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Sample records for childhood lead exposure

  1. Reducing lead in air and preventing childhood exposure near lead smelters: learning from the U.S. experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Marianne

    2015-05-01

    Childhood lead exposure and poisoning near primary lead smelters continues in developed and developing countries. In the United States, the problem of lead poisoning in children caused by smelter emissions was first documented in the early 1970s. In 1978, Environmental Protection Agency set National Ambient Air Quality Standards for lead. Attainment of this lead standard in areas near operating lead smelters took twenty to thirty years. Childhood lead exposure and poisoning continued to occur after the lead National Ambient Air Quality Standards were set and before compliance was achieved. This article analyzes and discusses the factors that led to the eventual achievement of the 1978 lead National Ambient Air Quality Standards near primary smelters and the reduction of children's blood lead levels in surrounding communities. Factors such as federal and state regulation, monitoring of emissions, public health activities such as blood lead surveillance and health education, relocation of children, environmental group and community advocacy, and litigation all played a role. PMID:25815743

  2. Childhood lead exposure and uptake in teeth in the Cleveland area during the era of leaded gasoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childhood uptake of lead from exposure to atmospheric leaded gasoline in the United States has been studied using mainly blood lead levels. Since reliable blood lead techniques were used only after the peak use of leaded gasoline, the prior exposure history is unclear. The well-documented decline in blood lead levels after the mid-1970s could represent the continuation of a historic steady decline in exposure from many sources. Alternatively, the post-1970s decline might represent the declining phase of a unimodal rise and fall corresponding closely to usage of leaded gasoline. To assess these possibilities, lead concentration and 207Pb/206Pb isotope ratios were measured in the enamel of permanent molar teeth formed between 1936 and 1993 in mainly African-American donors who grew up in the Cleveland area. Tooth enamel preserves the lead concentration and isotope ratio that prevails during tooth formation. Historical trends in enamel lead concentration were significantly correlated with surrogates of atmospheric lead exposure: lead in sediments of two dated Lake Erie cores, and lead consumed in gasoline. About two-thirds of the total lead uptake into enamel in this period was attributable to leaded gasoline, and the remainder to other sources (e.g. paint). Enamel 207Pb/206Pb isotope ratios were similar to those of one lake sediment. Multivariate analysis revealed significant correlation in neighborhoods with higher levels of traffic, and including lake sediment data, accounted for 53% of the variation in enamel lead levels. Enamel lead concentration was highly correlated with reported African-American childhood blood levels. The extrapolated peak level of 48 μg/dL (range 40 to 63) is associated with clinical and behavioral impairments, which may have implications for adults who were children during the peak gasoline lead exposure. In sum, leaded gasoline emission was the predominant source of lead exposure of African-American Cleveland children during the latter

  3. Childhood lead exposure in an enslaved African community in Barbados

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, Hannes; Shuler, Kristrina; Chenery, Simon

    2013-01-01

    a clear association between low (i.e., below 1 ppm) enamel lead concentrations and higher enamel 87Sr/86Sr ratios which have previously been interpreted as being indicative of African birth, suggesting that individuals with low enamel lead levels were indeed born in Africa as opposed to the New World...

  4. Exposures to lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callan, Anna C; Hinwood, Andrea L

    2011-01-01

    The Pacific Basin Consortium for Environment and Health hosted a workshop on Exposures to Lead. Speakers from Australia and the United States of America addressed current research knowledge on lead exposures and health effects in children, risk assessment and communication issues in dealing with lead exposure sources, different methods for assessing exposure, and the variety of scenarios where lead still remains a pollutant of concern. Mining continues to be a source of lead for many communities, and approaches to reducing exposures in these settings present particular challenges. A Perth Declaration for the Global Reduction of Childhood Lead Exposure was signed by participants of the meeting and is aimed at increasing attention to the need to continue to assess lead in the environment and to develop strategies to reduce lead in the environment and exposure by communities. PMID:21714377

  5. Exposures to lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callan, Anna C; Hinwood, Andrea L

    2011-01-01

    The Pacific Basin Consortium for Environment and Health hosted a workshop on Exposures to Lead. Speakers from Australia and the United States of America addressed current research knowledge on lead exposures and health effects in children, risk assessment and communication issues in dealing with lead exposure sources, different methods for assessing exposure, and the variety of scenarios where lead still remains a pollutant of concern. Mining continues to be a source of lead for many communities, and approaches to reducing exposures in these settings present particular challenges. A Perth Declaration for the Global Reduction of Childhood Lead Exposure was signed by participants of the meeting and is aimed at increasing attention to the need to continue to assess lead in the environment and to develop strategies to reduce lead in the environment and exposure by communities.

  6. Determining Prenatal, Early Childhood and Cumulative Long-Term Lead Exposure Using Micro-Spatial Deciduous Dentine Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Arora, Manish; Austin, Christine; Sarrafpour, Babak; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio; Hu, Howard; Wright, Robert O.; Tellez-Rojo, Martha Maria

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the validity of micro-spatial dentine lead (Pb) levels as a biomarker for accurately estimating exposure timing over the prenatal and early childhood periods and long-term cumulative exposure to Pb. In a prospective pregnancy cohort sub-sample of 85 subjects, we compared dentine Pb levels measured using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with Pb concentrations in maternal blood collected in the second and third trimesters, maternal ...

  7. Low-level environmental lead exposure in childhood and adult intellectual function: a follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregas Matthew

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Early life lead exposure might be a risk factor for neurocognitive impairment in adulthood. Objectives We sought to assess the relationship between early life environmental lead exposure and intellectual function in adulthood. We also attempted to identify which time period blood-lead concentrations are most predictive of adult outcome. Methods We recruited adults in the Boston area who had participated as newborns and young children in a prospective cohort study that examined the relationship between lead exposure and childhood intellectual function. IQ was measured using the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI. The association between lead concentrations and IQ scores was examined using linear regression. Results Forty-three adults participated in neuropsychological testing. Childhood blood-lead concentration (mean of the blood-lead concentrations at ages 4 and 10 years had the strongest relationship with Full-Scale IQ (β = -1.89 ± 0.70, p = 0.01. Full-scale IQ was also significantly related to blood-lead concentration at age 6 months (β = -1.66 ± 0.75, p = 0.03, 4 years (β = -0.90 ± 0.41, p = 0.03 and 10 years (β = -1.95 ± 0.80, p = 0.02. Adjusting for maternal IQ altered the significance of the regression coefficient. Conclusions Our study suggests that lead exposure in childhood predicts intellectual functioning in young adulthood. Our results also suggest that school-age lead exposure may represent a period of increased susceptibility. Given the small sample size, however, the potentially confounding effects of maternal IQ cannot be excluded and should be evaluated in a larger study.

  8. Get the Lead Out: Facts about Childhood Lead Poisoning [and] Housekeeping Tips To Reduce Lead Exposure [and] Nutrition and Lead Poisoning [and] The Medical Consequences of Lead Poisoning [and] Lead Poisoning for Health Care Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illinois State Dept. of Public Health, Springfield.

    This document is comprised of five fact sheets from the Illinois Department of Public Health regarding childhood lead poisoning. Recent studies claim that childhood lead poisoning can contribute to problems later in life, such as academic failure, juvenile delinquency, and high blood pressure. Directed to parents, caregivers, and health care…

  9. Determining prenatal, early childhood and cumulative long-term lead exposure using micro-spatial deciduous dentine levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Arora

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the validity of micro-spatial dentine lead (Pb levels as a biomarker for accurately estimating exposure timing over the prenatal and early childhood periods and long-term cumulative exposure to Pb. In a prospective pregnancy cohort sub-sample of 85 subjects, we compared dentine Pb levels measured using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with Pb concentrations in maternal blood collected in the second and third trimesters, maternal bone, umbilical cord blood, and childhood serial blood samples collected from the ages of 3 months to ≥6 years. We found that Pb levels (as 208Pb:43Ca in dentine formed at birth were significantly associated with cord blood Pb (Spearman ρ = 0.69; n = 27; p<0.0001. The association of prenatal dentine Pb with maternal patella Pb (Spearman ρ = 0.48; n = 59; p<0.0001 was stronger than that observed for tibia Pb levels (Spearman ρ = 0.35; n = 41; p<0.03. When assessing postnatal exposure, we found that Pb levels in dentine formed at 3 months were significantly associated with Pb concentrations in children's blood collected concurrently (Spearman ρ = 0.64; n = 55; p<0.0001. We also found that mean Pb concentrations in secondary dentine (that is formed from root completion to tooth shedding correlated positively with cumulative blood lead index (Spearman ρ = 0.38; n = 75; p<0.0007. Overall, our results support that micro-spatial measurements of Pb in dentine can be reliably used to reconstruct Pb exposure timing over the prenatal and early childhood periods, and secondary dentine holds the potential to estimate long-term exposure up to the time the tooth is shed.

  10. Revisiting Nonresidential Environmental Exposures and Childhood Lead Poisoning in the US: Findings from Kansas, 2000–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Ann Brink

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although blood lead levels (BLLs in US children have dramatically declined over the past 40 years, there remain pockets of children living in areas with elevated BLLs. While some increases (≥10 μg/dL may be associated with legacy lead paint, ambient air lead may be contributing to the problem. A deidentified dataset of information on over 60,000 Kansas children under 3 years of age who were tested for BLL was provided through the Kansas Environmental Public Health Tracking Network for the period 2000–2005. Using ArcGIS, we calculated distance (in miles from a lead-emitting industry referred to as a toxic release inventory (TRI site. The USEPA TRI database tracks the management of certain toxic chemicals that may pose a threat to human health. US facilities in different industry sectors must report annually amount of substances like lead into the environment including their exact location. Distance from a TRI site was inversely related to BLL after controlling for area-level poverty and pre-1950 housing. The results of our evaluation indicate there is a significant relationship between proximity to lead industry and childhood BLLs. Proximity to sources of lead emissions should be evaluated as a possible factor when identifying children for targeted BLL testing.

  11. What do we know of childhood exposures to metals (arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury) in emerging market countries?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Lindsey M; Mortensen, Mary E; Iossifova, Yulia; Wald, Marlena M; Burgess, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury present potential health risks to children who are exposed through inhalation or ingestion. Emerging Market countries experience rapid industrial development that may coincide with the increased release of these metals into the environment. A literature review was conducted for English language articles from the 21st century on pediatric exposures to arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury in the International Monetary Fund's (IMF) top 10 Emerging Market countries: Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Mexico, Poland, Russia, South Korea, Taiwan, and Turkey. Seventy-six peer-reviewed, published studies on pediatric exposure to metals met the inclusion criteria. The reported concentrations of metals in blood and urine from these studies were generally higher than US reference values, and many studies identified adverse health effects associated with metals exposure. Evidence of exposure to metals in the pediatric population of these Emerging Market countries demonstrates a need for interventions to reduce exposure and efforts to establish country-specific reference values through surveillance or biomonitoring. The findings from review of these 10 countries also suggest the need for country-specific public health policies and clinician education in Emerging Markets.

  12. 77 FR 64997 - Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning... poisoning prevention efforts. The committee also reviews and reports regularly on childhood lead poisoning prevention practices and recommends improvements in national childhood lead poisoning prevention...

  13. Childhood poverty and young adults' allostatic load: the mediating role of childhood cumulative risk exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gary W; Kim, Pilyoung

    2012-09-01

    Childhood poverty is linked to a host of physical and psychological disorders during childhood and later in life. In the study reported here, we showed that the proportion of childhood spent in poverty from birth to age 9 was linked to elevated allostatic load, a marker of chronic physiological stress, in 17-year-olds. Furthermore, this prospective longitudinal relationship was mediated by cumulative risk exposure at age 13. The greater the duration of early life spent in poverty, the greater the exposure to cumulative risk. This, in turn, leads to elevated allostatic load. Multiple psychological, biological, and neurological pathways likely account for the social patterning of psychological and physical disease.

  14. Childhood lead poisoning: the promise and abandonment of primary prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needleman, H L

    1998-12-01

    In 1991, the Public Health Service published the Strategic Plan for the Elimination of Childhood Lead Poisoning. This document marked a fundamental shift in federal policy from finding and treating lead-poisoned children to authentic primary prevention. It spelled out a 15-year strategy to achieve this goal and provided a cost-benefit analysis showing that the monetized benefits far exceeded the costs of abatement. A strong national effort to eliminate the disease developed. Now, 7 years after publication of the plan, primary prevention of lead exposure has been abandoned. This article examines the role of some prevailing attitudes and institutions in derailing the effort. Some institutions--the lead industry, real estate interests, and insurance interests--behaved as anticipated. Others, including private pediatricians, the American Academy of Pediatrics, some federal agencies, and a public interest group ostensibly dedicated to eliminating lead poisoning, also played an unexpected part in derailing the plan. PMID:9842392

  15. Take home lead exposure in children of oil field workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Fahad

    2011-06-01

    Childhood lead poisoning is a major, preventable environmental health problem. While residential lead-based paint and lead contaminated dust and soil are the most common sources of childhood lead poisoning, children can also be at risk if they live with an adult with a job or hobby that involves exposure to lead. Currently, the Oklahoma Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program (OCLPPP) has a small number of cases of "take home" lead exposure in children of oil field workers. These workers may come in contact with a threading compound, "pipe dope" that can contain large amounts of lead. Workers handling this product may be exposed to lead by not following safety instructions. Additionally workers may not be provided the facilities to shower and change out of the contaminated clothing before leaving the work location. The OCLPPP recommends employers and worksites should consider effective alternative options like lead free biodegradable pipe dopes or dope free connections to prevent workers and their families from adverse health effects associated with lead. PMID:21888039

  16. Are local laws the key to ending childhood lead poisoning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korfmacher, Katrina S; Hanley, Michael L

    2013-08-01

    Although lead paint was banned by federal law in 1978, it continues to poison children living in homes built before that time. The lifelong effects of childhood exposure to even small amounts of lead are well established by medical research. Federal and state laws have reduced rates of lead poisoning significantly in the past three decades. However, pockets of high rates of lead poisoning remain, primarily in low-income urban neighborhoods with older housing stock. Recently, several municipalities have passed local lead laws to reduce lead hazards in high-risk areas. There has been no systematic attempt to compare the design and effectiveness of these local policies. To address this gap, we conducted comparative case studies of eight innovative lead laws promulgated since 2000. The laws used a wide variety of legal structures and tools, although certain elements were common. The impact of the policies was intertwined with local housing, economic, and legal environments. While data do not yet exist to systematically evaluate the impact of these laws on lead poisoning rates, our analysis suggests that local laws hold great promise for reducing lead hazards in children's homes.

  17. 75 FR 66771 - Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention (ACCLPP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning... lead poisoning prevention efforts. The committee also reviews and reports regularly on childhood lead poisoning prevention practices and recommends improvements in national childhood lead poisoning...

  18. Current issues in human lead exposure and regulation of lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J M; Elias, R W; Grant, L D

    1993-01-01

    Concern about lead as a significant public health problem has increased as epidemiological and experimental evidence has mounted regarding adverse health effects at successively lower levels of lead exposure. This concern has led to downward revision of criteria for acceptable blood lead concentrations to the 10 micrograms/dL mark now designated by EPA as a target level for regulatory development and enforcement/clean-up purposes. Much progress has been made in reducing lead exposures during the past 10-15 years, with marked declines evident both in air lead and blood lead concentrations in parallel to the phase-down of lead in gasoline and notable decreases in food lead exposure due to elimination of lead soldered cans by U.S. food processors. With the lessening of exposure from these sources, the importance of other components of multimedia exposure pathways has grown and stimulated increasing regulatory attention and abatement efforts to reduce health risks associated with lead exposure from drinking water, from lead-based paint, and from household dust and soil contaminated by deteriorating paint, smelter emissions, or various other sources. Increasing attention is also being accorded to reduction of occupational lead exposures (including those related to lead abatement activities), with particular concern for protection of men and women during their reproductive years.

  19. 76 FR 62071 - Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention(ACCLPP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning... developments and their practical implications for childhood lead poisoning prevention efforts. The committee also reviews and reports regularly on childhood lead poisoning prevention practices and...

  20. Fetal lead exposure: Encephalopathy in a child

    OpenAIRE

    Dsouza, Herman S.; Menezes, Geraldine; Venkatesh, T

    2002-01-01

    It is well known that lead exposure in the early period of pre pregnancy and antenatal life leads to serious health complications. In this case report, a five month old child who was suffering from encephalopathy was finally confirmed a victim of lead exposure, the source being the environment and the family. We report this case with complete clinical investigation including blood lead analysis. This case report highlights the various ways in which lead may accumulate in the body. It is also ...

  1. International perspectives of lead exposure and lead toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandjean, P

    1993-01-01

    Three approaches have been used to examine how human body burdens of lead depend on different environments: (1) In paleopathologic studies, lead concentrations have been determined in well-preserved human bones or teeth, and pre-pollution samples generally show lead concentrations of about 1% of current levels in industrialized countries. (2) Geographic comparisons of blood-lead concentrations show low levels in, Nepal, Faroe Islands, and Sweden, while high levels occur in Mexico and Malta; average blood-lead levels may vary by a factor of 10 or more. (3) In analytical epidemiology, major exposure sources have been related to lead levels in blood, by either prospective or cross-sectional design. Increased blood-lead concentrations are related to smoking, drinking alcoholic beverages, eating vegetables for dinner, urban residence, and exposure from lead-using industries; average blood-lead values of subgroups within well-defined populations may vary by a factor of 3 or more. The dose-relationships for lead-induced neurotoxicity will depend on the sensitivity of the parameters chosen as indicators of lead exposure and of neurotoxicity. The temporal relationship between lead exposures and the development of deficits must be ascertained. Individual susceptibility and interacting factors must also be taken into account. Differences in addressing these issues impede the comparison between studies. Recently neonatal jaundice has been found to be a risk factor for subsequent neurobehavioral dysfunction in children with a birth weight above 2500 g, but only in children with increased lead exposure. Lead exposure may act in combination with several other factors and result in additive, or synergistic effects.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8247415

  2. Psychiatric epidemiologic study of occupational lead exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkinson, D.K.; Ryan, C.; Bromet, E.J.; Connell, M.M.

    1986-02-01

    The association of occupational lead exposure with neuropsychiatric functioning was evaluated using data collected in 1982 in eastern Pennsylvania from 288 lead-exposed workers and 181 nonexposed subjects. Both current and cumulative exposure indices were used. After controlling for age, education, and income, few meaningful differences between exposed and control workers were found on either neuropsychologic or psychosocial variables. Dose-response analyses indicated that among lead-exposed workers, cumulative and current exposure were unrelated to neuropsychologic performance. The only meaningful associations occurred between exposure and level of conflict in interpersonal relationships. The results thus give evidence against hypotheses suggesting adverse neuropsychologic effects.

  3. Association of prenatal and childhood blood lead concentrations with criminal arrests in early adulthood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Paul Wright

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Childhood lead exposure is a purported risk factor for antisocial behavior, but prior studies either relied on indirect measures of exposure or did not follow participants into adulthood to examine the relationship between lead exposure and criminal activity in young adults. The objective of this study was to determine if prenatal and childhood blood lead concentrations are associated with arrests for criminal offenses. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Pregnant women were recruited from four prenatal clinics in Cincinnati, Ohio if they resided in areas of the city with a high concentration of older, lead-contaminated housing. We studied 250 individuals, 19 to 24 y of age, out of 376 children who were recruited at birth between 1979 and 1984. Prenatal maternal blood lead concentrations were measured during the first or early second trimester of pregnancy. Childhood blood lead concentrations were measured on a quarterly and biannual basis through 6.5 y. Study participants were examined at an inner-city pediatric clinic and the Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center in Cincinnati, Ohio. Total arrests and arrests for offenses involving violence were collected from official Hamilton County, Ohio criminal justice records. Main outcomes were the covariate-adjusted rate ratios (RR for total arrests and arrests for violent crimes associated with each 5 microg/dl (0.24 micromol/l increase in blood lead concentration. Adjusted total arrest rates were greater for each 5 microg/dl (0.24 micromol/l increase in blood lead concentration: RR = 1.40 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07-1.85 for prenatal blood lead, 1.07 (95% CI 0.88-1.29 for average childhood blood lead, and 1.27 (95% CI 1.03-1.57 for 6-year blood lead. Adjusted arrest rates for violent crimes were also greater for each 5 microg/dl increase in blood lead: RR = 1.34 (95% CI 0.88-2.03 for prenatal blood lead, 1.30 (95% CI 1.03-1.64 for average childhood blood lead, and 1.48 (95% CI 1

  4. Environmental and Occupational Lead Exposure Among Children in Cairo, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moawad, Eman Mohamed Ibraheim; Badawy, Nashwa Mostafa; Manawill, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to assess childhood lead exposure in a representative sample of Cairo, and to investigate the possible risk factors and sources of exposure. This cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2014 through April 2015. The target population was children aged 6 to 18 years, recruited into 4 groups, garbage city, moderate-living standard area, urban and suburban schools, and workshops in the city of Cairo. Blood lead levels (BLLs) and hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations were measured. Also, potential local environmental sources were assessed for hazardous lead contamination. Analysis on 400 participants has been carried out. A total of 113 children had BLLs in the range 10 to 20 μg/dL. Smoking fathers, housing conditions, playing outdoors, and exposure to lead in residential areas were significantly correlated with high BLLs. The mean values of hemoglobin were inversely correlated with BLLs. Children involved in pottery workshops had the highest BLLs and the lowest Hb values with a mean of (43.3 μg/dL and 8.6 g/dL, respectively). The mean value of environmental lead in workshop areas exceeded the recommended levels. Also, those values measured in dust and paint samples of garbage city were significantly high. Moreover, the mean lead levels in the soil samples were significantly higher in urban schools (P = 0.03) than the suburban ones. Childhood lead poisoning accounts for a substantial burden in Egypt, which could be preventable. Development of national prevention programs including universal screening program should be designed to reduce incidence of lead toxicity among children. PMID:26945415

  5. Lead exposure from aluminum cookware in Cameroon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidenhamer, Jeffrey D.; Kobunski, Peter A. [Department of Chemistry, Geology and Physics, 401 College Ave., Ashland University, Ashland, OH 44805 (United States); Kuepouo, Gilbert [Research and Education Centre for Development (CREPD), Yaounde (Cameroon); Corbin, Rebecca W. [Department of Chemistry, Geology and Physics, 401 College Ave., Ashland University, Ashland, OH 44805 (United States); Gottesfeld, Perry, E-mail: pgottesfeld@okinternational.org [Occupational Knowledge International, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Blood lead levels have decreased following the removal of lead from gasoline in most of the world. However, numerous recent studies provide evidence that elevated blood lead levels persist in many low and middle-income countries around the world at much higher prevalence than in the more developed countries. One potential source of lead exposure that has not been widely investigated is the leaching of lead from artisanal aluminum cookware, which is commonly used in the developing world. Twenty-nine samples of aluminum cookware and utensils manufactured by local artisans in Cameroon were collected and analyzed for their potential to release lead during cooking. Source materials for this cookware included scrap metal such as engine parts, radiators, cans, and construction materials. The lead content of this cookware is relatively low (< 1000 ppm by X-ray fluorescence), however significant amounts of lead, as well as aluminum and cadmium were released from many of the samples using dilute acetic acid extractions at boiling and ambient temperatures. Potential exposures to lead per serving were estimated to be as high as 260 μg, indicating that such cookware can pose a serious health hazard. We conclude that lead, aluminum and cadmium can migrate from this aluminum cookware during cooking and enter food at levels exceeding recommended public health guidelines. Our results support the need to regulate lead content of materials used to manufacture these pots. Artisanal aluminum cookware may be a major contributor to lead poisoning throughout the developing world. Testing of aluminum cookware in other developing countries is warranted. - Highlights: • Cookware is manufactured in Cameroon from scrap aluminum including car parts. • Twenty-nine cookware samples were evaluated for their potential to leach lead. • Boiling extractions to simulate the effects of cooking released significant lead. • Potential lead exposures per serving are estimated as high as 260 μg.

  6. Neurohumoral blood pressure regulation in lead exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boscolo, P.; Carmignani, M.

    1988-06-01

    Previous human studies demonstrated that lead exposure may modify the metabolism of catecholamines and of hormones controlled by the hypothalamo-pituitary axis and may affect the kallikrein-kinin system. This paper reports unpublished data on the plasma renin activity of lead-exposed workers; these results are in agreement with those of previous human and experimental studies suggesting that the synthesis or release of renin is increased after short and moderate exposure to inorganic lead and reduced whenever the exposure is prolonged. Previous experimental investigations demonstrated that lead may act on the cardiovascular system, with effects on the renin-angiotensin system, on the reactivity to stimulation of peripheral catecholaminergic receptors, on sympathetic and vagal tone, and on reactivity to the stimulation of baroreceptors. This paper reports the results of a study on male Sprague-Dawley rats that received 0, 15, 30, and 60 ..mu..g/mL of lead in drinking water for 18 months. Blood pressure was increased in the rats receiving 30 and 60 ppm of lead; cardiac inotropism was augmented only in those receiving the higher dose of the metal, and heart rate was not modified. Cardiovascular responses to agonists indicated that lead exposure affects the renin-angiotensin system and induces sympathetic hyperactivity be acting on central and peripheral sympathetic junctions increasing the responsiveness to stimulation of ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenoreceptors and by increasing the reactivity to stimulation of cardiac and vascular ..beta..-adrenergic and dopaminergic receptors.

  7. Molecular epidemiology of childhood leukemia with emphasis on chemical exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buffler, P.A.; Smith, M.T.; Wood, S. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Reynolds, P. [California Dept. of Health Services, Emeryville, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Developing markets in the Pacific Basin depend heavily on the production and export of consumer goods. The generation of hazardous waste as a by-product of industrial production can be linked to adverse health outcomes, such as childhood leukemia, in ways that are presently unknown. In California, exposures resulting from hazardous waste disposal are of concern in the etiology of childhood cancer. Approximately 63% of the 57 hazardous waste sites that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) included in the national priority list under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) statute were in the six-county San Francisco Bay area. This area includes California`s Silicon Valley, where a disproportionate majority of these sites are located. Although only one study links hazardous waste disposal to childhood leukemia evidence is accumulating that in utero and maternal pesticide exposures as well as chemical exposures during childhood are important in the etiology of childhood leukemia. This study investigates whether children with leukemia have common genetic changes, whether children with genetic changes experience common chemical exposures, and whether the occurrences of these genetic changes correspond to the same temporal sequence as exposure. The purpose of this paper is to describe the study design and report on the status of research activity. 10 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  8. Lead exposure among lead-acid battery workers in Jamaica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matte, T D; Figueroa, J P; Burr, G; Flesch, J P; Keenlyside, R A; Baker, E L

    1989-01-01

    To assess lead exposure in the Jamaican lead-acid battery industry, we surveyed three battery manufacturers (including 46 production workers) and 10 battery repair shops (including 23 battery repair workers). Engineering controls and respiratory protection were judged to be inadequate at battery manufacturers and battery repair shops. At manufacturers, 38 of 42 air samples for lead exceeded a work-shift time-weighted average concentration of 0.050 mg/m3 (range 0.030-5.3 mg/m3), and nine samples exceeded 0.50 mg/m3. Only one of seven air samples at repair shops exceeded 0.050 mg/m3 (range 0.003-0.066 mg/m3). Repair shop workers, however, had higher blood lead levels than manufacturing workers (65% vs. 28% with blood lead levels above 60 micrograms/dl, respectively). Manufacturing workers had a higher prevalence of safe hygienic practices and a recent interval of minimal production had occurred at one of the battery manufacturers. Workers with blood lead levels above 60 micrograms/dl tended to have higher prevalences of most symptoms of lead toxicity than did workers with lower blood lead levels, but this finding was not consistent or statistically significant. The relationship between zinc protoporphyrin concentrations and increasing blood lead concentrations was consistent with that described among workers in developed countries. The high risk of lead toxicity among Jamaican battery workers is consistent with studies of battery workers in other developing countries.

  9. Lead exposures from varnished floor refinishing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmer, Joseph; Havlena, Jeff; Jacobs, David E; Dixon, Sherry; Ikens, Robert

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the presence of lead in varnish and factors predicting lead exposure from floor refinishing and inexpensive dust suppression control methods. Lead in varnish, settled dust, and air were measured using XRF, laboratory analysis of scrape and wipe samples, and National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Method 7300, respectively, during refinishing (n = 35 homes). Data were analyzed using step-wise logistic regression. Compared with federal standards, no lead in varnish samples exceeded 1.0 mg/cm(2), but 52% exceeded 5000 ppm and 70% of settled dust samples after refinishing exceeded 40 μg/ft(2). Refinishing pre-1930 dwellings or stairs predicted high lead dust on floors. Laboratory analysis of lead in varnish was significantly correlated with airborne lead (r = 0.23, p = 0.014). Adding dust collection bags into drum sanders and HEPA vacuums to edgers and buffers reduced mean floor lead dust by 8293 μg Pb/ft(2) (pexposures to less than 50 μg/m(3). Refinishing varnished surfaces in older housing produces high but controllable lead exposures. PMID:22494405

  10. Lead dietary exposure in the European population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    European Food Safety Authority

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Lead is a natural environmental contaminant, but its use in the past in water pipes, paint and petrol increased its general presence. Food is the major source of human exposure to lead. Lead accumulates in the body and most seriously affects the developing central nervous system in young children. There is no recommended tolerable intake level as there is no evidence of thresholds for a number of critical health effects. Legislative measures have been gradually introduced to reduce exposure by removing lead from paint, food cans, water pipes and petrol. The current study examined 144,206 analytical results for lead in food collected during a nine-year period. More than half of the foods tested had levels of lead at less than detection or quantification limits. The mean lead levels varied between 0.3 µg/kg for infant follow-on formulae to 4,300 µg/kg for dietetic products with an overall median across all categories of 21.4 µg/kg. Food lead levels decreased by about 23 % between 2003 and 2010, although this should be interpreted cautiously. Mean lifetime dietary exposure was estimated at 0.68 µg/kg b.w. per day in the European population based on middle bound mean lead occurrence. Exposure was highest for toddlers and other children with 1.32 and 1.03 µg/kg b.w. per day, respectively, while the two infant surveys ranged between 0.83 and 0.91 µg/kg b.w. per day. Adult exposure was estimated at 0.50 µg/kg b.w. per day. The elderly and very elderly population groups had similar profiles to the adult age group, while adolescents had slightly higher estimated dietary exposure. Important food category contributors include bread and rolls (8.5 %, tea (6.2 %, tap water (6.1 %, potatoes and potato products (4.9 %, fermented milk products (4.2% and beer and beer-like beverages (4.1 %, although this will vary between age groups and surveys.

  11. Reducing Early Childhood Tooth Decay: Leading Steps for State Policymakers

    OpenAIRE

    Leslie Foster; Meg Booth; Colin Reusch

    2015-01-01

    Young children who are enrolled in Medicaid or the Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP) can be at risk for developing early childhood caries (ECC). ECC is a chronic bacterial infection that causes severe tooth decay and can begin to develop before baby teeth erupt. Children with ECC may experience pain, difficulty eating, developmental complications, and loss of days in day care or preschool. ECC is expensive to treat and untreated ECC can lead to other serious infections.

  12. Peripheral blood signatures of lead exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather G LaBreche

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Current evidence indicates that even low-level lead (Pb exposure can have detrimental effects, especially in children. We tested the hypothesis that Pb exposure alters gene expression patterns in peripheral blood cells and that these changes reflect dose-specific alterations in the activity of particular pathways. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Using Affymetrix Mouse Genome 430 2.0 arrays, we examined gene expression changes in the peripheral blood of female Balb/c mice following exposure to per os lead acetate trihydrate or plain drinking water for two weeks and after a two-week recovery period. Data sets were RMA-normalized and dose-specific signatures were generated using established methods of supervised classification and binary regression. Pathway activity was analyzed using the ScoreSignatures module from GenePattern. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The low-level Pb signature was 93% sensitive and 100% specific in classifying samples a leave-one-out crossvalidation. The high-level Pb signature demonstrated 100% sensitivity and specificity in the leave-one-out crossvalidation. These two signatures exhibited dose-specificity in their ability to predict Pb exposure and had little overlap in terms of constituent genes. The signatures also seemed to reflect current levels of Pb exposure rather than past exposure. Finally, the two doses showed differential activation of cellular pathways. Low-level Pb exposure increased activity of the interferon-gamma pathway, whereas high-level Pb exposure increased activity of the E2F1 pathway.

  13. Emerging aspects of assessing lead poisoning in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AL Jones

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This review covers the epidemiology of lead poisoning in children on a global scale. Newer sources of lead poisoning are identified. The methods that are used to assess a population of children exposed to lead are discussed, together with the ways of undertaking an exposure risk assessment; this includes assessing the time course and identifying sources of lead exposure. Human assessment measures for lead toxicity, such as blood lead concentrations, deciduous tooth lead, and use of zinc protoporphyrin estimations are evaluated. The role of isotopic fingerprinting techniques for identifying environmental sources of exposure is discussed. Among emerging data on the cognitive and behavioral effects of lead on children, the review considers the growing evidence of neurocognitive dysfunction with blood lead concentrations even below 10 |[mu]|g/dl. The challenge of assessing and explaining the risk that applies to an individual as opposed to a population is discussed. Intervention strategies to mitigate risk from lead are examined together with the limited role for and limitations of chelation therapy for lead. Lessons learned from managing a population lead-dust exposure event in Esperance, Western Australia in 2007 are discussed throughout the review.

  14. Environmental lead exposure increases micronuclei in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapka, Lucyna; Baumgartner, Adolf; Siwińska, Ewa;

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to investigate the contribution of environmental exposures to lead in the development of cytogenetic damage detected as the frequency of micronuclei (MN) in children. The other aim was to apply the MN assay in combination with fluorescence in situ hybridization...... (FISH) using a pan-centromeric chromosome probe to elucidate the formation mechanism of induced MN. The examined population was composed of 9-year-old children (n = 92), living in the region where non-ferrous ores are extracted and processed. The non-exposed group consisted of 49 children of the same...... age from an unexposed recreational area. Exposure to lead was assessed by determination of lead concentrations in blood (PbB) by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, whereas the level of selenium (Se) in serum was detected by using graphite furnace atomic-absorption spectrometry. The frequency of MN...

  15. Residential exposures to pesticides and childhood leukaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Metayer, Catherine; Buffler, Patricia A.

    2008-01-01

    Like many chemicals, carcinogenicity of pesticides is poorly characterised in humans, especially in children, so that the present knowledge about childhood leukaemia risk derives primarily from epidemiological studies. Overall, case–control studies published in the last decade have reported positive associations with home use of insecticides, mostly before the child's birth, while findings for herbicides are mixed. Previous studies relied solely on self-reports, therefore lacking information ...

  16. 76 FR 78263 - Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention (ACCLPP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... Poisoning Prevention (ACCLPP) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub... childhood lead poisoning prevention efforts. The committee also reviews and reports regularly on childhood lead poisoning prevention practices and recommends improvements in national childhood lead...

  17. 78 FR 40743 - Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention (ACCLPP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    ... Poisoning Prevention (ACCLPP) In accordance with section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (Pub... childhood lead poisoning prevention efforts. The committee also reviews and reports regularly on childhood lead poisoning prevention practices and recommends improvements in national childhood lead...

  18. The UK Childhood Cancer Study: Maternal occupational exposures and childhood leukaemia and lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Risks of childhood leukaemia and lymphoma were investigated for specific work-related exposures of mothers in the UK Childhood Cancer Study. Interviews with parents of 1881 leukaemia and lymphoma cases (0-14 years) and 3742 controls collected job histories recording exposure to eight specific agents. Exposure was (1) self-reported and (2) reviewed, based mainly on exposure probability and exposure level. Completeness, consistency and sufficiency evaluated data quality. Of all job exposures which were self-reported as exposed, 33% cases and 34% controls remained classified as exposed after review, with the remainder designated as partially exposed or unexposed. No review of underreporting of exposure was made. Data quality was 'good' for 26% of cases and 24% of controls. For self-reported exposure, significant risks of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) were observed for solvents and petrol in all time windows. For reviewed exposure, solvents remained significant for ALL during pregnancy and post-natality. Restricting analyses to good-quality information removed all significant results. Refinement of exposure assessment revealed misclassification of self-reported exposures and data quality influenced risk assessment. Maternal exposure to solvents should further be investigated. These findings must invoke caution in the interpretation of risks reliant on self-reported occupational data. (authors)

  19. Periconceptional and Gestational Exposure to Antibiotics and Childhood Asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuyuan Chu

    Full Text Available Previous studies suggest that maternal antibiotics exposure during pregnancy may increase the risk of childhood asthma, but the results were inconsistent. Furthermore, most studies did not examine periconception period as an exposure window. We aim to assess the associations between maternal exposure to specific antibiotics before and during pregnancy and the risk of asthma in early childhood.Data from the Collaborative Perinatal Project were used. Maternal exposure to antibiotics before and during pregnancy was recorded at each prenatal visit. A total of 39,907 singleton children were followed up to 7 years of age. Multilevel multiple logistic regression models were used to control for potential confounders and account for multiple pregnancies per woman.Maternal use of penicillin or chloramphenicol was associated with an increased risk of asthma in the offspring (adjusted odds ratio = 1.21, 95% confidence interval 1.08-1.36 for penicillin; 1.72 [1.14-2.59] for chloramphenicol. The risk was significantly increased if penicillin or chloramphenicol was used in the 1st trimester (1.09 [1.04-1.13] for penicillin and 1.23 [1.01-1.51] for chloramphenicol.Maternal exposure to certain antibiotics is associated with childhood asthma by 7 years of age. Early pregnancy may be a sensitive window.

  20. Home pesticide exposures and risk of childhood leukemia: Findings from the childhood leukemia international consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Helen D; Infante-Rivard, Claire; Metayer, Catherine; Clavel, Jacqueline; Lightfoot, Tracy; Kaatsch, Peter; Roman, Eve; Magnani, Corrado; Spector, Logan G; Th Petridou, Eleni; Milne, Elizabeth; Dockerty, John D; Miligi, Lucia; Armstrong, Bruce K; Rudant, Jérémie; Fritschi, Lin; Simpson, Jill; Zhang, Luoping; Rondelli, Roberto; Baka, Margarita; Orsi, Laurent; Moschovi, Maria; Kang, Alice Y; Schüz, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    Some previous studies have suggested that home pesticide exposure before birth and during a child's early years may increase the risk of childhood leukemia. To further investigate this, we pooled individual level data from 12 case-control studies in the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium. Exposure data were harmonized into compatible formats. Pooled analyses were undertaken using multivariable unconditional logistic regression. The odds ratio (ORs) for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) associated with any pesticide exposure shortly before conception, during pregnancy and after birth were 1.39 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.25, 1.55) (using 2,785 cases and 3,635 controls), 1.43 (95% CI: 1.32, 1.54) (5,055 cases and 7,370 controls) and 1.36 (95% CI: 1.23, 1.51) (4,162 cases and 5,179 controls), respectively. Corresponding ORs for risk of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) were 1.49 (95% CI: 1.02, 2.16) (173 cases and 1,789 controls), 1.55 (95% CI: 1.21, 1.99) (344 cases and 4,666 controls) and 1.08 (95% CI: 0.76, 1.53) (198 cases and 2,655 controls), respectively. There was little difference by type of pesticide used. The relative similarity in ORs between leukemia types, time periods and pesticide types may be explained by similar exposure patterns and effects across the time periods in ALL and AML, participants' exposure to multiple pesticides, or recall bias. Although some recall bias is likely, until a better study design can be found to investigate the associations between home pesticide use and childhood leukemia in an equally large sample, it would appear prudent to limit the use of home pesticides before and during pregnancy, and during childhood.

