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Sample records for childhood maltreatment depressive

  1. Effect of childhood maltreatment on brain structure in adult patients with major depressive disorder and healthy participants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chaney, Aisling

    2013-07-30

    Background: Childhood maltreatment has been found to play a crucial role in the development of psychiatric disorders. However, whether childhood maltreatment is associated with structural brain changes described for major depressive disorder (MDD) is still a matter of debate. The aim of this study was to investigate whether patients with MDD and a history of childhood maltreatment display more structural changes than patients without childhood maltreatment or healthy controls. Methods: Patients with MDD and healthy controls with and without childhood maltreatment experience were investigated using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and data were analyzed using voxel-based morphometry. Results: We studied 37 patients with MDD and 46 controls. Grey matter volume was significantly decreased in the hippocampus and significantly increased in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in participants who had experienced childhood maltreatment compared with those who had not. Patients displayed smaller left OFC and left DMPFC volumes than controls. No significant difference in hippocampal volume was evident between patients with MDD and healthy controls. In regression analyses, despite effects from depression, age and sex on the DMPFC, OFC and hippocampus, childhood maltreatment was found to independently affect these regions. Limitations: The retrospective assessment of childhood maltreatment; the natural problem that patients experienced more childhood maltreatment than controls; and the restrictions, owing to sample size, to investigating higher order interactions among factors are discussed as limitations. Conclusion: These results suggest that early childhood maltreatment is associated with brain structural changes irrespective of sex, age and a history of depression. Thus, the study highlights the importance of childhood maltreatment when investigating brain structures.

  2. Protective Effect of CRHR1 Gene Variants on the Development of Adult Depression Following Childhood Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polanczyk, Guilherme; Caspi, Avshalom; Williams, Benjamin; Price, Thomas S.; Danese, Andrea; Sugden, Karen; Uher, Rudolf; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2013-01-01

    Context A previous study reported a gene × environment interaction in which a haplotype in the corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 gene (CRHR1) was associated with protection against adult depressive symptoms in individuals who were maltreated as children (as assessed by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire [CTQ]). Objective To replicate the interaction between childhood maltreatment and a TAT haplotype formed by rs7209436, rs110402, and rs242924 in CRHR1, predicting adult depression. Design Two prospective longitudinal cohort studies. Setting England and New Zealand. Participants Participants in the first sample were women in the E-Risk Study (N= 1116), followed up to age 40 years with 96% retention. Participants in the second sample were men and women in the Dunedin Study (N= 1037), followed up to age 32 years with 96% retention. Main Outcome Measure Research diagnoses of pastyear and recurrent major depressive disorder. Results In the E-Risk Study, the TAT haplotype was associated with a significant protective effect. In this effect, women who reported childhood maltreatment on the CTQ were protected against depression. In the Dunedin Study, which used a different type of measure of maltreatment, this finding was not replicated. Conclusions A haplotype in CRHR1 has been suggested to exert a protective effect against adult depression among research participants who reported maltreatment on the CTQ, a measure that elicits emotional memories. This suggests the hypothesis that CRHR1’s protective effect may relate to its function in the consolidation of memories of emotionally arousing experiences. PMID:19736354

  3. Associations between childhood maltreatment and emotion processing biases in major depression: results from a dot-probe task

    OpenAIRE

    Günther, Vivien; Dannlowski, Udo; Kersting, Anette; Suslow, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background Childhood maltreatment is considered an important risk factor for the development of major depression. Research indicates an association between childhood adversity and altered emotion processing. Depression is characterized by mood-congruent cognitive biases, which play a crucial role in symptom persistence and recurrence. However, whether attentional biases in adult major depression are associated with experienced childhood neglect or abuse remains unclear. Methods A sample of 45...

  4. Childhood Maltreatment, Depression and Suicidal Ideation: Critical Importance of Parental and Peer Emotional Abuse During Developmental Sensitive Periods in Males and Females

    OpenAIRE

    Alaptagin eKhan; Hannah Claire McCormack; Elizabeth Anna Bolger; Cynthia eMcGreenery; Gordana eVitaliano; Ann ePolcari; Martin Hersch Teicher

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Adverse Childhood Experience (ACE) study found that risk for depression increased as a function of number of types of childhood maltreatment, and interpret this as a result of cumulative stress. An alternative hypothesis is that risk depends on type and timing of maltreatment. This will also present as a linear increase, since exposure to more types of abuse increases likelihood of experiencing a critical type of abuse at a critical age.METHODS: 560 (223M/337F) young adults ...

  5. Childhood Maltreatment, Depression, and Suicidal Ideation: Critical Importance of Parental and Peer Emotional Abuse during Developmental Sensitive Periods in Males and Females

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Alaptagin; McCormack, Hannah C.; Bolger, Elizabeth A.; McGreenery, Cynthia E.; Vitaliano, Gordana; Polcari, Ann; Martin H Teicher

    2015-01-01

    Background: The adverse childhood experience (ACE) study found that risk for depression increased as a function of number of types of childhood maltreatment, and interpret this as a result of cumulative stress. An alternative hypothesis is that risk depends on type and timing of maltreatment. This will also present as a linear increase, since exposure to more types of abuse increases likelihood of experiencing a critical type of abuse at a critical age. Methods: 560 (223M/337F) young adults (...

  6. Functional Correlates of childhood maltreatment and symptom severity during affective theory of mind tasks in chronic depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentze, Charlotte; Walter, Henrik; Schramm, Elisabeth; Drost, Sarah; Schoepf, Dieter; Fangmeier, Thomas; Mattern, Margarete; Normann, Claus; Zobel, Ingo; Schnell, Knut

    2016-04-30

    Among multiple etiological factors of depressive disorders, childhood maltreatment (CM) gains increasing attention as it confers susceptibility for depression and predisposes to chronicity. CM assumedly inhibits social-cognitive development, entailing interactional problems as observed in chronic depression (CD), especially in affective theory of mind (ToM). However, the extent of CM among CD patients varies notably as does the severity of depressive symptoms. We tested whether the extent of CM or depressive symptoms correlates with affective ToM functions in CD patients. Regional brain activation measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging during an affective ToM task was tested for correlation with CM, assessed by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), and symptom severity, assessed by the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), in 25 unmedicated CD patients (mean age 41.52, SD 11.13). Amygdala activation during affective ToM correlated positively with CTQ total scores, while (para)hippocampal response correlated negatively with MADRS scores. Our findings suggest that differential amygdala activation in affective ToM in CD is substantially modulated by previous CM and not by the pathophysiological equivalents of current depressive symptoms. This illustrates the amygdala's role in the mediation of CM effects. The negative correlation of differential (para)hippocampal activation and depressive symptom severity indicates reduced integration of interactional experiences during depressive states.

  7. Childhood Maltreatment and Educational Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Elisa; Babchishin, Lyzon; Marquis, Robyn; Fréchette, Sabrina

    2015-10-01

    Children (0-18 years) with maltreatment histories are vulnerable to experiencing difficulties across multiple domains of functioning, including educational outcomes that encompass not only academic achievement but also mental well-being. The current literature review adopted Slade and Wissow's model to examine (1) the link between childhood maltreatment and academic achievement, (2) the link between childhood maltreatment and mental health outcomes (i.e., emotional and behavioral difficulties), and (3) the bidirectional relationship between childhood academic achievement and mental health. In addition, we reviewed variables that might influence or help explain the link between childhood maltreatment and educational outcomes, drawing on developmental perspectives and Bronfenbrenner's ecological model. Finally, whenever possible, we presented findings specific to maltreated children in out-of-home care to highlight the unique challenges experienced by this population. Results indicated that children with maltreatment histories often experience impairments in both their academic performance (e.g., special education, grade retention, lower grades) and mental well-being (e.g., anxiety, low mood, aggression, social skills deficits, poor interpersonal relationships). These impairments appeared to be particularly pronounced among maltreated children in out-of-home care. Findings, albeit sparse, also indicated that mental health difficulties are negatively associated with children's academic achievement and, similarly, that academic achievement deficits are linked with mental health problems. The link between childhood maltreatment and educational outcomes may be partly explained through the disruption of key developmental processes in children, such as attachment, emotion regulation, and sense of agency. As well, maltreatment characteristics and the functioning of various systems in which children are embedded (e.g., family, school, child welfare) can serve to positively

  8. Childhood Maltreatment and Educational Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Elisa; Babchishin, Lyzon; Marquis, Robyn; Fréchette, Sabrina

    2015-10-01

    Children (0-18 years) with maltreatment histories are vulnerable to experiencing difficulties across multiple domains of functioning, including educational outcomes that encompass not only academic achievement but also mental well-being. The current literature review adopted Slade and Wissow's model to examine (1) the link between childhood maltreatment and academic achievement, (2) the link between childhood maltreatment and mental health outcomes (i.e., emotional and behavioral difficulties), and (3) the bidirectional relationship between childhood academic achievement and mental health. In addition, we reviewed variables that might influence or help explain the link between childhood maltreatment and educational outcomes, drawing on developmental perspectives and Bronfenbrenner's ecological model. Finally, whenever possible, we presented findings specific to maltreated children in out-of-home care to highlight the unique challenges experienced by this population. Results indicated that children with maltreatment histories often experience impairments in both their academic performance (e.g., special education, grade retention, lower grades) and mental well-being (e.g., anxiety, low mood, aggression, social skills deficits, poor interpersonal relationships). These impairments appeared to be particularly pronounced among maltreated children in out-of-home care. Findings, albeit sparse, also indicated that mental health difficulties are negatively associated with children's academic achievement and, similarly, that academic achievement deficits are linked with mental health problems. The link between childhood maltreatment and educational outcomes may be partly explained through the disruption of key developmental processes in children, such as attachment, emotion regulation, and sense of agency. As well, maltreatment characteristics and the functioning of various systems in which children are embedded (e.g., family, school, child welfare) can serve to positively

  9. Self-Criticism as a Mechanism Linking Childhood Maltreatment and Maternal Efficacy Beliefs in Low-Income Mothers With and Without Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michl, Louisa C; Handley, Elizabeth D; Rogosch, Fred; Cicchetti, Dante; Toth, Sheree L

    2015-11-01

    The primary aim of the current study was to examine self-criticism as a potential mechanism mediating the relation between mothers' own childhood maltreatment history and changes in subsequent maternal efficacy beliefs in a diverse sample of low-income mothers with and without major depressive disorder. Longitudinal data were drawn from a larger randomized clinical trial evaluating the effectiveness of interpersonal psychotherapy for depression among low-income mothers and their 12-month-old infant. Results indicated that higher levels of maltreatment in childhood led mothers to hold more self-critical judgments in adulthood. Additionally, mothers who had experienced more extensive childhood maltreatment histories perceived themselves as less efficacious in their role as mother. Structural equation modeling indicated that self-criticism mediated the relationship between childhood maltreatment and mothers' decreased perceived competency in her maternal role from when her child was an infant to the more demanding toddler years. Finally, this relationship held over and above the influence of mothers' depressive diagnostic status. Directions for future research and the clinical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:26318693

  10. Childhood Maltreatment and Differential Treatment Response and Recurrence in Adult Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, Kate L.; Bagby, R. Michael; Kennedy, Sidney H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: A substantial number of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) do not respond to treatment, and recurrence rates remain high. The purpose of this study was to examine a history of severe childhood abuse as a moderator of response following a 16-week acute treatment trial, and of recurrence over a 12-month follow-up. Method:…

  11. Childhood maltreatment and personality disorders in patients with a major depressive disorder: A comparative study between France and Togo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounou, Kossi B; Dogbe Foli, Ayoko A; Djassoa, G; Amétépé, Léonard K; Rieu, J; Mathur, A; Biyong, I; Schmitt, L

    2015-10-01

    Few studies have examined the association between childhood maltreatment (CM) and personality disorders (PDs) in adulthood in two different cultural contexts, including sub-Saharan Africa. The aims of this study were to compare the frequency of CM between patients in treatment in France and Togo for a major depressive disorder (MDD), to explore the link between CM and PDs, and to examine the mediating effect of personality dimensions in the pathway from CM to PDs in 150 participants (75 in each country). The 28-item Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the International Personality Item Pool, and the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire (PDQ-4+) were used to assess CM, personality dimensions, and PDs respectively. Togolese participants reported sexual and physical abuse (PA) and emotional and physical neglect significantly more frequently than French participants. In Togo, severe PA was associated with schizoid, antisocial, narcissistic, obsessive-compulsive, depressive, and negativist PDs whereas in France, PA was only linked to paranoid PD. In Togo, emotional instability partly mediated the relationship between CM and PDs while in France, no personality dimension appeared to mediate this link. Our results support the hypothesis that CM is more common in low-income countries and suggest that the links between CM and PDs are influenced by social environment.

  12. Relationship Between Childhood Maltreatment Experience, Cognitive Bias and Depression%童年虐待经历及认知偏差与抑郁的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴韦玮; 陆邵佳; 位照国; 彭红军; 李凌江

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨童年期受虐待经历及认知偏差与抑郁的关系.方法:利用童年创伤问卷将入组的重症抑郁症患者及健康成人分为童年虐待组和无童年虐待组,所有被试均完成功能失调性态度量表及认知偏差问卷.结果:在功能失调性态度得分、抑郁-歪曲得分上,诊断有显著主效应,仅认知哲学评分中,童年创伤无主效应.完美化因子评分中,童年创伤与诊断有显著交互作用,伴童年虐待的抑郁症患者显著升高.多元回归分析显示,功能失调性态度总分与抑郁-歪曲得分是抑郁程度的显著预测因子.结论:抑郁症患者及伴童年虐待者均比健康人有更严重的认知偏差,伴童年虐待的抑郁症对完美化的追求更明显.负性认知偏差是抑郁症的有力预测因子.%Objective:To explore the relationship between childhood maltreatment experience,cognitive bias and depression.Methods:Patients of major depression and healthy adults were assessed by Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ).And then the patients were divided into the depression group with childhood maltreatment and the one without childhood maltreatment; and the healthy adults were divided into the control group with childhood maltreatment and the one without childhood maltreatment.All subjects were assessed cogntive biases with Dysfunctional Attitudes Scales(DAS)and The Cognitive Bias Questionnaire (CBQ).Results:The main effect of depression diagnosis existed in the total score of DAS and all structure factors,as well as the score of depression-distortion.The main effects of childhood maltreatment were found in the score of depression-distortion,as well as the total score of DAS and 7 structure factors,except "Cognitive-philosophy" factor.Multiple regression analysis showed that the total score of DAS and the score of depression-distortion were powerful predictors of depression.Conclusion:Both depressive patients and the people with childhood maltreatment have

  13. Childhood Maltreatment and Headache Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietjen, Gretchen E

    2016-04-01

    Childhood maltreatment is substantiated in 12 % of children, but nearly 50 % adults recall having been neglected or abused as children. Maltreatment, especially emotional abuse, is associated with migraine. Dysregulation of the HPA axis, autonomic, immune, and metabolic systems appears to be a consequence of maltreatment, and is also reported in migraine. Areas of the brain structurally and functionally affected by childhood abuse and by migraine are also similar, and include the limbic system structures, which connect to pain regions in the brainstem. Putative mechanisms by which early life stress increases the likelihood of developing migraine include gene x environment interactions, in addition to epigenetic modifications via DNA methylation. These modifications are stable and may be transferred across generations, but they may also be reversed by some medications commonly used in migraine, including valproic acid and topiramate. PMID:26936357

  14. Sexually coercive behavior following childhood maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsman, Mats; Johansson, Ada; Santtila, Pekka; Sandnabba, Kenneth; Långström, Niklas

    2015-01-01

    Child maltreatment is associated with adult sexually coercive behavior. The association may be causal or confounders that increase the risk of both childhood victimization and sexually coercive behavior might explain the observed links. We examined if childhood maltreatment was related to sexual coercion independently of familial (genetic or common family environment) risk factors, thereby addressing potential causality. Participants were 6,255 18 to 33-year-old twins from the Finnish population-based study "Genetics of Sex and Aggression" who responded to self-report questionnaires of child maltreatment and sexually coercive behavior. We used generalized estimating equations to elucidate risk of sexual coercion in maltreated compared to unrelated, non-maltreated individuals. To adjust for unmeasured familial factors, we used the co-twin control method and compared sexual coercion risk within maltreatment-discordant twin pairs. Further, we examined possible differential effects of maltreatment subtypes and compared mean differences in maltreatment summary scores between sexually coercive individuals and controls. Sexual coercion was moderately more common among individuals maltreated as children versus unrelated controls (38.3 vs. 22.8 %; age- and gender-adjusted odds ratio, aOR = 2.31, 95 % CI 1.75-3.05) and the risk increase remained similar within maltreatment-discordant twins (OR = 2.82, 95 % CI 1.42-5.61). Moreover, different maltreatment subtypes predicted sexual coercion equally well and effect sizes remained similar within discordant twin pairs. We conclude that associations between child maltreatment and sexual coercion are largely independent of shared familial confounds, consistent with a causal inference. Importantly, detection and targeted interventions for maltreated children should remain a priority to reduce societal sexually coercive behavior. PMID:24752790

  15. The role of timing of maltreatment and child intelligence in pathways to low symptoms of depression and anxiety in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpur, Lisa Jane; Polek, Ela; van Harmelen, Anne-Laura

    2015-09-01

    Research indicates that childhood maltreatment is strongly associated with high levels of adolescent depression and anxiety symptoms. Using LONGSCAN data and taking into account the range of family characteristics related to adversity (poverty, primary caregiver substance abuse) and protective factors (living with biological mother and father), the present study assessed the complex resilience process in which child intelligence (age 6) mediated the relationship between early childhood maltreatment (age 0-4) and adolescent symptoms of depression and anxiety (age 14). We also assessed if mid (age 6-8) and late (age 10-12) childhood maltreatment moderated this mediation. We found that mid-childhood intelligence mediated the negative effect of early childhood maltreatment (age 0-4) on anxiety symptoms (age 14), but not on depressive symptoms (age 14). We also found the effect of timing of maltreatment: early childhood maltreatment (age 0-4) predicted more anxiety symptoms in adolescence, whereas late childhood/early adolescent (age 10-12) maltreatment predicted more symptoms of depression in adolescence. In addition, mid (age 6-8) and late (age 10-12) childhood maltreatment dampened the protective effect of IQ (age 6) against anxiety (age 14). In sum, current evidence shows that low anxiety and depression symptoms in adolescence following childhood maltreatment was achieved through different pathways, and that early and late childhood/early adolescence were more sensitive periods for development of psychopathology related to depression and anxiety in adolescence. PMID:26146160

  16. The role of timing of maltreatment and child intelligence in pathways to low symptoms of depression and anxiety in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpur, Lisa Jane; Polek, Ela; van Harmelen, Anne-Laura

    2015-09-01

    Research indicates that childhood maltreatment is strongly associated with high levels of adolescent depression and anxiety symptoms. Using LONGSCAN data and taking into account the range of family characteristics related to adversity (poverty, primary caregiver substance abuse) and protective factors (living with biological mother and father), the present study assessed the complex resilience process in which child intelligence (age 6) mediated the relationship between early childhood maltreatment (age 0-4) and adolescent symptoms of depression and anxiety (age 14). We also assessed if mid (age 6-8) and late (age 10-12) childhood maltreatment moderated this mediation. We found that mid-childhood intelligence mediated the negative effect of early childhood maltreatment (age 0-4) on anxiety symptoms (age 14), but not on depressive symptoms (age 14). We also found the effect of timing of maltreatment: early childhood maltreatment (age 0-4) predicted more anxiety symptoms in adolescence, whereas late childhood/early adolescent (age 10-12) maltreatment predicted more symptoms of depression in adolescence. In addition, mid (age 6-8) and late (age 10-12) childhood maltreatment dampened the protective effect of IQ (age 6) against anxiety (age 14). In sum, current evidence shows that low anxiety and depression symptoms in adolescence following childhood maltreatment was achieved through different pathways, and that early and late childhood/early adolescence were more sensitive periods for development of psychopathology related to depression and anxiety in adolescence.

  17. Mental health outcomes in HIV and childhood maltreatment: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spies Georgina

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High rates of childhood maltreatment have been documented in HIV-positive men and women. In addition, mental disorders are highly prevalent in both HIV-infected individuals and victims of childhood maltreatment. However, there is a paucity of research investigating the mental health outcomes associated with childhood maltreatment in the context of HIV infection. The present systematic review assessed mental health outcomes in HIV-positive individuals who were victims of childhood maltreatment. Methods A systematic search of all retrospective, prospective, or clinical trial studies assessing mental health outcomes associated with HIV and childhood maltreatment. The following online databases were searched on 25–31 August 2010: PubMed, Social Science Citation Index, and the Cochrane Library (the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and the Cochrane Developmental, Psychosocial and Learning Problems, HIV/AIDS, and Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis registers. Results We identified 34 studies suitable for inclusion. A total of 14,935 participants were included in these studies. A variety of mixed mental health outcomes were reported. The most commonly reported psychiatric disorders among HIV-positive individuals with a history of childhood maltreatment included: substance abuse, major depressive disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. An association between childhood maltreatment and poor adherence to antiretroviral regimens was also reported in some studies. Conclusion A broad range of adult psychopathology has been reported in studies of HIV-infected individuals with a history of childhood maltreatment. However, a direct causal link cannot be well established. Longer term assessment will better delineate the nature, severity, and temporal relationship of childhood maltreatment to mental health outcomes.

  18. The influence of childhood maltreatment on adolescents’ academic performance

    OpenAIRE

    Slade, Eric P.; Wissow, Lawrence S.

    2007-01-01

    Evidence that childhood maltreatment is associated with emotional and behavioral problems throughout childhood suggests that maltreatment could lead to impaired academic performance in middle and high school. This article explores these effects using data on siblings. An index measure of the intensity of childhood maltreatment was included as a covariate in multivariate analyses of adolescents’ risk for school performance impairments. Family fixed effects were used to control for unobservable...

  19. Interplay between Childhood Maltreatment, Parental Bonding, and Gender Effects: Impact on Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikhye, Kobita; Tyrka, Audrey R.; Kelly, Megan M.; Gagne, Gerard G., Jr.; Mello, Andrea F.; Mello, Marcello F.; Price, Lawrence H.; Carpenter, Linda L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine associations between childhood adversity, parental bonding, gender, depressive symptoms, and quality of life in non-treatment-seeking adults from the community. Method: Effects of differential parental rearing were compared in adults who reported a high degree of childhood maltreatment (n = 72) and…

  20. Increased methylation of glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) in adults with a history of childhood maltreatment: a link with the severity and type of trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Perroud, N; Paoloni-Giacobino, A.; de Prada, P.; Olié, E; Salzmann, A; NICASTRO, R.; Guillaume, S.; Mouthon, D; Stouder, C; Dieben, K; Huguelet, P; Courtet, P; Malafosse, A.

    2011-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment, through epigenetic modification of the glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1), influences the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis (HPA axis). We investigated whether childhood maltreatment and its severity were associated with increased methylation of the exon 1F NR3C1 promoter, in 101 borderline personality disorder (BPD) and 99 major depressive disorder (MDD) subjects with, respectively, a high and low rate of childhood maltreatment, and 15 MDD subjects with comorbid p...

  1. Assessing childhood maltreatment and mental health correlates of disordered eating profiles in a nationally representative sample of English females

    OpenAIRE

    Armour, Cherie; Műllerová, Jana; Fletcher, Shelley; Lagdon, Susan; Burns, Carol Rhonda; Robinson, Martin; Robinson, Jake

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Previous research suggests that childhood maltreatment is associated with the onset of eating disorders (ED). In turn, EDs are associated with alternative psychopathologies such as depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and with suicidality. Moreover, it has been reported that various ED profiles may exist. The aim of the current study was to examine the profiles of disordered eating and the associations of these with childhood maltreatment and with mental health psychop...

  2. Childhood Maltreatment and Revictimization in a Homeless Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edalati, Hanie; Krausz, Michael; Schütz, Christian G

    2016-09-01

    We examined the hypothesis that exposure to childhood maltreatment increases the vulnerability to Adult Victimization (AV) in a homeless population (N = 500). We also investigated the effects of specific types (emotional, physical, and sexual) and cumulative experience of childhood maltreatment on AV, and whether gender moderates these relationships. All three groups with AV experience (emotional, physical, and sexual) indicated higher exposure to childhood abuse and cumulative maltreatment, and those who were sexually victimized as an adult showed higher exposure to childhood neglect. In addition, exposure to childhood maltreatment had type-specific and cumulative effects on AV. Exposure to all types of childhood abuse maintained a strong direct association with AV, regardless of demographic characteristics, including age, ethnicity, marital status, education level, and housing situation. In addition, exposure to physical neglect showed a significant relationship with Adult Sexual Victimization. Cumulative experience of childhood maltreatment was consistently associated with cumulative risk of experiencing AV. Gender had no significant effect on these relationships. Findings suggest that intervention programs in homeless population should consider the history of childhood maltreatment and its characteristics to increase the effectiveness of intervention strategies for AV in this population. PMID:25814505

  3. Recognizing and managing long-term sequelae of childhood maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheid, Jeanette M

    2003-06-01

    Childhood maltreatment is a serious public health problem and represents a significant challenge to pediatricians. Maltreated children present with a variety of emotional and behavioral problems. Pediatricians should screen for risk factors associated with maltreatment and psychiatric sequelae associated with maltreatment. Because of the complexity of psychiatric sequelae in childhood maltreatment, children who have been maltreated will likely require multidisciplinary treatment in mental health care settings. Therefore, pediatricians need to be knowledgeable about mental health services in their communities and actively assist the family in obtaining services. Although we are gaining a more sophisticated understanding of the impact that maltreatment has on the mental health of children and adolescents, much remains to be done. It is critical for pediatricians to work within their professional organizations and their individual communities to address the systemic issues that create barriers to care for patients who have suffered maltreatment. It is also critical for pediatricians to encourage their professional organizations to establish good working relationships with other organizations in areas where they share interest, need, and commitment. Such collaborative relationships at local, state, and national levels can facilitate governmental policy changes that are needed to protect and care for children and adolescents. Only through such efforts can we bring about lasting changes that will support the health and well-being of children and adolescents. PMID:12846017

  4. Effect of childhood maltreatment and brain-derived neurotrophic factor on brain morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmaal, Lianne; Jansen, Rick; Milaneschi, Yuri; Opmeer, Esther M.; Elzinga, Bernet M.; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; Veltman, Dick J.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2016-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment (CM) has been associated with altered brain morphology, which may partly be due to a direct impact on neural growth, e.g. through the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) pathway. Findings on CM, BDNF and brain volume are inconsistent and have never accounted for the entire BDNF pathway. We examined the effects of CM, BDNF (genotype, gene expression and protein level) and their interactions on hippocampus, amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) morphology. Data were collected from patients with depression and/or an anxiety disorder and healthy subjects within the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) (N = 289). CM was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Interview. BDNF Val66Met genotype, gene expression and serum protein levels were determined in blood and T1 MRI scans were acquired at 3T. Regional brain morphology was assessed using FreeSurfer. Covariate-adjusted linear regression analyses were performed. Amygdala volume was lower in maltreated individuals. This was more pronounced in maltreated met-allele carriers. The expected positive relationship between BDNF gene expression and volume of the amygdala is attenuated in maltreated subjects. Finally, decreased cortical thickness of the ACC was identified in maltreated subjects with the val/val genotype. CM was associated with altered brain morphology, partly in interaction with multiple levels of the BNDF pathway. Our results suggest that CM has different effects on brain morphology in met-carriers and val-homozygotes and that CM may disrupt the neuroprotective effect of BDNF. PMID:27405617

  5. The Prevalence of Four Types of Childhood Maltreatment in Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Christoffersen, Mogens N; Armour, Cherie; Lasgaard, Mathias; Andersen, Tonny E; Elklit, Ask

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of four types of childhood maltreatment in Denmark while taking into considerations how each of the types of maltreatment vary as a function of gender or child-protection status. Methods: Data were collected from a Danish national study conducted by The Danish National Centre for Social Research in 2008 and 2009. The study used a stratified random probability sample of young people aged 24 years. A sample of 4718 young adults were randomly selected by St...

  6. Maternal depression during pregnancy and offspring depression in adulthood:role of child maltreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Plant, Dominic T; Pariante, Carmine M.; Sharp, Deborah; Pawlby, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Studies have shown that maternal depression during pregnancy predicts offspring depression in adolescence. Child maltreatment is also a risk factor for depression.Aims: To investigate (a) whether there is an association between offspring exposure to maternal depression in pregnancy and depression in early adulthood, and (b) whether offspring child maltreatment mediates this association.Method: Prospectively collected data on maternal clinical depression in pregnancy, offspring chi...

  7. Relationship between childhood maltreatment and depression symptoms among 1 417 junior high school students%童年期虐待与初中生抑郁症状关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张婉婉; 刘阳; 余婷婷; 胡塔静; 葛星; 汪耿夫; 方玉; 苏普玉

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and depression in junior high school students.Methods A total of 1 417 junior high school students from the 7th,8th and 9th grade of three public schools were selected with cluster sampling in Huoqiu country and depressive symptoms,childhood maltreatment experience and general demographic were surveyed with Self-Rating Depression Scale and a self-designed questionnaire.Results The detection rate of depressive symptoms was 61.3% in the students.The detection rate was higher among the girls,students of 8th grades,and non-only-child students than among the boys,students of other grade and only-child students,with statistically significant differences (P < 0.05 for all).The detection rate was inversely related to the intimacy to parents and academic records of the students (P < 0.001).The detection rate of depression among the students with repeated childhood maltreatment was higher than among the student without the experience,with a significant difference(P < 0.05).Repeated serious physical abuse,moderate physical abuse,emotional abuse,contact sexual abuse,and non-contact sexual abuse in childhood were positivedly correlated to depression among the students,with the odds ratios of 1.989,1.436,1.698,2.834,and 2.235,respectively.Conclusion Repeated maltreatment in childhood is a risk factor of adolescent depression.%目的 探讨童年期虐待经历与初中生抑郁症状的关系.方法 整群抽取安徽省霍邱县3所乡镇普通初级中学的1 417名初中生,采用抑郁自评量表(SDS)、自编童年期虐待经历问卷和自编一般情况调查表进行问卷调查.结果 1 417名初中生中抑郁症状的检出率为61.3%,女生(66.7%)高于男生(56.6%),初二年级(64.4%)高于初一(62.4%)和初三年级(56.7%),非独生子女(63.5%)高于独生子女(54.9%),差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05或P<0.001);与父母的关系从差、一般到亲密,

  8. The Linkages among Childhood Maltreatment, Adolescent Mental Health, and Self-Compassion in Child Welfare Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Masako; Wekerle, Christine; Schmuck, Mary Lou; Paglia-Boak, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Childhood maltreatment is a robust risk factor for poor physical and mental health. Child welfare youths represent a high-risk group, given the greater likelihood of severe or multiple types of maltreatment. This study examined the relationship between childhood maltreatment and self-compassion--a concept of positive acceptance of…

  9. Childhood emotional maltreatment : impact on cognition and the brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmelen, Anne-Laura van

    2013-01-01

    When a child is often scolded or threatened by his parents (emotional abuse) and /or when a child is structurally ignored or isolated by his parents (emotional neglect) we call this childhood emotional maltreatment (CEM). CEM is the most common form of child abuse, however, CEM is also the most hidd

  10. Intrusions of autobiographical memories in individuals reporting childhood emotional maltreatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.-L. van Harmelen; B.M. Elzinga; R.A. Kievit; P. Spinhoven

    2011-01-01

    Background: During childhood emotional maltreatment (CEM) negative attitudes are provided to the child (e.g., ‘‘you are worthless’’). These negative attitudes may result in emotion inhibition strategies in order to avoid thinking of memories of CEM, such as thought suppression. However, thought supp

  11. 抑郁障碍共病人格障碍与童年期被虐待经历关系的研究%A study on patients suffered from depression and personality comorbided disorder and childhood maltreatment experiences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周玉萍; 李绍敏; 阮玖琼; 闫景新; 高晓翠

    2008-01-01

    Objective To explore the relation between childhood maltreated Experiences and depressive disorder subjects with personality dimmers.Methods 98 depressive disorder patients and 100 healthy controls were assessed with structured clinical interview for DSM-Ⅳ(SCID-Ⅱ) and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-28 Short Form (CTQ-SF).Results Depressive disorder subjects with personality disorders scored significantly higher than normal control in emotional abuse,sex abuse,physical neglect,emotionalneglect domains and in all domains (97.52,90.98,98.32,93.72,94.96 vs 69.66,69.98,66.26,68.74,68.12 ) with the exception of physical abuse.Whereas depressive disorder subjects without personality disorders only scored significantly higher in emotional neglect,emotional abuse domains and compared with normal control ( 85.40,83.15 vs 66.83,67.82).Conclusion Subjects with personality disorders experienced more severe traumaticevents during their early life.Childhood maltreatment experiences have influence on thedevelopment of depression disorders and personality disorders.%目的 研究抑郁障碍共病人格障碍与童年期被虐待经历的关系.方法 采用DSM-IV定式临床会谈量表(SCID-Ⅱ)和童年期创伤性经历问卷(CTQ-SF)对98例抑郁障碍患者进行评估,并与100例正常人群对照.结果 CTQ-SF除躯体虐待外,抑郁障碍共病人格障碍患者情感虐待、性虐待、躯体忽视、情感忽视因子分和总分(分别为97.52分,90.98分,98.32分,93.72分,94.96分)均高于正常对照组(分别为69.66分,69.98分,66.26分,68.74分,68.12分),差异有显著性(P<0.01).非共病人格障碍组的则只有情感忽视和情感虐待(分别为85.40分,83.15分)高于正常对照组(分别为66.83分,67.82分),差异具有显著性(P<0.05).结论 抑郁障碍共病人格障碍患者的童年期创伤性经历较正常对照组严重;童年期被虐待经历与抑郁障碍共患人格障碍有关.

  12. Childhood maltreatment and its effect on neurocognitive functioning: Timing and chronicity matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowell, Raquel A; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A; Toth, Sheree L

    2015-05-01

    Childhood maltreatment represents a complex stressor, with the developmental timing, duration, frequency, and type of maltreatment varying with each child (Barnett, Manly, & Cicchetti, 1993; Cicchetti & Manly, 2001). Multiple brain regions and neural circuits are disrupted by the experience of child maltreatment (Cicchetti & Toth, in press; DeBellis et al., 2002; McCrory & Viding, 2010; Teicher, Anderson, & Polcari, 2012). These neurobiological compromises indicate the impairment of a number of important cognitive functions, including working memory and inhibitory control. The present study extends prior research by examining the effect of childhood maltreatment on neurocognitive functioning based on developmental timing of maltreatment, including onset, chronicity, and recency, in a sample of 3- to 9-year-old nonmaltreated (n = 136) and maltreated children (n = 223). Maltreated children performed more poorly on inhibitory control and working-memory tasks than did nonmaltreated children. Group differences between maltreated children based on the timing of maltreatment and the chronicity of maltreatment also were evident. Specifically, children who were maltreated during infancy, and children with a chronic history of maltreatment, exhibited significantly poorer inhibitory control and working-memory performance than did children without a history of maltreatment. The results suggest that maltreatment occurring during infancy, a period of major brain organization, disrupts normative structure and function, and these deficits are further instantiated by the prolonged stress of chronic maltreatment during the early years of life. PMID:25997769

  13. Mental health outcomes in HIV and childhood maltreatment: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Spies Georgina; Afifi Tracie O; Archibald Sarah L; Fennema-Notestine Christine; Sareen Jitender; Seedat Soraya

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background High rates of childhood maltreatment have been documented in HIV-positive men and women. In addition, mental disorders are highly prevalent in both HIV-infected individuals and victims of childhood maltreatment. However, there is a paucity of research investigating the mental health outcomes associated with childhood maltreatment in the context of HIV infection. The present systematic review assessed mental health outcomes in HIV-positive individuals who were victims of ch...

  14. The Dollars and Senselessness in Failing to Prioritize Childhood Maltreatment Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wekerle, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment captured medical attention almost 50 years ago. Reviews considering the evidence for published maltreatment prevention programming emerged about 20 years ago. In the second decade of the 21st century, evidence-based maltreatment prevention is a reality for at-risk groups; however, the research-to-practice and policy gap…

  15. Childhood maltreatment and violence: mediation through psychiatric morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Rafael A; Kallis, Constantinos; Ullrich, Simone; Barnicot, Kirsten; Keers, Robert; Coid, Jeremy W

    2016-02-01

    Childhood maltreatment is associated with multiple adverse outcomes in adulthood including poor mental health and violence. We investigated direct and indirect pathways from childhood maltreatment to adult violence perpetration and the explanatory role of psychiatric morbidity. Analyses were based on a population survey of 2,928 young men 21-34 years in Great Britain in 2011, with boost surveys of black and minority ethnic groups and lower social grades. Respondents completed questionnaires measuring psychiatric diagnoses using standardized screening instruments, including antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), drug and alcohol dependence and psychosis. Maltreatment exposures included childhood physical abuse, neglect, witnessing domestic violence and being bullied. Adult violence outcomes included: any violence, violence toward strangers and intimate partners (IPV), victim injury and minor violence. Witnessing domestic violence showed the strongest risk for adult violence (AOR 2.70, 95% CI 2.00, 3.65) through a direct pathway, with psychotic symptoms and ASPD as partial mediators. Childhood physical abuse was associated with IPV (AOR 2.33, 95% CI 1.25, 4.35), mediated by ASPD and alcohol dependence. Neglect was associated with violence toward strangers (AOR 1.73, 95% CI 1.03, 2.91), mediated by ASPD. Prevention of violence in adulthood following childhood physical abuse and neglect requires treatment interventions for associated alcohol dependence, psychosis, and ASPD. However, witnessing family violence in childhood had strongest and direct effects on the pathway to adult violence, with important implications for primary prevention. In this context, prevention strategies should prioritize and focus on early childhood exposure to violence in the family home. PMID:26803688

  16. Childhood maltreatment and intimate partner violence in dissociative disorder patients

    OpenAIRE

    Webermann, Aliya R.; Brand, Bethany L.; Chasson, Gregory S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Childhood maltreatment (CM) is a risk factor for subsequent intimate partner violence (IPV) in adulthood, with high rates of retrospectively reported CM among IPV victims and perpetrators. A theorized mechanism of the link between CM and IPV is dissociation. Dissociation may allow perpetrators of violence to remain emotionally distant from their behavior and minimize empathy toward those they victimize, enabling them to commit acts of violence similar to their own experiences. Ind...

  17. Resilience and health among youths with documented childhood maltreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Maia, Ângela; Pinto, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to assess the current health among youths who were maltreated as a child and had received one of two different protective interventions (home vs. institutionalization). Methods: We assessed the childhood adversity, psychopathology, physical complaints and health risk behaviours of 136 youths who had been identified by Child Protective Services and 80 youth not identified (control). Findings: The groups were similar in terms of psychopathology, glob...

  18. Intrusions of autobiographical memories in individuals reporting childhood emotional maltreatment

    OpenAIRE

    van Harmelen, Anne-Laura; Elzinga, Bernet M.; Rogier A. Kievit; Spinhoven, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Background: During childhood emotional maltreatment (CEM) negative attitudes are provided to the child (e.g., ‘‘you are worthless’’). These negative attitudes may result in emotion inhibition strategies in order to avoid thinking of memories of CEM, such as thought suppression. However, thought suppression may paradoxically enhance occurrences (i.e., intrusions) of these memories, which may occur immediately or sometime after active suppression of these memories. Objective: Until now, studies...

  19. Childhood maltreatment and the risk of pre-pregnancy obesity and excessive gestational weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesel, Jill C; Bodnar, Lisa M; Day, Nancy L; Larkby, Cynthia A

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate whether maternal history of childhood maltreatment was associated with pre-pregnancy obesity or excessive gestational weight gain. Pregnant women (n = 472) reported pre-pregnancy weight and height and gestational weight gain and were followed up to 16 years post-partum when they reported maltreatment on the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). CTQ score ranged from no maltreatment (25) to severe maltreatment (125). Prenatal mental health modified the association between CTQ score and maternal weight (P childhood may contribute to pre-pregnancy obesity and excessive gestational weight gain. PMID:25138565

  20. A Systematic Review of Childhood Maltreatment Assessments in Population-Representative Surveys Since 1990

    OpenAIRE

    Hovdestad, Wendy; Campeau, Aimée; Potter, Dawn; Tonmyr, Lil

    2015-01-01

    Background Population-representative surveys that assess childhood maltreatment and health are a valuable resource to explore the implications of child maltreatment for population health. Systematic identification and evaluation of such surveys is needed to facilitate optimal use of their data and to inform future research. Objectives To inform researchers of the existence and nature of population-representative surveys relevant to understanding links between childhood maltreatment and health...

  1. Childhood Maltreatment and Conduct Disorder: Independent Predictors of Criminal Outcomes in ADHD Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sanctis, Virginia A.; Nomura, Yoko; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at heightened risk for maltreatment in childhood and criminality as they enter into adolescence and early adulthood. Here, we investigated the effect of moderate to severe childhood maltreatment on later criminality among adolescents/young adults diagnosed with ADHD in…

  2. The impact of childhood maltreatment on biological systems: Implications for clinical interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Andrea

    2013-10-01

    Childhood maltreatment represents a significant risk factor for the development of a number of mental and physical health outcomes. Converging evidence suggests that early adversity induces significant and persistent biological changes in individuals ('biological embedding'). The present review focuses on the impact of childhood maltreatment on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and immune system function in both children and adults. Research suggests that childhood maltreatment is associated with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulation and diurnal cortisol profiles, as well as stress reactivity. Furthermore, childhood maltreatment is associated with disruptions in various immune system markers including pro- and anti-inflammatory substances, and markers of cell-mediated immunity. The potential of interventions to reduce these negative biological effects in maltreated children is also discussed.

  3. Childhood Maltreatment, Emotional Dysregulation, and Psychiatric Comorbidities

    OpenAIRE

    Dvir, Yael; Ford, Julian D.; Hill, Michael; Frazier, Jean A.

    2014-01-01

    Affect dysregulation, defined as the impaired ability to regulate and/or tolerate negative emotional states, and has been associated with interpersonal trauma and post-traumatic stress. Affect regulation difficulties also play a role in many other psychiatric conditions, including anxiety disorders and mood disorders, specifically major depression in youth and bipolar disorder throughout the life span.

  4. Reports of Parental Maltreatment during Childhood in a United States Population-Based Survey of Homosexual, Bisexual, and Heterosexual Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corliss, Heather L.; Cochran, Susan D.; Mays, Vickie M.

    2002-01-01

    A study examined childhood maltreatment among 2917 heterosexual, homosexual, and bisexual adults. Homosexual/bisexual men reported higher rates than heterosexual men of childhood emotional and physical maltreatment by their mothers and major physical maltreatment by their fathers. Homosexual/bisexual women reported higher rates of major physical…

  5. Childhood depression: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima NNR

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Nádia Nara Rolim Lima,1 Vânia Barbosa do Nascimento,1 Sionara Melo Figueiredo de Carvalho,1 Luiz Carlos de Abreu,1,3 Modesto Leite Rolim Neto,2 Aline Quental Brasil,2 Francisco Telésforo Celestino Junior,2 Gislene Farias de Oliveira,2 Alberto Olavo Advíncula Reis3 1Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Saúde, Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo André, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Departamento de Medicina. Universidade Federal do Ceará, UFC, Barbalha, Ceará, Brazil; 3Departamento de Saúde Materno Infantil, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: As an important public health issue, childhood depression deserves special attention, considering the serious and lasting consequences of the disease to child development. Taking this into consideration, the present study was based on the following question: what practical contributions to clinicians and researchers does the current literature on childhood depression have to offer? The objective of the present study was to conduct a systematic review of articles regarding childhood depression. To accomplish this purpose, a systematic review of articles on childhood depression, published from January 1, 2010 to November 24, 2012, on MEDLINE and SciELO databases was carried out. Search terms were “depression” (medical subject headings [MeSH], “child” (MeSH, and "childhood depression" (keyword. Of the 180 retrieved studies, 25 met the eligibility criteria. Retrieved studies covered a wide range of aspects regarding childhood depression, such as diagnosis, treatment, prevention and prognosis. Recent scientific literature regarding childhood depression converge to, directly or indirectly, highlight the negative impacts of depressive disorders to the children's quality of life. Unfortunately, the retrieved studies show that childhood depression commonly grows in a background of vulnerability and poverty, where individual and familiar needs

  6. Childhood maltreatment, 9/11 exposure, and latent dimensions of psychopathology: A test of stress sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Jacquelyn L; Lowe, Sarah R; Eaton, Nicholas R; Krueger, Robert; Grant, Bridget F; Hasin, Deborah

    2015-09-01

    On September 11, 2001, a terrorist attack occurred in the U.S. (9/11). Research on 9/11 and psychiatric outcomes has focused on individual disorders rather than the broader internalizing (INT) and externalizing (EXT) domains of psychopathology, leaving unknown whether direct and indirect 9/11 exposure differentially impacted these domains rather than individual disorders. Further, whether such effects were exacerbated by earlier childhood maltreatment (i.e. stress sensitization) is unknown. 18,713 participants from a U.S. national sample with no history of psychiatric disorders prior to 9/11 were assessed using a structured in-person interview. Structural equation modeling conducted in a sample who endorsed no psychiatric history prior to 9/11, indicated that indirect exposure to 9/11 (i.e. media, friends/family) was related to both EXT (alcohol, nicotine, and cannabis dependence, and antisocial personality disorder) and INT (major depression, generalized anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)) dimensions of psychopathology (EXT: β = 0.10, p < 0.001; INT: β = 0.11, p < 0.001) whereas direct exposure was associated with the INT dimension only (β = 0.11, p < 0.001). For individuals who had experienced childhood maltreatment, the risk for EXT and INT dimensions associated with 9/11 was exacerbated (Interactions: β = 0.06, p < 0.01; β = 0.07, p < 0.001, respectively). These findings indicate that 9/11 impacted latent liability to broad domains of psychopathology in the US general population rather than specific disorders with the exception of PTSD, which had independent effects beyond INT (as indicated by a significant (p < 0.05) improvement in modification indices). Findings also indicated that childhood maltreatment increases the risk associated with adult trauma exposure, providing further evidence for the concept of stress sensitization. PMID:26037889

  7. A systematic review of childhood maltreatment assessments in population-representative surveys since 1990.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Hovdestad

    Full Text Available Population-representative surveys that assess childhood maltreatment and health are a valuable resource to explore the implications of child maltreatment for population health. Systematic identification and evaluation of such surveys is needed to facilitate optimal use of their data and to inform future research.To inform researchers of the existence and nature of population-representative surveys relevant to understanding links between childhood maltreatment and health; to evaluate the assessment of childhood maltreatment in this body of work.We included surveys that: 1 were representative of the non-institutionalized population of any size nation or of any geopolitical region ≥ 10 million people; 2 included a broad age range (≥ 40 years; 3 measured health; 4 assessed childhood maltreatment retrospectively; and 5 were conducted since 1990. We used Internet and database searching (including CINAHL, Embase, ERIC, Global Health, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Scopus, Social Policy and Practice: January 1990 to March 2014, expert consultation, and other means to identify surveys and associated documentation. Translations of non-English survey content were verified by fluent readers of survey languages. We developed checklists to abstract and evaluate childhood maltreatment content.Fifty-four surveys from 39 countries met inclusion criteria. Sample sizes ranged from 1,287-51,945 and response rates from 15%-96%. Thirteen surveys assessed neglect, 15 emotional abuse; 18 exposure to family violence; 26 physical abuse; 48 sexual abuse. Fourteen surveys assessed more than three types; six of these were conducted since 2010. In nine surveys childhood maltreatment assessments were detailed (+10 items for at least one type of maltreatment. Seven surveys' assessments had known reliability and/or validity.Data from 54 surveys can be used to explore the population health relevance of child maltreatment. Assessment of childhood maltreatment is not comprehensive but

  8. Adult mental health consequences of peer bullying and maltreatment in childhood: two cohorts in two countries

    OpenAIRE

    Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Copeland, William E; Costello, E. Jane; Wolke, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background The adult mental health consequences of childhood maltreatment are well documented. Maltreatment by peers (ie, bullying) has also been shown to have long-term adverse effects. We aimed to determine whether these effects are just due to being exposed to both maltreatment and bullying or whether bullying has a unique effect. Methods We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children in the UK (ALSPAC) and the Great Smoky Mountains Study in the USA (GSMS) lo...

  9. Childhood Maltreatment and Its Effect on Neurocognitive Functioning: Timing and Chronicity Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Cowell, Raquel A.; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.; Toth, Sheree L.

    2015-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment represents a complex stressor, with the developmental timing, duration, frequency, and type of maltreatment varying with each child (Barnett, Manly, & Cicchetti, 1993; Cicchetti & Manly, 2001). Multiple brain regions and neural circuits are disrupted by the experience of child maltreatment (Cicchetti & Toth, in press; DeBellis et al., 2002; McCrory & Viding, 2010; Teicher, Anderson, & Polcari, 2012). These neurobiological compromises indicate the impairment of a number ...

  10. Childhood trauma and dimensions of depression: a specific association with the cognitive domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar A. Vares

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate associations between a history of childhood trauma and dimensions of depression in a sample of clinically depressed patients. Methods: A sample of 217 patients from a mood-disorder outpatient unit was investigated with the Beck Depression Inventory, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, the CORE Assessment of Psychomotor Change, and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. A previous latent model identifying six depressive dimensions was used for analysis. Path analysis and Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes (MIMIC models were used to investigate associations between general childhood trauma and childhood maltreatment modalities (emotional, sexual, and physical abuse; emotional and physical neglect with dimensions of depression (sexual, cognition, insomnia, appetite, non-interactiveness/retardation, and agitation. Results: The overall childhood trauma index was uniquely associated with cognitive aspects of depression, but not with any other depressive dimension. An investigation of childhood maltreatment modalities revealed that emotional abuse was consistently associated with depression severity in the cognitive dimension. Conclusion: Childhood trauma, and specifically emotional abuse, could be significant risk factors for the subsequent development of cognitive symptoms of major depression. These influences might be specific to this depressive dimension and not found in any other dimension, which might have conceptual and therapeutic implications for clinicians and researchers alike.

  11. Unsafe at Any Age: Linking Childhood and Adolescent Maltreatment to Delinquency and Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mersky, Joshua P.; Topitzes, James; Reynolds, Arthur J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This study compares the effects of childhood maltreatment and adolescent maltreatment on delinquency and crime, including violent and nonviolent offending. Methods: Data were derived from the Chicago Longitudinal Study, a prospective investigation of 1,539 underprivileged, minority subjects. Results: Results confirmed that rates of…

  12. Child Maltreatment and Mediating Influences of Childhood Personality Types on the Development of Adolescent Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshri, Assaf; Rogosch, Fred A.; Cicchetti, Dante

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate longitudinal risk processes linking early child maltreatment, childhood personality organizations, and adolescent maladaptation. In a sample of maltreated and nonmaltreated children ("N" = 400; 62.3% African American, 11.8% Hispanic; 40.8% girls), a tripartite personality typology based on…

  13. Early Childhood Intervention Programs: Opportunities and Challenges for Preventing Child Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asawa, Lindsay E.; Hansen, David J.; Flood, Mary Fran

    2008-01-01

    Due to the destructive impact of child maltreatment and limited available funding to address its consequences, the value of preventive measures is evident. Early Childhood Intervention Programs (ECIPs) provide excellent opportunities to prevent and identify cases of child maltreatment, among other varied objectives. These programs are typically…

  14. Childhood maltreatment among Hispanic women in the United States: an examination of subgroup differences and impact on psychiatric disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Lynn A; Alegría, Margarita; Canino, Glorisa

    2012-05-01

    Prevalence rates of childhood maltreatment among Hispanic women in the United States are presented separately for nativity status and ethnic origin subgroups, and the associations between different types of maltreatment and the development of anxiety and depressive disorders are examined. Analyses used self-report data from 1,427 Hispanic women who participated in the National Latino and Asian American Survey. Foreign-born Hispanic women compared to U.S.-born Hispanic women reported significantly lower rates of sexual assault and witnessing interpersonal violence, and a significantly higher rate of being beaten. Ethnic subgroups reported similar rates of maltreatment, with the exception of rape. Bivariate analyses were remarkably consistent in that regardless of nativity status or ethnic subgroup, each type of maltreatment experience increased the risk of psychiatric disorder. In multivariate models controlling for all types of victimization and proxies of acculturation, having been beaten and witnessing interpersonal violence remained significant predictors of both disorders, but sexual abuse increased risk of anxiety only. A significant interaction effect of family cultural conflict and witnessing violence on anxiety provided very limited support for the hypothesis that acculturation moderates the influence of maltreatment on mental health outcomes. Implications for culturally relevant prevention and intervention approaches are presented. PMID:22548893

  15. Shame, Guilt, Symptoms of Depression, and Reported History of Psychological Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Marcia; Heisler, Dawn; Call, Steve; Chickering, Sarah A.; Colburn, Trina A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to provide preliminary data extending earlier research on shame and guilt, examining their relationships both to symptoms of depression and to psychological maltreatment. Symptoms of depression were expected to correlate positively with shame, but not with guilt. Psychological maltreatment was also…

  16. The effects of childhood maltreatment on brain structure, function and connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teicher, Martin H; Samson, Jacqueline A; Anderson, Carl M; Ohashi, Kyoko

    2016-09-19

    Maltreatment-related childhood adversity is the leading preventable risk factor for mental illness and substance abuse. Although the association between maltreatment and psychopathology is compelling, there is a pressing need to understand how maltreatment increases the risk of psychiatric disorders. Emerging evidence suggests that maltreatment alters trajectories of brain development to affect sensory systems, network architecture and circuits involved in threat detection, emotional regulation and reward anticipation. This Review explores whether these alterations reflect toxic effects of early-life stress or potentially adaptive modifications, the relationship between psychopathology and brain changes, and the distinction between resilience, susceptibility and compensation. PMID:27640984

  17. Assessing the Family Dynamics of Childhood Maltreatment History with the Childhood Attachment and Relational Trauma Screen (CARTS)

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Matthew; DePierro, Jonathan; D’Andrea, Wendy; Schore, Allan; Frewen, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background: Existing survey measures of childhood trauma history generally fail to take into account the relational-socioecological environment in which childhood maltreatment occurs. Variables such as the relationship between the perpetrator and the victim, the emotional availability of caregivers, witnessing the abuse of others, and the respondent’s own thoughts, feelings, and actions in response to maltreatment are rarely assessed by current measures.Methods: To address these concerns, the...

  18. Long-Term Effects of Childhood Maltreatment History on Gender-Related Personality Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Leora N.; Martin, Lee

    1998-01-01

    A survey of 1,060 male and 305 female soldiers examined associations of gender-related personality attributes with a history of child maltreatment. Childhood abuse was associated with the presence of negative gender-related attributes; childhood neglect was associated with absence of positive gender-related attributes; childhood sexual abuse was…

  19. Childhood maltreatment and intimate partner violence in dissociative disorder patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliya R. Webermann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood maltreatment (CM is a risk factor for subsequent intimate partner violence (IPV in adulthood, with high rates of retrospectively reported CM among IPV victims and perpetrators. A theorized mechanism of the link between CM and IPV is dissociation. Dissociation may allow perpetrators of violence to remain emotionally distant from their behavior and minimize empathy toward those they victimize, enabling them to commit acts of violence similar to their own experiences. Indeed, elevated rates of dissociation and dissociative disorders (DD have been found among IPV survivors and perpetrators. In addition, in pilot studies, DD clinicians have reported high levels of violent behavior among DD patients. Objective: The present study investigates IPV among DD patients with Dissociative Identity Disorder and Dissociative Disorder Not Otherwise Specified, a group with CM rates of 80–95% and severe dissociative symptoms. Methods: DD clinicians reported on rates of CM and IPV among 275 DD patients in outpatient treatment. DD patients also completed a self-report measure of dissociation. Analyses assessed the associations between CM typologies and IPV, as well as trait dissociation and IPV. Results: Physical and emotional child abuse were associated with physical IPV, and childhood witnessing of domestic violence (DV and childhood neglect were associated with emotional IPV. Conclusions: The present study is the first to provide empirical support for a possible CM to adult IPV developmental trajectory among DD patients. Future research is needed to better understand the link between CM and IPV among those with trauma and DD.

