-Organizational Perspective

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    Flynn, Megan; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred

    2014-01-01

    This research investigated the prospective contribution of childhood maltreatment to low self-worth, low relationship quality, and symptoms during adolescence. Further, the stability and cross-lagged effects of these sequelae of maltreatment were examined over time. History of maltreatment during childhood was obtained, and youth (407 maltreated,…

  16. Understanding the Cycle: Childhood Maltreatment and Future Crime

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    Currie, Janet; Tekin, Erdal

    2012-01-01

    Child maltreatment is a major social problem. This paper focuses on measuring the relationship between child maltreatment and crime using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). We focus on crime because it is one of the most costly potential outcomes of maltreatment. Our work addresses two main limitations of…

  17. Epigenetic Alterations Associated with War Trauma and Childhood Maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramo-Fernández, Laura; Schneider, Anna; Wilker, Sarah; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana

    2015-10-01

    Survivors of war trauma or childhood maltreatment are at increased risk for trauma-spectrum disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In addition, traumatic stress has been associated with alterations in the neuroendocrine and the immune system, enhancing the risk for physical diseases. Traumatic experiences might even affect psychological as well as biological parameters in the next generation, i.e. traumatic stress might have transgenerational effects. This article outlines how epigenetic processes, which represent a pivotal biological mechanism for dynamic adaptation to environmental challenges, might contribute to the explanation of the long-lasting and transgenerational effects of trauma. In particular, epigenetic alterations in genes regulating the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis as well as the immune system have been observed in survivors of childhood and adult trauma. These changes could result in enduring alterations of the stress response as well as the physical health risk. Furthermore, the effects of parental trauma could be transmitted to the next generation by parental distress and the pre- and postnatal environment, as well as by epigenetic marks transmitted via the germline. While epigenetic research has a high potential of advancing our understanding of the consequences of trauma, the findings have to be interpreted with caution, as epigenetics only represent one piece of a complex puzzle of interacting biological and environmental factors. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26358541

  18. Effect of childhood maltreatment on brain structure in adult patients with major depressive disorder and healthy participants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chaney, Aisling

    2013-07-30

    Background: Childhood maltreatment has been found to play a crucial role in the development of psychiatric disorders. However, whether childhood maltreatment is associated with structural brain changes described for major depressive disorder (MDD) is still a matter of debate. The aim of this study was to investigate whether patients with MDD and a history of childhood maltreatment display more structural changes than patients without childhood maltreatment or healthy controls. Methods: Patients with MDD and healthy controls with and without childhood maltreatment experience were investigated using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and data were analyzed using voxel-based morphometry. Results: We studied 37 patients with MDD and 46 controls. Grey matter volume was significantly decreased in the hippocampus and significantly increased in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in participants who had experienced childhood maltreatment compared with those who had not. Patients displayed smaller left OFC and left DMPFC volumes than controls. No significant difference in hippocampal volume was evident between patients with MDD and healthy controls. In regression analyses, despite effects from depression, age and sex on the DMPFC, OFC and hippocampus, childhood maltreatment was found to independently affect these regions. Limitations: The retrospective assessment of childhood maltreatment; the natural problem that patients experienced more childhood maltreatment than controls; and the restrictions, owing to sample size, to investigating higher order interactions among factors are discussed as limitations. Conclusion: These results suggest that early childhood maltreatment is associated with brain structural changes irrespective of sex, age and a history of depression. Thus, the study highlights the importance of childhood maltreatment when investigating brain structures.

  19. Nightmare frequency, nightmare distress, and psychopathology in female victims of childhood maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Mylène; McDuff, Pierre; Zadra, Antonio

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated the relationships between a history of childhood maltreatment, the frequency of disturbing dreams, their associated distress, and the presence of psychopathology in 352 female undergraduate volunteers. Participants completed questionnaires assessing dream recall, bad dream and nightmare frequency, nightmare distress, psychological well-being, and history of childhood trauma. Four groups were investigated based on the type and severity of childhood maltreatments experienced. Women reporting more severe forms of maltreatment reported higher frequencies of disturbing dreams, higher levels of nightmare distress, and greater psychopathology. Results showed that nightmare distress explains frequency of disturbed dreaming beyond the effect of psychopathology and childhood trauma. The results highlight the importance of assessing waking distress associated with disturbing dreams independently from their actual incidence. PMID:23995032

  20. Family Attachment Narrative Therapy: Healing the Experience of Early Childhood Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Joanne C.

    2005-01-01

    Based on attachment theory and research, Family Attachment Narrative Therapy is introduced as a new family therapy modality developed to heal the experience of early childhood maltreatment. Unresolved childhood trauma has been correlated with impaired and delayed cognitive, behavioral and emotional functioning. Gentle, soothing, nonprovocative and…

  1. Impact of Childhood Maltreatment on the Recognition of Facial Expressions of Emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Ardizzi, Martina; Martini, Francesca; Umiltà, Maria Alessandra; Evangelista, Valentina; Ravera, Roberto; Gallese, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    The development of the explicit recognition of facial expressions of emotions can be affected by childhood maltreatment experiences. A previous study demonstrated the existence of an explicit recognition bias for angry facial expressions among a population of adolescent Sierra Leonean street-boys exposed to high levels of maltreatment. In the present study, the recognition bias for angry facial expressions was investigated in a younger population of street-children and age-matched controls. P...

  2. Association of oxytocin level and less severe forms of childhood maltreatment history among healthy Japanese adults involved with child care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rie eMizuki

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxytocin (OT is known to play a role in stress regulation. The association between childhood maltreatment history and neuropeptide OT concentration is inconsistent due to the varying degrees of severity of childhood maltreatment, among other contributing factors. Less severe forms of childhood maltreatment history might enhance OT concentrations as a response to coping with social stress within the family. The purpose of this study is to investigate the association between less severe forms of childhood maltreatment history and OT concentrations among healthy adults.Method: Eighty-one adults (50 women and 31 men with 18- to 48-month-old children were recruited using a snowball sample in Tokyo, Japan. Urine samples were collected for OT measurement. Less severe (low and moderate childhood maltreatment history, including physical abuse, physical neglect, emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and sexual abuse, was assessed using the self-report questionnaire, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Results: Less severe physical abuse was significantly associated with higher OT concentration after adjusting for age (p=0.014. Also, less severe forms of physical abuse were independently significantly associated with higher OT concentration after controlling for other types of childhood maltreatment (p=0.027. A positive dose-response association between the number of less severe childhood maltreatment types and OT concentration was observed (p=0.031. Conclusion: A history of less severe forms of childhood physical abuse was associated with higher OT concentration in healthy adults. Poly-victimization of several types of less severe childhood maltreatment was also associated with higher OT concentrations. Less severe forms of childhood maltreatment might enhance OT concentrations in order to cope with social stress.

  3. The different faces of impulsivity as links between childhood maltreatment and young adult crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sunny H; Cook, Amy K; Morris, Nancy A; McDougle, Robyn; Groves, Lauren Peasley

    2016-07-01

    Crime is a major public health and safety threat. Many studies have suggested that early exposure to child maltreatment increases an individual's risk for persistent serious crime in adulthood. Despite these findings about the connection between child maltreatment and criminal behavior, there is a paucity of empirically-based knowledge about the processes or pathways that link child maltreatment to later involvement in crime. Using a community sample of 337 young adults (ages 18-25) in a U.S. metropolitan area, the present study examined the role of various facets of impulsivity in linking child maltreatment to crime. A series of factor analyses identified three types of crime including property crime, violent crime, and fraud. Structural equation modelings were conducted to examine the associations among childhood maltreatment, four facets of impulsivity, and criminal behavior, controlling for sociodemographic information, family income and psychological symptoms. The present study found that child emotional abuse was indirectly related to property crime and fraud through urgency while a lack of premeditation mediates the relationship between child neglect and property crime. Child physical abuse was directly related to all three types of crime. Personality traits of urgency and lack of premeditation may play a significant role in the maltreatment-crime link. Preventive interventions targeting impulsivity traits such as urgency and a lack of premeditation might have promising impacts in curbing criminal behavior among maltreatment victims. PMID:27083525

  4. The impact of childhood maltreatment: A review of neurobiological and genetic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eamon eMcCrory

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Childhood maltreatment represents a significant risk factor for psychopathology. Recent research has begun to examine both the functional and structural neurobiological correlates of adverse care-giving experiences, including maltreatment, and how these might impact on a child's psychological and emotional development. The relationship between such experiences and risk for psychopathology has been shown to vary as a function of genetic factors. In this review we begin by providing a brief overview of neuroendocrine findings, which indicate an association between maltreatment and atypical development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis stress response, which may predispose to psychiatric vulnerability in adulthood. We then selectively review the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI studies that have investigated possible structural and functional brain differences in children and adults who have experienced childhood maltreatment. Differences in the corpus callosum identified by structural MRI have now been reliably reported in children who have experienced abuse, while differences in the hippocampus have been reported in adults with childhood histories of maltreatment. In addition, there is preliminary evidence from functional MRI studies of adults who have experienced childhood maltreatment of amygdala hyperactivity and atypical activation of frontal regions. These functional differences can be partly understood in the context of the information biases observed in event-related potential and behavioural studies of physically abused children. Finally we consider research that has indicated that the effect of environmental adversity may be moderated by genotype, reviewing pertinent studies pointing to gene by environment (GxE interactions. We conclude by exploring the extent to which the growing evidence base in relation to neurobiological and genetic research may be relevant to clinical practice and intervention.

  5. Childhood maltreatment in adult offspring of Portuguese war veterans with and without PTSD.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dos Santos Dias, Aida; Sales, L.; Cardoso, R. M.; Kleber, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The colonial war that Portugal was involved in between 1961 and 1974 had a significant impact on veterans and their families. However, it is unclear what the consequences of this war are, in particular with regard to levels of childhood maltreatment (CM) in offspring. OBJECTIVE: Our stud

  6. Hypoactive medial prefrontal cortex functioning in adults reporting childhood emotional maltreatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Harmelen, Anne-Laura; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Dalgleish, Tim; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; Veltman, Dick J.; Aleman, André; Spinhoven, Philip; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Elzinga, Bernet M.

    2014-01-01

    Childhood emotional maltreatment (CEM) has adverse effects on medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) morphology, a structure that is crucial for cognitive functioning and (emotional) memory and which modulates the limbic system. In addition, CEM has been linked to amygdala hyperactivity during emotional fa

  7. Enhanced amygdala reactivity to emotional faces in adults reporting childhood emotional maltreatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Harmelen, Anne-Laura; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Demenescu, Liliana R.; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; Veltman, Dick J.; Aleman, Andre; van Buchem, Mark A.; Spinhoven, Philip; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Elzinga, Bernet M.

    2013-01-01

    In the context of chronic childhood emotional maltreatment (CEM; emotional abuse and/or neglect), adequately responding to facial expressions is an important skill. Over time, however, this adaptive response may lead to a persistent vigilance for emotional facial expressions. The amygdala and the me

  8. Interaction of neuropeptide Y genotype and childhood emotional maltreatment on brain activity during emotional processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opmeer, Esther M.; Kortekaas, Rudie; van Tol, Marie-Jose; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; Woudstra, Saskia; van Buchem, Mark A.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Veltman, Dick J.; Aleman, Andre

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) has been associated with stress reactivity in affective disorders and is most densely expressed in the amygdala. An important stressor associated with affective disorders is the experience of childhood emotional maltreatment (CEM). We investigated whether the interaction of NPY

  9. Relationships among Childhood Maltreatment, PTSD, and Health in Female Veterans in Primary Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Ariel J.; Laffaye, Charlene; Satz, Leslie E.; McQuaid, John R.; Malcarne, Vanessa L.; Dresselhaus, Timothy R.; Stein, Murray B.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Women with histories of childhood maltreatment (CM) have higher rates of physical health problems and greater medical utilization compared to women without abuse histories. This study examined whether current post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms mediate the relationship between CM and indicators of physical health and medical…

  10. Childhood Maltreatment, Perceived Stress, and Stress-Related Coping in Recently Abstinent Cocaine Dependent Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Hyman, Scott M.; Paliwal, Prashni; Sinha, Rajita

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined associations between a personal history of childhood maltreatment and the perceived stress and stress-coping styles of recently abstinent and treatment-engaged cocaine dependent adults. Fifty men and 41 women at an inpatient treatment and research facility were administered the short form of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (D. P. Bernstein & L. Fink, 1998; D. P. Bernstein et al., 2003), the Perceived Stress Scale (S. Cohen, T. Kamarck, & R. Mermelstein, 1983), and the ...

  11. Personality disorder diagnosis in substance - dependent women in Iran : Relationship to childhood maltreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Mansoureh Nasirian; Hassan Ziaaddini; Rezvan Amiri

    2009-01-01

    "nObjective : Few study have examined the relationship between childhood maltreatment and personality disorder in later life especially in Eastern Mediterranean countries .The study was conducted to explore the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and personality disorder during Later life in an Iranian sample . a cross - sectional study was conducted in kerman , a city Located in East  sourthern of Iran in 2005 . "n Method : Cases were 148 substance - dependent  women admitted ...

  12. The Relation of Childhood Maltreatment to Psychotic Symptoms in Adolescents and Young Adults With Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holshausen, Katherine; Bowie, Christopher R; Harkness, Kate L

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relation between a history of maltreatment and the presence of psychotic symptoms in a community sample of adolescents and young adults with major depressive disorder. One hundred and twenty-nine depressed adolescents and young adults (M = 16.02 years, 77% female, 92% White) were recruited through community advertisement and clinician referral. Clinical diagnoses and psychotic symptoms (i.e., hallucinations and delusions) were assessed using a structured diagnostic interview. Childhood maltreatment was assessed using a contextual interview and standardized rating system. Logistic regression analyses examined the relation between childhood maltreatment and psychotic symptoms. As hypothesized, individuals with psychotic symptoms were significantly more likely to report a history of severe sexual maltreatment than those without psychotic symptoms (Wald = 5.44, odds ratio = 3.86, p = .020), 95% confidence interval [1.24, 12.01]. Further, those with psychotic symptoms were more likely to report being the victims of more than one type of maltreatment than those without, χ(2)(2) = 6.66, p = .036 (ϕ = .23; 40% vs. 16%). Results held upon adjusting for overall level of depression symptoms. A history of severe sexual maltreatment is related to a severe presentation of major depressive disorder even in the initial onset of the syndrome in adolescence and young adulthood. These findings underscore the importance of early assessment of both depression and maltreatment history to implement interventions that have the potential to prevent the emergence of psychotic psychopathology in young people at risk. PMID:25411823

  13. Assessing the family dynamics of childhood maltreatment history with the Childhood Attachment and Relational Trauma Screen (CARTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Frewen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Existing survey measures of childhood trauma history generally fail to take into account the relational-socioecological environment in which childhood maltreatment occurs. Variables such as the relationship between the perpetrator and the victim, the emotional availability of caregivers, witnessing the abuse of others, and the respondent's own thoughts, feelings, and actions in response to maltreatment are rarely assessed by current measures. Methods: To address these concerns, the current study further investigated the family dynamics of childhood maltreatment using the Childhood Attachment and Relational Trauma Screen (CARTS in 1,782 persons assessed online. Results: Paired differences in means between item-rated descriptiveness of self, mothers, and fathers suggested that respondents’ relationship with their biological fathers was less positive and secure than their relationship with their biological mothers, and that biological fathers were more often the perpetrator of emotional, physical, and sexual abuse than biological mothers. However, results further suggested that ratings between self, mothers, and fathers were positively correlated such that, for example, reports of a mother's or a respondent's own abusive behavior were more likely in the presence of reports of a father's abusive behavior. In addition, analyses evaluating witnessing violence demonstrated that fathers were rated as more often violent toward mothers than the reverse, although intimate partner violence was also frequently bidirectional. Analyses of sibling ratings further demonstrated that older brothers were either as or more frequently abusive when compared with parents. Finally, results suggested that childhood emotional, physical, and sexual abuse were much more often perpetrated by family members than extra-familial and non-family members. Conclusions: In so far as these findings are consistent with the prior childhood trauma and attachment literature

  14. Intergenerational Continuity in Maltreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Thornberry, Terence P.; Henry, Kimberly L.

    2013-01-01

    Identification of the causes of child maltreatment perpetration is prerequisite for developing efficacious prevention initiatives to reduce its occurrence. Earlier maltreatment victimization is often suggested as an important cause of subsequent maltreatment perpetration. This study investigates a) whether maltreatment victimization causes subsequent perpetration and b) whether the timing of maltreatment victimization—childhood versus adolescence—alters this relationship. We use data from the...

  15. Assessing childhood maltreatment and mental health correlates of disordered eating profiles in a nationally representative sample of English females

    OpenAIRE

    Armour, Cherie; Műllerová, Jana; Fletcher, Shelley; Lagdon, Susan; Burns, Carol Rhonda; Robinson, Martin; Robinson, Jake

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Previous research suggests that childhood maltreatment is associated with the onset of eating disorders (ED). In turn, EDs are associated with alternative psychopathologies such as depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and with suicidality. Moreover, it has been reported that various ED profiles may exist. The aim of the current study was to examine the profiles of disordered eating and the associations of these with childhood maltreatment and with mental health psychop...

  16. Increased methylation of glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) in adults with a history of childhood maltreatment: a link with the severity and type of trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Perroud, N; Paoloni-Giacobino, A.; de Prada, P.; Olié, E; Salzmann, A; NICASTRO, R.; Guillaume, S.; Mouthon, D; Stouder, C; Dieben, K; Huguelet, P; Courtet, P; Malafosse, A.

    2011-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment, through epigenetic modification of the glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1), influences the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis (HPA axis). We investigated whether childhood maltreatment and its severity were associated with increased methylation of the exon 1F NR3C1 promoter, in 101 borderline personality disorder (BPD) and 99 major depressive disorder (MDD) subjects with, respectively, a high and low rate of childhood maltreatment, and 15 MDD subjects with comorbid p...

  17. Pathways to trait-aggression - the role of childhood emotional maltreatment, hostile attribution bias and emotion regulation: a systematic review and empirical study.

    OpenAIRE

    Cowie, Joëlle

    2015-01-01

    Background: The long-term detrimental impact of childhood emotional maltreatment is being increasingly recognised in the empirical literature. Adulthood trait-aggression is one proposed outcome of childhood emotional maltreatment. However, the pathways by which emotional maltreatment leads to trait-aggression are not well understood. Method: A systematic review was conducted to appraise the current empirical evidence base regarding the relationship between childhood emotiona...

  18. Do Early Childhood Interventions Prevent Child Maltreatment? A Review of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Arthur J.; Mathieson, Lindsay C.; Topitzes, James W.

    2016-01-01

    We reviewed the empirical evidence on whether early-childhood primary prevention programs can reduce rates of child abuse and neglect. Fifteen studies of 14 programs for children ages birth to 5 years were completed from 1990 to 2007 and assessed impacts with methodological rigor. All but one of the programs intervened from birth to age 3 through home visits, parent education classes, or the provision of health services. The weighted average effect size of program participation was a 2.9 percentage-point reduction in maltreatment (6.6% vs. 9.5%), which is equivalent to a 31% reduction in the rate of maltreatment and a fifth of a standard deviation. Of the five programs showing significant reductions in substantiated rates of child maltreatment, three provide strong evidence of preventive effects. Only the Child-Parent Centers and the Nurse Family Partnership assessed longer-term preventive effects. Common elements of these effective programs included implementation by professional staff, relatively high dosage and intensity, and comprehensiveness of scope. The major conclusion is that the evidence base for programs in early childhood to prevent child maltreatment remains relatively weak. To advance the field, more longer term studies of a variety of intervention models are needed. PMID:19240245

  19. Adult mental health consequences of peer bullying and maltreatment in childhood: two cohorts in two countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Copeland, William E; Costello, E Jane; Wolke, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background The adult mental health consequences of childhood maltreatment are well documented. Maltreatment by peers (ie, bullying) has also been shown to have long-term adverse effects. We aimed to determine whether these effects are just due to being exposed to both maltreatment and bullying or whether bullying has a unique effect. Methods We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children in the UK (ALSPAC) and the Great Smoky Mountains Study in the USA (GSMS) longitudinal studies. In ALSPAC, maltreatment was assessed as physical, emotional, or sexual abuse, or severe maladaptive parenting (or both) between ages 8 weeks and 8·6 years, as reported by the mother in questionnaires, and being bullied was assessed with child reports at 8, 10, and 13 years using the previously validated Bullying and Friendship Interview Schedule. In GSMS, both maltreatment and bullying were repeatedly assessed with annual parent and child interviews between ages 9 and 16 years. To identify the association between maltreatment, being bullied, and mental health problems, binary logistic regression analyses were run. The primary outcome variable was overall mental health problem (any anxiety, depression, or self-harm or suicidality). Findings 4026 children from the ALSPAC cohort and 1420 children from the GSMS cohort provided information about bullying victimisation, maltreatment, and overall mental health problems. The ALSPAC study started in 1991 and the GSMS cohort enrolled participants from 1993. Compared with children who were not maltreated or bullied, children who were only maltreated were at increased risk for depression in young adulthood in models adjusted for sex and family hardships according to the GSMS cohort (odds ratio [OR] 4·1, 95% CI 1·5–11·7). According to the ALSPAC cohort, those who were only being maltreated were not at increased risk for any mental health problem compared with children who were not maltreated or bullied. By contrast

  20. Childhood emotional maltreatment and its impact on emotion regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Mulholland, Paula Claire

    2010-01-01

    An aim of this research was to gain prevalence rates of emotional abuse (EA) and emotional neglect (EN) in a community based adolescent sample. This exploratory research also attempted to determine the impact of EA, EN and a combination of the two (emotional maltreatment; EM) on adolescent’s emotion regulation (ER). The impact of temperament, gender and age was also considered, along with the adolescent’s subsequent quality of life ratings. Method: A total of 540 adolesce...

  1. The Cycle of Violence in Combatants : The Interaction of Childhood Maltreatment, Mental Health, and Aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Nandi, Corina

    2016-01-01

    The present thesis explored the factors fostering and maintaining violence in a post-conflict setting. Therefore, the thesis investigated the sequelae of childhood maltreatment, trauma exposure and violence perpetration with a focus on symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and appetitive aggression in Burundian ex-combatants and soldiers. Furthermore, the impact of these factors on self-perpetrated violence during foreign deployment, in the community, and within the family were ex...

  2. Personality disorder diagnosis in substance - dependent women in Iran : Relationship to childhood maltreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoureh Nasirian

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available "nObjective : Few study have examined the relationship between childhood maltreatment and personality disorder in later life especially in Eastern Mediterranean countries .The study was conducted to explore the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and personality disorder during Later life in an Iranian sample . a cross - sectional study was conducted in kerman , a city Located in East  sourthern of Iran in 2005 . "n Method : Cases were 148 substance - dependent  women admitted in shahid Beheshti hospital and also kerman women prison  for detoxification.With emphasizing  the confidentiality and obtaining oral consent the subjects were asked to fill out a questionnaire including demographic variables and 27 questions concerning all types of abuse , neglect and household dysfunction . using multivariate Logistic regression the associations between baseline characteristics , childhood maltreatment and household dysfunction variables and  personality disorder were analyzed  . "n Results : The mean age of cases was 33.13 ± 10.94 and Borderline personality disorder (24.3% was the most frequent type of personality disorder in this   sample . Physical abuse (45.4% and emotional abuse (36.2% and emotional   neglect (92.1% were the most frequent type of maltreatment .  while dependency considered as independent variable , with logistic  regression analysis, sexual abuse was the only type of childhood maltreatment which showed significant association statistically with personality disorder . (P - value < 0/05 "n Conclusion: There was significant association statistically between increased prevalence of severe personality disturbances among those experiencing multiple types of abuse  and neglect .such studies are important for a more complete  understanding  of these problems and for practical  efforts to alleviate them.

  3. P3 event-related potentials and childhood maltreatment in successful and unsuccessful psychopaths

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Schug, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    Although P3 event-related potential abnormalities have been found in psychopathic individuals, it is unknown whether successful (uncaught) psychopaths and unsuccessful (caught) psychopaths show similar deficits. In this study, P3 amplitude and latency were assessed from a community sample of 121 male adults using an auditory three-stimulus oddball task. Psychopathy was assessed using the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (Hare, 2003) while childhood physical maltreatment was assessed using the Co...

  4. Age of Minority Sexual Orientation Development and Risk of Childhood Maltreatment and Suicide Attempts in Women

    OpenAIRE

    Corliss, Heather L.; Cochran, Susan D.; MAYS, VICKIE M.; Greenland, Sander; Seeman, Teresa E.

    2009-01-01

    Women with minority sexual orientations (e.g., lesbian, bisexual) are more likely than heterosexual women to report histories of childhood maltreatment and attempted suicide; however, the importance of the timing of minority sexual orientation development in contributing to this increased risk is uncertain. This study investigated relationships between self-reported ages of achieving minority sexual orientation development milestones (first awareness of same-gender attractions, disclosure of ...

  5. Maltreatment in early childhood: a scoping review of prevention, detection and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Lefio Celedón; Helia Silva Bustos; Katherinne Rivas Castro

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To identify and synthesize the best available evidence on the effectiveness of interventions for universal prevention, detection and treatment of early childhood maltreatment (0-4 years). Design. Scoping Review. Data sources. MEDLINE, LILACS, PsycINFO, Psyclist, SciELO, ISI Web of Knowledge, Science Direct, EBSCO, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, DARE, Google Scholar and UNICEF Base. Methods. A variety of keywords were used to identify quantitative experimental and observational studies on ...

  6. Intergenerational violence in Burundi: Experienced childhood maltreatment increases the risk of abusive child rearing and intimate partner violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselm Crombach

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Experiencing abuse during childhood affects the psychological well-being of individuals throughout their lives and may even influence their offspring by enhancing the likelihood of an intergenerational transmission of violence. Understanding the effects of childhood maltreatment on child-rearing practices and intimate partner violence might be of particular importance to overcome the consequences of violent conflicts in African societies. Objective: Using Burundi as an example, we aimed to explore the associations between childhood maltreatment, intimate partner violence, perceived partner intimidation, gender and the probability of violently acting out against one's own children or romantic partner. Methods: Amongst a sample of 141 men and 141 women in the capital of Burundi, we identified those who had biological children and those who lived or had lived in relationships. Using culturally appropriate instruments, we enquired about their exposure to childhood maltreatment and partner violence as well as their inclinations to act out violently. Results: We found that childhood maltreatment and perceived partner intimidation were strong predictors for the perpetration of violence against children. Moreover, we found that women were more likely to use violence against children if they experienced partner violence and less likely to resort to violence if they felt intimidated. Men were more likely to perpetrate violence against their partner. Childhood maltreatment was again a strong predictor. The more women experienced partner violence, the more they fought back. Conclusions: Childhood maltreatment is a strong predictor for domestic violence and has to be addressed to interrupt the cycle of violence in post-conflict countries.

  7. Childhood maltreatment, pubertal development, HPA axis functioning, and psychosocial outcomes: An integrative biopsychosocial model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negriff, Sonya; Saxbe, Darby E; Trickett, Penelope K

    2015-12-01

    The timing and pace of pubertal development has been associated with psychosocial functioning, with pubertal variables represented both as predictors (e.g., earlier puberty linked with poor outcomes) and as sequelae (e.g., early stress linked with earlier puberty). However, the literature has largely not tested mediational models or prospective mechanisms of associations between puberty and psychosocial variables. In a longitudinal study including 454 youth followed over four timepoints (mean ages 10-18), structural equation modeling tested a hypothesized path from childhood maltreatment to cortisol (Time 1) to pubertal stage (Time 2), and psychosocial outcomes (Times 3 and 4). There was not support for the full hypothesized pathway in either gender. However, for boys, maltreatment was associated with attenuated cortisol, and more pubertal change predicted subsequent delinquency. For girls, cortisol predicted more pubertal change which then predicted substance use. This study demonstrates links between HPA axis function, pubertal development, and risky outcomes. PMID:26358357

  8. The Relationship of Childhood Maltreatment and Household Dysfunction and Drug Use in Later Life in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaaddini, Hassan; Dastjerdi, Qasem; Nakhaee, Nouzar

    Few studies have examined the relationship between childhood maltreatment and substance use in later life considering household dysfunction variables especially in Eastern Mediterranean countries. The study was conducted to explore the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and substance misuse during later life in an Iranian sample. A case control study was conducted in Kerman, a city located in southern Iran in 2005. Cases were 200 men and women referred to outpatient clinics of the city seeking treatment for substance use disorder. Controls (n = 200) were selected from the general population. With emphasizing the confidentiality and obtaining oral consent the subjects were asked to fill out a questionnaire including demographic variables and 27 questions concerning all types of child abuse/neglect and household dysfunction. Using multivariate logistic regression the associations between baseline characteristics, childhood maltreatment and household dysfunction variables and substance use disorder were analyzed. The mean age of case group was 32.5±8.3 and in control group was 28±9.3 (psexual abuse, household substance use and household criminality were higher in substance dependent patients comparing to control group. The highest odds of substance use disorder was associated with household substance abuse (OR: 2.50, 95% CI: 1.53-4.10) and sexual abuse was the only type of childhood maltreatment which showed significant association with substance use disorder in later life (OR: 1.73, 95% CI: 1.03-2.92). The related factors uncovered by the study conduct us to early interventions among dysfunctional families to decrease the maladaptive lives and stressful household environments.

  9. Associations between childhood maltreatment and emotion processing biases in major depression: results from a dot-probe task

    OpenAIRE

    Günther, Vivien; Dannlowski, Udo; Kersting, Anette; Suslow, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background Childhood maltreatment is considered an important risk factor for the development of major depression. Research indicates an association between childhood adversity and altered emotion processing. Depression is characterized by mood-congruent cognitive biases, which play a crucial role in symptom persistence and recurrence. However, whether attentional biases in adult major depression are associated with experienced childhood neglect or abuse remains unclear. Methods A sample of 45...

  10. Childhood maltreatment, 9/11 exposure, and latent dimensions of psychopathology: A test of stress sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Jacquelyn L; Lowe, Sarah R; Eaton, Nicholas R; Krueger, Robert; Grant, Bridget F; Hasin, Deborah

    2015-09-01

    On September 11, 2001, a terrorist attack occurred in the U.S. (9/11). Research on 9/11 and psychiatric outcomes has focused on individual disorders rather than the broader internalizing (INT) and externalizing (EXT) domains of psychopathology, leaving unknown whether direct and indirect 9/11 exposure differentially impacted these domains rather than individual disorders. Further, whether such effects were exacerbated by earlier childhood maltreatment (i.e. stress sensitization) is unknown. 18,713 participants from a U.S. national sample with no history of psychiatric disorders prior to 9/11 were assessed using a structured in-person interview. Structural equation modeling conducted in a sample who endorsed no psychiatric history prior to 9/11, indicated that indirect exposure to 9/11 (i.e. media, friends/family) was related to both EXT (alcohol, nicotine, and cannabis dependence, and antisocial personality disorder) and INT (major depression, generalized anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)) dimensions of psychopathology (EXT: β = 0.10, p < 0.001; INT: β = 0.11, p < 0.001) whereas direct exposure was associated with the INT dimension only (β = 0.11, p < 0.001). For individuals who had experienced childhood maltreatment, the risk for EXT and INT dimensions associated with 9/11 was exacerbated (Interactions: β = 0.06, p < 0.01; β = 0.07, p < 0.001, respectively). These findings indicate that 9/11 impacted latent liability to broad domains of psychopathology in the US general population rather than specific disorders with the exception of PTSD, which had independent effects beyond INT (as indicated by a significant (p < 0.05) improvement in modification indices). Findings also indicated that childhood maltreatment increases the risk associated with adult trauma exposure, providing further evidence for the concept of stress sensitization. PMID:26037889

  11. Relationships between childhood maltreatment, parenting style, and borderline personality disorder criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Ana; Arntz, Arnoud; Gaviria, Ana M; Labad, Antonio; Gutiérrez-Zotes, José Alfonso

    2012-10-01

    This study examines the relationship of different types of childhood maltreatment and the perceived parenting style with borderline personality disorder (BPD) criteria. Kendall's Tau partial correlations were performed controlling for the effect of simultaneous adverse experiences and Axis I and II symptoms in a sample of 109 female patients (32 BPD, 43 other personality disorder, and 34 non-personality disorder). BPD criteria were associated with higher scores on emotional and sexual abuse, whereas parenting style did not show a specific association with BPD. Findings of the present study help clarify the effects of overlapping environmental factors that are associated with BPD. PMID:23013341

  12. Maltreatment in early childhood: a scoping review of prevention, detection and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Lefio Celedón

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To identify and synthesize the best available evidence on the effectiveness of interventions for universal prevention, detection and treatment of early childhood maltreatment (0-4 years. Design. Scoping Review. Data sources. MEDLINE, LILACS, PsycINFO, Psyclist, SciELO, ISI Web of Knowledge, Science Direct, EBSCO, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, DARE, Google Scholar and UNICEF Base. Methods. A variety of keywords were used to identify quantitative experimental and observational studies on detection, prevention and treatment strategies in different situations of child maltreatment. Sexual abuse was excluded. The search spanned from 2002 to 2012, in English and Spanish. Results. Of 105 articles, 36 met the selection criteria. In prevention, the best evaluated strategies were parenting programs based on cognitive or cognitive-behavioral approach and interactive learning strategies. In detection, only two instruments were identified with optimum specificity and positive predictive value. In treatment, a variety of treatment strategies were identified with favorable effects on behavioral, functional and psycho affective indicators. The population relevance of these interventions is unclear, as the differential effectiveness of these therapeutic approaches. Conclusions. There are many child maltreatment prevention strategies at the individual and family level. The instruments used for detection are not reliable for use at the collective level. Insofar as therapy, not enough evidence was found both in quality and quantity to favor one intervention over another. It is recommended to understand the problem from the public health perspective and to generate multisectoral and interdisciplinary approaches.

  13. Childhood maltreatment and pre-pregnancy obesity: a comparison of obese, overweight, and normal weight pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagl, Michaela; Steinig, Jana; Klinitzke, Grit; Stepan, Holger; Kersting, Anette

    2016-04-01

    Pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity is associated with poor health outcomes for the mother and the child. General population studies suggest that childhood maltreatment is associated with obesity in adulthood. The aim of our study was to examine the association between pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity and a history of childhood abuse or neglect including different stages of severity of abuse and neglect. Three hundred twenty-six normal weight, overweight, or obese pregnant women reported demographic data, height and weight, and general psychological distress at 18-22 weeks of gestation. Childhood maltreatment was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Associations were examined using logistic regression analyses and a reference group of normal weight women. Fifty percent reported a history of abuse or neglect. After adjusting for age, education, income, marital status, and the number of previous children, pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity were strongly associated with severe physical abuse (overweight: OR = 8.33, 95 % CI 1.48-47.03; obesity: OR = 6.31, 95 % CI 1.06-37.60). Women with severe physical neglect (OR = 4.25, 95 % CI 1.23-14.74) were at increased risk of pregnancy overweight. We found a dose-response relationship between physical abuse and pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity. Whereas other studies report an association between childhood maltreatment and pre-pregnancy obesity, this is the first study that found an association between childhood maltreatment and pre-pregnancy overweight. Considering the severe health risks of pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity and the long-term consequences of childhood maltreatment, affected women constitute a subgroup with special needs in prenatal care. Further research is needed to improve the understanding of the underlying mechanisms. PMID:26386682

  14. Childhood Maltreatment and BMI Trajectories to Mid-Adult Life: Follow-Up to Age 50y in a British Birth Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Chris Power; Snehal M Pinto Pereira; Leah Li

    2015-01-01

    Background Childhood maltreatment including abuse and neglect has been associated with adult obesity, but evidence on life-course development of obesity or BMI gain is unclear. We aim to establish whether childhood maltreatments are related to obesity or BMI at different life-stages 7y-50y and to identify possible explanations for associations. Methods Childhood physical, psychological and sexual abuse, neglect and BMI at seven ages were recorded in the 1958 birth cohort (n~15,000). Associati...

  15. Childhood maltreatment, 9/11 exposure, and latent dimensions of psychopathology: A test of stress sensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Jacquelyn L.; Lowe, Sarah R.; Eaton, Nicholas R.; Krueger, Robert; Grant, Bridget F.; Hasin, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    On September 11, 2001, a terrorist attack occurred in the U.S. (9/11). Research on 9/11 and psychiatric outcomes has focused on individual disorders rather than the broader internalizing (INT) and externalizing (EXT) domains of psychopathology, leaving unknown whether direct and indirect 9/11 exposure differentially impacted these domains rather than individual disorders. Further, whether such effects were exacerbated by earlier childhood maltreatment (i.e. stress sensitization) is unknown. 18,713 participants from a U.S. national sample with no history of psychiatric disorders prior to 9/11 were assessed using a structured in-person interview. Structural equation modeling conducted in a sample who endorsed no psychiatric history prior to 9/11, indicated that indirect exposure to 9/11 (i.e. media, friends/family) was related to both EXT (alcohol, nicotine, and cannabis dependence, and antisocial personality disorder) and INT (major depression, generalized anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)) dimensions of psychopathology (EXT: β = 0.10, p 9/11 was exacerbated (Interactions: β = 0.06, p 9/11 impacted latent liability to broad domains of psychopathology in the US general population rather than specific disorders with the exception of PTSD, which had independent effects beyond INT (as indicated by a significant (p < 0.05) improvement in modification indices). Findings also indicated that childhood maltreatment increases the risk associated with adult trauma exposure, providing further evidence for the concept of stress sensitization. PMID:26037889

  16. Gender Specific Associations Between Types of Childhood Maltreatment and the Onset, Escalation and Severity of Substance Use in Cocaine Dependent Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Hyman, Scott M.; Garcia, Miguel; Sinha, Rajita

    2006-01-01

    We examined associations between types of childhood maltreatment and the onset, escalation, and severity of substance use in cocaine dependent adults. In men (n = 55), emotional abuse was associated with a younger age of first alcohol use and a greater severity of substance abuse. In women (n = 32), sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and overall maltreatment was associated with a younger age of first alcohol use, and emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and overall maltreatment was associated with...

  17. The Relationship of Child Maltreatment and Self-Capacities with Distress when Telling One's Story of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palesh, Oxana Gronskaya; Classen, Catherine C.; Field, Nigel; Kraemer, Helena C.; Spiegel, David

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the impact of telling one's story of childhood sexual abuse and its relationship with the survivor's self-capacities and history of other child maltreatment. The baseline data were collected from 134 female CSA survivors who were participating in a large intervention study. Participants were given 10 minutes to describe their…

  18. Investigating the relationship between childhood maltreatment and alcohol misuse in a sample of Danish young adults: Exploring gender differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cronin Susan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND – This study examined the relationship between alcohol misuse and different types of childhood maltreatment in a sample of young adults while controlling for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms and current mental disorders. This study further examined if these associations were different for males and females.

  19. Dating Violence Perpetration and Victimization among South Korean College Students: A Focus on Gender and Childhood Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gover, Angela R.; Park, MiRang; Tomsich, Elizabeth A.; Jennings, Wesley G.

    2011-01-01

    Unlike the attention given to intimate partner violence among adolescents and young adults in western societies, dating violence is not currently recognized in South Korea as a social phenomenon in terms of research, prevention, and intervention. Childhood maltreatment has been identified in previous research as a risk factor for violence in a…

  20. Intergenerational violence in Burundi: Experienced childhood maltreatment increases the risk of abusive child rearing and intimate partner violence

    OpenAIRE

    Crombach, Anselm; Bambonyé, Manassé

    2015-01-01

    Background: Experiencing abuse during childhood affects the psychological well-being of individuals throughout their lives and may even influence their offspring by enhancing the likelihood of an intergenerational transmission of violence. Understanding the effects of childhood maltreatment on child-rearing practices and intimate partner violence might be of particular importance to overcome the consequences of violent conflicts in African societies.Objective: Using Burundi as an example, we ...

  1. Factors associated with co-occurring borderline personality disorder among inner-city substance users: the roles of childhood maltreatment, negative affect intensity/reactivity, and emotion dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratz, Kim L; Tull, Matthew T; Baruch, David E; Bornovalova, Marina A; Lejuez, C W

    2008-01-01

    The co-occurrence of borderline personality disorder (BPD) among individuals with substance use disorders is a common and clinically relevant phenomenon in need of further empirical investigation. The present study adds to the extant literature on the factors associated with co-occurring BPD among substance users, examining the relationships between childhood maltreatment (in the form of sexual, physical, and emotional abuse and emotional and physical neglect), negative affect intensity/reactivity, emotion dysregulation, and BPD pathology (both diagnostic status and symptom count) among a sample of 76 inner-city treatment-seeking substance users. Emotion dysregulation was expected to mediate the relationships between childhood maltreatment and negative affect intensity/reactivity (and their interaction) and BPD pathology. Results indicate that the presence of a BPD diagnosis was associated with higher levels of both childhood maltreatment and negative affect intensity/reactivity. However, only childhood maltreatment emerged as a unique predictor of BPD diagnostic status. Conversely, both childhood maltreatment and negative affect intensity/reactivity accounted for unique variance in the number of endorsed BPD symptoms. Moreover, emotion dysregulation fully mediated the relationships between maltreatment and negative affect intensity/reactivity and BPD symptom count, as well as the relationship between emotional abuse in particular and BPD diagnostic status. Contrary to hypotheses, results provided no support for the interaction between maltreatment and negative affect intensity/reactivity in the prediction of BPD pathology (diagnosis or symptom count), above and beyond the main effects of these factors. PMID:18970909

  2. Predictors for DSM-5 nonsuicidal self-injury in female adolescent inpatients: The role of childhood maltreatment, alexithymia, and dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüdtke, Janine; In-Albon, Tina; Michel, Chantal; Schmid, Marc

    2016-05-30

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between various adverse childhood experiences, alexithymia, and dissociation in predicting nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in an inpatient sample of female adolescents. Seventy-two adolescents (aged 14-18 years) with NSSI disorder (n=46) or mental disorders without NSSI (n=26) completed diagnostic interviews and self-report measures to assess NSSI disorder according to the DSM-5 criteria, childhood maltreatment, alexithymia, and dissociation. Alexithymia and dissociation were highly prevalent in both study groups. Multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated that only alexithymia was a significant predictor for NSSI, whereas childhood maltreatment and dissociation had no predictive influence. The association between alexithymia and NSSI emphasizes the significance of emotion regulation training for female adolescents with NSSI. Efforts to reduce NSSI behavior should therefore foster skills to heighten the perception and recognition of one's own emotions. PMID:27088878

  3. Childhood Maltreatment, Depression and Suicidal Ideation: Critical Importance of Parental and Peer Emotional Abuse During Developmental Sensitive Periods in Males and Females

    OpenAIRE

    Alaptagin eKhan; Hannah Claire McCormack; Elizabeth Anna Bolger; Cynthia eMcGreenery; Gordana eVitaliano; Ann ePolcari; Martin Hersch Teicher

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Adverse Childhood Experience (ACE) study found that risk for depression increased as a function of number of types of childhood maltreatment, and interpret this as a result of cumulative stress. An alternative hypothesis is that risk depends on type and timing of maltreatment. This will also present as a linear increase, since exposure to more types of abuse increases likelihood of experiencing a critical type of abuse at a critical age.METHODS: 560 (223M/337F) young adults ...

  4. Childhood Maltreatment, Depression, and Suicidal Ideation: Critical Importance of Parental and Peer Emotional Abuse during Developmental Sensitive Periods in Males and Females

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Alaptagin; McCormack, Hannah C.; Bolger, Elizabeth A.; McGreenery, Cynthia E.; Vitaliano, Gordana; Polcari, Ann; Martin H Teicher

    2015-01-01

    Background: The adverse childhood experience (ACE) study found that risk for depression increased as a function of number of types of childhood maltreatment, and interpret this as a result of cumulative stress. An alternative hypothesis is that risk depends on type and timing of maltreatment. This will also present as a linear increase, since exposure to more types of abuse increases likelihood of experiencing a critical type of abuse at a critical age. Methods: 560 (223M/337F) young adults (...