  1. Persistent exposure to poverty during childhood limits later leader emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barling, Julian; Weatherhead, Julie G

    2016-09-01

    Increasing attention is being paid to the question of why some people emerge as leaders, and we investigated the effects of persistent exposure to poverty during childhood on later leadership role occupancy. We hypothesized that exposure to poverty would limit later leadership role occupancy through the indirect effects of the quality of schooling and personal mastery, and that gender would moderate the effects of exposure to poverty and personal mastery. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Youth provided multiwave and multisource data for a sample of 4,536 (1,533 leaders; 3,003 nonleaders). Both school quality and personal mastery mediated the effects of family poverty status on later leadership role occupancy. Although gender did not moderate the effects of poverty on leadership role occupancy, the indirect effects of early exposure to poverty on leadership role occupancy through personal mastery were moderated by gender. Conceptual and practical implications of these findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27599090

  2. Persistent exposure to poverty during childhood limits later leader emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barling, Julian; Weatherhead, Julie G

    2016-09-01

    Increasing attention is being paid to the question of why some people emerge as leaders, and we investigated the effects of persistent exposure to poverty during childhood on later leadership role occupancy. We hypothesized that exposure to poverty would limit later leadership role occupancy through the indirect effects of the quality of schooling and personal mastery, and that gender would moderate the effects of exposure to poverty and personal mastery. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Youth provided multiwave and multisource data for a sample of 4,536 (1,533 leaders; 3,003 nonleaders). Both school quality and personal mastery mediated the effects of family poverty status on later leadership role occupancy. Although gender did not moderate the effects of poverty on leadership role occupancy, the indirect effects of early exposure to poverty on leadership role occupancy through personal mastery were moderated by gender. Conceptual and practical implications of these findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. Childhood lead poisoning in 2 families associated with spices used in food preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf, Alan D; Woolf, Nicholas T

    2005-08-01

    Although most cases of childhood lead poisoning are caused by contaminated paint and dust in older homes, a variety of unusual sources of lead exposure are occasionally found. We report here 2 families whose children were poisoned by lead-contaminated spices that were purchased in foreign countries, brought to the United States, and then used in the preparation of the family's food. Six children (2-17 years old) in a family from the Republic of Georgia were poisoned by swanuri marili (lead content: 100 and 2040 mg/kg in separately sampled products) and kharchos suneli (zafron) lead content: 23,100 mg/kg) purchased from a street vendor in Tbilisi, Georgia. The second family had purchased a mixture of spices called kozhambu (lead content: 310 mg/kg) while traveling in India. Both the parents and their 2-year-old child subsequently suffered lead poisoning. The young children in both families required short-term chelation to bring their blood lead levels down to a safer range. Clinicians should be vigilant for all sources of lead contamination, including spices, when whole families are found to have elevated blood lead levels despite a confirmed lead-safe home environment. Families traveling abroad should be aware of the potential health risks associated with the purchase and use of spices that have not been tested for purity. PMID:16061585

  4. Childhood trauma exposure and toxic stress: what the PNP needs to know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornor, Gail

    2015-01-01

    Trauma exposure in childhood is a major public health problem that can result in lifelong mental and physical health consequences. Pediatric nurse practitioners must improve their skills in the identification of trauma exposure in children and their interventions with these children. This continuing education article will describe childhood trauma exposure (adverse childhood experiences) and toxic stress and their effects on the developing brain and body. Adverse childhood experiences include a unique set of trauma exposures. The adverse childhood experiences or trauma discussed in this continuing education offering will include childhood exposure to emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional neglect, physical neglect, domestic violence, household substance abuse, household mental illness, parental separation or divorce, and a criminal household member. Thorough and efficient methods of screening for trauma exposure will be discussed. Appropriate intervention after identification of trauma exposure will be explored. PMID:25697767

  5. The influence of resource strategy on childhood phthalate exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Jihyun; Pedersen, Anders Branth; Thomsen, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    and paper at European level, including the flow of phthalates, i.e. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), and Benzyl-butyl phthalate (BBP), has been performed. The result for the year 2012 shows that 26% of plastic wastes and 60% of paper consumed in Europe were recycled....... This corresponds to the recycling of 6.3% of DEHP, 20.3% of DBP, and 5.1% of BBP in the percentage of total manufactured amount of these phthalates. To examine the potential influence of the phthalate exposure through recycling, a case study assessing the childhood exposures to phthalates from foods packed.......767 µg/kg bw/day for Denmark and Korea, respectively. Still, of the total childhood phthalate exposure, 58.5% of DBP and 77.5% of BBP exposure in Denmark and 31.6% of DBP and 65.2% of BBP in Korea remains to be identified. Finally, a conceptual framework is proposed for a circular economy based...

  6. Childhood lead poisoning from the smelter in Torreon, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto-Jimenez, Martin F., E-mail: martin@ola.icmyl.unam.mx [Unidad Academica Mazatlan, Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UAM-ICMyL-UNAM), Apdo. Postal 811, Mazatlan 82040, Sinaloa (Mexico); Flegal, Arthur R. [WIGS, Microbiology and Environmental Toxicology, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2011-05-15

    Lead concentrations and isotopic compositions in blood samples of 34 children (ages 2-17 years) living within a 113 km{sup 2} area of a silver-zinc-lead smelter plant in Torreon, Mexico were compared to those of associated environmental samples (soil, aerosols, and outdoor and indoor dust) to identify the principal source(s) of environmental and human lead contamination in the area. Lead concentrations of soil and outdoor dust ranged 130-12,050 and 150-14,365 {mu}g g{sup -1}, respectively. Concentrations were greatest near the smelter, with the highest levels corresponding with the prevailing wind direction, and orders of magnitude above background concentrations of 7.3-33.3 {mu}g g{sup -1}. Atmospheric lead depositions in the city varied between 130 and 1350 {mu}g m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, again with highest rates <1 km from the smelter. Blood lead (PbB) concentrations (11.0{+-}5.3 {mu}g dl{sup -1}) levels in the children ranged 5.0-25.8 {mu}g dl{sup -1}, which is 3-14 times higher than the current average (1.9 {mu}g dl{sup -1}) of children (ages 1-5 years) in the US. Lead isotopic ratios ({sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb, {sup 208}Pb/{sup 207}Pb) of the urban dust and soil (1.200{+-}0.009, 2.467{+-}0.003), aerosols (1.200{+-}0.002, 2.466{+-}0.002), and PbB (1.199{+-}0.001, 2.468{+-}0.002) were indistinguishable from each other, as well as those of the lead ores processed at the smelter (1.199{+-}0.007, 2.473{+-}0.007). Consequently, an elevated PbB concentrations of the children in Torreon, as well as in their environment, are still dominated by industrial emissions from the smelter located within the city, in spite of new controls on atmospheric releases from the facility. - Highlights: {yields} Pb contents in environmental samples evidenced chronic Pb pollution in Torreon. {yields} Pb stable isotopes evidenced contemporary emissions from the Ag-Cod-Pb-Zn smelter. {yields} Pb urban dust and soil account for most of the childhood lead poisoning in Torreon.{yields} Levels of

  7. Towards the prevention of lead exposure in South Africa: contemporary and emerging challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathee, Angela

    2014-12-01

    The prevention of lead exposure continues to constitute a major public health challenge in developed countries. In well-resourced countries major lead exposure reduction interventions have resulted in significant improvements in childhood blood lead distributions. In developing countries on the other hand, while lead exposure and poisoning remain serious public health concerns, a range of prevailing factors and circumstances, such as poverty, a large informal sector, competing public health challenges, low levels of awareness of lead hazards and weak capacity to enforce legislation, contribute to an increase in the scale and intensity of the challenge, and limit the prospects of comparable success in the foreseeable future. This paper collates available information to illustrate that despite some progress, a wide range of sources of lead exist in South Africa, and that certain settings and groups continue to be at high risk of lead exposure. Lead exposure in relation to paint, mining, lead melting in subsistence fishing communities, the consumption of Ayurvedic medicines and food production is described, and discussed with regard to the key factors hindering efforts to prevent lead poisoning and exposure in South Africa and many other developing countries. PMID:25086205

  8. Australia's leading public health body delays action on the revision of the public health goal for blood lead exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mark Patrick; Winder, Chris; Lanphear, Bruce P

    2014-09-01

    Globally, childhood blood lead levels have fallen precipitously in developed countries since the 1970s following action by international bodies such as the WHO and Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. These reductions have been affected by the activities of national agencies such as the US EPA and US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the establishment of air lead and blood lead standards, the introduction of legislation to remove lead from petrol, paint and consumer products and tighter restrictions on lead emissions. The outcome of recent major international reviews of research into the effects of low-level lead exposures (e.g. by WHO, USA health and environmental agencies, German and Canadian health bodies) has resulted in recommendations to reduce and eliminate lead exposures. By contrast, Australian policy responses to the incontrovertible evidence that adverse neurocognitive and behavioural effects that occur at levels well below the current national goal of 10μg/dL have stalled. The delayed response by Australia occurs at a time when blood lead levels in two of Australia's three primary lead mining and smelting cities: Port Pirie, South Australia and Broken Hill, New South Wales, are rising. In the third city, Mount Isa, Queensland, there is still no systematic, annual testing of childhood blood lead values. This is despite the fact that Mount Isa has the highest lead (and other toxic metals such as cadmium and arsenic) emissions to the environment (120tonnes of lead in 2011/12) from any single point source in Australia. It is clear that both state and national policy approaches to the ongoing risks of lead exposure need to be revised urgently and in line with contemporary international standards. Recommended changes should include a new lower blood lead intervention level of no more than 5μg/dL, with a national goal for all children under 5years of age to have a blood lead level of below 1μg/dL by 2020. In order to

  9. Infant Self-Regulation and Early Childhood Media Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, Michael; Zuckerman, Barry; Christakis, Dimitri A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Examine prospective associations between parent-reported early childhood self-regulation problems and media exposure (television and video viewing) at 2 years. We hypothesized that children with poor self-regulation would consume more media, possibly as a parent coping strategy. METHODS: We used data from 7450 children in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study–Birth Cohort. When children were 9 months and 2 years old, parents completed the Infant Toddler Symptom Checklist (ITSC), a validated scale of self-regulation. With daily media use at 2 years as our outcome, we conducted weighted multivariable regression analyses, controlling for child, maternal, and household characteristics. RESULTS: Children watched an average of 2.3 hours per day (SD 1.9) of media at age 2 years. Infants with poor self-regulation (9-month ITSC score ≥3) viewed 0.23 hour per day (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.12–0.35) more media at 2 years compared with those with 9-month ITSC score of 0 to 2; this remained significant in adjusted models (0.15 hour per day [95% CI 0.02–0.28]). Children rated as having persistent self-regulation problems (ITSC ≥3 at both 9 months and 2 years) were even more likely to consume media at age 2 (adjusted β 0.21 hour per day [95% CI 0.03–0.39]; adjusted odds ratio for >2 hours per day 1.40 [95% CI 1.14–1.71]). These associations were slightly stronger in low socioeconomic status and English-speaking households. CONCLUSIONS: Early childhood self-regulation problems are associated with mildly increased media exposure, even after controlling for important confounding variables. Understanding this relationship may provide insight into helping parents reduce their children’s screen time. PMID:24733868

  10. Lead exposure in Canada geese of the Eastern Prairie Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeStefano, S.; Brand, C.J.; Rusch, D.H.; Finley, Daniel L.; Gillespie, M.M.

    1991-01-01

    We monitored lead exposure in Eastern Prairie Population Canada geese during summer-winter, 1986-1987 and 1987-1988 at 5 areas. Blood lead concentrations in geese trapped during summer at Cape Churchill Manitoba were below levels indicative of recent lead exposure (0.18 ppm). Geese exposed to lead (≥0.18 ppm blood lead) increased to 7.6% at Oak Hammock Wildlife Management Area (WMA), southern Manitoba, where lead shot was still in use, and to 10.0% at Roseau River WMA, northern Minnesota, when fall-staging geese were close to a source of lead shot in Manitoba. Proportion of birds exposed to lead dropped to National Wildlife Refuge in Missouri, 4.9% of all geese showed exposure to lead before the hunting season. Lead exposure rose to 10.0% after hunting ended and then decreased to 5.2% in late winter. Incidence of lead shot in gizzards and concentrations of lead in livers supported blood assay data. Soil samples indicated that lead shot continues to be available to geese at Swan Lake, even though the area was established as a non-toxic shot zone in 1978. Steel shot zones have reduced lead exposure in the Eastern Prairie Population, but lead shot persists in the environment and continues to account for lead exposure and mortality in Eastern Prairie Population Canada geese.

  11. Tobacco Smoke Exposure during Childhood: Effect on Cochlear Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Lopes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The rate of smoking in Brazil is about 18.8%. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke is one of the major factors predisposing children to several hazardous health problems. The objective of the present research was to analyze the effect of tobacco smoke exposure during childhood on cochlear physiology by measuring the transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE response levels. Cotinine, the main metabolite of nicotine, was measured in 145 students’ (8–10 years old urine. Sixty students indicated tobacco smoke exposure (TSE (cotinine urine levels ≥ 5.0 ng/mL and 85 did not. The evaluation of TEOAE of TSE students showed lower response levels, mainly on frequencies of 2.8 kHz on the right and left ears and 2.0 kHz on left ear and lower signal noise response levels, mainly on the 1.0 kHz and 1.4 kHz frequencies, when compared to controls that were not exposed to tobacco. The mean reduction observed in TEOAE of tobacco smoke exposure children was 2.1 dB SPL. These results have important implications on the damage to the cochlear structures and indicate a possible loss in hearing and hearing ability development.

  12. Adverse health effects of lead exposure on children and exploration to internal lead indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our research on adverse effects of lead exposures on physical and neurobehavioral health of children aged 6-12 years in 4 villages, labeled as K, M, L, and X, in rural China, was reported in this article. Lead in blood (PbB), urine (PbU), hairs (PbH), and nails (PbN) were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Abbreviated Symptom Questionnaire of Conner's instruments and Revised Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices were applied to evaluate childhood attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) and intelligences. Geometric means (SD) of PbB, PbU, PbH and PbN concentrations were 71.2 μg/L (1.56), 11.7 μg/g (1.75), 12.5 μg/g (2.82), and 25.3 μg/g (2.79), respectively. 54 (17.0%) children had PbB levels of ≥ 100 μg/L. Boys, the 6-10 years old, and living in village K were 2.11, 2.48, and 9.16 times, respectively, more likely to be poisoned by lead than girls, aged 11-12 years, and residing in X. 18 (5.7%) and 37 (11.7%) subjects had ADHD and mental retardations, respectively. Inverse relationships between intelligences and natural log transformed PbU and PbH levels were observed with respective odds ratios (95%CI) of 1.79 (1.00-3.22) and 1.46 (1.06-2.03) or 1.28 (1.04-1.58) and 1.73 (1.18-2.52) by binary or ordinal logistic regression modeling. ADHD prevalence was different by gender and age of subjects. PbU, PbH, and PbN related to PbB positively with respective correlation coefficients of 0.530, 0.477, and 0.181. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of the three measurements reveled areas under curves (AUCs) being 0.829, 0.758, and 0.687, respectively. In conclusion, children had moderate levels of lead exposures in this rural area. Intelligence declines were associated with internal lead levels among children. ROC analysis suggests PbU an internal lead indicator close to PbB.

  13. Adverse health effects of lead exposure on children and exploration to internal lead indicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Q.; Zhao, H.H. [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030 (China); Chen, J.W.; Gu, K.D.; Zhang, Y.Z.; Zhu, Y.X.; Zhou, Y.K. [Minitry of Environmental Protection Key Lab of Environment, Wuhan 430030 (China); Ye, L.X., E-mail: yelx2004@163.com [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030 (China)

    2009-11-15

    Our research on adverse effects of lead exposures on physical and neurobehavioral health of children aged 6-12 years in 4 villages, labeled as K, M, L, and X, in rural China, was reported in this article. Lead in blood (PbB), urine (PbU), hairs (PbH), and nails (PbN) were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Abbreviated Symptom Questionnaire of Conner's instruments and Revised Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices were applied to evaluate childhood attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders (ADHD) and intelligences. Geometric means (SD) of PbB, PbU, PbH and PbN concentrations were 71.2 {mu}g/L (1.56), 11.7 {mu}g/g (1.75), 12.5 {mu}g/g (2.82), and 25.3 {mu}g/g (2.79), respectively. 54 (17.0%) children had PbB levels of {>=} 100 {mu}g/L. Boys, the 6-10 years old, and living in village K were 2.11, 2.48, and 9.16 times, respectively, more likely to be poisoned by lead than girls, aged 11-12 years, and residing in X. 18 (5.7%) and 37 (11.7%) subjects had ADHD and mental retardations, respectively. Inverse relationships between intelligences and natural log transformed PbU and PbH levels were observed with respective odds ratios (95%CI) of 1.79 (1.00-3.22) and 1.46 (1.06-2.03) or 1.28 (1.04-1.58) and 1.73 (1.18-2.52) by binary or ordinal logistic regression modeling. ADHD prevalence was different by gender and age of subjects. PbU, PbH, and PbN related to PbB positively with respective correlation coefficients of 0.530, 0.477, and 0.181. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of the three measurements reveled areas under curves (AUCs) being 0.829, 0.758, and 0.687, respectively. In conclusion, children had moderate levels of lead exposures in this rural area. Intelligence declines were associated with internal lead levels among children. ROC analysis suggests PbU an internal lead indicator close to PbB.

  14. Prenatal exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and childhood overweight at 7 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grzeskowiak, Luke E; Gilbert, Andrew L; Sørensen, Thorkild;

    2013-01-01

    To investigate a possible association between prenatal selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) exposure and childhood overweight at 7 years of age.......To investigate a possible association between prenatal selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) exposure and childhood overweight at 7 years of age....

  15. Animals as Sentinels for Human Lead Exposure: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Bischoff, Karyn; Priest, Heather; Mount-Long, Amy

    2010-01-01

    Because human and nonhuman animals often share the same environment, there is potential concurrent exposure to toxicants. As a result, domestic animals can be used as sentinels for exposure of people to these agents. Here we present a case illustrating exposure of both humans and domestic animals to lead contamination in their environments. This case study occurred at a farm where cattle deaths were determined to have been caused by lead poisoning based on elevated postmortem tissue lead conc...

  16. Prenatal exposure to antidepressants and risk of epilepsy in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mao, Yanyan; Pedersen, Lars Henning; Christensen, Jakob;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study aimed to estimate the association between prenatal exposure to antidepressants and risk of epilepsy in childhood, taking maternal depression into account. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cohort study including all Danish singletons born alive between 1997 and 2008 (n...... = 734 237). Information on antidepressant medication and diagnosis of depression and epilepsy was obtained from Danish National Registers. The exposed group comprised children of mothers who used antidepressants from 30 days before pregnancy until the date of birth. The reference group comprised...... children of mothers who used no antidepressants from 6 months before pregnancy to birth. We estimated the hazard ratios (HR) of epilepsy and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using Cox proportional hazard models. RESULTS: We identified 12 438 (1.7%) children exposed to antidepressants during pregnancy...

  17. Childhood cancer after low-level intrauterine exposure to radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakeford, Richard [BNFL, Risley, Warrington, Cheshire (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: R.Wakeford@bnfl.com; Little, Mark P. [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    2002-09-01

    Case-control studies of childhood cancer and foetal exposure to diagnostic x-rays suggest that doses as small as 10 mSv increase the risk of cancer to a detectable extent. A comparison of the risk coefficient derived from the largest such study with that obtained from the Japanese atomic bomb survivors irradiated in utero (average dose, {approx}300 mGy) shows that, once all sources of uncertainty are taken into account, these risk estimates are not incompatible. The absence of a discernible variation in the risk per unit dose over this dose range is consistent with a linear dose-response. However, uncertainties are such that definitive conclusions on the shape of the dose-response at low doses cannot be drawn from this epidemiological evidence alone. Nonetheless, the evidence does suggest that the risk is not zero at doses of the order of 10 mSv. (author)

  18. Effectiveness of employee training and motivation programs in reducing exposure to inorganic lead and lead alkyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maples, T W; Jacoby, J A; Johnson, D E; Ter Haar, G L; Buckingham, F M

    1982-09-01

    The Occupational Safety and Health Administration has advanced engineering controls over administrative controls and protective equipment to reduce exposures to chemicals in the workplace. The application of employee training and motivation programs (such as job safety analysis) to reduce exposures to chemicals has not been emphasized. To determine the effectiveness of such programs, a pilot project in an alkyl lead production facility was conducted with 35 employees in an effort to reduce exposures to organic and inorganic lead. Results after 12 months show a 40% reduction in lead-in-urine and a 24% reduction in lead-in-blood, both indicators of total exposure to organic inorganic lead.

  19. Lead exposure, IQ, and behavior in urban 5-7 year olds: Does lead affect behavior only by lowering IQ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Aimin; Cai, Bo; Dietrich, Kim N.; Radcliffe, Jerilynn; Rogan, Walter J.

    2007-01-01

    Background Lead exposure in childhood lowers IQ scores, but its effect on children's behavior is less clear. Since IQ per se affects behavior, measuring lead's direct effect requires measuring and then adjusting for IQ. In addition, either peak blood lead concentration, usually at age 2 years, or the lower blood lead measured at school age may be the most relevant. Few studies have all this information. Objective To differentiate the direct effect of lead on behavior and the indirect effect through IQ, and to examine the strength of the association for peak and concurrent blood lead concentration. Methods Data come from a clinical trial of the chelating drug succimer to prevent cognitive impairment in 780 urban 12-33 month olds with blood lead concentration of 20-44 μg/dL. The children were followed from ages 2 to 7 years. The trial data were analyzed as a prospective observational study. Results Blood lead concentration at age 2 years was not associated with Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised (CPRS-R) scores at age 5 years or Behavioral Assessment Systems for Children (BASC) scores at age 7 years. Blood lead at age 7 years had direct effects on the BASC Behavioral Symptoms Index, Externalizing, and School Problems at age 7. Conclusions Concurrent blood lead concentration was associated with Externalizing and School Problems scales at age 7 years, and the effect was not entirely mediated through lead's effect on IQ. PMID:17332184

  20. Health hazards by lead exposure: evaluation using ASV and XRF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, D'Souza Sunil; Geraldine, Menezes; Scott, Clark C; Venkatesh, Thuppil

    2006-07-01

    Globally, of many toxic heavy metals, lead is the most widely used for various purposes, resulting in a variety of health hazards due to environmental contamination. Lead in the workplace enters the workers through inhalation of lead-contaminated air, by ingestion, and sometimes through dermal exposure. Furthermore, exposure outside the workplace can occur from inhalation of lead-contaminated air, ingestion of lead-contaminated dust and soil, consumption of lead polluted water, lead adulterated food and lead supplemented medicine. In the present study, an evaluation of blood lead was carried out with the aid of a 3010 B lead analyser, based on the principle of anodic stripping voltametry (ASV), and environmental lead in paint, soil and dust samples by a field portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyser. This revealed a high incidence of lead toxicity in most of the lead-based industrial workers in the four facilities tested in India and high levels of lead in the environmental samples. Developed countries have complied with the global standards for regulating environmental lead poisoning in the workplace, eliminating to some degree excessive exposure to lead. A developing country, such as India, can tackle this problem by implementing national and international policies. The US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations, which are of prime importance, or similar regulations, can be adapted for use in India and implemented to minimize lead exposure and to reduce the resultant health hazards.

  1. Lead exposure among young urban women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moline Jacqueline M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Blood lead levels have declined among every age group in the United States, but urban minority residents remain at disproportionate risk for elevated lead levels. Our objective was to measure lead burden in young women of childbearing age in New York City. We also describe successful means of recruiting this population into a cohort study. Material and methods. Healthy women aged 18-25 attending a New York City health care center in 1995-1998 were eligible for participation. Participants were recruited by health care providers, the study coordinator and the participants themselves. Venous blood samples were obtained for whole blood lead, ferritin and hematocrit measurements, and detailed questionnaires were administered. Results. 239 women have been recruited to date. The population is predominately minority: 62% African-American, 33% Hispanic and 5% Caucasian/Asian. The average age of participants is 19.3 years. Recruitment of participants into the study is predominantly (55% through "word of mouth" from previously enrolled participants. Few participants learned of the study through their health care providers. The mean blood lead level among study participants is 2.1 ± 1.7 µg/dl, which is consistent with the most recent United States national survey. Conclusions. Blood lead levels are low in young, urban minority women of childbearing age in New York City. In this population, recruitment efforts were substantially enhanced with the help of enrolled participants and the health care community.

  2. Prenatal alcohol and other early childhood adverse exposures: Direct and indirect pathways to adolescent drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Marie D; De Genna, Natacha M; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Larkby, Cynthia; Day, Nancy L

    2016-01-01

    We examined direct and indirect pathways between adverse environmental exposures during gestation and childhood and drinking in mid-adolescence. Mothers and their offspring (n=917 mother/child dyads) were followed prospectively from second trimester to a 16-year follow-up assessment. Interim assessments occurred at delivery, 6, 10, and 14years. Adverse environmental factors included gestational exposures to alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana, exposures to childhood maltreatment and violence, maternal psychological symptoms, parenting practices, economic and home environments, and demographic characteristics of the mother and child. Indirect effects of early child behavioral characteristics including externalizing, internalizing activity, attention, and impulsivity were also examined. Polytomous logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate direct effects of adverse environmental exposures with level of adolescent drinking. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was applied to simultaneously estimate the relation between early adversity variables, childhood characteristics, and drinking level at age 16 while controlling for significant covariates. Level of drinking among the adolescent offspring was directly predicted by prenatal exposure to alcohol, less parental strictness, and exposures to maltreatment and violence during childhood. Whites and offspring with older mothers were more likely to drink at higher levels. There was a significant indirect effect between childhood exposure to violence and adolescent drinking via childhood externalizing behavior problems. All other hypothesized indirect pathways were not significant. Thus most of the early adversity measures directly predicted adolescent drinking and did not operate via childhood behavioral dysregulation characteristics. These results highlight the importance of adverse environmental exposures on pathways to adolescent drinking. PMID:26994529

  3. Prenatal alcohol and other early childhood adverse exposures: Direct and indirect pathways to adolescent drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Marie D.; De Genna, Natacha M.; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Larkby, Cynthia; Day, Nancy L.

    2016-01-01

    We examined direct and indirect pathways between adverse environmental exposures during gestation and childhood and drinking in mid-adolescence. Mothers and their offspring (n = 917 mother/child dyads) were followed prospectively from second trimester to a 16-year follow-up assessment. Interim assessments occurred at delivery, 6, 10, and 14 years. Adverse environmental factors included gestational exposures to alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana, exposures to childhood maltreatment and violence, maternal psychological symptoms, parenting practices, economic and home environments, and demographic characteristics of the mother and child. Indirect effects of early child behavioral characteristics including externalizing, internalizing activity, attention, and impulsivity were also examined. Polytomous logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate direct effects of adverse environmental exposures with level of adolescent drinking. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was applied to simultaneously estimate the relation between early adversity variables, childhood characteristics, and drinking level at age 16 while controlling for significant covariates. Level of drinking among the adolescent offspring was directly predicted by prenatal exposure to alcohol, less parental strictness, and exposures to maltreatment and violence during childhood. Whites and offspring with older mothers were more likely to drink at higher levels. There was a significant indirect effect between childhood exposure to violence and adolescent drinking via childhood externalizing behavior problems. All other hypothesized indirect pathways were not significant. Thus most of the early adversity measures directly predicted adolescent drinking and did not operate via childhood behavioral dysregulation characteristics. These results highlight the importance of adverse environmental exposures on pathways to adolescent drinking. PMID:26994529

  4. Lead exposure from battery recycling in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryanto, Budi

    2016-03-01

    In Indonesia, more than 200 illegal used lead acid battery (ULAB) smelters are currently operating. Only a few health studies support the finding of lead-related symptoms and diseases among populations living near the smelters. To assess the blood lead levels (BLLs) and potential health impacts among the population surrounding ULAB recycling smelters, we evaluated health effects reported from 2003 to 2013, conducted focus group discussions with lead smelter owner/workers and a group of 35 female partners of smelter owners or workers not actively engaged in smelter work, and retook and measured BLLs. It was found that many children in the areas were having difficulty achieving high grades at school and having stunting or other problems with physical development. The average mean of BLLs increased by almost double in 2015, compared with in 2011. The risk of having hypertension, interference in the ability to make red blood cells in females occurred among 24% of respondents; Elevated blood pressure, hearing loss, and interference in the ability to make red bloods cell occurred in 20% of males; Kidney damage, infertility in male, nerve problems, including decreased sensation and decreased ability to move quickly occurred in 13%; Decreased ability to make red blood cells (20%), and; Frank anemia, decreased life-span, coma/seizures were experienced by 22%. The populations living in areas surrounding ULAB smelters are experiencing severe chronic health problems. It is recommended that the smelters must be moved and placed far away from the municipality.

  5. Prenatal tobacco exposure and self-regulation in early childhood: Implications for developmental psychopathology

    OpenAIRE

    Wiebe, Sandra A.; Clark, Caron A. C.; De Jong, Désirée M; Chevalier, Nicolas; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Wakschlag, L. S.

    2015-01-01

    Prenatal tobacco exposure (PTE) has a well-documented association with disruptive behavior in childhood, but the neurocognitive effects of exposure that underlie this link are not sufficiently understood. The present study was designed to address this gap, through longitudinal follow-up in early childhood of a prospectively-enrolled cohort with well-characterized prenatal exposure. Three-year-old children (n = 151) were assessed using a developmentally sensitive battery capturing both cogniti...

  6. Neurotoxicity and Biomarkers of Lead Exposure:a Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kang-sheng Liu; Jia-hu Hao; Yu Zeng; Fan-chun Dai; Ping-qing Gu

    2013-01-01

    Appropriate selection and measurement of lead biomarkers of exposure are critically important for health care management purposes, public health decision making, and primary prevention synthesis. Lead is one of the neurotoxicants that seems to be involved in the etiology of psychologies. Biomarkers are generally classified into three groups:biomarkers of exposure, effect, and susceptibility.The main body compartments that store lead are the blood, soft tissues, and bone;the half-life of lead in these tissues is measured in weeks for blood, months for soft tissues, and years for bone. Within the brain, lead-induced damage in the prefrontal cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum can lead to a variety of neurological disorders, such as brain damage, mental retardation, behavioral problems, nerve damage, and possibly Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and schizophrenia. This paper presents an overview of biomarkers of lead exposure and discusses the neurotoxic effects of lead with regard to children and adults.

  7. Environmental Remediation to Address Childhood Lead Poisoning Epidemic due to Artisanal Gold Mining in Zamfara, Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirima, Simba; Bartrem, Casey; von Lindern, Ian; von Braun, Margrit; Lind, Douglas; Anka, Shehu Mohammed; Abdullahi, Aishat

    2016-01-01

    Background: From 2010 through 2013, integrated health and environmental responses addressed an unprecedented epidemic lead poisoning in Zamfara State, northern Nigeria. Artisanal gold mining caused widespread contamination resulting in the deaths of > 400 children. Socioeconomic, logistic, and security challenges required remediation and medical protocols within the context of local resources, labor practices, and cultural traditions. Objectives: Our aim was to implement emergency environmental remediation to abate exposures to 17,000 lead poisoned villagers, to facilitate chelation treatment of children ≤ 5 years old, and to establish local technical capacity and lead health advocacy programs to prevent future disasters. Methods: U.S. hazardous waste removal protocols were modified to accommodate local agricultural practices. Remediation was conducted over 4 years in three phases, progressing from an emergency response by international personnel to comprehensive cleanup funded and accomplished by the Nigerian government. Results: More than 27,000 m3 of contaminated soils and mining waste were removed from 820 residences and ore processing areas in eight villages, largely by hand labor, and disposed in constructed landfills. Excavated areas were capped with clean soils (≤ 25 mg/kg lead), decreasing soil lead concentrations by 89%, and 2,349 children received chelation treatment. Pre-chelation geometric mean blood lead levels for children ≤ 5 years old decreased from 149 μg/dL to 15 μg/dL over the 4-year remedial program. Conclusions: The unprecedented outbreak and response demonstrate that, given sufficient political will and modest investment, the world’s most challenging environmental health crises can be addressed by adapting proven response protocols to the capabilities of host countries. Citation: Tirima S, Bartrem C, von Lindern I, von Braun M, Lind D, Anka SM, Abdullahi A. 2016. Environmental remediation to address childhood lead poisoning epidemic

  8. Reconstructing the life-time lead exposure in children using dentine in deciduous teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data are presented to demonstrate that the circumpulpal dentine of deciduous teeth can be used to reconstruct a detailed record of childhood exposure to lead. By combining high spatial resolution laser ablation ICP-MS with dental histology, information was acquired on the concentration of lead in dentine from in utero to several years after birth, using a true time template of dentine growth. Time corrected lead analyses for pairs of deciduous molars confirmed that between-tooth variation for the same child was negligible and that meaningful exposure histories can be obtained from a single, multi-point ablation transect on longitudinal sections of individual teeth. For a laser beam of 100 μm diameter, the lead signal for each ablation point represented a time span of 42 days. Simultaneous analyses for Sr, Zn and Mg suggest that the incorporation of Pb into dentine (carbonated apatite) is most likely controlled by nanocrystal growth mechanisms. The study also highlights the importance of discriminating between primary and secondary dentine and the dangers of translating lead analyses into blood lead estimates without determining the age or duration of dentine sampled. Further work is in progress to validate deciduous teeth as blood lead biomarkers. - Highlights: ► Reconstruction of childhood exposure history to Pb using deciduous tooth dentine. ► Pb analyses acquired for dentine growth increments of 42 days. ► Highly correlated Pb concentration profiles for pairs of deciduous molars. ► Data for Sr, Zn and Mg provide a model for the incorporation of Pb into dentine.

  9. Reconstructing the life-time lead exposure in children using dentine in deciduous teeth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shepherd, Thomas J., E-mail: shepherdtj@aol.com [School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Dirks, Wendy [Centre for Oral Health Research, School of Dental Sciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4BW (United Kingdom); Manmee, Charuwan; Hodgson, Susan [Institute of Health and Society, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4AX (United Kingdom); Banks, David A. [School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom); Averley, Paul [Centre for Oral Health Research, School of Dental Sciences, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4BW (United Kingdom); Queensway Dental Practice, 170 Queensway, Billingham, Teesside TS23 2NT (United Kingdom); Pless-Mulloli, Tanja [Institute of Health and Society, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4AX (United Kingdom); Newcastle Institute for Research on Sustainability, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2012-05-15

    Data are presented to demonstrate that the circumpulpal dentine of deciduous teeth can be used to reconstruct a detailed record of childhood exposure to lead. By combining high spatial resolution laser ablation ICP-MS with dental histology, information was acquired on the concentration of lead in dentine from in utero to several years after birth, using a true time template of dentine growth. Time corrected lead analyses for pairs of deciduous molars confirmed that between-tooth variation for the same child was negligible and that meaningful exposure histories can be obtained from a single, multi-point ablation transect on longitudinal sections of individual teeth. For a laser beam of 100 {mu}m diameter, the lead signal for each ablation point represented a time span of 42 days. Simultaneous analyses for Sr, Zn and Mg suggest that the incorporation of Pb into dentine (carbonated apatite) is most likely controlled by nanocrystal growth mechanisms. The study also highlights the importance of discriminating between primary and secondary dentine and the dangers of translating lead analyses into blood lead estimates without determining the age or duration of dentine sampled. Further work is in progress to validate deciduous teeth as blood lead biomarkers. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reconstruction of childhood exposure history to Pb using deciduous tooth dentine. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pb analyses acquired for dentine growth increments of 42 days. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Highly correlated Pb concentration profiles for pairs of deciduous molars. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Data for Sr, Zn and Mg provide a model for the incorporation of Pb into dentine.

  10. The identification of lead ammunition as a source of lead exposure in First Nations: The use of lead isotope ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of lead shotshell to hunt water birds has been associated with lead-contamination in game meat. However, evidence illustrating that lead shotshell is a source of lead exposure in subsistence hunting groups cannot be deemed definitive. This study seeks to determine whether lead shotshell constitutes a source of lead exposure using lead isotope ratios. We examined stable lead isotope ratios for lichens, lead shotshell and bullets, and blood from residents of Fort Albany and Kashechewan First Nations, and the City of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and regression analyses. ANOVA of isotope ratios for blood revealed significant differences with respect to location, but not sex. Hamilton differed from both Kashechewan and Fort Albany; however, the First Nations did not differ from each other. ANOVA of the isotope ratios for lead ammunition and lichens revealed no significant differences between lichen groups (north and south) and for the lead ammunition sources (pellets and bullets). A plot of 206Pb/204Pb and 206Pb/207Pb values illustrated that lichens and lead ammunition were distinct groupings and only the 95% confidence ellipse of the First Nations group overlapped that of lead ammunition. In addition, partial correlations between blood-lead levels (adjusted for age) and isotope ratios revealed significant (p 206Pb/204Pb and 206Pb/207Pb, and a significant negative correlation for 208Pb/206Pb, as predicted if leaded ammunition were the source of lead exposure. In conclusion, lead ammunition was identified as a source of lead exposure for First Nations people; however, the isotope ratios for lead shotshell pellets and bullets were indistinguishable. Thus, lead-contaminated meat from game harvested with lead bullets may also be contributing to the lead body burden

  11. The identification of lead ammunition as a source of lead exposure in First Nations: The use of lead isotope ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuji, Leonard J.S. [Department of Environment and Resource Studies, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada)], E-mail: ljtsuji@fes.uwaterloo.ca; Wainman, Bruce C. [Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8N 3Z5 (Canada); Martin, Ian D. [Department of Environment and Resource Studies, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Sutherland, Celine [Attawapiskat First Nation Health Services, Attawapiskat, Ontario, P0L 1A0 (Canada); Weber, Jean-Philippe; Dumas, Pierre [Centre de toxicologie, Institut national de sante publique du Quebec, Quebec City, Quebec, G1V 5B3 (Canada); Nieboer, Evert [Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8N 3Z5 (Canada); Institute of Community Medicine, University of Tromso, Tromso N-9037 (Norway)

    2008-04-15

    The use of lead shotshell to hunt water birds has been associated with lead-contamination in game meat. However, evidence illustrating that lead shotshell is a source of lead exposure in subsistence hunting groups cannot be deemed definitive. This study seeks to determine whether lead shotshell constitutes a source of lead exposure using lead isotope ratios. We examined stable lead isotope ratios for lichens, lead shotshell and bullets, and blood from residents of Fort Albany and Kashechewan First Nations, and the City of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and regression analyses. ANOVA of isotope ratios for blood revealed significant differences with respect to location, but not sex. Hamilton differed from both Kashechewan and Fort Albany; however, the First Nations did not differ from each other. ANOVA of the isotope ratios for lead ammunition and lichens revealed no significant differences between lichen groups (north and south) and for the lead ammunition sources (pellets and bullets). A plot of {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb and {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb values illustrated that lichens and lead ammunition were distinct groupings and only the 95% confidence ellipse of the First Nations group overlapped that of lead ammunition. In addition, partial correlations between blood-lead levels (adjusted for age) and isotope ratios revealed significant (p < 0.05) positive correlations for {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb and {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb, and a significant negative correlation for {sup 208}Pb/{sup 206}Pb, as predicted if leaded ammunition were the source of lead exposure. In conclusion, lead ammunition was identified as a source of lead exposure for First Nations people; however, the isotope ratios for lead shotshell pellets and bullets were indistinguishable. Thus, lead-contaminated meat from game harvested with lead bullets may also be contributing to the lead body burden.