  20. Intrusions of autobiographical memories in individuals reporting childhood emotional maltreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Spinhoven

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available During childhood emotional maltreatment (CEM negative attitudes are provided to the child (e.g., “you are worthless”. These negative attitudes may result in emotion inhibition strategies in order to avoid thinking of memories of CEM, such as thought suppression. However, thought suppression may paradoxically enhance occurrences (i.e., intrusions of these memories, which may occur immediately or sometime after active suppression of these memories.Until now, studies that examined suppressive coping styles in individuals reporting CEM have utilized self-report questionnaires. Therefore, it is unclear what the consequences will be of emotion inhibition styles on the intrusion of autobiographical memories in individuals reporting CEM.Using a thought suppression task, this study aimed to investigate the experience of intrusions during suppression of, and when no longer instructed to actively suppress, positive and negative autobiographical memories in individuals reporting Low, Moderate, and Severe CEM compared to No Abuse (total N = 83.We found no group differences during active suppression of negative and positive autobiographical memories. However, when individuals reporting Severe CEM were no longer instructed to suppress thinking about the memory, individuals reporting No Abuse, Low CEM, or Moderate CEM reported fewer intrusions of both positive and negative autobiographical memories than individuals reporting Severe CEM. Finally, we found that intrusions of negative memories are strongly related with psychiatric distress.The present study results provide initial insights into the cognitive mechanisms that may underlie the consequences of childhood emotional maltreatment and suggests avenues for successful interventions.For the abstract or full text in other languages, please see Supplementary files under Reading Tools online

  1. Association of oxytocin level and less severe forms of childhood maltreatment history among healthy Japanese adults involved with child care

    OpenAIRE

    Rie eMizuki; Takeo eFujiwara

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oxytocin (OT) is known to play a role in stress regulation. The association between childhood maltreatment history and neuropeptide OT concentration is inconsistent due to the varying degrees of severity of childhood maltreatment, among other contributing factors. Less severe forms of childhood maltreatment history might enhance OT concentrations as a response to coping with social stress within the family. The purpose of this study is to investigate the association between less s...

  2. Child Maltreatment and Women’s Adult Sexual Risk Behavior: Childhood Sexual Abuse as a Unique Risk Factor

    OpenAIRE

    Senn, Theresa E; Michael P. Carey

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated (a) whether childhood sexual abuse (CSA) was uniquely associated with adult sexual risk behavior, after controlling for other types of childhood maltreatment, and (b) whether there were additive or interactive effects of different types of maltreatment on adult sexual risk behavior. Participants were 414 women (M age = 28 years) attending a publicly-funded STD clinic. All women completed a computerized survey assessing childhood maltreatment (sexual, physical, psycholo...

  3. The Prospective Contribution of Childhood Maltreatment to Low Self-Worth, Low Relationship Quality, and Symptomatology across Adolescence: A Developmental-Organizational Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Megan; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred

    2014-01-01

    This research investigated the prospective contribution of childhood maltreatment to low self-worth, low relationship quality, and symptoms during adolescence. Further, the stability and cross-lagged effects of these sequelae of maltreatment were examined over time. History of maltreatment during childhood was obtained, and youth (407 maltreated,…

  4. Child Maltreatment History and Response to CBT Treatment in Depressed Mothers Participating in Home Visiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammerman, Robert T; Peugh, James L; Teeters, Angelique R; Putnam, Frank W; Van Ginkel, Judith B

    2016-03-01

    Child maltreatment contributes to depression in adults. Evidence indicates that such experiences are associated with poorer outcomes in treatment. Mothers in home visiting programs display high rates of depression and child maltreatment histories. In-Home Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (IH-CBT) was developed to treat maternal depression in home visiting. The purpose of this study was to examine the moderating effects of child maltreatment history on depression, social functioning, and parenting in mothers participating in a clinical trial of IH-CBT. Ninety-three depressed mothers in home visiting between 2 and 10 months postpartum were randomly assigned to IH-CBT (n = 47) plus home visiting or standard home visiting (SHV; n = 46). Mothers were identified via screening and then confirmation of major depressive disorder diagnosis. Measures of child maltreatment history, depression, social functioning, and parenting were administered at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and 3-month follow-up. Results indicated high rates of maltreatment in both conditions relative to the general population. Mixed model analyses found a number of main effects in which experiences of different types of trauma were associated with poorer functioning regardless of treatment condition. Evidence of a moderating effect of maltreatment on treatment outcomes was found for physical abuse and parenting and emotional abuse and social network size. Future research should focus on increasing the effectiveness of IH-CBT with depressed mothers who have experienced child maltreatment. PMID:25395221

  5. Child Maltreatment History and Response to CBT Treatment in Depressed Mothers Participating in Home Visiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammerman, Robert T; Peugh, James L; Teeters, Angelique R; Putnam, Frank W; Van Ginkel, Judith B

    2016-03-01

    Child maltreatment contributes to depression in adults. Evidence indicates that such experiences are associated with poorer outcomes in treatment. Mothers in home visiting programs display high rates of depression and child maltreatment histories. In-Home Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (IH-CBT) was developed to treat maternal depression in home visiting. The purpose of this study was to examine the moderating effects of child maltreatment history on depression, social functioning, and parenting in mothers participating in a clinical trial of IH-CBT. Ninety-three depressed mothers in home visiting between 2 and 10 months postpartum were randomly assigned to IH-CBT (n = 47) plus home visiting or standard home visiting (SHV; n = 46). Mothers were identified via screening and then confirmation of major depressive disorder diagnosis. Measures of child maltreatment history, depression, social functioning, and parenting were administered at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and 3-month follow-up. Results indicated high rates of maltreatment in both conditions relative to the general population. Mixed model analyses found a number of main effects in which experiences of different types of trauma were associated with poorer functioning regardless of treatment condition. Evidence of a moderating effect of maltreatment on treatment outcomes was found for physical abuse and parenting and emotional abuse and social network size. Future research should focus on increasing the effectiveness of IH-CBT with depressed mothers who have experienced child maltreatment.

  6. Childhood maltreatment, juvenile disorders and adult posttraumatic stress disorder: A prospective investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslau, Naomi; Koenen, Karestan C.; Luo, Zhehui; Agnew-Blais, Jessica; Swanson, Sonja; Houts, Renate M.; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2014-01-01

    Background We examine prospectively the influence of two separate but potentially interrelated factors in the etiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD): childhood maltreatment as conferring a susceptibility to the PTSD-response to adult trauma and juvenile disorders as precursors of adult PTSD. Method The Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study is a birth cohort (n=1037) from the general population of New Zealand's South Island, with multiple assessments up to age 38. DSM-IV PTSD was assessed among participants exposed to trauma at ages 26–38. Complete data were available on 928 participants. Results Severe maltreatment in the first decade of life, experienced by 8.5% of the sample, was associated significantly with the risk of PTSD among those exposed to adult trauma (odds ratio, (OR)=2.64, 95% CI: 1.16, 6.01), compared to no maltreatment. Moderate maltreatment, experienced by 27.2 %, was not associated significantly with that risk (OR=1.55, 95% CI: 0.85, 2.85). However, the two estimates did not differ significantly from one another. Juvenile disorders (ages 11–15), experienced by 35% of the sample, independent of childhood maltreatment, was associated significantly with the risk of PTSD-response to adult trauma (OR=2.35, 95% CI: 1.32, 4.18). Conclusions Severe maltreatment was associated with risk of PTSD-response to adult trauma, compared to no maltreatment, and juvenile disorders, independent of earlier maltreatment, was associated with that risk. The role of moderate maltreatment remained unresolved. Larger longitudinal studies are needed to assess the impact of moderate maltreatment, experienced by the majority of adult trauma victims with history of maltreatment. PMID:24168779

  7. Epigenetic Alterations Associated with War Trauma and Childhood Maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramo-Fernández, Laura; Schneider, Anna; Wilker, Sarah; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana

    2015-10-01

    Survivors of war trauma or childhood maltreatment are at increased risk for trauma-spectrum disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In addition, traumatic stress has been associated with alterations in the neuroendocrine and the immune system, enhancing the risk for physical diseases. Traumatic experiences might even affect psychological as well as biological parameters in the next generation, i.e. traumatic stress might have transgenerational effects. This article outlines how epigenetic processes, which represent a pivotal biological mechanism for dynamic adaptation to environmental challenges, might contribute to the explanation of the long-lasting and transgenerational effects of trauma. In particular, epigenetic alterations in genes regulating the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis as well as the immune system have been observed in survivors of childhood and adult trauma. These changes could result in enduring alterations of the stress response as well as the physical health risk. Furthermore, the effects of parental trauma could be transmitted to the next generation by parental distress and the pre- and postnatal environment, as well as by epigenetic marks transmitted via the germline. While epigenetic research has a high potential of advancing our understanding of the consequences of trauma, the findings have to be interpreted with caution, as epigenetics only represent one piece of a complex puzzle of interacting biological and environmental factors. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Genetic and Environmental Overlap Between Childhood Maltreatment and Adult Physical Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, Susan C; Schafer, Markus H; Ferraro, Kenneth F

    2015-10-01

    Past research demonstrates a phenotypic relationship between childhood maltreatment and adult health problems. Explanations of this association usually point to either: (a) a direct causal link, whereby exposure to early stress disrupts biological functioning during sensitive periods of development; or (b) an indirect effect operating through socioeconomic attainment, poor health behaviors, or some other pathway leading from childhood to adulthood. The current study examined whether the association between childhood maltreatment and adult health reflects genetic or environmental mediation. Using a large sample of adult American twins, we separately estimated univariate biometric models of child maltreatment and adult physical health, followed by a bivariate biometric model to estimate genetic and environmental correlations between the two variables. We found that a summary count of chronic health conditions shared non-trivial genetic overlap with childhood maltreatment. Our results have implications for understanding the relationship between maltreatment and health as one of active interplay rather than a simple cause and effect model that views maltreatment as an exogenous shock. PMID:26379062

  9. Family Attachment Narrative Therapy: Healing the Experience of Early Childhood Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Joanne C.

    2005-01-01

    Based on attachment theory and research, Family Attachment Narrative Therapy is introduced as a new family therapy modality developed to heal the experience of early childhood maltreatment. Unresolved childhood trauma has been correlated with impaired and delayed cognitive, behavioral and emotional functioning. Gentle, soothing, nonprovocative and…

  10. The association between childhood maltreatment experiences and the onset of maltreatment perpetration in young adulthood controlling for proximal and distal risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-David, Vered; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Drake, Brett; Kohl, Patricia L

    2015-08-01

    The evidence for association between child maltreatment victimization and later maltreatment perpetration is both scant and mixed. The objective of the present study was to assess the association between childhood maltreatment experiences and later perpetration of maltreatment in young adulthood controlling for proximal young adult functioning, prior youth risk behaviors, and childhood poverty. The study included 6,935 low-income children with (n=4,470) or without (n=2,465) maltreatment reports prior to age 18 followed from ages 1.5 through 11 years through early adulthood (ages 18-26). Administrative data from multiple regional and statewide agencies captured reports of maltreatment, family poverty and characteristics, system contact for health, behavioral risks and mental health in adolescence, and concurrent adult functioning (crime, mental health and poverty). After controlling for proximal adult functioning, repeated instances of neglect or mixed type maltreatment remained associated with young adult perpetration. Females and subjects with adolescent history of runaway, violent behaviors or non-violent delinquency also had higher risk. Greater caregiver education remained associated with reduced risk. The study concludes that prevention of recurrent neglect and mixed forms of maltreatment may reduce risk of maltreatment for future generations. Intervening to increase parental education and decrease adolescent risk behaviors may offer additional benefit.

  11. Impact of Childhood Maltreatment on the Recognition of Facial Expressions of Emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Ardizzi, Martina; Martini, Francesca; Umiltà, Maria Alessandra; Evangelista, Valentina; Ravera, Roberto; Gallese, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    The development of the explicit recognition of facial expressions of emotions can be affected by childhood maltreatment experiences. A previous study demonstrated the existence of an explicit recognition bias for angry facial expressions among a population of adolescent Sierra Leonean street-boys exposed to high levels of maltreatment. In the present study, the recognition bias for angry facial expressions was investigated in a younger population of street-children and age-matched controls. P...

  12. Child Maltreatment and Social Connectedness Among Formerly Institutionalized Females: Links With Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Delft, Ivanka; Finkenauer, Catrin; Verbruggen, Janna

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of child maltreatment subtypes (physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, and exposure to domestic violence) and cumulative child maltreatment on depressive symptoms in adulthood, and examine the protective effects of social connectedness in a sample of formerly institutionalized females. The sample consisted of 124 females who were institutionalized in a Dutch juvenile justice institution during adolescence and were followed-up when they were on average 32 years old. Information about child maltreatment was extracted from treatment files. Retrospective data on social connectedness in young adulthood were established during interviews using a Life History Calendar. Relationship quality at follow-up was assessed with items derived from the Rochester Youth Development Study. The Center for Epidemiological Studies Scale for Depression (CES-D) was used to measure depressive symptoms in adulthood. Results showed that 85.5% of the females experienced child maltreatment, and co-occurrence of subtypes was high. Cumulative child maltreatment increased the risk of depression in adulthood. Furthermore, social connectedness, that is, more employment over time and the quality of the romantic relationship at follow-up, protected against the development of depression. However, social connectedness did not buffer the effect of maltreatment on depression. Our findings indicate that treatment of these girls should focus on improving the social-emotional development to promote positive interpersonal relationships and include educational and vocational components to guide these girls toward increased opportunities on the labor market. PMID:25586915

  13. Parental Maltreatment, Bullying, and Adolescent Depression: Evidence for the Mediating Role of Perceived Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeds, Pamela M.; Harkness, Kate L.; Quilty, Lena C.

    2010-01-01

    The support deterioration model of depression states that stress deteriorates the perceived availability and/or effectiveness of social support, which then leads to depression. The present study examined this model in adolescent depression following parent-perpetrated maltreatment and peer-perpetrated bullying, as assessed by a rigorous contextual…

  14. Association of oxytocin level and less severe forms of childhood maltreatment history among healthy Japanese adults involved with child care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rie eMizuki

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxytocin (OT is known to play a role in stress regulation. The association between childhood maltreatment history and neuropeptide OT concentration is inconsistent due to the varying degrees of severity of childhood maltreatment, among other contributing factors. Less severe forms of childhood maltreatment history might enhance OT concentrations as a response to coping with social stress within the family. The purpose of this study is to investigate the association between less severe forms of childhood maltreatment history and OT concentrations among healthy adults.Method: Eighty-one adults (50 women and 31 men with 18- to 48-month-old children were recruited using a snowball sample in Tokyo, Japan. Urine samples were collected for OT measurement. Less severe (low and moderate childhood maltreatment history, including physical abuse, physical neglect, emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and sexual abuse, was assessed using the self-report questionnaire, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Results: Less severe physical abuse was significantly associated with higher OT concentration after adjusting for age (p=0.014. Also, less severe forms of physical abuse were independently significantly associated with higher OT concentration after controlling for other types of childhood maltreatment (p=0.027. A positive dose-response association between the number of less severe childhood maltreatment types and OT concentration was observed (p=0.031. Conclusion: A history of less severe forms of childhood physical abuse was associated with higher OT concentration in healthy adults. Poly-victimization of several types of less severe childhood maltreatment was also associated with higher OT concentrations. Less severe forms of childhood maltreatment might enhance OT concentrations in order to cope with social stress.

  15. The different faces of impulsivity as links between childhood maltreatment and young adult crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sunny H; Cook, Amy K; Morris, Nancy A; McDougle, Robyn; Groves, Lauren Peasley

    2016-07-01

    Crime is a major public health and safety threat. Many studies have suggested that early exposure to child maltreatment increases an individual's risk for persistent serious crime in adulthood. Despite these findings about the connection between child maltreatment and criminal behavior, there is a paucity of empirically-based knowledge about the processes or pathways that link child maltreatment to later involvement in crime. Using a community sample of 337 young adults (ages 18-25) in a U.S. metropolitan area, the present study examined the role of various facets of impulsivity in linking child maltreatment to crime. A series of factor analyses identified three types of crime including property crime, violent crime, and fraud. Structural equation modelings were conducted to examine the associations among childhood maltreatment, four facets of impulsivity, and criminal behavior, controlling for sociodemographic information, family income and psychological symptoms. The present study found that child emotional abuse was indirectly related to property crime and fraud through urgency while a lack of premeditation mediates the relationship between child neglect and property crime. Child physical abuse was directly related to all three types of crime. Personality traits of urgency and lack of premeditation may play a significant role in the maltreatment-crime link. Preventive interventions targeting impulsivity traits such as urgency and a lack of premeditation might have promising impacts in curbing criminal behavior among maltreatment victims. PMID:27083525

  16. Association of child maltreatment and depressive symptoms among Puerto Rican youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaschek, Graciela; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; He, Xin; Lee, Sunmin; Canino, Glorisa

    2016-08-01

    This article compares multiple types of child maltreatment among Puerto Rican youth. We seek to expand the limited knowledge of the effects of multiple types of maltreatment on depressive symptoms in a specific Latino population as emerging studies indicate that children who are exposed to one type of maltreatment are often exposed to other types. This study examines the predictive strength of different and multiple types of lifetime child maltreatment (i.e., physical, sexual, and emotional abuse; and neglect), and the effect of youth support from parents, youth coping, youth self-esteem, and place of residence on depressive symptoms among Puerto Rican youth. Secondary data analyses were performed using three annual waves (2000-2004) of data from the Boricua Youth Study. The analytic sample consists of 1041 10-13 year old Puerto Rican youth living in New York and Puerto Rico. Results indicate that: (1) youth who experienced 'sexual abuse only', 'multiple maltreatment' (2 or more types of maltreatment), 'physical abuse only' have a significant increase in depressive symptoms (75.1%, 61.6%, and 40.5% respectively) compared to those without maltreatment; and (2) place of residence, exposure to violence, and mental disorders were significant risk factors. When developing psychosocial interventions, professionals should particularly focus on youth who report past lifetime experience with child maltreatment. Particular attention should be given to children living in the Bronx, New York and similar urban low-income areas who report past lifetime experience with multiple types of child maltreatment and who present symptoms or a diagnosis of co-occurring mental health problems. PMID:27344268

  17. From Childhood Maltreatment to Allostatic Load in Adulthood: The Role of Social Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, Jacqueline M; Widom, Cathy S

    2015-11-01

    Although previous research has documented that social support acts as a protective factor for individuals exposed to trauma, most research relies on assessments of social support at one point in time. The present study used data from a prospective cohort design study to examine the stability of social support from childhood through middle adulthood in individuals with documented histories of childhood abuse and neglect and matched controls (aged 0-11) and assessed the impact of social support on allostatic load, a composite measure of physiological stress response assessed through blood tests and physical measurements, in middle adulthood. Maltreated children are more likely to have unstable social support across the life span, compared to matched controls. Social support across the life span partially mediated the relationship between child maltreatment and allostatic load in adulthood, although there were differences by race and sex. These findings have implications for interventions to prevent the negative consequences of child maltreatment.

  18. Associations of Child Sexual and Physical Abuse with Obesity and Depression in Middle-Aged Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Paul; Ichikawa, Laura; Simon, Gregory E.; Ludman, Evette J.; Linde, Jennifer A.; Jeffery, Robert W.; Operskalski, Belinda H.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Examine whether (1) childhood maltreatment is associated with subsequent obesity and depression in middle-age; (2) maltreatment explains the associations between obesity and depression; and (3) binge eating or body dissatisfaction mediate associations between childhood maltreatment and subsequent obesity. Methods: Data were obtained…

  19. Depressive symptomatology in childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggal, S; Carlson, E A; Sroufe, L A; Egeland, B

    2001-01-01

    Antecedents of depressive symptomatology in childhood and adolescence were examined in a prospective longitudinal study of at-risk youth (n = 168) from families of lower socioeconomic status. Relations between family context factors, maternal depressive symptoms, and depressive symptoms in childhood and adolescence were examined, with a focus on early family relationship factors rarely available for analysis in longitudinal data sets. Results suggest the possibility of etiological differences between depressive symptoms in childhood and in adolescence. Depressive symptomatology in childhood was predicted by the overall family context. Cumulative effects of maternal depressive symptomatology, early care lacking in emotional supportiveness, abuse, and family stressors were observed. Depressive symptomatology in adolescence, on the other hand, was specifically associated with maternal depression and early care lacking in emotional supportiveness. Moreover, an intriguing sex difference emerged: maternal depressive symptomatology was strongly associated with depressive symptomatology in adolescence for females, but for males supportive early care appeared more relevant. PMID:11346049

  20. The impact of childhood maltreatment: A review of neurobiological and genetic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eamon eMcCrory

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Childhood maltreatment represents a significant risk factor for psychopathology. Recent research has begun to examine both the functional and structural neurobiological correlates of adverse care-giving experiences, including maltreatment, and how these might impact on a child's psychological and emotional development. The relationship between such experiences and risk for psychopathology has been shown to vary as a function of genetic factors. In this review we begin by providing a brief overview of neuroendocrine findings, which indicate an association between maltreatment and atypical development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis stress response, which may predispose to psychiatric vulnerability in adulthood. We then selectively review the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI studies that have investigated possible structural and functional brain differences in children and adults who have experienced childhood maltreatment. Differences in the corpus callosum identified by structural MRI have now been reliably reported in children who have experienced abuse, while differences in the hippocampus have been reported in adults with childhood histories of maltreatment. In addition, there is preliminary evidence from functional MRI studies of adults who have experienced childhood maltreatment of amygdala hyperactivity and atypical activation of frontal regions. These functional differences can be partly understood in the context of the information biases observed in event-related potential and behavioural studies of physically abused children. Finally we consider research that has indicated that the effect of environmental adversity may be moderated by genotype, reviewing pertinent studies pointing to gene by environment (GxE interactions. We conclude by exploring the extent to which the growing evidence base in relation to neurobiological and genetic research may be relevant to clinical practice and intervention.

  1. Intergenerational Childhood Maltreatment in Persons with DSM-IV Pathological Gambling and Their First-Degree Relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Samuel K; Shaw, Martha; McCormick, Brett; Allen, Jeff; Black, Donald W

    2016-09-01

    This study investigates the characteristics of individuals with DSM-IV pathological gambling (PG) who experienced childhood maltreatment and rates of maltreatment occurring in their first-degree relatives (FDRs). 94 subjects with DSM-IV PG, 91 controls, and 312 FDRs were assessed for childhood maltreatment as part of a family study of PG. Maltreatment was evaluated using the Revised Childhood Experiences Questionnaire. The Family Assessment Device was used to evaluate the functionality of the PG subject's (or control's) family of origin. Data were analyzed using logistic regression by the method of generalized estimating equations. Rates of maltreatment were significantly higher in subjects with PG than controls (61 vs. 25 %, P < 0.001). Subjects with PG who experienced maltreatment were more likely to be female, had more severe PG symptoms, had co-occurring mood and anxiety disorders, and reported greater early family life dysfunction than those with PG who did not experience maltreatment. Rates of maltreatment were higher in FDRs of PG subjects than controls (41 vs. 24 %, P = .002). Rates in FDRs of individuals with PG who experienced maltreatment themselves were still higher that in FDRs of those with PG who did not experience maltreatment (50 vs. 28 %, P = .009). The former were also more likely to have anxiety disorders, substance use disorders, and suicide attempts. The results suggest that childhood maltreatment in persons with PG is common and intergenerational. Rates of maltreatment in FDRs of PG subjects are high, particularly among those who experienced abuse. The implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:26749583

  2. Intergenerational Childhood Maltreatment in Persons with DSM-IV Pathological Gambling and Their First-Degree Relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Samuel K; Shaw, Martha; McCormick, Brett; Allen, Jeff; Black, Donald W

    2016-09-01

    This study investigates the characteristics of individuals with DSM-IV pathological gambling (PG) who experienced childhood maltreatment and rates of maltreatment occurring in their first-degree relatives (FDRs). 94 subjects with DSM-IV PG, 91 controls, and 312 FDRs were assessed for childhood maltreatment as part of a family study of PG. Maltreatment was evaluated using the Revised Childhood Experiences Questionnaire. The Family Assessment Device was used to evaluate the functionality of the PG subject's (or control's) family of origin. Data were analyzed using logistic regression by the method of generalized estimating equations. Rates of maltreatment were significantly higher in subjects with PG than controls (61 vs. 25 %, P < 0.001). Subjects with PG who experienced maltreatment were more likely to be female, had more severe PG symptoms, had co-occurring mood and anxiety disorders, and reported greater early family life dysfunction than those with PG who did not experience maltreatment. Rates of maltreatment were higher in FDRs of PG subjects than controls (41 vs. 24 %, P = .002). Rates in FDRs of individuals with PG who experienced maltreatment themselves were still higher that in FDRs of those with PG who did not experience maltreatment (50 vs. 28 %, P = .009). The former were also more likely to have anxiety disorders, substance use disorders, and suicide attempts. The results suggest that childhood maltreatment in persons with PG is common and intergenerational. Rates of maltreatment in FDRs of PG subjects are high, particularly among those who experienced abuse. The implications of the findings are discussed.

  3. Hypoactive medial prefrontal cortex functioning in adults reporting childhood emotional maltreatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Harmelen, Anne-Laura; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Dalgleish, Tim; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; Veltman, Dick J.; Aleman, André; Spinhoven, Philip; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Elzinga, Bernet M.

    2014-01-01

    Childhood emotional maltreatment (CEM) has adverse effects on medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) morphology, a structure that is crucial for cognitive functioning and (emotional) memory and which modulates the limbic system. In addition, CEM has been linked to amygdala hyperactivity during emotional fa

  4. Enhanced amygdala reactivity to emotional faces in adults reporting childhood emotional maltreatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Harmelen, Anne-Laura; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Demenescu, Liliana R.; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; Veltman, Dick J.; Aleman, Andre; van Buchem, Mark A.; Spinhoven, Philip; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Elzinga, Bernet M.

    2013-01-01

    In the context of chronic childhood emotional maltreatment (CEM; emotional abuse and/or neglect), adequately responding to facial expressions is an important skill. Over time, however, this adaptive response may lead to a persistent vigilance for emotional facial expressions. The amygdala and the me

  5. Interaction of neuropeptide Y genotype and childhood emotional maltreatment on brain activity during emotional processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opmeer, Esther M.; Kortekaas, Rudie; van Tol, Marie-Jose; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; Woudstra, Saskia; van Buchem, Mark A.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Veltman, Dick J.; Aleman, Andre

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) has been associated with stress reactivity in affective disorders and is most densely expressed in the amygdala. An important stressor associated with affective disorders is the experience of childhood emotional maltreatment (CEM). We investigated whether the interaction of NPY

  6. Childhood maltreatment and the response to cognitive behavior therapy for chronic fatigue syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heins, M.J.; Knoop, H.; Lobbestael, J.; Bleijenberg, G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationship between a history of childhood maltreatment and the treatment response to cognitive behavior therapy for chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Methods: A cohort study in a tertiary care clinic with a referred sample of 216 adult patients meeting the Centers for Disea

  7. Childhood maltreatment in adult offspring of Portuguese war veterans with and without PTSD.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dos Santos Dias, Aida; Sales, L.; Cardoso, R. M.; Kleber, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The colonial war that Portugal was involved in between 1961 and 1974 had a significant impact on veterans and their families. However, it is unclear what the consequences of this war are, in particular with regard to levels of childhood maltreatment (CM) in offspring. OBJECTIVE: Our stud

  8. Relationships among Childhood Maltreatment, PTSD, and Health in Female Veterans in Primary Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Ariel J.; Laffaye, Charlene; Satz, Leslie E.; McQuaid, John R.; Malcarne, Vanessa L.; Dresselhaus, Timothy R.; Stein, Murray B.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Women with histories of childhood maltreatment (CM) have higher rates of physical health problems and greater medical utilization compared to women without abuse histories. This study examined whether current post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms mediate the relationship between CM and indicators of physical health and medical…

  9. Assessing the family dynamics of childhood maltreatment history with the Childhood Attachment and Relational Trauma Screen (CARTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Frewen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Existing survey measures of childhood trauma history generally fail to take into account the relational-socioecological environment in which childhood maltreatment occurs. Variables such as the relationship between the perpetrator and the victim, the emotional availability of caregivers, witnessing the abuse of others, and the respondent's own thoughts, feelings, and actions in response to maltreatment are rarely assessed by current measures. Methods: To address these concerns, the current study further investigated the family dynamics of childhood maltreatment using the Childhood Attachment and Relational Trauma Screen (CARTS in 1,782 persons assessed online. Results: Paired differences in means between item-rated descriptiveness of self, mothers, and fathers suggested that respondents’ relationship with their biological fathers was less positive and secure than their relationship with their biological mothers, and that biological fathers were more often the perpetrator of emotional, physical, and sexual abuse than biological mothers. However, results further suggested that ratings between self, mothers, and fathers were positively correlated such that, for example, reports of a mother's or a respondent's own abusive behavior were more likely in the presence of reports of a father's abusive behavior. In addition, analyses evaluating witnessing violence demonstrated that fathers were rated as more often violent toward mothers than the reverse, although intimate partner violence was also frequently bidirectional. Analyses of sibling ratings further demonstrated that older brothers were either as or more frequently abusive when compared with parents. Finally, results suggested that childhood emotional, physical, and sexual abuse were much more often perpetrated by family members than extra-familial and non-family members. Conclusions: In so far as these findings are consistent with the prior childhood trauma and attachment literature

  10. Intergenerational Continuity in Maltreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Thornberry, Terence P.; Henry, Kimberly L.

    2013-01-01

    Identification of the causes of child maltreatment perpetration is prerequisite for developing efficacious prevention initiatives to reduce its occurrence. Earlier maltreatment victimization is often suggested as an important cause of subsequent maltreatment perpetration. This study investigates a) whether maltreatment victimization causes subsequent perpetration and b) whether the timing of maltreatment victimization—childhood versus adolescence—alters this relationship. We use data from the...

  11. Is childhood cruelty to animals a marker for physical maltreatment in a prospective cohort study of children?☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Fiona S.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise

    2014-01-01

    Childhood cruelty to animals is thought to indicate that a child may have been maltreated. This study examined: (a) prevalence of cruelty to animals among 5- to 12-year-old children; (b) the association between cruelty to animals, child physical maltreatment, and adult domestic violence; and (c) whether cruelty to animals is a marker of maltreatment taking into account age, persistence of cruelty, and socioeconomic disadvantage. Data were from the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, an epidemiological representative cohort of 2,232 children living in the United Kingdom. Mothers reported on cruelty to animals when children were 5, 7, 10, and 12 years, on child maltreatment up to age 12, and adult domestic violence. Nine percent of children were cruel to animals during the study and 2.6% persistently (≥2 time-points). Children cruel to animals were more likely to have been maltreated than other children (OR = 3.32) although the majority (56.4%) had not been maltreated. Animal cruelty was not associated with domestic violence when maltreatment was controlled for. In disadvantaged families, 6 in 10 children cruel to animals had been maltreated. In other families, the likelihood of maltreatment increased with age (from 3 in 10 5-year-olds to 4.5 in 10 12-year-olds) and persistence (4.5 in 10 of those persistently cruel). Although childhood cruelty to animals is associated with maltreatment, not every child showing cruelty had been maltreated. The usefulness of cruelty to animals as a marker for maltreatment increases with the child's age, persistence of behavior, and poorer social background. PMID:24268376

  12. Pathways to trait-aggression - the role of childhood emotional maltreatment, hostile attribution bias and emotion regulation: a systematic review and empirical study.

    OpenAIRE

    Cowie, Joëlle

    2015-01-01

    Background: The long-term detrimental impact of childhood emotional maltreatment is being increasingly recognised in the empirical literature. Adulthood trait-aggression is one proposed outcome of childhood emotional maltreatment. However, the pathways by which emotional maltreatment leads to trait-aggression are not well understood. Method: A systematic review was conducted to appraise the current empirical evidence base regarding the relationship between childhood emotiona...

  13. Childhood abuse in late-life depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Comijs, H.C.; Exel, E. van; Mast, R.C. van der; Paauw, A.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Stek, M.L.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the role of childhood abuse in late-life depression. The aim of the study is therefore to study whether childhood abuse is associated with late-life depression according to its onset, and which clinical characteristics play a role in this association. METHODS: Data

  14. Childhood abuse in late-life depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Comijs, Hannie C; van Exel, Eric; van der Mast, Roos C; Paauw, Anna; Oude Voshaar, Richard; Stek, Max L

    2013-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the role of childhood abuse in late-life depression. The aim of the study is therefore to study whether childhood abuse is associated with late-life depression according to its onset, and which clinical characteristics play a role in this association. Methods: Data

  15. Do Early Childhood Interventions Prevent Child Maltreatment? A Review of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Arthur J.; Mathieson, Lindsay C.; Topitzes, James W.

    2016-01-01

    We reviewed the empirical evidence on whether early-childhood primary prevention programs can reduce rates of child abuse and neglect. Fifteen studies of 14 programs for children ages birth to 5 years were completed from 1990 to 2007 and assessed impacts with methodological rigor. All but one of the programs intervened from birth to age 3 through home visits, parent education classes, or the provision of health services. The weighted average effect size of program participation was a 2.9 percentage-point reduction in maltreatment (6.6% vs. 9.5%), which is equivalent to a 31% reduction in the rate of maltreatment and a fifth of a standard deviation. Of the five programs showing significant reductions in substantiated rates of child maltreatment, three provide strong evidence of preventive effects. Only the Child-Parent Centers and the Nurse Family Partnership assessed longer-term preventive effects. Common elements of these effective programs included implementation by professional staff, relatively high dosage and intensity, and comprehensiveness of scope. The major conclusion is that the evidence base for programs in early childhood to prevent child maltreatment remains relatively weak. To advance the field, more longer term studies of a variety of intervention models are needed. PMID:19240245

  16. Childhood emotional maltreatment and its impact on emotion regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Mulholland, Paula Claire

    2010-01-01

    An aim of this research was to gain prevalence rates of emotional abuse (EA) and emotional neglect (EN) in a community based adolescent sample. This exploratory research also attempted to determine the impact of EA, EN and a combination of the two (emotional maltreatment; EM) on adolescent’s emotion regulation (ER). The impact of temperament, gender and age was also considered, along with the adolescent’s subsequent quality of life ratings. Method: A total of 540 adolesce...

  17. Understanding Social Support’s Role in the Relationship Between Maltreatment and Depression in Youth with Foster Care Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar, Amy M.; Keller, Thomas E.; Courtney, Mark E.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether more complex maltreatment experiences predicted higher levels of depressive symptomatology for young adults and examined the role of social support during late adolescence in that association. Specifically, the study tested whether social support had a direct effect on depression and whether it mediated and/or moderated the relationship between self-reported maltreatment and depression in a sample of 513 youth exiting the child welfare system. Indices of maltre...

  18. The role of limbic system irritability in linking history of childhood maltreatment and psychiatric outcomes in low-income, high-risk women: moderation by FK506 binding protein 5 haplotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dackis, Melissa N; Rogosch, Fred A; Oshri, Assaf; Cicchetti, Dante

    2012-11-01

    Childhood maltreatment is associated with lasting changes in neuroendocrine regulation, alterations in brain structure and function, and symptoms of "limbic irritability." Limbic irritability symptoms include somatic, sensory, and behavioral phenomena and may stem from increased excitatory neurotransmission following maltreatment. We tested the hypotheses that child maltreatment is indirectly associated with depressive and dissociative symptomatology via indicators of limbic irritability and that variation within the FK506 binding protein 5 gene (FKBP5), a gene involved in glucorticoid receptor functioning, moderates these effects. The sample consisted of high-risk, low-income women (N = 236) living in an inner-city environment. Child maltreatment, limbic irritability, and symptoms of depression and dissociation were measured cross-sectionally using self-report assessments. Haplotype analyses were conducted across four FKBP5 single nucleotide polymorphisms: rs3800373, rs9296158, rs1360870, and rs9470080. Path analysis using bootstrapping procedures was performed to test hypotheses regarding indirect and conditional indirect effects. We found significant indirect effects of maltreatment on depression (β = 0.088, p limbic irritability. In addition, variation within FKBP5 moderated these significant indirect effects. For individuals with one to two copies of the CATT haplotype, the indirect effects of maltreatment on depression (β = 0.137, p limbic irritability were significant, whereas the indirect paths were not significant for individuals with no copies of this haplotype (depression: β = 0.037, p > .05; dissociation: β = 0.002, p > .05). These results add to the growing evidence that child maltreatment may lead to symptoms of internalizing psychopathology through its impact on the limbic system. In addition, this study revealed a potential role of FKBP5 gene variants in contributing to risk for limbic system dysfunction.

  19. Personality disorder diagnosis in substance - dependent women in Iran : Relationship to childhood maltreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoureh Nasirian

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available "nObjective : Few study have examined the relationship between childhood maltreatment and personality disorder in later life especially in Eastern Mediterranean countries .The study was conducted to explore the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and personality disorder during Later life in an Iranian sample . a cross - sectional study was conducted in kerman , a city Located in East  sourthern of Iran in 2005 . "n Method : Cases were 148 substance - dependent  women admitted in shahid Beheshti hospital and also kerman women prison  for detoxification.With emphasizing  the confidentiality and obtaining oral consent the subjects were asked to fill out a questionnaire including demographic variables and 27 questions concerning all types of abuse , neglect and household dysfunction . using multivariate Logistic regression the associations between baseline characteristics , childhood maltreatment and household dysfunction variables and  personality disorder were analyzed  . "n Results : The mean age of cases was 33.13 ± 10.94 and Borderline personality disorder (24.3% was the most frequent type of personality disorder in this   sample . Physical abuse (45.4% and emotional abuse (36.2% and emotional   neglect (92.1% were the most frequent type of maltreatment .  while dependency considered as independent variable , with logistic  regression analysis, sexual abuse was the only type of childhood maltreatment which showed significant association statistically with personality disorder . (P - value < 0/05 "n Conclusion: There was significant association statistically between increased prevalence of severe personality disturbances among those experiencing multiple types of abuse  and neglect .such studies are important for a more complete  understanding  of these problems and for practical  efforts to alleviate them.

  20. Maltreatment in early childhood: a scoping review of prevention, detection and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Lefio Celedón; Helia Silva Bustos; Katherinne Rivas Castro

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To identify and synthesize the best available evidence on the effectiveness of interventions for universal prevention, detection and treatment of early childhood maltreatment (0-4 years). Design. Scoping Review. Data sources. MEDLINE, LILACS, PsycINFO, Psyclist, SciELO, ISI Web of Knowledge, Science Direct, EBSCO, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, DARE, Google Scholar and UNICEF Base. Methods. A variety of keywords were used to identify quantitative experimental and observational studies on ...

  1. The Cycle of Violence in Combatants : The Interaction of Childhood Maltreatment, Mental Health, and Aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Nandi, Corina

    2016-01-01

    The present thesis explored the factors fostering and maintaining violence in a post-conflict setting. Therefore, the thesis investigated the sequelae of childhood maltreatment, trauma exposure and violence perpetration with a focus on symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and appetitive aggression in Burundian ex-combatants and soldiers. Furthermore, the impact of these factors on self-perpetrated violence during foreign deployment, in the community, and within the family were ex...

  2. P3 event-related potentials and childhood maltreatment in successful and unsuccessful psychopaths

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Schug, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    Although P3 event-related potential abnormalities have been found in psychopathic individuals, it is unknown whether successful (uncaught) psychopaths and unsuccessful (caught) psychopaths show similar deficits. In this study, P3 amplitude and latency were assessed from a community sample of 121 male adults using an auditory three-stimulus oddball task. Psychopathy was assessed using the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (Hare, 2003) while childhood physical maltreatment was assessed using the Co...

  3. Childhood Maltreatment and Prospectively Observed Quality of Early Care as Predictors of Antisocial Personality Disorder Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zhenyu; Bureau, Jean-Francois; Easterbrooks, M Ann; Zhao, Xudong; Lyons-Ruth, Karlen

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the separate contributions of maltreatment and ongoing quality of parent-child interaction to the etiology of antisocial personality features using a prospective longitudinal design. 120 low-income young adults (aged 18-23) were assessed for extent of ASPD features on the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnosis-Axis II, for presence of maltreatment on the Conflict Tactics Scale, Traumatic Experiences Scale, and Adult Attachment Interview, and for referral in infancy to parent-infant clinical services. Fifty-six of these families had been studied longitudinally since the first year of life. In infancy, attachment disorganization and disrupted mother-infant interaction were assessed; in middle childhood, disorganized-controlling attachment behaviors were reliably rated. In kindergarten and second grade, behavior problems were assessed by teacher report. In cross-sectional analyses, maltreatment was significantly associated with ASPD features but did not account for the independent effect of early referral to parent-infant services on ASPD features. In longitudinal analyses, maternal withdrawal in infancy predicted the extent of ASPD features twenty years later, independently of childhood abuse. In middle childhood, disorganized attachment behavior and maladaptive behavior at school added to prediction of later ASPD features. Antisocial features in young adulthood have precursors in the minute-to-minute process of parent-child interaction beginning in infancy.

  4. Childhood Maltreatment and Sexual Risk Taking: The Mediating Role of Alexithymia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Austin M; Simons, Raluca M; Simons, Jeffrey S

    2016-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment is a significant predictor of sexual risk taking. The nature of this relationship is not fully understood; however, emotion dysregulation may play an important role. We tested the role of difficulty identifying and describing feelings (i.e., alexithymia) on the relationship between childhood maltreatment and sexual risk taking. Specifically, we hypothesized two mechanisms, one in which alexithymia is related to sexual risk taking via negative urgency and alcohol use and a second one in which alexithymia is related to sexual risk taking via neediness. The participants for this study were 425 sexually active college undergraduates (303 females, 122 males) between the ages of 18 and 25 years. The results of a structural equation model indicated that alexithymia accounted for a significant part of the relationship between child maltreatment and sexual risk behavior. Moreover, the relationship between alexithymia and sexual risk taking was fully accounted for by two separate paths. First, negative urgency and subsequent alcohol use partially mediated the relationship, and the second effect was accounted for by needy interpersonal style. Adverse experiences during childhood can impair emotional functioning and contribute to behavioral and interpersonal dysregulation. PMID:26318149

  5. Effects of childhood maltreatment on the neural correlates of stress- and drug cue-induced cocaine craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elton, Amanda; Smitherman, Sonet; Young, Jonathan; Kilts, Clinton D

    2015-07-01

    Childhood adversity negatively influences all stages of the addiction process and is associated with persistent alterations in neuroendocrine, autonomic and brain responses to stress. We sought to characterize the impact of childhood abuse and neglect on the neural correlates of stress- and drug cue-induced drug craving associated with cocaine addiction. Cocaine-dependent men with (n = 20) and without (n = 18) moderate to severe childhood maltreatment histories underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during script-guided mental imagery of personalized stress, drug use and neutral experiences. Compared to the neutral script, the stress and drug use scripts activated striatal, prefrontal, posterior cingulate, temporal and cerebellar regions consistent with prior studies of induced states of stress and drug craving. For the stress script, maltreated men exhibited reduced activation of the anterior precuneus and supplementary motor area (SMA); the interaction of maltreatment severity and stress-induced craving responses predicted lesser rostral anterior cingulate cortex activation. For the drug use script, maltreated men exhibited greater left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activation. The interaction of maltreatment severity and craving responses was associated with greater activation of the visual cortex and SMA, whereas a maltreatment-by-anxiety interaction effect included lesser ventromedial prefrontal cortex activation. The outcomes indicate an association of childhood maltreatment with a heightened appetitive anticipatory response to drug cues and a diminished engagement of regulatory and controlled action selection processes in response to stress- or drug cue-induced drug craving and anxiety responses for cocaine-dependent men. These findings provide novel insights into possible brain mechanisms by which childhood maltreatment heightens risk for relapse in drug-dependent individuals.

  6. Cross-cultural gene- environment interactions in depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and the cortisol awakening response: FKBP5 polymorphisms and childhood trauma in South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohrt, Brandon A; Worthman, Carol M; Ressler, Kerry J; Mercer, Kristina B; Upadhaya, Nawaraj; Koirala, Suraj; Nepal, Mahendra K; Sharma, Vidya Dev; Binder, Elisabeth B

    2015-01-01

    Despite increased attention to global mental health, psychiatric genetic research has been dominated by studies in high-income countries, especially with populations of European descent. The objective of this study was to assess single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the FKBP5 gene in a population living in South Asia. Among adults in Nepal, depression was assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C), and childhood maltreatment with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). FKBP5 SNPs were genotyped for 682 participants. Cortisol awakening response (CAR) was assessed in a subsample of 118 participants over 3 days. The FKBP5 tag-SNP rs9296158 showed a main effect on depressive symptoms (p = 0.03). Interaction of rs9296158 and childhood maltreatment predicted adult depressive symptoms (p = 0.02) but not PTSD. Childhood maltreatment associated with endocrine response in individuals homozygous for the A allele, demonstrated by a negative CAR and overall hypocortisolaemia in the rs9296158 AA genotype and childhood maltreatment group (p depression but not PTSD. Gene-environment studies should take differences in prevalence and cultural significance of phenotypes and exposures into account when interpreting cross-cultural findings.

  7. Resilience to childhood maltreatment is associated with increased resting-state functional connectivity of the salience network with the lingual gyrus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Werff, Steven J. A.; Pannekoek, J. Nienke; Veer, Ilya M.; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Aleman, Andre; Veltman, Dick J.; Zitman, Frans G.; Rombouts, Serge A. R. B.; Elzinga, Bernet M.; van der Wee, Nic J. A.

    2013-01-01

    The experience of childhood maltreatment is related to an increased risk of developing a variety of psychiatric disorders, as well as a change in the structure of the brain. However, not much is known about the neurobiological basis of resilience to childhood maltreatment. This study aims to identif

  8. Impact of Childhood Maltreatment on the Recognition of Facial Expressions of Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardizzi, Martina; Martini, Francesca; Umiltà, Maria Alessandra; Evangelista, Valentina; Ravera, Roberto; Gallese, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    The development of the explicit recognition of facial expressions of emotions can be affected by childhood maltreatment experiences. A previous study demonstrated the existence of an explicit recognition bias for angry facial expressions among a population of adolescent Sierra Leonean street-boys exposed to high levels of maltreatment. In the present study, the recognition bias for angry facial expressions was investigated in a younger population of street-children and age-matched controls. Participants performed a forced-choice facial expressions recognition task. Recognition bias was measured as participants' tendency to over-attribute anger label to other negative facial expressions. Participants' heart rate was assessed and related to their behavioral performance, as index of their stress-related physiological responses. Results demonstrated the presence of a recognition bias for angry facial expressions among street-children, also pinpointing a similar, although significantly less pronounced, tendency among controls. Participants' performance was controlled for age, cognitive and educational levels and for naming skills. None of these variables influenced the recognition bias for angry facial expressions. Differently, a significant effect of heart rate on participants' tendency to use anger label was evidenced. Taken together, these results suggest that childhood exposure to maltreatment experiences amplifies children's "pre-existing bias" for anger labeling in forced-choice emotion recognition task. Moreover, they strengthen the thesis according to which the recognition bias for angry facial expressions is a manifestation of a functional adaptive mechanism that tunes victim's perceptive and attentive focus on salient environmental social stimuli.

  9. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of a New Assessment Method for Childhood Maltreatment Experiences: The Interview for Traumatic Events in Childhood (ITEC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobbestael, Jill; Arntz, Arnoud; Harkema-Schouten, Petra; Bernstein, David

    2009-01-01

    Objective: We conducted a comprehensive assessment of the reliability and validity of the Interview for Traumatic Events in Childhood (ITEC, Lobbestael, Arntz, Kremers, & Sieswerda, 2006), a retrospective, semi-structured interview for childhood maltreatment. The ITEC aims to yield dimensional scores for severity of experiences of different…

  10. Intergenerational violence in Burundi: Experienced childhood maltreatment increases the risk of abusive child rearing and intimate partner violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselm Crombach

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Experiencing abuse during childhood affects the psychological well-being of individuals throughout their lives and may even influence their offspring by enhancing the likelihood of an intergenerational transmission of violence. Understanding the effects of childhood maltreatment on child-rearing practices and intimate partner violence might be of particular importance to overcome the consequences of violent conflicts in African societies. Objective: Using Burundi as an example, we aimed to explore the associations between childhood maltreatment, intimate partner violence, perceived partner intimidation, gender and the probability of violently acting out against one's own children or romantic partner. Methods: Amongst a sample of 141 men and 141 women in the capital of Burundi, we identified those who had biological children and those who lived or had lived in relationships. Using culturally appropriate instruments, we enquired about their exposure to childhood maltreatment and partner violence as well as their inclinations to act out violently. Results: We found that childhood maltreatment and perceived partner intimidation were strong predictors for the perpetration of violence against children. Moreover, we found that women were more likely to use violence against children if they experienced partner violence and less likely to resort to violence if they felt intimidated. Men were more likely to perpetrate violence against their partner. Childhood maltreatment was again a strong predictor. The more women experienced partner violence, the more they fought back. Conclusions: Childhood maltreatment is a strong predictor for domestic violence and has to be addressed to interrupt the cycle of violence in post-conflict countries.

  11. Childhood emotional maltreatment and mental disorders: Results from a nationally representative adult sample from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taillieu, Tamara L; Brownridge, Douglas A; Sareen, Jitender; Afifi, Tracie O

    2016-09-01

    Child maltreatment is a public health concern with well-established sequelae. However, compared to research on physical and sexual abuse, far less is known about the long-term impact of emotional maltreatment on mental health. The overall purpose of this study was to examine the association of emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and both emotional abuse and neglect with other types of child maltreatment, a family history of dysfunction, and lifetime diagnoses of several Axis I and Axis II mental disorders. Data were from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions collected in 2004 and 2005 (n=34,653). The most prevalent form of emotional maltreatment was emotional neglect only (6.2%), followed by emotional abuse only (4.8%), and then both emotional abuse and neglect (3.1%). All categories of emotional maltreatment were strongly related to other forms of child maltreatment (odds ratios [ORs] ranged from 2.1 to 68.0) and a history of family dysfunction (ORs ranged from 2.2 to 8.3). In models adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, all categories of emotional maltreatment were associated with increased odds of almost every mental disorder assessed in this study (adjusted ORs ranged from 1.2 to 7.4). Many relationships remained significant independent of experiencing other forms of child maltreatment and a family history of dysfunction (adjusted ORs ranged from 1.2 to 3.0). The effects appeared to be greater for active (i.e., emotional abuse) relative to passive (i.e., emotional neglect) forms of emotional maltreatment. Childhood emotional maltreatment, particularly emotionally abusive acts, is associated with increased odds of lifetime diagnoses of several Axis I and Axis II mental disorders.

  12. Childhood emotional maltreatment and mental disorders: Results from a nationally representative adult sample from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taillieu, Tamara L; Brownridge, Douglas A; Sareen, Jitender; Afifi, Tracie O

    2016-09-01

    Child maltreatment is a public health concern with well-established sequelae. However, compared to research on physical and sexual abuse, far less is known about the long-term impact of emotional maltreatment on mental health. The overall purpose of this study was to examine the association of emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and both emotional abuse and neglect with other types of child maltreatment, a family history of dysfunction, and lifetime diagnoses of several Axis I and Axis II mental disorders. Data were from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions collected in 2004 and 2005 (n=34,653). The most prevalent form of emotional maltreatment was emotional neglect only (6.2%), followed by emotional abuse only (4.8%), and then both emotional abuse and neglect (3.1%). All categories of emotional maltreatment were strongly related to other forms of child maltreatment (odds ratios [ORs] ranged from 2.1 to 68.0) and a history of family dysfunction (ORs ranged from 2.2 to 8.3). In models adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, all categories of emotional maltreatment were associated with increased odds of almost every mental disorder assessed in this study (adjusted ORs ranged from 1.2 to 7.4). Many relationships remained significant independent of experiencing other forms of child maltreatment and a family history of dysfunction (adjusted ORs ranged from 1.2 to 3.0). The effects appeared to be greater for active (i.e., emotional abuse) relative to passive (i.e., emotional neglect) forms of emotional maltreatment. Childhood emotional maltreatment, particularly emotionally abusive acts, is associated with increased odds of lifetime diagnoses of several Axis I and Axis II mental disorders. PMID:27490515

  13. The Relationship of Childhood Maltreatment and Household Dysfunction and Drug Use in Later Life in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaaddini, Hassan; Dastjerdi, Qasem; Nakhaee, Nouzar

    Few studies have examined the relationship between childhood maltreatment and substance use in later life considering household dysfunction variables especially in Eastern Mediterranean countries. The study was conducted to explore the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and substance misuse during later life in an Iranian sample. A case control study was conducted in Kerman, a city located in southern Iran in 2005. Cases were 200 men and women referred to outpatient clinics of the city seeking treatment for substance use disorder. Controls (n = 200) were selected from the general population. With emphasizing the confidentiality and obtaining oral consent the subjects were asked to fill out a questionnaire including demographic variables and 27 questions concerning all types of child abuse/neglect and household dysfunction. Using multivariate logistic regression the associations between baseline characteristics, childhood maltreatment and household dysfunction variables and substance use disorder were analyzed. The mean age of case group was 32.5±8.3 and in control group was 28±9.3 (pmaltreatment which showed significant association with substance use disorder in later life (OR: 1.73, 95% CI: 1.03-2.92). The related factors uncovered by the study conduct us to early interventions among dysfunctional families to decrease the maladaptive lives and stressful household environments.

  14. Maltreatment in early childhood: a scoping review of prevention, detection and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Lefio Celedón

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To identify and synthesize the best available evidence on the effectiveness of interventions for universal prevention, detection and treatment of early childhood maltreatment (0-4 years. Design. Scoping Review. Data sources. MEDLINE, LILACS, PsycINFO, Psyclist, SciELO, ISI Web of Knowledge, Science Direct, EBSCO, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, DARE, Google Scholar and UNICEF Base. Methods. A variety of keywords were used to identify quantitative experimental and observational studies on detection, prevention and treatment strategies in different situations of child maltreatment. Sexual abuse was excluded. The search spanned from 2002 to 2012, in English and Spanish. Results. Of 105 articles, 36 met the selection criteria. In prevention, the best evaluated strategies were parenting programs based on cognitive or cognitive-behavioral approach and interactive learning strategies. In detection, only two instruments were identified with optimum specificity and positive predictive value. In treatment, a variety of treatment strategies were identified with favorable effects on behavioral, functional and psycho affective indicators. The population relevance of these interventions is unclear, as the differential effectiveness of these therapeutic approaches. Conclusions. There are many child maltreatment prevention strategies at the individual and family level. The instruments used for detection are not reliable for use at the collective level. Insofar as therapy, not enough evidence was found both in quality and quantity to favor one intervention over another. It is recommended to understand the problem from the public health perspective and to generate multisectoral and interdisciplinary approaches.

