WorldWideScience

Sample records for childhood liver cancer

  1. Stages of Childhood Liver Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... β-hCG) or a protein called alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Other cancers and certain noncancer conditions, including cirrhosis and hepatitis , can also increase AFP levels. Complete blood count (CBC) : A procedure in ...

  2. General Information about Childhood Liver Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... β-hCG) or a protein called alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Other cancers and certain noncancer conditions, including cirrhosis and hepatitis , can also increase AFP levels. Complete blood count (CBC) : A procedure in ...

  3. Body mass index in childhood and adult risk of primary liver cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berentzen, Tina Landsvig; Gamborg, Michael; Holst, Claus;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Childhood overweight increases the risk of early development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which may predispose to carcinogenesis. We investigated if childhood body size during school ages was associated with the risk of primary liver cancer in adults. METHODS: A cohort......-specific reference. Information on liver cancer was obtained from the National Cancer Registry. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of liver cancer were estimated by Cox regression. RESULTS: During 6,963,105 person-years of follow-up, 438 cases of primary liver cancer were recorded. The hazard ratio...... (95% CI) of adult liver cancer was 1.20 (1.07-1.33) and 1.30 (1.16-1.46) per 1-unit BMI z-score at 7 years and 13 years of age, respectively. Similar associations were found in boys and girls, for hepatocellular carcinoma only, across years of birth, and after accounting for diagnoses of viral...

  4. Childhood Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Childhood Cancer KidsHealth > For Parents > Childhood Cancer Print A A A Text Size What's ... in children, but can happen. The most common childhood cancers are leukemia , lymphoma , and brain cancer . As ...

  5. Sorafenib Tosylate in Treating Younger Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Rhabdomyosarcoma, Wilms Tumor, Liver Cancer, or Thyroid Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-14

    Childhood Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Papillary Thyroid Cancer; Previously Treated Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Liver Cancer; Recurrent Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma; Recurrent Thyroid Cancer; Recurrent Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors

  6. Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... healthy liver are important for survivors of childhood cancer. Pancreas Radiation therapy increases the risk of pancreatic late ... are important for survivors of childhood cancer. Childhood cancer survivors with liver ... Pancreas Radiation therapy increases the risk of pancreatic late ...

  7. Gastrointestinal and liver disease in Adult Life After Childhood Cancer in Scandinavia: A population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asdahl, Peter Haubjerg; Winther, Jeanette Falck; Bonnesen, Trine Gade; De Fine Licht, Sofie; Gudmundsdottir, Thorgerdur; Holmqvist, Anna Sällfors; Malila, Nea; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Wesenberg, Finn; Dahlerup, Jens Frederik; Olsen, Jørgen Helge; Hasle, Henrik

    2016-10-01

    Survival after childhood cancer diagnosis has remarkably improved, but emerging evidence suggests that cancer-directed therapy may have adverse gastrointestinal late effects. We aimed to comprehensively assess the frequency of gastrointestinal and liver late effects among childhood cancer survivors and compare this frequency with the general population. Our population-based cohort study included all 1-year survivors of childhood and adolescent cancer in Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden diagnosed from the 1940s and 1950s. Our outcomes of interest were hospitalization rates for gastrointestinal and liver diseases, which were ascertained from national patient registries. We calculated standardized hospitalization rate ratios (RRs) and absolute excess rates comparing hospitalizations of any gastrointestinal or liver disease and for specific disease entities between survivors and the general population. The study included 31,132 survivors and 207,041 comparison subjects. The median follow-up in the hospital registries were 10 years (range: 0-42) with 23% of the survivors being followed at least to the age of 40 years. Overall, survivors had a 60% relative excess of gastrointestinal or liver diseases [RR: 1.6, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.6-1.7], which corresponds to an absolute excess of 360 (95% CI: 330-390) hospitalizations per 100,000 person-years. Survivors of hepatic tumors, neuroblastoma and leukemia had the highest excess of gastrointestinal and liver diseases. In addition, we observed a relative excess of several specific diseases such as esophageal stricture (RR: 13; 95% CI: 9.2-20) and liver cirrhosis (RR: 2.9; 95% CI: 2.0-4.1). Our findings provide useful information about the breadth and magnitude of late complications among childhood cancer survivors and can be used for generating hypotheses about potential exposures related to these gastrointestinal and liver late effects. PMID:27194488

  8. Childhood Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Shop With CureSearch Blog Donate Now Select Page Childhood Cancer Statistics Home > Understanding Children’s Cancer > Childhood Cancer Statistics Childhood Cancer Statistics – Graphs and Infographics Number of Diagnoses ...

  9. Fatty liver in childhood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yesim; Ozturk; Ozlem; Bekem; Soylu

    2014-01-01

    Fatty liver is a growing health problem worldwide. It might evolve to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, cirrhosis and cause hepatocellular carcinoma. This disease, which has increased because of eating habits, changes in food content and lifestyle, affects people from childhood. The most important risk factors are obesity and insulin resistance. Besides these factors, gender, ethnicity, genetic predisposition and some medical problems are also important. Cirrhosis in children is rare but is reported. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD) has no specific symptoms or signs but should be considered in obese children. NAFLD does not have a proven treatment. Weight loss with family based treatments is the most acceptable management. Exercise and an applicable diet with low glycemic index and appropriate calorie intake are preferred. Drugs are promising but not sufficient in children for today.

  10. What Is Liver Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topic Key statistics about liver cancer What is liver cancer? Cancer starts when cells in the body ... structure and function of the liver. About the liver The liver is the largest internal organ. It ...

  11. How Are Childhood Cancers Found?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topic How are childhood cancers treated? How are childhood cancers found? Screening for childhood cancers Screening is testing for a disease such ... in people who don’t have any symptoms. Childhood cancers are rare, and there are no widely ...

  12. Liver cancer - hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primary liver cell carcinoma; Tumor - liver; Cancer - liver; Hepatoma ... Hepatocellular carcinoma accounts for most liver cancers. This type of cancer occurs more often in men than women. It is usually diagnosed in people age 50 or ...

  13. Liver cancer - hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primary liver cell carcinoma; Tumor - liver; Cancer - liver; Hepatoma ... Hepatocellular carcinoma accounts for most liver cancers. This type of cancer occurs more often in men than women. It is usually diagnosed in people age 50 or older. ...

  14. Childhood Cancer Survivor Study: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancers of Childhood Treatment Childhood Cancer Genomics Research Childhood Cancer Survivor Study: An Overview In 2016, it ... Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer .) The Childhood Cancer Survivor Study ( CCSS ), funded by the National ...

  15. Childhood cancer in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Mariana; Hendricks, Marc; Davidson, Alan; Stefan, Cristina D; van Eyssen, Ann L; Uys, Ronelle; van Zyl, Anel; Hesseling, Peter

    2014-04-01

    The majority of children with cancer live in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) with little or no access to cancer treatment. The purpose of the paper is to describe the current status of childhood cancer treatment in Africa, as documented in publications, dedicated websites and information collected through surveys. Successful twinning programmes, like those in Malawi and Cameroon, as well as the collaborative clinical trial approach of the Franco-African Childhood Cancer Group (GFAOP), provide good models for childhood cancer treatment. The overview will hopefully influence health-care policies to facilitate access to cancer care for all children in Africa. PMID:24214130

  16. Pesticides and childhood cancers.

    OpenAIRE

    Daniels, J L; Olshan, A.F.; Savitz, D A

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the possible association between pesticides and the risk of childhood cancers, epidemiologic studies published between 1970 and 1996 were critically reviewed. Thirty-one studies investigated whether occupational or residential exposure to pesticides by either parents or children was related to increased risk of childhood cancer. In general, the reported relative risk estimates were modest. Risk estimates appeared to be stronger when pesticide exposure was measured in more detail. ...

  17. Tests for Liver Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... has come back after treatment Alpha-fetoprotein blood (AFP) test AFP is normally present at high levels in the ... liver disease, liver cancer, or other cancers. If AFP levels are very high in someone with a ...

  18. Birthweight and Childhood Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paltiel, Ora; Tikellis, Gabriella; Linet, Martha; Golding, Jean; Lemeshow, Stanley; Phillips, Gary; Lamb, Karen; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Håberg, Siri E; Strøm, Marin; Granstrøm, Charlotta; Northstone, Kate; Klebanoff, Mark; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Milne, Elizabeth; Pedersen, Marie; Kogevinas, Manolis; Ha, Eunhee; Dwyer, Terence

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence relating childhood cancer to high birthweight is derived primarily from registry and case-control studies. We aimed to investigate this association, exploring the potential modifying roles of age at diagnosis and maternal anthropometrics, using prospectively collected data from...... the International Childhood Cancer Cohort Consortium. METHODS: We pooled data on infant and parental characteristics and cancer incidence from six geographically and temporally diverse member cohorts [the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (UK), the Collaborative Perinatal Project (USA......). Childhood cancer (377 cases diagnosed prior to age 15 years) risk was analysed by type (all sites, leukaemia, acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, and non-leukaemia) and age at diagnosis. We estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) from Cox proportional hazards models stratified by cohort...

  19. Epidemiology of childhood cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Terracini Benedetto

    2011-01-01

    Abstract At least in economically developed countries, in the last decades, the incidence of childhood cancer has increased and the increase is unlikely to be an artefact. Causes of the increase have not been identified: a role of preventable environmental exposures is possible. Changes have also occurred in the age distribution of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Currently, children with cancer can be successfully treated and cured. However, access to the best therapy differs widely among coun...

  20. Survivors of childhood cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradwell, Moira

    2009-05-01

    Treatment of childhood cancer aims to cure with minimum risk to the patient's subsequent health. Monitoring the long-term effects of treatment on children and young adults is now an essential part of the continued care of survivors. Late effects include: impact on growth, development and intellectual function; organ system impairment; the development of second malignancies; and psychosocial problems. These can adversely affect long-term survival and the quality of life. In the UK, models of long-term follow up for survivors of childhood cancer vary from centre to centre but nurses have a significant role to play. Combining the nurse specialist role with that of the advanced practitioner ensures that the goals of improving the quality of nursing care to the survivors of childhood cancer are achieved and maximises the nursing contribution to their follow up. With the number of childhood cancer survivors increasing, providing holistic, health promotional care, tailored to the specific needs of survivors will be crucial for their future. PMID:19505060

  1. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This may lead to liver cancer. Blood banks test all donated blood for hepatitis B, which greatly lowers the risk of getting the ... This may lead to liver cancer. Blood banks test all donated blood for hepatitis C, which ... infected with hepatitis B. It is caused by hepatitis D virus (HDV) ...

  2. Liver cancer oncogenomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marquardt, Jens U; Andersen, Jesper B

    2015-01-01

    Primary liver cancers are among the most rapidly evolving malignant tumors worldwide. An underlying chronic inflammatory liver disease, which precedes liver cancer development for several decades and frequently creates a pro-oncogenic microenvironment, impairs progress in therapeutic approaches....... Molecular heterogeneity of liver cancer is potentiated by a crosstalk between epithelial tumor and stromal cells that complicate translational efforts to unravel molecular mechanisms of hepatocarcinogenesis with a drugable intend. Next-generation sequencing has greatly advanced our understanding of cancer...... development. With regards to liver cancer, the unprecedented coverage of next-generation sequencing has created a detailed map of genetic alterations and identified key somatic changes such as CTNNB1 and TP53 as well as several previously unrecognized recurrent disease-causing alterations that could...

  3. Do We Know What Causes Liver Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... TOPICS Document Topics GO » SEE A LIST » Liver cancer risk factors Do we know what causes liver cancer? Can liver cancer be prevented? Previous Topic Liver cancer risk factors Next Topic Can liver cancer be prevented? Do ...

  4. Liver Cancer Stem Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Sameh Mikhail; Aiwu Ruth He

    2011-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is the most common primary malignancy of the liver in adults. It is also the fifth most common solid cancer worldwide and the third leading cause of cancer-related death. Recent research supports that liver cancer is a disease of adult stem cells. From the models of experimental hepatocarcinogenesis, there may be at least three distinct cell lineages with progenitor properties susceptible to neoplastic transformation. Identification of specific cell surface markers fo...

  5. Percutaneous Cryoablation for Liver Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Niu, Li-Zhi; Li, Jia-Liang; Xu, Ke-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Based on the primary tumor site, liver cancer can be divided into two categories: (1) primary liver cancer and (2) metastatic cancer to the liver from a distant primary site. Guided cryoablation via many imaging methods induces iceball formation and tumor necrosisand is an attractive option for treating unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and metastatic liver cancer. There are several advantages to using cryoablation for the treatment of liver cancer: it can be performed percutaneousl...

  6. What Happens After Treatment for Liver Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Get Involved Find Local ACS Learn About Cancer » Liver Cancer » Detailed Guide » Living as a liver cancer ... Lifestyle changes after liver cancer Living as a liver cancer survivor Completing treatment can be both stressful and ...

  7. How childhood cancers are different from adult cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000845.htm How childhood cancers are different from adult cancers To use ... children with cancer can be cured. Types of Childhood Cancers Cancer in children is rare, but some ...

  8. Proteoglycans in liver cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghy, Kornélia; Tátrai, Péter; Regős, Eszter; Kovalszky, Ilona

    2016-01-01

    Proteoglycans are a group of molecules that contain at least one glycosaminoglycan chain, such as a heparan, dermatan, chondroitin, or keratan sulfate, covalently attached to the protein core. These molecules are categorized based on their structure, localization, and function, and can be found in the extracellular matrix, on the cell surface, and in the cytoplasm. Cell-surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans, such as syndecans, are the primary type present in healthy liver tissue. However, deterioration of the liver results in overproduction of other proteoglycan types. The purpose of this article is to provide a current summary of the most relevant data implicating proteoglycans in the development and progression of human and experimental liver cancer. A review of our work and other studies in the literature indicate that deterioration of liver function is accompanied by an increase in the amount of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans. The alteration of proteoglycan composition interferes with the physiologic function of the liver on several levels. This article details and discusses the roles of syndecan-1, glypicans, agrin, perlecan, collagen XVIII/endostatin, endocan, serglycin, decorin, biglycan, asporin, fibromodulin, lumican, and versican in liver function. Specifically, glypicans, agrin, and versican play significant roles in the development of liver cancer. Conversely, the presence of decorin could potentially provide protective effects. PMID:26755884

  9. Childhood cancers and atmospheric carcinogens

    OpenAIRE

    Knox, E

    2005-01-01

    Study objectives: To retest previous findings that childhood cancers are probably initiated by prenatal exposures to combustion process gases and to volatile organic compounds (VOCs); and to identify specific chemical hazards.

  10. Drugs Approved for Liver Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for liver cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI’s Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  11. Income in Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Wengenroth, Laura; Sommer, Grit; Schindler, Matthias, 1968-; Spycher, Ben D.; von der Weid, Nicolas X.; Stutz-Grunder, Eveline; Michel, Gisela; Kuehni, Claudia E.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Little is known about the impact of childhood cancer on the personal income of survivors. We compared income between survivors and siblings, and determined factors associated with income. METHODS As part of the Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (SCCSS), a questionnaire was sent to survivors, aged ≥18 years, registered in the Swiss Childhood Cancer Registry (SCCR), diagnosed at age

  12. Prenatal irradiation and childhood cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This letter addresses a technical question in connection with the recent paper by Knox et al. In particular, it concerns a correction to the estimate of childhood cancer risk following obstetric radiography, based on the Oxford Survey of Childhood Cancers (OSCC). One of us (CRM) enquired about the centring values for variables used in the analysis and particularly about the formulae used to calculate the higher order interactions of the radiation risk with birth year and age at diagnosis. These centring values and formulae are given in Table 1. This letter arises from that enquiry. (author)

  13. Lipids changes in liver cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Jing-ting; XU Ning; ZHANG Xiao-ying; WU Chang-ping

    2007-01-01

    Liver is one of the most important organs in energy metabolism.Most plasma apolipoproteins and endogenous lipids and lipoproteins are synthesized in the liver.It depends on the integrity of liver cellular function,which ensures homeostasis of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism.When liver cancer occurs,these processes are impaired and the plasma lipid and lipoprotein patterns may be changed.Liver cancer is the fifth common malignant tumor worldwide,and is closely related to the infections of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV).HBV and HCV infections are quite common in China and other Southeast Asian countries.In addition,liver cancer is often followed by a procession of chronic hepatitis or cirrhosis,so that hepatic function is damaged obviously on these bases,which may significantly influence lipid and lipoprotein metabolism in vivo.In this review we summarize the clinical significance of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism under liver cancer.

  14. 3-Tesla MRI Response to TACE in HCC (Liver Cancer)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-20

    Adult Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Localized Resectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Localized Unresectable Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Stage A Adult Primary Liver Cancer (BCLC); Stage B Adult Primary Liver Cancer (BCLC)

  15. Marriage and divorce among childhood cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Susanne Vinkel; Kejs, Anne Mette Tranberg; Engholm, Gerda;

    2011-01-01

    Many childhood cancer survivors have psychosocial late effects. We studied the risks for cohabitation and subsequent separation. Through the Danish Cancer Register, we identified a nationwide, population-based cohort of all 1877 childhood cancer survivors born from 1965 to 1980, and in whom cance...

  16. Oral contraceptives and liver cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-11-01

    To date, nine case-control studies conducted in developed countries have identified an association between oral contraceptives (OCs) and liver cancer. The most recent population-based data from both developed and developing countries failed to confirm such an association, however. A study conducted by the World Health Organization in eight developing countries (Chile, China, Colombia, Israel, Kenya, Nigeria, Philippines, and Thailand), in which 122 women with liver cancer were matched with 802 controls, found no elevated risk for OC users compared with never-users (relative risk, 0.7; 95% confidence interval, 0.4-1.2). This study is particularly significant since it was conducted in countries where hepatitis B virus infection, an important risk factor for primary liver cancer, is widespread. In addition, population mortality data from the US, UK, Japan, and Sweden have failed to document increases in liver cancer cases coincident with increases in OC use. Given that population statistics can detect changes on the magnitude of a 40-50% decrease in the risk of ovarian and endometrial cancer related to OC use, they should be able to detect increases of two to 20 times the risk of liver cancer. The increased risk of liver cancer found in the case-control studies may reflect bias resulting from the small size of these studies. PMID:12348250

  17. Ultrasound Diagnostics of Liver Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Schukina О.Е.

    2014-01-01

    The literature review presents opportunities of the contemporary ultrasound technologies in diagnostics of liver cancer; diagnostic criteria have been determined; the accuracy degree of the ultrasound method in grey-scale and Doppler imaging have been also revealed.

  18. Gene therapy of liver cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruben Hernandez-Alcoceba; Bruno Sangro; Jesus Prieto

    2006-01-01

    The application of gene transfer technologies to the treatment of cancer has led to the development of new experimental approaches like gene directed enzyme/prodrug therapy (GDEPT), inhibition of oncogenes and restoration of tumor-suppressor genes. In addition,gene therapy has a big impact on other fields like cancer immunotherapy, anti-angiogenic therapy and virotherapy.These strategies are being evaluated for the treatment of primary and metastatic liver cancer and some of them have reached clinical phases. We present a review on the basis and the actual status of gene therapy approaches applied to liver cancer.

  19. Health Behaviors of Childhood Cancer Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S. Ford

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There has been a dramatic increase in the number of childhood cancer survivors living to an old age due to improved cancer treatments. However, these survivors are at risk of numerous late effects as a result of their cancer therapy. Engaging in protective health behaviors and limiting health damaging behaviors are vitally important for these survivors given their increased risks. We reviewed the literature on childhood cancer survivors’ health behaviors by searching for published data and conference proceedings. We examine the prevalence of a variety of health behaviors among childhood cancer survivors, identify significant risk factors, and describe health behavior interventions for survivors.

  20. Spirituality in childhood cancer care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Nádia Nara Rolim; do Nascimento, Vânia Barbosa; de Carvalho, Sionara Melo Figueiredo; Neto, Modesto Leite Rolim; Moreira, Marcial Moreno; Brasil, Aline Quental; Junior, Francisco Telésforo Celestino; de Oliveira, Gislene Farias; Reis, Alberto Olavo Advíncula

    2013-01-01

    To deal with the suffering caused by childhood cancer, patients and their families use different coping strategies, among which, spirituality appears a way of minimizing possible damage. In this context, the purpose of the present study was to analyze the influence of spirituality in childhood cancer care, involving biopsychosocial aspects of the child, the family, and the health care team facing the disease. To accomplish this purpose, a nonsystematic review of literature of articles on national and international electronic databases (Scientific Electronic Library Online [SciELO], PubMed, and Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature [LILACS]) was conducted using the search terms "spirituality," "child psychology," "child," and "cancer," as well as on other available resources. After the search, 20 articles met the eligibility criteria and were included in the final sample. Our review showed that the relation between spirituality and health has lately become a subject of growing interest among researchers, as a positive influence of spirituality in the people's welfare was noted. Studies that were retrieved using the mentioned search strategy in electronic databases, independently assessed by the authors according to the systematic review, showed that spirituality emerges as a driving force that helps pediatric patients and their families in coping with cancer. Health care workers have been increasingly attentive to this dimension of care. However, it is necessary to improve their knowledge regarding the subject. The search highlighted that spirituality is considered a source of comfort and hope, contributing to a better acceptance of his/her chronic condition by the child with cancer, as well as by the family. Further up-to-date studies facing the subject are, thus, needed. It is also necessary to better train health care practitioners, so as to provide humanized care to the child with cancer. PMID:24133371

  1. Male reproductive health after childhood cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lähteenmäki, P M; Arola, M; Suominen, J; Salmi, T T; Andersson, A M; Toppari, J

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-five male patients were investigated to elucidate the correlation of semen parameters and other related parameters in the assessment of spermatogenesis after childhood cancer treatment.......Twenty-five male patients were investigated to elucidate the correlation of semen parameters and other related parameters in the assessment of spermatogenesis after childhood cancer treatment....

  2. Liver Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing liver cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  3. Suicide among childhood cancer survivors in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Čižek Sajko

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Suicide is one of the causes of late mortality among childhood cancer survivors. The aim of our study was to analyse the risk of suicide among childhood cancer survivors compared with that ofthe general population of Slovenia. Patients and methods. This retrospective study included patients with childhood cancer registeredat the Cancer Registry of Slovenia between 1978-2008, with an observation period of 1978-2010. Childhood cancer patients and controlsubjects from the general population of Slovenia were matched by sex,year and age at the beginning of follow-up and time of follow-up inyears. Data on the general population of Slovenia were obtained fromthe Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia. Results. A total of 1647 patients were recorded in the Cancer Registry as having cancerduring childhood, with 3 patients committing suicide. All three weremale. Their age at diagnosis of cancer was 12, 13 and 2 years old; their age at suicide was 19, 32 and 28 years old. The mechanism of death was asphyxiation in all three deaths. The calculation of the expected number of suicides in the group of individuals with childhood cancer from the general Slovene population revealed the number of 3.16persons. Conclusion. The comparison of the observed and expectedprobability showed that there was no statistically significant difference in the suicide rate between childhood cancer survivors and the general population of Slovenia.

  4. Gene therapy of liver cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez-Alcoceba, R. (Rubén); B. Sangro; Prieto, J.

    2006-01-01

    The application of gene transfer technologies to the treatment of cancer has led to the development of new experimental approaches like gene directed enzyme/pro-drug therapy (GDEPT), inhibition of oncogenes and restoration of tumor-suppressor genes. In addition, gene therapy has a big impact on other fields like cancer immunotherapy, anti-angiogenic therapy and virotherapy. These strategies are being evaluated for the treatment of primary and metastatic liver cancer and some of them have reac...

  5. Imaging of liver cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ben Ariff; Claire R Lloyd; Sameer Khan; Mohamed Shariff; Andrew V Thillainayagam; Devinder S Bansi; Shahid A Khan; Simon D Taylor-Robinson; Adrian KP Lim

    2009-01-01

    Improvements in imaging technology allow exploitation of the dual blood supply of the liver to aid in the identi-fication and characterisation of both malignant and benign liver lesions. Imaging techniques available include contrast enhanced ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. This review discusses the application of several imaging techniques in the diagnosis and staging of both hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma and outlines certain characteristics of benign liver lesions. The advantages of each imaging technique are highlighted, while underscoring the potential pitfalls and limitations of each imaging modality.

  6. Spirituality in childhood cancer care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima NN

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nádia Nara Rolim Lima,1 Vânia Barbosa do Nascimento,1 Sionara Melo Figueiredo de Carvalho,1 Modesto Leite Rolim Neto,2 Marcial Moreno Moreira,2 Aline Quental Brasil,2 Francisco Telésforo Celestino Junior,2 Gislene Farias de Oliveira,2 Alberto Olavo Advíncula Reis3 1Health Sciences Postgraduate Program, ABC Region Medical School, Santo André, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Department of Medicine, Federal University of Ceará, Barbalha, Ceará, Brazil; 3Public Health Postgraduate Program, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: To deal with the suffering caused by childhood cancer, patients and their families use different coping strategies, among which, spirituality appears a way of minimizing possible damage. In this context, the purpose of the present study was to analyze the influence of spirituality in childhood cancer care, involving biopsychosocial aspects of the child, the family, and the health care team facing the disease. To accomplish this purpose, a nonsystematic review of literature of articles on national and international electronic databases (Scientific Electronic Library Online [SciELO], PubMed, and Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature [LILACS] was conducted using the search terms “spirituality,” “child psychology,” “child,” and “cancer,” as well as on other available resources. After the search, 20 articles met the eligibility criteria and were included in the final sample. Our review showed that the relation between spirituality and health has lately become a subject of growing interest among researchers, as a positive influence of spirituality in the people's welfare was noted. Studies that were retrieved using the mentioned search strategy in electronic databases, independently assessed by the authors according to the systematic review, showed that spirituality emerges as a driving force that helps pediatric patients and their families in coping with cancer. Health care workers

  7. Incidence of childhood cancer in Preston and South Ribble

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gatrell, A.C.; Whitelegg, J.

    1993-09-01

    Using data from the Manchester Childrens Tumour Register, extending back to 1954, the authors have examined the evidence for clustering of various childhood cancers in Preston and South Ribble, and conclude that incidence in the Penwortham district of Preston is not detectably higher than in other parts of the study areas. Neoplasms studied were leukaemias, lymphomas and those affecting the central and sympathetic nervous system, kidneys, liver and bone and soft tissues. (Author).

  8. Liver Metastases in Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folprecht, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Resection of colorectal liver metastases is a treatment standard because patients experience long-term disease-free survival or are even cured after undergoing this procedure. Improved surgical techniques for liver resection in combination with downsizing liver metastases by chemotherapy, interventions to induce liver hypertrophy before resection, and the use of ablative techniques have allowed us to expand the indications for liver surgery and local treatment in situations with limited metastatic colorectal cancer. Resectability and identification of patients who might benefit from liver surgery and local ablative techniques are key factors for the treatment of patients with colorectal cancer. Despite the wide acceptance of liver surgery and ablative techniques, there are many open questions on the management of limited metastatic disease, such as which patients benefit from an aggressive surgical approach, what the indications for ablative and other local techniques are, and what the role of chemotherapy is for patients with resectable or resected disease. Unfortunately, results of randomized trials are only available for a limited number of these questions. PMID:27249722

  9. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer is present in the body. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is the most widely used tumor marker for ... and other types of cancer, may also increase AFP levels. Specific tumor markers that may lead to ...

  10. Liver resection for cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RW Parks; OJ Garden

    2001-01-01

    STORY OF HEPATIC RESECTION The earliest hepatic surgery was almost exclusively performed for trauma with records from as for tumor were those of Langenbuch in 1888 [3] , Tiffany in 1890 [4],and Lucke in 1891[5].By1899,76 cases of liver resection had been reported with a mortality rate of 14.9% [6], a remarkably low figure for operations of this magnitude,all performed at the end of the 19th century.

  11. PET-CT in Determining the Radioembolization Dose Delivered to Patients With Liver Metastasis, Primary Liver Cancer, or Biliary Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Adult Primary Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Advanced Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Metastatic Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Recurrent Adult Primary Liver Cancer; Recurrent Extrahepatic Bile Duct Cancer; Stage D Adult Primary Liver Cancer (BCLC); Unspecified Adult Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  12. Radiofrequence ablation of liver cancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lian-Xin Liu; Hong-Chi Jiang; Da-Xun Piao

    2002-01-01

    Primary and secondary malignant liver cancers are some ofmost common malignant tumors in the world.Chemotherapy and radiotherapy are not very effectiveagainst them. Surgical resection has been considered theonly potentially curtive option, but the majority of patientsare not candidates for resection because of tumor size,location near major intrahepatic blood vessels and bileducts, precluding a margin-negative resection, cirrhotic,hepatitis virus infection or multifocial. Radiofrequenceablation (RFA), which is a new evolving effective andminimally invasive technique, can produce coagulativenecrosis of malignant tumors. RFA should be usedpercutaneously, laparscopically, or during the openlaparotomy under the guidance of ultrasound, CT scan andMRI. RFA has lots of advantages superior to other localtherapies including lower complications, reduced costs andhospital stays, and the possibility of repeated treatment. Ingeneral, RFA is a safe, effective treatment for unresectablemalignant liver tumors less than 7.0 cm in diameter. Wereview the principle, mechanism, procedures andexperience with RFA for treating malignant liver tumors.

  13. Liver cancer mortality rate model in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriwattanapongse, Wattanavadee; Prasitwattanaseree, Sukon

    2013-09-01

    Liver Cancer has been a leading cause of death in Thailand. The purpose of this study was to model and forecast liver cancer mortality rate in Thailand using death certificate reports. A retrospective analysis of the liver cancer mortality rate was conducted. Numbering of 123,280 liver cancer causes of death cases were obtained from the national vital registration database for the 10-year period from 2000 to 2009, provided by the Ministry of Interior and coded as cause-of-death using ICD-10 by the Ministry of Public Health. Multivariate regression model was used for modeling and forecasting age-specific liver cancer mortality rates in Thailand. Liver cancer mortality increased with increasing age for each sex and was also higher in the North East provinces. The trends of liver cancer mortality remained stable in most age groups with increases during ten-year period (2000 to 2009) in the Northern and Southern. Liver cancer mortality was higher in males and increase with increasing age. There is need of liver cancer control measures to remain on a sustained and long-term basis for the high liver cancer burden rate of Thailand.

  14. Childhood cancer and nuclear installations: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many epidemiological studies of childhood cancer around nuclear installations have been conducted in recent years. This article reviews results from Great Britain and elsewhere. Geographical studies have indicated raised risks of childhood leukaemia around some British nuclear installations. However, environmental assessments suggest that the findings are unlikely to be due to radioactive releases from the sites. Case-control studies have allowed more detailed investigation of putative risk factors than is possible from geographical studies. In particular, a recent national study in Britain does not support the hypothesis raised by an earlier study in West Cumbria that paternal radiation exposure prior to conception may increase the risk of leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in offspring. Other studies suggest that childhood leukaemia may have an infective basis, although there is still uncertainty about whether this would explain the findings around nuclear installations. The UK Childhood Cancer Study may provide more information on the causes of these diseases. (author)

  15. Childhood Cancer Genomics Gaps and Opportunities - Workshop Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI convened a workshop of representative research teams that have been leaders in defining the genomic landscape of childhood cancers to discuss the influence of genomic discoveries on the future of childhood cancer research.

  16. Domestic Radon and Childhood Cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Claus Erik; Andersen, Helle P.;

    2008-01-01

    Background: Higher incidence rates of childhood cancer and particularly leukemia have been observed in regions with higher radon levels, but case-control studies have given inconsistent results. We tested the hypothesis that domestic radon exposure increases the risk for childhood cancer. Methods......: We identified 2400 incident cases of leukemia, central nervous system tumor, and malignant lymphoma diagnosed in children between 1968 and 1994 in the Danish Cancer Registry. Control children (n = 6697) were selected from the Danish Central Population Registry. Radon levels in residences of children...... and the cumulated exposure of each child were calculated as the product of exposure level and time, for each address occupied during childhood. Results: Cumulative radon exposure was associated with risk for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), with rate ratios of 1.21 (95% confidence interval = 0...

  17. Marriage and divorce among childhood cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Susanne Vinkel; Kejs, Anne Mette Tranberg; Engholm, Gerda;

    2011-01-01

    Many childhood cancer survivors have psychosocial late effects. We studied the risks for cohabitation and subsequent separation. Through the Danish Cancer Register, we identified a nationwide, population-based cohort of all 1877 childhood cancer survivors born from 1965 to 1980, and in whom cancer....... Childhood cancer survivors had a reduced rate of cohabitation [rate ratio (RR) 0.78; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.73-0.83], owing to lower rates among survivors of both noncentral nervous system (CNS) tumors (RR 0.88; 95% CI: 0.83-0.95) and CNS tumors (RR 0.52; 95% CI: 0.45-0.59). Male CNS tumor...... survivors had a nonsignificantly lower rate (RR 0.47; 95% CI: 0.38-0.58) than females (RR 0.56; 95% CI: 0.47-0.68). The rates of separation were almost identical to those of controls. In conclusion, the rate of cohabitation was lower for all childhood cancer survivors than for the population-based controls...

  18. Risk of Salivary Gland Cancer After Childhood Cancer: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To evaluate effects of radiation therapy, chemotherapy, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption on the risk of second primary salivary gland cancer (SGC) in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS). Methods and Materials: Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) and excess absolute risks (EAR) of SGC in the CCSS were calculated using incidence rates from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results population-based cancer registries. Radiation dose to the salivary glands was estimated based on medical records. Poisson regression was used to assess risks with respect to radiation dose, chemotherapy, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Results: During the time period of the study, 23 cases of SGC were diagnosed among 14,135 childhood cancer survivors. The mean age at diagnosis of the first primary cancer was 8.3 years, and the mean age at SGC diagnosis was 24.8 years. The incidence of SGC was 39-fold higher in the cohort than in the general population (SIR = 39.4; 95% CI = 25.4-57.8). The EAR was 9.8 per 100,000 person-years. Risk increased linearly with radiation dose (excess relative risk = 0.36/Gy; 95% CI = 0.06-2.5) and remained elevated after 20 years. There was no significant trend of increasing risk with increasing dose of chemotherapeutic agents, pack-years of cigarette smoking, or alcohol intake. Conclusion: Although the cumulative incidence of SGC was low, childhood cancer survivors treated with radiation experienced significantly increased risk for at least 2 decades after exposure, and risk was positively associated with radiation dose. Results underscore the importance of long-term follow up of childhood cancer survivors for the development of new malignancies

  19. Risk of Salivary Gland Cancer After Childhood Cancer: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boukheris, Houda [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Stovall, Marilyn [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gilbert, Ethel S. [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Stratton, Kayla L. [Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington (United States); Smith, Susan A.; Weathers, Rita [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Hammond, Sue [Department of Pathology, Ohio State University School of Medicine, Columbus, Ohio (United States); Mertens, Ann C. [Department of Pediatrics, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Donaldson, Sarah S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, California (United States); Armstrong, Gregory T.; Robison, Leslie L. [Department of Epidemiology and Cancer Control, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Neglia, Joseph P. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Inskip, Peter D., E-mail: inskippe@mail.nih.gov [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate effects of radiation therapy, chemotherapy, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption on the risk of second primary salivary gland cancer (SGC) in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS). Methods and Materials: Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) and excess absolute risks (EAR) of SGC in the CCSS were calculated using incidence rates from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results population-based cancer registries. Radiation dose to the salivary glands was estimated based on medical records. Poisson regression was used to assess risks with respect to radiation dose, chemotherapy, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Results: During the time period of the study, 23 cases of SGC were diagnosed among 14,135 childhood cancer survivors. The mean age at diagnosis of the first primary cancer was 8.3 years, and the mean age at SGC diagnosis was 24.8 years. The incidence of SGC was 39-fold higher in the cohort than in the general population (SIR = 39.4; 95% CI = 25.4-57.8). The EAR was 9.8 per 100,000 person-years. Risk increased linearly with radiation dose (excess relative risk = 0.36/Gy; 95% CI = 0.06-2.5) and remained elevated after 20 years. There was no significant trend of increasing risk with increasing dose of chemotherapeutic agents, pack-years of cigarette smoking, or alcohol intake. Conclusion: Although the cumulative incidence of SGC was low, childhood cancer survivors treated with radiation experienced significantly increased risk for at least 2 decades after exposure, and risk was positively associated with radiation dose. Results underscore the importance of long-term follow up of childhood cancer survivors for the development of new malignancies.

  20. Late endocrine effects of childhood cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Susan R; Horne, Vincent E; Howell, Jonathan; Lawson, Sarah A; Rutter, Meilan M; Trotman, Gylynthia E; Corathers, Sarah D

    2016-06-01

    The cure rate for paediatric malignancies is increasing, and most patients who have cancer during childhood survive and enter adulthood. Surveillance for late endocrine effects after childhood cancer is required to ensure early diagnosis and treatment and to optimize physical, cognitive and psychosocial health. The degree of risk of endocrine deficiency is related to the child's sex and their age at the time the tumour is diagnosed, as well as to tumour location and characteristics and the therapies used (surgery, chemotherapy or radiation therapy). Potential endocrine problems can include growth hormone deficiency, hypothyroidism (primary or central), adrenocorticotropin deficiency, hyperprolactinaemia, precocious puberty, hypogonadism (primary or central), altered fertility and/or sexual function, low BMD, the metabolic syndrome and hypothalamic obesity. Optimal endocrine care for survivors of childhood cancer should be delivered in a multidisciplinary setting, providing continuity from acute cancer treatment to long-term follow-up of late endocrine effects throughout the lifespan. Endocrine therapies are important to improve long-term quality of life for survivors of childhood cancer. PMID:27032982

  1. What's New in Liver Cancer Research and Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resources for liver cancer What`s new in liver cancer research and treatment? Because there are only a few ... or treat hepatitis infections before they cause liver cancers. Research into developing a vaccine to prevent hepatitis C ...

  2. General Information about Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This may lead to liver cancer. Blood banks test all donated blood for hepatitis B, which greatly lowers the risk of getting the ... This may lead to liver cancer. Blood banks test all donated blood for hepatitis C, which ... infected with hepatitis B. It is caused by hepatitis D virus (HDV) ...

  3. Childhood cancer survivors: cardiac disease & social outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.A.M. Feijen

    2015-01-01

    The thesis is divided in two parts; Cardiac health problems and healthcare consumption & social outcomes in CCS. The general aims of part 1 creates optimal conditions for the evaluation of cardiac events in 5-year childhood cancer survivors, evaluation of the long term risk of cardiac events, and to

  4. Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma: Treatment Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney/Wilms Tumor Liver Cancer Lymphoma (Non-Hodgkin) Lymphoma (Hodgkin) Neuroblastoma Osteosarcoma Retinoblastoma Rhabdomyosarcoma Skin Cancer Soft Tissue Sarcoma Thyroid Cancer Understanding Children's Cancer Anxiety Around Procedures Childhood Cancer Statistics Late ...

  5. Gene expression profiles in liver cancer and normal liver tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lian Xin Liu; Hong Chi Jiang; An Long Zhu; Jin Zhou; Xiu Qin Wang; Min Wu

    2000-01-01

    AIM To describe a liver cancer = specific gene expression profile and to identify genes that showed alteredexpression between liver cancer tissues and their adjacent nearly normal tissues.METHODS The cDNA probes which were labeled with a-32P dATP were synthesized from total RNA ofliver cancer and adjacent normal tissues and hybridized separately to two identical Atlas human cancer eDNAexpression array membranes containing 588 known genes.RESULTS Autoradiographic results were analyzed by specific Atlas ImageTM (version 1. 0) software.Among the 588 genes analyzed, 18 genes were found up-regulated in cancer, including TFDP2, Aktl, E2F-3etc, and 25 genes were down-regulated in cancer, including TDGF1, BAK, LAR, etc. Expression levels ofgenes that associated with the regulation of cell proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, cell-cellinteraction, invasion regulators and eytokines altered mostly.CONCLUSION The result obtained from Atlas microarray provides a comprehensive liver cancer-specificexpression profile. The results can lead to the identification of liver cancer-specific biomarkers and may behelpful in early diagnosis and dentifiction of target genes for designing rational therapeutic strategies.

  6. A study of structural differences between liver cancer cells and normal liver cells using FTIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Daping; Xu, Fangcheng; Yu, Qiang; Fang, Tingting; Xia, Junjun; Li, Seruo; Wang, Xin

    2015-11-01

    Since liver cancer seriously threatens human health, it is very urgent to explore an effective method for diagnosing liver cancer early. In this study, we investigated the structure differences of IR spectra between neoplastic liver cells and normal liver cells. The major differences of absorption bands were observed between liver cancer cells and normal liver cells, the values of A2955/A2921, A1744/A1082, A1640/A1535, H1121/H1020 might be potentially useful factors for distinguishing liver cancer cells from normal liver cells. Curve fitting also provided some important information on structural differences between malignant and normal liver cancer cells. Furthermore, IR spectra combined with hierarchical cluster analysis could make a distinction between liver cancer cells and normal liver cells. The present results provided enough cell basis for diagnosis of liver cancer by FTIR spectroscopy, suggesting FTIR spectroscopy may be a potentially useful tool for liver cancer diagnosis.

  7. Bending the Cost Curve in Childhood Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Heidi; Bernhardt, M Brooke

    2016-08-01

    Healthcare for children with cancer costs significantly more than other children. Cost reduction efforts aimed toward relatively small populations of patients that use a disproportionate amount of care, like childhood cancer, could have a dramatic impact on healthcare spending. The aims of this review are to provide stakeholders with an overview of the drivers of financial costs of childhood cancer and to identify possible directions to curb or decrease these costs. Costs are incurred throughout the spectrum of care. Recent trends in pharmaceutical costs, evidence identifying the contribution of administration costs, and overuse of surveillance studies are described. Awareness of cost and value, i.e., the outcome achieved per dollar or burden spent, in delivery of care and research is necessary to bend the cost curve. Incorporation of these dimensions of care requires methodology development, prioritization, and ethical balance. PMID:27193602

  8. Differentiated thyroid cancer in childhood and adolescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Differentiated thyroid cancer in children is rare. There is scanty information on the course of the disease in childhood. The biological behavior differs from that in adults and is related to the factor of age and gender. Response to 131I therapy is excellent. A total/near total thyroidectomy followed by 131I ablation of residual/remnant thyroid tissue and nodal or distal metastases if present reduces the rate of mortality and recurrence. Death occurs as a result of recurrence. Experience shows that Hurthle cell tumor can be aggressive in childhood and leads to death within a few years

  9. Incidence of and survival from childhood cancer : the role of social and family factors in childhood cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Erdmann, Friederike

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Social inequalities, both within countries and between countries, influence the occurrence of and survival from cancer, including childhood cancer. This dissertation aimed to gain further insight into social inequalities in childhood cancer â on the national level within a country and also between countries with different levels of socioeconomic development. The first objective was to obtain a better understanding of the reported geographical differences in childhood cancer worl...

  10. Thyroid Adenomas After Solid Cancer in Childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Very few childhood cancer survivor studies have been devoted to thyroid adenomas. We assessed the role of chemotherapy and the radiation dose to the thyroid in the risk of thyroid adenoma after childhood cancer. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 3254 2-year survivors of a solid childhood cancer treated in 5 French centers before 1986 was established. The dose received by the isthmus and the 2 lobes of the thyroid gland during each course of radiation therapy was estimated after reconstruction of the actual radiation therapy conditions in which each child was treated as well as the dose received at other anatomical sites of interest. Results: After a median follow-up of 25 years, 71 patients had developed a thyroid adenoma. The risk strongly increased with the radiation dose to the thyroid up to a few Gray, plateaued, and declined for high doses. Chemotherapy slightly increased the risk when administered alone but also lowered the slope of the dose-response curve for the radiation dose to the thyroid. Overall, for doses up to a few Gray, the excess relative risk of thyroid adenoma per Gray was 2.8 (90% CI: 1.2-6.9), but it was 5.5 (90% CI: 1.9-25.9) in patients who had not received chemotherapy or who had received only 1 drug, and 1.1 (90% CI: 0.4-3.4) in the children who had received more than 1 drug (P=.06, for the difference). The excess relative risk per Gray was also higher for younger children at the time of radiation therapy than for their older counterparts and was higher before attaining 40 years of age than subsequently. Conclusions: The overall pattern of thyroid adenoma after radiation therapy for a childhood cancer appears to be similar to that observed for thyroid carcinoma.

  11. Thyroid Adenomas After Solid Cancer in Childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddy, Nadia; El-Fayech, Chiraz; Guibout, Catherine; Adjadj, Elisabeth [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France); Thomas-Teinturier, Cecile [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Hopital Bicetre, Bicetre (France); Oberlin, Odile [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Veres, Cristina [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France); Pacquement, Helene [Institut Curie, Paris (France); Jackson, Angela [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France); Munzer, Martine; N' Guyen, Tan Dat [Institut Jean Godinot, Reims (France); Bondiau, Pierre-Yves [Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France); Berchery, Delphine; Laprie, Anne [Centre Claudius Regaud, Toulouse (France); Bridier, Andre; Lefkopoulos, Dimitri [Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Schlumberger, Martin [Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France); Rubino, Carole; Diallo, Ibrahima [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France); Vathaire, Florent de, E-mail: florent.devathaire@igr.fr [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France)

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: Very few childhood cancer survivor studies have been devoted to thyroid adenomas. We assessed the role of chemotherapy and the radiation dose to the thyroid in the risk of thyroid adenoma after childhood cancer. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 3254 2-year survivors of a solid childhood cancer treated in 5 French centers before 1986 was established. The dose received by the isthmus and the 2 lobes of the thyroid gland during each course of radiation therapy was estimated after reconstruction of the actual radiation therapy conditions in which each child was treated as well as the dose received at other anatomical sites of interest. Results: After a median follow-up of 25 years, 71 patients had developed a thyroid adenoma. The risk strongly increased with the radiation dose to the thyroid up to a few Gray, plateaued, and declined for high doses. Chemotherapy slightly increased the risk when administered alone but also lowered the slope of the dose-response curve for the radiation dose to the thyroid. Overall, for doses up to a few Gray, the excess relative risk of thyroid adenoma per Gray was 2.8 (90% CI: 1.2-6.9), but it was 5.5 (90% CI: 1.9-25.9) in patients who had not received chemotherapy or who had received only 1 drug, and 1.1 (90% CI: 0.4-3.4) in the children who had received more than 1 drug (P=.06, for the difference). The excess relative risk per Gray was also higher for younger children at the time of radiation therapy than for their older counterparts and was higher before attaining 40 years of age than subsequently. Conclusions: The overall pattern of thyroid adenoma after radiation therapy for a childhood cancer appears to be similar to that observed for thyroid carcinoma.

  12. Late deaths after treatment for childhood cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkins, M M; Kingston, J. E.; Kinnier Wilson, L. M.

    1990-01-01

    An investigation of 749 deaths occurring among 4082 patients surviving at least five years after the diagnosis of childhood cancer in Britain before 1971 has been undertaken. Of the 738 with sufficient information the numbers of deaths attributable to the following causes were: recurrent tumour, 550 (74%), a second primary tumour, 61 (8%), a medical condition related to treatment of the tumour, 49 (7%), an traumatic death unrelated to the tumour or its treatment, 34 (5%), finally, any other c...

  13. International Childhood Cancer Cohort Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    An alliance of several large-scale prospective cohort studies of children to pool data and biospecimens from individual cohorts to study various modifiable and genetic factors in relation to cancer risk

  14. Income in Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wengenroth, Laura; Sommer, Grit; Schindler, Matthias; Spycher, Ben D.; von der Weid, Nicolas X.; Stutz-Grunder, Eveline; Michel, Gisela; Kuehni, Claudia E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Little is known about the impact of childhood cancer on the personal income of survivors. We compared income between survivors and siblings, and determined factors associated with income. Methods As part of the Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (SCCSS), a questionnaire was sent to survivors, aged ≥18 years, registered in the Swiss Childhood Cancer Registry (SCCR), diagnosed at age 4’500 CHF), even after we adjusted for socio-demographic and educational factors (OR = 0.46, p<0.001). Older age, male sex, personal and parental education, and number of working hours were associated with high income. Survivors of leukemia (OR = 0.40, p<0.001), lymphoma (OR = 0.63, p = 0.040), CNS tumors (OR = 0.22, p<0.001), bone tumors (OR = 0.24, p = 0.003) had a lower income than siblings. Survivors who had cranial irradiation, had a lower income than survivors who had no cranial irradiation (OR = 0.48, p = 0.006). Discussion Even after adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics, education and working hours, survivors of various diagnostic groups have lower incomes than siblings. Further research needs to identify the underlying causes. PMID:27213682

  15. The metabolic syndrome and body composition in childhood cancer survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Jae Hoon Chung; Ki Woong Sung; Keon hee Yoo; Soo Hyun Lee; Sung-Yoon Cho; Se-Hwa Kim; Sung Won Park; Su Jin Kim; Young Bae Sohn; Hong Hoe Koo; Dong-Kyu Jin

    2011-01-01

    Purpose : Long-term survivors of childhood cancer appear to have an increased risk for the metabolic syndrome, subsequent type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in adulthood compared to healthy children. The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency of the metabolic syndrome and associated factors in childhood cancer survivors at a single center in Korea. Methods : We performed a retrospective review of medical records of 98 childhood cancer survivors who were diagnosed and c...

  16. Traditional Chinese medicine for primary liver cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    @@ Further progress has been made in the traditional Chinese medicine for primary liver cancer over the past few years, especially in the research of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) treatment principle, improvement of therapeutic results and prolonging the survival.

  17. What Should You Ask Your Doctor about Liver Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as a liver cancer survivor What should you ask your health care team about liver cancer? As ... honest, open discussions with your cancer care team . Ask any question, no matter how small it might ...

  18. Heterogeneity of liver cancer and personalized therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Wang, Hongyang

    2016-09-01

    Liver cancer is an extraordinarily heterogeneous malignant disease among the tumors that have so far been identified. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) arises most frequently in the setting of chronic liver inflammation and fibrosis, and takes a variety of course in individual patients to process to tumor. The risk factors such as HBV and/or HCV infections, aflatoxin infection, abuse alcohol intake, metabolic syndrome, obesity and diabetes are closely related to the environmental and genetic susceptibilities to HCC. The consequent resulting genomic instability, molecular and signal transduction network disorders and microenvironmental discrepancies are characterized by the extraordinary heterogeneity of liver cancer. The histology-based definition of the morphological heterogeneity of liver cancer has been modified and refined to treat patients with targeted therapies, but this still cannot solve all the problems. Lack of consistent outcome for anticancer agents and conventional therapies in liver cancer treatment calls for assessing the benefits of new molecularly targeted drugs and combined therapy, under the heterogeneity condition of tumor. The present review article will provide the complex mechanism and phenotype of liver cancer heterogeneity, and help us to execute precision medicine in a really personalized manner. PMID:26213370

  19. Renal Carcinoma After Childhood Cancer: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Carmen L.; Ness, Kirsten K; Neglia, Joseph P.; Hammond, Sue; Shnorhavorian, Margarett; Leisenring, Wendy L.; Stovall, Marilyn; Robison, Leslie L.; Armstrong, Gregory T.

    2013-01-01

    Adult survivors of childhood cancer are known to be at increased risk of subsequent malignancy, but only limited data exist describing the incidence and risk factors for secondary renal carcinoma. Among 14 358 5-year survivors diagnosed between 1970 and 1986, we estimated standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for subsequent renal carcinoma and identified associations with primary cancer therapy using Poisson regression. Twenty-six survivors were diagnosed with renal carcinoma (median = 22.6 ye...

  20. Effects of childhood body size on breast cancer tumour characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jingmei; Humphreys, Keith; Eriksson, Louise; Czene, Kamila; Liu, Jianjun; Hall, Per

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Although a role of childhood body size in postmenopausal breast cancer risk has been established, less is known about its influence on tumour characteristics. Methods We studied the relationships between childhood body size and tumour characteristics in a Swedish population-based case-control study consisting of 2,818 breast cancer cases and 3,111 controls. Our classification of childhood body size was derived from a nine-level somatotype. Relative risks were estimated by odds ra...

  1. Health Information Needs of Childhood Cancer Survivors and Their Family

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.L. Knijnenburg; L.C. Kremer; C. Bos; K.I. Braam; M.W.M. Jaspers

    2010-01-01

    Background. Knowledge about past disease, treatment, and possible late effects has previously been shown to be low in survivors of childhood cancer and their relatives. This study investigated the information needs of childhood cancer survivors and their parents and explored possible determinants fo

  2. Fertility in female childhood cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Bruin, Marie L; Van Dulmen-den Broeder, Eline; Van den Berg, Marleen H;

    2009-01-01

    chemotherapy and radiotherapy may have an adverse effect on ovarian function, ovarian reserve and uterine function, clinically leading to sub-fertility, infertility, premature menopause and/or adverse pregnancy outcomes. Here we will first address normal female fertility and methods to detect decreased...... fertility. Hence we will focus on direct effects as well as late fertility-related adverse effects caused by chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and we will conclude with a summary of current options for fertility preservation in female childhood cancer survivors....

  3. Space-time interactions in childhood cancers.

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, V

    1990-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The aim of the study was to examine a cohort of cases of childhood cancer occurring in a defined geographical area to try to identify clustering and possible causative factors. DESIGN--Data were analysed using the close pair method developed by Knox for signs of clustering in relation to date and place of onset or date and place of birth. SETTING--Cases were those occurring in the 8 year period between 1953 and 1960 in four old counties of the Midlands of England (Worcestersh...

  4. Viral Hepatitis and Liver Cancer on the Island of Guam

    OpenAIRE

    Haddock, RL; Paulino, YC; Bordallo, R

    2013-01-01

    Patient records from the Guam Cancer Registry were compared with patients listed in a health department viral hepatitis case registry. The number of liver cancer and viral hepatitis cases were compared by ethnicity. Hepatitis C was the form of viral hepatitis most common among liver cancer cases on Guam (63.3% of viral hepatitis-associated liver cancer cases). Since viral hepatitis is an important cause of liver cancer, studies such as the present one may provide the information necessary to ...

  5. Childhood height, adult height, and the risk of prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Lise Geisler; Aarestrup, Julie; Gamborg, Michael; Lange, Theis; Tjønneland, Anne; Baker, Jennifer L

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: We previously showed that childhood height is positively associated with prostate cancer risk. It is, however, unknown whether childhood height exerts its effects independently of or through adult height. We investigated whether and to what extent childhood height has a direct effect on...... the risk of prostate cancer apart from adult height. METHODS: We included 5,871 men with height measured at ages 7 and 13 years in the Copenhagen School Health Records Register who also had adult (50-65 years) height measured in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study. Prostate cancer status was...... obtained through linkage to the Danish Cancer Registry. Direct and total effects of childhood height on prostate cancer risk were estimated from Cox regressions. RESULTS: From 1996 to 2012, 429 prostate cancers occurred. Child and adult heights were positively and significantly associated with prostate...

  6. Combination Chemotherapy Followed by Bone Marrow Transplantation in Treating Patients With Rare Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    Childhood Germ Cell Tumor; Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Head and Neck Cancer; Kidney Cancer; Liver Cancer; Lymphoma; Neuroblastoma; Ovarian Cancer; Retinoblastoma; Sarcoma; Testicular Germ Cell Tumor

  7. What Asian Americans Should Know about Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Liver Cancer and Hepatitis B By the National Cancer Institute Liver cancer is the fifth most common cancer among ... worldwide. It is the third leading cause of cancer death globally. Liver cancer is less common in the United States, ...

  8. Radioimmunotherapy for recurrent childhood hepatoblastoma after liver transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Monoclonal antibody has been developed for targeting secretory anti-fetoprotein in hepatic tissue. This antibody has been labelled with In-111 and Y-90 for clinical diagnostics and therapy, and can be applied for detecting hepatic neoplasms. Here, we use these antibodies for radiotherapy and radioimmunotherapy dose planning of hepatoblastoma, a rare childhood malignancy. Radiopharmacokinetic parameters were calculated after serial quantitative whole body scanning based on geometric mean images and transmission scanning. Biodistribution data and organ level kinetic parameters were calculated and were compared with those of nonclinical studies in mice. A 3-D dose planning programme was used to calculate tumor doses for In-111 and Y-90, the active tumor was delineated on PET/CT images and tumor dose calculation was done on In-111-MoAb SPECT data using dose point kernel approach both for In-111 and Y-90. The results were compared with MIRD doses obtained for organs in SPECT imaging field, i.e. bone marrow, heart, kidneys, liver, spleen, lungs. From quantitative serial imaging based on 8 whole body images at 0-168 hrs using In-111-anti-AFPMoAb, the half-lives of spleen, lungs, kidneys and whole body were 502 hrs, 230 hrs, 193 hrs and 490 hrs, respectively. The measured blood half-life was 132 hrs, after a total MoAb dose of 50 mg and In-111 activity of 105 MBq. The presumed Y-90 dose based on this kinetic behavior was 43 MBq which should had given 2 Gy bone marrow dose. The calculated MIRD Y-90 doses were for cardiac wall 0.75 Gy, liver 0.62 Gy, spleen 0.51Gy and bone marrow 0.053 Gy, and the effective whole body dose was 0.18 Gy, i.e. 4.23 mGy/MBq. The 3-D programme demonstrated the mean doses in normal tissues as follows: heart 0.58 Gy, liver 0.48 Gy, spleen 0.37 Gy and bone marrow 0.34 Gy. No toxicity was observed to the Y-90-anti- AFP radioimmunotherapy. The actual liver tumor dose according to the 3-D calculations was in average 0.51 Gy, range 0

  9. Liver resection and local ablation of breast cancer liver metastases--a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenfeldt, M; Jensen, B V; Skjoldbye, B;

    2011-01-01

    To analyze surgical treatment of breast cancer liver metastases (BCLM) regarding selection criteria, outcome and prognostic parameters.......To analyze surgical treatment of breast cancer liver metastases (BCLM) regarding selection criteria, outcome and prognostic parameters....

  10. The "liver-first approach" for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer and synchronous liver metastases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoef, C.; Pool, A.E. van der; Nuyttens, J.J.; Planting, A.S.; Eggermont, A.M.M.; Wilt, J.H.W. de

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study was designed to investigate the outcome of "the liver-first" approach in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer and synchronous liver metastases. METHODS: Patients with locally advanced rectal cancer and synchronous liver metastases were primarily treated for their liver me

  11. Imaging in early phase childhood cancer trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advances made in the treatment of childhood malignancies during the last four decades have resulted in overall cure rates of approximately 80%, but progress has slowed significantly during the last 10 years, underscoring the need for more effective and less toxic agents. Current research is focused on development of molecularly targeted agents, an era ushered in with the discovery of imatinib mesylate for the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia. Since imatinib's introduction into the clinic, an increasing number of tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been developed and entered into clinical trials and practice. Parallel to the initial advances made in molecularly targeted agents has been the development of a spectrum of novel imaging modalities. Future goals for imaging in childhood cancer research thus include (1) patient identification based on target identification or other biologic characteristics of the tumor, (2) assessing pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) effects, and (3) predictive value with an early indication of patient benefit. Development and application of novel imaging modalities for children with cancer can serve to streamline development of molecularly targeted agents. (orig.)