  12. Prenatal Exposure to Organophosphate Pesticides and Reciprocal Social Behavior in Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Furlong, Melissa A.; Engel, Stephanie M.; Barr, Dana Boyd; Wolff, Mary S.

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to organophosphate pesticides (OPs) has been associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes in childhood, including low IQ, Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD), attention problems and ADHD. Many of these disorders involve impairments in social functioning. Thus, we investigated the relationship between biomarkers of prenatal OP exposure and impaired reciprocal social behavior in childhood, as measured by the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS). Using a multi-ethnic urb...

  13. Nighttime exposure to electromagnetic fields and childhood leukemia: an extended pooled analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schüz, Joachim; Svendsen, Anne Louise; Linet, Martha S;

    2007-01-01

    analysis of case-control studies on ELF EMF exposure and risk of childhood leukemia to examine nighttime residential exposures. Data from four countries (Canada, Germany, the United Kingdom, and the United States) were included in the analysis, comprising 1,842 children diagnosed with leukemia and 3...... that nighttime measures are more appropriate; hence, the observed association between ELF EMF and childhood leukemia still lacks a plausible explanation....

  14. Allergy and sensitization during childhood associated with prenatal and lactational exposure to marine pollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Poulsen, Lars K; Heilmann, Carsten;

    2010-01-01

    Breast-feeding may affect the risk of developing allergy during childhood and may also cause exposure to immunotoxicants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), which are of concern as marine pollutants in the Faroe Islands and the Arctic region.......Breast-feeding may affect the risk of developing allergy during childhood and may also cause exposure to immunotoxicants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), which are of concern as marine pollutants in the Faroe Islands and the Arctic region....

  15. The cultural parameters of lead poisoning: a medical anthropologist's view of intervention in environmental lead exposure.

    OpenAIRE

    Trotter, R T

    1990-01-01

    This article identifies four culturally shaped sources of lead exposure in human societies: modern and historic technological sources: food habits; culturally defined health beliefs; and beauty practices. Examples of these potential sources of lead poisoning are presented from current cultures. They include the use of lead-glazed cooking pottery in Mexican-American households; folk medical use of lead in Hispanic, Arabic, South Asian, Chinese, and Hmong communities; as well as the use of lead...

  16. 76 FR 65728 - Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention (ACCLPP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention (ACCLPP) Correction: This notice was published in the Federal Register on October 6... INFORMATION: Claudine Johnson, Program Operation Assistant or Tiffany Turner, Healthy Homes and Lead...

  17. Exposure to Hazardous Neighborhood Environments in Late Childhood and Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Furr-Holden, C. Debra M.; Milam, Adam J.; Young, Kevin C.; MacPherson, Laura; Lejuez, Carl W.

    2011-01-01

    This investigation examined the relationship between living in disordered neighborhoods during childhood and anxiety 1 year later. Objective measures of neighborhood environment and individual data from a study of mental health in suburban children were utilized. Linear regression models were used to assess relationships between neighborhood hazard and anxiety. Childhood neighborhood disorder was inversely associated with generalized anxiety (β = 0.037, p

  18. Childhood exposure to violence and lifelong health: Clinical intervention science and stress biology research join forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2013-01-01

    Many young people who are mistreated by an adult, victimized by bullies, criminally assaulted, or who witness domestic violence react to this violence exposure by developing behavioral, emotional, or learning problems. What is less well known is that adverse experiences like violence exposure can lead to hidden physical alterations inside a child’s body, alterations which may have adverse effects on life-long health. We discuss why this is important for the field of developmental psychopathology and for society, and we recommend that stress-biology research and intervention science join forces to tackle the problem. We examine the evidence base in relation to stress-sensitive measures for the body (inflammatory reactions, telomere erosion, epigenetic methylation, and gene expression) and brain (mental disorders, neuroimaging, and neuropsychological testing). We also review promising interventions for families, couples, and children that have been designed to reduce the effects of childhood violence exposure. We invite intervention scientists and stress-biology researchers to collaborate in adding stress-biology measures to randomized clinical trials of interventions intended to reduce effects of violence exposure and other traumas on young people. PMID:24342859

  19. Site-specific lead exposure from lead pellet ingestion in sentinel mallards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocke, T.E.; Brand, C.J.; Mensik, John G.

    1997-01-01

    We monitored lead poisoning from the ingestion of spent lead pellets in sentinel mallards (Anas platyhrynchos) at the Sacramento National Wildlife Refuge (SNWR), Willows, California for 4 years (1986-89) after the conversion to steel shot for waterfowl hunting on refuges in 1986. Sentinel mallards were held in 1.6-ha enclosures in 1 hunted (P8) and 2 non-hunted (T19 and TF) wetlands. We compared site-specific rates of lead exposure, as determined by periodic measurement of blood lead concentrations, and lead poisoning mortality between wetlands with different lead pellet densities, between seasons, and between male and female sentinels. In 1986, the estimated 2-week rate of lead exposure was significantly higher (P 2,000,000 pellets/ha), than in those with lower densities of lead pellets, T19 (18.1%; 173,200 pellets/ha) and TF (0.9%; 15,750 pellets/ha). The probability of mortality from lead poisoning was also significantly higher (P < 0.01) in sentinel mallards enclosed in P8 (0.25) than T19 (0) and TF (0) in 1986 and remained significantly higher (P < 0.001) during the 4-year study. Both lead exposure and the probability of lead poisoning mortality in P8 were significantly higher (P < 0.001) in the fall of 1986 (43.8%; 0.25), before hunting season, than in the spring of 1987 (21.6%; 0.04), after hunting season. We found no significant differences in the rates of lead exposure or lead poisoning mortality between male and female sentinel mallards. The results of this study demonstrate that in some locations, lead exposure and lead poisoning in waterfowl will continue to occur despite the conversion to steel shot for waterfowl hunting.

  20. Brainstem auditory evoked potentials in children with lead exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia de Freitas Alvarenga

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Earlier studies have demonstrated an auditory effect of lead exposure in children, but information on the effects of low chronic exposures needs to be further elucidated. Objective: To investigate the effect of low chronic exposures of the auditory system in children with a history of low blood lead levels, using an auditory electrophysiological test. Methods: Contemporary cross-sectional cohort. Study participants underwent tympanometry, pure tone and speech audiometry, transient evoked otoacoustic emissions, and brainstem auditory evoked potentials, with blood lead monitoring over a period of 35.5 months. The study included 130 children, with ages ranging from 18 months to 14 years, 5 months (mean age 6 years, 8 months ± 3 years, 2 months. Results: The mean time-integrated cumulative blood lead index was 12 µg/dL (SD ± 5.7, range:2.433. All participants had hearing thresholds equal to or below 20 dBHL and normal amplitudes of transient evoked otoacoustic emissions. No association was found between the absolute latencies of waves I, III, and V, the interpeak latencies I-III, III-V, and I-V, and the cumulative lead values. Conclusion: No evidence of toxic effects from chronic low lead exposures was observed on the auditory function of children living in a lead contaminated area.

  1. The identification of lead ammunition as a source of lead exposure in First Nations: the use of lead isotope ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Leonard J S; Wainman, Bruce C; Martin, Ian D; Sutherland, Celine; Weber, Jean-Philippe; Dumas, Pierre; Nieboer, Evert

    2008-04-15

    The use of lead shotshell to hunt water birds has been associated with lead-contamination in game meat. However, evidence illustrating that lead shotshell is a source of lead exposure in subsistence hunting groups cannot be deemed definitive. This study seeks to determine whether lead shotshell constitutes a source of lead exposure using lead isotope ratios. We examined stable lead isotope ratios for lichens, lead shotshell and bullets, and blood from residents of Fort Albany and Kashechewan First Nations, and the City of Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and regression analyses. ANOVA of isotope ratios for blood revealed significant differences with respect to location, but not sex. Hamilton differed from both Kashechewan and Fort Albany; however, the First Nations did not differ from each other. ANOVA of the isotope ratios for lead ammunition and lichens revealed no significant differences between lichen groups (north and south) and for the lead ammunition sources (pellets and bullets). A plot of (206)Pb/(204)Pb and (206)Pb/(207)Pb values illustrated that lichens and lead ammunition were distinct groupings and only the 95% confidence ellipse of the First Nations group overlapped that of lead ammunition. In addition, partial correlations between blood-lead levels (adjusted for age) and isotope ratios revealed significant (pshotshell pellets and bullets were indistinguishable. Thus, lead-contaminated meat from game harvested with lead bullets may also be contributing to the lead body burden.

  2. Lead uptake and lead loss in the fresh water field crab, Barytelphusa guerini, on exposure to organic and inorganic lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tulasi, S.J.; Yasmeen, R.; Reddy, C.P.; Rao, J.V.R.

    1987-07-01

    Lead is a heavy metal which is widely used in paint industry, pigments, dyes, electrical components and electronics, plastic chemicals and in various other things. Since some of the lead salts are soluble in water, lead presents a potential threat to aquatic organisms. Studies dealing with invertebrates include those on mortality, growth and lead uptake in Lymnaea palustris and bioaccumulation of heavy metals in oysters and mussels. Little information exists regarding the effect of lead on the fresh water crustaceans. Hence the present investigation has been undertaken to study the uptake and loss of lead on exposure to subtoxic levels or organic and inorganic lead.

  3. Lead exposure from backyard chicken eggs: a public health risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Adrienne C; Puschner, Birgit; Poppenga, Robert H

    2014-09-01

    Although the USA has made significant strides in reducing lead exposure, new and emerging sources are raising cause for public concern. Recent reports of finding lead in eggs from chickens raised in urban gardens has highlighted the need to consider the potential health risks of consuming eggs from backyard chickens. Following the detection of 0.33 μg/g lead in the edible portion of eggs submitted for lead analysis from a backyard chicken owner, further investigation was conducted to determine the source and extent of lead exposure in the flock. Several birds, almost two dozen eggs, and environmental samples were submitted to the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory for further testing. Lead was detected in the blood, liver, kidney, and bone at varying concentrations in all birds but was not detected in the muscle tissue. All egg shells contained detectable amounts of lead, while only a little over half of the edible portion of the eggs contained lead. The detected concentrations in the edible portion approached or exceeded the recommended threshold of lead consumption per day that should not be exceeded by young children if a child consumed one average-sized egg. Peeling paint from a wooded structure adjacent to the flock's coop was the likely lead source containing 3,700 μg/g lead. Thus, removal of the chickens from the source and periodic testing of eggs for lead were recommended. This case illustrates the need for consumers and health care workers to be aware of potential sources for lead exposure such as backyard chickens. PMID:24943230

  4. Lead exposure in the lead-acid storage battery manufacturing and PVC compounding industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, S F; Sam, C T; Embi, G B

    1998-09-01

    This study was conducted as part of the Human Exposure Assessment Location (HEAL) Project which comes under the United Nations Environment Programme/World Health Organisation (UNEP/WHO) Global environmental Monitoring System (GEMS). The objective of the study was to evaluate workers' exposure to lead in industries with the highest exposure. All subjects were interviewed about their occupational and smoking histories, the use of personal protective equipment and personal hygiene. The contribution of a dietary source of lead intake from specified foods known to contain lead locally and personal air sampling for lead were assessed. A total of 61 workers from two PVC compounding and 50 workers from two lead acid battery manufacturing plants were studied together with 111 matched controls. In the PVC compounding plants the mean lead-in-air level was 0.0357 mg/m3, with the highest levels occurring during the pouring and mixing operations. This was lower than the mean lead-in-air level of 0.0886 mg/m3 in the lead battery manufacturing plants where the highest exposure was in the loading of lead ingots into milling machines. Workers in lead battery manufacturing had significantly higher mean blood lead than the PVC workers (means, 32.51 and 23.91 mcg/100 ml respectively), but there was poor correlation with lead-in-air levels. Among the lead workers, the Malays had significantly higher blood lead levels than the Chinese (mean blood levels were 33.03 and 25.35 mcg/100 ml respectively) although there was no significant difference between the two ethnic groups in the control group. There were no significant differences between the exposed and control group in terms of dietary intake of specified local foods known to contain lead. However, Malays consumed significantly more fish than the Chinese did. There were no ethnic differences in the hours of overtime work, number of years of exposure, usage of gloves and respirators and smoking habits. Among the Malays, 94.3% eat with

  5. Effects of exposure to lead among lead-acid battery factory workers in Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad el Karim, M A; Hamed, A S; Elhaimi, Y A; Osman, Y; el Karim, M A

    1986-01-01

    Health effects of occupational exposure to lead were investigated among 92 exposed workers in lead-acid battery factory and 40 nonexposed workers serving as a control group from an oil mill in Khartoum North industrial area. The two groups were closely similar in age, stature, body weight, and socioeconomic conditions. A highly significant increase (P less than .01) was recorded in blood lead, urinary coproporphyrin, and basophilic stippled red blood cells of the exposed group in comparison to the control group. Central nervous system symptoms (insomnia, fatigue, weakness, and drowsiness) were reported by 50% and other symptoms such as abdominal colic and constipation were reported by 41% of the exposed group. Blue line on the gum was detected only on 2% of the exposed group. Strong associations between exposure to lead and the prevalence of central nervous system symptoms, abdominal colic, and constipation were recorded. Exposure to exceedingly high levels of lead in the working environment causes adverse health effects.

  6. Moderating the Effects of Childhood Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence: The Roles of Parenting Characteristics and Adolescent Peer Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Emiko A.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Moylan, Carrie A.; Derr, Amelia S.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate parenting characteristics and adolescent peer support as potential moderators of the effects of childhood exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) on adolescent outcomes. Lehigh Longitudinal Study (N = 416) data include parent and adolescent reports of childhood IPV exposure. Exposure to IPV predicted nearly all adverse outcomes…

  7. Assessment of soil lead exposure in children in Shenyang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, H M; Wang, J D; Zhang, X L

    2006-11-01

    Soil lead pollution is serious in Shenyang, China. The paper brings together the soil work, the bioaccessibility, and the blood lead data to assess the soil lead exposure in children in Shenyang, China. Approximately 15.25% of the samples were above China Environment Protection Agency guideline concentration for soil Pb to protect human from health risk (350 mgkg(-1)). Pb concentrations varied among use scenarios. The main lead contamination sources are industry emission and automobile exhaust. Bioaccessibility also varied among use scenarios. Children, who ingested soil from industrial area, public parks, kindergarten playground, and commercial area, are more susceptible to soil lead toxicity. The industrial area soil samples presented higher bioaccessibility compared to the other use scenario soil samples contaminated by automobile exhaust. The result also suggested a most significant linear relationship between the level of Pb contamination and the amount of Pb mobilized from soil into ingestion juice. Soil pH seemed to have insignificant influence on bioaccessibility in the present study. Bioaccessibility was mainly controlled by other factors that are not investigated in this study. A linear relationship between children blood lead and soil intestinal bioaccessibility was present in the study. Children who are 4-5 years old are more likely to demonstrate the significant relationship between soil lead bioaccessibility and blood lead as their behaviors place them at greatest risk of soil lead toxicity, and their blood lead levels are more likely to represent recent exposure.

  8. Neurobiology and Neurodevelopmental Impact of Childhood Traumatic Stress and Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Jim; Sloane, Mark; Black-Pond, Connie

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Research reveals that prenatal alcohol exposure and child trauma (i.e., abuse, neglect, sexual abuse) can have deleterious effects on child development across multiple domains. This study analyzed the impact on childhood neurodevelopment of prenatal alcohol exposure and postnatal traumatic experience compared to postnatal traumatic…

  9. Occupational Lead Exposure from Indoor Firing Ranges in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Suk-Ho; Lee, Se-Ho; Yoon, Hye-Sik; Moon, Jai-Dong

    2016-01-01

    Military personnel often use ammunitions that contain lead. The present study aimed to identify the risks for lead exposure and lead poisoning among workers at indoor firing ranges. A special health examination, including blood lead level (BLL) testing, was performed for all 120 workers at the indoor firing ranges of the Republic of Korea’s Air Force, Navy, and Armed Forces Athletic Corps. The overall mean BLL was 11.3 ± 9.4 µg/dL (range: 2.0–64.0 µg/dL). The arithmetic mean of the BLL for pr...

  10. Assessment of soil lead exposure in children in Shenyang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil lead pollution is serious in Shenyang, China. The paper brings together the soil work, the bioaccessibility, and the blood lead data to assess the soil lead exposure in children in Shenyang, China. Approximately 15.25% of the samples were above China Environment Protection Agency guideline concentration for soil Pb to protect human from health risk (350 mg kg-1). Pb concentrations varied among use scenarios. The main lead contamination sources are industry emission and automobile exhaust. Bioaccessibility also varied among use scenarios. Children, who ingested soil from industrial area, public parks, kindergarten playground, and commercial area, are more susceptible to soil lead toxicity. The industrial area soil samples presented higher bioaccessibility compared to the other use scenario soil samples contaminated by automobile exhaust. The result also suggested a most significant linear relationship between the level of Pb contamination and the amount of Pb mobilized from soil into ingestion juice. Soil pH seemed to have insignificant influence on bioaccessibility in the present study. Bioaccessibility was mainly controlled by other factors that are not investigated in this study. A linear relationship between children blood lead and soil intestinal bioaccessibility was present in the study. Children who are 4-5 years old are more likely to demonstrate the significant relationship between soil lead bioaccessibility and blood lead as their behaviors place them at greatest risk of soil lead toxicity, and their blood lead levels are more likely to represent recent exposure. - Children were exposed to soil lead and the exposure was assessed by bioaccessibility using in vitro digestion model in a modified version

  11. Assessment of soil lead exposure in children in Shenyang, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, H.M. [Northeast Institute of Geography and Agricultural Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.3195 Weishan Road, Changchun 130012, Jilin Province (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.19 Yuquan Road, Beijing 100039 (China); Wang, J.D. [Northeast Institute of Geography and Agricultural Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.3195 Weishan Road, Changchun 130012, Jilin Province (China)]. E-mail: wang-jinda@163.com; Zhang, X.L. [Northeast Institute of Geography and Agricultural Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, No.3195 Weishan Road, Changchun 130012, Jilin Province (China)

    2006-11-15

    Soil lead pollution is serious in Shenyang, China. The paper brings together the soil work, the bioaccessibility, and the blood lead data to assess the soil lead exposure in children in Shenyang, China. Approximately 15.25% of the samples were above China Environment Protection Agency guideline concentration for soil Pb to protect human from health risk (350 mg kg{sup -1}). Pb concentrations varied among use scenarios. The main lead contamination sources are industry emission and automobile exhaust. Bioaccessibility also varied among use scenarios. Children, who ingested soil from industrial area, public parks, kindergarten playground, and commercial area, are more susceptible to soil lead toxicity. The industrial area soil samples presented higher bioaccessibility compared to the other use scenario soil samples contaminated by automobile exhaust. The result also suggested a most significant linear relationship between the level of Pb contamination and the amount of Pb mobilized from soil into ingestion juice. Soil pH seemed to have insignificant influence on bioaccessibility in the present study. Bioaccessibility was mainly controlled by other factors that are not investigated in this study. A linear relationship between children blood lead and soil intestinal bioaccessibility was present in the study. Children who are 4-5 years old are more likely to demonstrate the significant relationship between soil lead bioaccessibility and blood lead as their behaviors place them at greatest risk of soil lead toxicity, and their blood lead levels are more likely to represent recent exposure. - Children were exposed to soil lead and the exposure was assessed by bioaccessibility using in vitro digestion model in a modified version.

  12. Lead exposure assessment from study near a lead-acid battery factory in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Laiguo; Xu, Zhencheng; Liu, Ming; Huang, Yumei; Fan, Ruifang; Su, Yanhua; Hu, Guocheng; Peng, Xiaowu; Peng, Xiaochun

    2012-07-01

    The production of lead-acid battery in China covered about one-third of the world total output and there are more than 2000 lead-acid battery factories. They may cause the major environment lead pollution. Blood lead levels of several hundreds of residents were over 100 μg/L due to the waste discharges from a lead-acid battery factory in Heyuan, Guangdong province. This study aimed to find out the environmental lead sources, the human lead exposure pathways, and the amplitudes from a lead-acid battery factory. The study results showed that lead levels in soil, dust, tree leaves and human blood declined with the distances increased from the production site. Twenty nine of 32 participants had blood lead levels of over 100 μg/L with an exceptional high value of 639 μg/L for one child. This result suggested that the lead-acid battery production from this factory has caused the elevated lead levels in its neighboring environment and residents. Dust intake was the dominant exposure pathway for humans (over 90%). The lead levels found in adult and toddler (6.19 and 50.1 μg/kg/d, respectively) in the polluted area were far higher than the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of 25 μg/kg body weight (translated into 3.5 μg/kg/d), which was established by the joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee. Blood lead levels within the family members were strongly correlated with the house dust lead levels. Our results in this study suggested that further studies in this area should be performed to assess human exposure and relevant human health risks from living close to lead-acid battery factories.

  13. Parental Exposure to Pesticides and Childhood Brain Cancer: U.S. Atlantic Coast Childhood Brain Cancer Study

    OpenAIRE

    Shim, Youn K.; Mlynarek, Steven P.; van Wijngaarden, Edwin

    2009-01-01

    Background The etiology of childhood brain cancer remains largely unknown. However, previous studies have yielded suggestive associations with parental pesticide use. Objectives We aimed to evaluate parental exposure to pesticides at home and on the job in relation to the occurrence of brain cancer in children. Methods We included 526 one-to-one–matched case–control pairs. Brain cancer cases were diagnosed at < 10 years of age, and were identified from statewide cancer registries of four U.S....

  14. Childhood lead poisoning in a Somali refugee resettlement community in New Hampshire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Rosemary M; Tshabangu-Soko, Thandi; Finefrock, Krysten

    2013-08-01

    Despite the gradual decrease in childhood lead poisoning in the United States, the risk for lead poisoning among African refugee children who resettle in the United States remains elevated. Communication methods implemented by resettlement agencies in the public health system for preventing childhood lead poisoning in this at-risk population warrant further investigation. We utilized structured interviews with key stakeholders (resettlement agencies, social service agencies developed by African refugees and resettled Somali refugees) involved in the refugee resettlement process to (1) describe the agency's role in the refugee resettlement process; (2) examine communication methods utilized and barriers experienced by the public health system in reference to childhood lead poisoning; (3) describe the refugee population's perception of childhood lead poisoning; (4) examine general challenges experienced by the public health system and the refugee population during the resettlement process; and (5) describe stakeholders' recommendations to improve health communication efforts. Based on our findings, we propose that communities are important determinants in health-related problems for refugee populations. Each community has its own environment and public health system that interacts with each other to influence health risks and risk perceptions of its populations. We advocate that understanding a community's ecology and implementing a culture-centered approach is essential for the public health system to help educate and prevent communication inequalities and health disparities among an at-risk African refugee population. This action can reduce a population's resistance to communication and help build a community's capacity to address a persistent public health problem, such as childhood lead poisoning.

  15. Critical windows of exposure to household pesticides and risk of childhood leukemia.

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Xiaomei; Buffler, Patricia A.; Gunier, Robert B.; Dahl, Gary; Smith, Martyn T.; Reinier, Kyndaron; Reynolds, Peggy

    2002-01-01

    The potential etiologic role of household pesticide exposures was examined in the Northern California Childhood Leukemia Study. A total of 162 patients (0-14 years old) with newly diagnosed leukemia were rapidly ascertained during 1995-1999, and 162 matched control subjects were randomly selected from the birth registry. The use of professional pest control services at any time from 1 year before birth to 3 years after was associated with a significantly increased risk of childhood leukemia [...

  16. Exposure to lead and specific attentional problems in schoolchildren.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minder, B.; Das-Smaal, E.A.; Brand, E.F.J.M.; Orlebeke, J.F.

    1994-01-01

    A pilot study was carried out to investigate the relationship between exposure to lead and attention in children. The participants were 43 boys, 8 to 12 years of age, attending special schools for children with educational and/or learning problems (so called LOM schools). Children with probable caus

  17. Exposure of migrant bald eagles to lead in prairie Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, M J; Wayland, M E; Bortolotti, G R

    2001-01-01

    The prevalence of elevated exposure to lead was assessed in a migrant population of bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) at a waterfowl staging area in the southern portion of the Canadian prairies, from September to November, 1992-1995. Of 103 eagles, 8% exhibited blood lead (PbB) concentrations suggestive of elevated exposure to lead (> or = 0.200 microgram ml-1 wet wt.). PbB concentrations in eagles from the study area ranged from or = 1.5-year-old birds) (P > 0.05). The prevalence of elevated exposure was significantly greater in November than in October (21.7 vs. 3.8%) (all years: chi 2Y = 5.75, P = 0.017). Eagles with shotshell pellets in the digestive tract did not have accompanying high PbB concentrations. The prevalence of elevated lead exposure in this study was low in comparison to other areas in North America. Potential biases in the trapping technique as they relate to interpreting the results are addressed.

  18. Effect of Early Life Exposure to Air Pollution on Development of Childhood Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, Nina Annika; Demers, Paul A.; Karr, Catherine J.; Koehoorn, Mieke; Lencar, Cornel; Tamburic, Lillian; Brauer, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Background There is increasing recognition of the importance of early environmental exposures in the development of childhood asthma. Outdoor air pollution is a recognized asthma trigger, but it is unclear whether exposure influences incident disease. We investigated the effect of exposure to ambient air pollution in utero and during the first year of life on risk of subsequent asthma diagnosis in a population-based nested case–control study. Methods We assessed all children born in southwest...

  19. Adverse Environmental Exposures During Gestation and Childhood: Predictors of Adolescent Drinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelius, Marie D; De Genna, Natacha; Goldschmidt, Lidush; Larkby, Cynthia; Day, Nancy

    2016-08-23

    Adverse conditions, including exposures to drugs and other environmental influences during early development, may affect behaviors later in life. This study examined the role of environmental influences from the gestation and childhood on adolescent drinking behavior. 917 mother/offspring dyads were followed prospectively from pregnancy to a 16-year follow-up assessment. Interim assessments occurred at delivery, 6, 10, and 14 years. Prenatal exposures to alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana were measured during gestation. Data were collected at each phase on childhood environment, including parenting practices, quality of the home environment, maternal depression and hostility, and lifetime exposure to child maltreatment and community violence. Alcohol outcomes were offspring age of drinking initiation and level of drinking at age 16 years. Cox Proportional Hazards ratios were used to model offspring age of drinking initiation. Logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate significant predictors of drinking level. Childhood environment, including less parental strictness, greater exposure to violence and childhood maltreatment, significantly predicted earlier age of alcohol initiation. Level of drinking among the adolescent offspring was significantly predicted by prenatal exposure to alcohol, less parental strictness, and exposures to maltreatment and violence during childhood. Whites and offspring with older mothers were more likely to initiate alcohol use early and drink at higher levels. Early and heavier alcohol use was associated with early exposures to adversity such as prenatal alcohol exposure, and child exposures to maltreatment and violence. These results highlight the importance of environmental adversity and less effective parenting practices on the development of adolescent drinking behavior. PMID:27220026

  20. Paternal occupational lead exposure and offspring risks for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallmén, Markku; Suvisaari, Jaana; Lindbohm, Marja-Liisa; Malaspina, Dolores; Opler, Mark G

    2016-10-01

    This register-based cohort study investigated whether paternal occupational exposure to inorganic lead was related to offspring risk for schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD). Exposed men (n=11,863) were identified from blood lead measurements taken at the Finnish Institute of Occupational Health in 1973-1983. Data on mothers and their offspring born from 1972-1984 were obtained from the national Population Information System. Two population comparison offspring for each exposed offspring were matched on date of birth, sex and area (n=23,720). SSD cases were identified from The Finnish Hospital Discharge Register. Hazard ratios of SSD between exposed groups were analyzed using conditional proportional hazards regression, adjusted for parental history of psychoses, parental ages, language of offspring, father's employment, and father's self-employment. After 26-38years of follow up, there were no significant differences in the incidence of schizophrenia, either between the offspring of exposed (188/11,863; 1.6%) and unexposed fathers (347/23,720; 1.5%) or based on blood lead levels (adjusted hazard ratios (aHR): 0.97, CI 0.52-1.83, 1.25, CI 0.85-1.82, 0.90, CI 0.54-1.49, and 1.38, CI 0.65-2.92 for lead categories <0.5, 0.5-0.9, 1.0-1.4, and ≥1.5μmol/L, respectively, as compared to population comparison). Parental psychosis, paternal age and offspring language were associated with offspring risk. The findings suggest that paternal exposure to lead is not a risk factor for schizophrenia in offspring. However, the majority of exposed fathers had low-level exposure, and we cannot exclude the possibility of an effect for higher exposures to lead. PMID:27318522

  1. Environmental lead exposure among preschool children in Shanghai, China: blood lead levels and risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Cao

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine blood lead levels and to identify related risk factors among children in Shanghai; to explore the lead change trend of children after industrial transformation and to provide data for policy development to control environmental lead pollution in Shanghai. METHODS: A stratified-clustered-random sampling method was used. A tungsten atomizer absorption spectrophotometer was employed to determine blood lead levels. RESULTS: The arithmetic mean, geometric mean and median of blood lead levels of 0- to 6-year-old children from Shanghai were 22.49 µg/L, 19.65 µg/L and 19.5 µg/L, including 0.26% (6/2291 with concentrations ≥100 µg/L and 2.7% (61/2291 with concentrations ≥50 µg/L. Boys' levels (23.57 µg/L were greater than those of girls (21.2 µg/L. The blood lead levels increased with age. This survey showed that the Chongming district was the highest and Yangpu district was the lowest, this result is completely opposite with the earlier survey in Shanghai. Risk factors for lead contamination included housing environment, parents' education levels, social status, hobbies, and children's nutritional status. CONCLUSIONS: The blood lead levels of children in Shanghai were lower than the earlier data of Shanghai and those of published studies in China, but higher than the blood lead levels of developed countries. The blood lead levels of urban districts are higher than the central districts with the industrial transformation. Society and the government should take an active interest in childhood lead poisoning of urban areas.

  2. Preventing Childhood Trauma Resulting from Exposure to Domestic Violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Dave

    1999-01-01

    This review of the literature on the prevention of childhood trauma resulting from domestic violence lists usually short-term effects of domestic violence on children and discusses the possibility of post traumatic stress disorder and prevention of adjustment problems through immediate intervention. Suggestions for intervention with children who…

  3. Environmental Exposure to Lead as a Risk for Prostate Cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the possible role of environmental exposure to lead as a risk factor for prostate pathology in patients suffering from prostate cancer (PCA) and benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). Methods Blood lead (BPb) level was determined in PCA and BPH cases using a graphite furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer and compared with those in a control group living in the similar socioeconomic environment. Results BPb was significantly higher in PCA and BPH cases than in normals (P<0.05). Blood levels of zinc and copper were significantly lower in PCA and BPH cases when compared with controls (P<0.05). In all the three groups, a statistically significant positive correlation between lead and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) measured as malondialdehyde, and negative correlation between blood lead and antioxidant GSH level, indicative of possible generation of reactive oxygen species, were also observed after adjusting for age as a possible confounders. However, positive association between blood lead and TBARS was relatively higher in PCA patients (r=0.77, P<0.05) than in BPH (r=0.32, P<0.05) and normal (r=0.30, P<0.05).Conclusion These results with limited power seem to suggest for the first time that environmental exposure of aging males to lead may be a risk factor for prostate cancer and/or benign prostate hyperplasia possibly through generation of reactive oxygen species and/or reducing the level of zinc which acts as a cellular growth protector.

  4. Influence of the degree of exposure to lead on relations between alcohol consumption and the biological indices of lead exposure: epidemiological study in a lead acid battery factory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cezard, C; Demarquilly, C; Boniface, M; Haguenoer, J M

    1992-09-01

    Alcohol has been shown to interact with lead to influence haem biosynthesis. The aim of this study was to define the dependence of this interaction on the degree of exposure to lead. Exposure to alcohol was estimated by measurement of alcohol concentrations in a sample of urine collected during the morning (AlcUM) (0.82 (SD 4.36) mmol/l) and in a sample collected during the afternoon (AlcUA) (1.15 (SD 3.49) mmol/l). The biological monitoring of exposure to lead included measurements of blood lead (Pb-B) (1.82 (SD 0.72) mumol/l), urinary delta-aminolaevulinic acid (ALAU) (35.33 (SD 28.00) mumol/l; d = 1.015), and erythrocyte zinc-protoporphyrin (ZPP) (112.90 (SD 83.71) nmol/mmol Hb) concentrations. The study of the influence of the degree of occupational exposure to lead on relations between alcohol consumption and effects of the exposure to lead led to the consideration of two different groups--namely, mildly and strongly exposed subjects. In the first group, individual biological susceptibility seemed to play a preponderant part. In the second, the pool of lead present in the body seemed to be sufficiently important to mask the effects of individual susceptibility.

  5. Non-occupational lead exposure and hypertension in Pakistani adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAHMAN Sohaila; KHALID Nasir; ZAIDI Jamshed Hussain; AHMAD Shujaat; IQBAL Mohammad Zafar

    2006-01-01

    Hypertension is one of the most prevalent diseases in the developed and developing countries. Based on the long historical association and the provocative findings of blood pressure effects at low level of lead exposure a study was carried out to determine if an association existed between low blood lead concentration and hypertension. In this study the effects of low-level exposure to lead on blood pressure were examined among 244 adults using atomic absorption spectrometer. For quality assurance purpose certified reference materials i.e., Animal blood A-13, Bovine liver 1577 and cotton cellulose V-9 from IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) and NIST (National Institute of Standard Technology) were analyzed under identical experimental conditions. The mean age of hypertensive adults was 52 years (range 43~66). The mean values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure were (209±11.7) (range 170~250) and (117±3.9) (range 105~140) mmHg respectively. Blood lead concentration ranged from 78~201μg/L with a mean of 139 μg/L and 165~497μg/L with a mean of 255 μg/L in normal and hypertensive adults respectively. Increase in systolic blood pressure was significantly predictive with increase in blood lead levels. Body mass index (BMI) and lipid profile including total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride correlated with blood pressure.

  6. Lead exposure from tourist earthenware: a pilot survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seldén, Anders I; Bergström, Bernt E O; Gunnarsson, Lars-Gunnar

    2008-10-01

    Lead from glazed earthenware used for food storage is a well-known health hazard sporadically causing lead intoxication and may be a source of disseminating lead exposure in specific population groups. To obtain a contemporary scope of the problem a pilot survey was conducted in a random sample of 2000 households with Swedish charter tourists to Greece in 2003. Response was obtained from 214 (10.7%). From these households blood samples were obtained from 33 potentially lead exposed subjects and 33 controls (participation rate among selected participants of each category was 66% and 33%, respectively). No statistically significant difference in mean blood lead was found between groups (arithmetic mean 0.13 and 0.10micromol/l for exposed and controls, respectively; p>0.05), but increased lead levels for two exposed subjects (1.0 and 0.77micromol/l) were associated with their Hellenic earthenware (tea mugs). This pilot survey, probably the first epidemiological study of the current problem, did not indicate that earthenware purchased in Greece by Swedish tourists and used for food storage is a widespread source of lead, but limitations with regard to statistical power preclude definite conclusions.

  7. Gestational Medication Use, Birth Conditions, and Early Postnatal Exposures for Childhood Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang-Ching Chen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim is to explore (1 whether gestational medication use, mode of delivery, and early postnatal exposure correlate with childhood asthma, (2 the dose responsiveness of such exposure, and (3 their links to early- and late-onset asthma. We conducted a matched case-control study based on the Taiwan Children Health Study, which was a nationwide survey that recruited 12-to-14-year-old school children in 14 communities. 579 mothers of the participants were interviewed by telephone. Exclusive breastfeeding protected children from asthma. Notably, childhood asthma was significantly associated with maternal medication use during pregnancy, vacuum use during vaginal delivery, recurrent respiratory tract infections, hospitalization, main caregiver cared for other children, and early daycare attendance. Exposure to these factors led to dose responsiveness in relationships to asthma. Most of the exposures revealed a greater impact on early-onset asthma, except for vacuum use and daycare attendance.

  8. Developmental variations in the impact of intimate partner violence exposure during childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Howell, Kathryn H.; Barnes, Sarah E.; Miller, Laura E.; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a pervasive problem impacting individuals around the globe. The consequences of IPV extend beyond the adults in the relationship, as children witness a significant proportion of such violence. Exposure to IPV during childhood has devastating effects across multiple domains of functioning. Methods: This article reviews empirical studies of the effects of exposure to IPV by developmental stage. Results: The psychological, social, physical...