  15. Childhood maltreatment and pre-pregnancy obesity: a comparison of obese, overweight, and normal weight pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagl, Michaela; Steinig, Jana; Klinitzke, Grit; Stepan, Holger; Kersting, Anette

    2016-04-01

    Pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity is associated with poor health outcomes for the mother and the child. General population studies suggest that childhood maltreatment is associated with obesity in adulthood. The aim of our study was to examine the association between pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity and a history of childhood abuse or neglect including different stages of severity of abuse and neglect. Three hundred twenty-six normal weight, overweight, or obese pregnant women reported demographic data, height and weight, and general psychological distress at 18-22 weeks of gestation. Childhood maltreatment was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Associations were examined using logistic regression analyses and a reference group of normal weight women. Fifty percent reported a history of abuse or neglect. After adjusting for age, education, income, marital status, and the number of previous children, pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity were strongly associated with severe physical abuse (overweight: OR = 8.33, 95% CI 1.48-47.03; obesity: OR = 6.31, 95% CI 1.06-37.60). Women with severe physical neglect (OR = 4.25, 95% CI 1.23-14.74) were at increased risk of pregnancy overweight. We found a dose-response relationship between physical abuse and pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity. Whereas other studies report an association between childhood maltreatment and pre-pregnancy obesity, this is the first study that found an association between childhood maltreatment and pre-pregnancy overweight. Considering the severe health risks of pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity and the long-term consequences of childhood maltreatment, affected women constitute a subgroup with special needs in prenatal care. Further research is needed to improve the understanding of the underlying mechanisms.

  16. Childhood Maltreatment and BMI Trajectories to Mid-Adult Life: Follow-Up to Age 50y in a British Birth Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Chris Power; Snehal M Pinto Pereira; Leah Li

    2015-01-01

    Background Childhood maltreatment including abuse and neglect has been associated with adult obesity, but evidence on life-course development of obesity or BMI gain is unclear. We aim to establish whether childhood maltreatments are related to obesity or BMI at different life-stages 7y-50y and to identify possible explanations for associations. Methods Childhood physical, psychological and sexual abuse, neglect and BMI at seven ages were recorded in the 1958 birth cohort (n~15,000). Associati...

  17. Depression in Childhood and Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Maughan, Barbara; Collishaw, Stephan; Stringaris, Argyris

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To review recent evidence on child and adolescent depression.Method: Narrative review.Results: Rates of unipolar depression are low before puberty, but rise from the early teens, especially among girls. Concurrent comorbidity with both disruptive and emotional disorders is common, especially among younger children; across age, youth depression may be preceded by both anxiety and disruptive behaviour disorders, and increase risk for alcohol problems. Adolescent depression is associa...

  18. Linking Childhood Maltreatment with Girls' Internalizing Symptoms: Early Puberty as a Tipping Point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendle, Jane; Leve, Leslie D; Van Ryzin, Mark; Natsuaki, Misaki N

    2014-12-01

    Early pubertal timing in girls is one of the most frequently replicated antecedents of adolescent emotional distress. Yet understanding the impact of pubertal timing in psychosocial development has presented something of a conundrum for developmentalists, as earlier physical maturation may often be preceded by a range of early adversities and life stressors. The present paper disentangles these associations by investigating childhood maltreatment, adolescent internalizing symptoms, and perceived pubertal timing in girls who were residing in foster care at study entry (N = 100, M = 11.54 years old at Time 1). Girls were assessed at two time points two years apart. There were no significant direct effects of maltreatment on internalizing symptoms; rather, childhood sexual abuse predicted earlier perceived pubertal development at study onset which, in turn, was associated with higher levels of internalizing symptomatology. These higher levels of internalizing symptoms persisted over the two years of the study. This distinctive role for early pubertal timing - even within a sample subject to stressors and risks which far exceed the developmental norm - confirms the unique salience of pubertal timing in emotional adjustment, and suggests that the heightened sexual circumstances of puberty may be especially disturbing for girls whose lives have already been traumatically disrupted by inappropriate and unwanted sexual experiences. PMID:25419091

  19. Gender Specific Associations Between Types of Childhood Maltreatment and the Onset, Escalation and Severity of Substance Use in Cocaine Dependent Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Hyman, Scott M.; Garcia, Miguel; Sinha, Rajita

    2006-01-01

    We examined associations between types of childhood maltreatment and the onset, escalation, and severity of substance use in cocaine dependent adults. In men (n = 55), emotional abuse was associated with a younger age of first alcohol use and a greater severity of substance abuse. In women (n = 32), sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and overall maltreatment was associated with a younger age of first alcohol use, and emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and overall maltreatment was associated with...

  20. The Relationship of Child Maltreatment and Self-Capacities with Distress when Telling One's Story of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palesh, Oxana Gronskaya; Classen, Catherine C.; Field, Nigel; Kraemer, Helena C.; Spiegel, David

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the impact of telling one's story of childhood sexual abuse and its relationship with the survivor's self-capacities and history of other child maltreatment. The baseline data were collected from 134 female CSA survivors who were participating in a large intervention study. Participants were given 10 minutes to describe their…

  1. Dating Violence Perpetration and Victimization among South Korean College Students: A Focus on Gender and Childhood Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gover, Angela R.; Park, MiRang; Tomsich, Elizabeth A.; Jennings, Wesley G.

    2011-01-01

    Unlike the attention given to intimate partner violence among adolescents and young adults in western societies, dating violence is not currently recognized in South Korea as a social phenomenon in terms of research, prevention, and intervention. Childhood maltreatment has been identified in previous research as a risk factor for violence in a…

  2. Investigating the relationship between childhood maltreatment and alcohol misuse in a sample of Danish young adults: Exploring gender differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cronin Susan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND – This study examined the relationship between alcohol misuse and different types of childhood maltreatment in a sample of young adults while controlling for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms and current mental disorders. This study further examined if these associations were different for males and females.

  3. Are there differential relationships between different types of childhood maltreatment and different types of adult personality pathology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Lisa Janet; Tanis, Thachell; Bhattacharjee, Reetuparna; Nesci, Christina; Halmi, Winter; Galynker, Igor

    2014-01-30

    While considerable data support the relationship between childhood trauma and adult personality pathology in general, there is little research investigating the specific relationships between different types of childhood maltreatment and adult personality disorders. The present study tested a model incorporating five a priori hypotheses regarding the association between distinct forms of childhood maltreatment and personality pathology in 231 psychiatric patients using multiple self-report measures (Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-4th Edition, Child Trauma Questionnaire, Conflict in Tactics Scale Parent-Child Child-Adult, and Multidimensional Neglectful Behavior Scale). Step-wise linear regressions supported three out of five hypotheses, suggesting independent relationships between: physical abuse and antisocial personality disorder traits; emotional abuse and Cluster C personality disorder traits; and maternal neglect and Cluster A personality disorder traits after controlling for co-occurring maltreatment types and personality disorder traits. Results did not support an independent relationship between sexual abuse and borderline personality traits nor between emotional abuse and narcissistic personality disorder traits. Additionally, there were three unexpected findings: physical abuse was independently and positively associated with narcissistic and paranoid traits and negatively associated with Cluster C traits. These findings can help refine our understanding of adult personality pathology and support the future development of clinical tools for survivors of childhood maltreatment.

  4. Intergenerational violence in Burundi: Experienced childhood maltreatment increases the risk of abusive child rearing and intimate partner violence

    OpenAIRE

    Crombach, Anselm; Bambonyé, Manassé

    2015-01-01

    Background: Experiencing abuse during childhood affects the psychological well-being of individuals throughout their lives and may even influence their offspring by enhancing the likelihood of an intergenerational transmission of violence. Understanding the effects of childhood maltreatment on child-rearing practices and intimate partner violence might be of particular importance to overcome the consequences of violent conflicts in African societies.Objective: Using Burundi as an example, we ...

  5. Joint Effect of Childhood Abuse and Family History of Major Depressive Disorder on Rates of PTSD in People with Personality Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Flory, Janine D.; Rachel Yehuda; Vincent Passarelli; Siever, Larry J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Childhood maltreatment and familial psychopathology both lead to an increased risk of the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adulthood. While family history of psychopathology has traditionally been viewed as a proxy for genetic predisposition, such pathology can also contribute to a stress-laden environment for the child. Method. Analyses were conducted to evaluate the joint effect of childhood abuse and a family history of major depressive disorder (MDD) on di...

  6. Assessing childhood maltreatment on the population level in Germany: findings and methodological challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaesmer, Heide

    2016-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment (CM) is both prevalent and consequential. Unfortunately little is known about the true prevalence of CM in the general population in Germany. The differences between findings from top down vs. bottom up approaches and the problem of the dark field of CM is discussed. Different assessment methods like trauma lists, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and the Childhood Trauma Screener (CTS) are described and the respective findings about the prevalence of CM in the adult German general population are discussed. With the example of childhood sexual abuse (SA) the challenges of quantification of CM is shown up. For instance, even if all the prevalence findings were based on methodologically sound large-scale studies, it could only be assumed that the retrospectively investigated prevalence of SA in the German general population ranges between 1.0 and 12.6 % in different studies. These findings provide an insight into the complexity of the quantification of the true prevalence of CM on the population level. Hopefully it reminds the readers of handling prevalence rates of CM carefully and to dip into the methodology of the studies before citing the respective prevalence of CM. PMID:27303440

  7. Factors associated with co-occurring borderline personality disorder among inner-city substance users: the roles of childhood maltreatment, negative affect intensity/reactivity, and emotion dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratz, Kim L; Tull, Matthew T; Baruch, David E; Bornovalova, Marina A; Lejuez, C W

    2008-01-01

    The co-occurrence of borderline personality disorder (BPD) among individuals with substance use disorders is a common and clinically relevant phenomenon in need of further empirical investigation. The present study adds to the extant literature on the factors associated with co-occurring BPD among substance users, examining the relationships between childhood maltreatment (in the form of sexual, physical, and emotional abuse and emotional and physical neglect), negative affect intensity/reactivity, emotion dysregulation, and BPD pathology (both diagnostic status and symptom count) among a sample of 76 inner-city treatment-seeking substance users. Emotion dysregulation was expected to mediate the relationships between childhood maltreatment and negative affect intensity/reactivity (and their interaction) and BPD pathology. Results indicate that the presence of a BPD diagnosis was associated with higher levels of both childhood maltreatment and negative affect intensity/reactivity. However, only childhood maltreatment emerged as a unique predictor of BPD diagnostic status. Conversely, both childhood maltreatment and negative affect intensity/reactivity accounted for unique variance in the number of endorsed BPD symptoms. Moreover, emotion dysregulation fully mediated the relationships between maltreatment and negative affect intensity/reactivity and BPD symptom count, as well as the relationship between emotional abuse in particular and BPD diagnostic status. Contrary to hypotheses, results provided no support for the interaction between maltreatment and negative affect intensity/reactivity in the prediction of BPD pathology (diagnosis or symptom count), above and beyond the main effects of these factors. PMID:18970909

  8. A Multiple Mediational Test of the Relationship between Childhood Maltreatment and Non-Suicidal Self-Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Chad E.; Noll, Jennie G.; Cassarly, Jennifer A.

    2010-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress symptoms, depressive symptoms, and psychological dysregulation have been shown to mediate the relationship between child maltreatment and non-suicidal self-injury. However, these proposed mediators often co-occur and previous research has not tested mediation when all variables are assessed simultaneously. The current study…

  9. Childhood Trauma and Its Relation to Chronic Depression in Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negele, Alexa; Kaufhold, Johannes; Kallenbach, Lisa; Leuzinger-Bohleber, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    There is a large consensus indicating that childhood trauma is significantly involved in the development of depression. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of retrospectively recalled childhood trauma in chronically depressed patients and to investigate a more specific relationship between trauma type and depression. We further asked for the influence of multiple experiences of childhood trauma on the vulnerability to a chronic course of depression in adulthood. 349 chronically depressed patients of the German LAC Depression Study completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, a self-report measure of traumatic experiences in childhood. 75.6% of the chronically depressed patients reported clinically significant histories of childhood trauma. 37% of the chronically depressed patients reported multiple childhood traumatization. Experiences of multiple trauma also led to significantly more severe depressive symptoms. Stepwise multiple regression analysis suggested that childhood emotional abuse and sexual abuse were significantly associated with a higher symptom severity in chronically depressed adults. Yet, expanding the regression model for multiple exposures showed that multiplicity was the only remaining significant predictor for symptom severity in chronically depressed patients. Clinical implications suggest a precise assessment of childhood trauma in chronically depressed patients with a focus on emotional abuse, sexual abuse, and multiple exposures to childhood trauma. This trial is registered with registration number ISRCTN91956346. PMID:26693349

  10. Childhood Trauma and Its Relation to Chronic Depression in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negele, Alexa; Kaufhold, Johannes; Kallenbach, Lisa; Leuzinger-Bohleber, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    There is a large consensus indicating that childhood trauma is significantly involved in the development of depression. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of retrospectively recalled childhood trauma in chronically depressed patients and to investigate a more specific relationship between trauma type and depression. We further asked for the influence of multiple experiences of childhood trauma on the vulnerability to a chronic course of depression in adulthood. 349 chronically depressed patients of the German LAC Depression Study completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, a self-report measure of traumatic experiences in childhood. 75.6% of the chronically depressed patients reported clinically significant histories of childhood trauma. 37% of the chronically depressed patients reported multiple childhood traumatization. Experiences of multiple trauma also led to significantly more severe depressive symptoms. Stepwise multiple regression analysis suggested that childhood emotional abuse and sexual abuse were significantly associated with a higher symptom severity in chronically depressed adults. Yet, expanding the regression model for multiple exposures showed that multiplicity was the only remaining significant predictor for symptom severity in chronically depressed patients. Clinical implications suggest a precise assessment of childhood trauma in chronically depressed patients with a focus on emotional abuse, sexual abuse, and multiple exposures to childhood trauma. This trial is registered with registration number ISRCTN91956346. PMID:26693349

  11. Childhood Trauma and Its Relation to Chronic Depression in Adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexa Negele

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a large consensus indicating that childhood trauma is significantly involved in the development of depression. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of retrospectively recalled childhood trauma in chronically depressed patients and to investigate a more specific relationship between trauma type and depression. We further asked for the influence of multiple experiences of childhood trauma on the vulnerability to a chronic course of depression in adulthood. 349 chronically depressed patients of the German LAC Depression Study completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, a self-report measure of traumatic experiences in childhood. 75.6% of the chronically depressed patients reported clinically significant histories of childhood trauma. 37% of the chronically depressed patients reported multiple childhood traumatization. Experiences of multiple trauma also led to significantly more severe depressive symptoms. Stepwise multiple regression analysis suggested that childhood emotional abuse and sexual abuse were significantly associated with a higher symptom severity in chronically depressed adults. Yet, expanding the regression model for multiple exposures showed that multiplicity was the only remaining significant predictor for symptom severity in chronically depressed patients. Clinical implications suggest a precise assessment of childhood trauma in chronically depressed patients with a focus on emotional abuse, sexual abuse, and multiple exposures to childhood trauma. This trial is registered with registration number ISRCTN91956346.

  12. Childhood Trauma and Its Relation to Chronic Depression in Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Alexa Negele; Johannes Kaufhold; Lisa Kallenbach; Marianne Leuzinger-Bohleber

    2015-01-01

    There is a large consensus indicating that childhood trauma is significantly involved in the development of depression. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of retrospectively recalled childhood trauma in chronically depressed patients and to investigate a more specific relationship between trauma type and depression. We further asked for the influence of multiple experiences of childhood trauma on the vulnerability to a chronic course of depression in adulthood. 349 chronicall...

  13. Type and timing of childhood maltreatment and severity of shutdown dissociation in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Schalinski

    Full Text Available Dissociation, particularly the shutting down of sensory, motor and speech systems, has been proposed to emerge in susceptible individuals as a defensive response to traumatic stress. In contrast, other individuals show signs of hyperarousal to acute threat. A key question is whether exposure to particular types of stressful events during specific stages of development can program an individual to have a strong dissociative response to subsequent stressors. Vulnerability to ongoing shutdown dissociation was assessed in 75 inpatients (46 M/29 F, M = 31 ± 10 years old with schizophrenia spectrum disorder and related to number of traumatic events experienced or witnessed during childhood or adulthood. The Maltreatment and Abuse Chronology of Exposure (MACE scale was used to collect retrospective recall of exposure to ten types of maltreatment during each year of childhood. Severity of shutdown dissociation was related to number of childhood but not adult traumatic events. Random forest regression with conditional trees indicated that type and timing of childhood maltreatment could predictably account for 31% of the variance (p < 0.003 in shutdown dissociation, with peak vulnerability occurring at 13-14 years of age and with exposure to emotional neglect followed by various forms of emotional abuse. These findings suggest that there may be windows of vulnerability to the development of shutdown dissociation. Results support the hypothesis that experienced events are more important than witnessed events, but challenge the hypothesis that "life-threatening" events are a critical determinant.

  14. Symptoms of Major Depressive Disorder Subsequent to Child Maltreatment: Examining Change across Multiple Levels of Analysis to Identify Transdiagnostic Risk Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Shenk, Chad E.; Griffin, Amanda M.; O’Donnell, Kieran J.

    2015-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a prevalent psychiatric condition in the child maltreatment population. However, not all children who have been maltreated will develop MDD or MDD symptoms, suggesting the presence of unique risk pathways that explain how certain children develop MDD symptoms when others do not. The current study tested several candidate risk pathways to MDD symptoms following child maltreatment: 1) neuroendocrine, 2) autonomic, 3) affective, and 4) emotion regulation. Femal...

  15. The Importance of Childhood Trauma and Childhood Life Events for Chronicity of Depression in Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, Jenneke E.; Hovens, Jacqueline G. F. M.; van Oppen, Patricia; Giltay, Erik J.; van Schaik, Digna J. F.; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Childhood trauma is linked to adult depression and might be a risk factor for a more chronic course of depression. However, the link between childhood trauma and chronicity of depression has not been investigated using a large and representative sample in which other depression character

  16. Interactive Effect of Child Maltreatment and Substance Use on Depressed Mood Among Adolescents Presenting to Community-Based Substance Use Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Judelysse; Becker, Sara; O'Brien, Kimberly; Spirito, Anthony

    2015-10-01

    Adolescents referred to community behavioral health centers (CBHC) for substance use (SU) problems report high rates of child maltreatment. Although SU and maltreatment are independent risk factors for adolescent depression, few studies have examined their interactive effects. This study examined the interactive effects of SU (alcohol and marijuana) and exposure to different types of trauma on depressed mood among 74 adolescents referred to a CBHC for SU. Hierarchical regressions controlling for sex and common adolescent comorbidities showed that sexual abuse had a stronger relationship with depressed mood than other types of maltreatment. Although SU was not independently related to depressed mood, consistent with the self-medication hypothesis, increased SU was associated with lower levels of depressed mood among adolescents with greater exposure to sexual abuse. Results suggest that teens presenting to CBHCs for SU should be assessed for multiple forms of maltreatment and for depressed mood. PMID:26017474

  17. Childhood abuse and negative automatic self-associations : The cognitive scars of emotional maltreatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Harmelen, Anne-Laura; de Jong, Peter J.; Glashouwer, Klaske A.; Spinhoven, Philip; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Elzinga, Bernet M.

    2010-01-01

    Individuals reporting Childhood Abuse (CA) (i.e., emotional neglect, emotional-, physical- and sexual-abuse) are marked by increased explicit (i.e. self-reported) negative self-associations, and an increased risk to develop depression or anxiety disorders. Automatic self-associations might play an i

  18. The Nurse-Family Partnership: evidence-based public health in response to child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonmyr, L

    2015-01-01

    Too many Canadian children are exposed to child maltreatment-neglect, emotional maltreatment, exposure to intimate partner violence, and physical and sexual abuse. Retrospective data indicates that 32% of Canadian adults have experienced childhood abuse. There is evidence that child maltreatment is associated with a wide array of negative health consequences across the life span. These consequences expand across physical, mental, developmental and social domains to include suicide, substance abuse, anxiety, depression and physical health problems. Experts have asked for coordinated national leadership in protecting children from maltreatment. They also envision broadening the mandate for injury prevention to include not only physical injury but also emotional injury and harm. PMID:26605562

  19. Maltreatment in Infancy: A Developmental Perspective on Prevention and Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Brenda Jones; Buhler, Andrea; Parra, Laura Jimenez

    2016-10-01

    Burgeoning research has documented high rates of maltreatment during the first 3 years of life. Early exposure to maltreatment is related to a host of negative physical, developmental, and mental health outcomes in childhood and adulthood. Scientists have documented the "biological embedding" of maltreatment, including alterations in the structures and processes of the young brain. Maltreatment is a complex phenomenon, which manifests in contexts of family poverty, inadequate parental knowledge and skill regarding child development and caregiving, social isolation of parents, disruptions in parent-child relationships, compromised parental psychological functioning, and concrete issues that affect parenting. Capitalizing on research on young child maltreatment, interventions have been designed to ameliorate infant/toddler maltreatment, buffer young children against the effects of maltreatment, and promote the well-being of maltreated young children. There is a growing empirical base on interventions to address early maltreatment within the context of a public health prevention framework. Primary prevention programs aim to reduce the incidence of maltreatment and related outcomes for infants, toddlers, and their families through the implementation of population-based programs, such as home visiting and early care and education programs. Secondary prevention models target families with specific risk factors associated with maltreatment, such as maternal depression. Tertiary programs generally entail involuntary services, designed to prevent maltreatment recurrence and to improve parenting skills through therapeutic approaches targeting the parent-child dyad. Empirical knowledge about maltreated young children and their families and interventions to support them can inform the design and delivery of child welfare services. PMID:27580663

  20. Childhood maltreatment in adult offspring of Portuguese war veterans with and without PTSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Dias

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The colonial war that Portugal was involved in between 1961 and 1974 had a significant impact on veterans and their families. However, it is unclear what the consequences of this war are, in particular with regard to levels of childhood maltreatment (CM in offspring. Objective: Our study aims to analyze the influences of fathers’ war exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD on the offspring's CM and simultaneously test the hypothesis of the intergenerational transmission of father–child CM. Method: Cross-sectional data were collected, using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire—Short Form, from 203 adult children and 117 fathers. Subjects were distributed according to three conditions based on the father's war exposure status: did not participate in war, or non-war-exposed (NW; participated in war, or war-exposed (W; and war-exposed with PTSD diagnosis (WP. The data were examined using correlations, variance/covariance, and regression analyses. Results: Children of war veterans with PTSD reported more emotional and physical neglect, while their fathers reported increased emotional and physical abuse exposure during their own childhood. Significant father–child CM correlations were found in the war veteran group but less in the war veteran with PTSD group. Father CM predicted 16% of offspring CM of children of war veterans. Conclusions: The father's war-related PTSD might be a risk factor for offspring neglect but potentially a protective one for the father–child abuse transmission. War-exposed fathers without PTSD did transmit their own CM experiences more often. Therefore, father's war exposure and father's war PTSD may each be important variables to take into account in the study of intergenerational transmission of CM.

  1. Predicting Response Trajectories during Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy for Panic Disorder: No Association with the BDNF Gene or Childhood Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santacana, Martí; Arias, Bárbara; Mitjans, Marina; Bonillo, Albert; Montoro, María; Rosado, Sílvia; Guillamat, Roser; Vallès, Vicenç; Pérez, Víctor; Forero, Carlos G.; Fullana, Miquel A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and result in low quality of life and a high social and economic cost. The efficacy of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders is well established, but a substantial proportion of patients do not respond to this treatment. Understanding which genetic and environmental factors are responsible for this differential response to treatment is a key step towards “personalized medicine”. Based on previous research, our objective was to test whether the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and/or childhood maltreatment are associated with response trajectories during exposure-based CBT for panic disorder (PD). Method We used Growth Mixture Modeling to identify latent classes of change (response trajectories) in patients with PD (N = 97) who underwent group manualized exposure-based CBT. We conducted logistic regression to investigate the effect on these trajectories of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and two different types of childhood maltreatment, abuse and neglect. Results We identified two response trajectories (“high response” and “low response”), and found that they were not significantly associated with either the genetic (BDNF Val66Met polymorphism) or childhood trauma-related variables of interest, nor with an interaction between these variables. Conclusions We found no evidence to support an effect of the BDNF gene or childhood trauma-related variables on CBT outcome in PD. Future studies in this field may benefit from looking at other genotypes or using different (e.g. whole-genome) approaches. PMID:27355213

  2. Predicting Response Trajectories during Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy for Panic Disorder: No Association with the BDNF Gene or Childhood Maltreatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martí Santacana

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and result in low quality of life and a high social and economic cost. The efficacy of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT for anxiety disorders is well established, but a substantial proportion of patients do not respond to this treatment. Understanding which genetic and environmental factors are responsible for this differential response to treatment is a key step towards "personalized medicine". Based on previous research, our objective was to test whether the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and/or childhood maltreatment are associated with response trajectories during exposure-based CBT for panic disorder (PD.We used Growth Mixture Modeling to identify latent classes of change (response trajectories in patients with PD (N = 97 who underwent group manualized exposure-based CBT. We conducted logistic regression to investigate the effect on these trajectories of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and two different types of childhood maltreatment, abuse and neglect.We identified two response trajectories ("high response" and "low response", and found that they were not significantly associated with either the genetic (BDNF Val66Met polymorphism or childhood trauma-related variables of interest, nor with an interaction between these variables.We found no evidence to support an effect of the BDNF gene or childhood trauma-related variables on CBT outcome in PD. Future studies in this field may benefit from looking at other genotypes or using different (e.g. whole-genome approaches.

  3. The association between maltreatment in childhood and pre-pregnancy obesity in women attending an antenatal clinic in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Hollingsworth

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Obesity in pregnancy is associated with increased risk of complications and adverse outcomes in mother and child. Childhood adverse experiences are known to have numerous negative physical and emotional sequelae. We aimed to examine if exposure to abuse and/or neglect in childhood increased the likelihood of pre-pregnancy obesity. METHODS: Demographic and clinical data including weight, height, mental health as measured by the General Health Questionnaire and exposure to childhood trauma as measured by the childhood trauma questionnaire was collected from 239 women attending antenatal care at an Australian tertiary hospital. RESULTS: More than one quarter of women were obese prior to pregnancy and approximately 20% of women self reported experiencing moderate to severe physical, sexual or emotional abuse. Almost 60% of women scored in the clinical range on the GHQ. Pre-pregnancy obesity in women attending antenatal care was associated with a self-reported history of emotional or physical abuse with those exposed to moderate or severe emotional or physical abuse having increased odds of being obese prior to pregnancy (O.R. and 95% CI: 2.40; 1.19-4.84 and 2.38; 1.18-4.79 respectively. There was no significant association between other forms of childhood maltreatment, demographic or current mental health status and pre-pregnancy obesity. CONCLUSIONS: The high rates of obesity, mental health problems and self reported childhood maltreatment in the Australian antenatal population are serious public health concerns due to the extra health risks conferred on mother and offspring. Exposure to physical or emotional abuse during childhood increases the likelihood of obesity in women attending antenatal care. Further research is required to determine reasons for this association.

  4. Multigenerational links between mothers' experiences of autonomy in childhood and preschoolers' respiratory sinus arrhythmia: Variations by maltreatment status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, Laura K; Clark, Caron A C; Skowron, Elizabeth A

    2015-11-01

    Despite burgeoning evidence linking early exposure to child maltreatment (CM) to deficits in self-regulation, the pathways to strong regulatory development in these children are not well understood, and significant heterogeneity is observed in their outcomes. Experiences of autonomy may play a key role in transmitting self-regulatory capacity across generations and help explain individual differences in maltreatment outcomes. In this study, we investigated multigenerational associations between Generation 1 (G1)-Generation 2 (G2) mothers' early experience of warmth and autonomy in relation to their own mothers and their Generation 3 (G3) children's autonomic physiological regulation in CM (n = 85) and non-CM (n = 128) families. We found that G2 mothers who recalled greater autonomy in their childhood relationship with their G1 mothers had preschool-age G3 children with higher respiratory sinus arrhythmia at baseline when alone while engaged in individual challenge tasks, during social exchanges with their mother in joint challenge tasks, and during the portions of the strange situation procedure when the mother was present. Although no clear mediators of this association emerged, multigenerational links among G1-G2 relations, maternal representations of her child, child behavior, and child respiratory sinus arrhythmia differed by maltreatment status, thus possibly representing important targets for future research and intervention. PMID:26535936

  5. Child Maltreatment and Adolescent Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trickett, Penelope K.; Negriff, Sonya; Ji, Juye; Peckins, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect, often collectively called child maltreatment, are huge social problems affecting millions of children and adolescents in America. Adolescents are affected both by maltreatment which occurred during childhood with lingering effects and by maltreatment that continues into or begins in adolescence. Several decades of research…

  6. THE RELATION BETWEEN DIMENSIONS OF NORMAL AND PATHOLOGICAL PERSONALITY AND CHILDHOOD MALTREATMENT IN INCARCERATED BOYS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Nederlof; J.M. van der Ham; P.M.J.A. Dingemans; T.I. Oei

    2010-01-01

    The relation between subtypes of maltreatment and dimensions of personality and personality pathology was investigated in a representative sample of 142 incarcerated Dutch male juveniles. Normal personality dimensions were assessed with the Big Five Inventory, the Dimensional Assessment of Personali

  7. Childhood maltreatment, emotional distress, and early adolescent sexual intercourse: Multi-informant perspectives on parental monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Oberlander, Sarah E.; Wang, Yan; Thompson, Richard; Lewis, Terri; Proctor, Laura J.; Isbell, Patricia; English, Diana E.; DUBOWITZ, HOWARD; Litrownik, Alan J.; Black, Maureen M.

    2011-01-01

    This prospective investigation used multi-informant models to examine whether parental monitoring moderated associations between child maltreatment and either emotional distress or sexual intercourse. Data included 637 youth in the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN). Child maltreatment was determined by lifetime Child Protective Service records and youth self-report, and included sexual, physical, psychological abuse, and neglect (age 12). The moderat...

  8. Childhood and adolescent anxiety and depression: beyond heritability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Franic; C.M. Middeldorp; C.V. Dolan; L. Ligthart; D.I. Boomsma

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To review the methodology of behavior genetics studies addressing research questions that go beyond simple heritability estimation and illustrate these using representative research on childhood and adolescent anxiety and depression. Method: The classic twin design and its extensions may

  9. Childhood maltreatment as a risk factor for COPD: findings from a population-based survey of Canadian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shields ME

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Margot E Shields, Wendy E Hovdestad, Charles P Gilbert, Lil E Tonmyr Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the associations between childhood maltreatment (CM and COPD in adulthood.Methods: Data were from 15,902 respondents to the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey – Mental Health. Multiple logistic regression models were used to examine associations between CM and COPD and the role of smoking and mental and substance use variables as mediators in associations.Results: COPD in adulthood was related to CM, with associations differing by sex. Among females, COPD was related to childhood physical abuse (CPA, childhood sexual abuse, and childhood exposure to intimate partner violence, but in the fully adjusted models, the association with CPA did not persist. Among males, COPD was related to childhood exposure to intimate partner violence and severe and frequent CPA, but these associations did not persist in the fully adjusted models.Conclusion: Results from this study establish CM as a risk factor for COPD in adulthood. A large part of the association is attributable to cigarette smoking, particularly for males. These findings underscore the importance of interventions to prevent CM as well as programs to assist victims of CM in dealing with tobacco addiction. Keywords: child abuse, cigarette, smoking, physical abuse, sexual abuse, intimate partner violence, domestic violence, family violence

  10. Suicide Probability in Adolescents With a History of Childhood Maltreatment: The Role of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury, Emotion Regulation Difficulties, and Forms of Self-Criticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanipour

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Suicidal attempt and non-suicidal self-injury are very common in adolescents with a history of childhood maltreatment. By identifying correlates of these kinds of high-risk behaviors, it is possible to prevent and decrease completed suicide. Objectives The aims of this study were: 1 to compare adolescents with a history of childhood maltreatment with non-suicidal self injury (NSSI or past suicidal attempt in terms of suicide probability, and 2 to investigate the association between NSSI, forms of self-criticism, emotion regulation difficulties, and suicide probability. Patients and Methods Participants were 169 adolescents living in Iranian social welfare centers who had a history of childhood maltreatment. The Suicide Probability Scale, Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale, Forms of Self-criticism, and the Non-Suicidal Self injury (NSSI checklist were used for assessment. Results Adolescents with NSSI and suicidal attempts had higher rates of suicide ideation than adolescents with NSSI-only (P < 0.05. Feelings of inadequacy, self-hatred, difficulty with impulse control, and frequency of NSSI can predict 50% variance of suicide probability (P < 0.001. Conclusions Adolescents with histories of suicidal attempts and NSSI, compared with adolescents with NSSI-only, were more prone to suicide. Self-criticism, poor impulse control, and the frequency of NSSI were the main risk factors associated with suicide probability in adolescents with a history of childhood maltreatment.

  11. A Longitudinal Examination of Childhood Maltreatment and Adolescent Obesity: Results from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sunny Hyucksun; Miller, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: We sought to explore the association between childhood maltreatment (e.g., neglect, physical and sexual abuse) and longitudinal growth trajectories of body mass index (BMI) from adolescence to young adulthood. Methods: We used latent curve modeling to examine data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 8,471),…

  12. Symptoms of major depressive disorder subsequent to child maltreatment: Examining change across multiple levels of analysis to identify transdiagnostic risk pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Chad E; Griffin, Amanda M; O'Donnell, Kieran J

    2015-11-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a prevalent psychiatric condition in the child maltreatment population. However, not all children who have been maltreated will develop MDD or MDD symptoms, suggesting the presence of unique risk pathways that explain how certain children develop MDD symptoms when others do not. The current study tested several candidate risk pathways to MDD symptoms following child maltreatment: neuroendocrine, autonomic, affective, and emotion regulation. Female adolescents (N = 110; age range = 14-19) were recruited into a substantiated child maltreatment or comparison condition and completed a laboratory stressor, saliva samples, and measures of emotion regulation, negative affect, and MDD symptoms. MDD symptoms were reassessed 18 months later. Mediational modeling revealed that emotion regulation was the only significant indirect effect of the relationship between child maltreatment and subsequent MDD symptoms, demonstrating that children exposed to maltreatment had greater difficulties managing affective states that in turn led to more severe MDD symptoms. These results highlight the importance of emotion dysregulation as a central risk pathway to MDD following child maltreatment. Areas of future research and implications for optimizing prevention and clinical intervention through the direct targeting of transdiagnostic risk pathways are discussed. PMID:26535940

  13. Early Menarcheal Age and Risk for Later Depressive Symptomatology: The Role of Childhood Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Sarah R.; Klein, Daniel N.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has investigated the relationship between pubertal timing and depression in girls, with most results suggesting that earlier menarche predicts more depression in adolescence. However, few studies have controlled for the potentially confounding effects of childhood depressive symptoms. The current study uses a prospective,…

  14. Maternal Childhood Maltreatment and Offspring Emotional and Behavioral Problems: Maternal and Paternal Mechanisms of Risk Transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijlaarsdam, Jolien; Stevens, Gonneke W J M; Jansen, Pauline W; Ringoot, Ank P; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Hofman, Albert; Ayer, Lynsay; Verhulst, Frank C; Hudziak, James J; Tiemeier, Henning

    2014-03-18

    This study examined hostility and harsh discipline of both mothers and fathers as potential mechanisms explaining the association between a maternal maltreatment history and her offspring's internalizing and externalizing problems. Prospective data from fetal life to age 6 were collected from a total of 4,438 families participating in the Generation R Study. Maternal maltreatment was assessed during pregnancy using a self-administered questionnaire. Mothers and fathers each reported on their psychological distress and harsh discipline when the child was 3 years. Children's internalizing and externalizing problems were assessed by parental reports and child interview at age 6. Findings from structural equation modeling showed that the association between a maternal maltreatment history and her offspring's externalizing problems was explained by maternal hostility and harsh discipline and, at least partially, also by paternal hostility and harsh discipline. Child interview data provided support for both these indirect paths, with associations largely similar to those observed for parent reports.

  15. Childhood adversities in relation to psychiatric disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Pietrek, Christian; Elbert, Thomas; Weierstall, Roland; Müller, Oliver; Rockstroh, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    Substantial evidence has documented that adverse childhood experiences exert deleterious effects on mental health. It is less clear to what extent specific maltreatment during specific developmental periods may vary between disorders rather than increasing vulnerability for any particular disorder. The present comparison of characteristics of childhood adversity (type and frequency of adversity, developmental period) between major depressive disorder (MDD), borderline personality disorder (BP...

  16. Serotonin transporter gene moderates childhood maltreatment’s effects on persistent but not single-episode depression: Replications and implications for resolving inconsistent results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uher, Rudolf; Caspi, Avshalom; Houts, Renate; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Benjamin; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Genetic and environmental factors shape life-long vulnerability to depression, but most gene–environment interaction (G×E) research has focused on cross-sectional assessments rather than life-course phenotypes. This study tests the hypothesis that the G×E involving the length polymorphism in the serotonin-transporter-gene-linked-promoter-region (5-HTTLPR) and childhood maltreatment is specific to depression that runs a persistent course in adulthood. Methods The hypothesis is tested in two cohorts. Men and women in the Dunedin Study (N=847), New Zealand, followed to age 32 years with 96% retention and women in the E-Risk Study (N=930), England, followed to age 40 years with 96% retention. Diagnoses of past-year major depressive episode were established at four separate assessments. Depression diagnosed on two or more occasions was considered persistent. Results In both cohorts, statistical tests of gene–environment interactions showed positive results for persistent depression but not single-episode depression. Individuals with two short 5-HTTLPR alleles and childhood maltreatment had elevated risk of persistent but not single-episode depression. Limitations Some cases of recurrent depression may have been misclassified as single-episode due to non-contiguous assessment windows, but this would have a conservative effect on the findings. Chronic and recurrent depression could not be reliably distinguished due to non-contiguous periods of assessment. Therefore, the term persistent depression is used to describe either chronic or recurrent course. Conclusions The specific effect on persistent depression increases the significance of this G×E for public health. Research that does not distinguish persistent course may underestimate G×E effects and account for some replication failures in G×E research. PMID:21439648

  17. Child Maltreatment and Children's Developmental Trajectories in Early to Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font, Sarah A.; Berger, Lawrence M.

    2015-01-01

    Associations between experiencing child maltreatment and adverse developmental outcomes are widely studied, yet conclusions regarding the extent to which effects are bidirectional, and whether they are likely causal, remain elusive. This study uses the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a birth cohort of 4,898 children followed from birth…

  18. Resilience to Adult Psychopathology Following Childhood Maltreatment: Evidence from a Community Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collishaw, Stephan; Pickles, Andrew; Messer, Julie; Rutter, Michael; Shearer, Christina; Maughan, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Child abuse is an important risk for adult psychiatric morbidity. However, not all maltreated children experience mental health problems as adults. The aims of the present study were to address the extent of resilience to adult psychopathology in a representative community sample, and to explore predictors of a good prognosis. Methods:…

  19. Childhood Maltreatment and the Development of Relational and Physical Aggression: The Importance of a Gender-Informed Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullerton-Sen, Crystal; Cassidy, Adam R.; Murray-Close, Dianna; Cicchetti, Dante; Crick, Nicki R.; Rogosch, Fred A.

    2008-01-01

    This investigation examined the associations between maltreatment and aggression using a gender-informed approach. Peer ratings, peer nominations, and counselor reports of aggression were collected on 211 maltreated and 199 nonmaltreated inner-city youth (M age = 9.9 years) during a summer day camp. Maltreatment was associated with aggressive…

  20. Childhood life events and childhood trauma in adult patients with depressive, anxiety and comorbid disorders vs. controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovens, J. G. F. M.; Wiersma, J. E.; Giltay, E. J.; van Oppen, P.; Spinhoven, P.; Penninx, B. W. J. H.; Zitman, F. G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between childhood life events, childhood trauma and the presence of anxiety, depressive or comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders in adulthood. Method: Data are from 1931 adult participants in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). Child

  1. The role of depression and dissociation in the link between childhood sexual abuse and later parental practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin-Vézina, Delphine; Cyr, Mireille; Pauzé, Robert; McDuff, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    Research has yielded contradictory results on the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and later parental functioning. This study was undertaken to specify the link between childhood sexual abuse and maternal parenting, while taking into account mothers' childhood physical and emotional traumas and current depressive and dissociative symptoms. Data were collected through self-report measures completed by 93 French-speaking Canadian mothers of children aged 6 to 11 years referred to Youth Protection Services. Parental behaviors examined included involvement with the child, use of positive reinforcement, lack of monitoring and supervision of the child, inconsistency in applying discipline, and use of corporal punishment. Mothers' perception of the quality of the relationship with her child was also assessed. In addition, history of abuse and neglect, depression and dissociation were respectively measured with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the Diagnostic Interview Schedule Simplified, and the Dissociative Experiences Scale. The short-form of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale was used to control for respondent bias aimed at minimizing their problems. Mothers' current depressive symptoms were not found to predict any of the parental dimensions measured. Results from multiple hierarchical regressions pointed to dissociative symptoms as the key predictor of parental practices and attitudes. More specifically, dissociative symptoms predicted the use of positive reinforcement, lack of monitoring and supervision of the child, inconsistency in applying discipline, and use of corporal punishment. Dissociation also mediated the association between childhood maltreatment (physical and emotional abuse and neglect) and inconsistency in applying discipline. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:16150686

  2. Maltreated and abused children

    OpenAIRE

    HOUFOVÁ, Jana

    2011-01-01

    According to the statistics there are forty thousand of battered and abused children in the Czech Republic. Maltreatment and abuse are not revealed in most cases and thus they accompany the children during their whole childhood. The reason is that children cannot defend themselves. The maltreatment or the abuse of a child is revealed only if somebody from the child?s neighbourhood observes anything suspicious and decides to report it, which is both a moral and a legal obligation. A person, wh...

  3. Treatment of Childhood Depression: The State of the Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarizio, Harvey F.

    1986-01-01

    This article reviews various aspects of seven approaches to the treatment of childhood depression--psychoanalytic, behavioral, cognitive, familial, rational-emotive, multimodal, and drug interventions. Implications for practitioners are considered in terms of target selection, choice of treatment methods, rational evaluation based on developmental…

  4. Cognitive Vulnerabilities for Depression and Anxiety in Childhood:Specificity of Anxiety Sensitivity and Rumination

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, H. M.; Meiser-Stedman, R.; Woods, H.; Lester, K.J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Childhood anxiety and depression frequently co-occur. Exploring specificity in cognitive processes for anxiety and depression in childhood can provide insight into cognitive vulnerabilities contributing to the development of anxiety and depressive disorders and inform targeted psychological interventions. Anxiety sensitivity and rumination are robust cognitive vulnerabilities for anxiety and depression, respectively. However, despite conceptual similarities, they are rarely consid...

  5. How are we measuring resilience following childhood maltreatment? Is the research adequate and consistent? What is the impact on research, practice, and policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Wendy A; Dawson, Jean; Mattingly, Marybeth J

    2010-01-01

    The authors review the literature on resilience following childhood maltreatment and describe how variation in the measurement of outcomes at various developmental stages affects research findings, practice implications, and policy recommendations. Although the 21 studies reviewed considered competent functioning in similar domains as evidence of resilience following maltreatment, few provided prevalence estimates for specific indicators or across domains of functioning. Using the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW), the authors explored different ways of operationalizing resilience. The number of children demonstrating competence following maltreatment varied greatly by the indicators used; furthermore, competence in one domain (behavioral, emotional, or educational) did not guarantee competence in another. About one in five children were functioning poorly in all three domains. Because findings vary according to the operational definition of resilience, researchers must use caution in conceptualizing their analytic variables and interpreting findings. Furthermore, given the lack of cross-domain competence, services to maltreated children and their families should be comprehensive. PMID:20093249

  6. INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE AND NEW-ONSET DEPRESSION: A LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF WOMEN’S CHILDHOOD AND ADULT HISTORIES OF ABUSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouellet-Morin, Isabelle; Fisher, Helen L.; York-Smith, Marianna; Fincham-Campbell, Stephanie; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies indicate that women victims of intimate partner violence are at increased risk for poor mental health. This research disentangled the effect of partner violence on new-onset depression and psychosis spectrum symptoms from effects of child maltreatment and other confounding factors, including substance abuse and antisocial personality. Methods Participants were 1,052 mothers involved in the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally representative cohort of families followed prospectively. To test the directionality of associations between partner violence and depression, only women without a history of depression at the beginning of the study were considered (n = 978). Partner violence and mental health were assessed during face-to-face interviews with women across three time points. Results Four of 10 women reported being the victim of violence from their partner in a 10-year period. They represent 33% of our cohort and they account for 51% of new-onset depression. These women had a twofold increase in their risk of suffering from new-onset depression once the effect of childhood maltreatment, socioeconomic deprivation, antisocial personality, and young motherhood were controlled. Women who were abused both in childhood and adulthood were four to seven times more likely to suffer from depression than never-abused women. We observed similar associations with psychosis spectrum symptoms. Conclusions Women victims of partner violence account for more than their share of depression. Findings strengthen existing evidence that partner violence independently contributes to women’s poor mental health. Psychological difficulties among a considerable number of women could be reduced by stopping partner violence. PMID:25691224

  7. Childhood trauma is associated with depressive symptoms in Mexico City women

    OpenAIRE

    Openshaw, M; Thompson, LM; De Pheils, PB; Mendoza-Flores, ME; HUMPHREYS, J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To describe childhood trauma and depressive symptoms in Mexican women and to explore the relationships between number and type of childhood traumatic events and depressive symptoms. Methods. A community-based sample of 100 women was interviewed using a demographic questionnaire, the Life Stressor Checklist.Revised (LSC-R), and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Childhood trauma (trauma at or before 16 years of age) and depressive symptoms were described,...

  8. Maternal Depression and Childhood Health Inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    An increasing body of literature documents considerable inequalities in the health of young children in the United States, though maternal depression is one important, yet often overlooked, determinant of children's health. In this article, the author uses data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,048) and finds that maternal…

  9. Stress Generation in Adolescent Depression: The Moderating Role of Child Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, Kate L.; Lumley, Margaret N.; Truss, Alanna E.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the role of childhood abuse and neglect and depression recurrence in moderating the generation of stressful life events in adolescent depression. Maltreatment history and stressful life events were assessed using two rigorous contextual interviews and rating systems. In a sample of 59 community depressed adolescents we…

  10. Impact of childhood life events and trauma on the course of depressive and anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovens, J. G. F. M.; Giltay, E. J.; Wiersma, J. E.; Spinhoven, P.; Penninx, B. W. J. H.; Zitman, F. G.

    2012-01-01

    Hovens JGFM, Giltay EJ, Wiersma JE, Spinhoven P, Penninx BWJH, Zitman FG. Impact of childhood life events and trauma on the course of depressive and anxiety disorders. Objective: Data on the impact of childhood life events and childhood trauma on the clinical course of depressive and anxiety disorde

  11. Depressive symptoms and childhood sleep apnea syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carotenuto M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Marco Carotenuto,1 Maria Esposito,1 Lucia Parisi,2 Beatrice Gallai,3 Rosa Marotta,4 Antonio Pascotto,1 Michele Roccella21Sleep Clinic for Developmental Age, Clinic of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 2Child Neuropsychiatry, Department of Psychology, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy; 3Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, University of Perugia, Perugia, 4Department of Psychiatry, "Magna Graecia" University of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, ItalyBackground: The relationship between sleep and mood regulation is well known, and some reports suggest a key role of sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBD in the development of the symptomatology of depression, even if no conclusive data are actually found in the clinical literature. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between SRBD and depressive symptoms in a population of school-aged children.Methods: The study population comprised 94 children affected by SRBD and 107 healthy children. To identify the severity of SRBD, an overnight respiratory evaluation was performed. All subjects filled out the Italian version of the Children Depression Inventory (CDI to screen for the presence of depressive symptoms.Results: The group with SRBD showed higher CDI scores than the group without SRBD, with a positive correlation found between CDI scores, apnea-hypopnea index, and oxygen desaturation index values. Logistic regression showed that an apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 3 and an oxygen desaturation index ≥ 1 could be risk factors for development of depressive symptoms. According to receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis, the cutoff point for the apnea-hypopnea index that could cause a pathological CDI score (≥19 was >5.66, and the cutoff point for the oxygen desaturation index was >4.2. The limitations of this study are that our data are derived from one single psychometric test and not from a complete psychiatric evaluation, and our

  12. Childhood maltreatment and BMI trajectories to mid-adult life: follow-up to age 50 y in a British birth cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Power

    Full Text Available Childhood maltreatment including abuse and neglect has been associated with adult obesity, but evidence on life-course development of obesity or BMI gain is unclear. We aim to establish whether childhood maltreatments are related to obesity or BMI at different life-stages 7 y-50 y and to identify possible explanations for associations.Childhood physical, psychological and sexual abuse, neglect and BMI at seven ages were recorded in the 1958 birth cohort (n~15,000. Associations of child maltreatments with BMI at separate ages were tested using linear regression or logistic regression for obesity, and with rate of child-to-adult BMI gain using multilevel models. We adjusted for potential covariates.Abuse was reported in ~12% of the population. Abuse was not associated with elevated childhood BMI, but adult associations were observed: i.e. the abused had faster child-adult BMI gain than the non-abused; associations were independent of adult covariates. For physical abuse in both genders there was a positive linear association of ~0.006/y zBMI gain with age after adjustment for all covariates. Similarly, there was a linear association of physical abuse with obesity risk: e.g. among females from a low OR(adjusted of 0.34 (0.16,0.71 at 7 y to 1.67 (1.25,2.24 at 50 y. In females faster zBMI gains with age of ~0.0034/y were observed for sexual abuse and increases in obesity risk were faster: from a low OR(adjusted of 0.23 (0.06,0.84 at 7 y to 1.34 (0.86,2.10 at 50 y. Psychological abuse and neglect associations were less consistent.Childhood maltreatment associations with BMI or obesity varied across life: physical and, in females, sexual abuse were associated with faster lifetime BMI gains, which may have detrimental long-term health consequences.

  13. Childhood trauma and dimensions of depression: a specific association with the cognitive domain

    OpenAIRE

    Edgar A. Vares; Salum, Giovanni A; Lucas Spanemberg; Marco A. Caldieraro; Lívia H. de Souza; Roberta de P. Borges; Marcelo P. Fleck

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate associations between a history of childhood trauma and dimensions of depression in a sample of clinically depressed patients. Methods: A sample of 217 patients from a mood-disorder outpatient unit was investigated with the Beck Depression Inventory, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, the CORE Assessment of Psychomotor Change, and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. A previous latent model identifying six depressive dimensions was used for analysis. Path analysis ...

  14. The scars of childhood adversity : minor stress sensitivity and depressive symptoms in remitted recurrently depressed adult patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Gemma; van Rijsbergen, Gerard; Burger, Huibert; Elgersma, Hermien; Riper, Heleen; Cuijpers, Pim; Dekker, Jack; Smit, Filip; Bockting, Claudi

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Childhood adversity may lead to depressive relapse through its long-lasting influence on stress sensitivity. In line with the stress sensitization hypothesis, minor (daily) stress is associated with depressive relapse. Therefore, we examine the impact of childhood adversity on daily stre

  15. The cycle of victimization: The relationship between childhood maltreatment and adolescent peer victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedini, Kristen M; Fagan, Abigail A; Gibson, Chris L

    2016-09-01

    Child maltreatment has been demonstrated to have many short- and long-term harmful consequences for victims, but whether or not child abuse is associated with an increased risk of peer victimization during adolescence is unclear. This study analyzed prospective data from 831 children and parents participating in the Longitudinal Studies on Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN) to investigate the relationships between child physical and sexual abuse and adolescent victimization by peers, as well as the potential for gender to moderate these relationships. Results from ordinal logit regression models indicated that children who were physically abused prior to age 12, based on official reports, parent reports, and child reports, had a greater risk of experiencing more intimidation and physical assault by peers at age 16. Having a history of sexual abuse predicted more physical assault but not intimidation. There was no evidence that gender moderated these relationships; in all cases, the relationship between abuse and revictimization was similar for boys and girls. The findings emphasize the need to provide victims of abuse with assistance to help prevent a cycle of victimization. PMID:27568065

  16. Childhood Emotional Maltreatment and Later Psychological Distress among College Students: The Mediating Role of Maladaptive Schemas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Margaret O'Dougherty; Crawford, Emily; Del Castillo, Darren

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Theoretically, exposure to experiences of emotional abuse (EA) and emotional neglect (EN) in childhood may threaten the security of attachment relationships and result in maladaptive models of self and self-in-relation to others. The purpose of this study was to explore the extent to which EA and EN treatment by parents contributed…

  17. Alcohol misuse and associations with childhood maltreatment and out-of-home placement among urban two-spirit American Indian and Alaska Native people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Nicole P; Duran, Bonnie M; Walters, Karina L; Pearson, Cynthia R; Evans-Campbell, Tessa A

    2014-10-14

    This study examined associations between alcohol misuse and childhood maltreatment and out-of-home placement among urban lesbian, gay, and bisexual (referred to as two-spirit) American Indian and Alaska Native adults. In a multi-site study, data were obtained from 294 individuals who consumed alcohol during the past year. The results indicated that 72.3% of men and 62.4% of women engaged in hazardous and harmful alcohol use and 50.8% of men and 48.7% of women met criteria for past-year alcohol dependence. The most common types of childhood maltreatment were physical abuse among male drinkers (62.7%) and emotional abuse (71.8%) among female drinkers. Men and women reported high percentages of out-of-home placement (39% and 47%, respectively). Logistic multiple regressions found that for male drinkers boarding school attendance and foster care placement were significant predictors of past-year alcohol dependence. For female drinkers, being adopted was significantly associated with a decreased risk of past-year drinking binge or spree. Dose-response relationships, using number of childhood exposures as a predictor, were not significant. The results highlight the need for alcohol and violence prevention and intervention strategies among urban two-spirit individuals.

  18. Alcohol misuse and associations with childhood maltreatment and out-of-home placement among urban two-spirit American Indian and Alaska Native people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Nicole P; Duran, Bonnie M; Walters, Karina L; Pearson, Cynthia R; Evans-Campbell, Tessa A

    2014-01-01

    This study examined associations between alcohol misuse and childhood maltreatment and out-of-home placement among urban lesbian, gay, and bisexual (referred to as two-spirit) American Indian and Alaska Native adults. In a multi-site study, data were obtained from 294 individuals who consumed alcohol during the past year. The results indicated that 72.3% of men and 62.4% of women engaged in hazardous and harmful alcohol use and 50.8% of men and 48.7% of women met criteria for past-year alcohol dependence. The most common types of childhood maltreatment were physical abuse among male drinkers (62.7%) and emotional abuse (71.8%) among female drinkers. Men and women reported high percentages of out-of-home placement (39% and 47%, respectively). Logistic multiple regressions found that for male drinkers boarding school attendance and foster care placement were significant predictors of past-year alcohol dependence. For female drinkers, being adopted was significantly associated with a decreased risk of past-year drinking binge or spree. Dose-response relationships, using number of childhood exposures as a predictor, were not significant. The results highlight the need for alcohol and violence prevention and intervention strategies among urban two-spirit individuals. PMID:25317980

  19. Alcohol Misuse and Associations with Childhood Maltreatment and Out-of-Home Placement among Urban Two-Spirit American Indian and Alaska Native People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole P. Yuan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined associations between alcohol misuse and childhood maltreatment and out-of-home placement among urban lesbian, gay, and bisexual (referred to as two-spirit American Indian and Alaska Native adults. In a multi-site study, data were obtained from 294 individuals who consumed alcohol during the past year. The results indicated that 72.3% of men and 62.4% of women engaged in hazardous and harmful alcohol use and 50.8% of men and 48.7% of women met criteria for past-year alcohol dependence. The most common types of childhood maltreatment were physical abuse among male drinkers (62.7% and emotional abuse (71.8% among female drinkers. Men and women reported high percentages of out-of-home placement (39% and 47%, respectively. Logistic multiple regressions found that for male drinkers boarding school attendance and foster care placement were significant predictors of past-year alcohol dependence. For female drinkers, being adopted was significantly associated with a decreased risk of past-year drinking binge or spree. Dose-response relationships, using number of childhood exposures as a predictor, were not significant. The results highlight the need for alcohol and violence prevention and intervention strategies among urban two-spirit individuals.

