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Sample records for childhood maltreatment depressive

  1. Hippocampal atrophy in major depression: a function of childhood maltreatment rather than diagnosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opel, Nils; Redlich, Ronny; Zwanzger, Peter; Grotegerd, Dominik; Arolt, Volker; Heindel, Walter; Konrad, Carsten; Kugel, Harald; Dannlowski, Udo

    2014-11-01

    Reduced hippocampal volumes are probably the most frequently reported structural neuroimaging finding associated with major depressive disorder (MDD). However, it remains unclear whether altered hippocampal structure represents a risk factor for or a consequence of MDD. Reduced hippocampal volumes were consistently reported in subjects affected by childhood maltreatment. As the prevalence of childhood maltreatment is highly elevated in MDD populations, previous morphometric findings regarding hippocampal atrophy in MDD therefore might have been confounded by maltreatment experiences. The aim of this study was to differentiate the impact of childhood maltreatment from the influence of MDD diagnosis on hippocampal morphometry. Depressed patients (85) as well as 85 age- and sex-matched healthy controls underwent structural MRI. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire was administered to estimate experiences of childhood maltreatment. Hippocampal volume and surface structure was examined by the use of two independent methods, automated segmentation (FSL-FIRST) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM8). In line with existing studies, MDD patients showed reduced hippocampal volumes, and childhood maltreatment was consistently associated with hippocampal volume loss in both, patients and healthy controls. However, no analysis revealed significant morphological differences between patients and controls if maltreatment experience was regressed out. Our results suggest that hippocampal alterations in MDD patients may at least partly be traced back to higher occurrence of early-life adverse experiences. Regarding the strong morphometric impact of childhood maltreatment and its distinctly elevated prevalence in MDD populations, this study provides an alternative explanation for frequently observed limbic structural abnormalities in depressed patients. PMID:24924799

  2. Effect of childhood maltreatment on brain structure in adult patients with major depressive disorder and healthy participants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chaney, Aisling

    2013-07-30

    Background: Childhood maltreatment has been found to play a crucial role in the development of psychiatric disorders. However, whether childhood maltreatment is associated with structural brain changes described for major depressive disorder (MDD) is still a matter of debate. The aim of this study was to investigate whether patients with MDD and a history of childhood maltreatment display more structural changes than patients without childhood maltreatment or healthy controls. Methods: Patients with MDD and healthy controls with and without childhood maltreatment experience were investigated using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and data were analyzed using voxel-based morphometry. Results: We studied 37 patients with MDD and 46 controls. Grey matter volume was significantly decreased in the hippocampus and significantly increased in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in participants who had experienced childhood maltreatment compared with those who had not. Patients displayed smaller left OFC and left DMPFC volumes than controls. No significant difference in hippocampal volume was evident between patients with MDD and healthy controls. In regression analyses, despite effects from depression, age and sex on the DMPFC, OFC and hippocampus, childhood maltreatment was found to independently affect these regions. Limitations: The retrospective assessment of childhood maltreatment; the natural problem that patients experienced more childhood maltreatment than controls; and the restrictions, owing to sample size, to investigating higher order interactions among factors are discussed as limitations. Conclusion: These results suggest that early childhood maltreatment is associated with brain structural changes irrespective of sex, age and a history of depression. Thus, the study highlights the importance of childhood maltreatment when investigating brain structures.

  3. The Relation of Childhood Maltreatment to Psychotic Symptoms in Adolescents and Young Adults With Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holshausen, Katherine; Bowie, Christopher R; Harkness, Kate L

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relation between a history of maltreatment and the presence of psychotic symptoms in a community sample of adolescents and young adults with major depressive disorder. One hundred and twenty-nine depressed adolescents and young adults (M = 16.02 years, 77% female, 92% White) were recruited through community advertisement and clinician referral. Clinical diagnoses and psychotic symptoms (i.e., hallucinations and delusions) were assessed using a structured diagnostic interview. Childhood maltreatment was assessed using a contextual interview and standardized rating system. Logistic regression analyses examined the relation between childhood maltreatment and psychotic symptoms. As hypothesized, individuals with psychotic symptoms were significantly more likely to report a history of severe sexual maltreatment than those without psychotic symptoms (Wald = 5.44, odds ratio = 3.86, p = .020), 95% confidence interval [1.24, 12.01]. Further, those with psychotic symptoms were more likely to report being the victims of more than one type of maltreatment than those without, χ(2)(2) = 6.66, p = .036 (ϕ = .23; 40% vs. 16%). Results held upon adjusting for overall level of depression symptoms. A history of severe sexual maltreatment is related to a severe presentation of major depressive disorder even in the initial onset of the syndrome in adolescence and young adulthood. These findings underscore the importance of early assessment of both depression and maltreatment history to implement interventions that have the potential to prevent the emergence of psychotic psychopathology in young people at risk. PMID:25411823

  4. Associations between childhood maltreatment and emotion processing biases in major depression: results from a dot-probe task

    OpenAIRE

    Günther, Vivien; Dannlowski, Udo; Kersting, Anette; Suslow, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background Childhood maltreatment is considered an important risk factor for the development of major depression. Research indicates an association between childhood adversity and altered emotion processing. Depression is characterized by mood-congruent cognitive biases, which play a crucial role in symptom persistence and recurrence. However, whether attentional biases in adult major depression are associated with experienced childhood neglect or abuse remains unclear. Methods A sample of 45...

  5. Childhood Maltreatment, Depression and Suicidal Ideation: Critical Importance of Parental and Peer Emotional Abuse During Developmental Sensitive Periods in Males and Females

    OpenAIRE

    Alaptagin eKhan; Hannah Claire McCormack; Elizabeth Anna Bolger; Cynthia eMcGreenery; Gordana eVitaliano; Ann ePolcari; Martin Hersch Teicher

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Adverse Childhood Experience (ACE) study found that risk for depression increased as a function of number of types of childhood maltreatment, and interpret this as a result of cumulative stress. An alternative hypothesis is that risk depends on type and timing of maltreatment. This will also present as a linear increase, since exposure to more types of abuse increases likelihood of experiencing a critical type of abuse at a critical age.METHODS: 560 (223M/337F) young adults ...

  6. Childhood Maltreatment, Depression, and Suicidal Ideation: Critical Importance of Parental and Peer Emotional Abuse during Developmental Sensitive Periods in Males and Females

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Alaptagin; McCormack, Hannah C.; Bolger, Elizabeth A.; McGreenery, Cynthia E.; Vitaliano, Gordana; Polcari, Ann; Martin H Teicher

    2015-01-01

    Background: The adverse childhood experience (ACE) study found that risk for depression increased as a function of number of types of childhood maltreatment, and interpret this as a result of cumulative stress. An alternative hypothesis is that risk depends on type and timing of maltreatment. This will also present as a linear increase, since exposure to more types of abuse increases likelihood of experiencing a critical type of abuse at a critical age. Methods: 560 (223M/337F) young adults (...

  7. Childhood Maltreatment and Educational Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Elisa; Babchishin, Lyzon; Marquis, Robyn; Fréchette, Sabrina

    2015-10-01

    Children (0-18 years) with maltreatment histories are vulnerable to experiencing difficulties across multiple domains of functioning, including educational outcomes that encompass not only academic achievement but also mental well-being. The current literature review adopted Slade and Wissow's model to examine (1) the link between childhood maltreatment and academic achievement, (2) the link between childhood maltreatment and mental health outcomes (i.e., emotional and behavioral difficulties), and (3) the bidirectional relationship between childhood academic achievement and mental health. In addition, we reviewed variables that might influence or help explain the link between childhood maltreatment and educational outcomes, drawing on developmental perspectives and Bronfenbrenner's ecological model. Finally, whenever possible, we presented findings specific to maltreated children in out-of-home care to highlight the unique challenges experienced by this population. Results indicated that children with maltreatment histories often experience impairments in both their academic performance (e.g., special education, grade retention, lower grades) and mental well-being (e.g., anxiety, low mood, aggression, social skills deficits, poor interpersonal relationships). These impairments appeared to be particularly pronounced among maltreated children in out-of-home care. Findings, albeit sparse, also indicated that mental health difficulties are negatively associated with children's academic achievement and, similarly, that academic achievement deficits are linked with mental health problems. The link between childhood maltreatment and educational outcomes may be partly explained through the disruption of key developmental processes in children, such as attachment, emotion regulation, and sense of agency. As well, maltreatment characteristics and the functioning of various systems in which children are embedded (e.g., family, school, child welfare) can serve to positively

  8. Self-Criticism as a Mechanism Linking Childhood Maltreatment and Maternal Efficacy Beliefs in Low-Income Mothers With and Without Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michl, Louisa C; Handley, Elizabeth D; Rogosch, Fred; Cicchetti, Dante; Toth, Sheree L

    2015-11-01

    The primary aim of the current study was to examine self-criticism as a potential mechanism mediating the relation between mothers' own childhood maltreatment history and changes in subsequent maternal efficacy beliefs in a diverse sample of low-income mothers with and without major depressive disorder. Longitudinal data were drawn from a larger randomized clinical trial evaluating the effectiveness of interpersonal psychotherapy for depression among low-income mothers and their 12-month-old infant. Results indicated that higher levels of maltreatment in childhood led mothers to hold more self-critical judgments in adulthood. Additionally, mothers who had experienced more extensive childhood maltreatment histories perceived themselves as less efficacious in their role as mother. Structural equation modeling indicated that self-criticism mediated the relationship between childhood maltreatment and mothers' decreased perceived competency in her maternal role from when her child was an infant to the more demanding toddler years. Finally, this relationship held over and above the influence of mothers' depressive diagnostic status. Directions for future research and the clinical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:26318693

  9. Childhood maltreatment and personality disorders in patients with a major depressive disorder: A comparative study between France and Togo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounou, Kossi B; Dogbe Foli, Ayoko A; Djassoa, G; Amétépé, Léonard K; Rieu, J; Mathur, A; Biyong, I; Schmitt, L

    2015-10-01

    Few studies have examined the association between childhood maltreatment (CM) and personality disorders (PDs) in adulthood in two different cultural contexts, including sub-Saharan Africa. The aims of this study were to compare the frequency of CM between patients in treatment in France and Togo for a major depressive disorder (MDD), to explore the link between CM and PDs, and to examine the mediating effect of personality dimensions in the pathway from CM to PDs in 150 participants (75 in each country). The 28-item Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the International Personality Item Pool, and the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire (PDQ-4+) were used to assess CM, personality dimensions, and PDs respectively. Togolese participants reported sexual and physical abuse (PA) and emotional and physical neglect significantly more frequently than French participants. In Togo, severe PA was associated with schizoid, antisocial, narcissistic, obsessive-compulsive, depressive, and negativist PDs whereas in France, PA was only linked to paranoid PD. In Togo, emotional instability partly mediated the relationship between CM and PDs while in France, no personality dimension appeared to mediate this link. Our results support the hypothesis that CM is more common in low-income countries and suggest that the links between CM and PDs are influenced by social environment. PMID:25712816

  10. Relationship Between Childhood Maltreatment Experience, Cognitive Bias and Depression%童年虐待经历及认知偏差与抑郁的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴韦玮; 陆邵佳; 位照国; 彭红军; 李凌江

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨童年期受虐待经历及认知偏差与抑郁的关系.方法:利用童年创伤问卷将入组的重症抑郁症患者及健康成人分为童年虐待组和无童年虐待组,所有被试均完成功能失调性态度量表及认知偏差问卷.结果:在功能失调性态度得分、抑郁-歪曲得分上,诊断有显著主效应,仅认知哲学评分中,童年创伤无主效应.完美化因子评分中,童年创伤与诊断有显著交互作用,伴童年虐待的抑郁症患者显著升高.多元回归分析显示,功能失调性态度总分与抑郁-歪曲得分是抑郁程度的显著预测因子.结论:抑郁症患者及伴童年虐待者均比健康人有更严重的认知偏差,伴童年虐待的抑郁症对完美化的追求更明显.负性认知偏差是抑郁症的有力预测因子.%Objective:To explore the relationship between childhood maltreatment experience,cognitive bias and depression.Methods:Patients of major depression and healthy adults were assessed by Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ).And then the patients were divided into the depression group with childhood maltreatment and the one without childhood maltreatment; and the healthy adults were divided into the control group with childhood maltreatment and the one without childhood maltreatment.All subjects were assessed cogntive biases with Dysfunctional Attitudes Scales(DAS)and The Cognitive Bias Questionnaire (CBQ).Results:The main effect of depression diagnosis existed in the total score of DAS and all structure factors,as well as the score of depression-distortion.The main effects of childhood maltreatment were found in the score of depression-distortion,as well as the total score of DAS and 7 structure factors,except "Cognitive-philosophy" factor.Multiple regression analysis showed that the total score of DAS and the score of depression-distortion were powerful predictors of depression.Conclusion:Both depressive patients and the people with childhood maltreatment have

  11. Childhood Maltreatment and Headache Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietjen, Gretchen E

    2016-04-01

    Childhood maltreatment is substantiated in 12 % of children, but nearly 50 % adults recall having been neglected or abused as children. Maltreatment, especially emotional abuse, is associated with migraine. Dysregulation of the HPA axis, autonomic, immune, and metabolic systems appears to be a consequence of maltreatment, and is also reported in migraine. Areas of the brain structurally and functionally affected by childhood abuse and by migraine are also similar, and include the limbic system structures, which connect to pain regions in the brainstem. Putative mechanisms by which early life stress increases the likelihood of developing migraine include gene x environment interactions, in addition to epigenetic modifications via DNA methylation. These modifications are stable and may be transferred across generations, but they may also be reversed by some medications commonly used in migraine, including valproic acid and topiramate. PMID:26936357

  12. How Childhood Maltreatment Is Related to Suicidality, Bipolarity and Central Serotonergic Activity in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder: A Cross-Sectional Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Bun-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aims of this study were to determine whether childhood maltreatment contributes to the occurrence of major depressive disorder (MDD) with bipolarity, and whether there is a relationship between central serotonergic activity, as assessed using loudness dependence of auditory evoked potentials (LDAEP), and childhood maltreatment. Methods Thirty-five MDD patients were stratified according to the presence or absence of childhood trauma into two subgroups, childhood trauma (CT) and no childhood trauma (NCT), using the Korean version of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (K-CTQ). The CT group was subjected to further analysis. Several psychometric ratings were also applied. In addition, auditory processing for the loudness dependence of auditory evoked potentials (LDAEP), which was used as a marker of serotonergic activity, was measured before beginning medication. Results There was a significant difference in total Korean Bipolar Spectrum Disorder Scale score between the CT and NCT groups (t=-2.14, p=0.04). The total K-CTQ score was positively correlated with the total Beck Scale for Suicidal Ideation (BSS) score (r=0.36, p=0.036). In particular, emotional abuse was positively correlated with the total Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (r=0.38, p=0.026), BSS (r=0.38, p=0.025), and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) (r=0.36, p=0.035) scores. There was also a positive correlation between LDAEP and total Hypomania Personality Scale (r=0.49, p=0.02) and HAMD (r=0.58, p=0.004) scores within CT group. Conclusion The findings of this study support that there is a relationship between childhood maltreatment and bipolarity in patients with MDD. PMID:27081379

  13. Sexually coercive behavior following childhood maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsman, Mats; Johansson, Ada; Santtila, Pekka; Sandnabba, Kenneth; Långström, Niklas

    2015-01-01

    Child maltreatment is associated with adult sexually coercive behavior. The association may be causal or confounders that increase the risk of both childhood victimization and sexually coercive behavior might explain the observed links. We examined if childhood maltreatment was related to sexual coercion independently of familial (genetic or common family environment) risk factors, thereby addressing potential causality. Participants were 6,255 18 to 33-year-old twins from the Finnish population-based study "Genetics of Sex and Aggression" who responded to self-report questionnaires of child maltreatment and sexually coercive behavior. We used generalized estimating equations to elucidate risk of sexual coercion in maltreated compared to unrelated, non-maltreated individuals. To adjust for unmeasured familial factors, we used the co-twin control method and compared sexual coercion risk within maltreatment-discordant twin pairs. Further, we examined possible differential effects of maltreatment subtypes and compared mean differences in maltreatment summary scores between sexually coercive individuals and controls. Sexual coercion was moderately more common among individuals maltreated as children versus unrelated controls (38.3 vs. 22.8 %; age- and gender-adjusted odds ratio, aOR = 2.31, 95 % CI 1.75-3.05) and the risk increase remained similar within maltreatment-discordant twins (OR = 2.82, 95 % CI 1.42-5.61). Moreover, different maltreatment subtypes predicted sexual coercion equally well and effect sizes remained similar within discordant twin pairs. We conclude that associations between child maltreatment and sexual coercion are largely independent of shared familial confounds, consistent with a causal inference. Importantly, detection and targeted interventions for maltreated children should remain a priority to reduce societal sexually coercive behavior. PMID:24752790

  14. The role of timing of maltreatment and child intelligence in pathways to low symptoms of depression and anxiety in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpur, Lisa Jane; Polek, Ela; van Harmelen, Anne-Laura

    2015-09-01

    Research indicates that childhood maltreatment is strongly associated with high levels of adolescent depression and anxiety symptoms. Using LONGSCAN data and taking into account the range of family characteristics related to adversity (poverty, primary caregiver substance abuse) and protective factors (living with biological mother and father), the present study assessed the complex resilience process in which child intelligence (age 6) mediated the relationship between early childhood maltreatment (age 0-4) and adolescent symptoms of depression and anxiety (age 14). We also assessed if mid (age 6-8) and late (age 10-12) childhood maltreatment moderated this mediation. We found that mid-childhood intelligence mediated the negative effect of early childhood maltreatment (age 0-4) on anxiety symptoms (age 14), but not on depressive symptoms (age 14). We also found the effect of timing of maltreatment: early childhood maltreatment (age 0-4) predicted more anxiety symptoms in adolescence, whereas late childhood/early adolescent (age 10-12) maltreatment predicted more symptoms of depression in adolescence. In addition, mid (age 6-8) and late (age 10-12) childhood maltreatment dampened the protective effect of IQ (age 6) against anxiety (age 14). In sum, current evidence shows that low anxiety and depression symptoms in adolescence following childhood maltreatment was achieved through different pathways, and that early and late childhood/early adolescence were more sensitive periods for development of psychopathology related to depression and anxiety in adolescence. PMID:26146160

  15. Mental health outcomes in HIV and childhood maltreatment: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spies Georgina

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High rates of childhood maltreatment have been documented in HIV-positive men and women. In addition, mental disorders are highly prevalent in both HIV-infected individuals and victims of childhood maltreatment. However, there is a paucity of research investigating the mental health outcomes associated with childhood maltreatment in the context of HIV infection. The present systematic review assessed mental health outcomes in HIV-positive individuals who were victims of childhood maltreatment. Methods A systematic search of all retrospective, prospective, or clinical trial studies assessing mental health outcomes associated with HIV and childhood maltreatment. The following online databases were searched on 25–31 August 2010: PubMed, Social Science Citation Index, and the Cochrane Library (the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and the Cochrane Developmental, Psychosocial and Learning Problems, HIV/AIDS, and Depression, Anxiety and Neurosis registers. Results We identified 34 studies suitable for inclusion. A total of 14,935 participants were included in these studies. A variety of mixed mental health outcomes were reported. The most commonly reported psychiatric disorders among HIV-positive individuals with a history of childhood maltreatment included: substance abuse, major depressive disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. An association between childhood maltreatment and poor adherence to antiretroviral regimens was also reported in some studies. Conclusion A broad range of adult psychopathology has been reported in studies of HIV-infected individuals with a history of childhood maltreatment. However, a direct causal link cannot be well established. Longer term assessment will better delineate the nature, severity, and temporal relationship of childhood maltreatment to mental health outcomes.

  16. The influence of childhood maltreatment on adolescents’ academic performance

    OpenAIRE

    Slade, Eric P.; Wissow, Lawrence S.

    2007-01-01

    Evidence that childhood maltreatment is associated with emotional and behavioral problems throughout childhood suggests that maltreatment could lead to impaired academic performance in middle and high school. This article explores these effects using data on siblings. An index measure of the intensity of childhood maltreatment was included as a covariate in multivariate analyses of adolescents’ risk for school performance impairments. Family fixed effects were used to control for unobservable...

  17. Increased methylation of glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) in adults with a history of childhood maltreatment: a link with the severity and type of trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Perroud, N; Paoloni-Giacobino, A.; de Prada, P.; Olié, E; Salzmann, A; NICASTRO, R.; Guillaume, S.; Mouthon, D; Stouder, C; Dieben, K; Huguelet, P; Courtet, P; Malafosse, A.

    2011-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment, through epigenetic modification of the glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1), influences the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis (HPA axis). We investigated whether childhood maltreatment and its severity were associated with increased methylation of the exon 1F NR3C1 promoter, in 101 borderline personality disorder (BPD) and 99 major depressive disorder (MDD) subjects with, respectively, a high and low rate of childhood maltreatment, and 15 MDD subjects with comorbid p...

  18. Young Adults with Gambling Problems: The Impact of Childhood Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felsher, Jennifer R.; Derevensky, Jeffrey L.; Gupta, Rina

    2010-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment has been thought to be a significant risk factor in the development of gambling problems. Incorporating a developmental psychopathology perspective, 1,324 adolescents and young adults, age 17-22 years completed self-report measures on gambling behaviors, gambling severity, and childhood maltreatment. Problem gamblers…

  19. Assessing childhood maltreatment and mental health correlates of disordered eating profiles in a nationally representative sample of English females

    OpenAIRE

    Armour, Cherie; Műllerová, Jana; Fletcher, Shelley; Lagdon, Susan; Burns, Carol Rhonda; Robinson, Martin; Robinson, Jake

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Previous research suggests that childhood maltreatment is associated with the onset of eating disorders (ED). In turn, EDs are associated with alternative psychopathologies such as depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and with suicidality. Moreover, it has been reported that various ED profiles may exist. The aim of the current study was to examine the profiles of disordered eating and the associations of these with childhood maltreatment and with mental health psychop...

  20. Childhood maltreatment predicts allostatic load in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widom, Cathy Spatz; Horan, Jacqueline; Brzustowicz, Linda

    2015-09-01

    Childhood maltreatment has been linked to numerous negative health outcomes. However, few studies have examined mediating processes using longitudinal designs or objectively measured biological data. This study sought to determine whether child abuse and neglect predicts allostatic load (a composite indicator of accumulated stress-induced biological risk) and to examine potential mediators. Using a prospective cohort design, children (ages 0-11) with documented cases of abuse and neglect were matched with non-maltreated children and followed up into adulthood with in-person interviews and a medical status exam (mean age 41). Allostatic load was assessed with nine physical health indicators. Child abuse and neglect predicted allostatic load, controlling for age, sex, and race. The direct effect of child abuse and neglect persisted despite the introduction of potential mediators of internalizing and externalizing problems in adolescence and social support and risky lifestyle in middle adulthood. These findings reveal the long-term impact of childhood abuse and neglect on physical health over 30 years later. PMID:25700779

  1. Childhood Maltreatment and Revictimization in a Homeless Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edalati, Hanie; Krausz, Michael; Schütz, Christian G

    2016-09-01

    We examined the hypothesis that exposure to childhood maltreatment increases the vulnerability to Adult Victimization (AV) in a homeless population (N = 500). We also investigated the effects of specific types (emotional, physical, and sexual) and cumulative experience of childhood maltreatment on AV, and whether gender moderates these relationships. All three groups with AV experience (emotional, physical, and sexual) indicated higher exposure to childhood abuse and cumulative maltreatment, and those who were sexually victimized as an adult showed higher exposure to childhood neglect. In addition, exposure to childhood maltreatment had type-specific and cumulative effects on AV. Exposure to all types of childhood abuse maintained a strong direct association with AV, regardless of demographic characteristics, including age, ethnicity, marital status, education level, and housing situation. In addition, exposure to physical neglect showed a significant relationship with Adult Sexual Victimization. Cumulative experience of childhood maltreatment was consistently associated with cumulative risk of experiencing AV. Gender had no significant effect on these relationships. Findings suggest that intervention programs in homeless population should consider the history of childhood maltreatment and its characteristics to increase the effectiveness of intervention strategies for AV in this population. PMID:25814505

  2. The Prevalence of Four Types of Childhood Maltreatment in Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Christoffersen, Mogens N; Armour, Cherie; Lasgaard, Mathias; Andersen, Tonny E; Elklit, Ask

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate the prevalence of four types of childhood maltreatment in Denmark while taking into considerations how each of the types of maltreatment vary as a function of gender or child-protection status. Methods: Data were collected from a Danish national study conducted by The Danish National Centre for Social Research in 2008 and 2009. The study used a stratified random probability sample of young people aged 24 years. A sample of 4718 young adults were randomly selected by St...

  3. Maternal depression during pregnancy and offspring depression in adulthood:role of child maltreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Plant, Dominic T; Pariante, Carmine M.; Sharp, Deborah; Pawlby, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Studies have shown that maternal depression during pregnancy predicts offspring depression in adolescence. Child maltreatment is also a risk factor for depression.Aims: To investigate (a) whether there is an association between offspring exposure to maternal depression in pregnancy and depression in early adulthood, and (b) whether offspring child maltreatment mediates this association.Method: Prospectively collected data on maternal clinical depression in pregnancy, offspring chi...

  4. Relationship between childhood maltreatment and depression symptoms among 1 417 junior high school students%童年期虐待与初中生抑郁症状关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张婉婉; 刘阳; 余婷婷; 胡塔静; 葛星; 汪耿夫; 方玉; 苏普玉

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between childhood maltreatment and depression in junior high school students.Methods A total of 1 417 junior high school students from the 7th,8th and 9th grade of three public schools were selected with cluster sampling in Huoqiu country and depressive symptoms,childhood maltreatment experience and general demographic were surveyed with Self-Rating Depression Scale and a self-designed questionnaire.Results The detection rate of depressive symptoms was 61.3% in the students.The detection rate was higher among the girls,students of 8th grades,and non-only-child students than among the boys,students of other grade and only-child students,with statistically significant differences (P < 0.05 for all).The detection rate was inversely related to the intimacy to parents and academic records of the students (P < 0.001).The detection rate of depression among the students with repeated childhood maltreatment was higher than among the student without the experience,with a significant difference(P < 0.05).Repeated serious physical abuse,moderate physical abuse,emotional abuse,contact sexual abuse,and non-contact sexual abuse in childhood were positivedly correlated to depression among the students,with the odds ratios of 1.989,1.436,1.698,2.834,and 2.235,respectively.Conclusion Repeated maltreatment in childhood is a risk factor of adolescent depression.%目的 探讨童年期虐待经历与初中生抑郁症状的关系.方法 整群抽取安徽省霍邱县3所乡镇普通初级中学的1 417名初中生,采用抑郁自评量表(SDS)、自编童年期虐待经历问卷和自编一般情况调查表进行问卷调查.结果 1 417名初中生中抑郁症状的检出率为61.3%,女生(66.7%)高于男生(56.6%),初二年级(64.4%)高于初一(62.4%)和初三年级(56.7%),非独生子女(63.5%)高于独生子女(54.9%),差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05或P<0.001);与父母的关系从差、一般到亲密,

  5. Childhood emotional maltreatment : impact on cognition and the brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmelen, Anne-Laura van

    2013-01-01

    When a child is often scolded or threatened by his parents (emotional abuse) and /or when a child is structurally ignored or isolated by his parents (emotional neglect) we call this childhood emotional maltreatment (CEM). CEM is the most common form of child abuse, however, CEM is also the most hidd

  6. Childhood maltreatment and amygdala connectivity in methamphetamine dependence: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Dean, Andy C.; Kohno, Milky; Hellemann, Gerhard; London, Edythe D.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Childhood maltreatment, a well-known risk factor for the development of substance abuse disorders, is associated with functional and structural abnormalities in the adult brain, particularly in the limbic system. However, almost no research has examined the relationship between childhood maltreatment and brain function in individuals with drug abuse disorders. Methods We conducted a pilot study of the relationship between childhood maltreatment (evaluated with the Childhood Traum...

  7. 抑郁障碍共病人格障碍与童年期被虐待经历关系的研究%A study on patients suffered from depression and personality comorbided disorder and childhood maltreatment experiences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周玉萍; 李绍敏; 阮玖琼; 闫景新; 高晓翠

    2008-01-01

    Objective To explore the relation between childhood maltreated Experiences and depressive disorder subjects with personality dimmers.Methods 98 depressive disorder patients and 100 healthy controls were assessed with structured clinical interview for DSM-Ⅳ(SCID-Ⅱ) and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-28 Short Form (CTQ-SF).Results Depressive disorder subjects with personality disorders scored significantly higher than normal control in emotional abuse,sex abuse,physical neglect,emotionalneglect domains and in all domains (97.52,90.98,98.32,93.72,94.96 vs 69.66,69.98,66.26,68.74,68.12 ) with the exception of physical abuse.Whereas depressive disorder subjects without personality disorders only scored significantly higher in emotional neglect,emotional abuse domains and compared with normal control ( 85.40,83.15 vs 66.83,67.82).Conclusion Subjects with personality disorders experienced more severe traumaticevents during their early life.Childhood maltreatment experiences have influence on thedevelopment of depression disorders and personality disorders.%目的 研究抑郁障碍共病人格障碍与童年期被虐待经历的关系.方法 采用DSM-IV定式临床会谈量表(SCID-Ⅱ)和童年期创伤性经历问卷(CTQ-SF)对98例抑郁障碍患者进行评估,并与100例正常人群对照.结果 CTQ-SF除躯体虐待外,抑郁障碍共病人格障碍患者情感虐待、性虐待、躯体忽视、情感忽视因子分和总分(分别为97.52分,90.98分,98.32分,93.72分,94.96分)均高于正常对照组(分别为69.66分,69.98分,66.26分,68.74分,68.12分),差异有显著性(P<0.01).非共病人格障碍组的则只有情感忽视和情感虐待(分别为85.40分,83.15分)高于正常对照组(分别为66.83分,67.82分),差异具有显著性(P<0.05).结论 抑郁障碍共病人格障碍患者的童年期创伤性经历较正常对照组严重;童年期被虐待经历与抑郁障碍共患人格障碍有关.

  8. Adult mental health consequences of peer bullying and maltreatment in childhood: two cohorts in two countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Copeland, William E; Costello, E Jane; Wolke, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background The adult mental health consequences of childhood maltreatment are well documented. Maltreatment by peers (ie, bullying) has also been shown to have long-term adverse effects. We aimed to determine whether these effects are just due to being exposed to both maltreatment and bullying or whether bullying has a unique effect. Methods We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children in the UK (ALSPAC) and the Great Smoky Mountains Study in the USA (GSMS) longitudinal studies. In ALSPAC, maltreatment was assessed as physical, emotional, or sexual abuse, or severe maladaptive parenting (or both) between ages 8 weeks and 8·6 years, as reported by the mother in questionnaires, and being bullied was assessed with child reports at 8, 10, and 13 years using the previously validated Bullying and Friendship Interview Schedule. In GSMS, both maltreatment and bullying were repeatedly assessed with annual parent and child interviews between ages 9 and 16 years. To identify the association between maltreatment, being bullied, and mental health problems, binary logistic regression analyses were run. The primary outcome variable was overall mental health problem (any anxiety, depression, or self-harm or suicidality). Findings 4026 children from the ALSPAC cohort and 1420 children from the GSMS cohort provided information about bullying victimisation, maltreatment, and overall mental health problems. The ALSPAC study started in 1991 and the GSMS cohort enrolled participants from 1993. Compared with children who were not maltreated or bullied, children who were only maltreated were at increased risk for depression in young adulthood in models adjusted for sex and family hardships according to the GSMS cohort (odds ratio [OR] 4·1, 95% CI 1·5–11·7). According to the ALSPAC cohort, those who were only being maltreated were not at increased risk for any mental health problem compared with children who were not maltreated or bullied. By contrast

  9. Emotion Regulation Predicts Attention Bias in Maltreated Children At-Risk for Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romens, Sarah E.; Pollak, Seth D.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Child maltreatment is associated with heightened risk for depression; however, not all individuals who experience maltreatment develop depression. Previous research indicates that maltreatment contributes to an attention bias for emotional cues, and that depressed individuals show attention bias for sad cues. Method: The present study…

  10. Mental health outcomes in HIV and childhood maltreatment: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Spies Georgina; Afifi Tracie O; Archibald Sarah L; Fennema-Notestine Christine; Sareen Jitender; Seedat Soraya

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background High rates of childhood maltreatment have been documented in HIV-positive men and women. In addition, mental disorders are highly prevalent in both HIV-infected individuals and victims of childhood maltreatment. However, there is a paucity of research investigating the mental health outcomes associated with childhood maltreatment in the context of HIV infection. The present systematic review assessed mental health outcomes in HIV-positive individuals who were victims of ch...

  11. The Dollars and Senselessness in Failing to Prioritize Childhood Maltreatment Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wekerle, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment captured medical attention almost 50 years ago. Reviews considering the evidence for published maltreatment prevention programming emerged about 20 years ago. In the second decade of the 21st century, evidence-based maltreatment prevention is a reality for at-risk groups; however, the research-to-practice and policy gap…

  12. Childhood maltreatment and violence: mediation through psychiatric morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Rafael A; Kallis, Constantinos; Ullrich, Simone; Barnicot, Kirsten; Keers, Robert; Coid, Jeremy W

    2016-02-01

    Childhood maltreatment is associated with multiple adverse outcomes in adulthood including poor mental health and violence. We investigated direct and indirect pathways from childhood maltreatment to adult violence perpetration and the explanatory role of psychiatric morbidity. Analyses were based on a population survey of 2,928 young men 21-34 years in Great Britain in 2011, with boost surveys of black and minority ethnic groups and lower social grades. Respondents completed questionnaires measuring psychiatric diagnoses using standardized screening instruments, including antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), drug and alcohol dependence and psychosis. Maltreatment exposures included childhood physical abuse, neglect, witnessing domestic violence and being bullied. Adult violence outcomes included: any violence, violence toward strangers and intimate partners (IPV), victim injury and minor violence. Witnessing domestic violence showed the strongest risk for adult violence (AOR 2.70, 95% CI 2.00, 3.65) through a direct pathway, with psychotic symptoms and ASPD as partial mediators. Childhood physical abuse was associated with IPV (AOR 2.33, 95% CI 1.25, 4.35), mediated by ASPD and alcohol dependence. Neglect was associated with violence toward strangers (AOR 1.73, 95% CI 1.03, 2.91), mediated by ASPD. Prevention of violence in adulthood following childhood physical abuse and neglect requires treatment interventions for associated alcohol dependence, psychosis, and ASPD. However, witnessing family violence in childhood had strongest and direct effects on the pathway to adult violence, with important implications for primary prevention. In this context, prevention strategies should prioritize and focus on early childhood exposure to violence in the family home. PMID:26803688

  13. Childhood maltreatment and intimate partner violence in dissociative disorder patients

    OpenAIRE

    Webermann, Aliya R.; Brand, Bethany L.; Chasson, Gregory S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Childhood maltreatment (CM) is a risk factor for subsequent intimate partner violence (IPV) in adulthood, with high rates of retrospectively reported CM among IPV victims and perpetrators. A theorized mechanism of the link between CM and IPV is dissociation. Dissociation may allow perpetrators of violence to remain emotionally distant from their behavior and minimize empathy toward those they victimize, enabling them to commit acts of violence similar to their own experiences. Ind...

  14. Intrusions of autobiographical memories in individuals reporting childhood emotional maltreatment

    OpenAIRE

    van Harmelen, Anne-Laura; Elzinga, Bernet M.; Rogier A. Kievit; Spinhoven, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Background: During childhood emotional maltreatment (CEM) negative attitudes are provided to the child (e.g., ‘‘you are worthless’’). These negative attitudes may result in emotion inhibition strategies in order to avoid thinking of memories of CEM, such as thought suppression. However, thought suppression may paradoxically enhance occurrences (i.e., intrusions) of these memories, which may occur immediately or sometime after active suppression of these memories. Objective: Until now, studies...

  15. Resilience and health among youths with documented childhood maltreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Maia, Ângela; Pinto, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to assess the current health among youths who were maltreated as a child and had received one of two different protective interventions (home vs. institutionalization). Methods: We assessed the childhood adversity, psychopathology, physical complaints and health risk behaviours of 136 youths who had been identified by Child Protective Services and 80 youth not identified (control). Findings: The groups were similar in terms of psychopathology, glob...

  16. Childhood maltreatment and the risk of pre-pregnancy obesity and excessive gestational weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesel, Jill C; Bodnar, Lisa M; Day, Nancy L; Larkby, Cynthia A

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate whether maternal history of childhood maltreatment was associated with pre-pregnancy obesity or excessive gestational weight gain. Pregnant women (n = 472) reported pre-pregnancy weight and height and gestational weight gain and were followed up to 16 years post-partum when they reported maltreatment on the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). CTQ score ranged from no maltreatment (25) to severe maltreatment (125). Prenatal mental health modified the association between CTQ score and maternal weight (P childhood may contribute to pre-pregnancy obesity and excessive gestational weight gain. PMID:25138565

  17. Childhood depression: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima NNR

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Nádia Nara Rolim Lima,1 Vânia Barbosa do Nascimento,1 Sionara Melo Figueiredo de Carvalho,1 Luiz Carlos de Abreu,1,3 Modesto Leite Rolim Neto,2 Aline Quental Brasil,2 Francisco Telésforo Celestino Junior,2 Gislene Farias de Oliveira,2 Alberto Olavo Advíncula Reis3 1Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Saúde, Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo André, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Departamento de Medicina. Universidade Federal do Ceará, UFC, Barbalha, Ceará, Brazil; 3Departamento de Saúde Materno Infantil, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: As an important public health issue, childhood depression deserves special attention, considering the serious and lasting consequences of the disease to child development. Taking this into consideration, the present study was based on the following question: what practical contributions to clinicians and researchers does the current literature on childhood depression have to offer? The objective of the present study was to conduct a systematic review of articles regarding childhood depression. To accomplish this purpose, a systematic review of articles on childhood depression, published from January 1, 2010 to November 24, 2012, on MEDLINE and SciELO databases was carried out. Search terms were “depression” (medical subject headings [MeSH], “child” (MeSH, and "childhood depression" (keyword. Of the 180 retrieved studies, 25 met the eligibility criteria. Retrieved studies covered a wide range of aspects regarding childhood depression, such as diagnosis, treatment, prevention and prognosis. Recent scientific literature regarding childhood depression converge to, directly or indirectly, highlight the negative impacts of depressive disorders to the children's quality of life. Unfortunately, the retrieved studies show that childhood depression commonly grows in a background of vulnerability and poverty, where individual and familiar needs

  18. Childhood Maltreatment, Emotional Dysregulation, and Psychiatric Comorbidities

    OpenAIRE

    Dvir, Yael; Ford, Julian D.; Hill, Michael; Frazier, Jean A.

    2014-01-01

    Affect dysregulation, defined as the impaired ability to regulate and/or tolerate negative emotional states, and has been associated with interpersonal trauma and post-traumatic stress. Affect regulation difficulties also play a role in many other psychiatric conditions, including anxiety disorders and mood disorders, specifically major depression in youth and bipolar disorder throughout the life span.

  19. Reports of Parental Maltreatment during Childhood in a United States Population-Based Survey of Homosexual, Bisexual, and Heterosexual Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corliss, Heather L.; Cochran, Susan D.; Mays, Vickie M.

    2002-01-01

    A study examined childhood maltreatment among 2917 heterosexual, homosexual, and bisexual adults. Homosexual/bisexual men reported higher rates than heterosexual men of childhood emotional and physical maltreatment by their mothers and major physical maltreatment by their fathers. Homosexual/bisexual women reported higher rates of major physical…

  20. Impact of Exposure to Childhood Maltreatment on Transitions to Alcohol Dependence in Women and Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberleitner, Lindsay M.; Smith, Philip H.; Weinberger, Andrea H; Mazure, Carolyn M.; McKee, Sherry A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Childhood maltreatment decreases age of first use and speeds the transition from first use to dependence (i.e., telescoping) for alcohol use, however, it is currently unknown whether this influence is the same for men and women. Method Analyses were conducted with the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (n=34,653). Outcome variables included: age of alcohol initiation and time to onset of DSM-IV alcohol dependence. Predictor variables included: gender and childhood maltreatment. Linear and Poisson regression analyses were conducted. Results Results demonstrated that in regards to age of drinking initiation, individuals who experienced childhood maltreatment initiated 1 year earlier than those without maltreatment, however, there was no interaction of this relationship with gender. Regarding the time to dependence, it was found that women who experienced childhood maltreatment demonstrated telescoping (shorter time between onset and dependence) compared to women without maltreatment and men (both with and without maltreatment). Conclusion Women with a history of childhood maltreatment are particularly vulnerable to an accelerated time from initiation of alcohol use until dependence, a pattern indicative of increased negative alcohol related outcomes. Findings highlight the need for development of gender-specific prevention efforts and behavioral treatments to aid in early intervention of problematic alcohol use in women. PMID:26130105

  1. Childhood maltreatment, 9/11 exposure, and latent dimensions of psychopathology: A test of stress sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Jacquelyn L; Lowe, Sarah R; Eaton, Nicholas R; Krueger, Robert; Grant, Bridget F; Hasin, Deborah

    2015-09-01

    On September 11, 2001, a terrorist attack occurred in the U.S. (9/11). Research on 9/11 and psychiatric outcomes has focused on individual disorders rather than the broader internalizing (INT) and externalizing (EXT) domains of psychopathology, leaving unknown whether direct and indirect 9/11 exposure differentially impacted these domains rather than individual disorders. Further, whether such effects were exacerbated by earlier childhood maltreatment (i.e. stress sensitization) is unknown. 18,713 participants from a U.S. national sample with no history of psychiatric disorders prior to 9/11 were assessed using a structured in-person interview. Structural equation modeling conducted in a sample who endorsed no psychiatric history prior to 9/11, indicated that indirect exposure to 9/11 (i.e. media, friends/family) was related to both EXT (alcohol, nicotine, and cannabis dependence, and antisocial personality disorder) and INT (major depression, generalized anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)) dimensions of psychopathology (EXT: β = 0.10, p < 0.001; INT: β = 0.11, p < 0.001) whereas direct exposure was associated with the INT dimension only (β = 0.11, p < 0.001). For individuals who had experienced childhood maltreatment, the risk for EXT and INT dimensions associated with 9/11 was exacerbated (Interactions: β = 0.06, p < 0.01; β = 0.07, p < 0.001, respectively). These findings indicate that 9/11 impacted latent liability to broad domains of psychopathology in the US general population rather than specific disorders with the exception of PTSD, which had independent effects beyond INT (as indicated by a significant (p < 0.05) improvement in modification indices). Findings also indicated that childhood maltreatment increases the risk associated with adult trauma exposure, providing further evidence for the concept of stress sensitization. PMID:26037889

  2. A systematic review of childhood maltreatment assessments in population-representative surveys since 1990.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Hovdestad

    Full Text Available Population-representative surveys that assess childhood maltreatment and health are a valuable resource to explore the implications of child maltreatment for population health. Systematic identification and evaluation of such surveys is needed to facilitate optimal use of their data and to inform future research.To inform researchers of the existence and nature of population-representative surveys relevant to understanding links between childhood maltreatment and health; to evaluate the assessment of childhood maltreatment in this body of work.We included surveys that: 1 were representative of the non-institutionalized population of any size nation or of any geopolitical region ≥ 10 million people; 2 included a broad age range (≥ 40 years; 3 measured health; 4 assessed childhood maltreatment retrospectively; and 5 were conducted since 1990. We used Internet and database searching (including CINAHL, Embase, ERIC, Global Health, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Scopus, Social Policy and Practice: January 1990 to March 2014, expert consultation, and other means to identify surveys and associated documentation. Translations of non-English survey content were verified by fluent readers of survey languages. We developed checklists to abstract and evaluate childhood maltreatment content.Fifty-four surveys from 39 countries met inclusion criteria. Sample sizes ranged from 1,287-51,945 and response rates from 15%-96%. Thirteen surveys assessed neglect, 15 emotional abuse; 18 exposure to family violence; 26 physical abuse; 48 sexual abuse. Fourteen surveys assessed more than three types; six of these were conducted since 2010. In nine surveys childhood maltreatment assessments were detailed (+10 items for at least one type of maltreatment. Seven surveys' assessments had known reliability and/or validity.Data from 54 surveys can be used to explore the population health relevance of child maltreatment. Assessment of childhood maltreatment is not comprehensive but

  3. Adult mental health consequences of peer bullying and maltreatment in childhood: two cohorts in two countries

    OpenAIRE

    Lereya, Suzet Tanya; Copeland, William E; Costello, E. Jane; Wolke, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background The adult mental health consequences of childhood maltreatment are well documented. Maltreatment by peers (ie, bullying) has also been shown to have long-term adverse effects. We aimed to determine whether these effects are just due to being exposed to both maltreatment and bullying or whether bullying has a unique effect. Methods We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children in the UK (ALSPAC) and the Great Smoky Mountains Study in the USA (GSMS) lo...

  4. Childhood trauma and dimensions of depression: a specific association with the cognitive domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar A. Vares

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate associations between a history of childhood trauma and dimensions of depression in a sample of clinically depressed patients. Methods: A sample of 217 patients from a mood-disorder outpatient unit was investigated with the Beck Depression Inventory, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, the CORE Assessment of Psychomotor Change, and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. A previous latent model identifying six depressive dimensions was used for analysis. Path analysis and Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes (MIMIC models were used to investigate associations between general childhood trauma and childhood maltreatment modalities (emotional, sexual, and physical abuse; emotional and physical neglect with dimensions of depression (sexual, cognition, insomnia, appetite, non-interactiveness/retardation, and agitation. Results: The overall childhood trauma index was uniquely associated with cognitive aspects of depression, but not with any other depressive dimension. An investigation of childhood maltreatment modalities revealed that emotional abuse was consistently associated with depression severity in the cognitive dimension. Conclusion: Childhood trauma, and specifically emotional abuse, could be significant risk factors for the subsequent development of cognitive symptoms of major depression. These influences might be specific to this depressive dimension and not found in any other dimension, which might have conceptual and therapeutic implications for clinicians and researchers alike.

  5. Child Maltreatment and Mediating Influences of Childhood Personality Types on the Development of Adolescent Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshri, Assaf; Rogosch, Fred A.; Cicchetti, Dante

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate longitudinal risk processes linking early child maltreatment, childhood personality organizations, and adolescent maladaptation. In a sample of maltreated and nonmaltreated children ("N" = 400; 62.3% African American, 11.8% Hispanic; 40.8% girls), a tripartite personality typology based on…

  6. Unsafe at Any Age: Linking Childhood and Adolescent Maltreatment to Delinquency and Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mersky, Joshua P.; Topitzes, James; Reynolds, Arthur J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This study compares the effects of childhood maltreatment and adolescent maltreatment on delinquency and crime, including violent and nonviolent offending. Methods: Data were derived from the Chicago Longitudinal Study, a prospective investigation of 1,539 underprivileged, minority subjects. Results: Results confirmed that rates of…

  7. Early Childhood Intervention Programs: Opportunities and Challenges for Preventing Child Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asawa, Lindsay E.; Hansen, David J.; Flood, Mary Fran

    2008-01-01

    Due to the destructive impact of child maltreatment and limited available funding to address its consequences, the value of preventive measures is evident. Early Childhood Intervention Programs (ECIPs) provide excellent opportunities to prevent and identify cases of child maltreatment, among other varied objectives. These programs are typically…

  8. Childhood maltreatment among Hispanic women in the United States: an examination of subgroup differences and impact on psychiatric disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Lynn A; Alegría, Margarita; Canino, Glorisa

    2012-05-01

    Prevalence rates of childhood maltreatment among Hispanic women in the United States are presented separately for nativity status and ethnic origin subgroups, and the associations between different types of maltreatment and the development of anxiety and depressive disorders are examined. Analyses used self-report data from 1,427 Hispanic women who participated in the National Latino and Asian American Survey. Foreign-born Hispanic women compared to U.S.-born Hispanic women reported significantly lower rates of sexual assault and witnessing interpersonal violence, and a significantly higher rate of being beaten. Ethnic subgroups reported similar rates of maltreatment, with the exception of rape. Bivariate analyses were remarkably consistent in that regardless of nativity status or ethnic subgroup, each type of maltreatment experience increased the risk of psychiatric disorder. In multivariate models controlling for all types of victimization and proxies of acculturation, having been beaten and witnessing interpersonal violence remained significant predictors of both disorders, but sexual abuse increased risk of anxiety only. A significant interaction effect of family cultural conflict and witnessing violence on anxiety provided very limited support for the hypothesis that acculturation moderates the influence of maltreatment on mental health outcomes. Implications for culturally relevant prevention and intervention approaches are presented. PMID:22548893

  9. Shame, Guilt, Symptoms of Depression, and Reported History of Psychological Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Marcia; Heisler, Dawn; Call, Steve; Chickering, Sarah A.; Colburn, Trina A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to provide preliminary data extending earlier research on shame and guilt, examining their relationships both to symptoms of depression and to psychological maltreatment. Symptoms of depression were expected to correlate positively with shame, but not with guilt. Psychological maltreatment was also…

  10. Childhood maltreatment, 9/11 exposure, and latent dimensions of psychopathology: A test of stress sensitization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Jacquelyn L.; Lowe, Sarah R.; Eaton, Nicholas R.; Krueger, Robert; Grant, Bridget F.; Hasin, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    On September 11, 2001, a terrorist attack occurred in the U.S. (9/11). Research on 9/11 and psychiatric outcomes has focused on individual disorders rather than the broader internalizing (INT) and externalizing (EXT) domains of psychopathology, leaving unknown whether direct and indirect 9/11 exposure differentially impacted these domains rather than individual disorders. Further, whether such effects were exacerbated by earlier childhood maltreatment (i.e. stress sensitization) is unknown. 18,713 participants from a U.S. national sample with no history of psychiatric disorders prior to 9/11 were assessed using a structured in-person interview. Structural equation modeling conducted in a sample who endorsed no psychiatric history prior to 9/11, indicated that indirect exposure to 9/11 (i.e. media, friends/family) was related to both EXT (alcohol, nicotine, and cannabis dependence, and antisocial personality disorder) and INT (major depression, generalized anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)) dimensions of psychopathology (EXT: β = 0.10, p 9/11 was exacerbated (Interactions: β = 0.06, p 9/11 impacted latent liability to broad domains of psychopathology in the US general population rather than specific disorders with the exception of PTSD, which had independent effects beyond INT (as indicated by a significant (p < 0.05) improvement in modification indices). Findings also indicated that childhood maltreatment increases the risk associated with adult trauma exposure, providing further evidence for the concept of stress sensitization. PMID:26037889

  11. Assessing the Family Dynamics of Childhood Maltreatment History with the Childhood Attachment and Relational Trauma Screen (CARTS)

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Matthew; DePierro, Jonathan; D’Andrea, Wendy; Schore, Allan; Frewen, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background: Existing survey measures of childhood trauma history generally fail to take into account the relational-socioecological environment in which childhood maltreatment occurs. Variables such as the relationship between the perpetrator and the victim, the emotional availability of caregivers, witnessing the abuse of others, and the respondent’s own thoughts, feelings, and actions in response to maltreatment are rarely assessed by current measures.Methods: To address these concerns, the...

  12. Long-Term Effects of Childhood Maltreatment History on Gender-Related Personality Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Leora N.; Martin, Lee

    1998-01-01

    A survey of 1,060 male and 305 female soldiers examined associations of gender-related personality attributes with a history of child maltreatment. Childhood abuse was associated with the presence of negative gender-related attributes; childhood neglect was associated with absence of positive gender-related attributes; childhood sexual abuse was…

  13. The Relationship between Childhood Maltreatment and Opiate Dependency in Adolescence and Middle Age

    OpenAIRE

    Naqavi, Mohammad Reza; Mohammadi, Masood; Salari, Vahid; NAKHAEE, Nouzar

    2011-01-01

    Background Child maltreatment is a global phenomenon with possible serious long-term consequences. The present study aimed to determine the relationship between childhood maltreatment and opiate dependency in older age. Methods In this study, 212 opiate dependent individuals and 216 control subjects were selected consecutively. The data collection instrument was a questionnaire which consisted of background variables, General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12), and Childhood Trauma Questionnair...