  9. Typologies of Childhood Exposure to Violence: Associations with College Student Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Graff, Laura E.; Howell, Kathryn H.; Martinez-Torteya, Cecilia; Hunter, Erin C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study examined typologies of childhood violence exposure (CVE) and the associations of profiles with current demographic characteristics and mental health in emerging adulthood. Participants: The study evaluated a sample of college students from 2 US geographic regions (Midwest, n = 195; Southeast, n = 200). Methods: An online…

  10. Dose response association of pregnancy cigarette smoke exposure, childhood stature, overweight and obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Koshy; A. Delpisheh; B.J. Brabin

    2011-01-01

    The combined dose response effects of pregnancy cigarette smoke exposure on childhood overweight, obesity and short stature have not been reported. A community based cross-sectional survey of 3038 children aged 5-11 years from 15 primary schools in Merseyside, UK. Self-completed parental questionnai

  11. Exposure to Childhood Sexual and Physical Abuse and Subsequent Educational Achievement Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Joseph M.; Horwood, L. John; Fergusson, David M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This paper examined the relationship between exposure to sexual and physical abuse (CSA and CPA) in childhood and later educational achievement outcomes in late adolescence and early adulthood in a birth cohort of over 1,000 children studied to age 25. Method: Retrospective data on CSA and CPA were gathered at ages 18 and 21 and used to…

  12. Prenatal exposure to lead in Spain: Cord blood levels and associated factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llop, Sabrina, E-mail: llop_sab@gva.es [Centre of Public Health Research (CSISP), Av Catalunya 21, 46020, Valencia (Spain); Carlos III Health Institute (ISCIII), 20220 Majadahonda, Madrid (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Aguinagalde, Xabier [Public Health Laboratory of Alava, Direccion de Salud Publica, Gobierno Vasco, Santiago 11, 01002, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Basque Country (Spain); Vioque, Jesus [CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Universidad Miguel Hernandez, Av de Alicante KM 87, 03550, Sant Joan d' Alacant (Spain); Ibarluzea, Jesus [CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Departamento de Sanidad Gobierno Vasco, Subdireccion de Salud Publica de Gipuzkoa, Avenida de Navarra 4, 20013 San Sebastian (Spain); Biodonostia, Instituto de Investigacion Biomedica, San Sebastian (Spain); Guxens, Monica [CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Centre for Research of Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Casas, Maribel [Centre for Research of Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Murcia, Mario [Centre of Public Health Research (CSISP), Av Catalunya 21, 46020, Valencia (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Ruiz, Maria [Centre for Research of Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); and others

    2011-05-01

    Introduction and Objective: Lead is a known neurotoxic. Fetuses and infants are very vulnerable to lead exposure, since their blood-brain barrier is not completely formed. Hence, there is an importance for monitoring of blood lead levels prenatally and during early infancy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prenatal exposure to lead and its association with maternal factors in four population based mother-child cohorts in Spain. The present research was carried out within the framework of the INMA project INfancia y Medio Ambiente (Environment and Childhood). Methods: A total of 1462 pregnant women were recruited between 2004 and 2008. Lead was analyzed in a sample of cord blood by thermal decomposition, amalgation, and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Maternal sociodemographic, lifestyle and dietary factors were obtained by questionnaires during pregnancy. A multivariate logistic regression model was constructed. The dependent variable was a dichotomous lead level variable (detected vs no detected, i.e. {>=} vs < 2 {mu}g/dL). Results: A low percentage of cord blood samples with lead levels {>=} 2 {mu}g/dL were found (5.9%). Geometric mean and maximum were 1.06 {mu}g/dL and 19 {mu}g/dL, respectively. Smoking at the beginning of pregnancy, age, social class, weight gain during pregnancy, gravidity, and place of residence were the maternal factors associated with detectable cord blood lead levels. Mother's diet does not appear to be a determining factor of lead exposure. Nevertheless, daily intake of iron and zinc may act as a protective factor against having cord blood lead levels {>=} 2 {mu}g/dL. Conclusion: In the different regions of Spain taking part in this study, lead levels to which newborns are exposed are low. Mobilization of lead from bones may be the main contributor to the cord blood levels. - Research Highlights: {yields} Pb is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant with harmful effects on neurodevelopment. {yields} Cord blood Pb levels in

  13. Prenatal exposure to lead in Spain: Cord blood levels and associated factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction and Objective: Lead is a known neurotoxic. Fetuses and infants are very vulnerable to lead exposure, since their blood-brain barrier is not completely formed. Hence, there is an importance for monitoring of blood lead levels prenatally and during early infancy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prenatal exposure to lead and its association with maternal factors in four population based mother-child cohorts in Spain. The present research was carried out within the framework of the INMA project INfancia y Medio Ambiente (Environment and Childhood). Methods: A total of 1462 pregnant women were recruited between 2004 and 2008. Lead was analyzed in a sample of cord blood by thermal decomposition, amalgation, and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Maternal sociodemographic, lifestyle and dietary factors were obtained by questionnaires during pregnancy. A multivariate logistic regression model was constructed. The dependent variable was a dichotomous lead level variable (detected vs no detected, i.e. ≥ vs < 2 μg/dL). Results: A low percentage of cord blood samples with lead levels ≥ 2 μg/dL were found (5.9%). Geometric mean and maximum were 1.06 μg/dL and 19 μg/dL, respectively. Smoking at the beginning of pregnancy, age, social class, weight gain during pregnancy, gravidity, and place of residence were the maternal factors associated with detectable cord blood lead levels. Mother's diet does not appear to be a determining factor of lead exposure. Nevertheless, daily intake of iron and zinc may act as a protective factor against having cord blood lead levels ≥ 2 μg/dL. Conclusion: In the different regions of Spain taking part in this study, lead levels to which newborns are exposed are low. Mobilization of lead from bones may be the main contributor to the cord blood levels. - Research Highlights: → Pb is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant with harmful effects on neurodevelopment. → Cord blood Pb levels in Spanish newborn are low in

  14. Risk of childhood injuries after prenatal exposure to maternal bereavement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Virk, Jasveer; Li, Jiong; Lauritsen, Jens;

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the risk of injuries among children exposed to a stressful life exposure (defined as bereavement) before conception or during fetal life.......The aim of this study was to assess the risk of injuries among children exposed to a stressful life exposure (defined as bereavement) before conception or during fetal life....

  15. Peeling lead paint turns into poisonous dust. Guess where it ends up? A media campaign to prevent childhood lead poisoning in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Danielle; Tehranifar, Parisa; DeMartini, Diana P; Faciano, Andrew; Nagin, Deborah

    2015-06-01

    Successful public health media campaigns promote messages, increase awareness, engage the public, and encourage behavior change. Between 2004 and 2006, the Lead Poisoning Prevention Program of the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene conducted a media campaign grounded in social learning theory and the social marketing model to increase parents' awareness of childhood lead poisoning, ways to protect their children, and property owners' legal responsibility to fix peeling lead paint safely, and increase awareness of regulatory changes and encourage enforcement of New York City's Local Law 1 of 2004. Campaign materials were focus group tested and the campaign was refined annually. The campaign ran city-wide and in targeted high-risk neighborhoods. Neighborhoods and media venue (bus, train, kiosk, and store) changed annually, based on population risk factors and venue availability. Exposure to the campaign, campaign-related knowledge, and behavior were assessed using pre- and postcampaign street intercept surveys. Results showed that campaign reached the targeted population, and had an impact on knowledge of lead poisoning prevention measures as evidenced by increased knowledge of lead paint exposures sources in one year and increased knowledge of preventive behaviors in another year; these improvements were observed for both genders and most ethnic, primary language, educational attainment, and age groups in each year. Lessons learned indicate that well-targeted media campaigns, designed with audience participation, can reach parents through various venues, and improve key knowledge areas. Evaluation challenges faced include high levels of knowledge at baseline, competing media messages, and balancing between program needs and evaluation design. PMID:25558876

  16. Effects of Environmental Exposures on Fetal and Childhood Growth Trajectories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Tongzhang; Zhang, Jie; Sommer, Kathryn; Bassig, Bryan A; Zhang, Xichi; Braun, Jospeh; Xu, Shuangqing; Boyle, Peter; Zhang, Bin; Shi, Kunchong; Buka, Stephen; Liu, Siming; Li, Yuanyuan; Qian, Zengmin; Dai, Min; Romano, Megan; Zou, Aifen; Kelsey, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Delayed fetal growth and adverse birth outcomes are some of the greatest public health threats to this generation of children worldwide because these conditions are major determinants of mortality, morbidity, and disability in infancy and childhood and are also associated with diseases in adult life. A number of studies have investigated the impacts of a range of environmental conditions during pregnancy (including air pollution, endocrine disruptors, persistent organic pollutants, heavy metals) on fetal and child development. The results, while provocative, have been largely inconsistent. This review summarizes up to date epidemiologic studies linking major environmental pollutants to fetal and child development and suggested future directions for further investigation. PMID:27325067

  17. Transcriptome Changes in Hirschfeldia incana in Response to Lead Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auguy, Florence; Fahr, Mouna; Moulin, Patricia; El Mzibri, Mohamed; Smouni, Abdelaziz; Filali-Maltouf, Abdelkarim; Béna, Gilles; Doumas, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Hirschfeldia incana, a pseudometallophyte belonging to the Brassicaceae family and widespread in the Mediterranean region, was selected for its ability to grow on soils contaminated by lead (Pb). The global comparison of gene expression using microarrays between a plant susceptible to Pb (Arabidopsis thaliana) and a Pb tolerant plant (H. incana) enabled the identification of a set of specific genes expressed in response to lead exposure. Three groups of genes were particularly over-represented by the Pb exposure in the biological processes categorized as photosynthesis, cell wall, and metal handling. Each of these gene groups was shown to be directly involved in tolerance or in protection mechanisms to the phytotoxicity associated with Pb. Among these genes, we demonstrated that MT2b, a metallothionein gene, was involved in lead accumulation, confirming the important role of metallothioneins in the accumulation and the distribution of Pb in leaves. On the other hand, several genes involved in biosynthesis of ABA were shown to be up-regulated in the roots and shoots of H. incana treated with Pb, suggesting that ABA-mediated signaling is a possible mechanism in response to Pb treatment in H. incana. This latest finding is an important research direction for future studies.

  18. Transcriptome changes in Hirschfeldia incana in response to lead exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence eAuguy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hirschfeldia incana, a pseudometallophyte belonging to the Brassicaceae family and widespread in the Mediterranean region, was selected for its ability to grow on soils contaminated by lead (Pb .The global comparison of gene expression using microarrays between a plant susceptible to Pb (Arabidopsis thaliana and a Pb tolerant plant (Hirschfeldia incana enabled the identification of a set of specific genes expressed in response to lead exposure. Three groups of genes were particularly over-represented by the Pb exposure in the biological processes categorized as photosynthesis, cell wall and metal handling. Each of these gene groups was shown to be directly involved in tolerance or in protection mechanisms to the phytotoxicity associated with Pb. Among these genes, we demonstrated that MT2b, a metallothionein gene, was involved in lead accumulation, confirming the important role of metallothioneins in the accumulation and the distribution of Pb in leaves. On the other hand, several genes involved in biosynthesis of ABA were shown to be up-regulated in the roots and shoots of H. incana treated with Pb, suggesting that ABA-mediated signaling is a possible mechanism in response to Pb treatment in H. incana. This latest finding is an important research direction for future studies.

  19. Childhood exposure to DEHP, DBP and BBP under existing chemical management systems: A comparative study of sources of childhood exposure in Korea and in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Jihyun; Lee, Jong-Hyeon; Kim, Chan-Kook;

    2014-01-01

    , while Korea produces more than 0.4 million tons of the three above-mentioned phthalates each year. First, a comparative review of the existing phthalate regulations in the two countries was performed. Next, the level of childhood phthalate exposure from environmental and food sources was estimated using...... calculation respectively were 0.24 and up to 0.5 in Denmark while 0.52 and up to 0.95 in Korea. Food and indoor dust were the main exposure sources for all three phthalates. In order to protect human health from cumulative risks of these phthalates, the exposure scenarios in existing regulations......In this paper, the cumulative risks of Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), and Benzylbutyl phthalate (BBP) to 2-year-old children in two countries: one European (Denmark) and one Asian (South Korea) were compared. Denmark does not produce phthalates as a raw material...

  20. Occupational Lead Exposure from Indoor Firing Ranges in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Won-Ju; Lee, Suk-Ho; Lee, Se-Ho; Yoon, Hye-Sik; Moon, Jai-Dong

    2016-04-01

    Military personnel often use ammunitions that contain lead. The present study aimed to identify the risks for lead exposure and lead poisoning among workers at indoor firing ranges. A special health examination, including blood lead level (BLL) testing, was performed for all 120 workers at the indoor firing ranges of the Republic of Korea's Air Force, Navy, and Armed Forces Athletic Corps. The overall mean BLL was 11.3 ± 9.4 µg/dL (range: 2.0-64.0 µg/dL). The arithmetic mean of the BLL for professional shooters belong to Armed Forces Athletic Corps was 14.0 ± 8.3 µg/dL, while those of shooting range managers and shooting range supervisors were 13.8 ± 11.1 µg/dL and 6.4 ± 3.1 µg/dL, respectively. One individual had a BLL of 64 µg/dL, and ultimately completed chelation treatment (with CaNa2-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) without any adverse effects. These findings indicate that indoor firing range workers are exposed to elevated levels of lead. Therefore, when constructing an indoor firing range, a specialist should be engaged to design and assess the ventilation system; and safety guidelines regarding ammunition and waste handling must be mandatory. Moreover, workplace environmental monitoring should be implemented for indoor firing ranges, and the workers should undergo regularly scheduled special health examinations. PMID:27051231

  1. Moderating the Effects of Childhood Exposure to Intimate Partner Violence: The Roles of Parenting Characteristics and Adolescent Peer Support

    OpenAIRE

    Tajima, Emiko A.; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Moylan, Carrie A.; Derr, Amelia S.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate parenting characteristics and adolescent peer support as potential moderators of the effects of childhood exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV) on adolescent outcomes. Lehigh Longitudinal Study (N=416) data include parent and adolescent reports of childhood IPV exposure. Exposure to IPV predicted nearly all adverse outcomes examined, however after accounting for co-occurring child abuse and early child behavior problems, IPV predicted only one outcome. Several moderator e...

  2. The Feasibility of Using Lead in Hair Concentration in Monitoring Environmental Exposure in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wibowo, A.A.E.; Brunekreef, B.; Lebret, E.; Pieters, H.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of lead in hair as an indicator of lead exposure has been compared to that of lead in blood and zinc protoporphyrin in blood levels in 1-3 year-old children living within 1 km of a lead smelter. Lead exposure was measured as lead in house dust, outdoor and indoor lead in air concentr

  3. Residential Radon Exposure and Incidence of Childhood Lymphoma in Texas, 1995–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin C. Peckham

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There is warranted interest in assessing the association between residential radon exposure and the risk of childhood cancer. We sought to evaluate the association between residential radon exposure and the incidence of childhood lymphoma in Texas. The Texas Cancer Registry (n = 2147 provided case information for the period 1995–2011. Denominator data were obtained from the United States Census. Regional arithmetic mean radon concentrations were obtained from the Texas Indoor Radon Survey and linked to residence at diagnosis. Exposure was assessed categorically: ≤25th percentile (reference, >25th to ≤50th percentile, >50th to ≤75th percentile, and >75th percentile. Negative binomial regression generated adjusted incidence rate ratios (aIRR and 95% confidence intervals (CI. We evaluated lymphoma overall and by subtype: Hodgkin (HL; n = 1248, Non-Hodgkin excluding Burkitt (non-BL NHL; n = 658, Burkitt (BL; n = 241, and Diffuse Large B-cell (DLBCL; n = 315. There was no evidence that residential radon exposure was positively associated with lymphoma overall, HL, or BL. Areas with radon concentrations >75th percentile had a marginal increase in DLBCL incidence (aIRR = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.03–2.91. In one of the largest studies of residential radon exposure and the incidence of childhood lymphoma, we found little evidence to suggest a positive or negative association; an observation consistent with previous studies.

  4. Smoke exposure as a risk factor for asthma in childhood: a review of current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrante, Giuliana; Antona, Roberta; Malizia, Velia; Montalbano, Laura; Corsello, Giovanni; La Grutta, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    Asthma is a common chronic multifactorial disease that affects >300 million people worldwide. Outdoor and indoor pollution exposure has been associated with respiratory health effects in adults and children. Smoking still represents a huge public health problem and millions of children suffer the detrimental effects of passive smoke exposure. This study was designed to review the current evidences on exposure to passive smoke as a risk factor for asthma onset in childhood. A review of the most recent studies on this topic was undertaken to provide evidence about the magnitude of the effect of passive smoking on the risk of incidence of asthma in children. The effects of passive smoking are different depending on individual and environmental factors. Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) is one of the most important indoor air pollutants and can interact with other air pollutants in eliciting respiratory outcomes during childhood. The increased risk of respiratory outcomes in children exposed to prenatal and early postnatal passive smoke might be caused by an adverse effect on both the immune system and the structural and functional development of the lung; this may explain the subsequent increased risk of incident asthma. The magnitude of the exposure is quite difficult to precisely quantify because it is significantly influenced by the child's daily activities. Because exposure to ETS is a likely cause for asthma onset in childhood, there is a strong need to prevent infants and children from breathing air contaminated with tobacco smoke.

  5. Perceived recollection of frequent exposure to foods in childhood is associated with adulthood liking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhera, Devina; Capaldi Phillips, Elizabeth D; Wilkie, Lynn M; Boggess, May M

    2015-06-01

    Food preferences and habits learned at a young age can influence adulthood dietary patterns and weight, but the mechanism remains to be elucidated. We investigated the effect of perceived recollections of early food experiences on current liking for those foods by 670 college students. We showed that the perceived recollection of frequent consumption of foods in childhood was significantly related to current liking for the vast majority of the foods, including nutritious foods such as vegetables. Similarly, parental encouragement and modeling was positively related with current liking, even for foods that were disliked in childhood. Additionally, perceived recollections of parental restriction or forced consumption were significantly negatively related with current liking. Lastly, we demonstrated that perceived recollections by college students of childhood eating practices were in moderate agreement with those of their parents, lending credibility to the retrospective survey methodology in determining long-term effects of exposure on current food habits. These findings show that the perceived recalled frequency of consumption of foods is one determinant of the food preferences of adults, demonstrating a long-term effect of frequency of exposure, a finding consistent with experimentally controlled short-term studies. Frequent exposure to foods in childhood could be a simple and effective way for parents and caregivers to instill healthy eating habits in children.

  6. A systematic review on food lead concentration and dietary lead exposure in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Yingliang; Liu Pei; Wu Yongning; Min Jie; Wang Cannan; Sun Jinfang; Zhang Yafei

    2014-01-01

    Background By synthesizing results from primary studies,systematic review can provide empirical information of concerned problems.This study aimed to review the available surveillance data from studies reporting the contamination surveillance of food lead in China.Methods Relevant studies were identified by systematically searching Chinese Biological Medicine Database and China National Knowledge Infrastructure using the key term of "lead" for surveillance data published in Chinese between 2006 and 2012.To avoid potential selection bias,all articles were evaluated by two independent reviewers,and the disagreements were resolved by discussion or the third author was asked to arbitrate.Results Among 269 identified publications on surveillance data of lead in food,43 articles met the defined inclusion criteria.The food samples were divided into 11 groups (cereal grains and pulses,fish,eggs,vegetables,meat,edible fungi,milk and dairy products,fruits,offal,tea and preserved egg).Surveillance data of publications were reviewed to calculate the weighted mean and rate exceeding maximum levels.Our results indicated that the highest lead concentration was 1.937 mg/kg in tea.The total pementage of samples exceeding the maximum levels was 5.57%.Dietary exposure to lead was assessed by combining the weighted mean concentration of surveillance data with national consumption data in 2002.In this review,dietary intake of lead was 1.232 μg/kg b.w./day.Conclusion Further control measures should be taken to reduce exposure to lead,from both dietary and non-dietary sources.

  7. Developmental lead exposure causes startle response deficits in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Clinton; Ghorai, Jugal K; Zalewski, Kathryn; Weber, Daniel N

    2011-10-01

    Lead (Pb(2+)) exposure continues to be an important concern for fish populations. Research is required to assess the long-term behavioral effects of low-level concentrations of Pb(2+) and the physiological mechanisms that control those behaviors. Newly fertilized zebrafish embryos (max) and escape time. With increasing exposure concentrations, a larger number of larvae failed to respond to even the initial tap and, for those that did respond, ceased responding earlier than control larvae. These differences were more pronounced at a frequency of 4 taps/s. (2) Response to a visual stimulus: Fish, exposed as embryos (2-24 hpf) to Pb(2+) (0-10 μM) were tested as adults under low light conditions (≈ 60 μW/m(2)) for visual responses to a rotating black bar. Visual responses were significantly degraded at Pb(2+) concentrations of 30 nM. These data suggest that zebrafish are viable models for short- and long-term sensorimotor deficits induced by acute, low-level developmental Pb(2+) exposures.

  8. Cadmium, lead and mercury exposure in non smoking pregnant women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent literature suggests that exposure to low concentrations of heavy metals may affect both maternal and child health. This study aimed to determine the biological heavy metals concentrations of pregnant women as well as environmental and dietary factors that may influence exposure concentrations. One hundred and seventy three pregnant women were recruited from Western Australia, each providing a sample of blood, first morning void urine, residential soil, dust and drinking water samples. Participants also completed a questionnaire which included a food frequency component. All biological and environmental samples were analysed for heavy metals using ICP-MS. Biological and environmental concentrations of lead and mercury were generally low (Median Pb Drinking Water (DW) 0.04 µg/L; Pb soil <3.0 µg/g; Pb dust 16.5 µg/g; Pb blood 3.67 µg/L; Pb urine 0.55; µg/L Hg DW <0.03; Hg soil <1.0 µg/g; Hg dust <1.0 µg/g; Hg blood 0.46 µg/L; Hg urine <0.40 µg/L). Cadmium concentrations were low in environmental samples (Median CdDW 0.02 µg/L; Cdsoil <0.30 ug/g; Cddust <0.30) but elevated in urine samples (Median 0.55 µg/L, creatinine corrected 0.70 µg/g (range <0.2–7.06 µg/g creatinine) compared with other studies of pregnant women. Predictors of increased biological metals concentrations in regression models for blood cadmium were residing in the Great Southern region of Western Australia and not using iron/folic acid supplements and for urinary cadmium was having lower household annual income. However, these factors explained little of the variation in respective biological metals concentrations. The importance of establishing factors that influence low human exposure concentrations is becoming critical in efforts to reduce exposures and hence the potential for adverse health effects. -- Highlights: • Biological heavy metals concentrations in women in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy. • Exposure assessment including environmental, lifestyle and activity

  9. Cadmium, lead and mercury exposure in non smoking pregnant women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinwood, A.L., E-mail: a.hinwood@ecu.edu.au [Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia); Callan, A.C.; Ramalingam, M.; Boyce, M. [Centre for Ecosystem Management, Edith Cowan University, 270 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, WA 6027 (Australia); Heyworth, J. [School Population Health, The University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); McCafferty, P. [ChemCentre, PO Box 1250, Bentley, WA 6983 (Australia); Odland, J.Ø. [Department of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway)

    2013-10-15

    Recent literature suggests that exposure to low concentrations of heavy metals may affect both maternal and child health. This study aimed to determine the biological heavy metals concentrations of pregnant women as well as environmental and dietary factors that may influence exposure concentrations. One hundred and seventy three pregnant women were recruited from Western Australia, each providing a sample of blood, first morning void urine, residential soil, dust and drinking water samples. Participants also completed a questionnaire which included a food frequency component. All biological and environmental samples were analysed for heavy metals using ICP-MS. Biological and environmental concentrations of lead and mercury were generally low (Median Pb Drinking Water (DW) 0.04 µg/L; Pb soil <3.0 µg/g; Pb dust 16.5 µg/g; Pb blood 3.67 µg/L; Pb urine 0.55; µg/L Hg DW <0.03; Hg soil <1.0 µg/g; Hg dust <1.0 µg/g; Hg blood 0.46 µg/L; Hg urine <0.40 µg/L). Cadmium concentrations were low in environmental samples (Median CdDW 0.02 µg/L; Cdsoil <0.30 ug/g; Cddust <0.30) but elevated in urine samples (Median 0.55 µg/L, creatinine corrected 0.70 µg/g (range <0.2–7.06 µg/g creatinine) compared with other studies of pregnant women. Predictors of increased biological metals concentrations in regression models for blood cadmium were residing in the Great Southern region of Western Australia and not using iron/folic acid supplements and for urinary cadmium was having lower household annual income. However, these factors explained little of the variation in respective biological metals concentrations. The importance of establishing factors that influence low human exposure concentrations is becoming critical in efforts to reduce exposures and hence the potential for adverse health effects. -- Highlights: • Biological heavy metals concentrations in women in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy. • Exposure assessment including environmental, lifestyle and activity

  10. Prenatal exposure to traffic-related air pollution and risk of early childhood cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Jo Kay C; Heck, Julia E; Cockburn, Myles; Su, Jason; Jerrett, Michael; Ritz, Beate

    2013-10-15

    Exposure to air pollution during pregnancy has been linked to the risk of childhood cancer, but the evidence remains inconclusive. In the present study, we used land use regression modeling to estimate prenatal exposures to traffic exhaust and evaluate the associations with cancer risk in very young children. Participants in the Air Pollution and Childhood Cancers Study who were 5 years of age or younger and diagnosed with cancer between 1988 and 2008 were had their records linked to California birth certificates, and controls were selected from birth certificates. Land use regression-based estimates of exposures to nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, and nitrogen oxides were assigned based on birthplace residence and temporally adjusted using routine monitoring station data to evaluate air pollution exposures during specific pregnancy periods. Logistic regression models were adjusted for maternal age, race/ethnicity, educational level, parity, insurance type, and Census-based socioeconomic status, as well as child's sex and birth year. The odds of acute lymphoblastic leukemia increased by 9%, 23%, and 8% for each 25-ppb increase in average nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, and nitrogen oxide levels, respectively, over the entire pregnancy. Second- and third-trimester exposures increased the odds of bilateral retinoblastoma. No associations were found for annual average exposures without temporal components or for any other cancer type. These results lend support to a link between prenatal exposure to traffic exhaust and the risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and bilateral retinoblastoma. PMID:23989198

  11. Environmental and Occupational Lead Exposure Among Children in Cairo, Egypt: A Community-Based Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moawad, Eman Mohamed Ibraheim; Badawy, Nashwa Mostafa; Manawill, Marie

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess childhood lead exposure in a representative sample of Cairo, and to investigate the possible risk factors and sources of exposure. This cross-sectional study was conducted from November 2014 through April 2015. The target population was children aged 6 to 18 years, recruited into 4 groups, garbage city, moderate-living standard area, urban and suburban schools, and workshops in the city of Cairo. Blood lead levels (BLLs) and hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations were measured. Also, potential local environmental sources were assessed for hazardous lead contamination. Analysis on 400 participants has been carried out. A total of 113 children had BLLs in the range 10 to 20 μg/dL. Smoking fathers, housing conditions, playing outdoors, and exposure to lead in residential areas were significantly correlated with high BLLs. The mean values of hemoglobin were inversely correlated with BLLs. Children involved in pottery workshops had the highest BLLs and the lowest Hb values with a mean of (43.3 μg/dL and 8.6 g/dL, respectively). The mean value of environmental lead in workshop areas exceeded the recommended levels. Also, those values measured in dust and paint samples of garbage city were significantly high. Moreover, the mean lead levels in the soil samples were significantly higher in urban schools (P = 0.03) than the suburban ones. Childhood lead poisoning accounts for a substantial burden in Egypt, which could be preventable. Development of national prevention programs including universal screening program should be designed to reduce incidence of lead toxicity among children. PMID:26945415

  12. Linking geology and health sciences to assess childhood lead poisoning from artisanal gold mining in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Durant, James T.; Morman, Suzette A.; Neri, Antonio; Wolf, Ruth E.; Dooyema, Carrie A.; Hageman, Philip L.; Lowers, Heather; Fernette, Gregory L.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Benzel, William M.; Driscoll, Rhonda L.; Berry, Cyrus J.; Crock, James G.; Goldstein, Harland L.; Adams, Monique; Bartrem, Casey L.; Tirima, Simba; Behrooz, Behbod; von Lindern, Ian; Brown, Mary Jean

    2013-01-01

    Background: In 2010, Médecins Sans Frontières discovered a lead poisoning outbreak linked to artisanal gold processing in northwestern Nigeria. The outbreak has killed approximately 400 young children and affected thousands more. Objectives: Our aim was to undertake an interdisciplinary geological- and health-science assessment to clarify lead sources and exposure pathways, identify additional toxicants of concern and populations at risk, and examine potential for similar lead poisoning globally. Methods: We applied diverse analytical methods to ore samples, soil and sweep samples from villages and family compounds, and plant foodstuff samples. Results: Natural weathering of lead-rich gold ores before mining formed abundant, highly gastric-bioaccessible lead carbonates. The same fingerprint of lead minerals found in all sample types confirms that ore processing caused extreme contamination, with up to 185,000 ppm lead in soils/sweep samples and up to 145 ppm lead in plant foodstuffs. Incidental ingestion of soils via hand-to-mouth transmission and of dusts cleared from the respiratory tract is the dominant exposure pathway. Consumption of water and foodstuffs contaminated by the processing is likely lesser, but these are still significant exposure pathways. Although young children suffered the most immediate and severe consequences, results indicate that older children, adult workers, pregnant women, and breastfed infants are also at risk for lead poisoning. Mercury, arsenic, manganese, antimony, and crystalline silica exposures pose additional health threats. Conclusions: Results inform ongoing efforts in Nigeria to assess lead contamination and poisoning, treat victims, mitigate exposures, and remediate contamination. Ore deposit geology, pre-mining weathering, and burgeoning artisanal mining may combine to cause similar lead poisoning disasters elsewhere globally.

  13. Childhood exposure to ionizing radiation and brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brain has been categorized into the low risk group of radiogenic tumors. However, recent epidemiologic studies on the cancer risks among children who received repeated CT scans, radiotherapies and A-bomb have revealed that low-to-moderate dose of ionizing radiation is effective to induce brain tumors. Ionizing radiation is more strongly associated with risk for meningiomas and schwannomas compared to gliomas. While risk of meningiomas is independent of age at the time of exposure, that of gliomas is profoundly high after neonatal and infantile exposures. Inherited susceptibility to brain tumors is suggested by family history or cancer prone syndromes. People with certain gene mutations such as RB, NF1 or PTCH1 are associated with enhanced cancer risk after radiotherapies. Genetic polymorphism of cancer-related genes on brain tumor risk deserves further investigation. (author)

  14. Childhood cancer incidence and arsenic exposure in drinking water in Nevada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Lee E; Lu, Meng; Smith, Allan H

    2002-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic exposure through drinking water causes cancer in adults; however, the carcinogenic potential in children remains unknown. A recent leukemia cluster in Churchill County, Nevada, where arsenic levels in water supplies are relatively high, has prompted concern. The authors investigated the incidence of childhood cancer between 1979 and 1999 in all 17 Nevada counties, grouped by low (i.e., water supplies. The standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for all childhood cancers combined were 1.00 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.94, 1.06), 0.72 (95% CI = 0.43, 1.12), and 1.25 (95% CI = 0.91, 1.69) for low-, medium-, and high-exposure counties, respectively. There was no relationship between arsenic levels in water and childhood leukemia (SIRs = 1.02, 0.61, and 0.86, respectively [95% CIIs = 0.90, 1.15; 0.12, 1.79; and 0.37, 1.70, respectively]). For all childhood cancers, excluding leukemias, the SIRs were 0.99 (95% CI = 0.92, 1.07), 0.82 (95% CI = 0.42, 1.22), and 1.37 (0.92, 1.83), respectively. The excess in 5- to 9-yr-old children and 10- to 14-yr-old children was in bone cancers, and the excess in 15- to 19-yr-old young adults was primarily in lymphomas. The findings in this study are reassuring in that leukemia risks were not increased at the concentrations of arsenic in water found in this study. Nonetheless, the results raise the possibility that there are increased risks for nonleukemic childhood cancers that require confirmation in other studies, particularly those in which higher exposures are addressed.

  15. Prenatal tobacco smoke exposure is associated with childhood DNA CpG methylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie V Breton

    Full Text Available Smoking while pregnant is associated with a myriad of negative health outcomes in the child. Some of the detrimental effects may be due to epigenetic modifications, although few studies have investigated this hypothesis in detail.To characterize site-specific epigenetic modifications conferred by prenatal smoking exposure within asthmatic children.Using Illumina HumanMethylation27 microarrays, we estimated the degree of methylation at 27,578 distinct DNA sequences located primarily in gene promoters using whole blood DNA samples from the Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP subset of Asthma BRIDGE childhood asthmatics (n = 527 ages 5-12 with prenatal smoking exposure data available. Using beta-regression, we screened loci for differential methylation related to prenatal smoke exposure, adjusting for gender, age and clinical site, and accounting for multiple comparisons by FDR.Of 27,578 loci evaluated, 22,131 (80% passed quality control assessment and were analyzed. Sixty-five children (12% had a history of prenatal smoke exposure. At an FDR of 0.05, we identified 19 CpG loci significantly associated with prenatal smoke, of which two replicated in two independent populations. Exposure was associated with a 2% increase in mean CpG methylation in FRMD4A (p = 0.01 and Cllorf52 (p = 0.001 compared to no exposure. Four additional genes, XPNPEP1, PPEF2, SMPD3 and CRYGN, were nominally associated in at least one replication group.These data suggest that prenatal exposure to tobacco smoke is associated with reproducible epigenetic changes that persist well into childhood. However, the biological significance of these altered loci remains unknown.

  16. Influence of high past lead-in-air exposures on the lead-in-blood levels of lead-acid battery workers with continuing exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkins, D G; Hinkamp, D L; Robins, T G; Schork, M A; Krebs, W H

    1991-07-01

    We investigated the relationship between air lead levels and blood lead levels in 132 lead-acid battery workers in two plants who were followed for 30 months between 1983 and 1985 with frequent air lead and blood lead determinations. Both plants converted to more modern, expanded-metal battery manufacturing technologies around 1978 with associated reductions in mean air lead exposures from greater than 100 to less than 30 micrograms/m3. In multiple regression analyses including consideration of job category, seniority, age, ethnicity, gender, and smoking habit as covariates, there was a highly significant association of blood lead in micrograms/dL with air lead in micrograms/m3 (partial R2 = .20, P less than .0001) among the 68 workers in plant B but no association (P = .91) in plant A. Restriction of the regression analysis to those 44 workers in plant B with less than or equal to 22 years of seniority yielded the most significant air lead-blood lead association (partial R2 = .36, P less than .0001). Among the remaining 24 plant B workers, seniority, but not air lead, had a significant positive association with blood lead. Despite very stable air lead levels over the 30-month study, the 51 workers in plant A with more than 20 years' seniority had a mean decline of 0.04 microgram/dL in mean blood lead over the study period, whereas the 13 workers in plant A with less than or equal to 20 years' seniority had a mean increase of 7.6 microgram/dL.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Childhood asthma and environmental exposures at swimming pools: state of the science and research recommendations.

    OpenAIRE

    Weisel, C P; Richardson, S.D.; Nemery, B.; Aggazzotti, G.; Baraldi, E.; Blatchley, E.R.; Blount, B.C.; Carlsen, K H; Eggleston, P. A.; Frimmel, F.H.; Goodman, M.; Gordon, G.; Grinshpun, S. A.; Heederik, D.J.J.; Kogevinas, M

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Recent studies have explored the potential for swimming pool disinfection by-products (DBPs), which are respiratory irritants, to cause asthma in young children. Here we describe the state of the science on methods for understanding children's exposure to DBPs and biologics at swimming pools and associations with new-onset childhood asthma and recommend a research agenda to improve our understanding of this issue. DATA SOURCES: A workshop was held in Leuven, Belgium, 21-23 August ...

  18. Feather lead concentrations and207Pb/206Pb ratios reveal lead exposure history of California condors (Gymnogyps californianus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, M.E.; George, D.; Scherbinski, S.; Gwiazda, R.; Johnson, M.; Burnett, J.; Brandt, J.; Lawrey, S.; Pessier, Allan P.; Clark, M.; Wynne, J.; Grantham, And J.; Smith, D.R.

    2010-01-01

    Lead poisoning is a primary factor impeding the survival and recovery of the critically endangered California Condor (Gymnogyps californianus). However, the frequency and magnitude of lead exposure in condors is not well-known in part because most blood lead monitoring occurs biannually, and biannual blood samples capture only ???10% of a bird's annual exposure history. We investigated the use of growing feathers from free-flying condors in California to establish a bird's lead exposure history. We show that lead concentration and stable lead isotopic composition analyses of sequential feather sections and concurrently collected blood samples provided a comprehensive history of lead exposure over the 2-4 month period of feather growth. Feather analyses identified exposure events not evident from blood monitoring efforts, and by fitting an empirically derived timeline to actively growing feathers, we were able to estimate the time frame for specific lead exposure events. Our results demonstrate the utility of using sequentially sampled feathers to reconstruct lead exposure history. Since exposure risk in individuals is one determinant ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

  19. Childhood Exposure to Psychological Trauma and the Risk of Suicide Attempts: The Modulating Effect of Psychiatric Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Subin; Hong, Jin Pyo; Jeon, Hong Jin; Seong, Sujeong; Cho, Maeng Je

    2014-01-01

    Objective We examined whether childhood exposure to psychological trauma is associated with greater suicidality and whether specific psychiatric disorders modulate this association in a representative sample of Korean adults. Methods The Korean version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 2.1 was administered to 6,027 subjects aged 18-74 years. Subjects who experienced a traumatic event before the age of 18 years, the childhood-trauma-exposure group, were compared with controls...

  20. Pregnancy and childhood exposure to residential traffic noise and overweight at 7 years of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jeppe Schultz; Hjortebjerg, Dorrit; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole;

    2016-01-01

    Background: Exposure to road traffic noise has been associated with adiposity and diabetes in adults. The suggested pathways have been through sleep disturbance and stress. Children may be particularly susceptible to noise induced sleep disturbance and stress and the effects hereof. Objectives......: To examine the association between traffic noise exposure during pregnancy and early childhood and adiposity in children. Methods: We identified 40,974 singletons from the Danish National Birth Cohort with parentally given questionnaire information on weight and height at 7-years of age. Road and railway...

  1. Developmental variations in the impact of intimate partner violence exposure during childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn H. Howell

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV is a pervasive problem impacting individuals around the globe. The consequences of IPV extend beyond the adults in the relationship, as children witness a significant proportion of such violence. Exposure to IPV during childhood has devastating effects across multiple domains of functioning. METHODS: This article reviews empirical studies of the effects of exposure to IPV by developmental stage. RESULTS: the psychological, social, physical, and cognitive consequences of witnessing IPV are examined across development; from the impact of prenatal exposure to effects in infancy and toddlerhood, the preschool years, school-aged children, and adolescence. CONCLUSIONS: The review concludes by providing suggestions for future research based on the identified developmental variations, recommendations for developmentally-sensitive interventions for children who have witnessed IPV, and directions for policy to address the issue of violence exposure early in the lives of children.