  12. Imaging in early phase childhood cancer trials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamson, Peter C. [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Division of Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2009-02-15

    Advances made in the treatment of childhood malignancies during the last four decades have resulted in overall cure rates of approximately 80%, but progress has slowed significantly during the last 10 years, underscoring the need for more effective and less toxic agents. Current research is focused on development of molecularly targeted agents, an era ushered in with the discovery of imatinib mesylate for the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia. Since imatinib's introduction into the clinic, an increasing number of tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been developed and entered into clinical trials and practice. Parallel to the initial advances made in molecularly targeted agents has been the development of a spectrum of novel imaging modalities. Future goals for imaging in childhood cancer research thus include (1) patient identification based on target identification or other biologic characteristics of the tumor, (2) assessing pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) effects, and (3) predictive value with an early indication of patient benefit. Development and application of novel imaging modalities for children with cancer can serve to streamline development of molecularly targeted agents. (orig.)

  13. Characteristics of liver cancer stem cells and clinical correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhuo; Li, Xiaofeng; Ding, Jin

    2016-09-01

    Liver cancer is an aggressive malignant disease with a poor prognosis. Patients with liver cancer are usually diagnosed at an advanced stage and thus miss the opportunity for surgical resection. Chemotherapy and radiofrequency ablation, which target tumor bulk, have exhibited limited therapeutic efficacy to date. Liver cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a small subset of undifferentiated cells existed in liver cancer, which are considered to be responsible for liver cancer initiation, metastasis, relapse and chemoresistance. Elucidating liver CSC characteristics and disclosing their regulatory mechanism might not only deepen our understanding of the pathogenesis of liver cancer but also facilitate the development of diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic approaches to improve the clinical management of liver cancer. In this review, we will summarize the recent advances in liver CSC research in terms of the origin, identification, regulation and clinical correlation. PMID:26272183

  14. Radiation-induced thyroid cancer after radiotherapy for childhood cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text of the publication follows: The thyroid gland in children is among the most sensitive organs to the carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiation, and very young children are at especially high risk. Due to extreme sensitivity of the thyroid gland in children, there is a risk of radiation - induced thyroid cancer even when the thyroid gland is outside the irradiated field. Increased incidence of thyroid cancer has been noted following radiotherapy not only for childhood Hodgkin disease (majority of observed patients), but also for non-Hodgkin lymphoma, neuroblastoma, Wilms tumor, acute lymphocytic leukemia and tumors of the central nervous system also. Radiation-induced tumors begin to appear 5-10 years after irradiation and excess risk persists for decades, perhaps for the remainder of life. The incidence of thyroid cancer is two- to threefold higher among females than males. Most of the thyroid cancers that occur in association with irradiation are of the papillary type, for which the cure rate is high if tumors are detected early. Our Department in co-operation with Department of Children Hematology and Oncology Charles University Second Faculty of Medicine and Faculty Hospital Motol monitors patients after therapy for cancer in childhood for the long term period. The monitoring is focused on detection of thyroid disorders that occur as last consequences of oncology therapy, especially early detection of nodular changes in thyroid gland and thyroid carcinogenesis. The survey presents two patients observed in our department that were diagnosed with the papillary thyroid carcinoma which occurred 15 and more years after radiotherapy for childhood cancer. After total thyroidectomy they underwent therapy with radioiodine. After radiotherapy it is necessary to pursue a long-term following and assure interdisciplinary co-operation which enables early detection of last consequences of radiotherapy, especially the most serious ones as secondary carcinogenesis

  15. Radiation-induced thyroid cancer after radiotherapy for childhood cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiravova, M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrinology, Faculty Hospital Motol, Uk, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2012-07-01

    Full text of the publication follows: The thyroid gland in children is among the most sensitive organs to the carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiation, and very young children are at especially high risk. Due to extreme sensitivity of the thyroid gland in children, there is a risk of radiation - induced thyroid cancer even when the thyroid gland is outside the irradiated field. Increased incidence of thyroid cancer has been noted following radiotherapy not only for childhood Hodgkin disease (majority of observed patients), but also for non-Hodgkin lymphoma, neuroblastoma, Wilms tumor, acute lymphocytic leukemia and tumors of the central nervous system also. Radiation-induced tumors begin to appear 5-10 years after irradiation and excess risk persists for decades, perhaps for the remainder of life. The incidence of thyroid cancer is two- to threefold higher among females than males. Most of the thyroid cancers that occur in association with irradiation are of the papillary type, for which the cure rate is high if tumors are detected early. Our Department in co-operation with Department of Children Hematology and Oncology Charles University Second Faculty of Medicine and Faculty Hospital Motol monitors patients after therapy for cancer in childhood for the long term period. The monitoring is focused on detection of thyroid disorders that occur as last consequences of oncology therapy, especially early detection of nodular changes in thyroid gland and thyroid carcinogenesis. The survey presents two patients observed in our department that were diagnosed with the papillary thyroid carcinoma which occurred 15 and more years after radiotherapy for childhood cancer. After total thyroidectomy they underwent therapy with radioiodine. After radiotherapy it is necessary to pursue a long-term following and assure interdisciplinary co-operation which enables early detection of last consequences of radiotherapy, especially the most serious ones as secondary carcinogenesis

  16. Cholelithiasis after treatment for childhood cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoud, H.; Schell, M.; Pui, C.H. (St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (USA))

    1991-03-01

    The authors evaluated the risk of development of cholelithiasis in 6050 patients treated at a single hospital for various childhood cancers with different therapeutic modalities, including chemotherapy, surgery, radiation therapy, and bone marrow transplantation, from 1963 to 1989. Patients with underlying chronic hemolytic anemia or preexisting gallstones were excluded. Nine female and seven male patients with a median age of 12.4 years (range, 1.2 to 22.8 years) at diagnosis of primary cancer had gallstones develop 3 months to 17.3 years (median, 3.1 years) after therapy was initiated. Cumulative risks of 0.42% at 10 years and 1.03% at 18 years after diagnosis substantially exceed those reported for the general population of this age group. Treatment-related factors significantly associated with an increased risk of cholelithiasis were ileal conduit, parenteral nutrition, abdominal surgery, and abdominal radiation therapy (relative risks and 95% confidence intervals = 61.6 (27.9-135.9), 23.0 (9.8-54.1), 15.1 (7.1-32.2), and 7.4 (3.2-17.0), respectively). There was no correlation with the type of cancer, nor was the frequency of conventional predisposing features (e.g., family history, obesity, use of oral contraceptives, and pregnancy) any higher among the affected patients in this study than in the general population. Patients with cancer who have risk factors identified here should be monitored for the development of gallstones.

  17. Body composition in remission of childhood cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseytlin, G. Ja; Anisimova, A. V.; Godina, E. Z.; Khomyakova, I. A.; Konovalova, M. V.; Nikolaev, D. V.; Rudnev, S. G.; Starunova, O. A.; Vashura, A. Yu

    2012-12-01

    Here, we describe the results of a cross-sectional bioimpedance study of body composition in 552 Russian children and adolescents aged 7-17 years in remission of various types of cancer (remission time 0-15 years, median 4 years). A sample of 1500 apparently healthy individuals of the same age interval was used for comparison. Our data show high frequency of malnutrition in total cancer patients group depending on type of cancer. 52.7% of patients were malnourished according to phase angle and percentage fat mass z-score with the range between 42.2% in children with solid tumors located outside CNS and 76.8% in children with CNS tumors. The body mass index failed to identify the proportion of patients with malnutrition and showed diagnostic sensitivity 50.6% for obesity on the basis of high percentage body fat and even much less so for undernutrition - 13.4% as judged by low phase angle. Our results suggest an advantage of using phase angle as the most sensitive bioimpedance indicator for the assessment of metabolic alterations, associated risks, and the effectiveness of rehabilitation strategies in childhood cancer patients.

  18. Cholelithiasis after treatment for childhood cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors evaluated the risk of development of cholelithiasis in 6050 patients treated at a single hospital for various childhood cancers with different therapeutic modalities, including chemotherapy, surgery, radiation therapy, and bone marrow transplantation, from 1963 to 1989. Patients with underlying chronic hemolytic anemia or preexisting gallstones were excluded. Nine female and seven male patients with a median age of 12.4 years (range, 1.2 to 22.8 years) at diagnosis of primary cancer had gallstones develop 3 months to 17.3 years (median, 3.1 years) after therapy was initiated. Cumulative risks of 0.42% at 10 years and 1.03% at 18 years after diagnosis substantially exceed those reported for the general population of this age group. Treatment-related factors significantly associated with an increased risk of cholelithiasis were ileal conduit, parenteral nutrition, abdominal surgery, and abdominal radiation therapy (relative risks and 95% confidence intervals = 61.6 [27.9-135.9], 23.0 [9.8-54.1], 15.1 [7.1-32.2], and 7.4 [3.2-17.0], respectively). There was no correlation with the type of cancer, nor was the frequency of conventional predisposing features (e.g., family history, obesity, use of oral contraceptives, and pregnancy) any higher among the affected patients in this study than in the general population. Patients with cancer who have risk factors identified here should be monitored for the development of gallstones

  19. Body composition in remission of childhood cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here, we describe the results of a cross-sectional bioimpedance study of body composition in 552 Russian children and adolescents aged 7-17 years in remission of various types of cancer (remission time 0-15 years, median 4 years). A sample of 1500 apparently healthy individuals of the same age interval was used for comparison. Our data show high frequency of malnutrition in total cancer patients group depending on type of cancer. 52.7% of patients were malnourished according to phase angle and percentage fat mass z-score with the range between 42.2% in children with solid tumors located outside CNS and 76.8% in children with CNS tumors. The body mass index failed to identify the proportion of patients with malnutrition and showed diagnostic sensitivity 50.6% for obesity on the basis of high percentage body fat and even much less so for undernutrition – 13.4% as judged by low phase angle. Our results suggest an advantage of using phase angle as the most sensitive bioimpedance indicator for the assessment of metabolic alterations, associated risks, and the effectiveness of rehabilitation strategies in childhood cancer patients.

  20. Study of apoptosis in human liver cancers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-Min Shan; Juan Li

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the action of apoptosis in occurrence ofliver cacinornas in vivo and the biological effect of Solanumlyratum Thumb on BEL-7404 cell line inducing apoptosis invitro.METHODS: The apoptosis in the liver carcinoma wasdetected with terminal deoxynucl neotidyl transferasemediated dUTP nick end labelling (TUNEL); the cancer cellscultured in DMED medium were treated with extract ofSolanum lyratum Thumb and observed under microscope,and their DNA was assayed by gel electrophoresis.RESULTS: In vivo apoptotic cells in the cancer adjacenttissues inceased; in vitro treatment of liver cancers withextract of Solanum lyratum Thumb could induce the cells tomanifest a typical apoptotic morphology. Their DNA wasfractured and a characteristic ladder pattem could be foundusing electrophoresis.CONCLUSION: In vivo the apoptosis of carcinomas waslower; maybe the cells divided quickly and then the cancersoccurred. In the cancer adjacent tissues, the apoptosispricked up, and in vitro Solarium lyratum Thumb couldinduce the apoptosis of BEL-7404 cells.

  1. Liver cancer and selective internal radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liver cancer is the biggest cancer-related killer of adults in the world. Liver cancer can be considered as two types: primary and secondary (metastatic). Selective Internal Radiation Therapy (SIRT) is a revolutionary treatment for advanced liver cancer that utilises new technologies designed to deliver radiation directly to the site of tumours. SIRT, on the other hand, involves the delivery of millions of microscopic radioactive spheres called SIR-Spheres directly to the site of the liver tumour/s, where they selectively irradiate the tumours. The anti-cancer effect is concentrated in the liver and there is little effect on cancer at other sites such as the lungs or bones. The SIR-Spheres are delivered through a catheter placed in the femoral artery of the upper thigh and threaded through the hepatic artery (the major blood vessel of the liver) to the site of the tumour. The microscopic spheres, each approximately 35 microns (the size of four red blood cells or one-third the diameter of a strand of hair), are bonded to yttrium-90 (Y-90), a pure beta emitter with a physical half-life of 64.1 hours (about 2.67 days). The microspheres are trapped in the tumour's vascular bed, where they destroy the tumour from inside. The average range of the radiation is only 2.5 mm, so it is wholly contained within the patient's body; after 14 days, only 2.5 percent of the radioactive activity remains. The microspheres are suspended in water for injection. The vials are shipped in lead shields for radiation protection. Treatment with SIR-Spheres is generally not regarded as a cure, but has been shown to shrink the cancer more than chemotherapy alone. This can increase life expectancy and improve quality of life. On occasion, patients treated with SIR-Spheres have had such marked shrinkage of the liver cancer that the cancer can be surgically removed at a later date. This has resulted in a long-term cure for some patients. SIRTeX Medical Limited has developed three separate cancer

  2. HCV-related liver cancer in people with haemophilia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, K.; Haagsma, E. B.

    2012-01-01

    . The topic of this monograph is liver cancer associated with chronic HCV infection. We start with some background information on chronic HCV infection and its long-term sequelae, one of which is liver cancer. The rest of the article is concerned with liver cancer or hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

  3. What Is Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney/Wilms Tumor Liver Cancer Lymphoma (Non-Hodgkin) Lymphoma (Hodgkin) Neuroblastoma Osteosarcoma Retinoblastoma Rhabdomyosarcoma Skin Cancer Soft Tissue Sarcoma Thyroid Cancer Understanding Children's Cancer Anxiety Around Procedures Childhood Cancer Statistics Late ...

  4. Delivery by Cesarean Section and risk of childhood cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Momen, Natalie; Olsen, Jørn; Gissler, Mika;

    suggest CS does not influence overall childhood cancer risk. We did not see any difference between the two types of CS. Additionally it was not strongly associated with any specific childhood cancer, but power was limited for some types. Considering the high CS rates, even a small increase in risk of......Introduction Studies suggest delivery by Cesarean section (CS) may impact the development of the immune system. Meta-analyses on CS and risks of type I diabetes mellitus and asthma have found risks increased by 20%. Three different mechanisms have been proposed by which CS may influence immune...... childhood cancer could therefore have public health impact....

  5. New predictions for Chernobyl childhood thyroid cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New, firmer predictions are presented for the number of childhood thyroid cancers caused by Chernobyl: between 3300 and 7600 over all time, with a central estimate of 4400. The high efficacy of medical treatment suggests that at least 70% of the sufferers should survive the illness, with 95% or better survival a realistic target given early and skilled surgery and treatment. In view of the reported lack of evidence for other long-term health effects and the comparatively small number of early deaths, the total figure for deaths attributable to the Chernobyl accident may currently be estimated as from a few hundreds to a few thousands, with one thousand as a reasonable central estimate. (author)

  6. Double Stem Cell Transplant May Help Fight a Childhood Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159243.html Double Stem Cell Transplant May Help Fight a Childhood Cancer Tandem ... better chance of survival if they receive two stem cell transplants, a new study reports. The double stem ...

  7. Double Stem Cell Transplant May Help Fight a Childhood Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159243.html Double Stem Cell Transplant May Help Fight a Childhood Cancer Tandem ... better chance of survival if they receive two stem cell transplants, a new study reports. The double stem ...

  8. Treating childhood cancer in Rwanda: the nephroblastoma example

    OpenAIRE

    Kanyamuhunga, Aimable; Tuyisenge, Lisine; Stefan, Daniela Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Wilms tumor (WT) or nephroblastoma is the commonest childhood cancer in Rwanda. Nephroblastoma is regarded as one of the successes of pediatric oncology with long-term survival approaching 90%. The Objectives to evaluate the feasibilityof treating childhood cancer using the nephroblastoma example and to calculate its cost of treatment in Rwanda. Methods Prospective study over a 2 year period: 01 Jan 2010- 31 December 2011. A questionnaire was completed by all participants in the ...

  9. Spatial Analysis of Childhood Cancer: A Case/Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Rebeca Ramis; Diana Gómez-Barroso; Ibon Tamayo; Javier García-Pérez; Antonio Morales; Elena Pardo Romaguera; Gonzalo López-Abente

    2015-01-01

    Background Childhood cancer was the leading cause of death among children aged 1-14 years for 2012 in Spain. Leukemia has the highest incidence, followed by tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) and lymphomas (Hodgkin lymphoma, HL, and Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, NHL). Spatial distribution of childhood cancer cases has been under concern with the aim of identifying potential risk factors. Objective The two objectives are to study overall spatial clustering and cluster detection of cases of t...

  10. Endocrine disorders in childhood cancer survivors: More answers, more questions

    OpenAIRE

    Clement, S.C.

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of pediatric malignancies has advanced substantially over the past several decades, resulting in a rapidly growing group of long-term childhood cancer survivors (CCS). Improved survival leads to an increasing number of individuals who may be at increased risk of substantial morbidity and even mortality as a direct or indirect consequence of their prior cancer therapy. Moreover, many CCS face lifelong health-related challenges after curative treatment of a childhood malignancy. Aroun...

  11. Effect of liver cirrhosis on percutaneous selective portal vein embolization for primary liver cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙军辉

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical value of PVE(portal vein embolism)prior to surgery in primary liver cancer(PLC)patients and the effect of liver cirrhosis on1iver lobe hyperplasia after PVE.Methods 13 patientswith primary liver cancer non-suitable for curative hepatectomy underwent k sequential transcatheter arterial chemoembolization(TACE)(1-3 times)

  12. Adaptive Management of Liver Cancer Radiotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Brock, Kristy K.; Dawson, Laura A.

    2010-01-01

    Adaptive radiation therapy for liver cancer has the potential to reduce normal tissue complications and enable dose escalation, allowing the potential for tumor control in this challenging site. Using adaptive techniques to tailor treatment margins to reflect patient specific breathing motions and image-guidance techniques can reduce the high dose delivered to surrounding normal tissues while ensuring the prescription dose is delivered to the tumor. Several treatment planning and delivery tec...

  13. Clinical and molecular insights into primary pediatric liver cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Weeda, V.B.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis aims to give insight into the clinical status quo of primary pediatric liver tumors and investigate signaling pathways that may be of importance for liver tumorigenesis. The most recent series of the International Childhood Liver Tumors Strategy Group (SIOPEL) of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its distinct variant fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma (FL-HCC) are discussed. For both tumors, complete resection is at present the only curative option. FL-HCC does not have a bet...

  14. Intrahepatic therapy for liver-dominant metastatic colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kerlijne; De; Groote; Hans; Prenen

    2015-01-01

    In patients with metastatic colorectal cancer, the liver is the most common site of metastatic disease. In patients with liver-dominant disease, consideration needs to be given to locoregional treatments such as hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy, transarterial chemoembolisation and selective internal radiation therapy because hepatic metastases are a major cause of liver failure especially in chemorefractory disease. In this review we provide insights on the published literature for locoregional treatment of liver metastases in metastatic colorectal cancer.

  15. Parental Exposure to Pesticides and Childhood Brain Cancer: U.S. Atlantic Coast Childhood Brain Cancer Study

    OpenAIRE

    Shim, Youn K.; Mlynarek, Steven P.; van Wijngaarden, Edwin

    2009-01-01

    Background The etiology of childhood brain cancer remains largely unknown. However, previous studies have yielded suggestive associations with parental pesticide use. Objectives We aimed to evaluate parental exposure to pesticides at home and on the job in relation to the occurrence of brain cancer in children. Methods We included 526 one-to-one–matched case–control pairs. Brain cancer cases were diagnosed at < 10 years of age, and were identified from statewide cancer registries of four U.S....

  16. Family Adjustment to Childhood Cancer: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Kristin A.; Marsland, Anna L.

    2011-01-01

    This systematic review integrates qualitative and quantitative research findings regarding family changes in the context of childhood cancer. Twenty-eight quantitative, 42 qualitative, and one mixed-method studies were reviewed. Included studies focused on family functioning, marital quality, and/or parenting in the context of pediatric cancer,…

  17. Incidence and mortality of liver cancer in China, 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kuang-Rong Wei; Xia Yu; Rong-Shou Zheng; Xia-Biao Peng; Si-Wei Zhang; Ming-Fang Ji; Zhi-Heng Liang; Zhi-Xiong Ou; Wan-Qing Chen

    2014-01-01

    Liver cancer is a common malignant tumor in China and a major health concern. We aimed to estimate the liver cancer incidence and mortality in China in 2010 using liver cancer data from some Chinese cancer registries and provide reference for liver cancer prevention and treatment. We col ected and evaluated the incidence and mortality data of liver cancer in 2010 from 145 cancer registries, which were included in the 2013 Chinese Cancer Registry Annual Report, calculated crude, standardized, and truncated incidences and mortalities, and estimated new liver cancer cases and deaths from liver cancer throughout China and in different regions in 2010 from Chinese practical population. The estimates of new liver cancer cases and deaths were 358,840 and 312,432, respectively, in China in 2010. The crude incidence, age-standardized rate by Chinese standard population (ASR China), and age-standardized rate by world standard population (ASR world) were 27.29/100,000, 21.35/100,000, and 20.87/100,000, respectively;the crude, ASR China, and ASR world mortalities were 23.76/100,000, 18.43/100,000, and 18.04/100,000, respectively. The incidence and mortality were the highest in western regions, higher in rural areas than in urban areas, and higher in males than in females. The age-specific incidence and mortality of liver cancer showed a rapid increase from age 30 and peaked at age 80-84 or 85+. Our results indicated that the 2010 incidence and mortality of liver cancer in China, especial y in undeveloped rural areas and western regions, were among high levels worldwide. The strategy for liver cancer prevention and treatment should be strengthened.

  18. Minimally invasive local therapies for liver cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, David; Kang, Josephine; Golas, Benjamin J; Yeung, Vincent W; Madoff, David C

    2014-12-01

    Primary and metastatic liver tumors are an increasing global health problem, with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) now being the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Systemic treatment options for HCC remain limited, with Sorafenib as the only prospectively validated agent shown to increase overall survival. Surgical resection and/or transplantation, locally ablative therapies and regional or locoregional therapies have filled the gap in liver tumor treatments, providing improved survival outcomes for both primary and metastatic tumors. Minimally invasive local therapies have an increasing role in the treatment of both primary and metastatic liver tumors. For patients with low volume disease, these therapies have now been established into consensus practice guidelines. This review highlights technical aspects and outcomes of commonly utilized, minimally invasive local therapies including laparoscopic liver resection (LLR), radiofrequency ablation (RFA), microwave ablation (MWA), high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), irreversible electroporation (IRE), and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). In addition, the role of combination treatment strategies utilizing these minimally invasive techniques is reviewed. PMID:25610708

  19. Minimally invasive local therapies for liver cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David Li; Josephine Kang; Benjamin J Golas; Vincent W Yeung; David C Madoff

    2014-01-01

    Primary and metastatic liver tumors are an increasing global health problem, with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) now being the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Systemic treatment options for HCC remain limited, with Sorafenib as the only prospectively validated agent shown to increase overall survival. Surgical resection and/or transplantation, locally ablative therapies and regional or locoregional therapies have iflled the gap in liver tumor treatments, providing improved survival outcomes for both primary and metastatic tumors. Minimally invasive local therapies have an increasing role in the treatment of both primary and metastatic liver tumors. For patients with low volume disease, these therapies have now been established into consensus practice guidelines. This review highlights technical aspects and outcomes of commonly utilized, minimally invasive local therapies including laparoscopic liver resection (LLR), radiofrequency ablation (RFA), microwave ablation (MWA), high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), irreversible electroporation (IRE), and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). In addition, the role of combination treatment strategies utilizing these minimally invasive techniques is reviewed.

  20. Minimally invasive local therapies for liver cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary and metastatic liver tumors are an increasing global health problem, with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) now being the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Systemic treatment options for HCC remain limited, with Sorafenib as the only prospectively validated agent shown to increase overall survival. Surgical resection and/or transplantation, locally ablative therapies and regional or locoregional therapies have filled the gap in liver tumor treatments, providing improved survival outcomes for both primary and metastatic tumors. Minimally invasive local therapies have an increasing role in the treatment of both primary and metastatic liver tumors. For patients with low volume disease, these therapies have now been established into consensus practice guidelines. This review highlights technical aspects and outcomes of commonly utilized, minimally invasive local therapies including laparoscopic liver resection (LLR), radiofrequency ablation (RFA), microwave ablation (MWA), high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU), irreversible electroporation (IRE), and stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). In addition, the role of combination treatment strategies utilizing these minimally invasive techniques is reviewed

  1. Childhood height increases the risk of prostate cancer mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, J; Gamborg, M; Cook, M B;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adult body size is positively associated with aggressive and fatal prostate cancers. It is unknown whether these associations originate in early life. Therefore, we investigated if childhood height, body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)) and growth are associated with prostate cancer......-specific mortality and survival. METHODS: Subjects were 125,208 men from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, born 1930-1969 with height and weight measurements at ages 7-13years. Linkage to the Danish Cancer Registry and the Register of Causes of Death enabled identification of incident and fatal prostate...... cancers. Cox proportional hazards regressions were performed. RESULTS: 630 men had prostate cancer recorded as the underlying cause of death. Childhood height at age 13years was positively associated with prostate cancer-specific mortality (hazard ratio [HR]per z-score=1.2, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1...

  2. Risk factors for cancer recurrence or death within 6 months after liver resection in patients with colorectal cancer liver metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Sung Won; Kim, Dong-Sik; Yu, Young Dong; Han, Jae hyun; Suh, Sung-Ock

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to find risk factors for early recurrence (ER) and early death (ED) after liver resection for colorectal cancer liver metastasis (CRCLM). Methods Between May 1990 and December 2011, 279 patients underwent liver resection for CRCLM at Korea University Medical Center. They were assigned to group ER (recurrence within 6 months after liver resection) or group NER (non-ER; no recurrence within 6 months after liver resection) and group ED (death within 6 months aft...

  3. Childhood Cancer Genomics (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the genomics of childhood cancer. The summary describes the molecular subtypes for specific pediatric cancers and their associated clinical characteristics, the recurring genomic alterations that characterize each subtype at diagnosis or relapse, and the therapeutic and prognostic significance of the genomic alterations. The genomic alterations associated with brain tumors, kidney tumors, leukemias, lymphomas, sarcomas, and other cancers are discussed.

  4. Childhood cancer incidence in relation to sunlight exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Musselman, J R B; Spector, L G

    2010-01-01

    Background: There is increasing interest in the possible association between cancer incidence and vitamin D through its role as a regulator of cell growth and differentiation. Epidemiological studies in adults and one paediatric study suggest an inverse association between sunlight exposure and cancer incidence. Methods: We carried out an ecological study using childhood cancer registry data and two population-level surrogates of sunlight exposure, (1) latitude of the registry city or populat...

  5. Liver metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metastases to the liver; Metastatic liver cancer; Liver cancer - metastatic ... Almost any cancer can spread to the liver. Cancers that can ... Lung cancer Melanoma Pancreatic cancer Stomach cancer The risk ...

  6. TECHNIQUE AND SURGICAL OUTCOMES OF ANATOMICAL LIVER RESECTIONS FOR COLORECTAL CANCER LIVER METASTASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Sidorov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Technique and surgical outcomes of anatomical liver resections using ERBEJET2® water-jet dissector were described. Overall 98 patients with colorectal cancer liver metastases were included in this study. In 43 patients resections were performed using water-jet dissection technique. Water-jet dissection seems to be safe and effective technique for anatomical liver resections.

  7. Socioeconomic disparities in childhood cancer survival in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Martin; Rueegg, Corina S; Schmidlin, Kurt; Spoerri, Adrian; Niggli, Felix; Grotzer, Michael; von der Weid, Nicolas X; Egger, Matthias; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Zwahlen, Marcel; Kuehni, Claudia E

    2016-06-15

    In this study, we investigated whether childhood cancer survival in Switzerland is influenced by socioeconomic status (SES), and if disparities vary by type of cancer and definition of SES (parental education, living condition, area-based SES). Using Cox proportional hazards models, we analyzed 5-year cumulative mortality in all patients registered in the Swiss Childhood Cancer Registry diagnosed 1991-2006 below 16 years. Information on SES was extracted from the Swiss census by probabilistic record linkage. The study included 1602 children (33% with leukemia, 20% with lymphoma, 22% with central nervous system (CNS) tumors); with an overall 5-year survival of 77% (95%CI 75-79%). Higher SES, particularly parents' education, was associated with a lower 5-year cumulative mortality. Results varied by type of cancer with no association for leukemia and particularly strong effects for CNS tumor patients, where mortality hazard ratios for the different SES indicators, comparing the highest with the lowest group, ranged from 0.48 (95%CI: 0.28-0.81) to 0.71 (95%CI: 0.44-1.15). We conclude that even in Switzerland with a high quality health care system and mandatory health insurance, socioeconomic differences in childhood cancer survival persist. Factors causing these survival differences have to be further explored, to facilitate universal access to optimal treatment and finally eliminate social inequalities in childhood cancer survival. PMID:26840758

  8. Further statement on the incidence of childhood cancer in Wales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In March 1999 the Welsh Office asked COMARE to examine two unpublished studies. The first by Busby et al of ''Green Audit'' concluded that there was a significant excess of childhood leukaemia in North Wales associated with residential proximity to the coast. The second study, carried out by Steward et al of the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit (WCISU), did not support this conclusion. We were asked to advise as to whether we considered that there was a real raised incidence of childhood leukaemia near the coast of North Wales and whether further study was required. To do this we initially organised a comparison of the figures quoted by both the Green Audit and WCISU with the database held by the Childhood Cancer Research Group (CCRG) in Oxford. This group maintains the National Registry of Childhood Tumours (NRCT), data for which are supplied from a variety of sources including cancer registries but also directly from medical cancer specialists as well as from death certificates. As a consequence this provides an independent check on much of the data on childhood cancer held by cancer registries in Great Britain and is clinically validated. After carrying out the independent check on the number of cases of childhood leukaemia in these Welsh counties it was immediately apparent that the data held by Green Audit, on which the analysis by Busby et al was based, were incorrect. These data were received from the Welsh Cancer Registry (WCR) in 1995. A further data set was received from WCR in 1996 but was not used in the analysis by Busby et al. In June 1999 we issued a statement to the Welsh Office. In that statement we noted that Dr Busby and his colleagues appeared to have used erroneous data in their study. On the basis of the Steward et al data, COMARE also stated that we found no evidence to support the contention that there is an increased incidence of childhood leukaemia or other childhood cancers amongst the Welsh population living close to the

  9. Metabolism of high density lipoproteins in liver cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-Ting Jiang; Ning Xu; Chang-Ping Wu

    2007-01-01

    Liver plays a vital role in the production and catabolism of plasma lipoproteins. It depends on the integrity of cellular function of liver, which ensures homeostasis of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. When liver cancer occurs these processes are impaired and high-density lipoproteins are changed.

  10. Development of Strategies to Increase Enrollment in Clinical Trials for Children With Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-12

    Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors; Childhood Germ Cell Tumor; Extragonadal Germ Cell Tumor; Leukemia; Liver Cancer; Lymphoma; Neuroblastoma; Ovarian Cancer; Psychosocial Effects of Cancer and Its Treatment; Sarcoma; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  11. Risk factors for subsequent endocrine-related cancer in childhood cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijnen, M; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, M M; Medici, M; Peeters, R P; van der Lely, A J; Neggers, S J C M M

    2016-06-01

    Long-term adverse health conditions, including secondary malignant neoplasms, are common in childhood cancer survivors. Although mortality attributable to secondary malignancies declined over the past decades, the risk for developing a solid secondary malignant neoplasm did not. Endocrine-related malignancies are among the most common secondary malignant neoplasms observed in childhood cancer survivors. In this systematic review, we describe risk factors for secondary malignant neoplasms of the breast and thyroid, since these are the most common secondary endocrine-related malignancies in childhood cancer survivors. Radiotherapy is the most important risk factor for secondary breast and thyroid cancer in childhood cancer survivors. Breast cancer risk is especially increased in survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma who received moderate- to high-dosed mantle field irradiation. Recent studies also demonstrated an increased risk after lower-dose irradiation in other radiation fields for other childhood cancer subtypes. Premature ovarian insufficiency may protect against radiation-induced breast cancer. Although evidence is weak, estrogen-progestin replacement therapy does not seem to be associated with an increased breast cancer risk in premature ovarian-insufficient childhood cancer survivors. Radiotherapy involving the thyroid gland increases the risk for secondary differentiated thyroid carcinoma, as well as benign thyroid nodules. Currently available studies on secondary malignant neoplasms in childhood cancer survivors are limited by short follow-up durations and assessed before treatment regimens. In addition, studies on risk-modifying effects of environmental and lifestyle factors are lacking. Risk-modifying effects of premature ovarian insufficiency and estrogen-progestin replacement therapy on radiation-induced breast cancer require further study. PMID:27229933

  12. Childhood cancer, intramuscular vitamin K, and pethidine given during labour.

    OpenAIRE

    Golding, J.; Greenwood, R; Birmingham, K.; Mott, M

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess unexpected associations between childhood cancer and pethidine given in labour and the neonatal administration of vitamin K that had emerged in a study performed in the 1970 national birth cohort. DESIGN AND SETTING--195 children with cancer diagnosed in 1971-March 1991 and born in the two major Bristol maternity hospitals in 1965-87 were compared with 558 controls identified from the delivery books for the use of pethidine during labour and administration of vitamin K. M...

  13. Posttraumatic growth in parents of childhood cancer survivors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slezáčková, Alena

    Oslo: NPA, 2009. s. 327-327. [European Congress of Psychology /11./. 08.07-11.07.2009, Oslo] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA406/07/1384 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : posttraumatic growth * parents * childhood cancer survivors Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  14. Early Parental Adjustment and Bereavement after Childhood Cancer Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrera, Maru; O'connor, Kathleen; D'Agostino, Norma Mammone; Spencer, Lynlee; Nicholas, David; Jovcevska, Vesna; Tallet, Susan; Schneiderman, Gerald

    2009-01-01

    This study comprehensively explored parental bereavement and adjustment at 6 months post-loss due to childhood cancer. Interviews were conducted with 18 mothers and 13 fathers. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed based on qualitative methodology. A model describing early parental bereavement and adaptation emerged with 3 domains:…

  15. Quality of life of childhood cancer survivors: handicaps and benefits

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blatný, Marek; Kepák, T.; Vlčková, I.; Jelínek, Martin; Tóthová, K.; Pilát, M.; Slezáčková, Alena; Sobotková, Veronika; Bartošová, Kateřina; Hrstková, H.; Štěrba, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 2 (2011), s. 112-125. ISSN 0009-062X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA406/07/1384 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : childhood cancer survivors * quality of life * psycho - oncology Subject RIV: AN - Psycho logy Impact factor: 0.087, year: 2011

  16. Childhood cancer: Overview of incidence trends and environmental carcinogens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahm, S.H.; Devesa, S.S. [National Cancer Inst., Rockville, MD (United States)

    1995-09-01

    An estimated 8000 children 0 to 14 years of age are diagnosed annually with cancer in the United States. Leukemia and brain tumors are the most common childhood malignancies, accounting for 30 and 20% of newly diagnosed cases, respectively. From 1975 to 1978 to 1987 to 1990, cancer among white children increased slightly from 12.8 to 14.1/100,000. Increases are suggested for leukemia, gliomas, and, to a much lesser extent, Wilms` tumor. There are a few well-established environmental causes of childhood cancer such as radiation, chemotherapeutic agents, and diethylstilbestrol. Many other agents such as electromagnetic fields, pesticides, and some parental occupational exposures are suspected of playing roles, but the evidence is not conclusive at this time. Some childhood exposures such as secondhand cigarette smoke may contribute to cancers that develop many years after childhood. For some exposures such as radiation and pesticides data suggest that children may be more susceptible to the carcinogenic effects than similarly exposed adults. 143 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  17. Long-term follow-up study and long-term care of childhood cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon Jin Park

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The number of long-term survivors is increasing in the western countries due to remarkable improvements in the treatment of childhood cancer. The long-term complications of childhood cancer survivors in these countries were brought to light by the childhood cancer survivor studies. In Korea, the 5-year survival rate of childhood cancer patients is approaching 70%; therefore, it is extremely important to undertake similar long-term follow-up studies and comprehensive long-term care for our population. On the basis of the experiences of childhood cancer survivorship care of the western countries and the current Korean status of childhood cancer survivors, long-term follow-up study and long-term care systems need to be established in Korea in the near future. This system might contribute to the improvement of the quality of life of childhood cancer survivors through effective intervention strategies.

  18. Comparison of MRI of liver cancer (preoperative and resected liver specimen) and pathological feature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-one nodules of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and eighteen nodules of liver metastasis, which were confirmed pathologically, were investigated by MRI before operation and MRI of resected liver specimen. Pre-operative MRI pointed out all HCCs and seventeen metastases. STIR method was most useful for detection of HCCs. T2WI and STIR method were most useful for detection of liver metastases. Pre-operative MRI also revealed 93% of capsule formation, 29% of septal formation, 75% of fatty metamorphosis of HCC and 75% of necrosis of liver metastasis, and post-operative MRI of resected specimens revealed 100% of capsule formation, 71% of septal formation, 75% of fatty metamorphosis of HCC and 88% of necrosis of liver metastasis. T1WI showed a high intensity halo surrounding metastasis. This characteristic peripheral halo was seen in 22% of metastases. These findings corresponded to pathological feature of liver cancer. MRI was thought to be useful diagnostic modality of liver cancer. (author)

  19. Chemotherapy or Liver Transplantation for Nonresectable Liver Metastases From Colorectal Cancer?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dueland, Svein; Guren, Tormod K; Hagness, Morten;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:: The primary objective was to compare overall survival (OS) in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) with nonresectable liver-only metastases treated by liver transplantation or chemotherapy. BACKGROUND:: CRC is the third most common cancer worldwide. About 50% of patients will develop...... metastatic disease primarily to the liver and the lung. The majority of patients with liver metastases receive palliative chemotherapy, with a median OS of trial patients of about 2 years, and less than 10% are alive at 5 years. METHODS:: Patients with nonresectable liver-only CRC metastases underwent liver...... transplantation in the SECA study (n = 21). Disease-free survival (DFS) and OS of patients included in the SECA study were compared with progression-free survival (PFS) and OS in a similar cohort of CRC patients with liver-only disease included in a first-line chemotherapy study, the NORDIC VII study (n = 47...

  20. A Guide to Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease in Childhood and Adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan L. Temple

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD is now the most prevalent form of chronic liver disease, affecting 10%–20% of the general paediatric population. Within the next 10 years it is expected to become the leading cause of liver pathology, liver failure and indication for liver transplantation in childhood and adolescence in the Western world. While our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this disease remains limited, it is thought to be the hepatic manifestation of more widespread metabolic dysfunction and is strongly associated with a number of metabolic risk factors, including insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia, cardiovascular disease and, most significantly, obesity. Despite this, ”paediatric” NAFLD remains under-studied, under-recognised and, potentially, undermanaged. This article will explore and evaluate our current understanding of NAFLD in childhood and adolescence and how it differs from adult NAFLD, in terms of its epidemiology, pathophysiology, natural history, diagnosis and clinical management. Given the current absence of definitive radiological and histopathological diagnostic tests, maintenance of a high clinical suspicion by all members of the multidisciplinary team in primary and specialist care settings remains the most potent of diagnostic tools, enabling early diagnosis and appropriate therapeutic intervention.

  1. Candidiasis of the liver and spleen in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.H.; Greenfield, L.D.; Wald, B.R.

    1982-02-01

    Four children with acute leukemia and surgically documented candidiasis of the liver and/or spleen were examined with a combination of diagnostic imaging modalities including /sup 99/mTc-sulfur colloid and /sup 67/Ga-citrate scintigraphy, gray-scale ultrasound, and body computed tomography (CT). Abnormalities were detected in every individual examined. /sup 99/mTc-sulfur colloid scintigraphy revealed cold areas in the liver or spleen. With /sup 67/Ga scintigraphy, these areas were cold in some individuals and hot in others. Gray-scale ultrasound demonstrated hypoechoic lesions with central areas of increased echogenicity in hepatic involvement, and hypoechoic replacement of the spleen in splenic involvement. CT in one patient revealed low-density areas without contrast enhancement within the hepatic parenchyma and unsuspected renal involvement.

  2. Candidiasis of the liver and spleen in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four children with acute leukemia and surgically documented candidiasis of the liver and/or spleen were examined with a combination of diagnostic imaging modalities including /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid and /sup 67/Ga- citrate scintigraphy, gray-scale ultrasound, and body computed tomography (CT). Abnormalities were detected in every individual examined. /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid scintigraphy revealed ''cold'' areas in the liver or spleen. With /sup 67/Ga scintigraphy, these areas were ''cold'' in some individuals and ''hot'' in others. Gray-scale ultrasound demonstrated hypoechoic lesions with central areas of increased echogenicity in hepatic involvement, and hypoechoic replacement of the spleen in splenic involvement. CT in one patient revealed low-density areas without contrast enhancement within the hepatic parenchyma and unsuspected renal involvement

  3. Candidiasis of the liver and spleen in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.H. (Childrens Hospital of Los Angeles, CA); Greenfield, L.D.; Wald, B.R.

    1982-02-01

    Four children with acute leukemia and surgically documented candidiasis of the liver and/or spleen were examined with a combination of diagnostic imaging modalities including /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid and /sup 67/Ga- citrate scintigraphy, gray-scale ultrasound, and body computed tomography (CT). Abnormalities were detected in every individual examined. /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid scintigraphy revealed ''cold'' areas in the liver or spleen. With /sup 67/Ga scintigraphy, these areas were ''cold'' in some individuals and ''hot'' in others. Gray-scale ultrasound demonstrated hypoechoic lesions with central areas of increased echogenicity in hepatic involvement, and hypoechoic replacement of the spleen in splenic involvement. CT in one patient revealed low-density areas without contrast enhancement within the hepatic parenchyma and unsuspected renal involvement.

  4. Incidence and Management of Colorectal Cancer in Liver Transplant Recipients

    OpenAIRE

    Nishihori, Taiga; Strazzabosco, Mario; Saif, Muhammad Wasif

    2008-01-01

    Liver transplant recipients are at an increased risk of developing de novo malignancies because of the prolonged immunosuppression necessary to avoid acute and chronic rejections. Skin cancers and lymphoproliferative diseases are the most common malignancies, but the overall incidence of colon cancer in this patient population does differ from that of the general population. Therefore, colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major health concern in liver transplant recipients. Furthermore, there are uni...

  5. Cancer of the liver - role of AFP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liver diseases are common worldwide and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the commonest primary liver cancer. It has varied incidences globally but it is particularly common in Africans with a high prevalence in Nigerians where it accounted for the 4th commonest cause of death in both sexes between 1976 and 1995 (table 1). Similarly its incidence has remained persistently high between 3.1 and 8.6% per annum. Hepatocellular carcinoma occurs among all socio-economic classes of the population and is commonest among the 30-50 year group, two decades earlier than in the Caucasians and Americans. However, patients with HCC present in several patterns with majority having sudden onset of abdominal pain and swelling which is usually progressive, running an aggressive course. These patients who are in their prime of life arrive late in hospitals when the disease is advanced and is unlikely to respond to the usual modalities of therapy hence the disease has a gloomy picture. The solution is EARLY DIAGNOSIS with PROMPT THERAPY for achieving possible CURE of the disease

  6. Dietary Natural Products for Prevention and Treatment of Liver Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Zheng, Jie; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Liver cancer is the most common malignancy of the digestive system with high death rate. Accumulating evidences suggests that many dietary natural products are potential sources for prevention and treatment of liver cancer, such as grapes, black currant, plum, pomegranate, cruciferous vegetables, French beans, tomatoes, asparagus, garlic, turmeric, ginger, soy, rice bran, and some edible macro-fungi. These dietary natural products and their active components could affect the development and progression of liver cancer in various ways, such as inhibiting tumor cell growth and metastasis, protecting against liver carcinogens, immunomodulating and enhancing effects of chemotherapeutic drugs. This review summarizes the potential prevention and treatment activities of dietary natural products and their major bioactive constituents on liver cancer, and discusses possible mechanisms of action. PMID:26978396

  7. Dietary Natural Products for Prevention and Treatment of Liver Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Zhou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Liver cancer is the most common malignancy of the digestive system with high death rate. Accumulating evidences suggests that many dietary natural products are potential sources for prevention and treatment of liver cancer, such as grapes, black currant, plum, pomegranate, cruciferous vegetables, French beans, tomatoes, asparagus, garlic, turmeric, ginger, soy, rice bran, and some edible macro-fungi. These dietary natural products and their active components could affect the development and progression of liver cancer in various ways, such as inhibiting tumor cell growth and metastasis, protecting against liver carcinogens, immunomodulating and enhancing effects of chemotherapeutic drugs. This review summarizes the potential prevention and treatment activities of dietary natural products and their major bioactive constituents on liver cancer, and discusses possible mechanisms of action.

  8. Dietary Natural Products for Prevention and Treatment of Liver Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yue; Li, Ya; Zhou, Tong; Zheng, Jie; Li, Sha; Li, Hua-Bin

    2016-03-01

    Liver cancer is the most common malignancy of the digestive system with high death rate. Accumulating evidences suggests that many dietary natural products are potential sources for prevention and treatment of liver cancer, such as grapes, black currant, plum, pomegranate, cruciferous vegetables, French beans, tomatoes, asparagus, garlic, turmeric, ginger, soy, rice bran, and some edible macro-fungi. These dietary natural products and their active components could affect the development and progression of liver cancer in various ways, such as inhibiting tumor cell growth and metastasis, protecting against liver carcinogens, immunomodulating and enhancing effects of chemotherapeutic drugs. This review summarizes the potential prevention and treatment activities of dietary natural products and their major bioactive constituents on liver cancer, and discusses possible mechanisms of action. PMID:26978396

  9. Fertility studies in female childhood cancer survivors: selecting appropriate comparison groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, M. van den; Dulmen-den Broeder, E. van; Overbeek, A.; Ronckers, C.; Dorp, W. van; Kremer, L.; Heuvel-Eibrink, M. van den; Huizinga, G.; Loonen, J.J.; Versluys, A.; Bresters, D.; Lambalk, C.; Kaspers, G.; Leeuwen, F.N. van

    2014-01-01

    Little information is available on the use of appropriate comparison groups for studies investigating late effects of childhood cancer. Two comparison groups in a nationwide study on reproductive function and ovarian reserve in female childhood cancer survivors were recruited (The Dutch Childhood On

  10. Fertility studies in female childhood cancer survivors : selecting appropriate comparison groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, M. H.; van Dulmen-den Broeder, E.; Overbeek, A.; Ronckers, C. M.; van Dorp, W.; Kremer, L. C.; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, M. M.; Huizinga, G. A.; Loonen, J. J.; Versluys, A. B.; Bresters, D.; Lambalk, C. B.; Kaspers, G. J. L.; van Leeuwen, F. E.

    2014-01-01

    Little information is available on the use of appropriate comparison groups for studies investigating late effects of childhood cancer. Two comparison groups in a nationwide study on reproductive function and ovarian reserve in female childhood cancer survivors were recruited (The Dutch Childhood On

  11. Pitavastatin suppressed liver cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, He-Yi; Zhang, Wei-Jian; Xie, Xue-Meng; Zheng, Zhi-Hai; Zhu, Heng-Liang; Jiang, Fei-Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Pitavastatin classically functions as a blood cholesterol-lowering drug. Previously, it was discovered with antiglioma stem cell properties through drug screening. However, whether it can be used for liver cancer cell therapy has never been reported. In this study, the cell viability and colony formation assay were utilized to analyze the cytotoxicity of pitavastatin on liver cancer cells. The cell cycle alteration was checked after pitavastatin treatment. Apoptosis-related protein expression and the effect of caspase inhibitor were also checked. The in vivo inhibitory effect of pitavastatin on the growth of liver tumor was also tested. It was found that pitavastatin inhibited growth and colony formation of liver cancer Huh-7 cells and SMMC7721 cells. It induced arrest of liver cancer cells at the G1 phase. Increased proportion of sub-G1 cells was observed after pitavastatin treatment. Pitavastatin promoted caspase-9 cleavage and caspase-3 cleavage in liver cancer cells. Caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK reversed the cleavage of cytotoxic effect of pitavastatin. Moreover, pitavastatin decreased the tumor growth and improved the survival of tumor-bearing mice. This study suggested the antiliver cancer effect of the old drug pitavastatin. It may be developed as a drug for liver cancer therapy. PMID:27621652

  12. Metabolic Syndrome in Childhood Cancer Survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Waas, Marjolein

    2012-01-01

    textabstractOver 200,000 children under the age of fifteen are diagnosed with cancer worldwide every year. Cancer is the second most common cause of death among children between the ages of 1 and 14 years in developed countries, surpassed only by accidents.Nearly one third of the cancers diagnosed in children are leukemias (particularly acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL)), followed by cancer of the brain or central nervous system (21%), soft tissue sarcomas (including neuroblastoma (7%) and r...

  13. Offspring of patients treated for cancer in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, F.P. (Dept. of Health, Education, and Welfare Bethesda, MD); Fine, W.; Jaffe, N.; Holmes, G.E.; Holmes, F.F.

    1979-05-01

    Genetic effects of cancer in childhood were examined among offspring of patients enrolled in the tumor registries of the Sidney Farber Cancer Institute and the Kansas University Medical Center. For 146 patients, 84 women and 62 men, 293 pregnancies were reported after cessation of treatment of diverse neoplasms. The outcomes of 286 completed pregnancies were as follows: 242 live births (1 set of twins), 1 stillbirth, 25 spontaneous abortions, and 19 therapeutic abortions. Seven live-born infants died during the first 2 years of life, a frequency in accord with expectation. Two offspring have developed cancer. One girl and her father had bilateral hereditary retinoblastoma. A second girl developed acute myelocytic leukemia; her mother had received radiotherapy during childhood for a brain tumor. Compared with their cousins and with published figures for the general population, the study progeny had no excess of congenital anomalles or other diseases. Chromosome and immunoglobulin studies of a few offspring did not reveal damage from preconception exposure to cancer chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Findings indicated that large collaborative studies are needed to monitor the offspring of childhood cancer survivors for inherited traits associated with the parental tumors and for mutagenic effects of therapy, particularly intense multimodality treatments.

  14. Offspring of patients treated for cancer in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genetic effects of cancer in childhood were examined among offspring of patients enrolled in the tumor registries of the Sidney Farber Cancer Institute and the Kansas University Medical Center. For 146 patients, 84 women and 62 men, 293 pregnancies were reported after cessation of treatment of diverse neoplasms. The outcomes of 286 completed pregnancies were as follows: 242 live births (1 set of twins), 1 stillbirth, 25 spontaneous abortions, and 19 therapeutic abortions. Seven live-born infants died during the first 2 years of life, a frequency in accord with expectation. Two offspring have developed cancer. One girl and her father had bilateral hereditary retinoblastoma. A second girl developed acute myelocytic leukemia; her mother had received radiotherapy during childhood for a brain tumor. Compared with their cousins and with published figures for the general population, the study progeny had no excess of congenital anomalles or other diseases. Chromosome and immunoglobulin studies of a few offspring did not reveal damage from preconception exposure to cancer chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Findings indicated that large collaborative studies are needed to monitor the offspring of childhood cancer survivors for inherited traits associated with the parental tumors and for mutagenic effects of therapy, particularly intense multimodality treatments

  15. Increased risk of antidepressant use in childhood cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Lasse Wegener; Winther, J.F.; Cederkvist, L;

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Childhood cancer survivors are at risk of both somatic and mental late effects, but large population-based studies of depression are lacking. METHODS: Risk of antidepressant use was evaluated in a population-based cohort of 5452 Danish children treated for cancer in 1975-2009 by linkage to the...... National Prescription Drug Database, which worldwide is the oldest nationwide registry of prescription medication. Hazard ratios (HRs) for antidepressant use were estimated in a Cox proportional hazards model stratified on sex, with population comparisons as referents. RESULTS: Overall, childhood cancer...... survivors were at increased risk of having antidepressants prescribed (HR, 1.4; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.3-1.5). The excess absolute risk of antidepressant use was 2.5 per 1000 person-years (95% CI, 1.7-3.3), equivalent to an excess of 2.5 survivors for every 100 survivors followed for 10years...

  16. Assessment of environmental and genetic factors in the etiology of childhood cancers: the Childrens Cancer Group epidemiology program.

    OpenAIRE

    Robison, L L; Buckley, J. D.; Bunin, G

    1995-01-01

    The occurrence of cancer during childhood represents one of the leading causes of death within the pediatric and adolescent age group. It is estimated that approximately 8000 children will be diagnosed annually with cancer in the United States. Epidemiologic research addressing the etiology of childhood cancer has been limited because of the difficulties in identifying a sufficiently large study population. Moreover, the use of retrospectively ascertained childhood cancer cases in epidemiolog...

  17. Importance and significance of liver echotomography in Wilson disease childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studed the hepatic echography patterns of young patients suffering from Wilson's Disease and compared these with results obtained from laboratory tests and parenchymal biopsy. Eight children, aged between 5 and 12 years (4 males and 4 females), were examined. The symptomatological pattern showed hepatomegaly and liver dysfunction with undetectable or very low serum ceruloplasmine levels and typical aspects of organic copper metabolism. In 50% of cases echography revealed a variable hyperreflection of the whole parenchyma, in connection with the presence of steatosis and aspects of intralobular inflammation. Fine and linear echoes were present, in 50% of the cases, with varying degrees of brightness, which was associated with the presence of fibrotic component or copper granules. Further echographic modifications were less frequent. Echography in close relatives of our patients was observed hepatomegaly and alteration of hepatic reflection associated with fibrotic component. In the evaluation of liver involvement in Wilson's Disease, these findings show that echotomography, when compared to hepatic biopsy, is less efficient in detecting different types of hepatic lesion but on a clinical basis it offers the possibility of evaluating their presence and gravity during the evolutive phase of the illness. This examination, unlike other methods, is completely non invasive; it may easily be repeated and may, in the future, come to be used as more precise diagnostic complement. 30 refs

  18. Childhood cancer and nuclear power plants in Switzerland: a census-based cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Spycher, Ben D.; Feller, Martin; Zwahlen, Marcel; Röösli, Martin; von der Weid, Nicolas X.; Hengartner, Heinz; Egger, Matthias; Kuehni, Claudia E.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies on childhood cancer and nuclear power plants (NPPs) produced conflicting results. We used a cohort approach to examine whether residence near NPPs was associated with leukaemia or any childhood cancer in Switzerland. METHODS: We computed person-years at risk for children aged 0-15 years born in Switzerland from 1985 to 2009, based on the Swiss censuses 1990 and 2000 and identified cancer cases from the Swiss Childhood Cancer Registry. We geo-coded place...

  19. Adverse childhood experiences are associated with the risk of lung cancer: A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.W. Brown (David); R.F. Anda (Robert); V.J. Felitti (Vincent); V.J. Edwards (Valerie); A.M. Malarcher (Ann Marie); J.B. Croft (Janet); W.H. Giles (Wayne)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground. Strong relationships between exposure to childhood traumatic stressors and smoking behaviours inspire the question whether these adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with an increased risk of lung cancer during adulthood. Methods. Baseline survey data on health

  20. Childhood and adolescent pesticide exposure and breast cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehoff, Nicole M.; Nichols, Hazel B; White, Alexandra J.; Parks, Christine G.; D’Aloisio, Aimee A; Sandler, Dale P.

    2016-01-01

    Background To date, epidemiological studies have not strongly supported an association between pesticide exposure and breast cancer. However, few previous studies had the ability to assess specific time periods of exposure. Studies that relied on adult serum levels of metabolites of organochlorine pesticides may not accurately reflect exposure during developmental periods. Further, exposure assessment often occurred after diagnosis and key tumor characteristics, such as hormone receptor status, have rarely been available to evaluate tumor-subtype specific associations. We examine the association between pesticide exposure during childhood and adolescence and breast cancer risk in the prospective Sister Study cohort (N=50,844 women) to assess this relation by tumor subtype. Methods During an average 5-year follow-up, 2,134 incident invasive and in situ breast cancer diagnoses were identified. Residential and farm exposure to pesticides were self-reported at study enrollment during standardized interviews. Multivariable hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals for breast cancer risk were calculated with Cox proportional hazards regression. Results HRs were near null for the association between childhood/adolescent pesticide exposure and breast cancer risk overall or among ER+/PR+ invasive tumors. However, among women who were ages 0–18 before the ban of DDT in the U.S., exposure to fogger trucks or planes was associated with a HR=1.3 for premenopausal breast cancer (95% CI: 0.92, 1.7). Conclusion These findings do not support an overall association between childhood and adolescent pesticide exposure and breast cancer risk. However, modest increases in breast cancer risk were associated with acute events in a subgroup of young women. PMID:26808595

  1. Liver cancer incidence and mortality in China, 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wan-Qing Chen; Rong-Shou Zheng; Si-Wei Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Liver cancer is a common cancer and a leading cause of cancer deaths in China.To aid the government in establishing a control plan for this disease,we provided real-time surveillance information by analyzing liver cancer incidence and mortality in China in 2009 reported by the National Central Cancer Registry.Liver cancer incidence and cases of death were retrieved from the national database using the ICD-10 topography code "C22".Crude incidence and mortality were calculated and stratified by sex,age,and location (urban/rural).China's population in 1982 and Segi (world) population structures were used for age-standardized rates.In cancer registration areas in 2009,the crude incidence of liver cancer was 28.71/100,000,making it the fourth most common cancer in China,third most common in males,and fifth most common in females.The crude mortality of liver cancer was 26.04/100,000,making it the second leading cause of cancer death in China and urban areas and the third leading cause in rural areas.Incidence and mortality were higher in males than in females and were higher in rural areas than in urban areas.The age-specific incidence and mortality were relatively low among age groups under 30years but dramatically increased and peaked in the 80-84 years old group.These findings confirm that liver cancer is a common and fatal cancer in China.Primary and secondary prevention such as health education,hepatitis B virus vaccination,and early detection should be carried out both in males and females,in urban and rural areas.