  20. Alcohol Misuse and Associations with Childhood Maltreatment and Out-of-Home Placement among Urban Two-Spirit American Indian and Alaska Native People

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Nicole P.; Duran, Bonnie M.; Walters, Karina L.; Pearson, Cynthia R.; Tessa A. Evans-Campbell

    2014-01-01

    This study examined associations between alcohol misuse and childhood maltreatment and out-of-home placement among urban lesbian, gay, and bisexual (referred to as two-spirit) American Indian and Alaska Native adults. In a multi-site study, data were obtained from 294 individuals who consumed alcohol during the past year. The results indicated that 72.3% of men and 62.4% of women engaged in hazardous and harmful alcohol use and 50.8% of men and 48.7% of women met criteria for past-year alcoho...

  1. Child Maltreatment and Adult Substance Abuse: The Role of Memory

    OpenAIRE

    ELWYN, LAURA; Smith, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    Child maltreatment is a risk factor for substance abuse in adulthood. This study examines whether memory of maltreatment is a necessary link in the path leading from prospectively measured childhood maltreatment to adult substance use problems. Official Child Protective Services reports and adult retrospective recall of childhood maltreatment were used to predict illegal drug use and alcohol problems in adulthood controlling for covariates. Memory was a necessary link in the path between pros...

  2. [Preliminary evidence of neurobiological and behavioral consequences of exposure to childhood maltreatment on regional brain development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomoda, Akemi

    2011-09-01

    In recent years, the topic of child abuse as an issue facing Japanese society has gained considerable attention with regard to the field of medicine and education and also in scenarios that relate to child care. The definition of child abuse includes abusing children verbally or psychologically, and is not limited to abusing children physically such as beating, sexual abuse, or neglect. Recent studies have revealed that emotional trauma during childhood development could be much more difficult to treat than physical abuse. Severe abuse during childhood can cause abnormal brain development and have a negative impact later in life. In this review, I will introduce the mechanisms of brain damage due to child abuse with consideration of how and when child abuse can have an impact on the victims' brains. The information presented is based on a collaborative study with the Psychiatry Department at Harvard University on the relationship between brain functions and the human mind.

  3. Association between maltreatment and polydrug use among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Alonso, M J; Jurado-Barba, R; Martinez-Martin, N; Espin-Jaime, J C; Bolaños-Porrero, C; Ordoñez-Franco, A; Rodriguez-Lopez, J A; Lora-Pablos, D; de la Cruz-Bértolo, J; Jimenez-Arriero, M A; Manzanares, J; Rubio, G

    2016-01-01

    Different studies have related sexual and physical abuse during childhood and adolescence to the development of substance abuse disorders. Nevertheless, we are not aware of the role that other more common maltreatment types, such as neglect, will play among the most risky pattern of consumption: the polydrug use. A clinical sample of 655 adolescents, divided into two groups: polydrug users and non-polydrug users, were assessed on their pattern of drug consumption, history of childhood maltreatment, current psychopathology and their family history of alcoholism. Polydrug users had a greater prevalence of all types of maltreatment, although the most associated to this group were sexual abuse and emotional neglect. Other relevant variables to adolescent consumption were: the diagnosis of depressive disorder, the presence of anxiety traits and the family history of alcohol dependence. Polydrug users have higher risks of having had problems during infancy and adolescence, such as maltreatment and other psychopathological conditions, with the addition of family history of alcoholism. Accordingly, practitioners should take into account that those variables may influence polydrug abuse because it is the most risky pattern for subsequent dependence of substances, and they should always be considered during treatment. PMID:26318780

  4. Emotional Maltreatment, Peer Victimization, and Depressive versus Anxiety Symptoms during Adolescence: Hopelessness as a Mediator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jessica L.; Shapero, Benjamin G.; Stange, Jonathan P.; Hamlat, Elissa J.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2013-01-01

    Extensive comorbidity between depression and anxiety has driven research to identify unique and shared risk factors. This study prospectively examined the specificity of three interpersonal stressors (emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and relationally oriented peer victimization) as predictors of depressive versus anxiety symptoms in a racially…

  5. Temperament, Stress Reactivity, and Coping: Implications for Depression in Childhood and Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compas, Bruce E.; Connor-Smith, Jennifer; Jaser, Sarah S.

    2004-01-01

    This article considers the role of temperament in the development of depression during childhood and adolescence. The features of depression in young people and aspects of temperament that are most relevant to depression are briefly reviewed. Studies that have tested the direct and indirect associations of temperament and depressive symptoms in…

  6. IL1B基因多态性与儿童期创伤交互作用对抗抑郁剂疗效的影响%Influence of interleukin-1 beta gene polymorphism and childhood maltreatment on antidepressant treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈颖; 张志珺; 徐治; 浦梦佳; 耿磊钰

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨白介素1-β(interleukin-1 beta,IL1 B)基因启动子区rs16944位点基因多态性与儿童期创伤的交互作用对抗抑郁剂疗效的影响.方法 对204例抑郁症患者进行8周心理精神量表评估随访.应用Snapshot检测IL1B基因位点rs16944单核苷酸多态性.应用Unphased 3.0.13软件包分析rs16944多态性与抗抑郁疗效关联性,Logistic回归分析基因-环境交互作用对抗抑郁药物疗效的影响.结果 8周治愈组与未治愈组间性别、年龄、教育程度、家族史、发病次数、HAMD-17项基线及用药情况差异均无统计学意义.药物基因关联分析表明IL1B基因rs16944位点AA基因型携带者疗效较差(x2=3.931,P=0.047).两患者组间儿童期创伤经历问卷总分差异无统计学意义.基因和环境交互分析发现rs16944位点AA基因型与儿童期创伤相互作用及较差的抗抑郁剂疗效相关(P=0.043).结论 IL1B基因rs16944位点多态性与儿童期创伤相互作用可能影响抑郁患者临床疗效.%Objective To explore the influence of interleukin-1 beta (IL1B) gene polymorphism and childhood maltreatment on antidepressant treatment.Methods Two hundred and four patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) have received treatment with single antidepressant drugs and were followed up for 8 weeks.Hamilton depression scale-17 (HAMD-17) was used to evaluate the severity of depressive symptoms and therapeutic effect.Childhood maltreatment was assessed using Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, a 28-item Short Form (CTQ-SF).Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the IL1B gene was determined using a SNaPshot method.Correlation of rs16944 gene polymorphism with response to treatment was analyzed using Unphased 3.0.13 software.The main and interactive effects of SNP and childhood maltreatment on the antidepressant treatment were analyzed using Logistic regression analysis.Results No significant difference of gender, age, year of education, family history

  7. Impact of Depression and Childhood Trauma in Mothers Receiving Home Visitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammerman, Robert T.; Shenk, Chad E.; Teeters, Angelique R.; Noll, Jennie G.; Putnam, Frank W.; Van Ginkel, Judith B.

    2012-01-01

    Research has documented the deleterious effects of maternal depression and childhood trauma on parenting and child development. There are high rates of both depression and childhood trauma in new mothers participating in home visitation programs, a prevention approach designed to optimize mother and child outcomes. Little is known about the…

  8. Witnessing Domestic Abuse in Childhood as an Independent Risk Factor for Depressive Symptoms in Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, David; Springer, Kristen W.; Greenfield, Emily A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study addresses the relationship between retrospective reports of witnessing domestic abuse in childhood and levels of depressive symptoms in young adulthood. We examine whether the association between having witnessed violence in childhood and depression is independent of having been the direct target of sexual and/or physical…

  9. Maternal depressive symptoms in infancy: Unique contribution to children’s depressive symptoms in childhood and adolescence?

    OpenAIRE

    Bureau, Jean-François; Easterbrooks, M. Ann; Lyons-Ruth, Karlen

    2009-01-01

    This prospective 20-year study assessed associations between maternal depressive symptoms in infancy, childhood, and adolescence and child and adolescent depressive symptoms in a sample of families at high psychosocial risk. Maternal symptomatology was assessed with the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D; Radloff, 1977) when children were infants (12 months), school-aged (age 8), and adolescents (age 19). Children’s depressive symptoms were measured at age 8 (Dimension...

  10. Attachment style as a mediator between childhood maltreatment and the experience of betrayal trauma as an adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Elise C; Simons, Raluca M; Surette, Renata J

    2016-02-01

    Previous research has demonstrated a positive association between child maltreatment and adult interpersonal trauma (Arata, 2000; Crawford & Wright, 2007). From a betrayal trauma theory perspective, evidence suggests that the experience of trauma high in betrayal (e.g., child maltreatment by parents or guardians) increases ones risk of betrayal trauma as an adult (Gobin & Freyd, 2009). However, the mechanisms explaining these associations are not well understood; attachment theory could provide further insight. Child maltreatment is associated with insecure attachment (Baer & Martinez, 2006; Muller et al., 2000). Insecure attachment is also associated with deficits in interpersonal functioning and risk for intimate partner violence, suggesting insecure attachment may mediate the relationship between child maltreatment and the experience of betrayal trauma as an adult. The current study tested this hypothesis in a sample of 601 college students. Participants completed online questionnaires including the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale (CATS), the Experiences in Close Relationships - Revised (ECR-R) and the Brief Betrayal Trauma Survey (BBTS). Results indicated that child maltreatment is associated with adult betrayal trauma and anxious attachment partially mediates this relationship.

  11. Childhood adversity predicts earlier onset of Major Depression but not reduced hippocampal volume

    OpenAIRE

    Lenze, Shannon N.; Xiong, Chengjie; Sheline, Yvette I.

    2008-01-01

    Childhood adversity may influence severity and age of onset of depression, potentially mediated by greater vulnerability to an existing biochemical or neural mechanism. Prior studies have suggested that reduced hippocampal volume is a result of childhood adversity. This study examined the relationship between childhood adversity, hippocampal volumes and clinical characteristics in women who were recruited for depression history rather than abuse experiences. Thirty-one women with remitted uni...

  12. Maltreatment and Depression in Adolescent Sexual Offenders with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Jessica Bleil; Hughes, Tammy L.; Sutton, Lawrence R.; Marshall, Stephanie N.; Crothers, Laura M.; Lehman, Cathryn; Paserba, Dave; Talkington, Vanessa; Taormina, Rochelle; Huang, Ann

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the self-reported presence and severity of abuse, neglect, and depressive symptoms for 43 adolescents adjudicated delinquent due to a sexual offense. Twenty-seven of the adolescent sexual offenders were also diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder, and 16 did not carry an autism spectrum disorder diagnosis. Both groups…

  13. Family childhood experiences reports in depressed patients : comparison between 2 time points

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, Ivandro Soares; Maia, Ângela

    2010-01-01

    Research has shown some discrepancies in the reports of experiences from childhood when an individual is depressed, because a depressed mood may have biasing effects on autobiographical memory. The present study sought to clarify this issue by examining whether there is temporal stability in the report of childhood experiences in depressed subjects, or rather, if these experiences are influenced by the mood at the time of report. The study therefore carries implications for the credi...

  14. Emotions and Suicidal Ideation among Depressed Women with Childhood Sexual Abuse Histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Sungeun; Talbot, Nancy L.; He, Hua; Conner, Kenneth R.

    2012-01-01

    Depressed women with sexual abuse histories have a heightened risk of suicidal ideation (SI), which may be only in part attributable to psychiatric symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Emotions and SI were studied among 106 women with histories of childhood sexual abuse enrolled in treatment trials for major depression.…

  15. Does Self-Compassion Mitigate the Association between Childhood Maltreatment and Later Emotion Regulation Difficulties? A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vettese, Lisa C.; Dyer, Catherine E.; Li, Wing Ling; Wekerle, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Child maltreatment-related outcomes range from no symptom expression to suicide. Increasingly, the diverse presentations have been conceptualized as core system dysregulation, including emotion dysregulation. Self-compassion has been advanced as a self-regulation strategy for countering negative self-directed emotions. This study explored whether…

  16. Native American Ethnicity and Childhood Maltreatment as Variables in Perceptions and Adjustments to Boot Camp vs. "Traditional" Correctional Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gover, Angela R.

    2005-01-01

    A sample of 302 juveniles confined in two separate correctional facilities in a Western plains state was assessed to examine the relationship between child maltreatment and other delinquency risk factors, and Native American ethnicity on perceptions of the institutional environments and psychological adjustment in a boot camp and traditional…

  17. Linking childhood maltreatment and psychological symptoms in a Portuguese community sample : the hurtful potential of emotional abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dos Santos Dias, Aida; Sales, L.; van Hessen, D.J.; Kleber, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Child maltreatment (CM) is associated with poor long-term health outcomes. However, knowledge about CM prevalence and related consequences is scarce among adults in South European countries. We examined the self-reported prevalence of five different forms of CM in a community sample of 1,200 Portugu

  18. Maternal Childhood Maltreatment and Offspring Emotional and Behavioral Problems:Maternal and Paternal Mechanisms of Risk Transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijlaarsdam, J; Stevens, Gonneke; Jansen, P.; Ringoot, A.P.; Jaddoe, V.W.V.; Hofman, A.; Verhulst, F.; Hudziak, J.J.; Tiemeier, H.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined hostility and harsh discipline of both mothers and fathers as potential mechanisms explaining the association between a maternal maltreatment history and her offspring's internalizing and externalizing problems. Prospective data from fetal life to age 6 were collected from a tota

  19. Joint Effect of Childhood Abuse and Family History of Major Depressive Disorder on Rates of PTSD in People with Personality Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine D. Flory

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Childhood maltreatment and familial psychopathology both lead to an increased risk of the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD in adulthood. While family history of psychopathology has traditionally been viewed as a proxy for genetic predisposition, such pathology can also contribute to a stress-laden environment for the child. Method. Analyses were conducted to evaluate the joint effect of childhood abuse and a family history of major depressive disorder (MDD on diagnoses of PTSD and MDD in a sample of 225 adults with DSM-IV Axis II disorders. Results. Results showed that the rate of PTSD in the presence of both childhood abuse and MDD family history was almost six-fold (OR=5.89,  P=.001 higher relative to the absence of both factors. In contrast, the rate of MDD in the presence of both factors was associated with a nearly three-fold risk relative to the reference group (OR=2.75,  P=.01. Conclusions. The results from this observational study contribute to a growing understanding of predisposing factors for the development of PTSD and suggest that joint effects of family history of MDD and childhood abuse on PTSD are greater than either factor alone.

  20. The scars of childhood adversity: minor stress sensitivity and depressive symptoms in remitted recurrently depressed adult patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Kok

    Full Text Available Childhood adversity may lead to depressive relapse through its long-lasting influence on stress sensitivity. In line with the stress sensitization hypothesis, minor (daily stress is associated with depressive relapse. Therefore, we examine the impact of childhood adversity on daily stress and its predictive value on prospectively assessed depressive symptoms in recurrently depressed patients.Daily stress was assessed in recurrently depressed adult patients, enrolled into two randomized trials while remitted. The reported intensity and frequency of dependent and independent daily stress was assessed at baseline. Independent stress is externally generated, for example an accident happening to a friend, while dependent stress is internally generated, for example getting into a fight with a neighbor. Hierarchical regression analyses were performed with childhood adversity, independent and dependent daily stress as predictor variables of prospectively measured depressive symptoms after three months of follow-up (n = 138.We found that childhood adversity was not significantly associated with a higher frequency and intensity of daily stress. The intensity of both independent and dependent daily stress was predictive of depressive symptom levels at follow-up (unadjusted models respectively: B = 0.47, t = 2.05, p = 0.041, 95% CI = 0.02-0.92; B = 0.29, t = 2.20, p = 0.028, 95% CI = 0.03-0.55. No associations were found between childhood adversity and depressive symptoms at follow-up.No evidence was found supporting stress sensitization due to the experience of childhood adversity in this recurrently depressed but remitted patient group. Nevertheless, our research indicates that daily stress might be a target for preventive treatment.Trial A: Nederlands Trial Register NTR1907 Trial B: Nederlands Trial Register NTR2503.

  1. Patterns of Childhood Abuse and Neglect in a Representative German Population Sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Schilling

    Full Text Available Different types of childhood maltreatment, like emotional abuse, emotional neglect, physical abuse, physical neglect and sexual abuse are interrelated because of their co-occurrence. Different patterns of childhood abuse and neglect are associated with the degree of severity of mental disorders in adulthood. The purpose of this study was (a to identify different patterns of childhood maltreatment in a representative German community sample, (b to replicate the patterns of childhood neglect and abuse recently found in a clinical German sample, (c to examine whether participants reporting exposure to specific patterns of child maltreatment would report different levels of psychological distress, and (d to compare the results of the typological approach and the results of a cumulative risk model based on our data set.In a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2010, a representative random sample of 2504 German participants aged between 14 and 92 years completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ. General anxiety and depression were assessed by standardized questionnaires (GAD-2, PHQ-2. Cluster analysis was conducted with the CTQ-subscales to identify different patterns of childhood maltreatment.Three different patterns of childhood abuse and neglect could be identified by cluster analysis. Cluster one showed low values on all CTQ-scales. Cluster two showed high values in emotional and physical neglect. Only cluster three showed high values in physical and sexual abuse. The three patterns of childhood maltreatment showed different degrees of depression (PHQ-2 and anxiety (GAD-2. Cluster one showed lowest levels of psychological distress, cluster three showed highest levels of mental distress.The results show that different types of childhood maltreatment are interrelated and can be grouped into specific patterns of childhood abuse and neglect, which are associated with differing severity of psychological distress in adulthood. The results

  2. Predictors and consequences of childhood depressive symptoms: a 5-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolen-Hoeksema, S; Girgus, J S; Seligman, M E

    1992-08-01

    A 5-year longitudinal study investigated the interrelationships among children's experiences of depressive symptoms, negative life events, explanatory style, and helplessness behaviors in social and achievement situations. The results revealed that early in childhood, negative events, but not explanatory style, predicted depressive symptoms; later in childhood, a pessimistic explanatory style emerged as a significant predictor of depressive symptoms, alone and in conjunction with negative events. When children suffered periods of depression, their explanatory styles not only deteriorated but remained pessimistic even after their depression subsided, presumably putting them at risk for future episodes of depression. Some children seem repeatedly prone to depressive symptoms over periods of at least 2 years. Depressed children consistently showed helpless behaviors in social and achievement settings. PMID:1500598

  3. Effect of Childhood Trauma on Adult Depression and Neuroendocrine Function: Sex-Specific Moderation by CRH Receptor 1 Gene

    OpenAIRE

    Bekh Bradley; Tanja Mletzko; Ressler, Kerry J.; Binder, Elisabeth B

    2009-01-01

    Variations of the corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) gene appear to moderate the development of depression after childhood trauma. Depression more frequently affects women than men. We examined sex differences in the effects of the CRHR1 gene on the relationship between childhood trauma and adult depression. Methods: We recruited 1,063 subjects from the waiting rooms of a public urban hospital. Childhood trauma exposure and symptoms of depression were assessed using dimensio...

  4. Antenatal and postpartum depressive symptoms are differentially associated with early childhood weight and adiposity

    OpenAIRE

    Ertel, Karen A.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Gillman, Matthew W

    2010-01-01

    Antenatal depression is associated with small for gestational age, but few studies have examined associations with weight during childhood. Similarly few studies address whether antenatal and postpartum depression differentially affect child weight. Among 838 mother-child dyads in Project Viva, a prospective cohort study, we examined relationships of antenatal and postpartum depression with child weight and adiposity. We assessed maternal depression at mid-pregnancy and 6 months postpartum wi...

  5. Depression in Childhood and Early Adolescence: Parental Expressed Emotion and Family Functioning

    OpenAIRE

    Tompson, MC; O Connor, EE; Kemp, GN; Langer, DA; Asarnow, JR

    2015-01-01

    Across development depression is associated with impairments in interpersonal and family functioning. In turn, these impairments may predict a more negative depression course and outcome. This study examined family functioning and parental Expressed Emotion (EE) among depressed youth during middle childhood and early adolescence and their relationship to demographic and clinical factors. Data were drawn from pretreatment evaluations of 132 depressed youth ages 7–14 and their families enrolled...

  6. Childhood trauma and adult interpersonal relationship problems in patients with depression and anxiety disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Huh, Hyu Jung; Kim, Sun-Young; Yu, Jeong Jin; Chae, Jeong-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Although a plethora of studies have delineated the relationship between childhood trauma and onset, symptom severity, and course of depression and anxiety disorders, there has been little evidence that childhood trauma may lead to interpersonal problems among adult patients with depression and anxiety disorders. Given the lack of prior research in this area, we aimed to investigate characteristics of interpersonal problems in adult patients who had suffered various types of abuse...

  7. Linking Oppositional Behaviour Trajectories to the Development of Depressive Symptoms in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, Khrista; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Szatmari, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder in childhood is a predictor of later mood disorders. This study assessed whether groups of children can be identified by their course of co-occurring oppositional and depressive symptoms in childhood using group based trajectory modeling. Participants were a cohort of 932 4 or 5 year old offspring of women…

  8. Childhood abuse and neglect in relation to the presence and persistence of psychotic and depressive symptomatology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, D. S.; van Nierop, M.; Viechtbauer, W.; Velthorst, E.; van Winkel, R.; Bruggeman, R.; Cahn, W.; de Haan, L.; Kahn, R. S.; Meijer, C. J.; Myin-Germeys, I.; van Os, J.; Wiersma, D.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The association between childhood trauma and psychotic and depressive symptomatology is well established. However, less is known about the specificity and course of these symptoms in relation to childhood trauma. METHOD: In a large sample (n = 2765) of patients with psychosis (n = 1119),

  9. Number of Childhood Abuse Perpetrators and the Occurrence of Depressive Episodes in Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Richard T.; Jager-Hyman, Shari; Wagner, Clara A.; Alloy, Lauren B.; Gibb, Brandon E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Although past research has documented a link between adverse childhood experiences--particularly childhood emotional (CEA), physical (CPA), and sexual abuse (CSA)--and depression, relatively few studies have examined the unique impact of each of these highly co-occurring abuse types. Moreover, relatively little is known about the…

  10. Do childhood externalizing disorders predict adult depression? A meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Loth, Annemarie K.; Drabick, Deborah A. G.; Leibenluft, Ellen; Hulvershorn, Leslie A.

    2014-01-01

    Childhood externalizing disorders have been linked to adult affective disorders, although some studies fail to substantiate this finding. Multiple longitudinal cohort studies identifying childhood psychopathology and their association with adult psychiatric illness have been published. To examine the association between childhood externalizing symptoms or disorders and the development of adult depression across cohorts, a meta-analysis was performed. Potential studies were identified using a ...

  11. Impact of Childhood Trauma on Treatment Outcome in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Cara C.; Simons, Anne D.; Nguyen, Lananh J.; Murakami, Jessica L.; Reid, Mark W.; Silva, Susan G.; March, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The impact of childhood trauma was examined in 427 adolescents (54% girls, 74% Caucasian, mean = 14.6, SD = 1.5) with major depressive disorder participating in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). Method: TADS compared the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), fluoxetine (FLX), their combination (COMB),…

  12. Depression and Anxiety Symptoms: Onset, Developmental Course and Risk Factors during Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, Sylvana M.; Boivin, Michel; Liu, Xuecheng; Nagin, Daniel S.; Zoccolillo, Mark; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Depressive and anxiety disorders are among the top ten leading causes of disabilities. We know little, however, about the onset, developmental course and early risk factors for depressive and anxiety symptoms (DAS). Objective: Model the developmental trajectories of DAS during early childhood and to identify risk factors for atypically…

  13. Childhood Social Withdrawal, Interpersonal Impairment, and Young Adult Depression: A Mediational Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Shaina J.; Conway, Christopher C.; Hammen, Constance L.; Brennan, Patricia A.; Najmanm, Jake M.

    2011-01-01

    Building on interpersonal theories of depression, the current study sought to explore whether early childhood social withdrawal serves as a risk factor for depressive symptoms and diagnoses in young adulthood. The researchers hypothesized that social impairment at age 15 would mediate the association between social withdrawal at age 5 and…

  14. Therapy for Child Psychological Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeson, Fiona; Nixon, Reginald D. V.

    2010-01-01

    Research of childhood psychological maltreatment has documented a range of severe and long-lasting difficulties for children who experience this type of abuse. Consequences can include but are not limited to emotional and behavioural problems, low self-esteem, and relationship difficulties. Accordingly, the development of therapy programs to…

  15. Altered pressure pain thresholds and increased wind-up in adult patients with chronic back pain with a history of childhood maltreatment: a quantitative sensory testing study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesarz, Jonas; Eich, Wolfgang; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Gerhardt, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    Childhood maltreatment (CM) has been associated with an increased risk of nonspecific chronic low back pain (nsCLBP). However, the mechanisms underlying this association are unclear. Therefore, this study considered whether distinct types of CM are accompanied by specific alterations in somatosensory function. A total of 176 subjects with nsCLBP and 27 pain-free controls (PCs) were included. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) was used to categorize patients into 2 groups (abused/neglected vs nonabused/nonneglected) for 5 types of CM (emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional neglect, and physical neglect). The standardized quantitative sensory testing protocol of the "German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain" was performed to obtain comprehensive profiles on somatosensory function, including detection and pain thresholds, pain sensitivity, and assessments of temporal summation (wind-up). Between 17.7% and 51.4% of subjects with nsCLBP reported CM, depending on the type of CM. Childhood Trauma Questionnaire subscores for emotional and sexual abuse were significantly higher in subjects with nsCLBP than in PCs. Compared with PCs, subjects with CM showed reduced pressure pain thresholds (PPTs), irrespective of the type of CM. Regarding distinct types of CM, subjects with nsCLBP with emotional abuse reported significantly higher wind-up than those without, and sexual abuse was accompanied by enhanced touch sensitivity. Our findings suggest that CM is nonspecifically associated with a decreased PPT in nsCLBP. Emotional abuse apparently leads to enhanced spinal pain summation, and sexual abuse leads to enhanced touch sensitivity. These results emphasize the importance of emotional abuse in nsCLBP and suggest that CM can induce long-term changes in adult somatosensory function. PMID:27075429

  16. Do childhood externalizing disorders predict adult depression? A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth, Annemarie K; Drabick, Deborah A G; Leibenluft, Ellen; Hulvershorn, Leslie A

    2014-10-01

    Childhood externalizing disorders have been linked to adult affective disorders, although some studies fail to substantiate this finding. Multiple longitudinal cohort studies identifying childhood psychopathology and their association with adult psychiatric illness have been published. To examine the association between childhood externalizing symptoms or disorders and the development of adult depression across cohorts, a meta-analysis was performed. Potential studies were identified using a PubMed search through November 2013. All published, prospective, longitudinal, community-sampled cohort studies of children (≤ 13 years) with externalizing symptoms or disorders (aggression, conduct problems, oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder), reassessed in adulthood (≥ 18 years) for depressive disorders (major depressive disorder, depressive disorder NOS, or dysthymic disorder) were included. A random effects model was used to summarize the pooled effect sizes. Ancillary analyses considered covariates that could account for variance among studies. Ten studies representing eight cohorts of children initially assessed at age 13 or younger (N = 17,712) were included in the meta-analysis. Childhood externalizing behavior was associated with adult depressive disorders (OR = 1.52, 95% confidence interval = 1.27-1.80, p < 0.0001). Utilizing Orwin's Fail-safe N approach, 263 studies with a mean odds ratio of 1.0 would have to be added to the analysis before the cumulative effect would become trivial. Externalizing psychopathology in childhood is associated with the development of unipolar depressive disorders in adulthood.

  17. Depressive Symptoms in College Women: Examining the Cumulative Effect of Childhood and Adulthood Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Modallal, Hanan

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the cumulative effect of childhood and adulthood violence on depressive symptoms in a sample of Jordanian college women. Snowball sampling technique was used to recruit the participants. The participants were heterosexual college-aged women between the ages of 18 and 25. The participants were asked about their experiences of childhood violence (including physical violence, sexual violence, psychological violence, and witnessing parental violence), partner violence (including physical partner violence and sexual partner violence), experiences of depressive symptoms, and about other demographic and familial factors as possible predictors for their complaints of depressive symptoms. Multiple linear regression analysis was implemented to identify demographic- and violence-related predictors of their complainants of depressive symptoms. Logistic regression analysis was further performed to identify possible type(s) of violence associated with the increased risk of depressive symptoms. The prevalence of depressive symptoms in this sample was 47.4%. For the violence experience, witnessing parental violence was the most common during childhood, experienced by 40 (41.2%) women, and physical partner violence was the most common in adulthood, experienced by 35 (36.1%) women. Results of logistic regression analysis indicated that experiencing two types of violence (regardless of the time of occurrence) was significant in predicting depressive symptoms (odds ratio [OR] = 3.45, p violence and depressive symptoms including the cumulative impact of longer periods of violence on depressive symptoms is recommended to be explored in future studies. PMID:25888504

  18. Reported History of Childhood Maltreatment and Young Adults' Attentional Biases for Facial Expressions%儿童期受虐对成人情绪面孔注意偏向的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高红丽; 杨世昌; 闫春平; 姚桂英; 杜巍

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of childhood maltreatment on young adults' attentional biases for facial expressions. Methods: A visual dot-probe task was used to test 29 participants with childhood maltreatment and 30 participants without childhood maltreatment. The Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire was used to assess participants' histories of emotional, physical, and sexual abuse in childhood. Results: There was no significant difference in the reaction time of group, types of emotional faces and consistency (P>0.05); there was no significant difference in the attention bias score of group and types of emotional faces (P>0.05). Conclusion: In the context of Chinese culture, young adults with childhood maltreatment have no special attentional biases for emotional faces.%目的:探讨儿童期受虐对成人情绪面孔注意偏向的影响.方法:使用儿童虐待史问卷筛选出有童年期受虐经历的被试29名和无童年期受虐经历的被试30名,以情绪面孔(高兴、中性、愤怒)为实验材料进行点探测任务的行为学实验.结果:组别、面孔性质、一致性三因素在反应时指标上,各自的主效应及相互之间的交互作用均不显著(P>0.05):组别和面孔性质在注意偏向各项指标上的主效应和交互效应均不显著(P>0.05).结论:在中国文化背景下,有儿童期受虐经历的成年人不存在对情绪面孔的注意偏向.

  19. Psychobiology of childhood maltreatment: effects of allostatic load? Psicobiologia dos maus-tratos na infância: efeitos de peso alostático?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Grassi-Oliveira

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Facing an adverse physical or psychosocial situation, an individual is forced to adapt in order to survive. Allostasis is the term used to refer to adapting processes used to maintain the stability of an organism through active processes. When allostatic response is excessive or inefficient, the organism develops an allostatic load. The cascade of molecular and neurobiological effects associated with childhood abuse and neglect could be an example of allostatic response that could precipitate allostatic load in organism still vulnerable during its development. This article reviews the psychobiological consequences related to childhood abuse and neglect. METHOD: A selective review with a systematic procedure was performed to investigate studies showing explicit association between childhood maltreatment and psychobiological/neurobiological consequences. We searched electronic database MedLine-PubMed to identify English-language articles from 1990 to 2007. RESULTS: From 115 articles we selected 55 studies from MedLine and 30 from their reference lists, in a total of 85 articles (JCR IF range: 1-31.4; median: 5.88. Only 29 studies showed direct and explicit association between them. CONCLUSION: Structural consequences of childhood maltreatment include disruptive development of corpus callosum, left neocortex, hippocampus, and amygdale; functional consequences include increased electrical irritability in limbic areas, frontal lobe dysfunctions and reduced functional activity of the cerebellar vermis; and neurohumoral consequences include the reprogramming activity of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis and subsequently the stress response.OBJETIVO: Frente a uma situação psicossocial ou física adversa, o indivíduo é forçado a se adaptar de maneira que possa sobreviver. Alostase é o termo utilizado para descrever os processos adaptativos usados para manter a estabilidade de um organismo por meio de processos ativos. Quando a

  20. Childhood poverty and depressive symptoms for older adults in Mexico: a life-course analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Jacqueline M; Wong, Rebeca

    2013-09-01

    This study applies life-course theories of latent (direct), pathway (indirect) and conditional effects in an analysis of childhood poverty on later-life depressive symptoms among older adults in Mexico. Data are from the 2001 Mexican Health and Aging Study (MHAS), a nationally representative sample of older adults born before 1951 (n = 8696). Respondents had a mean of 3.6 past-week depressive symptoms and 71% had no household sanitation facilities before age 10; this measure served as a proxy for childhood poverty. Childhood poverty is significantly related to scores on an adapted 9-item CES-D scale in the full model (b = 0.27, p childhood poverty reduction and gains in education.

  1. Child maltreatment and quality of life: a study of adolescents in residential care

    OpenAIRE

    Greger, Hanne Klæboe; Myhre, Arne Kristian; Lydersen, Stian; Jozefiak, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Background Childhood maltreatment is an important risk factor for mental and physical health problems. Adolescents living in residential youth care (RYC) have experienced a high rate of childhood maltreatment and are a high-risk group for psychiatric disorders. Quality of life (QoL) is a subjective, multidimensional concept that goes beyond medical diagnoses. There is a lack of research regarding the associations between childhood maltreatment and QoL. In the present study, we compare self-re...

  2. Genetic moderation of child maltreatment effects on depression and internalizing symptoms by serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), norepinephrine transporter (NET), and corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) genes in African American children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A

    2014-11-01

    Genetic moderation of the effects of child maltreatment on depression and internalizing symptoms was investigated in a sample of low-income maltreated and nonmaltreated African American children (N = 1,096). Lifetime child maltreatment experiences were independently coded from Child Protective Services records and maternal report. Child depression and internalizing problems were assessed in the context of a summer research camp by self-report on the Children's Depression Inventory and adult counselor report on the Teacher Report Form. DNA was obtained from buccal cell or saliva samples and genotyped for polymorphisms of the following genes: serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), norepinephrine transporter, and corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1. Analyses of covariance with age and gender as covariates were conducted, with maltreatment status and respective polymorphism as main effects and their Gene × Environment (G × E) interactions. Maltreatment consistently was associated with higher Children's Depression Inventory and Teacher Report Form symptoms. The results for child self-report symptoms indicated a G × E interaction for BDNF and maltreatment. In addition, BDNF and triallelic 5-HTTLPR interacted with child maltreatment in a G × G × E interaction. Analyses for counselor report of child anxiety/depression symptoms on the Teacher Report Form indicated moderation of child maltreatment effects by triallelic 5-HTTLPR. These effects were elaborated based on variation in developmental timing of maltreatment experiences. Norepinephrine transporter was found to further moderate the G × E interaction of 5-HTTLPR and maltreatment status, revealing a G × G × E interaction. This G × G × E was extended by consideration of variation in maltreatment subtype experiences. Finally, G × G × E effects were observed for the co-action of BDNF and the corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1

  3. The School Psychologist's Primer on Childhood Depression: A Review of Research Regarding Epidemiology, Etiology, Assessment, and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruderman, Matthew A.; Stifel, Skye W. F.; O'Malley, Meagan; Jimerson, Shane R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide school psychologists with a synthesis of important information regarding the epidemiology, etiology, assessment, and treatment of childhood depression. A review of the recent research and relevant literature is summarized reflecting the contemporary knowledge regarding depression during childhood and…

  4. Specificity of childhood maltreatment and emotion deficit in nonsuicidal self-injury in an inpatient sample of youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomassin, Kristel; Shaffer, Anne; Madden, Amber; Londino, Donna L

    2016-10-30

    The present study investigated the function of two specific emotion-related skills, emotion expressivity and emotion coping, as potential mediators in the relations between childhood sexual, physical, and emotional abuse and NSSI. A robust body of work supports the role of emotion regulation in nonsuicidal self-injury, but additional research is warranted to tease apart the role of specific emotion regulation deficits as predictors of NSSI. Participants included 95 youth (Mage=14.22, SDage=1.67; 58% female) hospitalized on one of two acute care psychiatric inpatient units. Participants completed self-report questionnaires related to childhood experiences of trauma, current emotion expressivity and coping, and lifetime frequency of NSSI. Path analytic models indicated that only child emotional abuse was directly associated with NSSI when all abuse subtypes were examined simultaneously. Results also indicated that poor emotion expressivity, but not emotion coping, mediated the relation between childhood experiences of emotional abuse and NSSI. PMID:27479099

  5. Overgeneral Autobiographical Memory, Emotional Maltreatment, and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence: Evidence of a Cognitive Vulnerability-Stress Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stange, Jonathan P.; Hamlat, Elissa J.; Hamilton, Jessica L.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2013-01-01

    Overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is associated with depression and may confer risk for the development of depressed mood, but few longitudinal studies have evaluated OGM as a predictor of depressive symptoms in early adolescence, particularly in the context of environmental stressors. We investigated whether OGM and emotional maltreatment…

  6. Association of Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse with Intimate Partner Violence, Poor General Health and Depressive Symptoms among Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Barrios, Yasmin V.; Bizu Gelaye; Qiuyue Zhong; Christina Nicolaidis; Rondon, Marta B; Garcia, Pedro J.; Pedro A Mascaro Sanchez; Sanchez, Sixto E; Williams, Michelle A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We examined associations of childhood physical and sexual abuse with risk of intimate partner violence (IPV). We also evaluated the extent to which childhood abuse was associated with self-reported general health status and symptoms of antepartum depression in a cohort of pregnant Peruvian women. Methods: In-person interviews were conducted to collect information regarding history of childhood abuse and IPV from 1,521 women during early pregnancy. Antepartum depressive symptomatolo...

  7. Depressive Symptoms in College Women: Examining the Cumulative Effect of Childhood and Adulthood Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Modallal, Hanan

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the cumulative effect of childhood and adulthood violence on depressive symptoms in a sample of Jordanian college women. Snowball sampling technique was used to recruit the participants. The participants were heterosexual college-aged women between the ages of 18 and 25. The participants were asked about their experiences of childhood violence (including physical violence, sexual violence, psychological violence, and witnessing parental violence), partner violence (including physical partner violence and sexual partner violence), experiences of depressive symptoms, and about other demographic and familial factors as possible predictors for their complaints of depressive symptoms. Multiple linear regression analysis was implemented to identify demographic- and violence-related predictors of their complainants of depressive symptoms. Logistic regression analysis was further performed to identify possible type(s) of violence associated with the increased risk of depressive symptoms. The prevalence of depressive symptoms in this sample was 47.4%. For the violence experience, witnessing parental violence was the most common during childhood, experienced by 40 (41.2%) women, and physical partner violence was the most common in adulthood, experienced by 35 (36.1%) women. Results of logistic regression analysis indicated that experiencing two types of violence (regardless of the time of occurrence) was significant in predicting depressive symptoms (odds ratio [OR] = 3.45, p women's demographic characteristics, marital status (single vs. engaged), mothers' level of education, income, and smoking were significant in predicting depressive symptoms. Assessment of physical violence and depressive symptoms including the cumulative impact of longer periods of violence on depressive symptoms is recommended to be explored in future studies.

  8. Intergenerational Continuity in Child Maltreatment: Mediating Mechanisms and Implications for Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Lisa J.; Appleyard, Karen; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2011-01-01

    In the interest of improving child maltreatment prevention, this prospective, longitudinal, community-based study of 499 mothers and their infants examined (a) direct associations between mothers' experiences of childhood maltreatment and their offspring's maltreatment, and (b) mothers' mental health problems, social isolation, and social…

  9. Assessment of Behavior Problems in Childhood and Adolescence as Predictors of Early Adult Depression

    OpenAIRE

    KOSTERMAN, RICK; HAWKINS, J. DAVID; Mason, W. Alex; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Lengua, Liliana J.; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Behavior and psychological problems assessed prospectively by teachers and parents and by youths’ self-reports through late childhood and adolescence were examined as possible predictors of early adult depression. Data were from 765 participants in the Seattle Social Development Project, a multiethnic and gender-balanced urban sample. Analyses examined 7 waves of data from ages 10 to 21, and included measures from the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist and assessments of past-year depressive ...

  10. Childhood and Adolescent Risk Factors for Comorbid Depression and Substance Use Disorders in Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Kerry M.; Zebrak, Katarzyna A.; Fothergill, Kate E.; Robertson, Judith A.; Ensminger, Margaret E.

    2012-01-01

    The comorbidity of major depression and substance use disorders is well documented. However, thorough understanding of prevalence and early risk factors for comorbidity in adulthood is lacking, particularly among urban African Americans. With data from the Woodlawn Study, which follows a community cohort of urban African Americans from ages 6 to 42, we identify the prevalence of comorbidity and childhood and adolescent risk factors of comorbid depression and substance use disorders, depressio...

  11. Attenuated inhibition of medium spiny neurons participates in the pathogenesis of childhood depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dandan Liu; Linghan Hu; Junqi Zhang; Ping Zhang; Shengtian Li

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that the nucleus accumbens, which is involved in mechanisms of reward and addiction, plays a role in the pathogenesis of depression and in the action of anti-depressants. In the current study, intraperitoneal injection of nomifensine, a dopamine reuptake inhibitor, decreased depression-like behaviors in the Wistar Kyoto rat model of depression in the sucrose-preference and forced swim tests. Nomifensine also reduced membrane excitability in medium spiny neurons in the core of the nucleus accumbens in the childhood Wistar Kyoto rats as evaluated by electrophysiological recording. In addition, the expression of dopamine D2-like receptor mRNA was downregulated in the nucleus accumbens, striatum and hippocampus of nomifensine-treated childhood Wistar Kyoto rats. These experimental ifndings indicate that impaired inhibition of medium spiny neurons, mediated by dopamine D2-like receptors, may be involved in the formation of depression-like behavior in childhood Wistar Kyoto rats, and that nomifensine can alleviate depressive behaviors by reducing medium spiny neuron membrane excitability.

  12. The Role of Exercise in Reducing Childhood and Adolescent PTSD, Anxiety, and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Robert W.; McWilliams, Meredith E.; Schwartz, Jennifer T.; Cavera, Robert S.

    2012-01-01

    The authors review the role of physical exercise in reducing childhood and adolescent posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and depression. A good deal of the existing research on the influence of exercise in reducing negative emotional states and enhancing perceptions of self-efficacy has been conducted with adult samples. Comparatively few…

  13. Prospective Longitudinal Associations between Persistent Sleep Problems in Childhood and Anxiety and Depression Disorders in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory, Alice M.; Caspi, Avshalom; Eley, Thalia C.; Moffitt, Terrie E.; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Poulton, Richie

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the associations between persistent childhood sleep problems and adulthood anxiety and depression. Parents of 943 children (52% male) participating in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study provided information on their children's sleep and internalizing problems at ages 5, 7, and 9…

  14. White matter integrity in major depressive disorder: Implications of childhood trauma, 5-HTTLPR and BDNF polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatham, Erica L; Ramasubbu, Rajamannar; Gaxiola-Valdez, Ismael; Cortese, Filomeno; Clark, Darren; Goodyear, Bradley; Foster, Jane; Hall, Geoffrey B

    2016-07-30

    This study examined the impact of childhood neglect, serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) polymorphisms on white matter (WM) integrity in major depressive disorder (MDD) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Fifty-five medication-free MDD patients and 18 controls underwent diffusion tensor imaging scanning, genotyping and completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Tract based spatial statistics (TBSS) findings revealed reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) in the MDD group in the anterior internal capsule. 5-HTTLPR-S'L' heterozygotes in the MDD group exhibited reduced FA in the internal capsule relative to S'S' and reduced FA in corona radiata compared to L'L'. Probabilistic tractography revealed higher FA in the uncinate fasciculus (UF) for BDNF val/val genotype relative to met-carriers, particularly in individuals with high depression severity. High depression severity and experiences of childhood physical or emotional neglect predicted higher FA in the UF and superior longitudinal fasciculus. Reductions in FA were identified for subgroups of MDD patients who were 5-HTTLPR heterozygotes and BDNF-met carriers. An association between emotional/physical neglect and FA was observed in subjects with high depressive symptoms. Our findings suggest that WM connectivity within frontal and limbic regions are affected by depression and influenced by experiences of neglect and genetic risk factors. PMID:27261564

  15. Linking child maltreatment history with child abuse potential: Relative roles of maltreatment types

    OpenAIRE

    Mitkovic-Voncina Marija; Lecic-Tosevski Dusica; Pejovic-Milovancevic Milica; Popovic-Deusic Smiljka

    2014-01-01

    The independent roles of each childhood maltreatment type on child abuse potential in adults have been insufficiently explored and are inconsistent, with dissociation as one of the possible suggested mediators of intergenerational child abuse. We investigated these effects among 164 non-clinical adult parents, who filled in general questionnaires: Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAPI) and Dissociative Experience Scale ...

  16. Exponentially Distributed Outages of Decreased ACTH and Cortisol Responses to Stress in Healthy Adults with Childhood Maltreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Geetha. T; Karthika. K

    2014-01-01

    Preclinical research findings suggest that exposure to stress and concomitantly hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation during early development can have permanent and potentially deleterious effects. A history of early-life abuse or neglect appears to increase risk for mood and anxiety disorders. Abnormal HPA response to stress challenge has been reported in adult patients with Major Depressive Disorder and PostTraumatic Stress Disorder. This paper discussed the cons...

  17. Exceptionality, Education and Maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobsey, Dick

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of the relationship between child maltreatment and child disability identifies three categories: (1) maltreatment causes many disabilities; (2) children with disabilities are more vulnerable to maltreatment; and (3) other primary causal factors increase risk for both violence and disability. Maltreatment is also seen as impeding student…

  18. Intergenerational Continuity in Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberry, Terence P.; Henry, Kimberly L.

    2013-01-01

    Identification of the causes of child maltreatment perpetration is prerequisite for developing efficacious prevention initiatives to reduce its occurrence. Earlier maltreatment victimization is often suggested as an important cause of subsequent maltreatment perpetration. This study investigates a) whether maltreatment victimization causes…

  19. Developmental pathways linking childhood and adolescent internalizing, externalizing, academic competence, and adolescent depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Murray; Ploubidis, George B; Cairney, John; Wild, T Cameron; Naicker, Kiyuri; Colman, Ian

    2016-08-01

    This study examined longitudinal pathways through three domains of adaptation from ages 4-5 to 14-15 (internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and academic competence) towards depressive symptoms at age 16-17. Participants were 6425 Canadian children followed bi-annually as part of the National Longitudinal Study of Children and Youth. Within-domain (i.e., stability) effects were moderate in strength. We found longitudinal cross-domain effects across one time point (i.e., one-lag cascades) between internalizing and externalizing in early childhood (positive associations), and between academic competence and externalizing in later childhood and adolescence (negative associations). We also found cascade effects over multiple time points (i.e., multi-lag cascades); lower academic competence at age 4-5 and greater internalizing at age 6-7 predicted greater age 12-13 externalizing, and greater age 6-7 externalizing predicted greater age 16-17 depression. Important pathways towards adolescent depression include a stability path through childhood and adolescent internalizing, as well as a number of potential paths involving all domains of adaptation, highlighting the multifactorial nature of adolescent depression. PMID:27288965

  20. Intergenerational Continuity in Child Maltreatment: Mediating Mechanisms and Implications for Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Berlin, Lisa J.; Appleyard, Karen; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2011-01-01

    In the interest of improving child maltreatment prevention, this prospective, longitudinal, community-based study of 499 mothers and their infants examined (a) direct associations between mothers’ experiences of childhood maltreatment and their offspring’s maltreatment, and (b) mothers’ mental health problems, social isolation, and social information processing patterns (hostile attributions and aggressive response biases) as mediators of these associations. Mothers’ childhood physical abuse ...

  1. Child maltreatment and later cognitive functioning: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Quarti Irigaray

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This systematic review sought to assess the impact of child maltreatment on cognitive functioning. Seventeen papers from Medline, PsycINFO, Embase and Amed (1995-2011 databases were analyzed based on inclusion/exclusion criteria. The studies have shown that maltreatment during childhood has deleterious effects on cognitive functioning. Overall, adults or children/teenagers exposed to abuse during childhood performed poorly on tasks meant to assess verbal episodic memory, working memory, attention, and executive functions. We conclude that child maltreatment is a risk factor for short and long-term development due to potential adverse effects on cognitive functioning.

  2. Longitudinal Relations between Depressive Symptoms and Externalizing Behavior in Adolescence: Moderating Effects of Maltreatment Experience and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brensilver, Matthew; Negriff, Sonya; Mennen, Ferol E.; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2011-01-01

    Among the explanations for the high rates of co-occurrence between depressive symptoms and externalizing behavior is the possibility of direct causal associations between the two symptom groups. However, the mechanisms by which co-occurrence arises may not be the same across etiologically significant variables. A gender-balanced sample of 303…

  3. The role of attachment in the relationship between child maltreatment and later emotional and behavioral functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, Amanda; Renk, Kimberly; Adgate, Amanda Havill

    2014-09-01

    The experience of childhood maltreatment is an important predictor of unfavorable emotional and behavioral outcomes. Because little research examined explanatory variables in the relationship between childhood maltreatment experiences and later outcomes, this study examined the role that attachment serves in this relationship. Four hundred twenty-four participants completed questionnaires assessing the variables of interest for this study. Results indicated that both childhood maltreatment experiences (particularly emotional abuse) and attachment (particularly to mothers and peers) are significant predictors of later emotional and behavioral outcomes. Further, attachment contributed unique and significant variance to the relationship between childhood maltreatment experiences and later outcomes. Such findings suggested that secure attachment may serve as a protective factor against maladaptive emotional and behavioral outcomes as children reach emerging adulthood, even in the context of childhood maltreatment experiences. The importance of studying the relationships among these variables is discussed. PMID:24631414

  4. Individual, Family, and Neighborhood Factors Distinguish Resilient from Non-Resilient Maltreated Children: A Cumulative Stressors Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffee, Sara R.; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Polo-Tomas, Monica; Taylor, Alan

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Children who are physically maltreated are at risk of a range of adverse outcomes in childhood and adulthood, but some children who are maltreated manage to function well despite their history of adversity. Which individual, family, and neighborhood characteristics distinguish resilient from non-resilient maltreated children? Do…

  5. Suspected Child Maltreatment: Recognize and Respond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemple, Kristen Mary; Kim, Hae Kyoung

    2011-01-01

    Early childhood educators spend extensive amounts of time with young children, so they are often the first adults to notice signs that a child may be abused or neglected. All educators are required by law to report suspected maltreatment, and can play an important role in preventing and responding to abuse and neglect of young children. What is…

  6. 大学生抑郁症症状水平与儿童期创伤经历关系初探%Relationship between Severity of Depression and Childhood Trauma in College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋国栋

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore relationship between severity of depression and childhood trauma in college students .Methods Childhood Trauma Questionnaire -Short Form ( CTQ-SF) was administrated to 39 depressive college students who were assessed by HA-MA and HAMD and 77 college students without depression .Results Compared to normal students ,patients with major depressive disor-der(MDD)had more emotional maltreatment and ignore(t=2.506,3.117;P all<0.05)while patients with mild-to-moderate depres-sion had more emotional ignore(t=2.831,P<0.05).Emotional maltreatment factor,sexual abuse factor respectively into the severity of depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms of the regression equation (standard partial regression coefficient was 0.342 and 0.342,re-spectively ) .Conclusion Emotional maltreatment and ignore are the important factors that affect college students 'depression severity , sexual abuse is the important factors that affects college students'anxiety symptoms of depression .%目的:研究大学生抑郁症症状水平与儿童期创伤经历的关系。方法对抑郁症组39名大学生进行抑郁症症状的评定,同时发放儿童期创伤经历问卷(CTQ-SF);给正常组77名大学生发放儿童期创伤经历问卷(CTQ-SF)。结果与正常组相比,重度抑郁症组情感虐待、情感忽视的汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)得分显著偏高(t=2.506,3.117;P均<0.05),轻中度抑郁症组情感忽视的HAMD得分显著偏高(t=2.831,P<0.05);情感虐待因子、性虐待因子分别进入抑郁症症状水平与焦虑症症状水平的回归方程(标准偏回归系数分别为0.342和0.372)。结论情感虐待、情感忽视是影响大学生抑郁症症状水平的重要因素,性虐待则是影响大学生抑郁症患者焦虑症状的重要因素。

  7. Developmental trajectories of anxious and depressive problems during the transition from childhood to adolescence : Personality x Parenting interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinzie, Peter; van Harten, Leanthe V.; Dekovic, Maja; van den Akker, Alithe L.; Shiner, Rebecca L.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined separate developmental trajectories of anxious and depressive symptoms from childhood to adolescence (9-15 years) in a community-based sample (N = 290). At three measurement points, mothers and fathers reported on their children's anxious and depressive symptoms, and at Time 1 th

  8. The Role of Attachment Representation in the Relationship between Depressive Symptomatology and Social Withdrawal in Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullone, Eleonora; Ollendick, Thomas H.; King, Neville J.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the relationships among attachment representation, social withdrawal, and depressive symptomatology in childhood. A total of 326 children aged 8 to 10 years participated in the study. Children completed a family drawing procedure to assess attachment representation, the Children's Depression Inventory and the Social Withdrawal…

  9. Maternal depressive symptoms across early childhood and asthma in school children: findings from a Longitudinal Australian Population Based Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Giallo

    Full Text Available There is a growing body of evidence attesting to links between early life exposure to stress and childhood asthma. However, available evidence is largely based on small, genetically high risk samples. The aim of this study was to explore the associations between the course of maternal depressive symptoms across early childhood and childhood asthma in a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study of Australian children. Participants were 4164 children and their biological mothers from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Latent class analysis identified three trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms across four biennial waves from the first postnatal year to when children were 6-7 years: minimal symptoms (74.6%, sub-clinical symptoms (20.8%, and persistent and increasing high symptoms (4.6%. Logistic regression analyses revealed that childhood asthma at age 6-7 years was associated with persistent and increasing high depressive symptoms after accounting for known risk factors including smoking during pregnancy and maternal history of asthma (adjusted OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.61-3.45, p.001. Our findings from a nationally representative sample of Australian children provide empirical support for a relationship between maternal depressive symptoms across the early childhood period and childhood asthma. The burden of disease from childhood asthma may be reduced by strengthening efforts to promote maternal mental health in the early years of parenting.