  5. Thriving as becoming resolute in narratives of women surviving childhood maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Joanne M; Roman, Marian W; Thomas, Sandra P; Travis, Cheryl Brown; Powell, Jill; Tennison, Clifton R; Moyers, Karen; Shoffner, Dava H; Bolton, Kimberly M; Broyles, Tonya; Martin, Tracey; McArthur, Polly M

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this feminist interpretive study was to portray the experience of women thriving after childhood maltreatment (CM) through personal narratives. An interdisciplinary team conducted multiple in-depth interviews of 44 women survivors of CM who identified themselves as successful and doing well. The interviews focused on "what worked" and "what did not" with the aim of exploring aftereffects of CM; strengths and strategies; interactions helpful in overcoming abuse; and related sociopolitical contexts. Narrative analyses revealed a distinct, dynamic process of becoming resolute characterized by six dimensions that were not sequential steps but characteristics, actions, and interactions. This study offers a new understanding of the experience of women gaining solid footing in their lives, the peace of knowing the abuse is over, and power to move in an upward trajectory. PMID:19839675

  6. Childhood maltreatment among Hispanic women in the United States: an examination of subgroup differences and impact on psychiatric disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Lynn A; Alegría, Margarita; Canino, Glorisa

    2012-05-01

    Prevalence rates of childhood maltreatment among Hispanic women in the United States are presented separately for nativity status and ethnic origin subgroups, and the associations between different types of maltreatment and the development of anxiety and depressive disorders are examined. Analyses used self-report data from 1,427 Hispanic women who participated in the National Latino and Asian American Survey. Foreign-born Hispanic women compared to U.S.-born Hispanic women reported significantly lower rates of sexual assault and witnessing interpersonal violence, and a significantly higher rate of being beaten. Ethnic subgroups reported similar rates of maltreatment, with the exception of rape. Bivariate analyses were remarkably consistent in that regardless of nativity status or ethnic subgroup, each type of maltreatment experience increased the risk of psychiatric disorder. In multivariate models controlling for all types of victimization and proxies of acculturation, having been beaten and witnessing interpersonal violence remained significant predictors of both disorders, but sexual abuse increased risk of anxiety only. A significant interaction effect of family cultural conflict and witnessing violence on anxiety provided very limited support for the hypothesis that acculturation moderates the influence of maltreatment on mental health outcomes. Implications for culturally relevant prevention and intervention approaches are presented. PMID:22548893

  7. Childhood emotional maltreatment and disordered eating in a general adolescent population. Does emotion regulation play a mediating role?

    OpenAIRE

    Mills, Pamela Ann

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To determine if emotion regulation mediates the link between emotional maltreatment and disordered eating behaviour in a community sample of adolescents. Design and method: Participants were 222 secondary school pupils (aged 14-18 years) from a state high school in a rural area in Scotland. Standardised questionnaire measures were used to gather data on history of emotional abuse and neglect using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), emotion regulation strat...

  8. Childhood maltreatment in adult offspring of Portuguese war veterans with and without PTSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Dias

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The colonial war that Portugal was involved in between 1961 and 1974 had a significant impact on veterans and their families. However, it is unclear what the consequences of this war are, in particular with regard to levels of childhood maltreatment (CM in offspring. Objective: Our study aims to analyze the influences of fathers’ war exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD on the offspring's CM and simultaneously test the hypothesis of the intergenerational transmission of father–child CM. Method: Cross-sectional data were collected, using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire—Short Form, from 203 adult children and 117 fathers. Subjects were distributed according to three conditions based on the father's war exposure status: did not participate in war, or non-war-exposed (NW; participated in war, or war-exposed (W; and war-exposed with PTSD diagnosis (WP. The data were examined using correlations, variance/covariance, and regression analyses. Results: Children of war veterans with PTSD reported more emotional and physical neglect, while their fathers reported increased emotional and physical abuse exposure during their own childhood. Significant father–child CM correlations were found in the war veteran group but less in the war veteran with PTSD group. Father CM predicted 16% of offspring CM of children of war veterans. Conclusions: The father's war-related PTSD might be a risk factor for offspring neglect but potentially a protective one for the father–child abuse transmission. War-exposed fathers without PTSD did transmit their own CM experiences more often. Therefore, father's war exposure and father's war PTSD may each be important variables to take into account in the study of intergenerational transmission of CM.

  9. Predicting Response Trajectories during Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy for Panic Disorder: No Association with the BDNF Gene or Childhood Maltreatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martí Santacana

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and result in low quality of life and a high social and economic cost. The efficacy of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT for anxiety disorders is well established, but a substantial proportion of patients do not respond to this treatment. Understanding which genetic and environmental factors are responsible for this differential response to treatment is a key step towards "personalized medicine". Based on previous research, our objective was to test whether the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and/or childhood maltreatment are associated with response trajectories during exposure-based CBT for panic disorder (PD.We used Growth Mixture Modeling to identify latent classes of change (response trajectories in patients with PD (N = 97 who underwent group manualized exposure-based CBT. We conducted logistic regression to investigate the effect on these trajectories of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and two different types of childhood maltreatment, abuse and neglect.We identified two response trajectories ("high response" and "low response", and found that they were not significantly associated with either the genetic (BDNF Val66Met polymorphism or childhood trauma-related variables of interest, nor with an interaction between these variables.We found no evidence to support an effect of the BDNF gene or childhood trauma-related variables on CBT outcome in PD. Future studies in this field may benefit from looking at other genotypes or using different (e.g. whole-genome approaches.

  10. Predicting Response Trajectories during Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy for Panic Disorder: No Association with the BDNF Gene or Childhood Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santacana, Martí; Arias, Bárbara; Mitjans, Marina; Bonillo, Albert; Montoro, María; Rosado, Sílvia; Guillamat, Roser; Vallès, Vicenç; Pérez, Víctor; Forero, Carlos G.; Fullana, Miquel A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and result in low quality of life and a high social and economic cost. The efficacy of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders is well established, but a substantial proportion of patients do not respond to this treatment. Understanding which genetic and environmental factors are responsible for this differential response to treatment is a key step towards “personalized medicine”. Based on previous research, our objective was to test whether the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and/or childhood maltreatment are associated with response trajectories during exposure-based CBT for panic disorder (PD). Method We used Growth Mixture Modeling to identify latent classes of change (response trajectories) in patients with PD (N = 97) who underwent group manualized exposure-based CBT. We conducted logistic regression to investigate the effect on these trajectories of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and two different types of childhood maltreatment, abuse and neglect. Results We identified two response trajectories (“high response” and “low response”), and found that they were not significantly associated with either the genetic (BDNF Val66Met polymorphism) or childhood trauma-related variables of interest, nor with an interaction between these variables. Conclusions We found no evidence to support an effect of the BDNF gene or childhood trauma-related variables on CBT outcome in PD. Future studies in this field may benefit from looking at other genotypes or using different (e.g. whole-genome) approaches. PMID:27355213

  11. The association between maltreatment in childhood and pre-pregnancy obesity in women attending an antenatal clinic in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Hollingsworth

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Obesity in pregnancy is associated with increased risk of complications and adverse outcomes in mother and child. Childhood adverse experiences are known to have numerous negative physical and emotional sequelae. We aimed to examine if exposure to abuse and/or neglect in childhood increased the likelihood of pre-pregnancy obesity. METHODS: Demographic and clinical data including weight, height, mental health as measured by the General Health Questionnaire and exposure to childhood trauma as measured by the childhood trauma questionnaire was collected from 239 women attending antenatal care at an Australian tertiary hospital. RESULTS: More than one quarter of women were obese prior to pregnancy and approximately 20% of women self reported experiencing moderate to severe physical, sexual or emotional abuse. Almost 60% of women scored in the clinical range on the GHQ. Pre-pregnancy obesity in women attending antenatal care was associated with a self-reported history of emotional or physical abuse with those exposed to moderate or severe emotional or physical abuse having increased odds of being obese prior to pregnancy (O.R. and 95% CI: 2.40; 1.19-4.84 and 2.38; 1.18-4.79 respectively. There was no significant association between other forms of childhood maltreatment, demographic or current mental health status and pre-pregnancy obesity. CONCLUSIONS: The high rates of obesity, mental health problems and self reported childhood maltreatment in the Australian antenatal population are serious public health concerns due to the extra health risks conferred on mother and offspring. Exposure to physical or emotional abuse during childhood increases the likelihood of obesity in women attending antenatal care. Further research is required to determine reasons for this association.

  12. Child Maltreatment and Adolescent Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trickett, Penelope K.; Negriff, Sonya; Ji, Juye; Peckins, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect, often collectively called child maltreatment, are huge social problems affecting millions of children and adolescents in America. Adolescents are affected both by maltreatment which occurred during childhood with lingering effects and by maltreatment that continues into or begins in adolescence. Several decades of research…

  13. Childhood maltreatment, emotional distress, and early adolescent sexual intercourse: Multi-informant perspectives on parental monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Oberlander, Sarah E.; Wang, Yan; Thompson, Richard; Lewis, Terri; Proctor, Laura J.; Isbell, Patricia; English, Diana E.; DUBOWITZ, HOWARD; Litrownik, Alan J.; Black, Maureen M.

    2011-01-01

    This prospective investigation used multi-informant models to examine whether parental monitoring moderated associations between child maltreatment and either emotional distress or sexual intercourse. Data included 637 youth in the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN). Child maltreatment was determined by lifetime Child Protective Service records and youth self-report, and included sexual, physical, psychological abuse, and neglect (age 12). The moderat...

  14. Childhood Maltreatment and Prospectively Observed Quality of Early Care as Predictors of Antisocial Personality Disorder Features

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Zhenyu; Bureau, Jean-Francois; EASTERBROOKS, M. ANN; Zhao, Xudong; Lyons-Ruth, Karlen

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the separate contributions of maltreatment and ongoing quality of parent-child interaction to the etiology of antisocial personality features using a prospective longitudinal design. 120 low-income young adults (aged 18-23) were assessed for extent of ASPD features on the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnosis-Axis II, for presence of maltreatment on the Conflict Tactics Scale, Traumatic Experiences Scale, and Adult Attachment Interview, and for referral in inf...

  15. A Longitudinal Examination of Childhood Maltreatment and Adolescent Obesity: Results from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sunny Hyucksun; Miller, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: We sought to explore the association between childhood maltreatment (e.g., neglect, physical and sexual abuse) and longitudinal growth trajectories of body mass index (BMI) from adolescence to young adulthood. Methods: We used latent curve modeling to examine data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 8,471),…

  16. Self-Criticism as a Mechanism Linking Childhood Maltreatment and Maternal Efficacy Beliefs in Low-Income Mothers With and Without Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michl, Louisa C; Handley, Elizabeth D; Rogosch, Fred; Cicchetti, Dante; Toth, Sheree L

    2015-11-01

    The primary aim of the current study was to examine self-criticism as a potential mechanism mediating the relation between mothers' own childhood maltreatment history and changes in subsequent maternal efficacy beliefs in a diverse sample of low-income mothers with and without major depressive disorder. Longitudinal data were drawn from a larger randomized clinical trial evaluating the effectiveness of interpersonal psychotherapy for depression among low-income mothers and their 12-month-old infant. Results indicated that higher levels of maltreatment in childhood led mothers to hold more self-critical judgments in adulthood. Additionally, mothers who had experienced more extensive childhood maltreatment histories perceived themselves as less efficacious in their role as mother. Structural equation modeling indicated that self-criticism mediated the relationship between childhood maltreatment and mothers' decreased perceived competency in her maternal role from when her child was an infant to the more demanding toddler years. Finally, this relationship held over and above the influence of mothers' depressive diagnostic status. Directions for future research and the clinical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:26318693

  17. Early Life Stress and the Anxious Brain : : Neural Structure and Function Underlying the Relationship Between Childhood Emotional Maltreatment and Anxiety in Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Fonzo, Gregory Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment (CM), particularly emotional abuse (EA) and emotional neglect (EN), is a significant risk factor for the development of excessive anxiety in adulthood. However, the neurobiological mechanisms which underlie the relationship between CM and later development of anxiety are poorly understood. The purpose of this investigation is to delineate brain structure/function in adulthood which underlies the relationship between childhood EA/EN and adult anxiety. One-hundred eighty-...

  18. Child Maltreatment and Children's Developmental Trajectories in Early to Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font, Sarah A.; Berger, Lawrence M.

    2015-01-01

    Associations between experiencing child maltreatment and adverse developmental outcomes are widely studied, yet conclusions regarding the extent to which effects are bidirectional, and whether they are likely causal, remain elusive. This study uses the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a birth cohort of 4,898 children followed from birth…

  19. Resilience to Adult Psychopathology Following Childhood Maltreatment: Evidence from a Community Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collishaw, Stephan; Pickles, Andrew; Messer, Julie; Rutter, Michael; Shearer, Christina; Maughan, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Child abuse is an important risk for adult psychiatric morbidity. However, not all maltreated children experience mental health problems as adults. The aims of the present study were to address the extent of resilience to adult psychopathology in a representative community sample, and to explore predictors of a good prognosis. Methods:…

  20. Perceptions of general and parenting-specific posttraumatic change among postpartum mothers with histories of childhood maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fava, Nicole M; Simon, Valerie A; Smith, Erin; Khan, Maria; Kovacevic, Merdijana; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Menke, Rena; Muzik, Maria

    2016-06-01

    Although adaptive meanings of childhood maltreatment (CM) are critical to posttraumatic adaptation, little is known about perceptions of posttraumatic change (PTC) during the vulnerable postpartum period. PTC may be positive or negative as well as global or situational. This study examined general and parenting-specific PTC among 100 postpartum women with CM histories (Mage=29.5 years). All reported general and 83% reported parenting PTC. General PTC were more likely to include negative and positive changes; parenting PTC were more likely to be exclusively positive. Indicators of more severe CM (parent perpetrator, more CM experiences) were related to parenting but not general PTC. Concurrent demographic risk moderated associations between number of CM experiences and positive parenting PTC such that among mothers with more CM experiences, demographic risk was associated with stronger positive parenting PTC. Results highlight the significance of valence and specificity of PTC for understanding meanings made of CM experiences. PMID:27131270

  1. How Childhood Maltreatment Is Related to Suicidality, Bipolarity and Central Serotonergic Activity in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder: A Cross-Sectional Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bun-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to determine whether childhood maltreatment contributes to the occurrence of major depressive disorder (MDD) with bipolarity, and whether there is a relationship between central serotonergic activity, as assessed using loudness dependence of auditory evoked potentials (LDAEP), and childhood maltreatment. Methods Thirty-five MDD patients were stratified according to the presence or absence of childhood trauma into two subgroups, childhood trauma (CT) and no childhood trauma (NCT), using the Korean version of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (K-CTQ). The CT group was subjected to further analysis. Several psychometric ratings were also applied. In addition, auditory processing for the loudness dependence of auditory evoked potentials (LDAEP), which was used as a marker of serotonergic activity, was measured before beginning medication. Results There was a significant difference in total Korean Bipolar Spectrum Disorder Scale score between the CT and NCT groups (t=-2.14, p=0.04). The total K-CTQ score was positively correlated with the total Beck Scale for Suicidal Ideation (BSS) score (r=0.36, p=0.036). In particular, emotional abuse was positively correlated with the total Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (r=0.38, p=0.026), BSS (r=0.38, p=0.025), and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) (r=0.36, p=0.035) scores. There was also a positive correlation between LDAEP and total Hypomania Personality Scale (r=0.49, p=0.02) and HAMD (r=0.58, p=0.004) scores within CT group. Conclusion The findings of this study support that there is a relationship between childhood maltreatment and bipolarity in patients with MDD. PMID:27081379

  2. Childhood maltreatment and personality disorders in patients with a major depressive disorder: A comparative study between France and Togo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounou, Kossi B; Dogbe Foli, Ayoko A; Djassoa, G; Amétépé, Léonard K; Rieu, J; Mathur, A; Biyong, I; Schmitt, L

    2015-10-01

    Few studies have examined the association between childhood maltreatment (CM) and personality disorders (PDs) in adulthood in two different cultural contexts, including sub-Saharan Africa. The aims of this study were to compare the frequency of CM between patients in treatment in France and Togo for a major depressive disorder (MDD), to explore the link between CM and PDs, and to examine the mediating effect of personality dimensions in the pathway from CM to PDs in 150 participants (75 in each country). The 28-item Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the International Personality Item Pool, and the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire (PDQ-4+) were used to assess CM, personality dimensions, and PDs respectively. Togolese participants reported sexual and physical abuse (PA) and emotional and physical neglect significantly more frequently than French participants. In Togo, severe PA was associated with schizoid, antisocial, narcissistic, obsessive-compulsive, depressive, and negativist PDs whereas in France, PA was only linked to paranoid PD. In Togo, emotional instability partly mediated the relationship between CM and PDs while in France, no personality dimension appeared to mediate this link. Our results support the hypothesis that CM is more common in low-income countries and suggest that the links between CM and PDs are influenced by social environment. PMID:25712816

  3. Maltreated and abused children

    OpenAIRE

    HOUFOVÁ, Jana

    2011-01-01

    According to the statistics there are forty thousand of battered and abused children in the Czech Republic. Maltreatment and abuse are not revealed in most cases and thus they accompany the children during their whole childhood. The reason is that children cannot defend themselves. The maltreatment or the abuse of a child is revealed only if somebody from the child?s neighbourhood observes anything suspicious and decides to report it, which is both a moral and a legal obligation. A person, wh...

  4. Relationship Between Childhood Maltreatment Experience, Cognitive Bias and Depression%童年虐待经历及认知偏差与抑郁的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴韦玮; 陆邵佳; 位照国; 彭红军; 李凌江

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨童年期受虐待经历及认知偏差与抑郁的关系.方法:利用童年创伤问卷将入组的重症抑郁症患者及健康成人分为童年虐待组和无童年虐待组,所有被试均完成功能失调性态度量表及认知偏差问卷.结果:在功能失调性态度得分、抑郁-歪曲得分上,诊断有显著主效应,仅认知哲学评分中,童年创伤无主效应.完美化因子评分中,童年创伤与诊断有显著交互作用,伴童年虐待的抑郁症患者显著升高.多元回归分析显示,功能失调性态度总分与抑郁-歪曲得分是抑郁程度的显著预测因子.结论:抑郁症患者及伴童年虐待者均比健康人有更严重的认知偏差,伴童年虐待的抑郁症对完美化的追求更明显.负性认知偏差是抑郁症的有力预测因子.%Objective:To explore the relationship between childhood maltreatment experience,cognitive bias and depression.Methods:Patients of major depression and healthy adults were assessed by Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ).And then the patients were divided into the depression group with childhood maltreatment and the one without childhood maltreatment; and the healthy adults were divided into the control group with childhood maltreatment and the one without childhood maltreatment.All subjects were assessed cogntive biases with Dysfunctional Attitudes Scales(DAS)and The Cognitive Bias Questionnaire (CBQ).Results:The main effect of depression diagnosis existed in the total score of DAS and all structure factors,as well as the score of depression-distortion.The main effects of childhood maltreatment were found in the score of depression-distortion,as well as the total score of DAS and 7 structure factors,except "Cognitive-philosophy" factor.Multiple regression analysis showed that the total score of DAS and the score of depression-distortion were powerful predictors of depression.Conclusion:Both depressive patients and the people with childhood maltreatment have

  5. Developmental trajectories of abuse--an hypothesis for the effects of early childhood maltreatment on dorsolateral prefrontal cortical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrus, Caley

    2013-11-01

    The United States has a high rate of child maltreatment, with nearly 12 in 1000 children being victims of abuse or neglect. Child abuse strongly predicts negative life outcomes, especially in areas of emotional and mental health. Abused children are also more likely than their peers to engage in violence and enter the juvenile justice system, as well as to become abusive parents themselves. Research has shown that child abuse and trauma can lead to decreased hippocampal volume, which could be indicative of abnormal hippocampal development. Hippocampal development appears to directly affect the development of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, a brain area responsible for emotion regulation, cognitive reappraisal, and general executive function. Therefore, I hypothesize that if child abuse results in abnormal hippocampal development, which leads to abnormal dorsolateral prefrontal cortex development, many of the correlated risk factors of child abuse, such as emotionally-laden parenting and unfavorable cognitive distortions regarding children's behaviors, may be in part caused by underdevelopment or abnormal functioning of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, as a function of the individual's own experiences with abuse during childhood. If this hypothesis is supported with future research, more targeted, successful, and cost-effective prevention and treatment protocols could ensue. For instance, programs that have been empirically shown to increase the activity of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, such as cognitive behavioral therapy, could be effective in decreasing the incidence of intergenerational transfer of abuse. PMID:24075592

  6. Childhood maltreatment and BMI trajectories to mid-adult life: follow-up to age 50 y in a British birth cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Power

    Full Text Available Childhood maltreatment including abuse and neglect has been associated with adult obesity, but evidence on life-course development of obesity or BMI gain is unclear. We aim to establish whether childhood maltreatments are related to obesity or BMI at different life-stages 7 y-50 y and to identify possible explanations for associations.Childhood physical, psychological and sexual abuse, neglect and BMI at seven ages were recorded in the 1958 birth cohort (n~15,000. Associations of child maltreatments with BMI at separate ages were tested using linear regression or logistic regression for obesity, and with rate of child-to-adult BMI gain using multilevel models. We adjusted for potential covariates.Abuse was reported in ~12% of the population. Abuse was not associated with elevated childhood BMI, but adult associations were observed: i.e. the abused had faster child-adult BMI gain than the non-abused; associations were independent of adult covariates. For physical abuse in both genders there was a positive linear association of ~0.006/y zBMI gain with age after adjustment for all covariates. Similarly, there was a linear association of physical abuse with obesity risk: e.g. among females from a low OR(adjusted of 0.34 (0.16,0.71 at 7 y to 1.67 (1.25,2.24 at 50 y. In females faster zBMI gains with age of ~0.0034/y were observed for sexual abuse and increases in obesity risk were faster: from a low OR(adjusted of 0.23 (0.06,0.84 at 7 y to 1.34 (0.86,2.10 at 50 y. Psychological abuse and neglect associations were less consistent.Childhood maltreatment associations with BMI or obesity varied across life: physical and, in females, sexual abuse were associated with faster lifetime BMI gains, which may have detrimental long-term health consequences.

  7. Alcohol misuse and associations with childhood maltreatment and out-of-home placement among urban two-spirit American Indian and Alaska Native people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Nicole P; Duran, Bonnie M; Walters, Karina L; Pearson, Cynthia R; Evans-Campbell, Tessa A

    2014-01-01

    This study examined associations between alcohol misuse and childhood maltreatment and out-of-home placement among urban lesbian, gay, and bisexual (referred to as two-spirit) American Indian and Alaska Native adults. In a multi-site study, data were obtained from 294 individuals who consumed alcohol during the past year. The results indicated that 72.3% of men and 62.4% of women engaged in hazardous and harmful alcohol use and 50.8% of men and 48.7% of women met criteria for past-year alcohol dependence. The most common types of childhood maltreatment were physical abuse among male drinkers (62.7%) and emotional abuse (71.8%) among female drinkers. Men and women reported high percentages of out-of-home placement (39% and 47%, respectively). Logistic multiple regressions found that for male drinkers boarding school attendance and foster care placement were significant predictors of past-year alcohol dependence. For female drinkers, being adopted was significantly associated with a decreased risk of past-year drinking binge or spree. Dose-response relationships, using number of childhood exposures as a predictor, were not significant. The results highlight the need for alcohol and violence prevention and intervention strategies among urban two-spirit individuals. PMID:25317980

  8. Alcohol Misuse and Associations with Childhood Maltreatment and Out-of-Home Placement among Urban Two-Spirit American Indian and Alaska Native People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole P. Yuan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined associations between alcohol misuse and childhood maltreatment and out-of-home placement among urban lesbian, gay, and bisexual (referred to as two-spirit American Indian and Alaska Native adults. In a multi-site study, data were obtained from 294 individuals who consumed alcohol during the past year. The results indicated that 72.3% of men and 62.4% of women engaged in hazardous and harmful alcohol use and 50.8% of men and 48.7% of women met criteria for past-year alcohol dependence. The most common types of childhood maltreatment were physical abuse among male drinkers (62.7% and emotional abuse (71.8% among female drinkers. Men and women reported high percentages of out-of-home placement (39% and 47%, respectively. Logistic multiple regressions found that for male drinkers boarding school attendance and foster care placement were significant predictors of past-year alcohol dependence. For female drinkers, being adopted was significantly associated with a decreased risk of past-year drinking binge or spree. Dose-response relationships, using number of childhood exposures as a predictor, were not significant. The results highlight the need for alcohol and violence prevention and intervention strategies among urban two-spirit individuals.

  9. Alcohol Misuse and Associations with Childhood Maltreatment and Out-of-Home Placement among Urban Two-Spirit American Indian and Alaska Native People

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Nicole P.; Duran, Bonnie M.; Walters, Karina L.; Pearson, Cynthia R.; Evans-Campbell, Tessa A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined associations between alcohol misuse and childhood maltreatment and out-of-home placement among urban lesbian, gay, and bisexual (referred to as two-spirit) American Indian and Alaska Native adults. In a multi-site study, data were obtained from 294 individuals who consumed alcohol during the past year. The results indicated that 72.3% of men and 62.4% of women engaged in hazardous and harmful alcohol use and 50.8% of men and 48.7% of women met criteria for past-year alcoho...

  10. Child Maltreatment and Adult Substance Abuse: The Role of Memory

    OpenAIRE

    ELWYN, LAURA; Smith, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    Child maltreatment is a risk factor for substance abuse in adulthood. This study examines whether memory of maltreatment is a necessary link in the path leading from prospectively measured childhood maltreatment to adult substance use problems. Official Child Protective Services reports and adult retrospective recall of childhood maltreatment were used to predict illegal drug use and alcohol problems in adulthood controlling for covariates. Memory was a necessary link in the path between pros...

  11. Childhood Diarrhea Exhibits Spatiotemporal Variation in Northwest Ethiopia: A SaTScan Spatial Statistical Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muluken Azage

    Full Text Available Childhood diarrhea continues to be a public health problem in developing countries, including Ethiopia. Detecting clusters and trends of childhood diarrhea is important to designing effective interventions. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate spatiotemporal clustering and seasonal variability of childhood diarrhea in northwest Ethiopia.Retrospective record review of childhood diarrhea was conducted using quarterly reported data to the district health office for the seven years period beginning July 1, 2007. Thirty three districts were included and geo-coded in this study. Spatial, temporal and space-time scan spatial statistics were employed to identify clusters of childhood diarrhea. Smoothing using a moving average was applied to visualize the trends and seasonal pattern of childhood diarrhea. Statistical analyses were performed using Excel® and SaTScan programs. The maps were plotted using ArcGIS 10.0.Childhood diarrhea in northwest Ethiopia exhibits statistical evidence of spatial, temporal, and spatiotemporal clustering, with seasonal patterns and decreasing temporal trends observed in the study area. A most likely purely spatial cluster was found in the East Gojjam administrative zone of Gozamin district (LLR = 7123.89, p <0.001. The most likely spatiotemporal cluster was detected in all districts of East Gojjam zone and a few districts of the West Gojjam zone (LLR = 24929.90, p<0.001, appearing from July 1, 2009 to June 30, 2011. One high risk period from July 1, 2008 to June 30, 2010 (LLR = 9655.86, p = 0.001 was observed in all districts. Peak childhood diarrhea cases showed a seasonal trend, occurring more frequently from January to March and April to June.Childhood diarrhea did not occur at random. It has spatiotemporal variation and seasonal patterns with a decreasing temporal trend. Accounting for the spatiotemporal variation identified in the study areas is advised for the prevention and control of diarrhea.

  12. Linking childhood maltreatment and psychological symptoms in a Portuguese community sample : the hurtful potential of emotional abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dos Santos Dias, Aida; Sales, L.; van Hessen, D.J.; Kleber, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Child maltreatment (CM) is associated with poor long-term health outcomes. However, knowledge about CM prevalence and related consequences is scarce among adults in South European countries. We examined the self-reported prevalence of five different forms of CM in a community sample of 1,200 Portugu

  13. Native American Ethnicity and Childhood Maltreatment as Variables in Perceptions and Adjustments to Boot Camp vs. "Traditional" Correctional Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gover, Angela R.

    2005-01-01

    A sample of 302 juveniles confined in two separate correctional facilities in a Western plains state was assessed to examine the relationship between child maltreatment and other delinquency risk factors, and Native American ethnicity on perceptions of the institutional environments and psychological adjustment in a boot camp and traditional…

  14. Does Self-Compassion Mitigate the Association between Childhood Maltreatment and Later Emotion Regulation Difficulties? A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vettese, Lisa C.; Dyer, Catherine E.; Li, Wing Ling; Wekerle, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Child maltreatment-related outcomes range from no symptom expression to suicide. Increasingly, the diverse presentations have been conceptualized as core system dysregulation, including emotion dysregulation. Self-compassion has been advanced as a self-regulation strategy for countering negative self-directed emotions. This study explored whether…

  15. Linking childhood maltreatment and psychological symptoms in a Portuguese community sample : the hurtful potential of emotional abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Dos Santos Dias, Aida; Sales, L.; Hessen, D.J.; Kleber, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Child maltreatment (CM) is associated with poor long-term health outcomes. However, knowledge about CM prevalence and related consequences is scarce among adults in South European countries. We examined the self-reported prevalence of five different forms of CM in a community sample of 1,200 Portuguese adults; we compared the results with similar samples from three other countries, using the same instrument. We also explored the relationship between CM and psychological symptoms. Cross-sectio...

  16. Altered pressure pain thresholds and increased wind-up in adult patients with chronic back pain with a history of childhood maltreatment: a quantitative sensory testing study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesarz, Jonas; Eich, Wolfgang; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Gerhardt, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    Childhood maltreatment (CM) has been associated with an increased risk of nonspecific chronic low back pain (nsCLBP). However, the mechanisms underlying this association are unclear. Therefore, this study considered whether distinct types of CM are accompanied by specific alterations in somatosensory function. A total of 176 subjects with nsCLBP and 27 pain-free controls (PCs) were included. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) was used to categorize patients into 2 groups (abused/neglected vs nonabused/nonneglected) for 5 types of CM (emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional neglect, and physical neglect). The standardized quantitative sensory testing protocol of the "German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain" was performed to obtain comprehensive profiles on somatosensory function, including detection and pain thresholds, pain sensitivity, and assessments of temporal summation (wind-up). Between 17.7% and 51.4% of subjects with nsCLBP reported CM, depending on the type of CM. Childhood Trauma Questionnaire subscores for emotional and sexual abuse were significantly higher in subjects with nsCLBP than in PCs. Compared with PCs, subjects with CM showed reduced pressure pain thresholds (PPTs), irrespective of the type of CM. Regarding distinct types of CM, subjects with nsCLBP with emotional abuse reported significantly higher wind-up than those without, and sexual abuse was accompanied by enhanced touch sensitivity. Our findings suggest that CM is nonspecifically associated with a decreased PPT in nsCLBP. Emotional abuse apparently leads to enhanced spinal pain summation, and sexual abuse leads to enhanced touch sensitivity. These results emphasize the importance of emotional abuse in nsCLBP and suggest that CM can induce long-term changes in adult somatosensory function. PMID:27075429

  17. Exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    Encounters Hanne Blitz From February 1st to 12th 2016 CERN Meyrin, Main Building What is our reaction to a first encounter with a tourist attraction? Contemporary Dutch painter Hanne Blitz captures visitors' responses to art and architecture, sweeping vistas and symbolic memorials. Encounters, a series of oil paintings curated specially for this CERN exhibition, depicts tourists visiting cultural highlights around the world. A thought-provoking journey not to be missed, and a tip of the hat to CERN's large Hadron Collider.

  18. Psychological maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbard, Roberta; Barlow, Jane; Macmillan, Harriet

    2012-08-01

    Psychological or emotional maltreatment of children may be the most challenging and prevalent form of child abuse and neglect. Caregiver behaviors include acts of omission (ignoring need for social interactions) or commission (spurning, terrorizing); may be verbal or nonverbal, active or passive, and with or without intent to harm; and negatively affect the child's cognitive, social, emotional, and/or physical development. Psychological maltreatment has been linked with disorders of attachment, developmental and educational problems, socialization problems, disruptive behavior, and later psychopathology. Although no evidence-based interventions that can prevent psychological maltreatment have been identified to date, it is possible that interventions shown to be effective in reducing overall types of child maltreatment, such as the Nurse Family Partnership, may have a role to play. Furthermore, prevention before occurrence will require both the use of universal interventions aimed at promoting the type of parenting that is now recognized to be necessary for optimal child development, alongside the use of targeted interventions directed at improving parental sensitivity to a child's cues during infancy and later parent-child interactions. Intervention should, first and foremost, focus on a thorough assessment and ensuring the child's safety. Potentially effective treatments include cognitive behavioral parenting programs and other psychotherapeutic interventions. The high prevalence of psychological abuse in advanced Western societies, along with the serious consequences, point to the importance of effective management. Pediatricians should be alert to the occurrence of psychological maltreatment and identify ways to support families who have risk indicators for, or evidence of, this problem. PMID:22848125

  19. Reported History of Childhood Maltreatment and Young Adults' Attentional Biases for Facial Expressions%儿童期受虐对成人情绪面孔注意偏向的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高红丽; 杨世昌; 闫春平; 姚桂英; 杜巍

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of childhood maltreatment on young adults' attentional biases for facial expressions. Methods: A visual dot-probe task was used to test 29 participants with childhood maltreatment and 30 participants without childhood maltreatment. The Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire was used to assess participants' histories of emotional, physical, and sexual abuse in childhood. Results: There was no significant difference in the reaction time of group, types of emotional faces and consistency (P>0.05); there was no significant difference in the attention bias score of group and types of emotional faces (P>0.05). Conclusion: In the context of Chinese culture, young adults with childhood maltreatment have no special attentional biases for emotional faces.%目的:探讨儿童期受虐对成人情绪面孔注意偏向的影响.方法:使用儿童虐待史问卷筛选出有童年期受虐经历的被试29名和无童年期受虐经历的被试30名,以情绪面孔(高兴、中性、愤怒)为实验材料进行点探测任务的行为学实验.结果:组别、面孔性质、一致性三因素在反应时指标上,各自的主效应及相互之间的交互作用均不显著(P>0.05):组别和面孔性质在注意偏向各项指标上的主效应和交互效应均不显著(P>0.05).结论:在中国文化背景下,有儿童期受虐经历的成年人不存在对情绪面孔的注意偏向.

  20. Psychobiology of childhood maltreatment: effects of allostatic load? Psicobiologia dos maus-tratos na infância: efeitos de peso alostático?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Grassi-Oliveira

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Facing an adverse physical or psychosocial situation, an individual is forced to adapt in order to survive. Allostasis is the term used to refer to adapting processes used to maintain the stability of an organism through active processes. When allostatic response is excessive or inefficient, the organism develops an allostatic load. The cascade of molecular and neurobiological effects associated with childhood abuse and neglect could be an example of allostatic response that could precipitate allostatic load in organism still vulnerable during its development. This article reviews the psychobiological consequences related to childhood abuse and neglect. METHOD: A selective review with a systematic procedure was performed to investigate studies showing explicit association between childhood maltreatment and psychobiological/neurobiological consequences. We searched electronic database MedLine-PubMed to identify English-language articles from 1990 to 2007. RESULTS: From 115 articles we selected 55 studies from MedLine and 30 from their reference lists, in a total of 85 articles (JCR IF range: 1-31.4; median: 5.88. Only 29 studies showed direct and explicit association between them. CONCLUSION: Structural consequences of childhood maltreatment include disruptive development of corpus callosum, left neocortex, hippocampus, and amygdale; functional consequences include increased electrical irritability in limbic areas, frontal lobe dysfunctions and reduced functional activity of the cerebellar vermis; and neurohumoral consequences include the reprogramming activity of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis and subsequently the stress response.OBJETIVO: Frente a uma situação psicossocial ou física adversa, o indivíduo é forçado a se adaptar de maneira que possa sobreviver. Alostase é o termo utilizado para descrever os processos adaptativos usados para manter a estabilidade de um organismo por meio de processos ativos. Quando a

  1. Intergenerational Continuity in Child Maltreatment: Mediating Mechanisms and Implications for Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Lisa J.; Appleyard, Karen; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2011-01-01

    In the interest of improving child maltreatment prevention, this prospective, longitudinal, community-based study of 499 mothers and their infants examined (a) direct associations between mothers' experiences of childhood maltreatment and their offspring's maltreatment, and (b) mothers' mental health problems, social isolation, and social…

  2. Linking child maltreatment history with child abuse potential: Relative roles of maltreatment types

    OpenAIRE

    Mitkovic-Voncina Marija; Lecic-Tosevski Dusica; Pejovic-Milovancevic Milica; Popovic-Deusic Smiljka

    2014-01-01

    The independent roles of each childhood maltreatment type on child abuse potential in adults have been insufficiently explored and are inconsistent, with dissociation as one of the possible suggested mediators of intergenerational child abuse. We investigated these effects among 164 non-clinical adult parents, who filled in general questionnaires: Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAPI) and Dissociative Experience Scale ...

  3. Exceptionality, Education and Maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobsey, Dick

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of the relationship between child maltreatment and child disability identifies three categories: (1) maltreatment causes many disabilities; (2) children with disabilities are more vulnerable to maltreatment; and (3) other primary causal factors increase risk for both violence and disability. Maltreatment is also seen as impeding student…

  4. Intergenerational Continuity in Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberry, Terence P.; Henry, Kimberly L.

    2013-01-01

    Identification of the causes of child maltreatment perpetration is prerequisite for developing efficacious prevention initiatives to reduce its occurrence. Earlier maltreatment victimization is often suggested as an important cause of subsequent maltreatment perpetration. This study investigates a) whether maltreatment victimization causes…

  5. The role of timing of maltreatment and child intelligence in pathways to low symptoms of depression and anxiety in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpur, Lisa Jane; Polek, Ela; van Harmelen, Anne-Laura

    2015-09-01

    Research indicates that childhood maltreatment is strongly associated with high levels of adolescent depression and anxiety symptoms. Using LONGSCAN data and taking into account the range of family characteristics related to adversity (poverty, primary caregiver substance abuse) and protective factors (living with biological mother and father), the present study assessed the complex resilience process in which child intelligence (age 6) mediated the relationship between early childhood maltreatment (age 0-4) and adolescent symptoms of depression and anxiety (age 14). We also assessed if mid (age 6-8) and late (age 10-12) childhood maltreatment moderated this mediation. We found that mid-childhood intelligence mediated the negative effect of early childhood maltreatment (age 0-4) on anxiety symptoms (age 14), but not on depressive symptoms (age 14). We also found the effect of timing of maltreatment: early childhood maltreatment (age 0-4) predicted more anxiety symptoms in adolescence, whereas late childhood/early adolescent (age 10-12) maltreatment predicted more symptoms of depression in adolescence. In addition, mid (age 6-8) and late (age 10-12) childhood maltreatment dampened the protective effect of IQ (age 6) against anxiety (age 14). In sum, current evidence shows that low anxiety and depression symptoms in adolescence following childhood maltreatment was achieved through different pathways, and that early and late childhood/early adolescence were more sensitive periods for development of psychopathology related to depression and anxiety in adolescence. PMID:26146160

  6. Child maltreatment and later cognitive functioning: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Quarti Irigaray; Janaína Barbosa Pacheco; Rodrigo Grassi-Oliveira; Rochele Paz Fonseca; José Carlos de Carvalho Leite; Christian Haag Kristensen

    2013-01-01

    This systematic review sought to assess the impact of child maltreatment on cognitive functioning. Seventeen papers from Medline, PsycINFO, Embase and Amed (1995-2011) databases were analyzed based on inclusion/exclusion criteria. The studies have shown that maltreatment during childhood has deleterious effects on cognitive functioning. Overall, adults or children/teenagers exposed to abuse during childhood performed poorly on tasks meant to assess verbal episodic memory, working memory, atte...

  7. Intergenerational Continuity in Child Maltreatment: Mediating Mechanisms and Implications for Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Berlin, Lisa J.; Appleyard, Karen; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2011-01-01

    In the interest of improving child maltreatment prevention, this prospective, longitudinal, community-based study of 499 mothers and their infants examined (a) direct associations between mothers’ experiences of childhood maltreatment and their offspring’s maltreatment, and (b) mothers’ mental health problems, social isolation, and social information processing patterns (hostile attributions and aggressive response biases) as mediators of these associations. Mothers’ childhood physical abuse ...

  8. Child maltreatment and later cognitive functioning: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Quarti Irigaray

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This systematic review sought to assess the impact of child maltreatment on cognitive functioning. Seventeen papers from Medline, PsycINFO, Embase and Amed (1995-2011 databases were analyzed based on inclusion/exclusion criteria. The studies have shown that maltreatment during childhood has deleterious effects on cognitive functioning. Overall, adults or children/teenagers exposed to abuse during childhood performed poorly on tasks meant to assess verbal episodic memory, working memory, attention, and executive functions. We conclude that child maltreatment is a risk factor for short and long-term development due to potential adverse effects on cognitive functioning.

  9. The role of attachment in the relationship between child maltreatment and later emotional and behavioral functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, Amanda; Renk, Kimberly; Adgate, Amanda Havill

    2014-09-01

    The experience of childhood maltreatment is an important predictor of unfavorable emotional and behavioral outcomes. Because little research examined explanatory variables in the relationship between childhood maltreatment experiences and later outcomes, this study examined the role that attachment serves in this relationship. Four hundred twenty-four participants completed questionnaires assessing the variables of interest for this study. Results indicated that both childhood maltreatment experiences (particularly emotional abuse) and attachment (particularly to mothers and peers) are significant predictors of later emotional and behavioral outcomes. Further, attachment contributed unique and significant variance to the relationship between childhood maltreatment experiences and later outcomes. Such findings suggested that secure attachment may serve as a protective factor against maladaptive emotional and behavioral outcomes as children reach emerging adulthood, even in the context of childhood maltreatment experiences. The importance of studying the relationships among these variables is discussed. PMID:24631414

  10. Maltreatment in Infancy: A Developmental Perspective on Prevention and Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Brenda Jones; Buhler, Andrea; Parra, Laura Jimenez

    2016-10-01

    Burgeoning research has documented high rates of maltreatment during the first 3 years of life. Early exposure to maltreatment is related to a host of negative physical, developmental, and mental health outcomes in childhood and adulthood. Scientists have documented the "biological embedding" of maltreatment, including alterations in the structures and processes of the young brain. Maltreatment is a complex phenomenon, which manifests in contexts of family poverty, inadequate parental knowledge and skill regarding child development and caregiving, social isolation of parents, disruptions in parent-child relationships, compromised parental psychological functioning, and concrete issues that affect parenting. Capitalizing on research on young child maltreatment, interventions have been designed to ameliorate infant/toddler maltreatment, buffer young children against the effects of maltreatment, and promote the well-being of maltreated young children. There is a growing empirical base on interventions to address early maltreatment within the context of a public health prevention framework. Primary prevention programs aim to reduce the incidence of maltreatment and related outcomes for infants, toddlers, and their families through the implementation of population-based programs, such as home visiting and early care and education programs. Secondary prevention models target families with specific risk factors associated with maltreatment, such as maternal depression. Tertiary programs generally entail involuntary services, designed to prevent maltreatment recurrence and to improve parenting skills through therapeutic approaches targeting the parent-child dyad. Empirical knowledge about maltreated young children and their families and interventions to support them can inform the design and delivery of child welfare services. PMID:27580663

  11. Suspected Child Maltreatment: Recognize and Respond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemple, Kristen Mary; Kim, Hae Kyoung

    2011-01-01

    Early childhood educators spend extensive amounts of time with young children, so they are often the first adults to notice signs that a child may be abused or neglected. All educators are required by law to report suspected maltreatment, and can play an important role in preventing and responding to abuse and neglect of young children. What is…

  12. Linking child maltreatment history with child abuse potential: Relative roles of maltreatment types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitkovic-Voncina Marija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The independent roles of each childhood maltreatment type on child abuse potential in adults have been insufficiently explored and are inconsistent, with dissociation as one of the possible suggested mediators of intergenerational child abuse. We investigated these effects among 164 non-clinical adult parents, who filled in general questionnaires: Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ, Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAPI and Dissociative Experience Scale (DES. Among all maltreatment types (emotional, physical and sexual abuse, emotional and physical neglect, emotional abuse was the only independent predictor in the regression model of child abuse potential. The relationship between emotional abuse history and child abuse potential was partially mediated by dissociation. The findings could speak in favor of the potentially unique detrimental role of emotional abuse in intergenerational maltreatment, with dissociation as one of the possible mechanisms.

  13. When Do We See Resilience: The Effects of Parentâ s History of Maltreatment on Parenting Behaviors and Childrenâ s Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Riser, Diana Katherine

    2011-01-01

    Prior research has suggested that children are at a greater risk of maladjustment in cases where a parent has experienced childhood maltreatment. The purpose of this study is to explore the role of parentâ s childhood maltreatment in its effects on parenting behavior, parent characteristics, and child adjustment. The multiple pathways through which parentâ s childhood maltreatment can be both directly and indirectly linked to child maladjustment were explored. Further, risk and protectiv...

  14. Child Compliance/Noncompliance and Maternal Contributors To Internalization in Maltreating and Nonmaltreating Dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Amy L.; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2000-01-01

    Examined moral development in maltreated and non-maltreated 3- and 4-year-olds through observation of child compliance/noncompliance during a cleanup situation following play. Found that abused children exhibited less internalization than non-maltreated. Neglected children showed more negative affect than others. Found no group differences in…

  15. Identifying Potential Mediators and Moderators of the Association between Child Maltreatment and Bullying Perpetration and Victimization in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jun Sung; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Allen-Meares, Paula

    2012-01-01

    A growing body of literature is demonstrating associations between childhood maltreatment and bullying involvement at school. In this literature review, four potential mediators (explanatory) and three potential moderators (mitigates or exacerbates) of the association between childhood maltreatment and school bullying are proposed. Mediators…

  16. The Association Between Conduct Problems and Maltreatment: Testing Genetic and Environmental Mediation

    OpenAIRE

    Schulz-Heik, R. Jay; Rhee, Soo Hyun; Silvern, Louise E.; Haberstick, Brett C.; Hopfer, Christian; Lessem, Jeffrey M.; Hewitt, John K.