  2. Predicting Chernobyl childhood thyroid cancers from incoming data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data on childhood thyroid cancers contracted in Belarus, the Ukraine and Russia's Bryansk and Kaluga regions have been analysed under the working hypothesis that the excess cancers have been caused by iodine-131 from Chernobyl fallout. It is postulated that the variation in latency period between different individuals is most likely to conform to either a normal or a normal logarithmic distribution. Optimal values of the mean and geometric mean latency period, together with their associated standard deviations, have been found using Belarus data. Both resulting distributions predict significant incidence of childhood thyroid cancer much earlier than ten years after the accident, a length of time widely understood in the past to be the approximate minimum for the development of a radiation-induced, solid tumour. The two distributions incorporating these optimal values have been tested against independent data from the Ukraine and Russian and each distribution has passed the statistical tests to date. Predictions are given for the annual incidence of childhood thyroid cancer in each country and for the total number of excess cases over all years. Tolerances are assigned to the latter figure. (Author)

  3. Prenatal x-ray and childhood cancer in twins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to evaluate the causal nature of the relationship between prenatal x-ray exposure and childhood cancer, a case control study was conducted in a population of over 32,000 twins born in the state of Connecticut from 1930-1969 and followed to age 15. Thirty-two incident cancer cases were identified by linking the Connecticut Twin and Tumor registries. Each case was matched with four controls on year of birth, sex, race, and survival. Prenatal x-ray information as well as reproductive, delivery and birth data were obtained from the hospital of birth, the physician providing prenatal care, private radiology groups and interviews with hospital staff. The case control study which obtained exposure information on selected subjects found an increased risk of childhood cancer from prenatal x-ray exposure. The risk associated with radiation exposure was elevated in the following subcategories: mother with history of pregnancy loss, a gravity greater than 1, under 30 years of age, and twins weighing five pounds or more at birth. The results, though based on small numbers, strengthen the association between prenatal x-ray exposure and childhood cancer

  4. Recent findings of the Oxford survey of childhood cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Oxford Survey of Childhood Cancers has provided valuable data and analyses concerning the effects of x-irradiation exposure of the fetus. Some important milestones in the long history of this study, two current findings, and areas where future research is being planned are discussed. An initial report by Stewart et al. indicated an association between prenatal irradiation and childhood cancer under the age of 10. These results were strengthened in a second paper in which a twofold increase in cancer risk was reported for children irradiated in utero. These findings were controversial and were not widely accepted until confirmed in another case-control study of Graham et al. a prospective study by Mac Mahon, and an historical prospective study by Diamond et al. Even today, however, there are some who point to the inconsistency between this work and the negative findings among Japanese atomic-bomb survivors as indicating a spurious relationship between in utero irradiation and childhood cancer. The history of this controversy can be traced in the literature. Since the early results were promising, the Oxford Survey has been expanded. The age limitation has been raised from age 10 to age 15 and the geographic coverage was extended to include Scotland along with England and Wales

  5. Childhood thyroid cancer. Comparison of Japan and Belarus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high incidence of childhood thyroid cancer in Belarus is suspected to be due to radiation exposure after the Chernobyl reactor accident. To clarify the clinical and histological characteristics of childhood thyroid cancer in Belarus, we therefore compared these patients to a radiation non-exposed control series in Japan. In Belarus, 26 thyroid cancers in subjects aged 15 or younger were diagnosed among 25,000 screened between 1991 and 1995 by Chernobyl-Sasakawa Health and Medical Cooperation Project. The clinical and morphologic features of these 26 cases were compared to 37 childhood thyroid cancers in Japan diagnosed between 1962 and 1995. The age distribution at operation in Belarus showed a peak at 10 years old, with a subsequent fall in numbers. In contrast, the age distribution at operation in Japan showed a smooth increase between the ages of 8 and 14. The mean tumor diameter was smaller in Belarus than that in Japan (1.4±0.7 vs. 4.1±1.7 cm, P<0.001). The sex ratio, regional lymph node metastasis, extension to surrounding tissues or lung metastasis did not differ significantly. Histologically, all cases in Belarus were papillary and in Japan 33 cases were papillary and 4 cases were follicular carcinomas. Among papillary carcinomas, the frequency of a solid growth pattern, a criteria for classifying a tumor as poorly differentiated, was higher in Belarus than that in Japan (61.5 vs. 18.2%, P<0.001). The difference between the features of childhood thyroid cancer in Japan and Belarus may be due to the difference in the process of carcinogenesis, but more direct evidence and further analysis by molecular epidemiology are needed in Belarussian cases. (author)

  6. Prognostic and predictive value of liver volume on colorectal cancer patients with unresectable liver metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jun Su; Park, Hee Chul; Choi, Doo Ho; Park, Won; Yu, Jeong Il; Park, Young Suk; Kang, Won Ki; Park, Joon Oh [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    To determine the prognostic and predictive value of liver volume in colorectal cancer patients with unresectable liver metastases. Sixteen patients received whole liver radiotherapy (WLRT) between January 1997 and June 2013. A total dose of 21 Gy was delivered in 7 fractions. The median survival time after WLRT was 9 weeks. In univariate analysis, performance status, serum albumin and total bilirubin level, liver volume and extrahepatic metastases were associated with survival. The mean liver volume was significantly different between subgroups with and without pain relief (3,097 and 4,739 mL, respectively; p = 0.002). A larger liver volume is a poor prognostic factor for survival and also a negative predictive factor for response to WLRT. If patients who are referred for WLRT have large liver volume, they should be informed of the poor prognosis and should be closely observed during and after WLRT.

  7. Prognostic and predictive value of liver volume on colorectal cancer patients with unresectable liver metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the prognostic and predictive value of liver volume in colorectal cancer patients with unresectable liver metastases. Sixteen patients received whole liver radiotherapy (WLRT) between January 1997 and June 2013. A total dose of 21 Gy was delivered in 7 fractions. The median survival time after WLRT was 9 weeks. In univariate analysis, performance status, serum albumin and total bilirubin level, liver volume and extrahepatic metastases were associated with survival. The mean liver volume was significantly different between subgroups with and without pain relief (3,097 and 4,739 mL, respectively; p = 0.002). A larger liver volume is a poor prognostic factor for survival and also a negative predictive factor for response to WLRT. If patients who are referred for WLRT have large liver volume, they should be informed of the poor prognosis and should be closely observed during and after WLRT.

  8. Adiposity in childhood cancer survivors: insights into obesity physiopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siviero-Miachon, Adriana Aparecida; Spinola-Castro, Angela Maria; Guerra-Junior, Gil

    2009-03-01

    As childhood cancer treatment has become more effective, survival rates have improved, and a number of complications have been described while many of these patients reach adulthood. Obesity is a well-recognized late effect, and its metabolic effects may lead to cardiovascular disease. Currently, studies concerning overweight have focused on acute lymphocytic leukemia and brain tumors, since they are at risk for hypothalamic-pituitary axis damage secondary to cancer therapies (cranial irradiation, chemotherapy, and brain surgery) or to primary tumor location. Obesity and cancer have metabolic syndrome features in common. Thus, it remains controversial if overweight is a cause or consequence of cancer, and to date additional mechanisms involving adipose tissue and hypothalamic derangements have been considered, comprising premature adiposity rebound, hyperinsulinemia, leptin regulation, and the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma. Overall, further research is still necessary to better understand the relationship between adipogenesis and hypothalamic control deregulation following cancer therapy. PMID:19466212

  9. Dr. Wu Liangcun's Experience in Treating Primary Liver Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Having been engaged in clinical treatment of tumors and cancers for more than 40 years, Dr. Wu Liangcun (吴良村),professor of Zhejiang Provincial Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine, has put forward a unique method for treatment of liver cancer. His academic thought is to nourish yin, clear away heat, soothe the liver and strengthen the spleen, and clinically, he has obtained good therapeutic results as introduced in the following.

  10. Surgical therapy for testicular cancer metastatic to the liver

    OpenAIRE

    Maluccio, Mary; Einhorn, Lawrence H.; Goulet, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    In recent years improved cure rates have been achieved for testicular cancer. A better understanding of the biology of subtypes of testicular cancer and the introduction of surgical intervention has contributed greatly to how we currently approach a young man with testicular cancer. We describe here experience at our institution of the treatment, results and prognostic factors for testicular cancer metastases to the liver. Careful diagnostic work-up and planning of the therapy are required, i...

  11. Posttraumatic growth in parents of childhood cancer patients

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slezáčková, Alena; Blatný, Marek; Jelínek, Martin; Vlčková, I.; Kepák, T.

    Copenhagen: Danish School of Education, Aarhus University, 2010. s. 148-148. [5th European Conference on Positive Psychology. 23.06.2010-26.06.2010, Copenhagen] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA406/09/1255 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : posttraumatic growth * childhood cancer * positive psychology Subject RIV: AN - Psychology http://www.ecpp2010.dk/media/ECPP_-_Book_of_Abstracts_-_24_06_2010.pdf

  12. The metabolic syndrome and body composition in childhood cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Hoon Chung

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Long-term survivors of childhood cancer appear to have an increased risk for the metabolic syndrome, subsequent type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in adulthood compared to healthy children. The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency of the metabolic syndrome and associated factors in childhood cancer survivors at a single center in Korea. Methods : We performed a retrospective review of medical records of 98 childhood cancer survivors who were diagnosed and completed anticancer treatment at Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, Korea between Jan. 1996 and Dec. 2007. Parameters of metabolic syndrome were evaluated between Jan. 2008 and Dec. 2009. Clinical and biochemical findings including body fat percentage were analyzed. Results : A total of 19 (19.4% patients had the metabolic syndrome. The median body fat percentage was 31.5%. The body mass index and waist circumference were positively correlated with the cranial irradiation dose (r=0.38, P&lt;0.001 and r=0.44, P&lt;0.00, respectively. Sixty-one (62.2% patients had at least one abnormal lipid value. The triglyceride showed significant positive correlation with the body fat percentage (r=0.26, P=0.03. The high density lipoprotein cholesterol showed significant negative correlation with the percent body fat (r=- 0.26, P=0.03. Conclusion : Childhood cancer survivors should have thorough metabolic evaluation including measurement of body fat percentage even if they are not obese. A better understanding of the determinants of the metabolic syndrome during adolescence might provide preventive interventions for improving health outcomes in adulthood.

  13. Childhood body mass index and the risk of prostate cancer in adult men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, J; Gamborg, M; Cook, M B; Sørensen, T I A; Baker, J L

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer aetiology is poorly understood. It may have origins early in life; previously we found a positive association with childhood height. The effects of early life body mass index (BMI; kg m(-2)) on prostate cancer remain equivocal. We investigated if childhood BMI, indepen......BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer aetiology is poorly understood. It may have origins early in life; previously we found a positive association with childhood height. The effects of early life body mass index (BMI; kg m(-2)) on prostate cancer remain equivocal. We investigated if childhood BMI...... Danish Cancer Registry. Cox proportional hazards regressions were performed. RESULTS: Overall, 3355 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer. Body mass index during childhood was positively associated with adult prostate cancer. The hazard ratio of prostate cancer was 1.06 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1...

  14. Birth weight, childhood body mass index, and height in relation to mammographic density and breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Bihrmann, Kristine;

    2014-01-01

    High breast density, a strong predictor of breast cancer may be determined early in life. Childhood anthropometric factors have been related to breast cancer and breast density, but rarely simultaneously. We examined whether mammographic density (MD) mediates an association of birth weight......, childhood body mass index (BMI), and height with the risk of breast cancer....

  15. Hospital contact for mental disorders in survivors of childhood cancer and their siblings in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Lasse Wegener; Winther, Jeanette; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg;

    2013-01-01

    Survivors of childhood cancer are known to be at risk for long-term physical and mental effects. However, little is known about how cancers can affect mental health in the siblings of these patients. We aimed to assess the long-term risks of mental disorders in survivors of childhood cancer and...

  16. Bleomycin-associated Lung Toxicity in Childhood Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Alexandra P; Yang, Connie L; Dell, Sharon; Nathan, Paul C

    2015-11-01

    Pulmonary disease is a significant morbidity among childhood cancer survivors. The aim of this study was to characterize the pulmonary dysfunction experienced by childhood cancer survivors treated with bleomycin. A cross-sectional analysis of pulmonary function testing (PFT) in survivors treated with bleomycin was preformed. The most recent posttherapy PFT was assessed. Spirometry and lung volumes were categorized as normal, restrictive, obstructive, or mixed. Diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide (DLCO) was categorized as normal or abnormal. PFT data of 143 survivors was analyzed. PFTs were performed a median of 2.3 years (interquartile range, 1.4 to 4.9) from completion of therapy. Spirometry was abnormal in 58 (41%), only 5 (9%) had respiratory symptoms. Forty-two (70%) had obstructive, 11 (18%) restrictive, and 5 (9%) mixed ventilatory defects. The majority of abnormalities were mild (91%). DLCO was abnormal in 27. Reductions were mild in 96%. Patients with a history of relapse were more likely to develop abnormalities in spirometry and/or DLCO (odds ratio=5.02, 95% confidence interval: 1.3-19.4, P=0.01; odds ratio=3.47, 95% confidence interval: 1.01-11.9, P=0.03). Asymptomatic abnormalities of PFT are common among childhood cancer survivors treated with bleomycin and associated with a history of relapse. Research studying the risk for clinical progression of this dysfunction is warranted. PMID:26422284

  17. 小儿原发性肝癌%Primary Carcinoma of Liver in Childhood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘谦; 王桂茹

    1982-01-01

    @@ 小儿原发性肝癌在儿童期恶性肿瘤中的比率,尽管各家统计不一,但大同小异.不少人赞成小儿原发性肝癌,居该年龄期腹部恶性肿瘤的第三位.仅次子Wilms瘤和神经母细胞瘤.%Twenty-four cases of primary carcinoma of liver in childhood are reported. In this series,the ratio between neuroblastoma, nephroblastoma and carcinoma of liver is 1:5:2. Carcinoma of liver constitutes 96% of primary hepatic malignancies. All the patients under 3 in this, series had the juvenile type of carcinoma and the incidence was not influenced by sex. The incidence of the adult type increases with, age and is predominant in male.To make an early diagnosis, special attention should be paid to the symptoms and signs at both compensatory and decompensatory stages, as well as to the diagnostic procedures employed at the early clinical stage. Also important to the diagnosis is a combined study including alpha-foeto-protein, liver function tests, radioactive isotopes, angiography, ultrasonography and CT.Liver puncture biopsy may be taken to establish the diagnosis. Hepatic artery catheterization and the use of Chinese herbal medicine are found helpful to the treatment in advanced cases.

  18. Study on environmental etiology of high incidence areas of liver cancer in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nian-Feng Lin; Jie Tang; Hoteyi S. Mohamed Ismael

    2000-01-01

    China is a country with a high incidence of liver cancer in some areas[1]. Liver cancer has a wide distribution and threatens human health seriously. A rough estimation shows that out of a population of 1.2 × 108 in liver cancer areas patients are more than 1.0 × 105. The environment of the liver cancer area is very complicated and has different characteristics in different regions. But the epidemic regularity of liver cancer is obvious, and the environment in the cancer areas has also distinct characteristics that contribute to the study on the environmental etiology of liver cancer[2-5].

  19. Judgement on Extended Hepatectomy for Primary Liver Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGJiamei; TONGYing; CHENHan; XUFeng; KANTong; WUMengchao

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To expore the indications and safety of extended hepatectomy for primary liver cancer (PLC). Methods: From Nov. 2000 to Oct. 2002, 33 patients with PLC received extended hepatectomy, 26 of whom were complicated with liver cirrhosis. Preoperative findings, intraoperative management and the outcome of postoperative recovery were analyzed and evaluated. Results: Operative mortality was zero in this group and postoperative morbidity of complications was 33.3%, and all complications were cured after proper treatment. Conclusion: Extended hepatectomy for PLC was safe and viable for the patients who had enough reserve of liver function if the incised liver volume was less than 50% of the liver and the supporting treatment of the remnant liver was given as well as the postoperative complications were managed appropriately.

  20. The value of oncolysis virus in treating liver cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of traditional therapy is limited for liver cancer, gene therapy gets more and more recognition in recent years. Oncolysis virus is a kind of conditionally replicating virus, with special reproductivity in cancer cells, and then kills them. Gene agents are usually introduced into tumor tissue by intra-tumor and intra-arterial injection, and the technique of interventional therapy is able to satisfy the demand excellently. So, some breakthrough is expected in treating liver cancer by skillfully combining oncolysis virus and interventional technique. (authors)

  1. Commentary: childhood cancer near nuclear power stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fairlie Ian

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In 2008, the KiKK study in Germany reported a 1.6-fold increase in solid cancers and a 2.2-fold increase in leukemias among children living within 5 km of all German nuclear power stations. The study has triggered debates as to the cause(s of these increased cancers. This article reports on the findings of the KiKK study; discusses past and more recent epidemiological studies of leukemias near nuclear installations around the world, and outlines a possible biological mechanism to explain the increased cancers. This suggests that the observed high rates of infant leukemias may be a teratogenic effect from incorporated radionuclides. Doses from environmental emissions from nuclear reactors to embryos and fetuses in pregnant women near nuclear power stations may be larger than suspected. Hematopoietic tissues appear to be considerably more radiosensitive in embryos/fetuses than in newborn babies. Recommendations for advice to local residents and for further research are made.

  2. Serological Diagnosis of Liver Metastasis in Patients with Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To diagnose and explore the serological diagnostic factors for liver metastasis in patients with breast cancer before symptoms occur. A total of 430 female in-patients with breast cancer of stages 0 to IIIC who came to Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital from January 2003 to January 2004 were studied and followed up until May 2011. Serum levels of biochemical markers for tumor and liver were measured at the time of diagnosis. Liver metastasis was more likely to occur in patients with stage III cancer or c-erbB-2-positive expression. Alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and carbohydrate antigen 153 (CA153) levels were significantly higher in patients with liver metastasis than those without liver metastasis. Diagnostic indices of LDH, GGT, and CA153 were 174 U/L, 32 U/L, and 26.48 µg/L, respectively. The areas under the curves of LDH, GGT, and CEA were 0.795, 0.784, and 0.661, respectively, and sensitivities of parallel tests for LDH and CA153 and for GGT and CA153 were 88.6% and 85.7%, respectively. The specificity of serial tests for both pairs of enzymes was 97.7%. The sensitivity and specificity of combined tumor and biochemical markers could be used as indicators during screening for breast-liver metastasis

  3. Male Childhood Cancer Survivors Less Likely to Have Kids, Study Finds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157447.html Male Childhood Cancer Survivors Less Likely to Have Kids, ... in Norway found. The findings "are important for male cancer survivors, seeing as we can identify groups ...

  4. Risk Factors Associated With Secondary Sarcomas in Childhood Cancer Survivors: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Tara O., E-mail: thenderson@peds.bsd.uchicago.edu [University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Rajaraman, Preetha [National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States); Stovall, Marilyn [M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas, Houston, TX (United States); Constine, Louis S. [University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Olive, Aliza [Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Smith, Susan A. [M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas, Houston, TX (United States); Mertens, Ann [Emory University, Atlanta, GA (United States); Meadows, Anna [Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Neglia, Joseph P. [University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Hammond, Sue [Nationwide Children' s Hospital, Columbus, OH (United States); Whitton, John [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA (United States); Inskip, Peter D. [National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States); Robison, Leslie L. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Diller, Lisa [Dana-Farber Cancer Institute/Children' s Hospital Cancer Center, Boston, MA (United States)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Childhood cancer survivors have an increased risk of secondary sarcomas. To better identify those at risk, the relationship between therapeutic dose of chemotherapy and radiation and secondary sarcoma should be quantified. Methods and Materials: We conducted a nested case-control study of secondary sarcomas (105 cases, 422 matched controls) in a cohort of 14,372 childhood cancer survivors. Radiation dose at the second malignant neoplasm (SMN) site and use of chemotherapy were estimated from detailed review of medical records. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by conditional logistic regression. Excess odds ratio (EOR) was modeled as a function of radiation dose, chemotherapy, and host factors. Results: Sarcomas occurred a median of 11.8 years (range, 5.3-31.3 years) from original diagnosis. Any exposure to radiation was associated with increased risk of secondary sarcoma (OR = 4.1, 95% CI = 1.8-9.5). A dose-response relation was observed, with elevated risks at doses between 10 and 29.9 Gy (OR = 15.6, 95% CI = 4.5-53.9), 30-49.9 Gy (OR = 16.0, 95% CI 3.8-67.8) and >50 Gy (OR = 114.1, 95% CI 13.5-964.8). Anthracycline exposure was associated with sarcoma risk (OR = 3.5, 95% CI = 1.6-7.7) adjusting for radiation dose, other chemotherapy, and primary cancer. Adjusting for treatment, survivors with a first diagnosis of Hodgkin lymphoma (OR = 10.7, 95% CI = 3.1-37.4) or primary sarcoma (OR = 8.4, 95% CI = 3.2-22.3) were more likely to develop a sarcoma. Conclusions: Of the risk factors evaluated, radiation exposure was the most important for secondary sarcoma development in childhood cancer survivors; anthracycline chemotherapy exposure was also associated with increased risk.

  5. Risk Factors Associated With Secondary Sarcomas in Childhood Cancer Survivors: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Childhood cancer survivors have an increased risk of secondary sarcomas. To better identify those at risk, the relationship between therapeutic dose of chemotherapy and radiation and secondary sarcoma should be quantified. Methods and Materials: We conducted a nested case-control study of secondary sarcomas (105 cases, 422 matched controls) in a cohort of 14,372 childhood cancer survivors. Radiation dose at the second malignant neoplasm (SMN) site and use of chemotherapy were estimated from detailed review of medical records. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by conditional logistic regression. Excess odds ratio (EOR) was modeled as a function of radiation dose, chemotherapy, and host factors. Results: Sarcomas occurred a median of 11.8 years (range, 5.3–31.3 years) from original diagnosis. Any exposure to radiation was associated with increased risk of secondary sarcoma (OR = 4.1, 95% CI = 1.8–9.5). A dose–response relation was observed, with elevated risks at doses between 10 and 29.9 Gy (OR = 15.6, 95% CI = 4.5–53.9), 30–49.9 Gy (OR = 16.0, 95% CI 3.8–67.8) and >50 Gy (OR = 114.1, 95% CI 13.5–964.8). Anthracycline exposure was associated with sarcoma risk (OR = 3.5, 95% CI = 1.6–7.7) adjusting for radiation dose, other chemotherapy, and primary cancer. Adjusting for treatment, survivors with a first diagnosis of Hodgkin lymphoma (OR = 10.7, 95% CI = 3.1–37.4) or primary sarcoma (OR = 8.4, 95% CI = 3.2–22.3) were more likely to develop a sarcoma. Conclusions: Of the risk factors evaluated, radiation exposure was the most important for secondary sarcoma development in childhood cancer survivors; anthracycline chemotherapy exposure was also associated with increased risk.

  6. Individualized image guided iso-NTCP based liver cancer SBRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A highly individualized stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) strategy was developed to allow a wide spectrum of patients with liver cancer to be treated. This phase I/II study encompasses individualization of immobilization, radiation planning, PTV margin determination, image guidance strategy and prescription dose. Active breathing control breath hold is used to immobilize the liver when feasible. Image guidance strategies include orthogonal MV images and orthogonal kV fluoroscopy using the diaphragm for a surrogate for the liver, and kV cone beam CT using the liver or tumour for guidance. The prescription dose is individualized to maintain the same estimated risk of radiation-induced liver disease (RILD), based on a normal tissue complication probability (NTCP) model, with a maximum permitted dose of 60 Gy in 6 fractions. Since August 2003, 79 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (33), intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (12) and liver metastases (34) were treated. The median tumour volume was 293 cm3 (2.9-3088 cm3). The median prescribed dose was 36.6 Gy (24.0 Gy-57.0 Gy) in 6 fractions. The median effective liver volume irradiated was 45% (9-80%). Sixty percent of patients were treated with breath hold to immobilize their liver. Intra-fraction reproducibility (s) of the liver with repeat breath holds was excellent (1.5?mm); however inter-fraction reproducibility (s) was worse (3.4 mm). Image guidance reduced the residual systematic and random setup errors significantly

  7. Classification tree analysis of second neoplasms in survivors of childhood cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Todorovski Ljupčo; Jazbec Janez; Jereb Berta

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Reports on childhood cancer survivors estimated cumulative probability of developing secondary neoplasms vary from 3,3% to 25% at 25 years from diagnosis, and the risk of developing another cancer to several times greater than in the general population. Methods In our retrospective study, we have used the classification tree multivariate method on a group of 849 first cancer survivors, to identify childhood cancer patients with the greatest risk for development of secondar...

  8. Low levels of energy expenditure in childhood cancer survivors: Implications for obesity prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood cancer survivors are at an increased risk of obesity but causes for this elevated risk are uncertain. We evaluated total energy expenditure in childhood cancer survivors using the doubly labeled water method in a cross-sectional study of 17 survivors of pediatric leukemia or lymphoma (medi...

  9. Janus "nano-bullets" for magnetic targeting liver cancer chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Dan; Li, Jing; Zheng, Xiao; Pan, Yue; Wang, Zheng; Zhang, Ming; Chen, Qi-Xian; Dong, Wen-Fei; Chen, Li

    2016-09-01

    Tumor-targeted delivery of anti-cancer drugs with controlled drug release function has been recognized as a promising strategy for pursuit of increased chemotherapeutic efficacy and reduced adverse effects. Development of magnetic nanoparticulates as delivery carriers to accommodate cytotoxic drugs for liver cancer treatment has evoked immense interest with respect to their convenience in biomedical application. Herein, we engineered multifunctional Janus nanocomposites, characterized by a head of magnetic Fe3O4 and a body of mesoporous SiO2 containing doxorubicin (DOX) as "nano-bullets" (M-MSNs-DOX). This nanodrug formulation possessed nanosize with controlled aspect-ratio, defined abundance in pore structures, and superior magnetic properties. M-MSN-DOX was determined to induce selective growth inhibition to the cancer cell under magnetic field rather than human normal cells due to its preferable endocytosis by the tumor cells and pH-promoted DOX release in the interior of cancer cells. Ultimately, both subcutaneous and orthotropic liver tumor models in mice have demonstrated that the proposed Janus nano-bullets imposed remarkable suppression of the tumor growth and significantly reduced systematic toxicity. Taken together, this study demonstrates an intriguing targeting strategy for liver cancer treatment based on a novel Janus nano-bullet, aiming for utilization of nanotechnology to obtain safe and efficient treatment of liver cancer. PMID:27258482

  10. Expression of Twist Gene in Primary Liver Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jing; CHEN Xiaoping

    2007-01-01

    In order to investigate the possibility of overexpression of Twist in primary liver cancer (PLC), the Twist expression was detected by using immunohistochemical analysis and RT-PCR assay in 45 patients with PLC. Control tissues were obtained from 9 patients with liver hemangioma. It was found that in 36 (80.0%) out of 45 PLC patients, cancerous regions showed positive cytoplasm and nucleus staining for Twist with a diffuse pattern. In noncancerous adjacent areas and control liver tissues, the expression of Twist was 57.8% and 22.2% respectively. The results of RT-PCR assay re- vealed that the expression of Twist was stronger in the cancerous tissues than that in the noncancer- ous adjacent tissues. It was suggested that the expression of Twist was up-regulated in PLC, which play an important role in the progression of PLC.

  11. Current lifestyle of young adults treated for cancer in childhood.

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, S E; Radford, M

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this study was to look at the current lifestyle of young adult survivors of childhood cancer between the ages of 16 and 30 years to document their achievements and expose any psychosocial problems. Sixty six young adult survivors were contacted and asked if they and their siblings (16-30 years) would take part in a lifestyle study; 48 patients and 38 sibling controls were interviewed. This took the form of a structured lifestyle questionnaire, a self esteem questionnaire (Oxford Ps...

  12. Multisciplinary management of patients with liver metastasis from colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Greef, Kathleen; Rolfo, Christian; Russo, Antonio; Chapelle, Thiery; Bronte, Giuseppe; Passiglia, Francesco; Coelho, Andreia; Papadimitriou, Konstantinos; Peeters, Marc

    2016-08-28

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death. Surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy have been till now the main therapeutic strategies for disease control and improvement of the overall survival. Twenty-five per cent (25%) of CRC patients have clinically detectable liver metastases at the initial diagnosis and approximately 50% develop liver metastases during their disease course. Twenty-thirty per cent (20%-30%) are CRC patients with metastases confined to the liver. Some years ago various studies showed a curative potential for liver metastases resection. For this reason some authors proposed the conversion of unresectable liver metastases to resectable to achieve cure. Since those results were published, a lot of regimens have been studied for resectability potential. Better results could be obtained by the combination of chemotherapy with targeted drugs, such as anti-VEGF and anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies. However an accurate selection for patients to treat with these regimens and to operate for liver metastases is mandatory to reduce the risk of complications. A multidisciplinary team approach represents the best way for a proper patient management. The team needs to include surgeons, oncologists, diagnostic and interventional radiologists with expertise in hepatobiliary disease, molecular pathologists, and clinical nurse specialists. This review summarizes the most important findings on surgery and systemic treatment of CRC-related liver metastases. PMID:27621569

  13. Risks of Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer is present in the body. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is the most widely used tumor marker for ... and other types of cancer, may also increase AFP levels. Specific tumor markers that may lead to ...

  14. Spatial analysis of childhood cancer: a case/control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Ramis

    Full Text Available Childhood cancer was the leading cause of death among children aged 1-14 years for 2012 in Spain. Leukemia has the highest incidence, followed by tumors of the central nervous system (CNS and lymphomas (Hodgkin lymphoma, HL, and Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, NHL. Spatial distribution of childhood cancer cases has been under concern with the aim of identifying potential risk factors.The two objectives are to study overall spatial clustering and cluster detection of cases of the three main childhood cancer causes, looking to increase etiological knowledge.We ran a case-control study. The cases were children aged 0 to 14 diagnosed with leukemia, lymphomas (HL and NHL or CNS neoplasm in five Spanish regions for the period 1996-2011. As a control group, we used a sample from the Birth Registry matching every case by year of birth, autonomous region of residence and sex with six controls. We geocoded and validated the address of the cases and controls. For our two objectives we used two different methodologies. For the first, for overall spatial clustering detection, we used the differences of K functions from the spatial point patterns perspective proposed by Diggle and Chetwynd and the second, for cluster detection, we used the spatial scan statistic proposed by Kulldorff with a level for statistical significance of 0.05.We had 1062 cases of leukemia, 714 cases of CNS, 92 of HL and 246 of NHL. Accordingly we had 6 times the number of controls, 6372 controls for leukemia, 4284 controls for CNS, 552 controls for HL and 1476 controls for NHL. We found variations in the estimated empirical D(s for the different regions and cancers, including some overall spatial clustering for specific regions and distances. We did not find statistically significant clusters.The variations in the estimated empirical D(s for the different regions and cancers could be partially explained by the differences in the spatial distribution of the population; however, according to the

  15. Clinical Features of Liver Cancer with Cerebral Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qiuhong; Chen, Li; Zeng, Jinsheng; Huang, Gelun; Qin, Chao; Cheng, Daobin; Yu, Lixia; Liang, Zhijian

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Cerebral hemorrhage is common in patients with cancer, but the clinical features and pathogenesis of liver cancer patients with cerebral hemorrhage are not well known. MATERIAL AND METHODS Liver cancer patients who developed cerebral hemorrhage were recruited from the First Affiliated Hospital of Guangxi Medical University between January 2003 and December 2014. We retrospectively analyzed clinical presentations, results of laboratory tests, and imaging examinations. The clinical features and pathogenesis were summarized. RESULTS Among 11133 patients with liver cancer, 9 patients (0.08%), including 3 females and 6 males met the inclusion criteria. The age range was 48-73 years and the average age was 61.67±8.97 years. Five patients did not have traditional hemorrhage risk factors and 4s had the risk factors; however, all had developed hepatocellular carcinoma, and 3 had developed metastasis. All 9 patients showed elevated tumor markers: an increased AFP level was detected in 6 patients, coagulation dysfunctions in 8 patients, and abnormal liver functions in 6 patients. Five patients had developed cerebral hemorrhagic lesions in the lobes of their brains, while hemorrhagic lesions in the basal ganglia occurred in 3 patients and in the brainstem in only 1 patient. Four patients had clear consciousness, while 5 patients were in coma and showed poor prognosis. CONCLUSIONS Patients who have liver cancer complicated with cerebral hemorrhage usually lack traditional risk factors of cerebral hemorrhage. The site of cerebral hemorrhage is often detected in the lobes of the brain. Coagulation dysfunctions might be the main pathogenesis of liver cancer complicated with cerebral hemorrhage. PMID:27209058

  16. Liver macrophages contribute to pancreatic cancer-related cachexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martignoni, Marc E; Dimitriu, Corneliu; Bachmann, Jeaninne; Krakowski-Rosen, Holger; Ketterer, Knut; Kinscherf, Ralf; Friess, Helmut

    2009-02-01

    Cachexia is a devastating process especially in pancreatic cancer patients and contributes to their poor survival. We attempted to clarify the pathological and molecular changes that occur in the liver during the development of cachexia. Using immunohistochemistry we investigated the infiltration of inflammatory mononuclear cells in liver biopsies of pancreatic cancer patients with or without cachexia, and the potential relevance of the cells for the nutritional and inflammatory status. Additionally, these findings were compared with the patients' clinical parameters. We found a significantly higher amount of CD68 immunoreactive macrophages in liver cross sections of patients with pancreatic cancer and cachexia. The number of CD68-positive macrophages was significantly inversely correlated with the nutritional status. Additionally, in these CD68-positive areas a significant increase in IL-6 and IL-1 immunoreactive cells was localized. Moreover, we found significantly increased areas of CD68-positive macrophages in liver biopsies of patients with a more dedifferentiated (aggressive) grading of the tumor. In conclusion, these results suggest that a crucial interaction between the tumor, PBMCs, and the liver may play a central role in the development and regulation of cachexia. Furthermore, pancreatic cancer may be able to alter systemic organ function even without obvious metastatic disease. PMID:19148509

  17. Drug therapy for advanced-stage liver cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck-Radosavljevic, Markus

    2014-05-01

    Liver cancer was traditionally treated by surgery or interventional ablative treatments, or, if these options were not feasible, by best supportive care. Since 2008, systemic therapy with the multikinase inhibitor sorafenib has become available worldwide and has become the standard of care for unresectable/non-ablatable or advanced-stage hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Sorafenib is able to improve the median overall survival by approximately 3 months. Despite this significant advance in the non-surgical/non-interventional management of liver cancer, this improvement in overall survival is only a first step toward more potent, more targeted, and better tolerated oral antitumor treatments. Since the introduction of sorafenib into clinical practice, several attempts have been made to develop even more effective first-line treatments as well as an effective second-line treatment for HCC. None of these endeavors has been successful so far. The development of drug treatments for HCC has been particularly hampered by the unfortunate push to establish the diagnosis of liver cancer by non-invasive imaging alone, without requiring a liver biopsy for histologic confirmation: this precluded the very necessary search for informative biomarkers and the search for molecular targets for drug development in HCC. This important drawback is being increasingly recognized and corrected. Despite several obstacles remaining to be overcome, it seems reasonable to assume that using a rational, data-driven approach, we will be able to develop better drug treatments for liver cancer in the coming years. PMID:24945003

  18. Transarterial chemoembolisation and radioembolisation for the treatment of primary liver cancer and secondary liver cancer: a review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liver-directed therapies are continuing to evolve in the field of interventional oncology and are gaining increasing use in the treatment of unresectable primary and secondary liver cancers. In this article, we review two liver-directed therapies that are currently used for the palliative treatment of primary and secondary hepatic tumours: transcatheter arterial chemoembolisation (TACE), including a new type of TACE with drug-eluting beads (DEB-TACE), and radioembolisation. The concept of these transcatheter intraarterial therapies is to selectively deliver high doses of anticancer treatment to the tumour. While TACE delivers one or more chemotherapeutic drugs into the hepatic arteries supplying the tumour, radioembolisation uses non-embolic microspheres incorporating the radioactive isotope 90Y. In this article, we discuss some technical aspects, patient selection, current clinical evidence, and future directions of TACE, TACE with drug-eluting beads (DEB-TACE) and radioembolisation for primary and secondary liver cancer.

  19. The Experiences of Korean Young Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer: A Photovoice Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Jaehee; Kim, Min Ah; An, Sangmin

    2016-07-01

    Photovoice was used to understand the impact of childhood cancer on Korean young adult survivors. Seven survivors of childhood cancer (currently aged 20-27 years), diagnosed before the age of 19 and with cancer treatment completed, participated in five sessions. The participants took photographs that captured their group's weekly topics and participated in discussions about their feelings and experiences. Fifty-six photo images with narratives on the survivors' experiences were produced on these four participant-selected themes: Relationships With Others, Stigma, Overcoming Difficulties, and The Future This study on Korean childhood cancer survivors sheds light on their perspectives about the impact of cancer. Using an innovative methodology that takes the participants' point of view, this study contributes to the literature on young adult cancer survivors' quality of life and their psychosocial adjustment. The results can inform educational programs and increase public awareness by providing survivors' schoolteachers and peers with knowledge about childhood cancer. PMID:26265716

  20. The Risk of Cataract among Survivors of Childhood and Adolescent Cancer: A Report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodick, Gabriel; Sigurdson, Alice J; Kleinerman, Ruth A; Sklar, Charles A; Leisenring, Wendy; Mertens, Ann C; Stovall, Marilyn; Smith, Susan A; Weathers, Rita E; Veiga, Lene H S; Robison, Leslie L; Inskip, Peter D

    2016-04-01

    With therapeutic successes and improved survival after a cancer diagnosis in childhood, increasing numbers of cancer survivors are at risk of subsequent treatment-related morbidities, including cataracts. While it is well known that the lens of the eye is one of the most radiosensitive tissues in the human body, the risks associated with radiation doses less than 2 Gy are less understood, as are the long- and short-term cataract risks from exposure to ionizing radiation at a young age. In this study, we followed 13,902 five-year survivors of childhood cancer in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study cohort an average of 21.4 years from the date of first cancer diagnosis. For patients receiving radiotherapy, lens dose (mean: 2.2 Gy; range: 0-66 Gy) was estimated based on radiotherapy records. We used unconditional multivariable logistic regression models to evaluate prevalence of self-reported cataract in relationship to cumulative radiation dose both at five years after the initial cancer diagnosis and at the end of follow-up. We modeled the radiation effect in terms of the excess odds ratio (EOR) per Gy. We also analyzed cataract incidence starting from five years after initial cancer diagnosis to the end of follow-up using Cox regression. A total of 483 (3.5%) cataract cases were identified, including 200 (1.4%) diagnosed during the first five years of follow-up. In a multivariable logistic regression model, cataract prevalence at the end of follow-up was positively associated with lens dose in a manner consistent with a linear dose-response relationship (EOR per Gy = 0.92; 95% CI: 0.65-1.20). The odds ratio for doses between 0.5 and 1.5 Gy was elevated significantly relative to doses body of evidence of an elevated risk for lens opacities in populations exposed to doses of ionizing radiation below the previously suggested threshold level of 2 Gy. PMID:27023263

  1. Terpenoids as potential chemopreventive and therapeutic agents in liver cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoppil, Roslin J; Bishayee, Anupam

    2011-09-27

    Despite significant advances in medicine, liver cancer, predominantly hepatocellular carcinoma remains a major cause of death in the United States as well as the rest of the world. As limited treatment options are currently available to patients with liver cancer, novel preventive control and effective therapeutic approaches are considered to be reasonable and decisive measures to combat this disease. Several naturally occurring dietary and non-dietary phytochemicals have shown enormous potential in the prevention and treatment of several cancers, especially those of the gastrointestinal tract. Terpenoids, the largest group of phytochemicals, traditionally used for medicinal purposes in India and China, are currently being explored as anticancer agents in clinical trials. Terpenoids (also called "isoprenoids") are secondary metabolites occurring in most organisms, particularly plants. More than 40 000 individual terpenoids are known to exist in nature with new compounds being discovered every year. A large number of terpenoids exhibit cytotoxicity against a variety of tumor cells and cancer preventive as well as anticancer efficacy in preclinical animal models. This review critically examines the potential role of naturally occurring terpenoids, from diverse origins, in the chemoprevention and treatment of liver tumors. Both in vitro and in vivo effects of these agents and related cellular and molecular mechanisms are highlighted. Potential challenges and future directions involved in the advancement of these promising natural compounds in the chemoprevention and therapy of human liver cancer are also discussed. PMID:21969877

  2. Congenital anomalies and childhood cancer in Great Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narod, S.A. [Univ. of Toronto (Canada); Hawkins, M.M.; Robertson, C.M.; Stiller, C.A. [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom)

    1997-03-01

    The presence of cancer and a congenital anomaly in the same child may be explained in certain cases by an underlying genetic abnormality. The study of these associations may lead to the identification of genes that are important in both processes. We have examined the records of 20,304 children with cancer in Britain, who were entered into the National Registry of Childhood Tumors (NRCT) during 1971-86, for the presence of congenital anomalies. The frequency of anomalies was much higher among children with solid tumors (4.4%) than among those with leukemia or lymphoma (2.6%; P < .0001). The types of cancer with the highest rates of anomalies were Wilms tumor (8.1 %), Ewing sarcoma (5.8%), hepatoblastoma (6.4%), and gonadal and germ-cell tumors (6.4%). Cases of spina bifida and abnormalities of the eye, ribs, and spine were more common in children with cancer than among population-based controls. Future studies may be directed toward identifying the developmental pathways and the relevant genes that are involved in the overlap between pediatric cancer and malformation. 46 refs., 12 tabs.

  3. Childhood cancer after low-level intrauterine exposure to radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakeford, Richard [BNFL, Risley, Warrington, Cheshire (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: R.Wakeford@bnfl.com; Little, Mark P. [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    2002-09-01

    Case-control studies of childhood cancer and foetal exposure to diagnostic x-rays suggest that doses as small as 10 mSv increase the risk of cancer to a detectable extent. A comparison of the risk coefficient derived from the largest such study with that obtained from the Japanese atomic bomb survivors irradiated in utero (average dose, {approx}300 mGy) shows that, once all sources of uncertainty are taken into account, these risk estimates are not incompatible. The absence of a discernible variation in the risk per unit dose over this dose range is consistent with a linear dose-response. However, uncertainties are such that definitive conclusions on the shape of the dose-response at low doses cannot be drawn from this epidemiological evidence alone. Nonetheless, the evidence does suggest that the risk is not zero at doses of the order of 10 mSv. (author)

  4. Current lifestyle of young adults treated for cancer in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, S E; Radford, M

    1995-05-01

    The aim of this study was to look at the current lifestyle of young adult survivors of childhood cancer between the ages of 16 and 30 years to document their achievements and expose any psychosocial problems. Sixty six young adult survivors were contacted and asked if they and their siblings (16-30 years) would take part in a lifestyle study; 48 patients and 38 sibling controls were interviewed. This took the form of a structured lifestyle questionnaire, a self esteem questionnaire (Oxford Psychologists Press), and an unstructured interview. Fifty five per cent of patients achieved five or more A-C grades at 'O' level/GCSE compared with 62% of siblings and a national average of 30%. Despite that these patients were significantly less likely to go on to higher education than their siblings. The two groups were equally employable and earning similar salaries. There were three cases of known employer prejudice. A slightly higher percentage of patients than siblings had their driving licence. Seventeen patients felt their appearance had changed and eight felt that they had a residual physical mobility problem. Both groups were socially active and equally likely to partake in competitive sports. There was no overall difference in the self esteem of the two groups. In general the survivors of childhood cancer were coping well in their young adult life and achieving the same lifestyle goals as their siblings. However, significant problems have been identified. PMID:7618909

  5. Persistent altered spermatogenesis in long-term childhood cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Andreu, J A; Fernández, P J; Ferrís i Tortajada, J; Navarro, I; Rodríguez-Ineba, A; Antonio, P; Muro, M D; Romeu, A

    2000-01-01

    This study evaluated male gonadal function in long-term survivors of childhood cancer and assessed the suitability of offering sperm analysis to all those patients independently of the diagnosis and treatment received. A total of 43 survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (21), acute myeloid leukemia (1), neuroblastoma (8), ganglioneuroblastoma (1), ganglioneuroma (2), Wilms' tumor (9), and mesoblastic nephroma (1) underwent sperm analysis at a mean age of 20.2 years, after a mean time off treatment of 13.6 years. Eight of the patients (19%) were azoospermic, 2 (5%) were severely oligo-asthenozoospermic, and only 16 (37%) were normozoospermic. A control group of healthy volunteers aged FSH) levels were identified as independent factors associated with azoospermia or severe oligo-asthenozoospermia. Azoospermic and severely oligo-asthenozoospermic survivors had significantly smaller mean testicular volume and higher basal FSH levels than the other survivors, but small testicles (sum of both testicular volume abnormally high basal FSH (> 10 mIU/mL) were present in only half of the azoospermic survivors. Male long-term survivors of childhood cancer constitute a high-risk subpopulation for altered sperm analysis. It seems justified to offer sperm analysis to all long-term survivors. PMID:10689712

  6. Recent progress in 8igenomic research of liver cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Along the course of occurrence and development of liver cancer,the corresponding somatic cells accumulate some important genetic variations.These variations may be divided into two categories.For the genetic changes closely related to etiology of liver cancer,the well-known cases include insertion and integration of the hepatitis B virus(HBV) DNA after infection,and mutations at site 249 of the tumor suppressor gene p53 induced by exposure to aflatoxin B1.The secondary genetic changes include amplification and deletion of certain chromosome regions,mutations in p53 at the sites other than 249,as well as the mutational activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signal pathway.The tumor cells with these genetic variations may gradually become the dominant clones under evolutionary selection.Besides,identification of genetic susceptible against risk of liver malignancy is also an important aspect of research in this field.

  7. Current treatment for colorectal cancer metastatic to the liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cromheecke, M; de Jong, KP; Hoekstra, HJ

    1999-01-01

    Surgery is currently the only available treatment option which offers the potential for cure for patients with liver metastases from colorectal cancer. Of those who undergo a potentially curative operation for their primary tumour but subsequently recur, almost 80% will develop evidence of metastati

  8. Bone mineral density deficits in childhood cancer survivors: Pathophysiology, prevalence, screening, and management

    OpenAIRE

    Min Jae Kang; Jung Sub Lim

    2013-01-01

    As chemotherapy and other sophisticated treatment strategies evolve and the number of survivors of long-term childhood cancer grows, the long-term complications of treatment and the cancer itself are becoming ever more important. One of the most important but often neglected complications is osteoporosis and increased risk of fracture during and after cancer treatment. Acquisition of optimal peak bone mass and strength during childhood and adolescence is critical to preventing osteoporosis la...

  9. Birth order and Risk of Childhood Cancer: A Pooled Analysis from Five U.S. States

    OpenAIRE

    Von Behren, Julie; Spector, Logan G.; Mueller, Beth A.; Carozza, Susan E.; Chow, Eric J.; Fox, Erin E; Horel, Scott; Johnson, Kimberly J.; McLaughlin, Colleen; Puumala, Susan E.; Ross, Julie A; Reynolds, Peggy

    2010-01-01

    The causes of childhood cancers are largely unknown. Birth order has been used as a proxy for prenatal and postnatal exposures, such as frequency of infections and in utero hormone exposures. We investigated the association between birth order and childhood cancers in a pooled case-control dataset. The subjects were drawn from population-based registries of cancers and births in California, Minnesota, New York, Texas, and Washington. We included 17,672 cases less than 15 years of age who were...

  10. The UK Childhood Cancer Study: Maternal occupational exposures and childhood leukaemia and lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risks of childhood leukaemia and lymphoma were investigated for specific work-related exposures of mothers in the UK Childhood Cancer Study. Interviews with parents of 1881 leukaemia and lymphoma cases (0-14 years) and 3742 controls collected job histories recording exposure to eight specific agents. Exposure was (1) self-reported and (2) reviewed, based mainly on exposure probability and exposure level. Completeness, consistency and sufficiency evaluated data quality. Of all job exposures which were self-reported as exposed, 33% cases and 34% controls remained classified as exposed after review, with the remainder designated as partially exposed or unexposed. No review of underreporting of exposure was made. Data quality was 'good' for 26% of cases and 24% of controls. For self-reported exposure, significant risks of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) were observed for solvents and petrol in all time windows. For reviewed exposure, solvents remained significant for ALL during pregnancy and post-natality. Restricting analyses to good-quality information removed all significant results. Refinement of exposure assessment revealed misclassification of self-reported exposures and data quality influenced risk assessment. Maternal exposure to solvents should further be investigated. These findings must invoke caution in the interpretation of risks reliant on self-reported occupational data. (authors)

  11. Cancer Stem Cells in Primary Liver Cancers: Pathological Concepts and Imaging Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is accumulating evidence that cancer stem cells (CSCs) play an integral role in the initiation of hepatocarcinogenesis and the maintaining of tumor growth. Liver CSCs derived from hepatic stem/progenitor cells have the potential to differentiate into either hepatocytes or cholangiocytes. Primary liver cancers originating from CSCs constitute a heterogeneous histopathologic spectrum, including hepatocellular carcinoma, combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma, and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma with various radiologic manifestations. In this article, we reviewed the recent concepts of CSCs in the development of primary liver cancers, focusing on their pathological and radiological findings. Awareness of the pathological concepts and imaging findings of primary liver cancers with features of CSCs is critical for accurate diagnosis, prediction of outcome, and appropriate treatment options for patients

  12. Cancer Stem Cells in Primary Liver Cancers: Pathological Concepts and Imaging Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Ijin [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Haeryoung [Department of Pathology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Min [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-01

    There is accumulating evidence that cancer stem cells (CSCs) play an integral role in the initiation of hepatocarcinogenesis and the maintaining of tumor growth. Liver CSCs derived from hepatic stem/progenitor cells have the potential to differentiate into either hepatocytes or cholangiocytes. Primary liver cancers originating from CSCs constitute a heterogeneous histopathologic spectrum, including hepatocellular carcinoma, combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma, and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma with various radiologic manifestations. In this article, we reviewed the recent concepts of CSCs in the development of primary liver cancers, focusing on their pathological and radiological findings. Awareness of the pathological concepts and imaging findings of primary liver cancers with features of CSCs is critical for accurate diagnosis, prediction of outcome, and appropriate treatment options for patients.

  13. Higher occurrence of childhood cancer in families with germline mutations in BRCA2, MMR and CDKN2A genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnusson, S.; Borg, A.; Kristoffersson, U.; Nilbert, M.; Wiebe, T.; Olsson, H.; Magnusson, Susanne; Borg, Ake; Kristoffersson, Ulf; Nilbert, Mef; Wiebe, Thomas; Olsson, Håkan

    2008-01-01

    The contribution of hereditary factors for development of childhood tumors is limited to some few known syndromes associated with predominance of tumors in childhood. Occurrence of childhood tumors in hereditary cancer syndromes such as BRCA1/2 associated breast and ovarian cancer, DNA-mismatch r...

  14. Childhood cancers in a referral hospital in northern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We undertook this study to determine the relative frequencies of childhood malignancies and their age - sex distribution in this environment. Materials and Methods: Hospital-based data of histological and cytologically confirmed cases of malignancies in children, aged ≤ 15 years, was collated over a period of 11 years, from the Cancer Registry. Results: A total of 329 children aged ≤ 15 years, with confirmed malignant disease, was recorded. This constituted 8.44% of all malignancies diagnosed in the same period with a Male : Female ratio of 1.5:1. Burkitt′s lymphoma accounted for 27.01% of the cases followed by retinoblastoma (17.02%, non-Hodgkin′s non-Burkitt′s Lymphoma (9.42%, and Rhabdomyosarcoma (9.42%. Others were Nephroblastoma (8.81%, Hodgkin′s lymphoma (6.69%, Neuroblastoma (3.34%, Colorectal carcinoma (2.43%, Osteosarcoma (2.13%, and Unspecified lymphomas (1.82%. Burkitt′s lymphoma was most prevalent in the 5-9 and 10-15 year age groups, retinoblastoma in the 0-4 year age group, and Non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma, Hodgkin′s lymphoma, and unspecified carcinomas were more prevalent in the 10-15 year age group. Conclusion: Lymphomas were the most prevalent malignancies of childhood seen in this region and the majority were of the Burkitt type, in contrast to the predominant leukemic and central nervous system trend seen in developed nations.

  15. Radionuclide liver cancer therapies: from concept to current clinical status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vente, Maarten A D; Hobbelink, Monique G G; van Het Schip, Alfred D; Zonnenberg, Bernard A; Nijsen, Johannes F W

    2007-07-01

    Primary and secondary liver cancer have longtime been characterized by an overall poor prognosis since the majority of patients are not candidates for surgical resection with curative intent, systemic chemotherapy alone has rarely resulted in long-term survival, and the role of conventional external beam radiation therapy has traditionally been limited due to the relative sensitivity of the liver parenchyma to radiation. Therefore, a host of new treatment options have been developed and clinically introduced, including radioembolization techniques, which are the main topic of this paper. In these locoregional treatments liver malignancies are passively targeted because, unlike the normal liver, the blood supply of intrahepatic tumors is almost uniquely derived from the hepatic artery. These internal radiation techniques consist of injecting either yttrium-90 ((90)Y) microspheres, or iodine-131 ((131)I) or rhenium-188 ((188)Re) labeled lipiodol into the hepatic artery. Radioactive lipiodol is used exclusively for treatment of primary liver cancer, whereas (90)Y microsphere therapy is applied for treatment of both primary and metastatic liver cancers. Favorable clinical results have been achieved, particularly when (90)Y microspheres were used in conjunction with systemic chemotherapy. The main advantages of radiolabeled lipiodol treatment are that it is relatively inexpensive (especially (188)Re-HDD-lipiodol) and that the administration procedure is somewhat less complex than that of the microspheres. Holmium-166 ((166)Ho) loaded poly(L-lactic acid) microspheres have also been developed and are about to be clinically introduced. Since (166)Ho is a combined beta-gamma emitter and highly paramagnetic as well, it allows for both (quantitative) scintigraphic and magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:17630919

  16. Long-term adverse outcomes in survivors of childhood bone sarcoma: the British Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    OpenAIRE

    Fidler, M M; Frobisher, C; Guha, J; K. Wong; Kelly, J; Winter, D. L.; Sugden, E; Duncan, R.; Whelan, J; Reulen, R C; Hawkins, M. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: With improved survival, more bone sarcoma survivors are approaching middle age making it crucial to investigate the late effects of their cancer and its treatment. We investigated the long-term risks of adverse outcomes among 5-year bone sarcoma survivors within the British Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Methods: Cause-specific mortality and risk of subsequent primary neoplasms (SPNs) were investigated for 664 bone sarcoma survivors. Use of health services, health and marital st...

  17. Stem Cells in Liver Diseases and Cancer: Recent Advances on the Path to New Therapies

    OpenAIRE

    Rountree, C Bart; Mishra, Lopa; Willenbring, Holger

    2012-01-01

    Stem cells have potential for therapy of liver diseases, but may also be involved in the formation of liver cancer. Recently, the AASLD Henry M. and Lillian Stratton Basic Research Single Topic Conference “Stem Cells in Liver Diseases and Cancer: Discovery and Promise” brought together a diverse group of investigators to define the status of research on stem cells and cancer stem cells in the liver and identify problems and solutions on the path to clinical translation. This report summarizes...

  18. Stereotactic radiotherapy of primary liver cancer and hepatic metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wulf, Joern; Guckenberger, Matthias; Haedinger, Ulrich; Oppitz, Ulrich; Mueller, Gerd; Baier, Kurt; Flentje, Michael [Univ. of Wuerzburg (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy

    2006-09-15

    The purpose was to evaluate the clinical results of stereotactic radiotherapy in primary liver tumors and hepatic metastases. Five patients with primary liver cancer and 39 patients with 51 hepatic metastases were treated by stereotactic radiotherapy since 1997. Twenty-eight targets were treated in a 'low-dose'-group with 3x10 Gy (n=27) or 4x7 Gy (n=1) prescribed to the PTV-encl. 65%-isodose. In a 'high-dose'-group patients were treated with 3x12 - 12.5 Gy (n=19; same dose prescription) or 1x26 Gy/PTV-enclosing 80%-isodose (n=9). Median follow-up was 15 months (2-48 months) for primary liver cancer and 15 months (2-85 months) for hepatic metastases. While all primary liver cancers were controlled, nine local failures (3-19 months) of 51 metastases were observed resulting in an actuarial local control rate of 92% after 12 months and 66% after 24 months and later. A borderline significant correlation between dose and local control was observed (p=0.077): the actuarial local control rate after 12 and 24?months was 86% and 58% in the low-dose-group versus 100% and 82% in the high-dose-group. In multivariate analysis high versus low-dose was the only significant factor predicting local control (p=0.0089). Overall survival after 1 and 2 years was 72% and 32% for all patients and was impaired due to systemic progression of disease. No severe acute or late toxicity exceeding RTOG/EORTC-score 2 were observed. Stereotactic irradiation of primary liver cancer and hepatic metastases offers a locally effective treatment without significant complications in patients, who are not amenable for surgery. Patient selection is important, because those with low risk for systemic progression are more likely to benefit from this approach.

  19. Stereotactic radiotherapy of primary liver cancer and hepatic metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose was to evaluate the clinical results of stereotactic radiotherapy in primary liver tumors and hepatic metastases. Five patients with primary liver cancer and 39 patients with 51 hepatic metastases were treated by stereotactic radiotherapy since 1997. Twenty-eight targets were treated in a 'low-dose'-group with 3x10 Gy (n=27) or 4x7 Gy (n=1) prescribed to the PTV-encl. 65%-isodose. In a 'high-dose'-group patients were treated with 3x12 - 12.5 Gy (n=19; same dose prescription) or 1x26 Gy/PTV-enclosing 80%-isodose (n=9). Median follow-up was 15 months (2-48 months) for primary liver cancer and 15 months (2-85 months) for hepatic metastases. While all primary liver cancers were controlled, nine local failures (3-19 months) of 51 metastases were observed resulting in an actuarial local control rate of 92% after 12 months and 66% after 24 months and later. A borderline significant correlation between dose and local control was observed (p=0.077): the actuarial local control rate after 12 and 24?months was 86% and 58% in the low-dose-group versus 100% and 82% in the high-dose-group. In multivariate analysis high versus low-dose was the only significant factor predicting local control (p=0.0089). Overall survival after 1 and 2 years was 72% and 32% for all patients and was impaired due to systemic progression of disease. No severe acute or late toxicity exceeding RTOG/EORTC-score 2 were observed. Stereotactic irradiation of primary liver cancer and hepatic metastases offers a locally effective treatment without significant complications in patients, who are not amenable for surgery. Patient selection is important, because those with low risk for systemic progression are more likely to benefit from this approach

  20. Thorotrast induced liver cancer: update of German thorotrast study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaick, G. van; Wesch, H. [Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum Heidelberg (Germany). Dept. of Radiological Diagnostics and Therapy

    1999-02-01

    The German Thorotrast study was started in 1968. It comprises 2,326 Thorotrast patients and 1,890 contemporary matched controls group. 899 Thorotrast patients and 662 patients of the control group have been examined clinically and biophysically every two years. The evaluation of the causes of death demonstrates a statistically significant excess rate of malignant liver tumors, liver cirrhoses, myeloid leukaemias and bone marrow failures. The annual dose after an injection of two ampoules (24 ml) is about 25 cGy for the liver, 70 cGy for the spleen and 9 cGy for the bone marrow. Animal experiments demonstrated that non-radiation effects can be neglected. Correlation exists between the calculated dose to the liver and the frequency of liver cancer. The cumulative risk estimate for liver cancer of about 600 per 10{sup 4} person Gy comes close to the values which were calculated based on the epidemiological results of the Japanese bomb survivors when a quality factor of 20 for alpha radiation and a low dose rate reduction factor of 2 were applied. Dose and frequency of liver cirrhosis are also correlated. Liver cirrhosis is often combined with liver cancer but is not a prerequisite for tumor induction. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Deutsche Thorotraststudie begann 1968. Sie umfasst 2326 Thorotrastpatienten und 1890 nach Alter und Geschlecht angepasste Kontrollpatienten. Die zu Beginn der Studie noch lebenden Thorotrastpatienten (n=899) und Patienten der Kontrollgruppe (n=622) wurden soweit moeglich in zweijaehrigen Abstaenden ambulant klinisch und biophysikalisch untersucht. Die Recherche der Todesursachen der verstorbenen Patienten ergab eine statistisch signifikante Exzessrate bei primaeren malignen Lebertumoren, Leberzirrhosen, myeloischen Leukaemien und Knochenmarksinsuffizienz. Die jaehrliche Dosis nach Injektion von zwei Ampullen (24 ml) betraegt etwa 25 cGy fuer die Leber, 70 cGy fuer die Milz und 9 cGy fuer das rote Knochenmark. Tierexperimente belegten, dass

  1. Donor transmitted and de novo cancer after liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Rajeev; Neuberger, James

    2014-05-28

    Cancers in solid organ recipients may be classified as donor transmitted, donor derived, de novo or recurrent. The risk of donor-transmitted cancer is very low and can be reduced by careful screening of the donor but cannot be abolished and, in the United Kingdom series is less than 0.03%. For donors with a known history of cancer, the risks will depend on the nature of the cancer, the interventions given and the interval between diagnosis and organ donation. The risks of cancer transmission must be balanced against the risks of death awaiting a new graft and strict adherence to current guidelines may result increased patient death. Organs from selected patients, even with high-grade central nervous system (CNS) malignancy and after a shunt, can, in some circumstances, be considered. Of potential donors with non-CNS cancers, whether organs may be safely used again depends on the nature of the cancer, the treatment and interval. Data are scarce about the most appropriate treatment when donor transmitted cancer is diagnosed: sometimes substitution of agents and reduction of the immunosuppressive load may be adequate and the impact of graft removal should be considered but not always indicated. Liver allograft recipients are at increased risk of some de novo cancers, especially those grafted for alcohol-related liver disease and hepatitis C virus infection. The risk of lymphoproliferative disease and cancers of the skin, upper airway and bowel are increased but not breast. Recipients should be advised to avoid risk behavior and monitored appropriately. PMID:24876738

  2. Traumatic Stress Symptoms and Breast Cancer: The Role of Childhood Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Rachel E.; Jandorf, Lina; Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis; Amend, Kandace L.; Stoudt, Brett G.; Rini, Christine; Hershman, Dawn; Neugut, Alfred; Reilly, James J.; Tartter, Paul I.; Feldman, Sheldon M.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Bovbjerg, Dana H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The present study investigated relations between reported childhood abuse and recent traumatic stress symptoms in women newly diagnosed with breast cancer (n = 330). Methods: As part of a larger ongoing study, patients from eight public and private hospitals were referred by their physicians and completed the Childhood Trauma…

  3. Cognitive and Academic Problems Associated with Childhood Cancers and Sickle Cell Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Brian P.; Kral, Mary C.; Brown, Ronald T.