  10. Maternal depressive symptoms across early childhood and asthma in school children: findings from a Longitudinal Australian Population Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giallo, Rebecca; Bahreinian, Salma; Brown, Stephanie; Cooklin, Amanda; Kingston, Dawn; Kozyrskyj, Anita

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence attesting to links between early life exposure to stress and childhood asthma. However, available evidence is largely based on small, genetically high risk samples. The aim of this study was to explore the associations between the course of maternal depressive symptoms across early childhood and childhood asthma in a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study of Australian children. Participants were 4164 children and their biological mothers from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Latent class analysis identified three trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms across four biennial waves from the first postnatal year to when children were 6-7 years: minimal symptoms (74.6%), sub-clinical symptoms (20.8%), and persistent and increasing high symptoms (4.6%). Logistic regression analyses revealed that childhood asthma at age 6-7 years was associated with persistent and increasing high depressive symptoms after accounting for known risk factors including smoking during pregnancy and maternal history of asthma (adjusted OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.61-3.45), p.001). Our findings from a nationally representative sample of Australian children provide empirical support for a relationship between maternal depressive symptoms across the early childhood period and childhood asthma. The burden of disease from childhood asthma may be reduced by strengthening efforts to promote maternal mental health in the early years of parenting.

  11. Maladaptive coping mediates the influence of childhood trauma on depression and PTSD among pregnant women in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Karmel W; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Velloza, Jennifer; Marais, Adele; Jose, Cicyn; Stein, Dan J; Watt, Melissa H; Joska, John A

    2015-10-01

    Antenatal mental disorders compromise maternal and child health, and women who have experienced childhood trauma may be at increased risk for such disorders. One hypothesis is that early trauma leads to the development and use of maladaptive coping strategies as an adult, which in turn could predict mental health difficulties during stressful transitions such as pregnancy. To test this hypothesis, this study examined the relationship between childhood trauma and mental health (depression, PTSD) in a sample of 84 pregnant women seeking antenatal care in Cape Town, South Africa, and explored whether maladaptive coping mediated this relationship. The majority of women (62 %) met established criteria for antenatal depression and 30 % for antenatal PTSD; in addition, 40 % reported a history of childhood trauma. Childhood trauma, especially childhood sexual abuse and emotional abuse, was significantly associated with depression and PTSD. The relationships between childhood trauma and depression and PTSD were significantly mediated by maladaptive coping, even when adjusted for the woman's age, gestational age, and HIV status. Findings highlight the need for coping-based interventions to prevent and treat antenatal mental disorders among women with childhood trauma, particularly in high-trauma settings such as South Africa. PMID:25578632

  12. Assessment of Behavior Problems in Childhood and Adolescence as Predictors of Early Adult Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosterman, Rick; Hawkins, J David; Mason, W Alex; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Lengua, Liliana J; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2009-05-21

    Behavior and psychological problems assessed prospectively by teachers and parents and by youths' self-reports through late childhood and adolescence were examined as possible predictors of early adult depression. Data were from 765 participants in the Seattle Social Development Project, a multiethnic and gender-balanced urban sample. Analyses examined 7 waves of data from ages 10 to 21, and included measures from the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist and assessments of past-year depressive episode based on the Diagnostic Interview Schedule. Self-reported conduct problems as early as age 10 (Mason et al., 2001) and throughout adolescence consistently predicted depression at age 21. Parent reports of conduct and other externalizing problems in adolescence also significantly predicted adult depression. None of the available teacher reports through age 14 were significant predictors. Results suggest that externalizing problems can be useful indicators of risk for adult depression. Prevention efforts that target externalizing problems in youth may hold promise for reducing later depression. PMID:20383270

  13. Relationship between maternal depression as a risk factor for childhood trauma and mood disorders in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Porto Barbosa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Maternal depression may be a risk factor for childhood trauma (CT, with resultant offspring development of mood disorders (MD in adult life. Objective To verify the relationship between maternal depression (as a risk factor for childhood trauma and mood disorders in young adults. Methods The sample was composed of 164 young adults and their mothers. Maternal depression was identified through the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.. Mood Disorders in the young adults were confirmed with the Structured Interview for the DSM-IV (SCID, whereas the CT was evaluated using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ. Results In the group of young adults with MD, individuals who had depressed mothers presented higher mean scores of CT in comparison to the ones who did not have mothers with Depression (p < 0.005. Childhood trauma was also associated with lower social classes (p < 0.005. In the group of young adults without MD, the only variable that was associated with CT was the young adult’s (not current work (p < 0.005. Discussion Maternal depression was considered to be a risk factor for CT and MD in young adults. Thus, preventing and treating maternal psychiatric disorders may diminish the risk of offspring childhood trauma, and, consequently, avoid negative effects in the offspring’s adult life.

  14. Childhood sexual abuse severity and disclosure as predictors of depression among adult African American and Latina women

    OpenAIRE

    Sciolla, A.; Glover, DA; Loeb, TB; Zhang, M.; Myers, HF; Wyatt, GE

    2011-01-01

    A history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been associated with adult depression, but data on abuse severity and disclosure are scant, particularly among low-income ethnic minorities. CSA often co-occurs with other adversities, which also increase the risk of depression. This study examined the peritrauma variable of abuse severity and the posttrauma variables of disclosure and self-blame as predictors of current depression symptoms in 94 low-income African-American and Latina women with h...

  15. Childhood abuse increases the risk of depressive and anxiety symptoms and history of suicidal behavior in Mexican pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Asunción Lara

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To explore the relationship between individual and co-occurring childhood sexual, physical, and verbal abuse, prenatal depressive (PDS and anxiety symptoms (PAS, and history of suicidal behavior (HSB among Mexican pregnant women at risk of depression.Methods:A sample of 357 women screened for PDS was interviewed using the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire (CECA-Q, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II, the anxiety subscale of the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist (SCL-90, and specific questions on verbal abuse and HSB.Results:Logistic regression analyses showed that women who had experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA were 2.60 times more likely to develop PDS, 2.58 times more likely to develop PAS, and 3.71 times more likely to have HSB. Childhood physical abuse (CPA increased the risk of PAS (odds ratio [OR] = 2.51 and HSB (OR = 2.62, while childhood verbal abuse (CVA increased PDS (OR = 1.92. Experiencing multiple abuses increased the risk of PDS (OR = 3.01, PAS (OR = 3.73, and HSB (OR = 13.73.Conclusions:Childhood sexual, physical, and verbal abuse, especially when they co-occur, have an impact on PDS and PAS and lifetime HSB. These findings suggest that pregnant women at risk for depression should also be screened for trauma as a risk factor for perinatal psychopathology.

  16. Linking child maltreatment history with child abuse potential: Relative roles of maltreatment types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitkovic-Voncina Marija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The independent roles of each childhood maltreatment type on child abuse potential in adults have been insufficiently explored and are inconsistent, with dissociation as one of the possible suggested mediators of intergenerational child abuse. We investigated these effects among 164 non-clinical adult parents, who filled in general questionnaires: Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ, Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAPI and Dissociative Experience Scale (DES. Among all maltreatment types (emotional, physical and sexual abuse, emotional and physical neglect, emotional abuse was the only independent predictor in the regression model of child abuse potential. The relationship between emotional abuse history and child abuse potential was partially mediated by dissociation. The findings could speak in favor of the potentially unique detrimental role of emotional abuse in intergenerational maltreatment, with dissociation as one of the possible mechanisms.

  17. When Do We See Resilience: The Effects of Parentâ s History of Maltreatment on Parenting Behaviors and Childrenâ s Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Riser, Diana Katherine

    2011-01-01

    Prior research has suggested that children are at a greater risk of maladjustment in cases where a parent has experienced childhood maltreatment. The purpose of this study is to explore the role of parentâ s childhood maltreatment in its effects on parenting behavior, parent characteristics, and child adjustment. The multiple pathways through which parentâ s childhood maltreatment can be both directly and indirectly linked to child maladjustment were explored. Further, risk and protectiv...

  18. Identifying Potential Mediators and Moderators of the Association between Child Maltreatment and Bullying Perpetration and Victimization in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jun Sung; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Allen-Meares, Paula

    2012-01-01

    A growing body of literature is demonstrating associations between childhood maltreatment and bullying involvement at school. In this literature review, four potential mediators (explanatory) and three potential moderators (mitigates or exacerbates) of the association between childhood maltreatment and school bullying are proposed. Mediators…

  19. Maladaptive Coping Mediates the Influence of Childhood Trauma on Depression and PTSD among Pregnant Women in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Karmel W.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Velloza, Jennifer; Marais, Adele; Jose, Cicyn; Dan J Stein; Watt, Melissa H.; Joska, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Antenatal mental disorders compromise maternal and child health, and women who have experienced childhood trauma may be at increased risk for such disorders. One hypothesis is that early trauma leads to the development and use of maladaptive coping strategies as an adult, which in turn could predict mental health difficulties during stressful transitions such as pregnancy. To test this hypothesis, this study examined the relationship between childhood trauma and mental health (depression, PTS...

  20. Effect of childhood trauma on adult depression and neuroendocrine function: sex-specific moderation by CRH receptor 1 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Heim

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Variations of the corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1 gene appear to moderate the development of depression after childhood trauma. Depression more frequently affects women than men. We examined sex differences in the effects of the CRHR1 gene on the relationship between childhood trauma and adult depression. Methods: We recruited 1,063 subjects from the waiting rooms of a public urban hospital. Childhood trauma exposure and symptoms of depression were assessed using dimensional rating scales. Subjects were genotyped for rs110402 within the CRHR1 gene. An independent sample of 78 subjects underwent clinical assessment, genotyping, and a dexamethasone/CRH test. The age range at recruitment was 18-77 years and 18-45, for the two studies respectively. Results: In the hospital sample, the protective effect of the rs110402 A-allele against developing depression after childhood trauma was observed in men (N=424, but not in women (N=635. In the second sample, the rs110402 A-allele was associated with decreased cortisol response in the dexamethasone/CRH test only in men. In A-allele carriers with childhood trauma exposure women exhibited increased cortisol response compared men; there were no sex differences in A-allele carriers without trauma exposure. This effect may, however, not be related to gender-differences per se, but to differences in the type of experienced abuse between men and women. CRHR x environment interactions in the hospital sample were observed with exposure to physical, but not sexual or emotional abuse. Physical abuse was the most common type of abuse in men in this cohort, while sexual abuse was most commonly suffered by women. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the CRHR1 gene may only moderate the effects of specific types of childhood trauma on depression. Gender differences in environmental exposures could thus be reflected in sex-specific CRHR1 x child abuse interactions.

  1. The Association Between Conduct Problems and Maltreatment: Testing Genetic and Environmental Mediation

    OpenAIRE

    Schulz-Heik, R. Jay; Rhee, Soo Hyun; Silvern, Louise E.; Haberstick, Brett C.; Hopfer, Christian; Lessem, Jeffrey M.; Hewitt, John K.

    2009-01-01

    It is often assumed that childhood maltreatment causes conduct problems via an environmentally mediated process. However, the association may be due alternatively to either a nonpassive gene-environment correlation, in which parents react to children’s genetically-influenced conduct problems by maltreating them, or a passive gene-environment correlation, in which parents’ tendency to engage in maltreatment and children’s conduct problems are both influenced by a hereditary vulnerability to an...

  2. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS): Childhood Adversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... childhood maltreatment. In particular, for women, emotional and sexual abuse during childhood was associated with a greater risk ... risk for chronic fatigue syndrome: results from a population-based study. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2006 Nov;63( ...

  3. Family Socio-economic Status, Childhood Life-events and the Dynamics of Depression from Adolescence to Early Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Contoyannis; Jinhu Li

    2013-01-01

    This paper employs a conditional quantile regression approach to examine the roles of family SES, early childhood life-events, unobserved heterogeneity and pure state dependence in explaining the distribution of depression among adolescents and young adults using data on the children of the US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 79 cohort (CNLSY79). Our study also extends previous work by explicitly modelling depression dynamics during adolescence. To estimate dynamic models we integrate th...

  4. Attentional control theory in childhood: enhanced attentional capture by non-emotional and emotional distractors in anxiety and depression

    OpenAIRE

    Monika A Waszczuk; Brown, Hannah M.; Eley, Thalia C.; Lester, Kathryn J

    2015-01-01

    Attentional control theory (ACT) proposes that anxiety is associated with executive functioning deficits. The theory has been widely investigated in adults. The current study tested whether symptoms of childhood anxiety and depression were associated with experimentally measured attentional control in the context of non-emotional and emotional stimuli. Sixty-one children (mean age = 9.23 years, range = 8.39 - 10.41) reported their trait anxiety and depression symptoms and completed three visu...

  5. Recognition of Facial Emotions among Maltreated Children with High Rates of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masten, Carrie L.; Guyer, Amanda E.; Hodgdon, Hilary B.; McClure, Erin B.; Charney, Dennis S.; Ernst, Monique; Kaufman, Joan; Pine, Daniel S.; Monk, Christopher S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to examine processing of facial emotions in a sample of maltreated children showing high rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Maltreatment during childhood has been associated independently with both atypical processing of emotion and the development of PTSD. However, research has provided little…

  6. Maternal Drug Abuse History, Maltreatment, and Functioning in a Clinical Sample of Urban Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onigu-Otite, Edore C.; Belcher, Harolyn M. E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the association between maternal drug abuse history, maltreatment exposure, and functioning, in a clinical sample of young children seeking therapy for maltreatment. Methods: Data were collected on 91 children, mean age 5.3 years (SD 1.0). The Preschool and Early Childhood Functional Assessment Scales (PECFAS) was…

  7. The Relation of Emotional Maltreatment to Early Adolescent Competence: Developmental Processes in a Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Anne; Yates, Tuppett M.; Egeland, Byron R.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: This investigation examined developmental pathways between childhood emotional maltreatment and adaptational outcomes in early adolescence. This study utilized a developmental psychopathology perspective in adopting a multidimensional approach to the assessment of different forms of emotional maltreatment and later adjustment outcomes.…

  8. 儿童期创伤对特质抑郁和特质焦虑的影响:图式中介特异性研究%The Influence of Childhood Trauma on Trait-depression and Trait-anxiety: the Mediation-specificity of Schemas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔丽霞; 罗小婧; 肖晶

    2011-01-01

    uncertainty would mediate between children trauma relating to abuse and anxiety and EMSs relating to loss, hopeless, failure would mediate between children trauma relating to neglect and depression.668 undergraduate students completed Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-SF; Bernstein & Fink, 1998), Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (YSQ-SF; Young, 1998), Trait-Depression Questionnaire (T-DEP; Ritterband & Spielberger, 1996), and Trait-Anxiety Inventory (T-AI; Spielberger, 1983). Data was analyzed using the mediation analysis procedure proposed by Baron and Kenny (1986). According to their definitions trait-depression and trait-anxiety should be more closely related to childhood trauma and EMSs. Thus in this study we used the trait-depression scale and trait-anxiety scale instead of state-depression scales and state-anxiety scales which were used in the past studies. The research focus was the mediation-specificity of schemas between childhood trauma and trait-depression and trait-anxiety.The results were: (1) Three kinds of childhood trauma (emotional maltreatment, emotional neglect and physical neglect) were significantly related to higher scores on trait-depression and trait-anxiety and no significant difference emerged between the correlation coefficient relating childhood trauma to trait-anxiety and that relating childhood trauma to trait-depression; (2) For all three kinds of childhood trauma schemas with themes of loss/worthlessness (Emotional Deprivation, Defectiveness/Shame schemas, Self-sacrifice and Social isolation/alienation) preferentially mediated the relation between childhood trauma and trait-depression, while schemas with themes of danger (Mistrust/Abuse and Vulnerability to harm or illness) preferentially mediated the relation between childhood trauma and trait-anxiety.Our results confirmed the mediation-specificity of EMSs. The specificity emerged in the mediation analyses added much to understanding of the different pathology of depression and anxiety

  9. The effects of child maltreatment on early signs of antisocial behavior: Genetic moderation by Tryptophan Hydroxylase, Serotonin Transporter, and Monoamine Oxidase-A-Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.; Thibodeau, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Gene-environment interaction effects in predicting antisocial behavior in late childhood were investigated among maltreated and nonmaltreated low-income children (N = 627, M age = 11.27). Variants in three genes, TPH1, 5-HTTLPR, and MAOA uVNTR, were examined. In addition to child maltreatment status, we also considered the impact of maltreatment subtypes, developmental timing of maltreatment, and chronicity. Indicators of antisocial behavior were obtained from self-, peer-, and adult counselo...

  10. The Role of Depression and Dissociation in the Relationship between Childhood Trauma and Bulimic Symptoms among Ethnically Diverse Female Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerke, Clarice K.; Mazzeo, Suzanne E.; Kliewer, Wendy

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The goals of this study were to examine the role of dissociation and depression as possible mediators of the relationship between several forms of childhood trauma and bulimic symptomatology and to explore potential ethnic differences in these relationships. Method: Four hundred seventeen female undergraduates participated in this…

  11. Childhood Trauma in Substance Use Disorder and Depression: An Analysis by Gender among a Brazilian Clinical Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucci, Adriana M.; Kerr-Correa, Florence; Souza-Formigoni, Maria Lucia O.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: In this study, we compared the frequency and intensity of childhood traumas in alcohol- or other drug-dependent patients, in patients with depression, and in a control group without psychiatric diagnoses. Methods: The study had a retrospective design of a clinical sample of men and women from the groups listed above. They were evaluated…

  12. Childhood Depressive Symptoms and Adolescent Cigarette Use: A Six-Year Longitudinal Study Controlling for Peer Relations Correlates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinstein, M.J.; Greca, A.M. La

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine potential pathways between childhood depressive symptoms and adolescent cigarette use, controlling for potential "third variable" causes. Design: Participants included 250 youth (60% girls) who were in Grades 4 to 6 at study outset and in Grades 10 to 12 (M age = 16.78) at a 6-

  13. Middle Childhood Support-Seeking Behavior during Stress: Links with Self-Reported Attachment and Future Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dujardin, Adinda; Santens, Tara; Braet, Caroline; De Raedt, Rudi; Vos, Pieter; Maes, Bea; Bosmans, Guy

    2016-01-01

    This study tested whether children's more anxious and avoidant attachment is linked to decreased support-seeking behavior toward their mother during stress in middle childhood, and whether children's decreased support-seeking behavior enhances the impact of experiencing life events on the increase of depressive symptoms 18 months later.…

  14. “The Prevalence of Confirmed Maltreatment Among American Children, 2004-2011”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildeman, Christopher; Emanuel, Natalia; Leventhal, John M.; Putnam-Hornstein, Emily; Waldfogel, Jane; Lee, Hedwig

    2016-01-01

    Importance Child maltreatment is a risk factor for poor health throughout the life course. Existing estimates of the proportion of the U.S. population maltreated during childhood are based on retrospective self-reports. Records of officially confirmed maltreatment have been used to produce annual rather than cumulative counts of maltreated individuals. Objective To estimate the proportion of U.S. children who are substantiated or indicated for maltreatment by Child Protective Services (referred to as confirmed maltreatment) by age 18. Design, Setting, and Participants The National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) Child File includes information on all U.S. children with a confirmed report of maltreatment, totaling 5,689,900 children (2004-2011). We developed synthetic cohort life tables to estimate the cumulative prevalence of confirmed childhood maltreatment by age 18. Main Outcome Measure The cumulative prevalence of confirmed child maltreatment between birth and age 18 by race/ethnicity, sex, and year. Results At 2011 rates, 12.5% [95% CI: 12.5%, 12.6%] of U.S. children will experience a confirmed case of maltreatment by age 18. Girls have a higher cumulative prevalence than boys (13.0% [95% CI: 12.9%, 13.0%] vs. 12.0% [95% CI: 12.0%, 12.1%]). Black (20.9% [95% CI: 20.8%, 21.1%]), Native American (14.5% [95% CI: 14.2%, 14.9%]), and Hispanic (13.0% [95% CI: 12.9%, 13.1%]) children have higher prevalences than White (10.7% [95% CI: 10.6%, 10.8%]) or Asian/Pacific Islander (3.8% [95% CI: 3.7%, 3.8%]) children. The risk of maltreatment is highest in the first few years of life; 2.1% [95% CI: 2,1%, 2.1%] of children have confirmed maltreatment by age 1, and 5.8% [95% CI: 5.8%, 5.9%] have confirmed maltreatment by age 5. Estimates from 2011 were consistent with those from 2004-2010. Conclusions and Relevance Annual rates of confirmed child maltreatment dramatically understate the cumulative number of children confirmed as maltreated during childhood. Our

  15. Child Maltreatment Experience among Primary School Children: A Large Scale Survey in Selangor State, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ayesha; Wan-Yuen, Choo; Marret, Mary Joseph; Guat-Sim, Cheah; Othman, Sajaratulnisah; Chinna, Karuthan

    2015-01-01

    Official reports of child maltreatment in Malaysia have persistently increased throughout the last decade. However there is a lack of population surveys evaluating the actual burden of child maltreatment, its correlates and its consequences in the country. This cross sectional study employed 2 stage stratified cluster random sampling of public primary schools, to survey 3509 ten to twelve year old school children in Selangor state. It aimed to estimate the prevalence of parental physical and emotional maltreatment, parental neglect and teacher- inflicted physical maltreatment. It further aimed to examine the associations between child maltreatment and important socio-demographic factors; family functioning and symptoms of depression among children. Logistic regression on weighted samples was used to extend results to a population level. Three quarters of 10–12 year olds reported at least one form of maltreatment, with parental physical maltreatment being most common. Males had higher odds of maltreatment in general except for emotional maltreatment. Ethnicity and parental conflict were key factors associated with maltreatment. The study contributes important evidence towards improving public health interventions for child maltreatment prevention in the country. PMID:25786214

  16. Child maltreatment experience among primary school children: a large scale survey in Selangor state, Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayesha Ahmed

    Full Text Available Official reports of child maltreatment in Malaysia have persistently increased throughout the last decade. However there is a lack of population surveys evaluating the actual burden of child maltreatment, its correlates and its consequences in the country. This cross sectional study employed 2 stage stratified cluster random sampling of public primary schools, to survey 3509 ten to twelve year old school children in Selangor state. It aimed to estimate the prevalence of parental physical and emotional maltreatment, parental neglect and teacher- inflicted physical maltreatment. It further aimed to examine the associations between child maltreatment and important socio-demographic factors; family functioning and symptoms of depression among children. Logistic regression on weighted samples was used to extend results to a population level. Three quarters of 10-12 year olds reported at least one form of maltreatment, with parental physical maltreatment being most common. Males had higher odds of maltreatment in general except for emotional maltreatment. Ethnicity and parental conflict were key factors associated with maltreatment. The study contributes important evidence towards improving public health interventions for child maltreatment prevention in the country.

  17. Child maltreatment experience among primary school children: a large scale survey in Selangor state, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ayesha; Wan-Yuen, Choo; Marret, Mary Joseph; Guat-Sim, Cheah; Othman, Sajaratulnisah; Chinna, Karuthan

    2015-01-01

    Official reports of child maltreatment in Malaysia have persistently increased throughout the last decade. However there is a lack of population surveys evaluating the actual burden of child maltreatment, its correlates and its consequences in the country. This cross sectional study employed 2 stage stratified cluster random sampling of public primary schools, to survey 3509 ten to twelve year old school children in Selangor state. It aimed to estimate the prevalence of parental physical and emotional maltreatment, parental neglect and teacher- inflicted physical maltreatment. It further aimed to examine the associations between child maltreatment and important socio-demographic factors; family functioning and symptoms of depression among children. Logistic regression on weighted samples was used to extend results to a population level. Three quarters of 10-12 year olds reported at least one form of maltreatment, with parental physical maltreatment being most common. Males had higher odds of maltreatment in general except for emotional maltreatment. Ethnicity and parental conflict were key factors associated with maltreatment. The study contributes important evidence towards improving public health interventions for child maltreatment prevention in the country. PMID:25786214

  18. Social skills and psychopathic traits in maltreated adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ometto, Mariella; de Oliveira, Paula Approbato; Milioni, Ana Luiza; Dos Santos, Bernardo; Scivoletto, Sandra; Busatto, Geraldo F; Nunes, Paula V; Cunha, Paulo Jannuzzi

    2016-04-01

    Child maltreatment has frequently been associated with impaired social skills and antisocial features, but there are still controversies about the effect of each type of maltreatment on social behaviour. The aim of this study was to compare the social functioning and psychopathic traits of maltreated adolescents (MTA) with a control group (CG) and to investigate what types of maltreatments and social skills were associated with psychopathic traits in both groups. The types and intensity of maltreatment were evaluated through the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) in 107 adolescents, divided into the MTA group (n = 66) and non-maltreated youths (n = 41), our CG. The Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL: YV) and a detailed inventory for evaluation of social skills in adolescents were also applied in all individuals. MTA presented more psychopathic traits than the CG, in all domains measured by PCL: YV, independently of IQ levels and the presence of psychiatric disorders. Interestingly, the groups did not differ significantly from each other on indicators of social skills. Multiple regression analysis revealed that emotional neglect was the only maltreatment subtype significantly associated with psychopathic traits, more specifically with the PCL: YV interpersonal factor (F1), and that some social skills (empathy, self-control and social confidence) were related to specific psychopathic factors. The results highlight that emotional neglect may be more detrimental to social behaviours than physical and sexual abuse, and that neglected children require more specific and careful attention. PMID:26224584

  19. Child maltreatment in Canada: an understudied public health problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Tracie O

    2011-01-01

    Child maltreatment is a major public health problem associated with impairment in childhood, adolescence, and extending throughout the lifespan. Within Canada, high-quality child maltreatment studies have been conducted and are critical for informing prevention and intervention efforts. However, compared to other parts of the world (e.g., United States, United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and Mexico), the number of studies conducted in Canada is far fewer and the data used to study this important public health problem are less diverse. Importantly, to date, representative data on child maltreatment from the general population at the national level in Canada do not exist. This means that many questions regarding child maltreatment in Canada remain unanswered. To advance our understanding of child maltreatment in Canada and to make significant strides towards protecting Canadian children and families, research using Canadian data is essential. To begin to meet these important public health goals, we need to invest in collecting high-quality, nationally representative Canadian data on child maltreatment. Solutions for the barriers and challenges for the inclusion of child maltreatment data into nationally representative Canadian surveys are provided.

  20. Social skills and psychopathic traits in maltreated adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ometto, Mariella; de Oliveira, Paula Approbato; Milioni, Ana Luiza; Dos Santos, Bernardo; Scivoletto, Sandra; Busatto, Geraldo F; Nunes, Paula V; Cunha, Paulo Jannuzzi

    2016-04-01

    Child maltreatment has frequently been associated with impaired social skills and antisocial features, but there are still controversies about the effect of each type of maltreatment on social behaviour. The aim of this study was to compare the social functioning and psychopathic traits of maltreated adolescents (MTA) with a control group (CG) and to investigate what types of maltreatments and social skills were associated with psychopathic traits in both groups. The types and intensity of maltreatment were evaluated through the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) in 107 adolescents, divided into the MTA group (n = 66) and non-maltreated youths (n = 41), our CG. The Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL: YV) and a detailed inventory for evaluation of social skills in adolescents were also applied in all individuals. MTA presented more psychopathic traits than the CG, in all domains measured by PCL: YV, independently of IQ levels and the presence of psychiatric disorders. Interestingly, the groups did not differ significantly from each other on indicators of social skills. Multiple regression analysis revealed that emotional neglect was the only maltreatment subtype significantly associated with psychopathic traits, more specifically with the PCL: YV interpersonal factor (F1), and that some social skills (empathy, self-control and social confidence) were related to specific psychopathic factors. The results highlight that emotional neglect may be more detrimental to social behaviours than physical and sexual abuse, and that neglected children require more specific and careful attention.

  1. Beware Emotional Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Margaret A.; Janson, Gregory R.

    2011-01-01

    Emotional maltreatment is a less visible form of abuse that frequently occurs in schools, but is often ignored or dismissed as an acceptable form of discipline or sanctioned classroom-management practice. The impact of emotional maltreatment on children is significant and impacts personality development, relationships, and learning. Principals, as…

  2. Childhood sexual abuse and depression in Latino men who have sex with men: Does resilience protect against nonadherence to antiretroviral therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauceda, John A; Wiebe, John S; Simoni, Jane M

    2016-06-01

    This study tested depression as a mediator between childhood sexual abuse and adherence to antiretroviral therapy, an effect moderated by resilience. In total, 149 HIV+ Latino men who have sex with men were recruited for this study. Using a regression-based bootstrap approach, depression mediated the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and antiretroviral therapy adherence, with worse adherence for participants at lowest percentiles of the resilience index. The prevalence of childhood sexual abuse and depression in HIV+ men who have sex with men is high and must be addressed to better prevent disease progression and reduce transmission, especially in expanding Latino populations. PMID:25156387

  3. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Maltreatment and Abuse Chronology of Exposure (MACE) scale to Brazilian Portuguese

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Kluwe-Schiavon; Thiago Wendt Viola; Rodrigo Grassi-Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Introduction : There is strong evidence to indicate that childhood maltreatment can negatively affect both physical and mental health and there is increasing interest in understanding the occurrence and consequences of such experiences. While several tools have been developed to retrospectively investigate childhood maltreatment experiences, most of them do not investigate the experience of witnessing family violence during childhood or bullying exposure. Moreover, the majority of scales do n...

  4. Traumatic and Adverse Attachment Childhood Experiences are not Characteristic of OCD but of Depression in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivarsson, Tord; Saavedra, Fanny; Granqvist, Pehr; Broberg, Anders G

    2016-04-01

    We investigated whether adverse attachment experience might contribute to the development of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We interviewed 100 adolescents, 25 each with primary OCD, depressive disorder (DD), OCD plus DD and general population controls (CTRs) using the adult attachment interview to assess attachment experiences (AEs), including traumatic and adverse AE (TAE). Adolescents with OCD, OCD+DD and DD had little evidence of secure base/safe haven parental behaviour and their childhood attachment needs judged to be rejected as compared to the controls. Overprotection was not characteristic of OCD, and parents using the child for their own needs (elevated levels of involving/role reversal) occurred only in DD, with low levels in OCD, OCD+DD and CTR. Traumatic experiences, often multiple, and/or attachment related were reported significantly more often in the DD group, and was less common in OCD+DD, CTR and particularly in the OCD group. In OCD, little TAE was reported and adverse AE were less serious and seem unlikely to contribute directly to OCD aetiology. In DD and to some degree in OCD+DD serious AE/TAE may have some etiological significance for the depressive states. PMID:26115697

  5. Attentional Control Theory in Childhood: Enhanced Attentional Capture by Non-Emotional and Emotional Distractors in Anxiety and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszczuk, Monika A; Brown, Hannah M; Eley, Thalia C; Lester, Kathryn J

    2015-01-01

    Attentional control theory (ACT) proposes that anxiety is associated with executive functioning deficits. The theory has been widely investigated in adults. The current study tested whether symptoms of childhood anxiety and depression were associated with experimentally measured attentional control in the context of non-emotional and emotional stimuli. Sixty-one children (mean age = 9.23 years, range = 8.39-10.41) reported their trait anxiety and depression symptoms and completed three visual search tasks. The tasks used a variant of an irrelevant singleton paradigm and measured attentional capture by task-irrelevant non-emotional (color) and emotional (facial expressions) distractors. Significant attentional capture by both non-emotional and emotional distractors was observed, and was significantly correlated with trait anxiety and symptoms of depression. The strength of relationship between attentional capture and the symptoms did not differ significantly for non-emotional and emotional distractors. The results suggest that symptoms of childhood anxiety and depression are associated with poorer attentional control both in the presence of emotional and non-emotional stimuli, supporting ACT in younger populations. This attentional deficit in the context of non-emotional information might be as central to childhood internalizing symptoms as attentional biases often observed on tasks investigating processing of emotional stimuli. PMID:26599268

  6. Attentional Control Theory in Childhood: Enhanced Attentional Capture by Non-Emotional and Emotional Distractors in Anxiety and Depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika A Waszczuk

    Full Text Available Attentional control theory (ACT proposes that anxiety is associated with executive functioning deficits. The theory has been widely investigated in adults. The current study tested whether symptoms of childhood anxiety and depression were associated with experimentally measured attentional control in the context of non-emotional and emotional stimuli. Sixty-one children (mean age = 9.23 years, range = 8.39-10.41 reported their trait anxiety and depression symptoms and completed three visual search tasks. The tasks used a variant of an irrelevant singleton paradigm and measured attentional capture by task-irrelevant non-emotional (color and emotional (facial expressions distractors. Significant attentional capture by both non-emotional and emotional distractors was observed, and was significantly correlated with trait anxiety and symptoms of depression. The strength of relationship between attentional capture and the symptoms did not differ significantly for non-emotional and emotional distractors. The results suggest that symptoms of childhood anxiety and depression are associated with poorer attentional control both in the presence of emotional and non-emotional stimuli, supporting ACT in younger populations. This attentional deficit in the context of non-emotional information might be as central to childhood internalizing symptoms as attentional biases often observed on tasks investigating processing of emotional stimuli.

  7. The Protective Effects of Religiosity on Maladjustment among Maltreated and Nonmaltreated Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungmeen

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the role of child religiosity in the development of maladaptation among maltreated children. Methods: Data were collected on 188 maltreated and 196 nonmaltreated children from low-income families (ages 6-12 years). Children were assessed on religiosity and depressive symptoms, and were evaluated…

  8. Barriers to HIV Medication Adherence: Examining Distinct Anxiety and Depression Symptoms among Women Living with HIV Who Experienced Childhood Sexual Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Willie, Tiara C.; Overstreet, Nicole M.; Sullivan, Tami P.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Hansen, Nathan B.

    2016-01-01

    Experiencing sexual violence in childhood or adolescence is highly prevalent among some women living with HIV, often resulting in anxiety and depression symptoms in adulthood. Anxiety and depression have been associated with HIV medication nonadherence, yet little research has assessed distinct components of anxiety and depression as risk factors of HIV medication nonadherence. The current study examined distinct symptom components of anxiety and depression as predictors of HIV medication non...

  9. Delineating the Maladaptive Pathways of Child Maltreatment: A Mediated Moderation Analysis of the Roles of Self Perception and Social Support

    OpenAIRE

    Appleyard, Karen; Yang, Chongming; Runyan, Desmond K.

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigated concurrent and longitudinal mediated and mediated moderation pathways among maltreatment, self perception (i.e., loneliness and self esteem), social support, and internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. For both genders, early childhood maltreatment (i.e., ages 0–6) was related directly to internalizing and externalizing behavior problems at age 6, and later maltreatment (i.e., ages 6–8) was directly related to internalizing and externalizing behavior ...

  10. Risk Factors for Child and Adolescent Maltreatment: A Longitudinal Investigation of a Cohort of Inner-City Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Mersky, Joshua P.; Berger, Lawrence M.; Reynolds, Arthur J.; Gromoske, Andrea N.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates associations between individual, family, and extrafamilial factors and the likelihood of subsequent childhood and adolescent maltreatment. The authors analyzed 1,411 participants in the Chicago Longitudinal Study whose maltreatment records were verified from administrative data. Findings suggest that maternal age at the child’s birth was a robust predictor of maltreatment outcomes. Receipt of public assistance and single-parent family status were significantly associat...

  11. Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms Among People Living with HIV and Childhood Sexual Abuse: The Role of Shame and Posttraumatic Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willie, Tiara C; Overstreet, Nicole M; Peasant, Courtney; Kershaw, Trace; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Hansen, Nathan B

    2016-08-01

    There is a critical need to examine protective and risk factors of anxiety and depressive symptoms among people living with HIV in order to improve quality of life. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the associations between HIV-related shame, sexual abuse-related shame, posttraumatic growth, and anxiety and depressive symptoms among a cohort of 225 heterosexual women and men who have sex with men (MSM) living with HIV who have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Higher sexual abuse-related shame was related to more anxiety and depressive symptoms for heterosexual women. Higher posttraumatic growth predicted less anxiety symptoms for only heterosexual women. Higher posttraumatic growth predicted less depressive symptoms for heterosexual women and MSM, but the magnitude of this effect was stronger for heterosexual women than MSM. Psychosocial interventions may need to be tailored to meet the specific needs of heterosexual women and MSM living with HIV and CSA. PMID:26837633

  12. [Typical findings of maltreated children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, E; Zinka, B; Schneider, K; Penning, R; Eisenmenger, W

    2006-06-15

    Childhood maltreatment manifests in a variety of forms and the underlying causes are manifold. In contrast to other offences involving physical injury, reporting behavior has, statistically speaking, remained unchanged. Patterns of injury must first be established and documented, and this involves a complete examination of the child's body. Depending on the constellation of findings, a radiological diagnosis is usually necessary. When all the findings have been collected, the further steps to be taken--where indicated a report to the police--must be discussed. All the evidence must be recorded, and photos obtained of all externally visible injuries before they fade. It is not the task of the physician to develop criminalistic ambitions, for example, by grilling (a parent) on the cause of the injuries. However, he/she has a duty to do everything necessary to protect the well-being of the child. PMID:16850804

  13. Predicting borderline personality disorder symptoms in adolescents from childhood physical and relational aggression, depression, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaillancourt, Tracy; Brittain, Heather L; McDougall, Patricia; Krygsman, Amanda; Boylan, Khrista; Duku, Eric; Hymel, Shelley

    2014-08-01

    Developmental cascade models linking childhood physical and relational aggression with symptoms of depression and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; assessed at ages 10, 11, 12, 13, and 14) to borderline personality disorder (BPD) features (assessed at age 14) were examined in a community sample of 484 youth. Results indicated that, when controlling for within-time covariance and across-time stability in the examination of cross-lagged relations among study variables, BPD features at age 14 were predicted by childhood relational aggression and symptoms of depression for boys, and physical and relational aggression, symptoms of depression, and symptoms of ADHD for girls. Moreover, for boys BPD features were predicted from age 10 ADHD through age 12 depression, whereas for girls the pathway to elevated BPD features at age 14 was from depression at age 10 through physical aggression symptoms at age 12. Controlling for earlier associations among variables, we found that for girls the strongest predictor of BPD features at age 14 was physical aggression, whereas for boys all the risk indicators shared a similar predictive impact. This study adds to the growing literature showing that physical and relational aggression ought to be considered when examining early precursors of BPD features.

  14. Development of a Childhood Attachment and Relational Trauma Screen (CARTS): a relational-socioecological framework for surveying attachment security and childhood trauma history

    OpenAIRE

    Frewen, Paul A.; Evans, Barrie; Goodman, Jason; Halliday, Aaron; Boylan, James; Moran, Greg; Reiss, Jeffrey; Schore, Allan; Ruth A. Lanius

    2013-01-01

    Background: Current psychometric measures of childhood trauma history generally fail to assess the relational-socioecological context within which childhood maltreatment occurs, including the relationship of abusers to abused persons, the emotional availability of caregivers, and the respondent’s own thoughts, feelings, and actions in response to maltreatment.Objective: To evaluate a computerized approach to measuring the relational-socioecological context within which childhood maltreatment ...

  15. Aspectos clínicos da depressão em crianças e adolescentes: clinical features Depression in childhood and adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saint-Clair Bahls

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: apresentar uma revisão sobre o quadro clínico, a evolução, a comorbidade e o comportamento suicida na depressão em crianças e adolescentes, com o objetivo de contribuir com o esclarecimento desta patologia grave, comum e ainda pouco reconhecida. Fontes dos dados: foram realizados levantamento no sistema Medline no período de 1991 a 2000, e levantamento manual da literatura. Síntese dos dados: o interesse científico pela depressão em crianças e adolescentes é bastante recente, pois até a década de 70 acreditava-se que fosse rara ou inexistente. Os sistemas diagnósticos atuais definem que os sintomas básicos de um episódio depressivo maior são os mesmos em crianças, adolescentes e adultos; entretanto, os pesquisadores destacam a importância do processo de maturação na apresentação sintomatológica da depressão, com características predominantes em cada fase do desenvolvimento. Conclusões: atualmente a depressão maior em crianças e adolescentes é considerada comum, debilitante e recorrente, envolvendo um alto grau de morbidade e mortalidade, representando um sério problema de saúde pública.Objective: this study reviews clinical features, evolution, comorbidity and suicidal behavior in childhood and adolescence depression. Its objective is to provide clear information on this common, severe and not very easily recognized pathology. Sources: literature searches were performed through Medline (1991-2000, with secondary-source follow-up. Summary of the findings: scientific concern about depression in childhood and adolescence is recent and up to the 70's depression was considered rare or inexistent in this period. Current diagnostic systems define as basic features of depression in children and adolescents are the same ones found in adults for major depression episodes; however, researches emphasize the significance of the developmental process in the clinical manifestations, with predominant features in each

  16. Adverse Environmental Exposures During Gestation and Childhood: Predictors of Adolescent Drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Marie D; De Genna, Natacha; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Larkby, Cynthia; Day, Nancy

    2016-08-23

    Adverse conditions, including exposures to drugs and other environmental influences during early development, may affect behaviors later in life. This study examined the role of environmental influences from the gestation and childhood on adolescent drinking behavior. 917 mother/offspring dyads were followed prospectively from pregnancy to a 16-year follow-up assessment. Interim assessments occurred at delivery, 6, 10, and 14 years. Prenatal exposures to alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana were measured during gestation. Data were collected at each phase on childhood environment, including parenting practices, quality of the home environment, maternal depression and hostility, and lifetime exposure to child maltreatment and community violence. Alcohol outcomes were offspring age of drinking initiation and level of drinking at age 16 years. Cox Proportional Hazards ratios were used to model offspring age of drinking initiation. Logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate significant predictors of drinking level. Childhood environment, including less parental strictness, greater exposure to violence and childhood maltreatment, significantly predicted earlier age of alcohol initiation. Level of drinking among the adolescent offspring was significantly predicted by prenatal exposure to alcohol, less parental strictness, and exposures to maltreatment and violence during childhood. Whites and offspring with older mothers were more likely to initiate alcohol use early and drink at higher levels. Early and heavier alcohol use was associated with early exposures to adversity such as prenatal alcohol exposure, and child exposures to maltreatment and violence. These results highlight the importance of environmental adversity and less effective parenting practices on the development of adolescent drinking behavior. PMID:27220026

  17. Depressão e doença bipolar na infância e adolescência Bipolar disorder and depression in childhood and adolescence

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    Dênio Lima

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Este estudo buscou a revisão da história, conceitos, categorias diagnósticas, epidemiologia, fatores genéticos e neurobiológicos, assim como fatores predisponentes e modalidades de tratamento desses transtornos. FONTES DOS DADOS: Foi realizada uma revisão extensa da literatura sobre depressão infantil e transtorno bipolar. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: A depressão infantil e o transtorno bipolar estão associados a fatores genéticos, temperamento, eventos adversos da vida, divórcio, problemas acadêmicos, abuso físico e sexual e fatores neurobiológicos. O tratamento pode ser realizado, na maioria das vezes, com medicações e psicoterapia. CONCLUSÕES: São transtornos importantes, muitas vezes de difícil diagnóstico, que, uma vez reconhecidos e tratados, irão minorar o sofrimento de crianças e adolescentes. O pediatra poderá intervir orientando a família nos casos leves, mas deve ficar atento àqueles que necessitam de outros tipos de tratamento.OBJECTIVES: To provide a historical review of childhood depression and bipolar disorder, covering concepts, diagnostic categories, epidemiology, genetic and neurobiological aspects as well as predisposing factors and treatment modalities. SOURCES OF DATA: Extensive review of the literature on child depression and bipolar disorder. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: Child depression and bipolar disorder are associated with genetic factors, mood, adverse life events, divorce, academic problems, physical and sexual abuse, and neurobiological factors. Treatment usually includes medication and psychotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: These are important childhood disorders whose diagnosis is often difficult. The identification and treatment of depression and bipolar disorder reduces the suffering of affected children and adolescents. The pediatrician can intervene by orienting the family in mild cases, but must be alert to cases requiring more aggressive treatment.

  18. Childhood sexual abuse and the development of recurrent major depression in Chinese women.

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    Jing Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Our prior study in Han Chinese women has shown that women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA are at increased risk for developing major depression (MD. Would this relationship be found in our whole data set? METHOD: Three levels of CSA (non-genital, genital, and intercourse were assessed by self-report in two groups of Han Chinese women: 6017 clinically ascertained with recurrent MD and 5983 matched controls. Diagnostic and other risk factor information was assessed at personal interview. Odds ratios (ORs were calculated by logistic regression. RESULTS: We confirmed earlier results by replicating prior analyses in 3,950 new recurrent MD cases. There were no significant differences between the two data sets. Any form of CSA was significantly associated with recurrent MD (OR 4.06, 95% confidence interval (CI [3.19-5.24]. This association strengthened with increasing CSA severity: non-genital (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.58-3.15, genital (OR 5.24, 95% CI 3.52-8.15 and intercourse (OR 10.65, 95% CI 5.56-23.71. Among the depressed women, those with CSA had an earlier age of onset, longer depressive episodes. Recurrent MD patients those with CSA had an increased risk for dysthymia (OR 1.60, 95%CI 1.11-2.27 and phobia (OR 1.41, 95%CI 1.09-1.80. Any form of CSA was significantly associated with suicidal ideation or attempt (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.20-1.89 and feelings of worthlessness or guilt (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.02-2.02. Intercourse (OR 3.47, 95%CI 1.66-8.22, use of force and threats (OR 1.95, 95%CI 1.05-3.82 and how strongly the victims were affected at the time (OR 1.39, 95%CI 1.20-1.64 were significantly associated with recurrent MD. CONCLUSIONS: In Chinese women CSA is strongly associated with recurrent MD and this association increases with greater severity of CSA. Depressed women with CSA have some specific clinical traits. Some features of CSA were associated with greater likelihood of developing recurrent MD.

  19. Korean Early Childhood Educators' Multi-Dimensional Teacher Self-Efficacy and ECE Center Climate and Depression Severity in Teachers as Contributing Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon Ha; Kim, Yang Eun

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated profiles of South Korean early childhood educators' teacher self-efficacy and contributing factors to teacher self-efficacy. The contributing factors were examined with a focus on early childhood education (ECE) center climate and depression severity in teachers as well as teacher and classroom characteristics. The results…

  20. Emotion dysregulation as a mediator between childhood emotional abuse and current depression in a low-income African-American sample☆

    OpenAIRE

    Crow, Thomas; Cross, Dorthie; Powers, Abigail; Bradley, Bekh

    2014-01-01

    Abuse and neglect in childhood are well-established risk factors for later psychopathology. Past research has suggested that childhood emotional abuse may be particularly harmful to psychological development. The current cross-sectional study employed multiple regression techniques to assess the effects of childhood trauma on adulthood depression and emotion dysregulation in a large sample of mostly low-income African Americans recruited in an urban hospital. Bootstrap analyses were used to t...

  1. Predicting criminality from child maltreatment typologies and posttraumatic stress symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ask Elklit

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The associations between childhood abuse and subsequent criminality and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD are well known. However, a major limitation of research related to childhood abuse and its effects is the focus on one particular type of abuse at the expense of others. Recent work has established that childhood abuse rarely occurs as a unidimensional phenomenon. Therefore, a number of studies have investigated the existence of abuse typologies. Methods: The study is based on a Danish stratified random probability survey including 2980 interviews of 24-year-old people. The sample was constructed to include an oversampling of child protection cases. Building on a previous latent class analysis of four types of childhood maltreatment, three maltreatment typologies were used in the current analyses. A criminality scale was constructed based on seven types of criminal behavior. PTSD symptoms were assessed by the PC-PTSD Screen. Results: Significant differences were found between the two genders with males reporting heightened rates of criminality. Furthermore, all three maltreatment typologies were associated with criminal behavior with odds ratios (ORs from 2.90 to 5.32. Female gender had an OR of 0.53 and possible PTSD an OR of 1.84. Conclusion: The independent association of participants at risk for PTSD and three types of maltreatment with criminality should be studied to determine if it can be replicated, and considered in social policy and prevention and rehabilitation interventions.

  2. Prevalence and risk factors of depression in childhood and adolescence as seen in 4 districts of north-eastern Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Kinyanda, Eugene; Kizza, Ruth; Abbo, Catherine; Ndyanabangi, Sheila; Levin, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Background Millions of African children are having to grow up under harsh and adverse psychosocial conditions but it’s not fully understood how this negative psychosocial environment is affecting their mental health. This paper examines the prevalence and risk factors of depression in childhood and adolescence as seen in a community sample derived from four disadvantaged districts in north-eastern Uganda. Methods 1587 children were assessed using a structured instrument administered by traine...

  3. Prevention of Child Maltreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Lane, Wendy Gwirtzman

    2014-01-01

    Pediatricians and other health care providers can play a number of important roles in the prevention of child maltreatment. As part of routine patient care, pediatricians can provide anticipatory guidance for effective discipline and parent-child communication, screen for maltreatment risk factors, and refer parents and families to effective community-based programs. This article will help pediatricians incorporate child abuse prevention into their practice. Resources for systematizing antici...

  4. Does Subtype Matter? Assessing the Effects of Maltreatment on Functioning in Preadolescent Youth in Out-of-Home Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrenko, Christie L. M.; Friend, Angela; Garrido, Edward F.; Taussig, Heather N.; Culhane, Sara E.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Attempts to understand the effects of maltreatment subtypes on childhood functioning are complicated by the fact that children often experience multiple subtypes. This study assessed the effects of maltreatment subtypes on the cognitive, academic, and mental health functioning of preadolescent youth in out-of-home care using both…

  5. Association between perinatal depression in mothers and the risk of childhood infections in offspring: a population-based cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    West Joe

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have suggested that children of mothers who experience depression during the perinatal period may have more infections, but such studies are few in number and none have been carried out in the United Kingdom (UK population. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between perinatal depression in mothers and the risk of childhood infections in offspring in the UK general population. Methods We used data from The Health Improvement Network (THIN, a large database of electronic primary care medical records to conduct a cohort study among all first-born singleton children born and enrolled in THIN between 1988 and 2004. We used Poisson regression to compare the incidence of gastrointestinal infections and lower respiratory tract infections reported between birth and age 4 years among children of mothers with a record of perinatal depression with those born to mothers with no such history. Results Children of mothers with perinatal depression had a 40% increased risk of gastrointestinal infections and a 27% increased risk of lower respiratory tract infections compared with children of mothers without perinatal depression (incidence rate ratios = 1.40 and 1.27; 95% confidence intervals 1.37-1.42 and 1.22-1.32, respectively. On restricting to antibiotic-treated infections there was a slight increase in the magnitude of association with gastrointestinal infections but a decrease in that with lower respiratory tract infections (incidence rate ratios = 1.47 and 1.19; 95% confidence intervals 1.34-1.61 and 1.11-1.27, respectively. Conclusions Maternal perinatal depression is associated with increased rates of childhood gastrointestinal infections, particularly more severe infections, and lower respiratory tract infections in the UK. Preventing maternal perinatal depression may avoid substantial morbidity among offspring, although further work is also needed to investigate the detailed reasons for these

  6. In search of the HPA axis activity in unipolar depression patients with childhood trauma: Combined cortisol awakening response and dexamethasone suppression test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shaojia; Gao, Weijia; Huang, Manli; Li, Lingjiang; Xu, Yi

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of childhood trauma on HPA axis activity both in depression patients and healthy controls in order to determine the role of HPA axis abnormalities in depression and to find the differences in HPA axis functioning that may lead certain individuals more susceptible to the depressogenic effects of childhood trauma. Eighty subjects aged 18-45 years were recruited into four study groups (n = 18, depression patients with childhood trauma exposures, CTE/MDD; n = 17, depression patients without childhood adversity, non-CTE/MDD; n = 23, healthy persons with childhood trauma, CTE/non-MDD; and n = 22, healthy persons without childhood adversity, non-CTE/non-MDD). Each participant collected salivary samples in the morning at four time points: immediately upon awakening, 30, 45, and 60 min after awakening for the assessment of CAR and underwent a 1 mg-dexamethasone suppression test (DST). Regardless of depression, subjects with CTE exhibited an enhanced CAR and the CAR areas under the curve to ground (AUCg) were associated with their childhood trauma questionnaire (CTQ) physical neglect scores and CTQ total scores. In addition, the CTE/MDD group also showed a highest post-DST cortisol concentration and a decreased glucocorticoid feedback inhibition among four groups of subjects. The present findings suggested that childhood trauma was associated with hyperactivity of HPA axis as measured with CAR, potentially reflecting the vulnerability for developing depression after early life stress exposures. Moreover, dysfunction of the GR-mediated negative feedback control might contribute to the development of depression after CTE. PMID:27049575

  7. In search of the HPA axis activity in unipolar depression patients with childhood trauma: Combined cortisol awakening response and dexamethasone suppression test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shaojia; Gao, Weijia; Huang, Manli; Li, Lingjiang; Xu, Yi

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of childhood trauma on HPA axis activity both in depression patients and healthy controls in order to determine the role of HPA axis abnormalities in depression and to find the differences in HPA axis functioning that may lead certain individuals more susceptible to the depressogenic effects of childhood trauma. Eighty subjects aged 18-45 years were recruited into four study groups (n = 18, depression patients with childhood trauma exposures, CTE/MDD; n = 17, depression patients without childhood adversity, non-CTE/MDD; n = 23, healthy persons with childhood trauma, CTE/non-MDD; and n = 22, healthy persons without childhood adversity, non-CTE/non-MDD). Each participant collected salivary samples in the morning at four time points: immediately upon awakening, 30, 45, and 60 min after awakening for the assessment of CAR and underwent a 1 mg-dexamethasone suppression test (DST). Regardless of depression, subjects with CTE exhibited an enhanced CAR and the CAR areas under the curve to ground (AUCg) were associated with their childhood trauma questionnaire (CTQ) physical neglect scores and CTQ total scores. In addition, the CTE/MDD group also showed a highest post-DST cortisol concentration and a decreased glucocorticoid feedback inhibition among four groups of subjects. The present findings suggested that childhood trauma was associated with hyperactivity of HPA axis as measured with CAR, potentially reflecting the vulnerability for developing depression after early life stress exposures. Moreover, dysfunction of the GR-mediated negative feedback control might contribute to the development of depression after CTE.