  14. The relationship between adult health and childhood maltreatment, as moderated by anger and ethnic background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapoza, Kimberly A; Wilson, Denise T; Widmann, Wendy A; Riley, Michelle A; Robertson, Thomas W; Maiello, Elizabeth; Villot, Nikisha; Manzella, Dana J; Ortiz-Garcia, Alberto L

    2014-03-01

    Childhood maltreatment, anger, and racial/ethnic background were examined in relation to physical health, psychological well-being, and blood pressure outcomes. This study used data from a diverse sample of African American, Latino, and Caucasian participants (N=198). Results from a series of multiple regressions indicated anger and total childhood maltreatment were robust predictors of poorer health. Although correlational analyses found maltreatment from the mother and father were associated with poorer health outcomes, when considered as part of the regression models, only a relationship between maltreatment from the mother and physical health was found. Greater anger scores were linked with lower blood pressure, particularly systolic blood pressure. Generally, more psychological and physical symptom reporting was found with greater anger scores, and higher levels of total maltreatment also predicted physical symptoms. The pattern of interactions indicated anger was more detrimental for African American participant's (and marginally so for Latino participant's) physical health. Interestingly, interactions also indicated total childhood maltreatment was related to fewer symptoms for Latino participants. Although child maltreatment may be viewed as a moral and/or human rights issue, this study provides evidence that it can also be viewed as a public health issue. Our study demonstrated that known health risk factors such as anger and maltreatment may operate in a different pattern dependent on ethnic/cultural background. The findings suggest health and health disparities research would benefit from greater exploration of the differential impact of certain moderating variables based on racial/ethnic background. PMID:24582658

  15. Childhood maltreatment and intimate partner violence in dissociative disorder patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliya R. Webermann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood maltreatment (CM is a risk factor for subsequent intimate partner violence (IPV in adulthood, with high rates of retrospectively reported CM among IPV victims and perpetrators. A theorized mechanism of the link between CM and IPV is dissociation. Dissociation may allow perpetrators of violence to remain emotionally distant from their behavior and minimize empathy toward those they victimize, enabling them to commit acts of violence similar to their own experiences. Indeed, elevated rates of dissociation and dissociative disorders (DD have been found among IPV survivors and perpetrators. In addition, in pilot studies, DD clinicians have reported high levels of violent behavior among DD patients. Objective: The present study investigates IPV among DD patients with Dissociative Identity Disorder and Dissociative Disorder Not Otherwise Specified, a group with CM rates of 80–95% and severe dissociative symptoms. Methods: DD clinicians reported on rates of CM and IPV among 275 DD patients in outpatient treatment. DD patients also completed a self-report measure of dissociation. Analyses assessed the associations between CM typologies and IPV, as well as trait dissociation and IPV. Results: Physical and emotional child abuse were associated with physical IPV, and childhood witnessing of domestic violence (DV and childhood neglect were associated with emotional IPV. Conclusions: The present study is the first to provide empirical support for a possible CM to adult IPV developmental trajectory among DD patients. Future research is needed to better understand the link between CM and IPV among those with trauma and DD.

  16. Intrusions of autobiographical memories in individuals reporting childhood emotional maltreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Spinhoven

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available During childhood emotional maltreatment (CEM negative attitudes are provided to the child (e.g., “you are worthless”. These negative attitudes may result in emotion inhibition strategies in order to avoid thinking of memories of CEM, such as thought suppression. However, thought suppression may paradoxically enhance occurrences (i.e., intrusions of these memories, which may occur immediately or sometime after active suppression of these memories.Until now, studies that examined suppressive coping styles in individuals reporting CEM have utilized self-report questionnaires. Therefore, it is unclear what the consequences will be of emotion inhibition styles on the intrusion of autobiographical memories in individuals reporting CEM.Using a thought suppression task, this study aimed to investigate the experience of intrusions during suppression of, and when no longer instructed to actively suppress, positive and negative autobiographical memories in individuals reporting Low, Moderate, and Severe CEM compared to No Abuse (total N = 83.We found no group differences during active suppression of negative and positive autobiographical memories. However, when individuals reporting Severe CEM were no longer instructed to suppress thinking about the memory, individuals reporting No Abuse, Low CEM, or Moderate CEM reported fewer intrusions of both positive and negative autobiographical memories than individuals reporting Severe CEM. Finally, we found that intrusions of negative memories are strongly related with psychiatric distress.The present study results provide initial insights into the cognitive mechanisms that may underlie the consequences of childhood emotional maltreatment and suggests avenues for successful interventions.For the abstract or full text in other languages, please see Supplementary files under Reading Tools online

  17. Association of oxytocin level and less severe forms of childhood maltreatment history among healthy Japanese adults involved with child care

    OpenAIRE

    Rie eMizuki; Takeo eFujiwara

    2015-01-01

    Background: Oxytocin (OT) is known to play a role in stress regulation. The association between childhood maltreatment history and neuropeptide OT concentration is inconsistent due to the varying degrees of severity of childhood maltreatment, among other contributing factors. Less severe forms of childhood maltreatment history might enhance OT concentrations as a response to coping with social stress within the family. The purpose of this study is to investigate the association between less s...

  18. Child Maltreatment and Women’s Adult Sexual Risk Behavior: Childhood Sexual Abuse as a Unique Risk Factor

    OpenAIRE

    Senn, Theresa E; Michael P. Carey

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated (a) whether childhood sexual abuse (CSA) was uniquely associated with adult sexual risk behavior, after controlling for other types of childhood maltreatment, and (b) whether there were additive or interactive effects of different types of maltreatment on adult sexual risk behavior. Participants were 414 women (M age = 28 years) attending a publicly-funded STD clinic. All women completed a computerized survey assessing childhood maltreatment (sexual, physical, psycholo...

  19. Child Maltreatment History and Response to CBT Treatment in Depressed Mothers Participating in Home Visiting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammerman, Robert T; Peugh, James L; Teeters, Angelique R; Putnam, Frank W; Van Ginkel, Judith B

    2016-03-01

    Child maltreatment contributes to depression in adults. Evidence indicates that such experiences are associated with poorer outcomes in treatment. Mothers in home visiting programs display high rates of depression and child maltreatment histories. In-Home Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (IH-CBT) was developed to treat maternal depression in home visiting. The purpose of this study was to examine the moderating effects of child maltreatment history on depression, social functioning, and parenting in mothers participating in a clinical trial of IH-CBT. Ninety-three depressed mothers in home visiting between 2 and 10 months postpartum were randomly assigned to IH-CBT (n = 47) plus home visiting or standard home visiting (SHV; n = 46). Mothers were identified via screening and then confirmation of major depressive disorder diagnosis. Measures of child maltreatment history, depression, social functioning, and parenting were administered at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and 3-month follow-up. Results indicated high rates of maltreatment in both conditions relative to the general population. Mixed model analyses found a number of main effects in which experiences of different types of trauma were associated with poorer functioning regardless of treatment condition. Evidence of a moderating effect of maltreatment on treatment outcomes was found for physical abuse and parenting and emotional abuse and social network size. Future research should focus on increasing the effectiveness of IH-CBT with depressed mothers who have experienced child maltreatment. PMID:25395221

  20. The Prospective Contribution of Childhood Maltreatment to Low Self-Worth, Low Relationship Quality, and Symptomatology across Adolescence: A Developmental-Organizational Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Megan; Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred

    2014-01-01

    This research investigated the prospective contribution of childhood maltreatment to low self-worth, low relationship quality, and symptoms during adolescence. Further, the stability and cross-lagged effects of these sequelae of maltreatment were examined over time. History of maltreatment during childhood was obtained, and youth (407 maltreated,…

  1. Understanding the Cycle: Childhood Maltreatment and Future Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Janet; Tekin, Erdal

    2012-01-01

    Child maltreatment is a major social problem. This paper focuses on measuring the relationship between child maltreatment and crime using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). We focus on crime because it is one of the most costly potential outcomes of maltreatment. Our work addresses two main limitations of…

  2. Epigenetic Alterations Associated with War Trauma and Childhood Maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramo-Fernández, Laura; Schneider, Anna; Wilker, Sarah; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana

    2015-10-01

    Survivors of war trauma or childhood maltreatment are at increased risk for trauma-spectrum disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In addition, traumatic stress has been associated with alterations in the neuroendocrine and the immune system, enhancing the risk for physical diseases. Traumatic experiences might even affect psychological as well as biological parameters in the next generation, i.e. traumatic stress might have transgenerational effects. This article outlines how epigenetic processes, which represent a pivotal biological mechanism for dynamic adaptation to environmental challenges, might contribute to the explanation of the long-lasting and transgenerational effects of trauma. In particular, epigenetic alterations in genes regulating the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis as well as the immune system have been observed in survivors of childhood and adult trauma. These changes could result in enduring alterations of the stress response as well as the physical health risk. Furthermore, the effects of parental trauma could be transmitted to the next generation by parental distress and the pre- and postnatal environment, as well as by epigenetic marks transmitted via the germline. While epigenetic research has a high potential of advancing our understanding of the consequences of trauma, the findings have to be interpreted with caution, as epigenetics only represent one piece of a complex puzzle of interacting biological and environmental factors. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26358541

  3. Parenting Attitudes, Family Environments, Depression, and Anxiety in Caregivers of Maltreated Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennen, Ferol E.; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated parenting attitudes, family environments, depression, and anxiety in a sample of primarily minority urban mothers to better understand maltreating mothers (n = 83), who retain custody of their children and how they are similar to and different from foster mothers (n = 50), kin caregivers (n = 52) of maltreated children, and…

  4. Nightmare frequency, nightmare distress, and psychopathology in female victims of childhood maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Mylène; McDuff, Pierre; Zadra, Antonio

    2013-09-01

    This study investigated the relationships between a history of childhood maltreatment, the frequency of disturbing dreams, their associated distress, and the presence of psychopathology in 352 female undergraduate volunteers. Participants completed questionnaires assessing dream recall, bad dream and nightmare frequency, nightmare distress, psychological well-being, and history of childhood trauma. Four groups were investigated based on the type and severity of childhood maltreatments experienced. Women reporting more severe forms of maltreatment reported higher frequencies of disturbing dreams, higher levels of nightmare distress, and greater psychopathology. Results showed that nightmare distress explains frequency of disturbed dreaming beyond the effect of psychopathology and childhood trauma. The results highlight the importance of assessing waking distress associated with disturbing dreams independently from their actual incidence. PMID:23995032

  5. Family Attachment Narrative Therapy: Healing the Experience of Early Childhood Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Joanne C.

    2005-01-01

    Based on attachment theory and research, Family Attachment Narrative Therapy is introduced as a new family therapy modality developed to heal the experience of early childhood maltreatment. Unresolved childhood trauma has been correlated with impaired and delayed cognitive, behavioral and emotional functioning. Gentle, soothing, nonprovocative and…

  6. Impact of Childhood Maltreatment on the Recognition of Facial Expressions of Emotions

    OpenAIRE

    Ardizzi, Martina; Martini, Francesca; Umiltà, Maria Alessandra; Evangelista, Valentina; Ravera, Roberto; Gallese, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    The development of the explicit recognition of facial expressions of emotions can be affected by childhood maltreatment experiences. A previous study demonstrated the existence of an explicit recognition bias for angry facial expressions among a population of adolescent Sierra Leonean street-boys exposed to high levels of maltreatment. In the present study, the recognition bias for angry facial expressions was investigated in a younger population of street-children and age-matched controls. P...

  7. Child Maltreatment and Social Connectedness Among Formerly Institutionalized Females: Links With Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Delft, Ivanka; Finkenauer, Catrin; Verbruggen, Janna

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of child maltreatment subtypes (physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, and exposure to domestic violence) and cumulative child maltreatment on depressive symptoms in adulthood, and examine the protective effects of social connectedness in a sample of formerly institutionalized females. The sample consisted of 124 females who were institutionalized in a Dutch juvenile justice institution during adolescence and were followed-up when they were on average 32 years old. Information about child maltreatment was extracted from treatment files. Retrospective data on social connectedness in young adulthood were established during interviews using a Life History Calendar. Relationship quality at follow-up was assessed with items derived from the Rochester Youth Development Study. The Center for Epidemiological Studies Scale for Depression (CES-D) was used to measure depressive symptoms in adulthood. Results showed that 85.5% of the females experienced child maltreatment, and co-occurrence of subtypes was high. Cumulative child maltreatment increased the risk of depression in adulthood. Furthermore, social connectedness, that is, more employment over time and the quality of the romantic relationship at follow-up, protected against the development of depression. However, social connectedness did not buffer the effect of maltreatment on depression. Our findings indicate that treatment of these girls should focus on improving the social-emotional development to promote positive interpersonal relationships and include educational and vocational components to guide these girls toward increased opportunities on the labor market. PMID:25586915

  8. Parental Maltreatment, Bullying, and Adolescent Depression: Evidence for the Mediating Role of Perceived Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeds, Pamela M.; Harkness, Kate L.; Quilty, Lena C.

    2010-01-01

    The support deterioration model of depression states that stress deteriorates the perceived availability and/or effectiveness of social support, which then leads to depression. The present study examined this model in adolescent depression following parent-perpetrated maltreatment and peer-perpetrated bullying, as assessed by a rigorous contextual…

  9. Association of oxytocin level and less severe forms of childhood maltreatment history among healthy Japanese adults involved with child care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rie eMizuki

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxytocin (OT is known to play a role in stress regulation. The association between childhood maltreatment history and neuropeptide OT concentration is inconsistent due to the varying degrees of severity of childhood maltreatment, among other contributing factors. Less severe forms of childhood maltreatment history might enhance OT concentrations as a response to coping with social stress within the family. The purpose of this study is to investigate the association between less severe forms of childhood maltreatment history and OT concentrations among healthy adults.Method: Eighty-one adults (50 women and 31 men with 18- to 48-month-old children were recruited using a snowball sample in Tokyo, Japan. Urine samples were collected for OT measurement. Less severe (low and moderate childhood maltreatment history, including physical abuse, physical neglect, emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and sexual abuse, was assessed using the self-report questionnaire, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Results: Less severe physical abuse was significantly associated with higher OT concentration after adjusting for age (p=0.014. Also, less severe forms of physical abuse were independently significantly associated with higher OT concentration after controlling for other types of childhood maltreatment (p=0.027. A positive dose-response association between the number of less severe childhood maltreatment types and OT concentration was observed (p=0.031. Conclusion: A history of less severe forms of childhood physical abuse was associated with higher OT concentration in healthy adults. Poly-victimization of several types of less severe childhood maltreatment was also associated with higher OT concentrations. Less severe forms of childhood maltreatment might enhance OT concentrations in order to cope with social stress.

  10. The different faces of impulsivity as links between childhood maltreatment and young adult crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sunny H; Cook, Amy K; Morris, Nancy A; McDougle, Robyn; Groves, Lauren Peasley

    2016-07-01

    Crime is a major public health and safety threat. Many studies have suggested that early exposure to child maltreatment increases an individual's risk for persistent serious crime in adulthood. Despite these findings about the connection between child maltreatment and criminal behavior, there is a paucity of empirically-based knowledge about the processes or pathways that link child maltreatment to later involvement in crime. Using a community sample of 337 young adults (ages 18-25) in a U.S. metropolitan area, the present study examined the role of various facets of impulsivity in linking child maltreatment to crime. A series of factor analyses identified three types of crime including property crime, violent crime, and fraud. Structural equation modelings were conducted to examine the associations among childhood maltreatment, four facets of impulsivity, and criminal behavior, controlling for sociodemographic information, family income and psychological symptoms. The present study found that child emotional abuse was indirectly related to property crime and fraud through urgency while a lack of premeditation mediates the relationship between child neglect and property crime. Child physical abuse was directly related to all three types of crime. Personality traits of urgency and lack of premeditation may play a significant role in the maltreatment-crime link. Preventive interventions targeting impulsivity traits such as urgency and a lack of premeditation might have promising impacts in curbing criminal behavior among maltreatment victims. PMID:27083525

  11. Child maltreatment moderates the association of MAOA with symptoms of depression and antisocial personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Steven R H; Brody, Gene H; Gunter, Tracy D; Packer, Hans; Wernett, Pamela; Philibert, Robert A

    2010-02-01

    There is a growing body of data indicating that Gene x Child Maltreatment interactions at monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) play a role in vulnerability to symptoms of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) but not major depression (MD). Using a sample of 538 participants from the Iowa Adoption Studies, we introduce a conceptual model that highlights two distinct pathways from child maltreatment to symptoms of MD, suggesting that maltreatment has different effects depending on genotype and highlighting the importance of including the indirect pathway through ASPD. As predicted by the model, high activity alleles predispose to symptoms of MD in the context of child maltreatment whereas low activity alleles predispose to symptoms of ASPD. We conclude that the Gene x Environment interplay at this locus (MAOA) contributes to both symptoms of ASPD and MD and that careful specification of child maltreatment may be essential if genetic association research is to produce replicable results. PMID:20175604

  12. Association of child maltreatment and depressive symptoms among Puerto Rican youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaschek, Graciela; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; He, Xin; Lee, Sunmin; Canino, Glorisa

    2016-08-01

    This article compares multiple types of child maltreatment among Puerto Rican youth. We seek to expand the limited knowledge of the effects of multiple types of maltreatment on depressive symptoms in a specific Latino population as emerging studies indicate that children who are exposed to one type of maltreatment are often exposed to other types. This study examines the predictive strength of different and multiple types of lifetime child maltreatment (i.e., physical, sexual, and emotional abuse; and neglect), and the effect of youth support from parents, youth coping, youth self-esteem, and place of residence on depressive symptoms among Puerto Rican youth. Secondary data analyses were performed using three annual waves (2000-2004) of data from the Boricua Youth Study. The analytic sample consists of 1041 10-13 year old Puerto Rican youth living in New York and Puerto Rico. Results indicate that: (1) youth who experienced 'sexual abuse only', 'multiple maltreatment' (2 or more types of maltreatment), 'physical abuse only' have a significant increase in depressive symptoms (75.1%, 61.6%, and 40.5% respectively) compared to those without maltreatment; and (2) place of residence, exposure to violence, and mental disorders were significant risk factors. When developing psychosocial interventions, professionals should particularly focus on youth who report past lifetime experience with child maltreatment. Particular attention should be given to children living in the Bronx, New York and similar urban low-income areas who report past lifetime experience with multiple types of child maltreatment and who present symptoms or a diagnosis of co-occurring mental health problems. PMID:27344268

  13. Depressive symptomatology in childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duggal, S; Carlson, E A; Sroufe, L A; Egeland, B

    2001-01-01

    Antecedents of depressive symptomatology in childhood and adolescence were examined in a prospective longitudinal study of at-risk youth (n = 168) from families of lower socioeconomic status. Relations between family context factors, maternal depressive symptoms, and depressive symptoms in childhood and adolescence were examined, with a focus on early family relationship factors rarely available for analysis in longitudinal data sets. Results suggest the possibility of etiological differences between depressive symptoms in childhood and in adolescence. Depressive symptomatology in childhood was predicted by the overall family context. Cumulative effects of maternal depressive symptomatology, early care lacking in emotional supportiveness, abuse, and family stressors were observed. Depressive symptomatology in adolescence, on the other hand, was specifically associated with maternal depression and early care lacking in emotional supportiveness. Moreover, an intriguing sex difference emerged: maternal depressive symptomatology was strongly associated with depressive symptomatology in adolescence for females, but for males supportive early care appeared more relevant. PMID:11346049

  14. Associations of Child Sexual and Physical Abuse with Obesity and Depression in Middle-Aged Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Paul; Ichikawa, Laura; Simon, Gregory E.; Ludman, Evette J.; Linde, Jennifer A.; Jeffery, Robert W.; Operskalski, Belinda H.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Examine whether (1) childhood maltreatment is associated with subsequent obesity and depression in middle-age; (2) maltreatment explains the associations between obesity and depression; and (3) binge eating or body dissatisfaction mediate associations between childhood maltreatment and subsequent obesity. Methods: Data were obtained…

  15. The impact of childhood maltreatment: A review of neurobiological and genetic factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eamon eMcCrory

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Childhood maltreatment represents a significant risk factor for psychopathology. Recent research has begun to examine both the functional and structural neurobiological correlates of adverse care-giving experiences, including maltreatment, and how these might impact on a child's psychological and emotional development. The relationship between such experiences and risk for psychopathology has been shown to vary as a function of genetic factors. In this review we begin by providing a brief overview of neuroendocrine findings, which indicate an association between maltreatment and atypical development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis stress response, which may predispose to psychiatric vulnerability in adulthood. We then selectively review the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI studies that have investigated possible structural and functional brain differences in children and adults who have experienced childhood maltreatment. Differences in the corpus callosum identified by structural MRI have now been reliably reported in children who have experienced abuse, while differences in the hippocampus have been reported in adults with childhood histories of maltreatment. In addition, there is preliminary evidence from functional MRI studies of adults who have experienced childhood maltreatment of amygdala hyperactivity and atypical activation of frontal regions. These functional differences can be partly understood in the context of the information biases observed in event-related potential and behavioural studies of physically abused children. Finally we consider research that has indicated that the effect of environmental adversity may be moderated by genotype, reviewing pertinent studies pointing to gene by environment (GxE interactions. We conclude by exploring the extent to which the growing evidence base in relation to neurobiological and genetic research may be relevant to clinical practice and intervention.

  16. Childhood maltreatment in adult offspring of Portuguese war veterans with and without PTSD.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dos Santos Dias, Aida; Sales, L.; Cardoso, R. M.; Kleber, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The colonial war that Portugal was involved in between 1961 and 1974 had a significant impact on veterans and their families. However, it is unclear what the consequences of this war are, in particular with regard to levels of childhood maltreatment (CM) in offspring. OBJECTIVE: Our stud

  17. Hypoactive medial prefrontal cortex functioning in adults reporting childhood emotional maltreatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Harmelen, Anne-Laura; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Dalgleish, Tim; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; Veltman, Dick J.; Aleman, André; Spinhoven, Philip; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Elzinga, Bernet M.

    2014-01-01

    Childhood emotional maltreatment (CEM) has adverse effects on medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) morphology, a structure that is crucial for cognitive functioning and (emotional) memory and which modulates the limbic system. In addition, CEM has been linked to amygdala hyperactivity during emotional fa

  18. Enhanced amygdala reactivity to emotional faces in adults reporting childhood emotional maltreatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Harmelen, Anne-Laura; van Tol, Marie-Jose; Demenescu, Liliana R.; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; Veltman, Dick J.; Aleman, Andre; van Buchem, Mark A.; Spinhoven, Philip; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Elzinga, Bernet M.

    2013-01-01

    In the context of chronic childhood emotional maltreatment (CEM; emotional abuse and/or neglect), adequately responding to facial expressions is an important skill. Over time, however, this adaptive response may lead to a persistent vigilance for emotional facial expressions. The amygdala and the me

  19. Interaction of neuropeptide Y genotype and childhood emotional maltreatment on brain activity during emotional processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opmeer, Esther M.; Kortekaas, Rudie; van Tol, Marie-Jose; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; Woudstra, Saskia; van Buchem, Mark A.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Veltman, Dick J.; Aleman, Andre

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) has been associated with stress reactivity in affective disorders and is most densely expressed in the amygdala. An important stressor associated with affective disorders is the experience of childhood emotional maltreatment (CEM). We investigated whether the interaction of NPY

  20. Relationships among Childhood Maltreatment, PTSD, and Health in Female Veterans in Primary Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Ariel J.; Laffaye, Charlene; Satz, Leslie E.; McQuaid, John R.; Malcarne, Vanessa L.; Dresselhaus, Timothy R.; Stein, Murray B.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Women with histories of childhood maltreatment (CM) have higher rates of physical health problems and greater medical utilization compared to women without abuse histories. This study examined whether current post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms mediate the relationship between CM and indicators of physical health and medical…

  1. Childhood Maltreatment, Perceived Stress, and Stress-Related Coping in Recently Abstinent Cocaine Dependent Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Hyman, Scott M.; Paliwal, Prashni; Sinha, Rajita

    2007-01-01

    The authors examined associations between a personal history of childhood maltreatment and the perceived stress and stress-coping styles of recently abstinent and treatment-engaged cocaine dependent adults. Fifty men and 41 women at an inpatient treatment and research facility were administered the short form of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (D. P. Bernstein & L. Fink, 1998; D. P. Bernstein et al., 2003), the Perceived Stress Scale (S. Cohen, T. Kamarck, & R. Mermelstein, 1983), and the ...

  2. Personality disorder diagnosis in substance - dependent women in Iran : Relationship to childhood maltreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Mansoureh Nasirian; Hassan Ziaaddini; Rezvan Amiri

    2009-01-01

    "nObjective : Few study have examined the relationship between childhood maltreatment and personality disorder in later life especially in Eastern Mediterranean countries .The study was conducted to explore the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and personality disorder during Later life in an Iranian sample . a cross - sectional study was conducted in kerman , a city Located in East  sourthern of Iran in 2005 . "n Method : Cases were 148 substance - dependent  women admitted ...

  3. Prevalence, Trajectories, and Risk Factors for Depression among Caregivers of Young Children Involved in Child Maltreatment Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanueva, Cecilia; Cross, Theodore P.; Ringeisen, Heather; Christ, Sharon L.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines depression among caregivers of young children involved in investigations of child maltreatment, in terms of 12-month prevalence of depression across 5 to 6 years. Data were from the "National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being," a national probability study of 5,501 children investigated for maltreatment. The study…

  4. Assessing the family dynamics of childhood maltreatment history with the Childhood Attachment and Relational Trauma Screen (CARTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Frewen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Existing survey measures of childhood trauma history generally fail to take into account the relational-socioecological environment in which childhood maltreatment occurs. Variables such as the relationship between the perpetrator and the victim, the emotional availability of caregivers, witnessing the abuse of others, and the respondent's own thoughts, feelings, and actions in response to maltreatment are rarely assessed by current measures. Methods: To address these concerns, the current study further investigated the family dynamics of childhood maltreatment using the Childhood Attachment and Relational Trauma Screen (CARTS in 1,782 persons assessed online. Results: Paired differences in means between item-rated descriptiveness of self, mothers, and fathers suggested that respondents’ relationship with their biological fathers was less positive and secure than their relationship with their biological mothers, and that biological fathers were more often the perpetrator of emotional, physical, and sexual abuse than biological mothers. However, results further suggested that ratings between self, mothers, and fathers were positively correlated such that, for example, reports of a mother's or a respondent's own abusive behavior were more likely in the presence of reports of a father's abusive behavior. In addition, analyses evaluating witnessing violence demonstrated that fathers were rated as more often violent toward mothers than the reverse, although intimate partner violence was also frequently bidirectional. Analyses of sibling ratings further demonstrated that older brothers were either as or more frequently abusive when compared with parents. Finally, results suggested that childhood emotional, physical, and sexual abuse were much more often perpetrated by family members than extra-familial and non-family members. Conclusions: In so far as these findings are consistent with the prior childhood trauma and attachment literature

  5. Intergenerational Continuity in Maltreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Thornberry, Terence P.; Henry, Kimberly L.

    2013-01-01

    Identification of the causes of child maltreatment perpetration is prerequisite for developing efficacious prevention initiatives to reduce its occurrence. Earlier maltreatment victimization is often suggested as an important cause of subsequent maltreatment perpetration. This study investigates a) whether maltreatment victimization causes subsequent perpetration and b) whether the timing of maltreatment victimization—childhood versus adolescence—alters this relationship. We use data from the...

  6. Childhood abuse in late-life depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Comijs, Hannie C; van Exel, Eric; van der Mast, Roos C; Paauw, Anna; Oude Voshaar, Richard; Stek, Max L

    2013-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the role of childhood abuse in late-life depression. The aim of the study is therefore to study whether childhood abuse is associated with late-life depression according to its onset, and which clinical characteristics play a role in this association. Methods: Data

  7. Childhood abuse in late-life depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Comijs, H.C.; Exel, E. van; Mast, R.C. van der; Paauw, A.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Stek, M.L.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the role of childhood abuse in late-life depression. The aim of the study is therefore to study whether childhood abuse is associated with late-life depression according to its onset, and which clinical characteristics play a role in this association. METHODS: Data

  8. Pathways to trait-aggression - the role of childhood emotional maltreatment, hostile attribution bias and emotion regulation: a systematic review and empirical study.

    OpenAIRE

    Cowie, Joëlle

    2015-01-01

    Background: The long-term detrimental impact of childhood emotional maltreatment is being increasingly recognised in the empirical literature. Adulthood trait-aggression is one proposed outcome of childhood emotional maltreatment. However, the pathways by which emotional maltreatment leads to trait-aggression are not well understood. Method: A systematic review was conducted to appraise the current empirical evidence base regarding the relationship between childhood emotiona...

  9. Do Early Childhood Interventions Prevent Child Maltreatment? A Review of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Arthur J.; Mathieson, Lindsay C.; Topitzes, James W.

    2016-01-01

    We reviewed the empirical evidence on whether early-childhood primary prevention programs can reduce rates of child abuse and neglect. Fifteen studies of 14 programs for children ages birth to 5 years were completed from 1990 to 2007 and assessed impacts with methodological rigor. All but one of the programs intervened from birth to age 3 through home visits, parent education classes, or the provision of health services. The weighted average effect size of program participation was a 2.9 percentage-point reduction in maltreatment (6.6% vs. 9.5%), which is equivalent to a 31% reduction in the rate of maltreatment and a fifth of a standard deviation. Of the five programs showing significant reductions in substantiated rates of child maltreatment, three provide strong evidence of preventive effects. Only the Child-Parent Centers and the Nurse Family Partnership assessed longer-term preventive effects. Common elements of these effective programs included implementation by professional staff, relatively high dosage and intensity, and comprehensiveness of scope. The major conclusion is that the evidence base for programs in early childhood to prevent child maltreatment remains relatively weak. To advance the field, more longer term studies of a variety of intervention models are needed. PMID:19240245

  10. Childhood emotional maltreatment and its impact on emotion regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Mulholland, Paula Claire

    2010-01-01

    An aim of this research was to gain prevalence rates of emotional abuse (EA) and emotional neglect (EN) in a community based adolescent sample. This exploratory research also attempted to determine the impact of EA, EN and a combination of the two (emotional maltreatment; EM) on adolescent’s emotion regulation (ER). The impact of temperament, gender and age was also considered, along with the adolescent’s subsequent quality of life ratings. Method: A total of 540 adolesce...

  11. The Cycle of Violence in Combatants : The Interaction of Childhood Maltreatment, Mental Health, and Aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Nandi, Corina

    2016-01-01

    The present thesis explored the factors fostering and maintaining violence in a post-conflict setting. Therefore, the thesis investigated the sequelae of childhood maltreatment, trauma exposure and violence perpetration with a focus on symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and appetitive aggression in Burundian ex-combatants and soldiers. Furthermore, the impact of these factors on self-perpetrated violence during foreign deployment, in the community, and within the family were ex...

  12. Personality disorder diagnosis in substance - dependent women in Iran : Relationship to childhood maltreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoureh Nasirian

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available "nObjective : Few study have examined the relationship between childhood maltreatment and personality disorder in later life especially in Eastern Mediterranean countries .The study was conducted to explore the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and personality disorder during Later life in an Iranian sample . a cross - sectional study was conducted in kerman , a city Located in East  sourthern of Iran in 2005 . "n Method : Cases were 148 substance - dependent  women admitted in shahid Beheshti hospital and also kerman women prison  for detoxification.With emphasizing  the confidentiality and obtaining oral consent the subjects were asked to fill out a questionnaire including demographic variables and 27 questions concerning all types of abuse , neglect and household dysfunction . using multivariate Logistic regression the associations between baseline characteristics , childhood maltreatment and household dysfunction variables and  personality disorder were analyzed  . "n Results : The mean age of cases was 33.13 ± 10.94 and Borderline personality disorder (24.3% was the most frequent type of personality disorder in this   sample . Physical abuse (45.4% and emotional abuse (36.2% and emotional   neglect (92.1% were the most frequent type of maltreatment .  while dependency considered as independent variable , with logistic  regression analysis, sexual abuse was the only type of childhood maltreatment which showed significant association statistically with personality disorder . (P - value < 0/05 "n Conclusion: There was significant association statistically between increased prevalence of severe personality disturbances among those experiencing multiple types of abuse  and neglect .such studies are important for a more complete  understanding  of these problems and for practical  efforts to alleviate them.

  13. P3 event-related potentials and childhood maltreatment in successful and unsuccessful psychopaths

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Yu; Raine, Adrian; Schug, Robert A.

    2011-01-01

    Although P3 event-related potential abnormalities have been found in psychopathic individuals, it is unknown whether successful (uncaught) psychopaths and unsuccessful (caught) psychopaths show similar deficits. In this study, P3 amplitude and latency were assessed from a community sample of 121 male adults using an auditory three-stimulus oddball task. Psychopathy was assessed using the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (Hare, 2003) while childhood physical maltreatment was assessed using the Co...

  14. Age of Minority Sexual Orientation Development and Risk of Childhood Maltreatment and Suicide Attempts in Women

    OpenAIRE

    Corliss, Heather L.; Cochran, Susan D.; MAYS, VICKIE M.; Greenland, Sander; Seeman, Teresa E.

    2009-01-01

    Women with minority sexual orientations (e.g., lesbian, bisexual) are more likely than heterosexual women to report histories of childhood maltreatment and attempted suicide; however, the importance of the timing of minority sexual orientation development in contributing to this increased risk is uncertain. This study investigated relationships between self-reported ages of achieving minority sexual orientation development milestones (first awareness of same-gender attractions, disclosure of ...

  15. Maltreatment in early childhood: a scoping review of prevention, detection and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Lefio Celedón; Helia Silva Bustos; Katherinne Rivas Castro

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. To identify and synthesize the best available evidence on the effectiveness of interventions for universal prevention, detection and treatment of early childhood maltreatment (0-4 years). Design. Scoping Review. Data sources. MEDLINE, LILACS, PsycINFO, Psyclist, SciELO, ISI Web of Knowledge, Science Direct, EBSCO, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, DARE, Google Scholar and UNICEF Base. Methods. A variety of keywords were used to identify quantitative experimental and observational studies on ...

  16. Longitudinal trajectories of self-system processes and depressive symptoms among maltreated and nonmaltreated children

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jungmeen; Cicchetti, Dante

    2006-01-01

    This study used latent growth modeling to investigate longitudinal relationships between self-system processes and depressive symptoms among maltreated (n=142) and nonmaltreated children (n=109) aged 6–11 years. On average, self-esteem and self-agency increased and depressive symptoms decreased over time. Multivariate growth modeling indicated that, regardless of gender, physical abuse was negatively related to initial levels of self-esteem, and physical abuse and physical neglect were positi...

  17. Cries for Help: Recognizing Childhood Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herskowitz, Joel

    1990-01-01

    This article provides teachers with a brief background on the causes and incidence of childhood depression, identifies clues or symptoms, and suggests action that can be taken to get help for students. (IAH)

  18. Intergenerational violence in Burundi: Experienced childhood maltreatment increases the risk of abusive child rearing and intimate partner violence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselm Crombach

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Experiencing abuse during childhood affects the psychological well-being of individuals throughout their lives and may even influence their offspring by enhancing the likelihood of an intergenerational transmission of violence. Understanding the effects of childhood maltreatment on child-rearing practices and intimate partner violence might be of particular importance to overcome the consequences of violent conflicts in African societies. Objective: Using Burundi as an example, we aimed to explore the associations between childhood maltreatment, intimate partner violence, perceived partner intimidation, gender and the probability of violently acting out against one's own children or romantic partner. Methods: Amongst a sample of 141 men and 141 women in the capital of Burundi, we identified those who had biological children and those who lived or had lived in relationships. Using culturally appropriate instruments, we enquired about their exposure to childhood maltreatment and partner violence as well as their inclinations to act out violently. Results: We found that childhood maltreatment and perceived partner intimidation were strong predictors for the perpetration of violence against children. Moreover, we found that women were more likely to use violence against children if they experienced partner violence and less likely to resort to violence if they felt intimidated. Men were more likely to perpetrate violence against their partner. Childhood maltreatment was again a strong predictor. The more women experienced partner violence, the more they fought back. Conclusions: Childhood maltreatment is a strong predictor for domestic violence and has to be addressed to interrupt the cycle of violence in post-conflict countries.

  19. Childhood maltreatment, pubertal development, HPA axis functioning, and psychosocial outcomes: An integrative biopsychosocial model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negriff, Sonya; Saxbe, Darby E; Trickett, Penelope K

    2015-12-01

    The timing and pace of pubertal development has been associated with psychosocial functioning, with pubertal variables represented both as predictors (e.g., earlier puberty linked with poor outcomes) and as sequelae (e.g., early stress linked with earlier puberty). However, the literature has largely not tested mediational models or prospective mechanisms of associations between puberty and psychosocial variables. In a longitudinal study including 454 youth followed over four timepoints (mean ages 10-18), structural equation modeling tested a hypothesized path from childhood maltreatment to cortisol (Time 1) to pubertal stage (Time 2), and psychosocial outcomes (Times 3 and 4). There was not support for the full hypothesized pathway in either gender. However, for boys, maltreatment was associated with attenuated cortisol, and more pubertal change predicted subsequent delinquency. For girls, cortisol predicted more pubertal change which then predicted substance use. This study demonstrates links between HPA axis function, pubertal development, and risky outcomes. PMID:26358357

  20. The Relationship of Childhood Maltreatment and Household Dysfunction and Drug Use in Later Life in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaaddini, Hassan; Dastjerdi, Qasem; Nakhaee, Nouzar

    Few studies have examined the relationship between childhood maltreatment and substance use in later life considering household dysfunction variables especially in Eastern Mediterranean countries. The study was conducted to explore the relationship between adverse childhood experiences and substance misuse during later life in an Iranian sample. A case control study was conducted in Kerman, a city located in southern Iran in 2005. Cases were 200 men and women referred to outpatient clinics of the city seeking treatment for substance use disorder. Controls (n = 200) were selected from the general population. With emphasizing the confidentiality and obtaining oral consent the subjects were asked to fill out a questionnaire including demographic variables and 27 questions concerning all types of child abuse/neglect and household dysfunction. Using multivariate logistic regression the associations between baseline characteristics, childhood maltreatment and household dysfunction variables and substance use disorder were analyzed. The mean age of case group was 32.5±8.3 and in control group was 28±9.3 (psexual abuse, household substance use and household criminality were higher in substance dependent patients comparing to control group. The highest odds of substance use disorder was associated with household substance abuse (OR: 2.50, 95% CI: 1.53-4.10) and sexual abuse was the only type of childhood maltreatment which showed significant association with substance use disorder in later life (OR: 1.73, 95% CI: 1.03-2.92). The related factors uncovered by the study conduct us to early interventions among dysfunctional families to decrease the maladaptive lives and stressful household environments.

  1. Relationships between childhood maltreatment, parenting style, and borderline personality disorder criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Ana; Arntz, Arnoud; Gaviria, Ana M; Labad, Antonio; Gutiérrez-Zotes, José Alfonso

    2012-10-01

    This study examines the relationship of different types of childhood maltreatment and the perceived parenting style with borderline personality disorder (BPD) criteria. Kendall's Tau partial correlations were performed controlling for the effect of simultaneous adverse experiences and Axis I and II symptoms in a sample of 109 female patients (32 BPD, 43 other personality disorder, and 34 non-personality disorder). BPD criteria were associated with higher scores on emotional and sexual abuse, whereas parenting style did not show a specific association with BPD. Findings of the present study help clarify the effects of overlapping environmental factors that are associated with BPD. PMID:23013341

  2. Maltreatment in early childhood: a scoping review of prevention, detection and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Lefio Celedón

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To identify and synthesize the best available evidence on the effectiveness of interventions for universal prevention, detection and treatment of early childhood maltreatment (0-4 years. Design. Scoping Review. Data sources. MEDLINE, LILACS, PsycINFO, Psyclist, SciELO, ISI Web of Knowledge, Science Direct, EBSCO, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, DARE, Google Scholar and UNICEF Base. Methods. A variety of keywords were used to identify quantitative experimental and observational studies on detection, prevention and treatment strategies in different situations of child maltreatment. Sexual abuse was excluded. The search spanned from 2002 to 2012, in English and Spanish. Results. Of 105 articles, 36 met the selection criteria. In prevention, the best evaluated strategies were parenting programs based on cognitive or cognitive-behavioral approach and interactive learning strategies. In detection, only two instruments were identified with optimum specificity and positive predictive value. In treatment, a variety of treatment strategies were identified with favorable effects on behavioral, functional and psycho affective indicators. The population relevance of these interventions is unclear, as the differential effectiveness of these therapeutic approaches. Conclusions. There are many child maltreatment prevention strategies at the individual and family level. The instruments used for detection are not reliable for use at the collective level. Insofar as therapy, not enough evidence was found both in quality and quantity to favor one intervention over another. It is recommended to understand the problem from the public health perspective and to generate multisectoral and interdisciplinary approaches.

  3. Childhood maltreatment and pre-pregnancy obesity: a comparison of obese, overweight, and normal weight pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagl, Michaela; Steinig, Jana; Klinitzke, Grit; Stepan, Holger; Kersting, Anette

    2016-04-01

    Pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity is associated with poor health outcomes for the mother and the child. General population studies suggest that childhood maltreatment is associated with obesity in adulthood. The aim of our study was to examine the association between pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity and a history of childhood abuse or neglect including different stages of severity of abuse and neglect. Three hundred twenty-six normal weight, overweight, or obese pregnant women reported demographic data, height and weight, and general psychological distress at 18-22 weeks of gestation. Childhood maltreatment was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Associations were examined using logistic regression analyses and a reference group of normal weight women. Fifty percent reported a history of abuse or neglect. After adjusting for age, education, income, marital status, and the number of previous children, pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity were strongly associated with severe physical abuse (overweight: OR = 8.33, 95 % CI 1.48-47.03; obesity: OR = 6.31, 95 % CI 1.06-37.60). Women with severe physical neglect (OR = 4.25, 95 % CI 1.23-14.74) were at increased risk of pregnancy overweight. We found a dose-response relationship between physical abuse and pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity. Whereas other studies report an association between childhood maltreatment and pre-pregnancy obesity, this is the first study that found an association between childhood maltreatment and pre-pregnancy overweight. Considering the severe health risks of pre-pregnancy overweight and obesity and the long-term consequences of childhood maltreatment, affected women constitute a subgroup with special needs in prenatal care. Further research is needed to improve the understanding of the underlying mechanisms. PMID:26386682

  4. Childhood Maltreatment and BMI Trajectories to Mid-Adult Life: Follow-Up to Age 50y in a British Birth Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Chris Power; Snehal M Pinto Pereira; Leah Li

    2015-01-01

    Background Childhood maltreatment including abuse and neglect has been associated with adult obesity, but evidence on life-course development of obesity or BMI gain is unclear. We aim to establish whether childhood maltreatments are related to obesity or BMI at different life-stages 7y-50y and to identify possible explanations for associations. Methods Childhood physical, psychological and sexual abuse, neglect and BMI at seven ages were recorded in the 1958 birth cohort (n~15,000). Associati...

  5. Depression in Childhood and Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Maughan, Barbara; Collishaw, Stephan; Stringaris, Argyris

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To review recent evidence on child and adolescent depression.Method: Narrative review.Results: Rates of unipolar depression are low before puberty, but rise from the early teens, especially among girls. Concurrent comorbidity with both disruptive and emotional disorders is common, especially among younger children; across age, youth depression may be preceded by both anxiety and disruptive behaviour disorders, and increase risk for alcohol problems. Adolescent depression is associa...

  6. Overgeneral Autobiographical Memory, Emotional Maltreatment, and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence: Evidence of a Cognitive Vulnerability-Stress Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Stange, Jonathan P.; Hamlat, Elissa J.; Hamilton, Jessica L.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2012-01-01

    Overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is associated with depression and may confer risk for the development of depressed mood, but few longitudinal studies have evaluated OGM as a predictor of depressive symptoms in early adolescence, particularly in the context of environmental stressors. We investigated whether OGM and emotional maltreatment would interact to predict prospective increases in depressive symptoms in early adolescents and whether these effects differed by race. Among 174 s...

  7. Gender Specific Associations Between Types of Childhood Maltreatment and the Onset, Escalation and Severity of Substance Use in Cocaine Dependent Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Hyman, Scott M.; Garcia, Miguel; Sinha, Rajita

    2006-01-01

    We examined associations between types of childhood maltreatment and the onset, escalation, and severity of substance use in cocaine dependent adults. In men (n = 55), emotional abuse was associated with a younger age of first alcohol use and a greater severity of substance abuse. In women (n = 32), sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and overall maltreatment was associated with a younger age of first alcohol use, and emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and overall maltreatment was associated with...

  8. The Relationship of Child Maltreatment and Self-Capacities with Distress when Telling One's Story of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palesh, Oxana Gronskaya; Classen, Catherine C.; Field, Nigel; Kraemer, Helena C.; Spiegel, David

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the impact of telling one's story of childhood sexual abuse and its relationship with the survivor's self-capacities and history of other child maltreatment. The baseline data were collected from 134 female CSA survivors who were participating in a large intervention study. Participants were given 10 minutes to describe their…

  9. Investigating the relationship between childhood maltreatment and alcohol misuse in a sample of Danish young adults: Exploring gender differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cronin Susan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND – This study examined the relationship between alcohol misuse and different types of childhood maltreatment in a sample of young adults while controlling for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD symptoms and current mental disorders. This study further examined if these associations were different for males and females.

  10. Dating Violence Perpetration and Victimization among South Korean College Students: A Focus on Gender and Childhood Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gover, Angela R.; Park, MiRang; Tomsich, Elizabeth A.; Jennings, Wesley G.

    2011-01-01

    Unlike the attention given to intimate partner violence among adolescents and young adults in western societies, dating violence is not currently recognized in South Korea as a social phenomenon in terms of research, prevention, and intervention. Childhood maltreatment has been identified in previous research as a risk factor for violence in a…

  11. Intergenerational violence in Burundi: Experienced childhood maltreatment increases the risk of abusive child rearing and intimate partner violence

    OpenAIRE

    Crombach, Anselm; Bambonyé, Manassé

    2015-01-01

    Background: Experiencing abuse during childhood affects the psychological well-being of individuals throughout their lives and may even influence their offspring by enhancing the likelihood of an intergenerational transmission of violence. Understanding the effects of childhood maltreatment on child-rearing practices and intimate partner violence might be of particular importance to overcome the consequences of violent conflicts in African societies.Objective: Using Burundi as an example, we ...

  12. Joint Effect of Childhood Abuse and Family History of Major Depressive Disorder on Rates of PTSD in People with Personality Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Flory, Janine D.; Rachel Yehuda; Vincent Passarelli; Siever, Larry J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Childhood maltreatment and familial psychopathology both lead to an increased risk of the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adulthood. While family history of psychopathology has traditionally been viewed as a proxy for genetic predisposition, such pathology can also contribute to a stress-laden environment for the child. Method. Analyses were conducted to evaluate the joint effect of childhood abuse and a family history of major depressive disorder (MDD) on di...

  13. Factors associated with co-occurring borderline personality disorder among inner-city substance users: the roles of childhood maltreatment, negative affect intensity/reactivity, and emotion dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gratz, Kim L; Tull, Matthew T; Baruch, David E; Bornovalova, Marina A; Lejuez, C W

    2008-01-01

    The co-occurrence of borderline personality disorder (BPD) among individuals with substance use disorders is a common and clinically relevant phenomenon in need of further empirical investigation. The present study adds to the extant literature on the factors associated with co-occurring BPD among substance users, examining the relationships between childhood maltreatment (in the form of sexual, physical, and emotional abuse and emotional and physical neglect), negative affect intensity/reactivity, emotion dysregulation, and BPD pathology (both diagnostic status and symptom count) among a sample of 76 inner-city treatment-seeking substance users. Emotion dysregulation was expected to mediate the relationships between childhood maltreatment and negative affect intensity/reactivity (and their interaction) and BPD pathology. Results indicate that the presence of a BPD diagnosis was associated with higher levels of both childhood maltreatment and negative affect intensity/reactivity. However, only childhood maltreatment emerged as a unique predictor of BPD diagnostic status. Conversely, both childhood maltreatment and negative affect intensity/reactivity accounted for unique variance in the number of endorsed BPD symptoms. Moreover, emotion dysregulation fully mediated the relationships between maltreatment and negative affect intensity/reactivity and BPD symptom count, as well as the relationship between emotional abuse in particular and BPD diagnostic status. Contrary to hypotheses, results provided no support for the interaction between maltreatment and negative affect intensity/reactivity in the prediction of BPD pathology (diagnosis or symptom count), above and beyond the main effects of these factors. PMID:18970909

  14. Childhood Trauma and Its Relation to Chronic Depression in Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negele, Alexa; Kaufhold, Johannes; Kallenbach, Lisa; Leuzinger-Bohleber, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    There is a large consensus indicating that childhood trauma is significantly involved in the development of depression. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of retrospectively recalled childhood trauma in chronically depressed patients and to investigate a more specific relationship between trauma type and depression. We further asked for the influence of multiple experiences of childhood trauma on the vulnerability to a chronic course of depression in adulthood. 349 chronically depressed patients of the German LAC Depression Study completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, a self-report measure of traumatic experiences in childhood. 75.6% of the chronically depressed patients reported clinically significant histories of childhood trauma. 37% of the chronically depressed patients reported multiple childhood traumatization. Experiences of multiple trauma also led to significantly more severe depressive symptoms. Stepwise multiple regression analysis suggested that childhood emotional abuse and sexual abuse were significantly associated with a higher symptom severity in chronically depressed adults. Yet, expanding the regression model for multiple exposures showed that multiplicity was the only remaining significant predictor for symptom severity in chronically depressed patients. Clinical implications suggest a precise assessment of childhood trauma in chronically depressed patients with a focus on emotional abuse, sexual abuse, and multiple exposures to childhood trauma. This trial is registered with registration number ISRCTN91956346. PMID:26693349

  15. Predictors for DSM-5 nonsuicidal self-injury in female adolescent inpatients: The role of childhood maltreatment, alexithymia, and dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüdtke, Janine; In-Albon, Tina; Michel, Chantal; Schmid, Marc

    2016-05-30

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between various adverse childhood experiences, alexithymia, and dissociation in predicting nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in an inpatient sample of female adolescents. Seventy-two adolescents (aged 14-18 years) with NSSI disorder (n=46) or mental disorders without NSSI (n=26) completed diagnostic interviews and self-report measures to assess NSSI disorder according to the DSM-5 criteria, childhood maltreatment, alexithymia, and dissociation. Alexithymia and dissociation were highly prevalent in both study groups. Multivariate logistic regression analyses indicated that only alexithymia was a significant predictor for NSSI, whereas childhood maltreatment and dissociation had no predictive influence. The association between alexithymia and NSSI emphasizes the significance of emotion regulation training for female adolescents with NSSI. Efforts to reduce NSSI behavior should therefore foster skills to heighten the perception and recognition of one's own emotions. PMID:27088878

  16. Childhood Trauma and Its Relation to Chronic Depression in Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Alexa Negele; Johannes Kaufhold; Lisa Kallenbach; Marianne Leuzinger-Bohleber

    2015-01-01

    There is a large consensus indicating that childhood trauma is significantly involved in the development of depression. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of retrospectively recalled childhood trauma in chronically depressed patients and to investigate a more specific relationship between trauma type and depression. We further asked for the influence of multiple experiences of childhood trauma on the vulnerability to a chronic course of depression in adulthood. 349 chronicall...