    2009-01-01

    It is often assumed that childhood maltreatment causes conduct problems via an environmentally mediated process. However, the association may be due alternatively to either a nonpassive gene-environment correlation, in which parents react to children’s genetically-influenced conduct problems by maltreating them, or a passive gene-environment correlation, in which parents’ tendency to engage in maltreatment and children’s conduct problems are both influenced by a hereditary vulnerability to an...

  17. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS): Childhood Adversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... childhood maltreatment. In particular, for women, emotional and sexual abuse during childhood was associated with a greater risk ... risk for chronic fatigue syndrome: results from a population-based study. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2006 Nov;63( ...

  18. Maternal Drug Abuse History, Maltreatment, and Functioning in a Clinical Sample of Urban Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onigu-Otite, Edore C.; Belcher, Harolyn M. E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the association between maternal drug abuse history, maltreatment exposure, and functioning, in a clinical sample of young children seeking therapy for maltreatment. Methods: Data were collected on 91 children, mean age 5.3 years (SD 1.0). The Preschool and Early Childhood Functional Assessment Scales (PECFAS) was…

  19. The Relation of Emotional Maltreatment to Early Adolescent Competence: Developmental Processes in a Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Anne; Yates, Tuppett M.; Egeland, Byron R.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: This investigation examined developmental pathways between childhood emotional maltreatment and adaptational outcomes in early adolescence. This study utilized a developmental psychopathology perspective in adopting a multidimensional approach to the assessment of different forms of emotional maltreatment and later adjustment outcomes.…

  20. Recognition of Facial Emotions among Maltreated Children with High Rates of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masten, Carrie L.; Guyer, Amanda E.; Hodgdon, Hilary B.; McClure, Erin B.; Charney, Dennis S.; Ernst, Monique; Kaufman, Joan; Pine, Daniel S.; Monk, Christopher S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to examine processing of facial emotions in a sample of maltreated children showing high rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Maltreatment during childhood has been associated independently with both atypical processing of emotion and the development of PTSD. However, research has provided little…

  1. The effects of child maltreatment on early signs of antisocial behavior: Genetic moderation by Tryptophan Hydroxylase, Serotonin Transporter, and Monoamine Oxidase-A-Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.; Thibodeau, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Gene-environment interaction effects in predicting antisocial behavior in late childhood were investigated among maltreated and nonmaltreated low-income children (N = 627, M age = 11.27). Variants in three genes, TPH1, 5-HTTLPR, and MAOA uVNTR, were examined. In addition to child maltreatment status, we also considered the impact of maltreatment subtypes, developmental timing of maltreatment, and chronicity. Indicators of antisocial behavior were obtained from self-, peer-, and adult counselo...

  2. Child maltreatment: the neurobiological aspects of posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Kirstin; Scannapieco, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Childhood trauma due to physical abuse, neglect, or sexual abuse is a serious problem in the United States. Trauma can result in disruption or injury to the developing brain and lead to neurodevelopmental deficits that affect a child's functioning and can result in lifelong problems. Research has provided insight into how early childhood maltreatment affects brain development. This article examines the research on trauma, its effects on the brain, and evidence-based interventions. An overview of normal brain functioning and posttraumatic stress disorder is presented. Implications for social work practice with children who have experienced child maltreatment are discussed. PMID:23879352

  3. The Nurse-Family Partnership: evidence-based public health in response to child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonmyr, L

    2015-01-01

    Too many Canadian children are exposed to child maltreatment-neglect, emotional maltreatment, exposure to intimate partner violence, and physical and sexual abuse. Retrospective data indicates that 32% of Canadian adults have experienced childhood abuse. There is evidence that child maltreatment is associated with a wide array of negative health consequences across the life span. These consequences expand across physical, mental, developmental and social domains to include suicide, substance abuse, anxiety, depression and physical health problems. Experts have asked for coordinated national leadership in protecting children from maltreatment. They also envision broadening the mandate for injury prevention to include not only physical injury but also emotional injury and harm. PMID:26605562

  4. Social skills and psychopathic traits in maltreated adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ometto, Mariella; de Oliveira, Paula Approbato; Milioni, Ana Luiza; Dos Santos, Bernardo; Scivoletto, Sandra; Busatto, Geraldo F; Nunes, Paula V; Cunha, Paulo Jannuzzi

    2016-04-01

    Child maltreatment has frequently been associated with impaired social skills and antisocial features, but there are still controversies about the effect of each type of maltreatment on social behaviour. The aim of this study was to compare the social functioning and psychopathic traits of maltreated adolescents (MTA) with a control group (CG) and to investigate what types of maltreatments and social skills were associated with psychopathic traits in both groups. The types and intensity of maltreatment were evaluated through the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) in 107 adolescents, divided into the MTA group (n = 66) and non-maltreated youths (n = 41), our CG. The Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL: YV) and a detailed inventory for evaluation of social skills in adolescents were also applied in all individuals. MTA presented more psychopathic traits than the CG, in all domains measured by PCL: YV, independently of IQ levels and the presence of psychiatric disorders. Interestingly, the groups did not differ significantly from each other on indicators of social skills. Multiple regression analysis revealed that emotional neglect was the only maltreatment subtype significantly associated with psychopathic traits, more specifically with the PCL: YV interpersonal factor (F1), and that some social skills (empathy, self-control and social confidence) were related to specific psychopathic factors. The results highlight that emotional neglect may be more detrimental to social behaviours than physical and sexual abuse, and that neglected children require more specific and careful attention. PMID:26224584

  5. Relationship between childhood maltreatment and depression symptoms among 1 417 junior high school students%童年期虐待与初中生抑郁症状关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张婉婉; 刘阳; 余婷婷; 胡塔静; 葛星; 汪耿夫; 方玉; 苏普玉

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and depression in junior high school students.Methods A total of 1 417 junior high school students from the 7th,8th and 9th grade of three public schools were selected with cluster sampling in Huoqiu country and depressive symptoms,childhood maltreatment experience and general demographic were surveyed with Self-Rating Depression Scale and a self-designed questionnaire.Results The detection rate of depressive symptoms was 61.3% in the students.The detection rate was higher among the girls,students of 8th grades,and non-only-child students than among the boys,students of other grade and only-child students,with statistically significant differences (P < 0.05 for all).The detection rate was inversely related to the intimacy to parents and academic records of the students (P < 0.001).The detection rate of depression among the students with repeated childhood maltreatment was higher than among the student without the experience,with a significant difference(P < 0.05).Repeated serious physical abuse,moderate physical abuse,emotional abuse,contact sexual abuse,and non-contact sexual abuse in childhood were positivedly correlated to depression among the students,with the odds ratios of 1.989,1.436,1.698,2.834,and 2.235,respectively.Conclusion Repeated maltreatment in childhood is a risk factor of adolescent depression.%目的 探讨童年期虐待经历与初中生抑郁症状的关系.方法 整群抽取安徽省霍邱县3所乡镇普通初级中学的1 417名初中生,采用抑郁自评量表(SDS)、自编童年期虐待经历问卷和自编一般情况调查表进行问卷调查.结果 1 417名初中生中抑郁症状的检出率为61.3%,女生(66.7%)高于男生(56.6%),初二年级(64.4%)高于初一(62.4%)和初三年级(56.7%),非独生子女(63.5%)高于独生子女(54.9%),差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05或P<0.001);与父母的关系从差、一般到亲密,

  6. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Maltreatment and Abuse Chronology of Exposure (MACE) scale to Brazilian Portuguese

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Kluwe-Schiavon; Thiago Wendt Viola; Rodrigo Grassi-Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Introduction : There is strong evidence to indicate that childhood maltreatment can negatively affect both physical and mental health and there is increasing interest in understanding the occurrence and consequences of such experiences. While several tools have been developed to retrospectively investigate childhood maltreatment experiences, most of them do not investigate the experience of witnessing family violence during childhood or bullying exposure. Moreover, the majority of scales do n...

  7. Delineating the Maladaptive Pathways of Child Maltreatment: A Mediated Moderation Analysis of the Roles of Self Perception and Social Support

    OpenAIRE

    Appleyard, Karen; Yang, Chongming; Runyan, Desmond K.

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigated concurrent and longitudinal mediated and mediated moderation pathways among maltreatment, self perception (i.e., loneliness and self esteem), social support, and internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. For both genders, early childhood maltreatment (i.e., ages 0–6) was related directly to internalizing and externalizing behavior problems at age 6, and later maltreatment (i.e., ages 6–8) was directly related to internalizing and externalizing behavior ...

  8. Risk Factors for Child and Adolescent Maltreatment: A Longitudinal Investigation of a Cohort of Inner-City Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Mersky, Joshua P.; Berger, Lawrence M.; Reynolds, Arthur J.; Gromoske, Andrea N.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates associations between individual, family, and extrafamilial factors and the likelihood of subsequent childhood and adolescent maltreatment. The authors analyzed 1,411 participants in the Chicago Longitudinal Study whose maltreatment records were verified from administrative data. Findings suggest that maternal age at the child’s birth was a robust predictor of maltreatment outcomes. Receipt of public assistance and single-parent family status were significantly associat...

  9. [Typical findings of maltreated children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, E; Zinka, B; Schneider, K; Penning, R; Eisenmenger, W

    2006-06-15

    Childhood maltreatment manifests in a variety of forms and the underlying causes are manifold. In contrast to other offences involving physical injury, reporting behavior has, statistically speaking, remained unchanged. Patterns of injury must first be established and documented, and this involves a complete examination of the child's body. Depending on the constellation of findings, a radiological diagnosis is usually necessary. When all the findings have been collected, the further steps to be taken--where indicated a report to the police--must be discussed. All the evidence must be recorded, and photos obtained of all externally visible injuries before they fade. It is not the task of the physician to develop criminalistic ambitions, for example, by grilling (a parent) on the cause of the injuries. However, he/she has a duty to do everything necessary to protect the well-being of the child. PMID:16850804

  10. 抑郁障碍共病人格障碍与童年期被虐待经历关系的研究%A study on patients suffered from depression and personality comorbided disorder and childhood maltreatment experiences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周玉萍; 李绍敏; 阮玖琼; 闫景新; 高晓翠

    2008-01-01

    Objective To explore the relation between childhood maltreated Experiences and depressive disorder subjects with personality dimmers.Methods 98 depressive disorder patients and 100 healthy controls were assessed with structured clinical interview for DSM-Ⅳ(SCID-Ⅱ) and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-28 Short Form (CTQ-SF).Results Depressive disorder subjects with personality disorders scored significantly higher than normal control in emotional abuse,sex abuse,physical neglect,emotionalneglect domains and in all domains (97.52,90.98,98.32,93.72,94.96 vs 69.66,69.98,66.26,68.74,68.12 ) with the exception of physical abuse.Whereas depressive disorder subjects without personality disorders only scored significantly higher in emotional neglect,emotional abuse domains and compared with normal control ( 85.40,83.15 vs 66.83,67.82).Conclusion Subjects with personality disorders experienced more severe traumaticevents during their early life.Childhood maltreatment experiences have influence on thedevelopment of depression disorders and personality disorders.%目的 研究抑郁障碍共病人格障碍与童年期被虐待经历的关系.方法 采用DSM-IV定式临床会谈量表(SCID-Ⅱ)和童年期创伤性经历问卷(CTQ-SF)对98例抑郁障碍患者进行评估,并与100例正常人群对照.结果 CTQ-SF除躯体虐待外,抑郁障碍共病人格障碍患者情感虐待、性虐待、躯体忽视、情感忽视因子分和总分(分别为97.52分,90.98分,98.32分,93.72分,94.96分)均高于正常对照组(分别为69.66分,69.98分,66.26分,68.74分,68.12分),差异有显著性(P<0.01).非共病人格障碍组的则只有情感忽视和情感虐待(分别为85.40分,83.15分)高于正常对照组(分别为66.83分,67.82分),差异具有显著性(P<0.05).结论 抑郁障碍共病人格障碍患者的童年期创伤性经历较正常对照组严重;童年期被虐待经历与抑郁障碍共患人格障碍有关.

  11. Development of a Childhood Attachment and Relational Trauma Screen (CARTS): a relational-socioecological framework for surveying attachment security and childhood trauma history

    OpenAIRE

    Frewen, Paul A.; Evans, Barrie; Goodman, Jason; Halliday, Aaron; Boylan, James; Moran, Greg; Reiss, Jeffrey; Schore, Allan; Ruth A. Lanius

    2013-01-01

    Background: Current psychometric measures of childhood trauma history generally fail to assess the relational-socioecological context within which childhood maltreatment occurs, including the relationship of abusers to abused persons, the emotional availability of caregivers, and the respondent’s own thoughts, feelings, and actions in response to maltreatment.Objective: To evaluate a computerized approach to measuring the relational-socioecological context within which childhood maltreatment ...

  12. Predicting criminality from child maltreatment typologies and posttraumatic stress symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ask Elklit

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The associations between childhood abuse and subsequent criminality and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD are well known. However, a major limitation of research related to childhood abuse and its effects is the focus on one particular type of abuse at the expense of others. Recent work has established that childhood abuse rarely occurs as a unidimensional phenomenon. Therefore, a number of studies have investigated the existence of abuse typologies. Methods: The study is based on a Danish stratified random probability survey including 2980 interviews of 24-year-old people. The sample was constructed to include an oversampling of child protection cases. Building on a previous latent class analysis of four types of childhood maltreatment, three maltreatment typologies were used in the current analyses. A criminality scale was constructed based on seven types of criminal behavior. PTSD symptoms were assessed by the PC-PTSD Screen. Results: Significant differences were found between the two genders with males reporting heightened rates of criminality. Furthermore, all three maltreatment typologies were associated with criminal behavior with odds ratios (ORs from 2.90 to 5.32. Female gender had an OR of 0.53 and possible PTSD an OR of 1.84. Conclusion: The independent association of participants at risk for PTSD and three types of maltreatment with criminality should be studied to determine if it can be replicated, and considered in social policy and prevention and rehabilitation interventions.

  13. Prevention of Child Maltreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Lane, Wendy Gwirtzman

    2014-01-01

    Pediatricians and other health care providers can play a number of important roles in the prevention of child maltreatment. As part of routine patient care, pediatricians can provide anticipatory guidance for effective discipline and parent-child communication, screen for maltreatment risk factors, and refer parents and families to effective community-based programs. This article will help pediatricians incorporate child abuse prevention into their practice. Resources for systematizing antici...

  14. Work, Welfare, and Child Maltreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Christina Paxson; Jane Waldfogel

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines how child maltreatment is affected by the economic circumstances of parents. 'Child maltreatment' encompasses a wide range of behaviors that adversely affect children. It includes neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and other forms of abuse or neglect. Using state-level panel data on the numbers of reports and substantiated cases of maltreatment, we examine whether socioeconomic factors play different roles for these different types of maltreatment. A key finding is tha...

  15. Epidemiological Perspectives on Maltreatment Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulczyn, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Fred Wulczyn explores how data on the incidence and distribution of child maltreatment shed light on planning and implementing maltreatment prevention programs. He begins by describing and differentiating among the three primary sources of national data on maltreatment. Wulczyn then points out several important patterns in the data. The first…

  16. IL1B基因多态性与儿童期创伤交互作用对抗抑郁剂疗效的影响%Influence of interleukin-1 beta gene polymorphism and childhood maltreatment on antidepressant treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈颖; 张志珺; 徐治; 浦梦佳; 耿磊钰

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨白介素1-β(interleukin-1 beta,IL1 B)基因启动子区rs16944位点基因多态性与儿童期创伤的交互作用对抗抑郁剂疗效的影响.方法 对204例抑郁症患者进行8周心理精神量表评估随访.应用Snapshot检测IL1B基因位点rs16944单核苷酸多态性.应用Unphased 3.0.13软件包分析rs16944多态性与抗抑郁疗效关联性,Logistic回归分析基因-环境交互作用对抗抑郁药物疗效的影响.结果 8周治愈组与未治愈组间性别、年龄、教育程度、家族史、发病次数、HAMD-17项基线及用药情况差异均无统计学意义.药物基因关联分析表明IL1B基因rs16944位点AA基因型携带者疗效较差(x2=3.931,P=0.047).两患者组间儿童期创伤经历问卷总分差异无统计学意义.基因和环境交互分析发现rs16944位点AA基因型与儿童期创伤相互作用及较差的抗抑郁剂疗效相关(P=0.043).结论 IL1B基因rs16944位点多态性与儿童期创伤相互作用可能影响抑郁患者临床疗效.%Objective To explore the influence of interleukin-1 beta (IL1B) gene polymorphism and childhood maltreatment on antidepressant treatment.Methods Two hundred and four patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) have received treatment with single antidepressant drugs and were followed up for 8 weeks.Hamilton depression scale-17 (HAMD-17) was used to evaluate the severity of depressive symptoms and therapeutic effect.Childhood maltreatment was assessed using Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, a 28-item Short Form (CTQ-SF).Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the IL1B gene was determined using a SNaPshot method.Correlation of rs16944 gene polymorphism with response to treatment was analyzed using Unphased 3.0.13 software.The main and interactive effects of SNP and childhood maltreatment on the antidepressant treatment were analyzed using Logistic regression analysis.Results No significant difference of gender, age, year of education, family history

  17. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Childhood Autobiographical Memory Disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David W.; Anda, Robert F.; Edwards, Valerie J.; Felitti, Vincent J.; Dube, Shanta R.; Giles, Wayne H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine relationships between childhood autobiographical memory disturbance (CAMD) and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) which are defined as common forms of child maltreatment and related traumatic stressors. Methods: We use the ACE score (an integer count of eight different categories of ACEs) as a measure of cumulative exposure…

  18. Improving care quality and preventing maltreatment in institutional care – a feasibility study with caregivers

    OpenAIRE

    Hermenau, Katharin; Kaltenbach, Elisa; Mkinga, Getrude; Hecker, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Institutionalized children in low-income countries often face maltreatment and inadequate caregiving. In addition to prior traumatization and other childhood adversities in the family of origin, abuse and neglect in institutional care are linked to various mental health problems. By providing a manualized training workshop for caregivers, we aimed at improving care quality and preventing maltreatment in institutional care. In Study 1, 29 participating caregivers rated feasibility and efficacy...

  19. Child Maltreatment and Emergent Personality Organization: Perspectives from the Five-Factor Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogosch, Fred A.; Cicchetti, Dante

    2004-01-01

    The Five-Factor Model was used to examine personality organization in 211 six-year-old children (135 maltreated and 76 nonmaltreated). Longitudinal assessments were conducted at ages 7, 8, and 9. Six-year-old maltreated children exhibited lower agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience and higher neuroticism than did…

  20. Child Maltreatment in the World: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ajilian Abbasi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse is a recognized public health and social problem worldwide. According to the World Health Organization (WHO, child abuse includes all forms of physical and/or emotional ill-treatment, sexual abuse, neglect and negligent treatment and exploitation. Child maltreatment is a global problem with serious life-long consequences. In spite of recent national surveys in several low- and middle-income countries, data from many countries are still lacking. Estimates of child maltreatment indicate that nearly a quarter of adults (22.6% worldwide suffered physical abuse as a child, 36.3% experienced emotional abuse and 16.3% experienced physical neglect, with no significant differences between boys and girls. However, the lifetime prevalence rate of childhood sexual abuse indicates more marked differences by sex – 18% for girls and 7.6% for boys.  The lifelong consequences of child maltreatment include impaired physical and mental health, poorer school performance, and job and relationship difficulties. Ultimately, child maltreatment can contribute to slowing a country's economic and social development. We conclude that child maltreatment is a widespread, global phenomenon affecting the lives of millions of children all over the world, which is in sharp contrast with the United Nation's Convention on the Rights of the Child.

  1. Attachment and Early Maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egeland, Byron; Sroufe, L. Alan

    1981-01-01

    Attachment outcomes of 31 maltreatment cases (involving extreme neglect or abuse), selected from a total poverty sample of 267 high-risk mothers and their children, were compared to those of a subsample of 33 cases with a history of excellent care. Attachment was assessed when infants were 12 and 18 months old. (Author/MP)

  2. Clarifying the link between childhood abuse history and psychopathic traits in adult criminal offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargis, Monika; Newman, Joseph; Koenigs, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Childhood abuse is a risk factor for the development of externalizing characteristics and disorders, including antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy. However, the precise relationships between particular types of childhood maltreatment and subsequent antisocial and psychopathic traits remain unclear. Using a large sample of incarcerated adult male criminal offenders (n = 183), the current study confirmed that severity of overall childhood maltreatment was linked to severity of both psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder in adulthood. Moreover, this relationship was particularly strong for physical abuse and the antisocial facet of psychopathy. Sexual abuse history was uniquely related to juvenile conduct disorder severity, rather than adult psychopathy or antisocial behaviors. Additionally, there was a significantly stronger relationship between childhood maltreatment and juvenile conduct disorder than between childhood maltreatment and ASPD or psychopathy. These findings bolster and clarify the link between childhood maltreatment and antisocial behavior later in life. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26389621

  3. Child maltreatment and adult psychopathology in an Irish context.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzhenry, Mark

    2015-07-01

    One-hundred-ninety-nine adult mental health service users were interviewed with a protocol that included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the Structured Clinical Interviews for Axis I and II DSM-IV disorders, the Global Assessment of Functioning scale, the SCORE family assessment measure, the Camberwell Assessment of Need Short Appraisal Schedule, and the Readiness for Psychotherapy Index. Compared to a U.S. normative sample, Irish clinical cases had higher levels of maltreatment. Cases with comorbid axis I and II disorders reported more child maltreatment than those with axis I disorders only. There was no association between types of CM and types of psychopathology. Current family adjustment and service needs (but not global functioning and motivation for psychotherapy) were correlated with a CM history. It was concluded that child maltreatment may contribute to the development of adult psychopathology, and higher levels of trauma are associated with co-morbid personality disorder, greater service needs and poorer family adjustment. A history of child maltreatment should routinely be determined when assessing adult mental health service users, especially those with personality disorders and where appropriate evidence-based psychotherapy which addresses childhood trauma should be offered.

  4. Maltreatment, Child Welfare, and Recidivism in a Sample of Deep-End Crossover Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglivio, Michael T; Wolff, Kevin T; Piquero, Alex R; Bilchik, Shay; Jackowski, Katherine; Greenwald, Mark A; Epps, Nathan

    2016-04-01

    Although research has oft-documented a maltreatment-delinquency link, the effect of involvement in-and timing of-child welfare system involvement on offending has received less attention. We examine whether the timing of child welfare involvement has differential effects on recidivism of deep-end juvenile offenders (youth who have been adjudicated delinquent by the court and placed in juvenile justice residential programs). The current study uses a large, diverse sample of 12,955 youth completing juvenile justice residential programs between 1 January 2010 and 30 June 2013 in Florida (13 % female, 55 % Black, 11 % Hispanic). Additionally, we explore the direct effects of childhood traumatic events on delinquency, as well as their indirect effects through child welfare involvement using structural equation modeling. The findings indicate that adverse childhood experiences fail to exert a direct effect on recidivism, but do exhibit a significant indirect effect on recidivism through child welfare involvement, which is itself associated with recidivism. This means that while having exposures to more types of childhood traumatic events does not, in and of itself, increase the likelihood of re-offending, effects of such experiences operate through child welfare placement. Differences in the effects of maltreatment timing and of adverse childhood experiences are observed across sex and race/ethnicity subgroups. Across all racial subgroups, exposures to adverse childhood experiences have a significant effect on the likelihood of child welfare placement, yet child welfare placement exerts a significant effect on recidivism for White and Hispanic youth, but not for Black youth. Only Hispanic female and White male youth with overlapping child welfare and juvenile justice cases (open cases in both systems at the same time during the study period) were more likely to recidivate than their delinquent-only counterpart youth. Crossover status (child welfare and juvenile

  5. Child maltreatment and adult psychopathology in an Irish contex

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzhenry, Mark; Harte, Elizabeth; Carr, Alan; O'Hanrahan, Kevin; White, Megan; Cahill, Paul; et al.

    2015-01-01

    One-hundred-ninety-nine adult mental health service users were interviewed with a protocol that included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the Structured Clinical Interviews for Axis I and II DSM-IV disorders, the Global Assessment of Functioning scale, the SCORE family assessment measure, the Camberwell Assessment of Need Short Appraisal Schedule, and the Readiness for Psychotherapy Index. Compared to a U.S. normative sample, Irish clinical cases had higher levels of maltreatment. Cases wi...

  6. The 'Maltreatment and Abuse Chronology of Exposure' (MACE scale for the retrospective assessment of abuse and neglect during development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin H Teicher

    Full Text Available There is increasing interest in childhood maltreatment as a potent stimulus that may alter trajectories of brain development, induce epigenetic modifications and enhance risk for medical and psychiatric disorders. Although a number of useful scales exist for retrospective assessment of abuse and neglect they have significant limitations. Moreover, they fail to provide detailed information on timing of exposure, which is critical for delineation of sensitive periods. The Maltreatment and Abuse Chronology of Exposure (MACE scale was developed in a sample of 1051 participants using item response theory to gauge severity of exposure to ten types of maltreatment (emotional neglect, non-verbal emotional abuse, parental physical maltreatment, parental verbal abuse, peer emotional abuse, peer physical bullying, physical neglect, sexual abuse, witnessing interparental violence and witnessing violence to siblings during each year of childhood. Items included in the subscales had acceptable psychometric properties based on infit and outfit mean square statistics, and each subscale passed Andersen's Likelihood ratio test. The MACE provides an overall severity score and multiplicity score (number of types of maltreatment experienced with excellent test-retest reliability. Each type of maltreatment showed good reliability as did severity of exposure across each year of childhood. MACE Severity correlated 0.738 with Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ score and MACE Multiplicity correlated 0.698 with the Adverse Childhood Experiences scale (ACE. However, MACE accounted for 2.00- and 2.07-fold more of the variance, on average, in psychiatric symptom ratings than CTQ or ACE, respectively, based on variance decomposition. Different types of maltreatment had distinct and often unique developmental patterns. The 52-item MACE, a simpler Maltreatment Abuse and Exposure Scale (MAES that only assesses overall exposure and the original test instrument (MACE-X with

  7. Child maltreatment and problem gambling: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Wendy; Sacco, Paul; Downton, Katherine; Ludeman, Emilie; Levy, Lauren; Tracy, J Kathleen

    2016-08-01

    This study systematically reviews research on child maltreatment and risk of gambling problems in adulthood. It also reviews adult problem gamblers' risk of abusing or neglecting their own children. Multiple database searches were conducted using pre-defined search terms related to gambling and child abuse and neglect. We identified 601 unique references and excluded studies if they did not report original research, or did not specifically measure child maltreatment or gambling. Twelve studies that included multivariable analysis of childhood maltreatment exposure and problem gambling were identified. Six of seven studies examining childhood sexual abuse and four of five examining physical abuse showed a significant positive association between abuse and later gambling problems (odds ratios for sexual abuse 2.01-3.65; physical abuse 2.3-2.8). Both studies examining psychological maltreatment and two of three examining neglect identified positive associations with problem gambling. In most studies, risks were reduced or eliminated when controlling for other mental health disorders. The three studies measuring risk of child abuse and neglect among current problem gamblers suggest an increased risk for child physical abuse and medical conditions indicative of neglect although there is a considerable amount of variation among studies. Child abuse is associated with increased risk of gambling problems - gambling treatment providers should ask about maltreatment history as part of their clinical assessment. Problem gamblers may be more likely to physically abuse or neglect their children, but data here are more limited. Child welfare professionals should consider asking questions about parental gambling when assessing family risk. PMID:27337693

  8. Child maltreatment: Abuse and neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengü Pala

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Each year, millions of children around the world are the victims and witnesses of physical, sexual and emotional violence. Child maltreatment is a major global problem with a serious impact on the victims’ physical and mental health, well-being and development throughout their lives and, by extension, on society in general. Family physicians who are involved in the care of children are likely to encounter child abuse and should be able to recognize its common presentations. There is sufficient evidence that child maltreatment can be prevented. The ultimate goal is to stop child maltreatment before it starts.In this paper, the characteristics of the perpetrators and victims of child maltreatment, maltreatment types, risk factors, differential diagnosis and discuss about strategies for preventing were summarized.

  9. Does the gender of parent or child matter in child maltreatment in China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Naixue; Xue, Jia; Connolly, Cynthia A; Liu, Jianghong

    2016-04-01

    Child maltreatment is a public health problem worldwide, and China is no exception. However, the pattern of child maltreatment remains unknown, including whether the gender of children and their parents has an impact on the occurrence of maltreatment. This study aims at examining the rates and frequency of child maltreatment, including physical abuse, psychological abuse and neglect perpetrated by mothers and fathers. We also test whether the interaction between parents' gender and their child's gender affects the occurrence of child maltreatment in China. 997 children from the China Jintan Child Cohort Study participated in the present study and reported their maltreatment experience perpetrated by their mothers and fathers using the questionnaire, Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale (CTSPC_CA). Generalized linear model analyses show that boys were more likely than girls to report physical abuse, and, in particular, boys were more likely than girls to be physically abused by their fathers. On the other hand, mothers were more likely than fathers to exhibit psychological aggression and use corporal punishment for both boys and girls. There was no difference based on the child's or parent's gender in the occurrence of neglect. The findings present empirical evidence that enhances the understanding of the pattern of child maltreatment in China, provide implications for social workers and health professionals to identify children at risk of child maltreatment, and shed light on future research studies. PMID:26826981

  10. Childhood Maltreatment, Emotional Dysregulation, and Psychiatric Comorbidities

    OpenAIRE

    Dvir, Yael; Ford, Julian D.; Hill, Michael; Frazier, Jean A.

    2014-01-01

    Affect dysregulation, defined as the impaired ability to regulate and/or tolerate negative emotional states, and has been associated with interpersonal trauma and post-traumatic stress. Affect regulation difficulties also play a role in many other psychiatric conditions, including anxiety disorders and mood disorders, specifically major depression in youth and bipolar disorder throughout the life span.

  11. Investigating the effects of child maltreatment and household dysfunction on child physical development in a British birth cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Denholm, R. E.

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests adverse childhood experiences (maltreatment and household dysfunction) may have long-term effects on adult health. One possible pathway is through physical development. This thesis investigated the prevalence of child maltreatment and household dysfunction in a population sample, and assessed their association with child-to-adult height and pubertal development. The 1958 British birth cohort includes all children (≈17,000) born in one week, March 1958, followed-up to ...

  12. Preventing Early Child Maltreatment: Implications from a Longitudinal Study of Maternal Abuse History, Substance Use Problems, and Offspring Victimization

    OpenAIRE

    Appleyard, Karen; Berlin, Lisa J.; Rosanbalm, Katherine D.; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2011-01-01

    In the interest of improving child maltreatment prevention science, this longitudinal, community based study of 499 mothers and their infants tested the hypothesis that mothers’ childhood history of maltreatment would predict maternal substance use problems, which in turn would predict offspring victimization. Mothers (35% White/non-Latina, 34% Black/non-Latina, 23% Latina, 7% other) were recruited and interviewed during pregnancy, and child protective services records were reviewed for the p...

  13. Risk factors of parents abused as children: a mediational analysis of the intergenerational continuity of child maltreatment (Part I)

    OpenAIRE

    Dixon, Louise; Browne, Kevin; Hamilton-Giachritsis, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study provides an exploration of factors implicated in the intergenerational cycle of child maltreatment. Families with newborns where at least one of the parents was physically and/or sexually abused as a child (AP families) were compared in terms of risk factors to families where the parents had no childhood history of victimization (NAP families). The mediational properties of risk factors in the intergenerational cycle of maltreatment were then explored. METHODS: Infor...

  14. A neurocognitive model of borderline personality disorder: effects of childhood sexual abuse and relationship to adult social attachment disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minzenberg, Michael J; Poole, John H; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2008-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a paradigmatic disorder of adult attachment, with high rates of antecedent childhood maltreatment. The neurocognitive correlates of both attachment disturbance and maltreatment are both presently unknown in BPD. This study evaluated whether dimensional adult attachment disturbance in BPD is related to specific neurocognitive deficits, and whether childhood maltreatment is related to these dysfunctions. An outpatient BPD group (n=43) performed nearly 1 SD below a control group (n=26) on short-term recall, executive, and intelligence functions. These deficits were not affected by emotionally charged stimuli. In the BPD group, impaired recall was related to attachment-anxiety, whereas executive dysfunction was related to attachment-avoidance. Abuse history was correlated significantly with executive dysfunction and at a trend level with impaired recall. Neurocognitive deficits and abuse history exhibited both independent and interactive effects on adult attachment disturbance. These results suggest that (a) BPD patients' reactivity in attachment relationships is related to temporal-limbic dysfunction, irrespective of the emotional content of stimuli, (b) BPD patients' avoidance within attachment relationships may be a relational strategy to compensate for the emotional consequences of frontal-executive dysregulation, and (c) childhood abuse may contribute to these neurocognitive deficits but may also exert effects on adult attachment disturbance that is both independent and interacting with neurocognitive dysfunction. PMID:18211741

  15. Developmental pathways from child maltreatment to adolescent marijuana dependence: Examining moderation by FK506 binding protein 5 gene (FKBP5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Elizabeth D; Rogosch, Fred A; Cicchetti, Dante

    2015-11-01

    The current study examined the prospective association between child maltreatment and the development of substance use disorder in adolescence with the aim of investigating pathways underlying this relation, as well as genetic moderation of these developmental mechanisms. Specifically, we tested whether youth who experienced maltreatment prior to age 8 were at risk for the development of marijuana dependence in adolescence by way of a childhood externalizing pathway and a childhood internalizing pathway. Moreover, we tested whether variation in FK506 binding protein 5 gene (FKBP5) CATT haplotype moderated these pathways. The participants were 326 children (n =179 maltreated; n = 147 nonmaltreated) assessed across two waves of data collection (childhood: ages 7-9 and adolescence: ages 15-18). Results indicated that higher levels of child externalizing symptoms significantly mediated the effect of child maltreatment on adolescent marijuana dependence symptoms for individuals with one or two copies of the FKBP5 CATT haplotype only. We did not find support for an internalizing pathway from child maltreatment to adolescent marijuana dependence, nor did we find evidence of moderation of the internalizing pathway by FKBP5 haplotype variation. Findings extend previous research by demonstrating that whether a maltreated child will traverse an externalizing pathway toward substance use disorder in adolescence is dependent on FKBP5 genetic variation. PMID:26535939

  16. Child maltreatment in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhi, Pratibha; Saini, Arushi Gahlot; Malhi, Prabhjot

    2013-11-01

    Child maltreatment is a global problem but is more difficult to assess and manage in developing countries such as India where one-fifth of the world's total child population resides. Certain forms of maltreatment such as feticide, infanticide, abandonment, child labour, street-begging, corporal punishment and battered babies are particularly prevalent in India. Most physicians still need to be sensitized in order to suspect child abuse on the basis of unexplained trauma, multiple fractures, parental conflict and other corroborative evidence. This article summarizes the various aspects of this major problem in resource-poor settings in the hope that it will assist in the planning of services addressing child physical and sexual abuse and neglect in India and in other developing countries. A culture of non-violence towards children needs to be built into communities in order to provide an environment conducive to the overall development of the child. Rehabilitation of abused children and their families requires a multi-disciplinary service including paediatricians, child psychologists and social workers, and the training of police forces in how to tackle the problem. PMID:24070123

  17. Childhood adversities in relation to psychiatric disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Pietrek, Christian; Elbert, Thomas; Weierstall, Roland; Müller, Oliver; Rockstroh, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    Substantial evidence has documented that adverse childhood experiences exert deleterious effects on mental health. It is less clear to what extent specific maltreatment during specific developmental periods may vary between disorders rather than increasing vulnerability for any particular disorder. The present comparison of characteristics of childhood adversity (type and frequency of adversity, developmental period) between major depressive disorder (MDD), borderline personality disorder (BP...

  18. Maltreatment Exposure, Brain Structure, and Fear Conditioning in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Katie A; Sheridan, Margaret A; Gold, Andrea L; Duys, Andrea; Lambert, Hilary K; Peverill, Matthew; Heleniak, Charlotte; Shechner, Tomer; Wojcieszak, Zuzanna; Pine, Daniel S

    2016-07-01

    Alterations in learning processes and the neural circuitry that supports fear conditioning and extinction represent mechanisms through which trauma exposure might influence risk for psychopathology. Few studies examine how trauma or neural structure relates to fear conditioning in children. Children (n=94) aged 6-18 years, 40.4% (n=38) with exposure to maltreatment (physical abuse, sexual abuse, or domestic violence), completed a fear conditioning paradigm utilizing blue and yellow bells as conditioned stimuli (CS+/CS-) and an aversive alarm noise as the unconditioned stimulus. Skin conductance responses (SCR) and self-reported fear were acquired. Magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired from 60 children. Children without maltreatment exposure exhibited strong differential conditioning to the CS+ vs CS-, based on SCR and self-reported fear. In contrast, maltreated children exhibited blunted SCR to the CS+ and failed to exhibit differential SCR to the CS+ vs CS- during early conditioning. Amygdala and hippocampal volume were reduced among children with maltreatment exposure and were negatively associated with SCR to the CS+ during early conditioning in the total sample, although these associations were negative only among non-maltreated children and were positive among maltreated children. The association of maltreatment with externalizing psychopathology was mediated by this perturbed pattern of fear conditioning. Child maltreatment is associated with failure to discriminate between threat and safety cues during fear conditioning in children. Poor threat-safety discrimination might reflect either enhanced fear generalization or a deficit in associative learning, which may in turn represent a central mechanism underlying the development of maltreatment-related externalizing psychopathology in children. PMID:26677946

  19. Intimate Partner Violence and Child Maltreatment: Understanding Intra- and Intergenerational Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Lynette M.; Slack, Kristen Shook

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to assess the extent to which intimate partner violence and different forms of child maltreatment occur within and across childhood and adulthood for a high-risk group of women. Method: Low-income adult women were interviewed, retrospectively, regarding their experiences with intimate partner violence and…

  20. Early Child Maltreatment, Runaway Youths, and Risk of Delinquency and Victimization in Adolescence: A Mediational Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jung; Tajima, Emiko A.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Huang, Bu

    2009-01-01

    This article examines whether running away from home mediates the link between child maltreatment and later delinquency and victimization in adolescence. Specifically, the authors tested the hypothesis that childhood physical and psychological abuse increase the risk of a child's running away from home by the time of adolescence. Running away from…

  1. Child Maltreatment History among Newlywed Couples: A Longitudinal Study of Marital Outcomes and Mediating Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiLillo, David; Peugh, James; Walsh, Kate; Panuzio, Jillian; Trask, Emily; Evans, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Participants included 202 newlywed couples who reported retrospectively about child maltreatment experiences (sexual abuse, physical abuse, psychological abuse, and neglect) and whose marital functioning was assessed 3 times over a 2-year period. Decreased marital satisfaction at T1 was predicted by childhood physical abuse, psychological abuse,…

  2. Psychological Maltreatment in Relation to Substance Use Problem Severity among Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkranz, Susan E.; Muller, Robert T.; Henderson, Joanna L.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Research has demonstrated that experiences of childhood maltreatment are prevalent in the life histories of youth with substance use problems; however, most of this research has focused on sexual or physical abuse. The purpose of the current study was to extend the scope of previous investigations to include psychological maltreatment…

  3. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Adult Smoking, Nebraska, 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Yeoman, Kristin; Safranek, Thomas; Buss, Bryan; Cadwell, Betsy L.; Mannino, David

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Smoking is a public health risk; the prevalence of smoking among adults in Nebraska is 18.4%. Studies indicate that maltreatment of children alters their brain development, possibly increasing risk for tobacco use. Previous studies have documented associations between childhood maltreatment and adult health behaviors, demonstrating the influence of adverse experiences on tobacco use. We examined prevalence and associations between adverse childhood experiences and smoking among N...

  4. Early Child Maltreatment, Runaway Youths, and Risk of Delinquency and Victimization in Adolescence: A Mediational Model

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Min Jung; Tajima, Emiko A.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Huang, Bu

    2009-01-01

    This article examines whether running away from home mediates the link between child maltreatment and later delinquency and victimization in adolescence. Specifically, the authors tested the hypothesis that childhood physical and psychological abuse increase the risk of a child's running away from home by the time of adolescence. Running away from home is, in turn, hypothesized to increase the risk of delinquency and victimization. Childhood sexual abuse, modeled independently of physical and...

  5. Emotional but not physical maltreatment is independently related to psychopathology in subjects with various degrees of social anxiety: a web-based internet survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iffland Benjamin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies reported that social phobia is associated with a history of child maltreatment. However, most of these studies focused on physical and sexual maltreatment whilst little is known about the specific impact of emotional abuse and neglect on social anxiety. We examined the association between emotional maltreatment, including parental emotional maltreatment as well as emotional peer victimization, and social anxiety symptoms in subjects with various degrees of social anxiety. Methods The study was conducted as a web-based Internet survey of participants (N = 995 who had social anxiety symptoms falling within the high range, and including many respondents who had scores in the clinical range. The assessment included measures of child maltreatment, emotional peer victimization, social anxiety symptoms and general psychopathology. Results Regression and mediation analyses revealed that parental emotional maltreatment and emotional peer victimization were independently related to social anxiety and mediated the impact of physical and sexual maltreatment. Subjects with a history of childhood emotional maltreatment showed higher rates of psychopathology than subjects with a history of physical maltreatment. Conclusions Although our findings are limited by the use of an Internet survey and retrospective self-report measures, data indicated that social anxiety symptoms are mainly predicted by emotional rather than physical or sexual types of victimization.

  6. Risk of maltreatment-related injury: a cross-sectional study of children under five years old admitted to hospital with a head or neck injury or fracture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Jonathan Lee

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine the predictive value and sensitivity of demographic features and injuries (indicators for maltreatment-related codes in hospital discharge records of children admitted with a head or neck injury or fracture. METHODS: STUDY DESIGN: Population-based, cross sectional study. SETTING: NHS hospitals in England. SUBJECTS: Children under five years old admitted acutely to hospital with head or neck injury or fracture. DATA SOURCE: Hospital Episodes Statistics, 1997 to 2009. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Maltreatment-related injury admissions, defined by ICD10 codes, were used to calculate for each indicator (demographic feature and/or type of injury: i the predictive value (proportion of injury admissions that were maltreatment-related; ii sensitivity (proportion of all maltreatment-related injury admissions with the indicator. RESULTS: Of 260,294 childhood admissions for fracture or head or neck injury, 3.2% (8,337 were maltreatment-related. With increasing age of the child, the predictive value for maltreatment-related injury declined but sensitivity increased. Half of the maltreatment-related admissions occurred in children older than one year, and 63% occurred in children with head injuries without fractures or intracranial injury. CONCLUSIONS: Highly predictive injuries accounted for very few maltreatment-related admissions. Protocols that focus on high-risk injuries may miss the majority of maltreated children.

  7. Development of a Childhood Attachment and Relational Trauma Screen (CARTS: a relational-socioecological framework for surveying attachment security and childhood trauma history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Frewen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background : Current psychometric measures of childhood trauma history generally fail to assess the relational-socioecological context within which childhood maltreatment occurs, including the relationship of abusers to abused persons, the emotional availability of caregivers, and the respondent's own thoughts, feelings, and actions in response to maltreatment. Objective : To evaluate a computerized approach to measuring the relational-socioecological context within which childhood maltreatment occurs. Method : The psychometric properties of a Childhood Attachment and Relational Trauma Screen (CARTS were evaluated as a retrospective survey of childhood maltreatment history designed to be appropriate for completion by adults. Participants were undergraduates (n=222, an internet sample (n=123, and psychiatric outpatients (n=30. Results : The internal reliability, convergent, and concurrent validity of the CARTS were supported across samples. Paired differences in means and correlations between rated item-descriptiveness to self, mothers, and fathers also accorded with findings of prior attachment and maltreatment research, illustrating the utility of assessing the occurrence and effects of maltreatment within a relational-socioecological framework. Conclusions : Results preliminarily support a new survey methodology for assessing childhood maltreatment within a relational-socioecological framework. Further psychometric evaluation of the CARTS is warranted.

  8. Teachers' Awareness of Child and Adolescent Maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyome, Nancy Dodge; Gaeddert, William

    1998-01-01

    Investigated teachers' knowledge of child and adolescent maltreatment and scenarios. Teacher ratings of the seriousness of depictions of different forms of maltreatment indicated that teachers tended to possess more knowledge about maltreatment of children than adolescents and tended to feel that adolescent sexual abuse was the most serious form…

  9. Not All Bad Treatment Is Psychological Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbarino, James

    2011-01-01

    One of the conceptual and definitional issues that has plagued the study of child maltreatment is the relationship between intention and outcome. This paper flows from the finding that the common developmentally destructive element in all forms of child maltreatment is psychological maltreatment, that the study of child abuse and neglect is the…

  10. The ‘Maltreatment and Abuse Chronology of Exposure’ (MACE) Scale for the Retrospective Assessment of Abuse and Neglect During Development

    OpenAIRE

    Martin H Teicher; Angelika Parigger

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing interest in childhood maltreatment as a potent stimulus that may alter trajectories of brain development, induce epigenetic modifications and enhance risk for medical and psychiatric disorders. Although a number of useful scales exist for retrospective assessment of abuse and neglect they have significant limitations. Moreover, they fail to provide detailed information on timing of exposure, which is critical for delineation of sensitive periods. The Maltreatment and Abuse...