  8. Neighborhood Disadvantage and Adolescent Substance Use Disorder: The Moderating Role of Maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Elizabeth D; Rogosch, Fred A; Guild, Danielle J; Cicchetti, Dante

    2015-08-01

    The ecological-transactional model proposes that nested contexts interact to influence development. From this perspective, child maltreatment represents an individual-level risk factor posited to interact with numerous other nested contextual levels, such as the neighborhood environment, to affect development. The aim of this study was to investigate whether adolescents with maltreatment histories represent a vulnerable group for whom disadvantaged neighborhoods confer risk for substance use disorders. Participants were 411 adolescents (age 15-18; mean age = 16.24) from an investigation of the developmental sequelae of childhood maltreatment. Multiple-group structural equation models, controlling for family-level socioeconomic status, indicated that neighborhood disadvantage was associated with more marijuana-dependence symptoms among maltreated but not among non-maltreated adolescents. Moreover, among maltreated adolescents, those who experienced multiple subtypes of maltreatment were at greatest risk for problematic marijuana use in the context of neighborhood disadvantage. Interestingly, the direct effect of neighborhood disadvantage, but not the interaction with maltreatment, was related to adolescent alcohol-dependence symptoms. Results highlight the importance of considering multiple levels of influence when examining risk associated with child maltreatment. PMID:25947011

  9. Impact of Oppositional Defiant Disorder Dimensions on the Temporal Ordering of Conduct Problems and Depression across Childhood and Adolescence in Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipwell, Alison E.; Stepp, Stephanie; Feng, Xin; Burke, Jeff; Battista, Deena R.; Loeber, Rolf; Keenan, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the role of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) dimensions on the temporal unfolding of conduct disorder (CD) and depression in girls between childhood and adolescence. Method: The year-to-year associations between CD and depressive symptomatology were examined using nine waves of annually collected data (ages 8…

  10. Anxiety, Alexithymia, and Depression as Mediators of the Association between Childhood Abuse and Eating Disordered Behavior in African American and European American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzeo, Suzanne E.; Mitchell, Karen S.; Williams, Larry J.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated structural equation models of the associations among family functioning, childhood abuse, depression, anxiety, alexithymia, and eating disorder symptomatology in a sample of 412 European American and 192 African American female undergraduates. Additionally, the specific roles of anxiety, depression, and alexithymia as…

  11. Relationship between Childhood Abuse Experience,Parent Attachment and Depression in Adolescents%儿童期虐待、亲子依恋与青少年抑郁的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张迎黎; 杨峘; 梁炜; 张亚林; 杨世昌

    2011-01-01

    between parent and peer attachment,child abused experience and depression.Results Male participants reported high score of childhood abused than female participants(33.29±7.89 and 31.05±6.01,t=4.343,P=0.000).There were no significantly gender difference in mother attachment(male:59.89±15.86,female:61.45±16.48,t=-1.303,P=0.193),father attachment(male:59.32±17.17,female:60.28±16.95,t=-0.764,P=0.445) and depression(male:7.68±5.27,female:7.31±4.21,t=1.057,P=0.291).Childhood abuse had a positive correlation with adolescent depression(r=0.408,P=0.000),which negatively correlated with mother and father attachment(r=-0.544,-0.417,respectively,Pa=0.000).There was a positive correlation between mother attachment and father attachment(r=0.604,P=0.000),and both of them had negative correlation with depressive disorder(both r=-0.426,Pa=0.000).Mother and father attachment were the partial mediation of the relationship between childhood abuse and adolescent depression.Conclusions Male adolescents suffered more maltreatment than female adolescents.There are no gender difference in parent attachment and depression.Parent attachment plays the partial mediator role in childhood abuse and adolescent depression.Results reveal the importance of assessment and consideration of parent attachment in the intervention of depression in abused adolescents.

  12. Childhood trauma and METH abuse among men who have sex with men: Implications for intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Patton, Maria; Kumar, Mahendra; Jones, Deborah; Fonseca, Marla; Kumar, Adarsh M; Nemeroff, Charles B

    2016-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) has become one of the most widely abused drugs in South Florida, particularly among MSM who may or may not be HIV seropositive. High rates of childhood trauma have been reported among HIV-infected MSM (Chartier et al., 2010), but, the association of childhood trauma, and mood disorders with methamphetamine use in HIV-infected men, has not been comprehensively explored. A better understanding of the association between these factors could improve existing substance abuse treatment intervention strategies and medical treatment programs (e.g., medication adherence; Carrico, 2010) to enhance positive health outcomes for male meth abusers living with the psychological consequences of childhood abuse. This study, as part of a larger study, examined the occurrence of childhood trauma and depression in a group of HIV seropositive METH abusing MSM. Significantly higher levels of depression symptom severity were found among METH users relative to non-METH users (p emotional, physical and sexual child abuse relative to non-METH users (p emotional neglect. These results suggest that childhood maltreatment may be implicated in the development of emotional distress (e.g., depression) and higher prevalence of methamphetamine/drug abuse in this population. These findings have important implications for substance abuse interventions, specifically targeting METH addiction among MSM. Addressing childhood trauma and depression may play a key role in enhancing the effectiveness of interventions for methamphetamine addiction. PMID:26519763

  13. Work, Welfare, and Child Maltreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Christina Paxson; Jane Waldfogel

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines how child maltreatment is affected by the economic circumstances of parents. 'Child maltreatment' encompasses a wide range of behaviors that adversely affect children. It includes neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and other forms of abuse or neglect. Using state-level panel data on the numbers of reports and substantiated cases of maltreatment, we examine whether socioeconomic factors play different roles for these different types of maltreatment. A key finding is tha...

  14. Epidemiological Perspectives on Maltreatment Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulczyn, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Fred Wulczyn explores how data on the incidence and distribution of child maltreatment shed light on planning and implementing maltreatment prevention programs. He begins by describing and differentiating among the three primary sources of national data on maltreatment. Wulczyn then points out several important patterns in the data. The first…

  15. Transactional effects among maternal depression, neighborhood deprivation, and child conduct problems from early childhood through adolescence: A tale of two low-income samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Daniel S; Sitnick, Stephanie L; Reuben, Julia; Dishion, Thomas J; Wilson, Melvin N

    2016-08-01

    The current study sought to advance our understanding of transactional processes among maternal depression, neighborhood deprivation, and child conduct problems (CP) using two samples of low-income families assessed repeatedly from early childhood to early adolescence. After accounting for initial levels of negative parenting, independent and reciprocal effects between maternal depressive symptoms and child CP were evident across both samples, beginning in early childhood and continuing through middle childhood and adolescence. In addition, neighborhood effects were consistently found in both samples after children reached age 5, with earlier neighborhood effects on child CP and maternal depression found in the one exclusively urban sample of families with male children. The results confirm prior research on the independent contribution of maternal depression and child CP to the maintenance of both problem behaviors. The findings also have implications for designing preventative and clinical interventions to address child CP for families living in high-risk neighborhoods. PMID:27427808

  16. Commentary: The devastating effects of ignoring child maltreatment in psychiatry--a commentary on Teicher and Samson 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kolk, Bessel

    2016-03-01

    Despite the numerous studies over the past 30 years that have clarified the devastating effects of child maltreatment on mental and physical health, the role of trauma within the caregiving system remains unrecognized both in our diagnostic systems and in our dominant treatment paradigms. Research of people with histories of caregiver abuse and neglect consistently demonstrates problems with concentration, anger, panic, depression, food intake, drugs, and sleep, as well as decreased Heart RateVariability, higher levels of stress hormones, and reduced or impaired immune response. Their relationship between documented brain changes and psychopathology is complex. Traumatic life experiences during childhood and adolescence are far more common than expected. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that child maltreatment may be the most costly public health issue in the United States, Eradicating child abuse in America would reduce the overall rate of depression by more than half, alcoholism by two-thirds, and suicide, serious drug abuse, and domestic violence by three quarters. It would also have a significantly positive effect on workplace performance, and vastly decrease the need for incarceration. The current practice of applying multiple distinct comorbid diagnoses to traumatized children prevents a comprehensive treatment approach. Approaching their problems from a framework of memories of discreet traumatic ignores the fact that the damage affects the brain's neural circuitry and goes well beyond dealing with discrete painful events. Our great challenge is to learn to utilize the brain's neuroplasticity to reorganize defective brain circuits. PMID:26889892

  17. A paradoxical association of an oxytocin receptor gene polymorphism: early-life adversity and vulnerability to depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuaid, Robyn J; McInnis, Opal A; Stead, John D; Matheson, Kimberly; Anisman, Hymie

    2013-01-01

    Several prosocial behaviors may be influenced by the hormone oxytocin. In line with this perspective, the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs53576, has been associated with a broad range of social behaviors. In this regard, the G allele of the OXTR SNP has been accompanied by beneficial attributes such as increased empathy, optimism, and trust. In the current study among university students (N = 288), it was shown that early-life maltreatment was associated with depressive symptoms, and that the OXTR genotype moderated this relationship, such that under high levels of childhood maltreatment, only individuals with GG/GA genotype demonstrated increased depressive symptomatology compared to those with the AA genotype. In addition, the role of distrust in mediating the relation between childhood maltreatment and depression seemed to be more important among G allele carriers compared to individuals with the AA genotype. Thus, a breach in trust (i.e., in the case of early-life abuse or neglect) may have a more deleterious effect among G carriers, who have been characterized as more prosocial and attuned to social cues. The data suggested that G carriers of the OXTR might favor social sensitivity and thus might have been more vulnerable to the effects of early-life adversity. PMID:23898235

  18. A paradoxical association of an oxytocin receptor gene polymorphism: Early-life adversity and vulnerability to depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn Jane McQuaid

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Several prosocial behaviors may be influenced by the hormone oxytocin. In line with this perspective, the oxytocin receptor (OXTR gene single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, rs53576, has been associated with a broad range of social behaviors. In this regard, the G allele of the OXTR SNP has been accompanied by beneficial attributes such as increased empathy, optimism and trust. In the current study among university students (N = 288, it was shown that early-life maltreatment was associated with depressive symptoms, and that the OXTR genotype moderated this relationship, such that under high levels of childhood maltreatment, only individuals with GG/GA genotype demonstrated increased depressive symptomatology compared to those with the AA genotype. In addition, the role of distrust in mediating the relation between childhood maltreatment and depression seemed to be more important among G allele carriers compared to individuals with the AA genotype. Thus, a breach in trust (i.e. in the case of early-life abuse or neglect may have a more deleterious effect among G carriers, who have been characterized as more prosocial and attuned to social cues. The data suggested that G carriers of the OXTR might favor social sensitivity and thus might have been more vulnerable to the effects of early-life adversity.

  19. Conduct problems, depressive symptomatology and their co-occurring presentation in childhood as predictors of adjustment in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingoldsby, Erin M; Kohl, Gwynne O; McMahon, Robert J; Lengua, Liliana

    2006-10-01

    The present study investigated patterns in the development of conduct problems (CP), depressive symptoms, and their co-occurrence, and relations to adjustment problems, over the transition from late childhood to early adolescence. Rates of depressive symptoms and CP during this developmental period vary by gender; yet, few studies involving non-clinical samples have examined co-occurring problems and adjustment outcomes across boys and girls. This study investigates the manifestation and change in CP and depressive symptom patterns in a large, multisite, gender-and ethnically-diverse sample of 431 youth from 5th to 7th grade. Indicators of CP, depressive symptoms, their co-occurrence, and adjustment outcomes were created from multiple reporters and measures. Hypotheses regarding gender differences were tested utilizing both categorical (i.e., elevated symptom groups) and continuous analyses (i.e., regressions predicting symptomatology and adjustment outcomes). Results were partially supportive of the dual failure model (Capaldi, 1991, 1992), with youth with co-occurring problems in 5th grade demonstrating significantly lower academic adjustment and social competence two years later. Both depressive symptoms and CP were risk factors for multiple negative adjustment outcomes. Co-occurring symptomatology and CP demonstrated more stability and was associated with more severe adjustment problems than depressive symptoms over time. Categorical analyses suggested that, in terms of adjustment problems, youth with co-occurring symptomatology were generally no worse off than those with CP-alone, and those with depressive symptoms-alone were similar over time to those showing no symptomatology at all. Few gender differences were noted in the relations among CP, depressive symptoms, and adjustment over time. PMID:16967336

  20. Internalizing Symptoms Linking Youths' Maltreatment and Delinquent Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Kimberly; Postlewait, Ariana W.; Thompson, Sanna J.; Springer, David W.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines internalizing mental health symptoms (depression and posttraumatic stress disorder) as potential intervening factors in the relationship between maltreatment and delinquency using data from the National Survey for Child and Adolescent Well-Being (N = 1,179). Significant mediating effects indicated that youth at greater risk of…

  1. A population-based study of anxiety as a precursor for depression in childhood and adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van den Bree Marianne BM

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Anxiety and depression co-occur in children and adolescents with anxiety commonly preceding depression. Although there is some evidence to suggest that the association between early anxiety and later depression is explained by a shared genetic aetiology, the contribution of environmental factors is less well examined and it is unknown whether anxiety itself is a phenotypic risk factor for later depression. These explanations of the association between early anxiety and later depression were evaluated. Methods Anxiety and depressive symptoms were assessed longitudinally in a U.K. population-based sample of 676 twins aged 5–17 at baseline. At baseline, anxiety and depression were assessed by parental questionnaire. Depression was assessed three years later by parental and adolescent questionnaire. Results Shared genetic effects between early anxiety and later depression were found. A model of a phenotypic risk effect from early anxiety on later depression provided a poor fit to the data. However, there were significant genetic effects specific to later depression, showing that early anxiety and later depression do not index entirely the same genetic risk. Conclusions Anxiety and depression are associated over time because they share a partly common genetic aetiology rather than because the anxiety phenotype leads to later depression.

  2. Intergenerational effects of war trauma among Palestinian families mediated via psychological maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palosaari, Esa; Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Qouta, Samir; Diab, Marwan

    2013-11-01

    We tested the hypothesis that intergenerational effects of parents' war trauma on offspring's attachment and mental health are mediated by psychological maltreatment. Two hundred and forty children and their parents were sampled from a war-prone area, Gaza, Palestine. The parents reported the number and type of traumatic experiences of war they had had during their lifetime before the child's birth and during a current war when the child was 10-12 years old. The children reported their war traumas, experiences of psychological maltreatment, attachment security, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress (PTSS), depression, and aggression. The direct and indirect intergenerational effects of war trauma were tested in structural equation models. The hypotheses were confirmed for father's past war exposure, and disconfirmed for mother's war exposure. The father's past war trauma had a negative association with attachment security and positive association with the child's mental health problems mediated by increased psychological maltreatment. In contrast, the mother's past war trauma had a negative association with the child's depression via decreased psychological maltreatment. The mother's current war trauma had a negative association with the child's depression and aggression via decreased psychological maltreatment. Among fathers, past war exposure should be considered as a risk factor for psychological maltreatment of children and the associated attachment insecurity and mental health problems. Among mothers, war exposure as such could be given less clinical attention than PTSS in the prevention of psychological maltreatment of children. PMID:23768956

  3. The role of children's appraisals on adjustment following psychological maltreatment: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeson, Fiona J; Nixon, Reginald D V

    2011-07-01

    Little is known about the cognitive mechanisms involved in the development of psychopathology following psychological maltreatment in children. This study therefore examined the role of thinking styles on children's outcomes following this subtype of maltreatment. Children who had experienced past maltreatment (n = 24) and a control group (n = 26) were assessed using self-report questionnaires. Maltreatment history, cognitive styles and psychological outcomes, such as depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and self-esteem were assessed. Parents/caregivers also completed a measure of child internalizing and externalizing behaviours. Psychological maltreatment made a significant contribution to children's self-reported depression and low self-esteem, and parent reported internalizing and externalizing problems, even after controlling for other abusive experiences. This was not the case for PTSD symptoms. Further, children's cognitive styles were associated with self-reported depression, self-esteem and PTSD. They did not, however, predict parent-rated emotional and behavioural problems. This study provides preliminary support for a cognitive model of adjustment following psychological maltreatment. The results indicate the need for enhanced community awareness about the impact of psychological maltreatment, and suggest a direction for therapeutic intervention.

  4. The role of children's appraisals on adjustment following psychological maltreatment: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leeson, Fiona J; Nixon, Reginald D V

    2011-07-01

    Little is known about the cognitive mechanisms involved in the development of psychopathology following psychological maltreatment in children. This study therefore examined the role of thinking styles on children's outcomes following this subtype of maltreatment. Children who had experienced past maltreatment (n = 24) and a control group (n = 26) were assessed using self-report questionnaires. Maltreatment history, cognitive styles and psychological outcomes, such as depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and self-esteem were assessed. Parents/caregivers also completed a measure of child internalizing and externalizing behaviours. Psychological maltreatment made a significant contribution to children's self-reported depression and low self-esteem, and parent reported internalizing and externalizing problems, even after controlling for other abusive experiences. This was not the case for PTSD symptoms. Further, children's cognitive styles were associated with self-reported depression, self-esteem and PTSD. They did not, however, predict parent-rated emotional and behavioural problems. This study provides preliminary support for a cognitive model of adjustment following psychological maltreatment. The results indicate the need for enhanced community awareness about the impact of psychological maltreatment, and suggest a direction for therapeutic intervention. PMID:21491116

  5. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Childhood Autobiographical Memory Disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David W.; Anda, Robert F.; Edwards, Valerie J.; Felitti, Vincent J.; Dube, Shanta R.; Giles, Wayne H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine relationships between childhood autobiographical memory disturbance (CAMD) and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) which are defined as common forms of child maltreatment and related traumatic stressors. Methods: We use the ACE score (an integer count of eight different categories of ACEs) as a measure of cumulative exposure…

  6. Multiple victimizations before and after leaving home associated with PTSD, depression, and substance use disorder among homeless youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Kimberly; Brown, Samantha M; Thompson, Sanna J; Ferguson, Kristin M; Langenderfer, Lisa

    2015-05-01

    Exposure to multiple forms of maltreatment during childhood is associated with serious mental health consequences among youth in the general population, but limited empirical attention has focused on homeless youth-a population with markedly high rates of childhood maltreatment followed by elevated rates of street victimization. This study investigated the rates of multiple childhood abuses (physical, sexual, and emotional abuse) and multiple street victimizations (robbery, physical assault, and sexual assault) and examined their relative relationships to mental health outcomes (meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder [PTSD], depression, and substance use disorder) among a large (N = 601) multisite sample of homeless youth. Approximately 79% of youth retrospectively reported multiple childhood abuses (two or more types) and 28% reported multiple street victimizations (two or more types). Each additional type of street victimization nearly doubled youths' odds for meeting criteria for substance use disorder. Furthermore, each additional type of childhood abuse experienced more than doubled youths' odds for meeting criteria for PTSD. Both multiple abuses and multiple street victimizations were associated with an approximate twofold increase in meeting depression criteria. Findings suggest the need for screening, assessment, and trauma-informed services for homeless youth who consider multiple types of abuse and victimization experiences. PMID:25510502

  7. Improving care quality and preventing maltreatment in institutional care – a feasibility study with caregivers

    OpenAIRE

    Hermenau, Katharin; Kaltenbach, Elisa; Mkinga, Getrude; Hecker, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Institutionalized children in low-income countries often face maltreatment and inadequate caregiving. In addition to prior traumatization and other childhood adversities in the family of origin, abuse and neglect in institutional care are linked to various mental health problems. By providing a manualized training workshop for caregivers, we aimed at improving care quality and preventing maltreatment in institutional care. In Study 1, 29 participating caregivers rated feasibility and efficacy...

  8. Adult Attachment Interview differentiates adolescents with Childhood Sexual Abuse from those with clinical depression and non-clinical controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoof, Marie-José; van Lang, Natasja D J; Speekenbrink, Sandra; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Vermeiren, Robert R J M

    2015-01-01

    Although attachment representation is considered to be disturbed in traumatized adolescents, it is not known whether this is specific for trauma, as comparative studies with other clinical groups are lacking. Therefore, attachment representation was studied by means of the Adult Attachment Interview in adolescents with Childhood Sexual Abuse (CSA) (N = 21), clinical depression (N = 28) and non-clinical controls (N = 28). Coherence of mind and unresolved loss or trauma, as well as the disorganized attachment classification differentiated the CSA group from the clinical depression group and controls, over and above age, IQ, and psychiatric symptomatology. In the current era of sustained criticism on criteria-based classification, this may well carry substantial clinical relevance. If attachment is a general risk or vulnerability factor underlying specific psychopathology, this may guide diagnostic assessment as well as treatment. PMID:26047034

  9. A population-based study of anxiety as a precursor for depression in childhood and adolescence.

    OpenAIRE

    van den Bree Marianne BM; Rice Frances; Thapar Anita

    2004-01-01

    Background Anxiety and depression co-occur in children and adolescents with anxiety commonly preceding depression. Although there is some evidence to suggest that the association between early anxiety and later depression is explained by a shared genetic aetiology, the contribution of environmental factors is less well examined and it is unknown whether anxiety itself is a phenotypic risk factor for later depression. These explanations of the association between early anxiety and later depre...

  10. Child Maltreatment in the World: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ajilian Abbasi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse is a recognized public health and social problem worldwide. According to the World Health Organization (WHO, child abuse includes all forms of physical and/or emotional ill-treatment, sexual abuse, neglect and negligent treatment and exploitation. Child maltreatment is a global problem with serious life-long consequences. In spite of recent national surveys in several low- and middle-income countries, data from many countries are still lacking. Estimates of child maltreatment indicate that nearly a quarter of adults (22.6% worldwide suffered physical abuse as a child, 36.3% experienced emotional abuse and 16.3% experienced physical neglect, with no significant differences between boys and girls. However, the lifetime prevalence rate of childhood sexual abuse indicates more marked differences by sex – 18% for girls and 7.6% for boys.  The lifelong consequences of child maltreatment include impaired physical and mental health, poorer school performance, and job and relationship difficulties. Ultimately, child maltreatment can contribute to slowing a country's economic and social development. We conclude that child maltreatment is a widespread, global phenomenon affecting the lives of millions of children all over the world, which is in sharp contrast with the United Nation's Convention on the Rights of the Child.

  11. Attachment and Early Maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egeland, Byron; Sroufe, L. Alan

    1981-01-01

    Attachment outcomes of 31 maltreatment cases (involving extreme neglect or abuse), selected from a total poverty sample of 267 high-risk mothers and their children, were compared to those of a subsample of 33 cases with a history of excellent care. Attachment was assessed when infants were 12 and 18 months old. (Author/MP)

  12. Childhood Abuse, Chronic Pain, and Depression in the National Comorbidity Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs-Ericsson, Natalie; Kendall-Tackett, Kathleen; Hernandez, Annya

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The current study examined the effects of childhood sexual and physical abuse on reports of pain in men and women (N=1,727). Methods: Data from the National Comorbidity Survey, a nationally representative sample, were utilized. Childhood experiences of physical and sexual abuse were assessed, and pain reports in relation to current…

  13. Clarifying the link between childhood abuse history and psychopathic traits in adult criminal offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargis, Monika; Newman, Joseph; Koenigs, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Childhood abuse is a risk factor for the development of externalizing characteristics and disorders, including antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy. However, the precise relationships between particular types of childhood maltreatment and subsequent antisocial and psychopathic traits remain unclear. Using a large sample of incarcerated adult male criminal offenders (n = 183), the current study confirmed that severity of overall childhood maltreatment was linked to severity of both psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder in adulthood. Moreover, this relationship was particularly strong for physical abuse and the antisocial facet of psychopathy. Sexual abuse history was uniquely related to juvenile conduct disorder severity, rather than adult psychopathy or antisocial behaviors. Additionally, there was a significantly stronger relationship between childhood maltreatment and juvenile conduct disorder than between childhood maltreatment and ASPD or psychopathy. These findings bolster and clarify the link between childhood maltreatment and antisocial behavior later in life. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26389621

  14. Influence of interactions between genes and childhood trauma on refractoriness in psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Sun; Lee, Seung-Hwan

    2016-10-01

    Psychiatric disorders are excellent disease models in which gene-environmental interaction play a significant role in the pathogenesis. Childhood trauma has been known as a significant environmental factor in the progress of, and prognosis for psychiatric illness. Patients with refractory illness usually have more severe symptoms, greater disability, lower quality of life and are at greater risk of suicide than other psychiatric patients. Our literature review uncovered some important clinical factors which modulate response to treatment in psychiatric patients who have experienced childhood trauma. Childhood trauma seems to be a critical determinant of treatment refractoriness in psychotic disorder, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder. In patients with psychotic disorders, the relationship between childhood trauma and treatment-refractoriness appears to be mediated by cognitive impairment. In the case of bipolar disorder, the relationship appears to be mediated by greater affective disturbance and earlier onset, while in major depressive disorder the mediating factors are persistent, severe symptoms and frequent recurrence. In suicidal individuals, childhood maltreatment was associated with violent suicidal attempts. In the case of PTSD patients, it appears that childhood trauma makes the brain more vulnerable to subsequent trauma, thus resulting in more severe, refractory symptoms. Given that several studies have suggested that there are distinct subtypes of genetic vulnerability to childhood trauma, it is important to understand how gene-environment interactions influence the course of psychiatric illnesses in order to improve therapeutic strategies. PMID:26827636

  15. Child maltreatment and adult psychopathology in an Irish context.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzhenry, Mark

    2015-07-01

    One-hundred-ninety-nine adult mental health service users were interviewed with a protocol that included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the Structured Clinical Interviews for Axis I and II DSM-IV disorders, the Global Assessment of Functioning scale, the SCORE family assessment measure, the Camberwell Assessment of Need Short Appraisal Schedule, and the Readiness for Psychotherapy Index. Compared to a U.S. normative sample, Irish clinical cases had higher levels of maltreatment. Cases with comorbid axis I and II disorders reported more child maltreatment than those with axis I disorders only. There was no association between types of CM and types of psychopathology. Current family adjustment and service needs (but not global functioning and motivation for psychotherapy) were correlated with a CM history. It was concluded that child maltreatment may contribute to the development of adult psychopathology, and higher levels of trauma are associated with co-morbid personality disorder, greater service needs and poorer family adjustment. A history of child maltreatment should routinely be determined when assessing adult mental health service users, especially those with personality disorders and where appropriate evidence-based psychotherapy which addresses childhood trauma should be offered.

  16. 儿童期创伤对特质抑郁和特质焦虑的影响:图式中介特异性研究%The Influence of Childhood Trauma on Trait-depression and Trait-anxiety: the Mediation-specificity of Schemas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔丽霞; 罗小婧; 肖晶

    2011-01-01

    uncertainty would mediate between children trauma relating to abuse and anxiety and EMSs relating to loss, hopeless, failure would mediate between children trauma relating to neglect and depression.668 undergraduate students completed Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-SF; Bernstein & Fink, 1998), Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (YSQ-SF; Young, 1998), Trait-Depression Questionnaire (T-DEP; Ritterband & Spielberger, 1996), and Trait-Anxiety Inventory (T-AI; Spielberger, 1983). Data was analyzed using the mediation analysis procedure proposed by Baron and Kenny (1986). According to their definitions trait-depression and trait-anxiety should be more closely related to childhood trauma and EMSs. Thus in this study we used the trait-depression scale and trait-anxiety scale instead of state-depression scales and state-anxiety scales which were used in the past studies. The research focus was the mediation-specificity of schemas between childhood trauma and trait-depression and trait-anxiety.The results were: (1) Three kinds of childhood trauma (emotional maltreatment, emotional neglect and physical neglect) were significantly related to higher scores on trait-depression and trait-anxiety and no significant difference emerged between the correlation coefficient relating childhood trauma to trait-anxiety and that relating childhood trauma to trait-depression; (2) For all three kinds of childhood trauma schemas with themes of loss/worthlessness (Emotional Deprivation, Defectiveness/Shame schemas, Self-sacrifice and Social isolation/alienation) preferentially mediated the relation between childhood trauma and trait-depression, while schemas with themes of danger (Mistrust/Abuse and Vulnerability to harm or illness) preferentially mediated the relation between childhood trauma and trait-anxiety.Our results confirmed the mediation-specificity of EMSs. The specificity emerged in the mediation analyses added much to understanding of the different pathology of depression and anxiety

  17. The relationship of depression to childhood abuse and the parental rearing behaviors%儿童期虐待和父母养育方式与抑郁症的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫景新; 周玉萍; 靳陆平; 高晓翠; 楚平华

    2009-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship of depression to childhood abuse and the parental rearing behaviors.Methods 120 patients with depression and 100 healthy controls were evaluated with personal report of childhood abuse(PRCA)and egma minnen borndoms uppforstran(EMBU),then the data were used to analyze,and the depression state assessed with the 24-item Hamilton rating scale for depression(HAMD).Results The occurrence rate(36.7%)of childhood abused history in depressive patients was significanfly higher than that in healthy controls(9.0%)(P<0.01).Compare with the healthy controls,depressive patients had higher scores in parental punishment and severity,rejection and denial,while had lower scores in parental emotional warmth(17.95±5.72 vs 15.98±4.86,13.89±5.40 vs 11.61±4.19,10.45±3.47 vs 8.02±2.98,13.99±4.85 vs 11.14±3.76,45.34±8.58 vs 49.43±9.21,46.92±10.19 vs 50.17±11.85,all P<0.05).Depression sign were positively correlated to emotional abuse factor.sexual abuse factor,neglect factor,parental punishment and severity,rejection and denim,mother's over interference(r=0.298~0.540,P<0.05 or P<0.01).negatively to parental emotional warm(r=-0.350~-0.508,P,<0.05 or P<0.01).Significant relation exists between emotional abuse,sexual abuse,neglect,total abuse and some factors of the parental rearing behaviors(r=-0.479~0.523,P<0.05 or P<0.01).Conclusion Depressive patients experienced more severe traumatic events during their early life,parental rearing behavior effected childhood abuse,and childhood maltreatment experiences and negative parental rearing behavior have influence on the development of depression.%目的 探讨儿童期虐待和父母养育方式与抑郁症的关系.方法 采用儿童期虐待史自评量表(PRCA)、父母养育方式评价量表(EMBU)对符合入组标准的98例抑郁症患者进行评估,并与100例正常人群进行对照,采用汉密顿抑郁量表(24项,HAMD)评定抑郁症状严重程度.结果 抑

  18. Child maltreatment in Kenya, Zambia, and the Netherlands : a cross-cultural comparison of prevalence, psychopathological sequelae, and mediation by PTSS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mbagaya, Catherine Vuhya

    2010-01-01

    Child maltreatment is a global phenomenon affecting a significant number of the world’s children. The purpose of this study was to compare the prevalence of self-reported childhood maltreatment among university students in Kenya, Zambia, and The Netherlands. We also sought to compare the psychopatho

  19. A Preliminary Study of the Influence of Age of Onset and Childhood Trauma on Cortical Thickness in Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Jaworska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Major depressive disorder (MDD neural underpinnings may differ based on onset age and childhood trauma. We assessed cortical thickness in patients who differed in age of MDD onset and examined trauma history influence. Methods. Adults with MDD (N=36 and controls (HC; N=18 underwent magnetic resonance imaging. Twenty patients had MDD onset 25 years of age (adult onset. The MDD group was also subdivided into those with (N=12 and without (N=19 physical and/or sexual abuse as assessed by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ. Cortical thickness was analyzed with FreeSurfer software. Results. Thicker frontal pole and a tendency for thinner transverse temporal cortices existed in MDD. The former was driven by the pediatric onset group and abuse history (independently, particularly in the right frontal pole. Inverse correlations existed between CTQ scores and frontal pole cortex thickness. A similar inverse relation existed with left inferior and right superior parietal cortex thickness. The superior temporal cortex tended to be thinner in pediatric versus adult onset groups with childhood abuse. Conclusions. This preliminary work suggests neural differences between pediatric and adult MDD onset. Trauma history also contributes to cytoarchitectural modulation. Thickened frontal pole cortices as a compensatory mechanism in MDD warrant evaluation.

  20. Child maltreatment, inflammation, and internalizing symptoms: Investigating the roles of C-reactive protein, gene variation, and neuroendocrine regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchetti, Dante; Handley, Elizabeth D; Rogosch, Fred A

    2015-05-01

    Prior research has found inconsistent evidence regarding the association among childhood adversity, inflammation, and internalizing symptoms, perhaps because previous studies have yet to adequately integrate important factors such as the timing of the adversity, genetic variation, and other relevant processes such as neuroendocrine regulation. The aims of the present study were threefold: (a) to determine whether the effect of the timing of child maltreatment on C-reactive protein (CRP), an inflammatory marker, varies by CRP gene variation; (b) to explore whether links between salivary CRP and childhood internalizing symptoms depend on the presence and timing of maltreatment experiences; and (c) to investigate the role of CRP in the relations between child neuroendocrine regulation and internalizing symptoms and examine whether these associations are moderated by the presence and timing of child maltreatment. Participants included a sample of 267 maltreated and 222 nonmaltreated children (M age = 9.72, SD = 0.99; 52.4% male; 66% African American) who attended a summer day camp research program designed for school-aged low-income children. Department of Human Services records were examined to determine the onset and recency of maltreatment for children in the maltreated group. The results indicated that among children with recent onset maltreatment, those with at least one A allele from CRP single nucleotide polymorphism rs1417938 evidenced significantly higher CRP levels compared to recently maltreated children carrying the TT genotype. Moreover, higher levels of CRP were associated with higher levels of internalizing symptoms only for recently maltreated children. Finally, we did not find support for salivary CRP as a mechanism in the relation between neuroendocrine regulation and childhood internalizing symptoms. Our findings highlight the importance of the timing of child maltreatment and have important implications for characterizing variability in inflammation

  1. Association Between Depressive Symptoms and Negative Dependent Life Events from Late Childhood to Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Daniel P.; Whisman, Mark A.; Corley, Robin P.; Hewitt, John K.; Rhee, Soo Hyun

    2012-01-01

    The association between stressful life events and depression has been consistently supported in the literature; however, studies of the developmental trajectories of these constructs and the nature of their association over time are limited. We examined trajectories of depressive symptoms and negative dependent life events and the associations between these constructs in a sample of 916 youth assessed annually from age 9 to 16, using latent growth curve modeling. Youth depressive symptoms, as...

  2. Maternal Depression and Childhood Overweight in the CHAMACOS Study of Mexican-American Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audelo, Jocelyn; Kogut, Katherine; Harley, Kim G; Rosas, Lisa G; Stein, Lauren; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2016-07-01

    Objective Although previous studies have examined the impact of maternal depression on child overweight and obesity, little is known about the relationship in Latino families, who suffer from high risks of depression and obesity. We prospectively investigated the association between depressive symptoms in women with young children and child overweight and obesity (overweight/obesity) at age 7 years among Latino families. Methods Participants included 332 singletons with anthropometric measures obtained at 7 years from the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS) study, a birth cohort study. Maternal depression was assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale when the children were 1, 3.5, and 7 years. Overweight and obesity was measured by body mass index (kg/m(2)) at age 7 years. Results 63 % of women had CES-D scores consistent with depression in at least one of the 3 given assessments. Compared to children whose mothers were never depressed, children whose mothers were depressed at all three assessments had 2.4 times the adjusted odds of overweight/obesity at age 7 years (95 % CI 1.1-5.6). However, a single positive maternal depression screen was not associated with child overweight/obesity and there was no difference in the odds of overweight/obesity by the age of the child when maternal depression occurred. Conclusion Chronic maternal depression during a child's early life was associated with child overweight/obesity at 7 years. Addressing maternal depression is a critical component of comprehensive obesity prevention and treatment strategies for Latino children. PMID:27007986

  3. Can an experience of a punishment episode in childhood period be connected with depressive or anxiety conditions in adulthood?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Poljak Lukek

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Punishment, when understood as parents' response to undesirable behavior of a child and representing gradual restricting of such behavior, is an essential part of parents' role in the family. In the context of the paradigm of affective regulation, anxiety and depression states represent another unsuccessful attempt of trying to get closer and to find a connection in the relationship. This study, conducted on 197 participants, addressed the connection between punishment in upbringing and behavior disturbances in adulthood. Depressive states in adulthood were statistically significantly, although weakly connected with the experience of corporal punishment, punishment and restitution, and psychological aggression form both parents. Anxiety states were statistically significantly, although weakly connected with the experience of psychological aggression from both parents and with the experience of corporal punishment, and punishment and restitution of the mother. The participants who attained the criteria for diagnosis of depression were more exposed to corporal punishment at the age of 10 years (from both parents, punishment and restitution (from the father and psychological aggression (from the father compared to the participants without the diagnosis of depression. The paradigm of affective regulation is presented as a possible explanation of the connection between experiences of punishment as a way of upbringing in childhood and later mood disorders in adulthood. Punishment during upbringing that is not accompanied by parents' maintaining of the connection with the child can present the first experience of negative affection, which is the core of anxiety and depressive states. The mood disorders in adulthood can be understood as another failure when trying to reestablish the balance between external information and internal experiences that were primarily disturbed by the experience of punishment when growing up.

  4. Maltreatment and psychopathy subtypes in high-risk adolescent females

    OpenAIRE

    Coupland, Ruth Louise

    2011-01-01

    Psychopathy is often viewed as a unitary construct, however, research with adults and adolescent males has revealed two heterogeneous subtypes. Primary psychopathy is presumed to have biological underpinnings and is associated with low levels of anxiety and psychological distress. In contrast, secondary psychopathy is believed to result from exposure to adversity, including childhood maltreatment, and is associated with emotional reactivity, impulsivity, and comorbid psychological problems. T...

  5. Association between Depressive Symptoms and Negative Dependent Life Events from Late Childhood to Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Daniel P.; Whisman, Mark A.; Corley, Robin P.; Hewitt, John K.; Rhee, Soo Hyun

    2012-01-01

    The association between stressful life events and depression has been consistently supported in the literature; however, studies of the developmental trajectories of these constructs and the nature of their association over time are limited. We examined trajectories of depressive symptoms and negative dependent life events and the associations…

  6. BDNF in late-life depression: effect of SSRI usage and interaction with childhood abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meij, A. van der; Comijs, H.C.; Dols, A.; Janzing, J.G.E.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.

    2014-01-01

    Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) serum levels are abnormally low in depressed patients as compared to healthy controls and normalize with SSRI treatment. The aim of this study is to examine serum BDNF levels in late-life depression, stratified for SSRI usage, and to explore the relation betw

  7. BDNF in late-life depression : Effect of SSRI usage and interaction with childhood abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meij, Annemarie; Comijs, Hannie C.; Dols, Annemieke; Janzing, Joost G. E.; Oude Voshaar, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) serum levels are abnormally low in depressed patients as compared to healthy controls and normalize with SSRI treatment. The aim of this study is to examine serum BDNF levels in late-life depression, stratified for SSRI usage, and to explore the relation betw

  8. Parental Depression and Anxiety and Early Childhood Behavior Problems across Family Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Sarah O.; McLanahan, Sara S.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2007-01-01

    Using the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, we examine the association between parental major depressive and generalized anxiety disorders and child behavior problems across family types: married, cohabiting, involved nonresident father, and noninvolved nonresident father. Among 3-year-olds in all families, maternal anxiety/depression is…

  9. The Impact of Childhood Adversity on the Clinical Features of Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Philip Rajkumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Recent research has drawn attention to the link between childhood maltreatment and schizophrenia. Child abuse and neglect may have an impact on symptoms and physical health in these patients. This association has not been studied to date in India. Materials and Methods. Clinically stable patients with schizophrenia (n=62 were assessed for childhood adversity using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. The association of specific forms of adversity with symptomatology and associated variables was examined. Results. Emotional abuse was reported by 56.5% patients and physical abuse by 33.9%; scores for childhood neglect were also high. Persecutory delusions were linked to physical abuse, while anxiety was linked to emotional neglect and depression to emotional abuse and childhood neglect. Physical abuse was linked to elevated systolic blood pressure, while emotional abuse and neglect in women were linked to being overweight. Conclusions. Childhood adversity is common in schizophrenia and appears to be associated with a specific symptom profile. Certain components of the metabolic syndrome also appear to be related to childhood adversity. These results are subject to certain limitations as they are derived from remitted patients, and no control group was used for measures of childhood adversity.

  10. The association between childhood trauma and facial emotion recognition in adults with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Manuela; Mahon, Katie; Shanahan, Megan; Solon, Carly; Ramjas, Elizabeth; Turpin, Justin; E Burdick, Katherine

    2015-10-30

    Many patients with bipolar disorder (BD) have difficulties in facial emotion recognition, which may also be impaired in maltreated children and in subjects who have a positive history of childhood traumatic experiences. Childhood trauma is reported with a high prevalence in BD and it is considered a risk factor for the disorder. As the relationship between facial emotion recognition and childhood trauma in BD has not yet been directly investigated, in this study we examined whether the presence of a childhood trauma in affectively stable BD patients was associated with poorer performance in emotion recognition. Seventy-five BD I and II participants completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire retrospectively assessing five types of childhood trauma (emotional, physical and sexual abuse, and emotional and physical neglect) and the Emotion Recognition Task evaluating the ability to correctly identify six basic facial emotions (happiness, sadness, anger, disgust, fear and surprise). Our results suggest that the presence of childhood trauma in participants with BD is associated with a more severe clinical presentation (earlier onset, longer duration of illness, and higher depressive symptom ratings) and that BD patients with a positive childhood history of emotional neglect perform worse than those without such a history in recognizing anger. PMID:26272021

  11. Associations of Childhood Trauma, Trauma in Adulthood and Previous-Year Stress with Psychopathology in Patients with Major Depression and Borderline Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingenfeld, Katja; Schaffrath, Camille; Rullkoetter, Nina; Mensebach, Christoph; Schlosser, Nicole; Beblo, Thomas; Driessen, Martin; Meyer, Bjorn

    2011-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an important possible outcome of exposure to traumatic events that occur in childhood. However, early traumatic experiences are also an important risk factor for several other mental disorders, such as borderline personality disorder and major depressive disorder. Furthermore, chronic stress, including daily…

  12. Interaction Between Childhood Adversity, Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor val/met and Serotonin Transporter Promoter Polymorphism on Depression : The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederhof, E; Bouma, Esther; Oldehinkel, A.J.; Ormel, J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The three-way interaction between the functional polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene linked promoter region, the val66met polymorphism in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene, and childhood adversity in the prediction of depression in children, reported by Kaufman and co

  13. The Developmental Origins of Cognitive Vulnerability to Depression: Temperament, Parenting, and Negative Life Events in Childhood as Contributors to Negative Cognitive Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezulis, Amy H.; Hyde, Janet Shibley; Abramson, Lyn Y.

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive models of depression have been well supported with adults, but the developmental origins of cognitive vulnerability are not well understood. The authors hypothesized that temperament, parenting, and negative life events in childhood would contribute to the development of cognitive style, with withdrawal negativity and negative parental…

  14. Parent Involvement, Parental Depression, and Program Satisfaction among Low-Income Parents Participating in a Two-Generation Early Childhood Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaForett, Dore R.; Mendez, Julia L.

    2010-01-01

    Research Findings: This study simultaneously examined parental depression and parent involvement as predictors of satisfaction with an early childhood intervention program. Parents (N = 203) of Head Start children participated in this short-term longitudinal study. Measures of parent involvement and satisfaction assessed multiple dimensions of…

  15. The 'Maltreatment and Abuse Chronology of Exposure' (MACE) scale for the retrospective assessment of abuse and neglect during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teicher, Martin H; Parigger, Angelika

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing interest in childhood maltreatment as a potent stimulus that may alter trajectories of brain development, induce epigenetic modifications and enhance risk for medical and psychiatric disorders. Although a number of useful scales exist for retrospective assessment of abuse and neglect they have significant limitations. Moreover, they fail to provide detailed information on timing of exposure, which is critical for delineation of sensitive periods. The Maltreatment and Abuse Chronology of Exposure (MACE) scale was developed in a sample of 1051 participants using item response theory to gauge severity of exposure to ten types of maltreatment (emotional neglect, non-verbal emotional abuse, parental physical maltreatment, parental verbal abuse, peer emotional abuse, peer physical bullying, physical neglect, sexual abuse, witnessing interparental violence and witnessing violence to siblings) during each year of childhood. Items included in the subscales had acceptable psychometric properties based on infit and outfit mean square statistics, and each subscale passed Andersen's Likelihood ratio test. The MACE provides an overall severity score and multiplicity score (number of types of maltreatment experienced) with excellent test-retest reliability. Each type of maltreatment showed good reliability as did severity of exposure across each year of childhood. MACE Severity correlated 0.738 with Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) score and MACE Multiplicity correlated 0.698 with the Adverse Childhood Experiences scale (ACE). However, MACE accounted for 2.00- and 2.07-fold more of the variance, on average, in psychiatric symptom ratings than CTQ or ACE, respectively, based on variance decomposition. Different types of maltreatment had distinct and often unique developmental patterns. The 52-item MACE, a simpler Maltreatment Abuse and Exposure Scale (MAES) that only assesses overall exposure and the original test instrument (MACE-X) with several additional

  16. The 'Maltreatment and Abuse Chronology of Exposure' (MACE scale for the retrospective assessment of abuse and neglect during development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin H Teicher

    Full Text Available There is increasing interest in childhood maltreatment as a potent stimulus that may alter trajectories of brain development, induce epigenetic modifications and enhance risk for medical and psychiatric disorders. Although a number of useful scales exist for retrospective assessment of abuse and neglect they have significant limitations. Moreover, they fail to provide detailed information on timing of exposure, which is critical for delineation of sensitive periods. The Maltreatment and Abuse Chronology of Exposure (MACE scale was developed in a sample of 1051 participants using item response theory to gauge severity of exposure to ten types of maltreatment (emotional neglect, non-verbal emotional abuse, parental physical maltreatment, parental verbal abuse, peer emotional abuse, peer physical bullying, physical neglect, sexual abuse, witnessing interparental violence and witnessing violence to siblings during each year of childhood. Items included in the subscales had acceptable psychometric properties based on infit and outfit mean square statistics, and each subscale passed Andersen's Likelihood ratio test. The MACE provides an overall severity score and multiplicity score (number of types of maltreatment experienced with excellent test-retest reliability. Each type of maltreatment showed good reliability as did severity of exposure across each year of childhood. MACE Severity correlated 0.738 with Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ score and MACE Multiplicity correlated 0.698 with the Adverse Childhood Experiences scale (ACE. However, MACE accounted for 2.00- and 2.07-fold more of the variance, on average, in psychiatric symptom ratings than CTQ or ACE, respectively, based on variance decomposition. Different types of maltreatment had distinct and often unique developmental patterns. The 52-item MACE, a simpler Maltreatment Abuse and Exposure Scale (MAES that only assesses overall exposure and the original test instrument (MACE-X with

  17. The 'Maltreatment and Abuse Chronology of Exposure' (MACE) scale for the retrospective assessment of abuse and neglect during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teicher, Martin H; Parigger, Angelika

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing interest in childhood maltreatment as a potent stimulus that may alter trajectories of brain development, induce epigenetic modifications and enhance risk for medical and psychiatric disorders. Although a number of useful scales exist for retrospective assessment of abuse and neglect they have significant limitations. Moreover, they fail to provide detailed information on timing of exposure, which is critical for delineation of sensitive periods. The Maltreatment and Abuse Chronology of Exposure (MACE) scale was developed in a sample of 1051 participants using item response theory to gauge severity of exposure to ten types of maltreatment (emotional neglect, non-verbal emotional abuse, parental physical maltreatment, parental verbal abuse, peer emotional abuse, peer physical bullying, physical neglect, sexual abuse, witnessing interparental violence and witnessing violence to siblings) during each year of childhood. Items included in the subscales had acceptable psychometric properties based on infit and outfit mean square statistics, and each subscale passed Andersen's Likelihood ratio test. The MACE provides an overall severity score and multiplicity score (number of types of maltreatment experienced) with excellent test-retest reliability. Each type of maltreatment showed good reliability as did severity of exposure across each year of childhood. MACE Severity correlated 0.738 with Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) score and MACE Multiplicity correlated 0.698 with the Adverse Childhood Experiences scale (ACE). However, MACE accounted for 2.00- and 2.07-fold more of the variance, on average, in psychiatric symptom ratings than CTQ or ACE, respectively, based on variance decomposition. Different types of maltreatment had distinct and often unique developmental patterns. The 52-item MACE, a simpler Maltreatment Abuse and Exposure Scale (MAES) that only assesses overall exposure and the original test instrument (MACE-X) with several additional

  18. Child maltreatment and problem gambling: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Wendy; Sacco, Paul; Downton, Katherine; Ludeman, Emilie; Levy, Lauren; Tracy, J Kathleen

    2016-08-01

    This study systematically reviews research on child maltreatment and risk of gambling problems in adulthood. It also reviews adult problem gamblers' risk of abusing or neglecting their own children. Multiple database searches were conducted using pre-defined search terms related to gambling and child abuse and neglect. We identified 601 unique references and excluded studies if they did not report original research, or did not specifically measure child maltreatment or gambling. Twelve studies that included multivariable analysis of childhood maltreatment exposure and problem gambling were identified. Six of seven studies examining childhood sexual abuse and four of five examining physical abuse showed a significant positive association between abuse and later gambling problems (odds ratios for sexual abuse 2.01-3.65; physical abuse 2.3-2.8). Both studies examining psychological maltreatment and two of three examining neglect identified positive associations with problem gambling. In most studies, risks were reduced or eliminated when controlling for other mental health disorders. The three studies measuring risk of child abuse and neglect among current problem gamblers suggest an increased risk for child physical abuse and medical conditions indicative of neglect although there is a considerable amount of variation among studies. Child abuse is associated with increased risk of gambling problems - gambling treatment providers should ask about maltreatment history as part of their clinical assessment. Problem gamblers may be more likely to physically abuse or neglect their children, but data here are more limited. Child welfare professionals should consider asking questions about parental gambling when assessing family risk. PMID:27337693

  19. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Veddel; Bukh, Jens Drachmann

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of depression is not clearly established, but estimated to 3-4% in a Danish questionnaire study. Lifetime's prevalences of 12-17% are reported in other community samples. In the current diagnostic system depression is defined categorically and operationally. It has been argued......, that these diagnostic criteria represent an oversimplification, which has blurred the concept of depression. We suggest a greater emphasis on the depressed mood as the core symptom of depression, which may increase the specificity of the diagnosis. Furthermore, basic principles for the treatment of depression...

  20. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Veddel; Bukh, Jens Otto Drachmann

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of depression is not clearly established, but estimated to 3-4% in a Danish questionnaire study. Lifetime's prevalences of 12-17% are reported in other community samples. In the current diagnostic system depression is defined categorically and operationally. It has been argued, that...... these diagnostic criteria represent an oversimplification, which has blurred the concept of depression. We suggest a greater emphasis on the depressed mood as the core symptom of depression, which may increase the specificity of the diagnosis. Furthermore, basic principles for the treatment of...... depression are presented....

  1. Child maltreatment: Abuse and neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengü Pala

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Each year, millions of children around the world are the victims and witnesses of physical, sexual and emotional violence. Child maltreatment is a major global problem with a serious impact on the victims’ physical and mental health, well-being and development throughout their lives and, by extension, on society in general. Family physicians who are involved in the care of children are likely to encounter child abuse and should be able to recognize its common presentations. There is sufficient evidence that child maltreatment can be prevented. The ultimate goal is to stop child maltreatment before it starts.In this paper, the characteristics of the perpetrators and victims of child maltreatment, maltreatment types, risk factors, differential diagnosis and discuss about strategies for preventing were summarized.

  2. The severity of Internet addiction risk and its relationship with the severity of borderline personality features, childhood traumas, dissociative experiences, depression and anxiety symptoms among Turkish university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbudak, Ercan; Evren, Cuneyt; Aldemir, Secil; Evren, Bilge

    2014-11-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of Internet addiction (IA) risk with the severity of borderline personality features, childhood traumas, dissociative experiences, depression and anxiety symptoms among Turkish university students. A total of 271 Turkish university students participated in this study. The students were assessed through the Internet Addiction Scale (IAS), the Borderline Personality Inventory (BPI), the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-28), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). The rates of students were 19.9% (n=54) in the high IA risk group, 38.7% (n=105) in the mild IA risk group and 41.3% (n=112) in the group without IA risk. Correlation analyses revealed that the severity of IA risk was related with BPI, DES, emotional abuse, CTQ-28, depression and anxiety scores. Univariate covariance analysis (ANCOVA) indicated that the severity of borderline personality features, emotional abuse, depression and anxiety symptoms were the predictors of IAS score, while gender had no effect on IAS score. Among childhood trauma types, emotional abuse seems to be the main predictor of IA risk severity. Borderline personality features predicted the severity of IA risk together with emotional abuse, depression and anxiety symptoms among Turkish university students. PMID:25023365

  3. Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Grace Sherry L; Gucciardi Enza; Stewart Donna E

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Health Issue Depression causes significant distress or impairment in physical, social, occupational and other key areas of functioning. Women are approximately twice as likely as men to experience depression. Psychosocial factors likely mediate the risks for depression incurred by biological influences. Key Findings Data from the 1999 National Population Health Survey show that depression is more common among Canadian women, with an annual self-reported incidence of 5.7% compared wit...

  4. Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Donna E.; Gucciardi, Enza; Grace, Sherry L.

    2004-01-01

    Health Issue Depression causes significant distress or impairment in physical, social, occupational and other key areas of functioning. Women are approximately twice as likely as men to experience depression. Psychosocial factors likely mediate the risks for depression incurred by biological influences. Key Findings Data from the 1999 National Population Health Survey show that depression is more common among Canadian women, with an annual self-reported incidence of 5.7% compared with 2.9% in...

  5. Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse in Depressed Patients with Single and Multiple Suicide Attempts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andover, Margaret S.; Zlotnick, Caron; Miller, Ivan W.

    2007-01-01

    Research has shown both childhood physical and sexual abuse to be associated with later suicide attempts, although some studies have not supported these findings. However, few studies have investigated differences in physical and sexual abuse histories among single and multiple suicide attempters. The goals of the current study were two-fold: (a)…

  6. Inflammation in adult women with a history of child maltreatment: The involvement of mitochondrial alterations and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeck, Christina; Koenig, Alexandra Maria; Schury, Katharina; Geiger, Martha Leonie; Karabatsiakis, Alexander; Wilker, Sarah; Waller, Christiane; Gündel, Harald; Fegert, Jörg Michael; Calzia, Enrico; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana

    2016-09-01

    The experience of maltreatment during childhood is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation in adulthood. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this pro-inflammatory phenotype remain unclear. Mitochondria were recently found to principally coordinate inflammatory processes via both inflammasome activation and inflammasome-independent pathways. To this end, we hypothesized that alterations in immune cell mitochondrial functioning and oxidative stress might be at the interface between the association of maltreatment experiences during childhood and inflammation. We analyzed pro-inflammatory biomarkers (levels of C-reactive protein, cytokine secretion by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in vitro, PBMC composition, lysophosphatidylcholine levels), serum oxidative stress levels (arginine:citrulline ratio, l-carnitine and acetylcarnitine levels) and mitochondrial functioning (respiratory activity and density of mitochondria in PBMC) in peripheral blood samples collected from 30 women (aged 22-44years) with varying degrees of maltreatment experiences in form of abuse and neglect during childhood. Exposure to maltreatment during childhood was associated with an increased ROS production, higher levels of oxidative stress and an increased mitochondrial activity in a dose-response relationship. Moreover, the increase in mitochondrial activity and ROS production were positively associated with the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines by PBMC. Decreased serum levels of lysophosphatidylcholines suggested higher inflammasome activation with increasing severity of child maltreatment experiences. Together these findings offer preliminary evidence for the association of alterations in immune cell mitochondrial functioning, oxidative stress and the pro-inflammatory phenotype observed in individuals with a history of maltreatment during childhood. The results emphasize that the early prevention of child abuse and neglect warrants more attention, as the

  7. Evaluation and treatment of childhood physical abuse and neglect: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, Marissa; Berkowitz, Steven J

    2014-01-01

    According to 2010 CDC estimates, 1 in 5 US children have experienced maltreatment. Risk factors for child maltreatment include child characteristics such as non-compliance and diagnostic conditions that increase caregiver burden. Parent characteristic risk factors include parental mental illness and low social support. New developments in radiologic evaluation of child maltreatment will be reviewed. New findings in evidence based psychotherapies for childhood maltreatment will be discussed. A review of the role of pharmacotherapy in child maltreatment cases will also be presented. New evidence from prevention models targeting young mothers and families are also reviewed.

  8. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cizza, G; Ravn, Pernille; Chrousos, G P;

    2001-01-01

    Existing studies of the relationship between depression and osteoporosis have been heterogeneous in their design and use of diagnostic instruments for depression, which might have contributed to the different results on the comorbidity of these two conditions. Nevertheless, these studies reveal...... a strong association between depression and osteoporosis. Endocrine factors such as depression-induced hypersecretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone and hypercortisolism, hypogonadism, growth hormone deficiency and increased concentration of circulating interleukin 6, might play a crucial role...... in the bone loss observed in subjects suffering from major depression....