  17. Thriving as becoming resolute in narratives of women surviving childhood maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Joanne M; Roman, Marian W; Thomas, Sandra P; Travis, Cheryl Brown; Powell, Jill; Tennison, Clifton R; Moyers, Karen; Shoffner, Dava H; Bolton, Kimberly M; Broyles, Tonya; Martin, Tracey; McArthur, Polly M

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this feminist interpretive study was to portray the experience of women thriving after childhood maltreatment (CM) through personal narratives. An interdisciplinary team conducted multiple in-depth interviews of 44 women survivors of CM who identified themselves as successful and doing well. The interviews focused on "what worked" and "what did not" with the aim of exploring aftereffects of CM; strengths and strategies; interactions helpful in overcoming abuse; and related sociopolitical contexts. Narrative analyses revealed a distinct, dynamic process of becoming resolute characterized by six dimensions that were not sequential steps but characteristics, actions, and interactions. This study offers a new understanding of the experience of women gaining solid footing in their lives, the peace of knowing the abuse is over, and power to move in an upward trajectory. PMID:19839675

  18. The Importance of Childhood Trauma and Childhood Life Events for Chronicity of Depression in Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, Jenneke E.; Hovens, Jacqueline G. F. M.; van Oppen, Patricia; Giltay, Erik J.; van Schaik, Digna J. F.; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Childhood trauma is linked to adult depression and might be a risk factor for a more chronic course of depression. However, the link between childhood trauma and chronicity of depression has not been investigated using a large and representative sample in which other depression character

  19. Symptoms of Major Depressive Disorder Subsequent to Child Maltreatment: Examining Change across Multiple Levels of Analysis to Identify Transdiagnostic Risk Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Shenk, Chad E.; Griffin, Amanda M.; O’Donnell, Kieran J

    2015-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a prevalent psychiatric condition in the child maltreatment population. However, not all children who have been maltreated will develop MDD or MDD symptoms, suggesting the presence of unique risk pathways that explain how certain children develop MDD symptoms when others do not. The current study tested several candidate risk pathways to MDD symptoms following child maltreatment: 1) neuroendocrine, 2) autonomic, 3) affective, and 4) emotion regulation. Femal...

  20. Childhood emotional maltreatment and disordered eating in a general adolescent population. Does emotion regulation play a mediating role?

    OpenAIRE

    Mills, Pamela Ann

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To determine if emotion regulation mediates the link between emotional maltreatment and disordered eating behaviour in a community sample of adolescents. Design and method: Participants were 222 secondary school pupils (aged 14-18 years) from a state high school in a rural area in Scotland. Standardised questionnaire measures were used to gather data on history of emotional abuse and neglect using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), emotion regulation strat...

  1. Impact of childhood trauma on postpartum depression: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Venter, Maud; Smets, Jorien; Raes, Filip; Wouters, Kristien; Franck, Erik; Hanssens, Myriam; Jacquemyn, Yves; Sabbe, Bernard G C; Van Den Eede, Filip

    2016-04-01

    Studies on the impact of childhood trauma on postpartum depression show inconsistencies and methodological limitations. The present study examines the effect of childhood trauma on depression 12 and 24 weeks after childbirth, while controlling for history of depression, depression symptoms during pregnancy and type D personality. During the third trimester of pregnancy, 210 women completed self-report questionnaires assessing depression (current and/or past episodes), childhood trauma and type D personality, of whom 187 participated in the postpartum follow-up, with depression symptoms being reassessed at 12 and 24 weeks after delivery with three depression outcome measures. Eventually, 183 participants were retained for analysis. Results indicated no predictive value of childhood trauma on postpartum depression in the univariate analyses, nor after controlling for previous depression, depression symptoms during pregnancy and type D personality. However, past depression and depression symptoms during pregnancy did independently and convincingly predict postpartum depression, especially at 12 weeks and to a lesser extent at 24 weeks following childbirth. Overall, we found no significant association between childhood trauma and postpartum depression. Past depression and depression symptoms during pregnancy are more relevant factors to assess before childbirth. PMID:26189446

  2. The Nurse-Family Partnership: evidence-based public health in response to child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonmyr, L

    2015-01-01

    Too many Canadian children are exposed to child maltreatment-neglect, emotional maltreatment, exposure to intimate partner violence, and physical and sexual abuse. Retrospective data indicates that 32% of Canadian adults have experienced childhood abuse. There is evidence that child maltreatment is associated with a wide array of negative health consequences across the life span. These consequences expand across physical, mental, developmental and social domains to include suicide, substance abuse, anxiety, depression and physical health problems. Experts have asked for coordinated national leadership in protecting children from maltreatment. They also envision broadening the mandate for injury prevention to include not only physical injury but also emotional injury and harm. PMID:26605562

  3. Maltreatment in Infancy: A Developmental Perspective on Prevention and Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Brenda Jones; Buhler, Andrea; Parra, Laura Jimenez

    2016-10-01

    Burgeoning research has documented high rates of maltreatment during the first 3 years of life. Early exposure to maltreatment is related to a host of negative physical, developmental, and mental health outcomes in childhood and adulthood. Scientists have documented the "biological embedding" of maltreatment, including alterations in the structures and processes of the young brain. Maltreatment is a complex phenomenon, which manifests in contexts of family poverty, inadequate parental knowledge and skill regarding child development and caregiving, social isolation of parents, disruptions in parent-child relationships, compromised parental psychological functioning, and concrete issues that affect parenting. Capitalizing on research on young child maltreatment, interventions have been designed to ameliorate infant/toddler maltreatment, buffer young children against the effects of maltreatment, and promote the well-being of maltreated young children. There is a growing empirical base on interventions to address early maltreatment within the context of a public health prevention framework. Primary prevention programs aim to reduce the incidence of maltreatment and related outcomes for infants, toddlers, and their families through the implementation of population-based programs, such as home visiting and early care and education programs. Secondary prevention models target families with specific risk factors associated with maltreatment, such as maternal depression. Tertiary programs generally entail involuntary services, designed to prevent maltreatment recurrence and to improve parenting skills through therapeutic approaches targeting the parent-child dyad. Empirical knowledge about maltreated young children and their families and interventions to support them can inform the design and delivery of child welfare services. PMID:27580663

  4. Childhood maltreatment in adult offspring of Portuguese war veterans with and without PTSD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Dias

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The colonial war that Portugal was involved in between 1961 and 1974 had a significant impact on veterans and their families. However, it is unclear what the consequences of this war are, in particular with regard to levels of childhood maltreatment (CM in offspring. Objective: Our study aims to analyze the influences of fathers’ war exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD on the offspring's CM and simultaneously test the hypothesis of the intergenerational transmission of father–child CM. Method: Cross-sectional data were collected, using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire—Short Form, from 203 adult children and 117 fathers. Subjects were distributed according to three conditions based on the father's war exposure status: did not participate in war, or non-war-exposed (NW; participated in war, or war-exposed (W; and war-exposed with PTSD diagnosis (WP. The data were examined using correlations, variance/covariance, and regression analyses. Results: Children of war veterans with PTSD reported more emotional and physical neglect, while their fathers reported increased emotional and physical abuse exposure during their own childhood. Significant father–child CM correlations were found in the war veteran group but less in the war veteran with PTSD group. Father CM predicted 16% of offspring CM of children of war veterans. Conclusions: The father's war-related PTSD might be a risk factor for offspring neglect but potentially a protective one for the father–child abuse transmission. War-exposed fathers without PTSD did transmit their own CM experiences more often. Therefore, father's war exposure and father's war PTSD may each be important variables to take into account in the study of intergenerational transmission of CM.

  5. Depression Experience Journal: A Computer-Based Intervention For Families Facing Childhood Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demaso, David Ray; Marcus, Nicole Eldridge; Kinnamon, Carolyn; Gonzalez-Heydrich, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study tested the feasibility and safety of a computer-based application for families facing childhood depression. The Depression Experience Journal (EJ) is a psychoeducational intervention based on a narrative model involving the sharing of personal stories about childhood depression. Method: Semistructured interviews assessed…

  6. Predicting Response Trajectories during Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy for Panic Disorder: No Association with the BDNF Gene or Childhood Maltreatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martí Santacana

    Full Text Available Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and result in low quality of life and a high social and economic cost. The efficacy of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT for anxiety disorders is well established, but a substantial proportion of patients do not respond to this treatment. Understanding which genetic and environmental factors are responsible for this differential response to treatment is a key step towards "personalized medicine". Based on previous research, our objective was to test whether the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and/or childhood maltreatment are associated with response trajectories during exposure-based CBT for panic disorder (PD.We used Growth Mixture Modeling to identify latent classes of change (response trajectories in patients with PD (N = 97 who underwent group manualized exposure-based CBT. We conducted logistic regression to investigate the effect on these trajectories of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and two different types of childhood maltreatment, abuse and neglect.We identified two response trajectories ("high response" and "low response", and found that they were not significantly associated with either the genetic (BDNF Val66Met polymorphism or childhood trauma-related variables of interest, nor with an interaction between these variables.We found no evidence to support an effect of the BDNF gene or childhood trauma-related variables on CBT outcome in PD. Future studies in this field may benefit from looking at other genotypes or using different (e.g. whole-genome approaches.

  7. Predicting Response Trajectories during Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy for Panic Disorder: No Association with the BDNF Gene or Childhood Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santacana, Martí; Arias, Bárbara; Mitjans, Marina; Bonillo, Albert; Montoro, María; Rosado, Sílvia; Guillamat, Roser; Vallès, Vicenç; Pérez, Víctor; Forero, Carlos G.; Fullana, Miquel A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and result in low quality of life and a high social and economic cost. The efficacy of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders is well established, but a substantial proportion of patients do not respond to this treatment. Understanding which genetic and environmental factors are responsible for this differential response to treatment is a key step towards “personalized medicine”. Based on previous research, our objective was to test whether the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and/or childhood maltreatment are associated with response trajectories during exposure-based CBT for panic disorder (PD). Method We used Growth Mixture Modeling to identify latent classes of change (response trajectories) in patients with PD (N = 97) who underwent group manualized exposure-based CBT. We conducted logistic regression to investigate the effect on these trajectories of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and two different types of childhood maltreatment, abuse and neglect. Results We identified two response trajectories (“high response” and “low response”), and found that they were not significantly associated with either the genetic (BDNF Val66Met polymorphism) or childhood trauma-related variables of interest, nor with an interaction between these variables. Conclusions We found no evidence to support an effect of the BDNF gene or childhood trauma-related variables on CBT outcome in PD. Future studies in this field may benefit from looking at other genotypes or using different (e.g. whole-genome) approaches. PMID:27355213

  8. The association between maltreatment in childhood and pre-pregnancy obesity in women attending an antenatal clinic in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine Hollingsworth

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Obesity in pregnancy is associated with increased risk of complications and adverse outcomes in mother and child. Childhood adverse experiences are known to have numerous negative physical and emotional sequelae. We aimed to examine if exposure to abuse and/or neglect in childhood increased the likelihood of pre-pregnancy obesity. METHODS: Demographic and clinical data including weight, height, mental health as measured by the General Health Questionnaire and exposure to childhood trauma as measured by the childhood trauma questionnaire was collected from 239 women attending antenatal care at an Australian tertiary hospital. RESULTS: More than one quarter of women were obese prior to pregnancy and approximately 20% of women self reported experiencing moderate to severe physical, sexual or emotional abuse. Almost 60% of women scored in the clinical range on the GHQ. Pre-pregnancy obesity in women attending antenatal care was associated with a self-reported history of emotional or physical abuse with those exposed to moderate or severe emotional or physical abuse having increased odds of being obese prior to pregnancy (O.R. and 95% CI: 2.40; 1.19-4.84 and 2.38; 1.18-4.79 respectively. There was no significant association between other forms of childhood maltreatment, demographic or current mental health status and pre-pregnancy obesity. CONCLUSIONS: The high rates of obesity, mental health problems and self reported childhood maltreatment in the Australian antenatal population are serious public health concerns due to the extra health risks conferred on mother and offspring. Exposure to physical or emotional abuse during childhood increases the likelihood of obesity in women attending antenatal care. Further research is required to determine reasons for this association.

  9. Child Maltreatment and Adolescent Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trickett, Penelope K.; Negriff, Sonya; Ji, Juye; Peckins, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect, often collectively called child maltreatment, are huge social problems affecting millions of children and adolescents in America. Adolescents are affected both by maltreatment which occurred during childhood with lingering effects and by maltreatment that continues into or begins in adolescence. Several decades of research…

  10. Childhood maltreatment, emotional distress, and early adolescent sexual intercourse: Multi-informant perspectives on parental monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Oberlander, Sarah E.; Wang, Yan; Thompson, Richard; Lewis, Terri; Proctor, Laura J.; Isbell, Patricia; English, Diana E.; DUBOWITZ, HOWARD; Litrownik, Alan J.; Black, Maureen M.

    2011-01-01

    This prospective investigation used multi-informant models to examine whether parental monitoring moderated associations between child maltreatment and either emotional distress or sexual intercourse. Data included 637 youth in the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN). Child maltreatment was determined by lifetime Child Protective Service records and youth self-report, and included sexual, physical, psychological abuse, and neglect (age 12). The moderat...

  11. Childhood Maltreatment and Prospectively Observed Quality of Early Care as Predictors of Antisocial Personality Disorder Features

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Zhenyu; Bureau, Jean-Francois; EASTERBROOKS, M. ANN; Zhao, Xudong; Lyons-Ruth, Karlen

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated the separate contributions of maltreatment and ongoing quality of parent-child interaction to the etiology of antisocial personality features using a prospective longitudinal design. 120 low-income young adults (aged 18-23) were assessed for extent of ASPD features on the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnosis-Axis II, for presence of maltreatment on the Conflict Tactics Scale, Traumatic Experiences Scale, and Adult Attachment Interview, and for referral in inf...

  12. Childhood and adolescent anxiety and depression: beyond heritability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Franic; C.M. Middeldorp; C.V. Dolan; L. Ligthart; D.I. Boomsma

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To review the methodology of behavior genetics studies addressing research questions that go beyond simple heritability estimation and illustrate these using representative research on childhood and adolescent anxiety and depression. Method: The classic twin design and its extensions may

  13. A Longitudinal Examination of Childhood Maltreatment and Adolescent Obesity: Results from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Sunny Hyucksun; Miller, Daniel P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: We sought to explore the association between childhood maltreatment (e.g., neglect, physical and sexual abuse) and longitudinal growth trajectories of body mass index (BMI) from adolescence to young adulthood. Methods: We used latent curve modeling to examine data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (N = 8,471),…

  14. Early Life Stress and the Anxious Brain : : Neural Structure and Function Underlying the Relationship Between Childhood Emotional Maltreatment and Anxiety in Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Fonzo, Gregory Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment (CM), particularly emotional abuse (EA) and emotional neglect (EN), is a significant risk factor for the development of excessive anxiety in adulthood. However, the neurobiological mechanisms which underlie the relationship between CM and later development of anxiety are poorly understood. The purpose of this investigation is to delineate brain structure/function in adulthood which underlies the relationship between childhood EA/EN and adult anxiety. One-hundred eighty-...

  15. Symptoms of major depressive disorder subsequent to child maltreatment: Examining change across multiple levels of analysis to identify transdiagnostic risk pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenk, Chad E; Griffin, Amanda M; O'Donnell, Kieran J

    2015-11-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a prevalent psychiatric condition in the child maltreatment population. However, not all children who have been maltreated will develop MDD or MDD symptoms, suggesting the presence of unique risk pathways that explain how certain children develop MDD symptoms when others do not. The current study tested several candidate risk pathways to MDD symptoms following child maltreatment: neuroendocrine, autonomic, affective, and emotion regulation. Female adolescents (N = 110; age range = 14-19) were recruited into a substantiated child maltreatment or comparison condition and completed a laboratory stressor, saliva samples, and measures of emotion regulation, negative affect, and MDD symptoms. MDD symptoms were reassessed 18 months later. Mediational modeling revealed that emotion regulation was the only significant indirect effect of the relationship between child maltreatment and subsequent MDD symptoms, demonstrating that children exposed to maltreatment had greater difficulties managing affective states that in turn led to more severe MDD symptoms. These results highlight the importance of emotion dysregulation as a central risk pathway to MDD following child maltreatment. Areas of future research and implications for optimizing prevention and clinical intervention through the direct targeting of transdiagnostic risk pathways are discussed. PMID:26535940

  16. Early Menarcheal Age and Risk for Later Depressive Symptomatology: The Role of Childhood Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Sarah R.; Klein, Daniel N.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has investigated the relationship between pubertal timing and depression in girls, with most results suggesting that earlier menarche predicts more depression in adolescence. However, few studies have controlled for the potentially confounding effects of childhood depressive symptoms. The current study uses a prospective,…

  17. Socialization of Emotion and Offspring Internalizing Symptoms in Mothers with Childhood-Onset Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Jennifer S.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Prout, Joanna T.; O'Rourke, Flannery; Lane, Tonya J.; Kovacs, Maria

    2011-01-01

    This study examines how mothers with and without a history of childhood-onset depression respond to their 3-9 year-old children's emotions. Mother-child dyads included 55 offspring of mothers with a history of childhood-onset depressive disorders and 57 offspring of never-depressed mothers. Mothers with a history of childhood depression were less…

  18. Childhood adversities in relation to psychiatric disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Pietrek, Christian; Elbert, Thomas; Weierstall, Roland; Müller, Oliver; Rockstroh, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    Substantial evidence has documented that adverse childhood experiences exert deleterious effects on mental health. It is less clear to what extent specific maltreatment during specific developmental periods may vary between disorders rather than increasing vulnerability for any particular disorder. The present comparison of characteristics of childhood adversity (type and frequency of adversity, developmental period) between major depressive disorder (MDD), borderline personality disorder (BP...

  19. Child Maltreatment and Children's Developmental Trajectories in Early to Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font, Sarah A.; Berger, Lawrence M.

    2015-01-01

    Associations between experiencing child maltreatment and adverse developmental outcomes are widely studied, yet conclusions regarding the extent to which effects are bidirectional, and whether they are likely causal, remain elusive. This study uses the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a birth cohort of 4,898 children followed from birth…

  20. Resilience to Adult Psychopathology Following Childhood Maltreatment: Evidence from a Community Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collishaw, Stephan; Pickles, Andrew; Messer, Julie; Rutter, Michael; Shearer, Christina; Maughan, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Child abuse is an important risk for adult psychiatric morbidity. However, not all maltreated children experience mental health problems as adults. The aims of the present study were to address the extent of resilience to adult psychopathology in a representative community sample, and to explore predictors of a good prognosis. Methods:…

  1. Perceptions of general and parenting-specific posttraumatic change among postpartum mothers with histories of childhood maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fava, Nicole M; Simon, Valerie A; Smith, Erin; Khan, Maria; Kovacevic, Merdijana; Rosenblum, Katherine L; Menke, Rena; Muzik, Maria

    2016-06-01

    Although adaptive meanings of childhood maltreatment (CM) are critical to posttraumatic adaptation, little is known about perceptions of posttraumatic change (PTC) during the vulnerable postpartum period. PTC may be positive or negative as well as global or situational. This study examined general and parenting-specific PTC among 100 postpartum women with CM histories (Mage=29.5 years). All reported general and 83% reported parenting PTC. General PTC were more likely to include negative and positive changes; parenting PTC were more likely to be exclusively positive. Indicators of more severe CM (parent perpetrator, more CM experiences) were related to parenting but not general PTC. Concurrent demographic risk moderated associations between number of CM experiences and positive parenting PTC such that among mothers with more CM experiences, demographic risk was associated with stronger positive parenting PTC. Results highlight the significance of valence and specificity of PTC for understanding meanings made of CM experiences. PMID:27131270

  2. Childhood life events and childhood trauma in adult patients with depressive, anxiety and comorbid disorders vs. controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovens, J. G. F. M.; Wiersma, J. E.; Giltay, E. J.; van Oppen, P.; Spinhoven, P.; Penninx, B. W. J. H.; Zitman, F. G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between childhood life events, childhood trauma and the presence of anxiety, depressive or comorbid anxiety and depressive disorders in adulthood. Method: Data are from 1931 adult participants in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). Child

  3. Impact of Depression and Childhood Trauma in Mothers Receiving Home Visitation

    OpenAIRE

    Ammerman, Robert T.; Shenk, Chad E.; Teeters, Angelique R.; Noll, Jennie G.; PUTNAM, FRANK W.; Van Ginkel, Judith B.

    2011-01-01

    Research has documented the deleterious effects of maternal depression and childhood trauma on parenting and child development. There are high rates of both depression and childhood trauma in new mothers participating in home visitation programs, a prevention approach designed to optimize mother and child outcomes. Little is known about the impacts of maternal depression and childhood trauma on parenting in the context of home visitation. This study contrasted depressed and non-depressed moth...

  4. The role of depression and dissociation in the link between childhood sexual abuse and later parental practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin-Vézina, Delphine; Cyr, Mireille; Pauzé, Robert; McDuff, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    Research has yielded contradictory results on the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and later parental functioning. This study was undertaken to specify the link between childhood sexual abuse and maternal parenting, while taking into account mothers' childhood physical and emotional traumas and current depressive and dissociative symptoms. Data were collected through self-report measures completed by 93 French-speaking Canadian mothers of children aged 6 to 11 years referred to Youth Protection Services. Parental behaviors examined included involvement with the child, use of positive reinforcement, lack of monitoring and supervision of the child, inconsistency in applying discipline, and use of corporal punishment. Mothers' perception of the quality of the relationship with her child was also assessed. In addition, history of abuse and neglect, depression and dissociation were respectively measured with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the Diagnostic Interview Schedule Simplified, and the Dissociative Experiences Scale. The short-form of the Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale was used to control for respondent bias aimed at minimizing their problems. Mothers' current depressive symptoms were not found to predict any of the parental dimensions measured. Results from multiple hierarchical regressions pointed to dissociative symptoms as the key predictor of parental practices and attitudes. More specifically, dissociative symptoms predicted the use of positive reinforcement, lack of monitoring and supervision of the child, inconsistency in applying discipline, and use of corporal punishment. Dissociation also mediated the association between childhood maltreatment (physical and emotional abuse and neglect) and inconsistency in applying discipline. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:16150686

  5. The relationship of anxiety to childhood depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norvell, N; Brophy, C; Finch, A J

    1985-04-01

    In order to investigate the relationship between anxiety and depression in emotionally disturbed children, 30 hospitalized inpatient children were individually administered the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI), the Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale-Revised (CMAS-R), and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC). Results indicated a significant relationship between CDI scores, the CMAS-R and its factors, and the STAIC. Correlations between the various factors of anxiety and depression suggest a complex relationship between the two constructs. Stepwise regression analyses indicated further the complexity of this relationship. Results were discussed in terms of the possible differential role which the different anxiety factors play in depression. PMID:3998984

  6. Maltreated and abused children

    OpenAIRE

    HOUFOVÁ, Jana

    2011-01-01

    According to the statistics there are forty thousand of battered and abused children in the Czech Republic. Maltreatment and abuse are not revealed in most cases and thus they accompany the children during their whole childhood. The reason is that children cannot defend themselves. The maltreatment or the abuse of a child is revealed only if somebody from the child?s neighbourhood observes anything suspicious and decides to report it, which is both a moral and a legal obligation. A person, wh...

  7. Cognitive Vulnerabilities for Depression and Anxiety in Childhood:Specificity of Anxiety Sensitivity and Rumination

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, H. M.; Meiser-Stedman, R.; Woods, H.; Lester, K.J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Childhood anxiety and depression frequently co-occur. Exploring specificity in cognitive processes for anxiety and depression in childhood can provide insight into cognitive vulnerabilities contributing to the development of anxiety and depressive disorders and inform targeted psychological interventions. Anxiety sensitivity and rumination are robust cognitive vulnerabilities for anxiety and depression, respectively. However, despite conceptual similarities, they are rarely consid...

  8. Childhood depression with unremitting suicidal behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnaram Aravind

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder in adults can be applied to children and adolescents, as well, but the predominance and characteristics of symptoms in children varies widely than in adults.

  9. Managing depression in childhood and adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, Paul O

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes depression (a syndrome of low mood/irritability/lack of pleasure with associated physical and cognitive symptoms) in children and adolescents. It aims to help GPs to recognise more cases of it. It discusses why some young people do become depressed and will describe the treatments which are available, and how treatment may be implemented in the primary care setting. Current UK NICE guidelines recommend that: (i) psychological treatments should be offered as first-line tre...

  10. INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE AND NEW-ONSET DEPRESSION: A LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF WOMEN’S CHILDHOOD AND ADULT HISTORIES OF ABUSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouellet-Morin, Isabelle; Fisher, Helen L.; York-Smith, Marianna; Fincham-Campbell, Stephanie; Moffitt, Terrie E.; Arseneault, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Background Studies indicate that women victims of intimate partner violence are at increased risk for poor mental health. This research disentangled the effect of partner violence on new-onset depression and psychosis spectrum symptoms from effects of child maltreatment and other confounding factors, including substance abuse and antisocial personality. Methods Participants were 1,052 mothers involved in the Environmental Risk (E-Risk) Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally representative cohort of families followed prospectively. To test the directionality of associations between partner violence and depression, only women without a history of depression at the beginning of the study were considered (n = 978). Partner violence and mental health were assessed during face-to-face interviews with women across three time points. Results Four of 10 women reported being the victim of violence from their partner in a 10-year period. They represent 33% of our cohort and they account for 51% of new-onset depression. These women had a twofold increase in their risk of suffering from new-onset depression once the effect of childhood maltreatment, socioeconomic deprivation, antisocial personality, and young motherhood were controlled. Women who were abused both in childhood and adulthood were four to seven times more likely to suffer from depression than never-abused women. We observed similar associations with psychosis spectrum symptoms. Conclusions Women victims of partner violence account for more than their share of depression. Findings strengthen existing evidence that partner violence independently contributes to women’s poor mental health. Psychological difficulties among a considerable number of women could be reduced by stopping partner violence. PMID:25691224

  11. Childhood trauma is associated with depressive symptoms in Mexico City women

    OpenAIRE

    Openshaw, M; Thompson, LM; De Pheils, PB; Mendoza-Flores, ME; HUMPHREYS, J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To describe childhood trauma and depressive symptoms in Mexican women and to explore the relationships between number and type of childhood traumatic events and depressive symptoms. Methods. A community-based sample of 100 women was interviewed using a demographic questionnaire, the Life Stressor Checklist.Revised (LSC-R), and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Childhood trauma (trauma at or before 16 years of age) and depressive symptoms were described,...

  12. Maternal Depression and Childhood Health Inequalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turney, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    An increasing body of literature documents considerable inequalities in the health of young children in the United States, though maternal depression is one important, yet often overlooked, determinant of children's health. In this article, the author uses data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 4,048) and finds that maternal…

  13. Stress Generation in Adolescent Depression: The Moderating Role of Child Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkness, Kate L.; Lumley, Margaret N.; Truss, Alanna E.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the role of childhood abuse and neglect and depression recurrence in moderating the generation of stressful life events in adolescent depression. Maltreatment history and stressful life events were assessed using two rigorous contextual interviews and rating systems. In a sample of 59 community depressed adolescents we…

  14. Impact of childhood life events and trauma on the course of depressive and anxiety disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovens, J. G. F. M.; Giltay, E. J.; Wiersma, J. E.; Spinhoven, P.; Penninx, B. W. J. H.; Zitman, F. G.

    2012-01-01

    Hovens JGFM, Giltay EJ, Wiersma JE, Spinhoven P, Penninx BWJH, Zitman FG. Impact of childhood life events and trauma on the course of depressive and anxiety disorders. Objective: Data on the impact of childhood life events and childhood trauma on the clinical course of depressive and anxiety disorde

  15. Developmental trajectories of abuse--an hypothesis for the effects of early childhood maltreatment on dorsolateral prefrontal cortical development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrus, Caley

    2013-11-01

    The United States has a high rate of child maltreatment, with nearly 12 in 1000 children being victims of abuse or neglect. Child abuse strongly predicts negative life outcomes, especially in areas of emotional and mental health. Abused children are also more likely than their peers to engage in violence and enter the juvenile justice system, as well as to become abusive parents themselves. Research has shown that child abuse and trauma can lead to decreased hippocampal volume, which could be indicative of abnormal hippocampal development. Hippocampal development appears to directly affect the development of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, a brain area responsible for emotion regulation, cognitive reappraisal, and general executive function. Therefore, I hypothesize that if child abuse results in abnormal hippocampal development, which leads to abnormal dorsolateral prefrontal cortex development, many of the correlated risk factors of child abuse, such as emotionally-laden parenting and unfavorable cognitive distortions regarding children's behaviors, may be in part caused by underdevelopment or abnormal functioning of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, as a function of the individual's own experiences with abuse during childhood. If this hypothesis is supported with future research, more targeted, successful, and cost-effective prevention and treatment protocols could ensue. For instance, programs that have been empirically shown to increase the activity of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, such as cognitive behavioral therapy, could be effective in decreasing the incidence of intergenerational transfer of abuse. PMID:24075592

  16. Depressive symptoms and childhood sleep apnea syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carotenuto M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Marco Carotenuto,1 Maria Esposito,1 Lucia Parisi,2 Beatrice Gallai,3 Rosa Marotta,4 Antonio Pascotto,1 Michele Roccella21Sleep Clinic for Developmental Age, Clinic of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, Second University of Naples, Naples, Italy; 2Child Neuropsychiatry, Department of Psychology, University of Palermo, Palermo, Italy; 3Unit of Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry, University of Perugia, Perugia, 4Department of Psychiatry, "Magna Graecia" University of Catanzaro, Catanzaro, ItalyBackground: The relationship between sleep and mood regulation is well known, and some reports suggest a key role of sleep-related breathing disorders (SRBD in the development of the symptomatology of depression, even if no conclusive data are actually found in the clinical literature. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between SRBD and depressive symptoms in a population of school-aged children.Methods: The study population comprised 94 children affected by SRBD and 107 healthy children. To identify the severity of SRBD, an overnight respiratory evaluation was performed. All subjects filled out the Italian version of the Children Depression Inventory (CDI to screen for the presence of depressive symptoms.Results: The group with SRBD showed higher CDI scores than the group without SRBD, with a positive correlation found between CDI scores, apnea-hypopnea index, and oxygen desaturation index values. Logistic regression showed that an apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 3 and an oxygen desaturation index ≥ 1 could be risk factors for development of depressive symptoms. According to receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis, the cutoff point for the apnea-hypopnea index that could cause a pathological CDI score (≥19 was >5.66, and the cutoff point for the oxygen desaturation index was >4.2. The limitations of this study are that our data are derived from one single psychometric test and not from a complete psychiatric evaluation, and our

  17. Childhood trauma and dimensions of depression: a specific association with the cognitive domain

    OpenAIRE

    Edgar A. Vares; Salum, Giovanni A; Lucas Spanemberg; Marco A. Caldieraro; Lívia H. de Souza; Roberta de P. Borges; Marcelo P. Fleck

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate associations between a history of childhood trauma and dimensions of depression in a sample of clinically depressed patients. Methods: A sample of 217 patients from a mood-disorder outpatient unit was investigated with the Beck Depression Inventory, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, the CORE Assessment of Psychomotor Change, and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. A previous latent model identifying six depressive dimensions was used for analysis. Path analysis ...

  18. Childhood maltreatment and BMI trajectories to mid-adult life: follow-up to age 50 y in a British birth cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Power

    Full Text Available Childhood maltreatment including abuse and neglect has been associated with adult obesity, but evidence on life-course development of obesity or BMI gain is unclear. We aim to establish whether childhood maltreatments are related to obesity or BMI at different life-stages 7 y-50 y and to identify possible explanations for associations.Childhood physical, psychological and sexual abuse, neglect and BMI at seven ages were recorded in the 1958 birth cohort (n~15,000. Associations of child maltreatments with BMI at separate ages were tested using linear regression or logistic regression for obesity, and with rate of child-to-adult BMI gain using multilevel models. We adjusted for potential covariates.Abuse was reported in ~12% of the population. Abuse was not associated with elevated childhood BMI, but adult associations were observed: i.e. the abused had faster child-adult BMI gain than the non-abused; associations were independent of adult covariates. For physical abuse in both genders there was a positive linear association of ~0.006/y zBMI gain with age after adjustment for all covariates. Similarly, there was a linear association of physical abuse with obesity risk: e.g. among females from a low OR(adjusted of 0.34 (0.16,0.71 at 7 y to 1.67 (1.25,2.24 at 50 y. In females faster zBMI gains with age of ~0.0034/y were observed for sexual abuse and increases in obesity risk were faster: from a low OR(adjusted of 0.23 (0.06,0.84 at 7 y to 1.34 (0.86,2.10 at 50 y. Psychological abuse and neglect associations were less consistent.Childhood maltreatment associations with BMI or obesity varied across life: physical and, in females, sexual abuse were associated with faster lifetime BMI gains, which may have detrimental long-term health consequences.

  19. The scars of childhood adversity : minor stress sensitivity and depressive symptoms in remitted recurrently depressed adult patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Gemma; van Rijsbergen, Gerard; Burger, Huibert; Elgersma, Hermien; Riper, Heleen; Cuijpers, Pim; Dekker, Jack; Smit, Filip; Bockting, Claudi

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Childhood adversity may lead to depressive relapse through its long-lasting influence on stress sensitivity. In line with the stress sensitization hypothesis, minor (daily) stress is associated with depressive relapse. Therefore, we examine the impact of childhood adversity on daily stre

  20. Alcohol misuse and associations with childhood maltreatment and out-of-home placement among urban two-spirit American Indian and Alaska Native people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Nicole P; Duran, Bonnie M; Walters, Karina L; Pearson, Cynthia R; Evans-Campbell, Tessa A

    2014-01-01

    This study examined associations between alcohol misuse and childhood maltreatment and out-of-home placement among urban lesbian, gay, and bisexual (referred to as two-spirit) American Indian and Alaska Native adults. In a multi-site study, data were obtained from 294 individuals who consumed alcohol during the past year. The results indicated that 72.3% of men and 62.4% of women engaged in hazardous and harmful alcohol use and 50.8% of men and 48.7% of women met criteria for past-year alcohol dependence. The most common types of childhood maltreatment were physical abuse among male drinkers (62.7%) and emotional abuse (71.8%) among female drinkers. Men and women reported high percentages of out-of-home placement (39% and 47%, respectively). Logistic multiple regressions found that for male drinkers boarding school attendance and foster care placement were significant predictors of past-year alcohol dependence. For female drinkers, being adopted was significantly associated with a decreased risk of past-year drinking binge or spree. Dose-response relationships, using number of childhood exposures as a predictor, were not significant. The results highlight the need for alcohol and violence prevention and intervention strategies among urban two-spirit individuals. PMID:25317980

  1. Alcohol Misuse and Associations with Childhood Maltreatment and Out-of-Home Placement among Urban Two-Spirit American Indian and Alaska Native People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole P. Yuan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This study examined associations between alcohol misuse and childhood maltreatment and out-of-home placement among urban lesbian, gay, and bisexual (referred to as two-spirit American Indian and Alaska Native adults. In a multi-site study, data were obtained from 294 individuals who consumed alcohol during the past year. The results indicated that 72.3% of men and 62.4% of women engaged in hazardous and harmful alcohol use and 50.8% of men and 48.7% of women met criteria for past-year alcohol dependence. The most common types of childhood maltreatment were physical abuse among male drinkers (62.7% and emotional abuse (71.8% among female drinkers. Men and women reported high percentages of out-of-home placement (39% and 47%, respectively. Logistic multiple regressions found that for male drinkers boarding school attendance and foster care placement were significant predictors of past-year alcohol dependence. For female drinkers, being adopted was significantly associated with a decreased risk of past-year drinking binge or spree. Dose-response relationships, using number of childhood exposures as a predictor, were not significant. The results highlight the need for alcohol and violence prevention and intervention strategies among urban two-spirit individuals.

  2. Alcohol Misuse and Associations with Childhood Maltreatment and Out-of-Home Placement among Urban Two-Spirit American Indian and Alaska Native People

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Nicole P.; Duran, Bonnie M.; Walters, Karina L.; Pearson, Cynthia R.; Evans-Campbell, Tessa A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined associations between alcohol misuse and childhood maltreatment and out-of-home placement among urban lesbian, gay, and bisexual (referred to as two-spirit) American Indian and Alaska Native adults. In a multi-site study, data were obtained from 294 individuals who consumed alcohol during the past year. The results indicated that 72.3% of men and 62.4% of women engaged in hazardous and harmful alcohol use and 50.8% of men and 48.7% of women met criteria for past-year alcoho...

  3. Child Maltreatment and Adult Substance Abuse: The Role of Memory

    OpenAIRE

    ELWYN, LAURA; Smith, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    Child maltreatment is a risk factor for substance abuse in adulthood. This study examines whether memory of maltreatment is a necessary link in the path leading from prospectively measured childhood maltreatment to adult substance use problems. Official Child Protective Services reports and adult retrospective recall of childhood maltreatment were used to predict illegal drug use and alcohol problems in adulthood controlling for covariates. Memory was a necessary link in the path between pros...

  4. Emotional Maltreatment, Peer Victimization, and Depressive versus Anxiety Symptoms during Adolescence: Hopelessness as a Mediator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jessica L.; Shapero, Benjamin G.; Stange, Jonathan P.; Hamlat, Elissa J.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2013-01-01

    Extensive comorbidity between depression and anxiety has driven research to identify unique and shared risk factors. This study prospectively examined the specificity of three interpersonal stressors (emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and relationally oriented peer victimization) as predictors of depressive versus anxiety symptoms in a racially…

  5. Temperament, Stress Reactivity, and Coping: Implications for Depression in Childhood and Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compas, Bruce E.; Connor-Smith, Jennifer; Jaser, Sarah S.

    2004-01-01

    This article considers the role of temperament in the development of depression during childhood and adolescence. The features of depression in young people and aspects of temperament that are most relevant to depression are briefly reviewed. Studies that have tested the direct and indirect associations of temperament and depressive symptoms in…

  6. IL1B基因多态性与儿童期创伤交互作用对抗抑郁剂疗效的影响%Influence of interleukin-1 beta gene polymorphism and childhood maltreatment on antidepressant treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈颖; 张志珺; 徐治; 浦梦佳; 耿磊钰

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨白介素1-β(interleukin-1 beta,IL1 B)基因启动子区rs16944位点基因多态性与儿童期创伤的交互作用对抗抑郁剂疗效的影响.方法 对204例抑郁症患者进行8周心理精神量表评估随访.应用Snapshot检测IL1B基因位点rs16944单核苷酸多态性.应用Unphased 3.0.13软件包分析rs16944多态性与抗抑郁疗效关联性,Logistic回归分析基因-环境交互作用对抗抑郁药物疗效的影响.结果 8周治愈组与未治愈组间性别、年龄、教育程度、家族史、发病次数、HAMD-17项基线及用药情况差异均无统计学意义.药物基因关联分析表明IL1B基因rs16944位点AA基因型携带者疗效较差(x2=3.931,P=0.047).两患者组间儿童期创伤经历问卷总分差异无统计学意义.基因和环境交互分析发现rs16944位点AA基因型与儿童期创伤相互作用及较差的抗抑郁剂疗效相关(P=0.043).结论 IL1B基因rs16944位点多态性与儿童期创伤相互作用可能影响抑郁患者临床疗效.%Objective To explore the influence of interleukin-1 beta (IL1B) gene polymorphism and childhood maltreatment on antidepressant treatment.Methods Two hundred and four patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) have received treatment with single antidepressant drugs and were followed up for 8 weeks.Hamilton depression scale-17 (HAMD-17) was used to evaluate the severity of depressive symptoms and therapeutic effect.Childhood maltreatment was assessed using Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, a 28-item Short Form (CTQ-SF).Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the IL1B gene was determined using a SNaPshot method.Correlation of rs16944 gene polymorphism with response to treatment was analyzed using Unphased 3.0.13 software.The main and interactive effects of SNP and childhood maltreatment on the antidepressant treatment were analyzed using Logistic regression analysis.Results No significant difference of gender, age, year of education, family history

  7. A Survey of School Psychologists' Perspectives and Practices with Childhood Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarizio, Harvey F.; Payette, Karen

    1990-01-01

    Examined how emerging body of knowledge regarding nature, prevalence, assessment, and treatment of childhood depression compares with perceptions and practices of school psychologists. Identified need for school psychologists to define concept of childhood depression. Advocates use of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (third…

  8. Impact of Depression and Childhood Trauma in Mothers Receiving Home Visitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammerman, Robert T.; Shenk, Chad E.; Teeters, Angelique R.; Noll, Jennie G.; Putnam, Frank W.; Van Ginkel, Judith B.

    2012-01-01

    Research has documented the deleterious effects of maternal depression and childhood trauma on parenting and child development. There are high rates of both depression and childhood trauma in new mothers participating in home visitation programs, a prevention approach designed to optimize mother and child outcomes. Little is known about the…

  9. Witnessing Domestic Abuse in Childhood as an Independent Risk Factor for Depressive Symptoms in Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, David; Springer, Kristen W.; Greenfield, Emily A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study addresses the relationship between retrospective reports of witnessing domestic abuse in childhood and levels of depressive symptoms in young adulthood. We examine whether the association between having witnessed violence in childhood and depression is independent of having been the direct target of sexual and/or physical…

  10. Maternal depressive symptoms in infancy: Unique contribution to children’s depressive symptoms in childhood and adolescence?

    OpenAIRE

    Bureau, Jean-François; Easterbrooks, M. Ann; Lyons-Ruth, Karlen

    2009-01-01

    This prospective 20-year study assessed associations between maternal depressive symptoms in infancy, childhood, and adolescence and child and adolescent depressive symptoms in a sample of families at high psychosocial risk. Maternal symptomatology was assessed with the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D; Radloff, 1977) when children were infants (12 months), school-aged (age 8), and adolescents (age 19). Children’s depressive symptoms were measured at age 8 (Dimension...

  11. Childhood adversity predicts earlier onset of Major Depression but not reduced hippocampal volume

    OpenAIRE

    Lenze, Shannon N.; Xiong, Chengjie; Sheline, Yvette I.

    2008-01-01

    Childhood adversity may influence severity and age of onset of depression, potentially mediated by greater vulnerability to an existing biochemical or neural mechanism. Prior studies have suggested that reduced hippocampal volume is a result of childhood adversity. This study examined the relationship between childhood adversity, hippocampal volumes and clinical characteristics in women who were recruited for depression history rather than abuse experiences. Thirty-one women with remitted uni...

  12. Socialization of Emotion and Offspring Internalizing Symptoms in Mothers with Childhood-Onset Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Silk, Jennifer S.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Prout, Joanna T.; O’Rourke, Flannery; Lane, Tonya J.; Kovacs, Maria

    2011-01-01

    This study examines how mothers with and without a history of childhood-onset depression respond to their 3–9 year-old children’s emotions. Mother-child dyads included 55 offspring of mothers with a history of childhood-onset depressive disorders and 57 offspring of never-depressed mothers. Mothers with a history of childhood depression were less likely than were control mothers to respond in supportive ways to their children’s negative emotions and were more likely to magnify, punish, or neg...

  13. Maltreatment and Depression in Adolescent Sexual Offenders with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Jessica Bleil; Hughes, Tammy L.; Sutton, Lawrence R.; Marshall, Stephanie N.; Crothers, Laura M.; Lehman, Cathryn; Paserba, Dave; Talkington, Vanessa; Taormina, Rochelle; Huang, Ann

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the self-reported presence and severity of abuse, neglect, and depressive symptoms for 43 adolescents adjudicated delinquent due to a sexual offense. Twenty-seven of the adolescent sexual offenders were also diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder, and 16 did not carry an autism spectrum disorder diagnosis. Both groups…

  14. Family childhood experiences reports in depressed patients : comparison between 2 time points

    OpenAIRE

    Monteiro, Ivandro Soares; Maia, Ângela

    2010-01-01

    Research has shown some discrepancies in the reports of experiences from childhood when an individual is depressed, because a depressed mood may have biasing effects on autobiographical memory. The present study sought to clarify this issue by examining whether there is temporal stability in the report of childhood experiences in depressed subjects, or rather, if these experiences are influenced by the mood at the time of report. The study therefore carries implications for the credi...

  15. Emotions and Suicidal Ideation among Depressed Women with Childhood Sexual Abuse Histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Sungeun; Talbot, Nancy L.; He, Hua; Conner, Kenneth R.

    2012-01-01

    Depressed women with sexual abuse histories have a heightened risk of suicidal ideation (SI), which may be only in part attributable to psychiatric symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Emotions and SI were studied among 106 women with histories of childhood sexual abuse enrolled in treatment trials for major depression.…

  16. The scars of childhood adversity: minor stress sensitivity and depressive symptoms in remitted recurrently depressed adult patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Kok

    Full Text Available Childhood adversity may lead to depressive relapse through its long-lasting influence on stress sensitivity. In line with the stress sensitization hypothesis, minor (daily stress is associated with depressive relapse. Therefore, we examine the impact of childhood adversity on daily stress and its predictive value on prospectively assessed depressive symptoms in recurrently depressed patients.Daily stress was assessed in recurrently depressed adult patients, enrolled into two randomized trials while remitted. The reported intensity and frequency of dependent and independent daily stress was assessed at baseline. Independent stress is externally generated, for example an accident happening to a friend, while dependent stress is internally generated, for example getting into a fight with a neighbor. Hierarchical regression analyses were performed with childhood adversity, independent and dependent daily stress as predictor variables of prospectively measured depressive symptoms after three months of follow-up (n = 138.We found that childhood adversity was not significantly associated with a higher frequency and intensity of daily stress. The intensity of both independent and dependent daily stress was predictive of depressive symptom levels at follow-up (unadjusted models respectively: B = 0.47, t = 2.05, p = 0.041, 95% CI = 0.02-0.92; B = 0.29, t = 2.20, p = 0.028, 95% CI = 0.03-0.55. No associations were found between childhood adversity and depressive symptoms at follow-up.No evidence was found supporting stress sensitization due to the experience of childhood adversity in this recurrently depressed but remitted patient group. Nevertheless, our research indicates that daily stress might be a target for preventive treatment.Trial A: Nederlands Trial Register NTR1907 Trial B: Nederlands Trial Register NTR2503.

  17. Joint Effect of Childhood Abuse and Family History of Major Depressive Disorder on Rates of PTSD in People with Personality Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine D. Flory

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Childhood maltreatment and familial psychopathology both lead to an increased risk of the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD in adulthood. While family history of psychopathology has traditionally been viewed as a proxy for genetic predisposition, such pathology can also contribute to a stress-laden environment for the child. Method. Analyses were conducted to evaluate the joint effect of childhood abuse and a family history of major depressive disorder (MDD on diagnoses of PTSD and MDD in a sample of 225 adults with DSM-IV Axis II disorders. Results. Results showed that the rate of PTSD in the presence of both childhood abuse and MDD family history was almost six-fold (OR=5.89,  P=.001 higher relative to the absence of both factors. In contrast, the rate of MDD in the presence of both factors was associated with a nearly three-fold risk relative to the reference group (OR=2.75,  P=.01. Conclusions. The results from this observational study contribute to a growing understanding of predisposing factors for the development of PTSD and suggest that joint effects of family history of MDD and childhood abuse on PTSD are greater than either factor alone.

  18. Linking childhood maltreatment and psychological symptoms in a Portuguese community sample : the hurtful potential of emotional abuse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dos Santos Dias, Aida; Sales, L.; van Hessen, D.J.; Kleber, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Child maltreatment (CM) is associated with poor long-term health outcomes. However, knowledge about CM prevalence and related consequences is scarce among adults in South European countries. We examined the self-reported prevalence of five different forms of CM in a community sample of 1,200 Portugu

  19. Native American Ethnicity and Childhood Maltreatment as Variables in Perceptions and Adjustments to Boot Camp vs. "Traditional" Correctional Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gover, Angela R.

    2005-01-01

    A sample of 302 juveniles confined in two separate correctional facilities in a Western plains state was assessed to examine the relationship between child maltreatment and other delinquency risk factors, and Native American ethnicity on perceptions of the institutional environments and psychological adjustment in a boot camp and traditional…

  20. Does Self-Compassion Mitigate the Association between Childhood Maltreatment and Later Emotion Regulation Difficulties? A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vettese, Lisa C.; Dyer, Catherine E.; Li, Wing Ling; Wekerle, Christine

    2011-01-01

    Child maltreatment-related outcomes range from no symptom expression to suicide. Increasingly, the diverse presentations have been conceptualized as core system dysregulation, including emotion dysregulation. Self-compassion has been advanced as a self-regulation strategy for countering negative self-directed emotions. This study explored whether…

  1. Predictors and consequences of childhood depressive symptoms: a 5-year longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolen-Hoeksema, S; Girgus, J S; Seligman, M E

    1992-08-01

    A 5-year longitudinal study investigated the interrelationships among children's experiences of depressive symptoms, negative life events, explanatory style, and helplessness behaviors in social and achievement situations. The results revealed that early in childhood, negative events, but not explanatory style, predicted depressive symptoms; later in childhood, a pessimistic explanatory style emerged as a significant predictor of depressive symptoms, alone and in conjunction with negative events. When children suffered periods of depression, their explanatory styles not only deteriorated but remained pessimistic even after their depression subsided, presumably putting them at risk for future episodes of depression. Some children seem repeatedly prone to depressive symptoms over periods of at least 2 years. Depressed children consistently showed helpless behaviors in social and achievement settings. PMID:1500598

  2. Effect of Childhood Trauma on Adult Depression and Neuroendocrine Function: Sex-Specific Moderation by CRH Receptor 1 Gene

    OpenAIRE

    Bekh Bradley; Tanja Mletzko; Ressler, Kerry J.; Binder, Elisabeth B

    2009-01-01

    Variations of the corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) gene appear to moderate the development of depression after childhood trauma. Depression more frequently affects women than men. We examined sex differences in the effects of the CRHR1 gene on the relationship between childhood trauma and adult depression. Methods: We recruited 1,063 subjects from the waiting rooms of a public urban hospital. Childhood trauma exposure and symptoms of depression were assessed using dimensio...

  3. Antenatal and postpartum depressive symptoms are differentially associated with early childhood weight and adiposity

    OpenAIRE

    Ertel, Karen A.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Gillman, Matthew W

    2010-01-01

    Antenatal depression is associated with small for gestational age, but few studies have examined associations with weight during childhood. Similarly few studies address whether antenatal and postpartum depression differentially affect child weight. Among 838 mother-child dyads in Project Viva, a prospective cohort study, we examined relationships of antenatal and postpartum depression with child weight and adiposity. We assessed maternal depression at mid-pregnancy and 6 months postpartum wi...

  4. Depression in Childhood and Early Adolescence: Parental Expressed Emotion and Family Functioning

    OpenAIRE

    Tompson, MC; O Connor, EE; Kemp, GN; Langer, DA; Asarnow, JR

    2015-01-01

    Across development depression is associated with impairments in interpersonal and family functioning. In turn, these impairments may predict a more negative depression course and outcome. This study examined family functioning and parental Expressed Emotion (EE) among depressed youth during middle childhood and early adolescence and their relationship to demographic and clinical factors. Data were drawn from pretreatment evaluations of 132 depressed youth ages 7–14 and their families enrolled...

  5. Linking childhood maltreatment and psychological symptoms in a Portuguese community sample : the hurtful potential of emotional abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Dos Santos Dias, Aida; Sales, L.; Hessen, D.J.; Kleber, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Child maltreatment (CM) is associated with poor long-term health outcomes. However, knowledge about CM prevalence and related consequences is scarce among adults in South European countries. We examined the self-reported prevalence of five different forms of CM in a community sample of 1,200 Portuguese adults; we compared the results with similar samples from three other countries, using the same instrument. We also explored the relationship between CM and psychological symptoms. Cross-sectio...

  6. Childhood trauma and adult interpersonal relationship problems in patients with depression and anxiety disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Huh, Hyu Jung; Kim, Sun-Young; Yu, Jeong Jin; Chae, Jeong-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Although a plethora of studies have delineated the relationship between childhood trauma and onset, symptom severity, and course of depression and anxiety disorders, there has been little evidence that childhood trauma may lead to interpersonal problems among adult patients with depression and anxiety disorders. Given the lack of prior research in this area, we aimed to investigate characteristics of interpersonal problems in adult patients who had suffered various types of abuse...