  2. Surveillance of Childhood Blood Lead Levels in 14 Cities of China in 2004-2006

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHUAI-MING ZHANG; YAO-HUA DAI; XIAO-HUA XIE; ZHAO-YANG FAN; ZANG-WEN TAN; YAN-FENG ZHANG

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the blood lead level in children aged 0-6 years in urban areas of China. Methods Fourteen cities were selected as sites under surveillance. A total of 44 045 peripheral blood specimens were collected from 2004 to 2006, during which 15 727, 14 737, and 13 584 specimens were tested in 2004, 2005, and 2006, respectively. Tungsten atomizer absorption spectrophotometer was employed to determine blood lead level. Results The geometric mean blood lead level in the tested children was 47.10μg/L with 10.10% ≥100μg/L, 46.17μg/L with 7.78%≥100μg/L, and 47.03μg/L with 7.30% ≥ 100μg/L in 2004, 2005, and 2006, respectively. The blood lead levels seemed to tend to rise in parallel with the increase of age of the children and were higher in boys (48.84μg/L, 47.56μg/L, and 47.78μg/L in the 3 respective years) than in girls (45.00 μg/L 44.53μg/L, and 46.13μg/L). Conclusion The blood lead levels in children in cities of China are lower than those in previous national studies, but higher than those in developed countries. Childhood lead poisoning remains a public health problem in China.

  3. Protective factors associated with resilient functioning in young adulthood after childhood exposure to violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Kathryn H; Miller-Graff, Laura E

    2014-12-01

    Children may be subjected to many forms of violence and a significant number will experience multiple victimizations. These children are at high risk for developing psychological and emotional difficulties that may last into adulthood. Despite the increased risk for psychopathology, a substantial percentage of young adults exhibit resilient functioning following a history of childhood violence. This study examines the role of social support, spirituality, and emotional intelligence in promoting resilience during emerging adulthood. Participants included 321 young adult American college students, age 18-24, who experienced childhood violence, including community violence, interpersonal aggression, child maltreatment, peer/sibling victimization, and/or sexual assault. Findings revealed that this sample was highly victimized, with an average of 9 violent experiences reported during childhood. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that after controlling for exposure to childhood victimization, other potentially traumatic events, and current depression and anxiety symptoms, higher resilience during emerging adulthood was associated with greater spirituality, greater emotional intelligence, and support from friends (but not from family). Findings suggest that the potency of protective factors outweighs that of adversity and psychopathology when predicting resilient functioning. By identifying variables that can enhance resilience, this study offers unique insight into how functioning may be improved by both individual and environmental factors. PMID:25459988

  4. Childhood exposure to violence and lifelong health: clinical intervention science and stress-biology research join forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffitt, Terrie E

    2013-11-01

    Many young people who are mistreated by an adult, victimized by bullies, criminally assaulted, or who witness domestic violence react to this violence exposure by developing behavioral, emotional, or learning problems. What is less well known is that adverse experiences like violence exposure can lead to hidden physical alterations inside a child's body, alterations that may have adverse effects on life-long health. We discuss why this is important for the field of developmental psychopathology and for society, and we recommend that stress-biology research and intervention science join forces to tackle the problem. We examine the evidence base in relation to stress-sensitive measures for the body (inflammatory reactions, telomere erosion, epigenetic methylation, and gene expression) and brain (mental disorders, neuroimaging, and neuropsychological testing). We also review promising interventions for families, couples, and children that have been designed to reduce the effects of childhood violence exposure. We invite intervention scientists and stress-biology researchers to collaborate in adding stress-biology measures to randomized clinical trials of interventions intended to reduce effects of violence exposure and other traumas on young people. PMID:24342859

  5. Identification of sources of lead exposure in French children by lead isotope analysis: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Jean-Paul

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The amount of lead in the environment has decreased significantly in recent years, and so did exposure. However, there is no known safe exposure level and, therefore, the exposure of children to lead, although low, remains a major public health issue. With the lower levels of exposure, it is becoming more difficult to identify lead sources and new approaches may be required for preventive action. This study assessed the usefulness of lead isotope ratios for identifying sources of lead using data from a nationwide sample of French children aged from six months to six years with blood lead levels ≥25 μg/L. Methods Blood samples were taken from 125 children, representing about 600,000 French children; environmental samples were taken from their homes and personal information was collected. Lead isotope ratios were determined using quadrupole ICP-MS (inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry and the isotopic signatures of potential sources of exposure were matched with those of blood in order to identify the most likely sources. Results In addition to the interpretation of lead concentrations, lead isotope ratios were potentially of use for 57% of children aged from six months to six years with blood lead level ≥ 25 μg/L (7% of overall children in France, about 332,000 children, with at least one potential source of lead and sufficiently well discriminated lead isotope ratios. Lead isotope ratios revealed a single suspected source of exposure for 32% of the subjects and were able to eliminate at least one unlikely source of exposure for 30% of the children. Conclusions In France, lead isotope ratios could provide valuable additional information in about a third of routine environmental investigations.

  6. Childhood Passive Smoking Exposure and Age at Menarche in Chinese Women Who Had Never Smoked: The Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanshan Yang

    Full Text Available We examined the associations between childhood passive smoking exposure and age at menarche in women who had never smoked in southern China.Among 30,518 participants in Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study (GBCS from 2003-2008, 20,061 women who had never smoked and had complete outcome data were included. Childhood passive smoking exposure was defined as living with 1 or more smokers in the same household during childhood. Data on the number of smokers in the household and frequency of exposure (density and frequency were also obtained. Age at menarche was measured as a continuous variable.11,379 (56.7% participants were exposed to passive smoking during childhood. Compared to those with no passive smoking exposure during childhood, those with exposure ≥ 5 days/week had menarche 0.19 year (95% confidence interval (CI: 0.13-0.25 earlier on average. Those exposed to more than two smokers had menarche 0.38 year earlier (95% CI: 0.29-0.47. Childhood exposure was associated with early age at menarche (≤ 13 vs. >13 years, with an adjusted odds ratio of 1.34 (95% CI: 1.21-1.48 for high density, and 1.17 (95% CI: 1.09-1.26 for high frequency of exposure.Childhood passive smoking exposure was associated with earlier age at menarche, with a dose-response relationship in Chinese women who had never smoked. If causal, the results support the promotion of smoking cessation in families with children, particularly young girls.

  7. [Current dietary exposure to mercury during pregnancy and childhood, and public health recommendations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llop, Sabrina; Ibarlucea, Jesús; Sunyer, Jordi; Ballester, Ferran

    2013-01-01

    Exposure to high levels of mercury during vulnerable periods (such as pregnancy and childhood) may have serious consequences for cognitive development, as observed after acute poisoning episodes in Japan and Irak. The main source of mercury exposure in the general population is consumption of certain types of fish. There is growing concern about the possible neurotoxic effects of mercury, especially in younger children in populations where fish intake is moderate to high. The scientific evidence to date is inconclusive. In Spain, the Childhood and Environment (Infancia y Medio Ambiente [INMA]) project has provided information on levels of prenatal exposure to mercury among 1800 newborns from Valencia, Sabadell, Asturias and Guipúzcoa. In general, levels were high, being above the World Health Organization's recommended dose in 24% of children and above the recommended levels of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 64%. However, the results did not indicate a significant association between prenatal mercury exposure and delayed cognitive development during the second year of life. Various agencies have developed recommendations on fish consumption for pregnant women and children, due to the presence of mercury. These recommendations should be strengthened, since there is general consensus among all regional and national public administrations that fish is an essential source of nutrients for development in the early stages of life.

  8. Levels and source apportionment of children's lead exposure: could urinary lead be used to identify the levels and sources of children's lead pollution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Suzhen; Duan, Xiaoli; Zhao, Xiuge; Wang, Beibei; Ma, Jin; Fan, Delong; Sun, Chengye; He, Bin; Wei, Fusheng; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-04-01

    As a highly toxic heavy metal, the pollution and exposure risks of lead are of widespread concern for human health. However, the collection of blood samples for use as an indicator of lead pollution is not always feasible in most cohort or longitudinal studies, especially those involving children health. To evaluate the potential use of urinary lead as an indicator of exposure levels and source apportionment, accompanying with environmental media samples, lead concentrations and isotopic measurements (expressed as (207)Pb/(206)Pb, (208)Pb/(206)Pb and (204)Pb/(206)Pb) were investigated and compared between blood and urine from children living in the vicinities of a typical coking plant and lead-acid battery factory. The results showed urinary lead might not be a preferable proxy for estimating blood lead levels. Fortunately, urinary lead isotopic measurements could be used as an alternative for identifying the sources of children's lead exposure, which coincided well with the blood lead isotope ratio analysis. PMID:25617855

  9. Impact of the California lead ammunition ban on reducing lead exposure in golden eagles and turkey vultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terra R Kelly

    Full Text Available Predatory and scavenging birds may be exposed to high levels of lead when they ingest shot or bullet fragments embedded in the tissues of animals injured or killed with lead ammunition. Lead poisoning was a contributing factor in the decline of the endangered California condor population in the 1980s, and remains one of the primary factors threatening species recovery. In response to this threat, a ban on the use of lead ammunition for most hunting activities in the range of the condor in California was implemented in 2008. Monitoring of lead exposure in predatory and scavenging birds is essential for assessing the effectiveness of the lead ammunition ban in reducing lead exposure in these species. In this study, we assessed the effectiveness of the regulation in decreasing blood lead concentration in two avian sentinels, golden eagles and turkey vultures, within the condor range in California. We compared blood lead concentration in golden eagles and turkey vultures prior to the lead ammunition ban and one year following implementation of the ban. Lead exposure in both golden eagles and turkey vultures declined significantly post-ban. Our findings provide evidence that hunter compliance with lead ammunition regulations was sufficient to reduce lead exposure in predatory and scavenging birds at our study sites.

  10. Childhood maltreatment, 9/11 exposure, and latent dimensions of psychopathology: A test of stress sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Jacquelyn L; Lowe, Sarah R; Eaton, Nicholas R; Krueger, Robert; Grant, Bridget F; Hasin, Deborah

    2015-09-01

    On September 11, 2001, a terrorist attack occurred in the U.S. (9/11). Research on 9/11 and psychiatric outcomes has focused on individual disorders rather than the broader internalizing (INT) and externalizing (EXT) domains of psychopathology, leaving unknown whether direct and indirect 9/11 exposure differentially impacted these domains rather than individual disorders. Further, whether such effects were exacerbated by earlier childhood maltreatment (i.e. stress sensitization) is unknown. 18,713 participants from a U.S. national sample with no history of psychiatric disorders prior to 9/11 were assessed using a structured in-person interview. Structural equation modeling conducted in a sample who endorsed no psychiatric history prior to 9/11, indicated that indirect exposure to 9/11 (i.e. media, friends/family) was related to both EXT (alcohol, nicotine, and cannabis dependence, and antisocial personality disorder) and INT (major depression, generalized anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)) dimensions of psychopathology (EXT: β = 0.10, p < 0.001; INT: β = 0.11, p < 0.001) whereas direct exposure was associated with the INT dimension only (β = 0.11, p < 0.001). For individuals who had experienced childhood maltreatment, the risk for EXT and INT dimensions associated with 9/11 was exacerbated (Interactions: β = 0.06, p < 0.01; β = 0.07, p < 0.001, respectively). These findings indicate that 9/11 impacted latent liability to broad domains of psychopathology in the US general population rather than specific disorders with the exception of PTSD, which had independent effects beyond INT (as indicated by a significant (p < 0.05) improvement in modification indices). Findings also indicated that childhood maltreatment increases the risk associated with adult trauma exposure, providing further evidence for the concept of stress sensitization. PMID:26037889

  11. Lead exposure biomarkers and mini-mental status exam scores in older men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wright, RO; Tsaih, SW; Schwartz, J; Spiro, A; McDonald, K; Weiss, ST; Hu, H

    2003-01-01

    Background: Lead is neurotoxic; yet, whether cognitive decline in older persons is associated with lead exposure is unknown. We studied whether lead exposure biomarkers are associated with cognitive test scores, as well as the modifying effects of age on the lead-cognition relationship. Methods: Lea

  12. Foetal Exposure to Maternal Passive Smoking Is Associated with Childhood Asthma, Allergic Rhinitis, and Eczema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. L.; Lam, T. H.; Leung, T. H.; Wong, W. H. S.; Schooling, M.; Leung, G. M.; Lau, Y. L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. We examined the hypothesis that foetal exposure to maternal passive smoking is associated with childhood asthma, allergic rhinitis, and eczema. Methods. The study was a population-based cross-sectional survey of Hong Kong Chinese children aged ≤14 years carried out in 2005 to 2006. Results. Foetal exposure to maternal passive smoking was significantly associated with wheeze ever (OR 2.05; 95% CI 1.58–2.67), current wheeze (OR 2.06; 95% CI 1.48–2.86), allergic rhinitis ever (OR 1.22; 95% CI 1.09–1.37), and eczema ever (OR 1.61; 95% CI 1.38–1.87). Foetal exposure to maternal active smoking was significantly associated with asthma ever (OR 2.10; 95% CI 1.14–3.84), wheeze ever (OR 2.46; 95% CI 1.27–4.78), and current wheeze (OR 2.74; 95% CI 1.24–6.01) but not with allergic rhinitis ever (OR 1.01; 95% CI 0.70–1.46) or eczema ever (OR 1.38; 95% CI 0.87–2.18). The dose response relationship between wheeze ever and current wheeze with increasing exposure, from no exposure to maternal passive smoking and then to maternal active smoking, further supports causality. Conclusion. There is significant association between foetal exposure to maternal passive smoking and maternal active smoking with childhood asthma and related atopic illnesses. Further studies are warranted to explore the potential causal relationship. PMID:22927783

  13. Foetal Exposure to Maternal Passive Smoking Is Associated with Childhood Asthma, Allergic Rhinitis, and Eczema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. We examined the hypothesis that foetal exposure to maternal passive smoking is associated with childhood asthma, allergic rhinitis, and eczema. Methods. The study was a population-based cross-sectional survey of Hong Kong Chinese children aged ≤14 years carried out in 2005 to 2006. Results. Foetal exposure to maternal passive smoking was significantly associated with wheeze ever (OR 2.05; 95% CI 1.58–2.67, current wheeze (OR 2.06; 95% CI 1.48–2.86, allergic rhinitis ever (OR 1.22; 95% CI 1.09–1.37, and eczema ever (OR 1.61; 95% CI 1.38–1.87. Foetal exposure to maternal active smoking was significantly associated with asthma ever (OR 2.10; 95% CI 1.14–3.84, wheeze ever (OR 2.46; 95% CI 1.27–4.78, and current wheeze (OR 2.74; 95% CI 1.24–6.01 but not with allergic rhinitis ever (OR 1.01; 95% CI 0.70–1.46 or eczema ever (OR 1.38; 95% CI 0.87–2.18. The dose response relationship between wheeze ever and current wheeze with increasing exposure, from no exposure to maternal passive smoking and then to maternal active smoking, further supports causality. Conclusion. There is significant association between foetal exposure to maternal passive smoking and maternal active smoking with childhood asthma and related atopic illnesses. Further studies are warranted to explore the potential causal relationship.

  14. Influence of sun exposures during childhood and during adulthood on melanoma risk. EPIMEL and EORTC Melanoma Cooperative Group. European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autier, P; Doré, J F

    1998-08-12

    Sun exposure in both childhood and adult life represents the main environmental risk determinant for cutaneous melanoma. However, little is known about the joint effects of sun exposure during early and later life on melanoma risk. A case-control study in Belgium, Germany and France conducted in 1991-1992 suggests that the melanoma risks attached to indicators related to sun exposure appear to combine their effects in an additive way. We therefore constructed composite indices of sun exposure during childhood and during adulthood, assuming additive combinations of melanoma risk associated with each indicator of sun exposure. Logistic regression modeling showed that the melanoma risk associated with a given level of sun exposure during adulthood increased with higher sun exposure during childhood, but the increase in risk was higher than the simple addition of melanoma risk associated with sun exposure during childhood or adulthood. In turn, high sun exposure during childhood constituted a significant risk factor for melanoma only if there was substantial sun exposure during adult life. We thus suggest that sun exposure during childhood and during adulthood would be interdependent as far as their impact on melanoma risk is concerned. Our results support the hypothesis by which the important contribution of sun exposure during childhood in melanoma occurrence is not properly assessed by retrospective epidemiologic studies. Sun avoidance during childhood would have a greater impact on melanoma risk than sun avoidance during adulthood.

  15. Relationship between the lead concentration in hair and occupational exposure.

    OpenAIRE

    Niculescu, T; Dumitru, R.; V. Botha; R. Alexandrescu; Manolescu, N

    1983-01-01

    The lead content of hair in workers occupationally exposed was correlated with the blood lead concentration. Determinations of lead in blood and hair were performed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometry in two exposed groups and a control group. A significant correlation was observed between the blood lead and hair lead concentrations, and a regression analysis showed an exponential accumulation of the lead content in hair, simultaneously with the increase of the values in blo...

  16. Predicted risk of childhood allergy, asthma, and reported symptoms using measured phthalate exposure in dust and urine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsu, N.-Y.; Lee, C.-C.; Wang, J.-Y.;

    2012-01-01

    The associated risk of phthalate exposure, both parent compounds in the home and their metabolites in urine, to childhood allergic and respiratory morbidity, after adjusting for exposures of indoor pollutants, especially bioaerosols, was comprehensively assessed. Levels of five phthalates in sett...

  17. Exposure to electromagnetic fields (non-ionizing radiation) and its relationship with childhood leukemia: A systematic review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childhood exposure to physical contamination, including non-ionizing radiation, has been implicated in numerous diseases, raising concerns about the widespread and increasing sources of exposure to this type of radiation. The primary objective of this review was to analyze the current state of knowledge on the association between environmental exposure to non-ionizing radiation and the risk of childhood leukemia. Scientific publications between 1979 and 2008 that include examination of this association have been reviewed using the MEDLINE/PubMed database. Studies to date have not convincingly confirmed or ruled out an association between non-ionizing radiation and the risk of childhood leukemia. Discrepancies among the conclusions of the studies may also be influenced by confounding factors, selection bias, and misclassification. Childhood defects can result from genetic or epigenetic damage and from effects on the embryo or fetus, which may both be related to environmental exposure of the parent before conception or during the pregnancy. It is therefore critical for researchers to define a priori the type and 'window' of exposure to be assessed. Methodological problems to be solved include the proper diagnostic classification of individuals and the estimated exposure to non-ionizing radiation, which may act through various mechanisms of action. There appears to be an urgent need to reconsider exposure limits for low frequency and static magnetic fields, based on combined experimental and epidemiological research into the relationship between exposure to non-ionizing radiation and adverse human health effects.

  18. Exposure to electromagnetic fields (non-ionizing radiation) and its relationship with childhood leukemia: A systematic review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvente, I.; Fernandez, M.F. [Laboratory of Medical Investigations, San Cecilio University Hospital, CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Department of Radiology, University of Granada, Granada (Spain); Villalba, J. [Department of Radiology, University of Granada, Granada (Spain); Olea, N. [Laboratory of Medical Investigations, San Cecilio University Hospital, CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP) (Spain); Department of Radiology, University of Granada, Granada (Spain); Nunez, M.I., E-mail: isabeln@ugr.es [Department of Radiology, University of Granada, Granada (Spain)

    2010-07-15

    Childhood exposure to physical contamination, including non-ionizing radiation, has been implicated in numerous diseases, raising concerns about the widespread and increasing sources of exposure to this type of radiation. The primary objective of this review was to analyze the current state of knowledge on the association between environmental exposure to non-ionizing radiation and the risk of childhood leukemia. Scientific publications between 1979 and 2008 that include examination of this association have been reviewed using the MEDLINE/PubMed database. Studies to date have not convincingly confirmed or ruled out an association between non-ionizing radiation and the risk of childhood leukemia. Discrepancies among the conclusions of the studies may also be influenced by confounding factors, selection bias, and misclassification. Childhood defects can result from genetic or epigenetic damage and from effects on the embryo or fetus, which may both be related to environmental exposure of the parent before conception or during the pregnancy. It is therefore critical for researchers to define a priori the type and 'window' of exposure to be assessed. Methodological problems to be solved include the proper diagnostic classification of individuals and the estimated exposure to non-ionizing radiation, which may act through various mechanisms of action. There appears to be an urgent need to reconsider exposure limits for low frequency and static magnetic fields, based on combined experimental and epidemiological research into the relationship between exposure to non-ionizing radiation and adverse human health effects.

  19. Low-level lead exposure and the IQ of children. A meta-analysis of modern studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Needleman, H.L.; Gatsonis, C.A. (Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (USA))

    1990-02-02

    We identified 24 modern studies of childhood exposures to lead in relation to IQ. From this population, 12 that employed multiple regression analysis with IQ as the dependent variable and lead as the main effect and that controlled for nonlead covariates were selected for a quantitative, integrated review or meta-analysis. The studies were grouped according to type of tissue analyzed for lead. There were 7 blood and 5 tooth lead studies. Within each group, we obtained joint P values by two different methods and average effect sizes as measured by the partial correlation coefficients. We also investigated the sensitivity of the results to any single study. The sample sizes ranged from 75 to 724. The sign of the regression coefficient for lead was negative in 11 of 12 studies. The negative partial r's for lead ranged from -.27 to -.003. The power to find an effect was limited, below 0.6 in 7 of 12 studies. The joint P values for the blood lead studies were less than .0001 for both methods of analysis (95% confidence interval for group partial r, -.15 {plus minus} .05), while for the tooth lead studies they were .0005 and .004, respectively (95% confidence interval for group partial r, -.08 {plus minus} .05). The hypothesis that lead impairs children's IQ at low dose is strongly supported by this quantitative review. The effect is robust to the impact of any single study.

  20. Exposure to violence in childhood is associated with higher body mass index in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, Holly C; Milliren, Carly; Austin, S Bryn; Sheridan, Margaret A; McLaughlin, Katie A

    2015-12-01

    To determine whether different types of childhood adversity are associated with body mass index (BMI) in adolescence, we studied 147 adolescents aged 13-17 years, 41% of whom reported exposure to at least one adversity (maltreatment, abuse, peer victimization, or witness to community or domestic violence). We examined associations between adversity type and age- and sex-specific BMI z-scores using linear regression and overweight and obese status using logistic regression. We adjusted for potential socio-demographic, behavioral, and psychological confounders and tested for effect modification by gender. Adolescents with a history of sexual abuse, emotional abuse, or peer victimization did not have significantly different BMI z-scores than those without exposure (p>0.05 for all comparisons). BMI z-scores were higher in adolescents who had experienced physical abuse (β=0.50, 95% CI 0.12-0.91) or witnessed domestic violence (β=0.85, 95% CI 0.30-1.40). Participants who witnessed domestic violence had almost 6 times the odds of being overweight or obese (95% CI: 1.09-30.7), even after adjustment for potential confounders. No gender-by-adversity interactions were found. Exposure to violence in childhood is associated with higher adolescent BMI. This finding highlights the importance of screening for violence in pediatric practice and providing obesity prevention counseling for youth. PMID:26303827

  1. Toxic exposure of songbirds to lead in the Southeast Missouri Lead Mining District

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, W. Nelson; Franson, J. Christian; French, John B.; May, Thomas; Rattner, Barnett A.; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I.; Warner, Sarah E.; Weber, John; Mosby, David

    2013-01-01

    Mining and smelting in the Southeast Missouri Lead Mining District has caused widespread contamination of soils with lead (Pb) and other metals. Soils from three study sites sampled in the district contained from approximately 1,000–3,200 mg Pb/kg. Analyses of earthworms [33–4,600 mg Pb/kg dry weight (dw)] collected in the district showed likely high Pb exposure of songbirds preying on soil organisms. Mean tissue Pb concentrations in songbirds collected from the contaminated sites were greater (p concentrations in livers (mg Pb/kg dw) were as follows: northern cardinal (Cardinalis cardinalis) = 0.11–3.0 (reference) and 1.3–30 (contaminated) and American robin (Turdus migratorius) = 0.43–8.5 (reference) and 7.6–72 (contaminated). Of 34 adult and juvenile songbirds collected from contaminated sites, 11 (32 %) had hepatic Pb concentrations that were consistent with adverse physiological effects, 3 (9 %) with systemic toxic effects, and 4 (12 %) with life-threatening toxic effects. Acid-fast renal intranuclear inclusion bodies, which are indicative of Pb poisoning, were detected in kidneys of two robins that had the greatest renal Pb concentrations (952 and 1,030 mg/kg dw). Mean activity of the enzyme delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) in red blood cells, a well-established bioindicator of Pb poisoning in birds, was decreased by 58–82 % in songbirds from the mining sites. We conclude that habitats within the mining district with soil Pb concentrations of ≥1,000 mg Pb/kg are contaminated to the extent that they are exposing ground-feeding songbirds to toxic concentrations of Pb.

  2. The cultural parameters of lead poisoning: A medical anthropologist's view of intervention in environmental lead exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trotter, R.T. II (Northern Arizona Univ., Flagstaff (USA))

    1990-11-01

    This article identifies four culturally shaped sources of lead exposure in human societies: modern and historic technological sources; food habits; culturally defined health beliefs; and beauty practices. Examples of these potential sources of lead poisoning are presented from current cultures. They include the use of lead-glazed cooking pottery in Mexican-American households; folk medical use of lead in Hispanic, Arabic, South Asian, Chinese, and Hmong communities; as well as the use of lead as a cosmetic in the Near East, Southeast Asia, and South Asia. Four interacting cultural conditions that create barriers to the reduction of lead exposure and lead poisoning are identified and discussed. These are knowledge deficiencies, communication resistance, cultural reinterpretations, and incongruity of explanatory models.

  3. Childhood exposure to DEHP, DBP and BBP in Denmark and Korea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Jihyun; Lee, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Chan-Kook;

    Since early 20th century, phthalates have been used as plasticizers and among these, Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), Benzyl-butyl phthalate (BBP) and Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) have been widely used. However, as adverse health effects such as endocrine disrupting effects were reported......, these compounds have been restricted for use in children’s products and they are also listed in Annex XIV of the EU REACH. However, these chemicals are still produced and used in many products. In 2002, approximately 10% of the world’s phthalates demand was produced in South Korea, while Denmark has no phthalate...... production. In order to protect human health equally, risk management systems need to include territorial varying background environmental qualities when modeling aggregate exposure. This study presents probabilistic assessments of multiple sources and routes to childhood phthalate exposure in Denmark...

  4. Lead exposure in Laysan albatross adults and chicks in Hawaii: prevalence, risk factors, and biochemical effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, T.M.; Smith, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    Prevalence of lead exposure and elevated tissue lead was determined in Laysan albatross (Diomedea immutabilis) in Hawaii. The relationship between lead exposure and proximity to buildings, between elevated blood lead and droopwing status, and elevated liver lead and presence of lead-containing paint chips in the proventriculus in albatross chicks was also examined. Finally, the effects of lead on the enzyme δ-amino-levulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) was determined. There was a significant association between lead exposure or elevated tissue lead and proximity to buildings in albatross chicks and presence of lead paint chips in the proventriculus and elevated liver lead in carcasses. Although there was a significant association between elevated blood lead and droopwing chicks, there were notable exceptions. Prevalence of elevated tissue lead in albatross chicks was highest on Sand Island Midway and much less so on Kauai and virtually nonexistent in other areas. Prevalence of lead exposure decreased as numbers of buildings to which chicks were exposed on a given island decreased. Laysan albatross adults had minimal to no lead exposure. There was a significant negative correlation between blood lead concentration and ALAD activity in chicks. Based on ALAD activity, 0.03-0.05 μg/ml was the no effect range for blood lead in albatross chicks.

  5. The philosophy and assumptions underlying exposure limits for ionising radiation, inorganic lead, asbestos and noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A review of the literature relating to exposure to, and exposure limits for, ionising radiation, inorganic lead, asbestos and noise was undertaken. The four hazards were chosen because they were insidious and ubiquitous, were potential hazards in both occupational and environmental settings and had early and late effects depending on dose and dose rate. For all four hazards, the effect of the hazard was enhanced by other exposures such as smoking or organic solvents. In the cases of inorganic lead and noise, there were documented health effects which affected a significant percentage of the exposed populations at or below the [effective] exposure limits. This was not the case for ionising radiation and asbestos. None of the exposure limits considered exposure to multiple mutagens/carcinogens in the calculation of risk. Ionising radiation was the only one of the hazards to have a model of all likely exposures, occupational, environmental and medical, as the basis for the exposure limits. The other three considered occupational exposure in isolation from environmental exposure. Inorganic lead and noise had economic considerations underlying the exposure limits and the exposure limits for asbestos were based on the current limit of detection. All four hazards had many variables associated with exposure, including idiosyncratic factors, that made modelling the risk very complex. The scientific idea of a time weighted average based on an eight hour day, and forty hour week on which the exposure limits for lead, asbestos and noise were based was underpinned by neither empirical evidence or scientific hypothesis. The methodology of the ACGIH in the setting of limits later brought into law, may have been unduly influenced by the industries most closely affected by those limits. Measuring exposure over part of an eight hour day and extrapolating to model exposure over the longer term is not the most effective way to model exposure. The statistical techniques used

  6. Benchmark dose approach for low-level lead induced haematogenesis inhibition and associations of childhood intelligences with ALAD activity and ALA levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q; Ye, L X; Zhao, H H; Chen, J W; Zhou, Y K

    2011-04-15

    Lead (Pb) levels, delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activities, zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels in blood, and urinary delta-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and coproporphyrin (CP) concentrations were measured for 318 environmental Pb exposed children recruited from an area of southeast China. The mean of blood lead (PbB) levels was 75.0μg/L among all subjects. Benchmark dose (BMD) method was conducted to present a lower PbB BMD (lower bound of BMD) of 32.4μg/L (22.7) based on ALAD activity than those based on the other three haematological indices, corresponding to a benchmark response of 1%. Childhood intelligence degrees were not associated significantly with ALAD activities or ALA levels. It was concluded that blood ALAD activity is a sensitive indicator of early haematological damage due to low-level Pb exposures for children.

  7. Inequitable Chronic Lead Exposure: A Dual Legacy of Social and Environmental Injustice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leech, Tamara G J; Adams, Elizabeth A; Weathers, Tess D; Staten, Lisa K; Filippelli, Gabriel M

    2016-01-01

    Both historic and contemporary factors contribute to the current unequal distribution of lead in urban environments and the disproportionate impact lead exposure has on the health and well-being of low-income minority communities. We consider the enduring impact of lead through the lens of environmental justice, taking into account well-documented geographic concentrations of lead, legacy sources that produce chronic exposures, and intergenerational transfers of risk. We discuss the most promising type of public health action to address inequitable lead exposure and uptake: primordial prevention efforts that address the most fundamental causes of diseases by intervening in structural and systemic inequalities. PMID:27214670

  8. Evidence for effects of chronic lead exposure on blood pressure in experimental animals: an overview.

    OpenAIRE

    Victery, W

    1988-01-01

    Information obtained in a number of experimental studies conducted over the last 40 years on the effects of lead on blood pressure is reviewed. Differences in animal species, age at beginning of exposure, level of lead exposure, indices of lead burden, and blood pressure effects of each study are reported. In several of the high-dose experiments, hypertension was observed, but nephrotoxicity of lead may have contributed to its development. Moreover, in other high-dose experiments, no hyperten...

  9. Hypothalamic pituitary thyroid axis and exposure to interpersonal violence in childhood among women with borderline personality disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cave Sinai

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: A relationship between exposure to sexual violence and thyroid hormone alterations has been observed among women with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD. Women with borderline personality disorder (BPD report a high estimate of childhood trauma. Objective: The aim of the present study was to assess relationships between thyroid hormone measures and exposure to violence in childhood in women with BPD. Method: A total of 92 clinically euthyroid women with BPD (53% with comorbid PTSD diagnosis and at least two prior suicide attempts were assessed with the Karolinska Interpersonal Violence Scales (KIVS. The KIVS contains four subscales with concrete examples of exposure to violence and expressed violent behavior in childhood (aged 6–14 years and during adult life (15 years or older. Baseline thyroid function was evaluated by measuring plasma free and bound triiodothyronine (FT3 and T3, thyroxine (FT4 and T4, and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH with immunoassays. The FT3/FT4 ratio was used to estimate peripheral deiodination. Plasma cortisol was also assessed. Results: Sixty-seven percent of patients reported medium high or high level of exposure to interpersonal violence as a child. The FT3/FT4 ratio showed a significant negative correlation with exposure to violence as a child. Patients with PTSD had significantly higher plasma cortisol levels. An ad hoc analysis revealed that the correlation between KIVS exposure to interpersonal violence as a child and FT3/FT4 ratio was significant only in patients with comorbid PTSD. Altered thyroid activity, especially FT3/FT4, levels was associated with exposure to violence in childhood in women with BPD. Conclusion: Severe childhood trauma-related stress may promote lasting altered thyroid levels and/or contribute to the development of psychopathology associated with BPD traits or PTSD.

  10. Can realtor education reduce lead exposures for vulnerable populations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoenix, Janet A; Green, Rodney D; Thompson, Aisha M

    2013-01-01

    Lead is known for its devastating effects on people, particularly children under the age of six. Disturbed lead paint in homes is the most common source of lead poisoning of children. Preventive approaches including consumer education on the demand side of the housing market (purchasers and renters of housing units) and disclosure regulations on supply side of the housing market (landlords, homeowners, developers, and licensed realtors) have had mixed outcomes. The study described in this article considered whether a novel supply-side intervention that educates licensed real estate agents about the specific dangers of lead poisoning would result in better knowledge of lead hazards and improved behavior with respect to the information they convey to potential home buyers. Ninety-one licensed realtors were trained for four hours on lead hazards and their health impacts. Pre- and postsurveys and a six-month follow-up interview were conducted to assess the impact of the intervention on their knowledge and self-reported behaviors with clients. The findings suggest that supply-side education could have a salutary impact on realtor knowledge and behavior. PMID:23947286

  11. Evaluation of preventive and control measures for lead exposure in a South African lead-acid battery recycling smelter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyosi, Sindiswa

    2007-10-01

    In South Africa, new lead regulations released in February 2002 served as motivation for a cross-sectional study investigating the effectiveness of preventive and control measures implemented in a lead smelter that recycles lead-acid batteries. Twenty-two workers were observed and interviewed. Structured questionnaires were used to gather workers' personal information, perception about their work environment, health risks, and work practices. Retrospective data from air monitoring and medical surveillance programs were obtained from the plant's records. The smelter implemented a number of control measures for lead exposure, including engineering controls, administrative controls, and, as a last resort, personal protective equipment. Engineering controls were rated the best control measure and included local exhaust ventilation systems and wet methods. Positive pressure systems were used in the offices and laboratory. The local exhaust ventilation system was rated the best engineering control measure. Although control measures were used, areas such as smelting and refinery had average lead in air levels above 0.15 mg/m(3), the occupational exposure limit for lead. This was a concern especially with regard to the smelting area because those workers had the second highest mean blood lead levels; workers in the battery breaking area had the highest. Regular use of personal protective equipment by some workers in the "lead exposure zones" was not observed. Although the mean blood lead levels had been below 40 micro g/dL for more than 90% of the workers since 2001, more than 70% of workers reported concerns about their health while working in the smelter. Even though control measures were implemented, they were not adequate because in some areas lead in air exceeded the occupational exposure limit. Therefore, improvement of existing measures and regular monitoring of personal protective equipment use were included in the recommendations given to the smelter.

  12. Long-term human exposure to lead from different media and intake pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pizzol, Massimo; Thomsen, Marianne; Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2010-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is well known as an environmental pollutant: it can accumulate in various media, so actual lead exposure reflects both historical and present contaminations. Two main challenges then emerge: obtaining updated information to gain an overall picture of the sources of exposure, and predict......Lead (Pb) is well known as an environmental pollutant: it can accumulate in various media, so actual lead exposure reflects both historical and present contaminations. Two main challenges then emerge: obtaining updated information to gain an overall picture of the sources of exposure......, and predicting the resulting internal body exposure levels and effects that occur under long-term exposure conditions. In this paper, a modeling approach is used to meet these challenges with reference to Danish exposure conditions. Levels of lead content in various media have been coupled with data for lead...... intake and absorption in the human body, for both children and adults. An age-dependent biokinetic model allows then for determination of the blood lead levels resulting from chronic exposure. The study shows that the actual intake of lead is up to 27% of the Provisional Tolerable Daily Intake (PTDI...

  13. Childhood exposure to violence and lifelong health: Clinical intervention science and stress biology research join forces

    OpenAIRE

    Moffitt, Terrie E

    2013-01-01

    Many young people who are mistreated by an adult, victimized by bullies, criminally assaulted, or who witness domestic violence react to this violence exposure by developing behavioral, emotional, or learning problems. What is less well known is that adverse experiences like violence exposure can lead to hidden physical alterations inside a child’s body, alterations which may have adverse effects on life-long health. We discuss why this is important for the field of developmental psychopathol...

  14. Lead shot contribution to blood lead of First Nations people: The use of lead isotopes to identify the source of exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuji, Leonard J.S. [Department of Environment and Resource Studies, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada)], E-mail: ljtsuji@fes.uwaterloo.ca; Wainman, Bruce C. [Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8N 3Z5 (Canada); Martin, Ian D. [Department of Environment and Resource Studies, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Sutherland, Celine [Attawapiskat First Nation Health Services, Attawapiskat, Ontario, P0L 1A0 (Canada); Weber, Jean-Philippe; Dumas, Pierre [Centre de toxicologie, Institut national de sante publique du Quebec, Quebec City, Quebec, G1V 5B3 (Canada); Nieboer, Evert [Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, L8N 3Z5 (Canada); Institute of Community Medicine, University of Tromso, Tromso N-9037 (Norway)

    2008-11-01

    Although lead isotope ratios have been used to identify lead ammunition (lead shotshell pellets and bullets) as a source of exposure for First Nations people of Canada, the actual source of lead exposure needs to be further clarified. Whole blood samples for First Nations people of Ontario, Canada, were collected from participants prior to the traditional spring harvest of water birds, as well as post-harvest. Blood-lead levels and stable lead isotope ratios prior to, and after the harvest were determined by ICP-MS. Data were analyzed by paired t-tests and Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks tests. All participants consumed water birds harvested with lead shotshell during the period of study. For the group excluding six males who were potentially exposed to other sources of lead (as revealed through a questionnaire), paired t-tests and Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks tests showed consistent results: significant (p < 0.05) increases in blood-lead concentrations and blood levels of {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb and {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb towards the mean values we previously reported for lead shotshell pellets; and a significant decrease in {sup 208}Pb/{sup 206}Pb values towards the mean for lead shotshell pellets. However, when we categorized the group further into a group that did not use firearms and did not eat any other traditional foods harvested with lead ammunition other than waterfowl, our predictions for {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb, {sup 206}Pb/{sup 207}Pb and {sup 208}Pb/{sup 206}Pb hold true, but there was not a significant increase in blood-lead level after the hunt. It appears that the activity of hunting (i.e., use of a shotgun) was also an important route of lead exposure. The banning of lead shotshell for all game hunting would eliminate a source of environmental lead for all people who use firearms and/or eat wild game.