  9. Psychological Symptoms of Sexually Victimized Children and Adolescents Compared With Other Maltreatment Subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münzer, Annika; Fegert, Jörg M; Goldbeck, Lutz

    2016-04-01

    The differential effects of sexual victimization and other forms of maltreatment on psychological functioning are not well understood. A sample of sexually victimized children and adolescents (N = 70; 6.3-17.9 years) and a group of youth with a history of nonsexual maltreatment (N = 108; 6.7-16.9 years) were compared using measures of mental health and psychosocial functioning. Assessments included standardized clinical interviews on individual maltreatment history and current psychopathology as well as questionnaires on behavioral and emotional symptoms, including posttraumatic stress symptoms. The results from this study suggest that the risk of experiencing any current mental disorders was independent of type of maltreatment. The risk of meeting the criteria for a current diagnosis of major depression, however, is greater among youth with a history of maltreatment that includes sexual victimization. The significant impact of sexual victimization on posttraumatic stress symptoms was found to be nonsignificant after controlling for age and gender effects. The results indicate that the outcomes of child maltreatment depend on type of maltreatment, but age and gender must be taken into account. PMID:27135385

  10. Effects of Parenting Programs on Child Maltreatment Prevention: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mengtong; Chan, Ko Ling

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of parenting programs in reducing child maltreatment and modifying associated factors as well as to examine the moderator variables that are linked to program effects. For this meta-analysis, we searched nine electronic databases to identify randomized controlled trials published before September 2013. The effect sizes of various outcomes at different time points were computed. From the 3,578 studies identified, we selected 37 studies for further analysis. The total random effect size was 0.296. Our results showed that parenting programs successfully reduced substantiated and self-reported child maltreatment reports and reduced the potential for child maltreatment. The programs also reduced risk factors and enhanced protective factors associated with child maltreatment. However, the effects of the parenting programs on reducing parental depression and stress were limited. Parenting programs produced positive effects in low-, middle-, and high-income countries and were effective in reducing child maltreatment when applied as primary, secondary, or tertiary child maltreatment intervention. In conclusion, parenting programs are effective public health approaches to reduce child maltreatment. The evidence-based service of parenting programs could be widely adopted in future practice. PMID:25573846

  11. Investigating the effects of child maltreatment and household dysfunction on child physical development in a British birth cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Denholm, R. E.

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests adverse childhood experiences (maltreatment and household dysfunction) may have long-term effects on adult health. One possible pathway is through physical development. This thesis investigated the prevalence of child maltreatment and household dysfunction in a population sample, and assessed their association with child-to-adult height and pubertal development. The 1958 British birth cohort includes all children (≈17,000) born in one week, March 1958, followed-up to ...

  12. Preventing Early Child Maltreatment: Implications from a Longitudinal Study of Maternal Abuse History, Substance Use Problems, and Offspring Victimization

    OpenAIRE

    Appleyard, Karen; Berlin, Lisa J.; Rosanbalm, Katherine D.; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2011-01-01

    In the interest of improving child maltreatment prevention science, this longitudinal, community based study of 499 mothers and their infants tested the hypothesis that mothers’ childhood history of maltreatment would predict maternal substance use problems, which in turn would predict offspring victimization. Mothers (35% White/non-Latina, 34% Black/non-Latina, 23% Latina, 7% other) were recruited and interviewed during pregnancy, and child protective services records were reviewed for the p...

  13. Risk factors of parents abused as children: a mediational analysis of the intergenerational continuity of child maltreatment (Part I)

    OpenAIRE

    Dixon, Louise; Browne, Kevin; Hamilton-Giachritsis, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study provides an exploration of factors implicated in the intergenerational cycle of child maltreatment. Families with newborns where at least one of the parents was physically and/or sexually abused as a child (AP families) were compared in terms of risk factors to families where the parents had no childhood history of victimization (NAP families). The mediational properties of risk factors in the intergenerational cycle of maltreatment were then explored. METHODS: Infor...

  14. Effect of the Nature of Subsequent Environment on Oxytocin and Cortisol Secretion in Maltreated Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizushima, Sakae G; Fujisawa, Takashi X; Takiguchi, Shinichiro; Kumazaki, Hirokazu; Tanaka, Shiho; Tomoda, Akemi

    2015-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment (CM), including abuse and neglect, is a crucial factor that distorts child development. CM is associated with alterations in numerous brain regions, and may be associated with hormonal dysregulation. This study aimed to investigate differences in secretion patterns of cortisol (CT) and oxytocin (OT) among children who experienced CM, children living in residential care facilities and in unstable environments. Among 38 maltreated children, 23 (mean age = 12.2 years, SD = 3.0) were categorized as "Settled" and 15 (mean age = 13.1 years, SD = 2.2) as "Unsettled." Twenty-six age- and gender-matched (mean age = 12.6 years, SD = 2.1), typically developing (TD) children were also included. Clinical and psychological assessments, including IQ and trauma evaluations, were conducted for all participants. Age, gender, and full-scale IQ were used as covariates in hormone analysis. Two saliva samples were collected, one on awakening and the other at bedtime. There were significant differences in the awakening CT levels of the "Unsettled" group, and in bedtime OT levels in the "Settled" group as compared with TD children, and between CM groups. Furthermore, there was a significant difference in trauma-symptomatic depression scores between the "Settled" and "Unsettled" CM group. These results suggest that CT diurnal secretions tend to be reactive to current stress rather than previous experience. OT diurnal secretions are presumably hyper-regulated for coping with the environment to survive and thrive. By measuring salivary CT/OT diurnal patterns, hormonal dysregulation of CM children living in "Settled" environments and "Unsettled" environments was indicated. PMID:26696910

  15. Effect of the nature of subsequent environment on oxytocin and cortisol secretion in maltreated children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakae G. Mizushima

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Childhood maltreatment (CM, including abuse and neglect is a crucial factor that distorts child development. CM is associated with alterations in numerous brain regions, and may be associated with neuropeptide hormonal dysregulation. This study aimed to investigate differences in secretion patterns of cortisol (CT and oxytocin (OT among children who experienced CM, children living in residential care facilities and in unstable environments. Among 38 maltreated children, 23 (mean age = 12.2 years, SD = 3.0 were categorized as Settled and 15 (mean age = 13.1 years, SD = 2.2 as Unsettled. Twenty-six age- and gender-matched (mean age = 12.6 years, SD = 2.1, typically developing (TD children were also included. Clinical and psychological assessments, including IQ and trauma evaluations were conducted for all participants. Age, gender and full-scale IQ were used as covariates in hormone analysis. Two saliva samples were collected, one on awakening, the other at bedtime. There were significant differences in the awakening CT levels of the Unsettled group, and in bedtime OT levels in the Settled group as compared with TD children, and between CM groups. Furthermore, there was a significant difference in trauma-symptomatic depression scores between the Settled and Unsettled CM group. These results suggest that CT diurnal secretions tend to be reactive to current stress rather previous experience. OT diurnal secretions are presumably hyper-regulated for coping with the environment to survive and thrive. By measuring salivary CT/OT diurnal patterns, hormonal dysregulation of CM children living in Settled environments and Unsettled environments was indicated.

  16. The effects of child maltreatment on early signs of antisocial behavior: genetic moderation by tryptophan hydroxylase, serotonin transporter, and monoamine oxidase A genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A; Thibodeau, Eric L

    2012-08-01

    Gene-environment interaction effects in predicting antisocial behavior in late childhood were investigated among maltreated and nonmaltreated low-income children (N = 627, M age = 11.27). Variants in three genes were examined: tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1), serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR), and monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) upstream variable number tandem repeat. In addition to child maltreatment status, we considered the impact of maltreatment subtypes, developmental timing of maltreatment, and chronicity. Indicators of antisocial behavior were obtained from self-, peer, and adult counselor reports. In a series of analyses of covariance, child maltreatment and its parameters demonstrated strong main effects on early antisocial behavior as assessed by all report forms. Genetic effects operated primarily in the context of gene-environment interactions, moderating the impact of child maltreatment on outcomes. Across the three genes, among nonmaltreated children no differences in antisocial behavior were found based on genetic variation. In contrast, among maltreated children specific polymorphisms of TPH1, 5-HTTLPR, and MAOA were each related to heightened self-report of antisocial behavior; the interaction of 5-HTTLPR and developmental timing of maltreatment also indicated more severe antisocial outcomes for children with early onset and recurrent maltreatment based on genotype. TPH1 and 5-HTTLPR interacted with maltreatment subtype to predict peer reports of antisocial behavior; genetic variation contributed to larger differences in antisocial behavior among abused children. The TPH1 and 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms also moderated the effects of maltreatment subtype on adult reports of antisocial behavior; again, the genetic effects were strongest for children who were abused. In addition, TPH1 moderated the effect of developmental timing of maltreatment and chronicity on adult reports of antisocial behavior. The findings elucidate how genetic

  17. Developmental pathways from child maltreatment to adolescent marijuana dependence: Examining moderation by FK506 binding protein 5 gene (FKBP5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Elizabeth D; Rogosch, Fred A; Cicchetti, Dante

    2015-11-01

    The current study examined the prospective association between child maltreatment and the development of substance use disorder in adolescence with the aim of investigating pathways underlying this relation, as well as genetic moderation of these developmental mechanisms. Specifically, we tested whether youth who experienced maltreatment prior to age 8 were at risk for the development of marijuana dependence in adolescence by way of a childhood externalizing pathway and a childhood internalizing pathway. Moreover, we tested whether variation in FK506 binding protein 5 gene (FKBP5) CATT haplotype moderated these pathways. The participants were 326 children (n =179 maltreated; n = 147 nonmaltreated) assessed across two waves of data collection (childhood: ages 7-9 and adolescence: ages 15-18). Results indicated that higher levels of child externalizing symptoms significantly mediated the effect of child maltreatment on adolescent marijuana dependence symptoms for individuals with one or two copies of the FKBP5 CATT haplotype only. We did not find support for an internalizing pathway from child maltreatment to adolescent marijuana dependence, nor did we find evidence of moderation of the internalizing pathway by FKBP5 haplotype variation. Findings extend previous research by demonstrating that whether a maltreated child will traverse an externalizing pathway toward substance use disorder in adolescence is dependent on FKBP5 genetic variation. PMID:26535939

  18. Child maltreatment in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhi, Pratibha; Saini, Arushi Gahlot; Malhi, Prabhjot

    2013-11-01

    Child maltreatment is a global problem but is more difficult to assess and manage in developing countries such as India where one-fifth of the world's total child population resides. Certain forms of maltreatment such as feticide, infanticide, abandonment, child labour, street-begging, corporal punishment and battered babies are particularly prevalent in India. Most physicians still need to be sensitized in order to suspect child abuse on the basis of unexplained trauma, multiple fractures, parental conflict and other corroborative evidence. This article summarizes the various aspects of this major problem in resource-poor settings in the hope that it will assist in the planning of services addressing child physical and sexual abuse and neglect in India and in other developing countries. A culture of non-violence towards children needs to be built into communities in order to provide an environment conducive to the overall development of the child. Rehabilitation of abused children and their families requires a multi-disciplinary service including paediatricians, child psychologists and social workers, and the training of police forces in how to tackle the problem. PMID:24070123

  19. Loneliness and Depression in Middle and Late Childhood: The Relationship to Attachment and Parental Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richaud de Minzi, Maria Cristina

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the author analyzed the relationship between (a) parenting and attachment and (b) self-competence, loneliness, and depression in children aged 8-12 years. The author administered (a) the Argentine Scale of Perception of the Relationships with Parents (M. C. Richaud de Minzi, 2004), (b) the Kerns' Security Scale (K. A. Kerns, L.…

  20. Comorbid Depression and Anxiety in Childhood and Adolescent Anorexia Nervosa: Prevalence and Implications for Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Elizabeth K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Comorbid conditions are common in individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) and can raise issues for diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment planning. Methods: First, reported prevalence rates for depression and anxiety in children and adolescents with AN were reviewed. Diagnostic issues and current understanding of the temporal onset and…

  1. A Feasibility Study of the Childhood Depression Medication Algorithm: The Texas Children's Medication Algorithm Project (Cmap)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emslie, Graham J.; Hughes, Carroll W.; Crismon, M. Lynn; Lopez, Molly; Pliszka, Steve; Toprac, Marcia G.; Boemer, Christine

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility and impact on clinical response and function associated with the use of an algorithm-driven disease management program (ALGO) for children and adolescents treated for depression with or without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in community mental health centers. Method: Interventions included…

  2. Perinatal depression

    OpenAIRE

    Alhusen, Jeanne L.; Alvarez, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Perinatal depression is a common condition with significant adverse maternal, fetal, neonatal, and early childhood outcomes. The perinatal period is an opportune time to screen, diagnose, and treat depression. Improved recognition of perinatal depression, particularly among low-income women, can lead to improved perinatal health outcomes.

  3. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Adult Smoking, Nebraska, 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Yeoman, Kristin; Safranek, Thomas; Buss, Bryan; Cadwell, Betsy L.; Mannino, David

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Smoking is a public health risk; the prevalence of smoking among adults in Nebraska is 18.4%. Studies indicate that maltreatment of children alters their brain development, possibly increasing risk for tobacco use. Previous studies have documented associations between childhood maltreatment and adult health behaviors, demonstrating the influence of adverse experiences on tobacco use. We examined prevalence and associations between adverse childhood experiences and smoking among N...

  4. Early Child Maltreatment, Runaway Youths, and Risk of Delinquency and Victimization in Adolescence: A Mediational Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jung; Tajima, Emiko A.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Huang, Bu

    2009-01-01

    This article examines whether running away from home mediates the link between child maltreatment and later delinquency and victimization in adolescence. Specifically, the authors tested the hypothesis that childhood physical and psychological abuse increase the risk of a child's running away from home by the time of adolescence. Running away from…

  5. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jon O. J.

    2013-01-01

    Nyhederne er fulde af historier om depression. Overskrifter som: ’Danskerne propper sig med lykkepiller’ eller ‘depression er stadigvæk tabu’ går tit igen i dagspressen. Men hvor er nuancerne, og hvorfor gider vi læse de samme historier igen og igen? Måske er det fordi, vores egne forestillinger er...

  6. Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strock, Margaret

    Approximately ten percent of the population suffers from a depressive illness each year. Although the economic cost is high, the cost in human suffering is immeasurable. To help educate the population about this disorder, this paper presents a definition of depression and its common manifestations. The symptoms that people often experience are…

  7. Early Child Maltreatment, Runaway Youths, and Risk of Delinquency and Victimization in Adolescence: A Mediational Model

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Min Jung; Tajima, Emiko A.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Huang, Bu

    2009-01-01

    This article examines whether running away from home mediates the link between child maltreatment and later delinquency and victimization in adolescence. Specifically, the authors tested the hypothesis that childhood physical and psychological abuse increase the risk of a child's running away from home by the time of adolescence. Running away from home is, in turn, hypothesized to increase the risk of delinquency and victimization. Childhood sexual abuse, modeled independently of physical and...

  8. Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse in Caribbean Young Adults and Its Association with Depression, Post-Traumatic Stress, and Skin Bleaching

    OpenAIRE

    James, Caryl; Seixas, Azizi A; Harrison, Abigail; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Butler, Mark; Zizi, Ferdinand; Samuels, Alafia

    2015-01-01

    Background The global prevalence of skin depigmentation/skin bleaching among blacks, estimated at 35%, is on the rise and is associated with a host of negative health and medical consequences. Current etiological approaches do not fully capture the emotional and psychological underpinnings of skin bleaching. The current study investigated the potential mediating role of depression, or post-traumatic stress symptoms (avoidance and hyperarousal) on the relationship between childhood physical an...

  9. Association of socioeconomic status in childhood with major depression and generalized anxiety disorder: results from the World Mental Health Japan survey 2002–2006

    OpenAIRE

    Ochi, Manami; Fujiwara, Takeo; Mizuki, Rie; Kawakami, Norito

    2014-01-01

    Background Low socioeconomic status (SES) in childhood is known to be a significant risk factor for mental disorders in Western societies. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a similar association exists in Japan. Methods We used data from the World Mental Health Japan Survey conducted from 2002–2006 (weighted N = 1,682). Respondents completed diagnostic interviews that assessed lifetime prevalence of major depression (MD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), as defined by...

  10. The role of child maltreatment and attachment style in adolescent relationship violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wekerle, C; Wolfe, D A

    1998-01-01

    Utilizing attachment theory as a basis for conceptualizing close relationships among adolescents, this study investigated two important relationship risk factors (child maltreatment, and adolescent self-perceived insecure attachment style) as predictors of "offender" and "victim" experiences in youth relationships. In addition to considering the influence of these risk factors, we further considered their interaction in predicting conflict in close relationships. Of interest was the extent to which attachment styles may function as a moderator of the relationship between childhood abuse and current abuse in teen close relationships. High school students (N = 321) in grades 9 and 10 completed questionnaires tapping their histories of maltreatment, currently viewed styles of attachment, and conflict in close relationships over the past 6 months. Maltreatment alone emerged as the most consistent predictor, accounting for 13-18% of the variance in male's physically, sexually, and verbally abusive behaviors; in contrast, it was not highly predictive of female's abusive behaviors. Maltreatment was predictive of victimization experiences for both males and females. Attachment style did not substantially add to the prediction of relationship conflict beyond maltreatment; however, avoidant attachment style emerged repeatedly as a significant predictor of female abusiveness and victimization. Attachment self-ratings were found to function as a moderator of child maltreatment in predicting primarily male coercive behavior towards a relationship partner as well as predicting male's experience of coercion from a partner. Thus, the presence of childhood maltreatment and adolescent self-perceived insecure attachment style applies predominantly to male youth. The implication of these gender differences for understanding relationship violence is discussed.

  11. Risk of maltreatment-related injury: a cross-sectional study of children under five years old admitted to hospital with a head or neck injury or fracture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Jonathan Lee

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine the predictive value and sensitivity of demographic features and injuries (indicators for maltreatment-related codes in hospital discharge records of children admitted with a head or neck injury or fracture. METHODS: STUDY DESIGN: Population-based, cross sectional study. SETTING: NHS hospitals in England. SUBJECTS: Children under five years old admitted acutely to hospital with head or neck injury or fracture. DATA SOURCE: Hospital Episodes Statistics, 1997 to 2009. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Maltreatment-related injury admissions, defined by ICD10 codes, were used to calculate for each indicator (demographic feature and/or type of injury: i the predictive value (proportion of injury admissions that were maltreatment-related; ii sensitivity (proportion of all maltreatment-related injury admissions with the indicator. RESULTS: Of 260,294 childhood admissions for fracture or head or neck injury, 3.2% (8,337 were maltreatment-related. With increasing age of the child, the predictive value for maltreatment-related injury declined but sensitivity increased. Half of the maltreatment-related admissions occurred in children older than one year, and 63% occurred in children with head injuries without fractures or intracranial injury. CONCLUSIONS: Highly predictive injuries accounted for very few maltreatment-related admissions. Protocols that focus on high-risk injuries may miss the majority of maltreated children.

  12. Emotional but not physical maltreatment is independently related to psychopathology in subjects with various degrees of social anxiety: a web-based internet survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iffland Benjamin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies reported that social phobia is associated with a history of child maltreatment. However, most of these studies focused on physical and sexual maltreatment whilst little is known about the specific impact of emotional abuse and neglect on social anxiety. We examined the association between emotional maltreatment, including parental emotional maltreatment as well as emotional peer victimization, and social anxiety symptoms in subjects with various degrees of social anxiety. Methods The study was conducted as a web-based Internet survey of participants (N = 995 who had social anxiety symptoms falling within the high range, and including many respondents who had scores in the clinical range. The assessment included measures of child maltreatment, emotional peer victimization, social anxiety symptoms and general psychopathology. Results Regression and mediation analyses revealed that parental emotional maltreatment and emotional peer victimization were independently related to social anxiety and mediated the impact of physical and sexual maltreatment. Subjects with a history of childhood emotional maltreatment showed higher rates of psychopathology than subjects with a history of physical maltreatment. Conclusions Although our findings are limited by the use of an Internet survey and retrospective self-report measures, data indicated that social anxiety symptoms are mainly predicted by emotional rather than physical or sexual types of victimization.

  13. Development of a Childhood Attachment and Relational Trauma Screen (CARTS: a relational-socioecological framework for surveying attachment security and childhood trauma history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Frewen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background : Current psychometric measures of childhood trauma history generally fail to assess the relational-socioecological context within which childhood maltreatment occurs, including the relationship of abusers to abused persons, the emotional availability of caregivers, and the respondent's own thoughts, feelings, and actions in response to maltreatment. Objective : To evaluate a computerized approach to measuring the relational-socioecological context within which childhood maltreatment occurs. Method : The psychometric properties of a Childhood Attachment and Relational Trauma Screen (CARTS were evaluated as a retrospective survey of childhood maltreatment history designed to be appropriate for completion by adults. Participants were undergraduates (n=222, an internet sample (n=123, and psychiatric outpatients (n=30. Results : The internal reliability, convergent, and concurrent validity of the CARTS were supported across samples. Paired differences in means and correlations between rated item-descriptiveness to self, mothers, and fathers also accorded with findings of prior attachment and maltreatment research, illustrating the utility of assessing the occurrence and effects of maltreatment within a relational-socioecological framework. Conclusions : Results preliminarily support a new survey methodology for assessing childhood maltreatment within a relational-socioecological framework. Further psychometric evaluation of the CARTS is warranted.

  14. Depressants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treatment of insomnia that share many of the properties of benzodiazepines. Other CNS depressants include meprobamate, methaqualone ( ... they are prescribed for to put you to sleep, relieve anxiety and muscle spasms, and prevent seizures. ...

  15. Depressants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other long-term effects include: impaired sexual function insomnia and other sleep problems breathing problems convulsions (similar to seizures) depression and other mental health issues continue Other Possible Problems Taking too much ...

  16. Not All Bad Treatment Is Psychological Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbarino, James

    2011-01-01

    One of the conceptual and definitional issues that has plagued the study of child maltreatment is the relationship between intention and outcome. This paper flows from the finding that the common developmentally destructive element in all forms of child maltreatment is psychological maltreatment, that the study of child abuse and neglect is the…

  17. Teachers' Awareness of Child and Adolescent Maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyome, Nancy Dodge; Gaeddert, William

    1998-01-01

    Investigated teachers' knowledge of child and adolescent maltreatment and scenarios. Teacher ratings of the seriousness of depictions of different forms of maltreatment indicated that teachers tended to possess more knowledge about maltreatment of children than adolescents and tended to feel that adolescent sexual abuse was the most serious form…

  18. Depression and HIV risk behavior practices among at risk women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Hugh; Elifson, Kirk W; Sterk, Claire E

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we examined the relationship between depression and HIV-related risk behavior practices in a sample of 250 at risk, predominantly African American women living in the Atlanta, Georgia metropolitan area. Interviews were conducted between August 1997 and August 2000. Street outreach efforts were used to identify potential study participants, with further expansion of the sample via targeted sampling and ethnographic mapping procedures. Our conceptual model hypothesized a relationship between depression and HIV risk in which depression and condom-related attitudes were construed as intervening (or mediating) variables. A multivariate analysis was used to determine the relationship between depression and women's risk behaviors. The results showed that depression was a key-mediating variable, having its primary influence on women's risky practices through its impact upon their attitudes toward using condoms. Factors associated with depression, included religiosity, closeness of family relationships, financial problems, childhood maltreatment experiences, and drug-related problems. The implications of these findings for prevention and intervention efforts are: (1) heightening faith community involvement and religious participation to decrease depression; (2) working with women whose familial bonds are in need of strengthening to combat depression; (3) providing mental health and counseling services to women who were emotionally and/or sexually abused during their formative years seems to help these women to recover from unresolved issues that may be fueling depression; (4) assisting at risk women who need training in money management issues to minimize their risk for depression; and (5) helping women drug abusers to receive treatment for their drug problems to combat their depression and lower their HIV risk.

  19. Personality traits and childhood trauma as correlates of metabolic risk factors : The Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dortland, Arianne K. B. van Reedt; Giltay, Erik J.; van Veen, Tineke; Zitman, Frans G.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Personality and childhood trauma may affect cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. However, evidence for an association with metabolic risk factors for CVD is limited and ambiguous. Moreover, despite their interrelatedness, personality and childhood trauma were not yet studied simultaneously.

  20. Inferior fronto-temporo-occipital connectivity: a missing link between maltreated girls and neglectful mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, María José; León, Inmaculada; Góngora, Daylin; Hernández-Cabrera, Juan A; Byrne, Sonia; Bobes, María A

    2016-10-01

    The neurobiological alterations resulting from adverse childhood experiences that subsequently may lead to neglectful mothering are poorly understood. Maternal neglect of an infant's basic needs is the most prevalent type of child maltreatment. We tested white matter alterations in neglectful mothers, the majority of whom had also suffered maltreatment in their childhood, and compared them to a matched control group. The two groups were discriminated by a structural brain connectivity pattern comprising inferior fronto-temporo-occipital connectivity, which constitutes a major portion of the face-processing network and was indexed by fewer streamlines in neglectful mothers. Mediation and regression analyses showed that fewer streamlines in the right inferior longitudinal fasciculus tract (ILF-R) predicted a poorer quality of mother-child emotional availability observed during cooperative play and that effect depended on the respective interactions with left and right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculi (IFO-R/L), with no significant impact of psychopathological and cognitive conditions. Volume alteration in ILF-R but not in IFO-L modulated the impact of having been maltreated on emotional availability. The findings suggest the altered inferior fronto-temporal-occipital connectivity, affecting emotional visual processing, as a possible common neurological substrate linking a history of childhood maltreatment with maternal neglect.

  1. Inferior fronto-temporo-occipital connectivity: a missing link between maltreated girls and neglectful mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, María José; León, Inmaculada; Góngora, Daylin; Hernández-Cabrera, Juan A; Byrne, Sonia; Bobes, María A

    2016-10-01

    The neurobiological alterations resulting from adverse childhood experiences that subsequently may lead to neglectful mothering are poorly understood. Maternal neglect of an infant's basic needs is the most prevalent type of child maltreatment. We tested white matter alterations in neglectful mothers, the majority of whom had also suffered maltreatment in their childhood, and compared them to a matched control group. The two groups were discriminated by a structural brain connectivity pattern comprising inferior fronto-temporo-occipital connectivity, which constitutes a major portion of the face-processing network and was indexed by fewer streamlines in neglectful mothers. Mediation and regression analyses showed that fewer streamlines in the right inferior longitudinal fasciculus tract (ILF-R) predicted a poorer quality of mother-child emotional availability observed during cooperative play and that effect depended on the respective interactions with left and right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculi (IFO-R/L), with no significant impact of psychopathological and cognitive conditions. Volume alteration in ILF-R but not in IFO-L modulated the impact of having been maltreated on emotional availability. The findings suggest the altered inferior fronto-temporal-occipital connectivity, affecting emotional visual processing, as a possible common neurological substrate linking a history of childhood maltreatment with maternal neglect. PMID:27342834

  2. Maternal caregiving and girls' depressive symptom and antisocial behavior trajectories: an examination among high-risk youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harold, Gordon T; Leve, Leslie D; Kim, Hyoun K; Mahedy, Liam; Gaysina, Darya; Thapar, Anita; Collishaw, Stephan

    2014-11-01

    Past research has identified maternal depression and family of origin maltreatment as precursors to adolescent depression and antisocial behavior. Caregiving experiences have been identified as a factor that may ameliorate or accentuate adolescent psychopathology trajectories. Using a multilevel approach that pools the unique attributes of two geographically diverse, yet complementary, longitudinal research designs, the present study examined the role of maternal caregiver involvement as a factor that promotes resilience-based trajectories related to depressive symptoms and antisocial behaviors among adolescent girls. The first sample comprises a group of US-based adolescent girls in foster care (n = 100; mean age = 11.50 years), each of whom had a history of childhood maltreatment and removal from their biological parent(s). The second sample comprises a group of UK-based adolescent girls at high familial risk for depression (n = 145; mean age = 11.70 years), with all girls having biological mothers who experienced recurrent depression. Analyses examined the role of maternal caregiving on girls' trajectories of depression and antisocial behavior, while controlling for levels of co-occurring psychopathology at each time point. Results suggest increasing levels of depressive symptoms for girls at familial risk for depression but decreasing levels of depression for girls in foster care. Foster girls' antisocial behavior also decreased over time. Maternal caregiver involvement was differentially related to intercept and slope parameters in both samples. Results are discussed with respect to the benefits of applying multilevel (multisample, multiple outcome) approaches to identifying family-level factors that can reduce negative developmental outcomes in high-risk youth.

  3. Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallo, Donato

    2014-04-15

    Reading the CPD article was beneficial to my professional nursing practice and development. I gained a greater understanding of how depression is likely to exacerbate the effects of a physical illness or complicate the treatment of other health conditions. PMID:24712633

  4. Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to get better. Not a Normal Part of Aging Click for more information Depression is a common problem among older adults, but it is NOT a ... Z | videos A-Z | training | about us | contact us | site map National Institute on Aging | U.S. National Library of Medicine | National Institutes of ...

  5. Culture as a mediator of gene-environment interaction: Cultural consonance, childhood adversity, a 2A serotonin receptor polymorphism, and depression in urban Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, William W; Balieiro, Mauro C; Ferreira de Araújo, Luiza; Silva, Wilson A; Ernesto Dos Santos, José

    2016-07-01

    Research on gene-environment interaction was facilitated by breakthroughs in molecular biology in the late 20th century, especially in the study of mental health. There is a reliable interaction between candidate genes for depression and childhood adversity in relation to mental health outcomes. The aim of this paper is to explore the role of culture in this process in an urban community in Brazil. The specific cultural factor examined is cultural consonance, or the degree to which individuals are able to successfully incorporate salient cultural models into their own beliefs and behaviors. It was hypothesized that cultural consonance in family life would mediate the interaction of genotype and childhood adversity. In a study of 402 adult Brazilians from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds, conducted from 2011 to 2014, the interaction of reported childhood adversity and a polymorphism in the 2A serotonin receptor was associated with higher depressive symptoms. Further analysis showed that the gene-environment interaction was mediated by cultural consonance in family life, and that these effects were more pronounced in lower social class neighborhoods. The findings reinforce the role of the serotonergic system in the regulation of stress response and learning and memory, and how these processes in turn interact with environmental events and circumstances. Furthermore, these results suggest that gene-environment interaction models should incorporate a wider range of environmental experience and more complex pathways to better understand how genes and the environment combine to influence mental health outcomes.

  6. Culture as a mediator of gene-environment interaction: Cultural consonance, childhood adversity, a 2A serotonin receptor polymorphism, and depression in urban Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, William W; Balieiro, Mauro C; Ferreira de Araújo, Luiza; Silva, Wilson A; Ernesto Dos Santos, José

    2016-07-01

    Research on gene-environment interaction was facilitated by breakthroughs in molecular biology in the late 20th century, especially in the study of mental health. There is a reliable interaction between candidate genes for depression and childhood adversity in relation to mental health outcomes. The aim of this paper is to explore the role of culture in this process in an urban community in Brazil. The specific cultural factor examined is cultural consonance, or the degree to which individuals are able to successfully incorporate salient cultural models into their own beliefs and behaviors. It was hypothesized that cultural consonance in family life would mediate the interaction of genotype and childhood adversity. In a study of 402 adult Brazilians from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds, conducted from 2011 to 2014, the interaction of reported childhood adversity and a polymorphism in the 2A serotonin receptor was associated with higher depressive symptoms. Further analysis showed that the gene-environment interaction was mediated by cultural consonance in family life, and that these effects were more pronounced in lower social class neighborhoods. The findings reinforce the role of the serotonergic system in the regulation of stress response and learning and memory, and how these processes in turn interact with environmental events and circumstances. Furthermore, these results suggest that gene-environment interaction models should incorporate a wider range of environmental experience and more complex pathways to better understand how genes and the environment combine to influence mental health outcomes. PMID:27270123

  7. The Relationship between Childhood Traumatic Experiences and Adolescent Depression%童年期创伤性经历与青少年抑郁症的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宫翠风; 王惠萍; 尉秀峰; 李涛; 林聪聪; 贾婧萍

    2016-01-01

    Objective :To investigate the effect of traumatic experiences in childhood on the incidence of depression in adolescents .Methods :SDS and HRSD were measured in 200 adolescents with depression ,and 136 patients were se‐lected for questionnaire survey .130 healthy high school students were selected as the control group .Results :The ado‐lescent depression attacked before more trauma ,and traumatic childhood experiences and adolescent depression inci‐dence were positively correlated (r = 6 .42 ,P < 0 .01) .Conclusion :Childhood traumatic experience is very big ,it is the main factor leading to depression .Therefore ,it is significant to reduce the psychological trauma in childhood .%目的:了解青少年抑郁患者童年期的创伤性经历对青少年抑郁症发病的影响。方法:对200名青少年抑郁症患者进行抑郁自评量表(SDS)和汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HRSD)测量,选取符合抑郁发作诊断标准、抑郁程度在重度以上的患者136名进行问卷调查,组成研究组。同时,选取130名心理健康的高中学生作为对照组。采用儿童期创伤性经历问卷对两组被试分别进行调查,并采用回归方式对数据进行分析。结果:青少年抑郁发病前有较多的创伤经历,童年期的创伤性经历与青少年抑郁症的发病率呈正相关(r =6.42,P <0.01)。结论:童年期创伤性经历对青少年心理健康影响非常大,是导致青少年罹患抑郁发作的主要因素。

  8. Sources of emotional maltreatment and the differential development of unconditional and conditional schemas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Molly C; Lumley, Margaret N

    2012-01-01

    Schema theory posits that experiences of maltreatment result in the early development of maladaptive schemas (EMS; Young, Klosko, & Weishaar, 2003, Schema therapy: A practitioner's guide, The Guilford Press: New York, NY). EMS are organized by conditionality; unconditional schemas are theorized to develop early in childhood predominantly in response to experiences of parenting and conditional schemas are theorized to develop later in life in response to other relationships. Despite this distinction, minimal previous research has investigated their differential development. The current study examined the relative contributions of parental and other (peer and intimate partner) emotional maltreatment (EMT) in the differential development of unconditional and conditional schemas. Ninety-seven undergraduate students retrospectively reported their maltreatment experiences using the Lifetime Experiences Questionnaire and completed the Young Schema Questionnaire to measure EMS. Consistent with hypotheses, parental EMT was the strongest predictor of unconditional schemas. Unexpectedly, parental EMT also emerged as the strongest predictor of conditional schemas. Theoretical and clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  9. The ‘Maltreatment and Abuse Chronology of Exposure’ (MACE) Scale for the Retrospective Assessment of Abuse and Neglect During Development

    OpenAIRE

    Martin H Teicher; Angelika Parigger

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing interest in childhood maltreatment as a potent stimulus that may alter trajectories of brain development, induce epigenetic modifications and enhance risk for medical and psychiatric disorders. Although a number of useful scales exist for retrospective assessment of abuse and neglect they have significant limitations. Moreover, they fail to provide detailed information on timing of exposure, which is critical for delineation of sensitive periods. The Maltreatment and Abuse...

  10. Maternal postpartum distress and childhood overweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adeltoft, Teresa Ajslev; Andersen, Camilla S; Ingstrup, Katja Glejsted;

    2010-01-01

    We investigated associations between maternal postpartum distress covering anxiety, depression and stress and childhood overweight.......We investigated associations between maternal postpartum distress covering anxiety, depression and stress and childhood overweight....

  11. Improving care quality and preventing maltreatment in institutional care – a feasibility study with caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharin eHermenau

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Institutionalized children in low-income countries often face maltreatment and inadequate caregiving. In addition to prior traumatization and other childhood adversities in the family of origin, abuse and neglect in institutional care are linked to various mental health problems. By providing a manualized training workshop for caregivers, we aimed at improving care quality and preventing maltreatment in institutional care. In Study 1, 29 participating caregivers rated feasibility and efficacy of the training immediately before, directly after, and three months following the training workshop. The results showed high demand, good feasibility, high motivation and acceptance of caregivers. They reported improvements in caregiver-child relationships, as well as in the children’s behavior. Study 2 assessed exposure to maltreatment and the mental health of 28 orphans living in one institution in which all caregivers had been trained. The children were interviewed 20 months before, one month before, and three months after the training. Children reported a decrease in physical maltreatment and assessments showed a decrease in mental health problems. Our approach seems feasible under challenging circumstances and provides first hints for its efficacy. These promising findings call for further studies testing the efficacy and sustainability of this maltreatment prevention approach.

  12. Cognitive Abilities of Maltreated Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viezel, Kathleen D.; Freer, Benjamin D.; Lowell, Ari; Castillo, Jenean A.

    2015-01-01

    School psychologists should be aware of developmental risk factors for children who have been abused or neglected. The present study used the "Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fourth Edition" to examine the cognitive abilities of 120 children in foster care subsequent to maltreatment. Results indicated that, compared to a…

  13. Trends in Child Maltreatment Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behl, Leah E.; Conyngham, Heather A.; May, Patricia F.

    2003-01-01

    Child maltreatment articles (n=2090) published from 1977-1998 were reviewed. Across the period studied, quantitative articles and articles on child sexual abuse increased and theoretical articles and articles on physical abuse decreased. Articles examining child neglect or emotional abuse remained consistently low. Participant recruitment from…

  14. Depression in Children and Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Return to Web version Depression in Children and Teens Depression in Children and Teens How are the symptoms ... aafp.org/afp/20001115/2297.html) Childhood and Adolescent Depression by SK Bhatia, M.D., and SC Bhatia, ...

  15. Agent-Based Modeling and Simulation of Child Maltreatment and Child Maltreatment Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaolin Hu; Nicholas Keller

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an agent-based model that simulates the dynamics of child maltreatment and child maltreatment prevention. The developed model follows the principles of complex systems science and explicitly models a community and its families with multi-level factors across the social ecology. Each agent includes behavioral/cognitive modeling to account for the behavioral/cognitive process of child maltreatment. Simulation of child maltreatment prevention is also supported to evaluate the...

  16. Risk Factors of Parents Abused as Children: A Mediational Analysis of the Intergenerational Continuity of Child Maltreatment (Part I)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Louise; Browne, Kevin; Hamilton-Giachritsis, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    Background: This study provides an exploration of factors implicated in the intergenerational cycle of child maltreatment. Families with newborns where at least one of the parents was physically and/or sexually abused as a child (AP families) were compared in terms of risk factors to families where the parents had no childhood history of…

  17. Developmental Pathways to Adolescent Cannabis Abuse and Dependence: Child Maltreatment, Emerging Personality, and Internalizing versus Externalizing Psychopathology

    OpenAIRE

    Oshri, Assaf; Rogosch, Fred A.; Burnette, Mandi; Cicchetti, Dante

    2011-01-01

    Child maltreatment is strongly associated with adolescent psychopathology and substance abuse and dependence (Clark, Thatcher, & Martin, 2010; Ellis & Wolfe, 2009). However, developmental processes unfolding from childhood into adolescence that delineate this trajectory are not well understood. The current study uses path analysis in a structural equation modeling framework to examine multiple mediator models, including ego control, ego resiliency, and internalizing and externalizing symptoms...

  18. Self-Esteem of Young Adults Experiencing Interparental Violence and Child Physical Maltreatment: Parental and Peer Relationships as Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, April Chiung-Tao

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the joint impact of experiencing both interparental violence and child physical maltreatment on young adults' self-esteem. It also tested the hypothesis of parental and peer relationship qualities as mediators in the relationship between childhood histories of family violence and adult self-esteem. Data were collected from a…

  19. Childhood Abuse and Current Interpersonal Conflict: The Role of Shame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungmeen; Talbot, Nancy L.; Cicchetti, Dante

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether shame-proneness mediates the relationship between women's histories of childhood sexual abuse and their current partner and family conflict and child maltreatment. Previous research has found that women with childhood sexual abuse histories experience heightened shame and interpersonal conflict. However, research…

  20. Maltreatment and Mental Health Outcomes among Ultra-Poor Children in Burkina Faso: A Latent Class Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismayilova, Leyla; Gaveras, Eleni; Blum, Austin; Tô-Camier, Alexice; Nanema, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Research about the mental health of children in Francophone West Africa is scarce. This paper examines the relationships between adverse childhood experiences, including exposure to violence and exploitation, and mental health outcomes among children living in ultra-poverty in rural Burkina Faso. Methods This paper utilizes baseline data collected from 360 children ages 10–15 and 360 of their mothers recruited from twelve impoverished villages in the Nord Region of Burkina, located near the Sahel Desert and affected by extreme food insecurity. We used a Latent Class Analysis to identify underlying patterns of maltreatment. Further, the relationships between latent classes and mental health outcomes were tested using mixed effected regression models adjusted for clustering within villages. Results About 15% of the children in the study scored above the clinical cut-off for depression, 17.8% for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and 6.4% for low self-esteem. The study identified five distinct sub-groups (or classes) of children based on their exposure to adverse childhood experiences. Children with the highest exposure to violence at home, at work and in the community (Abused and Exploited class) and children not attending school and working for other households, often away from their families (External Laborer class), demonstrated highest symptoms of depression and trauma. Despite living in adverse conditions and working to assist families, the study also identified a class of children who were not exposed to any violence at home or at work (Healthy and Non-abused class). Children in this class demonstrated significantly higher self-esteem (b = 0.92, SE = 0.45, pfamily-level poverty and violence in the family. PMID:27764155

  1. Childhood Experiences and Psychosocial Influences on HIV Risk among Adolescent Latinas in Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, Michael D.; Locke, Thomas F.; Goodyear, Rodney K.

    2003-01-01

    This study determined how adverse childhood experiences influenced risky sexual behavior in a community sample of Latina adolescents in Los Angeles. Psychosocial, sociocultural, and environmental mediators of the relations between childhood experiences and risky sexual behavior were tested. Childhood maltreatment was associated with risky sexual…

  2. Depression and Play in Early Childhood: Play Behavior of Depressed and Nondepressed 3- to 6-Year-Olds in Various Play Situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lous, Annemieke Mol; de Wit, Cees A. M.; de Bruyn, Eric E. J.; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne; Rost, Henk

    2000-01-01

    The behavior of seven children (ages 3-6) with depression and 7 typical children was compared in solitary free play, interactive free play, and play narratives. Children with depression played significantly less, particularly in the area of symbolic play, showed significantly more nonplay behaviors, and showed less coherence in their behavior.…

  3. COMT but not serotonin-related genes modulates the influence of childhood abuse on anger traits.

    OpenAIRE

    Perroud, Nader; Jaussent, Isabelle; Guillaume, Sébastien; Bellivier, Frank; Baud, Patrick; Jollant, Fabrice; Leboyer, Marion; Lewis, Cathryn,; Malafosse, Alain; Courtet, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    International audience Anger-related traits are regulated by genes as well as early environmental factors. Both childhood maltreatment and genes underlie vulnerability to suicidal behaviors, possibly by affecting the constitution of intermediate phenotypes such as anger traits. The aim of this study was to test the interaction between nine candidate genes and childhood maltreatment in modulating anger-related traits in 875 adult suicide attempters. The State-Trait Anger Expression Inventor...

  4. A dental perspective on child maltreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Kvist, Therese

    2016-01-01

    Children who are exposed to child maltreatment are at risk of developing physical and mental ill-health and of expressing risk-taking behaviors. International studies describe associations of child maltreatment with caries, head and neck injuries and intra- oral injuries. Similar studies in a Swedish context are scarce, and little is known. The present thesis analyzed associations of oral health and oral health behaviors among children exposed to child maltreatment, as well as among children ...

  5. The impact of childhood maltreatment experience and MAOA-VNTR on female adolescent’s impulsivity trait%单胺氧化酶A基因串联重复序列与童年期虐待对女性青少年冲动特质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张芸; 明庆森; 马丽荣; 李欣茹; 王艳芬

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨单胺氧化酶A串联重复序列(monoamine oxidase A variable nucleotide tandem repeat, MAOA-VNTR)基因型与童年期虐待经历各自及其交互作用对女性青少年冲动特质的影响。方法选取西北某地403名正常汉族女性青少年,完成Barratt冲动量表(Barratt impulsiveness scale,BIS)及童年创伤经历问卷(childhood trauma questionnaire,CTQ),采集其外周静脉血并进行DNA提取及MAOA-VNTR基因分型。采用线性回归分析MAOA-VNTR基因型、童年期虐待经历,以及其交互作用对冲动量表得分的影响。结果童年期虐待经历对女性青少年冲动特质的主效应具有统计学意义(P0.05)。结论本研究并未发现MAOA-VNTR基因型对童年期虐待所致女性青少年冲动具有调节作用。%Objective To examine the impact on impulsivity trait by monoamine oxidase A variable nucleotide tan⁃dem repeat (MAOA-VNTR) genotype and children’s abuse experience. Methods The self-reported questionnaire of Bar⁃ratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS), Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) were conducted in 403 normal Han female adoles⁃cents from north-west of China. The DNA were extracted from their venous blood sample and were genotyped for the MAOA-VNTR polymorphism. A linear regression model was used to investigate the main effects of MAOA-VNTR and children's abuse, and their interaction effect on impulsivity. Results The main effect of Children’s maltreatment experi⁃ence on trait impulsivity was significant (P0.05). Conclusion The MAOA-VNTR genotype may not be involved in the female adolescents’impulsivity traits related to childhood maltreat⁃ment.

  6. Blunted Cortisol Responses to Stress Signal Social and Behavioral Problems Among Maltreated/Bullied 12-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouellet-Morin, Isabelle; Odgers, Candice L.; Danese, Andrea; Bowes, Lucy; Shakoor, Sania; Papadopoulos, Andrew S.; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence from animal and human studies suggests that early-life stress such as physical maltreatment has long-lasting effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and is associated with blunted HPA axis reactivity in adulthood. Few studies have investigated whether blunted HPA axis reactivity observed in children exposed to early-life stress signals social, emotional, and behavioral problems. Methods Participants were 190 12-year-old children (50.5% males) recruited from the Environmental Risk Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally representative 1994 to 1995 cohort of families with twins. Cortisol responses to psychosocial stress were measured in maltreated/ bullied (n = 64) and comparison children (n = 126). We ascertained maltreatment and bullying victimization using mothers’ reports and assessed children’s social, emotional, and behavioral problems at ages 5 and 12 using mothers’ and teachers’ reports. Results Piecewise multilevel growth curve analyses indicated that maltreated/bullied and comparison children showed distinct cortisol responses to stress. Specifically, maltreated/bullied children had lower cortisol responses than comparison children who exhibited a significant increase. Lower cortisol responses were, in turn, associated with more social and behavioral problems among maltreated/bullied children. Conclusions These findings provide support for the influence of childhood harm on blunted HPAaxis reactivity and its potential impacton children’s functioning. Our findings emphasize the need to integrate stress biomarkers in guiding prevention efforts for young victims. PMID:21839988

  7. Psychiatric symptom typology in a sample of youth receiving substance abuse treatment services: associations with self-reported child maltreatment and sexual risk behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshri, Assaf; Tubman, Jonathan G; Jaccard, James

    2011-11-01

    Latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to classify 394 adolescents undergoing substance use treatment, based on past year psychiatric symptoms. Relations between profile membership and (a) self-reported childhood maltreatment experiences and (b) current sexual risk behavior were examined. LPA generated three psychiatric symptom profiles: Low-, High- Alcohol-, and High- Internalizing Symptoms profiles. Analyses identified significant associations between profile membership and childhood sexual abuse and emotional neglect ratings, as well as co-occurring sex with substance use and unprotected intercourse. Profiles with elevated psychiatric symptom scores (e.g., internalizing problems, alcohol abuse and dependence symptoms) and more severe maltreatment histories reported higher scores for behavioral risk factors for HIV/STI exposure. Heterogeneity in psychiatric symptom patterns among youth receiving substance use treatment services, and prior histories of childhood maltreatment, have significant implications for the design and delivery of HIV/STI prevention programs to this population.

  8. The structural equation analysis of childhood abuse, adult stressful life events, and temperaments in major depressive disorders and their influence on refractoriness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toda H

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hiroyuki Toda,1 Takeshi Inoue,2,3 Tomoya Tsunoda,1 Yukiei Nakai,2 Masaaki Tanichi,1 Teppei Tanaka,1 Naoki Hashimoto,2 Yasuya Nakato,2 Shin Nakagawa,2 Yuji Kitaichi,2 Nobuyuki Mitsui,2 Shuken Boku,4 Hajime Tanabe,5 Masashi Nibuya,1 Aihide Yoshino,1 Ichiro Kusumi2 1Department of Psychiatry, National Defense Medical College, Tokorozawa, Saitama, Japan; 2Department of Psychiatry, Hokkaido University Graduate School of Medicine, Sapporo, Japan; 3Department of Psychiatry, Tokyo Medical University, Tokyo, Japan; 4Department of Psychiatry, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, Japan; 5Department of Clinical Human Sciences, Graduate School of Humanities and Social Sciences, Shizuoka University, Shizuoka, Japan Background: Previous studies have shown the interaction between heredity and childhood stress or life events on the pathogenesis of a major depressive disorder (MDD. In this study, we tested our hypothesis that childhood abuse, affective temperaments, and adult stressful life events interact and influence the diagnosis of MDD. Patients and methods: A total of 170 healthy controls and 98 MDD patients were studied using the following self-administered questionnaire surveys: the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9, the Life Experiences Survey, the Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego Autoquestionnaire, and the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale (CATS. The data were analyzed with univariate analysis, multivariable analysis, and structural equation modeling. Results: The neglect scores of the CATS indirectly predicted the diagnosis of MDD through cyclothymic and anxious temperament scores of the Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego Autoquestionnaire in the structural equation modeling. Two temperaments – cyclothymic and anxious – directly predicted the diagnosis of MDD. The validity of this result was supported by the results of the stepwise multivariate logistic regression analysis

  9. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Maltreatment and Abuse Chronology of Exposure (MACE scale to Brazilian Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Kluwe-Schiavon

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : There is strong evidence to indicate that childhood maltreatment can negatively affect both physical and mental health and there is increasing interest in understanding the occurrence and consequences of such experiences. While several tools have been developed to retrospectively investigate childhood maltreatment experiences, most of them do not investigate the experience of witnessing family violence during childhood or bullying exposure. Moreover, the majority of scales do not identify when these experiences may have occurred, who was involved or the feelings evoked, such as helplessness or terror. The Maltreatment and Abuse Chronology of Exposure (MACE scale was developed to overcome these limitations. Objective : In view of the improvements over previous self-report instruments that this new tool offers and of the small number of self-report questionnaires for childhood maltreatment assessment available in Brazil, this study was conducted to conduct cross-cultural adaptation of the MACE scale for Brazilian Portuguese. Method : The following steps were performed: translation, back-translation, committee review for semantic and conceptual evaluation, and acceptability trial for equivalence. Results : Semantic and structural changes were made to the interview to adapt it for the Brazilian culture and all 75 of the items that comprise the longer version of MACE were translated. The results of the acceptability trial suggest that the items are comprehensible. Conclusion : The MACE scales may be useful tools for investigation of childhood maltreatment and make a valuable contribution to research in Brazil. Future studies should consider testing the availability and reliability of the three versions of the instrument translated into Brazilian Portuguese.

  10. Patterns of Intimate Partner Violence in Mothers At-Risk for Child Maltreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Bair-Merritt, Megan H; Ghazarian, Sharon R.; Burrell, Lori; Duggan, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Using three interviews spanning 3 years, we identified intimate partner violence (IPV) classes and determined how class membership changed over time amongst a sample of 217 mothers at-risk for child maltreatment that were enrolled in an early childhood home visitation evaluation study. Data on perpetration/victimization, IPV type (verbal, physical, and sexual abuse and injury) and severity were used to conduct latent class analyses at each time point. Latent transition analyses established th...

  11. Child maltreatment and ADHD symptoms in a sample of young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Sanderud, Karoline; Murphy, Siobhan; Elklit, Ask

    2016-01-01

    Objective The present study investigated the relationship between different types of childhood maltreatment (emotional, sexual, overall abuse, and no abuse) and the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in young adulthood. Method Data were collected from a Danish national study conducted by The Danish National Centre for Social Research in 2008 and 2009. A sample of 4,718 young adults (24 years of age) were randomly selected using the total birth cohort of children born ...

  12. Lower structural integrity of the uncinate fasciculus is associated with a history of child maltreatment and future psychological vulnerability to stress

    OpenAIRE

    Hanson, Jamie L.; Knodt, Annchen R.; Brigidi, Bartholomew D.; Hariri, Ahmad R.

    2015-01-01

    The experience of child maltreatment is a significant risk factor for the development of later internalizing disorders such as depression and anxiety. This risk is particularly heightened after exposure to additional, more contemporaneous stress. While behavioral evidence exists for such “stress sensitization,” little is known about the mechanisms mediating such relationships, particularly within the brain. Here we report that the experience of child maltreatment independent of recent life st...

  13. Child maltreatment: Abuse and neglect

    OpenAIRE

    Bengü Pala; Murat Ünalacak; İlhami Ünlüoğlu

    2011-01-01

    Each year, millions of children around the world are the victims and witnesses of physical, sexual and emotional violence. Child maltreatment is a major global problem with a serious impact on the victims’ physical and mental health, well-being and development throughout their lives and, by extension, on society in general. Family physicians who are involved in the care of children are likely to encounter child abuse and should be able to recognize its common presentations. There is sufficien...

  14. Relationship between Childhood Traumatic Experiences and Adolescents Depression%童年创伤与青少年抑郁症的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李萍; 柳雨希; 陈西庆; 王惠萍; 李文静

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究童年创伤经历与青少年抑郁症的关系。方法:采用童年期创伤问卷( CTQ-SF)、一般情况调查表对52例青少年抑郁症患者及正常对照组48例进行测查。结果:青少年抑郁症患者情感虐待、情感忽视、性虐待及躯体忽视4因素进入Logistic回归方程。情感虐待(Waldχ2=9.163,P<0.01),情感忽视(Wald χ2=4.750,P<0.05),性虐待(Waldχ2=4.519,P<0.05),躯体忽视(Wald χ2=4.602,P<0.05)。结论:青少年抑郁症患者童年期的情感虐待、情感忽视、性虐待及躯体忽视是抑郁症发病的危险因素。%Objective:To explore the relationship between childhood traumatic experiences and ado-lescents depression patients.Methods:52 adolescents depression patients and 48 healthy adolescents of the control group were investigated with general questionnaire and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire.Re-sults:Emotional abuses,emotional neglect,sexual abuses and physical neglect of the adolescents depres-sion patients entered the logistic regression equation.Logistic regression analysis showed that the adoles-cents depression patients could be accounted for by emotional abuses( Waldχ2 =9.163,P<0.01),emo-tional neglect(Wald χ2 =4.750,P<0.05),sexual abuses(Wald χ2 =4.519,P<0.05),physical neg-lect(Waldχ2 =4.602,P<0.05).Conclusion: Emotional abuses,emotional neglect,sexual abuses and physical neglect may be the risk factors for the development of adolescents depression patients.

  15. True and False Memories in Maltreated Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Mark L.; Cicchetti, Dante; Toth, Sheree L.; Cerrito, Beth M.

    2004-01-01

    Differences in basic memory processes between maltreated and nonmaltreated children were examined in an experiment in which middle-socioeconomic-status (SES; N=60), low-SES maltreated (N=48), and low-SES nonmaltreated (N=51) children (ages 57, 89, and 10-12 years) studied 12 Deese-Roediger-McDermott lists. Using recall and recognition measures,…

  16. Children with Disabilities and Child Maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldson, Edward

    1998-01-01

    Addresses the phenomenon of children with disabilities who are maltreated. The higher risk for children with disabilities being victimized and maltreated because of their dependency and the higher reported incidence of abuse are discussed. Reasons for the higher incidence of abuse, including social devaluation, are provided. (CR)

  17. Child Maltreatment and the School Psychologist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viezel, Kathleen D.; Davis, Andrew S.