  7. Childhood abuse and neglect in relation to the presence and persistence of psychotic and depressive symptomatology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, D. S.; van Nierop, M.; Viechtbauer, W.; Velthorst, E.; van Winkel, R.; Bruggeman, R.; Cahn, W.; de Haan, L.; Kahn, R. S.; Meijer, C. J.; Myin-Germeys, I.; van Os, J.; Wiersma, D.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The association between childhood trauma and psychotic and depressive symptomatology is well established. However, less is known about the specificity and course of these symptoms in relation to childhood trauma. METHOD: In a large sample (n = 2765) of patients with psychosis (n = 1119),

  8. Linking Oppositional Behaviour Trajectories to the Development of Depressive Symptoms in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, Khrista; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Szatmari, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Oppositional defiant disorder in childhood is a predictor of later mood disorders. This study assessed whether groups of children can be identified by their course of co-occurring oppositional and depressive symptoms in childhood using group based trajectory modeling. Participants were a cohort of 932 4 or 5 year old offspring of women…

  9. Number of Childhood Abuse Perpetrators and the Occurrence of Depressive Episodes in Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Richard T.; Jager-Hyman, Shari; Wagner, Clara A.; Alloy, Lauren B.; Gibb, Brandon E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Although past research has documented a link between adverse childhood experiences--particularly childhood emotional (CEA), physical (CPA), and sexual abuse (CSA)--and depression, relatively few studies have examined the unique impact of each of these highly co-occurring abuse types. Moreover, relatively little is known about the…

  10. Role of Parenting and Maltreatment Histories in Unipolar and Bipolar Mood Disorders: Mediation by Cognitive Vulnerability to Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alloy, Lauren B.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Smith, Jeannette M.; Gibb, Brandon E.; Neeren, Amy M.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, we review empirical research on the role of individuals' parenting and maltreatment histories as developmental antecedents for symptoms and diagnosable episodes of unipolar and bipolar spectrum disorders. Our review is focused on the following three overarching questions: (1) Do negative parenting and a history of maltreatment…

  11. Affective temperaments play an important role in the relationship between childhood abuse and depressive symptoms in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toda, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Takeshi; Tsunoda, Tomoya; Nakai, Yukiei; Tanichi, Masaaki; Tanaka, Teppei; Hashimoto, Naoki; Takaesu, Yoshikazu; Nakagawa, Shin; Kitaichi, Yuji; Boku, Shuken; Tanabe, Hajime; Nibuya, Masashi; Yoshino, Aihide; Kusumi, Ichiro

    2016-02-28

    Previous studies have shown that various factors, such as genetic and environmental factors, contribute to the development of major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of this study is to clarify how multiple factors, including affective temperaments, childhood abuse and adult life events, are involved in the severity of depressive symptoms in MDD. A total of 98 participants with MDD were studied using the following self-administered questionnaire surveys: Patient Health Questionnaire-9 measuring the severity of depressive symptoms; Life Experiences Survey (LES) measuring negative and positive adult life events; Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego auto-questionnaire (TEMPS-A) measuring affective temperaments; and the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale (CATS) measuring childhood abuse. The data were analyzed using single and multiple regression analyses and structural equation modeling (SEM). The neglect score reported by CATS indirectly predicted the severity of depressive symptoms through affective temperaments measured by TEMPS-A in SEM. Four temperaments (depressive, cyclothymic, irritable, and anxious) directly predicted the severity of depressive symptoms. The negative change in the LES score also directly predicted severity. This study suggests that childhood abuse, especially neglect, indirectly increases the severity of depressive symptoms through increased scores of affective temperaments in MDD. PMID:26708440

  12. Depression and Anxiety Symptoms: Onset, Developmental Course and Risk Factors during Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, Sylvana M.; Boivin, Michel; Liu, Xuecheng; Nagin, Daniel S.; Zoccolillo, Mark; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Depressive and anxiety disorders are among the top ten leading causes of disabilities. We know little, however, about the onset, developmental course and early risk factors for depressive and anxiety symptoms (DAS). Objective: Model the developmental trajectories of DAS during early childhood and to identify risk factors for atypically…

  13. Childhood Social Withdrawal, Interpersonal Impairment, and Young Adult Depression: A Mediational Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Shaina J.; Conway, Christopher C.; Hammen, Constance L.; Brennan, Patricia A.; Najmanm, Jake M.

    2011-01-01

    Building on interpersonal theories of depression, the current study sought to explore whether early childhood social withdrawal serves as a risk factor for depressive symptoms and diagnoses in young adulthood. The researchers hypothesized that social impairment at age 15 would mediate the association between social withdrawal at age 5 and…

  14. Impact of Childhood Trauma on Treatment Outcome in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Cara C.; Simons, Anne D.; Nguyen, Lananh J.; Murakami, Jessica L.; Reid, Mark W.; Silva, Susan G.; March, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The impact of childhood trauma was examined in 427 adolescents (54% girls, 74% Caucasian, mean = 14.6, SD = 1.5) with major depressive disorder participating in the Treatment for Adolescents with Depression Study (TADS). Method: TADS compared the efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), fluoxetine (FLX), their combination (COMB),…

  15. Previous maltreatment and present mental health in a high-risk adolescent population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greger, Hanne Klæboe; Myhre, Arne Kristian; Lydersen, Stian; Jozefiak, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    Childhood maltreatment is known to increase the risk of future psychiatric disorders. In the present study, we explored the impact of experienced maltreatment on the prevalence and comorbidity of psychiatric disorders in a high-risk population of adolescents in residential care units. We also studied the impact of poly-victimization. The participants of the study were adolescents in residential care units in Norway (n=335, mean age 16.8 years, girls 58.5%). A diagnostic interview (Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Assessment Interview) was used, yielding information about previous maltreatment (witnessing violence, victim of family violence, community violence, sexual abuse) and DSM-IV diagnoses present in the last three months. Exposure to maltreatment was reported by 71%, and in this group, we found significantly more Asperger's syndrome (AS) (p=.041), conduct disorder (CD) (p=.049), major depressive disorder (MDD) (p=.001), dysthymia (p=.030), general anxiety disorder (GAD) (psuicide (p=.006). We found significantly more comorbid disorders in the maltreated group. Poly-victimization was studied by constructing a scale comprised of witnessing violence, victim of family violence, victim of sexual abuse and household dysfunction. We found that poly-victimization was associated with significantly increased risk of MDD, GAD, AS, CD, and having attempted suicide (padolescent population, and that trauma informed care is essential for adolescents in residential youth care. PMID:26003821

  16. Emotions and Suicidal Ideation among Depressed Women with Childhood Sexual Abuse Histories

    OpenAIRE

    You, Sungeun; Talbot, Nancy L.; He, Hua.; Conner, Kenneth R.

    2012-01-01

    Depressed women with sexual abuse histories have a heightened risk of suicidal ideation (SI), which may be only in part attributable to psychiatric symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Emotions and SI were studied among 106 women with histories of childhood sexual abuse enrolled in treatment trials for major depression. Assessments were conducted at baseline, 10, 24, and 36 weeks. Sadness, guilt, and shame-proneness were associated with self-reported and observer-r...

  17. Altered pressure pain thresholds and increased wind-up in adult patients with chronic back pain with a history of childhood maltreatment: a quantitative sensory testing study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tesarz, Jonas; Eich, Wolfgang; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Gerhardt, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    Childhood maltreatment (CM) has been associated with an increased risk of nonspecific chronic low back pain (nsCLBP). However, the mechanisms underlying this association are unclear. Therefore, this study considered whether distinct types of CM are accompanied by specific alterations in somatosensory function. A total of 176 subjects with nsCLBP and 27 pain-free controls (PCs) were included. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) was used to categorize patients into 2 groups (abused/neglected vs nonabused/nonneglected) for 5 types of CM (emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional neglect, and physical neglect). The standardized quantitative sensory testing protocol of the "German Research Network on Neuropathic Pain" was performed to obtain comprehensive profiles on somatosensory function, including detection and pain thresholds, pain sensitivity, and assessments of temporal summation (wind-up). Between 17.7% and 51.4% of subjects with nsCLBP reported CM, depending on the type of CM. Childhood Trauma Questionnaire subscores for emotional and sexual abuse were significantly higher in subjects with nsCLBP than in PCs. Compared with PCs, subjects with CM showed reduced pressure pain thresholds (PPTs), irrespective of the type of CM. Regarding distinct types of CM, subjects with nsCLBP with emotional abuse reported significantly higher wind-up than those without, and sexual abuse was accompanied by enhanced touch sensitivity. Our findings suggest that CM is nonspecifically associated with a decreased PPT in nsCLBP. Emotional abuse apparently leads to enhanced spinal pain summation, and sexual abuse leads to enhanced touch sensitivity. These results emphasize the importance of emotional abuse in nsCLBP and suggest that CM can induce long-term changes in adult somatosensory function. PMID:27075429

  18. Depressive Symptoms in College Women: Examining the Cumulative Effect of Childhood and Adulthood Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Modallal, Hanan

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the cumulative effect of childhood and adulthood violence on depressive symptoms in a sample of Jordanian college women. Snowball sampling technique was used to recruit the participants. The participants were heterosexual college-aged women between the ages of 18 and 25. The participants were asked about their experiences of childhood violence (including physical violence, sexual violence, psychological violence, and witnessing parental violence), partner violence (including physical partner violence and sexual partner violence), experiences of depressive symptoms, and about other demographic and familial factors as possible predictors for their complaints of depressive symptoms. Multiple linear regression analysis was implemented to identify demographic- and violence-related predictors of their complainants of depressive symptoms. Logistic regression analysis was further performed to identify possible type(s) of violence associated with the increased risk of depressive symptoms. The prevalence of depressive symptoms in this sample was 47.4%. For the violence experience, witnessing parental violence was the most common during childhood, experienced by 40 (41.2%) women, and physical partner violence was the most common in adulthood, experienced by 35 (36.1%) women. Results of logistic regression analysis indicated that experiencing two types of violence (regardless of the time of occurrence) was significant in predicting depressive symptoms (odds ratio [OR] = 3.45, p violence and depressive symptoms including the cumulative impact of longer periods of violence on depressive symptoms is recommended to be explored in future studies. PMID:25888504

  19. Early-adult correlates of maltreatment in girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Increased risk for internalizing symptoms and suicidality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guendelman, Maya D; Owens, Elizabeth B; Galán, Chardee; Gard, Arianna; Hinshaw, Stephen P

    2016-02-01

    We examined whether maltreatment experienced in childhood and/or adolescence prospectively predicts young adult functioning in a diverse and well-characterized sample of females with childhood-diagnosed attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (N = 140). Participants were part of a longitudinal study and carefully evaluated in childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood (M age = 9.6, 14.3, and 19.7 years, respectively), with high retention rates across time. A thorough review of multisource data reliably established maltreatment status for each participant (M κ = 0.78). Thirty-two (22.9%) participants experienced at least one maltreatment type (physical abuse, sexual abuse, or neglect). Criterion variables included a broad array of young adult measures of functioning gleaned from multiple-source, multiple-informant instruments. With stringent statistical control of demographic, prenatal, and family status characteristics as well as baseline levels of the criterion variable in question, maltreated participants were significantly more impaired than nonmaltreated participants with respect to self-harm (suicide attempts), internalizing symptomatology (anxiety and depression), eating disorder symptomatology, and well-being (lower overall self-worth). Effect sizes were medium. Comprising the first longitudinal evidence linking maltreatment with key young adult life impairments among a carefully diagnosed and followed sample of females with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, these findings underscore the clinical importance of trauma experiences within this population. PMID:25723055

  20. Psychological maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbard, Roberta; Barlow, Jane; Macmillan, Harriet

    2012-08-01

    Psychological or emotional maltreatment of children may be the most challenging and prevalent form of child abuse and neglect. Caregiver behaviors include acts of omission (ignoring need for social interactions) or commission (spurning, terrorizing); may be verbal or nonverbal, active or passive, and with or without intent to harm; and negatively affect the child's cognitive, social, emotional, and/or physical development. Psychological maltreatment has been linked with disorders of attachment, developmental and educational problems, socialization problems, disruptive behavior, and later psychopathology. Although no evidence-based interventions that can prevent psychological maltreatment have been identified to date, it is possible that interventions shown to be effective in reducing overall types of child maltreatment, such as the Nurse Family Partnership, may have a role to play. Furthermore, prevention before occurrence will require both the use of universal interventions aimed at promoting the type of parenting that is now recognized to be necessary for optimal child development, alongside the use of targeted interventions directed at improving parental sensitivity to a child's cues during infancy and later parent-child interactions. Intervention should, first and foremost, focus on a thorough assessment and ensuring the child's safety. Potentially effective treatments include cognitive behavioral parenting programs and other psychotherapeutic interventions. The high prevalence of psychological abuse in advanced Western societies, along with the serious consequences, point to the importance of effective management. Pediatricians should be alert to the occurrence of psychological maltreatment and identify ways to support families who have risk indicators for, or evidence of, this problem. PMID:22848125

  1. Reported History of Childhood Maltreatment and Young Adults' Attentional Biases for Facial Expressions%儿童期受虐对成人情绪面孔注意偏向的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高红丽; 杨世昌; 闫春平; 姚桂英; 杜巍

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of childhood maltreatment on young adults' attentional biases for facial expressions. Methods: A visual dot-probe task was used to test 29 participants with childhood maltreatment and 30 participants without childhood maltreatment. The Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire was used to assess participants' histories of emotional, physical, and sexual abuse in childhood. Results: There was no significant difference in the reaction time of group, types of emotional faces and consistency (P>0.05); there was no significant difference in the attention bias score of group and types of emotional faces (P>0.05). Conclusion: In the context of Chinese culture, young adults with childhood maltreatment have no special attentional biases for emotional faces.%目的:探讨儿童期受虐对成人情绪面孔注意偏向的影响.方法:使用儿童虐待史问卷筛选出有童年期受虐经历的被试29名和无童年期受虐经历的被试30名,以情绪面孔(高兴、中性、愤怒)为实验材料进行点探测任务的行为学实验.结果:组别、面孔性质、一致性三因素在反应时指标上,各自的主效应及相互之间的交互作用均不显著(P>0.05):组别和面孔性质在注意偏向各项指标上的主效应和交互效应均不显著(P>0.05).结论:在中国文化背景下,有儿童期受虐经历的成年人不存在对情绪面孔的注意偏向.

  2. Psychobiology of childhood maltreatment: effects of allostatic load? Psicobiologia dos maus-tratos na infância: efeitos de peso alostático?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Grassi-Oliveira

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Facing an adverse physical or psychosocial situation, an individual is forced to adapt in order to survive. Allostasis is the term used to refer to adapting processes used to maintain the stability of an organism through active processes. When allostatic response is excessive or inefficient, the organism develops an allostatic load. The cascade of molecular and neurobiological effects associated with childhood abuse and neglect could be an example of allostatic response that could precipitate allostatic load in organism still vulnerable during its development. This article reviews the psychobiological consequences related to childhood abuse and neglect. METHOD: A selective review with a systematic procedure was performed to investigate studies showing explicit association between childhood maltreatment and psychobiological/neurobiological consequences. We searched electronic database MedLine-PubMed to identify English-language articles from 1990 to 2007. RESULTS: From 115 articles we selected 55 studies from MedLine and 30 from their reference lists, in a total of 85 articles (JCR IF range: 1-31.4; median: 5.88. Only 29 studies showed direct and explicit association between them. CONCLUSION: Structural consequences of childhood maltreatment include disruptive development of corpus callosum, left neocortex, hippocampus, and amygdale; functional consequences include increased electrical irritability in limbic areas, frontal lobe dysfunctions and reduced functional activity of the cerebellar vermis; and neurohumoral consequences include the reprogramming activity of hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis and subsequently the stress response.OBJETIVO: Frente a uma situação psicossocial ou física adversa, o indivíduo é forçado a se adaptar de maneira que possa sobreviver. Alostase é o termo utilizado para descrever os processos adaptativos usados para manter a estabilidade de um organismo por meio de processos ativos. Quando a

  3. History of childhood sexual abuse and risk of prenatal and postpartum depression or depressive symptoms: an epidemiologic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wosu, Adaeze C; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this review is to summarize the literature (and to the extent possible, report the magnitude and direction of the association) concerning history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and depression or depressive symptoms among pregnant and postpartum women. Publications were identified through literature searches of seven databases (PubMed, EMBASE, PyscINFO, CINAHL, Web of Science, BIOSIS, and Science Direct) using keywords including "child abuse," "depression," "pregnancy," "prenatal," "pregnancy," and "postpartum." The literature search yielded seven eligible studies on the prenatal period and another seven studies on the postpartum period. All but one prenatal study observed statistically significant positive associations of CSA with depression or depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Findings on the association of CSA with postpartum depression or depressive symptoms were inconsistent; pooled unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios were 1.82 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.92, 3.60) and 1.20 (95 % CI 0.81, 1.76). In sum, findings suggest a positive association of history of CSA with depression and depressive symptoms in the prenatal period. Findings on the postpartum period were inconsistent. Clinical and public health implications of evidence from the available literature are discussed, as are desirable study design characteristics of future research. PMID:25956589

  4. The Longitudinal Association between Oppositional and Depressive Symptoms across Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, Khrista; Georgiades, Katholiki; Szatmari, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and depression show high rates of co-occurrence, both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. This study examines the extent to which variation in oppositional symptoms predict, variation in depressive symptoms over time, accounting for co-occurring depressive symptoms and measurement error.…

  5. The School Psychologist's Primer on Childhood Depression: A Review of Research Regarding Epidemiology, Etiology, Assessment, and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruderman, Matthew A.; Stifel, Skye W. F.; O'Malley, Meagan; Jimerson, Shane R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide school psychologists with a synthesis of important information regarding the epidemiology, etiology, assessment, and treatment of childhood depression. A review of the recent research and relevant literature is summarized reflecting the contemporary knowledge regarding depression during childhood and…

  6. Overgeneral Autobiographical Memory, Emotional Maltreatment, and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence: Evidence of a Cognitive Vulnerability-Stress Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stange, Jonathan P.; Hamlat, Elissa J.; Hamilton, Jessica L.; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2013-01-01

    Overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is associated with depression and may confer risk for the development of depressed mood, but few longitudinal studies have evaluated OGM as a predictor of depressive symptoms in early adolescence, particularly in the context of environmental stressors. We investigated whether OGM and emotional maltreatment…

  7. A Prospective Examination of the Mechanisms Linking Childhood Physical Abuse to Body Mass Index in Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Francis, Melville M.; Nikulina, Valentina; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has reported associations between childhood physical abuse and Body Mass Index (BMI) in adulthood. This paper examined the role of four potential mediators (anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress, and coping) hypothesized to explain this relationship. Using data from a prospective cohort design, court-substantiated cases of childhood physical abuse (N = 78) and non-maltreated comparisons (N = 349) were followed-up and assessed in adulthood at three time points (1989-1995,...

  8. Association of Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse with Intimate Partner Violence, Poor General Health and Depressive Symptoms among Pregnant Women

    OpenAIRE

    Barrios, Yasmin V.; Bizu Gelaye; Qiuyue Zhong; Christina Nicolaidis; Rondon, Marta B; Garcia, Pedro J.; Pedro A Mascaro Sanchez; Sanchez, Sixto E; Williams, Michelle A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We examined associations of childhood physical and sexual abuse with risk of intimate partner violence (IPV). We also evaluated the extent to which childhood abuse was associated with self-reported general health status and symptoms of antepartum depression in a cohort of pregnant Peruvian women. Methods: In-person interviews were conducted to collect information regarding history of childhood abuse and IPV from 1,521 women during early pregnancy. Antepartum depressive symptomatolo...

  9. Assessment of Behavior Problems in Childhood and Adolescence as Predictors of Early Adult Depression

    OpenAIRE

    KOSTERMAN, RICK; HAWKINS, J. DAVID; Mason, W. Alex; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Lengua, Liliana J.; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Behavior and psychological problems assessed prospectively by teachers and parents and by youths’ self-reports through late childhood and adolescence were examined as possible predictors of early adult depression. Data were from 765 participants in the Seattle Social Development Project, a multiethnic and gender-balanced urban sample. Analyses examined 7 waves of data from ages 10 to 21, and included measures from the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist and assessments of past-year depressive ...

  10. Childhood and Adolescent Risk Factors for Comorbid Depression and Substance Use Disorders in Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Kerry M.; Zebrak, Katarzyna A.; Fothergill, Kate E.; Robertson, Judith A.; Ensminger, Margaret E.

    2012-01-01

    The comorbidity of major depression and substance use disorders is well documented. However, thorough understanding of prevalence and early risk factors for comorbidity in adulthood is lacking, particularly among urban African Americans. With data from the Woodlawn Study, which follows a community cohort of urban African Americans from ages 6 to 42, we identify the prevalence of comorbidity and childhood and adolescent risk factors of comorbid depression and substance use disorders, depressio...

  11. Intergenerational Continuity in Child Maltreatment: Mediating Mechanisms and Implications for Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Lisa J.; Appleyard, Karen; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2011-01-01

    In the interest of improving child maltreatment prevention, this prospective, longitudinal, community-based study of 499 mothers and their infants examined (a) direct associations between mothers' experiences of childhood maltreatment and their offspring's maltreatment, and (b) mothers' mental health problems, social isolation, and social…

  12. Attenuated inhibition of medium spiny neurons participates in the pathogenesis of childhood depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dandan Liu; Linghan Hu; Junqi Zhang; Ping Zhang; Shengtian Li

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that the nucleus accumbens, which is involved in mechanisms of reward and addiction, plays a role in the pathogenesis of depression and in the action of anti-depressants. In the current study, intraperitoneal injection of nomifensine, a dopamine reuptake inhibitor, decreased depression-like behaviors in the Wistar Kyoto rat model of depression in the sucrose-preference and forced swim tests. Nomifensine also reduced membrane excitability in medium spiny neurons in the core of the nucleus accumbens in the childhood Wistar Kyoto rats as evaluated by electrophysiological recording. In addition, the expression of dopamine D2-like receptor mRNA was downregulated in the nucleus accumbens, striatum and hippocampus of nomifensine-treated childhood Wistar Kyoto rats. These experimental ifndings indicate that impaired inhibition of medium spiny neurons, mediated by dopamine D2-like receptors, may be involved in the formation of depression-like behavior in childhood Wistar Kyoto rats, and that nomifensine can alleviate depressive behaviors by reducing medium spiny neuron membrane excitability.

  13. School-Based Psychosocial Interventions for Childhood Depression: Acceptability of Treatments among School Psychologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, David N.; DuPaul, George J.; Lutz, J. Gary

    2002-01-01

    Examines the acceptability and effectiveness ratings of three psychosocial interventions for childhood depression among school psychologist practitioners. Interventions included cognitive restructuring, self-control therapy, and social skills training. Cognitive restructuring and self-control therapy were rated as significantly more acceptable and…

  14. The Role of Exercise in Reducing Childhood and Adolescent PTSD, Anxiety, and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Robert W.; McWilliams, Meredith E.; Schwartz, Jennifer T.; Cavera, Robert S.

    2012-01-01

    The authors review the role of physical exercise in reducing childhood and adolescent posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and depression. A good deal of the existing research on the influence of exercise in reducing negative emotional states and enhancing perceptions of self-efficacy has been conducted with adult samples. Comparatively few…

  15. White matter integrity in major depressive disorder: Implications of childhood trauma, 5-HTTLPR and BDNF polymorphisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatham, Erica L; Ramasubbu, Rajamannar; Gaxiola-Valdez, Ismael; Cortese, Filomeno; Clark, Darren; Goodyear, Bradley; Foster, Jane; Hall, Geoffrey B

    2016-07-30

    This study examined the impact of childhood neglect, serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) polymorphisms on white matter (WM) integrity in major depressive disorder (MDD) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Fifty-five medication-free MDD patients and 18 controls underwent diffusion tensor imaging scanning, genotyping and completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Tract based spatial statistics (TBSS) findings revealed reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) in the MDD group in the anterior internal capsule. 5-HTTLPR-S'L' heterozygotes in the MDD group exhibited reduced FA in the internal capsule relative to S'S' and reduced FA in corona radiata compared to L'L'. Probabilistic tractography revealed higher FA in the uncinate fasciculus (UF) for BDNF val/val genotype relative to met-carriers, particularly in individuals with high depression severity. High depression severity and experiences of childhood physical or emotional neglect predicted higher FA in the UF and superior longitudinal fasciculus. Reductions in FA were identified for subgroups of MDD patients who were 5-HTTLPR heterozygotes and BDNF-met carriers. An association between emotional/physical neglect and FA was observed in subjects with high depressive symptoms. Our findings suggest that WM connectivity within frontal and limbic regions are affected by depression and influenced by experiences of neglect and genetic risk factors. PMID:27261564

  16. Linking child maltreatment history with child abuse potential: Relative roles of maltreatment types

    OpenAIRE

    Mitkovic-Voncina Marija; Lecic-Tosevski Dusica; Pejovic-Milovancevic Milica; Popovic-Deusic Smiljka

    2014-01-01

    The independent roles of each childhood maltreatment type on child abuse potential in adults have been insufficiently explored and are inconsistent, with dissociation as one of the possible suggested mediators of intergenerational child abuse. We investigated these effects among 164 non-clinical adult parents, who filled in general questionnaires: Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAPI) and Dissociative Experience Scale ...

  17. Exponentially Distributed Outages of Decreased ACTH and Cortisol Responses to Stress in Healthy Adults with Childhood Maltreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Geetha. T; Karthika. K

    2014-01-01

    Preclinical research findings suggest that exposure to stress and concomitantly hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation during early development can have permanent and potentially deleterious effects. A history of early-life abuse or neglect appears to increase risk for mood and anxiety disorders. Abnormal HPA response to stress challenge has been reported in adult patients with Major Depressive Disorder and PostTraumatic Stress Disorder. This paper discussed the cons...

  18. Exceptionality, Education and Maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobsey, Dick

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of the relationship between child maltreatment and child disability identifies three categories: (1) maltreatment causes many disabilities; (2) children with disabilities are more vulnerable to maltreatment; and (3) other primary causal factors increase risk for both violence and disability. Maltreatment is also seen as impeding student…

  19. Intergenerational Continuity in Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornberry, Terence P.; Henry, Kimberly L.

    2013-01-01

    Identification of the causes of child maltreatment perpetration is prerequisite for developing efficacious prevention initiatives to reduce its occurrence. Earlier maltreatment victimization is often suggested as an important cause of subsequent maltreatment perpetration. This study investigates a) whether maltreatment victimization causes…

  20. Emotional abuse in childhood and suicidality: The mediating roles of re-victimization and depressive symptoms in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min-Ah

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the effects of emotional abuse in childhood, along with physical and sexual abuse, on suicidality in adulthood, and whether and how emotional abuse and depressive symptoms in adulthood mediate the association between the childhood emotional abuse and suicidality. The data were drawn from the 2012 Korean General Social Survey, a nationally representative survey with a multistage area proportional probability sampling method. Random effects regression and the Sobel test were used to analyze the relationships between childhood emotional abuse and suicidality and the mediating effects. Random effects models showed that emotional abuse in childhood was positively associated with suicidality in adulthood, even after controlling for physical and sexual abuse in childhood. Emotional abuse and depressive symptoms in adulthood mediated the association between emotional abuse in childhood and suicidality. Depressive symptoms also mediated between emotional abuse in adulthood and suicidality. These findings suggest that emotional abuse in childhood has indirect harmful effects on suicidality in adulthood. It increases suicidality through higher occurrences of re-victimization and depressive symptoms in adulthood. Practitioners and policy makers should recognize that experiences of emotional abuse in childhood may result in re-victimization in adulthood, which, in turn, lead to suicidality. Early intervention programs to reduce the likelihood of experiencing re-victimization may be critical for people exposed to emotional abuse in childhood. PMID:25890665

  1. Child maltreatment and later cognitive functioning: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Tatiana Quarti Irigaray; Janaína Barbosa Pacheco; Rodrigo Grassi-Oliveira; Rochele Paz Fonseca; José Carlos de Carvalho Leite; Christian Haag Kristensen

    2013-01-01

    This systematic review sought to assess the impact of child maltreatment on cognitive functioning. Seventeen papers from Medline, PsycINFO, Embase and Amed (1995-2011) databases were analyzed based on inclusion/exclusion criteria. The studies have shown that maltreatment during childhood has deleterious effects on cognitive functioning. Overall, adults or children/teenagers exposed to abuse during childhood performed poorly on tasks meant to assess verbal episodic memory, working memory, atte...

  2. Developmental pathways linking childhood and adolescent internalizing, externalizing, academic competence, and adolescent depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Murray; Ploubidis, George B; Cairney, John; Wild, T Cameron; Naicker, Kiyuri; Colman, Ian

    2016-08-01

    This study examined longitudinal pathways through three domains of adaptation from ages 4-5 to 14-15 (internalizing problems, externalizing problems, and academic competence) towards depressive symptoms at age 16-17. Participants were 6425 Canadian children followed bi-annually as part of the National Longitudinal Study of Children and Youth. Within-domain (i.e., stability) effects were moderate in strength. We found longitudinal cross-domain effects across one time point (i.e., one-lag cascades) between internalizing and externalizing in early childhood (positive associations), and between academic competence and externalizing in later childhood and adolescence (negative associations). We also found cascade effects over multiple time points (i.e., multi-lag cascades); lower academic competence at age 4-5 and greater internalizing at age 6-7 predicted greater age 12-13 externalizing, and greater age 6-7 externalizing predicted greater age 16-17 depression. Important pathways towards adolescent depression include a stability path through childhood and adolescent internalizing, as well as a number of potential paths involving all domains of adaptation, highlighting the multifactorial nature of adolescent depression. PMID:27288965

  3. Intergenerational Continuity in Child Maltreatment: Mediating Mechanisms and Implications for Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Berlin, Lisa J.; Appleyard, Karen; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2011-01-01

    In the interest of improving child maltreatment prevention, this prospective, longitudinal, community-based study of 499 mothers and their infants examined (a) direct associations between mothers’ experiences of childhood maltreatment and their offspring’s maltreatment, and (b) mothers’ mental health problems, social isolation, and social information processing patterns (hostile attributions and aggressive response biases) as mediators of these associations. Mothers’ childhood physical abuse ...

  4. Child maltreatment and later cognitive functioning: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Quarti Irigaray

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This systematic review sought to assess the impact of child maltreatment on cognitive functioning. Seventeen papers from Medline, PsycINFO, Embase and Amed (1995-2011 databases were analyzed based on inclusion/exclusion criteria. The studies have shown that maltreatment during childhood has deleterious effects on cognitive functioning. Overall, adults or children/teenagers exposed to abuse during childhood performed poorly on tasks meant to assess verbal episodic memory, working memory, attention, and executive functions. We conclude that child maltreatment is a risk factor for short and long-term development due to potential adverse effects on cognitive functioning.

  5. Depression in Childhood and Early Adolescence: Parental Expressed Emotion and Family Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompson, MC; O Connor, EE; Kemp, GN; Langer, DA; Asarnow, JR

    2016-01-01

    Across development depression is associated with impairments in interpersonal and family functioning. In turn, these impairments may predict a more negative depression course and outcome. This study examined family functioning and parental Expressed Emotion (EE) among depressed youth during middle childhood and early adolescence and their relationship to demographic and clinical factors. Data were drawn from pretreatment evaluations of 132 depressed youth ages 7–14 and their families enrolled in a randomized clinical trial comparing family to individual treatment for youth depressive disorders. Families completed semi-structured diagnostic interviews, self-report measures of family functioning, and the Five Minute Speech Sample EE measure. High parental EE was more common in one-parent, as opposed to two-parent families, and early adolescent youth were more likely than pre-adolescent youth to have high critical EE parents. Severity and chronicity of child depression, child comorbidity, functional impairment, and maternal depressive symptoms were not associated with parental EE. Parental high EE overall and critical EE in particular were associated with reports of higher conflict and lower cohesion by both parents and children when compared to low parental EE. Similar patterns of associations were evident for youth across pre-adolescent and early adolescent developmental periods. Single parent status may be an indicator of greater family stress; and higher levels of critical EE may reflect the higher levels of parent-child conflict characteristic of the transition from late childhood to early adolescence. Among youth with depression parental EE appears to reflect potentially important impairments in family functioning.

  6. The role of attachment in the relationship between child maltreatment and later emotional and behavioral functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowell, Amanda; Renk, Kimberly; Adgate, Amanda Havill

    2014-09-01

    The experience of childhood maltreatment is an important predictor of unfavorable emotional and behavioral outcomes. Because little research examined explanatory variables in the relationship between childhood maltreatment experiences and later outcomes, this study examined the role that attachment serves in this relationship. Four hundred twenty-four participants completed questionnaires assessing the variables of interest for this study. Results indicated that both childhood maltreatment experiences (particularly emotional abuse) and attachment (particularly to mothers and peers) are significant predictors of later emotional and behavioral outcomes. Further, attachment contributed unique and significant variance to the relationship between childhood maltreatment experiences and later outcomes. Such findings suggested that secure attachment may serve as a protective factor against maladaptive emotional and behavioral outcomes as children reach emerging adulthood, even in the context of childhood maltreatment experiences. The importance of studying the relationships among these variables is discussed. PMID:24631414

  7. Suspected Child Maltreatment: Recognize and Respond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemple, Kristen Mary; Kim, Hae Kyoung

    2011-01-01

    Early childhood educators spend extensive amounts of time with young children, so they are often the first adults to notice signs that a child may be abused or neglected. All educators are required by law to report suspected maltreatment, and can play an important role in preventing and responding to abuse and neglect of young children. What is…

  8. The Role of Attachment Representation in the Relationship between Depressive Symptomatology and Social Withdrawal in Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullone, Eleonora; Ollendick, Thomas H.; King, Neville J.

    2006-01-01

    We investigated the relationships among attachment representation, social withdrawal, and depressive symptomatology in childhood. A total of 326 children aged 8 to 10 years participated in the study. Children completed a family drawing procedure to assess attachment representation, the Children's Depression Inventory and the Social Withdrawal…

  9. Maternal Depression and Mother-Child Interaction Patterns: Association with Toddler Problems and Continuity of Effects to Late Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckman-Westin, Emily; Cohen, Patricia R.; Stueve, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Increased behavior problems have been reported in offspring of mothers with depression. In-home observations link maternal depressive symptoms (MDS) and mother-child interaction patterns with toddler behavior problems and examine their persistence into late childhood. Method: Maternal characteristics (N = 153) and behaviors of…

  10. 大学生抑郁症症状水平与儿童期创伤经历关系初探%Relationship between Severity of Depression and Childhood Trauma in College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋国栋

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore relationship between severity of depression and childhood trauma in college students .Methods Childhood Trauma Questionnaire -Short Form ( CTQ-SF) was administrated to 39 depressive college students who were assessed by HA-MA and HAMD and 77 college students without depression .Results Compared to normal students ,patients with major depressive disor-der(MDD)had more emotional maltreatment and ignore(t=2.506,3.117;P all<0.05)while patients with mild-to-moderate depres-sion had more emotional ignore(t=2.831,P<0.05).Emotional maltreatment factor,sexual abuse factor respectively into the severity of depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms of the regression equation (standard partial regression coefficient was 0.342 and 0.342,re-spectively ) .Conclusion Emotional maltreatment and ignore are the important factors that affect college students 'depression severity , sexual abuse is the important factors that affects college students'anxiety symptoms of depression .%目的:研究大学生抑郁症症状水平与儿童期创伤经历的关系。方法对抑郁症组39名大学生进行抑郁症症状的评定,同时发放儿童期创伤经历问卷(CTQ-SF);给正常组77名大学生发放儿童期创伤经历问卷(CTQ-SF)。结果与正常组相比,重度抑郁症组情感虐待、情感忽视的汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)得分显著偏高(t=2.506,3.117;P均<0.05),轻中度抑郁症组情感忽视的HAMD得分显著偏高(t=2.831,P<0.05);情感虐待因子、性虐待因子分别进入抑郁症症状水平与焦虑症症状水平的回归方程(标准偏回归系数分别为0.342和0.372)。结论情感虐待、情感忽视是影响大学生抑郁症症状水平的重要因素,性虐待则是影响大学生抑郁症患者焦虑症状的重要因素。

  11. Maternal depressive symptoms across early childhood and asthma in school children: findings from a Longitudinal Australian Population Based Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Giallo

    Full Text Available There is a growing body of evidence attesting to links between early life exposure to stress and childhood asthma. However, available evidence is largely based on small, genetically high risk samples. The aim of this study was to explore the associations between the course of maternal depressive symptoms across early childhood and childhood asthma in a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study of Australian children. Participants were 4164 children and their biological mothers from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Latent class analysis identified three trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms across four biennial waves from the first postnatal year to when children were 6-7 years: minimal symptoms (74.6%, sub-clinical symptoms (20.8%, and persistent and increasing high symptoms (4.6%. Logistic regression analyses revealed that childhood asthma at age 6-7 years was associated with persistent and increasing high depressive symptoms after accounting for known risk factors including smoking during pregnancy and maternal history of asthma (adjusted OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.61-3.45, p.001. Our findings from a nationally representative sample of Australian children provide empirical support for a relationship between maternal depressive symptoms across the early childhood period and childhood asthma. The burden of disease from childhood asthma may be reduced by strengthening efforts to promote maternal mental health in the early years of parenting.

  12. Assessment of Behavior Problems in Childhood and Adolescence as Predictors of Early Adult Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosterman, Rick; Hawkins, J David; Mason, W Alex; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Lengua, Liliana J; McCauley, Elizabeth

    2009-05-21

    Behavior and psychological problems assessed prospectively by teachers and parents and by youths' self-reports through late childhood and adolescence were examined as possible predictors of early adult depression. Data were from 765 participants in the Seattle Social Development Project, a multiethnic and gender-balanced urban sample. Analyses examined 7 waves of data from ages 10 to 21, and included measures from the Achenbach Child Behavior Checklist and assessments of past-year depressive episode based on the Diagnostic Interview Schedule. Self-reported conduct problems as early as age 10 (Mason et al., 2001) and throughout adolescence consistently predicted depression at age 21. Parent reports of conduct and other externalizing problems in adolescence also significantly predicted adult depression. None of the available teacher reports through age 14 were significant predictors. Results suggest that externalizing problems can be useful indicators of risk for adult depression. Prevention efforts that target externalizing problems in youth may hold promise for reducing later depression. PMID:20383270

  13. Relationship between maternal depression as a risk factor for childhood trauma and mood disorders in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Porto Barbosa

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Maternal depression may be a risk factor for childhood trauma (CT, with resultant offspring development of mood disorders (MD in adult life. Objective To verify the relationship between maternal depression (as a risk factor for childhood trauma and mood disorders in young adults. Methods The sample was composed of 164 young adults and their mothers. Maternal depression was identified through the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.. Mood Disorders in the young adults were confirmed with the Structured Interview for the DSM-IV (SCID, whereas the CT was evaluated using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ. Results In the group of young adults with MD, individuals who had depressed mothers presented higher mean scores of CT in comparison to the ones who did not have mothers with Depression (p < 0.005. Childhood trauma was also associated with lower social classes (p < 0.005. In the group of young adults without MD, the only variable that was associated with CT was the young adult’s (not current work (p < 0.005. Discussion Maternal depression was considered to be a risk factor for CT and MD in young adults. Thus, preventing and treating maternal psychiatric disorders may diminish the risk of offspring childhood trauma, and, consequently, avoid negative effects in the offspring’s adult life.

  14. Childhood sexual abuse severity and disclosure as predictors of depression among adult African American and Latina women

    OpenAIRE

    Sciolla, A.; Glover, DA; Loeb, TB; Zhang, M.; Myers, HF; Wyatt, GE

    2011-01-01

    A history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been associated with adult depression, but data on abuse severity and disclosure are scant, particularly among low-income ethnic minorities. CSA often co-occurs with other adversities, which also increase the risk of depression. This study examined the peritrauma variable of abuse severity and the posttrauma variables of disclosure and self-blame as predictors of current depression symptoms in 94 low-income African-American and Latina women with h...

  15. Childhood abuse increases the risk of depressive and anxiety symptoms and history of suicidal behavior in Mexican pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Asunción Lara

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To explore the relationship between individual and co-occurring childhood sexual, physical, and verbal abuse, prenatal depressive (PDS and anxiety symptoms (PAS, and history of suicidal behavior (HSB among Mexican pregnant women at risk of depression.Methods:A sample of 357 women screened for PDS was interviewed using the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire (CECA-Q, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II, the anxiety subscale of the Hopkins Symptoms Checklist (SCL-90, and specific questions on verbal abuse and HSB.Results:Logistic regression analyses showed that women who had experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA were 2.60 times more likely to develop PDS, 2.58 times more likely to develop PAS, and 3.71 times more likely to have HSB. Childhood physical abuse (CPA increased the risk of PAS (odds ratio [OR] = 2.51 and HSB (OR = 2.62, while childhood verbal abuse (CVA increased PDS (OR = 1.92. Experiencing multiple abuses increased the risk of PDS (OR = 3.01, PAS (OR = 3.73, and HSB (OR = 13.73.Conclusions:Childhood sexual, physical, and verbal abuse, especially when they co-occur, have an impact on PDS and PAS and lifetime HSB. These findings suggest that pregnant women at risk for depression should also be screened for trauma as a risk factor for perinatal psychopathology.

  16. Linking child maltreatment history with child abuse potential: Relative roles of maltreatment types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitkovic-Voncina Marija

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The independent roles of each childhood maltreatment type on child abuse potential in adults have been insufficiently explored and are inconsistent, with dissociation as one of the possible suggested mediators of intergenerational child abuse. We investigated these effects among 164 non-clinical adult parents, who filled in general questionnaires: Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ, Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAPI and Dissociative Experience Scale (DES. Among all maltreatment types (emotional, physical and sexual abuse, emotional and physical neglect, emotional abuse was the only independent predictor in the regression model of child abuse potential. The relationship between emotional abuse history and child abuse potential was partially mediated by dissociation. The findings could speak in favor of the potentially unique detrimental role of emotional abuse in intergenerational maltreatment, with dissociation as one of the possible mechanisms.

  17. The Maltreated Adolescent: Patterns of Physical Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, Edward D.; Joseph, Jack A.

    1985-01-01

    The study explored family characteristics and behavioral-emotional reactions of 77 physically maltreated adolescents. Six different patterns of adolescent reaction to abuse were identified: acting-out, depression, generalized anxiety, extreme adolescent adjustment, emotional-thought disturbance, and helplessness-dependency. (Author/CL)

  18. When Do We See Resilience: The Effects of Parentâ s History of Maltreatment on Parenting Behaviors and Childrenâ s Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Riser, Diana Katherine

    2011-01-01

    Prior research has suggested that children are at a greater risk of maladjustment in cases where a parent has experienced childhood maltreatment. The purpose of this study is to explore the role of parentâ s childhood maltreatment in its effects on parenting behavior, parent characteristics, and child adjustment. The multiple pathways through which parentâ s childhood maltreatment can be both directly and indirectly linked to child maladjustment were explored. Further, risk and protectiv...

  19. Identifying Potential Mediators and Moderators of the Association between Child Maltreatment and Bullying Perpetration and Victimization in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Jun Sung; Espelage, Dorothy L.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Allen-Meares, Paula

    2012-01-01

    A growing body of literature is demonstrating associations between childhood maltreatment and bullying involvement at school. In this literature review, four potential mediators (explanatory) and three potential moderators (mitigates or exacerbates) of the association between childhood maltreatment and school bullying are proposed. Mediators…

  20. Maladaptive Coping Mediates the Influence of Childhood Trauma on Depression and PTSD among Pregnant Women in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Karmel W.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Velloza, Jennifer; Marais, Adele; Jose, Cicyn; Dan J Stein; Watt, Melissa H.; Joska, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Antenatal mental disorders compromise maternal and child health, and women who have experienced childhood trauma may be at increased risk for such disorders. One hypothesis is that early trauma leads to the development and use of maladaptive coping strategies as an adult, which in turn could predict mental health difficulties during stressful transitions such as pregnancy. To test this hypothesis, this study examined the relationship between childhood trauma and mental health (depression, PTS...

  1. The mediating role of emotion dysregulation and depression on the relationship between childhood trauma exposure and emotional eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michopoulos, Vasiliki; Powers, Abigail; Moore, Carla; Villarreal, Stephanie; Ressler, Kerry J; Bradley, Bekh

    2015-08-01

    Exposure to childhood adversity is implicated in the etiology of adverse health outcomes, including depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and obesity. The relationship between childhood trauma and obesity may be related to the association of childhood trauma and risk for emotional eating. One pathway between trauma exposure, psychopathology, and emotional eating may be through emotion dysregulation and depression. The current study was undertaken to characterize demographic, environmental, and psychological risk factors for emotional eating in a primarily African American, low socioeconomic status (SES), inner-city population (N = 1110). Emotional eating was measured using the Dutch Eating Behavioral Questionnaire and the Emotional Dysregulation Scale was used to assess emotion regulation. The Beck Depression Inventory and the modified PTSD Symptom Scale were used to assess depression and PTSD, respectively. Higher levels of emotional eating were associated with body mass index, income, childhood and adulthood trauma exposure, depressive and PTSD symptoms, negative affect and emotion dysregulation. Childhood emotional abuse was the most associated with emotional eating in adulthood. Hierarchical linear regression and mediation analyses indicated that the association between childhood trauma exposure (and emotional abuse specifically) and emotional eating was fully mediated by depression symptoms and emotion dysregulation, with emotional dysregulation contributing more to the mediation effect. Together these findings support a model in which obesity and related adverse health outcomes in stress- and trauma-exposed populations may be directly related to self-regulatory coping strategies accompanying emotion dysregulation. Our data suggest that emotion dysregulation is a viable therapeutic target for emotional eating in at-risk populations. PMID:25865667

  2. Effect of childhood trauma on adult depression and neuroendocrine function: sex-specific moderation by CRH receptor 1 gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Heim

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Variations of the corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1 gene appear to moderate the development of depression after childhood trauma. Depression more frequently affects women than men. We examined sex differences in the effects of the CRHR1 gene on the relationship between childhood trauma and adult depression. Methods: We recruited 1,063 subjects from the waiting rooms of a public urban hospital. Childhood trauma exposure and symptoms of depression were assessed using dimensional rating scales. Subjects were genotyped for rs110402 within the CRHR1 gene. An independent sample of 78 subjects underwent clinical assessment, genotyping, and a dexamethasone/CRH test. The age range at recruitment was 18-77 years and 18-45, for the two studies respectively. Results: In the hospital sample, the protective effect of the rs110402 A-allele against developing depression after childhood trauma was observed in men (N=424, but not in women (N=635. In the second sample, the rs110402 A-allele was associated with decreased cortisol response in the dexamethasone/CRH test only in men. In A-allele carriers with childhood trauma exposure women exhibited increased cortisol response compared men; there were no sex differences in A-allele carriers without trauma exposure. This effect may, however, not be related to gender-differences per se, but to differences in the type of experienced abuse between men and women. CRHR x environment interactions in the hospital sample were observed with exposure to physical, but not sexual or emotional abuse. Physical abuse was the most common type of abuse in men in this cohort, while sexual abuse was most commonly suffered by women. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the CRHR1 gene may only moderate the effects of specific types of childhood trauma on depression. Gender differences in environmental exposures could thus be reflected in sex-specific CRHR1 x child abuse interactions.

  3. The Association Between Conduct Problems and Maltreatment: Testing Genetic and Environmental Mediation

    OpenAIRE

    Schulz-Heik, R. Jay; Rhee, Soo Hyun; Silvern, Louise E.; Haberstick, Brett C.; Hopfer, Christian; Lessem, Jeffrey M.; Hewitt, John K.

    2009-01-01

    It is often assumed that childhood maltreatment causes conduct problems via an environmentally mediated process. However, the association may be due alternatively to either a nonpassive gene-environment correlation, in which parents react to children’s genetically-influenced conduct problems by maltreating them, or a passive gene-environment correlation, in which parents’ tendency to engage in maltreatment and children’s conduct problems are both influenced by a hereditary vulnerability to an...

  4. Family Socio-economic Status, Childhood Life-events and the Dynamics of Depression from Adolescence to Early Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Contoyannis; Jinhu Li

    2013-01-01

    This paper employs a conditional quantile regression approach to examine the roles of family SES, early childhood life-events, unobserved heterogeneity and pure state dependence in explaining the distribution of depression among adolescents and young adults using data on the children of the US National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 79 cohort (CNLSY79). Our study also extends previous work by explicitly modelling depression dynamics during adolescence. To estimate dynamic models we integrate th...

  5. Effect of pregnancy intention, postnatal depressive symptoms and social support on early childhood stunting: findings from India

    OpenAIRE

    Upadhyay, Ashish Kumar; Srivastava, Swati

    2016-01-01

    Background According to United Nation Children’s Fund, it has been estimated that worldwide about 165 million children were stunted in 2012 and India alone accounts for 38 % of global burden of stunting. This study aims to examine the effect of pregnancy intention and maternal postnatal depressive symptoms on early childhood stunting in India. We hypothesized that effect of pregnancy intention and postnatal depressive symptoms were mediated by social support. Methods We used data from the fir...

  6. Attentional control theory in childhood: enhanced attentional capture by non-emotional and emotional distractors in anxiety and depression

    OpenAIRE

    Monika A Waszczuk; Brown, Hannah M.; Eley, Thalia C.; Lester, Kathryn J

    2015-01-01

    Attentional control theory (ACT) proposes that anxiety is associated with executive functioning deficits. The theory has been widely investigated in adults. The current study tested whether symptoms of childhood anxiety and depression were associated with experimentally measured attentional control in the context of non-emotional and emotional stimuli. Sixty-one children (mean age = 9.23 years, range = 8.39 - 10.41) reported their trait anxiety and depression symptoms and completed three visu...

  7. The Roles of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Major Depressive Disorder in Childhood Traumatic Stress and Weight Problems among Women

    OpenAIRE

    Dedert, Eric A.; Becker, Mary E.; Fuemmeler, Bernard F; Braxton, Loretta E.; Calhoun, Patrick S.; Beckham, Jean C.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) were modeled as intervening variables in the relationship between childhood traumatic stress and weight outcomes in civilian women in the United States. Of the 148 participants, 72 had current PTSD, 64 had current MDD, and 32 had neither disorder. In separate single indirect effect models, there were significant indirect effects of both PTSD and depressive symptoms on body mass index and waist-...

  8. Attentional Control Theory in Childhood: Enhanced Attentional Capture by Non-emotional and Emotional Distractors in Anxiety and Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Waszczuk, Monika A.; Brown, Hannah M.; Eley, Thalia C; Lester, Kathryn J.

    2015-01-01

    Attentional control theory (ACT) proposes that anxiety is associated with executive functioning deficits. The theory has been widely investigated in adults. The current study tested whether symptoms of childhood anxiety and depression were associated with experimentally measured attentional control in the context of non-emotional and emotional stimuli. Sixty-one children (mean age = 9.23 years, range = 8.39 - 10.41) reported their trait anxiety and depression symptoms and completed three visu...

  9. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS): Childhood Adversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... childhood maltreatment. In particular, for women, emotional and sexual abuse during childhood was associated with a greater risk ... risk for chronic fatigue syndrome: results from a population-based study. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2006 Nov;63( ...