  11. Previous maltreatment and present mental health in a high-risk adolescent population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greger, Hanne Klæboe; Myhre, Arne Kristian; Lydersen, Stian; Jozefiak, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    Childhood maltreatment is known to increase the risk of future psychiatric disorders. In the present study, we explored the impact of experienced maltreatment on the prevalence and comorbidity of psychiatric disorders in a high-risk population of adolescents in residential care units. We also studied the impact of poly-victimization. The participants of the study were adolescents in residential care units in Norway (n=335, mean age 16.8 years, girls 58.5%). A diagnostic interview (Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment Interview) was used, yielding information about previous maltreatment (witnessing violence, victim of family violence, community violence, sexual abuse) and DSM-IV diagnoses present in the last three months. Exposure to maltreatment was reported by 71%, and in this group, we found significantly more Asperger's syndrome (AS) (p=.041), conduct disorder (CD) (p=.049), major depressive disorder (MDD) (p=.001), dysthymia (p=.030), general anxiety disorder (GAD) (psuicide (p=.006). We found significantly more comorbid disorders in the maltreated group. Poly-victimization was studied by constructing a scale comprised of witnessing violence, victim of family violence, victim of sexual abuse and household dysfunction. We found that poly-victimization was associated with significantly increased risk of MDD, GAD, AS, CD, and having attempted suicide (padolescent population, and that trauma informed care is essential for adolescents in residential youth care. PMID:26003821

  12. Improving care quality and preventing maltreatment in institutional care - a feasibility study with caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermenau, Katharin; Kaltenbach, Elisa; Mkinga, Getrude; Hecker, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Institutionalized children in low-income countries often face maltreatment and inadequate caregiving. In addition to prior traumatization and other childhood adversities in the family of origin, abuse and neglect in institutional care are linked to various mental health problems. By providing a manualized training workshop for caregivers, we aimed at improving care quality and preventing maltreatment in institutional care. In Study 1, 29 participating caregivers rated feasibility and efficacy of the training immediately before, directly after, and 3 months following the training workshop. The results showed high demand, good feasibility, high motivation, and acceptance of caregivers. They reported improvements in caregiver-child relationships, as well as in the children's behavior. Study 2 assessed exposure to maltreatment and the mental health of 28 orphans living in one institution in which all caregivers had been trained. The children were interviewed 20 months before, 1 month before, and 3 months after the training. Children reported a decrease in physical maltreatment and assessments showed a decrease in mental health problems. Our approach seems feasible under challenging circumstances and provides first hints for its efficacy. These promising findings call for further studies testing the efficacy and sustainability of this maltreatment prevention approach. PMID:26236248

  13. Improving care quality and preventing maltreatment in institutional care – a feasibility study with caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharin eHermenau

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Institutionalized children in low-income countries often face maltreatment and inadequate caregiving. In addition to prior traumatization and other childhood adversities in the family of origin, abuse and neglect in institutional care are linked to various mental health problems. By providing a manualized training workshop for caregivers, we aimed at improving care quality and preventing maltreatment in institutional care. In Study 1, 29 participating caregivers rated feasibility and efficacy of the training immediately before, directly after, and three months following the training workshop. The results showed high demand, good feasibility, high motivation and acceptance of caregivers. They reported improvements in caregiver-child relationships, as well as in the children’s behavior. Study 2 assessed exposure to maltreatment and the mental health of 28 orphans living in one institution in which all caregivers had been trained. The children were interviewed 20 months before, one month before, and three months after the training. Children reported a decrease in physical maltreatment and assessments showed a decrease in mental health problems. Our approach seems feasible under challenging circumstances and provides first hints for its efficacy. These promising findings call for further studies testing the efficacy and sustainability of this maltreatment prevention approach.

  14. Cognitive Abilities of Maltreated Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viezel, Kathleen D.; Freer, Benjamin D.; Lowell, Ari; Castillo, Jenean A.

    2015-01-01

    School psychologists should be aware of developmental risk factors for children who have been abused or neglected. The present study used the "Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fourth Edition" to examine the cognitive abilities of 120 children in foster care subsequent to maltreatment. Results indicated that, compared to a…

  15. Agent-Based Modeling and Simulation of Child Maltreatment and Child Maltreatment Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaolin Hu; Nicholas Keller

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an agent-based model that simulates the dynamics of child maltreatment and child maltreatment prevention. The developed model follows the principles of complex systems science and explicitly models a community and its families with multi-level factors across the social ecology. Each agent includes behavioral/cognitive modeling to account for the behavioral/cognitive process of child maltreatment. Simulation of child maltreatment prevention is also supported to evaluate the...

  16. Self-Esteem of Young Adults Experiencing Interparental Violence and Child Physical Maltreatment: Parental and Peer Relationships as Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, April Chiung-Tao

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the joint impact of experiencing both interparental violence and child physical maltreatment on young adults' self-esteem. It also tested the hypothesis of parental and peer relationship qualities as mediators in the relationship between childhood histories of family violence and adult self-esteem. Data were collected from a…

  17. The Concurrent and Incremental Validity of the Trauma Symptom Inventory in Women Reporting Histories of Sexual Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbisi, Paul A.; Erbes, Christopher R.; Polusny, Melissa A.; Nelson, Nathaniel W.

    2010-01-01

    The Trauma Symptom Inventory (TSI), Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2), and Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS) were administered to 71 women who reported histories of childhood and/or adult sexual maltreatment and 25 women who did not report a history of victimization. The TSI validity scales were not effective in identifying…

  18. Risk Factors of Parents Abused as Children: A Mediational Analysis of the Intergenerational Continuity of Child Maltreatment (Part I)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Louise; Browne, Kevin; Hamilton-Giachritsis, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    Background: This study provides an exploration of factors implicated in the intergenerational cycle of child maltreatment. Families with newborns where at least one of the parents was physically and/or sexually abused as a child (AP families) were compared in terms of risk factors to families where the parents had no childhood history of…

  19. Developmental Pathways to Adolescent Cannabis Abuse and Dependence: Child Maltreatment, Emerging Personality, and Internalizing versus Externalizing Psychopathology

    OpenAIRE

    Oshri, Assaf; Rogosch, Fred A.; Burnette, Mandi; Cicchetti, Dante

    2011-01-01

    Child maltreatment is strongly associated with adolescent psychopathology and substance abuse and dependence (Clark, Thatcher, & Martin, 2010; Ellis & Wolfe, 2009). However, developmental processes unfolding from childhood into adolescence that delineate this trajectory are not well understood. The current study uses path analysis in a structural equation modeling framework to examine multiple mediator models, including ego control, ego resiliency, and internalizing and externalizing symptoms...

  20. Impact of physical maltreatment on the regulation of negative affect and aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackman, Jessica E; Pollak, Seth D

    2014-11-01

    Physically maltreated children are at risk for developing externalizing behavioral problems characterized by reactive aggression. The current experiment tested the relationships between individual differences in a neural index of social information processing, histories of child maltreatment, child negative affect, and aggressive behavior. Fifty boys (17 maltreated) performed an emotion recognition task while the P3b component of the event-related potential was recorded to index attention allocation to angry faces. Children then participated in a peer-directed aggression task. Negative affect was measured by recording facial electromyography, and aggression was indexed by the feedback that children provided to a putative peer. Physically maltreated children exhibited greater negative affect and more aggressive behavior, compared to nonmaltreated children, and this relationship was mediated by children's allocation of attention to angry faces. These data suggest that physical maltreatment leads to inappropriate regulation of both negative affect and aggression, which likely place maltreated children at increased risk for the development and maintenance of externalizing behavior disorders. PMID:24914736

  1. Childhood Abuse and Current Interpersonal Conflict: The Role of Shame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungmeen; Talbot, Nancy L.; Cicchetti, Dante

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether shame-proneness mediates the relationship between women's histories of childhood sexual abuse and their current partner and family conflict and child maltreatment. Previous research has found that women with childhood sexual abuse histories experience heightened shame and interpersonal conflict. However, research…

  2. Childhood Experiences and Psychosocial Influences on HIV Risk among Adolescent Latinas in Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, Michael D.; Locke, Thomas F.; Goodyear, Rodney K.

    2003-01-01

    This study determined how adverse childhood experiences influenced risky sexual behavior in a community sample of Latina adolescents in Los Angeles. Psychosocial, sociocultural, and environmental mediators of the relations between childhood experiences and risky sexual behavior were tested. Childhood maltreatment was associated with risky sexual…

  3. A dental perspective on child maltreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Kvist, Therese

    2016-01-01

    Children who are exposed to child maltreatment are at risk of developing physical and mental ill-health and of expressing risk-taking behaviors. International studies describe associations of child maltreatment with caries, head and neck injuries and intra- oral injuries. Similar studies in a Swedish context are scarce, and little is known. The present thesis analyzed associations of oral health and oral health behaviors among children exposed to child maltreatment, as well as among children ...

  4. Early-adult correlates of maltreatment in girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Increased risk for internalizing symptoms and suicidality

    OpenAIRE

    GUENDELMAN, MAYA D.; Owens, Elizabeth B.; GALÁN, CHARDEE; GARD, ARIANNA; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether maltreatment experienced in childhood and/or adolescence prospectively predicts young adult functioning in a diverse and well-characterized sample of females with childhood-diagnosed attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (N = 140). Participants were part of a longitudinal study and carefully evaluated in childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood (Mage = 9.6, 14.3, and 19.7 years, respectively), with high retention rates across time. A thorough review of multisource da...

  5. COMT but not serotonin-related genes modulates the influence of childhood abuse on anger traits.

    OpenAIRE

    Perroud, Nader; Jaussent, Isabelle; Guillaume, Sébastien; Bellivier, Frank; Baud, Patrick; Jollant, Fabrice; Leboyer, Marion; Lewis, Cathryn,; Malafosse, Alain; Courtet, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    International audience Anger-related traits are regulated by genes as well as early environmental factors. Both childhood maltreatment and genes underlie vulnerability to suicidal behaviors, possibly by affecting the constitution of intermediate phenotypes such as anger traits. The aim of this study was to test the interaction between nine candidate genes and childhood maltreatment in modulating anger-related traits in 875 adult suicide attempters. The State-Trait Anger Expression Inventor...

  6. The impact of childhood maltreatment experience and MAOA-VNTR on female adolescent’s impulsivity trait%单胺氧化酶A基因串联重复序列与童年期虐待对女性青少年冲动特质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张芸; 明庆森; 马丽荣; 李欣茹; 王艳芬

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨单胺氧化酶A串联重复序列(monoamine oxidase A variable nucleotide tandem repeat, MAOA-VNTR)基因型与童年期虐待经历各自及其交互作用对女性青少年冲动特质的影响。方法选取西北某地403名正常汉族女性青少年,完成Barratt冲动量表(Barratt impulsiveness scale,BIS)及童年创伤经历问卷(childhood trauma questionnaire,CTQ),采集其外周静脉血并进行DNA提取及MAOA-VNTR基因分型。采用线性回归分析MAOA-VNTR基因型、童年期虐待经历,以及其交互作用对冲动量表得分的影响。结果童年期虐待经历对女性青少年冲动特质的主效应具有统计学意义(P0.05)。结论本研究并未发现MAOA-VNTR基因型对童年期虐待所致女性青少年冲动具有调节作用。%Objective To examine the impact on impulsivity trait by monoamine oxidase A variable nucleotide tan⁃dem repeat (MAOA-VNTR) genotype and children’s abuse experience. Methods The self-reported questionnaire of Bar⁃ratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS), Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) were conducted in 403 normal Han female adoles⁃cents from north-west of China. The DNA were extracted from their venous blood sample and were genotyped for the MAOA-VNTR polymorphism. A linear regression model was used to investigate the main effects of MAOA-VNTR and children's abuse, and their interaction effect on impulsivity. Results The main effect of Children’s maltreatment experi⁃ence on trait impulsivity was significant (P0.05). Conclusion The MAOA-VNTR genotype may not be involved in the female adolescents’impulsivity traits related to childhood maltreat⁃ment.

  7. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Maltreatment and Abuse Chronology of Exposure (MACE scale to Brazilian Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Kluwe-Schiavon

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : There is strong evidence to indicate that childhood maltreatment can negatively affect both physical and mental health and there is increasing interest in understanding the occurrence and consequences of such experiences. While several tools have been developed to retrospectively investigate childhood maltreatment experiences, most of them do not investigate the experience of witnessing family violence during childhood or bullying exposure. Moreover, the majority of scales do not identify when these experiences may have occurred, who was involved or the feelings evoked, such as helplessness or terror. The Maltreatment and Abuse Chronology of Exposure (MACE scale was developed to overcome these limitations. Objective : In view of the improvements over previous self-report instruments that this new tool offers and of the small number of self-report questionnaires for childhood maltreatment assessment available in Brazil, this study was conducted to conduct cross-cultural adaptation of the MACE scale for Brazilian Portuguese. Method : The following steps were performed: translation, back-translation, committee review for semantic and conceptual evaluation, and acceptability trial for equivalence. Results : Semantic and structural changes were made to the interview to adapt it for the Brazilian culture and all 75 of the items that comprise the longer version of MACE were translated. The results of the acceptability trial suggest that the items are comprehensible. Conclusion : The MACE scales may be useful tools for investigation of childhood maltreatment and make a valuable contribution to research in Brazil. Future studies should consider testing the availability and reliability of the three versions of the instrument translated into Brazilian Portuguese.

  8. Patterns of Intimate Partner Violence in Mothers At-Risk for Child Maltreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Bair-Merritt, Megan H; Ghazarian, Sharon R.; Burrell, Lori; Duggan, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Using three interviews spanning 3 years, we identified intimate partner violence (IPV) classes and determined how class membership changed over time amongst a sample of 217 mothers at-risk for child maltreatment that were enrolled in an early childhood home visitation evaluation study. Data on perpetration/victimization, IPV type (verbal, physical, and sexual abuse and injury) and severity were used to conduct latent class analyses at each time point. Latent transition analyses established th...

  9. Child maltreatment: Abuse and neglect

    OpenAIRE

    Bengü Pala; Murat Ünalacak; İlhami Ünlüoğlu

    2011-01-01

    Each year, millions of children around the world are the victims and witnesses of physical, sexual and emotional violence. Child maltreatment is a major global problem with a serious impact on the victims’ physical and mental health, well-being and development throughout their lives and, by extension, on society in general. Family physicians who are involved in the care of children are likely to encounter child abuse and should be able to recognize its common presentations. There is sufficien...

  10. Children with Disabilities and Child Maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldson, Edward

    1998-01-01

    Addresses the phenomenon of children with disabilities who are maltreated. The higher risk for children with disabilities being victimized and maltreated because of their dependency and the higher reported incidence of abuse are discussed. Reasons for the higher incidence of abuse, including social devaluation, are provided. (CR)

  11. Child Maltreatment and the School Psychologist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viezel, Kathleen D.; Davis, Andrew S.

    2015-01-01

    Child maltreatment remains a relevant issue for school psychologists. This special issue was designed to provide school psychology practitioners, researchers, and other school personnel with current, empirically sound information about child maltreatment. This introduction provides context for the articles in this volume, including definitions of…

  12. True and False Memories in Maltreated Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Mark L.; Cicchetti, Dante; Toth, Sheree L.; Cerrito, Beth M.

    2004-01-01

    Differences in basic memory processes between maltreated and nonmaltreated children were examined in an experiment in which middle-socioeconomic-status (SES; N=60), low-SES maltreated (N=48), and low-SES nonmaltreated (N=51) children (ages 57, 89, and 10-12 years) studied 12 Deese-Roediger-McDermott lists. Using recall and recognition measures,…

  13. Early-adult correlates of maltreatment in girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Increased risk for internalizing symptoms and suicidality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guendelman, Maya D; Owens, Elizabeth B; Galán, Chardee; Gard, Arianna; Hinshaw, Stephen P

    2016-02-01

    We examined whether maltreatment experienced in childhood and/or adolescence prospectively predicts young adult functioning in a diverse and well-characterized sample of females with childhood-diagnosed attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (N = 140). Participants were part of a longitudinal study and carefully evaluated in childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood (M age = 9.6, 14.3, and 19.7 years, respectively), with high retention rates across time. A thorough review of multisource data reliably established maltreatment status for each participant (M κ = 0.78). Thirty-two (22.9%) participants experienced at least one maltreatment type (physical abuse, sexual abuse, or neglect). Criterion variables included a broad array of young adult measures of functioning gleaned from multiple-source, multiple-informant instruments. With stringent statistical control of demographic, prenatal, and family status characteristics as well as baseline levels of the criterion variable in question, maltreated participants were significantly more impaired than nonmaltreated participants with respect to self-harm (suicide attempts), internalizing symptomatology (anxiety and depression), eating disorder symptomatology, and well-being (lower overall self-worth). Effect sizes were medium. Comprising the first longitudinal evidence linking maltreatment with key young adult life impairments among a carefully diagnosed and followed sample of females with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, these findings underscore the clinical importance of trauma experiences within this population. PMID:25723055

  14. Child maltreatment in Taiwan for 2004-2013: A shift in age group and forms of maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Tsai; Yang, Nan-Ping; Chou, Pesus

    2016-02-01

    Cases of child maltreatment are being increasingly reported in Taiwan. However, the trend or changes of child maltreatment in Taiwan are fragmentary and lack empirical evidence. This study analyzed the epidemiological characteristics of substantiated child maltreatment cases from the previous decade, using mortality as an indicator to investigate the care of children who experienced substantiated maltreatment in the past to determine any new developments. Data for analysis and estimates were retrieved from the Department of Statistics in the Ministry of the Interior from 2004 to 2013. Trend analyses were conducted using the Joinpoint Regression Program. The child maltreatment rate in Taiwan was found to have nearly tripled from 2004 to 2013. A greater increase in the maltreatment of girls than boys and the maltreatment of aboriginal children than non-aboriginal children was noted from 2004 to 2013. When stratified by age group, the increase in maltreatment was most pronounced in children aged 12-17 years, and girls aged 12-17 years experienced the greatest increase in maltreatment. In terms of the proportional changes of different maltreatment forms among substantiated child maltreatment cases, child neglect was decreasing. The increase in sexual abuse was higher than for any other form of maltreatment and surpassed neglect by the end of 2013. Furthermore, the mortality rate of children with substantiated maltreatment record is increasing in Taiwan, whereas the mortality rate among children without any substantiated maltreatment record is decreasing. The results of this study highlight the need for policy reform in Taiwan regarding child maltreatment. PMID:26726760

  15. Deciding on child maltreatment : A literature review on methods that improve decision-making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartelink, Cora; van Yperen, Tom A.; ten Berge, Ingrid J.

    2015-01-01

    Assessment and decision-making in child maltreatment cases is difficult. Practitioners face many uncertainties and obstacles during their assessment and decision-making process. Research exhibits shortcomings in this decision-making process. The purpose of this literature review is to identify and d

  16. [Mother's attributions regarding children's behavior and maltreatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaya, Namiko

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to compare maltreating mothers and non-maltreating mothers on attributions and affects related to child behaviors. It also assessed how attributions predict affective and behavioral reactions to child behaviors. The study population comprised of a community-based sample of mothers with children aged 2 to 4 years (n = 238). Mothers' attributions and affect were assessed using vignettes of child behavior. They also answered questions about their maltreating parenting behaviors and demographic factors such as childcare environments. Results highlighted that, as compared with non-maltreating mothers, maltreating mothers made more intentional and stable attributions to negative child behavior, and to report more anger and aversion. They also had a tendency to report less happiness toward positive child behavior. Additionally, path analyses documented a pattern of thinking-feeling-action linkages. It was revealed that attributions regarding children's behavior influenced negative affect and that negative affect in turn predicted maltreatment. Finally, the usefulness of a cognitive approach to maltreating mothers, and the implications of the findings as a model for intervention are discussed. PMID:27180512

  17. Child maltreatment and ADHD symptoms in a sample of young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoline Sanderud

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study investigated the relationship between different types of childhood maltreatment (emotional, sexual, overall abuse, and no abuse and the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in young adulthood. Method: Data were collected from a Danish national study conducted by The Danish National Centre for Social Research in 2008 and 2009. A sample of 4,718 young adults (24 years of age were randomly selected using the total birth cohort of children born in 1984. Structured interviews were conducted with a response rate of 63%, equating to a total sample size of 2,980 participants. Results: Chi-square analyses revealed significant relationships between child maltreatment groups and a probable diagnosis of ADHD using the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that the overall abuse class was more strongly associated with probable ADHD (OR=5.08, followed by emotional abuse (OR=3.09 and sexual abuse (OR=2.07. Conclusions: The results showed that childhood maltreatment was associated with increased risk of ADHD symptoms in young adulthood. The findings of this study are discussed within the existing literature and suggestions for future research are outlined in order to replicate these findings in other adult populations.

  18. The Impact of Physical Maltreatment History on the Adolescent Mother-Infant Relationship: Mediating and Moderating Effects during the Transition to Early Parenthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, Stephanie; Lewis, Jessica; Ethier, Kathleen; Kershaw, Trace; Ickovics, Jeannette R.

    2004-01-01

    Using attachment theory as a framework, this paper examines how pregnant adolescents' experiences of physical maltreatment during childhood influence the subsequent mother-infant relationship in 203 low-income adolescents followed from the 3rd trimester of pregnancy through the 1st year of parenthood. The relation between physical maltreatment…

  19. ADHD Symptoms and Likelihood of Child Maltreatment

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between inattentive and hyperactivity symptoms and child maltreatment was studied among a sample of 14,322 participants in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Healh at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA.

  20. Maltreated and non-maltreated children's true and false memories of neutral and emotional word lists in the Deese/Roediger-McDermott task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugerud, Gunn Astrid; Howe, Mark L; Magnussen, Svein; Melinder, Annika

    2016-03-01

    Maltreated (n=26) and non-maltreated (n=31) 7- to 12-year-old children were tested on the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) false memory task using emotional and neutral word lists. True recall was significantly better for non-maltreated than maltreated children regardless of list valence. The proportion of false recall for neutral lists was comparable regardless of maltreatment status. However, maltreated children showed a significantly higher false recall rate for the emotional lists than non-maltreated children. Together, these results provide new evidence that maltreated children could be more prone to false memory illusions for negatively valenced information than their non-maltreated counterparts. PMID:26637948

  1. Burden of Child Maltreatment in China

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Xiangming; Fry, Deborah; Ji, Kai; Finkelhor, David; Chen, Jingqi; Lannen, Patricia; Dunne, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate the health and economic burdens of child maltreatment in China. Methods We did a systematic review for studies on child maltreatment in China using PubMed, Embase, PsycInfo, CINAHL-EBSCO, ERIC and the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases. We did meta-analyses of studies that met inclusion criteria to estimate the prevalence of child neglect and child physical, emotional and sexual abuse. We used data from the 2010 global burden of disease estimate...

  2. Indiscriminate Friendliness in Maltreated Foster Children

    OpenAIRE

    Pears, Katherine C.; Bruce, Jacqueline; Fisher, Philip A.; Kim, Hyoun K.

    2009-01-01

    Indiscriminate friendliness is well documented in children adopted internationally following institutional rearing but is less studied in maltreated foster children. Precursors and correlates of indiscriminate friendliness were examined in 93 preschool-aged maltreated children residing in foster care and 60 age-matched, nonmaltreated children living with their biological parents. Measures included parent reports, official case record data, and standardized laboratory assessments. Foster child...

  3. Adolescent Risk Factors for Child Maltreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Thornberry, Terence P.; Matsuda, Mauri; Greenman, Sarah J.; Augustyn, Megan Bears; Henry, Kimberly L.; Smith, Carolyn A.; Ireland, Timothy O.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate adolescent risk factors, measured at both early and late adolescence, for involvement in child maltreatment during adulthood. Comprehensive assessments of risk factors for maltreatment that use representative samples with longitudinal data are scarce and can inform multilevel prevention. We use data from the Rochester Youth Development Study, a longitudinal study begun in 1988 with a sample of 1,000 seventh and eighth graders. Participants have been interviewed 14 times and, at...

  4. The burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiangming; Fry, Deborah A; Brown, Derek S; Mercy, James A; Dunne, Michael P; Butchart, Alexander R; Corso, Phaedra S; Maynzyuk, Kateryna; Dzhygyr, Yuriy; Chen, Yu; McCoy, Amalee; Swales, Diane M

    2015-04-01

    This study estimated the health and economic burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region, addressing a significant gap in the current evidence base. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses were conducted to estimate the prevalence of child physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, neglect, and witnessing parental violence. Population Attributable Fractions were calculated and Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) lost from physical and mental health outcomes and health risk behaviors attributable to child maltreatment were estimated using the most recent comparable Global Burden of Disease data. DALY losses were converted into monetary value by assuming that one DALY is equal to the sub-region's per capita GDP. The estimated economic value of DALYs lost to violence against children as a percentage of GDP ranged from 1.24% to 3.46% across sub-regions defined by the World Health Organization. The estimated economic value of DALYs (in constant 2000 US$) lost to child maltreatment in the EAP region totaled US $151 billion, accounting for 1.88% of the region's GDP. Updated to 2012 dollars, the estimated economic burden totaled US $194 billion. In sensitivity analysis, the aggregate costs as a percentage of GDP range from 1.36% to 2.52%. The economic burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region is substantial, indicating the importance of preventing and responding to child maltreatment in this region. More comprehensive research into the impact of multiple types of childhood adversity on a wider range of putative health outcomes is needed to guide policy and programs for child protection in the region, and globally. PMID:25757367

  5. Effects of Chronic Maltreatment and Maltreatment Timing on Children's Behavior and Cognitive Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffee, Sara R.; Maikovich-Fong, Andrea Kohn

    2011-01-01

    Background: Chronic maltreatment has been associated with the poorest developmental outcomes, but its effects may depend on the age when the maltreatment began, or be confounded by co-occurring psychosocial risk factors. Method: We used data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW) to identify four groups of children who…

  6. Maternal Emotion Socialization in Maltreating and Non-Maltreating Families: Implications for Children's Emotion Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipman, Kimberly L.; Schneider, Renee; Fitzgerald, Monica M.; Sims, Chandler; Swisher, Lisa; Edwards, Anna

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the socialization of children's emotion regulation in physically maltreating and non-maltreating mother-child dyads (N = 80 dyads). Mother-child dyads participated in the parent-child emotion interaction task (Shipman & Zeman, 1999) in which they talked about emotionally-arousing situations. The PCEIT was coded for maternal…

  7. Court-Appointed Special Advocate Strong Beginnings: Raising Awareness across Early Childhood and Child Welfare Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corr, Catherine; Danner, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Abuse or neglect and disability often go hand in hand. Unfortunately, most professionals who work with maltreated young children are not aware of early childhood and disability-related resources and services available. In order to raise awareness across early childhood and child welfare systems, a five-week advanced training for volunteer child…

  8. Early childhood adversities and trajectories of psychiatric problems in adoptees: Evidence for long lasting effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J.M. Vegt, van der (Esther); J. van der Ende (Jan); R.F. Ferdinand (Robert); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of the present study is to investigate whether early childhood adversities determine the longitudinal course of psychiatric problems from childhood to adulthood; in particular if the impact of early maltreatment on psychopathology decreases as time passes. A sample of 1,984 inter

  9. Alexithymia as a Mediator between Childhood Trauma and Self-Injurious Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paivio, Sandra C.; McCulloch, Chantal R.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to test whether alexithymia mediates the relationship between childhood maltreatment and self-injurious behaviors (SIB) in college women. Method: The sample was comprised of 100 female undergraduate students. Measures were the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire [D. Bernstein, L. Fink, Manual for the Childhood…

  10. Retrospective Assessment of Childhood Sexual and Physical Abuse: A Comparison of Scaled and Behaviorally Specific Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiLillo, David; Fortier, Michelle A.; Hayes, Sarah A.; Trask, Emily; Perry, Andrea R.; Messman-Moore, Terri; Fauchier, Angele; Nash, Cindy

    2006-01-01

    This study compared retrospective reports of childhood sexual and physical abuse as assessed by two measures: the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), which uses a Likert-type scaling approach, and the Computer Assisted Maltreatment Inventory (CAMI), which employs a behaviorally specific means of assessment. Participants included 1,195…

  11. Childhood Abuse and Neglect and Adult Intimate Relationships: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, R.A.; Widom, C.S.

    2004-01-01

    Objective:: The present study extends prior research on childhood maltreatment and social functioning by examining the impact of early childhood physical abuse, sexual abuse, and neglect on rates of involvement in adult intimate relationships and relationship functioning. Method:: Substantiated cases of child abuse and neglect from 1967 to 1971…

  12. Maternal sensitivity and the empathic brain: Influences of early life maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Emilia L; Neukel, Corinne; Bertsch, Katja; Reck, Corinna; Möhler, Eva; Herpertz, Sabine C

    2016-06-01

    One of the most striking characteristics of early life maltreatment (ELM) is the risk of transmission across generations, which could be linked to differences in maternal behavior. Maternal sensitivity includes appropriate and positive affective exchanges between mother and child. Mothers with a history of ELM have been found to show a lower sensitivity representing a significant risk factor for maltreating their own children. 25 mothers with and 28 mothers without sexual and/or physical childhood maltreatment (as assessed with the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse interview) and their children participated in a standardized mother-child interaction task. Videotaped interactions were rated by two independent trained raters based on the Emotional Availability Scales. In addition, empathic capabilities were assessed with the Interpersonal Reactivity Index. High resolution structural magnetic resonance brain images of the mothers were analyzed with unbiased voxel-based morphometry and correlated with maternal sensitivity. Results indicate that mothers with ELM were less sensitive in the standardized interaction with their own child. In non-maltreated control mothers, maternal sensitivity was positively related to anterior insular grey matter volume, a region which is crucially involved in emotional empathy, while there was a positive association between maternal sensitivity and grey matter volume in parts of the cognitive empathy network such as the superior temporal sulcus and temporal pole region in mothers with ELM. These results implicate that neurostructural alterations associated with poor maternal sensitivity might be a sequelae of ELM and that mothers with ELM may try to compensate deficits in emotional empathy by recruiting brain regions involved in cognitive empathy when interacting with their child. Thus, findings suggest possible coping strategies of mother with ELM to prevent an intergenerational transmission of abuse. PMID:26985733

  13. Measuring child maltreatment using multi-informant survey data: a higher-order confirmatory factor analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni A. Salum

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the validity and reliability of a multi-informant approach to measuring child maltreatment (CM comprising seven questions assessing CM administered to children and their parents in a large community sample. Methods Our sample comprised 2,512 children aged 6 to 12 years and their parents. Child maltreatment (CM was assessed with three questions answered by the children and four answered by their parents, covering physical abuse, physical neglect, emotional abuse and sexual abuse. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to compare the fit indices of different models. Convergent and divergent validity were tested using parent-report and teacher-report scores on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Discriminant validity was investigated using the Development and Well-Being Assessment to divide subjects into five diagnostic groups: typically developing controls (n = 1,880, fear disorders (n = 108, distress disorders (n = 76, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (n = 143 and oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (n = 56. Results A higher-order model with one higher-order factor (child maltreatment encompassing two lower-order factors (child report and parent report exhibited the best fit to the data and this model's reliability results were acceptable. As expected, child maltreatment was positively associated with measures of psychopathology and negatively associated with prosocial measures. All diagnostic category groups had higher levels of overall child maltreatment than typically developing children. Conclusions We found evidence for the validity and reliability of this brief measure of child maltreatment using data from a large survey combining information from parents and their children.

  14. Measuring child maltreatment using multi-informant survey data: a higher-order confirmatory factor analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salum, Giovanni A; DeSousa, Diogo Araújo; Manfro, Gisele Gus; Pan, Pedro Mario; Gadelha, Ary; Brietzke, Elisa; Miguel, Eurípedes Constantino; Mari, Jair J; Rosário, Maria Conceição do; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo

    2016-03-01

    Objective To investigate the validity and reliability of a multi-informant approach to measuring child maltreatment (CM) comprising seven questions assessing CM administered to children and their parents in a large community sample. Methods Our sample comprised 2,512 children aged 6 to 12 years and their parents. Child maltreatment (CM) was assessed with three questions answered by the children and four answered by their parents, covering physical abuse, physical neglect, emotional abuse and sexual abuse. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to compare the fit indices of different models. Convergent and divergent validity were tested using parent-report and teacher-report scores on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Discriminant validity was investigated using the Development and Well-Being Assessment to divide subjects into five diagnostic groups: typically developing controls (n = 1,880), fear disorders (n = 108), distress disorders (n = 76), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (n = 143) and oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (n = 56). Results A higher-order model with one higher-order factor (child maltreatment) encompassing two lower-order factors (child report and parent report) exhibited the best fit to the data and this model's reliability results were acceptable. As expected, child maltreatment was positively associated with measures of psychopathology and negatively associated with prosocial measures. All diagnostic category groups had higher levels of overall child maltreatment than typically developing children. Conclusions We found evidence for the validity and reliability of this brief measure of child maltreatment using data from a large survey combining information from parents and their children. PMID:27007940

  15. Child Maltreatment Identification and Reporting Behavior of School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusk, Victoria L.; Zibulsky, Jamie; Viezel, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    A majority of substantiated maltreatment reports are made by educators and thus, teacher knowledge of child maltreatment reporting mandates and reporting behavior has been a focus of research. The knowledge and behavior of school psychologists, however, has not received similar attention. This study investigated the child maltreatment reporting…

  16. Child Maltreatment among School Children in the Kurdistan Province, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Rob; Sheikhattari, Payam; Assasi, Nazilla; Eftekhar, Hassan; Zamani, Qasem; Maleki, Bahram; Kiabayan, Hamid

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the determinants of three types of child maltreatment: physical maltreatment, mental maltreatment, and child neglect among school children in the Kurdistan Province of Iran. The analysis examines the impact of socioeconomic, familial, demographic, and household dynamic factors on the three child maltreatment…

  17. Protective factors associated with resilient functioning in young adulthood after childhood exposure to violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Kathryn H; Miller-Graff, Laura E

    2014-12-01

    Children may be subjected to many forms of violence and a significant number will experience multiple victimizations. These children are at high risk for developing psychological and emotional difficulties that may last into adulthood. Despite the increased risk for psychopathology, a substantial percentage of young adults exhibit resilient functioning following a history of childhood violence. This study examines the role of social support, spirituality, and emotional intelligence in promoting resilience during emerging adulthood. Participants included 321 young adult American college students, age 18-24, who experienced childhood violence, including community violence, interpersonal aggression, child maltreatment, peer/sibling victimization, and/or sexual assault. Findings revealed that this sample was highly victimized, with an average of 9 violent experiences reported during childhood. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that after controlling for exposure to childhood victimization, other potentially traumatic events, and current depression and anxiety symptoms, higher resilience during emerging adulthood was associated with greater spirituality, greater emotional intelligence, and support from friends (but not from family). Findings suggest that the potency of protective factors outweighs that of adversity and psychopathology when predicting resilient functioning. By identifying variables that can enhance resilience, this study offers unique insight into how functioning may be improved by both individual and environmental factors. PMID:25459988

  18. An Agent-Based Model for Studying Child Maltreatment and Child Maltreatment Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaolin; Puddy, Richard W.

    This paper presents an agent-based model that simulates the dynamics of child maltreatment and child maltreatment prevention. The developed model follows the principles of complex systems science and explicitly models a community and its families with multi-level factors and interconnections across the social ecology. This makes it possible to experiment how different factors and prevention strategies can affect the rate of child maltreatment. We present the background of this work and give an overview of the agent-based model and show some simulation results.

  19. The effects of child maltreatment on the developing brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Danya

    2014-09-01

    Lasting effects of child abuse and neglect are well recognised. Apart from physical effects resulting from injuries and neglect, the effects are on behaviour, emotional well-being, interpersonal relationships and cognitive functioning. These psychological aspects are now known to have their counterparts in brain structure, chemistry and function. The growing knowledge of brain development has shed new light on our understanding of the processes by which especially early abuse and neglect may have a profound effect on the child's later adjustment. The brain undergoes its greatest growth and development in the first years of life, (with a second phase in adolescence). While the sequence of development within the brain is genetically determined, the nature of this development is determined to a considerable extent on the young child's experiences. The absence of some experiences, such as extreme deprivation during sensitive periods of development may mean that certain functions will not develop. For most functions, the nature of experience will shape brain development. Negative experiences and certain ways of interaction will be incorporated into the brain's connectivity. While learning and new experiences continue throughout life, and their effects continue to be incorporated into brain structure and functioning, previous patterns cannot be erased, only added on to and more slowly. As we know from our adult experiences, learning is far faster in childhood. A further aspect of child maltreatment which has a profound effect on brain development is the significant neurobiological stress which the young, maltreated, child experiences. It is interesting to learn that secure attachment organisation protects the developing brain from the worst effects of the stress response. The effects of the experiences interact with the child's genetic resilience or vulnerability. PMID:25228749

  20. Adapting and retesting evidence-based child maltreatment prevention programs: a case study in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikton, C

    2015-01-01

    This special issue of Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada is timely, as child maltreatment is a significant public health problem; globally, the number affected is at least in the hundreds of millions. One-quarter of adults report having been physically abused and over one-third emotionally abused as children; one in 5 women and one in 13 men report having been sexually abused. Recent national surveys of violence against children conducted in Africa and in other low- and middle-income countries reveal rates of childhood physical, sexual and emotional abuse even higher than the global rates. PMID:26605566

  1. Exhibit Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Marianne Foss

    , and 3) a synthesis of the findings from the first two studies with findings from the literature to generate two types of results: a coherent series of suggestions for a design iteration of the studied exhibit as well as a more general normative model for exhibit engineering. Finally, another...

  2. Immersive Exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    The immersive exhibition is a specialized exhibition genre in museums, which creates the illusion of time and place by representing key characteristics of a reference world and by integrating the visitor in this three-dimensionally reconstructed world (Mortensen 2010). A successful representation...

  3. Data on maltreatment profiles and psychopathology in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Andreas; Münzer, Annika; Ganser, Helene G; Fegert, Jörg M; Goldbeck, Lutz; Plener, Paul L

    2016-09-01

    We present data on maltreatment profiles and psychopathology of 358 children and adolescents (4-17 years). Data on maltreatment profiles has been categorized into six major maltreatment types: physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, sexual abuse with penetration, exposure to intimate partner violence and neglect. The data on history of maltreatment is based on the interview version of the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire (JVQ). Additionally data on psychopathology in general as well as specific disorders according to DSM-IV based on K-SADS-PL is presented. The data was used to examine patterns of co-occurrences of maltreatment and associated clinical outcome variables using latent class analysis (LCA), "Experience by children and adolescents of more than one type of maltreatment: association of different classes of maltreatment profiles with clinical outcome variables" (Witt et al.,) [1]. PMID:27583341

  4. Sources of emotional maltreatment and the differential development of unconditional and conditional schemas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Molly C; Lumley, Margaret N

    2012-01-01

    Schema theory posits that experiences of maltreatment result in the early development of maladaptive schemas (EMS; Young, Klosko, & Weishaar, 2003, Schema therapy: A practitioner's guide, The Guilford Press: New York, NY). EMS are organized by conditionality; unconditional schemas are theorized to develop early in childhood predominantly in response to experiences of parenting and conditional schemas are theorized to develop later in life in response to other relationships. Despite this distinction, minimal previous research has investigated their differential development. The current study examined the relative contributions of parental and other (peer and intimate partner) emotional maltreatment (EMT) in the differential development of unconditional and conditional schemas. Ninety-seven undergraduate students retrospectively reported their maltreatment experiences using the Lifetime Experiences Questionnaire and completed the Young Schema Questionnaire to measure EMS. Consistent with hypotheses, parental EMT was the strongest predictor of unconditional schemas. Unexpectedly, parental EMT also emerged as the strongest predictor of conditional schemas. Theoretical and clinical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:22471813

  5. Correlation of adverse childhood experiences with psychiatric disorders and aggressiveness in adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Samardžić Ljiljana; Nikolić Gordana; Grbeša Grozdanko; Simonović Maja; Milenković Tatjana

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aim. Consequences of individual adverse childhood experiences for adult mental health have been precisely studied during past decades. The focus of past research was mainly on childhood maltreatment and neglect. The aim of this paper was to determine association between multiple adverse childhood experiences and psychiatric disorders, as well as their correlation to the degree and type of aggressiveness in adult psychiatric patients. Methods. One hundred and thirteen psychiatric ou...

  6. Upcycle Exhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Townsley, Jill

    2012-01-01

    The exhibition Upcycle, at Athens Institute of Contemporary Art (ATHICA‘) in Athens, Georgia, USA. opens in congruence with Earth Day on April 22nd, 2012. Upcycle celebrates over twenty artists’ creative approaches to material re-use, materials destined to become landfill fodder — or worse, toxic pollution — are reborn as these artists dream them out of the waste stream. Curated by Lizzie Zucker Saltz with the assistance of Katie Faulkner, the exhibit will run through Athfest weekend, clos...

  7. Adverse childhood experiences, allostasis, allostatic load, and age-related disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danese, Andrea; McEwen, Bruce S

    2012-04-12

    How do adverse childhood experiences get 'under the skin' and influence health outcomes through the life-course? Research reviewed here suggests that adverse childhood experiences are associated with changes in biological systems responsible for maintaining physiological stability through environmental changes, or allostasis. Children exposed to maltreatment showed smaller volume of the prefrontal cortex, greater activation of the HPA axis, and elevation in inflammation levels compared to non-maltreated children. Adults with a history of childhood maltreatment showed smaller volume of the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, greater activation of the HPA axis, and elevation in inflammation levels compared to non-maltreated individuals. Despite the clear limitations in making longitudinal claims from cross-sectional studies, work so far suggests that adverse childhood experiences are associated with enduring changes in the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems. These changes are already observable in childhood years and remain apparent in adult life. Adverse childhood experiences induce significant biological changes in children (biological embedding), modifying the maturation and the operating balance of allostatic systems. Their chronic activation can lead to progressive wear and tear, or allostatic load and overload, and, thus, can exert long-term effects on biological aging and health. PMID:21888923

  8. Organizational Perspective on Cognitive Control Functioning and Cognitive-Affective Balance in Maltreated Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Carolyn; Cicchetti, Dante

    1989-01-01

    Examined the relation between a history of maltreatment and cognitive control functioning in two groups of preschool and early school-age maltreated and nonmaltreated children. Maltreated children showed developmentally impaired cognitive control functioning on a number of tasks. (RH)

  9. The Social Context of Child Maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, Diana

    1994-01-01

    Discusses family factors associated with child abuse from an ecological perspective. Identifies economic and cultural generative factors of child abuse. Explores special circumstances affecting occurrence of child maltreatment. Examines dimensions of responsiveness, demandingness, and parental authority patterns in their application to abusive…

  10. Child maltreatment, parents & the emergency department

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M.M. Hoytema van Konijnenburg

    2015-01-01

    The research described in this thesis focuses on the evaluation of several methods of screening for child maltreatment at the emergency department, with an emphasis on screening based on parental risk factors (‘child check’). The use of a screening checklist (mandatory in all Dutch emergency departm

  11. Trauma-Informed Forensic Child Maltreatment Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, Donna M.

    2011-01-01

    Trauma-informed child welfare systems (CWSs) are the focus of several recent national and state initiatives. Since 2005 social work publications have focused on systemic and practice changes within CW which seek to identify and reduce trauma to children and families experiencing child maltreatment or other distressing events, as well as to the…

  12. Methodological Challenges in Measuring Child Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Barbara; Trocme, Nico; Fluke, John; MacLaurin, Bruce; Tonmyr, Lil; Yuan, Ying-Ying

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This article reviewed the different surveillance systems used to monitor the extent of reported child maltreatment in North America. Methods: Key measurement and definitional differences between the surveillance systems are detailed and their potential impact on the measurement of the rate of victimization. The infrastructure…

  13. The Maltreated Adolescent: Patterns of Physical Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, Edward D.; Joseph, Jack A.

    1985-01-01

    The study explored family characteristics and behavioral-emotional reactions of 77 physically maltreated adolescents. Six different patterns of adolescent reaction to abuse were identified: acting-out, depression, generalized anxiety, extreme adolescent adjustment, emotional-thought disturbance, and helplessness-dependency. (Author/CL)

  14. Overweight and Obesity among Maltreated Young Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderman, Janet U.; Mennen, Ferol E.; Negriff, Sonya; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: (1) To identify and compare rates of body mass index (BMI) [greater than or equal to] 85% (overweight/obesity) and BMI [greater than or equal to] 95% (obesity) in maltreated versus comparison young adolescents; (2) to determine whether demographic/psychological characteristics are related to high BMI; (3) to determine whether type of…

  15. Can communit based interventions prevent child maltreatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijken, M.W.; Stams, Geert-Jan; de Winter, M.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the many efforts taken to prevent child maltreatment, this continues to be a significant worldwide problem. Interventions predominantly focus on ‘at risk’ populations and individual characteristics of the victim or abuser, but is that enough? The present review was designed to examine the po

  16. ADHD Symptoms and Likelihood of Child Maltreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between inattentive and hyperactivity symptoms and child maltreatment was studied among a sample of 14,322 participants in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Healh at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA.