    2008-01-01

    Childhood cancers and sickle cell disease represent some of the most complex medical conditions of childhood, impacting development in all domains. The influence of these conditions on cognitive functioning and academic achievement has particular relevance for the school psychologist, who is poised to promote the positive adaptation of children…

  4. Stability analysis of liver cancer-related microRNAs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Li; Zhenggang Jiang; Lijian Xu; Hu Yao; Jiangfeng Guo; Xianfeng Ding

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs(miRNAs)are non-coding,single-stranded RNAs of ~22 nt and constitute a novel class of gene regulators that are found in both plants and animals.Several studies have demonstrated that serum miRNAs could serve as potential biomarkers for the detection of various cancers and other diseases.A few documents regarding the stability of liver cancer-related miRNAs in serum are available.A systemic analysis of the stability of miRNA in serum is quite necessary.The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stability of miRNAs from three different sources,cultured liver cancer Huh-7 cell line,clinical liver cancer,and serum under different experimental conditions,including different temperature,time duration,pH values,Rnase A digestion,Dnase Ⅰ digestion,and various freeze-thaw cycles.The qRT-PCR analysis demonstrated that liver cancer-related miRNAs were detectable under each of test conditions,indicating that miRNAs were extremely stable and resistant to destruction and degradation under harsh environmental conditions.However,ribosomal RNA was fragile and easily degraded by demonstrating sharp decrease of relative expression under the non-physiological test conditions.We also established a robust procedure for serum RNA extraction,which is greatly important not only for the miRNA profiling studies bat also for the disease prognosis based on abnormal miRNA expression.

  5. Psychosocial status of childhood cancer survivors who develop one or more secondary malignancies

    OpenAIRE

    Roman Korenjak; Mojca Čižek Sajko; Berta Jereb

    2011-01-01

    Objective. Childhood cancer survivors can develop physical, emotionaland psychosocial adversities, a secondary malignancy (SM) beingone of the most serious among them. Th e aim of our research was tostudy whether the development of SM was related to the psychosocialfunctioning of survivors, especially whether any psychic trauma fromthe first experience would be aggravated by SM. Patients and methods.Seventy – five childhood cancer survivors with SM were matched with75 survivors who did not de...

  6. Meta-analysis of second cancer risk among childhood cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Second cancer risks of childhood cancer survivors following radiotherapy have not been well characterized in terms of radiation dose. Before we have conducted a meta-analysis of studies on the excess relative risk per Gy (ERR) of second malignant neoplasm (SMN) among childhood cancer survivors, but the small number of eligible studies restricted quantitative evaluations. To solve this problem, we developed a statistical method to calculate an ERR estimate from other estimates, and conducted a meta-analysis again. We searched the PubMed database, and 26 studies were identified. ERR estimates were available in 15 studies, and for the rest of 11 studies, we used the regression model to calculate a ERR estimate from other estimates. The overall ERR was 0.60 [95% CI: 0.31, 1.15]. Cochran's Q statistic was 319.7 (P<0.001), indicating a significant heterogeneity among studies. The heterogeneity was attributed partly to the sites of second cancer, the design of studies, the region of the study, and the age at radiotherapy. Especially, we focused on the dependence in ERR on age at radiotherapy, and it was suggested that the second cancer risk is decreased by 11 percent in terms of ERR per one year increase in the ageradiotherapy (p=0.01). (author)

  7. Thrombocytosis of Liver Metastasis from Colorectal Cancer as Predictive Factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josa, Valeria; Krzystanek, Marcin; Vass, Tamas;

    2015-01-01

    biomarker in isolated metastases, in patients with liver metastasis of colorectal cancer (mCRC). Clinicopathological data of 166 patients with mCRC who had surgical resection between 2001 and 2011 were collected retrospectively. All primary tumors have been already resected. The platelet count was evaluated......There is increasing evidence that thrombocytosis is associated with tumor invasion and metastasis formation. It was shown in several solid tumor types that thrombocytosis prognosticates cancer progression. The aim of this study was to evaluate preoperative thrombocytosis as a potential prognostic...

  8. Endoplasmic reticulum stress in diethylnitrosamine-induced rat liver cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Bin; Cui, Li-Min; MA, DONG-JIE; LIU, SHUANG-PING; ZHANG, XUE-WU

    2013-01-01

    To analyze the significance of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) in the development of diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced liver cancer in rats, critical regulatory factors in ERS signaling pathways were investigated in the present study. The results showed that the expression of ERS-related proteins gradually increased in the early and mid-term stages of carcinogenesis, while in the later stages, the expression of these proteins did not change significantly after reaching a peak. ERS is involv...

  9. Obesity, autophagy and the pathogenesis of liver and pancreatic cancers

    OpenAIRE

    Aghajan, Mariam; Ning LI; Karin, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Liver and pancreatic cancers are both highly lethal diseases with limited to no therapeutic options for patients. Recent studies suggest that deregulated autophagy plays a role in the pathogenesis of these diseases by perturbing cellular homeostasis and laying the foundation for disease development. While accumulation of p62 upon impaired autophagy has been implicated in hepatocellular carcinoma, it’s role in pancreatic adenocarcinoma remains less clear. This review will focus on recent studi...

  10. A case of leptospirosis simulating colon cancer with liver metastases

    OpenAIRE

    Granito, Alessandro; Ballardini, Giorgio; Fusconi, Marco; Volta, Umberto; Muratori, Paolo; Sambri, Vittorio; Battista, Giuseppe; Bianchi, Francesco B.

    2004-01-01

    We report a case of a 61-year-old man who presented with fatigue, abdominal pain and hepatomegaly. Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen showed hepatomegaly and multiple hepatic lesions highly suggestive of metastatic diseases. Due to the endoscopic finding of colon ulcer, colon cancer with liver metastases was suspected. Biochemically a slight increase of transaminases, alkaline phosphatase and gammaglutamyl transpeptidase were present; α - fetoprotein, carcinoembryogenic antigen and carbo...

  11. Total antioxidant status (TAS in childhood cancer survivors Total antioxidant status (TAS in childhood cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryna Krawczuk-Rybak

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Total antioxidant status (TAS, and the influence of treatment and correlation between TAS and parameters
    involved in metabolic syndrome (MS in pediatric cancer survivors were evaluated. One hundred children
    and adolescents were studied. Twenty-five survivors received radiotherapy, 12 were obese or overweight.
    Additionally, we analyzed TAS in eight children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL at diagnosis and
    during treatment after remission induction. The control group consisted of 22 healthy children. Serum concentrations
    of TAS, glucose, cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, fibrinogen and insulin were measured. In
    cancer survivors, independently of diagnosis and kind of treatment (radiotherapy anthracyclines administration,
    the mean serum TAS did not differ significantly from the control group. No correlations were observed
    with age at the time of diagnosis or interval after the end of treatment. TAS values did not correlate with traits of
    the metabolic syndrome. In a group of eight patients with ALL at diagnosis and after induction of remission,
    TAS values were lower than in the control and cancer survivor groups. Antioxidant status was not found to be
    deteriorated in children after anticancer treatment, irrespective of diagnosis or kind of treatment, which might
    indicate sufficient antioxidant prevention. However, the possibility of the development of MS and cardiovascular
    disease in adulthood indicates the need for future studies.Total antioxidant status (TAS, and the influence of treatment and correlation between TAS and parameters
    involved in metabolic syndrome (MS in pediatric cancer survivors were evaluated. One hundred children
    and adolescents were studied. Twenty-five survivors received radiotherapy, 12 were obese or overweight.
    Additionally, we analyzed TAS in eight children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL at diagnosis and
    during

  12. STAT3 activation in monocytes accelerates liver cancer progression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is an important transcription factor ubiquitously expressed in different cell types. STAT3 plays an essential role in cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation. Aberrantly hyper-activated STAT3 signaling in cancer cells and in the tumor microenvironment has been detected in a wide variety of human cancers and is considered an important factor for cancer initiation, development, and progression. However, the role of STAT3 activation in monocytes in the development of HCC has not been well understood. Immunohistochemical analysis of phosphorylated STAT3 was performed on tissue microarray from HCC patients. Using a co-culture system in vivo, HCC cell growth was determined by the MTT assay. In vivo experiments were conducted with mice given diethylinitrosamine (DEN), which induces HCC was used to investigate the role of STAT3 expression in monocytes on tumor growth. Real-time PCR was used to determine the expression of cell proliferation and cell arrest associated genes in the tumor and nontumor tissue from liver. Phosphorylated STAT3 was found in human hepatocellular carcinoma tissue samples and was expressed in tumor cells and also in monocytes. Phosphorylated STAT3 expression in monocyte was significantly correlated to advanced clinical stage of HCC and a poor prognosis. Using a co-culture system in vivo, monocytes promoted HCC cell growth via the IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway. The STAT3 inhibitor, NSC 74859, significantly suppressed tumor growth in vivo in mice with diethylinitrosamine (DEN)-induced HCC. In this animal model, blockade of STAT3 with NSC 74859 induced tumor cell apoptosis, while inhibiting both tumor cells and monocytes proliferation. Furthermore, NSC 74859 treatment suppressed cancer associated inflammation in DEN-induce HCC. Our data suggest constitutively activated STAT3 monocytes promote liver tumorigenesis in clinical patients and animal experiments. Thus, STAT3 in tumor

  13. STAT3 activation in monocytes accelerates liver cancer progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Wen-Yong

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 is an important transcription factor ubiquitously expressed in different cell types. STAT3 plays an essential role in cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation. Aberrantly hyper-activated STAT3 signaling in cancer cells and in the tumor microenvironment has been detected in a wide variety of human cancers and is considered an important factor for cancer initiation, development, and progression. However, the role of STAT3 activation in monocytes in the development of HCC has not been well understood. Methods Immunohistochemical analysis of phosphorylated STAT3 was performed on tissue microarray from HCC patients. Using a co-culture system in vivo, HCC cell growth was determined by the MTT assay. In vivo experiments were conducted with mice given diethylinitrosamine (DEN, which induces HCC was used to investigate the role of STAT3 expression in monocytes on tumor growth. Real-time PCR was used to determine the expression of cell proliferation and cell arrest associated genes in the tumor and nontumor tissue from liver. Results Phosphorylated STAT3 was found in human hepatocellular carcinoma tissue samples and was expressed in tumor cells and also in monocytes. Phosphorylated STAT3 expression in monocyte was significantly correlated to advanced clinical stage of HCC and a poor prognosis. Using a co-culture system in vivo, monocytes promoted HCC cell growth via the IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway. The STAT3 inhibitor, NSC 74859, significantly suppressed tumor growth in vivo in mice with diethylinitrosamine (DEN-induced HCC. In this animal model, blockade of STAT3 with NSC 74859 induced tumor cell apoptosis, while inhibiting both tumor cells and monocytes proliferation. Furthermore, NSC 74859 treatment suppressed cancer associated inflammation in DEN-induce HCC. Conclusion Our data suggest constitutively activated STAT3 monocytes promote liver tumorigenesis in clinical

  14. Assessment of environmental and genetic factors in the etiology of childhood cancers: the Childrens Cancer Group epidemiology program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, L L; Buckley, J D; Bunin, G

    1995-01-01

    The occurrence of cancer during childhood represents one of the leading causes of death within the pediatric and adolescent age group. It is estimated that approximately 8000 children will be diagnosed annually with cancer in the United States. Epidemiologic research addressing the etiology of childhood cancer has been limited because of the difficulties in identifying a sufficiently large study population. Moreover, the use of retrospectively ascertained childhood cancer cases in epidemiologic investigations has restricted the incorporation of biological and clinical parameters. The Childrens Cancer Group has developed an active program in epidemiologic research, with over a decade of experience demonstrating the feasibility and strengths of conducting analytic epidemiologic studies within a cooperative clinical trials network. The availability of detailed clinical and biologic data on cases diagnosed within the cooperative group facilitates the transfer of state-of-the-art technology to epidemiologic research. PMID:8549456

  15. Changes of plasma VEGF levels and liver function in patients with liver cancer before and after interventional treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To explore the effect of the interventional treatment for the angiogenesis and liver function in patients with liver cancer within short time, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine the level of VEGF in plasma. The level of liver function was measured through automatic biochemistry analyzer. The results indicated that the level of VEGF in patients with liver cancer decreased after interventional treatment than that of before treatment (P<0.05). The level of total protein, albumin, alkaline phosphatase and total bile acid decreased after interventional treatment (P<0.05). The level of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin and indirect bilirubin were increased than before (P<0.05). The interventional treatment inhibit the expression of the VEGF in the tumor tissue and limited the angiogenesis within short time, but to some extent may caused the injury of the hepatocytes and the synthetic and excremental function in patients with liver cancer. (authors)

  16. Radiotherapy and subsequent thyroid cancer in German childhood cancer survivors: a nested case–control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiotherapy is associated with a risk of subsequent neoplasms (SN) in childhood cancer survivors. It has been shown that children’s thyroid glands are especially susceptible. The aim is to quantify the risk of a second neck neoplasm after primary cancer radiotherapy with emphasis on thyroid cancer. We performed a nested case–control study: 29 individuals, diagnosed with a solid SN in the neck region, including 17 with thyroid cancer, in 1980–2002 and 57 matched controls with single neoplasms were selected from the database of the German Childhood Cancer Registry. We investigated the risk associated with radiotherapy exposure given per body region, adjusted for chemotherapy. 16/17 (94.1 %) thyroid SN cases, 9/12 (75 %) other neck SN cases and 34/57 (59.6 %) controls received radiotherapy, with median doses of 27.8, 25 and 24 Gy, respectively. Radiotherapy exposure to the neck region increased the risk of the other neck SNs by 4.2 % (OR = 1.042/Gy (95 %-CI 0.980-1.109)) and of thyroid SN by 5.1 % (OR = 1.051/Gy (95 %-CI 0.984-1.123)), and radiotherapy to the neck or spine region increased the thyroid risk by 6.6 % (OR = 1.066/Gy (95 %-CI 1.010-1.125)). Chemotherapy was not a confounder. Exposure to other body regions was not associated with increased risk. Radiotherapy in the neck or spine region increases the risk of thyroid cancer, while neck exposure increases the risk of any other solid SN to a similar extent. Other studies showed a decreasing risk of subsequent thyroid cancer for very high doses; we cannot confirm this

  17. Role of nucleostemin in growth regulation of gastric cancer,liver cancer and other malignancies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Si-Jin Liu; Zi-Wei Cai; Ya-Jun Liu; Mei-Yu Dong; Li-Qiu Sun; Guo-Fa Hu; Ying-Yun Wei; Wei-De Lao

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To examine the role of nucleostemin in the growth regulation of gastric cancer, liver cancer and other cancers.METHODS: RT-PCR was used to clone the fragment ofnucleostemin cDNA from HEK 293 cells. Eighteen kinds of malignant tumor tissues including gastric adenocarcinoma and liver cancer tissues, 3 kinds of benign tumor tissues, 3kinds of benign hyperplastic tissues and normal tissues were employed to examine nucleostemin gene expression by RT-PCR, Slot blot, Northern blot andin situ hybridization.RESULTS: We successfully cloned a 570 bp fragment of nucleostemin-cDNA from HEK-293 cells. All detected malignant tumor tissues, benign tumor tissues, and benign hyperplastic tissues had high levels of nucleostemin expression. Nucleostemin was also expressed in human placenta tissue at a high level. In terminally differentiated normal human adult kidney and mammary gland tissues,no nucleostemin expression could be detected.CONCLUSION: Nucleostemin can help regulate the proliferation of both cancer cells and stem cells. It might play an important role in the growth regulation of gastric cancer, liver cancer and other cancers.

  18. Dual-contrast MR imaging of liver cancer in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissleder, R; Saini, S; Stark, D D; Wittenberg, J; Ferrucci, J T

    1988-03-01

    MR contrast agents increase hepatic tumor conspicuity, as measured in terms of contrast-to-noise (C/N) ratios. With an animal model of hepatic metastases from breast cancer, IV administration of Gd-DTPA (0.2 mmol/kg) shows a biphasic time response, transiently increasing the signal intensity of liver relative to tumor, with C/N ratio magnitudes increasing from -5.7 to -16.3 (SE 250/20); after a delay, the signal intensity of tumor increases relative to liver with a reversal of the C/N sign from negative to positive and an increase in the C/N magnitude to +25.0. IV administration of ferrite particles (0.05 mmol Fe/kg) shows a monophasic time response, increasing signal intensity of tumor relative to liver from +1.5 to +49.5 (SE 500/30). When both contrast agents were administered together (dual-contrast technique), the tumor-liver C/N magnitude reached a maximum of +67.8 (SE 500/30) 12 min after drug infusion. Analysis of individual contrast and noise factors contributing to this technique revealed a strong correlation between the signal intensity of liver and the signal intensity of ghost artifacts, which increase after administration of Gd-DTPA (r = .89) and decrease after administration of ferrite (r = 1.0). Dual-contrast imaging shows a synergistic addition of contrast and suppression of noise from ghost artifacts, maximizing the C/N and increasing the conspicuity of focal liver lesions. PMID:3257610

  19. The Geographic Distribution of Liver Cancer in Canada Does Not Associate with Cyanobacterial Toxin Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meaghan A. Labine

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The incidence of liver cancer has been increasing in Canada over the past decade, as has cyanobacterial contamination of Canadian freshwater lakes and drinking water sources. Cyanotoxins released by cyanobacteria have been implicated in the pathogenesis of liver cancer. Objective: To determine whether a geographic association exists between liver cancer and surrogate markers of cyanobacterial contamination of freshwater lakes in Canada. Methods: A negative binomial regression model was employed based on previously identified risk factors for liver cancer. Results: No association existed between the geographic distribution of liver cancer and surrogate markers of cyanobacterial contamination. As predicted, significant associations existed in areas with a high prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection, large immigrant populations and urban residences. Discussion and Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that cyanobacterial contamination of freshwater lakes does not play an important role in the increasing incidence of liver cancer in Canada.

  20. Surviving cancer: The psychosocial outcomes of childhood cancer survivors and its correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellano-Tejedor, Carmina; Pérez-Campdepadrós, Marta; Capdevila, Lluís; Blasco-Blasco, Tomás

    2016-07-01

    This study assessed the psychosocial outcomes of adolescent cancer survivors and their relationship with personal and socio-familiar factors. Using a cross-sectional design, 41 survivors answered the four psychosocial dimensions of the KIDSCREEN-52 questionnaire and measures for social support and coping. Similarly, 41 parents answered coping and cancer-related distress measures. All psychosocial scores were within normative values (50 ± 10). Multiple linear regression analyses revealed four models with a range of explained variance between 9.4 percent and 31.9 percent that include the informative and emotional support, parental distress, and coping. This study contributes to the understanding of psychosocial outcomes of childhood cancer survivors and its correlates. PMID:25411198

  1. Meta-analysis of second cancer risk after radiotherapy among childhood cancer survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer risks among childhood cancer survivors following radiotherapy have not yet been well characterised in terms of radiation dose. A meta-analysis of studies on the excess relative risk per gray (ERR) of second cancer was conducted previously; unfortunately, the small number of eligible studies restricted quantitative evaluations. To solve this problem, a statistical method to calculate ERR estimates from other estimates was developed, and a meta-analysis was conducted again. The PubMed database was searched and 26 relevant studies were identified. ERR estimates were available in 15 studies, and for the other 11 studies, the regression-based model was used to calculate ERR estimates from other estimates. The overall ERR estimate was 0.40, which was much lower than that of atomic bomb survivors exposed as young children. Heterogeneity of the risk among studies was suggested, and a further study is needed to explore the heterogeneity among studies. (authors)

  2. The Childhood Cancer Survivor Study: a National Cancer Institute-supported resource for outcome and intervention research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, Leslie L; Armstrong, Gregory T; Boice, John D; Chow, Eric J; Davies, Stella M; Donaldson, Sarah S; Green, Daniel M; Hammond, Sue; Meadows, Anna T; Mertens, Ann C; Mulvihill, John J; Nathan, Paul C; Neglia, Joseph P; Packer, Roger J; Rajaraman, Preetha; Sklar, Charles A; Stovall, Marilyn; Strong, Louise C; Yasui, Yutaka; Zeltzer, Lonnie K

    2009-05-10

    Survival for childhood cancer has increased dramatically over the last 40 years with 5-year survival rates now approaching 80%. For many diagnostic groups, rapid increases in survival began in the 1970s with the broader introduction of multimodality approaches, often including combination chemotherapy with or without radiation therapy. With this increase in rates of survivorship has come the recognition that survivors are at risk for adverse health and quality-of-life outcomes, with risk being influenced by host-, disease-, and treatment-related factors. In 1994, the US National Cancer Institute funded the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study, a multi-institutional research initiative designed to establish a large and extensively characterized cohort of more than 14,000 5-year survivors of childhood and adolescent cancer diagnosed between 1970 and 1986. This ongoing study, which reflects the single most comprehensive body of information ever assembled on childhood and adolescent cancer survivors, provides a dynamic framework and resource to investigate current and future questions about childhood cancer survivors. PMID:19364948

  3. The risk of childhood cancer from intrauterine and preconceptional exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The findings of studies investigating whether exposures to ionizing radiation before birth, either pre- or post-conception, increase the risk of childhood cancer have provoked much scientific controversy. An epidemiological association between the abdominal exposure or pregnant women to diagnostic X-rays and childhood cancer was first reported in the 1950s, while an association between the recorded dose of radiation received occupationally by fathers before the conception of their offspring and childhood leukemia was reported only recently in 1990. The scientific interpretation of these particular statistical associations is by no means straightforward, but the latest analyses of intrauterine irradiation and childhood cancer indicate that a causal inference is likely. Scientific committees have adopted risk coefficients for the intrauterine exposure of somatic tissues, which for childhood leukemia are comparable to those accepted for exposure in infancy, although questions remain about the level of risk of childhood solid tumors imparted by exposure to radiation in utero and shortly after birth. In contrast, the association has been found to be restricted to children born in one village, it does not extend to cancers other than leukemia, and it is markedly inconsistent with the established body of knowledge on radiation-induced hereditary disease. A causal interpretation of this association has effectively been abandoned by scientific authorities. 84 refs., 1 tab

  4. A case of leptospirosis simulating colon cancer with liver metastases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alessandro Granito; Giorgio Ballardini; Marco Fusconi; Umberto Volta; Paolo Muratori; Vittorio Sambri; Giuseppe Battista; Francesco B. Bianchi

    2004-01-01

    We report a case of a 61-year-old man who presented with fatigue, abdominal pain and hepatomegaly. Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen showed hepatomegaly and multiple hepatic lesions highly suggestive of metastatic diseases. Due to the endoscopic finding of colon ulcer, colon cancer with liver metastases was suspected. Biochemically a slight increase of transaminases, alkaline phosphatase and gammaglutamyl transpeptidase were present; α-fetoprotein, carcinoembryogenic antigen and carbohydrate 19-9 antigen serum levels were normal. Laboratory and instrumental investigations, including colon and liver biopsies revealed no signs of malignancy. In the light of spontaneous improvement of symptoms and CT findings, his personal history was revaluated revealing direct contact with pigs and their tissues. Diagnosis of leptospirosis was considered and confirmed by detection of an elevated titer of antibodies to leptospira. After two mo, biochemical data, CT and colonoscopy were totally normal.

  5. Epidemiology of childhood and adolescent cancer in Bangladesh, 2001-2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.S. Hossain (Mohammad Sorowar); M. Begum (Mamtaz); M.M. Mian (Md Mahmuduzzaman); S. Ferdous (Shameema); S. Kabir (Shahinur); H.K. Sarker (Humayun Kabir); S. Karim (Sabina); S. Choudhury (Salma); A. Khan (Asaduzzaman); Z.J. Khan (Zohora Jameela); H.E. Karim-Kos (Henrike)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Cancer burden among children and adolescents is largely unknown in Bangladesh. This study aims to provide a comprehensive overview on childhood and adolescent cancers and to contribute to the future strategies to deal with these diseases in Bangladesh. Methods: Data on malign

  6. School Counselors and Survivors of Childhood Cancer: Reconceptualizing and Advancing the Cure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Stephanie San Miguel

    2010-01-01

    School counselors increasingly will encounter childhood cancer survivors. This article explains why the cure for cancer consists of more than the eradication of the disease and includes the amelioration of academic, career, personal, and social concerns. Drawing on the research literature, the article discusses different stages of cancer…

  7. Childhood body mass index and height and risk of histologic subtypes of endometrial cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Julie; Gamborg, Michael; Ulrich, L G;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Endometrial cancer risk factors include adult obesity and taller stature, but the influence of size earlier in life is incompletely understood. We examined whether childhood body mass index (BMI; kg m(-2)) and height were associated with histologic subtypes of endometrial cancer...... childhood ages. Height at all ages was statistically significant and positively associated with all endometrial cancers, except non-oestrogen-dependent cancers. At 7 years, per ~5.2 cm (1 z-score), the risk of endometrioid adenocarcinoma was 1.18 (95% confidence interval: 1.09-1.28). Among non-users of...... unopposed oestrogens, associations between BMI and endometrioid adenocarcinoma strengthened, but no effects on height associations were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Endometrial carcinogenesis is linked to early-life body size, suggesting that childhood BMI and height may be useful indicators for the risk of later...

  8. Novel therapeutic Strategies for Targeting Liver Cancer Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki Oishi, Xin Wei Wang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The cancer stem cell (CSC hypothesis was first proposed over 40 years ago. Advances in CSC isolation were first achieved in hematological malignancies, with the first CSC demonstrated in acute myeloid leukemia. However, using similar strategies and technologies, and taking advantage of available surface markers, CSCs have been more recently demonstrated in a growing range of epithelial and other solid organ malignancies, suggesting that the majority of malignancies are dependent on such a compartment.Primary liver cancer consists predominantly of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC. It is believed that hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs could be the origin of some HCCs and ICCs. Furthermore, stem cell activators such as Wnt/β-catenin, TGF-β, Notch and Hedgehog signaling pathways also expedite tumorigenesis, and these pathways could serve as molecular targets to assist in designing cancer prevention strategies. Recent studies indicate that additional factors such as EpCAM, Lin28 or miR-181 may also contribute to HCC progression by targeting HCC CSCs. Various therapeutic drugs that directly modulate CSCs have been examined in vivo and in vitro. However, CSCs clearly have a complex pathogenesis, with a considerable crosstalk and redundancy in signaling pathways, and hence targeting single molecules or pathways may have a limited benefit for treatment. Many of the key signaling molecules are shared by both CSCs and normal stem cells, which add further challenges for designing molecularly targeted strategies specific to CSCs but sparing normal stem cells to avoid side effects. In addition to the direct control of CSCs, many other factors that are needed for the maintenance of CSCs, such as angiogenesis, vasculogenesis, invasion and migration, hypoxia, immune evasion, multiple drug resistance, and radioresistance, should be taken into consideration when designing therapeutic strategies for HCC.Here we provide a brief

  9. STRATEGY OF TWO-STEP RESECTION FOR MASSIVE LIVER CANCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG; Zuo-shen

    2001-01-01

    [1]Tang Zhao-you, Yu Ye-qin, Zhou Xin-da, et al. Cytoreduction and sequential resection for surgically verified unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma: evaluation with analysis of 72 patients [J]. World J Surg 1995; 19:784.[2]Zheng Zuo-shen. Research progress for cyto-reduction and sequential resection for unrectable hepatocellular carcinoma [J]. China Oncology 1999; 9:51.[3]World Health Organization. Practical manual of cancerous radiotherapy [M]. Beijing: People's Medical Publishing House, 1999; 122.[4]Ingold JA. Radiation hepatitis [J]. Am J Roent 1965; 93:200.[5]Sogni P. Non-Surgical treatments of hepato-cellular carcinoma [J]. Ann Chir 1995; 49:160.[6]Gao Lin-rui, Yu Er-xing. Radiotherapy of primary carcinoma of the liver (Report of 350 cases) [J]. Tumor 1981; 1:19.[7]Ohto M, Ebara M, Yoshikawa M, et al. Radiation therapy and percutaneus ethanol injection for tile treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma. In: Okuda K, Ishak KG, eds. Neoplasm of the Liver [M]. Tokyo Springer-verlag, 1987; 335.[8]Zheng Zuo-shen, Chen Yao-hui, Lai Qi-tai, et al. Strategy of Two-step Resection for Massive Liver Cancer. In: Wang Lei, eds. Papers on Medical Sciences of China (II) [M]. Beijing: Scientific Technological Publishing House, 1997; 6011.[9]Xia Yun-fei. Qian Jian-yang, Zheng Zuo-shen. Radiation biology and dosimetry of moving strip technique [J]. Chin J Cancer 2000; 19:82.

  10. Iodine-125 interstitial brachytherapy for experimental liver cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Fei-guo; YAN Jian-jun; HUANG Liang; LIU Cai-feng; ZHANG Xiang-hua; ZHOU Wei-ping; YAN Yi-qun

    2007-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of iodine-125 interstitial brachytherapy on liver cancer.Methods:Animal model of human liver cancer was established by injecting SMMC-7721 cells cultivated in vitro subcutaneously into the flank of BALB/c nude mice.Nude mice with tumor of 5 mm in diameter were randomly divided into 2 groups(n=10).One iodine-125 seed of apparent activity 0.8 mCi was implanted into the center of tumor in treatment group,whereas an inactive seed was implanted in control group.The other 20 nude mice with tumor reaching 10 mm in diameter were also treated as above.The size of tumor was determined weekly after implantation,and pathological examination and blood routine were taken on the 28th day.Results:Tumor growth was obviously inhibited in treatment group of tumor of 5 mm in diameter,and there was statistically significant difference in tumor volume between treatment and control groups(P<0.01).Around iodine-125 seed,apparent necrosis of tumor was shown in treatment group,accompanied by karyopyknosis and reduced plasma in residual tumor cells microscopically.Tumor growth was not inhibited in either treatment or control group of tumor of 10 mm in diameter.There was no obvious adverse effect except for decreased white blood cells in treatment groups.Conclusion:There is certain effect of iodine-125 interstitial brachytherapy on liver cancer,which is associated with the size of tumor.

  11. Possibility of sandwiched liver surgery with molecular targeting drugs, cetuximab and bevacizumab on colon cancer liver metastases: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toyama Yoichi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A 31-year-old man with sigmoid colon cancer with concomitant simultaneous multiple liver metastases had received FOLFIRI (leucovorin, fluorouracil and irinotecan and FOLFOX6 (leucovorin, fluorouracil and oxaliplatin after an ordinary sigmoidectomy. However, his serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA level increased rapidly during the fifteen months after the operation while he was on FOLFOX6. Abdominal computed tomography revealed expanding multiple liver tumors. As the third line chemotherapy, a combination therapy of cetuximab with irinotecan was given, which markedly reduced his levels of serum CEA, and the size and number of liver tumors. He underwent lateral segmentectomy of the liver and microwave coagulation of the liver metastases in the remnant liver. Thereafter, a good quality of life with tumor dormancy was obtained for 6 months. However, his serum CEA started to rise again in the absence of liver tumors. Therefore, FOLFOX6 with bevacizumab was chosen as the fourth line chemotherapy, and the serum CEA was reduced with tumor dormancy. A good quality of life was obtained again at 3 years after the first surgery. This report indicates the effectiveness of sandwiched liver surgery with the molecular targeting drugs cetuximab and bevacizumab on multiple liver metastases of colon cancer, and suggests the possibility of a regimen consisting of bevacizumab following cetuximab.

  12. Childhood cancer mortality in relation to the St Lucie nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An unusual county-wide excess of childhood cancers of brain and other nervous tissue in the late 1990s in St Lucie County, Florida, prompted the Florida Department of Health to conduct a case-control study within the county assessing residential chemical exposures. No clear associations were found, but claims were then made that the release of radioactive substances such as strontium 90 from the St Lucie nuclear power station, which began operating in 1976, might have played a role. To test the plausibility of this hypothesis, we extended by 17 years a previous study of county mortality conducted by the National Cancer Institute. Rates of total cancer, leukaemia and cancer of brain and other nervous tissue in children and across all ages in St Lucie County were evaluated with respect to the years before and after the nuclear power station began operation and contrasted with rates in two similar counties in Florida (Polk and Volusia). Over the prolonged period 1950-2000, no unusual patterns of childhood cancer mortality were found for St Lucie County as a whole. In particular, no unusual patterns of childhood cancer mortality were seen in relation to the start-up of the St Lucie nuclear power station in 1976. Further, there were no significant differences in mortality between the study and comparison counties for any cancer in the time period after the power station was in operation. Relative rates for all childhood cancers and for childhood leukaemia were higher before the nuclear facility began operating than after, while rates of brain and other nervous tissue cancer were slightly lower in St Lucie County than in the two comparison counties for both time periods. Although definitive conclusions cannot be drawn from descriptive studies, these data provide no support for the hypothesis that the operation of the St Lucie nuclear power station has adversely affected the cancer mortality experience of county residents

  13. Mouse Monoclonal Antibodies for Liver Cancer Research | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute Laboratory of Molecular Biology seeks parties for collaborative research to co-develop and commercialize antibody drug/toxin conjugates as liver cancer therapy and diagnostics.

  14. Automated extraction of metastatic liver cancer regions from abdominal contrast CT images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, automated extraction of metastatic liver cancer regions from abdominal contrast X-ray CT images is investigated. Because even in Japan, cases of metastatic liver cancers are increased due to recent Europeanization and/or Americanization of Japanese eating habits, development of a system for computer aided diagnosis of them is strongly expected. Our automated extraction procedure consists of following four steps; liver region extraction, density transformation for enhancement of cancer regions, segmentation for obtaining candidate cancer regions, and reduction of false positives by shape feature. Parameter values used in each step of the procedure are decided based on density and shape features of typical metastatic liver cancers. In experiments using practical 20 cases of metastatic liver tumors, it is shown that 56% of true cancers can be detected successfully from CT images by the proposed procedure. (author)

  15. Preoperative CT versus diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging of the liver in patients with rectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, Michael P; Løgager, Vibeke B; Skjoldbye, Bjørn;

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Colorectal cancer is one of the most frequent cancers in the world and liver metastases are seen in up to 19% of patients with colorectal cancers. Detection of liver metastases is not only vital for sufficient treatment and survival, but also for a better estimation of prognosis....... The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of diffusion weighted MRI of the liver as part of a combined MR evaluation of patients with rectal cancers and compare it with the standard preoperative evaluation of the liver with CT. Methods. Consecutive patients diagnosed with rectal cancers were....... The current standard preoperative evaluation with CT-scan results in disadvantages like missed metastases and futile operations. We recommend that patients with rectal cancer, who are scheduled for MR of the rectum, should have a DWMR of the liver performed at the same time....

  16. Diagnostic value of alpha-fetoprotein in liver cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine diagnostic value of alpha-fetoproteins (alpha-FP) in liver cancer. Design: Prospective study. Place and duration of study: Department of clinical oncology services Hospital Lahore, during the period from February 1998 to February 2001. Subjects and Methods: Among 200 persons studied, 100 presented with liver mass, jaundice and other symptoms directing toward liver pathology, later confirmed histopathologically, as suffering from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) while the other 100 healthy subject came to the department for blood donation and were HBs Ag pasitive on blood screening. All these subjects under went blood test for alpha-FP. This tumor marker was analyzed by using enzyme immunoassay-based kit. Results: The alpha-FP positivity was statistically evaluated. In HCC this test was statistically significant with p value of <0.001. In this study sensitivity of alpha-FP was 72% specificity 89%, positive predictive value 86.7% and negative predictive value of 76.1%. Conclusion: This study showed that alpha-FP was a useful diagnostic tool in the diagnosis of HCC. (author)

  17. Expression and Clinical Significance of p27kip1 Protein in Primary Liver Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史光军; 杨鹏; 陈孝平

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the expression and clinical significance of p27kip1 protein in primary liver cancer, the expression of p27kip1 protein and the relationship with clinicopathological factors were studied in primary liver cancer by using SABC immunohistochemical staining in specimens of 40 cases of primary liver cancer and 20 cases of liver cirrihosis. Our results showed that positive expression rate of p27kip1 protein in primary liver cancer was 37.5 % (15/40), which was lower than that in benign lesion of liver 80.0 % (16/20, P<0.01). The expression level of p27kip1 protein in primary liver cancer showed significant differences in tumor size, Edmonson histological grade, portal invasion, lymph node metastasis, TNM stage (P<0.05, for all), but not significantly correlated with patient's age and histological types. Log rank test showed that the p27kip1 expression was significantly related with prognosis of the patients (P<0.05), and the prognosis of the patients with p27kip1 positive expression was markedly better than that of those with p27kip1 negative expression. It is concluded that the expression of p27kip1 was significantly related clinicopathological factors of primary liver cancer. p27kip1 protein may be used as a novel tumor marker for primary liver cancer.

  18. Serological diagnostic factors for liver metastasis in patients with colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the serological diagnostic factors for liver metastasis in patients with colorectal cancer.METHODS:One hundred and six adult in-patients with colorectal cancer were studied and divided into patients with liver metastasis(n = 56) and patients without liver metastasis(n = 50).Serum levels of tumor and biochemical markers for liver were measured at the time of diagnosis.RESULTS:The mean survival time was 55.9 mo,36.8 mo and 68.3 mo for the overall patients,patients with liver metastasis and ...

  19. Childhood Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cells. It is the most common type of childhood cancer. Your blood cells form in your bone ... in the bones or joints Risk factors for childhood leukemia include having a brother or sister with ...

  20. Cantilever with immobilized antibody for liver cancer biomarker detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel cantilever array-based bio-sensor was batch-fabricated with IC compatible MEMS technology for precise liver cancer bio-marker detection. A micro-cavity was designed in the free end of the cantilever for local antibody-immobilization, thus the adsorption of the cancer biomarker takes place only in the local region of the cantilever instead of the whole lever, and the effect of adsorption-induced k variation can be dramatically reduced. These structural features offer several advantages: high sensitivity, high throughput, high mass detection accuracy, and a portable system. In addition, an analytical model has been established to eliminate the effect of the adsorption-induced lever stiffness change and has been applied to the precise mass detection of the cancer biomarker AFP; the experimentally detected AFP antigen mass by the sensor (7.6 pg/mL) is quite close to the calculated one (5.5 pg/mL), two orders of magnitude better than those of the fully antibody-immobilized cantilever sensor. These approaches can promote real applications of the cantilever sensors in cancer diagnosis. (semiconductor devices)

  1. Cantilever with immobilized antibody for liver cancer biomarker detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuaipeng, Wang; Jingjing, Wang; Yinfang, Zhu; Jinling, Yang; Fuhua, Yang

    2014-10-01

    A novel cantilever array-based bio-sensor was batch-fabricated with IC compatible MEMS technology for precise liver cancer bio-marker detection. A micro-cavity was designed in the free end of the cantilever for local antibody-immobilization, thus the adsorption of the cancer biomarker takes place only in the local region of the cantilever instead of the whole lever, and the effect of adsorption-induced k variation can be dramatically reduced. These structural features offer several advantages: high sensitivity, high throughput, high mass detection accuracy, and a portable system. In addition, an analytical model has been established to eliminate the effect of the adsorption-induced lever stiffness change and has been applied to the precise mass detection of the cancer biomarker AFP; the experimentally detected AFP antigen mass by the sensor (7.6 pg/mL) is quite close to the calculated one (5.5 pg/mL), two orders of magnitude better than those of the fully antibody-immobilized cantilever sensor. These approaches can promote real applications of the cantilever sensors in cancer diagnosis.

  2. Ultrasound-guided interventional PDT of liver cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Chaoying; Yang, Dong; Huang, Ping; Zhang, Huijuan; Huang, Muyin; Chen, Ji; Lu, Guorong

    1996-09-01

    Thirty patients with advanced liver cancer were treated by interstitial photodynamic therapy (PDT). These included 28 hepatocellular carcinoma and two adenocarcinoma, 19 primary tumors and 11 recurred follow other treatments. The diameter of tumors were 7-10cm in 13 cases and 10-16cm in 17 cases. In this study, an argon laser pumped dye laser system was used to give a CW laser beam at 630 nm which was split and coupled into there optical fibers. The patients were injected intravenously with photosensitizer hematoporphyrin derivative at a dose of 5mg/kg body weight 48 hours before PDT. Then the fibers were inserted into tumor by ultrasound- guided percutaneous puncture. The inserted irradiation points were spaced in entire tumor with the light release power 300mW and the irradiation time 12 minutes per point. Total 52 treatments were performed in 30 patients. Among them, 14 cases were treated only one time and 16 cases via 2-3 times. The follow-up was carried out in 25 cases for 12- 24 months. The results show that significant remission was 22 percent in those patients by only one treatment and 62 percent in those via 2 to 3 treatments. The shrink rate of tumor size was over 90 percent in five of six cases after treatment 3. The survival time has been over one year in 12 cases. No obvious change to be found for all patients in liver function test, renal function test and blood routine examination. The level of AFP indicated a descending trend after PDT. This work indicate that PDT is effective and safe for the treatment of large liver cancers including those recurred follow hepatic resection and those failed in hepatic artery infusion embolic chemotherapy.

  3. Union examination of AFP,AFU,AFPL3 and γ-GT in early diagnosis of primary liver cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Objective To explore the significance of union examination of blood serum liver cancer tracers in the early diagnosis of liver cancer. Methods We observed and compared the level of blood serum liver cancer tracers armor embryo protein (AFP),crag algae glycosidase (AFU),armor embryo protein heteroplasmon (AFPL3) and γ-Gu Anxian transferase (γ-GT) in early time for primary liver cancer patients and hepatitis liver cirrhosis patients and those chronic hepatitis B patients who had liver cancer family history. R...

  4. Immunotherapy of metastatic and autochthonous liver cancer with IL-15/IL-15Rα fusion protein

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Liang; Du, Xuexiang; Su, Lishan; Wang, Shengdian

    2014-01-01

    Liver cancer has a poor prognosis. Our recent study demonstrates that hyper-IL-15, composed of IL-15 and the sushi domain of IL-15 receptor α chain, provides an effective therapy against well-established metastatic and autochthonous liver cancers in mouse models by triggering activation and expansion of hepatic CD8+ T cells.

  5. Tyrosinernia type I treated by NTBC: How does AFP predict liver cancer?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J.L. Koelink; P. van Hasselt; A. van der Ploeg; M.M. van den Heuvel-Eibrink; F.A. Wijburg; C.M.A. Bijleveld; F.J. van Spronsen

    2006-01-01

    Background: Tyrosinemia type I is associated with an increased risk of liver cancer development. The formation of the pathogenic fumarylacetoacetate is prevented by 2-(2-nitro-4-3 trifluoro-methylbenzoyl)-1,3-cyclohexanedione (NTBC). Still, some patients with NTBC treatment develop liver cancer. A r

  6. Tyrosinernia type I treated by NTBC : How does AFP predict liver cancer?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelink, C. J. L.; van Hasselt, P.; van der Ploeg, A.; van den Heuvel-Elbrink, M. M.; Wijburg, F. A.; Bijleveld, C. M. A.; van Spronsen, F. J.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Tyrosinemia type I is associated with an increased risk of liver cancer development. The formation of the pathogenic fumarylacetoacetate is prevented by 2-(2-nitro-4-3 trifluoro-methylbenzoyl)-1,3-cyclohexanedione (NTBC). Still, some patients with NTBC treatment develop liver cancer. A r

  7. Low Levels of Energy Expenditure in Childhood Cancer Survivors: Implications for Obesity Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Fang Fang; Roberts, Susan B.; Parsons, Susan K; Must, Aviva; Kelly, Michael J.; Wong, William W; Saltzman, Edward

    2015-01-01

    Childhood cancer survivors are at an increased risk of obesity but causes for this elevated risk are uncertain. We evaluated total energy expenditure (TEE) in childhood cancer survivors using the doubly labeled water method in a cross-sectional study of 17 survivors of pediatric leukemia or lymphoma (median age 11.5 years). Mean TEE was 2,073 kcal/day, which was nearly 500 kcal/day lower than estimated energy requirements with recommended levels of physical activity. This energy gap is likely...

  8. Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MRI in Patients With Advanced Breast or Pancreatic Cancer With Metastases to the Liver or Lung

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-28

    Acinar Cell Adenocarcinoma of the Pancreas; Duct Cell Adenocarcinoma of the Pancreas; Liver Metastases; Lung Metastases; Recurrent Breast Cancer; Recurrent Pancreatic Cancer; Stage IV Breast Cancer; Stage IV Pancreatic Cancer

  9. Cetuximab and/or Dasatinib in Patients With Colorectal Cancer and Liver Metastases That Can Be Removed by Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-07

    Liver Metastases; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Stage IV Colon Cancer; Stage IV Rectal Cancer

  10. Childhood CT scans and cancer risk: impact of predisposing factors for cancer on the risk estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journy, N; Roué, T; Cardis, E; Le Pointe, H Ducou; Brisse, H; Chateil, J-F; Laurier, D; Bernier, M-O

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the role of cancer predisposing factors (PFs) on the associations between paediatric computed tomography (CT) scan exposures and subsequent risk of central nervous system (CNS) tumours and leukaemia. A cohort of children who underwent a CT scan in 2000-2010 in 23 French radiology departments was linked with the national childhood cancers registry and national vital status registry; information on PFs was retrieved through hospital discharge databases. In children without PF, hazard ratios of 1.07 (95% CI 0.99-1.10) for CNS tumours (15 cases) and 1.16 (95% CI 0.77-1.27) for leukaemia (12 cases) were estimated for each 10 mGy increment in CT x-rays organ doses. These estimates were similar to those obtained in the whole cohort. In children with PFs, no positive dose-risk association was observed, possibly related to earlier non-cancer mortality in this group. Our results suggest a modifying effect of PFs on CT-related cancer risks, but need to be confirmed by longer follow-up and other studies. PMID:26878249

  11. Relationship between Chemotherapy and Tamoxifen with Incidence of Fatty Liver in Women with Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh Keyhanian

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fatty liver disease is characterized by deposition of fat droplets in the liver of patients. According to some epidemiological studies; BMI, amount of fat intake from foods and high central fat are risk factors of breast cancer. This issue is one of the factors that cause high incidence of fatty liver in patients with breast cancer. Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study, all patients with breast cancer were evaluated who referred to Imam Sajjad hospital of Ramsar during 2008 - 2011. After initial review, 100 patients were enrolled. Those who were treated by chemotherapy underwent abdominal Sonography for evaluation of fatty liver. Also, those patients who also received tamoxifen in addition to chemotherapy, underwent abdominal ultrasonography 6 months after taking tamoxifen. After that, relationship between treatment of breast cancer and fatty liver in studied patients was evaluated based on obtained information. Results: The study results revealed that after chemotherapy, 30 (30% patients were reported to have fatty liver. Out of 70 people that after chemotherapy did not have fatty liver, 62 patients received tamoxifen; and after taking tamoxifen, 45.2% developed fatty liver. Using Chi Square test, there was a significant relationship between fatty liver after receiving tamoxifen, hyperlipidemia (p=0.011 and getting overweight (P =0.017. Conclusion: As the findings indicated, treatment of breast cancer especially with tamoxifen is associated with increased risk of fatty liver, especially in women who have hyperlipidemia and are overweight.

  12. Studying liver cancer metastasis by in vivo imaging and flow cytometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Gu, Zhengqin; Guo, Jin; Li, Yan; Liu, Guangda; Wei, Xunbin

    2009-11-01

    Primary liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma, or HCC) is associated with liver cirrhosis 60-80% of the time. Liver cancer is one of the most common malignancies in the world, with approximately 1,000,000 cases reported every year. About 80% of people with primary liver cancer are male. Although two-thirds of people have advanced liver disease when they seek medical help, one third of the patients have cancer that has not progressed beyond the liver. HCC may metastasize to the lung, bones, kidney, and many other organs. Surgical resection, liver transplantation, chemotherapy and radiation therapy are the foundation of current HCC therapies. However the outcomes are poor: the survival rate is almost zero for metastatic HCC patients. Molecular mechanisms of HCC metastasis need to be understood better and new therapies must be developed to selectively target to unique characteristics of HCC cell growth and metastasis. We have developed the "in vivo microscopy" to study the mechanisms that govern liver tumor cell spread through the microenvironment in vivo with real-time confocal near-infrared fluorescence imaging. A recently developed "in vivo flow cytometer" and optical imaging are used to assess liver tumor cell spreading and the circulation kinetics of liver tumor cells. A real- time quantitative monitoring of circulating liver tumor cells by the in vivo flow cytometer will be useful to assess the effectiveness of the potential therapeutic interventions.

  13. Liver Cancer in Atomic-bomb Survivors: Histological Characteristics and Relationships to Radiation and Hepatitis B and C Viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Fukuhara, Toshiyuki; Sharp, Gerald B.; Mizuno, Terumi; Itakura, Hideyo; Yamamoto, Masami; TOKUNAGA, Masayoshi; Tokuoka, Shoji; Cologne, John B.; Fujita, Yasuyuki; Soda, Midori; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    2001-01-01

    Histological features of primary liver cancer among atomic-bomb survivors and their relationship to hepatitis B (HBV) and C viral (HCV) infections are of special interest because of the increased risk of liver cancer in persons exposed to ionizing radiation and the high and increasing liver cancer rates in Japan and elsewhere. We conducted a pathology review of liver cancers occurring from 1958 to 1987 among subjects in the 120,321 member cohort of 1945 Hiroshima and Nagasaki residents. A pan...

  14. Adult liver stem cells in hepatic regeneration and cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nantasanti, Sathidpak

    2015-01-01

    An alternative source of livers for transplantation in patients with (genetic) liver diseases and liver failure is needed because liver donors are scarce. HPC-derived hepatocyte-like cells could be one of the options. Because dogs and humans share liver-pathologies and disease-pathways, the dog is c

  15. Association between serum 25(OH) vitamin D, incident liver cancer and chronic liver disease mortality in the Linxian Nutrition Intervention Trials: a nested case–control study

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, J-B; Abnet, C. C.; Chen, W.; Dawsey, S M; Fan, J-H; Yin, L-Y; Yin, J.; Major, J M; Taylor, P R; Qiao, Y-L; Freedman, N D

    2013-01-01

    Background: Although vitamin D deficiency has been noted in cross-sectional studies of chronic liver disease and laboratory studies suggest possible benefits of vitamin D in preventing liver cancer, little epidemiologic data are available. Methods: We performed a nested case–control study in the Linxian Nutrition Intervention Trials on participants developing incident liver cancer or dying from chronic liver disease over 22 years of follow-up. Baseline serum 25(OH) vitamin D was measured for ...

  16. The association of coffee intake with liver cancer incidence and chronic liver disease mortality in male smokers

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, G.Y.; Weinstein, S J; Albanes, D; Taylor, P R; McGlynn, K A; Virtamo, J; R. Sinha; Freedman, N D

    2013-01-01

    Background: Coffee intake is associated with reduced risk of liver cancer and chronic liver disease as reported in previous studies, including prospective ones conducted in Asian populations where hepatitis B viruses (HBVs) and hepatitis C viruses (HCVs) are the dominant risk factors. Yet, prospective studies in Western populations with lower HBV and HCV prevalence are sparse. Also, although preparation methods affect coffee constituents, it is unknown whether different methods affect disease...

  17. Molecular alterations in childhood thyroid cancer after Chernobyl accident and low-dose radiation risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The linear no-threshold (LNT) model of radiation carcinogenesis has been used for evaluating the risk from radiation exposure. While the epidemiological studies have supported the LNT model at doses above 100 mGy, more uncertainties are still existed in the LNT model at low doses below 100 mGy. Thus, it is urged to clarify the molecular mechanisms underlying radiation carcinogenesis. After the Chernobyl accident in 1986, significant amount of childhood thyroid cancer has emerged in the children living in the contaminated area. As the incidence of sporadic childhood thyroid cancer is very low, it is quite evident that those cancer cases have been induced by radiation exposure caused mainly by the intake of contaminated foods, such as milk. Because genetic alterations in childhood thyroid cancers have extensively been studied, it should provide a unique chance to understand the molecular mechanisms of radiation carcinogenesis. In a current review, molecular signatures obtained from the molecular studies of childhood thyroid cancer after Chernobyl accident have been overviewed, and new roles of radiation exposure in thyroid carcinogenesis will be discussed. (author)

  18. Functional and genetic deconstruction of the cellular origin in liver cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marquardt, Jens U; Andersen, Jesper B; Thorgeirsson, Snorri S

    2015-01-01

    During the past decade, research on primary liver cancers has particularly highlighted the uncommon plasticity of differentiated parenchymal liver cells (that is, hepatocytes and cholangiocytes (also known as biliary epithelial cells)), the role of liver progenitor cells in malignant transformation......, the importance of the tumour microenvironment and the molecular complexity of liver tumours. Whereas other reviews have focused on the landscape of genetic alterations that promote development and progression of primary liver cancers and the role of the tumour microenvironment, the crucial importance...... of the cellular origin of liver cancer has been much less explored. Therefore, in this Review, we emphasize the importance and complexity of the cellular origin in tumour initiation and progression, and attempt to integrate this aspect with recent discoveries in tumour genomics and the contribution...