  10. 儿童期创伤对特质抑郁和特质焦虑的影响:图式中介特异性研究%The Influence of Childhood Trauma on Trait-depression and Trait-anxiety: the Mediation-specificity of Schemas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔丽霞; 罗小婧; 肖晶

    2011-01-01

    uncertainty would mediate between children trauma relating to abuse and anxiety and EMSs relating to loss, hopeless, failure would mediate between children trauma relating to neglect and depression.668 undergraduate students completed Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-SF; Bernstein & Fink, 1998), Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (YSQ-SF; Young, 1998), Trait-Depression Questionnaire (T-DEP; Ritterband & Spielberger, 1996), and Trait-Anxiety Inventory (T-AI; Spielberger, 1983). Data was analyzed using the mediation analysis procedure proposed by Baron and Kenny (1986). According to their definitions trait-depression and trait-anxiety should be more closely related to childhood trauma and EMSs. Thus in this study we used the trait-depression scale and trait-anxiety scale instead of state-depression scales and state-anxiety scales which were used in the past studies. The research focus was the mediation-specificity of schemas between childhood trauma and trait-depression and trait-anxiety.The results were: (1) Three kinds of childhood trauma (emotional maltreatment, emotional neglect and physical neglect) were significantly related to higher scores on trait-depression and trait-anxiety and no significant difference emerged between the correlation coefficient relating childhood trauma to trait-anxiety and that relating childhood trauma to trait-depression; (2) For all three kinds of childhood trauma schemas with themes of loss/worthlessness (Emotional Deprivation, Defectiveness/Shame schemas, Self-sacrifice and Social isolation/alienation) preferentially mediated the relation between childhood trauma and trait-depression, while schemas with themes of danger (Mistrust/Abuse and Vulnerability to harm or illness) preferentially mediated the relation between childhood trauma and trait-anxiety.Our results confirmed the mediation-specificity of EMSs. The specificity emerged in the mediation analyses added much to understanding of the different pathology of depression and anxiety

  11. Maternal Drug Abuse History, Maltreatment, and Functioning in a Clinical Sample of Urban Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onigu-Otite, Edore C.; Belcher, Harolyn M. E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the association between maternal drug abuse history, maltreatment exposure, and functioning, in a clinical sample of young children seeking therapy for maltreatment. Methods: Data were collected on 91 children, mean age 5.3 years (SD 1.0). The Preschool and Early Childhood Functional Assessment Scales (PECFAS) was…

  12. The Relation of Emotional Maltreatment to Early Adolescent Competence: Developmental Processes in a Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Anne; Yates, Tuppett M.; Egeland, Byron R.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: This investigation examined developmental pathways between childhood emotional maltreatment and adaptational outcomes in early adolescence. This study utilized a developmental psychopathology perspective in adopting a multidimensional approach to the assessment of different forms of emotional maltreatment and later adjustment outcomes.…

  13. Recognition of Facial Emotions among Maltreated Children with High Rates of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masten, Carrie L.; Guyer, Amanda E.; Hodgdon, Hilary B.; McClure, Erin B.; Charney, Dennis S.; Ernst, Monique; Kaufman, Joan; Pine, Daniel S.; Monk, Christopher S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to examine processing of facial emotions in a sample of maltreated children showing high rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Maltreatment during childhood has been associated independently with both atypical processing of emotion and the development of PTSD. However, research has provided little…

  14. The effects of child maltreatment on early signs of antisocial behavior: Genetic moderation by Tryptophan Hydroxylase, Serotonin Transporter, and Monoamine Oxidase-A-Genes

    OpenAIRE

    Cicchetti, Dante; Rogosch, Fred A.; Thibodeau, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Gene-environment interaction effects in predicting antisocial behavior in late childhood were investigated among maltreated and nonmaltreated low-income children (N = 627, M age = 11.27). Variants in three genes, TPH1, 5-HTTLPR, and MAOA uVNTR, were examined. In addition to child maltreatment status, we also considered the impact of maltreatment subtypes, developmental timing of maltreatment, and chronicity. Indicators of antisocial behavior were obtained from self-, peer-, and adult counselo...

  15. Childhood trauma and neighborhood-level crime interact in predicting adult posttraumatic stress and major depression symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Sarah R; Quinn, James W; Richards, Catherine A; Pothen, John; Rundle, Andrew; Galea, Sandro; Ressler, Kerry J; Koenen, Karestan C; Bradley, Bekh

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has identified several individual-level factors that modify the risk of childhood trauma on adult psychiatric symptoms, including symptoms of major depression (MD) and posttraumatic stress (PTS). Neighborhood-level factors also influence the impact of individual-level exposures on adult psychopathology. However, no prior studies to our knowledge have explored cross-level interactions between childhood trauma and neighborhood-level factors on MD and PTS symptoms. The purpose of this study was therefore to explore cross-level interactions between a neighborhood-level factor - neighborhood-level crime - and childhood trauma on MD and PTS symptoms. Participants in this study (N=3192) were recruited from a large public hospital, and completed self-report inventories of childhood trauma and MD and PTS symptoms. Participant addresses were mapped onto 2010 census tracts, and data on crime within each tract were collected. Multilevel models found a significant cross-level interaction between childhood trauma and neighborhood crime on MD symptoms, such that the influence of high levels of childhood trauma on MD symptoms was enhanced for participants living in high-crime neighborhoods. Supplementary analyses found variation in the strength of cross-level interaction terms by types of childhood trauma and crime, with the strongest associations including emotional neglect paired with personal and property crime. The results provide preliminary support for interventions that help childhood trauma survivors find housing in less vulnerable neighborhoods and build skills to cope with neighborhood crime. PMID:26499372

  16. Middle Childhood Support-Seeking Behavior during Stress: Links with Self-Reported Attachment and Future Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dujardin, Adinda; Santens, Tara; Braet, Caroline; De Raedt, Rudi; Vos, Pieter; Maes, Bea; Bosmans, Guy

    2016-01-01

    This study tested whether children's more anxious and avoidant attachment is linked to decreased support-seeking behavior toward their mother during stress in middle childhood, and whether children's decreased support-seeking behavior enhances the impact of experiencing life events on the increase of depressive symptoms 18 months later.…

  17. Childhood Depressive Symptoms and Adolescent Cigarette Use: A Six-Year Longitudinal Study Controlling for Peer Relations Correlates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prinstein, M.J.; Greca, A.M. La

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine potential pathways between childhood depressive symptoms and adolescent cigarette use, controlling for potential "third variable" causes. Design: Participants included 250 youth (60% girls) who were in Grades 4 to 6 at study outset and in Grades 10 to 12 (M age = 16.78) at a 6-

  18. The Role of Depression and Dissociation in the Relationship between Childhood Trauma and Bulimic Symptoms among Ethnically Diverse Female Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerke, Clarice K.; Mazzeo, Suzanne E.; Kliewer, Wendy

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The goals of this study were to examine the role of dissociation and depression as possible mediators of the relationship between several forms of childhood trauma and bulimic symptomatology and to explore potential ethnic differences in these relationships. Method: Four hundred seventeen female undergraduates participated in this…

  19. Childhood Trauma in Substance Use Disorder and Depression: An Analysis by Gender among a Brazilian Clinical Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucci, Adriana M.; Kerr-Correa, Florence; Souza-Formigoni, Maria Lucia O.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: In this study, we compared the frequency and intensity of childhood traumas in alcohol- or other drug-dependent patients, in patients with depression, and in a control group without psychiatric diagnoses. Methods: The study had a retrospective design of a clinical sample of men and women from the groups listed above. They were evaluated…

  20. Child maltreatment: the neurobiological aspects of posttraumatic stress disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Kirstin; Scannapieco, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Childhood trauma due to physical abuse, neglect, or sexual abuse is a serious problem in the United States. Trauma can result in disruption or injury to the developing brain and lead to neurodevelopmental deficits that affect a child's functioning and can result in lifelong problems. Research has provided insight into how early childhood maltreatment affects brain development. This article examines the research on trauma, its effects on the brain, and evidence-based interventions. An overview of normal brain functioning and posttraumatic stress disorder is presented. Implications for social work practice with children who have experienced child maltreatment are discussed. PMID:23879352

  1. Child maltreatment experience among primary school children: a large scale survey in Selangor state, Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayesha Ahmed

    Full Text Available Official reports of child maltreatment in Malaysia have persistently increased throughout the last decade. However there is a lack of population surveys evaluating the actual burden of child maltreatment, its correlates and its consequences in the country. This cross sectional study employed 2 stage stratified cluster random sampling of public primary schools, to survey 3509 ten to twelve year old school children in Selangor state. It aimed to estimate the prevalence of parental physical and emotional maltreatment, parental neglect and teacher- inflicted physical maltreatment. It further aimed to examine the associations between child maltreatment and important socio-demographic factors; family functioning and symptoms of depression among children. Logistic regression on weighted samples was used to extend results to a population level. Three quarters of 10-12 year olds reported at least one form of maltreatment, with parental physical maltreatment being most common. Males had higher odds of maltreatment in general except for emotional maltreatment. Ethnicity and parental conflict were key factors associated with maltreatment. The study contributes important evidence towards improving public health interventions for child maltreatment prevention in the country.

  2. Child maltreatment experience among primary school children: a large scale survey in Selangor state, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ayesha; Wan-Yuen, Choo; Marret, Mary Joseph; Guat-Sim, Cheah; Othman, Sajaratulnisah; Chinna, Karuthan

    2015-01-01

    Official reports of child maltreatment in Malaysia have persistently increased throughout the last decade. However there is a lack of population surveys evaluating the actual burden of child maltreatment, its correlates and its consequences in the country. This cross sectional study employed 2 stage stratified cluster random sampling of public primary schools, to survey 3509 ten to twelve year old school children in Selangor state. It aimed to estimate the prevalence of parental physical and emotional maltreatment, parental neglect and teacher- inflicted physical maltreatment. It further aimed to examine the associations between child maltreatment and important socio-demographic factors; family functioning and symptoms of depression among children. Logistic regression on weighted samples was used to extend results to a population level. Three quarters of 10-12 year olds reported at least one form of maltreatment, with parental physical maltreatment being most common. Males had higher odds of maltreatment in general except for emotional maltreatment. Ethnicity and parental conflict were key factors associated with maltreatment. The study contributes important evidence towards improving public health interventions for child maltreatment prevention in the country. PMID:25786214

  3. Child Maltreatment Experience among Primary School Children: A Large Scale Survey in Selangor State, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Ayesha; Wan-Yuen, Choo; Marret, Mary Joseph; Guat-Sim, Cheah; Othman, Sajaratulnisah; Chinna, Karuthan

    2015-01-01

    Official reports of child maltreatment in Malaysia have persistently increased throughout the last decade. However there is a lack of population surveys evaluating the actual burden of child maltreatment, its correlates and its consequences in the country. This cross sectional study employed 2 stage stratified cluster random sampling of public primary schools, to survey 3509 ten to twelve year old school children in Selangor state. It aimed to estimate the prevalence of parental physical and emotional maltreatment, parental neglect and teacher- inflicted physical maltreatment. It further aimed to examine the associations between child maltreatment and important socio-demographic factors; family functioning and symptoms of depression among children. Logistic regression on weighted samples was used to extend results to a population level. Three quarters of 10–12 year olds reported at least one form of maltreatment, with parental physical maltreatment being most common. Males had higher odds of maltreatment in general except for emotional maltreatment. Ethnicity and parental conflict were key factors associated with maltreatment. The study contributes important evidence towards improving public health interventions for child maltreatment prevention in the country. PMID:25786214

  4. Social skills and psychopathic traits in maltreated adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ometto, Mariella; de Oliveira, Paula Approbato; Milioni, Ana Luiza; Dos Santos, Bernardo; Scivoletto, Sandra; Busatto, Geraldo F; Nunes, Paula V; Cunha, Paulo Jannuzzi

    2016-04-01

    Child maltreatment has frequently been associated with impaired social skills and antisocial features, but there are still controversies about the effect of each type of maltreatment on social behaviour. The aim of this study was to compare the social functioning and psychopathic traits of maltreated adolescents (MTA) with a control group (CG) and to investigate what types of maltreatments and social skills were associated with psychopathic traits in both groups. The types and intensity of maltreatment were evaluated through the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) in 107 adolescents, divided into the MTA group (n = 66) and non-maltreated youths (n = 41), our CG. The Hare Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL: YV) and a detailed inventory for evaluation of social skills in adolescents were also applied in all individuals. MTA presented more psychopathic traits than the CG, in all domains measured by PCL: YV, independently of IQ levels and the presence of psychiatric disorders. Interestingly, the groups did not differ significantly from each other on indicators of social skills. Multiple regression analysis revealed that emotional neglect was the only maltreatment subtype significantly associated with psychopathic traits, more specifically with the PCL: YV interpersonal factor (F1), and that some social skills (empathy, self-control and social confidence) were related to specific psychopathic factors. The results highlight that emotional neglect may be more detrimental to social behaviours than physical and sexual abuse, and that neglected children require more specific and careful attention. PMID:26224584

  5. Childhood sexual abuse and depression in Latino men who have sex with men: Does resilience protect against nonadherence to antiretroviral therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauceda, John A; Wiebe, John S; Simoni, Jane M

    2016-06-01

    This study tested depression as a mediator between childhood sexual abuse and adherence to antiretroviral therapy, an effect moderated by resilience. In total, 149 HIV+ Latino men who have sex with men were recruited for this study. Using a regression-based bootstrap approach, depression mediated the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and antiretroviral therapy adherence, with worse adherence for participants at lowest percentiles of the resilience index. The prevalence of childhood sexual abuse and depression in HIV+ men who have sex with men is high and must be addressed to better prevent disease progression and reduce transmission, especially in expanding Latino populations. PMID:25156387

  6. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Maltreatment and Abuse Chronology of Exposure (MACE) scale to Brazilian Portuguese

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Kluwe-Schiavon; Thiago Wendt Viola; Rodrigo Grassi-Oliveira

    2016-01-01

    Introduction : There is strong evidence to indicate that childhood maltreatment can negatively affect both physical and mental health and there is increasing interest in understanding the occurrence and consequences of such experiences. While several tools have been developed to retrospectively investigate childhood maltreatment experiences, most of them do not investigate the experience of witnessing family violence during childhood or bullying exposure. Moreover, the majority of scales do n...

  7. Traumatic and Adverse Attachment Childhood Experiences are not Characteristic of OCD but of Depression in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivarsson, Tord; Saavedra, Fanny; Granqvist, Pehr; Broberg, Anders G

    2016-04-01

    We investigated whether adverse attachment experience might contribute to the development of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). We interviewed 100 adolescents, 25 each with primary OCD, depressive disorder (DD), OCD plus DD and general population controls (CTRs) using the adult attachment interview to assess attachment experiences (AEs), including traumatic and adverse AE (TAE). Adolescents with OCD, OCD+DD and DD had little evidence of secure base/safe haven parental behaviour and their childhood attachment needs judged to be rejected as compared to the controls. Overprotection was not characteristic of OCD, and parents using the child for their own needs (elevated levels of involving/role reversal) occurred only in DD, with low levels in OCD, OCD+DD and CTR. Traumatic experiences, often multiple, and/or attachment related were reported significantly more often in the DD group, and was less common in OCD+DD, CTR and particularly in the OCD group. In OCD, little TAE was reported and adverse AE were less serious and seem unlikely to contribute directly to OCD aetiology. In DD and to some degree in OCD+DD serious AE/TAE may have some etiological significance for the depressive states. PMID:26115697

  8. Barriers to HIV Medication Adherence: Examining Distinct Anxiety and Depression Symptoms among Women Living with HIV Who Experienced Childhood Sexual Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Willie, Tiara C.; Overstreet, Nicole M.; Sullivan, Tami P.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Hansen, Nathan B.

    2016-01-01

    Experiencing sexual violence in childhood or adolescence is highly prevalent among some women living with HIV, often resulting in anxiety and depression symptoms in adulthood. Anxiety and depression have been associated with HIV medication nonadherence, yet little research has assessed distinct components of anxiety and depression as risk factors of HIV medication nonadherence. The current study examined distinct symptom components of anxiety and depression as predictors of HIV medication non...

  9. Attentional Control Theory in Childhood: Enhanced Attentional Capture by Non-Emotional and Emotional Distractors in Anxiety and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszczuk, Monika A; Brown, Hannah M; Eley, Thalia C; Lester, Kathryn J

    2015-01-01

    Attentional control theory (ACT) proposes that anxiety is associated with executive functioning deficits. The theory has been widely investigated in adults. The current study tested whether symptoms of childhood anxiety and depression were associated with experimentally measured attentional control in the context of non-emotional and emotional stimuli. Sixty-one children (mean age = 9.23 years, range = 8.39-10.41) reported their trait anxiety and depression symptoms and completed three visual search tasks. The tasks used a variant of an irrelevant singleton paradigm and measured attentional capture by task-irrelevant non-emotional (color) and emotional (facial expressions) distractors. Significant attentional capture by both non-emotional and emotional distractors was observed, and was significantly correlated with trait anxiety and symptoms of depression. The strength of relationship between attentional capture and the symptoms did not differ significantly for non-emotional and emotional distractors. The results suggest that symptoms of childhood anxiety and depression are associated with poorer attentional control both in the presence of emotional and non-emotional stimuli, supporting ACT in younger populations. This attentional deficit in the context of non-emotional information might be as central to childhood internalizing symptoms as attentional biases often observed on tasks investigating processing of emotional stimuli. PMID:26599268

  10. Attentional Control Theory in Childhood: Enhanced Attentional Capture by Non-Emotional and Emotional Distractors in Anxiety and Depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika A Waszczuk

    Full Text Available Attentional control theory (ACT proposes that anxiety is associated with executive functioning deficits. The theory has been widely investigated in adults. The current study tested whether symptoms of childhood anxiety and depression were associated with experimentally measured attentional control in the context of non-emotional and emotional stimuli. Sixty-one children (mean age = 9.23 years, range = 8.39-10.41 reported their trait anxiety and depression symptoms and completed three visual search tasks. The tasks used a variant of an irrelevant singleton paradigm and measured attentional capture by task-irrelevant non-emotional (color and emotional (facial expressions distractors. Significant attentional capture by both non-emotional and emotional distractors was observed, and was significantly correlated with trait anxiety and symptoms of depression. The strength of relationship between attentional capture and the symptoms did not differ significantly for non-emotional and emotional distractors. The results suggest that symptoms of childhood anxiety and depression are associated with poorer attentional control both in the presence of emotional and non-emotional stimuli, supporting ACT in younger populations. This attentional deficit in the context of non-emotional information might be as central to childhood internalizing symptoms as attentional biases often observed on tasks investigating processing of emotional stimuli.

  11. Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms Among People Living with HIV and Childhood Sexual Abuse: The Role of Shame and Posttraumatic Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willie, Tiara C; Overstreet, Nicole M; Peasant, Courtney; Kershaw, Trace; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Hansen, Nathan B

    2016-08-01

    There is a critical need to examine protective and risk factors of anxiety and depressive symptoms among people living with HIV in order to improve quality of life. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the associations between HIV-related shame, sexual abuse-related shame, posttraumatic growth, and anxiety and depressive symptoms among a cohort of 225 heterosexual women and men who have sex with men (MSM) living with HIV who have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Higher sexual abuse-related shame was related to more anxiety and depressive symptoms for heterosexual women. Higher posttraumatic growth predicted less anxiety symptoms for only heterosexual women. Higher posttraumatic growth predicted less depressive symptoms for heterosexual women and MSM, but the magnitude of this effect was stronger for heterosexual women than MSM. Psychosocial interventions may need to be tailored to meet the specific needs of heterosexual women and MSM living with HIV and CSA. PMID:26837633

  12. Delineating the Maladaptive Pathways of Child Maltreatment: A Mediated Moderation Analysis of the Roles of Self Perception and Social Support

    OpenAIRE

    Appleyard, Karen; Yang, Chongming; Runyan, Desmond K.

    2010-01-01

    The current study investigated concurrent and longitudinal mediated and mediated moderation pathways among maltreatment, self perception (i.e., loneliness and self esteem), social support, and internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. For both genders, early childhood maltreatment (i.e., ages 0–6) was related directly to internalizing and externalizing behavior problems at age 6, and later maltreatment (i.e., ages 6–8) was directly related to internalizing and externalizing behavior ...

  13. Risk Factors for Child and Adolescent Maltreatment: A Longitudinal Investigation of a Cohort of Inner-City Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Mersky, Joshua P.; Berger, Lawrence M.; Reynolds, Arthur J.; Gromoske, Andrea N.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates associations between individual, family, and extrafamilial factors and the likelihood of subsequent childhood and adolescent maltreatment. The authors analyzed 1,411 participants in the Chicago Longitudinal Study whose maltreatment records were verified from administrative data. Findings suggest that maternal age at the child’s birth was a robust predictor of maltreatment outcomes. Receipt of public assistance and single-parent family status were significantly associat...

  14. Aspectos clínicos da depressão em crianças e adolescentes: clinical features Depression in childhood and adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saint-Clair Bahls

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: apresentar uma revisão sobre o quadro clínico, a evolução, a comorbidade e o comportamento suicida na depressão em crianças e adolescentes, com o objetivo de contribuir com o esclarecimento desta patologia grave, comum e ainda pouco reconhecida. Fontes dos dados: foram realizados levantamento no sistema Medline no período de 1991 a 2000, e levantamento manual da literatura. Síntese dos dados: o interesse científico pela depressão em crianças e adolescentes é bastante recente, pois até a década de 70 acreditava-se que fosse rara ou inexistente. Os sistemas diagnósticos atuais definem que os sintomas básicos de um episódio depressivo maior são os mesmos em crianças, adolescentes e adultos; entretanto, os pesquisadores destacam a importância do processo de maturação na apresentação sintomatológica da depressão, com características predominantes em cada fase do desenvolvimento. Conclusões: atualmente a depressão maior em crianças e adolescentes é considerada comum, debilitante e recorrente, envolvendo um alto grau de morbidade e mortalidade, representando um sério problema de saúde pública.Objective: this study reviews clinical features, evolution, comorbidity and suicidal behavior in childhood and adolescence depression. Its objective is to provide clear information on this common, severe and not very easily recognized pathology. Sources: literature searches were performed through Medline (1991-2000, with secondary-source follow-up. Summary of the findings: scientific concern about depression in childhood and adolescence is recent and up to the 70's depression was considered rare or inexistent in this period. Current diagnostic systems define as basic features of depression in children and adolescents are the same ones found in adults for major depression episodes; however, researches emphasize the significance of the developmental process in the clinical manifestations, with predominant features in each

  15. [Typical findings of maltreated children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, E; Zinka, B; Schneider, K; Penning, R; Eisenmenger, W

    2006-06-15

    Childhood maltreatment manifests in a variety of forms and the underlying causes are manifold. In contrast to other offences involving physical injury, reporting behavior has, statistically speaking, remained unchanged. Patterns of injury must first be established and documented, and this involves a complete examination of the child's body. Depending on the constellation of findings, a radiological diagnosis is usually necessary. When all the findings have been collected, the further steps to be taken--where indicated a report to the police--must be discussed. All the evidence must be recorded, and photos obtained of all externally visible injuries before they fade. It is not the task of the physician to develop criminalistic ambitions, for example, by grilling (a parent) on the cause of the injuries. However, he/she has a duty to do everything necessary to protect the well-being of the child. PMID:16850804

  16. Depressão e doença bipolar na infância e adolescência Bipolar disorder and depression in childhood and adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dênio Lima

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Este estudo buscou a revisão da história, conceitos, categorias diagnósticas, epidemiologia, fatores genéticos e neurobiológicos, assim como fatores predisponentes e modalidades de tratamento desses transtornos. FONTES DOS DADOS: Foi realizada uma revisão extensa da literatura sobre depressão infantil e transtorno bipolar. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: A depressão infantil e o transtorno bipolar estão associados a fatores genéticos, temperamento, eventos adversos da vida, divórcio, problemas acadêmicos, abuso físico e sexual e fatores neurobiológicos. O tratamento pode ser realizado, na maioria das vezes, com medicações e psicoterapia. CONCLUSÕES: São transtornos importantes, muitas vezes de difícil diagnóstico, que, uma vez reconhecidos e tratados, irão minorar o sofrimento de crianças e adolescentes. O pediatra poderá intervir orientando a família nos casos leves, mas deve ficar atento àqueles que necessitam de outros tipos de tratamento.OBJECTIVES: To provide a historical review of childhood depression and bipolar disorder, covering concepts, diagnostic categories, epidemiology, genetic and neurobiological aspects as well as predisposing factors and treatment modalities. SOURCES OF DATA: Extensive review of the literature on child depression and bipolar disorder. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: Child depression and bipolar disorder are associated with genetic factors, mood, adverse life events, divorce, academic problems, physical and sexual abuse, and neurobiological factors. Treatment usually includes medication and psychotherapy. CONCLUSIONS: These are important childhood disorders whose diagnosis is often difficult. The identification and treatment of depression and bipolar disorder reduces the suffering of affected children and adolescents. The pediatrician can intervene by orienting the family in mild cases, but must be alert to cases requiring more aggressive treatment.

  17. Adverse Childhood Events and the Risk for New-Onset Depression and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Among U.S. National Guard Soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudenstine, Sasha; Cohen, Greg; Prescott, Marta; Sampson, Laura; Liberzon, Israel; Tamburrino, Marijo; Calabrese, Joseph; Galea, Sandro

    2015-09-01

    This article examines the relationship between childhood adversity and postdeployment new-onset psychopathology among a sample of U.S. National Guard personnel deployed during Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom with no history of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or depression. We recruited a sample of 991 Ohio Army National Guard soldiers and conducted structured interviews to assess traumatic event exposure, a history of childhood adversity, and postdeployment depression, and PTSD, consistent with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition. We assessed childhood adversity by using questions from the Childhood Adverse Events Survey. In multivariable logistic models, a history of any childhood adversity was significantly associated with new-onset depression, but not PTSD, postdeployment. This finding suggests that a history of childhood adversity is predisposing for new-onset depression, among U.S. National Guard soldiers who were deployed with no prior history of PTSD or depression. This highlights the centrality of childhood experience for the production of mental health among soldiers. PMID:26327549

  18. Emotion dysregulation as a mediator between childhood emotional abuse and current depression in a low-income African-American sample☆

    OpenAIRE

    Crow, Thomas; Cross, Dorthie; Powers, Abigail; Bradley, Bekh

    2014-01-01

    Abuse and neglect in childhood are well-established risk factors for later psychopathology. Past research has suggested that childhood emotional abuse may be particularly harmful to psychological development. The current cross-sectional study employed multiple regression techniques to assess the effects of childhood trauma on adulthood depression and emotion dysregulation in a large sample of mostly low-income African Americans recruited in an urban hospital. Bootstrap analyses were used to t...

  19. Barriers to HIV Medication Adherence: Examining Distinct Anxiety and Depression Symptoms among Women Living with HIV Who Experienced Childhood Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willie, Tiara C; Overstreet, Nicole M; Sullivan, Tami P; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Hansen, Nathan B

    2016-01-01

    Experiencing sexual violence in childhood or adolescence is highly prevalent among some women living with HIV, often resulting in anxiety and depression symptoms in adulthood. Anxiety and depression have been associated with HIV medication nonadherence, yet little research has assessed distinct components of anxiety and depression as risk factors of HIV medication nonadherence. The current study examined distinct symptom components of anxiety and depression as predictors of HIV medication non-adherence among women living with HIV and childhood sexual abuse enrolled in a coping intervention. This secondary analysis included a sample of 85 women living with HIV and childhood sexual abuse and being prescribed antiretroviral medication who completed measures on anxiety, depression, and medication adherence. Results from a logistic regression analysis suggest that distinct components of anxiety may be related to medication nonadherence among this population. Targeted mental health interventions for this population may increase adherence to antiretroviral medication. PMID:26010763

  20. Adverse Environmental Exposures During Gestation and Childhood: Predictors of Adolescent Drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Marie D; De Genna, Natacha; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Larkby, Cynthia; Day, Nancy

    2016-08-23

    Adverse conditions, including exposures to drugs and other environmental influences during early development, may affect behaviors later in life. This study examined the role of environmental influences from the gestation and childhood on adolescent drinking behavior. 917 mother/offspring dyads were followed prospectively from pregnancy to a 16-year follow-up assessment. Interim assessments occurred at delivery, 6, 10, and 14 years. Prenatal exposures to alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana were measured during gestation. Data were collected at each phase on childhood environment, including parenting practices, quality of the home environment, maternal depression and hostility, and lifetime exposure to child maltreatment and community violence. Alcohol outcomes were offspring age of drinking initiation and level of drinking at age 16 years. Cox Proportional Hazards ratios were used to model offspring age of drinking initiation. Logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate significant predictors of drinking level. Childhood environment, including less parental strictness, greater exposure to violence and childhood maltreatment, significantly predicted earlier age of alcohol initiation. Level of drinking among the adolescent offspring was significantly predicted by prenatal exposure to alcohol, less parental strictness, and exposures to maltreatment and violence during childhood. Whites and offspring with older mothers were more likely to initiate alcohol use early and drink at higher levels. Early and heavier alcohol use was associated with early exposures to adversity such as prenatal alcohol exposure, and child exposures to maltreatment and violence. These results highlight the importance of environmental adversity and less effective parenting practices on the development of adolescent drinking behavior. PMID:27220026

  1. Development of a Childhood Attachment and Relational Trauma Screen (CARTS): a relational-socioecological framework for surveying attachment security and childhood trauma history

    OpenAIRE

    Frewen, Paul A.; Evans, Barrie; Goodman, Jason; Halliday, Aaron; Boylan, James; Moran, Greg; Reiss, Jeffrey; Schore, Allan; Ruth A. Lanius

    2013-01-01

    Background: Current psychometric measures of childhood trauma history generally fail to assess the relational-socioecological context within which childhood maltreatment occurs, including the relationship of abusers to abused persons, the emotional availability of caregivers, and the respondent’s own thoughts, feelings, and actions in response to maltreatment.Objective: To evaluate a computerized approach to measuring the relational-socioecological context within which childhood maltreatment ...

  2. Predicting criminality from child maltreatment typologies and posttraumatic stress symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ask Elklit

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The associations between childhood abuse and subsequent criminality and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD are well known. However, a major limitation of research related to childhood abuse and its effects is the focus on one particular type of abuse at the expense of others. Recent work has established that childhood abuse rarely occurs as a unidimensional phenomenon. Therefore, a number of studies have investigated the existence of abuse typologies. Methods: The study is based on a Danish stratified random probability survey including 2980 interviews of 24-year-old people. The sample was constructed to include an oversampling of child protection cases. Building on a previous latent class analysis of four types of childhood maltreatment, three maltreatment typologies were used in the current analyses. A criminality scale was constructed based on seven types of criminal behavior. PTSD symptoms were assessed by the PC-PTSD Screen. Results: Significant differences were found between the two genders with males reporting heightened rates of criminality. Furthermore, all three maltreatment typologies were associated with criminal behavior with odds ratios (ORs from 2.90 to 5.32. Female gender had an OR of 0.53 and possible PTSD an OR of 1.84. Conclusion: The independent association of participants at risk for PTSD and three types of maltreatment with criminality should be studied to determine if it can be replicated, and considered in social policy and prevention and rehabilitation interventions.

  3. Prevalence and risk factors of depression in childhood and adolescence as seen in 4 districts of north-eastern Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Kinyanda, Eugene; Kizza, Ruth; Abbo, Catherine; Ndyanabangi, Sheila; Levin, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Background Millions of African children are having to grow up under harsh and adverse psychosocial conditions but it’s not fully understood how this negative psychosocial environment is affecting their mental health. This paper examines the prevalence and risk factors of depression in childhood and adolescence as seen in a community sample derived from four disadvantaged districts in north-eastern Uganda. Methods 1587 children were assessed using a structured instrument administered by traine...

  4. Prevention of Child Maltreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Lane, Wendy Gwirtzman

    2014-01-01

    Pediatricians and other health care providers can play a number of important roles in the prevention of child maltreatment. As part of routine patient care, pediatricians can provide anticipatory guidance for effective discipline and parent-child communication, screen for maltreatment risk factors, and refer parents and families to effective community-based programs. This article will help pediatricians incorporate child abuse prevention into their practice. Resources for systematizing antici...

  5. Association between perinatal depression in mothers and the risk of childhood infections in offspring: a population-based cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    West Joe

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have suggested that children of mothers who experience depression during the perinatal period may have more infections, but such studies are few in number and none have been carried out in the United Kingdom (UK population. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between perinatal depression in mothers and the risk of childhood infections in offspring in the UK general population. Methods We used data from The Health Improvement Network (THIN, a large database of electronic primary care medical records to conduct a cohort study among all first-born singleton children born and enrolled in THIN between 1988 and 2004. We used Poisson regression to compare the incidence of gastrointestinal infections and lower respiratory tract infections reported between birth and age 4 years among children of mothers with a record of perinatal depression with those born to mothers with no such history. Results Children of mothers with perinatal depression had a 40% increased risk of gastrointestinal infections and a 27% increased risk of lower respiratory tract infections compared with children of mothers without perinatal depression (incidence rate ratios = 1.40 and 1.27; 95% confidence intervals 1.37-1.42 and 1.22-1.32, respectively. On restricting to antibiotic-treated infections there was a slight increase in the magnitude of association with gastrointestinal infections but a decrease in that with lower respiratory tract infections (incidence rate ratios = 1.47 and 1.19; 95% confidence intervals 1.34-1.61 and 1.11-1.27, respectively. Conclusions Maternal perinatal depression is associated with increased rates of childhood gastrointestinal infections, particularly more severe infections, and lower respiratory tract infections in the UK. Preventing maternal perinatal depression may avoid substantial morbidity among offspring, although further work is also needed to investigate the detailed reasons for these

  6. In search of the HPA axis activity in unipolar depression patients with childhood trauma: Combined cortisol awakening response and dexamethasone suppression test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Shaojia; Gao, Weijia; Huang, Manli; Li, Lingjiang; Xu, Yi

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of childhood trauma on HPA axis activity both in depression patients and healthy controls in order to determine the role of HPA axis abnormalities in depression and to find the differences in HPA axis functioning that may lead certain individuals more susceptible to the depressogenic effects of childhood trauma. Eighty subjects aged 18-45 years were recruited into four study groups (n = 18, depression patients with childhood trauma exposures, CTE/MDD; n = 17, depression patients without childhood adversity, non-CTE/MDD; n = 23, healthy persons with childhood trauma, CTE/non-MDD; and n = 22, healthy persons without childhood adversity, non-CTE/non-MDD). Each participant collected salivary samples in the morning at four time points: immediately upon awakening, 30, 45, and 60 min after awakening for the assessment of CAR and underwent a 1 mg-dexamethasone suppression test (DST). Regardless of depression, subjects with CTE exhibited an enhanced CAR and the CAR areas under the curve to ground (AUCg) were associated with their childhood trauma questionnaire (CTQ) physical neglect scores and CTQ total scores. In addition, the CTE/MDD group also showed a highest post-DST cortisol concentration and a decreased glucocorticoid feedback inhibition among four groups of subjects. The present findings suggested that childhood trauma was associated with hyperactivity of HPA axis as measured with CAR, potentially reflecting the vulnerability for developing depression after early life stress exposures. Moreover, dysfunction of the GR-mediated negative feedback control might contribute to the development of depression after CTE. PMID:27049575

  7. Impact of Oppositional Defiant Disorder Dimensions on the Temporal Ordering of Conduct Problems and Depression across Childhood and Adolescence in Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipwell, Alison E.; Stepp, Stephanie; Feng, Xin; Burke, Jeff; Battista, Deena R.; Loeber, Rolf; Keenan, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the role of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) dimensions on the temporal unfolding of conduct disorder (CD) and depression in girls between childhood and adolescence. Method: The year-to-year associations between CD and depressive symptomatology were examined using nine waves of annually collected data (ages 8…

  8. Anxiety, Alexithymia, and Depression as Mediators of the Association between Childhood Abuse and Eating Disordered Behavior in African American and European American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzeo, Suzanne E.; Mitchell, Karen S.; Williams, Larry J.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated structural equation models of the associations among family functioning, childhood abuse, depression, anxiety, alexithymia, and eating disorder symptomatology in a sample of 412 European American and 192 African American female undergraduates. Additionally, the specific roles of anxiety, depression, and alexithymia as…

  9. Relationship between Childhood Abuse Experience,Parent Attachment and Depression in Adolescents%儿童期虐待、亲子依恋与青少年抑郁的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张迎黎; 杨峘; 梁炜; 张亚林; 杨世昌

    2011-01-01

    between parent and peer attachment,child abused experience and depression.Results Male participants reported high score of childhood abused than female participants(33.29±7.89 and 31.05±6.01,t=4.343,P=0.000).There were no significantly gender difference in mother attachment(male:59.89±15.86,female:61.45±16.48,t=-1.303,P=0.193),father attachment(male:59.32±17.17,female:60.28±16.95,t=-0.764,P=0.445) and depression(male:7.68±5.27,female:7.31±4.21,t=1.057,P=0.291).Childhood abuse had a positive correlation with adolescent depression(r=0.408,P=0.000),which negatively correlated with mother and father attachment(r=-0.544,-0.417,respectively,Pa=0.000).There was a positive correlation between mother attachment and father attachment(r=0.604,P=0.000),and both of them had negative correlation with depressive disorder(both r=-0.426,Pa=0.000).Mother and father attachment were the partial mediation of the relationship between childhood abuse and adolescent depression.Conclusions Male adolescents suffered more maltreatment than female adolescents.There are no gender difference in parent attachment and depression.Parent attachment plays the partial mediator role in childhood abuse and adolescent depression.Results reveal the importance of assessment and consideration of parent attachment in the intervention of depression in abused adolescents.

  10. Work, Welfare, and Child Maltreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Christina Paxson; Jane Waldfogel

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines how child maltreatment is affected by the economic circumstances of parents. 'Child maltreatment' encompasses a wide range of behaviors that adversely affect children. It includes neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and other forms of abuse or neglect. Using state-level panel data on the numbers of reports and substantiated cases of maltreatment, we examine whether socioeconomic factors play different roles for these different types of maltreatment. A key finding is tha...

  11. Epidemiological Perspectives on Maltreatment Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulczyn, Fred

    2009-01-01

    Fred Wulczyn explores how data on the incidence and distribution of child maltreatment shed light on planning and implementing maltreatment prevention programs. He begins by describing and differentiating among the three primary sources of national data on maltreatment. Wulczyn then points out several important patterns in the data. The first…

  12. Transactional effects among maternal depression, neighborhood deprivation, and child conduct problems from early childhood through adolescence: A tale of two low-income samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Daniel S; Sitnick, Stephanie L; Reuben, Julia; Dishion, Thomas J; Wilson, Melvin N

    2016-08-01

    The current study sought to advance our understanding of transactional processes among maternal depression, neighborhood deprivation, and child conduct problems (CP) using two samples of low-income families assessed repeatedly from early childhood to early adolescence. After accounting for initial levels of negative parenting, independent and reciprocal effects between maternal depressive symptoms and child CP were evident across both samples, beginning in early childhood and continuing through middle childhood and adolescence. In addition, neighborhood effects were consistently found in both samples after children reached age 5, with earlier neighborhood effects on child CP and maternal depression found in the one exclusively urban sample of families with male children. The results confirm prior research on the independent contribution of maternal depression and child CP to the maintenance of both problem behaviors. The findings also have implications for designing preventative and clinical interventions to address child CP for families living in high-risk neighborhoods. PMID:27427808

  13. Commentary: The devastating effects of ignoring child maltreatment in psychiatry--a commentary on Teicher and Samson 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kolk, Bessel

    2016-03-01

    Despite the numerous studies over the past 30 years that have clarified the devastating effects of child maltreatment on mental and physical health, the role of trauma within the caregiving system remains unrecognized both in our diagnostic systems and in our dominant treatment paradigms. Research of people with histories of caregiver abuse and neglect consistently demonstrates problems with concentration, anger, panic, depression, food intake, drugs, and sleep, as well as decreased Heart RateVariability, higher levels of stress hormones, and reduced or impaired immune response. Their relationship between documented brain changes and psychopathology is complex. Traumatic life experiences during childhood and adolescence are far more common than expected. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that child maltreatment may be the most costly public health issue in the United States, Eradicating child abuse in America would reduce the overall rate of depression by more than half, alcoholism by two-thirds, and suicide, serious drug abuse, and domestic violence by three quarters. It would also have a significantly positive effect on workplace performance, and vastly decrease the need for incarceration. The current practice of applying multiple distinct comorbid diagnoses to traumatized children prevents a comprehensive treatment approach. Approaching their problems from a framework of memories of discreet traumatic ignores the fact that the damage affects the brain's neural circuitry and goes well beyond dealing with discrete painful events. Our great challenge is to learn to utilize the brain's neuroplasticity to reorganize defective brain circuits. PMID:26889892

  14. A paradoxical association of an oxytocin receptor gene polymorphism: Early-life adversity and vulnerability to depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robyn Jane McQuaid

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Several prosocial behaviors may be influenced by the hormone oxytocin. In line with this perspective, the oxytocin receptor (OXTR gene single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, rs53576, has been associated with a broad range of social behaviors. In this regard, the G allele of the OXTR SNP has been accompanied by beneficial attributes such as increased empathy, optimism and trust. In the current study among university students (N = 288, it was shown that early-life maltreatment was associated with depressive symptoms, and that the OXTR genotype moderated this relationship, such that under high levels of childhood maltreatment, only individuals with GG/GA genotype demonstrated increased depressive symptomatology compared to those with the AA genotype. In addition, the role of distrust in mediating the relation between childhood maltreatment and depression seemed to be more important among G allele carriers compared to individuals with the AA genotype. Thus, a breach in trust (i.e. in the case of early-life abuse or neglect may have a more deleterious effect among G carriers, who have been characterized as more prosocial and attuned to social cues. The data suggested that G carriers of the OXTR might favor social sensitivity and thus might have been more vulnerable to the effects of early-life adversity.

  15. Conduct problems, depressive symptomatology and their co-occurring presentation in childhood as predictors of adjustment in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingoldsby, Erin M; Kohl, Gwynne O; McMahon, Robert J; Lengua, Liliana

    2006-10-01

    The present study investigated patterns in the development of conduct problems (CP), depressive symptoms, and their co-occurrence, and relations to adjustment problems, over the transition from late childhood to early adolescence. Rates of depressive symptoms and CP during this developmental period vary by gender; yet, few studies involving non-clinical samples have examined co-occurring problems and adjustment outcomes across boys and girls. This study investigates the manifestation and change in CP and depressive symptom patterns in a large, multisite, gender-and ethnically-diverse sample of 431 youth from 5th to 7th grade. Indicators of CP, depressive symptoms, their co-occurrence, and adjustment outcomes were created from multiple reporters and measures. Hypotheses regarding gender differences were tested utilizing both categorical (i.e., elevated symptom groups) and continuous analyses (i.e., regressions predicting symptomatology and adjustment outcomes). Results were partially supportive of the dual failure model (Capaldi, 1991, 1992), with youth with co-occurring problems in 5th grade demonstrating significantly lower academic adjustment and social competence two years later. Both depressive symptoms and CP were risk factors for multiple negative adjustment outcomes. Co-occurring symptomatology and CP demonstrated more stability and was associated with more severe adjustment problems than depressive symptoms over time. Categorical analyses suggested that, in terms of adjustment problems, youth with co-occurring symptomatology were generally no worse off than those with CP-alone, and those with depressive symptoms-alone were similar over time to those showing no symptomatology at all. Few gender differences were noted in the relations among CP, depressive symptoms, and adjustment over time. PMID:16967336

  16. Moderate Childhood Stress Buffers Against Depressive Response to Proximal Stressors: A Multi-Wave Prospective Study of Early Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapero, Benjamin G; Hamilton, Jessica L; Stange, Jonathan P; Liu, Richard T; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2015-11-01

    Although the majority of research in the field has focused on childhood stressors as a risk factor for psychopathology, a burgeoning body of literature has focused on the possible steeling effect of moderate types of stressful events. The current study investigated the effects of proximal life stressors on prospective changes in depressive symptoms, and whether a history of moderate childhood adversity would moderate this relationship in a multi-wave study of a diverse community sample of early adolescents (N = 163, 52 % female, 51 % Caucasian). Hierarchical linear modeling was run with four waves of data. Adolescents with greater moderately severe early life events evinced a blunted depressive symptom response to changes in proximal stressful events in the previous 9 months, compared to those with fewer early moderately severe experiences of adversity. These results held after controlling for between-subject factors such as race, gender, severe early life stress, and average stress over the four waves of data. Findings indicate that greater exposure to moderate childhood stressors may buffer against the negative effects of subsequent stressors, suggesting the importance of a nuanced developmental approach to studying the effects of early life stress. PMID:25911194

  17. Multiple victimizations before and after leaving home associated with PTSD, depression, and substance use disorder among homeless youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Kimberly; Brown, Samantha M; Thompson, Sanna J; Ferguson, Kristin M; Langenderfer, Lisa

    2015-05-01

    Exposure to multiple forms of maltreatment during childhood is associated with serious mental health consequences among youth in the general population, but limited empirical attention has focused on homeless youth-a population with markedly high rates of childhood maltreatment followed by elevated rates of street victimization. This study investigated the rates of multiple childhood abuses (physical, sexual, and emotional abuse) and multiple street victimizations (robbery, physical assault, and sexual assault) and examined their relative relationships to mental health outcomes (meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder [PTSD], depression, and substance use disorder) among a large (N = 601) multisite sample of homeless youth. Approximately 79% of youth retrospectively reported multiple childhood abuses (two or more types) and 28% reported multiple street victimizations (two or more types). Each additional type of street victimization nearly doubled youths' odds for meeting criteria for substance use disorder. Furthermore, each additional type of childhood abuse experienced more than doubled youths' odds for meeting criteria for PTSD. Both multiple abuses and multiple street victimizations were associated with an approximate twofold increase in meeting depression criteria. Findings suggest the need for screening, assessment, and trauma-informed services for homeless youth who consider multiple types of abuse and victimization experiences. PMID:25510502

  18. A population-based study of anxiety as a precursor for depression in childhood and adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van den Bree Marianne BM

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Anxiety and depression co-occur in children and adolescents with anxiety commonly preceding depression. Although there is some evidence to suggest that the association between early anxiety and later depression is explained by a shared genetic aetiology, the contribution of environmental factors is less well examined and it is unknown whether anxiety itself is a phenotypic risk factor for later depression. These explanations of the association between early anxiety and later depression were evaluated. Methods Anxiety and depressive symptoms were assessed longitudinally in a U.K. population-based sample of 676 twins aged 5–17 at baseline. At baseline, anxiety and depression were assessed by parental questionnaire. Depression was assessed three years later by parental and adolescent questionnaire. Results Shared genetic effects between early anxiety and later depression were found. A model of a phenotypic risk effect from early anxiety on later depression provided a poor fit to the data. However, there were significant genetic effects specific to later depression, showing that early anxiety and later depression do not index entirely the same genetic risk. Conclusions Anxiety and depression are associated over time because they share a partly common genetic aetiology rather than because the anxiety phenotype leads to later depression.

  19. Intergenerational effects of war trauma among Palestinian families mediated via psychological maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palosaari, Esa; Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Qouta, Samir; Diab, Marwan

    2013-11-01

    We tested the hypothesis that intergenerational effects of parents' war trauma on offspring's attachment and mental health are mediated by psychological maltreatment. Two hundred and forty children and their parents were sampled from a war-prone area, Gaza, Palestine. The parents reported the number and type of traumatic experiences of war they had had during their lifetime before the child's birth and during a current war when the child was 10-12 years old. The children reported their war traumas, experiences of psychological maltreatment, attachment security, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress (PTSS), depression, and aggression. The direct and indirect intergenerational effects of war trauma were tested in structural equation models. The hypotheses were confirmed for father's past war exposure, and disconfirmed for mother's war exposure. The father's past war trauma had a negative association with attachment security and positive association with the child's mental health problems mediated by increased psychological maltreatment. In contrast, the mother's past war trauma had a negative association with the child's depression via decreased psychological maltreatment. The mother's current war trauma had a negative association with the child's depression and aggression via decreased psychological maltreatment. Among fathers, past war exposure should be considered as a risk factor for psychological maltreatment of children and the associated attachment insecurity and mental health problems. Among mothers, war exposure as such could be given less clinical attention than PTSS in the prevention of psychological maltreatment of children. PMID:23768956

  20. Accounting for the associations between child maltreatment and internalizing problems: The role of alexithymia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Shaquanna; Fite, Paula J; Stone, Katie; Bortolato, Marco

    2016-02-01

    Internalizing difficulties are one of the most widely documented consequences of child maltreatment. However, there is a need for studies delineating the factors that account for this association. Despite research showing that alexithymia is associated with both child maltreatment and internalizing problems, the role of alexithymia in the link between child maltreatment and internalizing problems has not received much attention in the literature. The current study evaluated whether a history of child maltreatment was associated with symptoms of depression, anxiety, and loneliness in emerging adulthood, and whether alexithymia partially accounted for these associations. Participants included 339 emerging adults ranging between 18 and 25 years of age (M=19.00, SD=1.26, 51.3% male). Exposure to child maltreatment (i.e., physical abuse, physical neglect, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and emotional neglect) was positively associated with depression, anxiety, and loneliness symptoms. Tests of indirect effects suggested that associations between emotional neglect and symptoms of depression, anxiety, and loneliness were partially explained by alexithymia. However, alexithymia did not account for any other associations between the remaining four maltreatment types and internalizing problems. Findings highlight the need for further evaluation of the factors that might account for associations between child maltreatment and internalizing difficulties. Future directions and implications for interventions are reviewed. PMID:26774529

  1. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Childhood Autobiographical Memory Disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David W.; Anda, Robert F.; Edwards, Valerie J.; Felitti, Vincent J.; Dube, Shanta R.; Giles, Wayne H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine relationships between childhood autobiographical memory disturbance (CAMD) and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) which are defined as common forms of child maltreatment and related traumatic stressors. Methods: We use the ACE score (an integer count of eight different categories of ACEs) as a measure of cumulative exposure…

  2. Improving care quality and preventing maltreatment in institutional care – a feasibility study with caregivers

    OpenAIRE

    Hermenau, Katharin; Kaltenbach, Elisa; Mkinga, Getrude; Hecker, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Institutionalized children in low-income countries often face maltreatment and inadequate caregiving. In addition to prior traumatization and other childhood adversities in the family of origin, abuse and neglect in institutional care are linked to various mental health problems. By providing a manualized training workshop for caregivers, we aimed at improving care quality and preventing maltreatment in institutional care. In Study 1, 29 participating caregivers rated feasibility and efficacy...

  3. Adult Attachment Interview differentiates adolescents with Childhood Sexual Abuse from those with clinical depression and non-clinical controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoof, Marie-José; van Lang, Natasja D J; Speekenbrink, Sandra; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H; Vermeiren, Robert R J M

    2015-01-01

    Although attachment representation is considered to be disturbed in traumatized adolescents, it is not known whether this is specific for trauma, as comparative studies with other clinical groups are lacking. Therefore, attachment representation was studied by means of the Adult Attachment Interview in adolescents with Childhood Sexual Abuse (CSA) (N = 21), clinical depression (N = 28) and non-clinical controls (N = 28). Coherence of mind and unresolved loss or trauma, as well as the disorganized attachment classification differentiated the CSA group from the clinical depression group and controls, over and above age, IQ, and psychiatric symptomatology. In the current era of sustained criticism on criteria-based classification, this may well carry substantial clinical relevance. If attachment is a general risk or vulnerability factor underlying specific psychopathology, this may guide diagnostic assessment as well as treatment. PMID:26047034

  4. A population-based study of anxiety as a precursor for depression in childhood and adolescence.

    OpenAIRE

    van den Bree Marianne BM; Rice Frances; Thapar Anita

    2004-01-01

    Background Anxiety and depression co-occur in children and adolescents with anxiety commonly preceding depression. Although there is some evidence to suggest that the association between early anxiety and later depression is explained by a shared genetic aetiology, the contribution of environmental factors is less well examined and it is unknown whether anxiety itself is a phenotypic risk factor for later depression. These explanations of the association between early anxiety and later depre...

  5. Child Maltreatment in the World: A Review Article

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ajilian Abbasi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse is a recognized public health and social problem worldwide. According to the World Health Organization (WHO, child abuse includes all forms of physical and/or emotional ill-treatment, sexual abuse, neglect and negligent treatment and exploitation. Child maltreatment is a global problem with serious life-long consequences. In spite of recent national surveys in several low- and middle-income countries, data from many countries are still lacking. Estimates of child maltreatment indicate that nearly a quarter of adults (22.6% worldwide suffered physical abuse as a child, 36.3% experienced emotional abuse and 16.3% experienced physical neglect, with no significant differences between boys and girls. However, the lifetime prevalence rate of childhood sexual abuse indicates more marked differences by sex – 18% for girls and 7.6% for boys.  The lifelong consequences of child maltreatment include impaired physical and mental health, poorer school performance, and job and relationship difficulties. Ultimately, child maltreatment can contribute to slowing a country's economic and social development. We conclude that child maltreatment is a widespread, global phenomenon affecting the lives of millions of children all over the world, which is in sharp contrast with the United Nation's Convention on the Rights of the Child.