    2015-01-01

    Child maltreatment remains a relevant issue for school psychologists. This special issue was designed to provide school psychology practitioners, researchers, and other school personnel with current, empirically sound information about child maltreatment. This introduction provides context for the articles in this volume, including definitions of…

  18. The specificity of childhood adversities and negative life events across the life span to anxiety and depressive disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spinhoven, Philip; Elzinga, Bernet M.; Hovens, Jacqueline G. F. M.; Roelofs, Karin; Zitman, Frans G.; van Oppen, Patricia; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Although several studies have shown that life adversities play an important role in the etiology and maintenance of both depressive and anxiety disorders, little is known about the relative specificity of several types of life adversities to different forms of depressive and anxiety diso

  19. Childhood depression and conduct disorder: I. Behavioral, affective, and cognitive aspects of family problem-solving interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, M R; Dadds, M R; Johnston, B M; Cash, R

    1992-08-01

    We assessed the family interactions of depressed, conduct-disordered, mixed depressed-conduct-disordered, and nonclinic children, ages 7-14 years, during a standardized family problem-solving discussion in the clinic. The child's and the mother's problem-solving proficiency, aversive behavior, and associated affective behavior (depressed and angry-hostile) were observed. The child and mother also rated each other's affect during the interaction for the dimensions sad, angry, critical, and happy on Likert-type scales. The child's and mother's cognitive constructions about the interaction were assessed using video-mediated recall. Although all clinic groups had lower levels of effective problem solving than did nonclinic children, their deficiencies were somewhat different. Mixed and depressed children displayed high levels of depressed affect and low levels of angry affect, whereas conduct-disordered children displayed both angry and depressed affect. In addition, conduct-disordered children had lower levels of positive problem solving and higher levels of aversive content than did non-conduct-disordered children. Depressed and conduct-disordered children had higher levels of self-referent negative cognitions than did mixed and comparison children, and depressed children also had higher other-referent negative cognitions than did all other groups. The study provides support for theories and treatment that stress the importance of family problem-solving and conflict resolution skills in child psychopathology.

  20. Are childhood and adult life adversities differentially associated with specific symptom dimensions of depression and anxiety? Testing the tripartite model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veen, T.; Wardenaar, K. J.; Carlier, I. V. E.; Spinhoven, P.; Penninx, B. W. J. H.; Zitman, F. G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Different types of adverse events may have general or specific effects on depression and anxiety symptomatology. We examined the effects of adversities on the dimensions of the tripartite model: general distress, anhedonic depression and anxious arousal. Methods: Data were from 2615 indi

  1. The Development of a Transdiagnostic, Cognitive Behavioral Group Intervention for Childhood Anxiety Disorders and Co-Occurring Depression Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Bilek, Emily L.

    2012-01-01

    Anxiety and depression are highly prevalent and frequently comorbid classes of disorder associated with significant impairment in youth. While current transdiagnostic protocols address a range of potential anxiety and depression symptoms among adult and adolescent populations, there are few similar treatment options for school-aged children with…

  2. Combined Individual Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Parent Training for Childhood Depression: 2- to 3-Year Follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckshtain, Dikla; Gaynor, Scott T.

    2013-01-01

    Fourteen children with significant depressive symptoms from an open clinical trial of Primary and Secondary Control Enhancement Training augmented with Caregiver-Child Relationship Enhancement Training, participated in a 2- to 3-year follow-up assessment. The results suggested that the significant decreases in depressive symptoms observed at…

  3. The Relationship Between Suicidal Ideation of Depressive Patients and Childhood Abuse in Wenzhou%温州市抑郁症患者自杀意念与儿童期受虐待情况的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李燕; 汪庆; 陈莉; 唐闻捷

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨抑郁症患者的自杀意念与儿童期受虐之间的关系.方法:采用儿童期虐待问卷(CTQ)和贝克自杀意念量表(BSI)对温州272名抑郁症患者进行测查.结果:在这次调查中,发生率最高的是躯体忽视,而得分最高的是情感忽视.各类型虐待之间存在正相关.除躯体虐待,各类型的虐待与自杀意念成正相关.结论:儿童期受虐待的抑郁患者有自杀意念的几率似乎要大.%Objective:To explore the relationship between childhood abuse and suicidal ideation of depressive patients. Method: A total of 272 depressive patients in Wenzhou were investigated with Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSD. Result: In this study, the highest rate was physical negligence/But the highest score was emotional abuse. Each type of childhood abuse had a positive correlation. There was a positive correlation between the score of each type of childhood abuse except physical abuse. Conclusion: It seems that Childhood abuse in depressed patients may be greater risk of suicidal ideation.

  4. Protective factors associated with resilient functioning in young adulthood after childhood exposure to violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Kathryn H; Miller-Graff, Laura E

    2014-12-01

    Children may be subjected to many forms of violence and a significant number will experience multiple victimizations. These children are at high risk for developing psychological and emotional difficulties that may last into adulthood. Despite the increased risk for psychopathology, a substantial percentage of young adults exhibit resilient functioning following a history of childhood violence. This study examines the role of social support, spirituality, and emotional intelligence in promoting resilience during emerging adulthood. Participants included 321 young adult American college students, age 18-24, who experienced childhood violence, including community violence, interpersonal aggression, child maltreatment, peer/sibling victimization, and/or sexual assault. Findings revealed that this sample was highly victimized, with an average of 9 violent experiences reported during childhood. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that after controlling for exposure to childhood victimization, other potentially traumatic events, and current depression and anxiety symptoms, higher resilience during emerging adulthood was associated with greater spirituality, greater emotional intelligence, and support from friends (but not from family). Findings suggest that the potency of protective factors outweighs that of adversity and psychopathology when predicting resilient functioning. By identifying variables that can enhance resilience, this study offers unique insight into how functioning may be improved by both individual and environmental factors. PMID:25459988

  5. Linking typologies of childhood adversity to adult incarceration: Findings from a nationally representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Leslie E; Afifi, Tracie O; Martin, Christina Gamache; Pietrzak, Robert H; Tsai, Jack; Sareen, Jitender

    2016-01-01

    Ecologically valid typologies of adverse child experiences (ACEs) were identified to investigate the link between ACEs and adult incarceration. In a nationally representative sample (N = 34,653, age 20+), latent class analysis (LCA) was conducted with childhood maltreatment (physical, sexual, and emotional abuse, interpersonal violence [IPV] exposure, physical neglect) and caregiver maladjustment (substance use, incarceration, mental illness, and suicidal behavior) indicators. LCA identified a 5-typology model (1. ; 2. ; 3. ; 4. ; and 5. ). Controlling for sociodemographics and substance use problems, logistic regression analyses determined that, compared with the typology, all typologies (except ) had elevated incarceration risk (adjusted odds ratios: 1.76-4.18). Maltreatment experiences were more predictive of incarceration for women versus men. Childhood maltreatment confers risk for incarceration beyond established risk factors, but caregiver maladjustment, alone, does not. Preventative efforts should focus on understanding and targeting pathways to delinquency for individuals with childhood maltreatment. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27078049

  6. Prenatal depression and young low-income mothers' perception of their children from pregnancy through early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Helen Y; Hans, Sydney L

    2015-08-01

    This study investigates the role of prenatal depression on young mothers' perception of difficulty in child behavior and parent-child interaction from pregnancy through the first two years of child development. 248 low-income, African American women aged between 13 and 21 years reported on their perceptions of child behavior, parent-child interaction, and on depressive symptoms at the third trimester of pregnancy and at 4-, 12- and 24-months postpartum. During pregnancy, a high percentage (47%) of the young mothers scored above the clinical level of prenatal depressive symptoms. These mothers anticipated and perceived significantly more child difficulty and parent-child interaction difficulty than did non-depressed mothers during pregnancy and over the first two years of the child's development. Moreover, prenatal depression uniquely predicted negative maternal perception throughout the early years of child development even after adjusting for postpartum depression history. The enduring association between prenatal depression and a mother's perception of her child is discussed with respect to the importance of pregnancy in mothers' developing mental schema about their children and the emerging parent-child relationship. PMID:26164420

  7. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Adult Risk Factors for Age-Related Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danese, Andrea; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Harrington, HonaLee; Milne, Barry J.; Polanczyk, Guilherme; Pariante, Carmine M.; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand why children exposed to adverse psychosocial experiences are at elevated risk for age-related disease, such as cardiovascular disease, by testing whether adverse childhood experiences predict enduring abnormalities in stress-sensitive biological systems, namely, the nervous, immune, and endocrine/metabolic systems. Design A 32-year prospective longitudinal study of a representative birth cohort. Setting New Zealand. Participants A total of 1037 members of the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study. Main Exposures During their first decade of life, study members were assessed for exposure to 3 adverse psychosocial experiences: socioeconomic disadvantage, maltreatment, and social isolation. Main Outcome Measures At age 32 years, study members were assessed for the presence of 3 age-related-disease risks: major depression, high inflammation levels (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein level >3 mg/L), and the clustering of metabolic risk biomarkers (overweight, high blood pressure, high total cholesterol, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high glycated hemoglobin, and low maximum oxygen consumption levels. Results Children exposed to adverse psychosocial experiences were at elevated risk of depression, high inflammation levels, and clustering of metabolic risk markers. Children who had experienced socioeconomic disadvantage (incidence rate ratio, 1.89; 95% confidence interval, 1.36–2.62), maltreatment (1.81; 1.38–2.38), or social isolation (1.87; 1.38–2.51) had elevated age-related-disease risks in adulthood. The effects of adverse childhood experiences on age-related-disease risks in adulthood were nonredundant, cumulative, and independent of the influence of established developmental and concurrent risk factors. Conclusions Children exposed to adverse psychosocial experiences have enduring emotional, immune, and metabolic abnormalities that contribute to explaining their elevated risk for age-related disease. The

  8. The developmental origins of cognitive vulnerability to depression: temperament, parenting, and negative life events in childhood as contributors to negative cognitive style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezulis, Amy H; Hyde, Janet Shibley; Abramson, Lyn Y

    2006-11-01

    Cognitive models of depression have been well supported with adults, but the developmental origins of cognitive vulnerability are not well understood. The authors hypothesized that temperament, parenting, and negative life events in childhood would contribute to the development of cognitive style, with withdrawal negativity and negative parental feedback moderating the effects of negative life events to predict more depressogenic cognitive styles. These constructs were assessed in 289 children and their parents followed longitudinally from infancy to 5th grade; a subsample (n = 120) also participated in a behavioral task in which maternal feedback to child failure was observed. Results indicated that greater withdrawal negativity in interaction with negative life events was associated with more negative cognitive styles. Self-reported maternal anger expression and observed negative maternal feedback to child's failure significantly interacted with child's negative events to predict greater cognitive vulnerability. There was little evidence of paternal parenting predicting child negative cognitive style. PMID:17087538

  9. The developmental origins of cognitive vulnerability to depression: temperament, parenting, and negative life events in childhood as contributors to negative cognitive style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezulis, Amy H; Hyde, Janet Shibley; Abramson, Lyn Y

    2006-11-01

    Cognitive models of depression have been well supported with adults, but the developmental origins of cognitive vulnerability are not well understood. The authors hypothesized that temperament, parenting, and negative life events in childhood would contribute to the development of cognitive style, with withdrawal negativity and negative parental feedback moderating the effects of negative life events to predict more depressogenic cognitive styles. These constructs were assessed in 289 children and their parents followed longitudinally from infancy to 5th grade; a subsample (n = 120) also participated in a behavioral task in which maternal feedback to child failure was observed. Results indicated that greater withdrawal negativity in interaction with negative life events was associated with more negative cognitive styles. Self-reported maternal anger expression and observed negative maternal feedback to child's failure significantly interacted with child's negative events to predict greater cognitive vulnerability. There was little evidence of paternal parenting predicting child negative cognitive style.

  10. 童年期创伤经历与自尊对新兵抑郁的影响%Effects of childhood traumatic experience and self -esteem on depression in recruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红政; 陈海燕; 雷美英; 王周然; 王创

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解童年期创伤经历对新兵抑郁的影响,探讨自尊在童年期创伤经历与抑郁关系中的作用。方法运用自尊量表(SES)、童年期创伤经历问卷(CTQ -SF)和抑郁自评量表(SDS)对1925名男性新兵进行问卷调查。结果控制年龄后,情感虐待、情感忽视和躯体忽视预测抑郁的回归系数为正;自尊在抑郁上的回归系数为负,在儿童期创伤经历各个因子和抑郁症状之间调节作用不显著,但其中介作用显著。结论童年期创伤经历显著影响新兵抑郁,并能通过自尊间接作用于抑郁,但自尊不能改变童年期创伤经历对抑郁的影响。%Objective To investigate the impact of childhood traumatic experience on depression in recruits , and the moderating and mediating effects of self -esteem.Methods A sample of 1 925 male recruits was assessed with Self -Esteem Scale (SES), Childhood Trauma Questionnaire -28 item Short Form (CTQ -SF) and Self -Rating Depression Scale (SDS).Results After age controlled, the standard regression coefficients of emotional abuse , emotional neglect, physical neglect to depression were significantly positive .The standard regression coefficient of self -esteem to depression was significantly negative.The self -esteem could not moderate the correlation between childhood traumatic experience and depression, but partially mediated the correlation between emotional abuse , emotional neglect, or physical neglect and depression.Conclusion Childhood traumatic experience is significant predictor of depression , and could also indirectly affect depression through self -esteem; but self -esteem could not change the correlation between childhood traumatic ex -perience and depression.

  11. The phenotypic and genetic structure of depression and anxiety disorder symptoms in childhood, adolescence and young adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Waszczuk, M. A.; Zavos, Helena M.S.; Gregory, Alice M.; Eley, Thalia C.

    2014-01-01

    Importance: The recently published DSM-5 continues to classify mood and anxiety disorders as separate conditions. However, some studies in adults find a unidimensional internalizing factor that underpins anxiety and depression, while others support a bidimensional model where symptoms segregate into distress (depression and generalized anxiety) and fear factors (phobia subscales). Little is known, however, about the phenotypic and genetic structure of internalizing psychopathology in children...

  12. Combined Individual Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Parent Training for Childhood Depression: 2-3-Year Follow-Up

    OpenAIRE

    Eckshtain, Dikla; Gaynor, Scott T

    2013-01-01

    Fourteen children with significant depressive symptoms from an open clinical trial of Primary and Secondary Control Enhancement Training augmented with Caregiver–Child Relationship Enhancement Training, participated in a 2-3-year follow-up assessment. The results suggested that the significant decreases in depressive symptoms observed at post-treatment were maintained at 2-3-year follow-up. Mothers’ reports of significant improvement of child psychosocial functioning were also maintained, pro...

  13. Child maltreatment and its victims. A comparison of physical and sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, A H

    1988-12-01

    Although physical and sexual abuse are separate and distinct types of victimization, their impact on children is quite similar. Both of these forms of maltreatment involve the exploitation or misuse of a child by a parent or caretaker in the context of a pathologic family system. Physical and sexual abuse constitute an acute traumatic event for the child, generating phobic responses and anxiety-related symptoms including post-traumatic stress disorder. The long-term traumatic elements stemming from the chronic stigmatization and scapegoating contribute to problems of depression and low self-esteem and distortions in character formation. Betrayal by a primary caretaker leads to mistrust of others and difficulties with object relationships. Perhaps the most striking similarity between physical and sexual abuse of children is the tendency of the children to re-enact and recreate their victimization with others, leading to a transmission of violence in the next generation. Like their parents who were frequently victimized during childhood, they repeat and perpetuate an "aggressor-victim" interaction in their subsequent relationships. Both physical and sexual abuse are embedded in a deviant family structure, which adds to the psychopathology of the children. The contrast between physical and sexual abuse can be demonstrated by their specific impact on aggression and sexuality, respectively. The physically abused child has difficulty in experiencing and modulating aggressive impulses, whereas the victim of incest is often impaired in his ability to experience and integrate sexual feelings. The physically abused child is also at greater risk for cognitive and CNS impairment. Intervention with the abusing parents is the first step in protecting the children from further damage, but treatment of the child victims is necessary not only to diminish their psychopathology and emotional distress, but to prevent the cycle of violence in the next generation.

  14. Associations between Childhood Adversity and Depression, Substance Abuse and HIV and HSV2 Incident Infections in Rural South African Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewkes, Rachel K.; Dunkle, Kristin; Nduna, Mzikazi; Jama, P. Nwabisa; Puren, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To describe prevalence of childhood experiences of adversity in rural South African youth and their associations with health outcomes. Methods: We analyzed questionnaires and blood specimens collected during a baseline survey for a cluster randomized controlled trial of a behavioral intervention, and also tested blood HIV and herpes…

  15. Depressão na infância: um estudo exploratório Depression during childhood: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Simão dos Santos Calderaro

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Na depressão infantil os sintomas diferem dos apresentados pelos adultos, evidenciando-se freqüentemente através de transtorno do déficit de atenção e hiperatividade, baixa auto-estima, tristeza, medos, distúrbios do sono, enurese, dores abdominais. Procurou-se estudar manifestações depressivas em crianças de 03 a 10 anos de idade, no contexto de creches e saúde pública, na cidade de Paranavaí-PR, realizando-se: a entrevistas semi-estruturadas com 5 pediatras, 2 médicos do programa da Saúde da Família, 6 educadores e 4 coordenadores de creches; b estudo de caso com nove crianças. Os resultados indicaram que todas as crianças da amostra apresentavam núcleos depressivos significativos, com intenso sofrimento psíquico e necessidade de encaminhamento. Concluiu-se que a depressão infantil manifesta-se de forma bastante significativa, evidenciando a necessidade de que as pessoas envolvidas diretamente com as crianças estejam alertas para os sintomas, pois a falta do diagnóstico correto e do tratamento perpetua o sofrimento da criança e de todos os envolvidos.The symptoms of depression in children differ from the adults, and are frequently evidenced by the following problems: attention deficit, hyperactivity, low self-esteem, sadness, fear, sleep disturbances, enuresis, abdominal pain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the depressive manifestations in 3-10-year-old children, in the context of nursery school for poor children and in the public healthcare system, in Paranavaí city, State of Paraná. The research was carried out using semi-structured interviews with 5 pediatricians, 2 doctors from the Family Health Program, 6 educators and 4 coordinators at nursery schools for poor children, and a study case on nine children. The findings indicated that all the children of the sample showed significant depressive characteristics, such as an intense psychic suffering and the need for guidance. It was concluded that child

  16. Childhood trauma predicts antidepressant response in adults with major depression: data from the randomized international study to predict optimized treatment for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L M; Debattista, C; Duchemin, A-M; Schatzberg, A F; Nemeroff, C B

    2016-01-01

    Few reliable predictors indicate which depressed individuals respond to antidepressants. Several studies suggest that a history of early-life trauma predicts poorer response to antidepressant therapy but results are variable and limited in adults. The major goal of the present study was to evaluate the role of early-life trauma in predicting acute response outcomes to antidepressants in a large sample of well-characterized patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). The international Study to Predict Optimized Treatment for Depression (iSPOT-D) is a randomized clinical trial with enrollment from December 2008 to January 2012 at eight academic and nine private clinical settings in five countries. Patients (n=1008) meeting DSM-IV criteria for MDD and 336 matched healthy controls comprised the study sample. Six participants withdrew due to serious adverse events. Randomization was to 8 weeks of treatment with escitalopram, sertraline or venlafaxine with dosage adjusted by the participant's treating clinician per routine clinical practice. Exposure to 18 types of traumatic events before the age of 18 was assessed using the Early-Life Stress Questionnaire. Impact of early-life stressors-overall trauma 'load' and specific type of abuse-on treatment outcomes measures: response: (⩾50% improvement on the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, HRSD17 or on the 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self-Rated, QIDS_SR16) and remission (score ⩽7 on the HRSD17 and ⩽5 on the QIDS_SR16). Trauma prevalence in MDD was compared with controls. Depressed participants were significantly more likely to report early-life stress than controls; 62.5% of MDD participants reported more than two traumatic events compared with 28.4% of controls. The higher rate of early-life trauma was most apparent for experiences of interpersonal violation (emotional, sexual and physical abuses). Abuse and notably abuse occurring at ⩽7 years of age predicted poorer outcomes

  17. [Mother's attributions regarding children's behavior and maltreatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaya, Namiko

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to compare maltreating mothers and non-maltreating mothers on attributions and affects related to child behaviors. It also assessed how attributions predict affective and behavioral reactions to child behaviors. The study population comprised of a community-based sample of mothers with children aged 2 to 4 years (n = 238). Mothers' attributions and affect were assessed using vignettes of child behavior. They also answered questions about their maltreating parenting behaviors and demographic factors such as childcare environments. Results highlighted that, as compared with non-maltreating mothers, maltreating mothers made more intentional and stable attributions to negative child behavior, and to report more anger and aversion. They also had a tendency to report less happiness toward positive child behavior. Additionally, path analyses documented a pattern of thinking-feeling-action linkages. It was revealed that attributions regarding children's behavior influenced negative affect and that negative affect in turn predicted maltreatment. Finally, the usefulness of a cognitive approach to maltreating mothers, and the implications of the findings as a model for intervention are discussed. PMID:27180512

  18. Parents and Friendships: A Longitudinal Examination of Interpersonal Mediators of the Relationship between Child Maltreatment and Suicidal Ideation

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Adam B.; Adams, Leah M.; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Thompson, Richard; Proctor, Laura J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined parental relationship quality, friendship quality, and depression as mediators of the association between child maltreatment (CM) and adolescent suicidal ideation (SI). Participants were 674 adolescents (46% female; 55% African American) involved in the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN). Data were collected via youth self-report at ages 12, 16, and 18. CM before age 12 predicted poor parental relationships and depression, but not poor friendships, ...

  19. Child maltreatment and ADHD symptoms in a sample of young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoline Sanderud

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study investigated the relationship between different types of childhood maltreatment (emotional, sexual, overall abuse, and no abuse and the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in young adulthood. Method: Data were collected from a Danish national study conducted by The Danish National Centre for Social Research in 2008 and 2009. A sample of 4,718 young adults (24 years of age were randomly selected using the total birth cohort of children born in 1984. Structured interviews were conducted with a response rate of 63%, equating to a total sample size of 2,980 participants. Results: Chi-square analyses revealed significant relationships between child maltreatment groups and a probable diagnosis of ADHD using the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that the overall abuse class was more strongly associated with probable ADHD (OR=5.08, followed by emotional abuse (OR=3.09 and sexual abuse (OR=2.07. Conclusions: The results showed that childhood maltreatment was associated with increased risk of ADHD symptoms in young adulthood. The findings of this study are discussed within the existing literature and suggestions for future research are outlined in order to replicate these findings in other adult populations.

  20. Childhood Anxiety/Withdrawal, Adolescent Parent-Child Attachment and Later Risk of Depression and Anxiety Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, I. S.; Horwood, L. J.; Fergusson, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown that children with high levels of early anxiety/withdrawal are at increased risk of later anxiety and depression. It has also been found that positive parent-child attachment reduces the risk of these disorders. The aim of this paper was to examine the extent to which...... positive parent-child attachment acted to mitigate the risk of later internalising disorders amongst children with high levels of early anxiety/withdrawal using data from a 30 years longitudinal study of a New Zealand birth cohort. The findings of this study showed that: (a) increasing rates of early...... anxiety/withdrawal were associated with an increased risk of later anxiety and depression; (b) positive parent-child attachment in adolescence was associated with a decline in the risk of later anxiety and depression; and (c) these associations persisted even after controlling for confounding factors...

  1. Influence of childhood abuse on BDNF levels in patients with depression%抑郁症患者儿童期受虐对BDNF水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隋云川; 程祺; 汪卫华; 赵汉清; 蒋倩芸

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of childhood abuse on serum of BDNF level in pa‐tients with depression .Methods Totals of 98 patients with depression were included in this study .Using Child abuse Questionaire(CTQ) ,Hamilton Depression Scale(HAMD) ,Suicidal Ideation Scale(SIOSS) and Beck Hopelessness Scale(BHS) to assess the situation of childhood abuse ,severity of depression , suicidal ideation and severity of despair ;According to CTQ score ,the subjects were divided into abuse group (n= 32) and non-abused group (n= 66) .And selected 30 healthy people as the control group . The serum of BDNF levels were determined by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent .Results All 98 cases of patients enrolled in 32(32 .65% ) had a history of childhood abuse .There were significant differences be‐tween the abuse group and the non-abused group in the first onset age ,sex ratio ,the total score of the HAMD-24 ,the total score of BSH and the total score of SIOSS .BDNF levels of abuse group (627 ± 36)pg/ml were lower than those in non -abused group [(743 ± 28)pg/ml;P < 0 .01] and the control group [(1 320 ± 39)pg/ml;P< 0 .01)] .BDNF levels of non -abused group were lower than control group (P< 0 .01) .Conclusions Depression in patients with childhood abuse has obvious influence on BDNF levels ,childhood abuse led to the decrease of BDNF level may be a risk factor as an adult suffering from depression .%目的:探讨抑郁症患者儿童期受虐对血清脑源性神经营养因子(BDNF)水平的影响。方法选取抑郁症患者98例,使用儿童受虐问卷(CTQ)、汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)、自杀意念量表(SIOSS)及贝克绝望量表(BHS)评定儿童期受虐状况、抑郁严重程度、自杀意念强度和绝望严重程度;根据儿童受虐问卷评分将受试者分为受虐组(32例),无受虐组(66例)。并选择30名健康体检人群作为健康对照组。采用酶联免疫吸附法测定血清BDNF水平

  2. 抑郁症患者儿童期受虐对BDNF水平的影响%Influence of childhood abuse on BDNF levels in patients with depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隋云川; 程祺; 汪卫华; 赵汉清; 蒋倩芸

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of childhood abuse on serum of BDNF level in pa‐tients with depression .Methods Totals of 98 patients with depression were included in this study .Using Child abuse Questionaire(CTQ) ,Hamilton Depression Scale(HAMD) ,Suicidal Ideation Scale(SIOSS) and Beck Hopelessness Scale(BHS) to assess the situation of childhood abuse ,severity of depression , suicidal ideation and severity of despair ;According to CTQ score ,the subjects were divided into abuse group (n= 32) and non-abused group (n= 66) .And selected 30 healthy people as the control group . The serum of BDNF levels were determined by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent .Results All 98 cases of patients enrolled in 32(32 .65% ) had a history of childhood abuse .There were significant differences be‐tween the abuse group and the non-abused group in the first onset age ,sex ratio ,the total score of the HAMD-24 ,the total score of BSH and the total score of SIOSS .BDNF levels of abuse group (627 ± 36)pg/ml were lower than those in non -abused group [(743 ± 28)pg/ml;P < 0 .01] and the control group [(1 320 ± 39)pg/ml;P< 0 .01)] .BDNF levels of non -abused group were lower than control group (P< 0 .01) .Conclusions Depression in patients with childhood abuse has obvious influence on BDNF levels ,childhood abuse led to the decrease of BDNF level may be a risk factor as an adult suffering from depression .%目的:探讨抑郁症患者儿童期受虐对血清脑源性神经营养因子(BDNF)水平的影响。方法选取抑郁症患者98例,使用儿童受虐问卷(CTQ)、汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)、自杀意念量表(SIOSS)及贝克绝望量表(BHS)评定儿童期受虐状况、抑郁严重程度、自杀意念强度和绝望严重程度;根据儿童受虐问卷评分将受试者分为受虐组(32例),无受虐组(66例)。并选择30名健康体检人群作为健康对照组。采用酶联免疫吸附法测定血清BDNF水平

  3. The Impact of Physical Maltreatment History on the Adolescent Mother-Infant Relationship: Mediating and Moderating Effects during the Transition to Early Parenthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, Stephanie; Lewis, Jessica; Ethier, Kathleen; Kershaw, Trace; Ickovics, Jeannette R.

    2004-01-01

    Using attachment theory as a framework, this paper examines how pregnant adolescents' experiences of physical maltreatment during childhood influence the subsequent mother-infant relationship in 203 low-income adolescents followed from the 3rd trimester of pregnancy through the 1st year of parenthood. The relation between physical maltreatment…

  4. ADHD Symptoms and Likelihood of Child Maltreatment

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between inattentive and hyperactivity symptoms and child maltreatment was studied among a sample of 14,322 participants in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Healh at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA.

  5. Maltreated and non-maltreated children's true and false memories of neutral and emotional word lists in the Deese/Roediger-McDermott task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugerud, Gunn Astrid; Howe, Mark L; Magnussen, Svein; Melinder, Annika

    2016-03-01

    Maltreated (n=26) and non-maltreated (n=31) 7- to 12-year-old children were tested on the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) false memory task using emotional and neutral word lists. True recall was significantly better for non-maltreated than maltreated children regardless of list valence. The proportion of false recall for neutral lists was comparable regardless of maltreatment status. However, maltreated children showed a significantly higher false recall rate for the emotional lists than non-maltreated children. Together, these results provide new evidence that maltreated children could be more prone to false memory illusions for negatively valenced information than their non-maltreated counterparts. PMID:26637948

  6. Childhood Anxiety/Withdrawal, Adolescent Parent-Child Attachment and Later Risk of Depression and Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Ida Skytte; Horwood, L. John; Fergusson, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown that children with high levels of early anxiety/withdrawal are at increased risk of later anxiety and depression. It has also been found that positive parent-child attachment reduces the risk of these disorders. The aim of this paper was to examine the extent to which positive parent-child attachment acted to mitigate…

  7. Interparental Conflict, Parenting, and Childhood Depression in a Diverse Urban Population: The Role of General Cognitive Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Ellen H.; Moreau, Melissa; Cardemil, Esteban V.; Pollastri, Alisha

    2010-01-01

    Research on the mechanisms by which interparental conflict (IPC) affects child depression suggests that both parenting and children's conflict appraisals play important roles, but few studies have explored the role of general cognitive style or included both parenting and cognitions in the same design. Moreover, the effects of IPC on minority…

  8. Parent Relationship Quality Buffers against the Effect of Peer Stressors on Depressive Symptoms from Middle Childhood to Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazel, Nicholas A.; Oppenheimer, Caroline W.; Technow, Jessica R.; Young, Jami F.; Hankin, Benjamin L.

    2014-01-01

    During the transition to adolescence, several developmental trends converge to increase the importance of peer relationships, the likelihood of peer-related stressors, and the experience of depressive symptoms. Simultaneously, there are significant changes in parent-child relationships. The current study sought to evaluate whether positive…

  9. The burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiangming; Fry, Deborah A; Brown, Derek S; Mercy, James A; Dunne, Michael P; Butchart, Alexander R; Corso, Phaedra S; Maynzyuk, Kateryna; Dzhygyr, Yuriy; Chen, Yu; McCoy, Amalee; Swales, Diane M

    2015-04-01

    This study estimated the health and economic burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region, addressing a significant gap in the current evidence base. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses were conducted to estimate the prevalence of child physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, neglect, and witnessing parental violence. Population Attributable Fractions were calculated and Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) lost from physical and mental health outcomes and health risk behaviors attributable to child maltreatment were estimated using the most recent comparable Global Burden of Disease data. DALY losses were converted into monetary value by assuming that one DALY is equal to the sub-region's per capita GDP. The estimated economic value of DALYs lost to violence against children as a percentage of GDP ranged from 1.24% to 3.46% across sub-regions defined by the World Health Organization. The estimated economic value of DALYs (in constant 2000 US$) lost to child maltreatment in the EAP region totaled US $151 billion, accounting for 1.88% of the region's GDP. Updated to 2012 dollars, the estimated economic burden totaled US $194 billion. In sensitivity analysis, the aggregate costs as a percentage of GDP range from 1.36% to 2.52%. The economic burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region is substantial, indicating the importance of preventing and responding to child maltreatment in this region. More comprehensive research into the impact of multiple types of childhood adversity on a wider range of putative health outcomes is needed to guide policy and programs for child protection in the region, and globally.

  10. The burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiangming; Fry, Deborah A; Brown, Derek S; Mercy, James A; Dunne, Michael P; Butchart, Alexander R; Corso, Phaedra S; Maynzyuk, Kateryna; Dzhygyr, Yuriy; Chen, Yu; McCoy, Amalee; Swales, Diane M

    2015-04-01

    This study estimated the health and economic burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region, addressing a significant gap in the current evidence base. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses were conducted to estimate the prevalence of child physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, neglect, and witnessing parental violence. Population Attributable Fractions were calculated and Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) lost from physical and mental health outcomes and health risk behaviors attributable to child maltreatment were estimated using the most recent comparable Global Burden of Disease data. DALY losses were converted into monetary value by assuming that one DALY is equal to the sub-region's per capita GDP. The estimated economic value of DALYs lost to violence against children as a percentage of GDP ranged from 1.24% to 3.46% across sub-regions defined by the World Health Organization. The estimated economic value of DALYs (in constant 2000 US$) lost to child maltreatment in the EAP region totaled US $151 billion, accounting for 1.88% of the region's GDP. Updated to 2012 dollars, the estimated economic burden totaled US $194 billion. In sensitivity analysis, the aggregate costs as a percentage of GDP range from 1.36% to 2.52%. The economic burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region is substantial, indicating the importance of preventing and responding to child maltreatment in this region. More comprehensive research into the impact of multiple types of childhood adversity on a wider range of putative health outcomes is needed to guide policy and programs for child protection in the region, and globally. PMID:25757367

  11. Indiscriminate Friendliness in Maltreated Foster Children

    OpenAIRE

    Pears, Katherine C.; Bruce, Jacqueline; Fisher, Philip A.; Kim, Hyoun K.

    2009-01-01

    Indiscriminate friendliness is well documented in children adopted internationally following institutional rearing but is less studied in maltreated foster children. Precursors and correlates of indiscriminate friendliness were examined in 93 preschool-aged maltreated children residing in foster care and 60 age-matched, nonmaltreated children living with their biological parents. Measures included parent reports, official case record data, and standardized laboratory assessments. Foster child...

  12. Adolescent Risk Factors for Child Maltreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Thornberry, Terence P.; Matsuda, Mauri; Greenman, Sarah J.; Augustyn, Megan Bears; Henry, Kimberly L.; Smith, Carolyn A.; Ireland, Timothy O.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate adolescent risk factors, measured at both early and late adolescence, for involvement in child maltreatment during adulthood. Comprehensive assessments of risk factors for maltreatment that use representative samples with longitudinal data are scarce and can inform multilevel prevention. We use data from the Rochester Youth Development Study, a longitudinal study begun in 1988 with a sample of 1,000 seventh and eighth graders. Participants have been interviewed 14 times and, at...

  13. Recognizing Maltreatment in Children with Special Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traisman, Edward S

    2016-08-01

    Children with special needs are at a greater risk of maltreatment than other children. Understanding risk factors unique to this population will help the pediatrician determine which children are at risk, make the physician aware of what to assess in the office setting, and provide education to the child, family, and caregivers to prevent maltreatment. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(8):e273-e277.]. PMID:27517353

  14. Burden of Child Maltreatment in China

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Xiangming; Fry, Deborah; Ji, Kai; Finkelhor, David; Chen, Jingqi; Lannen, Patricia; Dunne, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate the health and economic burdens of child maltreatment in China. Methods We did a systematic review for studies on child maltreatment in China using PubMed, Embase, PsycInfo, CINAHL-EBSCO, ERIC and the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases. We did meta-analyses of studies that met inclusion criteria to estimate the prevalence of child neglect and child physical, emotional and sexual abuse. We used data from the 2010 global burden of disease estimate...

  15. Perinatal Factors Associated with Infant Maltreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeo Fujiwara

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The association between birth outcomes and child maltreatment remains controversial. The purpose of this study is to test whether infants without congenital or chronic disease who are low birth weight (LBW, preterm, or small for gestational age (SGA are at an increased risk of being maltreated.Methods: A hospital-based case-control study of infants without congenital or chronic diseases who visited the National Center for Child Health and Development, Tokyo, between April 1, 2002 and March 31, 2005 was conducted. Cases (N = 35 and controls (N = 29 were compared on mean birth weight, gestational age, and z-score of birth weight.Results: SGA was significantly associated with infant maltreatment after adjusting for other risk factors (adjusted odds ratio: 4.45, 95% CI: 1.29–15.3. LBW and preterm births were not associated with infant maltreatment.Conclusion: Infants born as SGA are 4.5 times more at risk of maltreatment, even if they do not have a congenital or chronic disease. This may be because SGA infants tend to have poorer neurological development which leads them to be hard-to-soothe and places them at risk for maltreatment.

  16. Development of a prediction model for child maltreatment recurrence in Japan: A historical cohort study using data from a Child Guidance Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikawa, Hiroyuki; Suguimoto, S Pilar; Musumari, Patou Masika; Techasrivichien, Teeranee; Ono-Kihara, Masako; Kihara, Masahiro

    2016-09-01

    To develop a prediction model for the first recurrence of child maltreatment within the first year after the initial report, we carried out a historical cohort study using administrative data from 716 incident cases of child maltreatment (physical abuse, psychological abuse, or neglect) not receiving support services, reported between April 1, 1996 through March 31, 2011 to Shiga Central Child Guidance Center, Japan. In total, 23 items related to characteristics of the child, the maltreatment, the offender, household, and other related factors were selected as predictive variables and analyzed by multivariate logistic regression model for association with first recurrence of maltreatment. According to the stepwise selection procedure six factors were identified that include 9-13year age of child (AOR=3.43/95%CI=1.52-7.72), maltreatment during childhood (AOR=2.56/95%CI=1.31-4.99), household financial instability or poverty (AOR=1.64/95%CI=1.10-2.45), absence of someone in the community who could watch over the child (AOR=1.68/95%CI=1.16-2.44), and the organization as the referral source (AOR=2.21/95%CI=1.24-3.93). Using these six predictors, we generated a linear prediction model with a sensitivity and specificity of 45.2% and 82.4%, respectively. The model may be useful to assess the risk of further maltreatment and help the child and family welfare administrations to develop preventive strategies for recurrence. PMID:27517122

  17. Effects of Chronic Maltreatment and Maltreatment Timing on Children's Behavior and Cognitive Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffee, Sara R.; Maikovich-Fong, Andrea Kohn

    2011-01-01

    Background: Chronic maltreatment has been associated with the poorest developmental outcomes, but its effects may depend on the age when the maltreatment began, or be confounded by co-occurring psychosocial risk factors. Method: We used data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW) to identify four groups of children who…

  18. Alexithymia as a Mediator between Childhood Trauma and Self-Injurious Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paivio, Sandra C.; McCulloch, Chantal R.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to test whether alexithymia mediates the relationship between childhood maltreatment and self-injurious behaviors (SIB) in college women. Method: The sample was comprised of 100 female undergraduate students. Measures were the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire [D. Bernstein, L. Fink, Manual for the Childhood…

  19. Retrospective Assessment of Childhood Sexual and Physical Abuse: A Comparison of Scaled and Behaviorally Specific Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiLillo, David; Fortier, Michelle A.; Hayes, Sarah A.; Trask, Emily; Perry, Andrea R.; Messman-Moore, Terri; Fauchier, Angele; Nash, Cindy

    2006-01-01

    This study compared retrospective reports of childhood sexual and physical abuse as assessed by two measures: the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), which uses a Likert-type scaling approach, and the Computer Assisted Maltreatment Inventory (CAMI), which employs a behaviorally specific means of assessment. Participants included 1,195…

  20. Childhood Abuse and Neglect and Adult Intimate Relationships: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, R.A.; Widom, C.S.

    2004-01-01

    Objective:: The present study extends prior research on childhood maltreatment and social functioning by examining the impact of early childhood physical abuse, sexual abuse, and neglect on rates of involvement in adult intimate relationships and relationship functioning. Method:: Substantiated cases of child abuse and neglect from 1967 to 1971…

  1. Early childhood adversities and trajectories of psychiatric problems in adoptees: Evidence for long lasting effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J.M. Vegt, van der (Esther); J. van der Ende (Jan); R.F. Ferdinand (Robert); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of the present study is to investigate whether early childhood adversities determine the longitudinal course of psychiatric problems from childhood to adulthood; in particular if the impact of early maltreatment on psychopathology decreases as time passes. A sample of 1,984 inter

  2. Maternal sensitivity and the empathic brain: Influences of early life maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Emilia L; Neukel, Corinne; Bertsch, Katja; Reck, Corinna; Möhler, Eva; Herpertz, Sabine C

    2016-06-01

    One of the most striking characteristics of early life maltreatment (ELM) is the risk of transmission across generations, which could be linked to differences in maternal behavior. Maternal sensitivity includes appropriate and positive affective exchanges between mother and child. Mothers with a history of ELM have been found to show a lower sensitivity representing a significant risk factor for maltreating their own children. 25 mothers with and 28 mothers without sexual and/or physical childhood maltreatment (as assessed with the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse interview) and their children participated in a standardized mother-child interaction task. Videotaped interactions were rated by two independent trained raters based on the Emotional Availability Scales. In addition, empathic capabilities were assessed with the Interpersonal Reactivity Index. High resolution structural magnetic resonance brain images of the mothers were analyzed with unbiased voxel-based morphometry and correlated with maternal sensitivity. Results indicate that mothers with ELM were less sensitive in the standardized interaction with their own child. In non-maltreated control mothers, maternal sensitivity was positively related to anterior insular grey matter volume, a region which is crucially involved in emotional empathy, while there was a positive association between maternal sensitivity and grey matter volume in parts of the cognitive empathy network such as the superior temporal sulcus and temporal pole region in mothers with ELM. These results implicate that neurostructural alterations associated with poor maternal sensitivity might be a sequelae of ELM and that mothers with ELM may try to compensate deficits in emotional empathy by recruiting brain regions involved in cognitive empathy when interacting with their child. Thus, findings suggest possible coping strategies of mother with ELM to prevent an intergenerational transmission of abuse. PMID:26985733

  3. Substance abuse and child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Kathryn

    2009-04-01

    Pediatricians and other medical providers caring for children need to be aware of the dynamics in the significant relationship between substance abuse and child maltreatment. A caregiver's use and abuse of alcohol, marijuana, heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, and other drugs place the child at risk in multiple ways. Members of the medical community need to understand these risks because the medical community plays a unique and important role in identifying and caring for these children. Substance abuse includes the abuse of legal drugs as well as the use of illegal drugs. The abuse of legal substances may be just as detrimental to parental functioning as abuse of illicit substances. Many substance abusers are also polysubstance users and the compounded effect of the abuse of multiple substances may be difficult to measure. Often other interrelated social features, such as untreated mental illness, trauma history, and domestic violence, affect these families.

  4. Stress and social support in childhood and adolescence related with depression symptoms in the elderly / Estresse e suporte social na infância e adolescência relacionados com sintomas depressivos em idosos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Fabrino Bretas Cupertino

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the process of aging as a period connected to social and historical influences, and life experiences that occur during development, it's significant to investigate the variables of other periods from the course of life, which could be implicated in the health of elders. The purpose of this study, however, was to assess the relation amongst social support characteristics and stress during the childhood/adolescence period, and depression symptoms of the elderly. The CES-D scale (Radloff, 1977 and the social support and stress in childhood/adolescence scale from Davis Longitudinal Study on Aging (Aldwin, Sutton, Chiara, & Spiro, III, 1996 were used. The sample consisted of 956 elderly between 60 and 103 years old (M= 72,4; SD= 8,2. Significant connections had been found between stressors and compensatory discipline with depression symptoms, which has been attributed to non-normative characteristics of such variables for the present cohort.

  5. Academic Achievement Despite Child Maltreatment: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coohey, Carol; Renner, Lynette M.; Hua, Lei; Zhang, Ying J.; Whitney, Stephen D.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Although researchers have concluded that child maltreatment has a negative effect on children's learning and academic achievement, not all children are negatively affected by maltreatment, and some children seem to succeed academically despite being maltreated. Drawing on risk and resilience theory, we examined a broad range of potential…

  6. Child Maltreatment among School Children in the Kurdistan Province, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Rob; Sheikhattari, Payam; Assasi, Nazilla; Eftekhar, Hassan; Zamani, Qasem; Maleki, Bahram; Kiabayan, Hamid

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the determinants of three types of child maltreatment: physical maltreatment, mental maltreatment, and child neglect among school children in the Kurdistan Province of Iran. The analysis examines the impact of socioeconomic, familial, demographic, and household dynamic factors on the three child maltreatment…

  7. Child Maltreatment Identification and Reporting Behavior of School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusk, Victoria L.; Zibulsky, Jamie; Viezel, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    A majority of substantiated maltreatment reports are made by educators and thus, teacher knowledge of child maltreatment reporting mandates and reporting behavior has been a focus of research. The knowledge and behavior of school psychologists, however, has not received similar attention. This study investigated the child maltreatment reporting…

  8. The Role of the Val66Met Polymorphism of the Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor Gene in Coping Strategies Relevant to Depressive Symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren Caldwell

    Full Text Available Disturbances of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF signalling have been implicated in the evolution of depression, which likely arises, in part, as a result of diminished synaptic plasticity. Predictably, given stressor involvement in depression, BDNF is affected by recent stressors as well as stressors such as neglect experienced in early life. The effects of early life maltreatment in altering BDNF signalling may be particularly apparent among those individuals with specific BDNF polymorphisms. We examined whether polymorphisms of the Val66Met genotype might be influential in moderating how early-life events play out with respect to later coping styles, cognitive flexibility and depressive features. Among male and female undergraduate students (N = 124, childhood neglect was highly related to subsequent depressive symptoms. This outcome was moderated by the BDNF polymorphism in the sense that depressive symptoms appeared higher in Met carriers who reported low levels of neglect than in those with the Val/Val allele. However, under conditions of high neglect depressive symptoms only increased in the Val/Val individuals. In effect, the Met polymorphism was associated with depressive features, but did not interact with early life neglect in predicting later depressive features. It was further observed that among the Val/Val individuals, the relationship between neglect and depression was mediated by emotion-focused styles and diminished perceived control, whereas this mediation was not apparent in Met carriers. In contrast to the more typical view regarding this polymorphism, the data are consistent with the perspective that in the presence of synaptic plasticity presumably associated with the Val/Val genotype, neglect allows for the emergence of specific appraisal and coping styles, which are tied to depression. In the case of the reduced degree of neuroplasticity expected in the Met carriers, early life adverse experiences are not tied

  9. Symptom Trajectories Among Child Survivors of Maltreatment: Findings from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauterbach, Dean; Armour, Cherie

    2016-02-01

    Very few studies have investigated the longitudinal trajectory of depression and anxiety related symptomatology among child victims of maltreatment or among those at risk for maltreatment. The current study examined latent class trajectories of anxiety/depression symptoms in a sample of 1354 (n = 657 boys, n = 697 girls) victimized or at risk children using data collected from the Longtitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN). Four trajectory groups were identified labeled low-stable, moderate-stable, moderate-increasing, and high-decreasing. This study also sought to investigate predictors of group membership. Relative to the low-stable group, membership in the three more pathological groups (i.e., moderate-stable, moderate-increasing, and high-decreasing) was predicted by a greater number of maltreatment allegations, more visits to a primary care physician for psychological issues, less perceived support by primary maternal caregiver, and lower rated popularity of the child. Implications for early identification of child maltreatment victims in primary health care settings was discussed. PMID:25795014

  10. Childhood environments and cytomegalovirus serostatus and reactivation in adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Janicki-Deverts; S. Cohen; W.J. Doyle; A.L. Marsland; J. Bosch

    2014-01-01

    Childhood adversity, defined in terms of material hardship or physical or emotional maltreatment has been associated with risk for infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV) among children and adolescents, and with CMV reactivation in children and adults. The present study examined whether different dimen

  11. Childhood vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Palit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood vitiligo is often encountered in dermatological practice. When present in infancy or early childhood, various nevoid and hereditary disorders are to be differentiated. In many cases, familial aggregation of the disease is seen and other autoimmune disorders may be associated. Segmental presentation is more common, and limited body surface area involvement is usual in this age group. Children with vitiligo often suffer from anxiety and depression because of their unusual appearance. Management of vitiligo in children is difficult as therapeutic options are restricted when compared to that in adult patients. Selection of treatment should be careful in these patients with the aim to achieve best results with minimal side effects as well as relieving patients′ and parents′ anxiety.

  12. An Agent-Based Model for Studying Child Maltreatment and Child Maltreatment Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaolin; Puddy, Richard W.

    This paper presents an agent-based model that simulates the dynamics of child maltreatment and child maltreatment prevention. The developed model follows the principles of complex systems science and explicitly models a community and its families with multi-level factors and interconnections across the social ecology. This makes it possible to experiment how different factors and prevention strategies can affect the rate of child maltreatment. We present the background of this work and give an overview of the agent-based model and show some simulation results.

  13. 青少年抑郁与儿童期虐待和近期生活事件相关分析%Correlative analysis between depression and childhood abuse or recent life events among adolescents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨林胜; 张志华; 吴红燕; 孙业桓

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解青少年抑郁与儿童期虐待和近期生活事件的关系,验证可能存在的调节中介效应假设.方法 方便抽取合肥市3798名使用网络的中学生,进行亲子冲突策略量表、青少年生活事件量表、流调中心用抑郁量表以及人口学特征调查.采用层级线性回归模型,分析青少年儿童期虐待、近期生活事件和抑郁可能存在的调节中介效应.结果 不同性别青少年早期虐待经历与近期生活事件均有关联(P值均<0.01),并通过近期生活事件间接地对青少年抑郁产生效应(P值均<0.01);中学女生儿童期虐待对生活事件介导的间接效应有调节作用(P=0.001),而男生未见儿童期虐待对中介效应的调节作用(P=0.260).结论 儿童期虐待对青少年抑郁的作用部分是通过近期生活事件介导的间接效应,中学女生儿童期虐待对间接效应有正向调节作用.应该采用措施阻止儿童期虐待的出现,其中受虐女童是重点保护的对象.%Objective To examine how childhood abuse and recent life events interact to adolescent depression and to test possible moderated mediation hypothesis. Methods A total of 3 798 urban adolescent students in Hefei were administered to complete the questionnaires including Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales, Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check List, Beck Depression Inventory and demographic characteristics, respectively. Hierarchical linear regressions were used to evaluate the possible moderated mediation effect in associations linking childhood abuse and pastyear life events to depression in the youth. Results Childhood abuse was associated with past-year life events ( P < 0.01 ) and indirect effects of childhood abuse on depression in the youth mediated by past-year life events were found in both male and female students( P <0.01 ). In addition,the indirect effect above was also moderated by childhood abuse in female students ( P = 0. 001 ), while not in

  14. Adapting and retesting evidence-based child maltreatment prevention programs: a case study in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikton, C

    2015-01-01

    This special issue of Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada is timely, as child maltreatment is a significant public health problem; globally, the number affected is at least in the hundreds of millions. One-quarter of adults report having been physically abused and over one-third emotionally abused as children; one in 5 women and one in 13 men report having been sexually abused. Recent national surveys of violence against children conducted in Africa and in other low- and middle-income countries reveal rates of childhood physical, sexual and emotional abuse even higher than the global rates. PMID:26605566

  15. Data on maltreatment profiles and psychopathology in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Andreas; Münzer, Annika; Ganser, Helene G; Fegert, Jörg M; Goldbeck, Lutz; Plener, Paul L

    2016-09-01

    We present data on maltreatment profiles and psychopathology of 358 children and adolescents (4-17 years). Data on maltreatment profiles has been categorized into six major maltreatment types: physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, sexual abuse with penetration, exposure to intimate partner violence and neglect. The data on history of maltreatment is based on the interview version of the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire (JVQ). Additionally data on psychopathology in general as well as specific disorders according to DSM-IV based on K-SADS-PL is presented. The data was used to examine patterns of co-occurrences of maltreatment and associated clinical outcome variables using latent class analysis (LCA), "Experience by children and adolescents of more than one type of maltreatment: association of different classes of maltreatment profiles with clinical outcome variables" (Witt et al.,) [1]. PMID:27583341

  16. Data on maltreatment profiles and psychopathology in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Witt

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We present data on maltreatment profiles and psychopathology of 358 children and adolescents (4–17 years. Data on maltreatment profiles has been categorized into six major maltreatment types: physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, sexual abuse with penetration, exposure to intimate partner violence and neglect. The data on history of maltreatment is based on the interview version of the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire (JVQ. Additionally data on psychopathology in general as well as specific disorders according to DSM-IV based on K-SADS-PL is presented. The data was used to examine patterns of co-occurrences of maltreatment and associated clinical outcome variables using latent class analysis (LCA, “Experience by children and adolescents of more than one type of maltreatment: association of different classes of maltreatment profiles with clinical outcome variables” (Witt et al., [1].

  17. Sources of emotional maltreatment and the differential development of unconditional and conditional schemas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Molly C; Lumley, Margaret N

    2012-01-01

    Schema theory posits that experiences of maltreatment result in the early development of maladaptive schemas (EMS; Young, Klosko, & Weishaar, 2003, Schema therapy: A practitioner's guide, The Guilford Press: New York, NY). EMS are organized by conditionality; unconditional schemas are theorized to develop early in childhood predominantly in response to experiences of parenting and conditional schemas are theorized to develop later in life in response to other relationships. Despite this distinction, minimal previous research has investigated their differential development. The current study examined the relative contributions of parental and other (peer and intimate partner) emotional maltreatment (EMT) in the differential development of unconditional and conditional schemas. Ninety-seven undergraduate students retrospectively reported their maltreatment experiences using the Lifetime Experiences Questionnaire and completed the Young Schema Questionnaire to measure EMS. Consistent with hypotheses, parental EMT was the strongest predictor of unconditional schemas. Unexpectedly, parental EMT also emerged as the strongest predictor of conditional schemas. Theoretical and clinical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:22471813

  18. Correlation of adverse childhood experiences with psychiatric disorders and aggressiveness in adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Samardžić Ljiljana; Nikolić Gordana; Grbeša Grozdanko; Simonović Maja; Milenković Tatjana

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aim. Consequences of individual adverse childhood experiences for adult mental health have been precisely studied during past decades. The focus of past research was mainly on childhood maltreatment and neglect. The aim of this paper was to determine association between multiple adverse childhood experiences and psychiatric disorders, as well as their correlation to the degree and type of aggressiveness in adult psychiatric patients. Methods. One hundred and thirteen psychiatric ou...

  19. Poverty and adolescent depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Amy C

    2014-01-01

    Longitudinal data on non-Hispanic White children from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (N = 1,056) were used to examine whether the relationship between poverty (early childhood poverty, poverty persistence, and current poverty) and adolescent depressive symptoms (measured by the Children's Depression Inventory and the Internalizing Index) can be explained by the mother's own childhood depression and family characteristics measured during the child's first year of life. Associations between poverty and depressive symptoms among adolescents were explained by mother's childhood depression and whether the adolescent had lived with both parents during the first year of life. The findings highlight the need for appropriate treatment of childhood depression so as to reduce the adverse consequences in adulthood and for the next generation.

  20. Organizational Perspective on Cognitive Control Functioning and Cognitive-Affective Balance in Maltreated Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Carolyn; Cicchetti, Dante

    1989-01-01

    Examined the relation between a history of maltreatment and cognitive control functioning in two groups of preschool and early school-age maltreated and nonmaltreated children. Maltreated children showed developmentally impaired cognitive control functioning on a number of tasks. (RH)