  19. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) Crosstalks in Liver Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepatocarcinogenesis is a complex multistep process in which many different molecular pathways have been implicated. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is refractory to conventional chemotherapeutic agents, and the new targeted therapies are meeting with limited success. Interreceptor crosstalk and the positive feedback between different signaling systems are emerging as mechanisms of targeted therapy resistance. The identification of such interactions is therefore of particular relevance to improve therapeutic efficacy. Among the different signaling pathways activated in hepatocarcinogenesis the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) system plays a prominent role, being recognized as a “signaling hub” where different extracellular growth and survival signals converge. EGFR can be transactivated in response to multiple heterologous ligands through the physical interaction with multiple receptors, the activity of intracellular kinases or the shedding of EGFR-ligands. In this article we review the crosstalk between the EGFR and other signaling pathways that could be relevant to liver cancer development and treatment

  20. Medical image diagnosis of liver cancer using artificial intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A revised Group Method of Data Handling (GMDH)-type neural network algorithm using artificial intelligence technology for medical image diagnosis is proposed and is applied to medical image diagnosis of liver cancer. In this algorithm, the knowledge base for medical image diagnosis are used for organizing the neural network architecture for medical image diagnosis. Furthermore, the revised GMDH-type neural network algorithm has a feedback loop and can identify the characteristics of the medical images accurately using feedback loop calculations. The optimum neural network architecture fitting the complexity of the medical images is automatically organized so as to minimize the prediction error criterion defined as Prediction Sum of Squares (PSS). It is shown that the revised GMDH-type neural network can be easily applied to the medical image diagnosis. (author)

  1. Imaging evaluation of liver cancer after radiofrequency ablation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiofrequency ablation has been an important means of the comprehensive therapy for liver cancers, especially for the treatment of small hepatocellular carcinomas. Radiofrequency ablation has already showed encouraging clinical effects. However, due to the limitation of ablation extent the remnants of tumor lesions or the recurrence of tumor are often seen. Therefore, it is very important to accurately evaluate the curative effect of radiofrequency ablation. This paper aims to summarize the evaluation of curative effect of radiofrequency ablation with different imaging methods, and to discuss the advantages and disadvantages of these different imaging methods in order to provide a correct reference for taking reasonable imaging means to help make the proper clinical treatment. (authors)

  2. Efficacy of stereotactic radiotherapy for primary and metastatic liver cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty patients (30 nodules) with metastatic liver cancer (MLC) and 10 cases with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated by stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT) were analyzed. SRT was administered at 48.0 or 52.8 Gy/4 Fr/1 wk. The response rate (RR) in MLC patients was 78%, and 11 patients survived longer than 1 year and 9 patients survived as long as 2 years. Clinical analysis suggests that the ideal indications for SRT in MLC are solitary nodules in patients without extrahepatic disease who have undergone systemic chemotherapy. Although RR of SRT for HCC was as high as 85%, intrahepatic recurrence was observed in all patients and 6 patients died within 1 year Further analysis is needed to determine the indication for SRT in HCC patients. (author)

  3. Abdominal cancer during early childhood: A dosimetric comparison of proton beams to standard and advanced photon radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Evaluation of dosimetric benefits of advanced radiotherapy techniques for the treatment of abdominal lesions during early childhood. Patients and methods: Treatment planning was performed for five Neuroblastoma (NBL) and four Wilms Tumor (WT) patients. Opposing fields (2F), photon intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMXT) and two proton techniques (passively scattered (PT) and scanned beams (IMPT)) were considered. Averaged dose-volume histograms, associated dosimetric parameters and a radiobiological model for the estimation of the therapy related carcinogenic effect were evaluated. Results: With respect to the 2F technique, both proton techniques enabled to reduce mean liver and kidney dose by 40-60%; Organ fractions irradiated at the level of the tolerance dose were reduced by 65% for kidneys and 75% for the liver in NBL patients and by additional 10% for WT patients. IMXT enabled to reduce parameters related to the steep high-dose gradient, e.g., V15Gy for the kidneys was reduced by a factor 2-3 compared to 2F. V12Gy was reduced by 40% in the liver. On the other side, the improvement of those parameters characterizing the low isodose domain was limited for IMXT. The risk for radiation-induced secondary cancer was doubled for IMXT and even more increased for PT if secondary neutrons were taken into account, while this risk remained the same or was reduced by IMPT with respect to 2F. Conclusions: Proton beams improved all dosimetric parameters for NBL and WT patients compared to photon techniques. This improvement was limited for IMXT mainly to parameters related to the steep high-dose gradient. Further research is needed to minimize uncertainties for secondary cancer estimations

  4. [Liver abscess formation after treatment of liver cancer by arterial injection using adriamycin/mitomycin C oil suspension (ADMOS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, H; Hori, A; Satake, M; Kanetsuki, I; Ueno, K; Nishida, H; Ikeda, K; Kobayashi, H; Nakajo, M

    1992-02-25

    Of 210 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (n = 135), metastatic liver cancer (n = 71) and cholangiocarcinoma (n = 4) who underwent intra-arterial infusion of adriamycin and/or mitomycin C oil suspension (ADMOS) and cisplatin, and both regimens, pyogenic liver abscess occurred in seven (3.3%). The percentages of abscess formation in the respective types of liver cancer were 0.8, 7.0 and 25%. These differences among the three types of liver cancer were attributed to the volume of the tumor vascular beds to be embolized, which might determine the relative amount or regional Lipiodol retention in the tumor and normal liver tissue. Four of seven patients with hepatic abscess had received the intra-arterial infusion of ADMOS, and their angiographic findings showed sequential decreases in the vascular beds of the tumor in comparison with those of previous infusion procedures; all had hypovascular liver tumors angiographically. We have never experienced this complication in other treatments such as embolization of the hepatic arteries and intra-arterial infusion of water-soluble anticancer drugs alone. These results suggest that the most important factor leading to abscess formation is the ischemic destruction of the intrahepatic ducts secondary to occlusion of the peribiliary arterial plexus by Lipiodol and/or the direct effects of anticancer drugs on these vessels. To avoid this complication, the volume of Lipiodol used for intraarterial infusion therapy should be carefully determined, especially when the patient has hypovascular tumors of the liver and a history of multiple previous intraarterial infusion procedures of anticancer drug. The use of ADMOS should be avoided in patients with hypovascular tumors of the liver such as secondary deposits and cholangiocarcinoma. PMID:1313961

  5. Whole-liver radiotherapy for end-stage colorectal cancer patients with massive liver metastases and advanced hepatic dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate whether whole-liver radiotherapy (RT) is beneficial in end-stage colorectal cancer with massive liver metastases and severe hepatic dysfunction. Between June 2004 and July 2008, 10 colorectal cancer patients, who exhibited a replacement of over three quarters of their normal liver by metastatic tumors and were of Child-Pugh class B or C in liver function with progressive disease after undergoing chemotherapy, underwent whole-liver RT. RT was administered using computed tomography-based three-dimensional planning and the median dose was 21 Gy (range, 21-30) in seven fractions. Improvement in liver function tests, defined as a decrease in the levels within 1 month after RT, symptom palliation, toxicity, and overall survival were analyzed retrospectively. Levels of alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, aspartate transaminase, and alanine transaminase improved in 8, 6, 9, and all 10 patients, respectively, and the median reduction rates were 42%, 68%, 50%, and 57%, respectively. Serum carcinoembryonic antigen level decreased after RT in three of four assessable patients. For all patients, pain levels decreased and acute toxicity consisted of nausea/vomiting of grade ≤ 2. Further chemotherapy became possible in four of 10 patients. Mean survival after RT was 80 ± 80 days (range, 20-289); mean survival for four patients who received post-RT chemotherapy was 143 ± 100 days (range, 65-289), versus 38 ± 16 days (range, 20-64) for the six patients who did not receive post-RT chemotherapy (p = 0.127). Although limited by small case number, this study demonstrated a possible role of whole-liver RT in improving hepatic dysfunction and delaying mortality from hepatic failure for end-stage colorectal cancer patients with massive liver metastases. Further studies should be followed to confirm these findings

  6. Whole-liver radiotherapy for end-stage colorectal cancer patients with massive liver metastases and advanced hepatic dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Sun Young

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate whether whole-liver radiotherapy (RT is beneficial in end-stage colorectal cancer with massive liver metastases and severe hepatic dysfunction. Methods Between June 2004 and July 2008, 10 colorectal cancer patients, who exhibited a replacement of over three quarters of their normal liver by metastatic tumors and were of Child-Pugh class B or C in liver function with progressive disease after undergoing chemotherapy, underwent whole-liver RT. RT was administered using computed tomography-based three-dimensional planning and the median dose was 21 Gy (range, 21-30 in seven fractions. Improvement in liver function tests, defined as a decrease in the levels within 1 month after RT, symptom palliation, toxicity, and overall survival were analyzed retrospectively. Results Levels of alkaline phosphatase, total bilirubin, aspartate transaminase, and alanine transaminase improved in 8, 6, 9, and all 10 patients, respectively, and the median reduction rates were 42%, 68%, 50%, and 57%, respectively. Serum carcinoembryonic antigen level decreased after RT in three of four assessable patients. For all patients, pain levels decreased and acute toxicity consisted of nausea/vomiting of grade ≤ 2. Further chemotherapy became possible in four of 10 patients. Mean survival after RT was 80 ± 80 days (range, 20-289; mean survival for four patients who received post-RT chemotherapy was 143 ± 100 days (range, 65-289, versus 38 ± 16 days (range, 20-64 for the six patients who did not receive post-RT chemotherapy (p = 0.127. Conclusions Although limited by small case number, this study demonstrated a possible role of whole-liver RT in improving hepatic dysfunction and delaying mortality from hepatic failure for end-stage colorectal cancer patients with massive liver metastases. Further studies should be followed to confirm these findings.

  7. Childhood cancer and paternal employment in agriculture: the role of pesticides.

    OpenAIRE

    Fear, N T; E. ROMAN; G. Reeves; Pannett, B

    1998-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the offspring of men potentially exposed to pesticides at work may be at increased risk of kidney cancer (Wilms' tumour), brain tumours, Ewing's bone sarcoma and acute leukaemia. This paper examines the association between potential occupational exposure of fathers to pesticides and offspring's death from cancer in a large national database. Records for 167703 childhood deaths occurring during 1959-63, 1970-78 and 1979-90 in England and Wales have been ana...

  8. Long-term survivors of childhood cancer: Cure and care. The Erice Statement

    OpenAIRE

    Haupt, R; Spinetta, J.J.; Ban, I.; Barr, R.G.; Beck, J.D.; Byrne, J; Calaminus, G; Coenen, E.; Chesler, M; Angio, d', G.J.; Eiser, C.; Feldges, A; Gibson, F.; Lackner, H.; Masera, G.

    2009-01-01

    The number of individuals who have successfully completed treatment for a cancer diagnosed during childhood and are entering adulthood has been increasing. Members of the International Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster Early and Late Toxicity Educational Committee (ELTEC) invited 45 paediatric cancer experts - representing oncologists, psychologists, nurses, epidemiologists, parents, and survivors - from 13 European countries, with five additional experts from North America, to Erice, Sicily, on Octob...

  9. p53 codon 72 polymorphism and liver cancer susceptibility: A meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi Chen; Fei Liu; Bo Li; Yong-Gang Wei; Lv-Nan Yan; Tian-Fu Wen

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the association between p53 codon 72 polymorphism and liver cancer risk by means of meta-analysis.METHODS: Two investigators independently searched the Medline, Embase and Chinese Biomedicine databas-es. Summary odds ratios and 95% CI for p53 codon 72 polymorphism and liver cancer were calculated in .xed-effects model (Mantel-Haenszel method) and random-effects model (DerSimonian and Laird method) when appropriate.RESULTS: This meta-analysis included 1115 liver can-cer cases and 1778 controls. The combined results based on all studies showed that there was a statisti-cally signi.cant link between Pro/Pro genotype and liver cancer, but not between Arg/Arg or Pro/Arg genotype and liver cancer. When stratifying for race, similar re-sults were obtained, i.e. patients with liver cancer had a signi.cantly higher frequency of Pro/Pro genotype than non-cancer patients among Asians. After stratifying the various studies by control source, gender, family history of liver cancer and chronic hepatitis virus infection, we found that (1) patients among hospital-based studies had a significantly higher frequency of Pro/Pro and a signi.cantly lower frequency of Arg/Arg genotype than individuals without cancer; (2) female patients with liver cancer had a significantly lower frequency of Arg/Arg and a higher frequency of Pro/Arg+Pro/Pro genotypes than female individuals without cancer; (3) subgroup analyses for family history of liver cancer did not re-veal any signi.cant association between p53 codon 72 polymorphism and liver cancer development; and (4) patients with negative hepatitis virus infection had a sig-ni.cantly higher frequency of Pro/Pro and a signi.cantly lower frequency of Arg/Arg genotype than individuals without cancer.CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis suggests that the p53 codon 72 polymorphism may be associated with liver cancer among Asians.

  10. Follow-up programs for childhood cancer survivors in Europe: a questionnaire survey

    OpenAIRE

    Essig, Stefan; Skinner, Roderick; von der Weid, Nicolas; Kühni, Claudia; Michel, Gisela

    2012-01-01

    For many childhood cancer survivors follow-up care is important long after treatment completion. We aimed to describe the availability and characteristics of long-term follow-up programs (LTFU) across Europe, their content and aims, their problems, and to assess opinions on different models of LTFU.

  11. Validation of a Milk Consumption Stage of Change Algorithm among Adolescent Survivors of Childhood Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mays, Darren; Gerfen, Elissa; Mosher, Revonda B.; Shad, Aziza T.; Tercyak, Kenneth P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the construct validity of a milk consumption Stages of Change (SOC) algorithm among adolescent survivors of childhood cancer ages 11 to 21 years (n = 75). Methods: Baseline data from a randomized controlled trial designed to evaluate a health behavior intervention were analyzed. Assessments included a milk consumption SOC…

  12. Weight trajectories through infancy and childhood and risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in adolescence: The ALSPAC study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Emma L.; Howe, Laura D.; Fraser, Abigail; Callaway, Mark P.; Sattar, Naveed; Day, Chris; Tilling, Kate; Lawlor, Debbie A.

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Adiposity is a key risk factor for NAFLD. Few studies have examined prospective associations of infant and childhood adiposity with subsequent NAFLD risk. We examined associations of weight-for-height trajectories from birth to age 10 with liver outcomes in adolescence, and assessed the extent to which associations are mediated through fat mass at the time of outcome assessment. Methods Individual trajectories of weight and height were estimated for participants in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children using random-effects linear-spline models. Associations of birthweight (adjusted for birth length) and weight change (adjusted for length/height change) from 0–3 months, 3 months–1 y, 1–3 y, 3–7 y, and 7–10 y with ultrasound scan (USS) determined liver fat and stiffness, and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) at mean age 17.8 y were assessed with linear and logistic regressions. Mediation by concurrent fat mass was assessed with adjustment for fat mass at mean age 17.8 y. Results Birth weight was positively associated with liver stiffness and negatively with ALT and AST. Weight change from birth to 1 y was not associated with outcomes. Weight change from 1–3 y, 3–7 y, and 7–10 y was consistently positively associated with USS and blood-based liver outcomes. Adjusting for fat mass at mean age 17.8 y attenuated associations toward the null, suggesting associations are largely mediated by concurrent body fatness. Conclusions Greater rates of weight-for-height change between 1 y and 10 y are consistently associated with adverse liver outcomes in adolescence. These associations are largely mediated through concurrent fatness. PMID:24768828

  13. Cancer patterns among children of Turkish descent in Germany: A study at the German Childhood Cancer Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaatsch Peter

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer risks of migrants might differ from risks of the indigenous population due to differences in socioeconomic status, life style, or genetic factors. The aim of this study was to investigate cancer patterns among children of Turkish descent in Germany. Methods We identified cases with Turkish names (as a proxy of Turkish descent among the 37,259 cases of childhood cancer registered in the German Childhood Cancer Registry (GCCR during 1980–2005. As it is not possible to obtain reference population data for children of Turkish descent, the distribution of cancer diagnoses was compared between cases of Turkish descent and all remaining (mainly German cases in the registry, using proportional cancer incidence ratios (PCIRs. Results The overall distribution of cancer diagnoses was similar in the two groups. The PCIRs in three diagnosis groups were increased for cases of Turkish descent: acute non-lymphocytic leukaemia (PCIR 1.23; CI (95% 1.02–1.47, Hodgkin's disease (1.34; 1.13–1.59 and Non-Hodgkin/Burkitt lymphoma (1.19; 1.02–1.39. Age, sex, and period of diagnosis showed no influence on the distribution of diagnoses. Conclusion No major differences were found in cancer patterns among cases of Turkish descent compared to all other cases in the GCCR. Slightly higher proportions of systemic malignant diseases indicate that analytical studies involving migrants may help investigating the causes of such cancers.

  14. Adverse childhood experiences are associated with the risk of lung cancer: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwards Valerie J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Strong relationships between exposure to childhood traumatic stressors and smoking behaviours inspire the question whether these adverse childhood experiences (ACEs are associated with an increased risk of lung cancer during adulthood. Methods Baseline survey data on health behaviours, health status and exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs were collected from 17,337 adults during 1995-1997. ACEs included abuse (emotional, physical, sexual, witnessing domestic violence, parental separation or divorce, or growing up in a household where members with mentally ill, substance abusers, or sent to prison. We used the ACE score (an integer count of the 8 categories of ACEs as a measure of cumulative exposure to traumatic stress during childhood. Two methods of case ascertainment were used to identify incident lung cancer through 2005 follow-up: 1 hospital discharge records and 2 mortality records obtained from the National Death Index. Results The ACE score showed a graded relationship to smoking behaviors. We identified 64 cases of lung cancer through hospital discharge records (age-standardized risk = 201 × 100,000-1 population and 111 cases of lung cancer through mortality records (age-standardized mortality rate = 31.1 × 100,000-1 person-years. The ACE score also showed a graded relationship to the incidence of lung cancer for cases identified through hospital discharge (P = 0.0004, mortality (P = 0.025, and both methods combined (P = 0.001. Compared to persons without ACEs, the risk of lung cancer for those with ≥ 6 ACEs was increased approximately 3-fold (hospital records: RR = 3.18, 95%CI = 0.71-14.15; mortality records: RR = 3.55, 95%CI = 1.25-10.09; hospital or mortality records: RR = 2.70, 95%CI = 0.94-7.72. After a priori consideration of a causal pathway (i.e., ACEs → smoking → lung cancer, risk ratios were attenuated toward the null, although not completely. For lung cancer identified through hospital

  15. Childhood Abuse, Nonadherence, and Medical Outcome in Pediatric Liver Transplant Recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shemesh, Eyal; Annunziato, Rachel A.; Yehuda, Rachel; Shneider, Benjamin L.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.; Hutson, Carolyn; Cohen, Judith A.; Briere, John; Gorman, Jack M.; Emre, Sukru

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The study assessed the relationship between a history of child abuse, nonadherence to medications, and medical outcome in children who had a liver transplant. Method: Abuse history for children and adolescents ages 8 to 21 who underwent a liver transplantation at Mount Sinai Medical Center in New York was obtained in interviews in 2002.…

  16. Ultrasound imaging of flow patterns in liver metastases from colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael; Solvig, Jan

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The ability of colour Doppler, power Doppler and echo-enhanced Doppler imaging to detect the blood flow in liver metastases from colorectal cancer was investigated. An evaluation was then made to determine whether the flow pattern could be used as an indication of disease elsewhere....... METHODS: Forty-two patients with hepatic metastases from colorectal cancer were examined, 8 of whom had local recurrence of their colorectal cancer. Seventy-seven liver metastases were evaluated with colour Doppler and power Doppler, and the presence or absence of a Doppler signal in the halo or centre...... detection rate to 98% (P liver...

  17. The Link Between Hepatitis B and Liver Cancer: The Asian American Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dr. Moon Chen, Professor of the Department of Internal Medicine and Associate Director of Cancer Control at the University of California-Davis Comprehensive Cancer Center, speaks about Hepatitis B and Liver Cancer as a more prevalent problem in the Asian American community.

  18. A systematic review of a liver-first approach in patients with colorectal cancer and synchronous colorectal liver metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Vincent WT; Laurence, Jerome M; Pang, Tony; Johnston, Emma; Hollands, Michael J; Pleass, Henry CC; Richardson, Arthur J

    2014-01-01

    Background: Since the liver metastases rather than the colorectal cancer itself is the main determinant of patient’s survival, the ‘Liver-First Approach (LFA)’ with upfront chemotherapy followed by a hepatic resection of colorectal liver metastases (CLM) and finally a colorectal cancer resection was proposed. The aim of this review was to analyse the evidence for LFA in patients with colorectal cancer and synchronous CLM. Methods: A literature search of databases (MEDLINE and EMBASE) to identify published studies of LFA in patients with colorectal cancer and synchronous CLM was undertaken focussing on the peri-operative regimens of LFA and survival outcomes. Results: Three observational studies and one retrospective cohort study were included for review. A total of 121 patients with colorectal cancer and synchronous CLM were selected for LFA. Pre-operative chemotherapy was used in 99% of patients. One hundred and twelve of the initial 121 patients (93%) underwent a hepatic resection of CLM. In total, 60% had a major liver resection and the R0 resection rate was 93%. Post-operative morbidity and mortality after the hepatic resection were 20% and 1%, respectively. Ultimately, 89 of the initial 121 (74%) patients underwent a colorectal cancer resection. Post-operative morbidity and mortality after a colorectal resection were 50% and 6%, respectively. The median overall survival was 40 months (range 19–50) with a recurrence rate of 52%. Conclusions: Current evidence suggests that LFA is safe and feasible in selected patients with colorectal cancer and synchronous CLM. Future studies are required to further define patient selection criteria for LFA and the exact role of LFA in the management of synchronous CLM. PMID:23509899

  19. What Are the Most Common Types of Childhood Cancers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the eye may be noticed after a flash picture is taken. For more information see Retinoblastoma . Bone cancers Cancers that start in the bones (primary bone cancers) occur most often in older children and teens, but they can develop at any age. They ...

  20. From Chemo to College: The College Experience of Childhood Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, MaryAnn; Conte, Teresa M

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore how childhood cancer survivors experience college life. Five undergraduate students who are childhood cancer survivors, aged 19 to 22 years, participated in a 75-minute focus group interview. The survivors attended the same university located in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States. A transcript-based content analysis was used to analyze the data. Four themes and 2 subthemes were generated from the data analysis. Survivors described that the emotional growth they experienced from their cancer experience has provided them some psychological protection in managing the day-to-day challenges of college life and in making informed choices about engaging in high-risk behaviors. As a result of their cancer experience, the findings suggest that these childhood cancer survivors have a strong foundation of self-awareness and self-worth, which has assisted them in making a successful transition into college life and in enjoying positive collegiate experiences. PMID:26510645

  1. Neurodevelopmental Outcome of Childhood Cancer Survivors Treated at the Eric Williams Medical Sciences Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombs, D; Bodkyn, C; Ramcharan, J

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the neurodevelopmental outcome of childhood cancer survivors treated at the Eric Williams Medical Sciences Complex (EWMSC). Methods: Study participants were children treated at EWMSC from January 2003 to March 31, 2012 for various childhood cancers. All had completed treatment and were in remission. The McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities (MSCA) was administered. The study was conducted from December 2011 to March 31, 2012. Results: Twenty-six children were evaluated, a response rate of 74%. There were 12 males and 14 females. Ages ranged from 3.25 to 9.00 years. Four (15.4%) children scored a general cognitive index (GCI) 132. The children's mean estimated mental age was found to be significantly lower than their mean actual age (p = 0.0086). Children treated for solid tumours had the least difference between their actual ages and estimated mental ages (p = 0.0301). The mean GCI for the genders was 97.4 for females and 81.0 for males; this difference was statistically significant (p = 0.0302). Age at diagnosis, type and length of treatment were not found to significantly affect development. Conclusion: The paediatric cancer survivors in this survey were found to have delays in their development. This group of children should have their development closely monitored. This would ensure that any delays in development can be discovered early and appropriate interventions instituted, so that childhood cancer survivors are adequately prepared for adult life beyond cancer. PMID:25803371

  2. Knowledge, attitude, and awareness of childhood cancer among undergraduate medical students in South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Sneha Latha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background :In India roughly 60000 childhood cancer cases are diagnosed annually with only nearly 100 pediatric oncologists. So it′s pertinent that the physicians and pediatricians are adequately equipped to recognize and refer them appropriately. Hence this study was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitude and awareness of childhood cancer among undergraduate medical students in South India. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted among 240 undergraduate students from all over South India in a undergraduate pediatric clinical training. A 24 point questionnaire was given to assess their understanding of pediatric malignancies and their interest towards pediatric oncology. Statistical analysis was done with SPSS 18.V software. Results: 50% were interested in pursuing pediatrics as their career but 80% of them were not interested in pursuing pediatric oncology as their career. 55% of the students have not encountered any pediatric oncology patients in the ward. 40% did not have any lecture classes on pediatric oncology. 65.5% felt that their knowledge of childhood cancer did not make them competent to suspect and refer appropriately during their practice. 84% supported that there is a need to improve pediatric oncology teaching in their medical curriculum. Conclusions : The study unambiguously states that the future physicians lack confidence in identifying and managing childhood malignancies and pediatric oncology is far down in their career options. There is a need to reform the undergraduate medical students by increasing their exposure to pediatric oncology to improve their competence levels and interest in pursuing it as a career also.

  3. Scottish validation study of cancer registration data childhood leukaemia 1968-1981: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study attempted to validate central registration data on all childhood leukaemia cases in Scotland between 1968 and 1981 in line with the Black Enquiry concerning West Cumbria. Missing files precluded a complete verification, but minor errors of registration were found in 44% of cases. A small number of important mistakes of omission (eight cases), wrong diagnosis (six cases) and postal code errors (nine cases) were found which might affect epidemiological studies of these relatively rare diseases. Precise and verified prospective data collection at the time of diagnosis is essential if the spatial distribution of childhood cancers is being studied. (author)

  4. Impact of Cancer Support Groups on Childhood Cancer Treatment and Abandonment in a Private Pediatric Oncology Centre

    OpenAIRE

    Arathi Srinivasan; Khushboo Tiwari; Julius Xavier Scott; Priya Ramachandran; Mathangi Ramakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To analyze the impact of two cancer support groups in the treatment and abandonment of childhood cancer. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective review of children with cancer funded and non-funded who were treated at Kanchi Kamakoti CHILDS Trust Hospital from 2010 to 2013. A total of 100 patients were funded, 57 by Ray of Light Foundation and 43 by Pediatric Lymphoma Project and 70 non-funded. Results: The total current survival of 80%, including those who have completed...

  5. SPECIFIC FEATURES OF THE CURRENT DIAGNOSIS OF COLORECTAL CANCER LIVER METASTASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Yu. Danzanova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of an optimal algorithm of ray diagnostic examinations in the case of colorectal cancer liver metastases is extremely important. The paper reviews the literature on the diagnosis of colorectal cancer liver metastases. Diagnosis of liver metastases is based on imaging techniques that allow you to assess the condition of the liver, the number and size of lesions and the number of parameters on which the patient is suitable for radical surgery. Described ultrasound (US, computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI semiotics of liver metastases, and reflect additional information that can be obtained using beam methods of research, which is of great importance in determining resectability and preoperative planning of surgery. We consider differential diagnosis with benign tumors of the liver. The value and priority of such methods of radiation diagnosis as ultrasound with contrast, CT and MRI contrast agents, is widely debated among experts.

  6. Incidence and Trend of Childhood and Adolescent Cancers in Yazd, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binesh, F; Hashemi, A; VakilI, M; Shakeri, MM; Masoumi Dehshiri, R

    2016-01-01

    Background Data on childhood and adolescent malignant tumors incidence are skimp in developing countries. In this study, we analyzed the incidence and trend of childhood and adolescent cancers in Yazd city, center of Iran between Jan 2004 and Dec 2013. Material and Methods The various types of malignant tumors were grouped pursuant to the International Classification for Cancer in Children. To analyze the data, descriptive and illative statistical methods were used. Results Two hundred twenty-two patients with a malignancy aged less than 18 years were studied with a male to female ratio of 1.36.The mean age of patients was 9.88 (±5.7) years. Leukemia with the frequency of 84 (37.8%) and after that lymphoid malignancies with the frequency of 49 (22.1%) were the most common cancers. There was a low range of oscillation in the incidence rate of malignancies during this period of time (P value= 0.081). Malignancies were mostly in males (P value=0.057) but the whole process of malignancy incidence had gone toward the higher rate of incidence in females. Incidence rate of cancers types was steady. Malignancy incidence was 3-7 cases in hundred of thousands except a year of which this incidence rate was estimated 13.4. Conclusion Leukemias and lymphomas were the main cancers in the center of Iran. Childhood and adolescent malignancies may be considerably under-recorded in our province .A childhood and adolescent cancer registry is necessary for exact analysis of these types of malignancies. PMID:27222698

  7. Examining breast cancer growth and lifestyle risk factors: early life, childhood, and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruder, Elizabeth H; Dorgan, Joanne F; Kranz, Sibylle; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Hartman, Terryl J

    2008-08-01

    The perinatal period, childhood, and adolescence are important intervals for breast cancer risk development. Endogenous estrogen exposure is thought to be highest in utero, and exposure to estrogens throughout life plays an important role in increasing breast cancer risk. Some evidence suggests that breast tissue is not fully differentiated until after the first full-term pregnancy; thus, breast tissue might be more susceptible to carcinogenic influences during early life and adolescence. Birth characteristics of the daughter, including gestational age, birth weight, and birth length are associated with maternal hormone levels during the index pregnancy, and birth size has been related to daughter's timing of puberty and adult breast cancer incidence. Furthermore, early life and adolescence are critical times for maturation of the hypothalamic pituitary ovarian axis, which regulates production of ovarian hormones including estrogen and progesterone. Childhood height, growth, diet, and body mass index (BMI) have also been associated with breast cancer risk later in life. Of the examined characteristics, we conclude that the available evidence is suggestive of a positive relationship of breast cancer risk with birth weight, birth length, and adolescent height, and an inverse relationship with gestational age and childhood BMI, although several inconsistencies exist in the literature. The best evidence for a relationship of adolescent diet and adult breast cancer risk is indirect, and the relationship of diet, weight status, and weight gain in childhood deserves further attention. The interaction of birth characteristics with established risk factors over the life course, such as age at menarche, in addition to gene-environment interactions, require more research. Further study is also needed to clarify the biologic mechanisms influencing the observed associations. PMID:18757260

  8. Temsirolimus and Bevacizumab in Treating Patients With Advanced Endometrial, Ovarian, Liver, Carcinoid, or Islet Cell Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-11

    Adult Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Advanced Adult Hepatocellular Carcinoma; Endometrial Serous Adenocarcinoma; Localized Non-Resectable Adult Liver Carcinoma; Lung Carcinoid Tumor; Malignant Pancreatic Gastrinoma; Malignant Pancreatic Glucagonoma; Malignant Pancreatic Insulinoma; Malignant Pancreatic Somatostatinoma; Metastatic Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Ovarian Carcinosarcoma; Ovarian Endometrioid Adenocarcinoma; Ovarian Seromucinous Carcinoma; Ovarian Serous Surface Papillary Adenocarcinoma; Pancreatic Alpha Cell Adenoma; Pancreatic Beta Cell Adenoma; Pancreatic Delta Cell Adenoma; Pancreatic G-Cell Adenoma; Pancreatic Polypeptide Tumor; Recurrent Adult Liver Carcinoma; Recurrent Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Recurrent Fallopian Tube Carcinoma; Recurrent Ovarian Carcinoma; Recurrent Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Carcinoma; Recurrent Primary Peritoneal Carcinoma; Recurrent Uterine Corpus Carcinoma; Regional Digestive System Neuroendocrine Tumor G1; Stage IIIA Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIA Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIA Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIB Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIB Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIB Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IIIC Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IIIC Ovarian Cancer; Stage IIIC Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IIIC Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IV Fallopian Tube Cancer; Stage IV Ovarian Cancer; Stage IV Primary Peritoneal Cancer; Stage IVA Uterine Corpus Cancer; Stage IVB Uterine Corpus Cancer; Uterine Carcinosarcoma

  9. Time trends in incidence and prognosis of primary liver cancer and liver metastases of unknown origin in a Danish region, 1985-2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erichsen, Rune; Jepsen, Peter; Jacobsen, Jacob;

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Changes, over the last 20 years, in the diagnostic procedures and treatment of primary liver cancer (PLC) and liver metastases of unknown origin (LMUO) may have affected the clinical course of both cancers. Few longitudinal studies examined this issue. In a population-based setting, we...

  10. 20-years of population-based cancer registration in hepatitis B and liver cancer prevention in the Gambia, West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrima Bah

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Gambia Hepatitis Intervention Study (GHIS was designed as a randomised control trial of infant hepatitis B vaccination applied to public health policy, with the main goal of preventing primary liver cancer later in adult life in The Gambia. To that effect, the National Cancer Registry of The Gambia (NCR, a population-based cancer registry (PBCR, was established in 1986 to actively collect data on all cancer diagnosis nation-wide. We extracted 20-years (1990-2009 of data to assess for the first time, the evolution of the most common cancers, also describe and demonstrate the role of the PBCR in a hepatitis B and liver cancer prevention programme in this population. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We estimated Age-Standardised Incidence Rates (ASR (W of the most common cancers registered during the period by gender. The registration period was divided into four 5-year intervals and incidence rates were estimated for each interval. The most common cancers in males were liver, prostate, lung plus bronchus, non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL and stomach, accounting for 60%, 5%, 4%, 5% and 3%, respectively. Similarly, cancers of the cervix uteri, liver, breast and NHL, were the most common in females, accounting for 33%, 24%, 11% and 4% of the female cancers, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Cancer incidence has remained relatively stable over time, but as shown elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa the disease is a threat in The Gambia. The infection related cancers which are mostly preventable (HBV in men and HPV/HIV in women were the most common. At the moment the data is not enough to detect an effect of hepatitis B vaccination on liver cancer incidence in The Gambia. However, we observed that monitoring case occurrence through PBCR is a key public health pre-requisite for rational planning and implementation of targeted interventions for improving the health of the population.

  11. Mouse models in liver cancer research: A review of current literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Martijn WH Leenders; Maarten W Nijkamp; Inne HM Borel Rinkes

    2008-01-01

    Primary liver cancer remains one of the most lethal malignancies worldwide. Due to differences in prevalence of etiological factors the incidence of primary liver cancer varies among the world, with a peak in EasL-Asia. As this disease is still lethal in most of the cases, research has to be done to improve our understanding of the disease, offering insights for possible treatment options. For this purpose, animal models are widely used,especially mouse models. In this review, we describe the different types of mouse models used in liver cancer research, with emphasis on genetically engineered mice used in this field. We focus on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), as this is by far the most common Lype of primary liver cancer, accounting for 70%-85% of cases.

  12. The option of palliative treatment of colorectal cancer patients with liver metastases and obstructive jaundice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines a version of the combined treatment of patients with colorectal cancer and liver metastases in the background of obstructive jaundice with intra-arterial chemotherapy followed by a course of radiotherapy to the area of the liver developed in DOPTS techniques. The efficiency of our proposed method in comparison with the previously existing ones is proved

  13. Stem Cells in Liver Diseases and Cancer: Recent Advances on the Path to New Therapies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rountree, C. Bart; Mishra, Lopa; Willenbring, Holger

    2011-01-01

    Stem cells have potential for therapy of liver diseases, but may also be involved in the formation of liver cancer. Recently, the AASLD Henry M. and Lillian Stratton Basic Research Single Topic Conference “Stem Cells in Liver Diseases and Cancer: Discovery and Promise” brought together a diverse group of investigators to define the status of research on stem cells and cancer stem cells in the liver and identify problems and solutions on the path to clinical translation. This report summarizes the outcomes of the conference and provides an update on recent research advances. Progress in liver stem cell research includes isolation of primary liver progenitor cells (LPC), directed hepatocyte differentiation of primary LPC and pluripotent stem cells, findings of transdifferentiation, disease-specific considerations for establishing a therapeutically effective cell mass, and disease modeling in cell culture. Tumor initiating stem-like cells (TISC) that emerge during chronic liver injury share expression of signaling pathways, including those organized around TGF-β and β-catenin, and surface markers with normal LPC. Recent investigations of the role of TISC in hepatocellular carcinoma have provided insight into the transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of hepatocarcinogenesis. Targeted chemotherapies for TISC are in development as a means to overcome cellular resistance and mechanisms driving disease progression in liver cancer. PMID:22030746

  14. Venous thromboembolism and subsequent risk of cancer in patients with liver disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montomoli, Jonathan; Erichsen, Rune; Søgaard, Kirstine Kobberøe;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) may be a marker of occult cancer in the general population. While liver disease is known to increase the risk of VTE and cancer, it is unclear whether VTE in patients with liver disease is also a marker of occult cancer. DESIGN: A population-based cohort...... and patients with liver cirrhosis were followed as two separate cohorts from the date of their VTE. MEASURES: For each cohort, we computed the absolute and relative risk (standardised incidence ratio; SIR) of cancer after VTE. RESULTS: During the study period, 1867 patients with non-cirrhotic liver disease...... and 888 with liver cirrhosis were diagnosed with incident VTE. In the first year following VTE, the absolute risk of cancer was 2.7% among patients with non-cirrhotic liver disease and 4.3% among those with liver cirrhosis. The SIR for the first 90 days of follow-up was 9.96 (95% CI 6.85 to 13.99) among...

  15. Childhood Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells. It is the most common type of childhood cancer. ... blood cells help your body fight infection. In leukemia, the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood cells. ...

  16. Evaluation of sodium cantharidinate/vitamin B6 in the treatment of primary liver cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Hejun Shao; Guohu Hong; Xinhua Luo

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study evaluated the treatment effectiveness of sodium cantharidinate/vitamin B6 in patient with middle/late stage primary liver cancer. Materials and Methods: A 3-month follow-up study on 104 patients with primary liver cancer was carried out. Regular medication treatment was applied to 41 patients and sodium cantharidinate/vitamin B6 combined with the regular medication was applied to 63 patients. The treatment effectiveness and prognosis were evaluated using the s...

  17. Childhood thyroid cancers and radioactive iodine therapy. Necessity of precautious radiation health risk management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the lessons from Chernobyl's legacy on health impact beyond 20 years is not only how to detect and treat the patients with radiation-associated thyroid cancers but how to follow up those who received radioactive iodine treatment repetitively after surgery in order to monitor any recurrence/worsening and also how to predict the risk of secondary primary cancers for their lifetime period. To evaluate the possibility of second primary tumors after radioactive iodine treatment, we reviewed the reports on risks from both external and internal radiation exposure, especially at high doses during childhood through an internet service of the National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health, PubMed by the end of June, 2007, together with our own experience of Chernobyl childhood thyroid cancers. Children who were internally exposed after Chernobyl accident have a long-term risk of well differentiated thyroid cancers. Once they have disease, ironically radioactive iodine ablation is one of the useful therapies after surgical treatment. Elevated risks of solid cancers and leukemia have been found in radioiodine-treated patients, however, so far precious few reports from Chernobyl thyroid cancer patient were published. To reduce the adverse effects of radioactive iodine therapy on non-target tissues, recombinant human thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) has been applied and proved effective. Period of latency of second primary cancers may be very long. Therefore patients treated with high activities of radioactive iodine, especially children cases, should be carefully followed up during their whole lifespan. (author)

  18. Childhood thyroid cancers and radioactive iodine therapy: necessity of precautious radiation health risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Atsushi; Reiners, Christoph; Drozd, Valentina; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2007-12-01

    One of the lessons from Chernobyl's legacy on health impact beyond 20 years is not only how to detect and treat the patients with radiation-associated thyroid cancers but how to follow up those who received radioactive iodine treatment repetitively after surgery in order to monitor any recurrence/worsening and also how to predict the risk of secondary primary cancers for their lifetime period. To evaluate the possibility of second primary tumors after radioactive iodine treatment, we reviewed the reports on risks from both external and internal radiation exposure, especially at high doses during childhood through an internet service of the National Library of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health, PubMed by the end of June, 2007, together with our own experience of Chernobyl childhood thyroid cancers. Children who were internally exposed after Chernobyl accident have a long-term risk of well differentiated thyroid cancers. Once they have disease, ironically radioactive iodine ablation is one of the useful therapies after surgical treatment. Elevated risks of solid cancers and leukemia have been found in radioiodine-treated patients, however, so far precious few reports from Chernobyl thyroid cancer patient were published. To reduce the adverse effects of radioactive iodine therapy on non-target tissues, recombinant human TSH has been applied and proved effective. Period of latency of second primary cancers may be very long. Therefore patients treated with high activities of radioactive iodine, especially children cases, should be carefully followed up during their whole lifespan. PMID:17938505

  19. Childhood cancer and occupational radiation exposure in parents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To test the hypothesis that a parent's job exposure to radiation affeOR). its his or her child's risk of cancer, the authors compared this exposure during the year before the child's birth for parents of children with and without cancer. Parents of children with cancer were no more likely to have worked in occupations, industries, or combined occupations and industries with potential ionizing radiation exposure. Bone cancer and Wilms' tumor occurred more frequently among children of fathers in all industries with moderate potential ionizing radiation exposure. Children with cancer more often had fathers who were aircraft mechanics (odds ratio (OR)) . infinity, one-sided 95% lower limit . 1.5; P . 0.04). Although four of these six were military aircraft mechanics, only children whose fathers had military jobs with potential ionizing radiation exposure had an increased cancer risk (OR . 2.73; P . 0.01). Four cancer types occurred more often among children of fathers in specific radiation-related occupations: rhabdomyosarcoma among children whose fathers were petroleum industry foremen; retinoblastoma among children whose fathers were radio and television repairmen; central nervous system cancers and other lymphatic cancers among children of Air Force fathers. Because numbers of case fathers are small and confidence limits are broad, the associations identified by this study need to be confirmed in other studies. Better identification and gradation of occupational exposure to radiation would increase the sensitivity to detect associations

  20. Irinotecan-Eluting Beads in Treating Patients With Refractory Metastatic Colon or Rectal Cancer That Has Spread to the Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-22

    Liver Metastases; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Mucinous Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Recurrent Colon Cancer; Recurrent Rectal Cancer; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Signet Ring Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum; Stage IVA Colon Cancer; Stage IVA Rectal Cancer; Stage IVB Colon Cancer; Stage IVB Rectal Cancer

  1. Influence of sex hormone and cancer prevention by soy products on liver and breast cancers in rodents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer development has been well documented by a combination of genetic events and environmental factors. Initiation of cancer cells to clinical cancers is a life long event. The events are classified as initiation of transformed cell, promotion and progression. Gender is another key factor for the occurrence of solid cancers in liver and stomach in the males and thyroid in the females. Development of cancers may be intervened by consumption of foods and food additives containing proven anti-cancerous chemicals. In this review application of soy products of miso and isoflavones have been assessed in terms of prevention and diminution of cancer in experimental models on liver tumors in mice and breast carcinomas in rats. (author)

  2. Cardiac damage after treatment of childhood cancer: A long-term follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With improved childhood cancer cure rate, long term sequelae are becoming an important factor of quality of life. Signs of cardiovascular disease are frequently found in long term survivors of cancer. Cardiac damage may be related to irradiation and chemotherapy. We have evaluated simultaneous influence of a series of independent variables on the late cardiac damage in childhood cancer survivors in Slovenia and identified groups at the highest risk. 211 long-term survivors of different childhood cancers, at least five years after treatment were included in the study. The evaluation included history, physical examination, electrocardiograpy, exercise testing and echocardiograpy. For analysis of risk factors, beside univariate analysis, multivariate classification tree analysis statistical method was used. Patients treated latest, from 1989–98 are at highest risk for any injury to the heart (73%). Among those treated earlier are at the highest risk those with Hodgkin's disease treated with irradiation above 30 Gy and those treated for sarcoma. Among specific forms of injury, patients treated with radiation to the heart area are at highest risk of injury to the valves. Patients treated with large doses of anthracyclines or concomitantly with anthracyclines and alkylating agents are at highest risk of systolic function defect and enlarged heart chambers. Those treated with anthracyclines are at highest risk of diastolic function defect. The time period of the patient's treatment is emerged as an important risk factor for injury of the heart

  3. Cluster of liver cancer and immigration: A geographic analysis of incidence data for Ontario 1998–2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Yang

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Liver cancer is not common in Canada in general; however, clustering of the disease causes a concern. We conducted a spatial analysis to determine the geographic variation of liver cancer and its association with the proportion of immigration in Ontario. Liver cancer incidence data between 1998 and 2002 were obtained from the Ontario Cancer Registry. The Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS in 2001 provided information on potential risk factors. Results Age standardized incidence ratios (SIR for liver cancer and prevalence of potential risk factors were calculated for each of 35 health regions. The SIRs for liver cancer varied across the 35 health regions (p Conclusion Immigration is an important reason for the clustering of liver cancer in Ontario. More attention should be paid to areas with a high proportion of immigrants.

  4. Follow-up and care of childhood cancer survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More children than ever before are being cured of cancer, thanks to aggressive use of multimodal therapy. Of prime concern are the potential long-term deleterious effects of such treatment. Sequelae may include impairment of growth or other aspects of development, damage to various organ systems, or a second cancer. Guidelines for surveillance and counseling are described.15 references

  5. Treatment for liver metastases from breast cancer: Results and prognostic factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Ping Li; Zhi-Qiang Meng; Wei-Jian Guo; Jie Li

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Liver metastases from breast cancer (BCLM) are associated with poor prognosis. Cytotoxic chemotherapy can result in regression of tumor lesions and a decrease in symptoms. Available data, in the literature, also suggest a subgroup of patients rraay berefit from surgery, but few talked about transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE).We report the results of TACE and systemic chemotherapy for patients with liver metastases from breast cancer and evaluate the prognostic factors. METHODS: Forty-eight patients with liver metastases, from proved breast primary cancer were treated with TACEor systemic chemotherapy between January 1995 and December 2000. Treatment results were assessed according to WHO criteria, along with analysis of prognostic factors for survival using Cox regression model.RESULTS: The median follow-up was 28 mo (1-72 mo). Response rates were calculated for the TACE group and chemotherapy group, being 35.7% and 7.1%,respectively. The difference was significant. The one-, two- and three-year Survival rates for the TACE group were 63.04%, 30.35%, and 13.01%, and those for the systemic chemotherapy group were 33.88%, 11.29%, and 0%. According to univariate analysis, variables significantly associated with survival were the lymph node status of the primary cancer, the clinical stage of liver metastases, the Child-Pugh grade, loss of weight. Other factors such as age, the intervals between the primary to the metastases, the maximal diameter of the liver metastases, the number of liver metastases, extrahepatic metastasis showed no prognostic significances. These factors mentioned above such as the lymph node status of the primary cancer, the clinical stage of liver metastases, the Child-Pugh grade, loss of weight were also independent factors in multivariate analysis.CONCLUSION: TACE treatment of liver metastases from breast cancer may prolong survival in certain patients. This approach offers new promise for the curative treatment of the patients

  6. Improved detection of liver cancer with hepatocytes-directed superparamagnetic iron oxide particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates the use of a novel superparamagnetic MR contrast agent directed to asialoglycoprotein (ASG) receptors on hepatocytes for the detection of liver cancer. Ultrasmall (mean size, 12 nm) superparamagnetic particles of iron oxide (USPIO) are targeted to ASG receptors by coating particles with arabinogalactan (AG-USPIO). Hepatocyte and tumor cell receptor affinity studies, relaxation effects, and changes in tumor-liver contrast of AG-USPIO are compared to conventional iron oxide preparations (AMI-25 and USPIO) in animal models (hepatocellular and mammary adenocarcinoma) of liver cancer (N = 115 rats)

  7. Regulation of deleted in liver cancer-1 gene domains on the proliferation of human colon cancer HT29 cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴平平

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the role of deleted in liver cancer-1(DLC-1) gene main domains on the regulation of hu-man colon cancer HT29 cell proliferation. Methods Subcloning recombinant plasmid vectors with Rho GTPase activating protein(RhoGAP),sterile alpha motif(SAM)

  8. Classification tree analysis of second neoplasms in survivors of childhood cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reports on childhood cancer survivors estimated cumulative probability of developing secondary neoplasms vary from 3,3% to 25% at 25 years from diagnosis, and the risk of developing another cancer to several times greater than in the general population. In our retrospective study, we have used the classification tree multivariate method on a group of 849 first cancer survivors, to identify childhood cancer patients with the greatest risk for development of secondary neoplasms. In observed group of patients, 34 develop secondary neoplasm after treatment of primary cancer. Analysis of parameters present at the treatment of first cancer, exposed two groups of patients at the special risk for secondary neoplasm. First are female patients treated for Hodgkin's disease at the age between 10 and 15 years, whose treatment included radiotherapy. Second group at special risk were male patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who were treated at the age between 4,6 and 6,6 years of age. The risk groups identified in our study are similar to the results of studies that used more conventional approaches. Usefulness of our approach in study of occurrence of second neoplasms should be confirmed in larger sample study, but user friendly presentation of results makes it attractive for further studies

  9. Nutritional Counseling in Survivors of Childhood Cancer: An Essential Component of Survivorship Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena J. Ladas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that nutritional status during treatment for cancer has a significant impact on treatment-related toxicities and outcomes among children and adolescents with cancer. The effects of nutritional status appear to extend into survivorship with a large proportion of survivors at risk for a variety of nutrition-related morbidities. The influence of dietary intake on overall treatment outcomes and long-term morbidities is largely unknown. In adults, evidence suggests that greater adherence to cancer prevention dietary guidelines improves long-term health outcomes among survivors of cancer. Surveys describing dietary intake among survivors of childhood cancer have found that most survivors are not meeting the recommended guidelines for many dietary nutrients and this may have an unfavorable effect on nutrition-related outcomes. However, more research is needed in this area so that well-designed clinical trials may be developed and tested. This review presents an overview of the existing literature describing dietary intake among survivors of childhood cancer, the clinical implications of reported dietary behaviors among survivors, and identifies areas for future research.

  10. Autoimmune diseases in Adult Life after Childhood Cancer in Scandinavia (ALiCCS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmqvist, Anna Sällfors; Olsen, Jørgen H.; Mellemkjaer, Lene;

    2015-01-01

    all autoimmune diseases combined, corresponding to an AER of 67 per 100 000 person-years. The SHRRs were significantly increased for autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (16.3), Addison's disease (13.9), polyarteritis nodosa (5.8), chronic rheumatic heart disease (4.5), localised scleroderma (3......OBJECTIVES: The pattern of autoimmune diseases in childhood cancer survivors has not been investigated previously. We estimated the risk for an autoimmune disease after childhood cancer in a large, population-based setting with outcome measures from comprehensive, nationwide health registries.......6), idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (3.4), Hashimoto's thyroiditis (3.1), pernicious anaemia (2.7), sarcoidosis (2.2), Sjögren's syndrome (2.0) and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (1.6). The SHRRs for any autoimmune disease were significantly increased after leukaemia (SHRR 1.6), Hodgkin's lymphoma (1...

  11. PKLR promotes colorectal cancer liver colonization through induction of glutathione synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Alexander; Loo, Jia Min; Mital, Rohit; Weinberg, Ethan M; Man, Fung Ying; Zeng, Zhaoshi; Paty, Philip B; Saltz, Leonard; Janjigian, Yelena Y; de Stanchina, Elisa; Tavazoie, Sohail F

    2016-02-01

    Colorectal cancer metastasis to the liver is a major cause of cancer-related death; however, the genes and pathways that govern this metastatic colonization event remain poorly characterized. Here, using a large-scale in vivo RNAi screen, we identified liver and red blood cell pyruvate kinase (PKLR) as a driver of metastatic liver colonization. PKLR expression was increased in liver metastases as well as in primary colorectal tumors of patients with metastatic disease. Evaluation of a murine liver colonization model revealed that PKLR promotes cell survival in the tumor core during conditions of high cell density and oxygen deprivation by increasing glutathione, the primary endogenous antioxidant. PKLR negatively regulated the glycolytic activity of PKM2, the major pyruvate kinase isoenzyme known to regulate cellular glutathione levels. Glutathione is critical for metastasis, and we determined that the rate-limiting enzyme of glutathione synthesis, GCLC, becomes overexpressed in patient liver metastases, promotes cell survival under hypoxic and cell-dense conditions, and mediates metastatic liver colonization. RNAi-mediated inhibition of glutathione synthesis impaired survival of multiple colon cancer cell lines, and pharmacological targeting of this metabolic pathway reduced colonization in a primary patient-derived xenograft model. Our findings highlight the impact of metabolic reprogramming within the niche as metastases progress and suggest clinical potential for targeting this pathway in colorectal cancer. PMID:26784545

  12. Health behaviour and posttraumatic growth in parents of childhood cancer survivors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slezáčková, Alena; Blatný, Marek; Jelínek, Martin; Kepák, T.; Vlčková, I.; Pilát, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 1 (2009), s. 366-367. ISSN 0887-0446. [Annual Conference of the European Health Psychology Society /23./. 23.09.2009-26.09.2009, Pisa] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA406/07/1384 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : health behaviour * posttraumatic growth * childhood cancer survivors Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  13. Long-term follow-up of childhood cancer survivors: clinical decision support and research participation

    OpenAIRE

    Kilsdonk, E.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the research in this thesis was twofold. Part 1 aimed to provide insights into how the use of a (paper-based) clinical guideline for follow-up care of childhood cancer survivors could be improved (CCS) by communicating the guideline through a computerized clinical decision support system (CDSS). We first investigated factors that could facilitate a successful CDSS implementation through a systematic literature review. Subsequently, we investigated whether the use of an established ...

  14. Pulmonary function impairment measured by pulmonary function tests in long-term survivors of childhood cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Mulder, R.L.; Thönissen, N.M.; Pal, van der, H.J.H.; Bresser, P.; Hanselaar, W.; Koning, C.C.E.; Oldenburger, F.; Heij, H A; Caron, H.N.; Kremer, L.C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) have an increased risk of morbidity and mortality. The prevalence and risk factors of pulmonary function impairment were investigated in a large cohort of CCSs treated with potentially pulmotoxic therapy with a minimal follow-up of 5 years after diagnosis. The study cohort consisted of all adult 5-year CCSs who were treated with bleomycin, pulmonary radiotherapy and/or pulmonary surgery in the Emma Children's Hospital/Academic Medical Center between 1966 and ...

  15. Social Support of Childhood Cancer Survivors and Heatlhy Children: Are There Any Differences?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koutná, Veronika; Blatný, Marek; Kepák, T.; Jelínek, Martin; Blažková, T.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 22, Supplement s3 (2013), s. 234-235. ISSN 1099-1611. [IPOS World Congress of Psycho - Oncology /15./. 04.11.-0811.2013, Rotterdam] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP407/11/2421 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : childhood cancer survivors * social support * social network Subject RIV: AN - Psycho logy http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1099-1611.2013.3394/abstract

  16. Correlates and predictors of benefit finding and post-traumatic growth in Childhood cancer survivors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koutná, Veronika; Blatný, Marek; Kepák, T.; Jelínek, Martin

    Lisabon: Wiley, 2014. 351-351. [16th World Congress of Psycho - oncology and Psycho social Academy. 20.10.2014-24.10. 2014, Lisabon] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP407/11/2421 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : childhood cancer survivors * benefit finding * post-traumatic stress Subject RIV: AN - Psycho logy http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1099-1611.2014.3697/pdf

  17. Seasonal variations in the diagnosis of childhood cancer in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Ross, J A; Severson, R K; Swensen, A R; Pollock, B H; Gurney, J G; Robison, L.L.

    1999-01-01

    Seasonal trends in month of diagnosis have been reported for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). This seasonal variation has been suggested to represent an underlying viral aetiology for these malignancies. Some studies have shown the highest frequency of diagnoses in the summer months, although this has been inconsistent. Data from the Children's Cancer Group and the Pediatric Oncology Group were analysed for seasonal incidence patterns. A total of...

  18. Study of severe and rare complications of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) for liver cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study severe and rare complications of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) for liver cancer. Methods: Clinical records of severe and rare complications following TACE in 1348 cases of liver cancer from January 1997 to February 2004 were studied retrospectively. Results: A total of 2012 TACE procedures were performed for 1348 patients. There were 3 cases of spontaneous rupture of liver cancer, 1 case of perforation of duodenum, 3 cases of liver abscess (1 of them was associated with sepsis), 1 case of pulmonary embolism, 1 case of spasm of the hepatic artery, 40 cases of hepatic artery occlusion, 3 cases of femoral nerve injury, 1 case of bilioma and 1 case of acute renal failure. Conclusion: Although the severe complications of TACE are rare, the procedure should be done cautiously including super selection of hepatic artery, slow infusion of lipiodol, careful postoperative observations and early detection and management of complications

  19. Study of severe and rare complications of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) for liver cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xia Jinglin [Liver Cancer Institute, Zhongshan Hospital, Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)]. E-mail: jlxia@zshospital.net; Ren Zhenggang; Ye Shenglong; Sharma Dilip; Lin Zhiying; Gan Yuhong; Chen Yi; Ge Ninglin; Ma Zengchen; Wu Zhiquan; Fan Jia; Qin Lunxiu; Zhou Xinda; Tang Zhaoyou; Yang Binghui [Liver Cancer Institute, Zhongshan Hospital, Department of Oncology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2006-09-15

    Objective: To study severe and rare complications of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) for liver cancer. Methods: Clinical records of severe and rare complications following TACE in 1348 cases of liver cancer from January 1997 to February 2004 were studied retrospectively. Results: A total of 2012 TACE procedures were performed for 1348 patients. There were 3 cases of spontaneous rupture of liver cancer, 1 case of perforation of duodenum, 3 cases of liver abscess (1 of them was associated with sepsis), 1 case of pulmonary embolism, 1 case of spasm of the hepatic artery, 40 cases of hepatic artery occlusion, 3 cases of femoral nerve injury, 1 case of bilioma and 1 case of acute renal failure. Conclusion: Although the severe complications of TACE are rare, the procedure should be done cautiously including super selection of hepatic artery, slow infusion of lipiodol, careful postoperative observations and early detection and management of complications.

  20. Suppression of Human Liver Cancer Cell Migration and Invasion via the GABAA Receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To investigate the roles of the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and to explore the potential of a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of HCC. The expression levels of GABA receptor subunit genes in various HCC cell lines and patients‘ tissues were detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. Transwell cell migration and invasion assays were carried out for functional analysis. The effects of GABA on liver cancer cell cytoskeletal were determined by immunofluorescence staining. And the effects of GABA on HCC metastasis in nude mice were evaluated using an in vivo orthotopic model of liver cancer. The mRNA level of GABA receptor subunits varied between the primary hepatocellular carcinoma tissue and the adjacent non-tumor liver tissue. GABA inhibited human liver cancer cell migration and invasion via the ionotropic GABAA receptor as a result of the induction of liver cancer cell cytoskeletal reorganization. Pretreatment with GABA also significantly reduced intrahepatic liver metastasis and primary tumor formation in vivo. These findings introduce a potential and novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of cancer patients based on the modulation of the GABAergic system

  1. Cause-specific mortality and second cancer incidence after non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bluhm, Elizabeth C.; Ronckers, Cécile; Hayashi, Robert J.; Neglia, Joseph P.; Mertens, Ann C.; Stovall, Marilyn; Meadows, Anna T.; Mitby, Pauline A.; Whitton, John A.; Hammond, Sue; Barker, Joseph D.; Donaldson, Sarah S.; Robison, Leslie L.; Inskip, Peter D.

    2008-01-01

    Second primary malignancies and premature death are a concern for patients surviving treatment for childhood lymphomas. We assessed mortality and second malignant neoplasms (SMNs) among 1082 5-year survivors of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study, a multi-institutional North American retrospective cohort study of cancer survivors diagnosed from 1970 to 1986. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated using US pop...

  2. Keeping Your Heart Healthy After Treatment for Childhood Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ventricles) within the heart that work together to pump blood. Valves direct the flow of blood through the ... arrhythmia), or an inability of the heart to pump blood properly (congestive heart failure). Which types of cancer ...

  3. Molecular profiling of childhood cancer: Biomarkers and novel therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Saletta

    2014-06-01

    General significance: The increasing recognition of the heterogeneity of molecular causes of cancer favors the continued development of molecularly targeted agents, and their transfer to pediatric and adolescent populations.

  4. Comparison of anamnestic history, alcohol intake and smoking, nutritional status, and liver dysfunction between thorotrast patients who developed primary liver cancer and those who did not

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to clarify the differences in past history, nutritional condition and, consumption of alcohol and tobacco, and liver dysfunction between the thorotrast patients who developed primary liver cancer and those who did not, 103 persons who had no primary liver cancer in January 1980 were studied. All subjects were military men who had undergone angiography with thorotrast between 1943 and 1946. Twenty persons developed hepatocellular carcinoma and 16 developed intrahepatic bile duct carcinoma by April 1987, whereas 67 are still alive without any cancer. There was no difference in age or period after thorotrast infusion between those two groups of patients in January 1980. A difference in history of hepatitis and/or jaundice and presence of hepatic dysfunction was found between the subjects who developed primary liver cancers and those who did not. These findings suggest that an anamnestic history of hepatitis and liver dysfunction are risks for development of thorotrast-induced liver cancer. On the basis of the above findings, early detection of liver dysfunction offers a possibility of early diagnosis of primary liver cancer

  5. Childhood indicators of susceptibility to subsequent cervical cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, S M; Ehlin, A G C; Sparén, P.; Björkstén, B; Ekbom, A.

    2002-01-01

    Common warts could indicate cervical cancer susceptibility, as both are caused by human papillomavirus (HPV). Eczema was also investigated, as atopic eczema has been negatively associated with warts, but non-atopic eczema may be associated with compromised host defences, as observed in patients with HIV, suggesting increased susceptibility to HPV infection and cervical cancer. ‘Cervical cancer’ was self-reported during an interview by 87 of 7594 women members of two longitudinal British birth...

  6. Psychosocial status of childhood cancer survivors who develop one or more secondary malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Korenjak

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Childhood cancer survivors can develop physical, emotionaland psychosocial adversities, a secondary malignancy (SM beingone of the most serious among them. Th e aim of our research was tostudy whether the development of SM was related to the psychosocialfunctioning of survivors, especially whether any psychic trauma fromthe first experience would be aggravated by SM. Patients and methods.Seventy – five childhood cancer survivors with SM were matched with75 survivors who did not develop SM, by sex, age, living environment,diagnosis, year of diagnosis and treatment of the first malignancy. They were compared regarding education, employment, marital status and, in the 35 women, childbirth data. Seventeen childhood survivors with an SM had had psychological evaluations at diagnosis of both their first and secondary cancers; the results of the two were compared. Results. Th ere were no differences in the schooling, education, social, marital status or birth specifics between survivors with SM and their controls, nor were there marked differences in measures of social or psychological status. Conclusions. The socioeconomic status of these 75 subjects was not found to be related to the development of SM. Psychological evaluations showed no marked differences between those conducted aft er the first and the secondary malignancies.