  17. Mental Health and Behavioral Outcomes of Sexual and Nonsexual Child Maltreatment Among Child Welfare-Involved Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Jennifer E; White, Kevin; Wu, Qi; Killian-Farrell, Candace

    2016-07-01

    Our research team used the nationally representative National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being II to explore the differences in mental health and behavioral outcomes between children who enter the child welfare system with substantiated sexual abuse and those who enter with exclusively nonsexual maltreatment. The sample included 380 children between the ages of 8 to 17.5 who were substantiated for maltreatment (sexual and nonsexual) and had the same caregivers at both wave 1 and 2 (n = 380). Results show that the average age of children in the sample was 11 years old, and the results corroborate literature that has indicated children and youth with histories of childhood sexual abuse experience significantly more post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms than children with histories of nonsexual maltreatment. This finding held after controlling for baseline trauma symptoms and all covariates, including race, age, placement type, and caregiver characteristics. Childhood sexual abuse was not significantly related to an increase in behavioral symptoms after controlling for covariates. Implications for research and practice are offered. PMID:27294412

  18. Association of child maltreatment and psychiatric diagnosis in Brazilian children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Burim Scomparini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between different types of child maltreatment and the presence of psychiatric disorders in highly vulnerable children and adolescents served by a multidisciplinary program. METHODS: In total, 351 patients with a mean age of 12.47, of whom 68.7% were male and 82.1% lived in shelters, underwent psychiatric evaluations based on the Kiddie-Sads-Present and Lifetime Version. Two different methods were used to evaluate maltreatment: medical records were reviewed to identify previous diagnoses related to socioeconomic and psychosocial circumstances, and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire was used to obtain a structured history of trauma. Bivariate associations were evaluated between psychiatric disorders and evidence of each type and the frequency of abuse. RESULTS: The most frequent psychiatric diagnoses were substance use disorders, affective disorders and specific disorders of early childhood, whereas 13.67% of the sample had no psychiatric diagnosis. All patients suffered neglect, and 58.4% experienced physical or sexual abuse. The presence of a history of multiple traumas was only associated with a diagnosis of substance use disorder. Mental retardation showed a strong positive association with reported physical abuse and emotional neglect. However, a negative correlation was found when we analyzed the presence of a history of multiple traumas and mental retardation. CONCLUSION: All children living in adverse conditions deserve careful assistance, but we found that physical abuse and emotional neglect were most strongly associated with mental retardation and multiple traumas with substance abuse.

  19. Child Psychological Maltreatment in the Family: Definition and Severity Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Ignacia Arruabarrena

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Psychological maltreatment is one of the main and potentially more destructive forms of child maltreatment. It is difficult to identify, assess and treat. Compared to other forms of child maltreatment such as sexual abuse, physical abuse and neglect, attention received from researchers, child protection service managers and practitioners has been scarce. A review of available knowledge about psychological maltreatment reveals challenges to define the concept in ways useful to policy makers and practitioners. This paper presents a review of definitions of child psychological maltreatment and several measures available for assessing its severity. The review has been used in the Comunidad Autónoma Vasca (Spain to develop more specific criteria for the identification and severity assessment of child psychological maltreatment in Spanish children services. This paper develops these criteria.

  20. [EXPORT] Exhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Skjonsberg, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    INDIANAPOLIS CITY ENGAGEMENT PROJECTS BY SIX INTERNATIONALLY ACTIVE ARTISTS How can you understand your city more deeply? This exhibition presents the ways in which the Indianapolis-based informal collective We Are City has answered that question over the past two years. At the center of this show are the products of We Are City’s artist-in-residence program, which has brought six internationally active artists into conversation with Indianapolis residents. Featuring these artists’ visual, a...

  1. Does the impact of child sexual abuse differ from maltreated but non-sexually abused children? A prospective examination of the impact of child sexual abuse on internalizing and externalizing behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Terri; McElroy, Erika; Harlaar, Nicole; Runyan, Desmond

    2016-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) continues to be a significant problem with significant short and long term consequences. However, extant literature is limited by the reliance on retrospective recall of adult samples, single-time assessments, and lack of longitudinal data during the childhood and adolescent years. The purpose of this study was to compare internalizing and externalizing behavior problems of those with a history of sexual abuse to those with a history of maltreatment, but not sexual abuse. We examined whether gender moderated problems over time. Data were drawn from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN) at ages 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 (N=977). The Child Behavior Checklist was used to assess internalizing and externalizing problems. Maltreatment history and types were obtained from official Child Protective Services (CPS) records. Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) were used to assess behavior problems over time by maltreatment group. Findings indicated significantly more problems in the CSA group than the maltreated group without CSA over time. Internalizing problems were higher for sexually abused boys compared to girls. For sexually abused girls internalizing problems, but not externalizing problems increased with age relative to boys. This pattern was similar among maltreated but not sexually abused youth. Further efforts are needed to examine the psychological effects of maltreatment, particularly CSA longitudinally as well as better understand possible gender differences in order to best guide treatment efforts. PMID:26712421

  2. Characteristics of the Social Support Networks of Maltreated Youth: Exploring the Effects of Maltreatment Experience and Foster Placement

    OpenAIRE

    Negriff, Sonya; James, Adam; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the social support networks of maltreated youth or how youth in foster care may compare with those who remain with their parent(s). Social network characteristics and perceived social support were examined between (1) maltreated and comparison youth, (2) maltreated youth who remained with their biological parent, those with a foster parent, or a those with a kin caregiver, and (3) youth in stable placements and those who have changed placements. Data came from a sample o...

  3. The influence of geographical and economic factors in estimates of childhood abuse and neglect using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire: A worldwide meta-regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Thiago Wendt; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Kluwe-Schiavon, Bruno; Sanvicente-Vieira, Breno; Levandowski, Mateus Luz; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    This multilevel meta-analysis examined the effects of geographical and economic factors on worldwide childhood maltreatment estimates measured by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) short-form. The primary outcome extracted was continuous scores on the CTQ subscales - emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional neglect, and physical neglect - and total score. Geographical, economical and methodological variables were extracted for use as covariates in meta-regression models. A literature search identified 288 studies suitable for the CTQ total score analysis (N=59,692) and 189 studies suitable for maltreatment subtype analysis (N=44,832). We found that Europe and Asia were associated with lower CTQ estimates while South America presented the highest estimates among continents. Specifically, studies from China, Netherlands and United Kingdom presented the lowest maltreatment estimates. Furthermore, high-income countries presented lower CTQ physical neglect estimates in comparison to low- or middle-income countries, while per-capita gross domestic product of countries was negatively associated with childhood physical neglect estimates. Despite the influence of methodological covariates, these findings indicate that geographical and economic factors could influence variations of childhood maltreatment estimates around the world, particularly when assessed by a structured standardized questionnaire. PMID:26704298

  4. Neonatal maltreatment and brain development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadriye Yurdakök

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The early childhood years are a period of rapid change in the brain. During early childhood, the brain forms and refines a complex network of connections through synaptogenesis, pruning, and myelination. The development of the brain is regulated by genes, which interact profoundly with early experience. There are sensitive periods for development of certain capabilities. These refer to critical windows of time in the developmental process when certain parts of the brain may be most susceptible to particular experiences during its development. Most functions of the human brain result from a complex interplay between genetic potential and appropriately timed experiences. Early postnatal experiences play a major role in shaping the functional capacity of the neural systems responsible for mediating our cognitive, emotional, social and physiological functions. When the necessary experiences are not provided at the optimal times, these neural systems do not develop in optimal ways. Adverse environments and experiences during the neonatal period can dramatically affect the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis that underlies adaptive behavioral responses. Early life stress programs HPA axis development and exerts profound effects on neural plasticity, with resultant long-term influences on neurobehavior. Animal studies show that not only are these neurobiological changes long lasting, but that they too can be passed on to future generations via non-genetic transmission. Olfactory, auditory, visual and tactile stimulation may serve as an important cue for brain development exerting specific effects on neuroendocrine systems regulating social and emotional behavior which may have consequences for subsequent generations of offspring. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in Neonatology Guest Editors: Vassilios

  5. Child maltreatment, parents & the emergency department

    OpenAIRE

    Hoytema van Konijnenburg, E.M.M.

    2015-01-01

    The research described in this thesis focuses on the evaluation of several methods of screening for child maltreatment at the emergency department, with an emphasis on screening based on parental risk factors (‘child check’). The use of a screening checklist (mandatory in all Dutch emergency departments), a complete physical examination and the child check are discussed. Furthermore, the wellbeing of a family is assessed when a parent visits the emergency department due to intimate partner vi...

  6. Demographic, Maltreatment, and Neurobiological Correlates of PTSD Symptoms in Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    De Bellis, Michael D.; Hooper, Stephen R.; Woolley, Donald P.; SHENK, CHAD E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationships of demographic, maltreatment, neurostructural and neuropsychological measures with total posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Methods Participants included 216 children with maltreatment histories (N = 49), maltreatment and PTSD (N = 49), or no maltreatment (N = 118). Participants received diagnostic interviews, brain imaging, and neuropsychological evaluations. Results We examined a hierarchical regression model comprised of independent variab...

  7. Histories of Child Maltreatment and Psychiatric Disorder in Pregnant Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Elisa; Zoccolillo, Mark; Paquette, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The study investigated histories of child maltreatment and psychiatric disorder in a high-risk sample of pregnant adolescents. Method: Cross-sectional data were obtained for 252 pregnant adolescents from high school, hospital, and group home settings in Montreal (Canada). Adolescents completed a child maltreatment questionnaire and a…

  8. Evaluation of a Spiritually Based Child Maltreatment Prevention Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Louisa K.; Rigazio-DiGilio, Sandra A.

    2013-01-01

    The authors empirically evaluated a spiritually based 1-day child maltreatment training program. Pretest, posttest, and follow-up results indicated that participants' recognition of hypothetical maltreatment did not increase after training. Furthermore, although participants decreased their use of items known to dissuade decisions to report, they…

  9. Neuropsychology of Child Maltreatment and Implications for School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Andrew S.; Moss, Lauren E.; Nogin, Margarita M.; Webb, Nadia Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Child maltreatment has the potential to alter a child's neurodevelopmental trajectory and substantially increase the risk of later psychiatric disorders, as well as to deleteriously impact neurocognitive functioning throughout the lifespan. Child maltreatment has been linked to multiple domains of neurocognitive impairment, including…

  10. Implementing an Inpatient Social Early Warning System for Child Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atabaki, Armita; Heddaeus, Daniela; Metzner, Franka; Schulz, Holger; Siefert, Sonke; Pawils, Silke

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The current article describes the process evaluation of a social early warning system (SEWS) for the prevention of child maltreatment in the federal state of Hamburg. This prevention initiative targets expectant mothers and their partners including an initial screening of risk factors for child maltreatment, a subsequent structured…

  11. Child Psychological Maltreatment and Its Correlated Factors in Chinese Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjing; Ma, Yating; Chen, Jingqi

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to explore the prevalence and frequency of child psychological maltreatment and its correlated factors in Chinese families. A cross-sectional investigation was conducted among 1,002 parents of primary school students in Yuncheng City, China. Data were collected using the self-report questionnaire anonymously. Results showed that 696 (69.5%) surveyed parents had different extents of psychological maltreatment toward their children in the past 3 months. The high prevalence of parental psychology maltreatment was significantly associated with high scores on parental over-reactivity and low scores on recognition of child psychology maltreatment. These findings indicate that it is urgent to develop cultural interventions to raise parents' awareness of preventing child psychological maltreatment and to help parents use nonviolent child rearing in China. PMID:27030213

  12. Aspects of abuse: recognizing and responding to child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Allison M; Kissoon, Natalie; Greene, Christian

    2015-03-01

    Child maltreatment is a public health problem and toxic stress impacting at least 1 in 8 children by the age of 18 years. Maltreatment can take the form of physical and sexual abuse, neglect, and emotional maltreatment. While some children may experience only one form of maltreatment, others may survive multiple forms, and in some cases particularly complex forms of maltreatment such as torture and medical child abuse. When considering maltreatment, providers should be adept at obtaining a thorough history not only from the parent but when appropriate also from the patient. The most common form of child maltreatment is neglect, which encompasses nutritional and medical neglect, as well as other forms such as physical and emotional neglect. Talking with caregivers about stressors and barriers to care may give insight into the etiology for neglect and is an opportunity for the provider to offer or refer for needed assistance. Familiarity with injury patterns and distribution in the context of developmental milestones and injury mechanisms is critical to the recognition of physical abuse. While most anogenital exam results of child victims of sexual abuse are normal, knowing the normal variations for the female genitalia, and thereby recognizing abnormal findings, is important not only forensically but also more importantly for patient care. Pattern recognition does not only apply to specific injuries or constellation of injuries but also applies to patterns of behavior. Harmful patterns of behavior include psychological maltreatment and medical child abuse, both of which cause significant harm to patients. As health professionals serving children and families, pediatric providers are in a unique position to identify suspected maltreatment and intervene through the health care system in order to manage the physical and psychological consequences of maltreatment and to promote the safety and well-being of children and youth by making referrals to child protective

  13. Preliminary Evaluation of the Childhood Experiences of Violence Questionnaire Short Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Masako; Wekerle, Christine; Leung, Eman; Waechter, Randall; Gonzalez, Andrea; Jamieson, Ellen; MacMillan, Harriet L.

    2012-01-01

    Despite advances in child maltreatment research, accurate measurement of exposure remains a key issue. In this study, we evaluated a short form (CEVQ-SF) of the Childhood Experiences of Violence Questionnaire (CEVQ) in a sample of adolescents involved with child protection services in an urban city in Ontario, Canada. Focusing on the two most…

  14. Deficits in Emotion Regulation Mediate the Relationship between Childhood Abuse and Later Eating Disorder Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Erin E.; Fischer, Sarah; Jackson, Joan L.; Harding, Hilary G.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship of child maltreatment to both emotion dysregulation and subsequent eating pathology. In an effort to extend previous research, the authors examined the unique impact of childhood emotional abuse (CEA) on emotion dysregulation and eating disorder (ED) symptoms while controlling for the effects of sexual…

  15. Childhood Emotional Abuse and Attachment Processes in the Dyadic Adjustment of Dating Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Shelley A.; Cusimano, Angela M.; Benson, Karen M.

    2011-01-01

    In an effort to improve understanding of the mechanisms that link early maltreatment to later outcomes, this study investigated the mediation effects of adult attachment processes on the association between childhood emotional abuse and later romantic relationships among heterosexual couples. College students and their dating partners (N = 310;…

  16. A Prospective Examination of the Mechanisms Linking Childhood Physical Abuse to Body Mass Index in Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Francis, Melville M.; Nikulina, Valentina; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has reported associations between childhood physical abuse and Body Mass Index (BMI) in adulthood. This paper examined the role of four potential mediators (anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress, and coping) hypothesized to explain this relationship. Using data from a prospective cohort design, court-substantiated cases of childhood physical abuse (N = 78) and non-maltreated comparisons (N = 349) were followed-up and assessed in adulthood at three time points (1989-1995,...

  17. Childhood adversity and asthma prevalence: evidence from 10 US states (2009–2011)

    OpenAIRE

    Bhan, Nandita; Glymour, M Maria; Kawachi, Ichiro; Subramanian, S. V.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Existing evidence on stress and asthma prevalence has disproportionately focused on pregnancy and postpregnancy early life stressors, largely ignoring the role of childhood adversity as a risk factor. Childhood adversity (neglect, stressful living conditions and maltreatment) may influence asthma prevalence through mechanisms on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Methods: Data from the Center for Disease Control's (CDC's) Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) surveys we...

  18. Childhood Adversity Is Associated with Adult Theory of Mind and Social Affiliation, but Not Face Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Laura Germine; Dunn, Erin C.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Smoller, Jordan W.

    2015-01-01

    People vary substantially in their ability to acquire and maintain social ties. Here, we use a combined epidemiological and individual differences approach to understand the childhood roots of adult social cognitive functioning. We assessed exposure to 25 forms of traumatic childhood experiences in over 5000 adults, along with measures of face discrimination, face memory, theory of mind, social motivation, and social support. Retrospectively-reported experiences of parental maltreatment in ch...

  19. Family-based risk factors for non-suicidal self-injury: Considering influences of maltreatment, adverse family-life experiences, and parent-child relational risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jodi; Bureau, Jean-François; Yurkowski, Kim; Fournier, Tania Renaud; Lafontaine, Marie-France; Cloutier, Paula

    2016-06-01

    The current investigation addressed the potential for unique influences of perceived childhood maltreatment, adverse family-life events, and parent-child relational trauma on the lifetime occurrence and addictive features of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). Participants included 957 undergraduate students (747 females; M = 20.14 years, SD = 3.88) who completed online questionnaires regarding the key variables under study. Although self-injuring youth reported more experiences with each family-based risk factor, different patterns of association were found when lifetime engagement in NSSI or its addictive features were under study. Perceived parent-child relational trauma was uniquely linked with NSSI behavior after accounting for perceived childhood maltreatment; adverse family-life events had an additional unique association. In contrast, perceived paternal maltreatment was uniquely related with NSSI's addictive features. Findings underline the importance of studying inter-related family-based risk factors of NSSI simultaneously for a comprehensive understanding of familial correlates of NSSI behavior and its underlying features. PMID:27086083

  20. Effects of Parental Maltreatment on Children's Conceptions of Interpersonal Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Anne L.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Through an examination of story content, determines whether the conceptions of peer and parent-child relations of black children from lower income families are altered by the experience of parental maltreatment. (HOD)

  1. Observational study of suspected maltreatment in Italian paediatric emergency departments

    OpenAIRE

    Palazzi, S; G. De Girolamo; Liverani, T; on, b

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate how often children seen in paediatric accident & emergency (A&E) departments were suspected of abuse or neglect, and to explore some of the correlates of suspected child maltreatment.

  2. Suspected Child Maltreatment: Preschool Staff in a Conflict of Loyalty

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, Birgitta; Janson, Staffan

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the actions of Swedish preschool staff when suspecting the maltreatment of children in their domestic environment, and the staff’s further experiences and relations to the family members. Methods A questionnaire in 2005 to the staff of 189 child groups in community preschools, including 3,100 children. Results: A report to Child Protective Agency (CPA) was submitted in 30% of the cases where maltreatment was suspected. The staff’s decisions as well as their working s...

  3. Preventing child maltreatment: An evidence-based update

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez A.; MacMillan H

    2008-01-01

    Child maltreatment is a significant public health problem associated with a broad range of negative outcomes in children and adolescents that can extend into adulthood. This review summarizes information about programs aimed at the prevention of child maltreatment evaluated by controlled trials, with a focus on home visitation programs. It does not include programs aimed at prevention of child sexual abuse, the subject of a separate review in this series. We discuss those programs that includ...

  4. Implementing an Inpatient Social Early Warning System for Child Maltreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Atabaki, Armita; Heddaeus, Daniela; Metzner, Franka; Schulz, Holger; Siefert, Sönke; Pawils, Silke

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The current article describes the process evaluation of a social early warning system (SEWS) for the prevention of child maltreatment in the federal state of Hamburg. This prevention initiative targets expectant mothers and their partners including an initial screening of risk factors for child maltreatment, a subsequent structured clearing interview further exploring risks and identifying protective factors and an optional referral to the regional health and social care ...

  5. Child Maltreatment in the World: A Review Article

    OpenAIRE

    Maryam Ajilian Abbasi; Masumeh Saeidi; Gholamreza Khademi; Bibi Leila Hoseini

    2015-01-01

    Child abuse is a recognized public health and social problem worldwide. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), child abuse includes all forms of physical and/or emotional ill-treatment, sexual abuse, neglect and negligent treatment and exploitation. Child maltreatment is a global problem with serious life-long consequences. In spite of recent national surveys in several low- and middle-income countries, data from many countries are still lacking. Estimates of child maltreatment ind...

  6. Does childhood misfortune raise the risk of acute myocardial infarction in adulthood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Patricia M; Mustillo, Sarah A; Ferraro, Kenneth F

    2014-03-01

    Whereas most research on acute myocardial infarction (AMI) has focused on more proximal influences, such as adult health behaviors, the present study examines the early origins of AMI. Longitudinal data were drawn from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (N = 3032), a nationally representative survey of men and women aged 25-74, which spans from 1995 to 2005. A series of event history analyses modeling age of first AMI investigated the direct effects of accumulated and separate domains of childhood misfortune as well as the mediating effects of adult health lifestyle and psychosocial factors. Findings reveal that accumulated childhood misfortune and child maltreatment increased AMI risk, net of several adult covariates, including family history of AMI. Smoking fully mediated the effects of both accumulated childhood misfortune and child maltreatment. These findings reveal the importance of the early origins of AMI and health behaviors as mediating factors. PMID:24581071

  7. Childhood Adversity and Epigenetic Modulation of the Leukocyte Glucocorticoid Receptor: Preliminary Findings in Healthy Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrka, Audrey R.; Price, Lawrence H.; Marsit, Carmen; Walters, Oakland C.; Carpenter, Linda L.

    2012-01-01

    Background A history of early adverse experiences is an important risk factor for adult psychopathology. Changes in stress sensitivity and functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may underlie the association between stress and risk for psychiatric disorders. Preclinical work in rodents has linked low levels of maternal care to increased methylation of the promoter region of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene, as well as to exaggerated hormonal and behavioral responses to stress. Recent studies have begun to examine whether early-life stress leads to epigenetic modifications of the GR gene in humans. Methods We examined the degree of methylation of a region of the promoter of the human GR gene (NR3C1) in leukocyte DNA from 99 healthy adults. Participants reported on their childhood experiences of parental behavior, parental death or desertion, and childhood maltreatment. On a separate day, participants completed the dexamethasone/corticotropin-releasing hormone (Dex/CRH) test, a standardized neuroendocrine challenge test. Results Disruption or lack of adequate nurturing, as measured by parental loss, childhood maltreatment, and parental care, was associated with increased NR3C1 promoter methylation (p<.05). In addition, NR3C1 promoter methylation was linked to attenuated cortisol responses to the Dex/CRH test (p<.05). Conclusions These findings suggest that childhood maltreatment or adversity may lead to epigenetic modifications of the human GR gene. Alterations in methylation of this gene could underlie the associations between childhood adversity, alterations in stress reactivity, and risk for psychopathology. PMID:22295073

  8. Childhood Maltreatment, Childhood Social Support, and Child Abuse Potential in a Basque Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paul, Joaquin; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Comparison of a Basque (Spain) sample with a similar U.S. sample found similar overall rates of physical child abuse, though rates of physical abuse sequelae were lower in the Basque sample and sexual abuse of Basque males was twice that reported for U.S. males. Level of father support was important in both groups. (Author/DB)

  9. Going through the Rites of Passage: Timing and Transition of Menarche, Childhood Sexual Abuse, and Anxiety Symptoms in Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Leve, Leslie D.; Mendle, Jane

    2011-01-01

    Menarche is a discrete, transitional event that holds considerable personal, social, biological, and developmental significance. The present longitudinal study examined both the transition and timing of menarche on the trajectory of anxiety in girls with histories of childhood maltreatment (N = 93; 63% European American, 14% multiracial, 10%…

  10. The Contribution of Childhood Emotional Abuse to Teen Dating Violence among Child Protective Services-Involved Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wekerle, Christine; Leung, Eman; Wall, Anne-Marie; MacMillan, Harriet; Boyle, Michael; Trocme, Nico; Waechter, Randall

    2009-01-01

    Objective: For child protective services (CPS) youth who may have experienced more than one form of maltreatment, the unique contribution of emotional abuse may be over-looked when other forms are more salient and more clearly outside of accepted social norms for parenting. This study considers the unique predictive value of childhood emotional…

  11. Sex Differences in Childhood Sexual Abuse Characteristics and Victims' Emotional and Behavioral Problems: Findings from a National Sample of Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maikovich-Fong, Andrea Kohn; Jaffee, Sara R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The first objective of this study was to test for sex differences in four childhood sexual abuse characteristics--penetration, substantiation, perpetrator familial status, and multi-maltreatment--in a national sample of youth. The second objective was to test for sex differences in how these abuse characteristics were associated with…

  12. The effects of childhood sexual abuse on cortisol trajectories in pregnancy are moderated by current family functioning

    OpenAIRE

    Bublitz, Margaret H.; Parade, Stephanie; Stroud, Laura R.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to understand the roles of maternal history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and current family functioning on the cortisol awakening response (CAR) in pregnancy. Participants were 185 pregnant women (ages 18–40) who completed items from the Adverse Childhood Experiences scale to measure child maltreatment history and the Family Assessment Device to measure current family functioning. Participants provided saliva samples at wake-up and 30 minutes after wake-up at 25,...

  13. Symposium on cross national comparisons: Youth population surveys about child maltreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helweg-Larsen, Karin; Larsen, Helmer Bøving

    Cross National Comparisons: Youth Population Surveys About Child Maltreatment In this multi-session track, researchers will present the results concerning the epidemiology of child maltreatment from over one dozen general population surveys of youth, covering four continents and portions...

  14. Can Social Networking Be Used to Promote Engagement in Child Maltreatment Prevention Programs? Two Pilot Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards-Gaura, Anna; Whitaker, Daniel; Self-Brown, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Child maltreatment is one of the United States’ most significant public health problems.In efforts to prevent maltreatment experts recommend use of Behavioral Parent Training Programs(BPTs), which focus on teaching skills that will replace and prevent maltreating behavior. While there isresearch to support the effectiveness of BPTs in maltreatment prevention, the reach of such programsis still limited by several barriers, including poor retention of families in services. Recentl...

  15. Child maltreatment in numbers: a multimethod study of year prevalence rates and risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Euser, Saskia

    2013-01-01

    How often does child maltreatment occur in the Netherlands and which factors increase the risk of child maltreatment? In this thesis we describe the findings of two epidemiological studies aimed at answering these questions. First, in the Netherlands’ Prevalence study on Maltreatment of children and youth (NPM-2010) we examined the year prevalence of child maltreatment in the general Dutch population, using sentinel reports, substantiated CPS reports, and high school students’ self-report. Ov...

  16. Childhood Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cells. It is the most common type of childhood cancer. Your blood cells form in your bone ... in the bones or joints Risk factors for childhood leukemia include having a brother or sister with ...

  17. Childhood Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Childhood Stress KidsHealth > For Parents > Childhood Stress Print A A ... and feel stress to some degree. Sources of Stress Stress is a function of the demands placed ...

  18. Childhood Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, Justine; Howard, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Childhood obesity has important consequences for health and wellbeing both during childhood and also in later adult life. The rising prevalence of childhood obesity poses a major public health challenge in both developed and developing countries by increasing the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases. Despite the urgent need for effective preventative strategies, there remains disagreement over its definition due to a lack of evidence on the optimal cut-offs linking childhood BMI to dis...

  19. Child maltreatment in numbers : a multimethod study of year prevalence rates and risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Euser, Saskia

    2013-01-01

    How often does child maltreatment occur in the Netherlands and which factors increase the risk of child maltreatment? In this thesis we describe the findings of two epidemiological studies aimed at answering these questions. First, in the Netherlands’ Prevalence study on Maltreatment of children and

  20. Maltreatment Following Reunification: Predictors of Subsequent Child Protective Services Contact after Children Return Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Christian M.; Vanderploeg, Jeffrey J.; Katz, Karol H.; Caron, Colleen; Saunders, Leon; Tebes, Jacob Kraemer

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined risk of maltreatment among children exiting foster care using a statewide sample of children reunified between 2001 and 2004 in Rhode Island. The objectives were: (1) to compare rates of maltreatment following parental reunification for youth in care as a result of maltreatment with those in care for other reasons;…

  1. Experiences of Family Maltreatment by Korean Children in Korean National Protective Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Soyoung; Lee, Yanghee

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study is twofold. The first objective is to explore the extent of family maltreatment experiences of children in protective care in South Korea. The second objective is to analyze the circumstances around the maltreatment and to obtain a better understanding of how maltreated children deal with the experience.…

  2. Emotion Regulation Predicts Attention Bias in Maltreated Children At-Risk for Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romens, Sarah E.; Pollak, Seth D.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Child maltreatment is associated with heightened risk for depression; however, not all individuals who experience maltreatment develop depression. Previous research indicates that maltreatment contributes to an attention bias for emotional cues, and that depressed individuals show attention bias for sad cues. Method: The present study…

  3. Identifying perinatal risk factors for infant maltreatment: an ecological approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hallisey Elaine J

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Child maltreatment and its consequences are a persistent problem throughout the world. Public health workers, human services officials, and others are interested in new and efficient ways to determine which geographic areas to target for intervention programs and resources. To improve assessment efforts, selected perinatal factors were examined, both individually and in various combinations, to determine if they are associated with increased risk of infant maltreatment. State of Georgia birth records and abuse and neglect data were analyzed using an area-based, ecological approach with the census tract as a surrogate for the community. Cartographic visualization suggested some correlation exists between risk factors and child maltreatment, so bivariate and multivariate regression were performed. The presence of spatial autocorrelation precluded the use of traditional ordinary least squares regression, therefore a spatial regression model coupled with maximum likelihood estimation was employed. Results Results indicate that all individual factors or their combinations are significantly associated with increased risk of infant maltreatment. The set of perinatal risk factors that best predicts infant maltreatment rates are: mother smoked during pregnancy, families with three or more siblings, maternal age less than 20 years, births to unmarried mothers, Medicaid beneficiaries, and inadequate prenatal care. Conclusion This model enables public health to take a proactive stance, to reasonably predict areas where poor outcomes are likely to occur, and to therefore more efficiently allocate resources. U.S. states that routinely collect the variables the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS defines for birth certificates can easily identify areas that are at high risk for infant maltreatment. The authors recommend that agencies charged with reducing child maltreatment target communities that demonstrate the perinatal risks

  4. Childhood Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Childhood Cancer KidsHealth > For Parents > Childhood Cancer Print A A A Text Size What's ... in children, but can happen. The most common childhood cancers are leukemia , lymphoma , and brain cancer . As ...

  5. Cumulative risk hypothesis: Predicting and preventing child maltreatment recidivism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, David; Åsberg, Kia; Peer, Samuel; Prince, Gwendolyn

    2016-08-01

    Although Child Protective Services (CPS) and other child welfare agencies aim to prevent further maltreatment in cases of child abuse and neglect, recidivism is common. Having a better understanding of recidivism predictors could aid in preventing additional instances of maltreatment. A previous study identified two CPS interventions that predicted recidivism: psychotherapy for the parent, which was related to a reduced risk of recidivism, and temporary removal of the child from the parent's custody, which was related to an increased recidivism risk. However, counter to expectations, this previous study did not identify any other specific risk factors related to maltreatment recidivism. For the current study, it was hypothesized that (a) cumulative risk (i.e., the total number of risk factors) would significantly predict maltreatment recidivism above and beyond intervention variables in a sample of CPS case files and that (b) therapy for the parent would be related to a reduced likelihood of recidivism. Because it was believed that the relation between temporary removal of a child from the parent's custody and maltreatment recidivism is explained by cumulative risk, the study also hypothesized that that the relation between temporary removal of the child from the parent's custody and recidivism would be mediated by cumulative risk. After performing a hierarchical logistic regression analysis, the first two hypotheses were supported, and an additional predictor, psychotherapy for the child, also was related to reduced chances of recidivism. However, Hypothesis 3 was not supported, as risk did not significantly mediate the relation between temporary removal and recidivism. PMID:27352090

  6. Dorsal Anterior Cingulate Thickness Is Related to Alexithymia in Childhood Trauma-Related PTSD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren A Demers

    Full Text Available Alexithymia, or "no words for feelings", is highly prevalent in samples with childhood maltreatment and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. The dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC has been identified as a key region involved in alexithymia, early life trauma, and PTSD. Functional alterations in the dACC also have been associated with alexithymia in PTSD. This study examined whether dACC morphology is a neural correlate of alexithymia in child maltreatment-related PTSD. Sixteen adults with PTSD and a history of childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse, or exposure to domestic violence, and 24 healthy controls (HC completed the Toronto Alexithymia Scale 20 (TAS-20 and underwent magnetic resonance imaging. Cortical thickness of the dACC was measured using FreeSurfer, and values were correlated with TAS-20 scores, controlling for sex and age, in both groups. Average TAS-20 score was significantly higher in the PTSD than the HC group. TAS-20 scores were significantly positively associated with dACC thickness only in the PTSD group. This association was strongest in the left hemisphere and for TAS-20 subscales that assess difficulty identifying and describing feelings. We found that increasing dACC gray matter thickness is a neural correlate of greater alexithymia in the context of PTSD with childhood maltreatment. While findings are correlational, they motivate further inquiry into the relationships between childhood adversity, emotional awareness and expression, and dACC morphologic development in trauma-related psychopathology.

  7. Prenatal alcohol and other early childhood adverse exposures: Direct and indirect pathways to adolescent drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Marie D.; De Genna, Natacha M.; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Larkby, Cynthia; Day, Nancy L.

    2016-01-01

    We examined direct and indirect pathways between adverse environmental exposures during gestation and childhood and drinking in mid-adolescence. Mothers and their offspring (n = 917 mother/child dyads) were followed prospectively from second trimester to a 16-year follow-up assessment. Interim assessments occurred at delivery, 6, 10, and 14 years. Adverse environmental factors included gestational exposures to alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana, exposures to childhood maltreatment and violence, maternal psychological symptoms, parenting practices, economic and home environments, and demographic characteristics of the mother and child. Indirect effects of early child behavioral characteristics including externalizing, internalizing activity, attention, and impulsivity were also examined. Polytomous logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate direct effects of adverse environmental exposures with level of adolescent drinking. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was applied to simultaneously estimate the relation between early adversity variables, childhood characteristics, and drinking level at age 16 while controlling for significant covariates. Level of drinking among the adolescent offspring was directly predicted by prenatal exposure to alcohol, less parental strictness, and exposures to maltreatment and violence during childhood. Whites and offspring with older mothers were more likely to drink at higher levels. There was a significant indirect effect between childhood exposure to violence and adolescent drinking via childhood externalizing behavior problems. All other hypothesized indirect pathways were not significant. Thus most of the early adversity measures directly predicted adolescent drinking and did not operate via childhood behavioral dysregulation characteristics. These results highlight the importance of adverse environmental exposures on pathways to adolescent drinking. PMID:26994529

  8. Prenatal alcohol and other early childhood adverse exposures: Direct and indirect pathways to adolescent drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Marie D; De Genna, Natacha M; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Larkby, Cynthia; Day, Nancy L

    2016-01-01

    We examined direct and indirect pathways between adverse environmental exposures during gestation and childhood and drinking in mid-adolescence. Mothers and their offspring (n=917 mother/child dyads) were followed prospectively from second trimester to a 16-year follow-up assessment. Interim assessments occurred at delivery, 6, 10, and 14years. Adverse environmental factors included gestational exposures to alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana, exposures to childhood maltreatment and violence, maternal psychological symptoms, parenting practices, economic and home environments, and demographic characteristics of the mother and child. Indirect effects of early child behavioral characteristics including externalizing, internalizing activity, attention, and impulsivity were also examined. Polytomous logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate direct effects of adverse environmental exposures with level of adolescent drinking. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was applied to simultaneously estimate the relation between early adversity variables, childhood characteristics, and drinking level at age 16 while controlling for significant covariates. Level of drinking among the adolescent offspring was directly predicted by prenatal exposure to alcohol, less parental strictness, and exposures to maltreatment and violence during childhood. Whites and offspring with older mothers were more likely to drink at higher levels. There was a significant indirect effect between childhood exposure to violence and adolescent drinking via childhood externalizing behavior problems. All other hypothesized indirect pathways were not significant. Thus most of the early adversity measures directly predicted adolescent drinking and did not operate via childhood behavioral dysregulation characteristics. These results highlight the importance of adverse environmental exposures on pathways to adolescent drinking. PMID:26994529

  9. Childhood trauma and dimensions of depression: a specific association with the cognitive domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar A. Vares

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate associations between a history of childhood trauma and dimensions of depression in a sample of clinically depressed patients. Methods: A sample of 217 patients from a mood-disorder outpatient unit was investigated with the Beck Depression Inventory, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, the CORE Assessment of Psychomotor Change, and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. A previous latent model identifying six depressive dimensions was used for analysis. Path analysis and Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes (MIMIC models were used to investigate associations between general childhood trauma and childhood maltreatment modalities (emotional, sexual, and physical abuse; emotional and physical neglect with dimensions of depression (sexual, cognition, insomnia, appetite, non-interactiveness/retardation, and agitation. Results: The overall childhood trauma index was uniquely associated with cognitive aspects of depression, but not with any other depressive dimension. An investigation of childhood maltreatment modalities revealed that emotional abuse was consistently associated with depression severity in the cognitive dimension. Conclusion: Childhood trauma, and specifically emotional abuse, could be significant risk factors for the subsequent development of cognitive symptoms of major depression. These influences might be specific to this depressive dimension and not found in any other dimension, which might have conceptual and therapeutic implications for clinicians and researchers alike.

  10. Adverse Environmental Exposures During Gestation and Childhood: Predictors of Adolescent Drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Marie D; De Genna, Natacha; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Larkby, Cynthia; Day, Nancy

    2016-08-23

    Adverse conditions, including exposures to drugs and other environmental influences during early development, may affect behaviors later in life. This study examined the role of environmental influences from the gestation and childhood on adolescent drinking behavior. 917 mother/offspring dyads were followed prospectively from pregnancy to a 16-year follow-up assessment. Interim assessments occurred at delivery, 6, 10, and 14 years. Prenatal exposures to alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana were measured during gestation. Data were collected at each phase on childhood environment, including parenting practices, quality of the home environment, maternal depression and hostility, and lifetime exposure to child maltreatment and community violence. Alcohol outcomes were offspring age of drinking initiation and level of drinking at age 16 years. Cox Proportional Hazards ratios were used to model offspring age of drinking initiation. Logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate significant predictors of drinking level. Childhood environment, including less parental strictness, greater exposure to violence and childhood maltreatment, significantly predicted earlier age of alcohol initiation. Level of drinking among the adolescent offspring was significantly predicted by prenatal exposure to alcohol, less parental strictness, and exposures to maltreatment and violence during childhood. Whites and offspring with older mothers were more likely to initiate alcohol use early and drink at higher levels. Early and heavier alcohol use was associated with early exposures to adversity such as prenatal alcohol exposure, and child exposures to maltreatment and violence. These results highlight the importance of environmental adversity and less effective parenting practices on the development of adolescent drinking behavior. PMID:27220026

  11. Child maltreatment experience among primary school children: a large scale survey in Selangor state, Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayesha Ahmed

    Full Text Available Official reports of child maltreatment in Malaysia have persistently increased throughout the last decade. However there is a lack of population surveys evaluating the actual burden of child maltreatment, its correlates and its consequences in the country. This cross sectional study employed 2 stage stratified cluster random sampling of public primary schools, to survey 3509 ten to twelve year old school children in Selangor state. It aimed to estimate the prevalence of parental physical and emotional maltreatment, parental neglect and teacher- inflicted physical maltreatment. It further aimed to examine the associations between child maltreatment and important socio-demographic factors; family functioning and symptoms of depression among children. Logistic regression on weighted samples was used to extend results to a population level. Three quarters of 10-12 year olds reported at least one form of maltreatment, with parental physical maltreatment being most common. Males had higher odds of maltreatment in general except for emotional maltreatment. Ethnicity and parental conflict were key factors associated with maltreatment. The study contributes important evidence towards improving public health interventions for child maltreatment prevention in the country.

  12. Child maltreatment experience among primary school children: a large scale survey in Selangor state, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ayesha; Wan-Yuen, Choo; Marret, Mary Joseph; Guat-Sim, Cheah; Othman, Sajaratulnisah; Chinna, Karuthan

    2015-01-01

    Official reports of child maltreatment in Malaysia have persistently increased throughout the last decade. However there is a lack of population surveys evaluating the actual burden of child maltreatment, its correlates and its consequences in the country. This cross sectional study employed 2 stage stratified cluster random sampling of public primary schools, to survey 3509 ten to twelve year old school children in Selangor state. It aimed to estimate the prevalence of parental physical and emotional maltreatment, parental neglect and teacher- inflicted physical maltreatment. It further aimed to examine the associations between child maltreatment and important socio-demographic factors; family functioning and symptoms of depression among children. Logistic regression on weighted samples was used to extend results to a population level. Three quarters of 10-12 year olds reported at least one form of maltreatment, with parental physical maltreatment being most common. Males had higher odds of maltreatment in general except for emotional maltreatment. Ethnicity and parental conflict were key factors associated with maltreatment. The study contributes important evidence towards improving public health interventions for child maltreatment prevention in the country. PMID:25786214

  13. Child Maltreatment Experience among Primary School Children: A Large Scale Survey in Selangor State, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ayesha; Wan-Yuen, Choo; Marret, Mary Joseph; Guat-Sim, Cheah; Othman, Sajaratulnisah; Chinna, Karuthan

    2015-01-01

    Official reports of child maltreatment in Malaysia have persistently increased throughout the last decade. However there is a lack of population surveys evaluating the actual burden of child maltreatment, its correlates and its consequences in the country. This cross sectional study employed 2 stage stratified cluster random sampling of public primary schools, to survey 3509 ten to twelve year old school children in Selangor state. It aimed to estimate the prevalence of parental physical and emotional maltreatment, parental neglect and teacher- inflicted physical maltreatment. It further aimed to examine the associations between child maltreatment and important socio-demographic factors; family functioning and symptoms of depression among children. Logistic regression on weighted samples was used to extend results to a population level. Three quarters of 10–12 year olds reported at least one form of maltreatment, with parental physical maltreatment being most common. Males had higher odds of maltreatment in general except for emotional maltreatment. Ethnicity and parental conflict were key factors associated with maltreatment. The study contributes important evidence towards improving public health interventions for child maltreatment prevention in the country. PMID:25786214

  14. Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for sexual concerns of maltreated children: A preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Brian; Timmer, Susan G; Urquiza, Anthony J

    2016-06-01

    The current study examines whether an evidence-based treatment for externalizing behavior problems may reduce sexual concerns among children with maltreatment histories. An archival analysis identified 44 children between the ages of 3 and 8 exhibiting externalizing problems and co-morbid sexual concerns who were treated using Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT). A second group of children receiving PCIT for externalizing behaviors without sexual concerns was included for comparison purposes (n=143). Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks Tests indicated significant improvement among the group with sexual concerns, with 63.6% of children no longer displaying clinically significant sexual concerns at post-treatment. In addition, these children showed a decline in general externalizing problems comparable to that observed among the group of children receiving PCIT and not displaying sexual concerns. Lastly, logistic regression analyses showed that pre-treatment posttraumatic stress scores did not moderate improvement of sexual concerns, suggesting that posttraumatic stress-related sexual concerns may improve from PCIT treatment. These findings suggest that evidence-based parent training interventions, specifically PCIT, may successfully reduce sexual concerns among children who experienced maltreatment. PMID:27155807

  15. Young children's understanding that promising guarantees performance: the effects of age and maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Thomas D; Evans, Angela D

    2014-04-01

    Two studies, with 102 nonmaltreated 3- to 6-year-old children and 96 maltreated 4- to 7-year-old children, examined children's understanding of the relative strengths of "I promise," "I will," "I might," and "I won't," to determine the most age-appropriate means of eliciting a promise to tell the truth from child witnesses. Children played a game in which they chose which of 2 boxes would contain a toy after hearing story characters make conflicting statements about their intent to place a toy in each box (e.g., one character said "I will put a toy in my box" and the other character said "I might put a toy in my box"). Children understood "will" at a younger age than "promise." Nonmaltreated children understood that "will" is stronger than "might" by 3 years of age and that "promise" is stronger than "might" by 4 years of age. The youngest nonmaltreated children preferred "will" to "promise," whereas the oldest nonmaltreated children preferred "promise" to "will." Maltreated children exhibited a similar pattern of performance, but with delayed understanding that could be attributed to delays in vocabulary. The results support a modified oath for children: "Do you promise that you will tell the truth?". PMID:24127895

  16. Does Quantitative Research in Child Maltreatment Tell the Whole Story? The Need for Mixed-Methods Approaches to Explore the Effects of Maltreatment in Infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Samuel; Gajwani, Ruchika; Turner-Halliday, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims. Research on child maltreatment has largely overlooked the under-five age group and focuses primarily on quantitative measurement. This mixed-methods study of maltreated children (N = 92) entering care (age 6-60 months) combines a quantitative focus on the associations between care journey characteristics and mental health outcomes with a qualitative exploration of maltreatment in four different families. Methods. Care journey data was obtained from social care records; mental health and attachment assessments were carried out following entry to care; qualitative data comprised semistructured interviews with professionals, foster carers, and parents. Results. Significant associations were found between suspected sexual abuse and increased DAI inhibited attachment symptoms (p = 0.001) and between reported domestic violence and decreased DAI inhibited (p = 0.016) and disinhibited (p = 0.004) attachment symptoms. Qualitative results: two themes demonstrate the complexity of assessing maltreatment: (1) overlapping maltreatment factors occur in most cases and (2) maltreatment effects may be particularly challenging to isolate. Conclusions. Qualitative exploration has underscored the complexity of assessing maltreatment, indicating why expected associations were not found in this study and posing questions for the quantitative measurement of maltreatment in general. We therefore suggest a new categorisation of maltreatment and call for the complimentary research lenses of further mixed-methods approaches. PMID:27597984

  17. Long-Term Physical and Mental Health Consequences of Childhood Physical Abuse: Results from a Large Population-Based Sample of Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Kristen W.; Sheridan, Jennifer; Kuo, Daphne; Carnes, Molly

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Child maltreatment has been linked to negative adult health outcomes; however, much past research includes only clinical samples of women, focuses exclusively on sexual abuse and/or fails to control for family background and childhood characteristics, both potential confounders. Further research is needed to obtain accurate,…

  18. Invalidation: a central process underlying maltreatment of women with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassouneh-Phillips, Dena; McNeff, Elizabeth; Powers, Laurie; Curry, Mary Ann

    2005-01-01

    Recent qualitative studies indicate that maltreatment of women with disabilities by health care providers is a serious quality of care issue. To begin to address this problem, we conducted a secondary analysis of data derived from three qualitative studies of abuse of women with disabilities. Findings identified Invalidation as a central process underlying maltreatment. Invalidation was characterized by health care providers Taking Over care, Discounting, Objectifying, and Hurting women with disabilities during health care encounters. These findings highlight the need to educate health care providers about social and interpersonal aspects of disability and address the problem of Invalidation in health care settings. PMID:16048867

  19. Socioeconomic correlates of rates of child maltreatment in small communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Arieh, Asher

    2010-01-01

    This study expands the research on neighborhood effects and child maltreatment by examining the structural conditions, including religion and nationality, in small towns in Israel. The results are compared with those in inner-city and suburban neighborhoods in Western countries. Five community structural variables were statistically correlated with investigated cases of child maltreatment: adults' unemployment rate, rate of new immigrants, rate of children in single-parent families, population gain or loss, and the community's location in relation to a central city. A multivariate regression analysis of these variables explained 44% of the variance. PMID:20397995

  20. Joint Effect of Childhood Abuse and Family History of Major Depressive Disorder on Rates of PTSD in People with Personality Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Flory, Janine D.; Rachel Yehuda; Vincent Passarelli; Siever, Larry J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Childhood maltreatment and familial psychopathology both lead to an increased risk of the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adulthood. While family history of psychopathology has traditionally been viewed as a proxy for genetic predisposition, such pathology can also contribute to a stress-laden environment for the child. Method. Analyses were conducted to evaluate the joint effect of childhood abuse and a family history of major depressive disorder (MDD) on di...