  15. Multi-exposure and clustering of adverse childhood experiences, socioeconomic differences and psychotropic medication in young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Björkenstam

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Stressful childhood experiences have negative long-term health consequences. The present study examines the association between adverse childhood experiences, socioeconomic position, and risk of psychotropic medication in young adulthood. METHODS: This register-based cohort study comprises the birth cohorts between 1985 and 1988 in Sweden. We followed 362 663 individuals for use of psychotropic medication from January 2006 until December 2008. Adverse childhood experiences were severe criminality among parents, parental alcohol or drug abuse, social assistance recipiency, parental separation or single household, child welfare intervention before the age of 12, mentally ill or suicidal parents, familial death, and number of changes in place of residency. Estimates of risk of psychotropic medication were calculated as odds ratio (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CIs using logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Adverse childhood experiences were associated with increased risks of psychotropic medication. The OR for more than three adverse childhood experiences and risk of psychotropic medication was for women 2.4 (95% CI 2.3-2.5 and for men 3.1 (95% CI 2.9-3.2. The risk of psychotropic medication increased with a higher rate of adverse childhood experiences, a relationship similar in all socioeconomic groups. CONCLUSIONS: Accumulation of adverse childhood experiences increases the risk of psychotropic medication in young adults. Parental educational level is of less importance when adjusting for adverse childhood experiences. The higher risk for future mental health problems among children from lower socioeconomic groups, compared to peers from more advantaged backgrounds, seems to be linked to a higher rate of exposure to adverse childhood experiences.

  16. The Effects of Childhood Exposure to Marital Violence on Adolescent Gender-Role Beliefs and Dating Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichter, Erika L.; McCloskey, Laura A.

    2004-01-01

    Children exposed to marital violence in childhood are at risk for engaging in dating violence as adolescents or young adults. Using a longitudinal prospective design, mother--child pairs from violent and nonviolent homes (N = 208) were interviewed about exposure to marital violence twice over a 7--9 year time span. Responses to questions about…

  17. Persistent Organic Pollutant Exposure Leads to Insulin Resistance Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruzzin, Jérôme; Petersen, Rasmus; Meugnier, Emmanuelle;

    2010-01-01

    of persistent organic pollutants (POPs). However, experimental evidence demonstrating a causal link between POPs and the development of insulin resistance is lacking. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether exposure to POPs contributes to insulin resistance and metabolic disorders. METHODS: Wistar rats were exposed...... for 28 days to lipophilic POPs through the consumption of high-fat diet containing either refined or crude fish oil obtained from farmed Atlantic salmon. Furthermore, differentiated adipocytes were exposed to several POP mixtures that mimicked the relative abundance of organic pollutants present in crude...... salmon oil. We measured body weight, whole-body insulin sensitivity, POP accumulation, lipid and glucose homeostasis, gene expression and performed microarray analysis. RESULTS: Adult male rats exposed to crude, but not refined, salmon oil developed insulin resistance, abdominal obesity...

  18. Lead shot contribution to blood lead of First Nations people: The use of lead isotopes to identify the source of exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although lead isotope ratios have been used to identify lead ammunition (lead shotshell pellets and bullets) as a source of exposure for First Nations people of Canada, the actual source of lead exposure needs to be further clarified. Whole blood samples for First Nations people of Ontario, Canada, were collected from participants prior to the traditional spring harvest of water birds, as well as post-harvest. Blood-lead levels and stable lead isotope ratios prior to, and after the harvest were determined by ICP-MS. Data were analyzed by paired t-tests and Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks tests. All participants consumed water birds harvested with lead shotshell during the period of study. For the group excluding six males who were potentially exposed to other sources of lead (as revealed through a questionnaire), paired t-tests and Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks tests showed consistent results: significant (p 206Pb/204Pb and 206Pb/207Pb towards the mean values we previously reported for lead shotshell pellets; and a significant decrease in 208Pb/206Pb values towards the mean for lead shotshell pellets. However, when we categorized the group further into a group that did not use firearms and did not eat any other traditional foods harvested with lead ammunition other than waterfowl, our predictions for 206Pb/204Pb, 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/206Pb hold true, but there was not a significant increase in blood-lead level after the hunt. It appears that the activity of hunting (i.e., use of a shotgun) was also an important route of lead exposure. The banning of lead shotshell for all game hunting would eliminate a source of environmental lead for all people who use firearms and/or eat wild game

  19. Plasma lipid profiles and risk of cardiovascular disease in occupational lead exposure in Abeokuta, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Idumebor Florence; Ugbaja Regina; Ademuyiwa Oladipo; Adebawo Olugbenga

    2005-01-01

    Abstract In order to investigate the effects of lead exposure on risk of cardiovascular disease during occupational exposure to this metal, plasma cholesterol and its fractions as high-density liporotein (HDL), low-density liporotein (LDL) and triglyceride were determined in various artisans in Abeokuta, Nigeria who have been shown to be occupationally exposed to lead and these were related to blood lead levels. Increased risk of cardiovascular disease was observed in the artisans. Total chol...

  20. Urban gardens: Lead exposure, recontamination mechanisms, and implications for remediation design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental lead contamination is prevalent in urban areas where soil represents a significant sink and pathway of exposure. This study characterizes the speciation of lead that is relevant to local recontamination and to human exposure in the backyard gardens of Roxbury and Dorchester, MA, USA. One hundred forty-one backyard gardens were tested by X-ray fluorescence, and 81% of gardens have lead levels above the US EPA action limit of 400 μg/g. Raised gardening beds are the in situ exposure reduction method used in the communities to promote urban gardening. Raised beds were tested for lead and the results showed that the lead concentration increased from an initial range of 150±40 μg/g to an average of 336 μg/g over 4 years. The percent distribution of lead in the fine grain soil (<100 μm) and the trace metal signature of the raised beds support the conclusion that the mechanism of recontamination is wind-transported particles. Scanning electron microscopy and sequential extraction were used to characterize the speciation of lead, and the trace metal signature of the fine grain soil in both gardens and raised gardening beds is characteristic of lead-based paint. This study demonstrates that raised beds are a limited exposure reduction method and require maintenance to achieve exposure reduction goals. An exposure model was developed based on a suite of parameters that combine relevant values from the literature with site-specific quantification of exposure pathways. This model suggests that consumption of homegrown produce accounts for only 3% of children's daily exposure of lead while ingestion of fine grained soil (<100 μm) accounts for 82% of the daily exposure. This study indicates that urban lead remediation on a yard-by-yard scale requires constant maintenance and that remediation may need to occur on a neighborhood-wide scale

  1. Lead exposure in adult males in urban Transvaal Province, South Africa during the apartheid era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Catherine A; Cooper, Matthew J; Smith, Martin J; Trueman, Clive N; Schutkowski, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Human exposure to lead is a substantial public health hazard worldwide and is particularly problematic in the Republic of South Africa given the country's late cessation of leaded petrol. Lead exposure is associated with a number of serious health issues and diseases including developmental and cognitive deficiency, hypertension and heart disease. Understanding the distribution of lifetime lead burden within a given population is critical for reducing exposure rates. Femoral bone from 101 deceased adult males living in urban Transvaal Province (now Gauteng Province), South Africa between 1960 and 1998 were analyzed for lead concentration by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Of the 72 black and 29 white individuals sampled, chronic lead exposure was apparent in nearly all individuals. White males showed significantly higher median bone lead concentration (ME = 10.04 µg·g(-1)), than black males (ME = 3.80 µg·g(-1)) despite higher socioeconomic status. Bone lead concentration covaries significantly, though weakly, with individual age. There was no significant temporal trend in bone lead concentration. These results indicate that long-term low to moderate lead exposure is the historical norm among South African males. Unexpectedly, this research indicates that white males in the sample population were more highly exposed to lead.

  2. Incidence of childhood leukemia in relation to proximity and general characteristics of different environmental exposure sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of the environment in the etiology of childhood acute leukemia (AL) is currently investigated. In this context, the aim of the present work is to study the association between the incidence of AL and the proximity of nuclear power plants (NPP) and to high voltage overhead power lines (HV OLs). At first, the geographical variations of AL have been studied at the Departement level. The cases included in the studies are all cases of AL of the French National Registry of Childhood Haemopatopoietic Malignancies on the studied periods: 1990-2004 for the study of incidence on Departements and 2002-2007 for the studies of association between incidence of AL and environmental exposure factors. Concerning those latter studies, a case-control approach has been used. The control sample, representative of the French pediatric population, contains 30,000 subjects and has been drawn by the INSEE. The precise localization of addresses of subjects and of exposure sources in relation with the type of sources is essential to build indicators of exposure reflecting the probability and intensity of exposure. * The study of AL by Departement has highlighted neither trend nor spatial structure in the incidence at this geographical level globally as well as by age, gender and subtype of leukemia.* On 2002-2007, on the contrary of on previous periods, the incidence of AL at less than 5 km from a NPP was nearly twice higher than expected, with the case-control study as well as with the incidence approach. This result was not specific to any age group, NPP, a type of NPP and was not associated with the geographic zoning of gaseous discharges of NPPs. * The study of the proximity to HV OLs highlighted an association between the incidence of AL and the close proximity (≤ 50 m) of lines of more than 225 kV, association which was restricted to children of less than 5 y.o. or living in non-urban areas; but not with the proximity to lines of less than 150 kV. (author)

  3. Mapping the spatio-temporal risk of lead exposure in apex species for more effective mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo-Tomás, Patricia; Olea, Pedro P; Jiménez-Moreno, María; Camarero, Pablo R; Sánchez-Barbudo, Inés S; Rodríguez Martín-Doimeadios, Rosa C; Mateo, Rafael

    2016-07-27

    Effective mitigation of the risks posed by environmental contaminants for ecosystem integrity and human health requires knowing their sources and spatio-temporal distribution. We analysed the exposure to lead (Pb) in griffon vulture Gyps fulvus-an apex species valuable as biomonitoring sentinel. We determined vultures' lead exposure and its main sources by combining isotope signatures and modelling analyses of 691 bird blood samples collected over 5 years. We made yearlong spatially explicit predictions of the species risk of lead exposure. Our results highlight elevated lead exposure of griffon vultures (i.e. 44.9% of the studied population, approximately 15% of the European, showed lead blood levels more than 200 ng ml(-1)) partly owing to environmental lead (e.g. geological sources). These exposures to environmental lead of geological sources increased in those vultures exposed to point sources (e.g. lead-based ammunition). These spatial models and pollutant risk maps are powerful tools that identify areas of wildlife exposure to potentially harmful sources of lead that could affect ecosystem and human health. PMID:27466455

  4. Lead shot contribution to blood lead of First Nations people: the use of lead isotopes to identify the source of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Leonard J S; Wainman, Bruce C; Martin, Ian D; Sutherland, Celine; Weber, Jean-Philippe; Dumas, Pierre; Nieboer, Evert

    2008-11-01

    Although lead isotope ratios have been used to identify lead ammunition (lead shotshell pellets and bullets) as a source of exposure for First Nations people of Canada, the actual source of lead exposure needs to be further clarified. Whole blood samples for First Nations people of Ontario, Canada, were collected from participants prior to the traditional spring harvest of water birds, as well as post-harvest. Blood-lead levels and stable lead isotope ratios prior to, and after the harvest were determined by ICP-MS. Data were analyzed by paired t-tests and Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks tests. All participants consumed water birds harvested with lead shotshell during the period of study. For the group excluding six males who were potentially exposed to other sources of lead (as revealed through a questionnaire), paired t-tests and Wilcoxon Signed-Ranks tests showed consistent results: significant (pshotshell pellets; and a significant decrease in (208)Pb/(206)Pb values towards the mean for lead shotshell pellets. However, when we categorized the group further into a group that did not use firearms and did not eat any other traditional foods harvested with lead ammunition other than waterfowl, our predictions for (206)Pb/(204)Pb, (206)Pb/(207)Pb and (208)Pb/(206)Pb hold true, but there was not a significant increase in blood-lead level after the hunt. It appears that the activity of hunting (i.e., use of a shotgun) was also an important route of lead exposure. The banning of lead shotshell for all game hunting would eliminate a source of environmental lead for all people who use firearms and/or eat wild game.

  5. Lead-Related Genetic Loci, Cumulative Lead Exposure and Incident Coronary Heart Disease: The Normative Aging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskopf, Marc G.; Sparrow, David; Schwartz, Joel; Hu, Howard; Park, Sung Kyun

    2016-01-01

    Background Cumulative exposure to lead is associated with cardiovascular outcomes. Polymorphisms in the δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD), hemochromatosis (HFE), heme oxygenase-1 (HMOX1), vitamin D receptor (VDR), glutathione S-transferase (GST) supergene family (GSTP1, GSTT1, GSTM1), apolipoprotein E (APOE),angiotensin II receptor-1 (AGTR1) and angiotensinogen (AGT) genes, are believed to alter toxicokinetics and/or toxicodynamics of lead. Objectives We assessed possible effect modification by genetic polymorphisms in ALAD, HFE, HMOX1, VDR, GSTP1, GSTT1, GSTM1, APOE, AGTR1 and AGT individually and as the genetic risk score (GRS) on the association between cumulative lead exposure and incident coronary heart disease (CHD) events. Methods We used K-shell-X-ray fluorescence to measure bone lead levels. GRS was calculated on the basis of 22 lead-related loci. We constructed Cox proportional hazard models to compute adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for incident CHD. We applied inverse probability weighting to account for potential selection bias due to recruitment into the bone lead sub-study. Results Significant effect modification was found by VDR, HMOX1, GSTP1, APOE, and AGT genetic polymorphisms when evaluated individually. Further, the bone lead-CHD associations became larger as GRS increases. After adjusting for potential confounders, a HR of CHD was 2.27 (95%CI: 1.50–3.42) with 2-fold increase in patella lead levels, among participants in the top tertile of GRS. We also detected an increasing trend in HRs across tertiles of GRS (p-trend = 0.0063). Conclusions Our findings suggest that lead-related loci as a whole may play an important role in susceptibility to lead-related CHD risk. These findings need to be validated in a separate cohort containing bone lead, lead-related genetic loci and incident CHD data. PMID:27584680

  6. Urban gardens: lead exposure, recontamination mechanisms, and implications for remediation design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Heather F; Hausladen, Debra M; Brabander, Daniel J

    2008-07-01

    Environmental lead contamination is prevalent in urban areas where soil represents a significant sink and pathway of exposure. This study characterizes the speciation of lead that is relevant to local recontamination and to human exposure in the backyard gardens of Roxbury and Dorchester, MA, USA. One hundred forty-one backyard gardens were tested by X-ray fluorescence, and 81% of gardens have lead levels above the US EPA action limit of 400 microg/g. Raised gardening beds are the in situ exposure reduction method used in the communities to promote urban gardening. Raised beds were tested for lead and the results showed that the lead concentration increased from an initial range of 150+/-40 microg/g to an average of 336 microg/g over 4 years. The percent distribution of lead in the fine grain soil (gardens and raised gardening beds is characteristic of lead-based paint. This study demonstrates that raised beds are a limited exposure reduction method and require maintenance to achieve exposure reduction goals. An exposure model was developed based on a suite of parameters that combine relevant values from the literature with site-specific quantification of exposure pathways. This model suggests that consumption of homegrown produce accounts for only 3% of children's daily exposure of lead while ingestion of fine grained soil (<100 microm) accounts for 82% of the daily exposure. This study indicates that urban lead remediation on a yard-by-yard scale requires constant maintenance and that remediation may need to occur on a neighborhood-wide scale.

  7. Essential trace metal excretion from rats with lead exposure and during chelation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victery, W; Miller, C R; Goyer, R A

    1986-02-01

    Urinary excretion of lead, zinc, calcium, magnesium, iron, copper, sodium, and potassium was measured in rats daily for 1 week after a 6-week exposure to 10,000 micrograms/ml lead in drinking water. Beginning on the third day, half of the lead-exposed and control rats were injected intraperitoneally with calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) daily for 3 days. Whole blood, plasma, and kidney metal concentrations were determined from samples obtained at the end of the experiment. Exposure to lead increased urinary excretion, not only of lead, but also of calcium, magnesium, zinc, copper, and iron. Excretion of sodium and potassium was not altered. Chelation therapy further increased excretion of lead, zinc, copper, and iron, but not magnesium. The increase in calcium excretion during chelation treatment (beyond that resulting from lead exposure per se) was accounted for by the Ca content of CaNa2-EDTA. EDTA treatment increased renal concentration of zinc but lowered renal concentration of lead, copper, and iron. These multimetal alterations may have implications for essential metal supplementation, particularly zinc, in persons being given chelation agents for excess lead exposure and in infants and children with low-level lead exposure not necessarily requiring chelation therapy.

  8. Impact of developmental lead exposure on splenic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lead (Pb) is known to alter the functions of numerous organ systems, including the hematopoietic and immune systems. Pb can induce anemia and can lower host resistance to bacterial and viral infections. The anemia is due to Pb's inhibition of hemoglobin synthesis and Pb's induction of membrane changes, leading to early erythrocyte senescence. Pb also increases B-cell activation/proliferation and skews T-cell help (Th) toward Th2 subset generation. The specific mechanisms for many of the Pb effects are, as yet, not completely understood. Therefore, we performed gene expression analysis, via microarray, on RNA from the spleens of developmentally Pb-exposed mice, in order to gain further insight into these Pb effects. Splenic RNA microarray analysis indicated strong up-regulation of genes coding for proteolytic enzymes, lipases, amylase, and RNaseA. The data also showed that Pb affected the expression of many genes associated with innate immunity. Analysis of the microarray results via GeneSifter software indicated that Pb increased apoptosis, B-cell differentiation, and Th2 development. Direct up-regulation by Pb of expression of the gene encoding the heme-regulated inhibitor (HRI) suggested that Pb can decrease erythropoiesis by blocking globin mRNA translation. Pb's high elevation of digestive/catabolizing enzymes could generate immunogenic self peptides. With Pb's potential to induce new self-peptides and to enhance the expression of caspases, cytokines, and other immunomodulators, further evaluation of Pb's involvement in autoimmune phenomena, especially Th2-mediated autoantibody production, and alteration of organ system activities is warranted.

  9. Childhood cancer and exposure to corona ions from power lines: an epidemiological test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We previously reported an association between childhood leukaemia in Britain and proximity of the child’s address at birth to high-voltage power lines that declines from the 1960s to the 2000s. We test here whether a ‘corona-ion hypothesis’ could explain these results. This hypothesis proposes that corona ions, atmospheric ions produced by power lines and blown away from them by the wind, increase the retention of airborne pollutants in the airways when breathed in and hence cause disease. We develop an improved model for calculating exposure to corona ions, using data on winds from meteorological stations and considering the whole length of power line within 600 m of each subject’s address. Corona-ion exposure is highly correlated with proximity to power lines, and hence the results parallel the elevations in leukaemia risk seen with distance analyses. But our model explains the observed pattern of leukaemia rates around power lines less well than straightforward distance measurements, and ecological considerations also argue against the hypothesis. This does not disprove the corona-ion hypothesis as the explanation for our previous results, but nor does it provide support for it, or, by extension, any other hypothesis dependent on wind direction. (paper)

  10. Lead exposure is associated with decreased serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity and genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wan-Fen; Pan, Mei-Hung; Chung, Meng-Chu; Ho, Chi-Kung; Chuang, Hung-Yi

    2006-08-01

    Lead exposure causes cardiac and vascular damage in experimental animals. However, there is considerable debate regarding the causal relationship between lead exposure and cardiovascular dysfunction in humans. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1), a high-density lipoprotein-associated antioxidant enzyme, is capable of hydrolyzing oxidized lipids and thus protects against atherosclerosis. Previous studies have shown that lead and several other metal ions are able to inhibit PON1 activity in vitro. To investigate whether lead exposure has influence on serum PON1 activity, we conducted a cross-sectional study of workers from a lead battery manufactory and lead recycling plant. Blood samples were analyzed for whole-blood lead levels, serum PON1 activity, and three common PON1 polymorphisms (Q192R, L55M, -108C/T). The mean blood lead level (+/-SD) of this cohort was 27.1+/-15 microg/dL. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that blood lead levels were significantly associated with decreased serum PON1 activity (p<0.001) in lead workers. This negative correlation was more evident for workers who carry the R192 allele, which has been suggested to be a risk factor for coronary heart disease. Taken together, our results suggest that the decrease in serum PON1 activity due to lead exposure may render individuals more susceptible to atherosclerosis, particularly subjects who are homozygous for the R192 allele.

  11. Environmental exposure to lead and children's intelligence at the age of seven years. The Port Pirie Cohort Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baghurst, P.A.; McMichael, A.J.; Wigg, N.R.; Vimpani, G.V.; Robertson, E.F.; Roberts, R.J.; Tong, S.L. (CSIRO Division of Human Nutrition, Adelaide (Australia))

    1992-10-29

    Exposure to lead in early childhood is thought to result in delayed neuropsychological development. As yet there is little longitudinal evidence to establish whether these effects persist into later childhood. The authors measured IQ scores in 494 seven-year-old children from the lead-smelting community of Port Pirie, Australia, in whom developmental deficits associated with elevated blood lead concentrations had already been reported at the ages of two and four years. Exposure to lead was estimated from the lead concentrations in maternal blood samples drawn antenatally and at delivery and from blood samples drawn from the children at birth (umbilical-cord blood), at the ages of 6 and 15 months and 2 years, and annually thereafter. Data relating to known covariates of child development were collected systematically for each child throughout the first seven years of life. The authors found inverse relations between IQ at the age of seven years and both antenatal and postnatal blood lead concentrations. After adjustment by multiple regression for sex, parents' level of education, maternal age at delivery, parents' smoking status, socioeconomic status, quality of the home environment, maternal IQ, birth weight, birth order, feeding method (breast, bottle, or both), duration of breast-feeding, and whether the child's natural parents were living together, the relation with lead exposure was still evident for postnatal blood samples, particularly within the age range of 15 months to 4 years. For an increase in blood lead concentration from 10 micrograms per deciliter (0.48 mumol per liter) to 30 micrograms per deciliter (1.45 mumol per liter), expressed as the average of the concentrations at 15 months and 2, 3, and 4 years, the estimated reduction in the IQ of the children was in the range of 4.4 points (95 percent confidence interval, 2.2 to 6.6) to 5.3 points (95 percent confidence interval, 2.8 to 7.8).

  12. Outdoor NO 2 and benzene exposure in the INMA (Environment and Childhood) Asturias cohort (Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Estarlich, Marisa; Ballester, Ferran; Fernández-Patier, Rosalía; Aguirre-Alfaro, Amelia; Herce-Garraleta, Ma Dolores; Tardón, Adonina

    2011-09-01

    Air pollution exposure during pregnancy has been linked to a wide range of negative health effects. NO 2, a traffic pollution marker, and benzene, an industrial pollution indicator, stand out among the types of air pollution linked to these effects. The aim of this work is to show the methodology used to assign exposure levels for both pollutants and preliminary reports in the INMA (Environment and Childhood) Asturias cohort in Spain. This cohort consists of 494 pregnant women and their children, who have been recruited and followed since 2004. Air pollution levels were measured at 67 points by means of passive samplers. The mean NO 2 measured value was 21.2 μg m -3 (range 3.5 μg m -3 to 44.5 μg m -3), and the mean benzene value was 2.72 μg m -3 (range 0.18 μg m -3 to 9.17 μg m -3) at urban sampling points and 0.64 μg m -3 (range 0.04 μg m -3 to 2.62 μg m -3) in rural locations. The Pearson correlation coefficient among pollutants was 0.42. Land Use Regression models were built to predict exposure at the homes of pregnant women. Altitude, road distances and land use were part of the models. The percent of explained variance was 52% for NO 2 and 73% for benzene in the urban zones. No residual autocorrelation was found. Predictions were corrected based on the Air Quality Network of the Principality of Asturias taking into account pregnancy seasonality. Exposure indicators were determined for each term and for the entire pregnancy for each woman. Values for urban locations were higher than those for rural and benzene estimations for 5% of the cohort women were above the European Union annual limit value. Air pollution exposure for the INMA-Asturias cohort clearly depends on the place of residence. In particular, benzene concentrations are remarkably high if an individual lives in an urban and industrial area, which is an issue of management intervention and regulatory concern. Exposure assessment for different pollutants will allow us to evaluate potential

  13. Do US Ambient Air Lead Levels Have a Significant Impact on Childhood Blood Lead Levels: Results of a National Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LuAnn L. Brink

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Although lead paint and leaded gasoline have not been used in the US for thirty years, thousands of US children continue to have blood lead levels (BLLs of concern. Methods. We investigated the potential association of modeled air lead levels and BLLs ≥ 10 μg/dL using a large CDC database with BLLs on children aged 0–3 years. Percent of children with BLLs ≥ 10 μg/dL (2000–2007 by county and proportion of pre-50 housing and SES variables were merged with the US EPA's National Air Toxics Assessment (NATA modeled air lead data. Results. The proportion with BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL was 1.24% in the highest air lead counties, and the proportion with BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL was 0.36% in the lowest air lead counties, resulting in a crude prevalence ratio of 3.4. Further analysis using multivariate negative binomial regression revealed that NATA lead was a significant predictor of % BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL after controlling for percent pre-l950 housing, percent rural, and percent black. A geospatial regression revealed that air lead, percent older housing, and poverty were all significant predictors of % BLL ≥ 10 μg/dL. Conclusions. More emphasis should be given to potential sources of ambient air lead near residential areas.

  14. Effects of lead exposure on licking and yawning behaviour in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghazi-Khansari, Mahmoud; Rezvani, Niloufar; Bani-Assadi, Shadi; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza [Tehran Univ. of Medical Sciences, School of Medicine, Dept. of Pharmacology (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    1998-12-01

    In the present study, effects of lead exposure on licking and yawning behaviour have been studied. The dopaminergic receptor agonist, apomorphine (0.15, 0.25 and 0.5 mg/kg), induced dose-dependent licking in rats. The maximum response was obtained with 0.5 mg/kg of the apomorphine. Lead acetate (0.5%) exposure significantly increased apomorphine-induced licking. Yawning induced by the D{sub 2} dopaminergic agonist, bromocriptine (2, 3, 4, 8 mg/kg), and the cholinergic drug, physostigmine (0.1 or 0.3 mg/kg), was significantly decreased by lead acetate (0.05%) exposure. It may be concluded that the behaviour induced by dopaminergic or cholinergic agents can be affected by lead subchronic exposure. (au) 30 refs.

  15. Feasibility of brief intensive exposure therapy for PTSD patients with childhood sexual abuse: a brief clinical report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lotte Hendriks

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the strong empirical support for the effectiveness of exposure-based treatments in ameliorating post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, improvement of treatment is wanted given relatively high dropout rates and challenges of treating patients with high comorbidity and treatment-interfering stressors. The purpose of the current paper is to introduce an intensive exposure treatment program, illustrated by four case descriptions of PTSD patients, who suffered multiple (sexual traumas in childhood, had high levels of comorbidity and psychosocial stressors, and failed to improve during “regular” trauma-focused treatment programs. The program consisted of psychoeducation, prolonged imaginal exposure, exposure in vivo, exposure by drawings combined with narrative reconstructing, and writing assignments about central trauma-related cognitions. The treatment included 5 working days with individual sessions (in total 30 h of treatment provided by a team of four therapists. The PTSD symptoms of all patients decreased substantially and the effect sizes were large (Cohen's d resp. 1.5 [pre–post], 2.4 [pre-FU1 month], and 2.3 [pre-FU3 months]. Also, none of the patients showed symptom worsening or dropped out. The evaluation of these four pilot cases suggests that it is possible to intensify exposure treatment, even for multiple traumatized PTSD patients with high comorbidity. We concluded that the first results of this new, intensive exposure program for PTSD patients with childhood sexual abuse are promising.

  16. Burden of disease resulting from lead exposure at toxic waste sites in Argentina, Mexico and Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Caravanos, Jack; Carrelli, Jonathan; Dowling, Russell; Pavilonis, Brian; Ericson, Bret; Fuller, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Background Though lead contaminated waste sites have been widely researched in many high-income countries, their prevalence and associated health outcomes have not been well documented in low- and middle-income countries. Methods Using the well-established health metric disability-adjusted life year (DALY) and an exposure assessment method developed by Chatham-Stephens et al., we estimated the burden of disease resulting from exposure to lead at toxic waste sites in three Latin American count...

  17. Household mold and dust allergens: Exposure, sensitization and childhood asthma morbidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Few studies address concurrent exposures to common household allergens, specific allergen sensitization and childhood asthma morbidity. Objective: To identify levels of allergen exposures that trigger asthma exacerbations in sensitized individuals. Methods: We sampled homes for common indoor allergens (fungi, dust mites (Der p 1, Der f 1), cat (Fel d 1), dog (Can f 1) and cockroach (Bla g 1)) for levels associated with respiratory responses among school-aged children with asthma (N=1233) in a month-long study. Blood samples for allergy testing and samples of airborne fungi and settled dust were collected at enrollment. Symptoms and medication use were recorded on calendars. Combined effects of specific allergen sensitization and level of exposure on wheeze, persistent cough, rescue medication use and a 5-level asthma severity score were examined using ordered logistic regression. Results: Children sensitized and exposed to any Penicillium experienced increased risk of wheeze (odds ratio [OR] 2.12 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12, 4.04), persistent cough (OR 2.01 95% CI 1.05, 3.85) and higher asthma severity score (OR 1.99 95% CI 1.06, 3.72) compared to those not sensitized or sensitized but unexposed. Children sensitized and exposed to pet allergen were at significantly increased risk of wheeze (by 39% and 53% for Fel d 1>0.12 μg/g and Can f 1>1.2 μg/g, respectively). Increased rescue medication use was significantly associated with sensitization and exposure to Der p 1>0.10 μg/g (by 47%) and Fel d 1>0.12 μg/g (by 32%). Conclusion: Asthmatic children sensitized and exposed to low levels of common household allergens Penicillium, Der p 1, Fel d 1 and Can f 1 are at significant risk for increased morbidity. - Highlights: ► Few studies address concurrent allergen exposures, sensitization and asthma morbidity. ► Children with asthma were tested for sensitivity to common indoor allergens. ► Homes were sampled for these allergens and asthma

  18. Household mold and dust allergens: Exposure, sensitization and childhood asthma morbidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gent, Janneane F., E-mail: janneane.gent@yale.edu [Yale Center for Perinatal, Pediatric and Environmental Epidemiology, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, One Church Street, 6th Floor, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Kezik, Julie M., E-mail: julie.colburn@yale.edu [Yale Center for Perinatal, Pediatric and Environmental Epidemiology, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, One Church Street, 6th Floor, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Hill, Melissa E., E-mail: melissa.hill@yale.edu [Yale Center for Perinatal, Pediatric and Environmental Epidemiology, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, One Church Street, 6th Floor, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Tsai, Eling, E-mail: tsai.umiami@gmail.com [Yale Center for Perinatal, Pediatric and Environmental Epidemiology, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, One Church Street, 6th Floor, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States); Li, De-Wei, E-mail: DeWei.Li@ct.gov [Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, Valley Laboratory, 153 Cook Hill Road, Windsor, CT 06095 (United States); Leaderer, Brian P., E-mail: brian.leaderer@yale.edu [Yale Center for Perinatal, Pediatric and Environmental Epidemiology, Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, One Church Street, 6th Floor, New Haven, CT 06510 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Background: Few studies address concurrent exposures to common household allergens, specific allergen sensitization and childhood asthma morbidity. Objective: To identify levels of allergen exposures that trigger asthma exacerbations in sensitized individuals. Methods: We sampled homes for common indoor allergens (fungi, dust mites (Der p 1, Der f 1), cat (Fel d 1), dog (Can f 1) and cockroach (Bla g 1)) for levels associated with respiratory responses among school-aged children with asthma (N=1233) in a month-long study. Blood samples for allergy testing and samples of airborne fungi and settled dust were collected at enrollment. Symptoms and medication use were recorded on calendars. Combined effects of specific allergen sensitization and level of exposure on wheeze, persistent cough, rescue medication use and a 5-level asthma severity score were examined using ordered logistic regression. Results: Children sensitized and exposed to any Penicillium experienced increased risk of wheeze (odds ratio [OR] 2.12 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12, 4.04), persistent cough (OR 2.01 95% CI 1.05, 3.85) and higher asthma severity score (OR 1.99 95% CI 1.06, 3.72) compared to those not sensitized or sensitized but unexposed. Children sensitized and exposed to pet allergen were at significantly increased risk of wheeze (by 39% and 53% for Fel d 1>0.12 {mu}g/g and Can f 1>1.2 {mu}g/g, respectively). Increased rescue medication use was significantly associated with sensitization and exposure to Der p 1>0.10 {mu}g/g (by 47%) and Fel d 1>0.12 {mu}g/g (by 32%). Conclusion: Asthmatic children sensitized and exposed to low levels of common household allergens Penicillium, Der p 1, Fel d 1 and Can f 1 are at significant risk for increased morbidity. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Few studies address concurrent allergen exposures, sensitization and asthma morbidity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Children with asthma were tested for sensitivity to common indoor allergens

  19. Screening for childhood lead poisoning in the industrial region of Fez, Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouftini, S; Bahhou, J; Lelievre, B; de la Barca, J M Chao; Turcant, A; Diquet, B; Abourazzak, S; Chaouki, S; Hida, M; Khattabi, A; Nejjari, C; Amarti, A; Achour, S

    2015-04-01

    The study objectives were to estimate lead poisoning prevalence among children living next to an industrial area, to compare it to that in a control population, and to establish clinical and biological follow-up of the poisoned children. This is a descriptive cross-sectional study including 150 children (exposed and unexposed) performed between January 2012 and April 2013. It was meant to determine blood lead levels (BLLs) in children considered to be an exposed population (EP N 90), living in the industrial area Ain Nokb Fez compared with BLLs of children of other areas belonging to the same city supposed to be unexposed [UP (N = 60)]. A sociodemographic questionnaire was obtained, and a blood lead analysis was performed. Clinical and biological follow-up has been performed of poisoned children. The sample consisted of 90 EP children with an average age of 6.82 ± 3.32 years and male-to-female sex ratio (SR) of 1.5 and 60 UP children with an average age of 6.45 ± 3.29 years and an SR of 1.2. Among the 150 children recruited, the average of BLLs was 58.21 ± 36 µg/L (18-202.3 μg/L). The average of BLLs in EP children (71 ± 40 µg/L) was statistically greater (p poisoned children belonged to the EP group at a prevalence of 21.1 %. The clinical and biological examinations of poisoned children showed a few perturbations such as anemia, hypocalcaemia, and deficiencies in magnesium and iron. No renal disease or objective neurological disorders were observed. In the follow-up of the children with BLL ≥100 µg/L (19 cases). BLL monitoring showed a significant decrease in average of blood concentration ranging from 136.75 ± 32.59 to 104.58 ± 32.73 µg/L (p poisoning prevalence (p poisoning (21.1 %) in EP children. The relocation of the industrial site associated with corrective and preventive measures has contributed to a decrease of exposure and lead poisoning prevalence in the aforementioned population. PMID:25511562

  20. Evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of lead poisoning in a patient with occupational lead exposure: a case presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh Thuppil

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Amongst toxic heavy metals, lead ranks as one of the most serious environmental poisons all over the world. Exposure to lead in the home and the workplace results in health hazards to many adults and children causing economic damage, which is due to the lack of awareness of the ill effects of lead. We report the case of a 22 year old man working in an unorganized lead acid battery manufacturing unit, complaining about a longer history of general body ache, lethargy, fatigue, shoulder joint pain, shaking of hands and wrist drop. Patient had blue line at gingivodental junction. Central nervous system (CNS examination showed having grade 0 power of extensors of right wrist & fingers. Reflexes: Supinator- absent, Triceps- weak and other deep tendon reflexes- normal. Investigations carried out during the admission showed hemoglobin levels of 8.3 g/dl and blood lead level of 128.3 μg/dl. The patient was subjected to chelation therapy, which was accompanied by aggressive environmental intervention and was advised not to return to the same environmental exposure situation. After repeated course of chelation therapy he has shown the signs of improvement and is on follow up presently.

  1. Radial neuropathy due to occupational lead exposure: Phenotypic and electrophysiological characteristics of five patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobha N

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Lead is a ubiquitous and versatile metal that has been used by mankind for many years. It is a toxic heavy metal that ranks as one of the most important environmental poisons in the world. Research conducted in recent years has increased public health concern about the toxicity of lead at low doses and has supported a reappraisal of the levels of lead exposure that may be safely tolerated in the workplace. Neuropathy is one complication of lead poisoning. The aim of this study is to describe the phenotypic and electrophysiological profile in five male patients working in a battery factory who developed radial nerve neuropathy due to lead exposure. All patients had elevated blood lead levels that were in the toxic range. The concerned regulatory bodies should make it mandatory for workers to undergo regular health checkups to detect signs of lead poisoning and must ensure that workers are aware about the ill effects of exposure to this metal. Chelation therapy removes lead from the blood and soft tissues and chronic lead exposure often requires repeated courses of treatment.

  2. Lead exposure among workers renovating a previously deleaded bridge: comparison of trades, work tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J C; Reynolds, S J; Fuortes, L J; Clarke, W R

    2000-01-01

    Airborne and surface lead exposures were evaluated for construction trade groups at a previously deleaded bridge renovation site in the midwestern United States. Although all lead-based paint should have been removed, old layers of leaded paint were still present on some sections of the bridge. Ironworkers performing metal torch cutting had the highest exposures (188 microg/m3), followed by workers engaged in clean-up operations and paint removal (p contaminated with lead. Heavy equipment operators with low airborne lead exposure had the highest levels of surface contamination in personal vehicles (3,600 microg/m2). Laborers cleaning structural steel with compressed air and ironworkers exposed to lead fumes from cutting had the highest concentrations of lead dust on clothing (mean 4,766 microg/m2). Handwashing facilities were provided, but were infrequently used. No separate clothes changing facility was available at the site. The potential for "take-home" contamination was high, even though this site was thought to be relatively free of lead. Construction contractors and their workers need to be aware that previous deleading of a site may not preclude exposure to significant amounts of lead.

  3. Relevancy of human exposure via house dust to the contaminants lead and asbestos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomen AG; Lijzen JPA; SIR; LER

    2004-01-01

    The present report addresses the issues whether house dust is likely to contribute substantially to the exposure of humans, in particular for the contaminants lead and asbestos. House dust consists for 30-70% of soil material, indicating that contaminated soil can lead to contaminated house dust. It

  4. Environmental Cadmium and Lead Exposure and Anti-Müllerian Hormone in Pregnant Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, P S; Bonde, J P; Bungum, L;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Anti-Müllerian Hormone (AMH) has been suggested as a marker for ovarian function. Cadmium and lead have been suggested to reduce female fecundity. In this study we aimed to investigate whether environmental exposure to cadmium and lead was associated with alterations in serum...