  7. Caregiver Sexual and HPV Communication Among Female Survivors of Childhood Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peasant, Courtney; Foster, Rebecca H; Russell, Kathryn M; Favaro, Brianne E; Klosky, James L

    2016-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination is recommended for all female survivors of childhood cancer; yet, it is underused. Parent-child sexual communication and health care provider recommendation for HPV vaccination influence familial vaccination decisions. However, caregivers may be less likely to discuss sexual health issues with survivors as compared to healthy peers. Therefore, this study compared mothers of daughters with/without history of childhood cancer on measures of sexual communication, HPV-specific communication, and health care provider recommendation for HPV vaccination, and examined the effects of sociodemographic and medical factors on these measures. There were no differences between mothers of survivors/noncancer survivors on the outcomes (Ps > .05). Among all mothers, daughter's age was associated with sexual communication (Ps < .05). Household income and daughter's age were associated with health care provider recommendation for vaccination (Ps < .05). Among mothers of survivors, daughter's age at diagnosis was associated with sexual communication, HPV-specific communication, and health care provider recommendation for vaccination (Ps < .05). Findings have implications for the role of health care providers as advocates for mother-daughter sexual communication and HPV vaccination, especially among survivors of childhood cancer. PMID:26668213

  8. The risk of childhood cancer from low doses of ionizing radiation received in utero

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiological protection is based upon the assumption that any additional exposure to ionising radiation leads to an increased risk of stochastic adverse health effects. The validity of this assumption is supported by the epidemiological association between childhood cancer and X-ray exposure of the fetus in utero for diagnostic purposes. Evidence for a direct causal interpretation of this association is compelling: the association has high statistical significance, it is consistent across many case-control studies carried out worldwide, and an appropriate dose-response relationship is indicated. Evidence against bias and confounding as alternative explanations is strong. Nonetheless, objections to causality have been raised. Four grounds for controversy are examined in detail, with the conclusion that they do not provide persuasive evidence against a cause and effect relationship. We conclude that acute doses of the order of 10 mGy received by the fetus in utero cause a subsequent increase in the risk of cancer in childhood, and that, in these circumstances, the excess absolute risk coefficient for childhood cancer incidence is 6-12% per Gy. (author)

  9. Childhood Cancer-a Hospital based study using Decision Tree Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kalaivani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Cancer is generally regarded as a disease of adults. But there being a higher proportion of childhood cancer (ALL-Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in India. The incidence of childhood cancer has increased over the last 25 years, but the increase is much larger in females. The aim was to increase our understanding of the determinants of south Indian parental reactions and needs. This facilitates the development of the care and follow-up routines for families, paying attention to both individual risk and resilience factors and to ways in which limitations related to treatment centre and organizational characteristics could be compensated. Approach: Decision Trees may be used for classification, clustering, affinity, grouping, prediction or estimation and description. One of the useful medical applications in India is the management of Leukemia, as it accounts for about 33% of childhood malignancies. Results: Female survivors showed greater functional disability in comparison to male survivors-demonstrated by poorer overall health status. Family stress results from a perceived imbalance between the demands on the family and the resources available to meet such demands. Conclusion: The pattern and severity of health and functional outcomes differed significantly between survivors in diagnostic subgroups. Family impact was aggravated by patients’ lasting sequelae and by parent perceived shortcomings of long-term follow-up. Female survivors were at greater risk for health related late effects.

  10. Options for clinical management of cancers of neuroendocrine system and liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancers of neuroendocrine system and liver forms a significant fraction of the total number of cancer cases reported in India. In this context, nuclear medicine has an important role to play in the diagnosis as well as therapy of these diseases. Here, options offered by nuclear medicine for the diagnosis and therapy of these diseases are discussed. (author)

  11. The role of SIOP as a platform for communication in the global response to childhood cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calaminus, Gabriele; Birch, Jillian R; Hollis, Rachel; Pau, Benson; Kruger, Mariana

    2013-12-01

    Since the year 2000, there has been a 35% annual decrease in mortality among children under the age of five worldwide. The decrease is mainly attributed to the decrease in childhood epidemic infections, for example, due to vaccination programs. In the near future, this decrease will draw attention to paediatric non-communicable diseases (NCDs), and cancer is one of the most common. Access to care for children with cancer and survival rates have improved dramatically in high-income countries. However, it is important that a global perspective addresses problems in developing countries in particular. To meet this challenge, it is critical that emphasis is placed on demands such as access to care and drugs that are known to be effective, and which can be safely administered in resource-limited settings. Additionally, cancer registries and improved health care structures that include care for children with cancer, are paramount for further progress to increase awareness and the survival of children with cancer. The purpose of this paper is to describe current worldwide interventions to improve childhood cancer from the perspective of the International Society of Paediatric Oncology (SIOP). This global perspective will serve as an introduction to a series of papers from six SIOP continental branches, which will highlight the specific and/or common issues related to children with cancer worldwide. To strengthen the communication among and synergistic effects of various paediatric cancer stakeholders, SIOP could serve as a global platform for a proposed Global Paediatric Cancer Network through the interaction of its continental branches and partner collaborations. PMID:23940113

  12. Biophysical model for thorotrast-induced liver cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Germany between 1930 and 1950, an estimated 10,000 to 20,000 patients received Thorostrast injections, mostly for angiographic examinations. About 59% of the intravascularly injected Thorotrast was retained by the liver. Based on a mean injected volume of 25 ml and an average exposure time of about 40 years, Thorotrast patients received a mean liver dose of about 9.5 Gy. As a consequence, about 20% of the 2,326 Thorotrast patients examined in the German Thorotrast Study died of liver tumors, while only 2 cases of primary liver tumors were observed in the 1,890 control patients

  13. Risk reduction for nonmelanoma skin cancer with childhood sunscreen use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to ultraviolet radiation is the principle cause of basal and squamous cell carcinomas of the skin, which are the most frequent tumors occurring in white residents of the United States. Using a mathematical model based on epidemiologic data, we quantified the potential benefits of using a sunscreen with a sun protective factor of 15 and estimate that regular use of such a sunscreen during the first 18 years of life would reduce the lifetime incidence of these tumors by 78%. Additional benefits of sunscreen use during childhood include reduced risk of sunburn, retarding the pace of skin aging, and possible reduction in melanoma risk. We recommend that pediatricians encourage sunscreen use and sun avoidance as a regular part of pediatric preventive health care

  14. Aggressive surgical resection for concomitant liver and lung metastasis in colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Hwan; Kim, Sung Hyun; Lim, Jin Hong; Kim, Sung Hoon; Lee, Jin Gu; Kim, Dae Joon; Choi, Gi Hong; Choi, Jin Sub

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds/Aims Aggressive surgical resection for hepatic metastasis is validated, however, concomitant liver and lung metastasis in colorectal cancer patients is equivocal. Methods Clinicopathologic data from January 2008 through December 2012 were retrospectively reviewed in 234 patients with colorectal cancer with concomitant liver and lung metastasis. Clinicopathologic factors and survival data were analyzed. Results Of the 234 patients, 129 (55.1%) had synchronous concomitant liver and lung metastasis from colorectal cancer and 36 (15.4%) had metachronous metastasis. Surgical resection was performed in 33 patients (25.6%) with synchronous and 6 (16.7%) with metachronous metastasis. Surgical resection showed better overall survival in both groups (synchronous, p=0.001; metachronous, p=0.028). In the synchronous metastatic group, complete resection of both liver and lung metastatic lesions had better survival outcomes than incomplete resection of two metastatic lesions (p=0.037). The primary site of colorectal cancer and complete resection were significant prognostic factors (p=0.06 and p=0.003, respectively). Conclusions Surgical resection for hepatic and pulmonary metastasis in colorectal cancer can improve complete remission and survival rate in resectable cases. Colorectal cancer with concomitant liver and lung metastasis is not a poor prognostic factor or a contraindication for surgical treatments, hence, an aggressive surgical approach may be recommended in well-selected resectable cases.

  15. Lymph node mapping in rabbit liver cancer with nanocarbon and methylene blue injecta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong Li

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the value of lymph node mapping in rabbit liver cancer with nanocarbon and methylene blue injecta. Methods: Rabbit liver cancer model was established by transplanting VX2 cells with laparotomy in celiac planting method. Twenty Japan white rabbits were divided into two groups randomly. Each group had 10 rabbits. Lymph node mapping in two groups rabbit liver cancer were observed. Two groups rabbit liver cancer and local lymph nodes were removed. The number and location of local lymph nodes were recorded, and then the samples were obtained from both groups. Results: The lymph nodes dyed time was (100.50±29.92) s in nanocarbon group, and (11.20±4.18) s in methylene blue group with statistical significance between two groups (P=0.000). In the comparison of lymph node fading time, nanocarbon group was (2.22±0.74) h, methylene blue group was (1.63±0.54) h, nanocarbon group was longer than the methylene blue group, but without statistical significance (P=0.058). The accuracy was 87.5%(35/40) in methylene blue group, while, the nanocarbon group was 87.2% (34/39) , with statistical significance (P=1.000). Conclusions: Experimental results show that application of nanocarbon injection and methylene blue injection during resection of liver cancer and local lymph nodes in rabbit liver cancer model has obvious tracer function in liver cancer and lymphatic drainage. It can reduce the complexity and risk of the operation, and avoid the blindness in the process of traditional lymph node dissection surgery. Besides, they can effectively reduce the number of residual lymph nodes after operation. It can achieve the lymph node dissection more thoroughly, promptly, easily and safely.

  16. Union examination of AFP, AFU, AFPL3 andγ-GT in early diagnosis of primary liver cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Shao; Zuo-ren Wang; Lei Shi

    2009-01-01

    Objective To explore the significance of union examination of blood serum liver cancer tracers in the early diagnosis of liver cancer. Methods We observed and compared the level of blood serum liver cancer tracers armor embryo protein (AFP), crag algae glycosidase (AFU), armor embryo protein heteroplasmon (AFPL3) andγ-Gu Anxian transferase (γ-GT) in early time for primary liver cancer patients and hepatitis liver cirrhosis patients and those chronic hepatitis B patients who had liver cancer family history. Results Finally among the 30 patients in the early liver cancer group, 23 were positive with AFP, 20 with AFU, 15 with AFPL3 and 21 with γ-GT. Five were found positive with blood serum AFP, AFPL3, AFU and γ-GT at the same time; 5 with AFP, AFPL3 and γ-GT; 5 with AFP, AFU and AFPL3; 7 with AFP, AFU andγ-GT. By contrast, in the control group, among the 30 hepatitis liver cirrhosis patients and those chronic hepatitis B patients with liver cancer family history, 11 were found positive with AFP, 3 with AFPL3, 12 with AFU and 14 with γ-GT. None of the patients were found positive with union examination of AFP, AFPL3, AFU and γ-GT in the blood serum at the same time. Conclusion The union examination of AFP, AFU, AFPL3 and γ-GT is significant to the early diagnosis of primary liver cancer.

  17. Prenatal exposure to traffic-related air pollution and risk of early childhood cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Jo Kay C; Heck, Julia E; Cockburn, Myles; Su, Jason; Jerrett, Michael; Ritz, Beate

    2013-10-15

    Exposure to air pollution during pregnancy has been linked to the risk of childhood cancer, but the evidence remains inconclusive. In the present study, we used land use regression modeling to estimate prenatal exposures to traffic exhaust and evaluate the associations with cancer risk in very young children. Participants in the Air Pollution and Childhood Cancers Study who were 5 years of age or younger and diagnosed with cancer between 1988 and 2008 were had their records linked to California birth certificates, and controls were selected from birth certificates. Land use regression-based estimates of exposures to nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, and nitrogen oxides were assigned based on birthplace residence and temporally adjusted using routine monitoring station data to evaluate air pollution exposures during specific pregnancy periods. Logistic regression models were adjusted for maternal age, race/ethnicity, educational level, parity, insurance type, and Census-based socioeconomic status, as well as child's sex and birth year. The odds of acute lymphoblastic leukemia increased by 9%, 23%, and 8% for each 25-ppb increase in average nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, and nitrogen oxide levels, respectively, over the entire pregnancy. Second- and third-trimester exposures increased the odds of bilateral retinoblastoma. No associations were found for annual average exposures without temporal components or for any other cancer type. These results lend support to a link between prenatal exposure to traffic exhaust and the risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and bilateral retinoblastoma. PMID:23989198

  18. Curcumin effectively inhibits oncogenic NF-kB signaling and restrains stemness features in liver cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marquardt, Jens U; Gomez-Quiroz, Luis; Arreguin Camacho, Lucrecia O;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: The cancer stem cells (CSCs) have important therapeutic implications for multi-resistant cancers including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Among the key pathways frequently activated in liver CSCs is NF-kB signaling. METHODS: We evaluated the CSCs-depleting potential of NF......-kB inhibition in liver cancer achieved by the IKK inhibitor curcumin, RNAi and specific peptide SN50. The effects on CSCs were assessed by analysis of Side Population (SP), sphere formation and tumorigenicity. Molecular changes were determined by RT-qPCR, global gene expression microarray, EMSA, and Western...... inhibition of NF-kB and HDAC signaling for treatment of liver cancer patients with poor prognosis....

  19. Recent Advances in Radiofrequency Ablation in the Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Metastatic Liver Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Ming Lin

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC and liver metastases arecommon cancers worldwide. Recent imaging modalities havebeen able to detect HCC and liver metastases at an early stage,with surgical resection as the choice of management.However, because of poor liver reserve, co-existing liver cirrhosisand multiplicity of tumors, resection is only feasible in10-30% of HCC or liver metastases on presentation. Thus, variouslocal tumor ablation modalities are being developed toeffectively ablate small liver tumors. Of these, percutaneousethanol injection and radiofrequency (RF ablation (RFA arethe two best options because of their high effectiveness andminimal invasiveness. RFA has the particular advantage ofmore predictable ablation areas and fewer treatment sessionsrequired. It has been applied for local ablation of liver malignancysince 1990 and is currently widely accepted as an alternativeto resection in small, un-resectable or even resectable liver malignancies. Becausecurrent RF devices can only effectively ablate 3 cm tumors in a single RF electrode introduction,recent advances have focused exclusively on improving RF devices, including thedesign of electrodes and the algorithm to magnify the ablation zone in a single session orover a short duration. This review article updates results of RFA for HCC and liver metastasisin terms of complete ablation, local recurrence, overall survival, and recent advances inRFA for liver malignancy.

  20. The calm before the storm: a report from the International Liver Cancer Association Congress 2015 - part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabibbo, Giuseppe; Reig, Maria; Gadaleta-Caldarola, Gennaro; Galati, Giovanni; Lombardi, Giuseppe; Mazza, GianCarlo; Marzi, Luca; Saitta, Carlo; Nault, Jean-Charles; Sacco, Rodolfo

    2016-02-01

    International Liver Cancer Association Congress 2015, Paris, France, 4-6 September 2015 Since its creation 9 years ago, in 2007, the International Liver Cancer Association has focused on the multidisciplinary approach to liver cancer due to advances in hepatology science and care worldwide. In its 2015 annual conference, held on 4-6 September in Paris, France, the most recent progresses in the basic biology, management and treatment of liver cancer have been presented. This report, divided into two parts, introduces and critically reviews some of the most intriguing topics discussed at the meeting. PMID:26776157

  1. The calm before the storm: a report from the International Liver Cancer Association Congress 2015 - part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabibbo, Giuseppe; Reig, Maria; Gadaleta-Caldarola, Gennaro; Galati, Giovanni; Lombardi, Giuseppe; Mazza, GianCarlo; Marzi, Luca; Saitta, Carlo; Nault, Jean-Charles; Sacco, Rodolfo

    2016-02-01

    International Liver Cancer Association Congress 2015, Paris, France, 4-6 September 2015 Since its creation 9 years ago, in 2007, the International Liver Cancer Association has focused on the multidisciplinary approach to liver cancer due to advances in hepatology science and care worldwide. In its 2015 annual conference, held on 4-6 September in Paris, France, the most recent progresses in the basic biology, management and treatment of liver cancer have been presented. This report, divided into two parts, introduces and critically reviews some of the most intriguing topics discussed at the meeting. PMID:26775918

  2. Childhood Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... They are among the most common types of childhood cancers. Some are benign tumors, which aren't ... can still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches ...

  3. NF-κB and STAT3-key players in liver inflammation and cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guobin He; Michael Karin

    2011-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC),the major form of primary liver cancer,is one of the most deadly human cancers.The pathogenesis of HCC is frequently linked with continuous hepatocyte death,inflammatory cell infiltration and compensatory liver regeneration.Understanding the molecular signaling pathways driving or mediating these processes during liver tumorigenesis is important for the identification of novel therapeutic targets for this dreadful disease.The classical IKKβ-dependent NF-κB signaling pathway has been shown to promote hepatocyte survival in both developing and adult livers.In addition,it also plays a crucial role in liver inflammatory responses by controlling the expression of an array of growth factors and cytokines.One of these cytokines is IL-6,which is best known for its role in the liver acute phase response.IL-6 exerts many of its functions via activation of STAT3,a transcription factor found to be important for HCC development.This review will focus on recent studies on the roles of NF-κB and STAT3 in liver cancer.Interactions between the two pathways and their potential as therapeutic targets will also be discussed.

  4. Energy restriction during childhood and early adulthood and ovarian cancer risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo J Schouten

    Full Text Available Dietary energy restriction may protect against cancer. In parts of The Netherlands, mostly in larger cities, periods of chronically impaired nutrition and even severe famine (Hunger Winter 1944-1945 existed during the 1930s and World War II (1940-1945. We studied the association between energy restriction during childhood and early adulthood on the risk of ovarian cancer later in life. In 1986, the Netherlands Cohort Study was initiated. A self-administered questionnaire on dietary habits and other cancer risk factors was completed by 62,573 women aged 55-69 years at baseline. Follow-up for cancer was established by record linkage to the Netherlands Cancer Registry. After 16.3 years of follow-up, 364 invasive epithelial ovarian cancer cases and 2220 subcohort members (sampled from the total cohort directly after baseline with complete information confounders were available for case-cohort analyses. In multivariable analysis, ovarian cancer risk was lower for participants with an unemployed father during the 1930s (Hazard Ratio (HR, 0.70; 95% Confidence Interval (CI, 0.47-1.06 compared to participants with an employed father as well as for participants living in a city during World War II (HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.54-0.90 compared to participants living in the country-side. Residence in a Western City during the famine (Hunger Winter was not associated with a decreased risk. Our results show a relation between proxy variables for modest energy restriction over a longer period of time during childhood or early adulthood and a reduced ovarian cancer risk.

  5. Fatty metamorphosis of the liver in patients with breast cancer:Possible associated factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng-Hsin Chu; Shee-Chan Lin; Shou-Chuan Shih; Chin-Roa Kao; Sun-Yen Chou

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the relationship between breast cancer and fatty liver in Chinese patients.METHODS: The study group consisted of 217 patients with newly diagnosed breast cancers and the control group of 182 subjects undergoing routine health examination in the same hospital. All subjects were female and the groups were matched for date of study. Ultrasound scanning was performed by the same operator using a 3.5 mHz transducer.Steatosis of the liver was diagnosed based on the criteria of Saverymuttu et al. Clinical variables were statistically analyzed.RESULTS: Fatty liver was diagnosed in 98 patients of the study group and 37 patients of the control group, a significant difference was found in incidence (98/217, 45.2 % and 37/182, 20.3 %; P<0.0001). On univariate analysis, fatty liver in breast cancer patients was associated with overweight,hyperlipidemia, and hepatitis. On multivariate analysis in the same patients, obesity and hyperlipidemia were significantly associated with fatty liver.CONCLUSION: The cause of fatty liver in women with breast cancer may be multifactorial. The present study confirms its link with overweight and hyperlipidemia.

  6. CD13 is a therapeutic target in human liver cancer stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    HARAGUCHI, NAOTSUGU; Ishii, Hideshi; Mimori, Koshi; Tanaka, Fumiaki; OHKUMA, MASAHISA; Kim, Ho Min; Akita, Hirofumi; Takiuchi, Daisuke; Hatano, Hisanori; Nagano, Hiroaki; Barnard, Graham F.; Doki, Yuichiro; Mori, Masaki

    2010-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are generally dormant or slowly cycling tumor cells that have the ability to reconstitute tumors. They are thought to be involved in tumor resistance to chemo/radiation therapy and tumor relapse and progression. However, neither their existence nor their identity within many cancers has been well defined. Here, we have demonstrated that CD13 is a marker for semiquiescent CSCs in human liver cancer cell lines and clinical samples and that targeting these cells might pr...

  7. Clinical study of liver cancer (Hepatocellular carcinoma) by 166 Ho-CHICO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. T.; Yoo, H. S.; Lee, J. D.; Lee, D. Y.; Kim, E. K.; Yoo, N. C.; Shin, S. J.; Han, K. H. [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea); Park, K. B. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    As having used Ho-166 Chitosan complex, this study was designed for the development of new therapeutic agent in the treatment of liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma). During the period of 3 years from April 1, 1997 to March 31, 2000, this project was successfully performed on the base of clinical experience with percutaneous Ho-166 CHICO injection in the treatment of liver cancer'. In order to evaluate the biodistribution and effect of Ho-166 CHICO was performed in 50 patients, who had the progressed liver cancer with range of 3-10cm in diameter. After the administration of the complex materials, we evaluated the therapeutic effect as well as complication by the follow-up study that included laboratory examination, radioactivity counting and various imaging modalities. 1) In animal experiment, radioactivity of target liver was ranged between 27-33% of total body one, urine excretion between 0.17-0.24 %. White blood cell and platelet counts start diminishing within 7 days and at maximum within 4 weeks after administration of complex materials. In tissue changes of target liver was revealed no significant change in the tumor dose of Ho-166, but periportal fibrosis and massive tissue necrosis in the high ones. 2) In clinical study, total necrosis of tumor is 66%, partial 10% and non-response 24% among 50 patients' liver cancer. The most important complication were leukopenia and thrombocytopenia (82%), the remained was abdominal pain(34%), skin reaction(12%), bile duct obstruction(10%), liver abscess(6%) etc. Conclusively intraarterial injection of Ho-166 CHICO was effective in the treatment of larger and progressed liver cancer. 19 refs., 14 figs., 8 tabs. (Author)

  8. Changes in the renin angiotensin system during the development of colorectal cancer liver metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blockade of the renin angiotensin system (RAS) via angiotensin I converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition reduces growth of colorectal cancer (CRC) liver metastases in a mouse model. In this work we defined the expression of the various components of the RAS in both tumor and liver during the progression of this disease. Immunohistochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR was used to examine RAS expression in a mouse CRC liver metastases model. CRC metastases and liver tissue was assessed separately at key stages of CRC liver metastases development in untreated (control) mice and in mice treated with the ACE inhibitor captopril (750 mg/kg/day). Non-tumor induced (sham) mice indicated the effect of tumors on normal liver RAS. The statistical significance of multiple comparisons was determined using one-way analysis of variance followed by Bonferroni adjustment with SAS/STAT software. Reduced volume of CRC liver metastases with captopril treatment was evident. Local RAS of CRC metastases differed from the surrounding liver, with lower angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) expression but increased ANG-(1-7) receptor (MasR) compared to the liver. The AT1R localised to cancer and stromal infiltrating cells, while other RAS receptors were detected in cancer cells only. Tumor induction led to an initial increase in AT1R and ACE expression while captopril treatment significantly increased ACE expression in the final stages of tumor growth. Conversely, captopril treatment decreased expression of AT1R and angiotensinogen. These results demonstrate significant changes in RAS expression in the tumor-bearing captopril treated liver and in CRC metastases. The data suggests the existence of a tumor-specific RAS that can be independently targeted by RAS blockade

  9. Biology and clinical implications of CD133+ liver cancer stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary malignant tumor of the liver, accounting for 80%–90% of all liver cancers. The disease ranks as the fifth most common cancer worldwide and is the third leading cause of all cancer-associated deaths. Although advances in HCC detection and treatment have increased the likelihood of a cure at early stages of the disease, HCC remains largely incurable because of late presentation and tumor recurrence. Only 25% of HCC patients are deemed suitable for curative treatment, with the overall survival at just a few months for inoperable patients. Apart from surgical resection, loco-regional ablation and liver transplantation, current treatment protocols include conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy. But due to the highly resistant nature of the disease, the efficacy of the latter regimen is limited. The recent emergence of the cancer stem cell (CSC) concept lends insight into the explanation of why treatment with chemotherapy often may seem to be initially successful but results in not only a failure to eradicate the tumor but also possibly tumor relapse. Commonly used anti-cancer drugs in HCC work by targeting the rapidly proliferating and differentiated liver cancer cells that constitute the bulk of the tumor. However, a subset of CSCs exists within the tumor, which are more resistant and are able to survive and maintain residence after treatment, thus, growing and self-renewing to generate the development and spread of recurrent tumors in HCC. In the past few years, compelling evidence has emerged in support of the hierarchic CSC model for solid tumors, including HCC. And in particular, CD133 has drawn significant attention as a critical liver CSC marker. Understanding the characteristics and function of CD133+ liver CSCs has also shed light on HCC management and treatment, including the implications for prognosis, prediction and treatment resistance. In this review, a detailed summary of the recent progress in CD

  10. Imaging feature changes of rats with implanted liver cancer after electrochemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the changes of imaging features of rats with implanted liver cancer before and after electrochemotherapy (EChT). Methods: Immediate cancerous ascites injection method was used to form rats liver cancer model. The imaging features of rats with implanted liver cancer, including tumor size, density, border, enhancement and signal were observed with CT and MRI respectively. Results: The characteristic imagings showed all these rats bearing single, round tumor in liver seven days later. Low density lesions were seen in pre-contrast scans and tumor border intensification were seen on contrast scans. Low signal lesions were found in MRI T1WI and high signal lesions were revealed on MRI T2WI. Seven days after EchT, low density lesions were seen in pre-contrast scan and non-enhanced appearances were seen in contrast scan by CT. High signal and mixed signal lesion were seen in MRI T1WI and relative low signal lesion were seen in MRI T2WI. Conclusions: Imaging features analysis is useful to assess the therapeutic effect on rats with implanted liver cancer before and after EChT

  11. Label-free quantitative proteomics of CD133-positive liver cancer stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai Sheng-Ta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background CD133-positive liver cancer stem cells, which are characterized by their resistance to conventional chemotherapy and their tumor initiation ability at limited dilutions, have been recognized as a critical target in liver cancer therapeutics. In the current work, we developed a label-free quantitative method to investigate the proteome of CD133-positive liver cancer stem cells for the purpose of identifying unique biomarkers that can be utilized for targeting liver cancer stem cells. Label-free quantitation was performed in combination with ID-based Elution time Alignment by Linear regression Quantitation (IDEAL-Q and MaxQuant. Results Initially, IDEAL-Q analysis revealed that 151 proteins were differentially expressed in the CD133-positive hepatoma cells when compared with CD133-negative cells. We then analyzed these 151 differentially expressed proteins by MaxQuant software and identified 10 significantly up-regulated proteins. The results were further validated by RT-PCR, western blot, flow cytometry or immunofluorescent staining which revealed that prominin-1, annexin A1, annexin A3, transgelin, creatine kinase B, vimentin, and EpCAM were indeed highly expressed in the CD133-positive hepatoma cells. Conclusions These findings confirmed that mass spectrometry-based label-free quantitative proteomics can be used to gain insights into liver cancer stem cells.

  12. Use of multiphoton microscopy to diagnose liver cancer and lung metastasis in an orthotopic rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jun; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Chen, Gang; Tan, Changjun; Zhu, Weifeng; Lu, Jianping; Fan, Jia; Chen, Jianxin; Zhou, Jian

    2012-01-01

    Liver or lung biopsy for suspicious lesions has several disadvantages such as bleeding, bile leak or pneumothorax, needle track seeding, and time-consuming histopathological procedure. The ability to directly observe cellular and subcellular details and then perform "optical biopsy" is a major goal in the development of new interventional techniques. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) enables real-time noninvasive visualization of tissue architecture and cell morphology in live tissue. We performed a study to evaluate whether MPMcan make real-time optical diagnosis for liver cancer and lung metastasis using an orthotopic rat model with Morris hepatoma. We found that real-time high-resolution MPMimaging could clearly show tissue architecture and cell morphology. In the normal liver tissue, MPMimaging clearly revealed the blood-filled sinusoids and cords of hepatocytes. In the cancerous tissue, MPMimaging clearly illustrated that cancer cells displayed marked cellular and nuclear pleomorphism. MPMimages were comparable to golden standard hematoxylin-eosin staining images. Moreover, MPMimaging had deep penetration with the capability of optical sectioning. In short, MPMcan make real-time optical diagnosis for liver cancer and lung metastasis. This study provides the groundwork for further using multiphoton endoscopy to perform real-time noninvasive "optical biopsy" for liver cancer and lung metastasis in the near future. PMID:22331704

  13. Late effects on the urinary bladder in patients treated for cancer in childhood: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchey, Michael; Ferrer, Fernando; Shearer, Patricia; Spunt, Sheri L

    2009-04-01

    Childhood cancer survivors who have had pelvic or central nervous system surgery or have received alkylator-containing chemotherapy or pelvic radiotherapy as part of their cancer therapy may experience urinary bladder late effects. This article reviews the medical literature on long-term bladder complications in survivors of childhood cancer and outlines the Children's Oncology Group Long-Term Follow-up (COG LTFU) Guidelines related to bladder function. An overview of the treatment of bladder late effects and recommended counseling for survivors with these complications are presented. PMID:18985721

  14. Protecting Family Interests: An Interview Study with Foreign-Born Parents Struggling On in Childhood Cancer Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernilla Pergert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweden's population is gradually changing to become more multiethnic and diverse and that applies also for recipients of health care, including childhood cancer care. A holistic view on the sick child in the context of its family has always been a cornerstone in childhood cancer care in Sweden. The purpose of this study was to gain knowledge about the experiences and main concern of foreign-born parents in the context of paediatric cancer care. Interviews were performed with eleven foreign-born parents and data were analysed using a classic grounded theory approach. Foreign-born parents often feel in a position of powerless dependence, but family interests are protected in their approaches to interaction with healthcare staff, through cooperation, contesting, and reluctant resigning. Healthcare staff need to listen to foreign-born parents and deal with their concerns seriously to prevent powerless-dependence and work for trustful cooperation in the common fight against childhood cancer.

  15. Hepatocyte-targeted MR contrast agents. Contrast enhanced detection of liver cancer in diffusely damaged liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance of hepatocyte-targeted magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agents in the detection of liver tumor was tested in rats with hepatitis. Hepatocyte-targeted MR contrast agents (paramagnetic hepatobiliary complex [manganese-DPDP] and superparamagnetic iron oxide coated with arabinogalactan [SPIO-AG]) were injected into normal rats and rats with carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatitis. Before and after injection of either contrast agent, ex vivo relaxometry (0.94 T) or in vivo MR imaging (1.0 T) were performed. The obtained liver and tumor T1 and T2 relaxation times, liver and tumor signal-to-noise ratios (SNR), and tumor-liver contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) of control rats and rats with hepatitis were compared. Both relaxometry and MR imaging showed that MnDPDP and SPIO-AG selectively enhanced liver tissue in controls and in rats with hepatitis to the same degree, and little tumor enhancement was seen in either group. As a result, no significant difference between control rats and rats with hepatitis was observed in the postcontrast tumor-liver CNR. For a MnDPDP-enhanced CNR with spin echo (SE) of 310/15, the results were -10.4±3.6 in control rats vs. -11.5±1.4 in rats with hepatitis; for a SPIO-AG-enhanced CNR with SE 2000/45 and 2000/90, respectively, the results were 30.7±9.2 and 18.7±4.7 in control rats vs. 31.9±7.1 and 17.7±2.4 in rats with hepatitis. These results indicate that hepatocyte-targeted contrast agents effectively enhance liver tissue and enhance liver-tumor image contrast despite hepatocellular dysfunction. (author)

  16. A novel animal model for in vivo study of liver cancer metastasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shinsuke Fujiwara; Katsutoshi Yoshizato; Hikaru Fujioka; Chise Tateno; Ken Taniguchi; Masahiro Ito; Hiroshi Ohishi; Rie Utoh; Hiromi Ishibashi; Takashi Kanematsu

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To establish an animal model with human hepatocyte-repopulated liver for the study of liver cancer metastasis.METHODS:Cell transplantation into mouse livers was conducted using alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)-producing human gastric cancer cells (h-GCCs) and h-hepatocytes as donor cells in a transgenic mouse line expressing urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) driven by the albumin enhancer/promoter crossed with a severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mouse line (uPA/SCID mice).Host mice were divided into two groups (A and B).Group A mice were transplanted with h-GCCs alone,and group B mice were transplanted with h-GCCs and h-hepatocytes together.The replacement index (RI),which is the ratio of transplanted h-GCCs and h-hepatocytes that occupy the examined area of a histological section,was estimated by measuring h-AFP and h-albumin concentrations in sera,respectively,as well as by immunohistochemical analyses of h-AFP and human cytokeratin 18 in histological sections.RESULTS:The h-GCCs successfully engrafted,repopulated,and colonized the livers of mice in group A (RI =22.0% ± 2.6%).These mice had moderately differentiated adenocarcinomatous lesions with disrupted glandular structures,which is a characteristics feature of gastric cancers.The serum h-AFP level reached 211.0 ± 142.2 g/mL (range,7.1-324.2 g/mL).In group B mice,the h-GCCs and h-hepatocytes independently engrafted,repopulated the host liver,and developed colonies (RI =12.0% ± 6.8% and 66.0% ± 12.3%,respectively).h-GCC colonies also showed typical adenocarcinomatous glandular structures around the h-hepatocyte-colonies.These mice survived for the full 56day-study and did not exhibit any metastasis of h-GCCs in the extrahepatic regions during the observational period.The mice with an h-hepatocyte-repopulated liver possessed metastasized h-GCCs and therefore could be a useful humanized liver animal model for studying liver cancer metastasis in vivo.CONCLUSION:A novel animal model of

  17. De novo cancers following liver transplantation: a single center experience in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songfeng Yu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: De novo cancers are a growing problem that has become one of the leading causes of late mortality after liver transplantation. The incidences and risk factors varied among literatures and fewer concerned the Eastern population. AIMS: The aim of this study was to examine the incidence and clinical features of de novo cancers after liver transplantation in a single Chinese center. METHODS: 569 patients who received liver transplantation and survived for more than 3 months in a single Chinese center were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: A total of 18 de novo cancers were diagnosed in 17 recipients (13 male and 4 female after a mean of 41 ± 26 months, with an overall incidence of 3.2%, which was lower than that in Western people. Of these, 8 (3.32% cases were from 241 recipients with malignant liver diseases before transplant, while 10 (3.05% cases were from 328 recipients with benign diseases. The incidence rates were comparable, p = 0.86. Furthermore, 2 cases developed in 1 year, 5 cases in 3 years and 11 cases over 3 years. The most frequent cancers developed after liver transplantation were similar to those in the general Chinese population but had much higher incidence rates. CONCLUSIONS: Liver transplant recipients were at increased risk for developing de novo cancers. The incidence rates and pattern of de novo cancers in Chinese population are different from Western people due to racial and social factors. Pre-transplant malignant condition had no relationship to de novo cancer. Exact risk factors need further studies.

  18. Nongenetic causes of childhood cancers: evidence from international variation, time trends, and risk factor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation and a variety of genetic conditions are thought to explain 5-10% of childhood cancers. Infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in parts of Africa and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) increase the risk of Burkitt's lymphoma and Kaposi's sarcoma, respectively. Other risk factors have not been conclusively identified. A review of the data on international variation in incidence, recent changes in incidence, and risk factors suggests that many childhood cancers are likely to have nongenetic causes. The pattern of international variation and associations with surrogates of infection suggest an infectious etiology for acute lymphoblastic leukemia, although no agent has been identified. The biologic plausibility is strong that maternal consumption of food containing DNA topoisomerase II inhibitors may increase the risk of acute myeloid leukemia, although the data are limited now. For brain tumors, cured meats, polyomaviruses, and farm exposures may have etiologic roles. Changes in the incidence and characteristics of children with hepatoblastoma as well as risk factor studies suggest a role for an exposure of very low birth weight babies. High birth weight, tea or coffee consumption, and certain paternal occupations have shown some consistency in their association with Wilms' tumor. For most of the other cancers, very few epidemiologic studies have been conducted, so it is not surprising that nongenetic risk factors have not been detected. The most important difference between the cancers for which there are good etiologic clues and those for which there are not may be the number of relevant studies

  19. 肝癌复发和转移的新理念%New perspectives on recurrence and metastasis of liver cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊嘉; 史颖弘

    2010-01-01

    Cancer metastasis is considered as a complex process involving a series of sequential steps and a variety of molecalar signal transduction pathways.Tumor recurrence and metastasis are major obstacles for long-term survival of Liver cancer patients.Although the prognosis after recurrence and metastasis is dismal,the advancement of molecular researches of metastasis of liver cancer seems promising.In studies of origins of metastasis of liver cancer,the primary cancer cell and corresponding metastatic liver cancer cells share similar gene signature,which indicates that genes favoring metastasis progression are initiated in the primary tumors.The metastasis of liver cancer may be an early event in hepatic carcinogenesis and progression.Some molecular signatures have been developed to classify the metastatic potential of liver cancer.Furthermore,a variety of studies demonstrate that the tumor microenvironment instead of tumor cells plays a more important role in liver cancer metastasis.The pre-metastatic niche composed of non-tumoral cells may promote the cancer cell sedimentation and progression.The theory of cancer stem cell speculates that cancer stem cells were the real source of recurrent or metastatic tumors.Cancer stem cells will be one of the main targets of liver cancer treatment.The prevention and treatment of liver cancer recurrence or metastasis are quite difficult because liver cancer is resistant to traditional chemotherapy.Targeting the molecules involved in the metastasis of liver cancer WOuld be promising to cure those diseases.

  20. Radiation, Atherosclerotic Risk Factors, and Stroke Risk in Survivors of Pediatric Cancer: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To test the hypotheses that (1) the increased risk of stroke conferred by childhood cranial radiation therapy (CRT) persists into adulthood; and (2) atherosclerotic risk factors further increase the stroke risk in cancer survivors. Methods and Materials: The Childhood Cancer Survivor Study is a multi-institutional retrospective cohort study of 14,358 5-year survivors of childhood cancer and 4023 randomly selected sibling controls with longitudinal follow-up. Age-adjusted incidence rates of self-reported late-occurring (≥5 years after diagnosis) first stroke were calculated. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify independent stroke predictors. Results: During a mean follow-up of 23.3 years, 292 survivors reported a late-occurring stroke. The age-adjusted stroke rate per 100,000 person-years was 77 (95% confidence interval [CI] 62-96), compared with 9.3 (95% CI 4-23) for siblings. Treatment with CRT increased stroke risk in a dose-dependent manner: hazard ratio 5.9 (95% CI 3.5-9.9) for 30-49 Gy CRT and 11.0 (7.4-17.0) for 50+ Gy CRT. The cumulative stroke incidence in survivors treated with 50+ Gy CRT was 1.1% (95% CI 0.4-1.8%) at 10 years after diagnosis and 12% (95% CI 8.9-15.0%) at 30 years. Hypertension increased stroke hazard by 4-fold (95% CI 2.8-5.5) and in black survivors by 16-fold (95% CI 6.9-36.6). Conclusion: Young adult pediatric cancer survivors have an increased stroke risk that is associated with CRT in a dose-dependent manner. Atherosclerotic risk factors enhanced this risk and should be treated aggressively

  1. Effect of socioeconomic position on survival after childhood cancer in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simony, Sofie B; Lund, Lasse W; Erdmann, Friederike; Andersen, Klaus K; Winther, Jeanette F; Schüz, Joachim; Johansen, Christoffer; Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Dalton, Susanne O

    2016-06-01

    Background One fifth of all deaths among children in Europe are accounted for by cancer. If this is to be reduced there is a need for studies on not only biology and treatment approaches but also on how social factors influence cure rates. We investigated how various socioeconomic characteristics were associated with survival after childhood cancer. Material and methods In a nationwide cohort of 3797 children diagnosed with cancer [hematological cancer, central nervous system (CNS) tumors, non-CNS solid tumors] before age 20 between 1990 and 2009 we identified parents and siblings and obtained individual level parental socioeconomic variables and vital status through 2012 by linkage to population-based registries. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for dying were estimated using multivariate Cox proportional hazard models. Results For all children with cancer combined, survival was slightly but not statistically significantly better the higher the education of the mother or the father, and with maternal income. Significantly better survival was observed when parents were living together compared to living alone and worse survival when the child had siblings compared to none. Young (cancers, no significant associations were observed. For CNS tumors, better survival was seen with parents living together (HR 0.70, CI 0.51-0.97). For non-CNS solid tumors, survival was better with high education of the mother (HR 0.66, CI 0.44-0.99) compared to basic and worse for children with one (HR 1.45, CI 1.11-1.89) or two or more siblings (HR 1.29, CI 0.93-1.79) (p for trend 0.02) compared to none. Conclusion The impact of socioeconomic characteristics on childhood cancer survival, despite equal access to protocolled and free-of-charge treatment, warrants further and more direct studies of underlying mechanisms in order to target these as a means to improve survival rates. PMID:26935257

  2. Clinical outcome of percutaneous RF-ablation of non-operable patients with liver metastasis from breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kümler, Iben; Parner, Vibeke Kirk; Tuxen, Malgorzata K.;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: Despite improved anti-neoplastic treatment the prognosis for patients with liver metastases from metastatic breast cancer remains poor. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-two consecutive patients with metastatic breast cancer treated with radiofrequency ablation (RFA) at the Department...

  3. Thyroid cancer incidence due to technogenic exposure in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshurnikova, Nina Alexandrovna; Kaigorodova, Larissa Y; Rabinovich, Evgenya I; Martinenko, Irina I; Okatenko, Pavel A; Khokhryakov, Victor V; Mosharova, Elena P; Mokrov, Juri; Fomin, Evgeny; Alekseyev, Valery S; Panteleyev, Nikolay T; Sannikova, Lubov A; Ryzhykh, Tatyana V

    2012-07-01

    Thyroid cancer incidence was studied in the cohort of residents of Ozyorsk and Kyshtym, the nearest upwind cities to the Mayak Production Association (Mayak PA), Russia's first plutonium production facility, which has been in operation since 1948. Radioactive contamination of areas around the Mayak PA were from unmonitored releases of inert gases produced by industrial reactors and also from the release of uranium fission products from a radiochemical plant stack where irradiated uranium blocks were refined. Iodine-131 (131I) was the main contributor to the technogenic dose from atmospheric releases. Routine monitoring of gaseous releases began in the mid-1960s, when a gas purification system was perfected. Children were a critical group due to their higher radiosensitivity and specific diet (dairy products and vegetables). Both cities maintain Registries containing over 100,000 individuals born from 1934-2006. Among this group, more than 100 cases of thyroid cancer were registered during 1948-2009. The relative risk of thyroid cancer incidence is 1.5 times higher than in the Chelyabinsk. PMID:22647908

  4. Epigenetic silencing of glutaminase 2 in human liver and colon cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glutaminase 2 (Gls2) is a p53 target gene and is known to play an important role in energy metabolism. Gls2 has been reported to be downregulated in human hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC). However, the underlying mechanism responsible for its downregulation is still unclear. Here, we investigated Gls2 expression and its promoter methylation status in human liver and colon cancers. mRNA expression of Gls2 was determined in human liver and colon cancer cell lines and HCC tissues by real-time PCR and promoter methylation was analyzed by methylation-specific PCR (MSP) and validated by bisulfite genome sequencing (BGS). Cell growth was determined by colony formation assay and MTS assay. Statistical analysis was performed by Wilcoxon matched-pairs test or non-parametric t test. First, we observed reduced Gls2 mRNA level in a selected group of liver and colon cancer cell lines and in the cancerous tissues from 20 HCC and 5 human colon cancer patients in comparison to their non-cancerous counter parts. Importantly, the lower level of Gls2 in cancer cells was closely correlated to its promoter hypermethylation; and chemical demethylation treatment with 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (Aza) increased Gls2 mRNA level in both liver and colon cancer cells, indicating that direct epigenetic silencing suppressed Gls2 expression by methylation. Next, we further examined this correlation in human HCC tissues, and 60% of primary liver tumor tissues had higher DNA methylation levels when compared with adjacent non-tumor tissues. Detailed methylation analysis of 23 CpG sites at a 300-bp promoter region by bisulfite genomic sequencing confirmed its methylation. Finally, we examined the biological function of Gls2 and found that restoring Gls2 expression in cancer cells significantly inhibited cancer cell growth and colony formation ability through induction of cell cycle arrest. We provide evidence showing that epigenetic silencing of Gls2 via promoter hypermethylation is common in human liver

  5. Hepatocellular cancer in an extra liver lobe in the lower abdominal cavity - Differential diagnosis and problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The case described is that of a 36 year old patient with a known tumor in her lower abdominal cavity which has been observed to increase in size for the passed 16 years. Intraoperatively, one observed a very rare finding of an extra liver lobe of the left liver lobe and located in the lower abdominal cavity. Located within is a multifocal therapeutically treatable hepatocellular cancer. (orig.)

  6. Characterization of genomic alterations in radiation-associated breast cancer among childhood cancer survivors, using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH arrays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong R Yang

    Full Text Available Ionizing radiation is an established risk factor for breast cancer. Epidemiologic studies of radiation-exposed cohorts have been primarily descriptive; molecular events responsible for the development of radiation-associated breast cancer have not been elucidated. In this study, we used array comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH to characterize genome-wide copy number changes in breast tumors collected in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS. Array-CGH data were obtained from 32 cases who developed a second primary breast cancer following chest irradiation at early ages for the treatment of their first cancers, mostly Hodgkin lymphoma. The majority of these cases developed breast cancer before age 45 (91%, n = 29, had invasive ductal tumors (81%, n = 26, estrogen receptor (ER-positive staining (68%, n = 19 out of 28, and high proliferation as indicated by high Ki-67 staining (77%, n = 17 out of 22. Genomic regions with low-copy number gains and losses and high-level amplifications were similar to what has been reported in sporadic breast tumors, however, the frequency of amplifications of the 17q12 region containing human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 was much higher among CCSS cases (38%, n = 12. Our findings suggest that second primary breast cancers in CCSS were enriched for an "amplifier" genomic subgroup with highly proliferative breast tumors. Future investigation in a larger irradiated cohort will be needed to confirm our findings.

  7. Combining Angiogenesis-Targeted Treatments for Liver Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this trial, patients with unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma who are ineligible for a liver transplant or other local therapies will be given oral sorafenib at the standard approved dose and intravenous TRC105.

  8. Progressive Neuronal Degeneration of Childhood with Liver's Disease (Alpers' Disease) Clinical Features and Neuropathological Studies of 4 Sibling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yupu Guo; Zhong Guo; Haowen Liu; Mingwe Wang; Hongwei Duan; Shufang Gao; Haitao Ren

    2000-01-01

    We report four siblings of a family with Alpers' disease. Three of four siblings occurred diarrhea and myoclonus at the ages of 7 to 8 years old. During the disease evolution, symptoms of subacute encephalopathy such as headache, visual disturbance, cortical blindness, progressive seizures and mental retardation were presented at the ages of 15 to 20 years old. Downhill progression led them to death in multiple organ failure within six to eight months of onset. CT showed hypodensity lesions in the bilateral oc cipital and temporal lobes. Spongiform changes, which characterized by diffuse neuronal degeneration or loss and astrocytosis, were most severe in the gray matter. White matter was slightly involved, while basal ganglia, pons, brain stem and cerebellum were not involved. Physical examination of the only live brother of the four siblings showed short status (165 cm), arched feet and improper nose-pointed test of the left side. Muscle biopsy of him showed a large amount of Red-Ragged (RR) fibers and abnormal mitochondria. Clinical features and pathological findings of autopsy in all the four siblings were consistent with progressive neuronal degeneration of childhood with liver disease (PNDC) - Alpers' disease. The muscle biopsy showed the characteristic findings of mitochondrial myopathy. Our report confirmed the classification of late onset Alpers' disease as a mitochondrial disorders.

  9. Effects of external radiation in childhood on the induction of thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This case study focuses on the possible effects of external radiation in childhood with the induction of thyroid cancer presenting in later years. Our study examines a 14-year-old female who was present in Poland at the time of the Chernobyl disaster in April 1986. She was given an iodine dose at that time to saturate the thyroid to reduce radiation exposure to the gland. She subsequently developed papillary carcinoma eight years later and has now undergone a total thyroidectomy and an 131I ablative dose followed by a total body scan. The scan revealed apparent metastatic involvement in the mediastinal region. The potential carcinogenic effects of childhood irradiation of the neck have long been appreciated. This case highlights the fact that carcinoma may develop after such exposure

  10. Association between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and human rectal tumor or liver cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guohong Jiang; Limin Lun; Liyuan Cong

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in rectal carcinoma and hepatocarcinoma genesis. Methods: The PAHs in the human rectal cancer and liver cancer tissues, the adjacent tissues and homologous tissues without rectal cancer or liver cancer were extracted by ultrasonic wave. The extracts were then cleaned up and enriched by solid phase extraction, analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence spectroscopy. Results: Four kinds of PAHs were detected in human rectal and hepatic tissues. The contents of pyrene, 2-methylanthracene and benzo (a) pyrene in both rectal cancer tissues and adjacent homologous tissues were higher than rectal tissues without rectal cancer, the differences were statistically significant (P 0.05). The differences of the content of each PAHs between rectal cancer and adjacent tissue were not significant (P > 0.05). The contents of the four PAHs in the three kinds of liver tis-sues were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Conclusion: PAHs are found in human rectal tissues or hepatic tissues. The contents of PAHs in human rectal tissue may have an effect on the occurrence of human rectal cancer while the contents of PAHs in human hepatic tissues may have not ones.

  11. Pooled analysis of the surgical treatment for colorectal cancer liver metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veereman, G; Robays, J; Verleye, L; Leroy, R; Rolfo, C; Van Cutsem, E; Bielen, D; Ceelen, W; Danse, E; De Man, M; Demetter, P; Flamen, P; Hendlisz, A; Sinapi, I; Vanbeckevoort, D; Ysebaert, D; Peeters, M

    2015-04-01

    Liver metastases in colorectal cancer patients decreases the expected 5 year survival rates by a factor close to nine. It is generally accepted that resection of liver metastases should be attempted whenever feasible. This manuscript addresses the optimal therapeutic plan regarding timing of resection of synchronous liver metastases and the use of chemotherapy in combination with resection of synchronous metachronous liver metastases. The aim is to pool all published results in order to attribute a level of evidence to outcomes and identify lacking evidence areas. A systematic search of guidelines, reviews, randomised controlled, observational studies and updating a meta-analysis was performed. Data were extracted and analysed. Data failed to demonstrate an effect of timing of surgery or use of chemotherapy on overall survival. Concomitant resection of liver metastases and the primary tumour may result in lower postoperative morbidity. Systemic peri-operative chemotherapy may improve progression free survival compared to surgery alone. PMID:25666309

  12. Hospital contacts for endocrine disorders in Adult Life after Childhood Cancer in Scandinavia (ALiCCS): a population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Fine Licht, Sofie; Winther, Jeanette Falck; Gudmundsdottir, Thorgerdur;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The pattern of endocrine disorders in long-term survivors of childhood cancer has not been investigated comprehensively. Here, we aimed to assess the lifetime risk of these disorders in Nordic survivors of childhood cancer. METHODS: From the national cancer registries of Denmark...... were linked to the national hospital registries, and observed numbers of first-time hospital contacts for endocrine disorders in survivors of childhood cancer were compared with the expected numbers derived from the population comparison cohort. We calculated the absolute excess risks attributable...... to status as a childhood cancer survivor and standardised hospitalisation rate ratios (SHRRs). FINDINGS: Of the childhood cancer survivors, 3292 had contact with a hospital for an endocrine disorder, yielding a SHRR of 4·8 (95% CI 4·6-5·0); the highest risks were in survivors of leukaemia (SHRR 7·3 [95% CI...

  13. Dynamic observation of micronuclei and cell survival in human liver cancer cells irradiated by heavy ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author reported dynamic changes of micronuclei and cell survival in human liver cancer cells SMMC-7721 irradiated by 25 MeV/u 40Ar14+. The results show: (1) Change rules of frequency of micronuclei induced by single irradiation and fractionation irradiation with culture time have not clear difference. (2) Irradiated (single, fractionation) liver cancer cells grow much slower than control and their survival number with culture time shows decay tendency. (3) Dynamic changes of the relationship between micronucleus frequency and cell survival number presents negative correlation. (4) For cells irradiated by dose of 0.68 Gy, 6.8 Gy and 68 Gy, frequency of micronuclei following culture 24 hours is lower than that following culture 96 hours. (5) Negative dependences of survival number of liver cancer cells for culture 24 hours and 48 hours on dose are demonstrated

  14. Effect of intra-hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy for patients with liver metastasis from breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of intra-hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy for patients with liver metastasis from breast cancer. Methods: 1993-1998 years, Thirty four patients with liver metastasis from breast cancer had received epi-adriamycin, cisplatin, mitomycin and 5-fluorouracil by intrahepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy. Twelve patients had received embolization. Results: Six patients (17.65%) had a complete response, 12 patients (35.29%) had a partial response. The overall response rate was 52.94%. Cumulative survival rates at 1, 2, 3 and 4 years were 56.90%, 25.00%, 5.00% and 5.00% respectively (Kaplan-Meier method). The median overall survival time was 11.5 months. Conclusion: Intra-hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy is safe and effective for liver metastasis from breast cancer and should be the first choice of treatment for these patients

  15. Radiation signatures in childhood thyroid cancers after the Chernobyl accident: possible roles of radiation in carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Keiji; Mitsutake, Norisato; Saenko, Vladimir; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2015-02-01

    After the Tokyo Electric Power Company Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, cancer risk from low-dose radiation exposure has been deeply concerning. The linear no-threshold model is applied for the purpose of radiation protection, but it is a model based on the concept that ionizing radiation induces stochastic oncogenic alterations in the target cells. As the elucidation of the mechanism of radiation-induced carcinogenesis is indispensable to justify the concept, studies aimed at the determination of molecular changes associated with thyroid cancers among children who suffered effects from the Chernobyl nuclear accident will be overviewed. We intend to discuss whether any radiation signatures are associated with radiation-induced childhood thyroid cancers. PMID:25483826

  16. Calcifying liver metastases. Computed tomography imaging and incidence of primary colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 24 patients with liver metastases of the calcifying type were detected during CT scan imaging for cancer of different primary origin (colorectal, ovarian, mammary, gastric, prostatic melanoma). These calcifying metastases represented 27% of the 89 liver metastases cases detected, and the incidence of a colorectal origin for these calcifying lesions (20% of cases) appears to be highly significant, their number being relatively larger than reported in previous studies. Identification of liver calcifications of possible diagnostic importance requires a two-stage CT scan investigation, before and after bolus. Paraclinical examinations should be directed selectively towards the digestive tract when the primary tumor is unknown

  17. Effect of saffron on liver metastases in patients suffering from cancers with liver metastases: A randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Azar Hosseini; Seyed Hamed Mousavi; Anis Ghanbari; Fatemeh Homaei-Shandiz; Hamid-Reza Raziee; Masoud Pezeshki-Rad; Seyed Hadi Mousavi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Cancer represents the second cause of mortality in the world. Saffron as a medicinal plant is known for its anti-cancer and anti-depressant properties. In this randomized double blind clinical trial, the effects of saffron on response to treatment in patients suffering from liver metastasis were evaluated. Materials and Methods: Thirteen patients suffering from liver metastases who referred to Ghaem and Imam Reza hospital, Mashhad, Iran were included in this study and then divided ...

  18. Cancer of the Liver and Intrahepatic Bile Duct

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... see tailored statistics, browse the SEER Cancer Statistics Review . To see statistics for a specific state, go to the State ... which can be found in the SEER Cancer Statistics Review . In some cases, different year spans may be ...

  19. What You Need to Know about Liver Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type Progress Annual Report to the Nation Cancer Portfolio Snapshots Milestones in Cancer Research & Discovery Stories of ... Editorial Board Integrative Therapies Editorial Board Levels of Evidence Levels of Evidence: Treatment Levels of Evidence: Supportive & ...

  20. Mueller matrix microscope: a quantitative tool to facilitate detections and fibrosis scorings of liver cirrhosis and cancer tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ye; He, Honghui; Chang, Jintao; He, Chao; Liu, Shaoxiong; Li, Migao; Zeng, Nan; Wu, Jian; Ma, Hui

    2016-07-01

    Today the increasing cancer incidence rate is becoming one of the biggest threats to human health. Among all types of cancers, liver cancer ranks in the top five in both frequency and mortality rate all over the world. During the development of liver cancer, fibrosis often evolves as part of a healing process in response to liver damage, resulting in cirrhosis of liver tissues. In a previous study, we applied the Mueller matrix microscope to pathological liver tissue samples and found that both the Mueller matrix polar decomposition (MMPD) and Mueller matrix transformation (MMT) parameters are closely related to the fibrous microstructures. In this paper, we take this one step further to quantitatively facilitate the fibrosis detections and scorings of pathological liver tissue samples in different stages from cirrhosis to cancer using the Mueller matrix microscope. The experimental results of MMPD and MMT parameters for the fibrotic liver tissue samples in different stages are measured and analyzed. We also conduct Monte Carlo simulations based on the sphere birefringence model to examine in detail the influence of structural changes in different fibrosis stages on the imaging parameters. Both the experimental and simulated results indicate that the polarized light microscope and transformed Mueller matrix parameters can provide additional quantitative information helpful for fibrosis detections and scorings of liver cirrhosis and cancers. Therefore, the polarized light microscope and transformed Mueller matrix parameters have a good application prospect in liver cancer diagnosis.

  1. [Neurosensory, aesthetic and dental late effects of childhood cancer therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thouvenin-Doulet, Sandrine; Fayoux, Pierre; Broucqsault, Hélène; Bernier-Chastagner, Valérie

    2015-01-01

    Oncologic management in pediatric patient may be associated with a high risk of neurosensory deficit, such as taste, olfaction, vision and hearing. These neurosensory deficits can be linked to chemotherapy toxicity or to a direct deleterious effect of local radiotherapy or surgical management in case of craniofacial cancers. Neurosensory deficit may be temporary but are usually irreversible and frequently progress after the completion of treatment. Taste and olfaction deficits expose to high risk of nutritional complications and quality of life alteration. Hyposialia, as a result of irradiation of the salivary glands, increases taste changes and the risk of dental caries. The risk of cataract is present in patients who received high dose corticosteroids and/or brain or orbital irradiation. When hearing is affected, a risk of impaired intellectual or academic performance is increased with an impact on the quality of life in absence of specific care. Finally, there are some cosmetic consequences of therapy such as alopecia and scarring that alter the image of the patient. Early detection of these problems in order to limit medical, psychological, educational and social impact is mandatory. Moreover, high risk of worsening of these deficits after completion of therapy support long-term follow-up children treated for cancer, especially with head and neck primary. PMID:25962542

  2. Childhood cancer and factors related to prolonged diagnostic intervals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrensberg, J M; Olesen, F; Hansen, R P;

    2013-01-01

    Baggrund: Forsinket diagnostik af kræft hos børn kan have betydning for barnets prognose, øge det i forvejen høje niveau af psykisk stress og påvirke familiens mestring af den svære situation Formålet med denne undersøgelse var at undersøge om særlige symptomer, lægens tolkning af symptomerne og...... overleveringen til hospitalet var af betydning for hvor lang tid, der går fra lægesøgning til diagnose. Metode: Dansk populations-baseret studie. Data for 550 børn < 15 år med en incident cancer diagnose (jan 2007-dec 2010) blev indsamlet vha spørgeskemaer til forældre (response-rate=69%) and praktiserende læger...... barnets symptomer som vage og ukarakteristiske i 25,4%; som alvorlige, men ikke cancer-relaterede i 50,0%; og som alarm symptom i 19,0% af tilfælde. Symptom tolkningen varierede med cancertype (p<0,001) og var associeret med DI (p<0,001). Symptomet “opkast” var associeret til et kortere DI ved børn med...