  1. Commentary: The devastating effects of ignoring child maltreatment in psychiatry--a commentary on Teicher and Samson 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kolk, Bessel

    2016-03-01

    Despite the numerous studies over the past 30 years that have clarified the devastating effects of child maltreatment on mental and physical health, the role of trauma within the caregiving system remains unrecognized both in our diagnostic systems and in our dominant treatment paradigms. Research of people with histories of caregiver abuse and neglect consistently demonstrates problems with concentration, anger, panic, depression, food intake, drugs, and sleep, as well as decreased Heart RateVariability, higher levels of stress hormones, and reduced or impaired immune response. Their relationship between documented brain changes and psychopathology is complex. Traumatic life experiences during childhood and adolescence are far more common than expected. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that child maltreatment may be the most costly public health issue in the United States, Eradicating child abuse in America would reduce the overall rate of depression by more than half, alcoholism by two-thirds, and suicide, serious drug abuse, and domestic violence by three quarters. It would also have a significantly positive effect on workplace performance, and vastly decrease the need for incarceration. The current practice of applying multiple distinct comorbid diagnoses to traumatized children prevents a comprehensive treatment approach. Approaching their problems from a framework of memories of discreet traumatic ignores the fact that the damage affects the brain's neural circuitry and goes well beyond dealing with discrete painful events. Our great challenge is to learn to utilize the brain's neuroplasticity to reorganize defective brain circuits. PMID:26889892

  2. Oxytocin receptor gene polymorphism, perceived social support, and psychological symptoms in maltreated adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostinar, Camelia E; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A

    2014-05-01

    Despite the detrimental consequences of child maltreatment on developmental processes, some individuals show remarkable resilience, with few signs of psychopathology, while others succumb to dysfunction. Given that oxytocin has been shown to be involved in social affiliation, attachment, social support, trust, empathy, and other social or reproductive behaviors, we chose to examine the possible moderation of maltreatment effects on perceived social support and on psychological symptoms by a common single nucleotide polymorphism (rs53576) in the oxytocin receptor gene. We studied adolescents (N = 425) aged approximately 13-15, including participants with objectively documented maltreatment histories (N = 263) and a nonmaltreated comparison group from a comparable low socioeconomic status background (N = 162). There was a significant genotype by maltreatment interaction, such that maltreated adolescents with the G/G genotype perceived significantly lower social support compared to maltreated A-carriers, with no effect of genotype in the comparison group. Maltreated G/Gs also reported higher levels of internalizing symptoms than did A-carriers, even though they did not differ from them on objective measures of maltreatment (type, duration, or severity). G/G homozygotes may be more attuned to negative social experiences, such as family maltreatment, while maltreated A-carriers were indistinguishable from nonmaltreated adolescents in levels of mental health symptoms. PMID:24621832

  3. Teachers' Attitudes toward and Knowledge of Child Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, M.C.

    2004-01-01

    Objective:: The purpose of this study was to determine teachers' self-reported knowledge of the signs and symptoms of child maltreatment, reporting procedures, legal issues surrounding child abuse and their attitudes toward corporal punishment. In addition, a factor analysis was performed on the Educators and Child Abuse Questionnaire (ECAQ)…

  4. Influencing Teacher Attitudes and Knowledge about Child Maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Jerry B.; Richey, David Dean

    Child maltreatment, including physical, emotional, and sexual abuse as well as chronic neglect, is a growing problem in society and one that educators must understand and be prepared to address. In 1981, Tennessee Technological University was selected by the American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education to be one of 13 institutions across…

  5. Identification of ICD Codes Suggestive of Child Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzer, Patricia G.; Slusher, Paula L.; Kruse, Robin L.; Tarleton, Molly M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: In order to be reimbursed for the care they provide, hospitals in the United States are required to use a standard system to code all discharge diagnoses: the International Classification of Disease, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9). Although ICD-9 codes specific for child maltreatment exist, they do not identify all…

  6. Costs and Effectiveness of Interventions in Child Maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubowitz, Howard

    1990-01-01

    The paper reviews cost-effectiveness evaluations of child maltreatment interventions. Though methodologically sound research is limited, existing research suggests that home health visitors, lay group counseling, and family and group therapy are promising interventions. Medical foster care substantially reduces costs, but its effectiveness has not…

  7. Psychological Maltreatment in the Context of Separation and Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosinski, Gunther

    1993-01-01

    This article examines effects of separation and divorce on children in the context of possible psychological maltreatment. Common behavior patterns of children in this situation are discussed in terms of those that are acceptable and those that must be considered harmful. (Author/DB)

  8. Unacceptable Risk Factors in Child Maltreatment: Formulations from Caseworkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRoma, Virginia; Bingley, Christy; Kessler, Maria Lynn; Merino, Cesar

    2005-01-01

    Approximately one million children are victims of maltreatment are assessed and placed in the child welfare system. The purpose of the current study was to identify caseworker perceptions of (a) reasons for youth removal from a home environment and (b) the parameters of intolerable problem categories that prompt such decisions. Four categories of…

  9. Distinguishing between Poor/Dysfunctional Parenting and Child Emotional Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, David A.; McIsaac, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This paper was intended to distinguish between poor parenting and child emotional maltreatment (CEM), to inform child welfare and public health policymakers of the need for differentiated responses. Methods: Scientific literature was integrated with current practice and assumptions relating to poor/dysfunctional parenting and child…

  10. Attributing Responsibility for Child Maltreatment when Domestic Violence Is Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsman, Miriam J.; Hartley, Carolyn Copps

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine factors that influence how child welfare workers attribute responsibility for child maltreatment and child safety in cases involving domestic violence. Methods: The study used a factorial survey approach, combining elements of survey research with an experimental design. Case vignettes were…

  11. Munchausen by Proxy (MBP) Maltreatment: An International Educational Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasher, Louisa J.

    2003-01-01

    This article is an introduction to a special section on Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy (MSBP) as a form of child maltreatment. In MSBP the perpetrator has deliberately induced, fabricated, or exaggerated a physical and/or psychological-behavioral-mental health problem in another. The article stresses the importance of obtaining an MSBP finding of…

  12. The Association between Maltreatment and Obesity among Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, Robert C.; Phillips, Shannon M.; Orzol, Sean M.; Burdette, Hillary L.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether child maltreatment is associated with obesity in preschool children. Methods: Data were obtained from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a birth cohort study of 4898 children born between 1998 and 2000 in 20 large US cities. At 3 years of age, 2412 of these children had their height and weight measured,…

  13. Preventing child maltreatment: An evidence-based update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Child maltreatment is a significant public health problem associated with a broad range of negative outcomes in children and adolescents that can extend into adulthood. This review summarizes information about programs aimed at the prevention of child maltreatment evaluated by controlled trials, with a focus on home visitation programs. It does not include programs aimed at prevention of child sexual abuse, the subject of a separate review in this series. We discuss those programs that include one or more measures of child maltreatment and related outcomes (reports of abuse and neglect, injuries, hospitalizations and emergency room visits. Most programs targeting at-risk families have not shown evidence of effectiveness in preventing abuse or neglect. An important exception is the Nurse Family Partnership (NFP, a program provided by nurses to first-time socially disadvantaged mothers beginning prenatally that has undergone rigorous evaluation in three randomized controlled trials. It has shown consistent effects in reducing reports of maltreatment and associated outcomes as well as additional benefits in maternal and child health in high-risk families. A second exception is the promising Early Start program provided by nurses and social workers to at-risk families beginning postnatally. One randomized controlled trial of the program has shown reduced rates of parental reports of severe abuse and hospital attendance for injuries and poisonings, based on records. The characteristics of the NFP and Early Start programs are discussed with special emphasis on ways in which they differ from other home visitation programs.

  14. Infant Placement in Canadian Child Maltreatment-Related Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonmyr, Lil; Williams, Gabriela; Jack, Susan M.; MacMillan, Harriet L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined factors associated with decisions in favour of out-of-home placement following investigations involving infants at risk of maltreatment. We used data from a sample of children less than 1 year of age (n = 763) investigated by child welfare services across Canada in 2003. We tested unadjusted relationships with placement using…

  15. Who Completes Child Maltreatment Prevention Programs? Data Trends #153

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research and Training Center on Family Support and Children's Mental Health, 2008

    2008-01-01

    "Data Trends" reports present summaries of research on mental health services for children and adolescents and their families. The article summarized in this "Data Trends" describes child maltreatment prevention programs designed to increase protective factors and decrease risk factors in families who may otherwise succumb to child abuse and…

  16. Identifying Children at High Risk for a Child Maltreatment Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubowitz, Howard; Kim, Jeongeun; Black, Maureen M.; Weisbart, Cindy; Semiatin, Joshua; Magder, Laurence S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To help professionals identify factors that place families at risk for future child maltreatment, to facilitate necessary services and to potentially help prevent abuse and neglect. Method: The data are from a prospective, longitudinal study of 332 low-income families recruited from urban pediatric primary care clinics, followed for…

  17. Understanding and Treating Children Who Experience Interpersonal Maltreatment: Empirical Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, David M.

    2009-01-01

    Child maltreatment (CM) is a major health problem in U. S. society, with 872,000 substantiated cases reported in 2004 and unofficial rates ranging from 2 to 10 million cases per year. Depending on the severity, CM can negatively affect a child's physical, emotional, and psychological functioning and development immediately following an abuse…

  18. Britain exhibition at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Bertin; CERN PhotoLab

    1969-01-01

    The United Kingdom inaugurated the Industrial Exhibitions in 1968, and it wasn't till 1971 that other countries staged exhibitions at CERN. This photo was taken in 1969, at the second British exhibition, where 16 companies were present.

  19. Childhood Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Aydın, Ahmet; Koca, Fahrettin; Fıçıcıoğlu, Can; Çam, Halit; Mıkla, Şerare

    1995-01-01

    Management of childhood obesity and its early and late complications are among the most difficult problems confronted by pediatricians and practitioners The purpose of this review is to provide information for the evaluation and treatment of childhood obesity Key nbsp;words: nbsp;Child Obesity Etiology Management Complications

  20. MAOA Alters the Effects of Heavy Drinking and Childhood Physical Abuse on Risk for Severe Impulsive Acts of Violence Among Alcoholic Violent Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikkanen, Roope; Ducci, Francesca; Goldman, David; Holi, Matti; Lindberg, Nina; Tiihonen, Jari; Virkkunen, Matti

    2011-01-01

    Background A polymorphism in the promoter region of the monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) has been shown to alter the effect of persistent drinking and childhood maltreatment on the risk for violent and antisocial behaviors. These findings indicate that MAOA could contribute to inter-individual differences in stress resiliency. Methods Recidivism in severe violent crimes was assessed after 8 years of nonincarcerated follow-up in a male sample of 174 impulsive Finnish alcoholic violent offenders, the majority of whom exhibited antisocial (ASPD) or borderline personality disorder (BPD) or both. We examined whether MAOA genotype alters the effects of heavy drinking and childhood physical abuse (CPA) on the risk for committing impulsive recidivistic violent crimes. Results Logistic regression analyses showed that both heavy drinking and CPA were significant independent predictors of recidivism in violent behavior (OR 5.2, p = 0.004 and OR 5.3, p = 0.003) among offenders having the high MAOA activity genotype (MAOA-H), but these predictors showed no effect among offenders carrying the low MAOA activity genotype (MAOA-L). Conclusion Carriers of the MAOA-H allele have a high risk to commit severe recidivistic impulsive violent crimes after exposure to heavy drinking and CPA. PMID:20201935

  1. Development and Initial Psychometric Properties of the Computer Assisted Maltreatment Inventory (CAMI): A Comprehensive Self-Report Measure of Child Maltreatment History

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiLillo, David; Hayes-Skelton, Sarah A.; Fortier, Michelle A.; Perry, Andrea R.; Evans, Sarah E.; Messman Moore, Terri L.; Walsh, Kate; Nash, Cindy; Fauchier, Angele

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The present study reports on the development and initial psychometric properties of the Computer Assisted Maltreatment Inventory (CAMI), a web-based self-report measure of child maltreatment history, including sexual and physical abuse, exposure to interparental violence, psychological abuse, and neglect. Methods: The CAMI was…

  2. Using Routinely Collected Hospital Data for Child Maltreatment Surveillance: Issues, Methods and Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Debbie A

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background International data on child maltreatment are largely derived from child protection agencies, and predominantly report only substantiated cases of child maltreatment. This approach underestimates the incidence of maltreatment and makes inter-jurisdictional comparisons difficult. There has been a growing recognition of the importance of health professionals in identifying, documenting and reporting suspected child maltreatment. This study aimed to describe the issues around case identification using coded morbidity data, outline methods for selecting and grouping relevant codes, and illustrate patterns of maltreatment identified. Methods A comprehensive review of the ICD-10-AM classification system was undertaken, including review of index terms, a free text search of tabular volumes, and a review of coding standards pertaining to child maltreatment coding. Identified codes were further categorised into maltreatment types including physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional or psychological abuse, and neglect. Using these code groupings, one year of Australian hospitalisation data for children under 18 years of age was examined to quantify the proportion of patients identified and to explore the characteristics of cases assigned maltreatment-related codes. Results Less than 0.5% of children hospitalised in Australia between 2005 and 2006 had a maltreatment code assigned, almost 4% of children with a principal diagnosis of a mental and behavioural disorder and over 1% of children with an injury or poisoning as the principal diagnosis had a maltreatment code assigned. The patterns of children assigned with definitive T74 codes varied by sex and age group. For males selected as having a maltreatment-related presentation, physical abuse was most commonly coded (62.6% of maltreatment cases while for females selected as having a maltreatment-related presentation, sexual abuse was the most commonly assigned form of maltreatment (52.9% of

  3. Measuring health-related quality of life for child maltreatment: a systematic literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prosser Lisa A

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Child maltreatment causes substantial morbidity and mortality in the U.S. Morbidity associated with child maltreatment can reduce health-related quality of life. Accurately measuring the reduction in quality of life associated with child maltreatment is essential to the economic evaluation of educational programs and interventions to reduce the incidence of child maltreatment. The objective of this study was to review the literature for existing approaches and instruments for measuring quality-of-life for child maltreatment outcomes. Methods We reviewed the current literature to identify current approaches to valuing child maltreatment outcomes for economic evaluations. We also reviewed available preference-based generic QOL instruments (EQ-5D, HUI, QWB, SF-6D for appropriateness in measuring change in quality of life due to child maltreatment. Results We did not identify any studies that directly evaluated quality-of-life in maltreated children. We identified 4 studies that evaluated quality of life for adult survivors of child maltreatment and 8 studies that measured quality-of-life for pediatric injury not related to child maltreatment. No study reported quality-of-life values for children younger than age 3. Currently available preference-based QOL instruments (EQ-5D, HUI, QWB, SF-6D have been developed primarily for adults with the exception of the Health Utilities Index. These instruments do not include many of the domains identified as being important in capturing changes in quality of life for child maltreatment, such as potential for growth and development or psychological sequelae specific to maltreatment. Conclusion Recommendations for valuing preference-based quality-of-life for child maltreatment will vary by developmental level and type of maltreatment. In the short-term, available multi-attribute utility instruments should be considered in the context of the type of child maltreatment being measured. However

  4. Child maltreatment among boy and girl probationers: Does type of maltreatment make a difference in offending behavior and psychosocial problems?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.E. van der Put; N. Lanctot; C. de Ruiter; E. van Vugt

    2015-01-01

    This study examined differences in offending behavior and psychosocial problems between juvenile offenders who have been sexually abused (n = 231), physically abused (n = 1,568), neglected (n = 1,555), exposed to multiple forms of maltreatment (n = 1,767), and non-victims (n = 8,492). In addition, t

  5. Experience by children and adolescents of more than one type of maltreatment: Association of different classes of maltreatment profiles with clinical outcome variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Andreas; Münzer, Annika; Ganser, Helene G; Fegert, Jörg M; Goldbeck, Lutz; Plener, Paul L

    2016-07-01

    Most victims of child abuse have experienced more than one type of maltreatment, yet there is a lack of understanding of the impact of specific combinations of types of maltreatment. This study aimed to identify meaningful classes of maltreatment profiles and to associate them with short-term clinical outcomes. A total of 358 German children and adolescents aged 4-17 with a known history of child maltreatment were included in the study. Through interviews and questionnaires, information was obtained from participants and their primary caregivers on history of maltreatment, sociodemographics, psychopathology, level of psychosocial functioning, and health-related quality of life. Types of abuse were categorized into six major groups: sexual abuse in general, sexual abuse with penetration, physical abuse, emotional abuse, neglect, and exposure to domestic violence. A latent class analysis (LCA) was performed to determine distinct multi-type maltreatment profiles, which were then assessed for their associations with the sociodemographic and clinical outcome variables. The LCA revealed that participants could be categorized into three meaningful classes according to history of maltreatment: (1) experience of multiple types of maltreatment excluding sexual abuse (63.1%), (2) experience of multiple types of maltreatment including sexual abuse (26.5%), and (3) experience of predominantly sexual abuse (10.3%). Members of Class 2 showed significantly worse short-term outcomes on psychopathology, level of functioning, and quality of life compared to the other classes. Three distinct profiles of multiple types of maltreatment were empirically identified in this sample. Exposure to multiple types of abuse was associated with poorer outcomes. PMID:27254375

  6. Diagnosis on Exhibition Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Manman

    2010-01-01

    @@ China's exhibition industry, often renowned as the locomotive of the tertiary industry, has developed rapidly in recent years and has become the sunrise industry and gets much concern. However, in exhibition industry circles in China, there is a saying being passed around "rushed exhibitions with bad service, property rights protection is badly needed; a low threshold with high demand, and 5 out of 10 exhibitions are disorganized." This jingle reflects many problems that currently exist in the exhibition industry in China.

  7. Frequency of child maltreatment in a representative sample of the German population

    OpenAIRE

    Iffland, Benjamin; Brähler, Elmar; Neuner, Frank; Häuser, Winfried; Glaesmer, Heide

    2013-01-01

    Background Representative data about the frequency of child maltreatment is needed in order to estimate the extent of the problem in the wider population as well as to provide the basis for interpretation of frequency rates in clinical samples. However, previous representative studies on the frequency of child maltreatment in Germany and other countries were limited as they focused on the assessment of physical and sexual abuse whilst emotional forms of maltreatment were ignored. In addit...

  8. Examination of the Relationship Between Parental Satisfaction and Child Maltreatment Potential While Considering Social Desirability

    OpenAIRE

    Bradshaw, Kelsey Michael; Donohue, Brad; Cross, Chad; Urgelles, Jessica; Allen, Daniel N.

    2011-01-01

    Parental dissatisfaction with children appears to be associated with child maltreatment. However, little is known regarding the specific domains of parental dissatisfaction that may increase child maltreatment potential, particularly in perpetrators of child maltreatment where substance abuse is present. In this study, responses to the Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAPI) and a scale measuring parental satisfaction in 11 domains were examined in a sample of 82 mothers who were referred for ...

  9. Nature × nurture: Genetic vulnerabilities interact with physical maltreatment to promote conduct problems

    OpenAIRE

    Jaffee, Sara R.; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Rutter, Michael,; Taylor, Alan; Tully, Lucy A.

    2005-01-01

    Maltreatment places children at risk for psychiatric morbidity, especially conduct problems. However, not all maltreated children develop conduct problems. We tested whether the effect of physical maltreatment on risk for conduct problems was strongest among those who were at high genetic risk for these problems using data from the E-risk Study, a representative cohort of 1,116 5-year-old British twin pairs and their families. Children's conduct problems were ascertained via parent and teache...

  10. Impact of physical maltreatment on the regulation of negative affect and aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Shackman, Jessica E.; Pollak, Seth D.

    2014-01-01

    Physically maltreated children are at risk for developing externalizing behavioral problems characterized by reactive aggression. The current experiment tested the relationships between individual differences in a neural index of social information processing, histories of child maltreatment, child negative affect, and aggressive behavior. Fifty boys (17 maltreated) performed an emotion recognition task while the P3b component of the event-related potential was recorded to index attention all...

  11. Maltreated Children’s Understanding of and Emotional Reactions to Dependency Court Involvement

    OpenAIRE

    Quas, Jodi A.; Wallin, Allison R.; Horwitz, Briana; Davis, Elizabeth; Lyon, Thomas D.

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about the extent to which maltreated children understand what is happening during their participation in court proceedings, despite large numbers of children coming into contact with the legal system as victims of maltreatment. In the present study, maltreated 4- to 15- year-olds were interviewed about their understanding of dependency court on the day of their scheduled court visit. Their feelings about attending their hearings were also assessed, and after their hearing, the...

  12. Characteristics of Child Maltreatment and Adolescent Marijuana Use: A Prospective Study

    OpenAIRE

    Dubowitz, Howard; Thompson, Richard; Arria, Amelia M.; English, Diana; Metzger, Richard; Kotch, Jonathan B

    2015-01-01

    There has been increasing acceptance of marijuana use in the US in recent years, and rates among adolescents have risen. At the same time, marijuana use during adolescence has been linked to an array of health and social problems. Maltreated children are at risk for marijuana use, but the relationships among characteristics of maltreatment and marijuana use are unclear. In this paper we examine how the type and the extent of maltreatment are related to the level of adolescent marijuana use. D...

  13. Childhood Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells. It is the most common type of childhood cancer. ... blood cells help your body fight infection. In leukemia, the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood cells. ...

  14. Coverage of child maltreatment in abnormal psychology textbooks: Reviewing the adequacy of the content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilgus, Sam J; Packer, Mary M; Lile-King, Rachel; Miller-Perrin, Cindy L; Brand, Bethany L

    2016-03-01

    Abnormal psychology courses introduce undergraduate students to the range, causes, and treatments of psychological disorders. These courses present important opportunities to instruct students about disorders and treatments associated with childhood maltreatment (CM) as well as its prevalence. Little research has examined the adequacy with which abnormal psychology textbooks present information about CM. The present study reviewed the CM content of 10 abnormal psychology textbooks. The content was assessed in terms of the number of times CM was mentioned, the number of psychological disorders linked to CM, and the number of CM-related research citations. In addition, the authors conducted a content analysis to examine the significance, depth of detail, and organizational structure of the information provided within the sections of text addressing CM. There were significant differences in scores and the accuracy of coverage of CM across textbooks. Most of the textbooks lack key information on CM. The information presented in many textbooks is not consistent with current research and is overly focused on controversies. These findings are concerning because research has linked many psychological disorders and problematic outcomes to CM, but this information is not adequately conveyed to students via abnormal psychology textbooks. The authors make recommendations for improving the coverage of CM in abnormal psychology textbooks. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26010115

  15. The cycle of violence: examining the impact of maltreatment early in life on adult offending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reckdenwald, Amy; Mancini, Christina; Beauregard, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Over the last two decades, considerable scholarly attention has been directed toward explaining the "cycle of violence"-a phenomenon whereby victimization and offending appear inexorably linked to one another. Extant work has greatly contributed to our understanding of this cycle for different types of abuse and different types of offending, such as sex offending. The link between sexual abuse and later offending cannot be overstated, with research suggesting the impact of sexual abuse on sex offending to be more pronounced than any other type of abuse. However, in the literature, questions remain regarding sex offenders' patterns of offending. Specifically, it remains unclear whether type of abuse experienced has a differential impact on type of offending in adulthopd. Using retrospective data from sexual offenders in a Canadian penitentiary, we address this research gap by examining the impact of abuse experienced during childhood and adolescence on various types of offending in adulthood. Results indicate partial support for the cycle of violence hypothesis-the extent of criminal involvement can be explained as being a consequence of prior maltreatment; however, findings also suggest refinements to the theory, because the influence of type of abuse varies depending on the type of offending examined. Research and policy implications are discussed. PMID:23862310

  16. Maltreatment and mental health in institutional care--comparing early and late institutionalized children in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermenau, Katharin; Hecker, Tobias; Elbert, Thomas; Ruf-Leuschner, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown the harmful potential of institutional care on young children; however, little is known about the consequences of institutional care on infants in Sub-Saharan Africa. We compared 35 Tanzanian children who were institutionalized at birth to 4 years of age with a matched group of 35 children who were institutionalized at 5 to 14 years of age. We examined adverse childhood experiences over the course of their entire lives, in their family of origin and in institutional care, and mental health problems at primary school age, such as depressive symptoms, aggressive behavior, and internalizing and externalizing problems. Results showed that early institutionalized children reported more adverse experiences during their time in institutional care and a greater variety of mental health problems than did late institutionalized children. Moreover, maltreatment in institutional care was positively related to mental health problems only in early institutionalized children. We conclude that adverse experiences in institutional care play an important role for early institutionalized children who need special care from adequately educated caregivers. Therefore, training concepts focusing on the needs of the youngest children have to be developed, tested, and established. Countries such as Tanzania need policies that apply to all orphanages to ensure an adequate standard of quality in childcare. PMID:25798516

  17. Childhood leukaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The debate on whether there is any link between leukaemia clusters and nuclear installations has been raging since the early eighties. A Government Inquiry found no link between childhood leukaemia and residence near Seascale, an area near British Nuclear Fuels Sellafield plant. Research in the 1980s linked childhood leukaemia to fathers' occupations prior to conception in the Seascale plant but also to workers in the iron, steel, farming and chemical industries. This article reviews research findings to date. (UK)

  18. Appetitive aggression and adverse childhood experiences shape violent behavior in females formerly associated with combat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareike eAugsburger

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the impact of violent experiences during childhood, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD and appetitive aggression on everyday violent behavior in Burundian females with varying participation in war. Moreover, group differences in trauma-related and aggression variables were expected. Appetitive aggression describes the perception of violence perpetration as fascinating and appealing and is a common phenomenon in former combatants. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 157 females, either former combatants, supporters of armed forces or civilians during the civil war in Burundi. The PTSD Symptom Scale Interview was used to assess PTSD symptom severity, the Appetitive Aggression Scale to measure appetitive aggression and the Domestic and Community Violence Checklist to assess both childhood maltreatment and recent aggressive behavior. Former combatants had experienced more traumatic events, perpetrated more violence and reported higher levels of appetitive aggression than supporters and civilians. They also suffered more severely from PTSD symptoms than civilians but not than supporters. The groups did not differ regarding childhood maltreatment. Both appetitive aggression and childhood violence predicted ongoing aggressive behavior, whereas the latter outperformed PTSD symptom severity. These findings support current research showing that adverse childhood experiences and a positive attitude towards aggression serve as the basis for aggressive behavior and promote an ongoing cycle of violence in post-conflict regions. Female members of armed groups are in need of demobilization procedures including trauma-related care and interventions addressing appetitive aggression.

  19. Digital collections and exhibits

    CERN Document Server

    Denzer, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Today's libraries are taking advantage of cutting-edge technologies such as flat panel displays using touch, sound, and hands-free motions to design amazing exhibits using everything from simple computer hardware to advanced technologies such as the Microsoft Kinect. Libraries of all types are striving to add new interactive experiences for their patrons through exciting digital exhibits, both online and off. Digital Collections and Exhibits takes away the mystery of designing stunning digital exhibits to spotlight library trea

  20. Ethics on Exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vick, Randy M.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses ethical questions raised by an exhibition of work by an artist with a history of mental illness and the exhibition's relevance to art therapy and “outsider art” discourse on the subject. Considerations for how such an exhibit could be handled had the circumstances included an art therapist and art therapy client are…

  1. The Co-occurrence of child and intimate partner maltreatment in the family: characteristics of the violent perpetrators

    OpenAIRE

    Dixon, Louise; Hamilton-Giachritsis, Catherine; BROWNE, Kevin; Ostapuik, Eugene

    2007-01-01

    This study considers the characteristics associated with mothers and fathers who maltreat their child and each other in comparison to parents who only maltreat their child. One hundred and sixty-two parents who had allegations of child maltreatment made against them were considered. The sample consisted of 43 fathers (Paternal Family—PF) and 23 mothers (Maternal Family—MF) who perpetrated both partner and child maltreatment, together with 23 fathers (Paternal Child—PC) and 26 mothers (Materna...

  2. How do Teachers Diagnosis and Percept Child Maltreatment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behshid Garrusi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse is a complex problem and its prevention requires action on many fronts. Teachers do spend many hours a day with children and they are likely to be concerned about the possible abuse or neglect of a child or young person at some time during their career This study seeks to determine teacher knowledge and teachers' conceptions of what is and what is not abuse. The study was done in Iran (I.R.. Questionnaire were used on a randomly selected sample of 1200 teachers. Data analysis showed a significant difference knowledge based on educational level. Knowledge score of participants had positive direct relation with their job experience. In regard to the attitude, there was no significant difference in attitude score based on various features of participants. Result from this study indicate that teachers do not have adequate knowledge and proper attitude regarding child maltreatment. Advocating of educational program about child maltreatment is necessary.

  3. The prevalence of child maltreatment in the Netherlands across a 5-year period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euser, Saskia; Alink, Lenneke R A; Pannebakker, Fieke; Vogels, Ton; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; Van IJzendoorn, Marinus H

    2013-10-01

    The prevalence of child maltreatment in the Netherlands was in 2005 first systematically examined in the Netherlands' Prevalence study on Maltreatment of children and youth (NPM-2005), using sentinel reports and substantiated CPS cases, and in the Pupils on Abuse study (PoA-2005), using high school students' self-report. In this second National Prevalence study on Maltreatment (NPM-2010), we used the same three methods to examine the prevalence of child maltreatment in 2010, enabling a cross-time comparison of the prevalence of child maltreatment in the Netherlands. First, 1,127 professionals from various occupational branches (sentinels) reported each child for whom they suspected child maltreatment during a period of three months. Second, we included 22,661 substantiated cases reported in 2010 to the Dutch Child Protective Services. Third, 1,920 high school students aged 12-17 years filled out a questionnaire on their experiences of maltreatment in 2010. The overall prevalence of child maltreatment in the Netherlands in 2010 was 33.8 per 1,000 children based on the combined sentinel and CPS reports and 99.4 per 1,000 adolescents based on self-report. Major risk factors for child maltreatment were parental low education, immigrant status, unemployment, and single parenthood. We found a large increase in CPS-reports, whereas prevalence rates based on sentinel and self-report did not change between 2005 and 2010. Based on these findings a likely conclusion is that the actual number of maltreated children has not increased from 2005 to 2010, but that professionals have become more aware of child maltreatment, and more likely to report cases to CPS. PMID:23938018

  4. A League Table of Child Maltreatment Deaths in Rich Nations

    OpenAIRE

    UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre

    2003-01-01

    This report represents the first ever attempt to draw a comparative picture of the physical abuse of children in the 27 richest nations of the world. UNICEF research estimates that almost 3,500 children under the age of 15 die from physical abuse and neglect every year in the industrialized world. The greatest risk is among younger children. A small group of countries - Spain, Greece, Italy, Ireland and Norway - appear to have an exceptionally low incidence of child maltreatment deaths; Belgi...

  5. Cognitive Modeling for Agent-Based Simulation of Child Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaolin; Puddy, Richard

    This paper extends previous work to develop cognitive modeling for agent-based simulation of child maltreatment (CM). The developed model is inspired from parental efficacy, parenting stress, and the theory of planned behavior. It provides an explanatory, process-oriented model of CM and incorporates causality relationship and feedback loops from different factors in the social ecology in order for simulating the dynamics of CM. We describe the model and present simulation results to demonstrate the features of this model.

  6. Reducing Sibling Conflict in Maltreated Children Placed in Foster Homes

    OpenAIRE

    Linares, L. Oriana; Jimenez, Jessica; Nesci, Cristina; Pearson, Eva; Beller, Sarah; Edwards, Nancy; Levin-Rector, Alison

    2015-01-01

    Sibling aggression among maltreated children placed in foster homes is linked to other externalizing problems and placement disruption. The reduction of sibling conflict and aggression may be achieved via a multicomponent ecologically focused intervention for families in the foster care system. The focus of the study is to evaluate the feasibility and short-term effectiveness of a transtheoretical intervention model targeting sibling pairs and their foster parent that integrates family system...

  7. Child Maltreatment and Delinquency Onset Among African American Adolescent Males

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, James Herbert; Van Dorn, Richard A.; Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Nebbitt, Von E.

    2009-01-01

    Child welfare and criminology research have increasingly sought to better understand factors that increase the likelihood that abused and neglected children will become involved in the juvenile justice system. However, few studies have addressed this relationship among African American male adolescents. The current study examines the relationship between child maltreatment (i.e., neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and other/mixed abuse) and the likelihood of a delinquency petition using a...

  8. Consequences of child maltreatment in society and implementation of new prevention policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedat Kargin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Child maltreatment is a global societal concern with serious consequences for all the nations. While severe child maltreatment catches the attention of child protection services and is brought up to the courts for punishment, there are hidden forms of abuse that are difficult to notice and hence, the predators of such offenses continue to violate the innocence of children over a long period of time. Turkey has to work twice as hard on this issue not only because of the structure of the child protection agencies but also because of the policies and strategies that are in need of revising so that the abusers will get the punishment that they deserve. In order to prevent child abuse it is vital to have parent education programs. This is simply because in our society parents usually see “spare the rod and spoil the child” as a philosophy in the child’s upbringing. If the child is abused at home or by close relatives, a place of intervention might be the school environment. At child at school might exhibit aggressive behaviors or signs of abuse that should alert teachers and school administrators that abuse has taken place. If the educators suspect of abuse they should contact legal authorities to take legal action. Having an informed staff in school is only possible by having a school based intervention program. If the aim is to stop the abuse before it happens then the programs discussed in this paper is definitely a huge leap in the right direction.

  9. The Effects of Parental Psychopathology and Maltreatment on Child Behavior: A Test of the Dianthesis-Stress Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Elaine; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined effects of parental psychopathology and maltreatment on behavior of 102 children with mean ages of 9.75 years. Parental psychiatric status and maltreatment interacted significantly, so that offspring of schizophrenic parents from maltreating families showed increases in externalized behavior problems over time. (RJC)

  10. Community-Level Approaches to Child Maltreatment Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Beth E; Beatriz, Elizabeth D; Beardslee, William R

    2016-10-01

    Often the focus of the field of child maltreatment has concentrated on identifying and intervening on risk and protective factors at the individual and family levels; however, since the 1970s, the important roles that communities play in both exacerbating and preventing child maltreatment have received attention as well. This article outlines the development of this area of scientific inquiry, describes the theoretical frameworks utilized by existing programs, and describes several community-level programs aimed at preventing child maltreatment that show promise as scalable strategies to enhance individual and family strengths and reduce caregiver stress. Challenges inherent in community-level programming in increasingly diverse environments and in building/maintaining political will for sustainability of evidence-based efforts are discussed as well. A multilevel, holistic approach that takes into account developmental changes and needs of individuals as well as their environments is likely to bring about more sustainable change in protecting children from abuse and neglect than efforts focused solely on individuals. PMID:27580664

  11. The developmental consequence of different patterns of maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egeland, B; Sroufe, L A; Erickson, M

    1983-01-01

    From a longitudinal study of 267 high risk families, four different patterns of maltreatment were identified. The mothers have been tested, interviewed and observed in a number of situations starting during the last trimester of pregnancy and continuing at regularly scheduled intervals through the preschool period. The four maltreatment groups were: physical abuse; hostile/verbally abusive; psychologically unavailable; and neglecting. A control group of mothers who provided adequate care was selected from the remaining high risk sample. In an earlier follow-up, among the maltreated children a disproportionately large number of infants were found to be anxiously attached to their mothers at 12 and 18 months, and their performance in a problem-solving situation at age two was poor. In the current follow-up, the children were videotaped at 42 months in a "barrier box" and teaching situation, and at 56 months they were observed in a preschool situation. The physically abused children were distractible, lacked persistence, ego control and enthusiasm, and experienced considerable negative emotion. The children whose mothers were psychologically unavailable showed marked increases in maladaptive patterns of functioning from infancy through preschool. As expected, they were avoidant of their mother, angry, noncompliant, and they were highly dependent. The neglected children had the most difficulty pulling themselves together to deal with various tasks. They lacked self-esteem and agency necessary to cope with their environment. PMID:6686797

  12. Child maltreatment and educational attainment in young adulthood: results from the Ontario Child Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Masako; Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H; MacMillan, Harriet L

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence for the adverse effects of child maltreatment on academic performance; however, most of these studies used selective samples and did not account for potential confounding or mediating factors. We examined the relationship between child physical abuse (PA; severe and non-severe) and sexual abuse (SA) and educational attainment (years of education, failure to graduate from high school) with a Canadian community sample. We used data from the Ontario Child Health Study (N = 1,893), a province-wide longitudinal survey. Potential confounding variables (family socio-demographic and parental capacity) and child-level characteristics were assessed in 1983, and child abuse was determined in 2000-2001 based on retrospective self-report. Results showed that PA and SA were associated with several factors indicative of social disadvantage in childhood. Multilevel regression analyses for years of education revealed a significant estimate for severe PA based on the unadjusted model (-0.60 years, 95% CI = [-0.45, -0.76]); estimates for non-severe PA (0.05 years, CI = [-0.15, 0.26]) and SA (-0.25 years, CI = [-0.09, -0.42]) were not significant. In the adjusted full model, the only association to reach significance was between severe PA and reduced years of education (-0.31 years, CI = [-0.18, -0.44]). Multilevel regression analyses for failure to graduate from high school showed significant unadjusted estimates for severe PA (OR = 1.77, 95% CI = [1.21, 2.58]) and non-severe PA (OR = 1.61, CI = [1.01, 2.57]); SA was not associated with this outcome (OR = 1.40, CI = [0.94, 2.07]). In the adjusted full models, there were no significant associations between child abuse variables and failure to graduate. The magnitude of effect of PA on both outcomes was reduced largely by child individual characteristics. These findings generally support earlier research, indicating the adverse effects of child maltreatment on educational attainment. Of particular note

  13. Going Through the Rites of Passage: Timing and Transition of Menarche, Childhood Sexual Abuse, and Anxiety Symptoms in Girls

    OpenAIRE

    Natsuaki, Misaki N.; Leve, Leslie D.; Mendle, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Menarche is a discrete, transitional event that holds considerable personal, social, biological, and developmental significance. The present longitudinal study examined both the transition and timing of menarche on the trajectory of anxiety in girls with histories of childhood maltreatment (N = 93; 63% European American, 14% multiracial, 10% Latino, 9% African American, and 4% Native American). We hypothesized that because menarche is a novel, unfamiliar experience, girls would show greater a...

  14. Gender-specific linkages of parents’ childhood physical abuse and neglect with children’s problem behaviour: evidence from Japan

    OpenAIRE

    OSHIO, Takashi; Umeda, Maki

    2016-01-01

    Background Childhood abuse has far-reaching effects, not only for survivors of maltreatment but also for subsequent generations. However, the mechanism of such intergenerational linkages has not been fully explored. This study investigated this linkage with special reference to its gender-specific features. Methods A dataset of parents and their children, obtained from a cross-sectional survey in the Tokyo metropolitan area of Japan, was used. The study sample consisted of 1750 children aged ...

  15. Exhibiting Mozart: Rethinking Biography

    OpenAIRE

    Spring, Ulrike

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: The article analyses the new permanent exhibition in the composer Wolfgang A. Mozart’s apartment in Vienna, opened in 2006, from the curator’s perspective. The exhibition presents an approach to biographical display in which the exhibited person becomes part of a multifaceted web of contexts, and the article argues for the active deployment of the polysemic character of objects as a means of grasping the complexity of a person’s biography. Presenting a concept for the...

  16. 4 Exhibition Centers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    China's convention and exhibition industry has grown rapidly in recent years, with some of the nation's key cities becoming hubs of internationally renowned expositions, spurred by the construction of new exhibition centers.In 2003, a total of 3,298 conventions and exhibitions were held in China, up from 3,075 in the previous year. The number is estimated to have hit 4,000 in 2004.

  17. A Better Start: Child Maltreatment Prevention as a Public Health Priority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, Francie; Mercy, James A.

    2010-01-01

    Child abuse prevention programs have historically focused on individual and family dynamics rather than community-based or societal strategies to prevent child maltreatment. Recently, there has been a growing recognition of the importance of communitywide efforts to prevent child maltreatment before abuse or neglect occurs by offering a continuum…

  18. Parenting Stress Mediates between Maternal Maltreatment History and Maternal Sensitivity in a Community Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Jessica; Vickers, Kristin; Atkinson, Leslie; Gonzalez, Andrea; Wekerle, Christine; Levitan, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Maternal maltreatment history and current parenting stress are associated with parenting difficulties. However, researchers have not investigated the mechanism by which these variables are interlinked. We hypothesized that parenting stress mediates the relation between history of maltreatment and parenting behavior. Methods: We assessed…

  19. Parenting Attitudes, Family Environments, Depression, and Anxiety in Caregivers of Maltreated Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennen, Ferol E.; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated parenting attitudes, family environments, depression, and anxiety in a sample of primarily minority urban mothers to better understand maltreating mothers (n = 83), who retain custody of their children and how they are similar to and different from foster mothers (n = 50), kin caregivers (n = 52) of maltreated children, and…

  20. Child Maltreatment Fatalities in Children under 5: Findings from the National Violence Death Reporting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klevens, Joanne; Leeb, Rebecca T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To describe the distribution of child maltreatment fatalities of children under 5 by age, sex, race/ethnicity, type of maltreatment, and relationship to alleged perpetrator using data from the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS). Study design: Two independent coders reviewed information from death certificates, medical…

  1. Impact of Child Maltreatment on Attachment and Social Rank Systems: Introducing an Integrated Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloman, Leon; Taylor, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Child maltreatment is a prevalent societal problem that has been linked to a wide range of social, psychological, and emotional difficulties. Maltreatment impacts on two putative evolved psychobiological systems in particular, the attachment system and the social rank system. The maltreatment may disrupt the child's ability to form trusting and reassuring relationships and also creates a power imbalance where the child may feel powerless and ashamed. The aim of the current article is to outline an evolutionary theory for understanding the impact of child maltreatment, focusing on the interaction between the attachment and the social rank system. We provide a narrative review of the relevant literature relating to child maltreatment and these two theories. This research highlights how, in instances of maltreatment, these ordinarily adaptive systems may become maladaptive and contribute to psychopathology. We identify a number of novel hypotheses that can be drawn from this theory, providing a guide for future research. We finally explore how this theory provides a guide for the treatment of victims of child maltreatment. In conclusion, the integrated theory provides a framework for understanding and predicting the consequences of maltreatment, but further research is required to test several hypotheses made by this theory. PMID:25948552

  2. Media Analysis of Early Dissemination of Canadian Child Maltreatment Surveillance Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonmyr, Lil; Jack, Susan

    2010-01-01

    A media strategy was developed to disseminate Canadian child maltreatment surveillance data. Print media were systematically searched and 29 articles reporting on the data were retrieved. Using content analysis, the articles were analyzed to assess informational accuracy and to understand how the media framed the issue of maltreatment. This…

  3. Narrative Representations of Caregivers and Emotion Dysregulation as Predictors of Maltreated Children's Rejection by Peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Ann; Ryan, Richard M.; Cicchetti, Dante

    2001-01-01

    Examined whether maltreated children were more likely than nonmaltreated children to develop poor-quality representations of parents and whether these representations predicted children's rejection by peers. Found that maltreated children's representations were more negative/constricted and less positive/coherent than nonmaltreated children's.…

  4. Predicting the Accuracy of Facial Affect Recognition: The Interaction of Child Maltreatment and Intellectual Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Chad E.; Putnam, Frank W.; Noll, Jennie G.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research demonstrates that both child maltreatment and intellectual performance contribute uniquely to the accurate identification of facial affect by children and adolescents. The purpose of this study was to extend this research by examining whether child maltreatment affects the accuracy of facial recognition differently at varying…

  5. Child Maltreatment: Responsibilities and Responses of the Schools. Policy Issue Series No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Stuart; Maxson, Suzanne

    Child maltreatment, defined as acts of commission or omission that harm a child physically or psychologically, adversely affects millions of children nationwide. Since almost two-thirds of these children are of school age, schools could be among the best resources available to combat child maltreatment. This paper examines the responsibilities and…

  6. Pediatricians in Israel: Factors Which Affect the Diagnosis and Reporting of Maltreated Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Ron

    1998-01-01

    Israeli pediatricians (N=135) rated 40 vignettes of abuse and neglect for risk to the child and willingness to report. They also rated 15 signs for significance in suspected maltreatment. Pediatricians ranked biomedical concerns as riskier than psychological abuse or educational neglect. They were less willing to report child maltreatment to…

  7. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Maltreated Youth: A Review of Contemporary Research and Thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Christopher A.; Wechsler, Adrianna; Kaur, Harpreet; Lemos-Miller, Amie

    2010-01-01

    Youths who have been maltreated often experience symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and this special population has received increased attention from researchers. Pathways toward maladaptive effects of maltreatment and PTSD are remarkably similar and reflect specific biological diatheses and psychological vulnerabilities that…

  8. Variations in Emotional Abuse Experiences among Multiply Maltreated Young Adolescents and Relations with Developmental Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trickett, Penelope K.; Kim, Kihyun; Prindle, John

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Based on the data obtained through Child Protective Services (CPS) case records abstraction, this study aimed to explore patterns of overlapping types of child maltreatment in a sample of urban, ethnically diverse male and female youth (n= 303) identified as maltreated by a large public child welfare agency. Methods: A cluster analysis…

  9. It should not hurt to be a child : prevalence of child maltreatment across the globe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoltenborgh, Marije

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis we describe, combine and compare results of a series of meta-analyses on the prevalence of child sexual, physical, and emotional abuse and of physical and emotional neglect, including 244 publications and 577 prevalence rates for the various types of maltreatment. Child maltreatment r

  10. Differential Effects of Psychological Maltreatment on Children of Mothers Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Vega, Ariadna; de la Osa, Nuria; Ezpeleta, Lourdes; Granero, Roser; Domenech, Josep Maria

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Psychological maltreatment (PM) is the most prevalent form of child abuse, and is the core component of most of what is considered as child maltreatment. The aim of this work was to explore differential adverse outcomes of the different types of PM in the mental health and functioning of children living in homes in which they are…

  11. Accumulating Evidence for Parent-Child Interaction Therapy in the Prevention of Child Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Rae; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.