  5. Cognition in children does not suffer from very low lead exposure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minder, B.; Das-Smaal, E.A.; Orlebeke, J.F.

    1998-01-01

    We studied the relationship between exposure to lead and memory' and attention in children. Participants were 313 boys aged 9 to 12 years who attended special education schools in the Netherlands. Children whose possible attentional or memory problerns were obviously due to causes other than lead co

  6. Multimedia exposures to arsenic and lead for children near an inactive mine tailings and smelter site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Miranda M; Sugeng, Anastasia; Lothrop, Nathan; Klimecki, Walter; Cox, Melissa; Wilkinson, Sarah T; Lu, Zhenqiang; Beamer, Paloma I

    2016-04-01

    Children living near contaminated mining waste areas may have high exposures to metals from the environment. This study investigates whether exposure to arsenic and lead is higher in children in a community near a legacy mine and smelter site in Arizona compared to children in other parts of the United States and the relationship of that exposure to the site. Arsenic and lead were measured in residential soil, house dust, tap water, urine, and toenail samples from 70 children in 34 households up to 7 miles from the site. Soil and house dust were sieved, digested, and analyzed via ICP-MS. Tap water and urine were analyzed without digestion, while toenails were washed, digested and analyzed. Blood lead was analyzed by an independent, certified laboratory. Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated between each environmental media and urine and toenails for arsenic and lead. Geometric mean arsenic (standard deviation) concentrations for each matrix were: 22.1 (2.59) ppm and 12.4 (2.27)ppm for soil and house dust (arsenic, 0.543 (3.22)ppm for toenails. Soil and vacuumed dust lead concentrations were 16.9 (2.03)ppm and 21.6 (1.90) ppm. The majority of blood lead levels were below the limit of quantification. Arsenic and lead concentrations in soil and house dust decreased with distance from the site. Concentrations in soil, house dust, tap water, along with floor dust loading were significantly associated with toenail and urinary arsenic but not lead. Mixed models showed that soil and tap water best predicted urinary arsenic. In our study, despite being present in mine tailings at similar levels, internal lead exposure was not high, but arsenic exposure was of concern, particularly from soil and tap water. Naturally occurring sources may be an additional important contributor to exposures in certain legacy mining areas.

  7. Exposure to violence during childhood is associated with telomere erosion from 5 to 10 years of age: a longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Shalev, I; Moffitt, TE; Sugden, K; Williams, B; Houts, RM; Danese, A; Mill, J; Arseneault, L; Caspi, A.

    2012-01-01

    There is increasing interest in discovering mechanisms that mediate the effects of childhood stress on late-life disease morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have suggested one potential mechanism linking stress to cellular aging, disease and mortality in humans: telomere erosion. We examined telomere erosion in relation to children’s exposure to violence, a salient early-life stressor, which has known long-term consequences for well-being and is a major public-health and social-welfare ...

  8. Prenatal exposure to tobacco and alcohol are associated with chronic daily headaches at childhood: A population-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Antônio Arruda; Vincenzo Guidetti; Federica Galli; Regina Célia Ajeje Pires de Albuquerque; Marcelo Eduardo Bigal

    2011-01-01

    The influence of prenatal events on the development of headaches at childhood has not been investigated and is the scope of our study. Of 2,173 children identified as the target sample, consents and analyzable data were provided by 1,440 (77%). Parents responded to a standardized questionnaire with a validated headache module and specific questions about prenatal exposures. Odds of chronic daily headache (CDH) were significantly higher when maternal tabagism was reported. When active and pass...

  9. Childhood cancer and residential exposure to highways: a nationwide cohort study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Children living near highways are exposed to higher concentrations of traffic-related carcinogenic pollutants. Several studies reported an increased risk of childhood cancer associated with traffic exposure, but the published evidence is inconclusive. We investigated whether cancer risk is associated with proximity of residence to highways in a nation-wide cohort study including all children aged <16 years from Swiss national censuses in 1990 and 2000. Cancer incidence was investigated in time to event analyses (1990–2008) using Cox proportional hazards models and incidence density analyses (1985–2008) using Poisson regression. Adjustments were made for socio-economic factors, ionising background radiation and electromagnetic fields. In time to event analysis based on 532 cases the adjusted hazard ratio for leukaemia comparing children living <100 m from a highway with unexposed children (≥500 m) was 1.43 (95 % CI 0.79, 2.61). Results were similar in incidence density analysis including 1367 leukaemia cases (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.57; 95 % CI 1.09, 2.25). Associations were similar for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (IRR 1.64; 95 % CI 1.10, 2.43) and stronger for leukaemia in children aged <5 years (IRR 1.92; 95 % CI 1.22, 3.04). Little evidence of association was found for other tumours. Our study suggests that young children living close to highways are at increased risk of developing leukaemia

  10. Childhood cancer and residential exposure to highways: a nationwide cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spycher, Ben D; Feller, Martin; Röösli, Martin; Ammann, Roland A; Diezi, Manuel; Egger, Matthias; Kuehni, Claudia E

    2015-12-01

    Children living near highways are exposed to higher concentrations of traffic-related carcinogenic pollutants. Several studies reported an increased risk of childhood cancer associated with traffic exposure, but the published evidence is inconclusive. We investigated whether cancer risk is associated with proximity of residence to highways in a nation-wide cohort study including all children aged electromagnetic fields. In time to event analysis based on 532 cases the adjusted hazard ratio for leukaemia comparing children living <100 m from a highway with unexposed children (≥500 m) was 1.43 (95 % CI 0.79, 2.61). Results were similar in incidence density analysis including 1367 leukaemia cases (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.57; 95 % CI 1.09, 2.25). Associations were similar for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (IRR 1.64; 95 % CI 1.10, 2.43) and stronger for leukaemia in children aged <5 years (IRR 1.92; 95 % CI 1.22, 3.04). Little evidence of association was found for other tumours. Our study suggests that young children living close to highways are at increased risk of developing leukaemia. PMID:26520639

  11. Childhood Trauma Exposure and Substance use. An Explorative Study Among Outpatients with dual Diagnoses.

    OpenAIRE

    Andreassen, Elisabeth Randall

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores associations between all forms of childhood trauma and drug debut age in a sample of 76 young, Norwegian, help-seeking substance users with a dual diagnosis. Childhood trauma (emotional, physical and sexual abuse, emotional and physical neglect), posttraumatic and general psychological symptoms and substance abuse characteristics were assessed with Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) and Klien...

  12. The association between childhood environmental exposures and the subsequent development of Crohn's disease in the Western Cape, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail Basson

    Full Text Available Environmental factors during childhood are thought to play a role in the aetiolgy of Crohn's Disease (CD. However the association between age at time of exposure and the subsequent development of CD in South Africa is unknown.A case control study of all consecutive CD patients seen at 2 large inflammatory bowel disease (IBD referral centers in the Western Cape, South Africa between September 2011 and January 2013 was performed. Numerous environmental exposures during 3 age intervals; 0-5, 6-10 and 11-18 years were extracted using an investigator administered questionnaire. An agreement analysis was performed to determine the reliability of questionnaire data for all the relevant variables.This study included 194 CD patients and 213 controls. On multiple logistic regression analysis, a number of childhood environmental exposures during the 3 age interval were significantly associated with the risk of developing CD. During the age interval 6-10 years, never having had consumed unpasteurized milk (OR = 5.84; 95% CI, 2.73-13.53 and never having a donkey, horse, sheep or cow on the property (OR = 2.48; 95% CI, 1.09-5.98 significantly increased the risk of developing future CD. During the age interval 11-18 years, an independent risk-association was identified for; never having consumed unpasteurized milk (OR = 2.60; 95% CI, 1.17-6.10 and second-hand cigarette smoke exposure (OR = 1.93; 95% CI, 1.13-3.35.This study demonstrates that both limited microbial exposures and exposure to second-hand cigarette smoke during childhood is associated with future development of CD.

  13. Acute lead exposure increases arterial pressure: role of the renin-angiotensin system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maylla Ronacher Simões

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chronic lead exposure causes hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Our purpose was to evaluate the effects of acute exposure to lead on arterial pressure and elucidate the early mechanisms involved in the development of lead-induced hypertension. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Wistar rats were treated with lead acetate (i.v. bolus dose of 320 µg/Kg, and systolic arterial pressure, diastolic arterial pressure and heart rate were measured during 120 min. An increase in arterial pressure was found, and potential roles of the renin-angiotensin system, Na(+,K(+-ATPase and the autonomic reflexes in this change in the increase of arterial pressure found were evaluated. In anesthetized rats, lead exposure: 1 produced blood lead levels of 37±1.7 µg/dL, which is below the reference blood concentration (60 µg/dL; 2 increased systolic arterial pressure (Ct: 109±3 mmHg vs Pb: 120±4 mmHg; 3 increased ACE activity (27% compared to Ct and Na(+,K(+-ATPase activity (125% compared to Ct; and 4 did not change the protein expression of the α1-subunit of Na(+,K(+-ATPase, AT(1 and AT(2. Pre-treatment with an AT(1 receptor blocker (losartan, 10 mg/Kg or an ACE inhibitor (enalapril, 5 mg/Kg blocked the lead-induced increase of arterial pressure. However, a ganglionic blockade (hexamethonium, 20 mg/Kg did not prevent lead's hypertensive effect. CONCLUSION: Acute exposure to lead below the reference blood concentration increases systolic arterial pressure by increasing angiotensin II levels due to ACE activation. These findings offer further evidence that acute exposure to lead can trigger early mechanisms of hypertension development and might be an environmental risk factor for cardiovascular disease.

  14. Effect of Lead Exposure on the Status of Reticulocyte Count Indices among Workers from Lead Battery Manufacturing Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalahasthi, Ravibabu; Barman, Tapu

    2016-01-01

    Earlier studies conducted on lead-exposed workers have determined the reticulocyte count (RC) (%), but the parameters of Absolute Reticulocyte Count (ARC), Reticulocyte Index (RI), and Reticulocyte Production Index (RPI) were not reported. This study assessed the effect of lead (Pb) exposure on the status of reticulocyte count indices in workers occupied in lead battery plants. The present cross-sectional study was carried out on 391 male lead battery workers. The blood lead levels (BLL) were determined by using an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The RC (%) was estimated by using the supravital staining method. The parameters, such as ARC, RI, and RPI, were calculated by using the RC (%) with the red cell indices (RBC count and hematocrit). The levels of RBC count and hematocrit were determined by using an ABX Micros ES-60 hematology analyzer. The levels of reticulocyte count indices - RC (%), ARC, RI, and RPI significantly increased with elevated BLL. The association between BLL and reticulocyte count indices was positive and significant. The results of linear multiple regression analysis showed that the reticulocyte count (β = 0.212, P < 0.001), ARC (β = 0.217, P < 0.001), RI (β = 0.194, P < 0.001), and RPI (β = 0.208, P < 0.001) were positively associated with BLL. The variable, smoking habits, showed a significant positive association with reticulocyte count indices: RC (%) (β = 0.188, P < 0.001), ARC (β = 0.174, P < 0.001), RI (β = 0.200, P < 0.001), and RPI (β = 0.151, P < 0.005). The study results revealed that lead exposure may cause reticulocytosis with an increase of reticulocyte count indices.

  15. Profiling Private Water Systems to Identify Patterns of Waterborne Lead Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieper, Kelsey J; Krometis, Leigh-Anne; Gallagher, Daniel; Benham, Brian; Edwards, Marc

    2015-11-01

    Although extensive literature documents corrosion in municipal water systems, only minimal data is available describing corrosion in private water systems (e.g., wells), which serve as a primary source of drinking water for approximately 47 million Americans. This study developed a profiling technique specifically tailored to evaluate lead release in these systems. When applied in an intensive field study of 15 private systems, three patterns of lead release were documented: no elevated lead or lead elevated in the first draw only (Type I), erratic spikes of particulate lead (Type II), and sustained detectable lead concentrations (Type III). While flushing protocols as short as 15-30 s may be sufficient to reduce lead concentrations below 15 μg/L for Types I and III exposure, flushing may not be an appropriate remediation strategy for Type II exposure. In addition, the sustained detectable lead concentrations observed with Type III exposure likely result from corrosion of components within the well and therefore cannot be reduced with increased flushing. As profiling techniques are labor- and sample-intensive, we discuss recommendations for simpler sampling schemes for initial private system surveys aimed at quantifying lead and protecting public health.

  16. Benzene and lead exposure assessment among occupational bus drivers in Bangkok traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muttamara, S; Leong, Shing Tet; Arayasiri, M

    2004-01-01

    Four environmental and biological monitoring sites were strategically established to evaluate benzene and lead exposure assessment at various traffic zones of Bangkok Metropolitan Region(BMR). Biological measurement of 48 non air-conditioned, male bus drivers was carried to study the relationship between individual exposure levels and exposure biomarkers. The study group was further subdivided into four age groups(16-25, 26-35, 36-45 and 46-55 years old) to monitor the age-related exposure effects. A total of 12 unexposed persons were deliberately chosen as the control group. Measurement of unmetobolized benzene in blood and analysis of urinary tt-Muconic acid urine and urinary creatinine are recommended as biomarkers of benzene exposure. Measurement of lead in blood and urine is also recommended for the biological monitoring of lead exposure. During the monitoring period, benzene and lead levels at Yaowarat Road was C6H6: 42.46 +/- 3.88 microg/m3 , Pb: 0.29 +/- 0.03 microg/m3 and decreased to C6H6: 33.5 +/- 1.35 microg/m3, Pb: 0.13 +/- 0.01 microg/m3 at Phahonyothin Road. Significant difference was established between the nonsmoking exposed group and nonsmoking control group for blood benzene concentrations (P < 0.001, two-tailed, Mann-Whiteney U test). Strong correlations were also found between trans-trans-Muconic acid concentrations in post shift samples and atmospheric benzene concentrations. Similarly, good correlation between all of biomarkers and lead level in air is established from automobile emissions. The analysis revealed that among the occupational population in the urban sites, the driver groups were found to have the highest risk of benzene and lead exposures derived from automobile emission. PMID:14971454

  17. Benzene and lead exposure assessment among occupational bus drivers in Bangkok traffic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHING TET LEONG; PREECHA LAORTANAKUL

    2004-01-01

    Four environmental and biological monitoring sites were strategically established to evaluate benzene and lead exposure assessment at various traffic zones of Bangkok Metropolitan Region(BMR). Biological measurement of 48 non air-conditioned, male bus drivers was carried to study the relationship between individual exposure levels and exposure biomarkers. The study group was further subdivided into four age groups( 16-25, 26-35, 36-45 and 46-55 years old) to monitor the age-related exposure effects. A total of 12unexposed persons were deliberately chosen as the control group. Measurement of unmetobolized benzene in blood and analysis of urinary tt-Muconic acid urine and urinary creatinine are recommended as biomarkers of benzene exposure. Measurement of lead in blood and urine is also recommended for the biological monitoring of lead exposure.During the monitoring period, benzene and lead levels at Yaowarat Road was C6H6: 42.46 + 3.88 μg/m3 , Pb: 0.29 + 0.03 μg/m3 and decreased to C6 H6: 33.5 ± 1.35 μg/m3 , Pb: O. 13 + 0.01 μg/m3 at Phahonyothin Road. Significant difference was established between the nonsmoking exposed group and nonsmoking control group for blood benzene concentrations ( P < 0.001, two-tailed, Mann-Whiteney U test). Strong correlations were also found between trans-trans-Muconic acid concentrations in post shift samples and atmospheric benzene concentrations. Similarly, good correlation between all of biomarkers and lead level in air is established from automobile emissions.The analysis revealed that among the occupational population in the urban sites, the driver groups were found to have the highest risk of benzene and lead exposures derived from automobile emission.

  18. Impairment in Spatial Memory in adult Rats following developmental Low Lead Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajashekar Rao Barkur

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of environmentally relevant levels of lead exposure during gestational and early postnatal period on hippocampal dependent spatial memory in rats during adulthood. The pregnant rats were allowed to drink either normal water (control group or 0.2% lead acetate solution (Leadtreated group during pregnancy and lactation. Thus rats pups of lead treated group where exposed to lead indirectly through their mothers during this period. At weaning pups of lead treated group were allowed to drink normal water till they attain the adult hood. Blood lead level was estimated on postnatal day 22 and 120. Birth weight and weight gain of the rat pups as they grew were measured at regular intervals. Both the control and lead treated groups of rats were subjected to water maze test on postnatal day 30 and 120. Results showed that lead treatment had no effect on birth weight or weight gain. Blood lead level on postnatal day 22 was significantly high in treated group compared to the control group and it was normalized by end of four months. The rats born to lead treated mothers showed impaired in spatial memory during water maze test both on postnatal day 36 and 126. These data suggests that exposure to environmentally relevant levels of lead during intrauterine and early postnatal period of brain development causes impairment in spatial memory not only during infancy but also lasts till adulthood.

  19. Human lead exposure in a late 19th century mental asylum population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lead isotope ratios and lead (Pb) levels were analyzed in 33 individuals from a forgotten cemetery at the Colorado Mental Health Institute at Pueblo, Colorado dating to 1879-1899. Isotopic ratios from healing bone fractures, cortical bone, and tooth dentine provide information about sources of Pb exposures over a range of time that illuminates individual's life histories and migration patterns. Historical records and Pb production data from the 19th century were used to create a database for interpreting Pb exposures for these African, Hispanic and European Americans. The analysis of these individuals suggests that Pb exposure noticeably impacted the mental health of 5-10% of the asylum patients in this frontier population, a high number by standards today, and that differences exist in the three ancestral groups' exposure histories

  20. Human lead exposure in a late 19th century mental asylum population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, Nathan W; McCants, Sarah A; Custodio, Joseph M; Ketterer, Michael E; Getty, Stephen R; Hoffman, J Michael

    2007-01-01

    Lead isotope ratios and lead (Pb) levels were analyzed in 33 individuals from a forgotten cemetery at the Colorado Mental Health Institute at Pueblo, Colorado dating to 1879-1899. Isotopic ratios from healing bone fractures, cortical bone, and tooth dentine provide information about sources of Pb exposures over a range of time that illuminates individual's life histories and migration patterns. Historical records and Pb production data from the 19th century were used to create a database for interpreting Pb exposures for these African, Hispanic and European Americans. The analysis of these individuals suggests that Pb exposure noticeably impacted the mental health of 5-10% of the asylum patients in this frontier population, a high number by standards today, and that differences exist in the three ancestral groups' exposure histories. PMID:17126382

  1. Human lead exposure in a late 19th century mental asylum population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, Nathan W. [Department of Chemistry, Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO 80903-3294 (United States)]. E-mail: nbower@coloradocollege.edu; McCants, Sarah A. [Department of Chemistry, Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO 80903-3294 (United States); Custodio, Joseph M. [Department of Chemistry, Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO 80903-3294 (United States); Ketterer, Michael E. [Departments of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Northern Arizona University, Flagstaff, AZ 86011-5698 (United States); Getty, Stephen R. [Biological Sciences Curriculum Study, Colorado Springs, CO 80918 (United States); Hoffman, J. Michael [Department of Anthropology, Colorado College, Colorado Springs, CO 8090-3294 (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Lead isotope ratios and lead (Pb) levels were analyzed in 33 individuals from a forgotten cemetery at the Colorado Mental Health Institute at Pueblo, Colorado dating to 1879-1899. Isotopic ratios from healing bone fractures, cortical bone, and tooth dentine provide information about sources of Pb exposures over a range of time that illuminates individual's life histories and migration patterns. Historical records and Pb production data from the 19th century were used to create a database for interpreting Pb exposures for these African, Hispanic and European Americans. The analysis of these individuals suggests that Pb exposure noticeably impacted the mental health of 5-10% of the asylum patients in this frontier population, a high number by standards today, and that differences exist in the three ancestral groups' exposure histories.

  2. Lead exposure via drinking water - unnecessary and avoidable; Bleiexposition ueber das Trinkwasser - unnoetig und vermeidbar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelm, M. [Univ. Bochum (Germany). Abt. Hygiene, Sozial- und Umweltmedizin; Dieter, H.H. [Umweltbundesamt, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Wasser-, Boden-, Lufthygiene

    2003-07-01

    Despite successful reduction of the general lead exposure, this heavy metal is still a matter of public concern due to the fact that associations with intellectual impairment or delayed puberty are found to correlate with very low lead blood concentrations. Lead in tap water is still an important contribution to lead exposure which may cause health risk for infants. Therefore, lead pipes should be completely sanitated by exchange against pipes made from more healthy materials. (orig.) [German] Trotz erfolgreicher Reduktion der allgemeinen Belastung ist Blei auch heute noch umweltmedizinisch relevant, weil es moeglicherweise bei niedrigeren als bisher angenommenen Belastungen gesundheitlich nachteilige Wirkungen, insbesondere waehrend der fruehkindlichen Entwicklung des Nervensystems, ausloest. Insbesondere Blei aus bleiernen Trinkwasserleitungen ist eine Belastung, die fuer Saeuglinge und Kleinkinder nach wie vor ein gesundheitliches Risiko darstellen kann. Solche Leitungen sollten deswegen durch Austausch gegen gesundheitlich besser geeignete Materialien saniert werden. (orig.)

  3. Developmental lead acetate exposure induces embryonic toxicity and memory deficit in adult zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiangfei; Chen, Yuanhong; Liu, Wei; Bai, Chenglian; Liu, Xuexia; Liu, Kai; Li, Rong; Zhu, Jian-Hong; Huang, Changjiang

    2012-01-01

    Lead is a persistent metal and commonly present in our living environment. The present study was aimed to investigate lead-induced embryonic toxicity, behavioral responses, and adult learning/memory deficit in zebrafish. Lead acetate (PbAc) induced malformations such as uninflated swim bladder, bent spine and yolk-sac edema with an EC₅₀ of 0.29 mg/L at 120 h post fertilization (hpf). Spontaneous movement as characterized by tail bend frequency was significantly altered in zebrafish embryos following exposure to PbAc. Behavior assessment demonstrated that lead exposure changed behavioral responses in zebrafish larvae, as hyperactivity was detected within the first minute of light-to-dark transition in the fish exposed to PbAc from 6 to 96 hpf, and a different dose-dependent change was found in swimming speeds in the dark and in the light at 120 hpf following lead exposure. Learning/memory task assay showed that embryos exposed to PbAc from 6 to 120 hpf developed learning/memory deficit at adulthood as exhibited by a significant decrease in accuracy rate to find the food and a significant increase in finding time. Overall, our results suggested that low dose of developmental lead exposure resulted in embryonic toxicity, behavioral alteration, and adult learning/memory deficit in zebrafish. PMID:22975620

  4. Chronic lead exposure is epidemic in obligate scavenger populations in eastern North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behmke, Shannon; Fallon, Jesse; Duerr, Adam E; Lehner, Andreas; Buchweitz, John; Katzner, Todd

    2015-06-01

    Lead is a prominent and highly toxic contaminant with important impacts to wildlife. To understand the degree to which wildlife populations are chronically exposed, we quantified lead levels within American black vultures (Coragyps atratus; BLVU) and turkey vultures (Cathartes aura; TUVU), two species that are useful as environmental sentinels in eastern North America. Every individual sampled (n=108) had bone lead levels indicative of chronic exposure to anthropogenic lead (BLVU: x¯=36.99 ± 55.21 mg Pb/kg tissue (±SD); TUVU: x¯=23.02 ± 18.77 mg/kg). Only a few showed evidence of recent lead exposure (BLVU liver: x¯=0.78 ± 0.93 mg/kg; TUVU liver: x¯=0.55 ± 0.34 mg/kg). Isotopic ratios suggested multiple potential sources of lead including ammunition, gasoline, coal-fired power plants, and zinc smelting. Black and turkey vultures range across eastern North America, from Quebec to Florida and individuals may traverse thousands of kilometers annually. The extent to which vultures are exposed suggests that anthropogenic lead permeates eastern North American ecosystems to a previously unrecognized degree. Discovery of an epidemic of chronic lead exposure in such widespread and common species and the failure of soft-tissue sampling to diagnose this pattern has dramatic implications for understanding modern wildlife and human health concerns. PMID:25795925

  5. Expanding Exposure: Can Increasing the Daily Duration of Head Start Reduce Childhood Obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisvold, David E.; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2011-01-01

    Coinciding with the work requirements of welfare reform in the mid-1990s, the early childhood education program, Head Start, significantly expanded to increase the availability of full-day classes. Using unique administrative data, we examine the effect of full-day compared to half-day attendance on childhood obesity. This effect is identified…

  6. Exposure to violence during childhood is associated with telomere erosion from 5 to 10 years of age: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shalev, I; Moffitt, T E; Sugden, K; Williams, B; Houts, R M; Danese, A; Mill, J; Arseneault, L; Caspi, A

    2013-05-01

    There is increasing interest in discovering mechanisms that mediate the effects of childhood stress on late-life disease morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have suggested one potential mechanism linking stress to cellular aging, disease and mortality in humans: telomere erosion. We examined telomere erosion in relation to children's exposure to violence, a salient early-life stressor, which has known long-term consequences for well-being and is a major public-health and social-welfare problem. In the first prospective-longitudinal study with repeated telomere measurements in children while they experienced stress, we tested the hypothesis that childhood violence exposure would accelerate telomere erosion from age 5 to age 10 years. Violence was assessed as exposure to maternal domestic violence, frequent bullying victimization and physical maltreatment by an adult. Participants were 236 children (49% females; 42% with one or more violence exposures) recruited from the Environmental-Risk Longitudinal Twin Study, a nationally representative 1994-1995 birth cohort. Each child's mean relative telomere length was measured simultaneously in baseline and follow-up DNA samples, using the quantitative PCR method for T/S ratio (the ratio of telomere repeat copy numbers to single-copy gene numbers). Compared with their counterparts, the children who experienced two or more kinds of violence exposure showed significantly more telomere erosion between age-5 baseline and age-10 follow-up measurements, even after adjusting for sex, socioeconomic status and body mass index (B=-0.052, s.e.=0.021, P=0.015). This finding provides support for a mechanism linking cumulative childhood stress to telomere maintenance, observed already at a young age, with potential impact for life-long health. PMID:22525489

  7. The influence of resource strategies on childhood phthalate exposure--the role of REACH in a zero waste society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jihyun; Pedersen, Anders Branth; Thomsen, Marianne

    2014-12-01

    The present study aims to investigate how resource strategies, which intend to reduce waste and increase recycling, influence on human exposure to hazardous chemicals from material recycling. In order to examine the flows of hazardous chemicals in recycled material, a mass flow analysis of plastics and paper at European level, including the flow of phthalates, i.e. di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), and benzyl-butyl phthalate (BBP), has been performed. The result for the year 2012 shows that 26% of plastic wastes and 60% of paper consumed in Europe were recycled. This corresponds to the finding that approximately 4% of DEHP and BBP and 18% of DBP annual demands in Europe as raw material re-enter the product cycle with recycled plastics and paper. To examine the potential contribution of the phthalate exposure through recycled plastics and paper, a case study assessing the childhood exposures to phthalates from foods packed in recycled paper and plastics has been performed for 2-year-old children in Denmark. The result verifies that an increase in recycled paperboard and PET bottles in food packaging material causes a significant increase in childhood exposure to DBP corresponding to an additional exposure of 0.116-0.355 μg/kg bw/day; up to 18% of the total DBP exposure in Danish 2-year-olds. While most of the DEHP exposure can be explained, more than 50% of DBP and 70% of BBP exposure sources still remain to be identified. Finally, a conceptual framework for a circular economy based on sustainable and clean resource flows is proposed in order to increase material recycling without increasing adverse health effects. PMID:25212603

  8. Environmental exposure to lead and mercury in Mexican children: a real health problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Saavedra, Leonor C; Moreno, Ma Elena; Rodríguez-Kessler, Theresia; Luna, Ana; Arias-Salvatierra, Daniela; Gómez, Rocío; Calderon-Aranda, Emma S

    2011-11-01

    Exposure to lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) remains a world public health problem, particularly for young children in developing countries. In Mexico, the main sources of exposure to Pb and Hg are wastes from human activities that increase the natural sources of these metals. Pb and Hg are highly toxic during development and maturation periods of the central nervous system (CNS); these effects are associated with the risk for neurodegenerative diseases. Mexico has numerous exposure sources to Pb and Hg; nevertheless, information on exposure in children is limited, particularly for Hg. Therefore, we conducted a review of the studies performed in children exposed to Pb and Hg. Data presented support that an important proportion of Mexican children have Pb levels above values associated with dangerous effects. On the other hand, studies on Hg-exposure are scarce, so we need more studies to estimate the magnitude of the problem and to determine exposure levels in Mexican children. Available data support the urgent need for coordinated actions among researchers, and health and environmental government authorities to implement education and nutritional campaigns, as well as to decrease exposure and effects of Pb and Hg. In addition, there must be a priority for the implementation of educational campaigns directed to the general population, but with emphasis in parents, education staff and health care providers to decrease both the risk of exposure of children to Pb and Hg and the effects of the exposure to these metals.

  9. Lead exposure increases oxidative stress in the gastric mucosa of HCI/ethanol-exposed rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of reactive oxygen species in the ulcer-aggravating effect of lead in albino rats.METHODS: Albino Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups and treated orally with 100 mg/L (low dose) or 5000 mg/L (high dose) of lead acetate for 15 wk. A third group received saline and served as control.At the end of wk 15, colorimetric assays were applied to determine the concentrations of total protein and nitrite, the activities of the oxidative enzymes catalase and superoxide dismutase, and lipid peroxidation in homogenized gastric mucosal samples.RESULTS: Exposure of rats to lead significantly increased the gastric mucosal damage caused by acidified ethanol. Although the basal gastric acid secretory rate was not significantly altered, the maximal response of the stomach to histamine was significantly higher in the lead-exposed animals than in the unexposed control group. Exposure to low and high levels of lead significantly increased gastric lipid peroxidation to 183.2% ± 12.7% and 226.1% ± 6.8% of control values respectively (P < 0.0). On the other hand, lead exposure significantly decreased catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities and the amount of nitrite in gastric mucosal samples.CONCLUSION: Lead increases the formation of gastric ulcers by interfering with the oxidative metabolism in the stomach.

  10. In utero exposure to 25(OH) D and risk of childhood asthma, wheeze and respiratory tract infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feng, Haixia; Xun, Pengcheng; Pike, Katharine;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies of the associations between in utero 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH) D] exposure and childhood asthma risk, wheeze and respiratory tract infections are inconsistent and inconclusive. OBJECTIVES: To assess the associations between 25(OH) D levels in cord blood or maternal venous bl...... associated with the risk of asthma and wheeze during childhood. These findings are in keeping with the results of two recently published randomized clinical trials of vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy.......BACKGROUND: Studies of the associations between in utero 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH) D] exposure and childhood asthma risk, wheeze and respiratory tract infections are inconsistent and inconclusive. OBJECTIVES: To assess the associations between 25(OH) D levels in cord blood or maternal venous...... blood and risk of offspring's asthma, wheeze and respiratory tract infections. METHODS: Data were derived from PubMed, EMBASE, Google Scholar, references from relevant articles, and de novo results from published studies until December, 2015. Random-effects meta-analysis was conducted among 16 birth...

  11. Geographic analysis of health risks of pediatric lead exposure: a golden opportunity to promote healthy neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyana, Tonny J; Margai, Florence M

    2007-01-01

    In this retrospective study, the authors investigated pediatric blood lead levels (BLLs) at 2 threshold levels in neighborhoods across the US city of Chicago, examining geographic associations with demographic risk factors and housing characteristics, using data from large-scale childhood BLL screening records from 1997 through 2003. They used logistic regression and geostatistical methods to assess disease dynamics and probability of elevated BLLs. The results showed a significant decline of elevated BLLs, with levels measured at >or= 10 microg/dL decreasing by 74%, compared with a 40% decrease for the lower levels (6-9 microg/dL). The Westside and Southside neighborhoods, with a high concentration of minority populations, had the highest prevalence rates, which were significantly associated with living in pre-1950 housing units. The findings provided insights for lead prevention, implications for lowering the threshold limit, and suggestions for the urgent task of developing healthy neighborhoods. PMID:18316267

  12. Low-level lead exposure effects on spatial reference memory and working memory in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinhua Yang; Ping Zhou; Yonghui Li

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have demonstrated that lead exposure can result in cognitive dysfunction and behavior disorders. However, lead exposure impairments vary under different experimental conditions.OBJECTIVE: To detect changes in spatial learning and memory following low-level lead exposure in rats, in Morris water maze test under the same experimental condition used to analyze lead exposure effects on various memory types and learning processes.DESIGN AND SETTING: The experiment was conducted at the Animal Laboratory, Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Science between February 2005 and March 2006. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and behavioral observations were performed.MATERIALS: Sixteen male, healthy, adult, Sprague Dawley rats were randomized into normal control and lead exposure groups (n = 8).METHODS: Rats in the normal control group were fed distilled water, and those in the lead exposure group were fed 250 mL of 0.05% lead acetate once per day. At day 28, all rats performed the Morris water maze test, consisting of four phases: space navigation, probe test, working memory test, and visual cue test.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Place navigation in the Morris water maze was used to evaluate spatial learning and memory, probe trials for spatial reference memory, working memory test for spatial working memory, and visual cue test for non-spatial cognitive function. Perkin-Elmer Model 300 Atomic Absorption Spectrometer was utilized to determine blood lead levels in rats.RESULTS: (1) In the working memory test, the time to reach the platform remained unchanged between the control and lead exposure groups (F(1,1) = 0.007, P = 0.935). A visible decrease in escape latencies was observed in each group (P = 0.028). However, there was no significant difference between the two groups (F(1,1) = 1.869, P = 0.193). The working memory probe test demonstrated no change between the two groups in the time spent in the target quadrant during the working memory probe test

  13. Effect of Prenatal Exposure to Lead on Estrogen Action in the Prepubertal Rat Uterus

    OpenAIRE

    Tchernitchin, Andrei N.; Leonardo Gaete; Rodrigo Bustamante; Aracelly Báez

    2012-01-01

    Lead is a widely spread environmental pollutant known to affect both male and female reproductive systems in humans and experimental animals and causes infertility and other adverse effects. The present paper investigated the effects of prenatal exposure to lead on different parameters of estrogen stimulation in the uterus of the prepubertal rat. In prenatally and perinatally exposed rats, estrogen-induced endometrial eosinophilia, endometrial stroma edema, and eosinophil migration towards th...

  14. Plasma lipid profiles and risk of cardiovascular disease in occupational lead exposure in Abeokuta, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Idumebor Florence

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to investigate the effects of lead exposure on risk of cardiovascular disease during occupational exposure to this metal, plasma cholesterol and its fractions as high-density liporotein (HDL, low-density liporotein (LDL and triglyceride were determined in various artisans in Abeokuta, Nigeria who have been shown to be occupationally exposed to lead and these were related to blood lead levels. Increased risk of cardiovascular disease was observed in the artisans. Total cholesterol in the artisans was between 1.5 and 2.0 times higher in the artisans than that present in controls while LDL cholesterol was between 1.6 and 2.4 times higher in the artisans when compared with control subjects [p 0.05]. A significant positive correlation was observed between blood lead and total cholesterol on one hand [r = 0.372; p = 3.0 × 10-5] and blood lead and LDL cholesterol on the other hand [r = 0.283; p = 0.001]. LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio was also higher in the artisans when compared with control. Blood pressure (systolic and diastolic and other anthropometric parameters were not significantly different between the artisans and the control subjects [p > 0.05]. Results suggest that lead exposure increases cholesterol synthesis and transport to peripheral tissues whereas reverse cholesterol transport to the liver is not affected.

  15. An Observational Study to Evaluate Associations Between Low-Level Gestational Exposure to Organophosphate Pesticides and Cognition During Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donauer, Stephanie; Altaye, Mekibib; Xu, Yingying; Sucharew, Heidi; Succop, Paul; Calafat, Antonia M; Khoury, Jane C; Lanphear, Bruce; Yolton, Kimberly

    2016-09-01

    Prenatal exposure to organophosphate pesticides, which is ubiquitous, may be detrimental to neurological development. We examined 327 mother/infant pairs in Cincinnati, Ohio, between 2003 and 2006 to determine associations between prenatal exposure to organophosphate pesticides and neurodevelopment. Twice during pregnancy urinary concentrations of 6 common dialkylphosphates, nonspecific metabolites of organophosphate pesticides, were measured. Aggregate concentrations of diethylphosphates, dimethylphosphates, and total dialkylphosphates were calculated. Bayley Scales of Infant Development, Second Edition-Mental and Psychomotor Developmental indices were administered at ages 1, 2, and 3 years, the Clinical Evaluation of Language Fundamentals-Preschool, Second Edition, at age 4, and the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, Third Edition, at age 5. Mothers with higher urinary total dialkylphosphate concentrations reported higher levels of socioeconomic status and increased fresh fruit and vegetable intake. We found no associations between prenatal exposure to organophosphate pesticides and cognition at 1-5 years of age. In our cohort, exposure to organophosphate pesticides during pregnancy was not associated with cognition during early childhood. It is possible that a higher socioeconomic status and healthier diet may protect the fetus from potential adverse associations with gestational organophosphate pesticide exposure, or that dietary exposure to the metabolites is innocuous and not an ideal measure of exposure to the parent compound. PMID:27539379

  16. Confirmation of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia variants, ARID5B and IKZF1, and interaction with parental environmental exposures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiffany-Jane Evans

    Full Text Available Genome wide association studies (GWAS have established association of ARID5B and IKZF1 variants with childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL. Epidemiological studies suggest that environmental factors alone appear to make a relatively minor contribution to disease risk. The polygenic nature of childhood ALL predisposition together with the timing of environmental triggers may hold vital clues for disease etiology. This study presents results from an Australian GWAS of childhood ALL cases (n = 358 and population controls (n = 1192. Furthermore, we utilised family trio (n = 204 genotypes to extend our investigation to gene-environment interaction of significant loci with parental exposures before conception, and child's sex and age. Thirteen SNPs achieved genome wide significance in the population based case/control analysis; ten annotated to ARID5B and three to IKZF1. The most significant SNPs in these regions were ARID5B rs4245595 (OR 1.63, CI 1.38-1.93, P = 2.13×10(-9, and IKZF1 rs1110701 (OR 1.69, CI 1.42-2.02, p = 7.26×10(-9. There was evidence of gene-environment interaction for risk genotype at IKZF1, whereby an apparently stronger genetic effect was observed if the mother took folic acid or if the father did not smoke prior to pregnancy (respective interaction P-values: 0.04, 0.05. There were no interactions of risk genotypes with age or sex (P-values >0.2. Our results evidence that interaction of genetic variants and environmental exposures may further alter risk of childhood ALL however, investigation in a larger population is required. If interaction of folic acid supplementation and IKZF1 variants holds, it may be useful to quantify folate levels prior to initiating use of folic acid supplements.