  3. Influence of nanoparticles accumulation on optical properties of human normal and cancerous liver tissue in vitro estimated by OCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Fang; Wei, Huajiang; Ye, Xiangping; Hu, Kun; Wu, Guoyong; Yang, Hongqin; He, Yonghong; Xie, Shusen; Guo, Zhouyi

    2015-02-01

    In this work, the potential use of nanoparticles as contrast agents by using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in liver tissue was demonstrated. Gold nanoparticles (average size of 25 and 70 nm), were studied in human normal and cancerous liver tissues in vitro, respectively. Each sample was monitored with SD-OCT functional imaging for 240 min. Continuous OCT monitoring showed that, after application of gold nanoparticles, the OCT signal intensities of normal liver and cancerous liver tissue both increase with time, and the larger nanoparticles tend to produce a greater signal enhancement in the same type of tissue. The results show that the values of attenuation coefficients have significant differences between normal liver tissue and cancerous liver tissue. In addition, 25 nm gold nanoparticles allow higher penetration depth than 70 nm gold nanoparticles in liver tissues.

  4. The nanomechanical signature of liver cancer tissues and its molecular origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Mengxin; Li, Yiran; Liu, Weiren; Jin, Lei; Jiang, Xifei; Wang, Xinyan; Ding, Zhenbin; Peng, Yuanfei; Zhou, Jian; Fan, Jia; Cao, Yi; Wang, Wei; Shi, Yinghong

    2015-07-01

    Patients with cirrhosis are at higher risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the second most frequent cause of cancer-related deaths. Although HCC diagnosis based on conventional morphological characteristics serves as the ``gold standard'' in the clinic, there is a high demand for more convenient and effective diagnostic methods that employ new biophysical perspectives. Here, we show that the nanomechanical signature of liver tissue is directly correlated with the development of HCC. Using indentation-type atomic force microscopy (IT-AFM), we demonstrate that the lowest elasticity peak (LEP) in the Young's modulus distribution of surgically removed liver cancer tissues can serve as a mechanical fingerprint to evaluate the malignancy of liver cancer. Cirrhotic tissues shared the same LEP as normal tissues. However, a noticeable downward shift in the LEP was detected when the cirrhotic tissues progressed to a malignant state, making the tumor tissues more prone to microvascular invasion. Cell-level mechanistic studies revealed that the expression level of a Rho-family effector (mDia1) was consistent with the mechanical trend exhibited by the tissue. Our findings indicate that the mechanical profiles of liver cancer tissues directly varied with tumor progression, providing an additional platform for the future diagnosis of HCC.Patients with cirrhosis are at higher risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the second most frequent cause of cancer-related deaths. Although HCC diagnosis based on conventional morphological characteristics serves as the ``gold standard'' in the clinic, there is a high demand for more convenient and effective diagnostic methods that employ new biophysical perspectives. Here, we show that the nanomechanical signature of liver tissue is directly correlated with the development of HCC. Using indentation-type atomic force microscopy (IT-AFM), we demonstrate that the lowest elasticity peak (LEP) in the Young's modulus

  5. Utility of the dual-specificity protein kinase TTK as a therapeutic target for intrahepatic spread of liver cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Ruoyu; Wu, Yan; Zhang, Haohai; Zhou, Huandi; Sun, Xiaofeng; Csizmadia, Eva; He, Lian; Zhao, Yi; Jiang, Chengyu; Miksad, Rebecca A; Ghaziani, Tahereh; Robson, Simon C; Zhao, Haitao

    2016-01-01

    Therapies for primary liver cancer, the third leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, remain limited. Following multi-omics analysis (including whole genome and transcriptome sequencing), we were able to identify the dual-specific protein kinase TTK as a putative new prognostic biomarker for liver cancer. Herein, we show that levels of TTK protein are significantly elevated in neoplastic tissues from a cohort of liver cancer patients, when compared with adjacent hepatic tissues. We also tested the utility of TTK targeted inhibition and have demonstrated therapeutic potential in an experimental model of liver cancer in vivo. Following lentiviral shRNA knockdown in several human liver cancer cell lines, we demonstrated that TTK boosts cell growth and promotes cell spreading; as well as protects against senescence and decreases autophagy. In an experimental animal model, we show that in vitro knockdown of TTK effectively blocks intrahepatic growth of human HCC xenografts. Furthermore, we note that, in vivo silencing of TTK, by systemically delivering TTK siRNAs to already tumor-bearing liver, limits intrahepatic spread of liver cancer cells. This intervention is associated with decreased tumor aggressiveness, as well as increased senescence and autophagy. Taken together, our data suggest that targeted TTK inhibition might have clinical utility as an adjunct therapy in management of liver cancer. PMID:27618777

  6. Donor transmitted and de novo cancer after liver transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Desai, Rajeev; Neuberger, James

    2014-01-01

    Cancers in solid organ recipients may be classified as donor transmitted, donor derived, de novo or recurrent. The risk of donor-transmitted cancer is very low and can be reduced by careful screening of the donor but cannot be abolished and, in the United Kingdom series is less than 0.03%. For donors with a known history of cancer, the risks will depend on the nature of the cancer, the interventions given and the interval between diagnosis and organ donation. The risks of cancer transmission ...

  7. Liver Label Retaining Cancer Cells Are Relatively Resistant to the Reported Anti-Cancer Stem Cell Drug Metformin

    OpenAIRE

    Xin, Hong-Wu; Ambe, Chenwi M.; Miller, Tyler C.; Chen, Jin-Qiu; Wiegand, Gordon W.; Anderson, Andrew J.; Ray, Satyajit; Mullinax, John E.; Hari, Danielle M; Koizumi, Tomotake; Godbout, Jessica D.; Goldsmith, Paul K.; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Rudloff, Udo; Thorgeirsson, Snorri S.

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims: Recently, we reported that liver Label Retaining Cancer Cells (LRCC) can initiate tumors with only 10 cells and are relatively resistant to the targeted drug Sorafenib, a standard of practice in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). LRCC are the only cancer stem cells (CSC) isolated alive according to a stem cell fundamental function, asymmetric cell division. Metformin has been reported to preferentially target many other types of CSC of different organs, including live...

  8. 2014 Korean Liver Cancer Study Group-National Cancer Center Korea Practice Guideline for the Management of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    ,

    2015-01-01

    The guideline for the management of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was first developed in 2003 and revised in 2009 by the Korean Liver Cancer Study Group and the National Cancer Center, Korea. Since then, many studies on HCC have been carried out in Korea and other countries. In particular, a substantial body of knowledge has been accumulated on diagnosis, staging, and treatment specific to Asian characteristics, especially Koreans, prompting the proposal of new strategies. Accordingly, the n...

  9. Pregnancy x-rays and childhood cancers: effects of exposure age and radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using data from the Oxford Survey of Childhood Cancers this paper examines the effect of foetal age and number of films used on the subsequent risk of childhood cancer associated with prenatal x-rays. X-rays early in pregnancy were taken for different reasons and required more films when compared with those taken in late pregnancy. Therefore, Mantel-Haenszel techniques were used to estimate the independent effects of (a) exposure age and (b) number of films. Age at exposure had a clearly significant effect; x-rays taken in the first trimester of pregnancy were 2.69 times as effective as x-rays taken in the third trimester. First trimester exposures were often the result of maternal illnesses, so these maternal illnesses were then included among the controlling factors. When this was done the first trimester x-rays were 2.73 times as effective as later exposures. First trimester x-rays were most strongly associated with the cancers which were diagnosed between 4 and 5 years of age. Although the number of films had no detectable effect upon relative risk calculated over all ages, multiple exposures were demonstrably associated with early age at diagnosis. (author)

  10. Late mortality among five-year survivors of cancer in childhood and adolescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, Torgil R.; Garwicz, Stanislaw; Perfekt, Roland; Barlow, Lotti; Falck Winther, Jeanette; Glattre, Eystein; Olafsdottir, Gudridur; Olsen, Joergen H.; Ritvanen, Annukka; Sankila, Risto [Univ. Hospital MAS, Malmoe (Sweden). Dept. of Endocrinology

    2004-12-01

    The present study was aimed at assessing differences between the Nordic countries, if any, in late mortality among five-year survivors of childhood cancer. All cases diagnosed before the age of 20 years, between 1960 and 1989, were collected from all Nordic cancer registries. In total, 13,689 patients were identified as five-year survivors and during the extended follow-up 12.3% of them died. Mortality was analysed by decade of diagnosis, for all sites, and for leukaemia, Hodgkin's lymphoma, and central nervous system tumours separately. Analyses were done within a Cox proportional hazards regression framework with adjustments made for gender and age at diagnosis. Hazard ratios were calculated in relation to a weighted Nordic mean based on the proportion of five-year survivors in each country. Overall late mortality was significantly higher in Denmark and Finland than in Norway and Sweden. This could not be explained by inverse differences in five-year survival. The differences diminished over time and had disappeared in the last period. The pattern was similar for both genders. The disappearance of the differences was most probably the effect of a closer collaboration between Nordic paediatric oncologists with development and implementation of common protocols for treatment of childhood cancers in all countries.

  11. Thyroid neoplasia following irradiation in adolescent and young adult survivors of childhood cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To describe a cohort of survivors of childhood malignancy at risk of developing thyroid abnormality, and propose guidelines for management of such patients. 142 patients who had received irradiation to the thyroid from the 1970s onwards, who attended the late-effects clinic from May 1989 to December 1998 were included in this study. Thyroid palpation by an endocrinologist or surgeon, serum thyroid-stimulating hormone assay and thyroid ultrasound examination were performed on all subjects and, depending on findings, some subjects proceeded to fine-needle biopsy or surgery (total thyroidectomy). A few patients required adjuvant I-131 administration. 49 subjects (24 of 65 patients who received scatter irradiation to the thyroid and 25 of 78 patients who received direct irradiation) had thyroid surgery. Of these, 12 in the scatter and six in the direct irradiation group were found to have thyroid malignancy. Fifty subjects with abnormal ultrasound results remain under surveillance. Having a palpable thyroid was predictive of malignancy, but age at original diagnosis, sex, current age, time since irradiation, radiation dose, nodule type and nodal involvement were not. It was concluded that there is a significant risk of cancer in thyroid glands exposed to radiation as part of therapy for childhood cancer. This risk is greater for patients who received scatter (versus direct) irradiation. Nodular change is usually not apparent for many years, so lifelong surveillance is necessary. Palpation alone is not sufficient to detect thyroid cancer and thyroid ultrasound examination is recommended

  12. Label-free detection of liver cancer cells by aptamer-based microcantilever biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuejuan; Pan, Yangang; Liu, Huiqing; Bai, Xiaojing; Wang, Nan; Zhang, Bailin

    2016-05-15

    Liver cancer is one of the most common and highly malignant cancers in the world. There are no effective therapeutic options if an early liver cancer diagnosis is not achieved. In this work, detection of HepG2 cells by label-free microcantilever array aptasensor was developed. The sensing microcantilevers were functionalized by HepG2 cells-specific aptamers. Meanwhile, to eliminate the interferences induced by the environment, the reference microcantilevers were modified with 6-mercapto-1-hexanol self-assembled monolayers. The aptasensor exhibits high specificity over not only human liver normal cells, but also other cancer cells of breast, bladder, and cervix tumors. The linear relation ranges from 1×10(3) to 1×10(5)cells/mL, with a detection limit of 300cells/mL (S/N=3). Our work provides a simple method for detection of liver cancer cells with advantages in terms of simplicity and stability. PMID:26735868

  13. Assessment of the chemosensitizing activity of TAT-RasGAP317-326 in childhood cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Chevalier

    Full Text Available Although current anti-cancer protocols are reasonably effective, treatment-associated long-term side effects, induced by lack of specificity of the anti-cancer procedures, remain a challenging problem in pediatric oncology. TAT-RasGAP317-326 is a RasGAP-derived cell-permeable peptide that acts as a sensitizer to various anti-cancer treatments in adult tumor cells. In the present study, we assessed the effect of TAT-RasGAP317-326 in several childhood cancer cell lines. The RasGAP-derived peptide-induced cell death was analyzed in several neuroblastoma, Ewing sarcoma and leukemia cell lines (as well as in normal lymphocytes. Cell death was evaluated using flow cytometry methods in the absence or in the presence of the peptide in combination with various genotoxins used in the clinics (4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide, etoposide, vincristine and doxorubicin. All tested pediatric tumors, in response to at least one genotoxin, were sensitized by TAT-RasGAP317-326. The RasGAP-derived peptide did not increase cell death of normal lymphocytes, alone or in combination with the majority of the tested chemotherapies. Consequently, TAT-RasGAP317-326 may benefit children with tumors by increasing the efficacy of anti-cancer therapies notably by allowing reductions in anti-cancer drug dosage and the associated drug-induced side effects.

  14. 188Re-HTDD-lipiodol solution as a new therapeutic agent for transhepatic arterial administration in liver cancer: a preclinical study using liver-cancer model in rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    188Re-HTDD-lipiodol solution was developed and reported to be a new therapeutic material for transhepatic arterial embolization (TAE) of liver cancer. In this study we compared the tissue retention of 188Re-HTDD-lipiodol with that of 188Re-TDD-lipiodol using liver-cancer model in rabbit. Cancer cell line VX2 was inoculated into 7 rabbits and grown up to larger than 3 cm. TAE was performed with 188Re-TDD-lipiodol in 3 rabbits and with 188Re-HTDD-lipiodol in 4 rabbits. Conjugated planar scans were performed at 1, 2, 6, 24, 48 hours after TAE. From these images, the mean life of radioactivity retention in tumor was calculated, and the required dose for human application as also calculated from the mean life and MIRDOSE3 software. The mean lifes of radioactivity in liver were 10.2±1.0 hr in TDD group and 17.6±0.8 hr in HTDD group (p188Re-HTDD-lipiodol for 5.7 cm-sized tumor and 88 mCi for 9,7 cm-sized tumor. By the introduction of long chain alkyl group, 188Re-HTDD-lipiodol showed significantly better tumor retention than that of 188Re-TDD-lipiodol. And the required dose of radiation for human application was calculated to be 18 ∼ 88 mCi when using 188Re-HTDD-lipiodol

  15. Tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression in colorectal cancer liver metastases is associated with vascular structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Illemann, Martin; Eefsen, Rikke Løvendahl; Bird, Nigel Charles;

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic growth by colorectal cancer cells in the liver requires the ability of the cancer cells to interact with the new microenvironment. This interaction results in three histological growth patterns of liver metastases: desmoplastic, pushing, and replacement. In primary colorectal cancer...... several proteases, involved in the degradation of extracellular matrix components, are up-regulated. In liver metastases, their expression is growth pattern dependent. Tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) is a strong prognostic marker in plasma from colorectal cancer patients......, with significant higher levels in patients with metastatic disease. We therefore wanted to determine the expression pattern of TIMP-1 in primary colorectal cancers and their matching liver metastases. TIMP-1 mRNA was primarily seen in α-smooth-muscle actin (α-SMA)-positive cells. In all primary tumors and liver...

  16. Locally ablative therapies for primary and metastatic liver cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, David; Kang, Josephine; Madoff, David C

    2014-08-01

    Locally ablative therapies have an increasing role in the effective multidisciplinary approach towards the treatment of both primary and metastatic liver tumors. In patients who are not considered surgical candidates and have low volume disease, these therapies have now become established into consensus practice guidelines. A large range of therapeutic options exist including percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI), radiofrequency ablation (RFA), microwave ablation (MWA), cryoablation, percutaneous laser ablation (PLA), irreversible electroporation (IRE), stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) and high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU); each having benefits and drawbacks. The greatest body of evidence supporting clinical utility in the liver currently exists for RFA, with PEI having fallen out of favor. MWA, IRE, SBRT and HIFU are relatively nascent technologies, and outcomes data supporting their use is promising. Future directions of ablative therapies include tandem approaches to improve efficacy in the treatment of liver tumors. PMID:24746315

  17. C8orf4 negatively regulates self-renewal of liver cancer stem cells via suppression of NOTCH2 signalling

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Pingping; Wang, Yanying; Du, Ying; He, Lei; Huang, Guanling; Zhang, Geng; Yan, Xinlong; Fan, Zusen

    2015-01-01

    Liver cancer stem cells (CSCs) harbour self-renewal and differentiation properties, accounting for chemotherapy resistance and recurrence. However, the molecular mechanisms to sustain liver CSCs remain largely unknown. In this study, based on analysis of several hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) transcriptome datasets and our experimental data, we find that C8orf4 is weakly expressed in HCC tumours and liver CSCs. C8orf4 attenuates the self-renewal capacity of liver CSCs and tumour propagation. ...

  18. Alloimmune activation promotes anti-cancer cytotoxicity after rat liver transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Lacotte

    Full Text Available Liver transplantation for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC results in a specific condition where the immune response is potentially directed against both allogeneic and cancer antigens. We have investigated the level of anti-cancer immunity during allogeneic immune response. Dark Agouti-to-Lewis and Lewis-to-Lewis rat liver transplantations were performed and the recipients anti-cancer immunity was analysed at the time of alloimmune activation. The occurrence of rejection in the allogeneic recipients was confirmed by a shorter survival (p<0.01, increased liver function tests (p<0.01, the presence of signs of rejection on histology, and a donor-specific ex vivo mixed lymphocyte reaction. At the time of alloimmune activation, blood mononuclear cells of the allogeneic group demonstrated increased anti-cancer cytotoxicity (p<0.005, which was related to an increased natural killer (NK cell frequency (p<0.05 and a higher monocyte/macrophage activation level (p<0.01. Similarly, liver NK cell anti-cancer cytotoxicity (p<0.005, and liver monocyte/macrophage activation levels (p<0.01 were also increased. The alloimmune-associated cytotoxicity was mediated through the NKG2D receptor, whose expression was increased in the rejected graft (p<0.05 and on NK cells and monocyte/macrophages. NKG2D ligands were expressed on rat HCC cells, and its inhibition prevented the alloimmune-associated cytotoxicity. Although waiting for in vivo validation, alloimmune-associated cytotoxicity after rat liver transplantation appears to be linked to increased frequencies and levels of activation of NK cells and monocyte/macrophages, and is at least in part mediated through the NKG2D receptor.

  19. Endocrinological analysis of 122 Japanese childhood cancer survivors in a single hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With recent improvements in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, the number of childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) has been increasing in Japan. The importance of quality of life during the lifetime of CCSs has now been recognized, and the late effects of cancer treatments are essential and important issues. In this study we analyzed the endocrinological abnormalities of CCSs by retrospectively evaluating 122 outpatients (62 males and 60 females) who had been referred from pediatric oncologists to our follow-up clinic among 151 CCSs attending our hospital more than two years after their cancer treatment. Follow-up duration varied from 2 to 30 (median 8.0) years. Their average age was 17.3 (range 4-36, median 17.0) years, and 38 patients (31.1%) reached adulthood. Endocrinological abnormalities were found in 82 (67%) of 122 survivors. Gonadal dysfunction was observed in 60 patients (49%). Thirty-nine patients (32%) were short or grew at a slower rate. Twenty-six patients (21%) showed thyroid dysfunction. Other abnormalities were as follows: obesity in 20 patients (16%), leanness in 10 (8%), central diabetes insipidus in 11 (9%) and adrenocortical dysfunction in 9 (7%). Low bone mineral density was observed in 41 (42%) of 98 patients evaluated. These endocrinological abnormalities were caused by the combined effects of cancer itself and various treatments (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, surgery, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation). Lifetime medical surveillance and continuous follow-up are necessary for CCSs, because treatment-related complications may occur during childhood and many years after the therapy as well. Endocrinologists should participate in long-term follow-up of these survivors in collaboration with pediatric oncologists. (author)

  20. Childhood cancer in developing society: A roadmap of health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P M Ramesh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We assessed referral patterns of children with hematological malignancies (HM in North India. Materials and Methods: The parents/guardians were interviewed at presentation, in the period between October 2001 and November 2002. Patient delay (symptom-contact, health system delay (contact-diagnosis, total delay (symptom-diagnosis, and number of contacts were compared between high- and standard-risk disease group. Results: Of the 79 children (55 boys; 69.6% with HM, 47 (59.5% had Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL. Forty-four children had high-risk disease. The patient, system and total delay were a median of 2 days (with Interquartile range IQR of 1−6, 37 days (IQR 13−55, and 38 days (IQR 15−60 respectively. Majority of patients (64/79; 81% went to private sector (non governmental health care providers for health care. Number of contacts, which was the most significant, correlate with system delay. Conclusions: Sensitizing the private sector practitioners about cancer in symptomatic children (pallor, bleeding, fever may be effective.

  1. Analysis on the childhood and adolescent differentiated thyroid cancer: clinical features and radioiodine treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: Children with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) frequently present with more extensive disease than adults. The aim of this study was to characterize the clinical features of child-hood and adolescent DTC and evaluate the outcome and safety of radioiodine treatment. Methods: The records of 38 childhood and adolescent DTC cases, with 28 females and 10 males (mean age: 16.4 years) were reviewed. At diagnosis, all had metastatic lesions with 38 at regional lymph nodes, 15 at lung, 2 at brain and bone. Twenty-three had a total thyroidectomy, 7 had subtotal thyroidectomy, 5 had lobectomy, and 3 had other treatment. All received post-operative radioiodine therapy. All had follow-up for at least one year. Results: At the time of follow-up, all were survive (with a median follow-up of 5.13 years). Four-teen patients had no evidence of disease, 16 had partial remission, and 8 were stable disease. Conclusions: DTC of the thyroid in childhood and adolescent has high risks of residual/recurrence and metastasis. Post-thyroidectomy oral administration of radioiodine was an effective and safety adjuvant therapy for outcomes. (authors)

  2. The tumorigenic liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini –multiple pathways to cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Sripa, Banchob; Brindley, Paul J.; Mulvenna, Jason; Laha, Thewarach; Michael J. Smout; Mairiang, Eimorn; Bethony, Jeffrey M; Loukas, Alex

    2012-01-01

    Liver fluke infection caused by Opisthorchis viverrini is a major public health problem in Thailand and adjacent countries. In addition to infection-associated morbidity, infection with O. viverrini and the related Clonorchis sinensis are unarguable risk factors for cholangiocarcinoma, bile duct cancer. Here we review the pathogenesis of opisthorchiasis and the association of O. viverrini infection and bile duct cancer, focusing on the molecular parallels between wound healing, chronic inflam...

  3. The Prevention of Liver Cancer by HBV Vaccine Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Xiong

    2002-01-01

    Objective To recognize the HBV vaccine program for prevention of the hepatic cancer.Methods To discuss the relation between the HBV and hepatic cancer arising, and to discuss the immunology respond of the HBV vaccine (HBV surface antigen protein) in our patient group. Result Our data indicates that the predisposing of the HBV infection is required for the hepatic cancer arising and for the high expression of the AFP gene, and our data indicates that the HBV vaccine can induce highly immuno respond in about 78.8 % of the adult for achieving the HBV prevention status and the hepatic cancer prevention status.

  4. Evaluation and Management of Hearing Loss in Survivors of Childhood and Adolescent Cancers: A Report From the Children's Oncology Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Johnnie K; Knight, Kristin R; Yock, Torunn I; Chang, Kay W; Cipkala, Douglas; Grewal, Satkiran S

    2016-07-01

    Hearing loss (HL) is common in childhood cancer survivors exposed to platinum chemotherapy and/or cranial radiation and can severely impact quality of life. Early detection and appropriate management can mitigate academic, speech, language, social, and psychological morbidity resulting from hearing deficits. This review is targeted as a resource for providers involved in aftercare of childhood cancers. The goal is to promote early identification of survivors at-risk for HL, appropriate evaluation and interpretation of diagnostic tests, timely referral to an audiologist when indicated, and to increase knowledge of current therapeutic options. PMID:26928933

  5. Analysis of clinical effect of high-intensity focused ultrasound on liver cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuan-Xing Li; Guo-Liang Xu; Zhen-You Jiang; Jian-Jun Li; Guang-Yu Luo; Hong-Bo Shan; Rong Zhang; Yin Li

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the clinical effect of high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) in the treatment of patients with liver cancer.METHODS: HIFU treatment was performed in 100 patients with liver cancer under general anesthesia and by a targeted ultrasound. Evaluation of efficacy was made on the basis of clinical symptoms, liver function tests, AFP,MRI or CT before and after the treatment.RESULTS: After HIFU treatment, clinical symptoms were relieved in 86.6%(71/82) of patients. The ascites disappeared in 6 patients. ALT (95±44) U/L and AST (114±58) U/L before HIFU treatment were reduced to normal in 83.3%(30/36) and 72.9%(35/48) patients,respectively, after the treatment. AFP was lowered by more than 50% in 65.3%(32/49) patients. After HIFU treatment,MRI or CT findings indicated coagulation necrosis and blood supply reduction or disappearance of tumor in the target region.CONCLUSION: HIFU can efficiently treat the patients with liver cancer. It will offer a significant noninvasive therapy for local treatment of liver tumor.

  6. Value and indications of liver scintigraphy in the initial assessment of bronchopulmonary cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This retrospective study of 117 liver scintigraphs, carried out systematically in the initial examination of bronchopulmonary cancer patients, attempts to define the value and indications of the method in the diagnosis of liver metastases at the stage when the primary cancer is discovered. Its sensitivity and reliability were estimated by comparing the interpretation of the scan with the actual situation. Scintigraphic diagnosis meets with several difficulties. It is ruled by technology: in spite of many improvements it seems that the quality of conventional scintigraphy has reached its limits, through transverse axial tomodensitometry may be a future solution. Morever its interpretation depends on the experience and temperament of the observer, as shown by the results of double-blind readings. Finally the examination is not specific to the nature of the liver disease. It seems that without prejudice to the patient the indications of liver scintigraphy in the initial assessment of bronchopulmonary cancer may be limited to cases where some clinical or biological doubt on the integrity of the liver is present

  7. Referral patterns of patients with liver metastases due to colorectal cancer for resection.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Al-Sahaf, O

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Colorectal carcinoma accounts for 10% of cancer deaths in the Western World, with the liver being the most common site of distant metastases. Resection of liver metastases is the treatment of choice, with a 5-year survival rate of 35%. However, only 5-10% of patients are suitable for resection at presentation. AIMS: To examine the referral pattern of patients with liver metastases to a specialist hepatic unit for resection. METHODOLOGY: Retrospective review of patient\\'s charts diagnosed with colorectal liver metastases over a 10-year period. RESULTS: One hundred nine (38 women, 71 men) patients with liver metastases were included, mean age 61 years; 79 and 30 patients had synchronous and metachronus metastases, respectively. Ten criteria for referral were identified; the referral rate was 8.25%, with a resection rate of 0.9%. Forty two percent of the patients had palliative chemotherapy; 42% had symptomatic treatment. CONCLUSION: This study highlights the advanced stage of colorectal cancer at presentation; in light of modern evidence-based, centre-oriented therapy of liver metastasis, we conclude that criteria of referral for resection should be based on the availability of treatment modalities.

  8. Comparison of therapeutic effects of electrochemotherapy and radiofrequency ablation on rats with implanted liver cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To compare the therapeutic effects of electrochemotherapy (EChT) and radiofrequency ablation (RFA) on rats with implanted liver cancer. Methods: Immediate cancerous ascites injection method was utilized for creation of rats liver cancer model and followed by treatment with EchT and RFT respectively. Tumor size, necrosis and apoptosis were observed one week later by imaging and pathology. The results were compared with those of control group. The survival times were observed also. Results: Before treatment, all rats average liver tumor volume was (100 ± 6) mm3. One week after treatment, average tumor volumes in EChT group [(125 ± 10) mm3] and RFA group [(143 ± 12) mm3] were significantly smaller than those of control group [(190 ± 11) mm3], but tumor volume showed significant statistical difference between EChT group and RFA group. Necrosis, apoptosis and survival times in EChT group and RFA group were significantly higher than those of control group. Conclusions: EChT or RFA could promote tumor necrosis, induce apoptosis, inhibit tumor growth and prolong the survival time of rats with implanted liver cancer

  9. Yttrium-90 radioembolization for the treatment of unresectable liver cancer: Results of a single center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özhan Özgür

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the effects of yttrium-90 (Y-90 resin microsphere radioembolization therapy on patients with unresectable liver cancer who do not benefit from chemotherapy. Methods: Fifty-five patients underwent radioembolization therapy included in the study whose had unresectable primary or metastatic liver cancer originating from the gastrointestinal tract. Three were excluded from the study after pre-evaluation angiography. Thirteen (23.6% of the remaining 52 patients had hepatocellular carcinoma and 39 (76.4% had metastatic liver cancer. Fifty-two patients underwent Y-90 radioembolization treatment. Each patient's response to the administered treatment was evaluated using the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST and the overall probability of survival was displayed graphically by the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: After Y-90 therapy, 47 patients were follow-up. While 57% of the patients responded to treatment as clinical benefit, the disease progressed in 43%. The median hepatic progression-free survival time of the patients was 3.4 months (95% confidence interval (ci:1.4-5.3 and the overall survival time was 11.3 months (95%, CI:8.7-14.03. Conclusion: This study emphasizes that Y-90 resin microsphere radioembolization treatment is effective in patients with unresectable liver cancer.

  10. Employment Situation of Parents of Long-Term Childhood Cancer Survivors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzius Mader

    Full Text Available Taking care of children diagnosed with cancer affects parents' professional life. The impact in the long-term however, is not clear. We aimed to compare the employment situation of parents of long-term childhood cancer survivors with control parents of the general population, and to identify clinical and socio-demographic factors associated with parental employment.As part of the Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study, we sent a questionnaire to parents of survivors aged 5-15 years, who survived ≥5 years after diagnosis. Information on control parents of the general population came from the Swiss Health Survey (restricted to men and women with ≥1 child aged 5-15 years. Employment was categorized as not employed, part-time, and full-time employed. We used generalized ordered logistic regression to determine associations with clinical and socio-demographic factors. Clinical data was available from the Swiss Childhood Cancer Registry.We included 394 parent-couples of survivors and 3'341 control parents (1'731 mothers; 1'610 fathers. Mothers of survivors were more often not employed (29% versus 22%; ptrend = 0.007. However, no differences between mothers were found in multivariable analysis. Fathers of survivors were more often employed full-time (93% versus 87%; ptrend = 0.002, which remained significant in multivariable analysis. Among parents of survivors, mothers with tertiary education (OR = 2.40, CI:1.14-5.07 were more likely to be employed. Having a migration background (OR = 3.63, CI: 1.71-7.71 increased the likelihood of being full-time employed in mothers of survivors. Less likely to be employed were mothers of survivors diagnosed with lymphoma (OR = 0.31, CI:0.13-0.73 and >2 children (OR = 0.48, CI:0.30-0.75; and fathers of survivors who had had a relapse (OR = 0.13, CI:0.04-0.36.Employment situation of parents of long-term survivors reflected the more traditional parenting roles. Specific support for parents with low education

  11. Vegetable-based dietary pattern and liver cancer risk: results from the Shanghai Women's and Men's Health Studies

    OpenAIRE

    ZHANG Wei; Xiang, Yong-Bing; Li, Hong-Lan; Yang, Gong; Cai, Hui; Ji, Bu-Tian; Gao, Yu-Tang; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2013-01-01

    Although dietary patterns, specific foods, and their constituents have been linked to cancer risk, the role of dietary patterns and specific food groups in liver cancer risk has not been investigated. In the Shanghai Women's Health Study (SWHS) and Shanghai Men's Health Study (SMHS), two cohort studies of 132 837 Chinese women and men, we evaluated the relationship between dietary patterns, food groups, and liver cancer risk. Through in-person interviews, dietary information...

  12. Liver X receptor as a drug target for the treatment of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ying; Yu, Dan-Dan; Yan, Da-Li; Hu, Yong; Chen, Dan; Liu, Yun; Zhang, He-da; Yu, Shao-Rong; Cao, Hai-Xia; Feng, Ji-Feng

    2016-06-01

    Liver X receptor (LXR) has been exploited widely as a drug target in breast cancer treatment, and various mechanisms underlying the effects of LXR in this area are well studied. The activated LXR plays important roles in estrogen receptor α (ERα) breast cancer cells, such as reducing cell proliferation and arresting cell cycle progression. Different LXR ligands have diverse effects on the development of breast cancer, such as the inhibitory effect of oxysterol, which can return cells to normocholesterol conditions and target other metabolic genes. Moreover, 27-hydroxycholesterol, a locally produced cholesterol metabolite, reportedly promotes the proliferation of ERα breast cancer cells in vitro and facilitates tumor metastasis with other LXR ligands. Moreover, the expression of LXR also exerts potential effects on immune surveillance, tumor immunity, and tumor microenvironment. These advances in breast cancer research indicate that LXR may be a new therapeutic target to treat the refractory or drug-resistant subtypes of breast cancer. PMID:26872310

  13. Providers' Perspectives of Survivorship Care for Young Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Carla; Stratton, Erin; Esiashvili, Natia; Mertens, Ann; Vanderpool, Robin C

    2016-03-01

    We examined healthcare providers' perceptions of the goals of survivorship care and survivor programs, systems-level barriers and individual patient-level barriers to engaging patients in survivorship care, and potential resources for increasing engagement. In 2012, we recruited 21 healthcare providers of young adult survivors of childhood cancers from a children's hospital and a cancer center in the Southeastern USA to complete telephone-based semi-structured interviews. The sample was 45.95 years old (SD = 7.57) on average, 52.4 % female, and 81.0 % MDs. The major goals of survivorship programs identified were medical care management (e.g., addressing late and long-term effects, providing survivorship care plans (SCPs), assisting in transition of care) and holistic care including addressing psychosocial issues and promoting healthy lifestyles. Systems-level barriers to engagement in survivorship care included limited resources (e.g., time), role confusion (e.g., within cancer centers, from treatment team to survivorship care, role of primary care providers), communication challenges within the medical system (e.g., limited tracking of patients, lack of understanding of the role of survivorship clinic), communication challenges with patients (e.g., setting expectations regarding transition to survivorship care), and lack of insurance coverage. Perceived patient-level factors included psychological barriers (e.g., fear, avoidance), resistance to survivorship care, and physical barriers (e.g., distance from survivorship clinics). Resources to address these barriers included increased access to information, technology-based resources, and ensuring valuable services. There are several systems-level and patient-level barriers to survivorship care, thus requiring multilevel interventions to promote engagement in care among young adult survivors of childhood cancer. PMID:25943901

  14. Internal radiotherapy of liver cancer with rat hepato-carcinoma-intestine-pancreas gene as a liver tumor-specific promoter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herve, J.; Cunha, A. Sa; Liu, B.; Valogne, Y.; Longuet, M.; Bregerie, O.; Guettier, C.; Samuel, D.; Brechot, C.; Faivre, J. [Hop Paul Brousse, INSERM, Hepatobiliary Ctr, U785, F-94800 Villejuif (France); Herve, J.; Cunha, A. Sa; Liu, B.; Valogne, Y.; Longuet, M.; Bregerie, O.; Guettier, C.; Samuel, D.; Brechot, C.; Faivre, J. [Univ Paris Sud, Fac Med, F-94800 Villejuif (France); Boisgard, R.; Tavitian, B. [INSERM, U803, F-91400 Orsay (France); Boisgard, R.; Tavitian, B. [CEA, Serv Hosp Frederic Joliot, Lab Imagerie Mol Expt, F-91400 Orsay (France); Roux, J.; Cales, P. [Univ Angers, UPRES EA 3859, Lab Hemodynam Interact Fibrose et Invas Tumorale H, Angers (France); Clerc, J. [Hop Cochin, AP HP, Dept Nucl Med, F-75014 Paris (France)

    2008-07-01

    The hepato-carcinoma-intestine-pancreas (HIP) gene, also called pancreatitis-associated protein-1 (PAP1) or Reg III {alpha}, is activated in most human hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) but not in normal liver, which suggests that HIP regulatory sequence could be used as efficient liver tumor-specific promoters to express a therapeutic polynucleotide in liver cancer. The sodium iodide sym-porter (NIS), which has recognized therapeutic and reporter gene properties, is appropriate to evaluate the transcriptional strength and specificity of the HIP promoter in HCC. For this purpose, we constructed a recombinant rat HIP-NIS adeno-viral vector (AdrHIP-NIS), and evaluated its performance as a mediator of selective radio-iodide uptake in tumor hepatocytes. Western blot, immunofluorescence, and iodide uptake assays were performed in AdrHIP-NIS-infected primary hepatocytes and transformed hepatic and non-hepatic cells. Nuclear imaging, tissue counting and immuno-histo-chemistry were performed in normal and HCC-bearing Wistar rats infected with AdrHIP-NIS intra-tumorally or via the hepatic artery. In AdrHIP-NIS-infected transformed hepatic cells, functional NIS was strongly expressed, as in cells infected with a cytomegalovirus-NIS vector. No NIS expression was found in AdrHIP-NIS-infected normal hepatocytes or transformed non-hepatic cells. In rats bearing multi-nodular HCC, AdrHIP-NIS triggered functional NIS expression that was preferential in tumor hepatocytes. Administration of 18 mCi of {sup 131}I resulted in the destruction of AdrHIP-NIS-injected nodules. This study has identified the rHIP regulatory sequence as a potent liver tumor-specific promoter for the transfer of therapeutic genes, and AdrHIP-NIS-mediated. {sup 131}I therapy as a valuable option for the treatment of multi-nodular HCC. (authors)

  15. Internal radiotherapy of liver cancer with rat hepato-carcinoma-intestine-pancreas gene as a liver tumor-specific promoter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hepato-carcinoma-intestine-pancreas (HIP) gene, also called pancreatitis-associated protein-1 (PAP1) or Reg III α, is activated in most human hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) but not in normal liver, which suggests that HIP regulatory sequence could be used as efficient liver tumor-specific promoters to express a therapeutic polynucleotide in liver cancer. The sodium iodide sym-porter (NIS), which has recognized therapeutic and reporter gene properties, is appropriate to evaluate the transcriptional strength and specificity of the HIP promoter in HCC. For this purpose, we constructed a recombinant rat HIP-NIS adeno-viral vector (AdrHIP-NIS), and evaluated its performance as a mediator of selective radio-iodide uptake in tumor hepatocytes. Western blot, immunofluorescence, and iodide uptake assays were performed in AdrHIP-NIS-infected primary hepatocytes and transformed hepatic and non-hepatic cells. Nuclear imaging, tissue counting and immuno-histo-chemistry were performed in normal and HCC-bearing Wistar rats infected with AdrHIP-NIS intra-tumorally or via the hepatic artery. In AdrHIP-NIS-infected transformed hepatic cells, functional NIS was strongly expressed, as in cells infected with a cytomegalovirus-NIS vector. No NIS expression was found in AdrHIP-NIS-infected normal hepatocytes or transformed non-hepatic cells. In rats bearing multi-nodular HCC, AdrHIP-NIS triggered functional NIS expression that was preferential in tumor hepatocytes. Administration of 18 mCi of 131I resulted in the destruction of AdrHIP-NIS-injected nodules. This study has identified the rHIP regulatory sequence as a potent liver tumor-specific promoter for the transfer of therapeutic genes, and AdrHIP-NIS-mediated. 131I therapy as a valuable option for the treatment of multi-nodular HCC. (authors)

  16. The value of peri-interventional procedure serum bile acid (TBA) detection in patients with primary liver cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the clinical value of peri-interventional procedure serum bile acid (TBA) detection in patients with primary liver cancer. Methods: The serum TBA was examined peri-operatively in 160 patients with primary liver cancer for testing the correlations between TBA, liver function, the degree of hepatocirrhosis, interventional therapy method and hepatic failure. Results: The preoperative mean value of serum TBA increased significantly in comparing with that of the control group (P<0.01). The preoperative value of serum TBA in different Child grading patients with primary liver cancer were different significantly (P<0.01), Child A< Child B< Child C, the increased degree of serum TBA corresponded with Child grading of the liver function and the cirrhotic degree of liver. In patients with liver function of Child B and C, the postoperative mean values of serum TBA in different interventional therapy methods were different significantly (P<0.01). Comparing with that of the patients without hepatic failure, the postoperative value of serum TBA in the patients with hepatic failure increased significantly (P<0.01). Conclusions: The value of serum TBA can sensitively and accurately reflect liver reserve ability and damage degree of peri-interventional procedure liver function. Hepatic failure can be detected in time and the prognosis of the patients with primary liver cancer can be predicted by testing the value of serum TBA continually. (authors)

  17. Characteristics and Outcomes of Second Malignant Neoplasms after Childhood Cancer Treatment: Multi-Center Retrospective Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Kyung-Nam; Yoo, Keon Hee; Im, Ho Joon; Sung, Ki Woong; Koo, Hong Hoe; Kim, Hyo Sun; Han, Jung Woo; Yoon, Jong Hyung; Park, Hyeon Jin; Park, Byung-Kiu; Baek, Hee Jo; Kook, Hoon; Lee, Jun Ah; Lee, Jae Min; Lee, Kwang Chul; Kim, Soon Ki; Park, Meerim; Lee, Young-Ho; Lyu, Chuhl Joo; Seo, Jong Jin

    2016-08-01

    This retrospective study investigated the clinical characteristics and outcomes of second malignant neoplasms (SMNs) in survivors of childhood cancer from multiple institutions in Korea. A total of 102 patients from 11 institutions who developed SMN after childhood cancer treatment between 1998 and 2011 were retrospectively enrolled. The most common primary malignant neoplasms (PMNs) were central nervous system (CNS) tumors (n = 17), followed by acute lymphoblastic leukemia (n = 16), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 13), and osteosarcoma (n = 12). The most common SMNs were therapy-related myeloid neoplasms (t-MNs; acute myeloid leukemia [AML], 29 cases; myelodysplastic syndrome [MDS], 12 cases), followed by thyroid carcinomas (n = 15) and CNS tumors (n = 10). The median latency period was 4.9 years (range, 0.5-18.5 years). Among 45 patients with solid tumors defined as an SMN, 15 (33%) developed the lesion in a field previously subjected to radiation. The 5-year overall survival (OS) rate of patients with an SMN was 45% with a median follow-up time of 8.6 years. Patients with AML, MDS, and CNS tumors exhibited the poorest outcomes with 5-year OS rates of 18%, 33%, and 32%, respectively, whereas those with second osteosarcoma showed comparable outcomes (64%) to patients with primary counterpart and those with second thyroid carcinoma had a 100% OS rate. Further therapeutic efforts are recommended to improve the survival outcomes in patients with SMNs, especially in cases with t-MNs and CNS tumors. PMID:27478336

  18. Pulmonary function abnormalities in long-term survivors of childhood cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulmonary function testing (PFT) was performed on 29 long-term survivors of childhood cancer. The patients, whose mean age was 11.7 years and whose mean age at diagnosis was 3.7 years, included 12 females and 17 males. Original diagnoses included 15 patients with leukemia and 14 individuals with solid tumors. Nine patients had received cyclophosphamide and 20 had received radiation therapy. Included in this latter group were five patients who had received radiation therapy to the thorax. Eight patients had acquired pneumonia during their treatment. Physical examination was normal in all the patients, and none had a history of acute or chronic pulmonary disease. PFT demonstrated an incidence of abnormalities in forced vital capacity (FVC) and/or total lung capacity (TLC) in 48% of the patients. Patients who were under 3 years of age at the time of diagnosis or who had received radiation to the thorax were more likely to demonstrate PFT abnormalities, but these differences did not reach statistical significance. The natural history of pulmonary function and subsequent respiratory disease in survivors of childhood cancer requires further definition

  19. Nutritional status in survivors of childhood cancer: Experience from Tata Memorial Hospital, Mumbai

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Survivors of childhood cancer are at increased risk for several cardiometabolic complications. Obesity/overweight and metabolic syndrome have been widely reported in Western literature, but data from India are lacking. Aims: To perform an objective assessment of nutritional status in a cohort of childhood cancer survivors (CCSs and to find risk factors for extremes in nutritional status. Settings And Design: The study was a retrospective chart review of CCSs who attended the late effects clinic of a referral pediatric oncology center over the period of 1 year. Materials And Methods: An objective assessment of nutritional status was done, and results were analyzed in two groups: Adult survivors (present age 20 years or current age >30 years in adult survivors. Conclusions: The prevalence of obesity/overweight is lower in our cohort when compared to Western literature. It remains to be clarified whether this reflects the underlying undernutrition in our country, or whether our cohort of survivors is indeed distinct from their Western counterparts. Comparison with age/sex-matched normal controls and baseline parameters would yield more meaningful results.

  20. Estimated risk of liver cancer due to α emitters and β-α emitting parent-daughter chains: an application of Thorotrast data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorotrast dose-effect relationships have been used here to estimate the potential impact of chronic exposure to transuranium elements. As yet, only liver cancer has been considered. If epidemiological data are developed for other cancers, such as bone sarcoma, these methods can be extended. Uncertainty in the childhood sensitivity introduces more variation in health effects estimates for radiation exposure than that introduced by the selection of the health risk model or any other case parameter. Thus it is still important to refine the Thorotrast data on liver carcinoma further. Identification of the latent period from exposure to first development of cancer and quantification of the sensitivity of children relative to adults are of primary importance. Of lesser importance for this cancer are the duration of the risk plateau and whether the risk is best estimated by use of an absolute or a relative risk model. Health effects estimates would be improved if the Thorotrast data could be analyzed to provide age-specific data on the cancer risk. In that case, it might be possible to judge whether the absolute risk or relative risk model is more appropriate. Of even more importance would be the determination of the time to occurrence and age-specific risk as a function of age at the time of exposure, particularly for the young. Obtaining adequate estimates of these parameters will require use of not only data on Thorotrast patients but also on matched controls, although vital statistics for the general population of the country of interest might be sufficient. A continuing effort should be made to bring all Thorotrast studies to a degree of consistency where reasonable estimates of age-specific and total risk of all cancers can be made

  1. Cause-specific long-term mortality in survivors of childhood cancer in Switzerland: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Matthias; Spycher, Ben D; Ammann, Roland A; Ansari, Marc; Michel, Gisela; Kuehni, Claudia E

    2016-07-15

    Survivors of childhood cancer have a higher mortality than the general population. We describe cause-specific long-term mortality in a population-based cohort of childhood cancer survivors. We included all children diagnosed with cancer in Switzerland (1976-2007) at age 0-14 years, who survived ≥5 years after diagnosis and followed survivors until December 31, 2012. We obtained causes of death (COD) from the Swiss mortality statistics and used data from the Swiss general population to calculate age-, calendar year-, and sex-standardized mortality ratios (SMR), and absolute excess risks (AER) for different COD, by Poisson regression. We included 3,965 survivors and 49,704 person years at risk. Of these, 246 (6.2%) died, which was 11 times higher than expected (SMR 11.0). Mortality was particularly high for diseases of the respiratory (SMR 14.8) and circulatory system (SMR 12.7), and for second cancers (SMR 11.6). The pattern of cause-specific mortality differed by primary cancer diagnosis, and changed with time since diagnosis. In the first 10 years after 5-year survival, 78.9% of excess deaths were caused by recurrence of the original cancer (AER 46.1). Twenty-five years after diagnosis, only 36.5% (AER 9.1) were caused by recurrence, 21.3% by second cancers (AER 5.3) and 33.3% by circulatory diseases (AER 8.3). Our study confirms an elevated mortality in survivors of childhood cancer for at least 30 years after diagnosis with an increased proportion of deaths caused by late toxicities of the treatment. The results underline the importance of clinical follow-up continuing years after the end of treatment for childhood cancer. PMID:26950898

  2. NSAID Use and Risk of Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma: The Liver Cancer Pooling Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrick, Jessica L; Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant V; Chan, Andrew T; Alavanja, Michael C; Beane-Freeman, Laura E; Buring, Julie E; Chen, Jie; Chong, Dawn Q; Freedman, Neal D; Fuchs, Charles S; Gaziano, John Michael; Giovannucci, Edward; Graubard, Barry I; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Hou, Lifang; Jacobs, Eric J; King, Lindsay Y; Koshiol, Jill; Lee, I-Min; Linet, Martha S; Palmer, Julie R; Purdue, Mark P; Rosenberg, Lynn; Schairer, Catherine; Sesso, Howard D; Sigurdson, Alice J; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Anne; Campbell, Peter T; McGlynn, Katherine A

    2015-12-01

    Chronic inflammation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), the two most common types of liver cancer. A number of prior experimental studies have suggested that nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including aspirin and ibuprofen, may potentially protect against liver cancer. However, no observational study has examined the association between aspirin duration and dose or other over-the-counter non-aspirin NSAIDs, such as ibuprofen, and liver cancer incidence. Furthermore, the association between NSAID use and risk of ICC is unclear. As part of the Liver Cancer Pooling Project, we harmonized data on 1,084,133 individuals (HCC = 679, ICC = 225) from 10 U.S.-based prospective cohort studies. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to evaluate multivariable-adjusted HRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Current aspirin use, versus nonuse, was inversely associated with HCC (HR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.57-0.81), which persisted when restricted to individuals not using non-aspirin NSAIDs and in a 5- and 10-year lag analysis. The association between aspirin use and HCC risk was stronger for users who reported daily use, longer duration use, and lower dosage. Ibuprofen use was not associated with HCC risk. Aspirin use was associated with a reduced ICC risk in men (HR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.42-0.98) but not women (HR, 1.34; 95% CI, 0.89-2.01; P(interaction) = 0.01). The observed inverse association between aspirin use and liver cancer in our study, together with previous data, suggests the merit of future intervention studies of aspirin and other agents that affect chronic inflammatory pathways for HCC and possibly ICC. PMID:26391917

  3. Inositol Hexaphosphate and Inositol Inhibit Colorectal Cancer Metastasis to the Liver in BALB/c Mice

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    Min Fu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Inositol hexaphosphate (IP6 and inositol (Ins, naturally occurring carbohydrates present in most mammals and plants, inhibit the growth of numerous cancers both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we first examined the anti-metastatic effects of IP6 and Ins using a liver metastasis model of colorectal cancer (CRC in BALB/c mice. CT-26 cells were injected into the splenic capsule of 48 BALB/c mice. The mice were then randomly divided into four groups: IP6, Ins, IP6 + Ins and normal saline control (n = 12 per group. IP6 and/or Ins (80 mg/kg each, 0.2 mL/day were injected into the gastrointestinal tracts of the mice on the second day after surgery. All mice were sacrificed after 20 days, and the tumor inhibition rates were determined. The results demonstrated that the tumor weights of liver metastases and the tumor inhibition rates were reduced in the experimental groups compared to the control group and that treatment with the combination of IP6 and Ins resulted in greater inhibition of tumor growth than treatment with either compound alone. These findings suggest that IP6 and Ins prevent the development and metastatic progression of colorectal cancer to the liver in mice by altering expression of the extracellular matrix proteins collagen IV, fibronectin and laminin; the adhesion factor receptor integrin-β1; the proteolytic enzyme matrix metalloproteinase 9; and the angiogenic factors vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, and transforming growth factor beta in the tumor metastasis microenvironment. In conclusion, IP6 and Ins inhibited the development and metastatic progression of colorectal cancer to the liver in BALB/c mice, and the effect of their combined application was significantly greater than the effect of either compound alone. This evidence supports further testing of the combined application of IP6 and Ins for the prevention of colorectal cancer metastasis to the liver in clinical studies.

  4. Significant Overexpression of DVL1 in Taiwanese Colorectal Cancer Patients with Liver Metastasis

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    Shiu-Ru Lin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Undetected micrometastasis plays a key role in the metastasis of cancer in colorectal cancer (CRC patients. The aim of this study is to identify a biomarker of CRC patients with liver metastasis through the detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs. Microarray and bioinformatics analysis of 10 CRC cancer tissue specimens compared with normal adjacent tissues revealed that 31 genes were up-regulated (gene expression ratio of cancer tissue to paired normal tissue > 2 in the cancer patients. We used a weighted enzymatic chip array (WEnCA including 31 prognosis-related genes to investigate CTCs in 214 postoperative stage I–III CRC patients and to analyze the correlation between gene expression and clinico-pathological parameters. We employed the immunohistochemistry (IHC method with polyclonal mouse antibody against DVL1 to detect DVL1 expression in 60 CRC patients. CRC liver metastasis occurred in 19.16% (41/214 of the patients. Using univariate analysis and multivariate proportional hazards regression analysis, we found that DVL1 mRNA overexpression had a significant, independent predictive value for liver metastasis in CRC patients (OR: 5.764; 95% CI: 2.588–12.837; p < 0.0001 on univariate analysis; OR: 3.768; 95% CI: 1.469–9.665; p = 0.006 on multivariate analysis. IHC staining of the immunoreactivity of DVL1 showed that DVL1 was localized in the cytoplasm of CRC cells. High expression of DVL1 was observed in 55% (33/60 of CRC tumor specimens and was associated significantly with tumor depth, perineural invasion and liver metastasis status (all p < 0.05. Our experimental results demonstrated that DVL1 is significantly overexpressed in CRC patients with liver metastasis, leading us to conclude that DVL1 could be a potential prognostic and predictive marker for CRC patients.

  5. T1 Colorectal Cancer with Synchronous Liver Metastasis

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    Kiichi Sugimoto

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The patient was a 68-year-old man who was admitted to our hospital with a liver tumor. Abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography revealed a liver tumor 30 mm in diameter. On colonoscopy, a pedunculated tumor with a central depression (20 mm in diameter was observed in the ascending colon, and this tumor was considered to be invading deeply into the submucosal layer. Right hemicolectomy with D3 lymphadenectomy and partial hepatectomy were performed simultaneously. On histopathological examination of the resected specimen, the tumor was a well-differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma with 3,000 μm invasion of the submucosal layer. The liver tumor showed histological findings similar to those of the primary colorectal carcinoma. The pathological stage according to the 7th edition of the TNM classification was stage IV (T1N0M1. Nine months after the operation, computed tomography revealed hepatic hilar lymph node metastases and a great deal of ascites. The patient ultimately died 14 months after the operation.

  6. Colorectal Cancer with Synchronous Liver Metastases: Influence of Surgical Strategy on Treatment Results and Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Kolesnik, O. O.; Burlaka, A. A.; Lukashenko, A. V.; Priymak, V. V.; Volk, M. O.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the research was to improve immediate and long-term results of treatment in patients with synchronous metastatic colorectal cancers (smCRC) developing surgical treatment program with application of simultaneous and staged methods for resection of primary tumor and liver metastases.   Materials and methods. The study was based upon reviewing treatment results for 125 patients with smCRC (рТ1-4N0-2M1 in colon cancer and рТ1-3N0-2M1 in rectal cancer) who underwent either simulta...

  7. Liver transplantation for patients with hepatocellular carcinoma at the Liver Cancer Institute of Fudan University, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jian; HE Yi-feng; YANG Guo-huan; SONG Kang; YUAN Zhou; WANG Yu-qi; TANG Zhao-you; FAN Jia; WU Zhi-quan; QIU Shuang-jian; HUANG Xiao-wu; YU Yao; WANG Zheng; SUN Jian; XIAO Yong-sheng

    2005-01-01

    Background Selection of patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) for orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) remains controversial. Since there is a trend to expand the transplant criteria for HCC patients, we reviewed the data of patients with HCC who had received OLT at our institute to determine their survival and prognostic factors.Methods A total of 67 patients with HCC who had undergone OLT from April 2001 through December 2003 were reviewed retrospectively. Selection OLT candidates with HCC was dependent on the anatomical characteristics and/or the severity of underlying liver cirrhosis. The 67 patients were followed up for more than 6 months after transplantation. Their survival rate was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Univariate and multivariate analyses using the Cox proportional hazards regression model were performed to reveal the factors affecting the survival rate.Results No perioperative death occurred in this series. The 1- and 2-year cumulative survival rates were 90.0% and 65.6%, and the disease-free survival (DFS) rates were 77.5% and 62.5% respectively. Univariate analysis revealed the tumor size, portal vein tumor thrombus (PVTT), serum alpha-fetoprotein level, bilobular distribution of tumors, pTNM stage and histological differentiation were statistically significant factors affecting the DFS (P<0.05). Multivariate analysis showed tumor size and PVTT were independent and statistically significant factors affecting the DFS (P=0.005 and 0.010, respectively). In this series, all but 2 received systemic chemotherapy, among them 13 had tumor recurrence within 8 months after OLT.Conclusions OLT is indicated for patients with HCC, even for some patients with end-stage liver disease who may survive longer without tumor recurrence. Adjuvant chemotherapy may decrease the recurrence of HCC after OLT.

  8. The microcell mediated transfer of human chromosome 8 into highly metastatic rat liver cancer cell line C5F

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Liu; Sheng-Long Ye; Jiong Yang; Zhao-You Tang; Yin-Kun Liu; Lun-Xiu Qin; Shuang-Jian Qiu; Rui-Xia Sun

    2003-01-01

    AIM: Our previous research on the surgical samples of primary liver cancer with CGH showed that the loss of human chromosome 8p had correlation with the metastatic phenotype of liver cancer. In order to seek the functional evidence that there could be a metastatsis suppressor gene (s) for liver cancer on human chromosome 8, we tried to transfer normal human chromosome 8 into rat liver cancer cell line C5F, which had high metastatic potential to lung.METHODS: Human chromosome 8 randomly marked with neo gene was introduced into C5F cell line by MMCT and positive microcell hybrids were screened by double selections of G418 and HAT. Single cell isolation cloning was applied to clone microcell hybrids. Finally, STS-PCR and WCP-FISH were used to confirm the introduction.RESULTS: Microcell hybrids resistant to HAT and G418 were obtained and 15 clones were obtained by single-cell isolation cloning. STS-PCR and WCP-FISH proved that human chromosome 8 had been successfully introduced into rat liver cancer cell line C5F. STS-PCR detected a random loss in the chromosome introduced and WCP-FISH found a consistent recombination of the introduced human chromosome with the rat chromosome.CONCLUSION: The successful introduction of human chromosome 8 into highly metastatic rat liver cancer cell line builds the basis for seeking functional evidence of a metastasis suppressor gene for liver cancer harboring on human chromosome 8 and its subsequent cloning.

  9. Biology and clinical implications of CD133{sup +} liver cancer stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Stephanie, E-mail: stefma@hku.hk [Department of Clinical Oncology, State Key Laboratory for Liver Research, LKS Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    2013-01-15

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary malignant tumor of the liver, accounting for 80%–90% of all liver cancers. The disease ranks as the fifth most common cancer worldwide and is the third leading cause of all cancer-associated deaths. Although advances in HCC detection and treatment have increased the likelihood of a cure at early stages of the disease, HCC remains largely incurable because of late presentation and tumor recurrence. Only 25% of HCC patients are deemed suitable for curative treatment, with the overall survival at just a few months for inoperable patients. Apart from surgical resection, loco-regional ablation and liver transplantation, current treatment protocols include conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy. But due to the highly resistant nature of the disease, the efficacy of the latter regimen is limited. The recent emergence of the cancer stem cell (CSC) concept lends insight into the explanation of why treatment with chemotherapy often may seem to be initially successful but results in not only a failure to eradicate the tumor but also possibly tumor relapse. Commonly used anti-cancer drugs in HCC work by targeting the rapidly proliferating and differentiated liver cancer cells that constitute the bulk of the tumor. However, a subset of CSCs exists within the tumor, which are more resistant and are able to survive and maintain residence after treatment, thus, growing and self-renewing to generate the development and spread of recurrent tumors in HCC. In the past few years, compelling evidence has emerged in support of the hierarchic CSC model for solid tumors, including HCC. And in particular, CD133 has drawn significant attention as a critical liver CSC marker. Understanding the characteristics and function of CD133{sup +} liver CSCs has also shed light on HCC management and treatment, including the implications for prognosis, prediction and treatment resistance. In this review, a detailed summary of the recent progress

  10. Impact of cancer support groups on childhood cancer treatment and abandonment in a private pediatric oncology centre

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    Arathi Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To analyze the impact of two cancer support groups in the treatment and abandonment of childhood cancer. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective review of children with cancer funded and non-funded who were treated at Kanchi Kamakoti CHILDS Trust Hospital from 2010 to 2013. A total of 100 patients were funded, 57 by Ray of Light Foundation and 43 by Pediatric Lymphoma Project and 70 non-funded. Results: The total current survival of 80%, including those who have completed treatment and those currently undergoing treatment, is comparable in both the groups. Abandonment of treatment after initiating therapy was not seen in the financially supported group whereas abandonment of treatment after initiation was seen in one child in the non-funded group. Conclusions: Besides intensive treatment with good supportive care, financial support also has an important impact on compliance and abandonment in all socioeconomic strata of society. Financial support from private cancer support groups also has its impact beyond the patient and family, in reducing the burden on government institutions by non-governmental funding in private sector. Improvement in the delivery of pediatric oncology care in developing countries could be done by financial support from the private sector.