  6. Attachment and Early Maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egeland, Byron; Sroufe, L. Alan

    1981-01-01

    Attachment outcomes of 31 maltreatment cases (involving extreme neglect or abuse), selected from a total poverty sample of 267 high-risk mothers and their children, were compared to those of a subsample of 33 cases with a history of excellent care. Attachment was assessed when infants were 12 and 18 months old. (Author/MP)

  7. Childhood Abuse, Chronic Pain, and Depression in the National Comorbidity Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs-Ericsson, Natalie; Kendall-Tackett, Kathleen; Hernandez, Annya

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The current study examined the effects of childhood sexual and physical abuse on reports of pain in men and women (N=1,727). Methods: Data from the National Comorbidity Survey, a nationally representative sample, were utilized. Childhood experiences of physical and sexual abuse were assessed, and pain reports in relation to current…

  8. Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... usually feel better with the right treatment. What Causes Depression? There is no one cause of depression. For ... changes in the brain can affect mood and cause depression. Sometimes, those under a lot of stress, like ...

  9. Influence of interactions between genes and childhood trauma on refractoriness in psychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Sun; Lee, Seung-Hwan

    2016-10-01

    Psychiatric disorders are excellent disease models in which gene-environmental interaction play a significant role in the pathogenesis. Childhood trauma has been known as a significant environmental factor in the progress of, and prognosis for psychiatric illness. Patients with refractory illness usually have more severe symptoms, greater disability, lower quality of life and are at greater risk of suicide than other psychiatric patients. Our literature review uncovered some important clinical factors which modulate response to treatment in psychiatric patients who have experienced childhood trauma. Childhood trauma seems to be a critical determinant of treatment refractoriness in psychotic disorder, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder. In patients with psychotic disorders, the relationship between childhood trauma and treatment-refractoriness appears to be mediated by cognitive impairment. In the case of bipolar disorder, the relationship appears to be mediated by greater affective disturbance and earlier onset, while in major depressive disorder the mediating factors are persistent, severe symptoms and frequent recurrence. In suicidal individuals, childhood maltreatment was associated with violent suicidal attempts. In the case of PTSD patients, it appears that childhood trauma makes the brain more vulnerable to subsequent trauma, thus resulting in more severe, refractory symptoms. Given that several studies have suggested that there are distinct subtypes of genetic vulnerability to childhood trauma, it is important to understand how gene-environment interactions influence the course of psychiatric illnesses in order to improve therapeutic strategies. PMID:26827636

  10. Clarifying the link between childhood abuse history and psychopathic traits in adult criminal offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dargis, Monika; Newman, Joseph; Koenigs, Michael

    2016-07-01

    Childhood abuse is a risk factor for the development of externalizing characteristics and disorders, including antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy. However, the precise relationships between particular types of childhood maltreatment and subsequent antisocial and psychopathic traits remain unclear. Using a large sample of incarcerated adult male criminal offenders (n = 183), the current study confirmed that severity of overall childhood maltreatment was linked to severity of both psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder in adulthood. Moreover, this relationship was particularly strong for physical abuse and the antisocial facet of psychopathy. Sexual abuse history was uniquely related to juvenile conduct disorder severity, rather than adult psychopathy or antisocial behaviors. Additionally, there was a significantly stronger relationship between childhood maltreatment and juvenile conduct disorder than between childhood maltreatment and ASPD or psychopathy. These findings bolster and clarify the link between childhood maltreatment and antisocial behavior later in life. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26389621

  11. Child maltreatment and adult psychopathology in an Irish context.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzhenry, Mark

    2015-07-01

    One-hundred-ninety-nine adult mental health service users were interviewed with a protocol that included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the Structured Clinical Interviews for Axis I and II DSM-IV disorders, the Global Assessment of Functioning scale, the SCORE family assessment measure, the Camberwell Assessment of Need Short Appraisal Schedule, and the Readiness for Psychotherapy Index. Compared to a U.S. normative sample, Irish clinical cases had higher levels of maltreatment. Cases with comorbid axis I and II disorders reported more child maltreatment than those with axis I disorders only. There was no association between types of CM and types of psychopathology. Current family adjustment and service needs (but not global functioning and motivation for psychotherapy) were correlated with a CM history. It was concluded that child maltreatment may contribute to the development of adult psychopathology, and higher levels of trauma are associated with co-morbid personality disorder, greater service needs and poorer family adjustment. A history of child maltreatment should routinely be determined when assessing adult mental health service users, especially those with personality disorders and where appropriate evidence-based psychotherapy which addresses childhood trauma should be offered.

  12. The relationship of depression to childhood abuse and the parental rearing behaviors%儿童期虐待和父母养育方式与抑郁症的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫景新; 周玉萍; 靳陆平; 高晓翠; 楚平华

    2009-01-01

    Objective To explore the relationship of depression to childhood abuse and the parental rearing behaviors.Methods 120 patients with depression and 100 healthy controls were evaluated with personal report of childhood abuse(PRCA)and egma minnen borndoms uppforstran(EMBU),then the data were used to analyze,and the depression state assessed with the 24-item Hamilton rating scale for depression(HAMD).Results The occurrence rate(36.7%)of childhood abused history in depressive patients was significanfly higher than that in healthy controls(9.0%)(P<0.01).Compare with the healthy controls,depressive patients had higher scores in parental punishment and severity,rejection and denial,while had lower scores in parental emotional warmth(17.95±5.72 vs 15.98±4.86,13.89±5.40 vs 11.61±4.19,10.45±3.47 vs 8.02±2.98,13.99±4.85 vs 11.14±3.76,45.34±8.58 vs 49.43±9.21,46.92±10.19 vs 50.17±11.85,all P<0.05).Depression sign were positively correlated to emotional abuse factor.sexual abuse factor,neglect factor,parental punishment and severity,rejection and denim,mother's over interference(r=0.298~0.540,P<0.05 or P<0.01).negatively to parental emotional warm(r=-0.350~-0.508,P,<0.05 or P<0.01).Significant relation exists between emotional abuse,sexual abuse,neglect,total abuse and some factors of the parental rearing behaviors(r=-0.479~0.523,P<0.05 or P<0.01).Conclusion Depressive patients experienced more severe traumatic events during their early life,parental rearing behavior effected childhood abuse,and childhood maltreatment experiences and negative parental rearing behavior have influence on the development of depression.%目的 探讨儿童期虐待和父母养育方式与抑郁症的关系.方法 采用儿童期虐待史自评量表(PRCA)、父母养育方式评价量表(EMBU)对符合入组标准的98例抑郁症患者进行评估,并与100例正常人群进行对照,采用汉密顿抑郁量表(24项,HAMD)评定抑郁症状严重程度.结果 抑

  13. A Preliminary Study of the Influence of Age of Onset and Childhood Trauma on Cortical Thickness in Major Depressive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Jaworska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Major depressive disorder (MDD neural underpinnings may differ based on onset age and childhood trauma. We assessed cortical thickness in patients who differed in age of MDD onset and examined trauma history influence. Methods. Adults with MDD (N=36 and controls (HC; N=18 underwent magnetic resonance imaging. Twenty patients had MDD onset 25 years of age (adult onset. The MDD group was also subdivided into those with (N=12 and without (N=19 physical and/or sexual abuse as assessed by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ. Cortical thickness was analyzed with FreeSurfer software. Results. Thicker frontal pole and a tendency for thinner transverse temporal cortices existed in MDD. The former was driven by the pediatric onset group and abuse history (independently, particularly in the right frontal pole. Inverse correlations existed between CTQ scores and frontal pole cortex thickness. A similar inverse relation existed with left inferior and right superior parietal cortex thickness. The superior temporal cortex tended to be thinner in pediatric versus adult onset groups with childhood abuse. Conclusions. This preliminary work suggests neural differences between pediatric and adult MDD onset. Trauma history also contributes to cytoarchitectural modulation. Thickened frontal pole cortices as a compensatory mechanism in MDD warrant evaluation.

  14. Maternal Depression and Childhood Overweight in the CHAMACOS Study of Mexican-American Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audelo, Jocelyn; Kogut, Katherine; Harley, Kim G; Rosas, Lisa G; Stein, Lauren; Eskenazi, Brenda

    2016-07-01

    Objective Although previous studies have examined the impact of maternal depression on child overweight and obesity, little is known about the relationship in Latino families, who suffer from high risks of depression and obesity. We prospectively investigated the association between depressive symptoms in women with young children and child overweight and obesity (overweight/obesity) at age 7 years among Latino families. Methods Participants included 332 singletons with anthropometric measures obtained at 7 years from the Center for the Health Assessment of Mothers and Children of Salinas (CHAMACOS) study, a birth cohort study. Maternal depression was assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale when the children were 1, 3.5, and 7 years. Overweight and obesity was measured by body mass index (kg/m(2)) at age 7 years. Results 63 % of women had CES-D scores consistent with depression in at least one of the 3 given assessments. Compared to children whose mothers were never depressed, children whose mothers were depressed at all three assessments had 2.4 times the adjusted odds of overweight/obesity at age 7 years (95 % CI 1.1-5.6). However, a single positive maternal depression screen was not associated with child overweight/obesity and there was no difference in the odds of overweight/obesity by the age of the child when maternal depression occurred. Conclusion Chronic maternal depression during a child's early life was associated with child overweight/obesity at 7 years. Addressing maternal depression is a critical component of comprehensive obesity prevention and treatment strategies for Latino children. PMID:27007986

  15. Association Between Depressive Symptoms and Negative Dependent Life Events from Late Childhood to Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Daniel P.; Whisman, Mark A.; Corley, Robin P.; Hewitt, John K.; Rhee, Soo Hyun

    2012-01-01

    The association between stressful life events and depression has been consistently supported in the literature; however, studies of the developmental trajectories of these constructs and the nature of their association over time are limited. We examined trajectories of depressive symptoms and negative dependent life events and the associations between these constructs in a sample of 916 youth assessed annually from age 9 to 16, using latent growth curve modeling. Youth depressive symptoms, as...

  16. Emotion-related information processing biases associated with depression in childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Drummond, Lyndsey Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    Few studies have examined depression in children from an Information Processing (IP) perspective. In this thesis a number of domains of IP (known to be associated with adult depression)are examined in children and adolescents, in particular, autobiographical memory specificity in both clinical and non-clinical samples. Foremost, overgeneral memory (OGM) was found for the first time, to be characteristic of dysphoric (Study 1) and clinically depressed children (Study 2). Similar...

  17. Can an experience of a punishment episode in childhood period be connected with depressive or anxiety conditions in adulthood?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Poljak Lukek

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Punishment, when understood as parents' response to undesirable behavior of a child and representing gradual restricting of such behavior, is an essential part of parents' role in the family. In the context of the paradigm of affective regulation, anxiety and depression states represent another unsuccessful attempt of trying to get closer and to find a connection in the relationship. This study, conducted on 197 participants, addressed the connection between punishment in upbringing and behavior disturbances in adulthood. Depressive states in adulthood were statistically significantly, although weakly connected with the experience of corporal punishment, punishment and restitution, and psychological aggression form both parents. Anxiety states were statistically significantly, although weakly connected with the experience of psychological aggression from both parents and with the experience of corporal punishment, and punishment and restitution of the mother. The participants who attained the criteria for diagnosis of depression were more exposed to corporal punishment at the age of 10 years (from both parents, punishment and restitution (from the father and psychological aggression (from the father compared to the participants without the diagnosis of depression. The paradigm of affective regulation is presented as a possible explanation of the connection between experiences of punishment as a way of upbringing in childhood and later mood disorders in adulthood. Punishment during upbringing that is not accompanied by parents' maintaining of the connection with the child can present the first experience of negative affection, which is the core of anxiety and depressive states. The mood disorders in adulthood can be understood as another failure when trying to reestablish the balance between external information and internal experiences that were primarily disturbed by the experience of punishment when growing up.

  18. Child maltreatment and adult psychopathology in an Irish contex

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzhenry, Mark; Harte, Elizabeth; Carr, Alan; O'Hanrahan, Kevin; White, Megan; Cahill, Paul; et al.

    2015-01-01

    One-hundred-ninety-nine adult mental health service users were interviewed with a protocol that included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, the Structured Clinical Interviews for Axis I and II DSM-IV disorders, the Global Assessment of Functioning scale, the SCORE family assessment measure, the Camberwell Assessment of Need Short Appraisal Schedule, and the Readiness for Psychotherapy Index. Compared to a U.S. normative sample, Irish clinical cases had higher levels of maltreatment. Cases wi...

  19. Environmental and genetic determinants of childhood depression: The roles of DAT1 and the antenatal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, Stephanie; Thompson, John M D; Slykerman, Rebecca; Marlow, Gareth; Wall, Clare; Murphy, Rinki; Ferguson, Lynnette R; Mitchell, Edwin A; Waldie, Karen E

    2016-06-01

    Research on adolescent and adult populations has linked depression to variation in several monoaminergic genes, but genetic association studies on depression in children are limited. Additionally, few studies have investigated whether stressors occurring very early in development moderate the influence of certain genes on depression. The aim of this study was to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from monoaminergic genes interacted with measures of early life stress to influence depressive symptoms in children. Participants were members of the Auckland Birthweight Collaborative cohort. Small for gestational age (SGA) and maternal stress during pregnancy were measured at birth and used as indicators of early life stress. At age 11, depressive symptoms were measured using the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC) and DNA samples were collected for genotyping. A two-way ANOVA revealed that SGA and a SNP from the dopamine transporter gene DAT1 had an interactive effect on children's depressive symptoms. Specifically, symptoms were greater in children born SGA who are T homozygous for the rs1042098 SNP. These findings suggest that adverse intrauterine environments leading to low birth weight also seem to exacerbate the effects of certain DAT1 variants on depression. PMID:26991370

  20. Accounting for Sex Differences in Depression through Female Victimization: Childhood Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, Susan E.; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    1991-01-01

    Depression is nearly twice as prevalent in women as men. Reviews research suggesting that child sexual abuse, also more common for women than for men, can account for a significant portion of the differences in depression rates for men and women and discusses how such abuse affects men and women differently. (CJS)

  1. Association between Depressive Symptoms and Negative Dependent Life Events from Late Childhood to Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Daniel P.; Whisman, Mark A.; Corley, Robin P.; Hewitt, John K.; Rhee, Soo Hyun

    2012-01-01

    The association between stressful life events and depression has been consistently supported in the literature; however, studies of the developmental trajectories of these constructs and the nature of their association over time are limited. We examined trajectories of depressive symptoms and negative dependent life events and the associations…

  2. Parental Depression and Anxiety and Early Childhood Behavior Problems across Family Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Sarah O.; McLanahan, Sara S.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2007-01-01

    Using the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, we examine the association between parental major depressive and generalized anxiety disorders and child behavior problems across family types: married, cohabiting, involved nonresident father, and noninvolved nonresident father. Among 3-year-olds in all families, maternal anxiety/depression is…

  3. The Developmental Origins of Cognitive Vulnerability to Depression: Temperament, Parenting, and Negative Life Events in Childhood as Contributors to Negative Cognitive Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezulis, Amy H.; Hyde, Janet Shibley; Abramson, Lyn Y.

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive models of depression have been well supported with adults, but the developmental origins of cognitive vulnerability are not well understood. The authors hypothesized that temperament, parenting, and negative life events in childhood would contribute to the development of cognitive style, with withdrawal negativity and negative parental…

  4. Interaction Between Childhood Adversity, Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor val/met and Serotonin Transporter Promoter Polymorphism on Depression : The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederhof, E; Bouma, Esther; Oldehinkel, A.J.; Ormel, J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The three-way interaction between the functional polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene linked promoter region, the val66met polymorphism in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene, and childhood adversity in the prediction of depression in children, reported by Kaufman and co

  5. Associations of Childhood Trauma, Trauma in Adulthood and Previous-Year Stress with Psychopathology in Patients with Major Depression and Borderline Personality Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingenfeld, Katja; Schaffrath, Camille; Rullkoetter, Nina; Mensebach, Christoph; Schlosser, Nicole; Beblo, Thomas; Driessen, Martin; Meyer, Bjorn

    2011-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is an important possible outcome of exposure to traumatic events that occur in childhood. However, early traumatic experiences are also an important risk factor for several other mental disorders, such as borderline personality disorder and major depressive disorder. Furthermore, chronic stress, including daily…

  6. Parent Involvement, Parental Depression, and Program Satisfaction among Low-Income Parents Participating in a Two-Generation Early Childhood Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaForett, Dore R.; Mendez, Julia L.

    2010-01-01

    Research Findings: This study simultaneously examined parental depression and parent involvement as predictors of satisfaction with an early childhood intervention program. Parents (N = 203) of Head Start children participated in this short-term longitudinal study. Measures of parent involvement and satisfaction assessed multiple dimensions of…

  7. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Veddel; Bukh, Jens Otto Drachmann

    2014-01-01

    these diagnostic criteria represent an oversimplification, which has blurred the concept of depression. We suggest a greater emphasis on the depressed mood as the core symptom of depression, which may increase the specificity of the diagnosis. Furthermore, basic principles for the treatment of......The prevalence of depression is not clearly established, but estimated to 3-4% in a Danish questionnaire study. Lifetime's prevalences of 12-17% are reported in other community samples. In the current diagnostic system depression is defined categorically and operationally. It has been argued, that...... depression are presented....

  8. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessing, Lars Veddel; Bukh, Jens Drachmann

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of depression is not clearly established, but estimated to 3-4% in a Danish questionnaire study. Lifetime's prevalences of 12-17% are reported in other community samples. In the current diagnostic system depression is defined categorically and operationally. It has been argued, that...... these diagnostic criteria represent an oversimplification, which has blurred the concept of depression. We suggest a greater emphasis on the depressed mood as the core symptom of depression, which may increase the specificity of the diagnosis. Furthermore, basic principles for the treatment of...... depression are presented....

  9. The Impact of Childhood Adversity on the Clinical Features of Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Philip Rajkumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Recent research has drawn attention to the link between childhood maltreatment and schizophrenia. Child abuse and neglect may have an impact on symptoms and physical health in these patients. This association has not been studied to date in India. Materials and Methods. Clinically stable patients with schizophrenia (n=62 were assessed for childhood adversity using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. The association of specific forms of adversity with symptomatology and associated variables was examined. Results. Emotional abuse was reported by 56.5% patients and physical abuse by 33.9%; scores for childhood neglect were also high. Persecutory delusions were linked to physical abuse, while anxiety was linked to emotional neglect and depression to emotional abuse and childhood neglect. Physical abuse was linked to elevated systolic blood pressure, while emotional abuse and neglect in women were linked to being overweight. Conclusions. Childhood adversity is common in schizophrenia and appears to be associated with a specific symptom profile. Certain components of the metabolic syndrome also appear to be related to childhood adversity. These results are subject to certain limitations as they are derived from remitted patients, and no control group was used for measures of childhood adversity.

  10. The association between childhood trauma and facial emotion recognition in adults with bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Manuela; Mahon, Katie; Shanahan, Megan; Solon, Carly; Ramjas, Elizabeth; Turpin, Justin; E Burdick, Katherine

    2015-10-30

    Many patients with bipolar disorder (BD) have difficulties in facial emotion recognition, which may also be impaired in maltreated children and in subjects who have a positive history of childhood traumatic experiences. Childhood trauma is reported with a high prevalence in BD and it is considered a risk factor for the disorder. As the relationship between facial emotion recognition and childhood trauma in BD has not yet been directly investigated, in this study we examined whether the presence of a childhood trauma in affectively stable BD patients was associated with poorer performance in emotion recognition. Seventy-five BD I and II participants completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire retrospectively assessing five types of childhood trauma (emotional, physical and sexual abuse, and emotional and physical neglect) and the Emotion Recognition Task evaluating the ability to correctly identify six basic facial emotions (happiness, sadness, anger, disgust, fear and surprise). Our results suggest that the presence of childhood trauma in participants with BD is associated with a more severe clinical presentation (earlier onset, longer duration of illness, and higher depressive symptom ratings) and that BD patients with a positive childhood history of emotional neglect perform worse than those without such a history in recognizing anger. PMID:26272021

  11. The 'Maltreatment and Abuse Chronology of Exposure' (MACE scale for the retrospective assessment of abuse and neglect during development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin H Teicher

    Full Text Available There is increasing interest in childhood maltreatment as a potent stimulus that may alter trajectories of brain development, induce epigenetic modifications and enhance risk for medical and psychiatric disorders. Although a number of useful scales exist for retrospective assessment of abuse and neglect they have significant limitations. Moreover, they fail to provide detailed information on timing of exposure, which is critical for delineation of sensitive periods. The Maltreatment and Abuse Chronology of Exposure (MACE scale was developed in a sample of 1051 participants using item response theory to gauge severity of exposure to ten types of maltreatment (emotional neglect, non-verbal emotional abuse, parental physical maltreatment, parental verbal abuse, peer emotional abuse, peer physical bullying, physical neglect, sexual abuse, witnessing interparental violence and witnessing violence to siblings during each year of childhood. Items included in the subscales had acceptable psychometric properties based on infit and outfit mean square statistics, and each subscale passed Andersen's Likelihood ratio test. The MACE provides an overall severity score and multiplicity score (number of types of maltreatment experienced with excellent test-retest reliability. Each type of maltreatment showed good reliability as did severity of exposure across each year of childhood. MACE Severity correlated 0.738 with Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ score and MACE Multiplicity correlated 0.698 with the Adverse Childhood Experiences scale (ACE. However, MACE accounted for 2.00- and 2.07-fold more of the variance, on average, in psychiatric symptom ratings than CTQ or ACE, respectively, based on variance decomposition. Different types of maltreatment had distinct and often unique developmental patterns. The 52-item MACE, a simpler Maltreatment Abuse and Exposure Scale (MAES that only assesses overall exposure and the original test instrument (MACE-X with

  12. Child maltreatment and problem gambling: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Wendy; Sacco, Paul; Downton, Katherine; Ludeman, Emilie; Levy, Lauren; Tracy, J Kathleen

    2016-08-01

    This study systematically reviews research on child maltreatment and risk of gambling problems in adulthood. It also reviews adult problem gamblers' risk of abusing or neglecting their own children. Multiple database searches were conducted using pre-defined search terms related to gambling and child abuse and neglect. We identified 601 unique references and excluded studies if they did not report original research, or did not specifically measure child maltreatment or gambling. Twelve studies that included multivariable analysis of childhood maltreatment exposure and problem gambling were identified. Six of seven studies examining childhood sexual abuse and four of five examining physical abuse showed a significant positive association between abuse and later gambling problems (odds ratios for sexual abuse 2.01-3.65; physical abuse 2.3-2.8). Both studies examining psychological maltreatment and two of three examining neglect identified positive associations with problem gambling. In most studies, risks were reduced or eliminated when controlling for other mental health disorders. The three studies measuring risk of child abuse and neglect among current problem gamblers suggest an increased risk for child physical abuse and medical conditions indicative of neglect although there is a considerable amount of variation among studies. Child abuse is associated with increased risk of gambling problems - gambling treatment providers should ask about maltreatment history as part of their clinical assessment. Problem gamblers may be more likely to physically abuse or neglect their children, but data here are more limited. Child welfare professionals should consider asking questions about parental gambling when assessing family risk. PMID:27337693

  13. Maternal Psychological Control, Use of Supportive Parenting, and Childhood Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazer, Andrew L; Fite, Paula J

    2016-06-01

    The current study, operating from a stress-process framework, examined the interactive effects of supportive parenting practices (i.e., mothers' use of positive communication, positive parenting, and parental involvement) and maternal psychological control on mother- and child-reported child depressive symptoms in a community-recruited sample of 9-12 year-olds. Discrepancies between reports of depressive symptoms were also examined. Maternal psychological control was uniquely associated with child-, not mother-, reported depressive symptoms. Parental involvement was uniquely associated with mother-, not child-, reported depressive symptoms. Positive parent-child communication was associated with both reports of child depressive symptoms at the bivariate level, but not when unique associations were examined. Positive parenting was unrelated to either report of depressive symptoms. No interaction effects were detected. The current findings highlight the differential importance of parenting practices on child depressive symptoms, and also indicate the necessity of gathering both parent and child reports of symptomatology and family functioning. PMID:26266466

  14. Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or more of the following: Your genes. Sometimes depression is hereditary, meaning it runs in your family. If you have a parent or sibling who has depression, you may be more at risk for having ...

  15. The severity of Internet addiction risk and its relationship with the severity of borderline personality features, childhood traumas, dissociative experiences, depression and anxiety symptoms among Turkish university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbudak, Ercan; Evren, Cuneyt; Aldemir, Secil; Evren, Bilge

    2014-11-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of Internet addiction (IA) risk with the severity of borderline personality features, childhood traumas, dissociative experiences, depression and anxiety symptoms among Turkish university students. A total of 271 Turkish university students participated in this study. The students were assessed through the Internet Addiction Scale (IAS), the Borderline Personality Inventory (BPI), the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ-28), the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI). The rates of students were 19.9% (n=54) in the high IA risk group, 38.7% (n=105) in the mild IA risk group and 41.3% (n=112) in the group without IA risk. Correlation analyses revealed that the severity of IA risk was related with BPI, DES, emotional abuse, CTQ-28, depression and anxiety scores. Univariate covariance analysis (ANCOVA) indicated that the severity of borderline personality features, emotional abuse, depression and anxiety symptoms were the predictors of IAS score, while gender had no effect on IAS score. Among childhood trauma types, emotional abuse seems to be the main predictor of IA risk severity. Borderline personality features predicted the severity of IA risk together with emotional abuse, depression and anxiety symptoms among Turkish university students. PMID:25023365

  16. Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Grace Sherry L; Gucciardi Enza; Stewart Donna E

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Health Issue Depression causes significant distress or impairment in physical, social, occupational and other key areas of functioning. Women are approximately twice as likely as men to experience depression. Psychosocial factors likely mediate the risks for depression incurred by biological influences. Key Findings Data from the 1999 National Population Health Survey show that depression is more common among Canadian women, with an annual self-reported incidence of 5.7% compared wit...

  17. Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Stewart, Donna E.; Gucciardi, Enza; Grace, Sherry L.

    2004-01-01

    Health Issue Depression causes significant distress or impairment in physical, social, occupational and other key areas of functioning. Women are approximately twice as likely as men to experience depression. Psychosocial factors likely mediate the risks for depression incurred by biological influences. Key Findings Data from the 1999 National Population Health Survey show that depression is more common among Canadian women, with an annual self-reported incidence of 5.7% compared with 2.9% in...

  18. Child maltreatment: Abuse and neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengü Pala

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Each year, millions of children around the world are the victims and witnesses of physical, sexual and emotional violence. Child maltreatment is a major global problem with a serious impact on the victims’ physical and mental health, well-being and development throughout their lives and, by extension, on society in general. Family physicians who are involved in the care of children are likely to encounter child abuse and should be able to recognize its common presentations. There is sufficient evidence that child maltreatment can be prevented. The ultimate goal is to stop child maltreatment before it starts.In this paper, the characteristics of the perpetrators and victims of child maltreatment, maltreatment types, risk factors, differential diagnosis and discuss about strategies for preventing were summarized.

  19. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cizza, G; Ravn, Pernille; Chrousos, G P;

    2001-01-01

    Existing studies of the relationship between depression and osteoporosis have been heterogeneous in their design and use of diagnostic instruments for depression, which might have contributed to the different results on the comorbidity of these two conditions. Nevertheless, these studies reveal a...... strong association between depression and osteoporosis. Endocrine factors such as depression-induced hypersecretion of corticotropin-releasing hormone and hypercortisolism, hypogonadism, growth hormone deficiency and increased concentration of circulating interleukin 6, might play a crucial role in the...... bone loss observed in subjects suffering from major depression....

  20. Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse in Depressed Patients with Single and Multiple Suicide Attempts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andover, Margaret S.; Zlotnick, Caron; Miller, Ivan W.

    2007-01-01

    Research has shown both childhood physical and sexual abuse to be associated with later suicide attempts, although some studies have not supported these findings. However, few studies have investigated differences in physical and sexual abuse histories among single and multiple suicide attempters. The goals of the current study were two-fold: (a)…

  1. Psychological Symptoms of Sexually Victimized Children and Adolescents Compared With Other Maltreatment Subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Münzer, Annika; Fegert, Jörg M; Goldbeck, Lutz

    2016-04-01

    The differential effects of sexual victimization and other forms of maltreatment on psychological functioning are not well understood. A sample of sexually victimized children and adolescents (N = 70; 6.3-17.9 years) and a group of youth with a history of nonsexual maltreatment (N = 108; 6.7-16.9 years) were compared using measures of mental health and psychosocial functioning. Assessments included standardized clinical interviews on individual maltreatment history and current psychopathology as well as questionnaires on behavioral and emotional symptoms, including posttraumatic stress symptoms. The results from this study suggest that the risk of experiencing any current mental disorders was independent of type of maltreatment. The risk of meeting the criteria for a current diagnosis of major depression, however, is greater among youth with a history of maltreatment that includes sexual victimization. The significant impact of sexual victimization on posttraumatic stress symptoms was found to be nonsignificant after controlling for age and gender effects. The results indicate that the outcomes of child maltreatment depend on type of maltreatment, but age and gender must be taken into account. PMID:27135385

  2. Effects of Parenting Programs on Child Maltreatment Prevention: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mengtong; Chan, Ko Ling

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of parenting programs in reducing child maltreatment and modifying associated factors as well as to examine the moderator variables that are linked to program effects. For this meta-analysis, we searched nine electronic databases to identify randomized controlled trials published before September 2013. The effect sizes of various outcomes at different time points were computed. From the 3,578 studies identified, we selected 37 studies for further analysis. The total random effect size was 0.296. Our results showed that parenting programs successfully reduced substantiated and self-reported child maltreatment reports and reduced the potential for child maltreatment. The programs also reduced risk factors and enhanced protective factors associated with child maltreatment. However, the effects of the parenting programs on reducing parental depression and stress were limited. Parenting programs produced positive effects in low-, middle-, and high-income countries and were effective in reducing child maltreatment when applied as primary, secondary, or tertiary child maltreatment intervention. In conclusion, parenting programs are effective public health approaches to reduce child maltreatment. The evidence-based service of parenting programs could be widely adopted in future practice. PMID:25573846

  3. Investigating the effects of child maltreatment and household dysfunction on child physical development in a British birth cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Denholm, R. E.

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests adverse childhood experiences (maltreatment and household dysfunction) may have long-term effects on adult health. One possible pathway is through physical development. This thesis investigated the prevalence of child maltreatment and household dysfunction in a population sample, and assessed their association with child-to-adult height and pubertal development. The 1958 British birth cohort includes all children (≈17,000) born in one week, March 1958, followed-up to ...

  4. Preventing Early Child Maltreatment: Implications from a Longitudinal Study of Maternal Abuse History, Substance Use Problems, and Offspring Victimization

    OpenAIRE

    Appleyard, Karen; Berlin, Lisa J.; Rosanbalm, Katherine D.; Dodge, Kenneth A.

    2011-01-01

    In the interest of improving child maltreatment prevention science, this longitudinal, community based study of 499 mothers and their infants tested the hypothesis that mothers’ childhood history of maltreatment would predict maternal substance use problems, which in turn would predict offspring victimization. Mothers (35% White/non-Latina, 34% Black/non-Latina, 23% Latina, 7% other) were recruited and interviewed during pregnancy, and child protective services records were reviewed for the p...

  5. Risk factors of parents abused as children: a mediational analysis of the intergenerational continuity of child maltreatment (Part I)

    OpenAIRE

    Dixon, Louise; Browne, Kevin; Hamilton-Giachritsis, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study provides an exploration of factors implicated in the intergenerational cycle of child maltreatment. Families with newborns where at least one of the parents was physically and/or sexually abused as a child (AP families) were compared in terms of risk factors to families where the parents had no childhood history of victimization (NAP families). The mediational properties of risk factors in the intergenerational cycle of maltreatment were then explored. METHODS: Infor...

  6. Perinatal depression

    OpenAIRE

    Alhusen, Jeanne L.; Alvarez, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Perinatal depression is a common condition with significant adverse maternal, fetal, neonatal, and early childhood outcomes. The perinatal period is an opportune time to screen, diagnose, and treat depression. Improved recognition of perinatal depression, particularly among low-income women, can lead to improved perinatal health outcomes.

  7. Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cycle Depression and insomnia References American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. ...

  8. Developmental pathways from child maltreatment to adolescent marijuana dependence: Examining moderation by FK506 binding protein 5 gene (FKBP5).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Elizabeth D; Rogosch, Fred A; Cicchetti, Dante

    2015-11-01

    The current study examined the prospective association between child maltreatment and the development of substance use disorder in adolescence with the aim of investigating pathways underlying this relation, as well as genetic moderation of these developmental mechanisms. Specifically, we tested whether youth who experienced maltreatment prior to age 8 were at risk for the development of marijuana dependence in adolescence by way of a childhood externalizing pathway and a childhood internalizing pathway. Moreover, we tested whether variation in FK506 binding protein 5 gene (FKBP5) CATT haplotype moderated these pathways. The participants were 326 children (n =179 maltreated; n = 147 nonmaltreated) assessed across two waves of data collection (childhood: ages 7-9 and adolescence: ages 15-18). Results indicated that higher levels of child externalizing symptoms significantly mediated the effect of child maltreatment on adolescent marijuana dependence symptoms for individuals with one or two copies of the FKBP5 CATT haplotype only. We did not find support for an internalizing pathway from child maltreatment to adolescent marijuana dependence, nor did we find evidence of moderation of the internalizing pathway by FKBP5 haplotype variation. Findings extend previous research by demonstrating that whether a maltreated child will traverse an externalizing pathway toward substance use disorder in adolescence is dependent on FKBP5 genetic variation. PMID:26535939

  9. Loneliness and Depression in Middle and Late Childhood: The Relationship to Attachment and Parental Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richaud de Minzi, Maria Cristina

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the author analyzed the relationship between (a) parenting and attachment and (b) self-competence, loneliness, and depression in children aged 8-12 years. The author administered (a) the Argentine Scale of Perception of the Relationships with Parents (M. C. Richaud de Minzi, 2004), (b) the Kerns' Security Scale (K. A. Kerns, L.…

  10. Depressive Tendencies in Childhood and Adolescence as Defined by Process-Oriented Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gudmund J. W.; Danielsson, Anna

    An attempt to operationally define depressive retardation in 72 inpatients aged 4-16 used two percept-genetic tests. In a serial visual afterimage (AI) test retardation was defined as a successive reduction of AI size, and in a serial tachistoscopic presentation using the meta-contrast technique (MCT) it was seen as stereotyped repetitions of…

  11. A Feasibility Study of the Childhood Depression Medication Algorithm: The Texas Children's Medication Algorithm Project (Cmap)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emslie, Graham J.; Hughes, Carroll W.; Crismon, M. Lynn; Lopez, Molly; Pliszka, Steve; Toprac, Marcia G.; Boemer, Christine

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility and impact on clinical response and function associated with the use of an algorithm-driven disease management program (ALGO) for children and adolescents treated for depression with or without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in community mental health centers. Method: Interventions included…

  12. Comorbid Depression and Anxiety in Childhood and Adolescent Anorexia Nervosa: Prevalence and Implications for Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Elizabeth K.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Comorbid conditions are common in individuals with anorexia nervosa (AN) and can raise issues for diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment planning. Methods: First, reported prevalence rates for depression and anxiety in children and adolescents with AN were reviewed. Diagnostic issues and current understanding of the temporal onset and…

  13. Child maltreatment in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhi, Pratibha; Saini, Arushi Gahlot; Malhi, Prabhjot

    2013-11-01

    Child maltreatment is a global problem but is more difficult to assess and manage in developing countries such as India where one-fifth of the world's total child population resides. Certain forms of maltreatment such as feticide, infanticide, abandonment, child labour, street-begging, corporal punishment and battered babies are particularly prevalent in India. Most physicians still need to be sensitized in order to suspect child abuse on the basis of unexplained trauma, multiple fractures, parental conflict and other corroborative evidence. This article summarizes the various aspects of this major problem in resource-poor settings in the hope that it will assist in the planning of services addressing child physical and sexual abuse and neglect in India and in other developing countries. A culture of non-violence towards children needs to be built into communities in order to provide an environment conducive to the overall development of the child. Rehabilitation of abused children and their families requires a multi-disciplinary service including paediatricians, child psychologists and social workers, and the training of police forces in how to tackle the problem. PMID:24070123

  14. Depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Jon O. J.

    2013-01-01

    Nyhederne er fulde af historier om depression. Overskrifter som: ’Danskerne propper sig med lykkepiller’ eller ‘depression er stadigvæk tabu’ går tit igen i dagspressen. Men hvor er nuancerne, og hvorfor gider vi læse de samme historier igen og igen? Måske er det fordi, vores egne forestillinger er...

  15. Intimate Partner Violence and Child Maltreatment: Understanding Intra- and Intergenerational Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Lynette M.; Slack, Kristen Shook

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to assess the extent to which intimate partner violence and different forms of child maltreatment occur within and across childhood and adulthood for a high-risk group of women. Method: Low-income adult women were interviewed, retrospectively, regarding their experiences with intimate partner violence and…

  16. Early Child Maltreatment, Runaway Youths, and Risk of Delinquency and Victimization in Adolescence: A Mediational Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jung; Tajima, Emiko A.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Huang, Bu

    2009-01-01

    This article examines whether running away from home mediates the link between child maltreatment and later delinquency and victimization in adolescence. Specifically, the authors tested the hypothesis that childhood physical and psychological abuse increase the risk of a child's running away from home by the time of adolescence. Running away from…

  17. Child Maltreatment History among Newlywed Couples: A Longitudinal Study of Marital Outcomes and Mediating Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiLillo, David; Peugh, James; Walsh, Kate; Panuzio, Jillian; Trask, Emily; Evans, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Participants included 202 newlywed couples who reported retrospectively about child maltreatment experiences (sexual abuse, physical abuse, psychological abuse, and neglect) and whose marital functioning was assessed 3 times over a 2-year period. Decreased marital satisfaction at T1 was predicted by childhood physical abuse, psychological abuse,…

  18. Psychological Maltreatment in Relation to Substance Use Problem Severity among Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkranz, Susan E.; Muller, Robert T.; Henderson, Joanna L.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Research has demonstrated that experiences of childhood maltreatment are prevalent in the life histories of youth with substance use problems; however, most of this research has focused on sexual or physical abuse. The purpose of the current study was to extend the scope of previous investigations to include psychological maltreatment…

  19. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Adult Smoking, Nebraska, 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Yeoman, Kristin; Safranek, Thomas; Buss, Bryan; Cadwell, Betsy L.; Mannino, David

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Smoking is a public health risk; the prevalence of smoking among adults in Nebraska is 18.4%. Studies indicate that maltreatment of children alters their brain development, possibly increasing risk for tobacco use. Previous studies have documented associations between childhood maltreatment and adult health behaviors, demonstrating the influence of adverse experiences on tobacco use. We examined prevalence and associations between adverse childhood experiences and smoking among N...

  20. Early Child Maltreatment, Runaway Youths, and Risk of Delinquency and Victimization in Adolescence: A Mediational Model

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Min Jung; Tajima, Emiko A.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Huang, Bu

    2009-01-01

    This article examines whether running away from home mediates the link between child maltreatment and later delinquency and victimization in adolescence. Specifically, the authors tested the hypothesis that childhood physical and psychological abuse increase the risk of a child's running away from home by the time of adolescence. Running away from home is, in turn, hypothesized to increase the risk of delinquency and victimization. Childhood sexual abuse, modeled independently of physical and...

  1. Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse in Caribbean Young Adults and Its Association with Depression, Post-Traumatic Stress, and Skin Bleaching

    OpenAIRE

    James, Caryl; Seixas, Azizi A; Harrison, Abigail; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Butler, Mark; Zizi, Ferdinand; Samuels, Alafia

    2015-01-01

    Background The global prevalence of skin depigmentation/skin bleaching among blacks, estimated at 35%, is on the rise and is associated with a host of negative health and medical consequences. Current etiological approaches do not fully capture the emotional and psychological underpinnings of skin bleaching. The current study investigated the potential mediating role of depression, or post-traumatic stress symptoms (avoidance and hyperarousal) on the relationship between childhood physical an...

  2. Association of socioeconomic status in childhood with major depression and generalized anxiety disorder: results from the World Mental Health Japan survey 2002–2006

    OpenAIRE

    Ochi, Manami; Fujiwara, Takeo; Mizuki, Rie; Kawakami, Norito

    2014-01-01

    Background Low socioeconomic status (SES) in childhood is known to be a significant risk factor for mental disorders in Western societies. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether a similar association exists in Japan. Methods We used data from the World Mental Health Japan Survey conducted from 2002–2006 (weighted N = 1,682). Respondents completed diagnostic interviews that assessed lifetime prevalence of major depression (MD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), as defined by...

  3. Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the brain. There are a variety of causes, including genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. Depression can happen at any age, but it often begins in teens and young adults. It is much more common in women. Women ...

  4. Depressants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... treatment of insomnia that share many of the properties of benzodiazepines. Other CNS depressants include meprobamate, methaqualone ( ... they are prescribed for to put you to sleep, relieve anxiety and muscle spasms, and prevent seizures. ...

  5. Depressants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other long-term effects include: impaired sexual function insomnia and other sleep problems breathing problems convulsions (similar to seizures) depression and other mental health issues continue Other Possible Problems Taking too much ...

  6. Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... caring for children and aging parents, abuse, and poverty may trigger depression in some people. Medical illness – ... and places that can help you get treatment. Family doctor Counselors or social workers Family service, social ...

  7. Emotional but not physical maltreatment is independently related to psychopathology in subjects with various degrees of social anxiety: a web-based internet survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iffland Benjamin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies reported that social phobia is associated with a history of child maltreatment. However, most of these studies focused on physical and sexual maltreatment whilst little is known about the specific impact of emotional abuse and neglect on social anxiety. We examined the association between emotional maltreatment, including parental emotional maltreatment as well as emotional peer victimization, and social anxiety symptoms in subjects with various degrees of social anxiety. Methods The study was conducted as a web-based Internet survey of participants (N = 995 who had social anxiety symptoms falling within the high range, and including many respondents who had scores in the clinical range. The assessment included measures of child maltreatment, emotional peer victimization, social anxiety symptoms and general psychopathology. Results Regression and mediation analyses revealed that parental emotional maltreatment and emotional peer victimization were independently related to social anxiety and mediated the impact of physical and sexual maltreatment. Subjects with a history of childhood emotional maltreatment showed higher rates of psychopathology than subjects with a history of physical maltreatment. Conclusions Although our findings are limited by the use of an Internet survey and retrospective self-report measures, data indicated that social anxiety symptoms are mainly predicted by emotional rather than physical or sexual types of victimization.

  8. Risk of maltreatment-related injury: a cross-sectional study of children under five years old admitted to hospital with a head or neck injury or fracture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Jonathan Lee

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine the predictive value and sensitivity of demographic features and injuries (indicators for maltreatment-related codes in hospital discharge records of children admitted with a head or neck injury or fracture. METHODS: STUDY DESIGN: Population-based, cross sectional study. SETTING: NHS hospitals in England. SUBJECTS: Children under five years old admitted acutely to hospital with head or neck injury or fracture. DATA SOURCE: Hospital Episodes Statistics, 1997 to 2009. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Maltreatment-related injury admissions, defined by ICD10 codes, were used to calculate for each indicator (demographic feature and/or type of injury: i the predictive value (proportion of injury admissions that were maltreatment-related; ii sensitivity (proportion of all maltreatment-related injury admissions with the indicator. RESULTS: Of 260,294 childhood admissions for fracture or head or neck injury, 3.2% (8,337 were maltreatment-related. With increasing age of the child, the predictive value for maltreatment-related injury declined but sensitivity increased. Half of the maltreatment-related admissions occurred in children older than one year, and 63% occurred in children with head injuries without fractures or intracranial injury. CONCLUSIONS: Highly predictive injuries accounted for very few maltreatment-related admissions. Protocols that focus on high-risk injuries may miss the majority of maltreated children.

  9. Development of a Childhood Attachment and Relational Trauma Screen (CARTS: a relational-socioecological framework for surveying attachment security and childhood trauma history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A. Frewen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background : Current psychometric measures of childhood trauma history generally fail to assess the relational-socioecological context within which childhood maltreatment occurs, including the relationship of abusers to abused persons, the emotional availability of caregivers, and the respondent's own thoughts, feelings, and actions in response to maltreatment. Objective : To evaluate a computerized approach to measuring the relational-socioecological context within which childhood maltreatment occurs. Method : The psychometric properties of a Childhood Attachment and Relational Trauma Screen (CARTS were evaluated as a retrospective survey of childhood maltreatment history designed to be appropriate for completion by adults. Participants were undergraduates (n=222, an internet sample (n=123, and psychiatric outpatients (n=30. Results : The internal reliability, convergent, and concurrent validity of the CARTS were supported across samples. Paired differences in means and correlations between rated item-descriptiveness to self, mothers, and fathers also accorded with findings of prior attachment and maltreatment research, illustrating the utility of assessing the occurrence and effects of maltreatment within a relational-socioecological framework. Conclusions : Results preliminarily support a new survey methodology for assessing childhood maltreatment within a relational-socioecological framework. Further psychometric evaluation of the CARTS is warranted.

  10. Loneliness and depression in middle and late childhood: the relationship to attachment and parental styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richaud de Minzi, María Cristina

    2006-06-01

    In this study, the author analyzed the relationship between (a) parenting and attachment and (b) self-competence, loneliness, and depression in children aged 8-12 years. The author administered (a) the Argentine Scale of Perception of the Relationships with Parents (M. C. Richaud de Minzi, 2004), (b) the Kerns' Security Scale (K. A. Kerns, L. Klepac, & A. K. Cole, 1996; M. C. Richaud de Minzi, C. Sacchi, & J. E. Moreno, 2001, Argentine adaptation), (c) the Self-Perception Profile for Children (S. Harter, 1985; M. C. Richaud de Minzi et al.), (d) the Dimensions of Depression Profile for Children and Adolescents (S. Harter & M. Nowakowski, 1987), and (e) the Louvain Loneliness Scale for Children and Adolescents (A. Marcoen, L. Goossens, & P. Caes, 1987; M. C. Richaud de Minzi et al.) to 1,019 children (8-12 years of age, 483 boys, 536 girls). Results indicated that attachment and parent-child relationship styles were differentiated constructs. Parents' acceptance promoted secure attachment and positive outcomes in children. Moreover, fathers' lack of interest had a marked negative effect. The author found differences in the perceptions and influences of fathers and mothers, which follow the cultural patterns of gender attribution. PMID:16910210

  11. Teachers' Awareness of Child and Adolescent Maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyome, Nancy Dodge; Gaeddert, William

    1998-01-01

    Investigated teachers' knowledge of child and adolescent maltreatment and scenarios. Teacher ratings of the seriousness of depictions of different forms of maltreatment indicated that teachers tended to possess more knowledge about maltreatment of children than adolescents and tended to feel that adolescent sexual abuse was the most serious form…

  12. Not All Bad Treatment Is Psychological Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbarino, James

    2011-01-01

    One of the conceptual and definitional issues that has plagued the study of child maltreatment is the relationship between intention and outcome. This paper flows from the finding that the common developmentally destructive element in all forms of child maltreatment is psychological maltreatment, that the study of child abuse and neglect is the…

  13. Maltreatment and mental health in institutional care--comparing early and late institutionalized children in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermenau, Katharin; Hecker, Tobias; Elbert, Thomas; Ruf-Leuschner, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown the harmful potential of institutional care on young children; however, little is known about the consequences of institutional care on infants in Sub-Saharan Africa. We compared 35 Tanzanian children who were institutionalized at birth to 4 years of age with a matched group of 35 children who were institutionalized at 5 to 14 years of age. We examined adverse childhood experiences over the course of their entire lives, in their family of origin and in institutional care, and mental health problems at primary school age, such as depressive symptoms, aggressive behavior, and internalizing and externalizing problems. Results showed that early institutionalized children reported more adverse experiences during their time in institutional care and a greater variety of mental health problems than did late institutionalized children. Moreover, maltreatment in institutional care was positively related to mental health problems only in early institutionalized children. We conclude that adverse experiences in institutional care play an important role for early institutionalized children who need special care from adequately educated caregivers. Therefore, training concepts focusing on the needs of the youngest children have to be developed, tested, and established. Countries such as Tanzania need policies that apply to all orphanages to ensure an adequate standard of quality in childcare. PMID:25798516

  14. Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to get better. Not a Normal Part of Aging Click for more information Depression is a common problem among older adults, but it is NOT a ... Z | videos A-Z | training | about us | contact us | site map National Institute on Aging | U.S. National Library of Medicine | National Institutes of ...

  15. Culture as a mediator of gene-environment interaction: Cultural consonance, childhood adversity, a 2A serotonin receptor polymorphism, and depression in urban Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, William W; Balieiro, Mauro C; Ferreira de Araújo, Luiza; Silva, Wilson A; Ernesto Dos Santos, José

    2016-07-01

    Research on gene-environment interaction was facilitated by breakthroughs in molecular biology in the late 20th century, especially in the study of mental health. There is a reliable interaction between candidate genes for depression and childhood adversity in relation to mental health outcomes. The aim of this paper is to explore the role of culture in this process in an urban community in Brazil. The specific cultural factor examined is cultural consonance, or the degree to which individuals are able to successfully incorporate salient cultural models into their own beliefs and behaviors. It was hypothesized that cultural consonance in family life would mediate the interaction of genotype and childhood adversity. In a study of 402 adult Brazilians from diverse socioeconomic backgrounds, conducted from 2011 to 2014, the interaction of reported childhood adversity and a polymorphism in the 2A serotonin receptor was associated with higher depressive symptoms. Further analysis showed that the gene-environment interaction was mediated by cultural consonance in family life, and that these effects were more pronounced in lower social class neighborhoods. The findings reinforce the role of the serotonergic system in the regulation of stress response and learning and memory, and how these processes in turn interact with environmental events and circumstances. Furthermore, these results suggest that gene-environment interaction models should incorporate a wider range of environmental experience and more complex pathways to better understand how genes and the environment combine to influence mental health outcomes. PMID:27270123

  16. The Relationship between Childhood Traumatic Experiences and Adolescent Depression%童年期创伤性经历与青少年抑郁症的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宫翠风; 王惠萍; 尉秀峰; 李涛; 林聪聪; 贾婧萍

    2016-01-01

    Objective :To investigate the effect of traumatic experiences in childhood on the incidence of depression in adolescents .Methods :SDS and HRSD were measured in 200 adolescents with depression ,and 136 patients were se‐lected for questionnaire survey .130 healthy high school students were selected as the control group .Results :The ado‐lescent depression attacked before more trauma ,and traumatic childhood experiences and adolescent depression inci‐dence were positively correlated (r = 6 .42 ,P < 0 .01) .Conclusion :Childhood traumatic experience is very big ,it is the main factor leading to depression .Therefore ,it is significant to reduce the psychological trauma in childhood .%目的:了解青少年抑郁患者童年期的创伤性经历对青少年抑郁症发病的影响。方法:对200名青少年抑郁症患者进行抑郁自评量表(SDS)和汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HRSD)测量,选取符合抑郁发作诊断标准、抑郁程度在重度以上的患者136名进行问卷调查,组成研究组。同时,选取130名心理健康的高中学生作为对照组。采用儿童期创伤性经历问卷对两组被试分别进行调查,并采用回归方式对数据进行分析。结果:青少年抑郁发病前有较多的创伤经历,童年期的创伤性经历与青少年抑郁症的发病率呈正相关(r =6.42,P <0.01)。结论:童年期创伤性经历对青少年心理健康影响非常大,是导致青少年罹患抑郁发作的主要因素。

  17. Maternal postpartum distress and childhood overweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ajslev, Teresa A; Andersen, Camilla S; Ingstrup, Katja G;

    2010-01-01

    We investigated associations between maternal postpartum distress covering anxiety, depression and stress and childhood overweight.......We investigated associations between maternal postpartum distress covering anxiety, depression and stress and childhood overweight....