    2011-01-01

    In a randomized controlled trial, the effectiveness of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) and correlates of maltreatment outcomes were examined. Mothers (N = 150) had a history or were at high risk of maltreating their children. After 12 weeks and compared to waitlist, PCIT mothers were observed to have improved parent-child interactions and…

  12. The Economic Burden of Child Maltreatment in the United States and Implications for Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiangming; Brown, Derek S.; Florence, Curtis S.; Mercy, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To present new estimates of the average lifetime costs per child maltreatment victim and aggregate lifetime costs for all new child maltreatment cases incurred in 2008 using an incidence-based approach. Methods: This study used the best available secondary data to develop cost per case estimates. For each cost category, the paper used…

  13. Using Evidence-Based Parenting Programs to Advance CDC Efforts in Child Maltreatment Prevention. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Linda Anne; Whitaker, Daniel J.; Lutzker, John R.; Filene, Jill H.; Wyatt, Jennifer M.; Cephas, Kendell C.; Hoover, D. Michele

    2004-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recognize child maltreatment as a serious public health problem with extensive short- and long-term health effects. In addition to the immediate physical and emotional effects of maltreatment, children who have experienced abuse and neglect are at increased risk of adverse health effects and…

  14. Iterations of the SafeCare Model: An Evidence-Based Child Maltreatment Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Anna; Lutzker, John R.

    2008-01-01

    SafeCare is an evidenced-based parenting program for at-risk and maltreating parents that addresses the social and family ecology in which child maltreatment occurs. SafeCare home visitors focus on behavioral skills that are trained to predetermined performance criteria. Recent research has stressed the importance of successful dissemination and…

  15. The Mediating Effect of School Engagement in the Relationship between Youth Maltreatment and Juvenile Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    Research consistently demonstrates that youths who experience maltreatment are at greater risk for committing delinquent behavior. Yet little is known about how to disrupt this maltreatment-delinquency relationship. Life course theory suggests that youths who bond with prosocial individuals and traditional institutions subscribe to prosocial norms…

  16. Effects of Child Maltreatment and Inherited Liability on Antisocial Development: An Official Records Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Presnall, Ned; Drake, Brett; Fox, Louis; Bierut, Laura; Reich, Wendy; Kane, Phyllis; Todd, Richard D.; Constantino, John N.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Evidence is steadily accumulating that a preventable environmental hazard, child maltreatment, exerts causal influences on the development of long-standing patterns of antisocial behavior in humans. The relationship between child maltreatment and antisocial outcome, however, has never previously been tested in a large-scale study in…

  17. Shame, Guilt, Symptoms of Depression, and Reported History of Psychological Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Marcia; Heisler, Dawn; Call, Steve; Chickering, Sarah A.; Colburn, Trina A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to provide preliminary data extending earlier research on shame and guilt, examining their relationships both to symptoms of depression and to psychological maltreatment. Symptoms of depression were expected to correlate positively with shame, but not with guilt. Psychological maltreatment was also…

  18. Childhood obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitmann, Berit L; Koplan, Jeffrey; Lissner, Lauren

    2009-01-01

    Despite progress toward assuring the health of today's young population, the 21(st) century began with an epidemic of childhood obesity. There is general agreement that the situation must be addressed by means of primary prevention, but relatively little is known about how to intervene effectively....... The evidence behind the assumption that childhood obesity can be prevented was discussed critically in this roundtable symposium. Overall, there was general agreement that action is needed and that the worldwide epidemic itself is sufficient evidence for action. As the poet, writer, and scholar...

  19. Child maltreatment moderates the association of MAOA with symptoms of depression and antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Steven R H; Brody, Gene H; Gunter, Tracy D; Packer, Hans; Wernett, Pamela; Philibert, Robert A

    2010-02-01

    There is a growing body of data indicating that Gene x Child Maltreatment interactions at monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) play a role in vulnerability to symptoms of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) but not major depression (MD). Using a sample of 538 participants from the Iowa Adoption Studies, we introduce a conceptual model that highlights two distinct pathways from child maltreatment to symptoms of MD, suggesting that maltreatment has different effects depending on genotype and highlighting the importance of including the indirect pathway through ASPD. As predicted by the model, high activity alleles predispose to symptoms of MD in the context of child maltreatment whereas low activity alleles predispose to symptoms of ASPD. We conclude that the Gene x Environment interplay at this locus (MAOA) contributes to both symptoms of ASPD and MD and that careful specification of child maltreatment may be essential if genetic association research is to produce replicable results. PMID:20175604

  20. Exhibition; Image display agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article touches on the role of Malaysian Nuclear Agency as nuclear research institutions to promote, develop and encourage the peaceful uses of nuclear technology in its agricultural, medical, manufacturing, industrial, health and environment for the development of the country running successfully. Maturity of Malaysian Nuclear Agency in dealing with nuclear technology that are very competitive and globalization cannot be denied. On this basis Malaysian Nuclear Agency was given the responsibility to strengthen the nuclear technology in Malaysia. One way is through an exhibition featuring the research, discoveries and new technology products of the nuclear technology. Through this exhibition is to promote the nuclear technology and introduce the image of the agency in the public eye. This article also states a number of exhibits entered by the Malaysian Nuclear Agency and achievements during the last exhibition. Authors hope that the exhibition can be intensified further in the future.

  1. Childhood environments and cytomegalovirus serostatus and reactivation in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicki-Deverts, Denise; Cohen, Sheldon; Doyle, William J; Marsland, Anna L; Bosch, Jos

    2014-08-01

    Childhood adversity, defined in terms of material hardship or physical or emotional maltreatment has been associated with risk for infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV) among children and adolescents, and with CMV reactivation in children and adults. The present study examined whether different dimensions of childhood experience-those pertaining to socioeconomic status (SES), physical environment, or family relationships-relate differentially to CMV serostatus and reactivation during adulthood. Participants were 140 healthy adults, aged 18-55years (41% female; 64% white). Childhood environments were assessed retrospectively and included family SES (parental housing tenure); childhood neighborhood environment (urban residence; physical conditions; safety; and social atmosphere); residential exposures (parental smoking and physical condition of home); and family relationships (parental divorce; warmth; harmony; dysfunction; parental bonding). Approximately 39% (n=53) of participants were CMV+. In individual analyses controlling for age, sex, race, body mass, current adult SES and smoking status, fewer years of parental home ownership, having a parent who smoked, and living in a poorly maintained or unsafe neighborhood each were associated with greater odds of infection with CMV. By comparison, in individual analyses limited to CMV+ participants, less family warmth, less harmony, greater dysfunction, and suboptimal parental bonding each were related to higher antibody levels, independent of the aforementioned covariates. Findings were not attributable to current adult perceptions of psychological stress or relative levels of emotional stability. These results suggest that different types of childhood adversity may be associated with differential effects on CMV infection and latency. PMID:24675032

  2. Childhood Obesity and Academic Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    James B. Hunt Jr. Institute for Educational Leadership and Policy, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Childhood obesity is on the rise across the country and in North Carolina, with four times as many children exhibiting signs of obesity now as they did 20 years ago. The costs in terms of medical expenses are staggering, with one estimate putting the cost to North Carolina at $16 million a year. Some North Carolina legislators have expressed…

  3. Maltreatment histories of foster youth exiting out-of-home care through emancipation: a latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havlicek, Judy

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about maltreatment among foster youth transitioning to adulthood. Multiple entries into out-of-home care and unsuccessful attempts at reunification may nevertheless reflect extended exposure to chronic maltreatment and multiple types of victimization. This study used administrative data from the Illinois Department of Children and Family Services to identify all unduplicated allegations of maltreatment in a cohort of 801 foster youth transitioning to adulthood in the state of Illinois. A latent variable modeling approach generated profiles of maltreatment based on substantiated and unsubstantiated reports of maltreatment taken from state administrative data. Four indicators of maltreatment were included in the latent class analysis: multiple types of maltreatment, predominant type of maltreatment, chronicity, and number of different perpetrators. The analysis identified four subpopulations of foster youth in relation to maltreatment. Study findings highlight the heterogeneity of maltreatment in the lives of foster youth transitioning to adulthood and draw attention to a need to raise awareness among service providers to screen for chronic maltreatment and multiple types of victimization. PMID:24920250

  4. Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuca, Sevil Ari, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book aims to provide readers with a general as well as an advanced overview of the key trends in childhood obesity. Obesity is an illness that occurs due to a combination of genetic, environmental, psychosocial, metabolic and hormonal factors. The prevalence of obesity has shown a great rise both in adults and children in the last 30 years.…

  5. Childhood Obesity

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-06

    In this podcast, Dr. Tom Frieden, CDC Director, discusses the decrease in childhood obesity rates and what strategies have been proven to work to help our children grow up and thrive.  Created: 8/6/2013 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control.   Date Released: 3/6/2014.

  6. The Impact of Childhood Adversity on the Clinical Features of Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Philip Rajkumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Recent research has drawn attention to the link between childhood maltreatment and schizophrenia. Child abuse and neglect may have an impact on symptoms and physical health in these patients. This association has not been studied to date in India. Materials and Methods. Clinically stable patients with schizophrenia (n=62 were assessed for childhood adversity using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. The association of specific forms of adversity with symptomatology and associated variables was examined. Results. Emotional abuse was reported by 56.5% patients and physical abuse by 33.9%; scores for childhood neglect were also high. Persecutory delusions were linked to physical abuse, while anxiety was linked to emotional neglect and depression to emotional abuse and childhood neglect. Physical abuse was linked to elevated systolic blood pressure, while emotional abuse and neglect in women were linked to being overweight. Conclusions. Childhood adversity is common in schizophrenia and appears to be associated with a specific symptom profile. Certain components of the metabolic syndrome also appear to be related to childhood adversity. These results are subject to certain limitations as they are derived from remitted patients, and no control group was used for measures of childhood adversity.

  7. The association between childhood trauma and facial emotion recognition in adults with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Manuela; Mahon, Katie; Shanahan, Megan; Solon, Carly; Ramjas, Elizabeth; Turpin, Justin; E Burdick, Katherine

    2015-10-30

    Many patients with bipolar disorder (BD) have difficulties in facial emotion recognition, which may also be impaired in maltreated children and in subjects who have a positive history of childhood traumatic experiences. Childhood trauma is reported with a high prevalence in BD and it is considered a risk factor for the disorder. As the relationship between facial emotion recognition and childhood trauma in BD has not yet been directly investigated, in this study we examined whether the presence of a childhood trauma in affectively stable BD patients was associated with poorer performance in emotion recognition. Seventy-five BD I and II participants completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire retrospectively assessing five types of childhood trauma (emotional, physical and sexual abuse, and emotional and physical neglect) and the Emotion Recognition Task evaluating the ability to correctly identify six basic facial emotions (happiness, sadness, anger, disgust, fear and surprise). Our results suggest that the presence of childhood trauma in participants with BD is associated with a more severe clinical presentation (earlier onset, longer duration of illness, and higher depressive symptom ratings) and that BD patients with a positive childhood history of emotional neglect perform worse than those without such a history in recognizing anger. PMID:26272021

  8. Material Nuclear Culture, Exhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Carpenter, Ele; Mabb, David; Craighead, Alison; Crowe, Nick; Schuppli, Susan; Takeuchi, Kota; Erika, Kobayashi

    2016-01-01

    Material Nuclear Culture is an exhibition of contemporary artists responses to the physical qualities and material traces of the aesthetics, traditions and legacy of nuclear powered submarines in the UK. Whilst the MOD is currently undertaking a public consultation process on how and where to dismantle and store Britain’s old subs the long term problems of storing radioactive waste remain unresolved. The exhibition will include new sculptural, film, sound and installation works by David ...

  9. New NOK mobile exhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By means of 20 visual aids, the NOK mobile exhibition aims to illustrate how the NOK satisfies the power requirements of two million people in nine cantons. Of particular interest are the graphs of daily and annual consumption. Examples of the exhibits are a flow model which at the touch of a button demonstrates to the visitor how a pumped-storage or nuclear power station operates, and a model of power transmission. (R.S.)

  10. A transactional approach to preventing early childhood neglect: The Family Check-Up as a public health strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishion, Thomas J; Mun, Chung Jung; Drake, Emily C; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Shaw, Daniel S; Wilson, Melvin

    2015-11-01

    This study examined the hypothesis that a brief, strengths-based home visiting strategy can promote positive engagement between caregiver and child and thereby reduce various forms of early childhood neglect. A total of 731 low-income families receiving services through the Women, Infants, and Children nutritional supplement program were randomized to the Women, Infants, and Children as usual or the Family Check-Up intervention. Assessments and intervention services were delivered in the home environment at ages 2, 3, 4, and 5. During the assessments, staff videotaped caregiver-child interactions and rated various features of the home environment, including the physical appropriateness of the home setting for children. Trained observers later coded the videotapes, unaware of the family's intervention condition. Specific caregiver-child interaction patterns were coded and macroratings were made of the caregiver's affection, monitoring, and involvement with the child. An intention to treat design revealed that randomization to the Family Check-Up increased duration of positive engagement between caregivers and children by age 3, which in turn was prognostic of less neglect of the child at age 4, controlling for family adversity. It was also found that family adversity moderated the impact of the intervention, such that the families with the most adverse circumstances were highly responsive to the intervention. Families with the highest levels of adversity exhibited the strongest mediation between positive engagement and reduction of neglect. Findings are discussed with respect to developmental theory and their potential implications for a public health approach to the prevention of early childhood maltreatment. PMID:26535950

  11. Amygdala, Hippocampus, and Ventral Medial Prefrontal Cortex Volumes Differ in Maltreated Youth with and without Chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Rajendra A; Haswell, Courtney C; Hooper, Stephen R; De Bellis, Michael D

    2016-02-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is considered a disorder of recovery where individuals fail to learn and retain extinction of the traumatic fear response. In maltreated youth, PTSD is common, chronic, and associated with comorbidity. Studies of extinction-related structural volumes (amygdala, hippocampus, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC)) and this stress diathesis, in maltreated youth were not previously investigated. In this cross-sectional study, neuroanatomical volumes associated with extinction in maltreated youth with PTSD (N=31), without PTSD (N=32), and in non-maltreated healthy volunteers (n=57) were examined using magnetic resonance imaging. Groups were sociodemographically similar. Participants underwent extensive assessments for strict inclusion/exclusion criteria and DSM-IV disorders. Maltreated youth with PTSD demonstrated decreased right vmPFC volumes compared with both maltreated youth without PTSD and non-maltreated controls. Maltreated youth without PTSD demonstrated larger left amygdala and right hippocampal volumes compared with maltreated youth with PTSD and non-maltreated control youth. PTSD symptoms inversely correlated with right and left hippocampal and left amygdala volumes. Confirmatory masked voxel base morphometry analyses demonstrated greater medial orbitofrontal cortex gray matter intensity in controls than maltreated youth with PTSD. Volumetric results were not influenced by psychopathology or maltreatment variables. We identified volumetric differences in extinction-related structures between maltreated youth with PTSD from those without PTSD. Alterations of the vmPFC may be one mechanism that mediates the pathway from PTSD to comorbidity. Further longitudinal work is needed to determine neurobiological factors related to chronic and persistent PTSD, and to PTSD resilience despite maltreatment. PMID:26171720

  12. Intergenerational effects of war trauma among Palestinian families mediated via psychological maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palosaari, Esa; Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Qouta, Samir; Diab, Marwan

    2013-11-01

    We tested the hypothesis that intergenerational effects of parents' war trauma on offspring's attachment and mental health are mediated by psychological maltreatment. Two hundred and forty children and their parents were sampled from a war-prone area, Gaza, Palestine. The parents reported the number and type of traumatic experiences of war they had had during their lifetime before the child's birth and during a current war when the child was 10-12 years old. The children reported their war traumas, experiences of psychological maltreatment, attachment security, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress (PTSS), depression, and aggression. The direct and indirect intergenerational effects of war trauma were tested in structural equation models. The hypotheses were confirmed for father's past war exposure, and disconfirmed for mother's war exposure. The father's past war trauma had a negative association with attachment security and positive association with the child's mental health problems mediated by increased psychological maltreatment. In contrast, the mother's past war trauma had a negative association with the child's depression via decreased psychological maltreatment. The mother's current war trauma had a negative association with the child's depression and aggression via decreased psychological maltreatment. Among fathers, past war exposure should be considered as a risk factor for psychological maltreatment of children and the associated attachment insecurity and mental health problems. Among mothers, war exposure as such could be given less clinical attention than PTSS in the prevention of psychological maltreatment of children. PMID:23768956

  13. Psychological Symptoms of Sexually Victimized Children and Adolescents Compared With Other Maltreatment Subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münzer, Annika; Fegert, Jörg M; Goldbeck, Lutz

    2016-04-01

    The differential effects of sexual victimization and other forms of maltreatment on psychological functioning are not well understood. A sample of sexually victimized children and adolescents (N = 70; 6.3-17.9 years) and a group of youth with a history of nonsexual maltreatment (N = 108; 6.7-16.9 years) were compared using measures of mental health and psychosocial functioning. Assessments included standardized clinical interviews on individual maltreatment history and current psychopathology as well as questionnaires on behavioral and emotional symptoms, including posttraumatic stress symptoms. The results from this study suggest that the risk of experiencing any current mental disorders was independent of type of maltreatment. The risk of meeting the criteria for a current diagnosis of major depression, however, is greater among youth with a history of maltreatment that includes sexual victimization. The significant impact of sexual victimization on posttraumatic stress symptoms was found to be nonsignificant after controlling for age and gender effects. The results indicate that the outcomes of child maltreatment depend on type of maltreatment, but age and gender must be taken into account. PMID:27135385

  14. Child Maltreatment History and Response to CBT Treatment in Depressed Mothers Participating in Home Visiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammerman, Robert T; Peugh, James L; Teeters, Angelique R; Putnam, Frank W; Van Ginkel, Judith B

    2016-03-01

    Child maltreatment contributes to depression in adults. Evidence indicates that such experiences are associated with poorer outcomes in treatment. Mothers in home visiting programs display high rates of depression and child maltreatment histories. In-Home Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (IH-CBT) was developed to treat maternal depression in home visiting. The purpose of this study was to examine the moderating effects of child maltreatment history on depression, social functioning, and parenting in mothers participating in a clinical trial of IH-CBT. Ninety-three depressed mothers in home visiting between 2 and 10 months postpartum were randomly assigned to IH-CBT (n = 47) plus home visiting or standard home visiting (SHV; n = 46). Mothers were identified via screening and then confirmation of major depressive disorder diagnosis. Measures of child maltreatment history, depression, social functioning, and parenting were administered at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and 3-month follow-up. Results indicated high rates of maltreatment in both conditions relative to the general population. Mixed model analyses found a number of main effects in which experiences of different types of trauma were associated with poorer functioning regardless of treatment condition. Evidence of a moderating effect of maltreatment on treatment outcomes was found for physical abuse and parenting and emotional abuse and social network size. Future research should focus on increasing the effectiveness of IH-CBT with depressed mothers who have experienced child maltreatment. PMID:25395221

  15. Effects of Parenting Programs on Child Maltreatment Prevention: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mengtong; Chan, Ko Ling

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of parenting programs in reducing child maltreatment and modifying associated factors as well as to examine the moderator variables that are linked to program effects. For this meta-analysis, we searched nine electronic databases to identify randomized controlled trials published before September 2013. The effect sizes of various outcomes at different time points were computed. From the 3,578 studies identified, we selected 37 studies for further analysis. The total random effect size was 0.296. Our results showed that parenting programs successfully reduced substantiated and self-reported child maltreatment reports and reduced the potential for child maltreatment. The programs also reduced risk factors and enhanced protective factors associated with child maltreatment. However, the effects of the parenting programs on reducing parental depression and stress were limited. Parenting programs produced positive effects in low-, middle-, and high-income countries and were effective in reducing child maltreatment when applied as primary, secondary, or tertiary child maltreatment intervention. In conclusion, parenting programs are effective public health approaches to reduce child maltreatment. The evidence-based service of parenting programs could be widely adopted in future practice. PMID:25573846

  16. Child maltreatment and interpersonal relationship among Chinese children with oppositional defiant disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiuyun; Li, Longfeng; Chi, Peilian; Wang, Zhonghui; Heath, Melissa Allen; Du, Hongfei; Fang, Xiaoyi

    2016-01-01

    Child maltreatment negatively affects children's development and wellbeing. This study investigated the associations between child maltreatment (i.e., emotional neglect, emotional abuse, and physical abuse) and interpersonal functioning, including parent-child relationship, teacher-student relationship, and peer relationships among children with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). A total of 256 children with ODD and their parents and class master teachers from Mainland China completed questionnaires. Results showed a negative correlation between emotional abuse (parent-reported) and children's interpersonal relationships with parents, teachers, and peers. Emotional neglect and physical abuse were related to poor parent-child relationships. Latent profile analysis revealed three profiles of child maltreatment among children with ODD. ODD children with more severe levels of one type of maltreatment were also more likely to have experienced severe levels of other types of maltreatment. Children with ODD who were in the group of high maltreatment had the poorest quality of interpersonal relationships. Our findings highlight the urgent need to prevent child maltreatment and promote more positive parenting in families with ODD children. PMID:26560234

  17. Accounting for the associations between child maltreatment and internalizing problems: The role of alexithymia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Shaquanna; Fite, Paula J; Stone, Katie; Bortolato, Marco

    2016-02-01

    Internalizing difficulties are one of the most widely documented consequences of child maltreatment. However, there is a need for studies delineating the factors that account for this association. Despite research showing that alexithymia is associated with both child maltreatment and internalizing problems, the role of alexithymia in the link between child maltreatment and internalizing problems has not received much attention in the literature. The current study evaluated whether a history of child maltreatment was associated with symptoms of depression, anxiety, and loneliness in emerging adulthood, and whether alexithymia partially accounted for these associations. Participants included 339 emerging adults ranging between 18 and 25 years of age (M=19.00, SD=1.26, 51.3% male). Exposure to child maltreatment (i.e., physical abuse, physical neglect, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and emotional neglect) was positively associated with depression, anxiety, and loneliness symptoms. Tests of indirect effects suggested that associations between emotional neglect and symptoms of depression, anxiety, and loneliness were partially explained by alexithymia. However, alexithymia did not account for any other associations between the remaining four maltreatment types and internalizing problems. Findings highlight the need for further evaluation of the factors that might account for associations between child maltreatment and internalizing difficulties. Future directions and implications for interventions are reviewed. PMID:26774529

  18. How Public Health Nurses Identify and Intervene in Child Maltreatment Based on the National Clinical Guideline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paavilainen Eija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To describe how Finnish public health nurses identify and intervene in child maltreatment and how they implement the National Clinical Guideline in their work. Design and Sample. Cross-sectional survey of 367 public health nurses in Finland. Measures. A web-based questionnaire developed based on the content areas of the guideline: identifying, intervening, and implementing. Results. The respondents reported they identify child maltreatment moderately (mean 3.38, intervene in it better (4.15, and implement the guideline moderately (3.43, scale between 1 and 6. Those with experience of working with maltreated children reported they identify them better P<0.001, intervene better P<0.001, and implement the guideline better P<0.001 than those with no experience. This difference was also found for those who were aware of the guideline, had read it, and participated in training on child maltreatment, as compared to those who were not aware of the guideline, had not read it, or had not participated in such training. Conclusions. The public health nurses worked quite well with children who had experienced maltreatment and families. However, the results point out several developmental targets for increasing training on child maltreatment, for devising recommendations for child maltreatment, and for applying these recommendations systematically in practice.

  19. Characteristics of Child Maltreatment and Adolescent Marijuana Use: A Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubowitz, Howard; Thompson, Richard; Arria, Amelia M; English, Diana; Metzger, Richard; Kotch, Jonathan B

    2016-02-01

    There has been increasing acceptance of marijuana use in the United States in recent years, and rates among adolescents have risen. At the same time, marijuana use during adolescence has been linked to an array of health and social problems. Maltreated children are at risk for marijuana use, but the relationships among characteristics of maltreatment and marijuana use are unclear. In this article, we examine how the type and the extent of maltreatment are related to the level of adolescent marijuana use. Data analyses were conducted on a subsample of maltreated adolescents (n = 702) from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect project. Approximately half the sample had used marijuana, and maltreatment was associated with its use. Multivariate regression models showed that being male, extensive maltreatment, and peer marijuana use were associated with heavy use of marijuana. These findings suggest the importance of comprehensively assessing children's maltreatment experiences and their peers' drug use to help prevent or address possible marijuana use in these high-risk adolescents. PMID:26715532

  20. EXHIBITION: Accelerated Particles

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    An exhibition of plastic arts and two evenings of performances by sound and visual artists as part of CERN's 50th anniversary celebrations. Fifty candles for CERN, an international laboratory renowned for fundamental research, is a cause for celebration. Since March this year, Geneva and neighbouring parts of France have been the venues for a wealth of small and large-scale events, which will continue until November. Given CERN's location in the commune of Meyrin, the ForuMeyrin is hosting exhibitions of plastic arts and performances entitled: Accelerated Particles. Several works will be exhibited and performed in two 'salons'. Salon des matières: An exhibition of plastic arts From Tues 12 October to Wed 3 November 2004 Tuesdays to Fridays: 16:00 to 19:00 Saturdays: 14:00 to 18:00 Exhibition open late on performance nights, entrance free Salon des particules: Musical and visual performances Tues 12 and Mon 25 October from 20:00 to 23:00 Preview evening for both events: Tues 12 October from 18:...

  1. Council Chamber exhibition

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    To complete the revamp of CERN’s Council Chamber, a new exhibition is being installed just in time for the June Council meetings.   Panels will showcase highlights of CERN’s history, using some of the content prepared for the exhibitions marking 50 years of the PS, which were displayed in the main building last November. The previous photo exhibition in the Council Chamber stopped at the 1970s. To avoid the new panels becoming quickly out of date, photos are grouped together around specific infrastructures, rather than following a classic time-line. “We have put the focus on the accelerators – the world-class facilities that CERN has been offering researchers over the years, from the well-known large colliders to the lesser-known smaller facilities,” says Emma Sanders, who worked on the content. The new exhibition will be featured in a future issue of the Bulletin with photos and an interview with Fabienne Marcastel, designer of the exhibit...

  2. Predicting criminality from child maltreatment typologies and posttraumatic stress symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Elklit, Ask; Armour, Cherie; Feddern, Dagmar; Christoffersen, Mogens; Karstoft, Karen-Inge

    2013-01-01

    Background: The associations between childhood abuse and subsequent criminality and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are well known. However, a major limitation of research related to childhood abuse and its effects is the focus on one particular type of abuse at the expense of others. Recent work has established that childhood abuse rarely occurs as a unidimensional phenomenon. Therefore, a number of studies have investigated the existence of abuse typologies.Methods: The study is based ...

  3. Association of child maltreatment and depressive symptoms among Puerto Rican youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaschek, Graciela; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; He, Xin; Lee, Sunmin; Canino, Glorisa

    2016-08-01

    This article compares multiple types of child maltreatment among Puerto Rican youth. We seek to expand the limited knowledge of the effects of multiple types of maltreatment on depressive symptoms in a specific Latino population as emerging studies indicate that children who are exposed to one type of maltreatment are often exposed to other types. This study examines the predictive strength of different and multiple types of lifetime child maltreatment (i.e., physical, sexual, and emotional abuse; and neglect), and the effect of youth support from parents, youth coping, youth self-esteem, and place of residence on depressive symptoms among Puerto Rican youth. Secondary data analyses were performed using three annual waves (2000-2004) of data from the Boricua Youth Study. The analytic sample consists of 1041 10-13 year old Puerto Rican youth living in New York and Puerto Rico. Results indicate that: (1) youth who experienced 'sexual abuse only', 'multiple maltreatment' (2 or more types of maltreatment), 'physical abuse only' have a significant increase in depressive symptoms (75.1%, 61.6%, and 40.5% respectively) compared to those without maltreatment; and (2) place of residence, exposure to violence, and mental disorders were significant risk factors. When developing psychosocial interventions, professionals should particularly focus on youth who report past lifetime experience with child maltreatment. Particular attention should be given to children living in the Bronx, New York and similar urban low-income areas who report past lifetime experience with multiple types of child maltreatment and who present symptoms or a diagnosis of co-occurring mental health problems. PMID:27344268

  4. Childhood vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Palit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood vitiligo is often encountered in dermatological practice. When present in infancy or early childhood, various nevoid and hereditary disorders are to be differentiated. In many cases, familial aggregation of the disease is seen and other autoimmune disorders may be associated. Segmental presentation is more common, and limited body surface area involvement is usual in this age group. Children with vitiligo often suffer from anxiety and depression because of their unusual appearance. Management of vitiligo in children is difficult as therapeutic options are restricted when compared to that in adult patients. Selection of treatment should be careful in these patients with the aim to achieve best results with minimal side effects as well as relieving patients′ and parents′ anxiety.

  5. Childhood psoriasis

    OpenAIRE

    Dogra Sunil; Kaur Inderjeet

    2010-01-01

    Psoriasis is a common dermatosis in children with about one third of all patients having onset of disease in the first or second decade of life. A chronic disfiguring skin disease, such as psoriasis, in childhood is likely to have profound emotional and psychological effects, and hence requires special attention. Psoriasis in children has been reported to differ from that among adults being more frequently pruritic; plaque lesions are relatively thinner, softer, and less scaly; face and flexu...

  6. Childhood Traumatic Grief

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Educators Resources for Kids and Teens Childhood Traumatic Grief What is Childhood Traumatic Grief? Children grieve in their own way following the ... child may have a condition called Childhood Traumatic Grief (CTG). Thinking about the person who died—even ...

  7. Childhood Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Shop With CureSearch Blog Donate Now Select Page Childhood Cancer Statistics Home > Understanding Children’s Cancer > Childhood Cancer Statistics Childhood Cancer Statistics – Graphs and Infographics Number of Diagnoses ...

  8. Facial emotion processing and recognition among maltreated children: a systematic literature review

    OpenAIRE

    da Silva Ferreira, Gabriela C.; José A.S. Crippa; de Lima Osório, Flávia

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to maltreatment is associated with biological, psychological, and social development impairments in children. This systematic literature review sought to determine whether an association exists between child maltreatment and facial emotion processing and recognition. The search was conducted using the databases PubMed, PsycINFO, and SciELO using the following keywords: “maltreatment,” “adversity,” “neglect,” “sexual abuse,” “emotional abuse,” “physical abuse,” “child*,” “early,” “inf...

  9. Child Maltreatment Prevention and the Scope of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantino, John N

    2016-04-01

    Child maltreatment is one of the most deleterious known influences on the mental health and development of children. This article briefly reviews a complement of methods that are ready to incorporate into child and adolescent psychiatric practice, by having been validated either with respect to the prevention of child maltreatment or with respect to adverse outcomes associated with maltreatment (and primarily focused on enhancing the caregiving environment); they are feasible for integration into clinical decision making, and most importantly, can be included in the training of the next generation of clinicians. PMID:26980121

  10. EXHIBITION: Accelerated Particles

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    http://www.cern.ch/cern50/ An exhibition of plastic arts and two evenings of performances by sound and visual artists as part of CERN's fiftieth anniversary celebrations. The fiftieth anniversary of a world famous organization like CERN, an international laboratory specializing in fundamental research, is a cause for celebration. Since March this year, Geneva and neighbouring parts of France have been the venues for a wealth of small and large-scale events, which will continue until November. Given CERN's location in the commune of Meyrin, the ForuMeyrin is hosting two "salons" consisting of an exhibition of plastic arts and evenings of music and visual arts performances with the collective title of "Accelerated Particles". Several works will be exhibited and performed. Salon des matières: An exhibition of plastic arts Until Wednesday 3 November 2004. Tuesdays to Fridays: 4.00 p.m. to 7.00 p.m. Saturdays: 2.00 p.m. to 6.00 p.m. Doors open late on the evening of the performances. Salon des ...

  11. Early Childhood Environment and Genetic Interactions: the Diathesis for Suicidal Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodsky, Beth S

    2016-09-01

    Adverse childhood experiences are associated with higher risk for suicide and suicidal behavior later in life. There are known associations between childhood trauma, particularly sexual abuse, and higher rates of suicide, non-lethal suicide attempts, and non-suicidal self-injurious behaviors in adolescence and adulthood. Emotional abuse/neglect, disrupted parental attachment, and cumulative effect of multiple forms of maltreatment, also increase risk. Yet, the causal relationship remains unclear. The diathesis-stress model provides a framework for understanding how early life adverse experiences contribute to suicide vulnerability. Current findings from the fields of biology, neurology, and genetics shed new light on mediating variables and possible causal links between early childhood trauma and suicide. In this paper, we review recent advances, particularly regarding the interaction of early life environmental adverse events with genetics factors, that increase the diathesis for psychological traits are associated with subsequent deliberate self-harm behaviors. PMID:27484207

  12. The Healthy Immigrant Paradox and Child Maltreatment: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millett, Lina S

    2016-10-01

    Prior studies suggest that foreign-born individuals have a health advantage, referred to as the Healthy Immigrant Paradox, when compared to native-born persons of the same socio-economic status. This systematic review examined whether the immigrant advantage found in health literature is mirrored by child maltreatment in general and its forms in particular. The author searched Academic Search Premier, CINAHL, CINAHL PLUS, Family and Society Studies Worldwide, MEDLINE, PsychINFO, Social Work Abstracts, and SocINdex for published literature through December 2015. The review followed an evidence-based Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses checklist. The author identified 822 unique articles, of which 19 met the inclusion criteria. The reviewed data showed strong support for the healthy immigrant paradox for a general form of maltreatment and physical abuse. The evidence for emotional and sexual abuse was also suggestive of immigrant advantage though relatively small sample size and lack of multivariate controls make these findings tentative. The evidence for neglect was mixed: immigrants were less likely to be reported to Child Protective Services; however, they had higher rates of physical neglect and lack of supervision in the community data. The study results warrant confirmation with newer data possessing strong external validity for immigrant samples. PMID:26914837

  13. Influence of interactions between genes and childhood trauma on refractoriness in psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Sun; Lee, Seung-Hwan

    2016-10-01

    Psychiatric disorders are excellent disease models in which gene-environmental interaction play a significant role in the pathogenesis. Childhood trauma has been known as a significant environmental factor in the progress of, and prognosis for psychiatric illness. Patients with refractory illness usually have more severe symptoms, greater disability, lower quality of life and are at greater risk of suicide than other psychiatric patients. Our literature review uncovered some important clinical factors which modulate response to treatment in psychiatric patients who have experienced childhood trauma. Childhood trauma seems to be a critical determinant of treatment refractoriness in psychotic disorder, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder. In patients with psychotic disorders, the relationship between childhood trauma and treatment-refractoriness appears to be mediated by cognitive impairment. In the case of bipolar disorder, the relationship appears to be mediated by greater affective disturbance and earlier onset, while in major depressive disorder the mediating factors are persistent, severe symptoms and frequent recurrence. In suicidal individuals, childhood maltreatment was associated with violent suicidal attempts. In the case of PTSD patients, it appears that childhood trauma makes the brain more vulnerable to subsequent trauma, thus resulting in more severe, refractory symptoms. Given that several studies have suggested that there are distinct subtypes of genetic vulnerability to childhood trauma, it is important to understand how gene-environment interactions influence the course of psychiatric illnesses in order to improve therapeutic strategies. PMID:26827636

  14. P3 Event-Related Potentials and Childhood Maltreatment in Successful and Unsuccessful Psychopaths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Schug, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    Although P3 event-related potential abnormalities have been found in psychopathic individuals, it is unknown whether successful (uncaught) psychopaths and unsuccessful (caught) psychopaths show similar deficits. In this study, P3 amplitude and latency were assessed from a community sample of 121 male adults using an auditory three-stimulus oddball…

  15. CERN permanent exhibitions

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Explore by yourself the issues CERN's physicists are trying to solve: given that the entire universe is made of particles, where do they come from? Why do they behave in the way they do? Discover the massive apparatus used by physicists at CERN, like the LHC, and see how each part works. And if you have more time on site, follow the LHC circuit at ground level to understand in situ this giant machine. Enter our exhibitions. Welcome!

  16. Upcycling CERN Exhibitions

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Summer is coming - and with it, a new Microcosm exhibition showcasing CERN (see here). But while the new exhibit is preparing to enchant visitors, many have been asking about the site's former content. Will it simply be out with the old and in with the new? Not as such!   The plasma ball from Microcosm is now on display at the LHCb site. As Microcosm's new content is moving in, its old content is moving up. From LHCb to IdeaSquare, former Microcosm displays and objects are being installed across the CERN site. "Microcosm featured many elements that were well suited to life outside of the exhibition," says Emma Sanders, Microcosm project leader in the EDU group. "We didn't want this popular content to go to waste, and so set out to find them new homes across CERN." The LHCb experiment has received a number of Microcosm favourites, including the Rutherford experiment, the cosmic ray display and the Thomson experiment. "We&...

  17. Online Exhibits & Concept Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douma, M.

    2009-12-01

    Presenting the complexity of geosciences to the public via the Internet poses a number of challenges. For example, utilizing various - and sometimes redundant - Web 2.0 tools can quickly devour limited time. Do you tweet? Do you write press releases? Do you create an exhibit or concept map? The presentation will provide participants with a context for utilizing Web 2.0 tools by briefly highlighting methods of online scientific communication across several dimensions. It will address issues of: * breadth and depth (e.g. from narrow topics to well-rounded views), * presentation methods (e.g. from text to multimedia, from momentary to enduring), * sources and audiences (e.g. for experts or for the public, content developed by producers to that developed by users), * content display (e.g. from linear to non-linear, from instructive to entertaining), * barriers to entry (e.g. from an incumbent advantage to neophyte accessible, from amateur to professional), * cost and reach (e.g. from cheap to expensive), and * impact (e.g. the amount learned, from anonymity to brand awareness). Against this backdrop, the presentation will provide an overview of two methods of online information dissemination, exhibits and concept maps, using the WebExhibits online museum (www.webexhibits.org) and SpicyNodes information visualization tool (www.spicynodes.org) as examples, with tips on how geoscientists can use either to communicate their science. Richly interactive online exhibits can serve to engage a large audience, appeal to visitors with multiple learning styles, prompt exploration and discovery, and present a topic’s breadth and depth. WebExhibits, which was among the first online museums, delivers interactive information, virtual experiments, and hands-on activities to the public. While large, multidisciplinary exhibits on topics like “Color Vision and Art” or “Calendars Through the Ages” require teams of scholars, user interface experts, professional writers and editors

  18. An innovative approach to providing collaborative education to undergraduate students in the area of child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lisa

    2015-05-01

    Frontline workers in the area of child welfare often enter the field without having taken any specialized coursework in the area of child maltreatment. This article discusses an interdisciplinary certificate program that is specifically designed to teach persons from various academic areas the knowledge and skills necessary to work with children who experience maltreatment. The child advocacy studies certificate program specifically focuses on coursework in the area of child maltreatment and child advocacy to better train future frontline workers in their vital roles. This certificate will decrease underreporting of child abuse cases by mandated reporters by making them more aware of the signs and symptoms of child maltreatment and also give students a greater understanding of how to work with individuals from various fields. PMID:25112832

  19. Childhood psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogra Sunil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a common dermatosis in children with about one third of all patients having onset of disease in the first or second decade of life. A chronic disfiguring skin disease, such as psoriasis, in childhood is likely to have profound emotional and psychological effects, and hence requires special attention. Psoriasis in children has been reported to differ from that among adults being more frequently pruritic; plaque lesions are relatively thinner, softer, and less scaly; face and flexural involvement is common and guttate type is the characteristic presentation. Whether onset in childhood predicts a more severe form of psoriasis is a matter of controversy, it may cause significant morbidity particularly if it keeps relapsing. Most children have mild form of psoriasis which can be generally treated effectively with topical agents such as emollients, coal tar, corticosteroids, dithranol, calcipotriol etc. according to age and the sites affected. Narrow band UVB is the preferred form of phototherapy in children for moderate to severe disease or in patients not responding to topical therapy alone. Systemic therapies are reserved for more severe and extensive cases that cannot be controlled with topical treatment and/or phototherapy such as severe plaque type, unstable forms like erythrodermic and generalized pustular psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. There are no controlled trials of systemic therapies in this age group, most experience being with retinoids and methotrexate with favorable results. Cyclosporine can be used as a short-term intermittent crisis management drug. There is an early promising experience with the use of biologics (etanercept and infliximab in childhood psoriasis. Systemic treatments as well as phototherapy have limited use in children due to cumulative dose effects of drugs, low acceptance, and risk of gonadal toxicity. More evidence-based data is needed about the effectiveness and long-term safety of topical

  20. Improving the child protection policy response to child neglect and emotional maltreatment in British Columbia

    OpenAIRE

    Parker, Robert James

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates strengths and weaknesses of British Columbia’s policy response to two forms of child maltreatment – neglect and emotional maltreatment (NEM). Interviews with child protection service providers suggest that NEM cases often take lower priority than issues like physical and sexual abuse. Barriers to effective NEM intervention include the difficulty of substantiating NEM to meet the legal burden of proof, practical limitations of the initial protection report assessment proce...

  1. Maternal depression during pregnancy and offspring depression in adulthood:role of child maltreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Plant, Dominic T; Pariante, Carmine M.; Sharp, Deborah; Pawlby, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Studies have shown that maternal depression during pregnancy predicts offspring depression in adolescence. Child maltreatment is also a risk factor for depression.Aims: To investigate (a) whether there is an association between offspring exposure to maternal depression in pregnancy and depression in early adulthood, and (b) whether offspring child maltreatment mediates this association.Method: Prospectively collected data on maternal clinical depression in pregnancy, offspring chi...

  2. Child Maltreatment Experience among Primary School Children: A Large Scale Survey in Selangor State, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Ayesha Ahmed; Choo Wan-Yuen; Mary Joseph Marret; Cheah Guat-Sim; Sajaratulnisah Othman; Karuthan Chinna

    2015-01-01

    Official reports of child maltreatment in Malaysia have persistently increased throughout the last decade. However there is a lack of population surveys evaluating the actual burden of child maltreatment, its correlates and its consequences in the country. This cross sectional study employed 2 stage stratified cluster random sampling of public primary schools, to survey 3509 ten to twelve year old school children in Selangor state. It aimed to estimate the prevalence of parental physical and ...