  11. Change in diffusion weighted MRI during liver cancer radiotherapy: Preliminary observations

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    Eccles, Cynthia L.; Haider, Ehsan A.; Haider, Masoom A.; Fung, Sharon; Lockwood, Gina; Dawson, Laura A. (University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

    2009-10-15

    Purpose. To evaluate diffusion weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) in liver and liver cancers during and following conformal radiotherapy (RT). To determine the feasibility of using changes in apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) as a potential surrogate for tumour control or normal tissue injury. Materials and methods. Patients on a six-fraction conformal liver RT protocol underwent DW-MRI at the time of treatment planning, during RT (week one and two) and one month following RT. Diffusion weighted MR images were acquired in exhale breath hold, using b-values of 0 and 600. Regions of interest (ROIs) corresponding to maximal tumour dose, high-dose peri-tumour liver, irradiated normal liver, non-irradiated liver, and spleen were analyzed on ADC maps. Results. Eleven patients (four hepatocellular carcinoma, five liver metastases, two cholangiocarcinoma) were evaluated. The baseline median tumour ADC of 1.56x10-3mm2/sec increased to 1.89x10-3mm2/sec at RT week one, to 1.91x10-3mm2/sec during week two and to 2.01x10-3mm2/sec at one month following treatment (p < 0.0001). Early increases in mean ADC were correlated with higher dose and sustained tumour response, whereas RECIST and volume changes on T2 images were not. Peri-tumour mean ADC also increased, from 1.40x10-3mm2/sec (baseline) to 1.55x10-3mm2/sec (RT week 2) and 1.64 x 10-3mm2/sec (follow-up). Small ADC changes were seen in the irradiated liver, and no significant changes were seen in the un-irradiated liver. Conclusions. Changes in tumour ADC were seen during RT. Larger increases were correlated with higher doses and increased likelihood of response

  12. Antioxidant defence-related genetic variants are not associated with higher risk of secondary thyroid cancer after treatment of malignancy in childhood or adolescence

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    Vodusek Ana Lina

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Thyroid cancer is one of the most common secondary cancers after treatment of malignancy in childhood or adolescence. Thyroid gland is very sensitive to the carcinogenic effect of ionizing radiation, especially in children. Imbalance between pro- and anti-oxidant factors may play a role in thyroid carcinogenesis. Our study aimed to assess the relationship between genetic variability of antioxidant defence-related genes and the risk of secondary thyroid cancer after treatment of malignancy in childhood or adolescence.

  13. Is there a genetic signature for liver metastasis in colorectal cancer?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Even though liver metastasis accounts for the vast majority of cancer deaths in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), fundamental questions about the molecular and cellular mechanisms of liver metastasis still remain unanswered. Determination of gene expression profiles by microarray technology has improved our knowledge of CRC molecular pathways. However, defined gene signatures are highly variable among studies. Expression profiles and molecular markers have been specifically linked to liver metastases mechanistic paths in CRC. However, to date, none of the identified signatures or molecular markers has been successfully validated as a diagnostic or prognostic tool applicable to routine clinical practice. To obtain a genetic signature for liver metastasis in CRC, measures to improve reproducibility, to increase consistency, and to validate results need to be implemented. Alternatives to expression profiling with microarray technology are continuing to be used. In the recent past, many genes codifying for proteins that are directly or indirectly involved in adhesion, invasion, angiogenesis, survival and cell growth have been linked to mechanisms of liver metastases in CRC.

  14. Morbidity and mortality in long-term survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    OpenAIRE

    Castellino, Sharon M.; Geiger, Ann M.; Mertens, Ann C.; Leisenring, Wendy M.; Tooze, Janet A.; Goodman, Pam; Stovall, Marilyn; Robison, Leslie L.; Hudson, Melissa M

    2011-01-01

    The contribution of specific cancer therapies, comorbid medical conditions, and host factors to mortality risk after pediatric Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is unclear. We assessed leading morbidities, overall and cause-specific mortality, and mortality risks among 2742 survivors of HL in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study, a multi-institutional retrospective cohort study of survivors diagnosed from 1970 to 1986. Excess absolute risk for leading causes of death and cumulative incidence and standardi...

  15. Second Malignant Neoplasms in Digestive Organs After Childhood Cancer: A Cohort-Nested Case-Control Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tukenova, Markhaba; Diallo, Ibrahima [Radiation Epidemiology Group, CESP Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, INSERM, Villejuif (France); University Paris Sud 11, UMRS, Villejuif (France); Gustave Roussy Institute, Villejuif (France); Anderson, Harald [Department of Cancer Epidemiology, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Hawkins, Mike [Center for Childhood Cancer Survivor Studies, Department of Public Health and Epidemiology, University of Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Garwicz, Stanislaw [Childhood Cancer Research Center, University Children' s Hospital, Lund (Sweden); Sankila, Risto [Finnish Cancer Registry, Helsinki (Finland); El Fayech, Chiraz [Radiation Epidemiology Group, CESP Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, INSERM, Villejuif (France); University Paris Sud 11, UMRS, Villejuif (France); Gustave Roussy Institute, Villejuif (France); Winter, Dave [Center for Childhood Cancer Survivor Studies, Department of Public Health and Epidemiology, University of Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Rubino, Carole [Radiation Epidemiology Group, CESP Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, INSERM, Villejuif (France); University Paris Sud 11, UMRS, Villejuif (France); Gustave Roussy Institute, Villejuif (France); Adjadj, Elisabeth [Radiation Epidemiology Group, CESP Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, INSERM, Villejuif (France); University Paris Sud 11, UMRS, Villejuif (France); Gustave Roussy Institute, Villejuif (France); Curie Institute, Paris (France); Haddy, Nadia; Oberlin, Odile [Radiation Epidemiology Group, CESP Center for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health, INSERM, Villejuif (France); University Paris Sud 11, UMRS, Villejuif (France); Gustave Roussy Institute, Villejuif (France); Moller, Torgil [Department of Cancer Epidemiology, Lund University, Lund (Sweden); Langmark, Froydis [Finnish Cancer Registry, Helsinki (Finland); and others

    2012-03-01

    Purpose: Cancers of the digestive system constitute a major risk for childhood cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy once they reach adulthood. The aim of this study was to determine therapy-related risk factors for the development of a second malignancy in the digestive organs (SMDO) after a childhood cancer. Methods and Materials: Among 4,568 2-year survivors of a childhood solid cancer diagnosed before 17 years of age at eight French and British centers, and among 25,120 patients diagnosed as having a malignant neoplasm before the age of 20 years, whose data were extracted from the Nordic Cancer Registries, we matched 58 case patients (41 men and 17 women) of SMDO and 167 controls, in their respective cohort, for sex, age at first cancer, calendar year of occurrence of the first cancer, and duration of follow-up. The radiation dose received at the site of each second malignancy and at the corresponding site of its matched control was estimated. Results: The risk of developing a SMDO was 9.7-fold higher in relation to the general populations in France and the United Kingdom. In the case-control study, a strong dose-response relationship was estimated, compared with that in survivors who had not received radiotherapy; the odds ratio was 5.2 (95% CI, 1.7-16.0) for local radiation doses between 10 and 29 Gy and 9.6 (95% CI, 2.6-35.2) for doses equal to or greater than 30 Gy. Chemotherapy was also found to increase the risk of developing SMDO. Conclusions: This study confirms that childhood cancer treatments strongly increase the risk of SMDO, which occur only after a very long latency period.

  16. Emotional Regulation and Adjustment to Childhood Cancer: Role of the Biological, Psychological and Social Regulators on Pediatric Oncology Adjustment

    OpenAIRE

    Firoozi, Manijeh; BESHARAT, Mohammad Ali; Rahimian Boogar, Eshagh

    2013-01-01

    Background Children with cancer should deal with difficult situations such asundergoing multimodal treatment. Emotion Regulation Mechanisms (ERM) could be more effective for childhood cancer adaptation. The main purpose of this study was examination a number of the biological, psychological and social emotion regulators on adjustment to pediatric oncology. Method In this study, 98 children (39 girls and 59 boys) have participated that diagnosed as Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) cases alon...

  17. Second Malignant Neoplasms in Digestive Organs After Childhood Cancer: A Cohort-Nested Case-Control Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Cancers of the digestive system constitute a major risk for childhood cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy once they reach adulthood. The aim of this study was to determine therapy-related risk factors for the development of a second malignancy in the digestive organs (SMDO) after a childhood cancer. Methods and Materials: Among 4,568 2-year survivors of a childhood solid cancer diagnosed before 17 years of age at eight French and British centers, and among 25,120 patients diagnosed as having a malignant neoplasm before the age of 20 years, whose data were extracted from the Nordic Cancer Registries, we matched 58 case patients (41 men and 17 women) of SMDO and 167 controls, in their respective cohort, for sex, age at first cancer, calendar year of occurrence of the first cancer, and duration of follow-up. The radiation dose received at the site of each second malignancy and at the corresponding site of its matched control was estimated. Results: The risk of developing a SMDO was 9.7-fold higher in relation to the general populations in France and the United Kingdom. In the case-control study, a strong dose–response relationship was estimated, compared with that in survivors who had not received radiotherapy; the odds ratio was 5.2 (95% CI, 1.7–16.0) for local radiation doses between 10 and 29 Gy and 9.6 (95% CI, 2.6–35.2) for doses equal to or greater than 30 Gy. Chemotherapy was also found to increase the risk of developing SMDO. Conclusions: This study confirms that childhood cancer treatments strongly increase the risk of SMDO, which occur only after a very long latency period.

  18. Decreased ovarian function is associated with obesity in very long-term female survivors of childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. van Dorp (Wendy); K. Blijdorp (Karin); J.S.E. Laven (Joop); R. Pieters (Rob); J.A. Visser (Jenny); A-J. van der Lely (Aart-Jan); S.J.C.M.M. Neggers (Bas); M.M. van den Heuvel-Eibrink (Marry)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractObjective: Obesity and gonadal dysfunction are known major side effects of treatment in adult childhood cancer survivors (CCS). In the general population, obesity has a negative influence on female fertility.We aimed to evaluate whether obesity and serum insulin are associated with decre

  19. Prioritizing strategies for comprehensive liver cancer control in Asia: a conjoint analysis

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    Bridges John FP

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Liver cancer is a complex and burdensome disease, with Asia accounting for 75% of known cases. Comprehensive cancer control requires the use of multiple strategies, but various stakeholders may have different views as to which strategies should have the highest priority. This study identified priorities across multiple strategies for comprehensive liver cancer control (CLCC from the perspective of liver cancer clinical, policy, and advocacy stakeholders in China, Japan, South Korea and Taiwan. Concordance of priorities was assessed across the region and across respondent roles. Methods Priorities for CLCC were examined as part of a cross-sectional survey of liver cancer experts. Respondents completed several conjoint-analysis choice tasks to prioritize 11 strategies. In each task, respondents judged which of two competing CLCC plans, consisting of mutually exclusive and exhaustive subsets of the strategies, would have the greatest impact. The dependent variable was the chosen plan, which was then regressed on the strategies of different plans. The restricted least squares (RLS method was utilized to compare aggregate and stratified models, and t-tests and Wald tests were used to test for significance and concordance, respectively. Results Eighty respondents (69.6% were eligible and completed the survey. Their primary interests were hepatitis (26%, hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC (58%, metastatic liver cancer (10% and transplantation (6%. The most preferred strategies were monitoring at-risk populations (pclinician education (pnational guidelines (ptransplantation infrastructure (p=0.009 was valued lower in China, measuring social burden (p=0.037 was valued higher in Taiwan, and national guidelines (p=0.025 was valued higher in China. Priorities did not differ across stakeholder groups (p=0.438. Conclusions Priorities for CLCC in Asia include monitoring at-risk populations, clinician education, national guidelines

  20. Expression pattern of mda-7/IL-24 receptors in liver cancer cell lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Zhu; Zhi-Bin Yang

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The mda-7/IL-24 receptor belongs to the typeⅡ cytokine receptor family, and its two heterodimeric receptors are IL-22R1/IL-20R2 and IL-20R1/IL-20R2. Mda-7/IL-24 receptor expression in liver cancer cell lines has not yet been described. This information may be helpful for further clinical gene therapy. METHODS: With normal skin total RNA as template, the cDNA sequences of IL-20R1, IL-20R2 and IL-22R were ampliifed by RT-PCR. Total RNA was extracted from cultured liver cancer cell lines and a normal liver cell line, then detected by northern blotting, and the expression of mda-7/IL-24 receptors was analyzed. RESULTS: PLC/PRF/5 and SMMC-7721 expressed IL-20R1;BEL-7402, Hep3B, HepG2, and PLC/PRF/5 expressed IL-20R2; and HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5 expressed IL-22R. Only HepG2 expressed the IL-22R/IL-20R2 receptor complex. PLC/PRF/5 completely expressed both heterodimeric receptors. Huh-7, QGY-7701 and WRL-68 did not express the IL-24 receptor. CONCLUSION: Complete mda-7/IL-24 receptors are seldom expressed in liver cancer cell lines.

  1. PPARs in Liver Diseases and Cancer: Epigenetic Regulation by MicroRNAs

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    Marion Peyrou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs are ligand-activated nuclear receptors that exert in the liver a transcriptional activity regulating a whole spectrum of physiological functions, including cholesterol and bile acid homeostasis, lipid/glucose metabolism, inflammatory responses, regenerative mechanisms, and cell differentiation/proliferation. Dysregulations of the expression, or activity, of specific PPAR isoforms in the liver are therefore believed to represent critical mechanisms contributing to the development of hepatic metabolic diseases, disorders induced by hepatic viral infections, and hepatocellular adenoma and carcinoma. In this regard, specific PPAR agonists have proven to be useful to treat these metabolic diseases, but for cancer therapies, the use of PPAR agonists is still debated. Interestingly, in addition to previously described mechanisms regulating PPARs expression and activity, microRNAs are emerging as new important regulators of PPAR expression and activity in pathophysiological conditions and therefore may represent future therapeutic targets to treat hepatic metabolic disorders and cancers. Here, we reviewed the current knowledge about the general roles of the different PPAR isoforms in common chronic metabolic and infectious liver diseases, as well as in the development of hepatic cancers. Recent works highlighting the regulation of PPARs by microRNAs in both physiological and pathological situations with a focus on the liver are also discussed.

  2. Can epithermal boron neutron capture therapy treat primary and metastatic liver cancer?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The poor prognosis of metastatic cancer to the liver calls for the investigation of alternative treatment modalities. This paper analyses the possible use of epithermal boron neutron capture therapy for the palliative treatment of these cancers. We examine possible treatment planning scenarios for selected tumour to liver boron ratios, and specifically for the epithermal beam at the HFR, Petten. It is required that a therapeutic ratio> 1 be achieved over the entire organ. Monte Carlo calculations were performed using the radiation transport code MCNP. The geometrical model used a 'variable voxel' technique to reconstruct an anthropomorphic phantom from CT scans. Regions of interest such as the liver were modelled to a resolution of a few millimetres, whereas surrounding regions were modelled with lesser detail thereby facilitating faster computation time. Three dimensional dose distributions were calculated for a frontal beam directed at the liver, and found to be in satisfactory agreement with measurements using bare and cadmium covered gold foils, PIN and MOSFET dosimeters for fast neutron and gamma measurements respectively. Dose distributions were calculated for orthogonal epithermal neutron beams to the front and side, using the parameters of the epithermal beam at Petten, and assumed tumour and normal tissue boron-10 concentrations of 30 ppm and 7.5 ppm boron-10 respectively. The therapeutic ratio (i e the dose to the tumour relative to the maximum dose to normal tissue) was found to be about 1.8, reducing to unity for the limiting condition of a tumour in the posterior liver. This result opens up the possibility of palliative therapy for the management of primary and metastatic liver cancer

  3. Amphiregulin and Epiregulin mRNA expression in primary colorectal cancer and corresponding liver metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amphiregulin (AREG) and Epiregulin (EREG), ligands of EGFR, are reported to be predictive biomarkers of colorectal cancer patients treated with Cetuximab, an anti-EGFR antibody. The purpose of this study is to determine the correlation of AREG and EREG expression between primary colorectal cancer and corresponding liver metastases. One hundred twenty colorectal cancer patients with liver metastases (100 with synchronous metastases, 20 with metachronous) were evaluated. No patients had ever received anti-EGFR antibody agents. AREG and EREG mRNA expression from both the primary tumor and liver metastases were measured using real-time RT-PCR. KRAS codon 12, 13 mutation status was analyzed by direct sequencing. Modest, but significant, correlations were observed between primary tumor and corresponding liver metastases in both AREG mRNA expression (Rs = 0.54, p < 0.0001) and EREG mRNA expression (Rs = 0.58, p < 0.0001). AREG and EREG mRNA expression was strongly correlated in both the primary tumor (Rs = 0.81, p < 0.0001) and the liver metastases (Rs = 0.87, p < 0.0001). No significant survival difference was observed between low and high AREG or EREG patients when all 120 patients were analyzed. However, when divided by KRAS status, KRAS wild-type patients with low EREG mRNA levels in the primary site showed significantly better overall survival rates than those with high levels (p = 0.018). In multivariate analysis, low EREG expression was significantly associated with better overall survival (p = 0.006). AREG and EREG expression showed a modest correlation between primary tumor and liver metastases. As EREG mRNA expression was associated with decreased survival, it is appeared to be a useful prognostic marker in KRAS wild-type patients who never received anti-EGFR therapy

  4. Liver metastasis is the only independent prognostic factor in AFP-producing gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoji Hirajima

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate differences between common gastric cancer and α-fetoprotein (AFP-producing gastric cancer according to the presence or absence of liver metastasis. METHODS: Between 1997 and 2011, 1299 patients underwent gastrectomy for gastric cancer (GC at our institute and their hospital records were reviewed retrospectively. Patients were immunohistochemically divided into two groups: 23 patients (1.8% with AFP-producing GC and 1276 patients (98.2% without it. RESULTS: AFP-producing GC patients had a significantly higher incidence of deeper tumors, venous invasion, lymphatic invasion, lymph node metastasis, and liver metastasis and a poorer prognosis (P < 0.005 than those without AFP-producing GC. However, multivariate analysis revealed that AFP-positivity was not an independent prognostic factor. The prognosis of AFP-producing GC was similar to that of AFP-non producing GC according to the presence or absence of liver metastasis. Concerning recurrence, 47.8% of patients (11/23 with AFP-producing GC and 20.0% of patients (256/1276 without AFP-producing GC exhibited recurrence. Liver metastasis [90.9% (10/11] was the most prevalent in AFP-producing GC patients. Multivariate analysis revealed that liver metastasis was the only independent prognostic factor in AFP-producing GC (HR = 17.6, 95%CI: 2.1-147.1; P = 0.0081. CONCLUSION: AFP-producing GC is similar to common GC without liver metastasis, which should be specifically targeted in an effort to improve the prognosis of AFP-producing GC patients.

  5. Common genetic variants associated with telomere length confer risk for neuroblastoma and other childhood cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Kyle M; Whitehead, Todd P; de Smith, Adam J; Smirnov, Ivan V; Park, Minsun; Endicott, Alyson A; Francis, Stephen S; Codd, Veryan; Samani, Nilesh J; Metayer, Catherine; Wiemels, Joseph L

    2016-06-01

    Aberrant telomere lengthening is an important feature of cancer cells in adults and children. In addition to somatic mutations, germline polymorphisms in telomere maintenance genes impact telomere length. Whether these telomere-associated polymorphisms affect risk of childhood malignancies remains largely unexplored. We collected genome-wide data from three groups with pediatric malignancies [neuroblastoma (N = 1516), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) (N = 958) and osteosarcoma (N = 660)] and three control populations (N = 6892). Using case-control comparisons, we analyzed eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes definitively associated with interindividual variation in leukocyte telomere length (LTL) in prior genome-wide association studies: ACYP2, TERC, NAF1, TERT, OBFC1, CTC1, ZNF208 and RTEL1 Six of these SNPs were associated (P < 0.05) with neuroblastoma risk, one with leukemia risk and one with osteosarcoma risk. The allele associated with longer LTL increased cancer risk for all these significantly associated SNPs. Using a weighted linear combination of the eight LTL-associated SNPs, we observed that neuroblastoma patients were predisposed to longer LTL than controls, with each standard deviation increase in genotypically estimated LTL associated with a 1.15-fold increased odds of neuroblastoma (95%CI = 1.09-1.22; P = 7.9×10(-7)). This effect was more pronounced in adolescent-onset neuroblastoma patients (OR = 1.46; 95%CI = 1.03-2.08). A one standard deviation increase in genotypically estimated LTL was more weakly associated with osteosarcoma risk (OR = 1.10; 95%CI = 1.01-1.19; P = 0.017) and leukemia risk (OR = 1.07; 95%CI = 1.00-1.14; P = 0.044), specifically for leukemia patients who relapsed (OR = 1.19; 95%CI = 1.01-1.40; P = 0.043). These results indicate that genetic predisposition to longer LTL is a newly identified risk factor for neuroblastoma and potentially for other cancers of childhood. PMID:27207662

  6. Distribution of Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn in primary colorectal cancer and secondary colorectal liver metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Ebraheem, A. [Department of Radiography, City Community and Health Sciences, City University, London, EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom); Mersov, A. [Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. West. Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4L8 (Canada); Gurusamy, K. [HPB and Liver Transplant Surgery, Royal Free and University College School of Medicine, UCL and Royal Free NHS trust, London (United Kingdom); Farquharson, M.J., E-mail: farquhm@mcmaster.c [Department of Medical Physics and Applied Radiation Sciences, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. West. Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4L8 (Canada)

    2010-07-21

    A microbeam synchrotron X-ray fluorescence ({mu}SRXRF) technique has been used to determine the localization and the relative concentrations of Zn, Cu, Fe and Ca in primary colorectal cancer and secondary colorectal liver metastases. 24 colon and 23 liver samples were examined, all of which were formalin fixed tissues arranged as microarrays of 1.0 mm diameter and 10 {mu}m thickness. The distribution of these metals was compared with light transmission images of adjacent sections that were H and E stained to reveal the location of the cancer cells. Histological details were provided for each sample which enable concentrations of all elements in different tissue types to be compared. In the case of liver, significant differences have been found for all elements when comparing tumour, normal, necrotic, fibrotic, and blood vessel tissues (Kruskal Wallis Test, P<0.0001). The concentrations of all elements have also been found to be significantly different among tumour, necrotic, fibrotic, and mucin tissues in the colon samples (Kruskal Wallis Test, P<0.0001). The concentrations of all elements have been compared between primary colorectal samples and colorectal liver metastases. Concentration of Zn, Cu, Fe and Ca are higher in all types of liver tissues compared to those in the colon tissues. Comparing liver tumour and colon tumour samples, significant differences have been found for all elements (Mann Whitney, P<0.0001). For necrotic tissues, significant increase has been found for Zn, Ca, Cu and Fe (Mann Whitney, P<0.0001 for Fe and Zn, 0.014 for Ca, and 0.001 for Cu). The liver fibrotic levels of Zn, Ca, Cu and Fe were higher than the fibrotic colon areas (independent T test, P=0.007 for Zn and Mann Whitney test P<0.0001 for Cu, Fe and Ca). For the blood vessel tissue, the analysis revealed that the difference was only significant for Fe (P=0.009) from independent T test.

  7. Thyroid cancer risk following radiation exposure in childhood and adolescence from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A population based case-control study of thyroid cancer in young people has been curried out in the most contaminated regions of Belarus (Gomel and Mogilev) and Russia (Bryansk, Kagula, Orel and Tula). the study was jointly co-ordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the Sasakawa Memorial Health Foundation (SMHF). The study population was all those living in these regions who were aged 0-14 at the time of the accident in Belarus and 0-18 in Russia. Cases were recruited over the time period 1992-1998. Two sets of controls were matched to each case-one was matched finely on age at exposure, sex and exact settlement of residence at the time of the accident, the second was matched on age and sex in the same manner but more broadly on region of residence. In all, 301 cases and 1948 controls (489 matched on settlement and 1459 on oblast) were recruited into the study. The majority of subjects are from Belarus. Information was collected on study subjects using a detailed questionnaire, completed by a clinical and ultrasound examination and analyses of blood and urine samples of subjects who consented in donating such samples. The objectives of the study were to evaluate the risk of thyroid cancer related to exposure to I-131 in childhood and adolescence and the role of environmental and host factors that may modify radiation induced thyroid cancer risk. These include age at exposure, iodine intake, genetic background and reproductive history. Individual radiation dose from 131I, and associated uncertainty, was estimated for each subject, as well as dose from external exposures and intake of long-lived nuclides. Each subject was also assigned an index of possible exposure to short-lived iodine and tellurium isotopes. Descriptive analyses showed that risk of thyroid cancer in this study was significantly associated with a number of factor that are likely to reflect potential of exposure. Cases in Belarus tended to live more frequently in rural

  8. The role of microRNAs in human liver cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braconi, Chiara; Henry, Jon C; Kogure, Takayuki; Schmittgen, Thomas; Patel, Tushar

    2011-12-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a primary malignancy of the liver of global importance. Recent studies of the expression and role of microRNA (miRNA) in HCC are providing new insights into disease pathogenesis. In addition, therapeutic efforts targeting specific miRNAs are being evaluated in animal models of HCC. The potential of miRNAs as biomarkers of disease or prognostic markers is being explored. Herein, we review studies of miRNA expression in human HCC, and discuss recent advances in knowledge about the involvement and role of selected miRNAs in disease pathogenesis, as biomarkers, or as therapeutic targets for HCC. PMID:22082761

  9. Non-Coding RNAs in Primary Liver Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghidini, Michele; Braconi, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a primary malignancy of the liver with poor prognosis and limited therapeutic options. Over the past few years, many studies have evaluated the role of non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) in hepatocarcinogenesis and tumor progression. ncRNAs were shown to have diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic potential in HCC. In this manuscript, we review the latest major discoveries concerning microRNAs and long ncRNAs in HCC pathogenesis, and discuss the potentials and the limitations for their use in clinical practice. PMID:26131450

  10. Staged or simultaneous resection of synchronous liver metastases from colorectal cancer--a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillingsø, J G; Wille-Jørgensen, P

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A systematic review of the literature was undertaken to estimate the differences in length of hospital stay, morbidity, mortality and long-term survival between staged and simultaneous resection of synchronous liver metastases from colorectal cancer to determine the level of evidence...... for recommendations of a treatment strategy. METHOD: A Pub-med search was undertaken for studies comparing patients with synchronous liver metastases, who either had a combined or staged resection of metastases. Twenty-six were considered and 16 were included based on Newcastle Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale. All...

  11. Staged or simultaneous resection of synchronous liver metastases from colorectal cancer a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillingso, J.G.; Wille-Jørgensen, Peer

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: A systematic review of the literature was undertaken to estimate the differences in length of hospital stay, morbidity, mortality and long-term survival between staged and simultaneous resection of synchronous liver metastases from colorectal cancer to determine the level of evidence...... for recommendations of a treatment strategy. METHOD: A Pub-med search was undertaken for studies comparing patients with synchronous liver metastases, who either had a combined or staged resection of metastases. Twenty-six were considered and 16 were included based on Newcastle Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale. All...

  12. Staged or simultaneous resection of synchronous liver metastases from colorectal cancer - a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillingso, J.G.; Wille-Jørgensen, Peer

    2009-01-01

    A systematic review of the literature was undertaken to estimate the differences in length of hospital stay, morbidity, mortality and long-term survival between staged and simultaneous resection of synchronous liver metastases from colorectal cancer to determine the level of evidence...... for recommendations of a treatment strategy. A Pub-med search was undertaken for studies comparing patients with synchronous liver metastases, who either had a combined or staged resection of metastases. Twenty-six were considered and 16 were included based on Newcastle Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale. All studies...

  13. Childhood Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain tumors are abnormal growths inside the skull. They are among the most common types of childhood ... still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches and ...

  14. Clinicopathologic and gene expression parameters predict liver cancer prognosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) varies following surgical resection and the large variation remains largely unexplained. Studies have revealed the ability of clinicopathologic parameters and gene expression to predict HCC prognosis. However, there has been little systematic effort to compare the performance of these two types of predictors or combine them in a comprehensive model. Tumor and adjacent non-tumor liver tissues were collected from 272 ethnic Chinese HCC patients who received curative surgery. We combined clinicopathologic parameters and gene expression data (from both tissue types) in predicting HCC prognosis. Cross-validation and independent studies were employed to assess prediction. HCC prognosis was significantly associated with six clinicopathologic parameters, which can partition the patients into good- and poor-prognosis groups. Within each group, gene expression data further divide patients into distinct prognostic subgroups. Our predictive genes significantly overlap with previously published gene sets predictive of prognosis. Moreover, the predictive genes were enriched for genes that underwent normal-to-tumor gene network transformation. Previously documented liver eSNPs underlying the HCC predictive gene signatures were enriched for SNPs that associated with HCC prognosis, providing support that these genes are involved in key processes of tumorigenesis. When applied individually, clinicopathologic parameters and gene expression offered similar predictive power for HCC prognosis. In contrast, a combination of the two types of data dramatically improved the power to predict HCC prognosis. Our results also provided a framework for understanding the impact of gene expression on the processes of tumorigenesis and clinical outcome

  15. Influence of TACE combined with radioactive seed radiotherapy on primary liver cancer patients’ malignant biological indicators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Liu; Yu Wang; Guang-Yan Lei; Xiao-Hong Yan; Qiao Yang; Hai-Ping Zhu; Yi Geng

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the influence of TACE combined with radioactive seed radiotherapy on primary liver cancer patients’ malignant biological indicators.Methods:A total of 112 cases of primary liver cancer patients who received treatment in our hospital, Xijing Hospital and Tumor Hospital of Shaanxi Province were chosen as research subjects and divided into control group (TACE therapy alone) with 63 cases in it and observation group (TACE combined with radioactive seed radiotherapy) with 49 cases according to different treatment, and then the levels of malignant biological indicators after 2 months of treatment were compared between two groups.Results:Serum VEGF, FGF and MMP levels of observation group after treatment were significantly lower than those of control group; serum AFP-L3, GP73, Sb7-H3, AFU and CatS levels were significantly lower than those of control group; serum ICAM-1, ESM-1 and uPA levels were lower than those of control group.Conclusion: TACE combined with radioactive seed radiotherapy can effectively reduce primary liver cancer patients’ serum malignant biological indicator levels, decrease the degree of malignancy of cancer cells and slow disease progression, and is an ideal treatment.

  16. Observations of liver cancer cells in scanning probe acoustic microscope: a preliminary study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaohui; Fang, Xiaoyue; Xi, Qing; Guo, Hua; Zhang, Ning; Ding, Mingyue

    2016-04-01

    Scanning probe acoustic microscope (SPAM) can be used to acquire the morphology image as well as the non-destructive internal structures acoustic image. However, the observations of the morphology image as well as the internal structures acoustic image of liver cancer cells in SPAM are few. In this paper, we cultured 4 different types of liver cancer cells on the silicon wafer and coverslip to observe their morphology images as well as acoustic images in SPAM, and made a preliminary study of the 8 types of cells specimens (hereinafter referred to as the silicon specimens and coverslips specimens). The experimental measurement results showed that some cellular pseudopodium were observed in the morphology images of the coverslip specimens while no such cellular pseupodium were appeared in the morphology images of the silicon specimens, which concluded that the living liver cancer cells were less likely to grow on the silicon wafer. SPAM provides a rapid and sensitive visual method for studying the morphology and internal structures of the cancer cells. The proposed method can be also used to obtain the morphology and internal information in both solid and soft material wafers, such as silicon and cells, with the resolution of nanometer scale.

  17. Complete resection of unresectable liver metastases from colorectal cancer without deterioration of liver function after cetuximab and irinotecan: two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karasaki, Takahiro; Sano, Keiji; Takamoto, Taketumi; Kinoshita, Hiroto; Tateishi, Ryosuke; Takemura, Tamiko; Makuuchi, Masatoshi

    2010-01-01

    Complete resection for colorectal metastases is the only treatment that can provide long-term survival and may lead to cure. Recent reports have shown that liver resection following systemic chemotherapy in patients with initially unresectable metastases from colorectal cancer may also result in a good long-term survival, and rescue surgery after chemotherapy has become a strategy of choice. A 29-year-old male and a 35-year-old female with unresectable liver metastases from colorectal cancer underwent complete resection after administration of third-line combination therapy of cetuximab and irinotecan. Although systemic chemotherapy may decrease liver function, which may make liver resection unfeasible, in the two cases reported, liver function did not deteriorate after cetuximab plus irinotecan. The indocyanine green retention rate at 15 minutes, which is useful in deciding the safe limit of hepatectomy, was optimal after the administration of cetuximab plus irinotecan in both patients. Cetuximab plus irinotecan may be beneficial as neoadjuvant chemotherapy for metastatic colorectal cancer, not only because of its oncological efficacy but also for preservation of liver function. PMID:21443115

  18. Differential distribution of age and HBV serological markers in liver cirrhosis and non-cirrhotic patients with primary liver cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XU Xiuhua

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveTo compare the age distributions and presence of hepatitis B virus (HBV serological markers between primary hepatic cancer (PHC patients with and without liver cirrhosis. MethodsA total of 547 PHC cases were analyzed retrospectively. After dividing into two groups according to liver cirrhosis status, the between-group differences in age and HBV serological markers, such as hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg status, were statistically compared using the Chi-squared test. ResultsThe number of cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic PHC patients was 265 and 282, respectively. HBV infection was present in 221 cirrhotic PHC patients and 256 non-cirrhotic PHC patients (834% vs. 90.8%. There was a substantial bias in the proportion of males to females in the cirrhotic PHC patients (7.83∶1. The number of PHC patients <60 years old was similar between the cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic groups, but the non-cirrhotic group had significantly more patients >60 years old (P<0.005. In cirrhotic PHC patients, the HBV infection rate was highest in the <40 years old age group (96.7% and the HBeAg serological conversion rate was highest in the 40-60 years old age group (89.5%. In non-cirrhotic PHC patients, the 40-60 years old age group showed the highest HBV infection rate (90.3% but the lowest HBeAg serological conversion rate (80.0%. ConclusionPHC with liver cirrhosis mainly occurred in males, with the HBV infection rate being higher in individuals <60 years old. Non-cirrhotic PHC patients were more often >60 years old. Many of the HBV-infected PHC patients with cirrhosis had high HBeAg serological conversion rate.

  19. 125I seed for the treatment of late cancer of the liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To investigate whether iodine-125 radioactive seed can be used for the treatment of late cancer of the liver. Methods: Ten patients with unresectable (primary or metastatic) cancer of the liver were studied. Nine patients were male and 1 was female. The mean age was 61+/-14 years old. Five of the patients had primary liver of the cancer. Before treatment was initiated, informed consents were collected. The iodine-125 radioactive seeds were provided by the China Academy of Atomic Energy. The radioactivity of each seed was 0.8 mCi The num.ber of seeds to be implanted was estimated according to the size of the tumor measured through CT scan. On the day of the operation, the patients we to the department of radiology and a CT scan performed and the location and angle of puncture evaluated by the radiologist, Then needles for delivering the seeds were inserted into the tumor through the skin. While the tip of the needles was at the desired location, the seeds were implanted into the tumor. In some cases, bleeding occurred, but this did not stop the implantation. After the and their successfully completed, a CT scan was performed to confirm the number of seeds implanted and their distribution. One month after the implantation, the patients were reevaluated with CT scan to investigate whether the tumor had shrunk or not. The patients were followed up for 6 months. Results: Of the ten patients, 1 committed suicide because of severe bone pain caused by bone metastasis. Another patient died of other cause other than cancer itself. All the other patients were alive at 6 month after the operation and CT scan was performed. All tumor of the nine patients shrunk significantly. Conclusion: Iodine-125 brachytherapy is effective for the treatment of late cancer of the liver. (authors)

  20. Study of angiogenesis induced by metastatic and non-metastatic liver cancer by corneal micropocket model in nude mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    AIM To study the angiogenesis induced by liver cancer with different metastatic potentials using corneal micropocket model in nude mice.METHODS Corneal micropockets were created in nude mice. Tumor tissues and liver tissues were implanted into the corneal micropockets. Angiogenesis was observed using a digital camera under slit-lamp biomicroscope, and compared among different grafts and incision alone. Vascular responses were recorded in regard to the range, number and length of new blood vessels toward the grafts or incisions.RESULTS Vascular responses induced by tumor tissues were greater than those by incision alone and liver tissue grafts. LCI-D20 induced more intensive angiogenesis than LCI-D35.CONCLUSION Highly metastatic liver cancer LCI D20 was more angiogenic than low metastatic cancer LCI D35 and liver tissue. Micropocket was a useful model to study dynamic process of angiogenesis in vivo.

  1. Seeding after ultrasound-guided percutaneous biopsy of liver metastases in patients with colorectal or breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Inna; Lorentzen, Torben; Linnemann, Dorte;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neoplasm seeding is a serious complication after liver metastases biopsy. Reported incidences vary between 10% and 19% for colorectal cancer (CRC) and are unknown for breast cancer (BC). The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the frequency of tumor seeding after ultrasound......-guided percutaneous biopsy of CRC and BC liver metastases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Unselected liver biopsies performed in the period of 2005-2012 at our institution were extracted from the National Pathology Registry. Medical records including imaging from patients with biopsy-verified BC and CRC liver metastases were...... retrospectively reviewed. The endpoint was the development of abdominal wall recurrence following liver biopsy. RESULTS: Of total 2981 biopsies we identified 278 patients with CRC and 155 patients with BC biopsy-verified liver metastases. During the median follow-up of 25 months after biopsy (range 3-253 months...

  2. Pharmacologic activation of wild-type p53 by nutlin therapy in childhood cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Maerken, Tom; Rihani, Ali; Van Goethem, Alan; De Paepe, Anne; Speleman, Frank; Vandesompele, Jo

    2014-03-28

    A peculiar feature of several types of childhood cancer is that loss-of-function mutations of the TP53 (p53) tumor suppressor gene are uncommon, in contrast to many adult tumors. As p53 needs to be inactivated in order for tumor cells to survive and thrive, pediatric tumors typically make use of other mechanisms to keep p53 in check. One of the critical negative regulators of p53 is the MDM2 oncoprotein. Many anticancer drug development efforts in the past decade have therefore been devoted to the discovery and optimization of small molecules that selectively disrupt the interaction between MDM2 and p53, which could provide, in principle, a potent means to restore p53 function in tumor cells with wild-type p53. The nutlins are the class of selective inhibitors of the p53-MDM2 interaction that are currently most advanced in their clinical development. We review here the preclinical data that support the potential therapeutic use of nutlin drugs in the treatment of various pediatric tumors, including neuroblastoma, retinoblastoma, osteosarcoma, Ewing's sarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, medulloblastoma, and childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. PMID:24262662

  3. Efficiency of Non-Contrast-Enhanced Liver Imaging Sequences Added to Initial Rectal MRI in Rectal Cancer Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gene-hyuk Kwon

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to estimate the value of addition of liver imaging to initial rectal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI for detection of liver metastasis and evaluate imaging predictors of a high risk of liver metastasis on rectal MRI.We enrolled 144 patients who from October 2010 to May 2013 underwent rectal MRI with T2-weighted imaging (T2WI and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI (b values = 50, 500, and 900 s/mm2 of the liver and abdominopelvic computed tomography (APCT for the initial staging of rectal cancer. Two reviewers scored the possibility of liver metastasis on different sets of liver images (T2WI, DWI, and combined T2WI and DWI and APCT and reached a conclusion by consensus for different analytic results. Imaging features from rectal MRI were also analyzed. The diagnostic performances of CT and an additional liver scan to detect liver metastasis were compared. Multivariate logistic regression to determine independent predictors of liver metastasis among rectal MRI features and tumor markers was performed. This retrospective study was approved by the Institutional Review Board, and the requirement for informed consent was waived.All sets of liver images were more effective than APCT for detecting liver metastasis, and DWI was the most effective. Perivascular stranding and anal sphincter invasion were statistically significant for liver metastasis (p = 0.0077 and p = 0.0471, while extramural vascular invasion based on MRI (mrEMVI was marginally significant (p = 0.0534.The addition of non-contrast-enhanced liver imaging, particularly DWI, to initial rectal MRI in rectal cancer patients could facilitate detection of liver metastasis without APCT. Perivascular stranding, anal sphincter invasion, and mrEMVI detected on rectal MRI were important imaging predictors of liver metastasis.

  4. Clinicopathologic and gene expression parameters predict liver cancer prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Ke

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC varies following surgical resection and the large variation remains largely unexplained. Studies have revealed the ability of clinicopathologic parameters and gene expression to predict HCC prognosis. However, there has been little systematic effort to compare the performance of these two types of predictors or combine them in a comprehensive model. Methods Tumor and adjacent non-tumor liver tissues were collected from 272 ethnic Chinese HCC patients who received curative surgery. We combined clinicopathologic parameters and gene expression data (from both tissue types in predicting HCC prognosis. Cross-validation and independent studies were employed to assess prediction. Results HCC prognosis was significantly associated with six clinicopathologic parameters, which can partition the patients into good- and poor-prognosis groups. Within each group, gene expression data further divide patients into distinct prognostic subgroups. Our predictive genes significantly overlap with previously published gene sets predictive of prognosis. Moreover, the predictive genes were enriched for genes that underwent normal-to-tumor gene network transformation. Previously documented liver eSNPs underlying the HCC predictive gene signatures were enriched for SNPs that associated with HCC prognosis, providing support that these genes are involved in key processes of tumorigenesis. Conclusion When applied individually, clinicopathologic parameters and gene expression offered similar predictive power for HCC prognosis. In contrast, a combination of the two types of data dramatically improved the power to predict HCC prognosis. Our results also provided a framework for understanding the impact of gene expression on the processes of tumorigenesis and clinical outcome.

  5. Clinical implications of microRNAs in liver cancer stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stella Chai; Stephanie Ma

    2013-01-01

    The prognosis of patients diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is often dismal,mainly due to late presentation,high recurrence rate,and frequent resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy.Accumulating evidence on the differential microRNA (miRNA) expression patterns between non-tumor and HCC tissues or between liver cancer stem cells (CSCs) and non-CSC subsets and the significant clinical implications of these differences suggest that miRNAs are a promising,non-invasive marker for the prognosis and diagnosis of the disease.This perspective article summarizes the current knowledge of miRNAs in liver CSCs and highlights the need for further investigations of the role of miRNAs in regulating liver CSC subsets for possible future clinical applications.

  6. Childhood cancer and residential exposure to highways: a nationwide cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Children living near highways are exposed to higher concentrations of traffic-related carcinogenic pollutants. Several studies reported an increased risk of childhood cancer associated with traffic exposure, but the published evidence is inconclusive. We investigated whether cancer risk is associated with proximity of residence to highways in a nation-wide cohort study including all children aged <16 years from Swiss national censuses in 1990 and 2000. Cancer incidence was investigated in time to event analyses (1990–2008) using Cox proportional hazards models and incidence density analyses (1985–2008) using Poisson regression. Adjustments were made for socio-economic factors, ionising background radiation and electromagnetic fields. In time to event analysis based on 532 cases the adjusted hazard ratio for leukaemia comparing children living <100 m from a highway with unexposed children (≥500 m) was 1.43 (95 % CI 0.79, 2.61). Results were similar in incidence density analysis including 1367 leukaemia cases (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.57; 95 % CI 1.09, 2.25). Associations were similar for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (IRR 1.64; 95 % CI 1.10, 2.43) and stronger for leukaemia in children aged <5 years (IRR 1.92; 95 % CI 1.22, 3.04). Little evidence of association was found for other tumours. Our study suggests that young children living close to highways are at increased risk of developing leukaemia

  7. The role of adjuvant pelvic radiotherapy in rectal cancer with synchronous liver metastasis: a retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synchronous liver metastases are detected in approximately 25% of colorectal cancer patients at diagnosis. The rates of local failure and distant metastasis are substantial in these patients, even after undergoing aggressive treatments including resection of primary and metastatic liver tumors. The purpose of this study was to determine whether adjuvant pelvic radiotherapy is beneficial for pelvic control and overall survival in rectal cancer patients with synchronous liver metastasis after primary tumor resection. Among rectal cancer patients who received total mesorectal excision (TME) between 1997 and 2006 at Yonsei University Health System, eighty-nine patients diagnosed with synchronous liver metastasis were reviewed. Twenty-seven patients received adjuvant pelvic RT (group S + R), and sixty-two patients were managed without RT (group S). Thirty-six patients (58%) in group S and twenty patients (74%) in group S+R received local treatment for liver metastasis. Failure patterns and survival outcomes were analyzed. Pelvic failure was observed in twenty-five patients; twenty-one patients in group S (34%), and four patients in group S+R (15%) (p = 0.066). The two-year pelvic failure-free survival rates (PFFS) of group S and group S+R were 64.8% and 80.8% (p = 0.028), respectively, and the two-year overall survival rates (OS) were 49.1% and 70.4% (p = 0.116), respectively. In a subgroup analysis of fifty-six patients who received local treatment for liver metastasis, the two-year PFFS were 64.9% and 82.9% (p = 0.05), respectively; the two-year OS were 74.1% and 80.0% (p = 0.616) in group S (n = 36) and group S+R (n = 20), respectively. Adjuvant pelvic RT significantly reduced the pelvic failure rate but its influence on overall survival was unclear. Rectal cancer patients with synchronous liver metastasis may benefit from adjuvant pelvic RT through an increased pelvic control rate and improved quality of life

  8. Late cranial MRI after cranial irradiation in survivors of childhood cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paeaekkoe, E. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. of Oulu (Finland); Talvensaari, K. [Dept. of Pediatrics, Univ. of Oulu (Finland); Pyhtinen, J. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. of Oulu (Finland); Lanning, M. [Dept. of Pediatrics, Univ. of Oulu (Finland)

    1994-11-01

    We carried out MRI on 43 survivors of childhood cancer after different treatment protocols with or without cranial radiotherapy. They were free of disease, therapy having been discontinued 2-20 years earlier. Treatment had been for various malignancies, excluding brain tumours; 27 had received cranial irradiation for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) or lymphoma. Two asymptomatic young women treated for ALL had falx meningiomas. White matter changes, low intensity foci (representing calcification or old haemorrhage) and (heterogeneous intensity focic old haemorrhages) were seen only in patients who had undergone radiotherapy. Because of the possibility of benign, potentially curable brain tumours occurring after cranial irradiation, it may be wise to carry out occasional cranial imaging in the follow-up of these patients. No routine imaging follow-up is needed after chemotherapy alone. (orig.)

  9. Anthracycline-related cardiotoxicity: risk factors and therapeutic options in childhood cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NADIA PUMA

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Anthracyclines play an important role in chemotherapeutic regimens for a wide spectrum of childhood tumors, but they can cause cytotoxic damage to cardiac cells, especially in combination with radiotherapy. Furthermore, cardiotoxicity increases with the cumulative dose and may lead to congestive heart failure and cardiomyopathy. Other factors, including age, pre-existing cardiac disease, length of follow-up, gender, route of administration, concomitant exposure to some chemotherapeutic drugs, trisomy 21 and black race, play a role in increasing the risk of cardiac dysfunction. The prevention of anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity is mandatory as children are expected to survive for decades after being cured of their cancer. The purpose of this work is to point out the major risk factors of cardiotoxicity in children and to summarize some strategies to limit or prevent this complication and to treat the development of acute heart failure.

  10. A 10-year follow up of reproductive function in women treated for childhood cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stine Nygaard; Andersen, A N; Schmidt, Kirsten Louise Tryde; Rechnitzer, C; Schmiegelow, K.; Bentzen, J G; Larsen, E C

    2013-01-01

    Previously, this study group found that female childhood cancer survivors could be at risk of early cessation of fertility. The aim of the present study was to evaluate reproductive function in the same group of survivors 10 years after the initial study. Of the original cohort of 100, 71 were re......-examined. Thirty-six survivors reported regular menstrual cycles. When they were compared with 210 controls, they differed significantly in antral follicle count (AFC) (median 15 versus 18, P=0.047) but not in anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) (median 13.0 versus 17.8pmol/l). Survivors cured with minimal gonadotoxic...... treatment had significantly higher AMH and AFC compared with survivors cured with either potentially gonadotoxic treatment or treatment including alkylating chemotherapy and ovarian irradiation (20.0, 5.8 and...

  11. Dracocephalum: Novel Anticancer Plant Acting on Liver Cancer Cell Mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Talari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss. (Labiatae is a native Iranian medicinal plant which has been used in combination with Peganum harmala L. as a remedy for many forms of human cancer especially leukemia and gastrointestinal malignancies. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is the third leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. In this investigation HCC was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of diethylnitrosamine (DEN in corn oil at 200 mg/kg body weight to rats. Two weeks after DEN administration, cancer development was promoted with dietary 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF (0.02%, w/w for 2 weeks. Serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP concentration, serum alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP activities were also determined for confirmation of hepatocellular carcinoma induction. Then rat hepatocytes were isolated with collagen perfusion technique and tumoral hepatocytes were sorted by flow cytometry. Finally isolated mitochondria obtained from both tumoral and nontumoral hepatocytes were used for any probable toxic effect of Dracocephalum kotschyi ethanolic extract. Our results showed that D. kotschyi extract (250 µg/mL induced reactive oxygen species (ROS formation, mitochondrial membrane permeabilization (MMP, and mitochondrial swelling and cytochrome c release only in tumoral but not nontumoral hepatocyte. These findings propose Dracocephalum kotschyi as a promising candidate for future anticancer research.

  12. The role of the liver in the protection by elemental diets against experimental colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, T; Lewin, M R

    1988-06-01

    This study investigates the mechanism whereby the elemental diet 'Vivonex' protects against experimental colon cancer. A total of 240 Wistar rats were randomly allocated to three dietary groups: (A) Vivonex HN, (B) Vivonex HN with 0.05% added cholesterol and (C) control standard powdered diet. All received a colon cancer-producing regimen of dimethylhydrazine (DMH) at a dose of 40 mg/kg BW, s.c., once weekly for 5 weeks. Ten weeks following the first DMH injection, then at 5 weekly intervals until the 40th week, 10 randomly selected rats from each dietary group were weighed, killed and necropsied. Total liver weights were recorded with samples kept for total lipid extraction and cholesterol and phospholipid assay. Each colon underwent macroscopic examination and all neoplasms were recorded. Results showed that control rats had a constant total liver lipid content over the 40 weeks and an increased incidence, number and development of colonic neoplasms with time. In contrast, Vivonex fed rats had significantly elevated total liver lipids, cholesterol and phospholipids over the 40 weeks compared to controls and a significantly reduced number and rate of development of colonic neoplasms. Rats fed on Vivonex + cholesterol had total liver lipids intermediate and significantly different from both the Vivonex and control groups and a similar result was seen in tumour development with time. This study shows that a Vivonex diet results in an increase in hepatic lipids, this effect being partially reversed with dietary cholesterol. The protective effect of Vivonex feeding in the DMH model of colon cancer may thus be mediated in part by the liver.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3411183

  13. Hypofractionated three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy for primary liver cancer with portal vein tumor thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of hypofractionated 3DCRT for primary liver cancer (PLC) with portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT). Methods: Between April 1999 and August 2003, 34 PLC patients with PVTT received hypofractionated 3DCRT. The severity of hepatic cirrhosis was 23 in Child-Pugh gradeA and 11 gradeB. The median value of GTV was 773 cm3 (105-2097 cm3). The radiotherapy regimen consisted of 38-63 Gy in 7-15 fractions with 4-8 Gy per fraction (median value 5 Gy), the treatment was delivered 3 times per week during every other day. Results: Having response rate (CR + PR) of 76% (26/34), the overall 1-, 2-, and 3-year survival rate at was 36%, 19% and 13%, respectively. Conclusion: Hypofractionated three dimensional conformal radiotherapy is effective for primary liver cancer with portal vein tumor thrombosis. (authors)

  14. MCNP simulation of the dose distribution in liver cancer treatment for BNC therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krstic, Dragana; Jovanovic, Zoran; Markovic, Vladimir; Nikezic, Dragoslav; Urosevic, Vlade

    2014-10-01

    The Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) is based on selective uptake of boron in tumour tissue compared to the surrounding normal tissue. Infusion of compounds with boron is followed by irradiation with neutrons. Neutron capture on 10B, which gives rise to an alpha particle and recoiled 7Li ion, enables the therapeutic dose to be delivered to tumour tissue while healthy tissue can be spared. Here, therapeutic abilities of BNCT were studied for possible treatment of liver cancer using thermal and epithermal neutron beam. For neutron transport MCNP software was used and doses in organs of interest in ORNL phantom were evaluated. Phantom organs were filled with voxels in order to obtain depth-dose distributions in them. The result suggests that BNCT using an epithermal neutron beam could be applied for liver cancer treatment.

  15. Scintigraphy in the diagnosis of liver cancers. Study of 54 observations with anatomical confrontation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study attempts to judge the reliability of scintigraphy in the diagnosis of liver cancers. It concerns 54 observations with anatomical confrontation (laparoscopy, biopsy, laparotomy and/or autopsy). Technetium 99m scintigraphy gives a correct diagnosis in 81.5% of the cases, whether cirrhosis is present or not. Scintigraphy is only one stage in the investigation of neoplasic liver disease. This study shows that all too often it is practised alone since of 201 observations only 54 include another examination, and of these only 21 a laparoscopy. The simultaneous use of scintigraphy and laparoscopy eliminates false positives and reduces the percentage of false negatives from 7.5% to 4%. The two methods combined are therefore reliable to 96% (i.e. 96% of successful diagnosis in liver cancer tests. This work was performed with the techniques available in 1973. The quality of the scintigraphic image should be improved by technical progress in the form of new isotopic products, cameras with better definition and computerized data processing. With these new techniques it will certainly be possible to detect very small lacunae and to observe in more detail their diffusion in the liver parenchyma

  16. Non-invasive monitoring of carcinogenesis in N-nitrosodiethylamine induced liver cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ju Hui; Kang, Joo Hyun; Lee, Yong Jin; Lee, Tae Sup; Kim, Kwang Il; Cheon, Gi Jeong; Choi, Chang Woon; Lim, Sang Moo [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young Seo [Kyungwon University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    Molecular imaging based on reporter gene expression allows tissue-specific events or processes to be measured using the bioluminescence imaging (BLI) reporter gene expression vector controlled by specific enhancer/promoters. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), which is a tumor marker, is a serum glycoprotein that is expressed normally by fetal liver and yolk-sac cells, as well as in trace amounts in the fetal gastrointestinal tract. The serum concentration of AFP decreases rapidly after birth and its expression is repressed in adults. Approximately 80% of HCC patients show an increase in the AFP level. Therefore, AFP has been used for many years as a diagnostic and prognostic serum marker for HCC and transgenic system for AFP was proposed as a valuable tool for elucidation of mechanism of transcriptional regulation during liver development and hepatocarcinogenesis. In this study, firefly luciferase (fLuc) expressing transgenic mice controlled by the AFP enhancer/ promoter (enh/promoter) were produced to screen for the development of AFP-producing liver cancer. These models are expected to be useful for monitoring agents or drugs that modulate the AFP level as well as for measuring the specific signaling events important for liver cancer development

  17. Expression of Glioma-associated Oncogene Homolog 1 is Associated with Invasion and Postoperative Liver Metastasis in Colon Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Yin-lu Ding, Yong Zhou, Lei Xiang, Zhi-peng Ji, Zhou-hong Luo

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the expression of glioma-associated oncogene homolog 1(Gli-1) in colon cancer and its association with clinicopathological parameters and postoperative liver metastasis.Methods: Expression of Gli-1 was detected by immunohistochemistry in paraffin-embedded specimens of 96 cases of colon cancer. Relationship between Gli-1 expression and clinicopathological parameters, postoperative liver metastasis were analyzed.Results: Gli-1 protein expression was significantly incre...

  18. Expression of Glioma-associated Oncogene Homolog 1 is Associated with Invasion and Postoperative Liver Metastasis in Colon Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Yin-Lu; Zhou, Yong; Xiang, Lei; Ji, Zhi-peng; Luo, Zhou-hong

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the expression of glioma-associated oncogene homolog 1(Gli-1) in colon cancer and its association with clinicopathological parameters and postoperative liver metastasis. Methods: Expression of Gli-1 was detected by immunohistochemistry in paraffin-embedded specimens of 96 cases of colon cancer. Relationship between Gli-1 expression and clinicopathological parameters, postoperative liver metastasis were analyzed. Results: Gli-1 protein expression was significantly inc...

  19. The tumorigenic liver fluke Opisthorchis viverrini--multiple pathways to cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sripa, Banchob; Brindley, Paul J; Mulvenna, Jason; Laha, Thewarach; Smout, Michael J; Mairiang, Eimorn; Bethony, Jeffrey M; Loukas, Alex

    2012-10-01

    Liver fluke infection caused by Opisthorchis viverrini is a major public health problem in Thailand and adjacent countries. In addition to infection-associated morbidity, infection with O. viverrini and the related Clonorchis sinensis are unarguable risk factors for cholangiocarcinoma (CAA, bile-duct cancer). Here we review the pathogenesis of opisthorchiasis and the association between O. viverrini infection and bile-duct cancer, focusing on the molecular parallels between wound healing, chronic inflammation, and cancer development. We review a schema for human disease progression from fluke infection, chronic opisthorchiasis, advanced periductal fibrosis, and cholangiocarcinogenesis, and present a rationale for biomarker discovery to facilitate early intervention. We conclude by addressing post-genomic advances with a view to developing new control strategies to combat this infectious cancer. PMID:22947297

  20. Electrochemotherapy as a new approach on pancreatic cancer and on liver metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafuto, Salvatore; von Arx, Claudia; De Divitiis, Chiara; Maura, Claire Tracey; Palaia, Raffaele; Albino, Vittorio; Fusco, Roberta; Membrini, Massimo; Petrillo, Antonella; Granata, Vincenza; Izzo, Francesco

    2015-09-01

    Electrochemotherapy is a local non-thermal treatment for cancer ablation. Currently, many studies and case report have investigated the differences in effectiveness of electrochemotherapy with respect to tumor type, chemotherapeutic drug, and route of drug administration. ESOPE trial validated standard operating procedures [SOP] for ECT using the Cliniporator device and demonstrated that ECT is a simple, highly efficacious, and cost-effective treatment of cutaneous and subcutaneous nodules from different primary tumors for cutaneous or superficial lesions. This review has the purpose to summarize current knowledge about clinical effectiveness of electrochemotherapy and future prospects regarding its use on pancreatic cancer and liver metastasis not only. PMID:26123385