  18. The ‘Maltreatment and Abuse Chronology of Exposure’ (MACE) Scale for the Retrospective Assessment of Abuse and Neglect During Development

    OpenAIRE

    Martin H Teicher; Angelika Parigger

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing interest in childhood maltreatment as a potent stimulus that may alter trajectories of brain development, induce epigenetic modifications and enhance risk for medical and psychiatric disorders. Although a number of useful scales exist for retrospective assessment of abuse and neglect they have significant limitations. Moreover, they fail to provide detailed information on timing of exposure, which is critical for delineation of sensitive periods. The Maltreatment and Abuse...

  19. Depression in Children and Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Return to Web version Depression in Children and Teens Depression in Children and Teens How are the symptoms ... aafp.org/afp/20001115/2297.html) Childhood and Adolescent Depression by SK Bhatia, M.D., and SC Bhatia, ...

  20. Childhood adversity, perceived discrimination, and coping strategies in relation to depressive symptoms among First Nations adults in Canada: The moderating role of unsupportive social interactions from ingroup and outgroup members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuaid, Robyn Jane; Bombay, Amy; McInnis, Opal Arilla; Matheson, Kimberly; Anisman, Hymie

    2015-07-01

    Aboriginal peoples are at greater risk of experiencing early life adversity relative to non-Aboriginal peoples in Canada, and as adults frequently experience high levels of discrimination that act as a further stressor. Although these factors appear to contribute to high rates of depressive disorders and suicidality in Aboriginal peoples, the psychosocial factors that contribute to the relationship between childhood adversity and the development of depressive symptoms have hardly been assessed in this group. The present investigation explored potential mediators to help explain the relation between childhood trauma and depressive symptoms among a sample of First Nations adults from across Canada. These mediated relationships were further examined in the context of unsupportive social interactions from ingroup and outgroup members. In Study 1, (N = 225), the relationship between childhood trauma and depression scores was mediated by perceived discrimination, and this was particularly notable in the presence of unsupportive relations with outgroup members. In Study 2, (N = 134) the relationship between childhood trauma and depressive symptoms was mediated by emotion-focused coping that was specific to coping with experiences of ethnic discrimination, and this mediated effect was moderated by both outgroup and ingroup unsupportive social interactions. Thus, it seems that experiences of discrimination and unsupport might contribute to depressive symptoms among First Nations adults who had experienced early life adverse events. PMID:25090152

  1. Improving care quality and preventing maltreatment in institutional care - a feasibility study with caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermenau, Katharin; Kaltenbach, Elisa; Mkinga, Getrude; Hecker, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Institutionalized children in low-income countries often face maltreatment and inadequate caregiving. In addition to prior traumatization and other childhood adversities in the family of origin, abuse and neglect in institutional care are linked to various mental health problems. By providing a manualized training workshop for caregivers, we aimed at improving care quality and preventing maltreatment in institutional care. In Study 1, 29 participating caregivers rated feasibility and efficacy of the training immediately before, directly after, and 3 months following the training workshop. The results showed high demand, good feasibility, high motivation, and acceptance of caregivers. They reported improvements in caregiver-child relationships, as well as in the children's behavior. Study 2 assessed exposure to maltreatment and the mental health of 28 orphans living in one institution in which all caregivers had been trained. The children were interviewed 20 months before, 1 month before, and 3 months after the training. Children reported a decrease in physical maltreatment and assessments showed a decrease in mental health problems. Our approach seems feasible under challenging circumstances and provides first hints for its efficacy. These promising findings call for further studies testing the efficacy and sustainability of this maltreatment prevention approach. PMID:26236248

  2. Improving care quality and preventing maltreatment in institutional care – a feasibility study with caregivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharin eHermenau

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Institutionalized children in low-income countries often face maltreatment and inadequate caregiving. In addition to prior traumatization and other childhood adversities in the family of origin, abuse and neglect in institutional care are linked to various mental health problems. By providing a manualized training workshop for caregivers, we aimed at improving care quality and preventing maltreatment in institutional care. In Study 1, 29 participating caregivers rated feasibility and efficacy of the training immediately before, directly after, and three months following the training workshop. The results showed high demand, good feasibility, high motivation and acceptance of caregivers. They reported improvements in caregiver-child relationships, as well as in the children’s behavior. Study 2 assessed exposure to maltreatment and the mental health of 28 orphans living in one institution in which all caregivers had been trained. The children were interviewed 20 months before, one month before, and three months after the training. Children reported a decrease in physical maltreatment and assessments showed a decrease in mental health problems. Our approach seems feasible under challenging circumstances and provides first hints for its efficacy. These promising findings call for further studies testing the efficacy and sustainability of this maltreatment prevention approach.

  3. Cognitive Abilities of Maltreated Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viezel, Kathleen D.; Freer, Benjamin D.; Lowell, Ari; Castillo, Jenean A.

    2015-01-01

    School psychologists should be aware of developmental risk factors for children who have been abused or neglected. The present study used the "Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Fourth Edition" to examine the cognitive abilities of 120 children in foster care subsequent to maltreatment. Results indicated that, compared to a…

  4. Agent-Based Modeling and Simulation of Child Maltreatment and Child Maltreatment Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaolin Hu; Nicholas Keller

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an agent-based model that simulates the dynamics of child maltreatment and child maltreatment prevention. The developed model follows the principles of complex systems science and explicitly models a community and its families with multi-level factors across the social ecology. Each agent includes behavioral/cognitive modeling to account for the behavioral/cognitive process of child maltreatment. Simulation of child maltreatment prevention is also supported to evaluate the...

  5. Differential responses to psychotherapy versus pharmacotherapy in patients with chronic forms of major depression and childhood trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Charles B Nemeroff; Heim, Christine M.; THASE, MICHAEL E.; Klein, Daniel N.; Rush, A. John; Schatzberg, Alan F.; Ninan, Philip T.; McCullough, James P.; Weiss, Paul M.; DUNNER, David L; Rothbaum, Barbara O.; Kornstein, Susan; Keitner, Gabor; Keller, Martin B.

    2003-01-01

    Major depressive disorder is associated with considerable morbidity, disability, and risk for suicide. Treatments for depression most commonly include antidepressants, psychotherapy, or the combination. Little is known about predictors of treatment response for depression. In this study, 681 patients with chronic forms of major depression were treated with an antidepressant (nefazodone), Cognitive Behavioral Analysis System of Psychotherapy (CBASP), or the combination. Overall, the effects of...

  6. Self-Esteem of Young Adults Experiencing Interparental Violence and Child Physical Maltreatment: Parental and Peer Relationships as Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, April Chiung-Tao

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the joint impact of experiencing both interparental violence and child physical maltreatment on young adults' self-esteem. It also tested the hypothesis of parental and peer relationship qualities as mediators in the relationship between childhood histories of family violence and adult self-esteem. Data were collected from a…

  7. The Concurrent and Incremental Validity of the Trauma Symptom Inventory in Women Reporting Histories of Sexual Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbisi, Paul A.; Erbes, Christopher R.; Polusny, Melissa A.; Nelson, Nathaniel W.

    2010-01-01

    The Trauma Symptom Inventory (TSI), Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2), and Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS) were administered to 71 women who reported histories of childhood and/or adult sexual maltreatment and 25 women who did not report a history of victimization. The TSI validity scales were not effective in identifying…

  8. Risk Factors of Parents Abused as Children: A Mediational Analysis of the Intergenerational Continuity of Child Maltreatment (Part I)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Louise; Browne, Kevin; Hamilton-Giachritsis, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    Background: This study provides an exploration of factors implicated in the intergenerational cycle of child maltreatment. Families with newborns where at least one of the parents was physically and/or sexually abused as a child (AP families) were compared in terms of risk factors to families where the parents had no childhood history of…

  9. Developmental Pathways to Adolescent Cannabis Abuse and Dependence: Child Maltreatment, Emerging Personality, and Internalizing versus Externalizing Psychopathology

    OpenAIRE

    Oshri, Assaf; Rogosch, Fred A.; Burnette, Mandi; Cicchetti, Dante

    2011-01-01

    Child maltreatment is strongly associated with adolescent psychopathology and substance abuse and dependence (Clark, Thatcher, & Martin, 2010; Ellis & Wolfe, 2009). However, developmental processes unfolding from childhood into adolescence that delineate this trajectory are not well understood. The current study uses path analysis in a structural equation modeling framework to examine multiple mediator models, including ego control, ego resiliency, and internalizing and externalizing symptoms...

  10. Depression and Play in Early Childhood: Play Behavior of Depressed and Nondepressed 3- to 6-Year-Olds in Various Play Situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lous, Annemieke Mol; de Wit, Cees A. M.; de Bruyn, Eric E. J.; Riksen-Walraven, J. Marianne; Rost, Henk

    2000-01-01

    The behavior of seven children (ages 3-6) with depression and 7 typical children was compared in solitary free play, interactive free play, and play narratives. Children with depression played significantly less, particularly in the area of symbolic play, showed significantly more nonplay behaviors, and showed less coherence in their behavior.…

  11. Childhood Abuse and Current Interpersonal Conflict: The Role of Shame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jungmeen; Talbot, Nancy L.; Cicchetti, Dante

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether shame-proneness mediates the relationship between women's histories of childhood sexual abuse and their current partner and family conflict and child maltreatment. Previous research has found that women with childhood sexual abuse histories experience heightened shame and interpersonal conflict. However, research…

  12. Childhood Experiences and Psychosocial Influences on HIV Risk among Adolescent Latinas in Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomb, Michael D.; Locke, Thomas F.; Goodyear, Rodney K.

    2003-01-01

    This study determined how adverse childhood experiences influenced risky sexual behavior in a community sample of Latina adolescents in Los Angeles. Psychosocial, sociocultural, and environmental mediators of the relations between childhood experiences and risky sexual behavior were tested. Childhood maltreatment was associated with risky sexual…

  13. A dental perspective on child maltreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Kvist, Therese

    2016-01-01

    Children who are exposed to child maltreatment are at risk of developing physical and mental ill-health and of expressing risk-taking behaviors. International studies describe associations of child maltreatment with caries, head and neck injuries and intra- oral injuries. Similar studies in a Swedish context are scarce, and little is known. The present thesis analyzed associations of oral health and oral health behaviors among children exposed to child maltreatment, as well as among children ...

  14. Early-adult correlates of maltreatment in girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Increased risk for internalizing symptoms and suicidality

    OpenAIRE

    GUENDELMAN, MAYA D.; Owens, Elizabeth B.; GALÁN, CHARDEE; GARD, ARIANNA; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    2015-01-01

    We examined whether maltreatment experienced in childhood and/or adolescence prospectively predicts young adult functioning in a diverse and well-characterized sample of females with childhood-diagnosed attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (N = 140). Participants were part of a longitudinal study and carefully evaluated in childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood (Mage = 9.6, 14.3, and 19.7 years, respectively), with high retention rates across time. A thorough review of multisource da...

  15. COMT but not serotonin-related genes modulates the influence of childhood abuse on anger traits.

    OpenAIRE

    Perroud, Nader; Jaussent, Isabelle; Guillaume, Sébastien; Bellivier, Frank; Baud, Patrick; Jollant, Fabrice; Leboyer, Marion; Lewis, Cathryn,; Malafosse, Alain; Courtet, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    International audience Anger-related traits are regulated by genes as well as early environmental factors. Both childhood maltreatment and genes underlie vulnerability to suicidal behaviors, possibly by affecting the constitution of intermediate phenotypes such as anger traits. The aim of this study was to test the interaction between nine candidate genes and childhood maltreatment in modulating anger-related traits in 875 adult suicide attempters. The State-Trait Anger Expression Inventor...

  16. The impact of childhood maltreatment experience and MAOA-VNTR on female adolescent’s impulsivity trait%单胺氧化酶A基因串联重复序列与童年期虐待对女性青少年冲动特质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张芸; 明庆森; 马丽荣; 李欣茹; 王艳芬

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨单胺氧化酶A串联重复序列(monoamine oxidase A variable nucleotide tandem repeat, MAOA-VNTR)基因型与童年期虐待经历各自及其交互作用对女性青少年冲动特质的影响。方法选取西北某地403名正常汉族女性青少年,完成Barratt冲动量表(Barratt impulsiveness scale,BIS)及童年创伤经历问卷(childhood trauma questionnaire,CTQ),采集其外周静脉血并进行DNA提取及MAOA-VNTR基因分型。采用线性回归分析MAOA-VNTR基因型、童年期虐待经历,以及其交互作用对冲动量表得分的影响。结果童年期虐待经历对女性青少年冲动特质的主效应具有统计学意义(P0.05)。结论本研究并未发现MAOA-VNTR基因型对童年期虐待所致女性青少年冲动具有调节作用。%Objective To examine the impact on impulsivity trait by monoamine oxidase A variable nucleotide tan⁃dem repeat (MAOA-VNTR) genotype and children’s abuse experience. Methods The self-reported questionnaire of Bar⁃ratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS), Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) were conducted in 403 normal Han female adoles⁃cents from north-west of China. The DNA were extracted from their venous blood sample and were genotyped for the MAOA-VNTR polymorphism. A linear regression model was used to investigate the main effects of MAOA-VNTR and children's abuse, and their interaction effect on impulsivity. Results The main effect of Children’s maltreatment experi⁃ence on trait impulsivity was significant (P0.05). Conclusion The MAOA-VNTR genotype may not be involved in the female adolescents’impulsivity traits related to childhood maltreat⁃ment.

  17. Cross-cultural adaptation of the Maltreatment and Abuse Chronology of Exposure (MACE scale to Brazilian Portuguese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Kluwe-Schiavon

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : There is strong evidence to indicate that childhood maltreatment can negatively affect both physical and mental health and there is increasing interest in understanding the occurrence and consequences of such experiences. While several tools have been developed to retrospectively investigate childhood maltreatment experiences, most of them do not investigate the experience of witnessing family violence during childhood or bullying exposure. Moreover, the majority of scales do not identify when these experiences may have occurred, who was involved or the feelings evoked, such as helplessness or terror. The Maltreatment and Abuse Chronology of Exposure (MACE scale was developed to overcome these limitations. Objective : In view of the improvements over previous self-report instruments that this new tool offers and of the small number of self-report questionnaires for childhood maltreatment assessment available in Brazil, this study was conducted to conduct cross-cultural adaptation of the MACE scale for Brazilian Portuguese. Method : The following steps were performed: translation, back-translation, committee review for semantic and conceptual evaluation, and acceptability trial for equivalence. Results : Semantic and structural changes were made to the interview to adapt it for the Brazilian culture and all 75 of the items that comprise the longer version of MACE were translated. The results of the acceptability trial suggest that the items are comprehensible. Conclusion : The MACE scales may be useful tools for investigation of childhood maltreatment and make a valuable contribution to research in Brazil. Future studies should consider testing the availability and reliability of the three versions of the instrument translated into Brazilian Portuguese.

  18. Patterns of Intimate Partner Violence in Mothers At-Risk for Child Maltreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Bair-Merritt, Megan H; Ghazarian, Sharon R.; Burrell, Lori; Duggan, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Using three interviews spanning 3 years, we identified intimate partner violence (IPV) classes and determined how class membership changed over time amongst a sample of 217 mothers at-risk for child maltreatment that were enrolled in an early childhood home visitation evaluation study. Data on perpetration/victimization, IPV type (verbal, physical, and sexual abuse and injury) and severity were used to conduct latent class analyses at each time point. Latent transition analyses established th...

  19. Lower structural integrity of the uncinate fasciculus is associated with a history of child maltreatment and future psychological vulnerability to stress

    OpenAIRE

    Hanson, Jamie L.; Knodt, Annchen R.; Brigidi, Bartholomew D.; Hariri, Ahmad R.

    2015-01-01

    The experience of child maltreatment is a significant risk factor for the development of later internalizing disorders such as depression and anxiety. This risk is particularly heightened after exposure to additional, more contemporaneous stress. While behavioral evidence exists for such “stress sensitization,” little is known about the mechanisms mediating such relationships, particularly within the brain. Here we report that the experience of child maltreatment independent of recent life st...

  20. Child maltreatment: Abuse and neglect

    OpenAIRE

    Bengü Pala; Murat Ünalacak; İlhami Ünlüoğlu

    2011-01-01

    Each year, millions of children around the world are the victims and witnesses of physical, sexual and emotional violence. Child maltreatment is a major global problem with a serious impact on the victims’ physical and mental health, well-being and development throughout their lives and, by extension, on society in general. Family physicians who are involved in the care of children are likely to encounter child abuse and should be able to recognize its common presentations. There is sufficien...

  1. Relationship between Childhood Traumatic Experiences and Adolescents Depression%童年创伤与青少年抑郁症的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李萍; 柳雨希; 陈西庆; 王惠萍; 李文静

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究童年创伤经历与青少年抑郁症的关系。方法:采用童年期创伤问卷( CTQ-SF)、一般情况调查表对52例青少年抑郁症患者及正常对照组48例进行测查。结果:青少年抑郁症患者情感虐待、情感忽视、性虐待及躯体忽视4因素进入Logistic回归方程。情感虐待(Waldχ2=9.163,P<0.01),情感忽视(Wald χ2=4.750,P<0.05),性虐待(Waldχ2=4.519,P<0.05),躯体忽视(Wald χ2=4.602,P<0.05)。结论:青少年抑郁症患者童年期的情感虐待、情感忽视、性虐待及躯体忽视是抑郁症发病的危险因素。%Objective:To explore the relationship between childhood traumatic experiences and ado-lescents depression patients.Methods:52 adolescents depression patients and 48 healthy adolescents of the control group were investigated with general questionnaire and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire.Re-sults:Emotional abuses,emotional neglect,sexual abuses and physical neglect of the adolescents depres-sion patients entered the logistic regression equation.Logistic regression analysis showed that the adoles-cents depression patients could be accounted for by emotional abuses( Waldχ2 =9.163,P<0.01),emo-tional neglect(Wald χ2 =4.750,P<0.05),sexual abuses(Wald χ2 =4.519,P<0.05),physical neg-lect(Waldχ2 =4.602,P<0.05).Conclusion: Emotional abuses,emotional neglect,sexual abuses and physical neglect may be the risk factors for the development of adolescents depression patients.

  2. Children with Disabilities and Child Maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldson, Edward

    1998-01-01

    Addresses the phenomenon of children with disabilities who are maltreated. The higher risk for children with disabilities being victimized and maltreated because of their dependency and the higher reported incidence of abuse are discussed. Reasons for the higher incidence of abuse, including social devaluation, are provided. (CR)

  3. Child Maltreatment and the School Psychologist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viezel, Kathleen D.; Davis, Andrew S.

    2015-01-01

    Child maltreatment remains a relevant issue for school psychologists. This special issue was designed to provide school psychology practitioners, researchers, and other school personnel with current, empirically sound information about child maltreatment. This introduction provides context for the articles in this volume, including definitions of…

  4. True and False Memories in Maltreated Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Mark L.; Cicchetti, Dante; Toth, Sheree L.; Cerrito, Beth M.

    2004-01-01

    Differences in basic memory processes between maltreated and nonmaltreated children were examined in an experiment in which middle-socioeconomic-status (SES; N=60), low-SES maltreated (N=48), and low-SES nonmaltreated (N=51) children (ages 57, 89, and 10-12 years) studied 12 Deese-Roediger-McDermott lists. Using recall and recognition measures,…

  5. The Relationship Between Suicidal Ideation of Depressive Patients and Childhood Abuse in Wenzhou%温州市抑郁症患者自杀意念与儿童期受虐待情况的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李燕; 汪庆; 陈莉; 唐闻捷

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨抑郁症患者的自杀意念与儿童期受虐之间的关系.方法:采用儿童期虐待问卷(CTQ)和贝克自杀意念量表(BSI)对温州272名抑郁症患者进行测查.结果:在这次调查中,发生率最高的是躯体忽视,而得分最高的是情感忽视.各类型虐待之间存在正相关.除躯体虐待,各类型的虐待与自杀意念成正相关.结论:儿童期受虐待的抑郁患者有自杀意念的几率似乎要大.%Objective:To explore the relationship between childhood abuse and suicidal ideation of depressive patients. Method: A total of 272 depressive patients in Wenzhou were investigated with Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and Beck Scale for Suicide Ideation (BSD. Result: In this study, the highest rate was physical negligence/But the highest score was emotional abuse. Each type of childhood abuse had a positive correlation. There was a positive correlation between the score of each type of childhood abuse except physical abuse. Conclusion: It seems that Childhood abuse in depressed patients may be greater risk of suicidal ideation.

  6. The specificity of childhood adversities and negative life events across the life span to anxiety and depressive disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spinhoven, Philip; Elzinga, Bernet M.; Hovens, Jacqueline G. F. M.; Roelofs, Karin; Zitman, Frans G.; van Oppen, Patricia; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Although several studies have shown that life adversities play an important role in the etiology and maintenance of both depressive and anxiety disorders, little is known about the relative specificity of several types of life adversities to different forms of depressive and anxiety diso

  7. Are childhood and adult life adversities differentially associated with specific symptom dimensions of depression and anxiety? Testing the tripartite model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veen, T.; Wardenaar, K. J.; Carlier, I. V. E.; Spinhoven, P.; Penninx, B. W. J. H.; Zitman, F. G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Different types of adverse events may have general or specific effects on depression and anxiety symptomatology. We examined the effects of adversities on the dimensions of the tripartite model: general distress, anhedonic depression and anxious arousal. Methods: Data were from 2615 indi

  8. The Development of a Transdiagnostic, Cognitive Behavioral Group Intervention for Childhood Anxiety Disorders and Co-Occurring Depression Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrenreich-May, Jill; Bilek, Emily L.

    2012-01-01

    Anxiety and depression are highly prevalent and frequently comorbid classes of disorder associated with significant impairment in youth. While current transdiagnostic protocols address a range of potential anxiety and depression symptoms among adult and adolescent populations, there are few similar treatment options for school-aged children with…

  9. Combined Individual Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Parent Training for Childhood Depression: 2- to 3-Year Follow-up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckshtain, Dikla; Gaynor, Scott T.

    2013-01-01

    Fourteen children with significant depressive symptoms from an open clinical trial of Primary and Secondary Control Enhancement Training augmented with Caregiver-Child Relationship Enhancement Training, participated in a 2- to 3-year follow-up assessment. The results suggested that the significant decreases in depressive symptoms observed at…

  10. Protective factors associated with resilient functioning in young adulthood after childhood exposure to violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Kathryn H; Miller-Graff, Laura E

    2014-12-01

    Children may be subjected to many forms of violence and a significant number will experience multiple victimizations. These children are at high risk for developing psychological and emotional difficulties that may last into adulthood. Despite the increased risk for psychopathology, a substantial percentage of young adults exhibit resilient functioning following a history of childhood violence. This study examines the role of social support, spirituality, and emotional intelligence in promoting resilience during emerging adulthood. Participants included 321 young adult American college students, age 18-24, who experienced childhood violence, including community violence, interpersonal aggression, child maltreatment, peer/sibling victimization, and/or sexual assault. Findings revealed that this sample was highly victimized, with an average of 9 violent experiences reported during childhood. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that after controlling for exposure to childhood victimization, other potentially traumatic events, and current depression and anxiety symptoms, higher resilience during emerging adulthood was associated with greater spirituality, greater emotional intelligence, and support from friends (but not from family). Findings suggest that the potency of protective factors outweighs that of adversity and psychopathology when predicting resilient functioning. By identifying variables that can enhance resilience, this study offers unique insight into how functioning may be improved by both individual and environmental factors. PMID:25459988

  11. Aspectos clínicos da depressão em crianças e adolescentes: clinical features Depression in childhood and adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Saint-Clair Bahls

    2002-01-01

    Objetivo: apresentar uma revisão sobre o quadro clínico, a evolução, a comorbidade e o comportamento suicida na depressão em crianças e adolescentes, com o objetivo de contribuir com o esclarecimento desta patologia grave, comum e ainda pouco reconhecida. Fontes dos dados: foram realizados levantamento no sistema Medline no período de 1991 a 2000, e levantamento manual da literatura. Síntese dos dados: o interesse científico pela depressão em crianças e adolescentes é bastante recente, pois a...

  12. Prenatal depression and young low-income mothers' perception of their children from pregnancy through early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Helen Y; Hans, Sydney L

    2015-08-01

    This study investigates the role of prenatal depression on young mothers' perception of difficulty in child behavior and parent-child interaction from pregnancy through the first two years of child development. 248 low-income, African American women aged between 13 and 21 years reported on their perceptions of child behavior, parent-child interaction, and on depressive symptoms at the third trimester of pregnancy and at 4-, 12- and 24-months postpartum. During pregnancy, a high percentage (47%) of the young mothers scored above the clinical level of prenatal depressive symptoms. These mothers anticipated and perceived significantly more child difficulty and parent-child interaction difficulty than did non-depressed mothers during pregnancy and over the first two years of the child's development. Moreover, prenatal depression uniquely predicted negative maternal perception throughout the early years of child development even after adjusting for postpartum depression history. The enduring association between prenatal depression and a mother's perception of her child is discussed with respect to the importance of pregnancy in mothers' developing mental schema about their children and the emerging parent-child relationship. PMID:26164420

  13. 童年期创伤经历与自尊对新兵抑郁的影响%Effects of childhood traumatic experience and self -esteem on depression in recruits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红政; 陈海燕; 雷美英; 王周然; 王创

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解童年期创伤经历对新兵抑郁的影响,探讨自尊在童年期创伤经历与抑郁关系中的作用。方法运用自尊量表(SES)、童年期创伤经历问卷(CTQ -SF)和抑郁自评量表(SDS)对1925名男性新兵进行问卷调查。结果控制年龄后,情感虐待、情感忽视和躯体忽视预测抑郁的回归系数为正;自尊在抑郁上的回归系数为负,在儿童期创伤经历各个因子和抑郁症状之间调节作用不显著,但其中介作用显著。结论童年期创伤经历显著影响新兵抑郁,并能通过自尊间接作用于抑郁,但自尊不能改变童年期创伤经历对抑郁的影响。%Objective To investigate the impact of childhood traumatic experience on depression in recruits , and the moderating and mediating effects of self -esteem.Methods A sample of 1 925 male recruits was assessed with Self -Esteem Scale (SES), Childhood Trauma Questionnaire -28 item Short Form (CTQ -SF) and Self -Rating Depression Scale (SDS).Results After age controlled, the standard regression coefficients of emotional abuse , emotional neglect, physical neglect to depression were significantly positive .The standard regression coefficient of self -esteem to depression was significantly negative.The self -esteem could not moderate the correlation between childhood traumatic experience and depression, but partially mediated the correlation between emotional abuse , emotional neglect, or physical neglect and depression.Conclusion Childhood traumatic experience is significant predictor of depression , and could also indirectly affect depression through self -esteem; but self -esteem could not change the correlation between childhood traumatic ex -perience and depression.

  14. The developmental origins of cognitive vulnerability to depression: temperament, parenting, and negative life events in childhood as contributors to negative cognitive style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezulis, Amy H; Hyde, Janet Shibley; Abramson, Lyn Y

    2006-11-01

    Cognitive models of depression have been well supported with adults, but the developmental origins of cognitive vulnerability are not well understood. The authors hypothesized that temperament, parenting, and negative life events in childhood would contribute to the development of cognitive style, with withdrawal negativity and negative parental feedback moderating the effects of negative life events to predict more depressogenic cognitive styles. These constructs were assessed in 289 children and their parents followed longitudinally from infancy to 5th grade; a subsample (n = 120) also participated in a behavioral task in which maternal feedback to child failure was observed. Results indicated that greater withdrawal negativity in interaction with negative life events was associated with more negative cognitive styles. Self-reported maternal anger expression and observed negative maternal feedback to child's failure significantly interacted with child's negative events to predict greater cognitive vulnerability. There was little evidence of paternal parenting predicting child negative cognitive style. PMID:17087538

  15. The phenotypic and genetic structure of depression and anxiety disorder symptoms in childhood, adolescence and young adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Waszczuk, M. A.; Zavos, Helena M.S.; Gregory, Alice M.; Eley, Thalia C.

    2014-01-01

    Importance: The recently published DSM-5 continues to classify mood and anxiety disorders as separate conditions. However, some studies in adults find a unidimensional internalizing factor that underpins anxiety and depression, while others support a bidimensional model where symptoms segregate into distress (depression and generalized anxiety) and fear factors (phobia subscales). Little is known, however, about the phenotypic and genetic structure of internalizing psychopathology in children...

  16. Combined Individual Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Parent Training for Childhood Depression: 2-3-Year Follow-Up

    OpenAIRE

    Eckshtain, Dikla; Gaynor, Scott T

    2013-01-01

    Fourteen children with significant depressive symptoms from an open clinical trial of Primary and Secondary Control Enhancement Training augmented with Caregiver–Child Relationship Enhancement Training, participated in a 2-3-year follow-up assessment. The results suggested that the significant decreases in depressive symptoms observed at post-treatment were maintained at 2-3-year follow-up. Mothers’ reports of significant improvement of child psychosocial functioning were also maintained, pro...

  17. Child maltreatment in Taiwan for 2004-2013: A shift in age group and forms of maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Tsai; Yang, Nan-Ping; Chou, Pesus

    2016-02-01

    Cases of child maltreatment are being increasingly reported in Taiwan. However, the trend or changes of child maltreatment in Taiwan are fragmentary and lack empirical evidence. This study analyzed the epidemiological characteristics of substantiated child maltreatment cases from the previous decade, using mortality as an indicator to investigate the care of children who experienced substantiated maltreatment in the past to determine any new developments. Data for analysis and estimates were retrieved from the Department of Statistics in the Ministry of the Interior from 2004 to 2013. Trend analyses were conducted using the Joinpoint Regression Program. The child maltreatment rate in Taiwan was found to have nearly tripled from 2004 to 2013. A greater increase in the maltreatment of girls than boys and the maltreatment of aboriginal children than non-aboriginal children was noted from 2004 to 2013. When stratified by age group, the increase in maltreatment was most pronounced in children aged 12-17 years, and girls aged 12-17 years experienced the greatest increase in maltreatment. In terms of the proportional changes of different maltreatment forms among substantiated child maltreatment cases, child neglect was decreasing. The increase in sexual abuse was higher than for any other form of maltreatment and surpassed neglect by the end of 2013. Furthermore, the mortality rate of children with substantiated maltreatment record is increasing in Taiwan, whereas the mortality rate among children without any substantiated maltreatment record is decreasing. The results of this study highlight the need for policy reform in Taiwan regarding child maltreatment. PMID:26726760

  18. Depressão na infância: um estudo exploratório Depression during childhood: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Simão dos Santos Calderaro

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Na depressão infantil os sintomas diferem dos apresentados pelos adultos, evidenciando-se freqüentemente através de transtorno do déficit de atenção e hiperatividade, baixa auto-estima, tristeza, medos, distúrbios do sono, enurese, dores abdominais. Procurou-se estudar manifestações depressivas em crianças de 03 a 10 anos de idade, no contexto de creches e saúde pública, na cidade de Paranavaí-PR, realizando-se: a entrevistas semi-estruturadas com 5 pediatras, 2 médicos do programa da Saúde da Família, 6 educadores e 4 coordenadores de creches; b estudo de caso com nove crianças. Os resultados indicaram que todas as crianças da amostra apresentavam núcleos depressivos significativos, com intenso sofrimento psíquico e necessidade de encaminhamento. Concluiu-se que a depressão infantil manifesta-se de forma bastante significativa, evidenciando a necessidade de que as pessoas envolvidas diretamente com as crianças estejam alertas para os sintomas, pois a falta do diagnóstico correto e do tratamento perpetua o sofrimento da criança e de todos os envolvidos.The symptoms of depression in children differ from the adults, and are frequently evidenced by the following problems: attention deficit, hyperactivity, low self-esteem, sadness, fear, sleep disturbances, enuresis, abdominal pain. The aim of this study was to evaluate the depressive manifestations in 3-10-year-old children, in the context of nursery school for poor children and in the public healthcare system, in Paranavaí city, State of Paraná. The research was carried out using semi-structured interviews with 5 pediatricians, 2 doctors from the Family Health Program, 6 educators and 4 coordinators at nursery schools for poor children, and a study case on nine children. The findings indicated that all the children of the sample showed significant depressive characteristics, such as an intense psychic suffering and the need for guidance. It was concluded that child

  19. Childhood trauma predicts antidepressant response in adults with major depression: data from the randomized international study to predict optimized treatment for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, L M; Debattista, C; Duchemin, A-M; Schatzberg, A F; Nemeroff, C B

    2016-01-01

    Few reliable predictors indicate which depressed individuals respond to antidepressants. Several studies suggest that a history of early-life trauma predicts poorer response to antidepressant therapy but results are variable and limited in adults. The major goal of the present study was to evaluate the role of early-life trauma in predicting acute response outcomes to antidepressants in a large sample of well-characterized patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). The international Study to Predict Optimized Treatment for Depression (iSPOT-D) is a randomized clinical trial with enrollment from December 2008 to January 2012 at eight academic and nine private clinical settings in five countries. Patients (n=1008) meeting DSM-IV criteria for MDD and 336 matched healthy controls comprised the study sample. Six participants withdrew due to serious adverse events. Randomization was to 8 weeks of treatment with escitalopram, sertraline or venlafaxine with dosage adjusted by the participant's treating clinician per routine clinical practice. Exposure to 18 types of traumatic events before the age of 18 was assessed using the Early-Life Stress Questionnaire. Impact of early-life stressors-overall trauma 'load' and specific type of abuse-on treatment outcomes measures: response: (⩾50% improvement on the 17-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, HRSD17 or on the 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology-Self-Rated, QIDS_SR16) and remission (score ⩽7 on the HRSD17 and ⩽5 on the QIDS_SR16). Trauma prevalence in MDD was compared with controls. Depressed participants were significantly more likely to report early-life stress than controls; 62.5% of MDD participants reported more than two traumatic events compared with 28.4% of controls. The higher rate of early-life trauma was most apparent for experiences of interpersonal violation (emotional, sexual and physical abuses). Abuse and notably abuse occurring at ⩽7 years of age predicted poorer outcomes

  20. Associations between Childhood Adversity and Depression, Substance Abuse and HIV and HSV2 Incident Infections in Rural South African Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewkes, Rachel K.; Dunkle, Kristin; Nduna, Mzikazi; Jama, P. Nwabisa; Puren, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: To describe prevalence of childhood experiences of adversity in rural South African youth and their associations with health outcomes. Methods: We analyzed questionnaires and blood specimens collected during a baseline survey for a cluster randomized controlled trial of a behavioral intervention, and also tested blood HIV and herpes…

  1. The Relationship of Adverse Childhood Experiences to PTSD, Depression, Poly-Drug Use and Suicide Attempt in Reservation-Based Native American Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockie, Teresa N; Dana-Sacco, Gail; Wallen, Gwenyth R; Wilcox, Holly C; Campbell, Jacquelyn C

    2015-06-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with numerous risk behaviors and mental health outcomes among youth. This study examines the relationship between the number of types of exposures to ACEs and risk behaviors and mental health outcomes among reservation-based Native Americans. In 2011, data were collected from Native American (N = 288; 15-24 years of age) tribal members from a remote plains reservation using an anonymous web-based questionnaire. We analyzed the relationship between six ACEs, emotional, physical, and sexual abuse, physical and emotional neglect, witness to intimate partner violence, for those suicide attempt. Seventy-eight percent of the sample reported at least one ACE and 40 % reported at least two. The cumulative impact of the ACEs were significant (p suicide attempt (37 %), poly-drug use (51 %), PTSD symptoms (55 %), and depression symptoms (57 %). To address these findings culturally appropriate childhood and adolescent interventions for reservation-based populations must be developed, tested and evaluated longitudinally. PMID:25893815

  2. [Mother's attributions regarding children's behavior and maltreatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaya, Namiko

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to compare maltreating mothers and non-maltreating mothers on attributions and affects related to child behaviors. It also assessed how attributions predict affective and behavioral reactions to child behaviors. The study population comprised of a community-based sample of mothers with children aged 2 to 4 years (n = 238). Mothers' attributions and affect were assessed using vignettes of child behavior. They also answered questions about their maltreating parenting behaviors and demographic factors such as childcare environments. Results highlighted that, as compared with non-maltreating mothers, maltreating mothers made more intentional and stable attributions to negative child behavior, and to report more anger and aversion. They also had a tendency to report less happiness toward positive child behavior. Additionally, path analyses documented a pattern of thinking-feeling-action linkages. It was revealed that attributions regarding children's behavior influenced negative affect and that negative affect in turn predicted maltreatment. Finally, the usefulness of a cognitive approach to maltreating mothers, and the implications of the findings as a model for intervention are discussed. PMID:27180512

  3. Parents and Friendships: A Longitudinal Examination of Interpersonal Mediators of the Relationship between Child Maltreatment and Suicidal Ideation

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Adam B.; Adams, Leah M.; Esposito-Smythers, Christianne; Thompson, Richard; Proctor, Laura J.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined parental relationship quality, friendship quality, and depression as mediators of the association between child maltreatment (CM) and adolescent suicidal ideation (SI). Participants were 674 adolescents (46% female; 55% African American) involved in the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN). Data were collected via youth self-report at ages 12, 16, and 18. CM before age 12 predicted poor parental relationships and depression, but not poor friendships, ...

  4. Childhood Anxiety/Withdrawal, Adolescent Parent-Child Attachment and Later Risk of Depression and Anxiety Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, I. S.; Horwood, L. J.; Fergusson, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    anxiety/withdrawal were associated with an increased risk of later anxiety and depression; (b) positive parent-child attachment in adolescence was associated with a decline in the risk of later anxiety and depression; and (c) these associations persisted even after controlling for confounding factors......Previous research has shown that children with high levels of early anxiety/withdrawal are at increased risk of later anxiety and depression. It has also been found that positive parent-child attachment reduces the risk of these disorders. The aim of this paper was to examine the extent to which...... positive parent-child attachment acted to mitigate the risk of later internalising disorders amongst children with high levels of early anxiety/withdrawal using data from a 30 years longitudinal study of a New Zealand birth cohort. The findings of this study showed that: (a) increasing rates of early...

  5. Child maltreatment and ADHD symptoms in a sample of young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoline Sanderud

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study investigated the relationship between different types of childhood maltreatment (emotional, sexual, overall abuse, and no abuse and the symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD in young adulthood. Method: Data were collected from a Danish national study conducted by The Danish National Centre for Social Research in 2008 and 2009. A sample of 4,718 young adults (24 years of age were randomly selected using the total birth cohort of children born in 1984. Structured interviews were conducted with a response rate of 63%, equating to a total sample size of 2,980 participants. Results: Chi-square analyses revealed significant relationships between child maltreatment groups and a probable diagnosis of ADHD using the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS. Binary logistic regression analysis showed that the overall abuse class was more strongly associated with probable ADHD (OR=5.08, followed by emotional abuse (OR=3.09 and sexual abuse (OR=2.07. Conclusions: The results showed that childhood maltreatment was associated with increased risk of ADHD symptoms in young adulthood. The findings of this study are discussed within the existing literature and suggestions for future research are outlined in order to replicate these findings in other adult populations.

  6. Influence of childhood abuse on BDNF levels in patients with depression%抑郁症患者儿童期受虐对BDNF水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隋云川; 程祺; 汪卫华; 赵汉清; 蒋倩芸

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of childhood abuse on serum of BDNF level in pa‐tients with depression .Methods Totals of 98 patients with depression were included in this study .Using Child abuse Questionaire(CTQ) ,Hamilton Depression Scale(HAMD) ,Suicidal Ideation Scale(SIOSS) and Beck Hopelessness Scale(BHS) to assess the situation of childhood abuse ,severity of depression , suicidal ideation and severity of despair ;According to CTQ score ,the subjects were divided into abuse group (n= 32) and non-abused group (n= 66) .And selected 30 healthy people as the control group . The serum of BDNF levels were determined by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent .Results All 98 cases of patients enrolled in 32(32 .65% ) had a history of childhood abuse .There were significant differences be‐tween the abuse group and the non-abused group in the first onset age ,sex ratio ,the total score of the HAMD-24 ,the total score of BSH and the total score of SIOSS .BDNF levels of abuse group (627 ± 36)pg/ml were lower than those in non -abused group [(743 ± 28)pg/ml;P < 0 .01] and the control group [(1 320 ± 39)pg/ml;P< 0 .01)] .BDNF levels of non -abused group were lower than control group (P< 0 .01) .Conclusions Depression in patients with childhood abuse has obvious influence on BDNF levels ,childhood abuse led to the decrease of BDNF level may be a risk factor as an adult suffering from depression .%目的:探讨抑郁症患者儿童期受虐对血清脑源性神经营养因子(BDNF)水平的影响。方法选取抑郁症患者98例,使用儿童受虐问卷(CTQ)、汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)、自杀意念量表(SIOSS)及贝克绝望量表(BHS)评定儿童期受虐状况、抑郁严重程度、自杀意念强度和绝望严重程度;根据儿童受虐问卷评分将受试者分为受虐组(32例),无受虐组(66例)。并选择30名健康体检人群作为健康对照组。采用酶联免疫吸附法测定血清BDNF水平

  7. 抑郁症患者儿童期受虐对BDNF水平的影响%Influence of childhood abuse on BDNF levels in patients with depression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隋云川; 程祺; 汪卫华; 赵汉清; 蒋倩芸

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the effects of childhood abuse on serum of BDNF level in pa‐tients with depression .Methods Totals of 98 patients with depression were included in this study .Using Child abuse Questionaire(CTQ) ,Hamilton Depression Scale(HAMD) ,Suicidal Ideation Scale(SIOSS) and Beck Hopelessness Scale(BHS) to assess the situation of childhood abuse ,severity of depression , suicidal ideation and severity of despair ;According to CTQ score ,the subjects were divided into abuse group (n= 32) and non-abused group (n= 66) .And selected 30 healthy people as the control group . The serum of BDNF levels were determined by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent .Results All 98 cases of patients enrolled in 32(32 .65% ) had a history of childhood abuse .There were significant differences be‐tween the abuse group and the non-abused group in the first onset age ,sex ratio ,the total score of the HAMD-24 ,the total score of BSH and the total score of SIOSS .BDNF levels of abuse group (627 ± 36)pg/ml were lower than those in non -abused group [(743 ± 28)pg/ml;P < 0 .01] and the control group [(1 320 ± 39)pg/ml;P< 0 .01)] .BDNF levels of non -abused group were lower than control group (P< 0 .01) .Conclusions Depression in patients with childhood abuse has obvious influence on BDNF levels ,childhood abuse led to the decrease of BDNF level may be a risk factor as an adult suffering from depression .%目的:探讨抑郁症患者儿童期受虐对血清脑源性神经营养因子(BDNF)水平的影响。方法选取抑郁症患者98例,使用儿童受虐问卷(CTQ)、汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD)、自杀意念量表(SIOSS)及贝克绝望量表(BHS)评定儿童期受虐状况、抑郁严重程度、自杀意念强度和绝望严重程度;根据儿童受虐问卷评分将受试者分为受虐组(32例),无受虐组(66例)。并选择30名健康体检人群作为健康对照组。采用酶联免疫吸附法测定血清BDNF水平

  8. The Impact of Physical Maltreatment History on the Adolescent Mother-Infant Relationship: Mediating and Moderating Effects during the Transition to Early Parenthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, Stephanie; Lewis, Jessica; Ethier, Kathleen; Kershaw, Trace; Ickovics, Jeannette R.

    2004-01-01

    Using attachment theory as a framework, this paper examines how pregnant adolescents' experiences of physical maltreatment during childhood influence the subsequent mother-infant relationship in 203 low-income adolescents followed from the 3rd trimester of pregnancy through the 1st year of parenthood. The relation between physical maltreatment…

  9. ADHD Symptoms and Likelihood of Child Maltreatment

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between inattentive and hyperactivity symptoms and child maltreatment was studied among a sample of 14,322 participants in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Healh at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA.

  10. Childhood Anxiety/Withdrawal, Adolescent Parent-Child Attachment and Later Risk of Depression and Anxiety Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Ida Skytte; Horwood, L. John; Fergusson, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown that children with high levels of early anxiety/withdrawal are at increased risk of later anxiety and depression. It has also been found that positive parent-child attachment reduces the risk of these disorders. The aim of this paper was to examine the extent to which positive parent-child attachment acted to mitigate…

  11. Interparental Conflict, Parenting, and Childhood Depression in a Diverse Urban Population: The Role of General Cognitive Style

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Ellen H.; Moreau, Melissa; Cardemil, Esteban V.; Pollastri, Alisha

    2010-01-01

    Research on the mechanisms by which interparental conflict (IPC) affects child depression suggests that both parenting and children's conflict appraisals play important roles, but few studies have explored the role of general cognitive style or included both parenting and cognitions in the same design. Moreover, the effects of IPC on minority…

  12. Parent Relationship Quality Buffers against the Effect of Peer Stressors on Depressive Symptoms from Middle Childhood to Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazel, Nicholas A.; Oppenheimer, Caroline W.; Technow, Jessica R.; Young, Jami F.; Hankin, Benjamin L.

    2014-01-01

    During the transition to adolescence, several developmental trends converge to increase the importance of peer relationships, the likelihood of peer-related stressors, and the experience of depressive symptoms. Simultaneously, there are significant changes in parent-child relationships. The current study sought to evaluate whether positive…

  13. Maltreated and non-maltreated children's true and false memories of neutral and emotional word lists in the Deese/Roediger-McDermott task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baugerud, Gunn Astrid; Howe, Mark L; Magnussen, Svein; Melinder, Annika

    2016-03-01

    Maltreated (n=26) and non-maltreated (n=31) 7- to 12-year-old children were tested on the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) false memory task using emotional and neutral word lists. True recall was significantly better for non-maltreated than maltreated children regardless of list valence. The proportion of false recall for neutral lists was comparable regardless of maltreatment status. However, maltreated children showed a significantly higher false recall rate for the emotional lists than non-maltreated children. Together, these results provide new evidence that maltreated children could be more prone to false memory illusions for negatively valenced information than their non-maltreated counterparts. PMID:26637948

  14. Burden of Child Maltreatment in China

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Xiangming; Fry, Deborah; Ji, Kai; Finkelhor, David; Chen, Jingqi; Lannen, Patricia; Dunne, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate the health and economic burdens of child maltreatment in China. Methods We did a systematic review for studies on child maltreatment in China using PubMed, Embase, PsycInfo, CINAHL-EBSCO, ERIC and the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases. We did meta-analyses of studies that met inclusion criteria to estimate the prevalence of child neglect and child physical, emotional and sexual abuse. We used data from the 2010 global burden of disease estimate...

  15. Indiscriminate Friendliness in Maltreated Foster Children

    OpenAIRE

    Pears, Katherine C.; Bruce, Jacqueline; Fisher, Philip A.; Kim, Hyoun K.

    2009-01-01

    Indiscriminate friendliness is well documented in children adopted internationally following institutional rearing but is less studied in maltreated foster children. Precursors and correlates of indiscriminate friendliness were examined in 93 preschool-aged maltreated children residing in foster care and 60 age-matched, nonmaltreated children living with their biological parents. Measures included parent reports, official case record data, and standardized laboratory assessments. Foster child...

  16. Adolescent Risk Factors for Child Maltreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Thornberry, Terence P.; Matsuda, Mauri; Greenman, Sarah J.; Augustyn, Megan Bears; Henry, Kimberly L.; Smith, Carolyn A.; Ireland, Timothy O.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate adolescent risk factors, measured at both early and late adolescence, for involvement in child maltreatment during adulthood. Comprehensive assessments of risk factors for maltreatment that use representative samples with longitudinal data are scarce and can inform multilevel prevention. We use data from the Rochester Youth Development Study, a longitudinal study begun in 1988 with a sample of 1,000 seventh and eighth graders. Participants have been interviewed 14 times and, at...

  17. The burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiangming; Fry, Deborah A; Brown, Derek S; Mercy, James A; Dunne, Michael P; Butchart, Alexander R; Corso, Phaedra S; Maynzyuk, Kateryna; Dzhygyr, Yuriy; Chen, Yu; McCoy, Amalee; Swales, Diane M

    2015-04-01

    This study estimated the health and economic burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region, addressing a significant gap in the current evidence base. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses were conducted to estimate the prevalence of child physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, neglect, and witnessing parental violence. Population Attributable Fractions were calculated and Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) lost from physical and mental health outcomes and health risk behaviors attributable to child maltreatment were estimated using the most recent comparable Global Burden of Disease data. DALY losses were converted into monetary value by assuming that one DALY is equal to the sub-region's per capita GDP. The estimated economic value of DALYs lost to violence against children as a percentage of GDP ranged from 1.24% to 3.46% across sub-regions defined by the World Health Organization. The estimated economic value of DALYs (in constant 2000 US$) lost to child maltreatment in the EAP region totaled US $151 billion, accounting for 1.88% of the region's GDP. Updated to 2012 dollars, the estimated economic burden totaled US $194 billion. In sensitivity analysis, the aggregate costs as a percentage of GDP range from 1.36% to 2.52%. The economic burden of child maltreatment in the East Asia and Pacific region is substantial, indicating the importance of preventing and responding to child maltreatment in this region. More comprehensive research into the impact of multiple types of childhood adversity on a wider range of putative health outcomes is needed to guide policy and programs for child protection in the region, and globally. PMID:25757367

  18. Effects of Chronic Maltreatment and Maltreatment Timing on Children's Behavior and Cognitive Abilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffee, Sara R.; Maikovich-Fong, Andrea Kohn

    2011-01-01

    Background: Chronic maltreatment has been associated with the poorest developmental outcomes, but its effects may depend on the age when the maltreatment began, or be confounded by co-occurring psychosocial risk factors. Method: We used data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW) to identify four groups of children who…

  19. Maternal Emotion Socialization in Maltreating and Non-Maltreating Families: Implications for Children's Emotion Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shipman, Kimberly L.; Schneider, Renee; Fitzgerald, Monica M.; Sims, Chandler; Swisher, Lisa; Edwards, Anna

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated the socialization of children's emotion regulation in physically maltreating and non-maltreating mother-child dyads (N = 80 dyads). Mother-child dyads participated in the parent-child emotion interaction task (Shipman & Zeman, 1999) in which they talked about emotionally-arousing situations. The PCEIT was coded for maternal…

  20. Court-Appointed Special Advocate Strong Beginnings: Raising Awareness across Early Childhood and Child Welfare Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corr, Catherine; Danner, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Abuse or neglect and disability often go hand in hand. Unfortunately, most professionals who work with maltreated young children are not aware of early childhood and disability-related resources and services available. In order to raise awareness across early childhood and child welfare systems, a five-week advanced training for volunteer child…

  1. Early childhood adversities and trajectories of psychiatric problems in adoptees: Evidence for long lasting effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.J.M. Vegt, van der (Esther); J. van der Ende (Jan); R.F. Ferdinand (Robert); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of the present study is to investigate whether early childhood adversities determine the longitudinal course of psychiatric problems from childhood to adulthood; in particular if the impact of early maltreatment on psychopathology decreases as time passes. A sample of 1,984 inter

  2. Alexithymia as a Mediator between Childhood Trauma and Self-Injurious Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paivio, Sandra C.; McCulloch, Chantal R.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to test whether alexithymia mediates the relationship between childhood maltreatment and self-injurious behaviors (SIB) in college women. Method: The sample was comprised of 100 female undergraduate students. Measures were the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire [D. Bernstein, L. Fink, Manual for the Childhood…

  3. Retrospective Assessment of Childhood Sexual and Physical Abuse: A Comparison of Scaled and Behaviorally Specific Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiLillo, David; Fortier, Michelle A.; Hayes, Sarah A.; Trask, Emily; Perry, Andrea R.; Messman-Moore, Terri; Fauchier, Angele; Nash, Cindy

    2006-01-01

    This study compared retrospective reports of childhood sexual and physical abuse as assessed by two measures: the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), which uses a Likert-type scaling approach, and the Computer Assisted Maltreatment Inventory (CAMI), which employs a behaviorally specific means of assessment. Participants included 1,195…

  4. Childhood Abuse and Neglect and Adult Intimate Relationships: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, R.A.; Widom, C.S.