  3. Child Maltreatment, Family Characteristics, and Educational Attainment: Evidence from Add Health Data

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Xiangming; TARUI, Nori

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Child maltreatment, which includes both child abuse and child neglect, is widely regarded as a serious social and public health problem that affects large numbers of children in the United States. In 2012, U.S. state and local child protective services received an estimated 3.4 million referrals of children being abused or neglected. There is increasing evidence that exposure to child maltreatment can lead to many emotional, behavioral, and physical health problems. However, little...

  4. Oxytocin Receptor Gene (OXTR) Polymorphism, Perceived Social Support, and Psychological Symptoms in Maltreated Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Hostinar, Camelia E.; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the detrimental consequences of child maltreatment on developmental processes, some individuals show remarkable resilience, with few signs of psychopathology, while others succumb to dysfunction. Given that oxytocin has been shown to be involved in social affiliation, attachment, social support, trust, empathy, and other social or reproductive behaviors, we chose to examine the possible moderation of maltreatment effects on perceived social support and on psychological symptoms by a c...

  5. The Mediated and Moderated Effects of Family Support on Child Maltreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Anne; Gardner, Margo; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has linked parents’ social support to decreased child maltreatment but questions remain surrounding the mechanisms explaining this association. Further, it is unclear whether this association applies to support provided by family alone (and not friends), and whether it is moderated by the presence of neighborhood violence. Based on a sample of parents of children aged 3–15 in Chicago, we find that parents’ family support is associated with a lower risk of child maltreatment....

  6. Pathways from child maltreatment to juvenile delinquency : sexualized behaviors and loneliness

    OpenAIRE

    Peláez Merrick, Melissa Teresa

    2008-01-01

    The link between child maltreatment and juvenile delinquency has been repeatedly documented. Empirical prospective research delineating the factors responsible for this relationship (i.e., mediators), however, is relatively sparse. Because many of the outcomes of child maltreatment (e.g., sexualized behaviors, loneliness) are risk factors for juvenile delinquency, this relationship could likely be mediated by these variables. The present investigations utilized samples of children from the LO...

  7. It should not hurt to be a child: prevalence of child maltreatment across the globe

    OpenAIRE

    Stoltenborgh, Marije

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis we describe, combine and compare results of a series of meta-analyses on the prevalence of child sexual, physical, and emotional abuse and of physical and emotional neglect, including 244 publications and 577 prevalence rates for the various types of maltreatment. Child maltreatment research seems to be dominated by research on sexual abuse, by studies in developed parts of the world, and by research using self-report measures. The overall estimated prevalence rates for self-re...

  8. Using Multiple Informants to Assess Child Maltreatment: Concordance Between Case File and Youth Self-Report

    OpenAIRE

    Hambrick, Erin P.; Angela M Tunno; Gabrielli, Joy; Jackson, Yo; Belz, Cassidy

    2014-01-01

    To understand the psychosocial implications of child maltreatment, methods used to document prevalence must be clear. Yet, rates of maltreatment found in child self-report are generally inconsistent with data found in case files from state social service agencies. Although self-reports and case file reports of abuse disagree on occurrence of specific events, it is unclear if reporters agree when overall categories of abuse are considered. This study investigated differences between case file ...

  9. Personality, adrenal steroid hormones, and resilience in maltreated children: A multi-level perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2007-01-01

    In this multi-level investigation, resilience in adaptive functioning among maltreated and nonmaltreated low-income children (N = 677) was examined in relation to the regulation of two stress-responsive adrenal steroid hormones, cortisol and dehydroepiandosterone (DHEA), as well as the personality constructs of ego resiliency and ego control. Maltreatment status was not related to differences in average levels of morning or afternoon cortisol or DHEA. However, lower morning cortisol was relat...

  10. Understanding the causal pathways to child maltreatment: implications for health and social care policy and practice

    OpenAIRE

    Munro, Eileen; Taylor, Julie S; Bradbury-Jones, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    This article examines current understandings regarding the causes of child maltreatment and its prediction and prevention. The answers to why some people hurt children, when others in similar circumstances do not, remain obstinately elusive. We look to philosophy to help understand the complexity of causal pathways of maltreatment. We draw on the seminal work of Mackie () on probabilistic causation and his notion of the ‘INUS condition’ (INUS is the acronym for insufficient but non-redundant ...

  11. Preventing Maltreatment with a Community-Based Implementation of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Lanier, Paul; Kohl, Patricia L.; Benz, Joan; Swinger, Dawn; Drake, Brett

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine rates of child abuse and neglect reports following a community implementation of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), an evidence-supported intervention for the prevention of maltreatment. Among a group of families receiving PCIT, predictors of reports were examined including family demographics, course of treatment, changes in clinical measures, and caregiver report for prior maltreatment victimization and perpetration. Participants (n=120) includ...

  12. Universal violence and child maltreatment prevention programs for parents: A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Elisa Rachel Pisani Altafim; Maria Beatriz Martins Linhares

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to review recent literature on universal violence and child maltreatment prevention programs for parents. The following databases were used: Web of Science, PsycINFO, PsycARTICLES, PubMed, LILACS, and SciELO. The keywords included the following: (Parenting Program or Parent Training or Parent Intervention) and (Maltreatment or Violence or Violence Prevention). For inclusion in this review, the programs had to be structured, working in groups of parents aiming to improv...

  13. Can Maltreated Children Inhibit True and False Memories for Emotional Information?

    OpenAIRE

    Howe, M. L.; Toth, S L; Cicchetti, D.

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined 284 maltreated and nonmaltreated children’s (6- to 12-year-olds) ability to inhibit true and false memories for neutral and emotional information using the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. Children studied either emotional or neutral DRM lists in a control condition or were given directed-remembering or directed-forgetting instructions. The findings indicated that children, regardless of age and maltreatment status, could inhibit the output of true and false emoti...

  14. Responses to concerns about child maltreatment: a qualitative study of GPs in England

    OpenAIRE

    Woodman, J; R. Gilbert; Allister, J.; Glaser, D.; Brandon, M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To provide a rich description of current responses to concerns related to child maltreatment among a sample of English general practitioners (GPs). Design In-depth, face-to-face interviews (November 2010 to September 2011). Participants selected and discussed families who had prompted ‘maltreatment-related concerns’. Thematic analysis of data. Setting 4 general practices in England. Participants 14 GPs, 2 practice nurses and 2 health visitors from practices with at least 1 ‘expert’...

  15. Designing an exhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingemann, Bruno

    enveloped by the design process but also by the end product, which is an artefact. Design is much more than a given form that serves the function of an object. I will provide an illustrative case example focuses on the processes of developing the visual and symbolic design of a small poster exhibition by...... following the design-thinking processes in detail. The fundamental concept is an introverted analysis completed by giving one person two roles, that of designer and researcher. The result is a dialogue concerning the processual experience as a reflection-in-action. The contribution to a general core of...

  16. Neural correlates of cognitive and affective processing in maltreated youth with posttraumatic stress symptoms: Does gender matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Crozier, Joseph C.; Wang, Lihong; Huettel, Scott A.; De Bellis, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the relationship of gender to cognitive and affective processing in maltreated youth with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Maltreated (N=29; n=13 females, n=16 males) and non-maltreated participants (N=45; n=26 females, n=19 males) performed an emotional oddball task that involved detection of targets with fear or scrambled face distractors. Results were moderated by gender. During the executive component of this task, ...

  17. Domestic Violence as Child Maltreatment: Differential Risks and Outcomes among Cases Referred to Child Welfare Agencies for Domestic Violence Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Lawson, Jennifer Nicole

    2014-01-01

    As awareness has grown regarding the co-occurrence of domestic violence and child maltreatment, and the potential deleterious outcomes associated with children's exposure to domestic violence, some public child welfare agencies are expanding their reach to include domestic violence as a form of maltreatment warranting protective intervention. Research to date has not fully determined how or whether cases referred for domestic violence exposure differ from traditional cases of maltreatment. If...

  18. The Moderating Effect of Substance Abuse Service Accessibility on the Relationship between Child Maltreatment and Neighborhood Alcohol Availability

    OpenAIRE

    Morton, Cory M.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates how the relationship between dense concentrations of alcohol retailers and high rates of child maltreatment may be moderated by the presence of substance abuse service facilities. Using a cross-sectional design, the study utilized data from Bergen County, New Jersey on child maltreatment reports, alcohol-selling retailers, substance abuse service facilities, and the United States Census. Findings indicate child maltreatment rates were higher in neighborhoods with lower...

  19. Social trauma : consequences of emotional maltreatment on physiological reactions to social rejection in subjects with social anxiety disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Iffland, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    A history of child maltreatment is associated with psychopathology, predominantly affective and anxiety disorders as well as substance abuse. In the past, research has primarily focused on the consequences of physical abuse, sexual abuse, physical neglect or combinations of these types of maltreatment. However, besides physical and sexual transgressions, child maltreatment does also involve emotional abuse and emotional neglect. Although it was suggested that the consequences of emotional mal...

  20. Child Maltreatment and Social Connectedness Among Formerly Institutionalized Females: Links With Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Delft, Ivanka; Finkenauer, Catrin; Verbruggen, Janna

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of child maltreatment subtypes (physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, and exposure to domestic violence) and cumulative child maltreatment on depressive symptoms in adulthood, and examine the protective effects of social connectedness in a sample of formerly institutionalized females. The sample consisted of 124 females who were institutionalized in a Dutch juvenile justice institution during adolescence and were followed-up when they were on average 32 years old. Information about child maltreatment was extracted from treatment files. Retrospective data on social connectedness in young adulthood were established during interviews using a Life History Calendar. Relationship quality at follow-up was assessed with items derived from the Rochester Youth Development Study. The Center for Epidemiological Studies Scale for Depression (CES-D) was used to measure depressive symptoms in adulthood. Results showed that 85.5% of the females experienced child maltreatment, and co-occurrence of subtypes was high. Cumulative child maltreatment increased the risk of depression in adulthood. Furthermore, social connectedness, that is, more employment over time and the quality of the romantic relationship at follow-up, protected against the development of depression. However, social connectedness did not buffer the effect of maltreatment on depression. Our findings indicate that treatment of these girls should focus on improving the social-emotional development to promote positive interpersonal relationships and include educational and vocational components to guide these girls toward increased opportunities on the labor market. PMID:25586915

  1. Neighborhood-level social processes and substantiated cases of child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, Beth E; Goerge, Robert M; Gilsanz, Paola; Hill, Andrea; Subramanian, S V; Holton, John K; Duncan, Dustin T; Beatriz, Elizabeth D; Beardslee, William R

    2016-01-01

    Child maltreatment is a preventable public health problem. Research has demonstrated that neighborhood structural factors (e.g. poverty, crime) can influence the proportion of a neighborhood's children who are victims of maltreatment. A newer strategy is the identification of potentially modifiable social processes at the neighborhood level that can also influence maltreatment. Toward this end, this study examines neighborhood-level data (maltreatment cases substantiated by Illinois' child protection agency, 1995-2005, social processes measured by the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, U.S. Census data, proportions of neighborhoods on public assistance, and crime data) that were linked across clusters of contiguous, relatively homogenous Chicago, IL census tracts with respect to racial/ethnic and socioeconomic composition. Our analysis-an ecological-level, repeated cross-sectional design utilizing random-intercept logit models-with a sensitivity analysis using spatial models to control for spatial autocorrelation-revealed consistent associations between neighborhood social processes and maltreatment. Neighborhoods higher in collective efficacy, intergenerational closure, and social networks, and lower in disorder had lower proportions of neglect, physical abuse, and sexual abuse substantiated cases, controlling for differences in structural factors. Higher collective efficacy and social network size also predicted a lower proportion of substance-exposed infants. This research indicates that strategies to mobilize neighborhood-level protective factors may decrease child maltreatment more effectively than individual and family-focused efforts alone. PMID:26684963

  2. Childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Joan C; Lawlor, Debbie A; Kimm, Sue Y S

    2010-05-15

    Worldwide prevalence of childhood obesity has increased greatly during the past three decades. The increasing occurrence in children of disorders such as type 2 diabetes is believed to be a consequence of this obesity epidemic. Much progress has been made in understanding of the genetics and physiology of appetite control and from these advances, elucidation of the causes of some rare obesity syndromes. However, these rare disorders have so far taught us few lessons about prevention or reversal of obesity in most children. Calorie intake and activity recommendations need reassessment and improved quantification at a population level because of sedentary lifestyles of children nowadays. For individual treatment, currently recommended calorie prescriptions might be too conservative in view of evolving insight into the so-called energy gap. Although quality of research into both prevention and treatment has improved, high-quality multicentre trials with long-term follow-up are needed. Meanwhile, prevention and treatment approaches to increase energy expenditure and decrease intake should continue. Recent data suggest that the spiralling increase in childhood obesity prevalence might be abating; increased efforts should be made on all fronts to continue this potentially exciting trend. PMID:20451244

  3. Childhood adversities and psychopathological outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Infurna, M.

    2015-01-01

    Maltreatment of children by their parents or other caregivers is widely spread, and can cause serious injury and severe long-term consequences. Child maltreatment encompasses any acts of commission or omission by a parent or other caregiver that result in harm, potential for harm, or threat of harm to a child or adolescent (usually interpreted as up to 18 years of age), even if harm is not the intended result. In the past two decades, four forms of maltreatment have been increasingly recognis...

  4. Maltreatment and sexual abuse at home concerning schooling adolscents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuranis Ibeth Henríquez Santoya

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumenEl presente estudio consistió en determinar la presencia del maltrato infantil y abuso sexual en el hogar en adolescentes escolarizados con edades comprendidas entre 14 y 16 años, matriculados a 2010 en colegios públicos de la de la ciudad de Santa Marta. Los participantes fueron 229 jóvenes. Las variables medidas fueron la edad, el tipo de maltrato y el género. Los resultados indican que la tendencia al maltrato psicológico fue de 29.3%, de maltrato físico 13.3% y de abuso sexual de 32.3%. Con relación al género se halló que las mujeres han sido objeto en mayor porcentaje de maltrato físico y abuso sexual que los hombres y éstos han sido objeto de mayor maltrato psicológico que las mujeres; respecto a la edad los jóvenes de 14 años presentaron mayor porcentaje de maltrato y abuso que en los otros rangos etarios. Se concluye que tres (3 de cada 10 estudiantes ha sido objeto de abuso sexual, tres ha sido objeto de maltrato psicológico y uno de maltrato físico. (DUAZARY 2011 No. 2, 262 - 269AbstractThe present study was to determine the presence of child maltreatment and sexual abuse at home, concerning schooling adolescents, aged between 14 and 16 years enrolled in public schools belonging to the city of Santa Marta. Participants were 229 young persons. The variables were age, abuse and gender. The results point out: 29.3% for psychological abuse, 32.3% for sexual abuse, and 13.3% for physical abuse. Concerning the gender it was detected that women have been at a higher rate aim of physical mistreatment and sexual abuse than men, but on the other hand men are aim of psychological abuse. With regard to age, young people of 14 years, revealed a higher percentage of maltreatment than the elder ones. We conclude that three of each schooling boy has been object of sexual abuse; three of them have been injured of psychological mistreatment and one of physical abuse.Keywords: abuse; sexual abuse; maltreatment; gender; adolescents

  5. Mobile exhibition in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since January this year, a mobile atomic energy exhibition has been touring the principal cities of Mexico. In organizing this exhibition, the National Nuclear Energy Commission of Mexico was assisted by the International Atomic Energy Agency which has placed its second mobile radioisotope laboratory at the disposal of the Mexican authorities. In many States of the Republic, the visit of the mobile laboratory has given a powerful impetus to atomic training and research. Universities have made use of the laboratory for the training of young scientists in the basic isotope techniques. As a sequel to the work initiated with its aid, some universities are planning to start regular training courses in this field. The laboratory, which is a gift to the Agency from the United States, has been put to its first assignment in Mexico. It will shortly be sent to Argentina for a period of six months for use in training courses. IAEA's first mobile radioisotope unit, also donated by the United States, has been used for training purposes in Austria, the Federal Republic of Germany, Greece and Yugoslavia, and has now been sent to the Far East

  6. Anniversary Exhibition. Nechvolodov.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - -

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available On the 10th of August, 2005 in Tartu (the second biggest educational and cultural city in Estonia Stanislav Nechvolodov's exhibition was opened to show the 5-year cycle of his work, traditional for the author and his admirers. At the opening ceremony Nechvolodov said that the exhibition was the last one and appointed on his 70th anniversary.The architectural and building society in Irkutsk remembers Stanislav Nechvolodov as an architect working on dwelling and civil buildings in 1960-70s. Below are some extracts from the Estonian press.«Postimees» newspaper, December 1993. The interview «Expressionistic naturalist, conservative Nechvolodov» by journalist Eric Linnumyagi. He asks about all the details and describes the troubles experienced by Nechvolodov during the perestroika period in Estonia, for example: the Tartu University refused to install the sculpture of Socrat, the art school refused to engage him as an instructor, the sculpture of Socrat moved to Vrotzlav, Poland, and Nechvolodov moved to Poland to read lectures there.«Tartu» newspaper, November 2000. Mats Oun, artist, says in the article «Nechvolodov: a man of Renaissance»: «Nechvolodov works in Estonia, his works are placed in many local and foreign museums. Regardless some insignificant faults, he deserves a high estimation, and his manysided open exhibition can be an example for other artists. He is a man of Renaissance».

  7. Correlation of adverse childhood experiences with psychiatric disorders and aggressiveness in adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samardžić Ljiljana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Consequences of individual adverse childhood experiences for adult mental health have been precisely studied during past decades. The focus of past research was mainly on childhood maltreatment and neglect. The aim of this paper was to determine association between multiple adverse childhood experiences and psychiatric disorders, as well as their correlation to the degree and type of aggressiveness in adult psychiatric patients. Methods. One hundred and thirteen psychiatric outpatients were divided into three diagnostic groups: psychotics, non-psychotics and alcoholics and compared with fourty healthy individuals. Adverse childhood experiences data were gathered retrospectively, using the Adverse childhood experiences questionnaire and explanatory interview. Aggressiveness was assessed using Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire. The Student's t test, ANOVA and correlational analysis were used for evaluation of statistical significance of differences among the groups. A value p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results. Our results showed that the mean number of adverse childhood experiences in each group of psychiatric patients, as well as in the whole group of patients, was statistically significantly higher than in the group of healthy individuals (p < 0.001; there was a statistically significant difference in score of physical aggressiveness between the patients exposed to adverse childhood experiences and those who were not exposed to them (p < 0.05; scores of physical aggressiveness were in positive correlation with the number of adverse childhood experiences (p < 0.05. The highest mean score of adverse childhood experiences was evidenced in the group of patients with psychotic disorders. Conclusion. Multiple adverse childhood experiences are significantly associated with psychotic disorders, nonpsychotic disorders and alcohol dependence in adulthood and their presence is important morbidity risk factor for

  8. UNDERSTANDING INTERPERSONAL MALTREATMENT AND MENTAL HEALTH IN ADOLESCENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samvedna Sharma

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to assess the mental health and maltreatment among orphan and non-orphan schooling adolescents residing in Jammu city. A purposive sample of 200 school going adolescents (100 from orphan schools and 100 from non-orphan schools from Jammu,with an age range of 13-16 years was collected.Consent from guardians and assent from adolescents were taken. In conclusion, study demonstrated that the mental health of orphan and non – orphan adolescents fall in the poor spectrum as observed from the manual comparatively . The mean value of mental health of non orphan adolescent boys & girls is slightly better than mental health of orphan boys and girls.

  9. Emotional but not physical maltreatment is independently related to psychopathology in subjects with various degrees of social anxiety: a web-based internet survey

    OpenAIRE

    Iffland Benjamin; Sansen Lisa M; Catani Claudia; Neuner Frank

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Previous studies reported that social phobia is associated with a history of child maltreatment. However, most of these studies focused on physical and sexual maltreatment whilst little is known about the specific impact of emotional abuse and neglect on social anxiety. We examined the association between emotional maltreatment, including parental emotional maltreatment as well as emotional peer victimization, and social anxiety symptoms in subjects with various degrees of...

  10. Childhood- versus adolescent-onset antisocial youth with conduct disorder: psychiatric illness, neuropsychological and psychosocial function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki A Johnson

    Full Text Available The present study investigates whether youths with childhood-onset antisocial behavior have higher rates of psychiatric illness, neuropsychological and psychosocial dysfunction than youths who engage in antisocial behavior for the first time in adolescence. Prior studies have generally focused on single domains of function in heterogeneous samples. The present study also examined the extent to which adolescent-onset antisocial behavior can be considered normative, an assumption of Moffitt's dual taxonomy model.Forty-three subjects (34 males, 9 females, mean age = 15.31, age range 12-21 with a diagnosis of conduct disorder (CD were recruited through Headspace Services and the Juvenile Justice Community Centre. We compared childhood-onset antisocial youths (n = 23 with adolescent-onset antisocial youths (n = 20 with a conduct disorder, across a battery of psychiatric, neuropsychological and psychosocial measures. Neuropsychological function of both groups was also compared with normative scores from control samples.The childhood-onset group displayed deficits in verbal learning and memory, higher rates of psychosis, childhood maltreatment and more serious violent behavior, all effects associated with a large effect size. Both groups had impaired executive function, falling within the extremely low range (severely impaired.Childhood-onset CD displayed greater cognitive impairment, more psychiatric symptoms and committed more serious violent offences. The finding of severe executive impairment in both childhood- and adolescent-onset groupings challenges the assumption that adolescent-onset antisocial behavior is a normative process.

  11. Childhood- versus Adolescent-Onset Antisocial Youth with Conduct Disorder: Psychiatric Illness, Neuropsychological and Psychosocial Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Vicki A.; Kemp, Andrew H.; Heard, Robert; Lennings, Christopher J.; Hickie, Ian B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The present study investigates whether youths with childhood-onset antisocial behavior have higher rates of psychiatric illness, neuropsychological and psychosocial dysfunction than youths who engage in antisocial behavior for the first time in adolescence. Prior studies have generally focused on single domains of function in heterogeneous samples. The present study also examined the extent to which adolescent-onset antisocial behavior can be considered normative, an assumption of Moffitt’s dual taxonomy model. Method Forty-three subjects (34 males, 9 females, mean age = 15.31, age range 12–21) with a diagnosis of conduct disorder (CD) were recruited through Headspace Services and the Juvenile Justice Community Centre. We compared childhood-onset antisocial youths (n = 23) with adolescent-onset antisocial youths (n = 20) with a conduct disorder, across a battery of psychiatric, neuropsychological and psychosocial measures. Neuropsychological function of both groups was also compared with normative scores from control samples. Results The childhood-onset group displayed deficits in verbal learning and memory, higher rates of psychosis, childhood maltreatment and more serious violent behavior, all effects associated with a large effect size. Both groups had impaired executive function, falling within the extremely low range (severely impaired). Conclusions Childhood-onset CD displayed greater cognitive impairment, more psychiatric symptoms and committed more serious violent offences. The finding of severe executive impairment in both childhood- and adolescent-onset groupings challenges the assumption that adolescent-onset antisocial behavior is a normative process. PMID:25835393

  12. 2007Fairs & Exhibitions in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The 6th China (Guangzhou) International Seasoning Exhibition Date: May 11-13 Founded in: 2003.05 Venues: Guangzhou Int'l Convention &Exhibition Center (Pazhou) Exhibits: Seasonings, food additives, relevant material,equipment, service and publications

  13. How Are Childhood Cancers Found?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topic How are childhood cancers treated? How are childhood cancers found? Screening for childhood cancers Screening is testing for a disease such ... in people who don’t have any symptoms. Childhood cancers are rare, and there are no widely ...

  14. Untangling Risk of Maltreatment from Events of Maltreatment: An Analysis of the 2008 Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (CIS-2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Barbara; Trocme, Nico; MacLaurin, Bruce; Sinha, Vandna; Black, Tara

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the methodological changes that occurred across cycles of the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (CIS), specifically outlining the rationale for tracking investigations of families with children at risk of maltreatment in the CIS-2008 cycle. This paper also presents analysis of data from the CIS-2008…

  15. A Longitudinal Study of Emotion Regulation, Emotion Lability-Negativity, and Internalizing Symptomatology in Maltreated and Nonmaltreated Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2013-01-01

    The longitudinal contributions of emotion regulation and emotion lability-negativity to internalizing symptomatology were examined in a low-income sample (171 maltreated and 151 nonmaltreated children, from age 7 to 10 years). Latent difference score models indicated that for both maltreated and nonmaltreated children, emotion regulation was a…

  16. Predicting Infant Maltreatment in Low-Income Families: The Interactive Effects of Maternal Attributions and Child Status at Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugental, Daphne Blunt; Happaney, Keith

    2004-01-01

    Maternal attributions and child neonatal status at birth were assessed as predictors of infant maltreatment (harsh parenting and safety neglect). The population included low-income, low-education families who were primarily Hispanic. Child maltreatment during the 1st year of life (N = 73) was predicted by neonatal status (low Apgar scores, preterm…

  17. Child Maltreatment, Adolescent Attachment Style, and Dating Violence: Considerations in Youths with Borderline-to-Mild Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jonathan A.; MacMullin, Jennifer; Waechter, Randall; Wekerle, Christine

    2011-01-01

    One of the most salient developmental tasks of adolescence is the entry into romantic relationship, which often involves developing attachments to partners. Adolescents with a history of maltreatment have been found to be at greater risk of insecure attachments to romantic partners than non-maltreated adolescents, and the interaction of…

  18. Child Maltreatment and Its Relationship to Drug Use in Latin America and the Caribbean: An Overview and Multinational Research Partnership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longman-Mills, Samantha; Gonzalez, Yolanda W.; Melendez, Marlon O.; Garcia, Monica R.; Gomez, Juan D.; Juarez, Cristina G.; Martinez, Eduardo A.; Penalba, Sobeyda J.; Pizzanelli, Miguel E.; Solorzano, Lucia I.; Wright, Gloria; Cumsille, Francisco; Sapag, Jaime; Wekerle, Christine; Hamilton, Hayley; Erickson, Patricia; Mann, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Child maltreatment and substance abuse are both international public health priorities. Research shows that child maltreatment increases the risk for substance use and problems. Thus, recognition of this relationship may have important implications for substance demand reduction strategies, including efforts to prevent and treat substance use and…

  19. Impact of a Universal School-Based Violence Prevention Program on Violent Delinquency: Distinctive Benefits for Youth with Maltreatment Histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crooks, Claire V.; Scott, Katreena; Ellis, Wendy; Wolfe, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Child maltreatment constitutes a strong risk factor for violent delinquency in adolescence, with cumulative experiences of maltreatment creating increasingly greater risk. Our previous work demonstrated that a universal school-based violence prevention program could provide a protective impact for youth at risk for violent delinquency…

  20. Prevalence, Trajectories, and Risk Factors for Depression among Caregivers of Young Children Involved in Child Maltreatment Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanueva, Cecilia; Cross, Theodore P.; Ringeisen, Heather; Christ, Sharon L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines depression among caregivers of young children involved in investigations of child maltreatment, in terms of 12-month prevalence of depression across 5 to 6 years. Data were from the "National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being," a national probability study of 5,501 children investigated for maltreatment. The study…

  1. The effects of childhood sexual abuse on cortisol trajectories in pregnancy are moderated by current family functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bublitz, Margaret H; Parade, Stephanie; Stroud, Laura R

    2014-12-01

    The goal of this study was to understand the roles of maternal history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and current family functioning on the cortisol awakening response (CAR) in pregnancy. Participants were 185 pregnant women (ages 18-40) who completed items from the Adverse Childhood Experiences scale to measure child maltreatment history and the Family Assessment Device to measure current family functioning. Participants provided saliva samples at wake-up and 30min after wake-up at 25, 29, and 35 weeks gestation to measure CAR. A moderation effect was found such that participants with more severe CSA histories and poorer perceived family functioning had increasing CAR in pregnancy compared to participants with less severe CSA histories and better family functioning. These findings highlight the importance of considering stress in both childhood and current environments in predicting maternal cortisol in pregnancy. PMID:25220484

  2. Childhood medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massimino, Maura; Biassoni, Veronica; Gandola, Lorenza; Garrè, Maria Luisa; Gatta, Gemma; Giangaspero, Felice; Poggi, Geraldina; Rutkowski, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    Medulloblastoma accounts for 15-20% of childhood nervous system tumours. The risk of dying was reduced by 30% in the last twenty years. Patients are divided in risk strata according to post-surgical disease, dissemination, histology and some molecular features such as WNT subgroup and MYC status. Sixty to 70% of patients older than 3 years are assigned to the average-risk group. High-risk patients include those with disseminated and/or residual disease, large cell and/or anaplastic histotypes, MYC genes amplification. Current and currently planned clinical trials will: (1) evaluate the feasibility of reducing both the dose of craniospinal irradiation and the volume of the posterior fossa radiotherapy (RT) for those patients at low biologic risk, commonly identified as those having a medulloblastoma of the WNT subgroup; (2) determine whether intensification of chemotherapy (CT) or irradiation can improve outcome in patients with high-risk disease; (3) find target therapies allowing tailored therapies especially for relapsing patients and those with higher biological risk. PMID:27375228

  3. New program for identification of child maltreatment in emergency department: preliminary data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milani, Gregorio P; Vianello, Federica A; Cantoni, Barbara; Agostoni, Carlo; Fossali, Emilio F

    2016-01-01

    Early detection of child maltreatment in pediatric emergency department is one of the most important challenges for the Italian and European medical care system. Several interventions have been proposed, but results are often unquantifiable or inadequate to face this problem. We promoted an educational program and built up an interdisciplinary team to improve the identification and management of maltreated children. Aim of this study is to report preliminary results of these interventions. Meetings structured with lecture-based teaching and case-based lessons were focused on identification and management of maltreatment cases. An interdisciplinary team with forensic physicians, dermatologists, orthopedics, radiologists, gynecologists, oculists, psychologists and psychiatrics, was created to manage children with suspected diagnosis of maltreatment. We analysed the characteristics of subjects diagnosed after these interventions and their number was compared with the one in the two previous years. An increased rate of diagnoses of 16.9 % was found. Results of the reported program are encouraging, but many efforts are still mandatory to improve the child maltreatment identification in emergency departments. PMID:27411332

  4. The dilemma of reporting suspicions of child maltreatment in pediatric dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvist, Therese; Wickström, Anette; Miglis, Isabelle; Dahllöf, Göran

    2014-10-01

    This study examined the factors that lead specialists in pediatric dentistry to suspect child abuse or neglect and the considerations that influence the decision to report these suspicions to social services. Focus group discussions were used to identify new aspects of child maltreatment suspicion and reporting. Such discussions illuminate the diversity of informants' experiences, opinions, and reflections. Focus groups included 19 specialists and postgraduate students in pediatric dentistry. We conducted video-recorded focus group discussions at the informants' dental clinics. All sessions lasted approximately 1.5 h. We transcribed the discussions verbatim and studied the transcripts using thematic analysis, a method well-suited to evaluating the experiences discussed and how the informants understand them. The analysis process elicited key concepts and identified one main theme, which we labeled 'the dilemma of reporting child maltreatment'. We found this dilemma to pervade a variety of situations and divided it into three sub-themes: to support or report; differentiating concern for well-being from maltreatment; and the supportive or unhelpful consultation. Reporting a suspicion about child maltreatment seems to be a clinical and ethical dilemma arising from concerns of having contradicting professional roles, difficulties confirming suspicions of maltreatment, and perceived shortcomings in the child-protection system. PMID:25039643

  5. Differential expression of social dominance as a function of age and maltreatment experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teisl, Michael; Rogosch, Fred A; Oshri, Assaf; Cicchetti, Dante

    2012-03-01

    Recent perspectives on social dominance in normative populations have suggested a developmental progression from using primarily coercive strategies to incorporation of more socially competent strategies to attain material and social resources. Parental influences on the resource control strategies children use have been proposed but not investigated empirically. The present study examined age- and gender-related differences in dominance strategies in 470 children from high-risk neighborhoods who were between 6 and 13 years of age, approximately half of whom had experienced maltreatment. A Q-sort measure of social dominance was developed and received preliminary support. Consistent with predictions from resource control theory, age-related differences in dominance-related behavior were demonstrated in both nonmaltreated and maltreated children. Maltreated children were more likely than nonmaltreated children to be identified as dominant bullies at any age. Dominance and bullying were not more likely to be associated for children who had experienced physical and sexual abuse relative to those who were neglected or emotionally maltreated. Results are discussed in terms of the influence of maltreatment on the social development of children, and intervention approaches for limiting these deleterious effects are recommended. PMID:21823792

  6. Childhood Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... They are among the most common types of childhood cancers. Some are benign tumors, which aren't ... can still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches ...

  7. Childhood Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain tumors are abnormal growths inside the skull. They are among the most common types of childhood ... still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches and ...

  8. Childhood Overweight and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Childhood Obesity Facts The prevalence of obesity among low-income children aged 2 through 4 years, by state ... Obesity now affects 1 in 6 children and adolescents in the United States. Childhood Obesity Facts How ...

  9. Reducing Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Reducing Childhood Obesity Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents For ... page please turn Javascript on. The We Can! childhood obesity-prevention program involves parents, caregivers, and community leaders ...

  10. Influence of 5-HTT variation, childhood trauma and self-efficacy on anxiety traits: a gene-environment-coping interaction study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiele, Miriam A; Ziegler, Christiane; Holitschke, Karoline; Schartner, Christoph; Schmidt, Brigitte; Weber, Heike; Reif, Andreas; Romanos, Marcel; Pauli, Paul; Zwanzger, Peter; Deckert, Jürgen; Domschke, Katharina

    2016-08-01

    Environmental vulnerability factors such as adverse childhood experiences in interaction with genetic risk variants, e.g., the serotonin transporter gene linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR), are assumed to play a role in the development of anxiety and affective disorders. However, positive influences such as general self-efficacy (GSE) may exert a compensatory effect on genetic disposition, environmental adversity, and anxiety traits. We, thus, assessed childhood trauma (Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, CTQ) and GSE in 678 adults genotyped for 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 and their interaction on agoraphobic cognitions (Agoraphobic Cognitions Questionnaire, ACQ), social anxiety (Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, LSAS), and trait anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, STAI-T). The relationship between anxiety traits and childhood trauma was moderated by self-efficacy in 5-HTTLPR/rs25531 LALA genotype carriers: LALA probands maltreated as children showed high anxiety scores when self-efficacy was low, but low anxiety scores in the presence of high self-efficacy despite childhood maltreatment. Our results extend previous findings regarding anxiety-related traits showing an interactive relationship between 5-HTT genotype and adverse childhood experiences by suggesting coping-related measures to function as an additional dimension buffering the effects of a gene-environment risk constellation. Given that anxiety disorders manifest already early in childhood, this insight could contribute to the improvement of psychotherapeutic interventions by including measures strengthening self-efficacy and inform early targeted preventive interventions in at-risk populations, particularly within the crucial time window of childhood and adolescence. PMID:27145764

  11. Adverse Childhood Experiences in the Lives of Male Sex Offenders: Implications for Trauma-Informed Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levenson, Jill S; Willis, Gwenda M; Prescott, David S

    2016-06-01

    This study explored the prevalence of childhood trauma in a sample of male sexual offenders (N = 679) using the Adverse Childhood Experience (ACE) scale. Compared with males in the general population, sex offenders had more than 3 times the odds of child sexual abuse (CSA), nearly twice the odds of physical abuse, 13 times the odds of verbal abuse, and more than 4 times the odds of emotional neglect and coming from a broken home. Less than 16% endorsed zero ACEs and nearly half endorsed four or more. Multiple maltreatments often co-occurred with other types of household dysfunction, suggesting that many sex offenders were raised within a disordered social environment. Higher ACE scores were associated with higher risk scores. By enhancing our understanding of the frequency and correlates of early adverse experiences, we can better devise trauma-informed interventions that respond to the clinical needs of sex offender clients. PMID:24872347

  12. Child maltreatment, trauma-related psychopathology, and eyewitness memory in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWilliams, Kelly; Harris, Latonya S; Goodman, Gail S

    2014-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine eyewitness memory in children and adolescents (9- to 15-years-old) with and without known histories of maltreatment (e.g., physical abuse, exposure to domestic violence). In Experiment 1, participants (N = 35) viewed a positive film clip depicting a congenial interaction between family members. In Experiment 2, participants (N = 31) watched a negative film clip in which a family argument was shown. Younger age and higher levels of trauma-related psychopathology significantly predicted commission errors to direct questions when the positive family interaction had been viewed, but not when the negative family interaction had been shown. Maltreatment history was not a significant unique predictor of memory performance for the positive or negative film clip. Implications for a scientific understanding of the effects of child maltreatment on memory are discussed. PMID:25537437

  13. Peer victimization predicts psychological symptoms beyond the effects of child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansen, Lisa Margareta; Iffland, Benjamin; Neuner, Frank

    2014-12-30

    Experiences of peer victimization have been repeatedly associated with psychological symptoms and disorders. However, as peer victimization is correlated with child maltreatment occurring within the family, it remains unclear whether the pathological effect of peer victimization is an artifact that can be attributed to previous aversive events. To separate the effects of peer victimization from child maltreatment, we studied both event types as well as psychological symptoms in a mixed clinical sample of ambulant and psychiatric patients (N=168), a self-selected community sample recruited through the internet (N=995), and a student sample (N=272). Hierarchical regression analyses showed that, after controlling for child maltreatment, peer victimization accounted for an incremental proportion of the variance of different symptom dimensions in each sample. These results indicate that peer victimization is an independent predictor of psychopathology. PMID:25440718

  14. Socioemotional, Personality, and Biological Development: Illustrations from a Multilevel Developmental Psychopathology Perspective on Child Maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchetti, Dante

    2016-01-01

    Developmental theories can be affirmed, challenged, and augmented by incorporating knowledge about atypical ontogenesis. Investigations of the biological, socioemotional, and personality development in individuals with high-risk conditions and psychopathological disorders can provide an entrée into the study of system organization, disorganization, and reorganization. This article examines child maltreatment to illustrate the benefit that can be derived from the study of individuals subjected to nonnormative caregiving experiences. Relative to an average expectable environment, which consists of a species-specific range of environmental conditions that support adaptive development among genetically normal individuals, maltreating families fail to provide many of the experiences that are required for normal development. Principles gleaned from the field of developmental psychopathology provide a framework for understanding multilevel functioning in normality and pathology. Knowledge of normative developmental processes provides the impetus to design and implement randomized control trial (RCT) interventions that can promote resilient functioning in maltreated children. PMID:26726964

  15. Does Ethnicity Matter? Social Workers’ Personal Attitudes and Professional Behaviors in Reporting Child Maltreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicki Ashton

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined differences in the attitudes of professional social workers regarding corporal punishment and the perception and reporting of child maltreatment, according to the worker’s ethnic group membership (Asian, Black American, Black Caribbean, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic White. Data were obtained by mailed questionnaires from 808 members of the New York City chapter of NASW. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance. Results indicate that approval of corporal punishment and perception of maltreatment differed according to ethnic group membership. However, ethnicity had no effect on the likelihood of reporting maltreatment. Findings suggest that social work values override personal-culture values in the execution of job-related responsibilities. Implications for education and practice are discussed.

  16. Mental health trajectories from adolescence to adulthood: Language disorder and other childhood and adolescent risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Lin; Brownlie, E B; Beitchman, Joseph H

    2016-05-01

    Longitudinal research on mental health development beyond adolescence among nonclinical populations is lacking. This study reports on psychiatric disorder trajectories from late adolescence to young adulthood in relation to childhood and adolescent risk factors. Participants were recruited for a prospective longitudinal study tracing a community sample of 5-year-old children with communication disorders and a matched control cohort to age 31. Psychiatric disorders were measured at ages 19, 25, and 31. Known predictors of psychopathology and two school-related factors specifically associated with language disorder (LD) were measured by self-reports and semistructured interviews. The LD cohort was uniquely characterized by a significantly decreasing disorder trajectory in early adulthood. Special education was associated with differential disorder trajectories between LD and control cohorts, whereas maltreatment history, specific learning disorder, family structure, and maternal psychological distress were associated with consistent trajectories between cohorts. From late adolescence to young adulthood, childhood LD was characterized by a developmentally limited course of psychiatric disorder; maltreatment was consistently characterized by an elevated risk of psychiatric disorder regardless of LD history, whereas special education was associated with significantly decreasing risk of psychiatric disorder only in the presence of LD. PMID:26611829

  17. Association of DHEA, DHEAS, and cortisol with childhood trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Voorhees, Elizabeth E.; Dennis, Michelle F.; Calhoun, Patrick S.; Beckham, Jean C.

    2014-01-01

    There has been a great deal of interest in the role of the neuroendocrine hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis on the expression of stress-related psychopathology such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This investigation examined the association of PTSD and childhood maltreatment with three key HPA axis hormones: cortisol, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS). Regression analyses were undertaken on a sample of 43 participants with and 57 participants without PTSD. Results demonstrated that after controlling for age, gender, and PTSD status, exposure to childhood maltreatment was significantly associated with cortisol secretion (F[4,95]=11.68, ΔR2=0.11, p=.0009) and cortisol/DHEA ratio (F[4,95]=6.20, ΔR2=.05, p=.01). PTSD status was not associated with any of these neuroendocrine variables. Findings are discussed in the context of the complexity of the relationship of these neuroendocrine variables with trauma exposure and trauma-related psychopathology. It is suggested that DHEA(S) or cortisol/DHEA(S) ratios may not be biomarkers of specific forms of psychopathology per se, but that instead, the severity and developmental timing of trauma may set the HPA axis in ways that are reflected in interactions among these neuroendocrine hormones. In adulthood, these HPA axis hormones may continue to be dynamically affected by personal and environmental resources. PMID:23907073

  18. Challenges of Assessing Maltreated Children Coming into Foster Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchett, Rachel; Hockaday, Harriet; Anderson, Beatrice; Davidson, Claire; Gillberg, Christopher; Minnis, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Children who have experienced early adversity have been known to be at risk of developing cognitive, attachment, and mental health problems; therefore, it is crucial that children entering foster care can be properly assessed as early as possible. There are known difficulties in assessing children in foster care, for example, in finding a reliable informant. An ongoing randomised controlled trial in Glasgow, Scotland, recruiting infants entering foster care, provides a unique opportunity to explore some of the issues which need to be considered when assessing these children. The assessment data of 70 infants entering care is described while exploring the reliability of foster carers as informants and the importance of infant engagement with tasks. This group of infants was shown to be having more problems than children from the general population. While correlations were found between a carer's level of concern about a child and the severity of a child's problem, there were still a number of children displaying worrying problem scores whom foster carers did not report concern. The child's engagement in the cognitive task showed associations with the child's attainment on the task. Findings emphasise the importance of a holistic assessment for these children and all should be considered as potential cases with Maltreatment-Associated Psychiatric Problems (MAPP). PMID:26881270

  19. Challenges of Assessing Maltreated Children Coming into Foster Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Pritchett

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Children who have experienced early adversity have been known to be at risk of developing cognitive, attachment, and mental health problems; therefore, it is crucial that children entering foster care can be properly assessed as early as possible. There are known difficulties in assessing children in foster care, for example, in finding a reliable informant. An ongoing randomised controlled trial in Glasgow, Scotland, recruiting infants entering foster care, provides a unique opportunity to explore some of the issues which need to be considered when assessing these children. The assessment data of 70 infants entering care is described while exploring the reliability of foster carers as informants and the importance of infant engagement with tasks. This group of infants was shown to be having more problems than children from the general population. While correlations were found between a carer’s level of concern about a child and the severity of a child’s problem, there were still a number of children displaying worrying problem scores whom foster carers did not report concern. The child’s engagement in the cognitive task showed associations with the child’s attainment on the task. Findings emphasise the importance of a holistic assessment for these children and all should be considered as potential cases with Maltreatment-Associated Psychiatric Problems (MAPP.

  20. Childhood abuse or neglect is associated with increased vasomotor symptom reporting among midlife women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurston, Rebecca C.; Bromberger, Joyce; Chang, Yuefang; Goldbacher, Edie; Brown, Charlotte; Cyranowski, Jill M.; Matthews, Karen A.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives This study tested the hypothesis that women exposed to childhood abuse or neglect would have an increased likelihood of reporting hot flashes and night sweats during the menopausal transition. Design This hypothesis was evaluated in 332 white and African American women participating in the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation Mental Health Study, a prospective investigation of women transitioning through menopause. Childhood abuse and neglect were measured once with the Child Trauma Questionnaire. Vasomotor symptoms (any/none hot flashes, night sweats) were reported annually over 8 years. Associations between maltreatment and vasomotor symptoms were estimated with generalized estimating equations. Results Childhood abuse or neglect was associated with increased reporting of hot flashes (odds ratio = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.23–2.43) and night sweats (odds ratio = 1.75, 95% CI: 1.26–2.43) in age-adjusted models. Results persisted in multivariable models and across several types of abuse and neglect. Conclusions The experience of childhood abuse and neglect is associated with increased vasomotor symptom reporting in adulthood. The sequelae of childhood abuse and neglect may persist well into adulthood to influence the occurrence of vasomotor symptoms at midlife. PMID:18257140