    2004-01-01

    Objective:: The present study extends prior research on childhood maltreatment and social functioning by examining the impact of early childhood physical abuse, sexual abuse, and neglect on rates of involvement in adult intimate relationships and relationship functioning. Method:: Substantiated cases of child abuse and neglect from 1967 to 1971…

  5. Maternal sensitivity and the empathic brain: Influences of early life maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Emilia L; Neukel, Corinne; Bertsch, Katja; Reck, Corinna; Möhler, Eva; Herpertz, Sabine C

    2016-06-01

    One of the most striking characteristics of early life maltreatment (ELM) is the risk of transmission across generations, which could be linked to differences in maternal behavior. Maternal sensitivity includes appropriate and positive affective exchanges between mother and child. Mothers with a history of ELM have been found to show a lower sensitivity representing a significant risk factor for maltreating their own children. 25 mothers with and 28 mothers without sexual and/or physical childhood maltreatment (as assessed with the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse interview) and their children participated in a standardized mother-child interaction task. Videotaped interactions were rated by two independent trained raters based on the Emotional Availability Scales. In addition, empathic capabilities were assessed with the Interpersonal Reactivity Index. High resolution structural magnetic resonance brain images of the mothers were analyzed with unbiased voxel-based morphometry and correlated with maternal sensitivity. Results indicate that mothers with ELM were less sensitive in the standardized interaction with their own child. In non-maltreated control mothers, maternal sensitivity was positively related to anterior insular grey matter volume, a region which is crucially involved in emotional empathy, while there was a positive association between maternal sensitivity and grey matter volume in parts of the cognitive empathy network such as the superior temporal sulcus and temporal pole region in mothers with ELM. These results implicate that neurostructural alterations associated with poor maternal sensitivity might be a sequelae of ELM and that mothers with ELM may try to compensate deficits in emotional empathy by recruiting brain regions involved in cognitive empathy when interacting with their child. Thus, findings suggest possible coping strategies of mother with ELM to prevent an intergenerational transmission of abuse. PMID:26985733

  6. Stress and social support in childhood and adolescence related with depression symptoms in the elderly / Estresse e suporte social na infância e adolescência relacionados com sintomas depressivos em idosos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Fabrino Bretas Cupertino

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the process of aging as a period connected to social and historical influences, and life experiences that occur during development, it's significant to investigate the variables of other periods from the course of life, which could be implicated in the health of elders. The purpose of this study, however, was to assess the relation amongst social support characteristics and stress during the childhood/adolescence period, and depression symptoms of the elderly. The CES-D scale (Radloff, 1977 and the social support and stress in childhood/adolescence scale from Davis Longitudinal Study on Aging (Aldwin, Sutton, Chiara, & Spiro, III, 1996 were used. The sample consisted of 956 elderly between 60 and 103 years old (M= 72,4; SD= 8,2. Significant connections had been found between stressors and compensatory discipline with depression symptoms, which has been attributed to non-normative characteristics of such variables for the present cohort.

  7. Cord blood gene expression supports that prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances causes depressed immune functionality in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennings, Jeroen L A; Jennen, Danyel G J; Nygaard, Unni C; Namork, Ellen; Haug, Line S; van Loveren, Henk; Granum, Berit

    2016-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a class of synthetic compounds that have widespread use in consumer and industrial applications. PFAS are considered environmental pollutants that have various toxic properties, including effects on the immune system. Recent human studies indicate that prenatal exposure to PFAS leads to suppressed immune responses in early childhood. In this study, data from the Norwegian BraMat cohort was used to investigate transcriptomics profiles in neonatal cord blood and their association with maternal PFAS exposure, anti-rubella antibody levels at 3 years of age and the number of common cold episodes until 3 years. Genes associated with PFAS exposure showed enrichment for immunological and developmental functions. The analyses identified a toxicogenomics profile of 52 PFAS exposure-associated genes that were in common with genes associated with rubella titers and/or common cold episodes. This gene set contains several immunomodulatory genes (CYTL1, IL27) as well as other immune-associated genes (e.g. EMR4P, SHC4, ADORA2A). In addition, this study identified PPARD as a PFAS toxicogenomics marker. These markers can serve as the basis for further mechanistic or epidemiological studies. This study provides a transcriptomics connection between prenatal PFAS exposure and impaired immune function in early childhood and supports current views on PPAR- and NF-κB-mediated modes of action. The findings add to the available evidence that PFAS exposure is immunotoxic in humans and support regulatory policies to phase out these substances. PMID:25812627

  8. Child Maltreatment Identification and Reporting Behavior of School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lusk, Victoria L.; Zibulsky, Jamie; Viezel, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    A majority of substantiated maltreatment reports are made by educators and thus, teacher knowledge of child maltreatment reporting mandates and reporting behavior has been a focus of research. The knowledge and behavior of school psychologists, however, has not received similar attention. This study investigated the child maltreatment reporting…

  9. Child Maltreatment among School Children in the Kurdistan Province, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Rob; Sheikhattari, Payam; Assasi, Nazilla; Eftekhar, Hassan; Zamani, Qasem; Maleki, Bahram; Kiabayan, Hamid

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the determinants of three types of child maltreatment: physical maltreatment, mental maltreatment, and child neglect among school children in the Kurdistan Province of Iran. The analysis examines the impact of socioeconomic, familial, demographic, and household dynamic factors on the three child maltreatment…

  10. The Role of the Val66Met Polymorphism of the Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor Gene in Coping Strategies Relevant to Depressive Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Warren; McInnis, Opal A; McQuaid, Robyn J; Liu, Gele; Stead, John D; Anisman, Hymie; Hayley, Shawn

    2013-01-01

    Disturbances of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signalling have been implicated in the evolution of depression, which likely arises, in part, as a result of diminished synaptic plasticity. Predictably, given stressor involvement in depression, BDNF is affected by recent stressors as well as stressors such as neglect experienced in early life. The effects of early life maltreatment in altering BDNF signalling may be particularly apparent among those individuals with specific BDNF polymorphisms. We examined whether polymorphisms of the Val66Met genotype might be influential in moderating how early-life events play out with respect to later coping styles, cognitive flexibility and depressive features. Among male and female undergraduate students (N = 124), childhood neglect was highly related to subsequent depressive symptoms. This outcome was moderated by the BDNF polymorphism in the sense that depressive symptoms appeared higher in Met carriers who reported low levels of neglect than in those with the Val/Val allele. However, under conditions of high neglect depressive symptoms only increased in the Val/Val individuals. In effect, the Met polymorphism was associated with depressive features, but did not interact with early life neglect in predicting later depressive features. It was further observed that among the Val/Val individuals, the relationship between neglect and depression was mediated by emotion-focused styles and diminished perceived control, whereas this mediation was not apparent in Met carriers. In contrast to the more typical view regarding this polymorphism, the data are consistent with the perspective that in the presence of synaptic plasticity presumably associated with the Val/Val genotype, neglect allows for the emergence of specific appraisal and coping styles, which are tied to depression. In the case of the reduced degree of neuroplasticity expected in the Met carriers, early life adverse experiences are not tied to coping styles

  11. The Role of the Val66Met Polymorphism of the Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor Gene in Coping Strategies Relevant to Depressive Symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warren Caldwell

    Full Text Available Disturbances of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF signalling have been implicated in the evolution of depression, which likely arises, in part, as a result of diminished synaptic plasticity. Predictably, given stressor involvement in depression, BDNF is affected by recent stressors as well as stressors such as neglect experienced in early life. The effects of early life maltreatment in altering BDNF signalling may be particularly apparent among those individuals with specific BDNF polymorphisms. We examined whether polymorphisms of the Val66Met genotype might be influential in moderating how early-life events play out with respect to later coping styles, cognitive flexibility and depressive features. Among male and female undergraduate students (N = 124, childhood neglect was highly related to subsequent depressive symptoms. This outcome was moderated by the BDNF polymorphism in the sense that depressive symptoms appeared higher in Met carriers who reported low levels of neglect than in those with the Val/Val allele. However, under conditions of high neglect depressive symptoms only increased in the Val/Val individuals. In effect, the Met polymorphism was associated with depressive features, but did not interact with early life neglect in predicting later depressive features. It was further observed that among the Val/Val individuals, the relationship between neglect and depression was mediated by emotion-focused styles and diminished perceived control, whereas this mediation was not apparent in Met carriers. In contrast to the more typical view regarding this polymorphism, the data are consistent with the perspective that in the presence of synaptic plasticity presumably associated with the Val/Val genotype, neglect allows for the emergence of specific appraisal and coping styles, which are tied to depression. In the case of the reduced degree of neuroplasticity expected in the Met carriers, early life adverse experiences are not tied

  12. Symptom Trajectories Among Child Survivors of Maltreatment: Findings from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauterbach, Dean; Armour, Cherie

    2016-02-01

    Very few studies have investigated the longitudinal trajectory of depression and anxiety related symptomatology among child victims of maltreatment or among those at risk for maltreatment. The current study examined latent class trajectories of anxiety/depression symptoms in a sample of 1354 (n = 657 boys, n = 697 girls) victimized or at risk children using data collected from the Longtitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN). Four trajectory groups were identified labeled low-stable, moderate-stable, moderate-increasing, and high-decreasing. This study also sought to investigate predictors of group membership. Relative to the low-stable group, membership in the three more pathological groups (i.e., moderate-stable, moderate-increasing, and high-decreasing) was predicted by a greater number of maltreatment allegations, more visits to a primary care physician for psychological issues, less perceived support by primary maternal caregiver, and lower rated popularity of the child. Implications for early identification of child maltreatment victims in primary health care settings was discussed. PMID:25795014

  13. An Agent-Based Model for Studying Child Maltreatment and Child Maltreatment Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaolin; Puddy, Richard W.

    This paper presents an agent-based model that simulates the dynamics of child maltreatment and child maltreatment prevention. The developed model follows the principles of complex systems science and explicitly models a community and its families with multi-level factors and interconnections across the social ecology. This makes it possible to experiment how different factors and prevention strategies can affect the rate of child maltreatment. We present the background of this work and give an overview of the agent-based model and show some simulation results.

  14. Childhood vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Palit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood vitiligo is often encountered in dermatological practice. When present in infancy or early childhood, various nevoid and hereditary disorders are to be differentiated. In many cases, familial aggregation of the disease is seen and other autoimmune disorders may be associated. Segmental presentation is more common, and limited body surface area involvement is usual in this age group. Children with vitiligo often suffer from anxiety and depression because of their unusual appearance. Management of vitiligo in children is difficult as therapeutic options are restricted when compared to that in adult patients. Selection of treatment should be careful in these patients with the aim to achieve best results with minimal side effects as well as relieving patients′ and parents′ anxiety.

  15. 青少年抑郁与儿童期虐待和近期生活事件相关分析%Correlative analysis between depression and childhood abuse or recent life events among adolescents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨林胜; 张志华; 吴红燕; 孙业桓

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解青少年抑郁与儿童期虐待和近期生活事件的关系,验证可能存在的调节中介效应假设.方法 方便抽取合肥市3798名使用网络的中学生,进行亲子冲突策略量表、青少年生活事件量表、流调中心用抑郁量表以及人口学特征调查.采用层级线性回归模型,分析青少年儿童期虐待、近期生活事件和抑郁可能存在的调节中介效应.结果 不同性别青少年早期虐待经历与近期生活事件均有关联(P值均<0.01),并通过近期生活事件间接地对青少年抑郁产生效应(P值均<0.01);中学女生儿童期虐待对生活事件介导的间接效应有调节作用(P=0.001),而男生未见儿童期虐待对中介效应的调节作用(P=0.260).结论 儿童期虐待对青少年抑郁的作用部分是通过近期生活事件介导的间接效应,中学女生儿童期虐待对间接效应有正向调节作用.应该采用措施阻止儿童期虐待的出现,其中受虐女童是重点保护的对象.%Objective To examine how childhood abuse and recent life events interact to adolescent depression and to test possible moderated mediation hypothesis. Methods A total of 3 798 urban adolescent students in Hefei were administered to complete the questionnaires including Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales, Adolescent Self-Rating Life Events Check List, Beck Depression Inventory and demographic characteristics, respectively. Hierarchical linear regressions were used to evaluate the possible moderated mediation effect in associations linking childhood abuse and pastyear life events to depression in the youth. Results Childhood abuse was associated with past-year life events ( P < 0.01 ) and indirect effects of childhood abuse on depression in the youth mediated by past-year life events were found in both male and female students( P <0.01 ). In addition,the indirect effect above was also moderated by childhood abuse in female students ( P = 0. 001 ), while not in

  16. The effects of child maltreatment on the developing brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Danya

    2014-09-01

    Lasting effects of child abuse and neglect are well recognised. Apart from physical effects resulting from injuries and neglect, the effects are on behaviour, emotional well-being, interpersonal relationships and cognitive functioning. These psychological aspects are now known to have their counterparts in brain structure, chemistry and function. The growing knowledge of brain development has shed new light on our understanding of the processes by which especially early abuse and neglect may have a profound effect on the child's later adjustment. The brain undergoes its greatest growth and development in the first years of life, (with a second phase in adolescence). While the sequence of development within the brain is genetically determined, the nature of this development is determined to a considerable extent on the young child's experiences. The absence of some experiences, such as extreme deprivation during sensitive periods of development may mean that certain functions will not develop. For most functions, the nature of experience will shape brain development. Negative experiences and certain ways of interaction will be incorporated into the brain's connectivity. While learning and new experiences continue throughout life, and their effects continue to be incorporated into brain structure and functioning, previous patterns cannot be erased, only added on to and more slowly. As we know from our adult experiences, learning is far faster in childhood. A further aspect of child maltreatment which has a profound effect on brain development is the significant neurobiological stress which the young, maltreated, child experiences. It is interesting to learn that secure attachment organisation protects the developing brain from the worst effects of the stress response. The effects of the experiences interact with the child's genetic resilience or vulnerability. PMID:25228749

  17. Adapting and retesting evidence-based child maltreatment prevention programs: a case study in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikton, C

    2015-01-01

    This special issue of Health Promotion and Chronic Disease Prevention in Canada is timely, as child maltreatment is a significant public health problem; globally, the number affected is at least in the hundreds of millions. One-quarter of adults report having been physically abused and over one-third emotionally abused as children; one in 5 women and one in 13 men report having been sexually abused. Recent national surveys of violence against children conducted in Africa and in other low- and middle-income countries reveal rates of childhood physical, sexual and emotional abuse even higher than the global rates. PMID:26605566

  18. Data on maltreatment profiles and psychopathology in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Andreas; Münzer, Annika; Ganser, Helene G; Fegert, Jörg M; Goldbeck, Lutz; Plener, Paul L

    2016-09-01

    We present data on maltreatment profiles and psychopathology of 358 children and adolescents (4-17 years). Data on maltreatment profiles has been categorized into six major maltreatment types: physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, sexual abuse with penetration, exposure to intimate partner violence and neglect. The data on history of maltreatment is based on the interview version of the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire (JVQ). Additionally data on psychopathology in general as well as specific disorders according to DSM-IV based on K-SADS-PL is presented. The data was used to examine patterns of co-occurrences of maltreatment and associated clinical outcome variables using latent class analysis (LCA), "Experience by children and adolescents of more than one type of maltreatment: association of different classes of maltreatment profiles with clinical outcome variables" (Witt et al.,) [1]. PMID:27583341

  19. Sources of emotional maltreatment and the differential development of unconditional and conditional schemas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Molly C; Lumley, Margaret N

    2012-01-01

    Schema theory posits that experiences of maltreatment result in the early development of maladaptive schemas (EMS; Young, Klosko, & Weishaar, 2003, Schema therapy: A practitioner's guide, The Guilford Press: New York, NY). EMS are organized by conditionality; unconditional schemas are theorized to develop early in childhood predominantly in response to experiences of parenting and conditional schemas are theorized to develop later in life in response to other relationships. Despite this distinction, minimal previous research has investigated their differential development. The current study examined the relative contributions of parental and other (peer and intimate partner) emotional maltreatment (EMT) in the differential development of unconditional and conditional schemas. Ninety-seven undergraduate students retrospectively reported their maltreatment experiences using the Lifetime Experiences Questionnaire and completed the Young Schema Questionnaire to measure EMS. Consistent with hypotheses, parental EMT was the strongest predictor of unconditional schemas. Unexpectedly, parental EMT also emerged as the strongest predictor of conditional schemas. Theoretical and clinical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:22471813

  20. Correlation of adverse childhood experiences with psychiatric disorders and aggressiveness in adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Samardžić Ljiljana; Nikolić Gordana; Grbeša Grozdanko; Simonović Maja; Milenković Tatjana

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aim. Consequences of individual adverse childhood experiences for adult mental health have been precisely studied during past decades. The focus of past research was mainly on childhood maltreatment and neglect. The aim of this paper was to determine association between multiple adverse childhood experiences and psychiatric disorders, as well as their correlation to the degree and type of aggressiveness in adult psychiatric patients. Methods. One hundred and thirteen psychiatric ou...

  1. Depression Begets Depression: Comparing the Predictive Utility of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms to Later Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Kate; Feng, Xin; Hipwell, Alison; Klostermann, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Background: The high comorbidity between depressive and anxiety disorders, especially among females, has called into question the independence of these two symptom groups. It is possible that childhood anxiety typically precedes depression in girls. Comparing of the predictive utility of symptoms of anxiety with the predictive utility of symptoms…

  2. Adverse childhood experiences, allostasis, allostatic load, and age-related disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danese, Andrea; McEwen, Bruce S

    2012-04-12

    How do adverse childhood experiences get 'under the skin' and influence health outcomes through the life-course? Research reviewed here suggests that adverse childhood experiences are associated with changes in biological systems responsible for maintaining physiological stability through environmental changes, or allostasis. Children exposed to maltreatment showed smaller volume of the prefrontal cortex, greater activation of the HPA axis, and elevation in inflammation levels compared to non-maltreated children. Adults with a history of childhood maltreatment showed smaller volume of the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, greater activation of the HPA axis, and elevation in inflammation levels compared to non-maltreated individuals. Despite the clear limitations in making longitudinal claims from cross-sectional studies, work so far suggests that adverse childhood experiences are associated with enduring changes in the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems. These changes are already observable in childhood years and remain apparent in adult life. Adverse childhood experiences induce significant biological changes in children (biological embedding), modifying the maturation and the operating balance of allostatic systems. Their chronic activation can lead to progressive wear and tear, or allostatic load and overload, and, thus, can exert long-term effects on biological aging and health. PMID:21888923

  3. Organizational Perspective on Cognitive Control Functioning and Cognitive-Affective Balance in Maltreated Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieder, Carolyn; Cicchetti, Dante

    1989-01-01

    Examined the relation between a history of maltreatment and cognitive control functioning in two groups of preschool and early school-age maltreated and nonmaltreated children. Maltreated children showed developmentally impaired cognitive control functioning on a number of tasks. (RH)

  4. The Social Context of Child Maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, Diana

    1994-01-01

    Discusses family factors associated with child abuse from an ecological perspective. Identifies economic and cultural generative factors of child abuse. Explores special circumstances affecting occurrence of child maltreatment. Examines dimensions of responsiveness, demandingness, and parental authority patterns in their application to abusive…

  5. Child maltreatment, parents & the emergency department

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M.M. Hoytema van Konijnenburg

    2015-01-01

    The research described in this thesis focuses on the evaluation of several methods of screening for child maltreatment at the emergency department, with an emphasis on screening based on parental risk factors (‘child check’). The use of a screening checklist (mandatory in all Dutch emergency departm

  6. Trauma-Informed Forensic Child Maltreatment Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, Donna M.

    2011-01-01

    Trauma-informed child welfare systems (CWSs) are the focus of several recent national and state initiatives. Since 2005 social work publications have focused on systemic and practice changes within CW which seek to identify and reduce trauma to children and families experiencing child maltreatment or other distressing events, as well as to the…

  7. Methodological Challenges in Measuring Child Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Barbara; Trocme, Nico; Fluke, John; MacLaurin, Bruce; Tonmyr, Lil; Yuan, Ying-Ying

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This article reviewed the different surveillance systems used to monitor the extent of reported child maltreatment in North America. Methods: Key measurement and definitional differences between the surveillance systems are detailed and their potential impact on the measurement of the rate of victimization. The infrastructure…

  8. Overweight and Obesity among Maltreated Young Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiderman, Janet U.; Mennen, Ferol E.; Negriff, Sonya; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: (1) To identify and compare rates of body mass index (BMI) [greater than or equal to] 85% (overweight/obesity) and BMI [greater than or equal to] 95% (obesity) in maltreated versus comparison young adolescents; (2) to determine whether demographic/psychological characteristics are related to high BMI; (3) to determine whether type of…

  9. Can communit based interventions prevent child maltreatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijken, M.W.; Stams, Geert-Jan; de Winter, M.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the many efforts taken to prevent child maltreatment, this continues to be a significant worldwide problem. Interventions predominantly focus on ‘at risk’ populations and individual characteristics of the victim or abuser, but is that enough? The present review was designed to examine the po

  10. ADHD Symptoms and Likelihood of Child Maltreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between inattentive and hyperactivity symptoms and child maltreatment was studied among a sample of 14,322 participants in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Healh at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA.

  11. Mental Health and Behavioral Outcomes of Sexual and Nonsexual Child Maltreatment Among Child Welfare-Involved Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Jennifer E; White, Kevin; Wu, Qi; Killian-Farrell, Candace

    2016-07-01

    Our research team used the nationally representative National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being II to explore the differences in mental health and behavioral outcomes between children who enter the child welfare system with substantiated sexual abuse and those who enter with exclusively nonsexual maltreatment. The sample included 380 children between the ages of 8 to 17.5 who were substantiated for maltreatment (sexual and nonsexual) and had the same caregivers at both wave 1 and 2 (n = 380). Results show that the average age of children in the sample was 11 years old, and the results corroborate literature that has indicated children and youth with histories of childhood sexual abuse experience significantly more post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms than children with histories of nonsexual maltreatment. This finding held after controlling for baseline trauma symptoms and all covariates, including race, age, placement type, and caregiver characteristics. Childhood sexual abuse was not significantly related to an increase in behavioral symptoms after controlling for covariates. Implications for research and practice are offered. PMID:27294412

  12. Major depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depression - major; Depression - clinical; Clinical depression; Unipolar depression; Major depressive disorder ... Doctors do not know the exact causes of depression. It is believed that chemical changes in the ...

  13. Reduced visual cortex gray matter volume and thickness in young adults who witnessed domestic violence during childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akemi Tomoda

    Full Text Available Exposure to interparental violence is associated with negative outcomes, such as depression, post-traumatic stress disorder and reduced cognitive abilities. However, little is known about the potential effects of witnessing domestic violence during childhood on gray matter volume (GMV or cortical thickness. High-resolution 3.0 T volumetric scans (Siemens Trio Scanner were obtained on 52 subjects (18-25 years including 22 (6 males/16 females with a history of visually witnessing episodes of domestic violence, and 30 (8 males/22 females unexposed control subjects, with neither a current nor past DSM-IV Axis I or II disorder. Potential confounding effects of age, gender, level of parental verbal aggression, parental education, financial stress, full scale IQ, and total GMV, or average thickness were modeled using voxel based morphometry and FreeSurfer. Witnessing domestic violence subjects had a 6.1% GMV reduction in the right lingual gyrus (BA18 (P = 0.029, False Discovery Rate corrected peak level. Thickness in this region was also reduced, as was thickness in V2 bilaterally and left occipital pole. Theses regions were maximally sensitive to exposure to witnessing domestic violence between 11-13 years of age. Regional reductions in GMV and thickness were observed in both susceptible and resilient witnessing domestic violence subjects. Results in subjects witnessing domestic violence were similar to previously reported results in subjects with childhood sexual abuse, as the primary region affected was visual cortex. Brain regions that process and convey the adverse sensory input of the abuse may be specifically modified by this experience, particularly in subjects exposed to a single type of maltreatment. Exposure to multiple types of maltreatment is more commonly associated with morphological alterations in corticolimbic regions. These findings fit with preclinical studies showing that visual cortex is a highly plastic structure.

  14. Reduced visual cortex gray matter volume and thickness in young adults who witnessed domestic violence during childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomoda, Akemi; Polcari, Ann; Anderson, Carl M; Teicher, Martin H

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to interparental violence is associated with negative outcomes, such as depression, post-traumatic stress disorder and reduced cognitive abilities. However, little is known about the potential effects of witnessing domestic violence during childhood on gray matter volume (GMV) or cortical thickness. High-resolution 3.0 T volumetric scans (Siemens Trio Scanner) were obtained on 52 subjects (18-25 years) including 22 (6 males/16 females) with a history of visually witnessing episodes of domestic violence, and 30 (8 males/22 females) unexposed control subjects, with neither a current nor past DSM-IV Axis I or II disorder. Potential confounding effects of age, gender, level of parental verbal aggression, parental education, financial stress, full scale IQ, and total GMV, or average thickness were modeled using voxel based morphometry and FreeSurfer. Witnessing domestic violence subjects had a 6.1% GMV reduction in the right lingual gyrus (BA18) (P = 0.029, False Discovery Rate corrected peak level). Thickness in this region was also reduced, as was thickness in V2 bilaterally and left occipital pole. Theses regions were maximally sensitive to exposure to witnessing domestic violence between 11-13 years of age. Regional reductions in GMV and thickness were observed in both susceptible and resilient witnessing domestic violence subjects. Results in subjects witnessing domestic violence were similar to previously reported results in subjects with childhood sexual abuse, as the primary region affected was visual cortex. Brain regions that process and convey the adverse sensory input of the abuse may be specifically modified by this experience, particularly in subjects exposed to a single type of maltreatment. Exposure to multiple types of maltreatment is more commonly associated with morphological alterations in corticolimbic regions. These findings fit with preclinical studies showing that visual cortex is a highly plastic structure. PMID:23300699

  15. Association of child maltreatment and psychiatric diagnosis in Brazilian children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Burim Scomparini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between different types of child maltreatment and the presence of psychiatric disorders in highly vulnerable children and adolescents served by a multidisciplinary program. METHODS: In total, 351 patients with a mean age of 12.47, of whom 68.7% were male and 82.1% lived in shelters, underwent psychiatric evaluations based on the Kiddie-Sads-Present and Lifetime Version. Two different methods were used to evaluate maltreatment: medical records were reviewed to identify previous diagnoses related to socioeconomic and psychosocial circumstances, and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire was used to obtain a structured history of trauma. Bivariate associations were evaluated between psychiatric disorders and evidence of each type and the frequency of abuse. RESULTS: The most frequent psychiatric diagnoses were substance use disorders, affective disorders and specific disorders of early childhood, whereas 13.67% of the sample had no psychiatric diagnosis. All patients suffered neglect, and 58.4% experienced physical or sexual abuse. The presence of a history of multiple traumas was only associated with a diagnosis of substance use disorder. Mental retardation showed a strong positive association with reported physical abuse and emotional neglect. However, a negative correlation was found when we analyzed the presence of a history of multiple traumas and mental retardation. CONCLUSION: All children living in adverse conditions deserve careful assistance, but we found that physical abuse and emotional neglect were most strongly associated with mental retardation and multiple traumas with substance abuse.

  16. Child Psychological Maltreatment in the Family: Definition and Severity Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Ignacia Arruabarrena

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Psychological maltreatment is one of the main and potentially more destructive forms of child maltreatment. It is difficult to identify, assess and treat. Compared to other forms of child maltreatment such as sexual abuse, physical abuse and neglect, attention received from researchers, child protection service managers and practitioners has been scarce. A review of available knowledge about psychological maltreatment reveals challenges to define the concept in ways useful to policy makers and practitioners. This paper presents a review of definitions of child psychological maltreatment and several measures available for assessing its severity. The review has been used in the Comunidad Autónoma Vasca (Spain to develop more specific criteria for the identification and severity assessment of child psychological maltreatment in Spanish children services. This paper develops these criteria.

  17. Lower structural integrity of the uncinate fasciculus is associated with a history of child maltreatment and future psychological vulnerability to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Jamie L; Knodt, Annchen R; Brigidi, Bartholomew D; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2015-11-01

    The experience of child maltreatment is a significant risk factor for the development of later internalizing disorders such as depression and anxiety. This risk is particularly heightened after exposure to additional, more contemporaneous stress. While behavioral evidence exists for such "stress sensitization," little is known about the mechanisms mediating such relationships, particularly within the brain. Here we report that the experience of child maltreatment independent of recent life stress, gender, and age is associated with reduced structural integrity of the uncinate fasciculus, a major white matter pathway between the amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex, in young adults. We further demonstrate that individuals with lower uncinate fasciculus integrity at baseline who subsequently experience stressful life events report higher levels of internalizing symptomatology at follow-up. Our findings suggest a novel neurobiological mechanism linking child maltreatment with later internalizing symptoms, specifically altered structural connectivity within the brain's threat-detection and emotion-regulation circuitry. PMID:26535947

  18. Does the impact of child sexual abuse differ from maltreated but non-sexually abused children? A prospective examination of the impact of child sexual abuse on internalizing and externalizing behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Terri; McElroy, Erika; Harlaar, Nicole; Runyan, Desmond

    2016-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) continues to be a significant problem with significant short and long term consequences. However, extant literature is limited by the reliance on retrospective recall of adult samples, single-time assessments, and lack of longitudinal data during the childhood and adolescent years. The purpose of this study was to compare internalizing and externalizing behavior problems of those with a history of sexual abuse to those with a history of maltreatment, but not sexual abuse. We examined whether gender moderated problems over time. Data were drawn from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN) at ages 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 (N=977). The Child Behavior Checklist was used to assess internalizing and externalizing problems. Maltreatment history and types were obtained from official Child Protective Services (CPS) records. Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) were used to assess behavior problems over time by maltreatment group. Findings indicated significantly more problems in the CSA group than the maltreated group without CSA over time. Internalizing problems were higher for sexually abused boys compared to girls. For sexually abused girls internalizing problems, but not externalizing problems increased with age relative to boys. This pattern was similar among maltreated but not sexually abused youth. Further efforts are needed to examine the psychological effects of maltreatment, particularly CSA longitudinally as well as better understand possible gender differences in order to best guide treatment efforts. PMID:26712421

  19. Roles of attachment and self-esteem: impact of early life stress on depressive symptoms among Japanese institutionalized children

    OpenAIRE

    SHIMADA, Koji; Takiguchi, Shinichiro; Mizushima, Sakae; Fujisawa, Takashi X.; Saito, Daisuke N.; Kosaka, Hirotaka; Okazawa, Hidehiko; Tomoda, Akemi

    2015-01-01

    hild maltreatment increases the risk for psychiatric disorders throughout childhood and into adulthood. One negative outcome of child maltreatment can be a disorder of emotional functioning, reactive attachment disorder (RAD), where the child displays wary, watchful, and emotionally withdrawn behaviours. Despiteits clinical importance, little is known about the potential neurobiological consequences of RAD. The aim of this study was to elucidate whether RAD was associated with alterations in ...

  20. Characteristics of the Social Support Networks of Maltreated Youth: Exploring the Effects of Maltreatment Experience and Foster Placement

    OpenAIRE

    Negriff, Sonya; James, Adam; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the social support networks of maltreated youth or how youth in foster care may compare with those who remain with their parent(s). Social network characteristics and perceived social support were examined between (1) maltreated and comparison youth, (2) maltreated youth who remained with their biological parent, those with a foster parent, or a those with a kin caregiver, and (3) youth in stable placements and those who have changed placements. Data came from a sample o...

  1. 抑郁症患者应对方式与童年受虐经历的关系%Relationship between coping styles of patients with depression and childhood abuse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄庆玲; 雍那; 胡华; 杨祥英; 杜莲; 蒙华庆

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨抑郁症患者应对方式与童年受虐经历之间的关系。方法采用病例对照研究,对80例成年抑郁症患者及80例配比健康对照进行回顾性问卷调查。包括自设一般情况问卷了解其人口学资料、童年期创伤性经历问卷(CTQ‐SF)评估童年受虐情况和特质应对方式量表(TCSQ)评估应对方式,运用 t检验、非参数Mann‐Whitney U检验、Spearman相关分析和多元线性逐步回归分析抑郁症患者应对方式的特点及其与童年受虐经历的相关性。结果(1)抑郁症病例组的消极应对方式分值显著高于健康对照组(t=9.13,P<0.01),而其积极应对方式分值显著低于健康对照组(t=-12.01,P<0.01);有受虐经历的抑郁症病例组消极应对分显著高于有受虐经历的健康对照组( Z=-6.134,P<0.01 ),而其积极应对方式分显著低于健康对照组(Z=-5.452,P<0.01);抑郁症组中有受虐经历的患者消极应对分显著高于无受虐经历患者(Z=-2.159,P<0.05),积极应对分值两者之间无明显差异。(2)抑郁症患者童年受虐经历与其消极应对方式呈显著正相关,与其积极应对方式呈显著负相关(r=0.562,P<0.01;r=-0.333,P<0.05)。(3)抑郁症患者消极应对水平能够被童年受虐待总分和躯体因子共同解释占34.4%(P<0.01)。结论童年受虐经历明显影响抑郁症患者的应对方式,且虐待程度越重,尤其有躯体虐待,其消极应对越明显。%Objective To explore the relationship between coping styles and childhood abuse in adult patients with depression . Methods A case‐control study was conducted between 80 adult patients with depression and 80 health controls .In general ques‐tionnaire was designed to collect the demo‐graphic information ,Childhood Trauma Questionnaire‐28 Item Short Form

  2. The influence of geographical and economic factors in estimates of childhood abuse and neglect using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire: A worldwide meta-regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viola, Thiago Wendt; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Kluwe-Schiavon, Bruno; Sanvicente-Vieira, Breno; Levandowski, Mateus Luz; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    This multilevel meta-analysis examined the effects of geographical and economic factors on worldwide childhood maltreatment estimates measured by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) short-form. The primary outcome extracted was continuous scores on the CTQ subscales - emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional neglect, and physical neglect - and total score. Geographical, economical and methodological variables were extracted for use as covariates in meta-regression models. A literature search identified 288 studies suitable for the CTQ total score analysis (N=59,692) and 189 studies suitable for maltreatment subtype analysis (N=44,832). We found that Europe and Asia were associated with lower CTQ estimates while South America presented the highest estimates among continents. Specifically, studies from China, Netherlands and United Kingdom presented the lowest maltreatment estimates. Furthermore, high-income countries presented lower CTQ physical neglect estimates in comparison to low- or middle-income countries, while per-capita gross domestic product of countries was negatively associated with childhood physical neglect estimates. Despite the influence of methodological covariates, these findings indicate that geographical and economic factors could influence variations of childhood maltreatment estimates around the world, particularly when assessed by a structured standardized questionnaire. PMID:26704298

  3. 抑郁症患者儿童期受虐对多巴胺水平及相关因素的影响%Analysis of relationship between childhood abuse with dopamine level and related factors in depressive patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛威; 赵汉清; 仲爱芳; 丁松柏; 林芝

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of serum dopamine (DA) level on childhood abuse and related factors in depressive patients. Methods A total of 101 depressive patients were assessed with Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale-24 items ( HAMD-24), Self-rating Idea of Suicide Scale (SIOSS) and Beck Helpless Rating Scale (BHS) to evaluate the degree of childhood abuse and severity of depressive symptoms. The serum DA level was measured with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Childhood abuse was defined as total score of CTQ above 50 or score of abuse subscale above 10. Results (1) The prevalence of childhood abuse was 67. 32% in 101 depressive patients, which consisted of emotional abuse (74. 52%), emotional neglect (59.40% ), physical abuse (63.37% ), physical neglect (66. 14% ) and sexual abuse (44.55% ). (2) The serum DA level was significantly lower in emotional neglect group than that in non-emotional neglect group. (P <0.05). (3) Score of HAMD-24 in emotional abuse group and physical abuse group were significantly higher than those in non-abuse group (P <0.05). Score of SIOOS in sexual abuse group was significantly higher than that in non-abuse group (P < 0.01). Score of BHS in emotional abuse group was significantly higher than that in non-abuse group (P <0.05). (4) Score of childhood emotional neglect and physical abuse were significantly positively correlated with score of BHS ( P < 0.05). Score of sexual abuse was significantly correlated with score of SIOOS (P <0.01). Conclusion The serum DA level is relatively low in depressive patients who experienced emotional neglect in childhood. The childhood abuse is a risk factor of depression and can make depressive symptoms more serious.%目的 探讨抑郁症患者儿童期受虐对血清多巴胺( Dopamine,DA)水平及相关因素的影响.方法 对101例抑郁症患者采用儿童受虐问卷(CTQ)、24项汉密尔顿抑郁量表(HAMD-24)、自杀意念量表(SIOSS)

  4. Neonatal maltreatment and brain development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadriye Yurdakök

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The early childhood years are a period of rapid change in the brain. During early childhood, the brain forms and refines a complex network of connections through synaptogenesis, pruning, and myelination. The development of the brain is regulated by genes, which interact profoundly with early experience. There are sensitive periods for development of certain capabilities. These refer to critical windows of time in the developmental process when certain parts of the brain may be most susceptible to particular experiences during its development. Most functions of the human brain result from a complex interplay between genetic potential and appropriately timed experiences. Early postnatal experiences play a major role in shaping the functional capacity of the neural systems responsible for mediating our cognitive, emotional, social and physiological functions. When the necessary experiences are not provided at the optimal times, these neural systems do not develop in optimal ways. Adverse environments and experiences during the neonatal period can dramatically affect the development of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis that underlies adaptive behavioral responses. Early life stress programs HPA axis development and exerts profound effects on neural plasticity, with resultant long-term influences on neurobehavior. Animal studies show that not only are these neurobiological changes long lasting, but that they too can be passed on to future generations via non-genetic transmission. Olfactory, auditory, visual and tactile stimulation may serve as an important cue for brain development exerting specific effects on neuroendocrine systems regulating social and emotional behavior which may have consequences for subsequent generations of offspring. Proceedings of the 10th International Workshop on Neonatology · Cagliari (Italy · October 22nd-25th, 2014 · The last ten years, the next ten years in Neonatology Guest Editors: Vassilios

  5. Child maltreatment, parents & the emergency department

    OpenAIRE

    Hoytema van Konijnenburg, E.M.M.

    2015-01-01

    The research described in this thesis focuses on the evaluation of several methods of screening for child maltreatment at the emergency department, with an emphasis on screening based on parental risk factors (‘child check’). The use of a screening checklist (mandatory in all Dutch emergency departments), a complete physical examination and the child check are discussed. Furthermore, the wellbeing of a family is assessed when a parent visits the emergency department due to intimate partner vi...

  6. Demographic, Maltreatment, and Neurobiological Correlates of PTSD Symptoms in Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    De Bellis, Michael D.; Hooper, Stephen R.; Woolley, Donald P.; SHENK, CHAD E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationships of demographic, maltreatment, neurostructural and neuropsychological measures with total posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Methods Participants included 216 children with maltreatment histories (N = 49), maltreatment and PTSD (N = 49), or no maltreatment (N = 118). Participants received diagnostic interviews, brain imaging, and neuropsychological evaluations. Results We examined a hierarchical regression model comprised of independent variab...

  7. Effect of childhood psychological abuse on the personality of undergraduates with depression%儿童期精神虐待对大学生人格及抑郁情绪的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨世昌; 姚桂英; 杜爱玲; 高红丽; 闫春平

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨儿童期精神虐待对大学生人格及抑郁情绪的影响及其作用机制.方法 采用流调用抑郁量表、儿童虐待史问卷和艾森克人格问卷对河南省某高校的733名本科生进行问卷调查.结果 ①除儿童期母亲憎恶与成年期人格中内外倾相关不显著外,其余儿童期精神虐待与大学生人格均呈显著相关(P<0.01);儿童期精神虐待4个维度与大学生抑郁呈显著正相关(r=0.257,r=0.304,r=0.237,r=0.256).②儿童期父亲憎恶在神经质上的标准回归系数(β=0.243,P<0.01)为正,儿童期母亲忽视在大学生精神质上的标准回归系数(β=0.206,P<0.01)为正,儿童期父亲忽视在大学生内外倾上的标准回归系数(β=-0.143,P<0.01)为负,均达到显著性水平.儿童期父亲憎恶与母亲憎恶对大学生抑郁有正向的预测作用(分别β=0.078,β=0.103,P<0.05),可以解释总变异的44%;③结构方程模型得出,儿童期父亲憎恶通过成年期神经质的部分中介作用对大学生抑郁产生间接影响,间接效应占总效应的59.8%.结论 儿童期精神虐待对大学生人格及抑郁情绪有直接预测作用;此外,儿童期精神虐待还通过成年期人格的部分中介作用对个体成年期抑郁情绪产生间接影响.%Objective To investigate the effect of psychological abuse in childhood on the personality of undergraduates with depression as well as its possible mechanism, and thus provide scientific evidence for the intervention of depression in undergraduates. Methods Particinants were 733 undergraduates from a university in Henan Province. They were surveyed with Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale (CES-D), childhood experience of care and abuse questionnaire (CECA. Q) and Eysenck personality theory (EPQ). Results the correlation between maternal antipathy and introversion-extroversion of personality;psychological abuse in childhood had apparently positive correlation with the

  8. Histories of Child Maltreatment and Psychiatric Disorder in Pregnant Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Elisa; Zoccolillo, Mark; Paquette, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The study investigated histories of child maltreatment and psychiatric disorder in a high-risk sample of pregnant adolescents. Method: Cross-sectional data were obtained for 252 pregnant adolescents from high school, hospital, and group home settings in Montreal (Canada). Adolescents completed a child maltreatment questionnaire and a…

  9. Evaluation of a Spiritually Based Child Maltreatment Prevention Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Louisa K.; Rigazio-DiGilio, Sandra A.

    2013-01-01

    The authors empirically evaluated a spiritually based 1-day child maltreatment training program. Pretest, posttest, and follow-up results indicated that participants' recognition of hypothetical maltreatment did not increase after training. Furthermore, although participants decreased their use of items known to dissuade decisions to report, they…

  10. Neuropsychology of Child Maltreatment and Implications for School Psychologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Andrew S.; Moss, Lauren E.; Nogin, Margarita M.; Webb, Nadia Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Child maltreatment has the potential to alter a child's neurodevelopmental trajectory and substantially increase the risk of later psychiatric disorders, as well as to deleteriously impact neurocognitive functioning throughout the lifespan. Child maltreatment has been linked to multiple domains of neurocognitive impairment, including…

  11. Implementing an Inpatient Social Early Warning System for Child Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atabaki, Armita; Heddaeus, Daniela; Metzner, Franka; Schulz, Holger; Siefert, Sonke; Pawils, Silke

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The current article describes the process evaluation of a social early warning system (SEWS) for the prevention of child maltreatment in the federal state of Hamburg. This prevention initiative targets expectant mothers and their partners including an initial screening of risk factors for child maltreatment, a subsequent structured…

  12. Child Psychological Maltreatment and Its Correlated Factors in Chinese Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenjing; Ma, Yating; Chen, Jingqi

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to explore the prevalence and frequency of child psychological maltreatment and its correlated factors in Chinese families. A cross-sectional investigation was conducted among 1,002 parents of primary school students in Yuncheng City, China. Data were collected using the self-report questionnaire anonymously. Results showed that 696 (69.5%) surveyed parents had different extents of psychological maltreatment toward their children in the past 3 months. The high prevalence of parental psychology maltreatment was significantly associated with high scores on parental over-reactivity and low scores on recognition of child psychology maltreatment. These findings indicate that it is urgent to develop cultural interventions to raise parents' awareness of preventing child psychological maltreatment and to help parents use nonviolent child rearing in China. PMID:27030213

  13. Maltreatment, Child Welfare, and Recidivism in a Sample of Deep-End Crossover Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglivio, Michael T; Wolff, Kevin T; Piquero, Alex R; Bilchik, Shay; Jackowski, Katherine; Greenwald, Mark A; Epps, Nathan

    2016-04-01

    Although research has oft-documented a maltreatment-delinquency link, the effect of involvement in-and timing of-child welfare system involvement on offending has received less attention. We examine whether the timing of child welfare involvement has differential effects on recidivism of deep-end juvenile offenders (youth who have been adjudicated delinquent by the court and placed in juvenile justice residential programs). The current study uses a large, diverse sample of 12,955 youth completing juvenile justice residential programs between 1 January 2010 and 30 June 2013 in Florida (13 % female, 55 % Black, 11 % Hispanic). Additionally, we explore the direct effects of childhood traumatic events on delinquency, as well as their indirect effects through child welfare involvement using structural equation modeling. The findings indicate that adverse childhood experiences fail to exert a direct effect on recidivism, but do exhibit a significant indirect effect on recidivism through child welfare involvement, which is itself associated with recidivism. This means that while having exposures to more types of childhood traumatic events does not, in and of itself, increase the likelihood of re-offending, effects of such experiences operate through child welfare placement. Differences in the effects of maltreatment timing and of adverse childhood experiences are observed across sex and race/ethnicity subgroups. Across all racial subgroups, exposures to adverse childhood experiences have a significant effect on the likelihood of child welfare placement, yet child welfare placement exerts a significant effect on recidivism for White and Hispanic youth, but not for Black youth. Only Hispanic female and White male youth with overlapping child welfare and juvenile justice cases (open cases in both systems at the same time during the study period) were more likely to recidivate than their delinquent-only counterpart youth. Crossover status (child welfare and juvenile

  14. Pathways from childhood abuse and other adversities to adult health risks: The role of adult socioeconomic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font, Sarah A; Maguire-Jack, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), including child abuse, have been linked with poor health outcomes in adulthood. The mechanisms that explain these relations are less understood. This study assesses whether associations of ACEs and health risks are mediated by adult socioeconomic conditions, and whether these pathways are different for maltreatment than for other types of adversities. Using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System 2012 survey (N=29,229), we employ structural equation modeling to (1) estimate associations of the number and type of ACEs with five health risks-depression, obesity, tobacco use, binge drinking, and self-reported sub-optimal health; and (2) assess whether adult socioeconomic conditions-marriage, divorce and separation, educational attainment, income and insurance status-mediate those associations. Findings suggest both direct and indirect associations between ACEs and health risks. At high numbers of ACEs, 15-20% of the association between number of ACEs and adult health risks was attributable to socioeconomic conditions. Associations of three ACEs (exposure to domestic violence, parental divorce, and residing with a person who was incarcerated) with health risks were nearly entirely explained by socioeconomic conditions in adulthood. However, child physical, emotional, and sexual abuse were significantly associated with several adult health risks, beyond the effects of other adversities, and socioeconomic conditions explained only a small portion of these associations. These findings suggest that the pathways to poor adult health differ by types of ACEs, and that childhood abuse is more likely than other adversities to have a direct impact. PMID:26059537

  15. Modeling risk for child abuse and harsh parenting in families with depressed and substance-abusing parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Michelle L; Lawrence, Hannah R; Milletich, Robert J; Hollis, Brittany F; Henson, James M

    2015-05-01

    Children with substance abusing parents are at considerable risk for child maltreatment. The current study applied an actor-partner interdependence model to examine how father only (n=52) and dual couple (n=33) substance use disorder, as well as their depressive symptomology influenced parents' own (actor effects) and the partner's (partner effects) overreactivity in disciplinary interactions with their children, as well as their risk for child maltreatment. Parents completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D; Radloff, 1977), the overreactivity subscale from the Parenting Scale (Arnold, O'Leary, Wolff, & Acker, 1993), and the Brief Child Abuse Potential Inventory (Ondersma, Chaffin, Mullins, & LeBreton, 2005). Results of multigroup structural equation models revealed that a parent's own report of depressive symptoms predicted their risk for child maltreatment in both father SUD and dual SUD couples. Similarly, a parent's report of their own depressive symptoms predicted their overreactivity in disciplinary encounters both in father SUD and dual SUD couples. In all models, partners' depressive symptoms did not predict their partner's risk for child maltreatment or overreactivity. Findings underscore the importance of a parent's own level of depressive symptoms in their risk for child maltreatment and for engaging in overreactivity during disciplinary episodes. PMID:25724658

  16. Aspects of abuse: recognizing and responding to child maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Allison M; Kissoon, Natalie; Greene, Christian

    2015-03-01

    Child maltreatment is a public health problem and toxic stress impacting at least 1 in 8 children by the age of 18 years. Maltreatment can take the form of physical and sexual abuse, neglect, and emotional maltreatment. While some children may experience only one form of maltreatment, others may survive multiple forms, and in some cases particularly complex forms of maltreatment such as torture and medical child abuse. When considering maltreatment, providers should be adept at obtaining a thorough history not only from the parent but when appropriate also from the patient. The most common form of child maltreatment is neglect, which encompasses nutritional and medical neglect, as well as other forms such as physical and emotional neglect. Talking with caregivers about stressors and barriers to care may give insight into the etiology for neglect and is an opportunity for the provider to offer or refer for needed assistance. Familiarity with injury patterns and distribution in the context of developmental milestones and injury mechanisms is critical to the recognition of physical abuse. While most anogenital exam results of child victims of sexual abuse are normal, knowing the normal variations for the female genitalia, and thereby recognizing abnormal findings, is important not only forensically but also more importantly for patient care. Pattern recognition does not only apply to specific injuries or constellation of injuries but also applies to patterns of behavior. Harmful patterns of behavior include psychological maltreatment and medical child abuse, both of which cause significant harm to patients. As health professionals serving children and families, pediatric providers are in a unique position to identify suspected maltreatment and intervene through the health care system in order to manage the physical and psychological consequences of maltreatment and to promote the safety and well-being of children and youth by making referrals to child protective

  17. Preliminary Evaluation of the Childhood Experiences of Violence Questionnaire Short Form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Masako; Wekerle, Christine; Leung, Eman; Waechter, Randall; Gonzalez, Andrea; Jamieson, Ellen; MacMillan, Harriet L.

    2012-01-01

    Despite advances in child maltreatment research, accurate measurement of exposure remains a key issue. In this study, we evaluated a short form (CEVQ-SF) of the Childhood Experiences of Violence Questionnaire (CEVQ) in a sample of adolescents involved with child protection services in an urban city in Ontario, Canada. Focusing on the two most…

  18. Deficits in Emotion Regulation Mediate the Relationship between Childhood Abuse and Later Eating Disorder Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Erin E.; Fischer, Sarah; Jackson, Joan L.; Harding, Hilary G.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship of child maltreatment to both emotion dysregulation and subsequent eating pathology. In an effort to extend previous research, the authors examined the unique impact of childhood emotional abuse (CEA) on emotion dysregulation and eating disorder (ED) symptoms while controlling for the effects of sexual…

  19. Childhood Emotional Abuse and Attachment Processes in the Dyadic Adjustment of Dating Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riggs, Shelley A.; Cusimano, Angela M.; Benson, Karen M.

    2011-01-01

    In an effort to improve understanding of the mechanisms that link early maltreatment to later outcomes, this study investigated the mediation effects of adult attachment processes on the association between childhood emotional abuse and later romantic relationships among heterosexual couples. College students and their dating partners (N = 310;…

  20. The Clinical Correlates of Reported Childhood Sexual Abuse: An Association between Age at Trauma Onset and Severity of Depression and PTSD in Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoedl, Aline Ferri; Costa, Mariana Cadrobbi Pupo; Mari, Jair J.; Mello, Marcelo Feijo; Tyrka, Audrey R.; Carpenter, Linda L.; Price, Lawrence H.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between the age of self-reported sexual abuse occurrence and the development of post-traumatic stress disorder and/or depressive symptoms in adulthood. Subjects were evaluated for the presence of post-traumatic stress disorder and/or depressive symptoms as well as for a self-reported history of sexual abuse…