  17. Multimedia exposures to arsenic and lead for children near an inactive mine tailings and smelter site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Miranda M; Sugeng, Anastasia; Lothrop, Nathan; Klimecki, Walter; Cox, Melissa; Wilkinson, Sarah T; Lu, Zhenqiang; Beamer, Paloma I

    2016-04-01

    Children living near contaminated mining waste areas may have high exposures to metals from the environment. This study investigates whether exposure to arsenic and lead is higher in children in a community near a legacy mine and smelter site in Arizona compared to children in other parts of the United States and the relationship of that exposure to the site. Arsenic and lead were measured in residential soil, house dust, tap water, urine, and toenail samples from 70 children in 34 households up to 7 miles from the site. Soil and house dust were sieved, digested, and analyzed via ICP-MS. Tap water and urine were analyzed without digestion, while toenails were washed, digested and analyzed. Blood lead was analyzed by an independent, certified laboratory. Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated between each environmental media and urine and toenails for arsenic and lead. Geometric mean arsenic (standard deviation) concentrations for each matrix were: 22.1 (2.59) ppm and 12.4 (2.27)ppm for soil and house dust (<63μm), 5.71 (6.55)ppb for tap water, 14.0 (2.01)μg/L for specific gravity-corrected total urinary arsenic, 0.543 (3.22)ppm for toenails. Soil and vacuumed dust lead concentrations were 16.9 (2.03)ppm and 21.6 (1.90) ppm. The majority of blood lead levels were below the limit of quantification. Arsenic and lead concentrations in soil and house dust decreased with distance from the site. Concentrations in soil, house dust, tap water, along with floor dust loading were significantly associated with toenail and urinary arsenic but not lead. Mixed models showed that soil and tap water best predicted urinary arsenic. In our study, despite being present in mine tailings at similar levels, internal lead exposure was not high, but arsenic exposure was of concern, particularly from soil and tap water. Naturally occurring sources may be an additional important contributor to exposures in certain legacy mining areas. PMID:26803211

  18. Ultrasonographic measurement of the femoral cartilage thickness in patients with occupational lead exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldızgören, Mustafa T; Baki, Ali E; Kara, Murat; Ekiz, Timur; Tiftik, Tülay; Tutkun, Engin; Yılmaz, Hınç; Özçakar, Levent

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to compare distal femoral cartilage thicknesses of patients with occupational lead exposure with those of healthy subjects by using ultrasonography. A total of 48 male workers (a mean age of 34.8±6.8 years and mean body mass index (BMI) of 25.8±3.1 kg/m(2)) with a likely history of occupational lead exposure and age- and BMI-matched healthy male subjects were enrolled. Demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients, that is, age, weight, height, occupation, estimated duration of lead exposure, and smoking habits were recorded. Femoral cartilage thickness was assessed from the midpoints of right medial condyle (RMC), right lateral condyle (RLC), right intercondylar area (RIA), left medial condyle (LMC), left lateral condyle (LLC), and left intercondylar area (LIA) by using ultrasonography. Although the workers had higher femoral cartilage thickness values at all measurement sites when compared with those of the control subjects, the difference reached statistical significance at RLC (P=0.010), LMC (P=0.001), and LIA (P=0.039). There were no correlations between clinical parameters and cartilage-thickness values of the workers. Subjects with a history of lead exposure had higher femoral cartilage thickness as compared with the healthy subjects. Further studies, including histological evaluations, are awaited to clarify the clinical relevance of this increase in cartilage thickness and to explore the long-term follow-up especially with respect to osteoarthritis development.

  19. Evaluation of exposure to lead from drinking water in large buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshommes, Elise; Andrews, Robert C; Gagnon, Graham; McCluskey, Tim; McIlwain, Brad; Doré, Evelyne; Nour, Shokoufeh; Prévost, Michèle

    2016-08-01

    Lead results from 78,971 water samples collected in four Canadian provinces from elementary schools, daycares, and other large buildings using regulatory and investigative sampling protocols were analyzed to provide lead concentration distributions. Maximum concentrations reached 13,200 and 3890 μg/L following long and short stagnation periods respectively. High lead levels were persistent in some large buildings, reflected by high median values considering all taps, or specific to a few taps in the building. Simulations using the Integrated Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) model and lead concentrations after 30 min of stagnation in the dataset showed that, for most buildings, exposure to lead at the tap does not increase children's blood lead levels (BLLs). However, buildings or taps with extreme concentrations represent a significant health risk to young children attending school or daycare, as the estimated BLL far exceeded the 5 μg/dL threshold. Ingestion of water from specific taps could lead to acute exposure. Finally, for a few taps, the total daily lead intake reached the former World Health Organization (WHO) tolerable level for adults, suggesting potential health risks. PMID:27132198

  20. Evaluation of exposure to lead from drinking water in large buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshommes, Elise; Andrews, Robert C; Gagnon, Graham; McCluskey, Tim; McIlwain, Brad; Doré, Evelyne; Nour, Shokoufeh; Prévost, Michèle

    2016-08-01

    Lead results from 78,971 water samples collected in four Canadian provinces from elementary schools, daycares, and other large buildings using regulatory and investigative sampling protocols were analyzed to provide lead concentration distributions. Maximum concentrations reached 13,200 and 3890 μg/L following long and short stagnation periods respectively. High lead levels were persistent in some large buildings, reflected by high median values considering all taps, or specific to a few taps in the building. Simulations using the Integrated Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) model and lead concentrations after 30 min of stagnation in the dataset showed that, for most buildings, exposure to lead at the tap does not increase children's blood lead levels (BLLs). However, buildings or taps with extreme concentrations represent a significant health risk to young children attending school or daycare, as the estimated BLL far exceeded the 5 μg/dL threshold. Ingestion of water from specific taps could lead to acute exposure. Finally, for a few taps, the total daily lead intake reached the former World Health Organization (WHO) tolerable level for adults, suggesting potential health risks.

  1. Emotional Reactivity and Exposure to Household Stress in Childhood Predict Psychological Problems in Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Shapero, Benjamin G.; STEINBERG, LAURENCE

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, research has examined the role of heightened emotional reactivity and poor regulation on maladjustment during childhood and adolescence. Although much of this research has shown a direct link between high emotional reactivity and maladjustment, there is less research on the ways in which reactivity interacts with contextual factors. Using data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (SECCYD), the current study asks how emotional reactivity in childhood,...

  2. Using the current Brazilian value for the biological exposure limit applied to blood lead level as a lead poisoning diagnostic criterion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cordeiro Ricardo

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available In general, biological exposure limits are only used for the promotion and preservation of workers' health and are not applied for diagnostic purposes. However, the issue is controversial for certain types of occupational poisoning. This paper proposes the utilization of biological exposure limits currently applied to blood lead levels in Brazil as an important criterion for diagnosing occupational lead poisoning. The author argues that contrary to the traditional clinical criterion, one should deal with the diagnostic problem of lead poisoning from an epidemiological perspective, using the current Brazilian value for the biological exposure limit applied to blood lead level as an indicator of high relative risk.

  3. Developmental Ethanol Exposure Leads to Dysregulation of Lipid Metabolism and Oxidative Stress in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan-Garbisch, Theresa; Bortolazzo, Anthony; Luu, Peter; Ford, Audrey; Do, David; Khodabakhshi, Payam; French, Rachael L.

    2014-01-01

    Ethanol exposure during development causes an array of developmental abnormalities, both physiological and behavioral. In mammals, these abnormalities are collectively known as fetal alcohol effects (FAE) or fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). We have established a Drosophila melanogaster model of FASD and have previously shown that developmental ethanol exposure in flies leads to reduced expression of insulin-like peptides (dILPs) and their receptor. In this work, we link that observation to dysregulation of fatty acid metabolism and lipid accumulation. Further, we show that developmental ethanol exposure in Drosophila causes oxidative stress, that this stress is a primary cause of the developmental lethality and delay associated with ethanol exposure, and, finally, that one of the mechanisms by which ethanol increases oxidative stress is through abnormal fatty acid metabolism. These data suggest a previously uncharacterized mechanism by which ethanol causes the symptoms associated with FASD. PMID:25387828

  4. Association of dental enamel lead levels with risk factors for environmental exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Polido Kaneshiro Olympio

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze household risk factors associated with high lead levels in surface dental enamel. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 160 Brazilian adolescents aged 14-18 years living in poor neighborhoods in the city of Bauru, southeastern Brazil, from August to December 2008. Body lead concentrations were assessed in surface dental enamel acid-etch microbiopsies. Dental enamel lead levels were measured by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and phosphorus levels were measured by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The parents answered a questionnaire about their children's potential early (05 years old exposure to well-known lead sources. Logistic regression was used to identify associations between dental enamel lead levels and each environmental risk factor studied. Social and familial covariables were included in the models. RESULTS: The results suggest that the adolescents studied were exposed to lead sources during their first years of life. Risk factors associated with high dental enamel lead levels were living in or close to a contaminated area (OR = 4.49; 95% CI: 1.69;11.97; and member of the household worked in the manufacturing of paints, paint pigments, ceramics or batteries (OR = 3.43; 95% CI: 1.31;9.00. Home-based use of lead-glazed ceramics, low-quality pirated toys, anticorrosive paint on gates and/or sale of used car batteries (OR = 1.31; 95% CI: 0.56;3.03 and smoking (OR = 1.66; 95% CI: 0.52;5.28 were not found to be associated with high dental enamel lead levels. CONCLUSIONS: Surface dental enamel can be used as a marker of past environmental exposure to lead and lead concentrations detected are associated to well-known sources of lead contamination.

  5. Adolescent, but not adult, binge ethanol exposure leads to persistent global reductions of choline acetyltransferase expressing neurons in brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan P Vetreno

    Full Text Available During the adolescent transition from childhood to adulthood, notable maturational changes occur in brain neurotransmitter systems. The cholinergic system is composed of several distinct nuclei that exert neuromodulatory control over cognition, arousal, and reward. Binge drinking and alcohol abuse are common during this stage, which might alter the developmental trajectory of this system leading to long-term changes in adult neurobiology. In Experiment 1, adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE; 5.0 g/kg, i.g., 2-day on/2-day off from postnatal day [P] 25 to P55 treatment led to persistent, global reductions of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT expression. Administration of the Toll-like receptor 4 agonist lipopolysaccharide to young adult rats (P70 produced a reduction in ChAT+IR that mimicked AIE. To determine if the binge ethanol-induced ChAT decline was unique to the adolescent, Experiment 2 examined ChAT+IR in the basal forebrain following adolescent (P28-P48 and adult (P70-P90 binge ethanol exposure. Twenty-five days later, ChAT expression was reduced in adolescent, but not adult, binge ethanol-exposed animals. In Experiment 3, expression of ChAT and vesicular acetylcholine transporter expression was found to be significantly reduced in the alcoholic basal forebrain relative to moderate drinking controls. Together, these data suggest that adolescent binge ethanol decreases adult ChAT expression, possibly through neuroimmune mechanisms, which might impact adult cognition, arousal, or reward sensitivity.

  6. Determination of exposure to lead of subjects from southwestern Poland by human hair analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Michalak, Izabela; Wołowiec, Paulina; Chojnacka, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the exposure to lead from various sources by investigation of mineral composition of human scalp hair. The research was carried out on hair sampled from 267 young adults living in Wrocław (southwest Poland). The effect of the place of residence, diet, and lifestyle on lead content in hair was examined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Lead was determined at the wavelength 220.353 nm. These outcomes were reache...

  7. Vibration perception thresholds in workers with long term exposure to lead

    OpenAIRE

    Chuang, H; Schwartz, J.; Tsai, S; Lee, M.; Wang, J.; Hu, H

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To evaluate the impact of long term occupational exposure to lead on function of the peripheral nervous system as reflected by vibration perception threshold (VPT), measured with a portable vibrameter.
METHODS—217 Workers in a lead battery factory were required to have an annual blood lead measurement during each of the 5 years preceding this study. All were invited to take the VPT test. A total of 206 workers were studied. The associations were analysed between VPTs and current bl...

  8. Exposure to lead induces hypoxia-like responses in bullfrog larvae (Rana catesbeiana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, T.M.; Blackstone, B.J.; Nixdorf, W.L.; Taylor, D.H.

    1999-10-01

    Amphibians collected around mining sites, areas with extensive automobile traffic, and shooting ranges have been documented to contain high levels of lead. Lead-exposed amphibians might respond as if in hypoxic conditions because exposure is known to decrease hemoglobin levels, damage erythrocytes, and alter respiratory surfaces. Therefore, the authors exposed bullfrog larvae to either 0 or 780 {micro}g/L Pb and either 3.50 or 7.85 mg/L oxygen for 7 d and monitored activity, trips to the surface, and buccal ventilation rates. Activity was significantly decreased in larvae exposed to low oxygen, Pb, or both compared to activity of larvae in high oxygen with no Pb. Larvae exposed to both Pb and low oxygen displayed higher buccal ventilation rates than larvae exposed to either treatment separately. Lead-exposed larvae surfaced significantly more often than unexposed larvae even under high-oxygen conditions. Lead-exposed larvae decreased in mass during the exposure period, whereas unexposed larvae increased in mass. Lead exposure could decrease survival of larvae in the field not only because of physiological problems due to decreased oxygen uptake but also because of greater predation pressure due to increased presence at the surface and reduced growth rates.

  9. Effects of lead exposure on placental cellular apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum stress in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Yunying; Hu Haiyan; Li Hong; Ma Haiyan; Xu Fengsen; Qu Baoming

    2014-01-01

    Background Lead exposure during pregnancy contributes to fetal abortion and/or teratogenesis.Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) apoptosis can be induced by various pathological conditions when ER function is disturbed.However,it is unclear whether ER stress and apoptosis play a role in the etiology of lead-exposed disease status.We aimed to investigate whether lead induced placental apoptosis and subsequent toxicity is initiated by ER apoptosis via caspase-12.Methods Sixty-three female Wistar rats were exposed to lead in drinking water during various gestational periods.Blood lead level was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.Placental cytoplasmic organelles were examined by electronic microscopy.Placental caspase-12 mRNA expression was evaluated by qRT-PCR.TUNEL assay was used to determine the placental apoptosis.Results Lead exposure significant induced ER apoptosis compared to that of the controls (P <0.05),accompanied with increased caspase-12 mRNA expression.Significant differences of caspase-12 mRNA expression levels were observed among the four groups (F=13.78,P <0.05).Apoptotic index (AI) was significantly increased in experimental groups compared to that of the controls (F=96.15,P <0.05).In lead-exposed groups,trophoblast cells underwent degeneration and fibrin deposition; Mitochondria were swollen and decreased in number; ER swelling,expansion,and vacuolization were observed.Conclusion Lead exposure contributes to placental apoptosis,as well as increased caspase-12 mRNA expression,which in turn promoted ER stress.

  10. Soil intervention as a strategy for lead exposure prevention: the New Orleans lead-safe childcare playground project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Howard W; Covington, Tina P; Mielke, Paul W; Wolman, Fredericka J; Powell, Eric T; Gonzales, Chris R

    2011-01-01

    The feasibility of reducing children's exposure to lead (Pb) polluted soil in New Orleans is tested. Childcare centers (median = 48 children) are often located in former residences. The extent of soil Pb was determined by selecting centers in both the core and outlying areas. The initial 558 mg/kg median soil Pb (range 14-3692 mg/kg) decreased to median 4.1 mg/kg (range 2.2-26.1 mg/kg) after intervention with geotextile covered by 15 cm of river alluvium. Pb loading decreased from a median of 4887 μg/m(2) (454 μg/ft(2)) range 603-56650 μg/m(2) (56-5263 μg/ft(2)) to a median of 398 μg/m(2) (37 μg/ft(2)) range 86-980 μg/m(2) (8-91 μg/ft(2)). Multi-Response Permutation Procedures indicate similar (P-values = 0.160-0.231) soil Pb at childcare centers compared to soil Pb of nearby residential communities. At ∼$100 per child, soil Pb and surface loading were reduced within hours, advancing an upstream intervention conceptualization about Pb exposure prevention.

  11. Disposition of lead (Pb in blood of rats following oral exposure to lipstick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashemi-Moghaddam H.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Information about the health risks that might be associated with lipstick consumption effects is scarce in the literature. The present work investigated the bioaccumulation of lead (Pb in blood of rats originated from lipstick sample. First, Lead contents were determined in 12 different brands of lipsticks. Lead was detected in all the studied samples. The average lead content in 14 lipsticks samples was 12.2 PPM wet wt. Then, one brand was selected for feeding to the rats and amount of oral exposing in the three doses was calculated. Sixty rats were used for the experiment. Animals were divided into 4 groups of 15 animals each. While 1group served as control group, the remaining 3 groups were exposed to lipstick through oral gavage for 12 weeks. Results show that, exposure to the lipstick cause significantly disposition of lead in the blood of rats.

  12. An exposure and health risk assessment of lead (Pb) in lipstick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnot, Andrew D; Christian, Whitney V; Abramson, Matthew M; Follansbee, Mark H

    2015-06-01

    Lead (Pb) content in lipstick and other consumer products has become an increasing concern. In 2010, the United States Food and Drug Administration tested 400 lipstick samples and found a maximum Pb concentration of 7.19 ppm. To assess the safety of lipstick in adults that chronically apply lipstick as well as instances where children might incidentally ingest lipstick products, the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (US EPA) Adult Lead Model and Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic Model for Lead in Children were used to determine the blood Pb concentrations of adults and children ingesting varying amounts of lipstick of different Pb concentrations. Modeled blood Pb concentrations were compared with oral ingestion guidelines and to the Centers for Disease Control and the US EPA's actionable blood Pb levels of 5 and 10 µg/dL. Background Pb exposure was the primary contributor to estimated blood Pb levels (BLLs) in children and adults, and Pb exposure from lipstick did not significantly increase estimated BLLs. These results suggest that the safety of consumer products and cosmetics should be assessed not only by the presence and amounts of hazardous contents, but also in conjunction with an assessment of estimated background exposures and comparison to health-based standards. PMID:25839902

  13. Lead, mercury, and cadmium exposure and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Stephani [Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States); Arora, Monica [Department of Psychiatry, Creighton University School of Medicine, Omaha, NE 68131 (United States); Fernandez, Cristina [Department of Pediatrics, Creighton University School of Medicine, Omaha, NE 68131 (United States); Landero, Julio; Caruso, Joseph [Metallomics Center, Department of Chemistry, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States); Chen, Aimin, E-mail: aimin.chen@uc.edu [Division of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Department of Environmental Health, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Background: There is limited research examining the relationship between lead (Pb) exposure and medically diagnosed attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children. The role of mercury (Hg) and cadmium (Cd) exposures in ADHD development is even less clear. Objectives: To examine the relationship between Pb, Hg, and Cd and ADHD in children living inside and outside a Lead Investigation Area (LIA) of a former lead refinery in Omaha, NE. Methods: We carried out a case-control study with 71 currently medically diagnosed ADHD cases and 58 controls from a psychiatric clinic and a pediatric clinic inside and outside of the LIA. The participants were matched on age group (5–8, 9–12 years), sex, race (African American or Caucasians and others), and location (inside or outside LIA). We measured whole blood Pb, total Hg, and Cd using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results: Inside the LIA, the 27 cases had blood Pb geometric mean (GM) 1.89 µg/dL and the 41 controls had 1.51 µg/dL. Outside the LIA, the 44 cases had blood Pb GM 1.02 µg/dL while the 17 controls had 0.97 µg/dL. After adjustment for matching variables and maternal smoking, socioeconomic status, and environmental tobacco exposure, each natural log unit blood Pb had an odds ratio of 2.52 with 95% confidence interval of 1.07–5.92. Stratification by the LIA indicated similar point estimate but wider CIs. No associations were observed for Hg or Cd. Conclusions: Postnatal Pb exposure may be associated with higher risk of clinical ADHD, but not the postnatal exposure to Hg or Cd. -- Highlights: • Blood Pb levels are associated with ADHD diagnosis in children. • No association was found between blood Cd or Hg levels and ADHD. • Children living close to hazardous waste site need to reduce metal exposure.

  14. Association of lead and cadmium exposure with frailty in US older adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Esquinas, Esther, E-mail: esthergge@gmail.com [Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid/ IdiPAZ, Madrid (Spain); CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Navas-Acien, Ana [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology, and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz [CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain); Environmental Epidemiology and Cancer Unit, National Center for Epidemiology, Carlos III Institute of Health, Madrid (Spain); Artalejo, Fernando Rodríguez [Department of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, School of Medicine, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid/ IdiPAZ, Madrid (Spain); CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP), Madrid (Spain)

    2015-02-15

    Background: Environmental lead and cadmium exposure is associated with higher risk of several age-related chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease and osteoporosis. These diseases may lead to frailty, a geriatric syndrome characterized by diminished physiologic reserve in multiple systems with decreased ability to cope with acute stressors. However, no previous study has evaluated the association between lead or cadmium exposure and frailty. Methods: Cross-sectional study among individuals aged ≥60 years who participated in the third U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and had either blood lead (N=5272) or urine cadmium (N=4887) determinations. Frailty was ascertained with a slight modification of the Fried criteria, so that individuals meeting ≥3 of 5 pre-defined criteria (exhaustion, low body weight, low physical activity, weakness and slow walking speed), were considered as frail. The association between lead and cadmium with frailty was evaluated using logistic regression with adjustment for relevant confounders. Results: Median (intertertile range) concentrations of blood lead and urine cadmium were 3.9 µg/dl (2.9–4.9) and 0.62 µg/l (0.41–0.91), respectively. The prevalence of frailty was 7.1%. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of frailty comparing the second and third to the lowest tertile of blood lead were, respectively, 1.40 (0.96–2.04) and 1.75 (1.33–2.31). Lead concentrations were also associated with the frequency of exhaustion, weakness and slowness. The corresponding odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for cadmium were, respectively, 0.97 (0.68–1.39) and 1.55 (1.03–2.32), but this association did not hold after excluding participants with reduced glomerular filtration rate: 0.70 (0.43–1.14) and 1.09 (0.56–2.11), respectively. Conclusions: In the US older adult population, blood lead but not urine cadmium concentrations showed a direct dose

  15. Association of lead and cadmium exposure with frailty in US older adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Environmental lead and cadmium exposure is associated with higher risk of several age-related chronic diseases, including cardiovascular disease, chronic kidney disease and osteoporosis. These diseases may lead to frailty, a geriatric syndrome characterized by diminished physiologic reserve in multiple systems with decreased ability to cope with acute stressors. However, no previous study has evaluated the association between lead or cadmium exposure and frailty. Methods: Cross-sectional study among individuals aged ≥60 years who participated in the third U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey and had either blood lead (N=5272) or urine cadmium (N=4887) determinations. Frailty was ascertained with a slight modification of the Fried criteria, so that individuals meeting ≥3 of 5 pre-defined criteria (exhaustion, low body weight, low physical activity, weakness and slow walking speed), were considered as frail. The association between lead and cadmium with frailty was evaluated using logistic regression with adjustment for relevant confounders. Results: Median (intertertile range) concentrations of blood lead and urine cadmium were 3.9 µg/dl (2.9–4.9) and 0.62 µg/l (0.41–0.91), respectively. The prevalence of frailty was 7.1%. The adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence interval) of frailty comparing the second and third to the lowest tertile of blood lead were, respectively, 1.40 (0.96–2.04) and 1.75 (1.33–2.31). Lead concentrations were also associated with the frequency of exhaustion, weakness and slowness. The corresponding odds ratios (95% confidence interval) for cadmium were, respectively, 0.97 (0.68–1.39) and 1.55 (1.03–2.32), but this association did not hold after excluding participants with reduced glomerular filtration rate: 0.70 (0.43–1.14) and 1.09 (0.56–2.11), respectively. Conclusions: In the US older adult population, blood lead but not urine cadmium concentrations showed a direct dose

  16. Effect of lead exposure on the immune function of lymphocytes and erythrocytes in preschool children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵正言; 李荣; 孙鹂; 历志玉; 杨茹莱

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the influence of lead exposure on the immune function of lymphocytes and erythrocytes in preschool children. Materials and methods: A group of 217 children three to six years of age from a rural area were given a thorough physical examination and the concentration of lead in blood samples taken from each subject was determined. The indices of lymphocyte immunity (CD+3CD+4, CD+3CD+8, CD+4CD+8, CD-3CD+19) and erythrocyte immunity (RBC-C3b, RBC-IC, RFER, RFIR, CD35 and its average fluorescence intensity) of 40 children with blood lead levels above 0.483 μmol/L were measured and compared with a control group. Results: The blood lead levels of the 217 children ranged from 0.11 μmol/L to 2.11 μmol/L. The CD+3CD+4and CD+4CD+8 cells were lower (P<0.01) and the CD+3CD+8 cells were higher in the lead-poisoned subjects than those in the control group (P<0.05). CD+3 and CD-3CD+19 did not show significant differences. Although the RBC-C3b rosette forming rate was lower and the RBC-IC rosette forming rate was higher in the lead-poisoned group, this difference could not be shown to be statistically significant (P>0.05). RFIR was found to be lower in the lead-poisoned group (P<0.01). Compared with the control group, the positive rate of CD35 was not found to be significantly different in a group of 25 lead-poisoned children (P>0.05), while the average fluorescence intensity was lower in the lead-poisoned group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Lead exposure can result in impaired immune function of T lymphocytes and erythrocytes in preschool children.

  17. Effect of lead exposure on the immune function of lymphocytes and erythrocytes in preschool children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵正言; 李荣; 孙鹂; 历志玉; 杨茹莱

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the influence of lead exposure on the immune function of lymphocytes and erythrocytes in preschool children. Materials and methods: A group of 217 children three to six years of age from a rural area were given a thorough physical examination and the concentration of lead in blood samples taken from each subject was determined. The indices of lymphocyte immunity (CD+3CD+4, CD+3CD+8, CD+4CD+8, CDˉ3CD+19) and erythrocyte immunity (RBC-C3b, RBC-IC, RFER, RFIR, CD35 and its average fluorescence intensity) of 40 children with blood lead levels above 0.483 μmol/L were measured and compared with a control group. Results: The blood lead levels of the 217 children ranged from 0.11 μmol/L to 2.11 μmol/L. The CD+3CD+4and CD+4CD+8 cells were lower (P<0.01) and the CD+3CD+8 cells were higher in the lead-poisoned subjects than those in the control group (P<0.05). CD+3 and CDˉ3CD+19 did not show significant differences. Although the RBC-C3b rosette forming rate was lower and the RBC-IC rosette forming rate was higher in the lead-poisoned group, this difference could not be shown to be statistically significant (P>0.05). RFIR was found to be lower in the lead-poisoned group (P<0.01). Compared with the control group, the positive rate of CD35 was not found to be significantly different in a group of 25 lead-poisoned children (P>0.05), while the average fluorescence intensity was lower in the lead-poisoned group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Lead exposure can result in impaired immune function oft lymphocytes and erythrocytes in preschool children.

  18. Task-based lead exposures and work site characteristics of bridge surface preparation and painting contractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virji, M Abbas; Woskie, Susan R; Pepper, Lewis D

    2009-02-01

    This study of bridge painters working for small contractors in Massachusetts investigated the causes of elevated blood lead levels and assessed their exposure to lead. Bridge work sites were evaluated for a 2-week period during which personal and area air samples and information on work site characteristics and lead abatement methods were gathered. Short-duration personal inhalable samples collected from 18 tasks had geometric means (GM) of 3 microg/m(3) to 7286 microg/m(3). Full-shift, time-weighted average (TWA) inhalable samples (>or=6 hours) collected from selected workers and work sites had GMs of 2 microg/m(3) to 15,704 microg/m(3); 80% of samples exceeded the permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 50 microg/m(3), on average by a factor of 30. Area inhalable samples collected from three locations ranged from 2 microg/m(3) to 40,866 microg/m(3) from inside the containment, 2 microg/m(3) to 471 microug/m(3) from a distance of 6 meters from the containment. Seventy nine percent of the area samples from inside the containment exceeded the PEL on average by a factor of 140. Through observations of work site characteristics, opportunities for improving work methods were identified, particularly the institution of engineering controls (which were only occasionally present) and improvement in the design and construction of the containment structure. The high levels of airborne lead exposures indicate a potential for serious exposure hazard for workers and environmental contamination, which can be mitigated through administrative and engineering controls. Although these data were collected over 10 years ago, a 2005 regulatory review by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) of its lead in construction standard reported that elevated lead exposures and blood lead levels, high occurrence of noncompliance with the lead standard, and nonimplementation of newer technology especially among small painting firms employing <10 workers are still widespread. As a

  19. The Contribution of Childhood Parental Rejection and Early Androgen Exposure to Impairments in Socio-Cognitive Skills in Intimate Partner Violence Perpetrators with High Alcohol Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Moya-Albiol; Williams, Ryan K.; Marisol Lila; Alba Catalá-Miñana; Ángel Romero-Martínez

    2013-01-01

    Alcohol consumption, a larger history of childhood parental rejection, and high prenatal androgen exposure have been linked with facilitation and high risk of recidivism in intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators. Participants were distributed into two groups according to their alcohol consumption scores as high (HA) and low (LA). HA presented a higher history of childhood parental rejection, prenatal masculinization (smaller 2D:4D ratio), and violence-related scores than LA IPV perpetra...

  20. Prenatal exposure to lead and cognitive deficit in 7- and 14-year-old children in the presence of concomitant exposure to similar molar concentration of methylmercury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Debes, Frodi; Weihe, Pal;

    2011-01-01

    Few studies have examined the effects of mixed metal exposures in humans. We have evaluated the effect of prenatal lead exposure in a Faroese birth cohort in the presence of similar molar-level exposure to methylmercury. A cohort of 1022 singleton births was assembled in the Faroe Islands during ...

  1. The suitability of EBC-Pb as a new biomarker to assess occupational exposure to lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Félix, Pedro M; Almeida, Susana Marta; Franco, Cristiana; Almeida, António Bugalho; Lopes, Carlos; Claro, Maria Inês; Fragoso, Elsa; Teles, Catarina; Wolterbeek, Hubert Th; Pinheiro, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Occupational exposure to lead (Pb) requires continuous surveillance to assure, as much as possible, safe and healthful working conditions. This study addresses the suitability of assessing Pb exposure in relevant workers using their exhaled breath condensate (EBC). This study enrolled workers of two different Pb processing industries characterized by moderate and high Pb exposure levels in the work environment, and a group of non-exposed individuals working in offices who served as baseline for Pb exposure. The EBC-Pb of workers reflected the Pb levels in the work environment of all three settings, although the relationship with B-Pb was not clear. The lack of correlation between EBC-Pb and B-Pb most probably indicates the time lag for Pb to enter in the two body pools. The EBC-Pb seems to reflect immediate exposure, providing a prompt signature of Pb in the environmental that may interact directly with the organ. By delivering short-term evaluation of exposure, EBC-Pb represents a clear advantage in biomonitoring and may become an interesting tool for estimating organ burden.

  2. A summary of two meta-analyses on neurobehavioural effects due to occupational lead exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeber, Andreas; Meyer-Baron, Monika; Schaeper, Michael [Institut fuer Arbeitsphysiologie, Universitaet Dortmund (Germany)

    2002-04-01

    The conclusions from published results about neurotoxic effects of inorganic lead exposures <700 {mu}g lead/l blood are contradictory at present. Effects measured by neurobehavioural methods are evaluated differently as far as recommendations for a Biological Exposure Index (BEI) of occupational lead exposure are concerned. Arguments against the German BEI of 400 {mu}g/l were put forward in new publications, and discussion of the issues is the aim of this article. It summarizes two different meta-analytical reviews on neurobehavioural effects in order to show the main tendencies of 24 selected publications on the matter. Calculations on effect sizes are compiled for 12 tests analysed in two meta-analyses and of ten tests analysed in one of the meta-analyses. The survey of six tests of learning and memory gives hints on impairments measured with two tests, covering Logical Memory and Visual Reproduction. The survey of seven tests of attention and visuospatial information processing describes impairments in four tests, namely Simple Reaction, Attention Test d2, Block Design, and Picture Completion. The survey of four tests for psychomotor functions shows impairments for three tests, namely Santa Ana, Grooved Pegboard, and Eye-hand Coordination. These test results provide evidence for subtle deficits being associated with average blood lead levels between 370 and 520 {mu}g/l. In evaluating the adversity of such effects it is concluded that the results of both meta-analytical reviews support the recommendation for the German BEI. (orig.)

  3. Occupational lead exposure and liver functions in battery manufacture workers around Kolhapur (Maharashtra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod.R.Bhagwat

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The magnitude of occupational lead exposure and its impact on liver functions was assessed in battery manufacture workers around Kolhapur (Maharashtra. Blood lead, urine lead, erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin, urine δ-amino laevulinic acid and porphobilinogen levels were measured together with standard routine biochemical tests of liver functions in battery manufacture workers along with non-exposed controls subjects. Blood lead levels were considerably high in the workers (53.63 ± 16.98; range 25.8 – 78 μg/dl compared to the controls (12.52 ± 4.08; range 2.8 - 22 μg/dl. The liver functions in these workers were normal, demonstrating preservation of hepatocellular and synthetic functions of liver. There was good correlation (r = 0.67 between blood lead and urinary δ-amino laevulinic acid levels in the worker group and no such correlation was observed in case of the control group (r = 0.02. The results indicates that early screening and regular monitoring of industrial workers by urinary δ-amino laevulinic acid levels is urgently needed to prevent long term adverse effects of lead exposure.

  4. Lead exposure impairs NMDA agonist-induced no production in pyramidal hippocampal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Nasser Ostad

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Chronic exposure to Lead (Pb affects neural functions in central nervous system (CNS particularly the learning and memory. On the other hand, alteration of calcium level in the CNS results in activation of NOS where it is expected to increase nitric oxide level in hippocampus. In this study the role of Lead exposure in NMDA induced NO production in pyramidal hippocampal cells (CA1HP was investigated. The NO level was determined by measurement of concentration of nitrite and nitrate as NO products using the metHb production at 401 nm. The ACBD (NMDA agonist-induced NO level was almost reduced to the control level (2.5 nM in the presence of 10 and 100 nM of Lead acetate. Lead acetate at concentrations which normally results in chronic toxicity did not increase the nitric oxide (NO production by CA1HP. One reason for this finding could be the interaction of Lead with NMDA receptors due to similarity of Pb2+ to Zn2+ ion. Another reason may be related to direct interaction of Lead with NMDA receptors that inhibit the stimulated NO production.

  5. Human health risk assessment of lead from mining activities at semi-arid locations in the context of total lead exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jiajia; Huynh, Trang; Gasparon, Massimo; Ng, Jack; Noller, Barry

    2013-12-01

    Lead from historical mining and mineral processing activities may pose potential human health risks if materials with high concentrations of bioavailable lead minerals are released to the environment. Since the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives of Food and Agriculture Organization/World Health Organization withdrew the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake of lead in 2011, an alternative method was required for lead exposure assessment. This study evaluated the potential lead hazard to young children (0-7 years) from a historical mining location at a semi-arid area using the U.S. EPA Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) Model, with selected site-specific input data. This study assessed lead exposure via the inhalation pathway for children living in a location affected by lead mining activities and with specific reference to semi-arid conditions and made comparison with the ingestion pathway by using the physiologically based extraction test for gastro-intestinal simulation. Sensitivity analysis for major IEUBK input parameters was conducted. Three groups of input parameters were classified according to the results of predicted blood concentrations. The modelled lead absorption attributed to the inhalation route was lower than 2 % (mean ± SE, 0.9 % ± 0.1 %) of all lead intake routes and was demonstrated as a less significant exposure pathway to children's blood, compared with ingestion. Whilst dermal exposure was negligible, diet and ingestion of soil and dust were the dominant parameters in terms of children's blood lead prediction. The exposure assessment identified the changing role of dietary intake when house lead loadings varied. Recommendations were also made to conduct comprehensive site-specific human health risk assessment in future studies of lead exposure under a semi-arid climate.

  6. Study on the neurotoxic effects of low-level lead exposure in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Zhi-wei; YANG Ru-Lai; DONG Gui-juan; ZHAO Zheng-yan

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate effects of developmental lead exposure on nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity in different brain regions and on N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor mRNA expression in the hippocampus of rats. On the basis of these observations, we explored possible mechanisms by which lead exposure leads to impaired learning and memorizing abilities in children. Methods: A series of rat animal models exposed to low levels of lead during the developing period was established (drinking water containing 0.025%, 0.05% and 0.075% lead acetate). NOS activities in the hippocampus, the cerebral cortex, the cerebellum and the brain stem were determined with fluorescence measurement and levels of mRNA expression of the NMDA receptor 2A (NR2A) subunit and NMDA receptor 2B (NR2B) subunit in the rat hippocampus were measured with Retro-translation (RT-PCR). Results: There were no differences in the body weight of rat pups between any of the groups at any given time (P>0.05). The blood lead level of Pb-exposed rat pups showed a systematic pattern of change: at 14 d of age, it was lower than that at 7 d of age, then rising to the peak level at 21 d and finally falling to lower levels at 28 d. The hippocampal NOS activities of lead-exposed groups were all lower than that of the control group on the 21 st and 28th day (P<0.01). NOS activities in the cerebellum of lead-exposed groups were all lower than that of the control group on the 21 st and 28th day (P<0.001) and the NOS activity of the 0.025% group was significantly lower than that of the 0.05% and 0.075% groups on the 28th day (P<0.05).NOS activity in the cerebral cortex of the 0.075% group was significantly lower than that of the control, 0.025% and 0.05% groups on the four day spans (P<0.001). There was no significant difference of NOS activity in the brain stem between any lead-exposed group and the control group on the four day spans. In the 0.05% and the 0.075% groups, the level of NR2A mRNA expression was

  7. Assessment of lead exposure in Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti) from spent ammunition in central Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Julia Rodriguez-Ramos; Hofle, Ursula; Mateo, Rafael; de Francisco, Olga Nicolas; Abbott, Rachel; Acevedo, Pelayo; Blanco, Juan-Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti) is found only in the Iberian Peninsula and is considered one of the most threatened birds of prey in Europe. Here we analyze lead concentrations in bones (n = 84), livers (n = 15), primary feathers (n = 69), secondary feathers (n = 71) and blood feathers (n = 14) of 85 individuals collected between 1997 and 2008 in central Spain. Three birds (3.6%) had bone lead concentration > 20 (mu or u)g/g and all livers were within background lead concentration. Bone lead concentrations increased with the age of the birds and were correlated with lead concentration in rachis of secondary feathers. Spatial aggregation of elevated bone lead concentration was found in some areas of Montes de Toledo. Lead concentrations in feathers were positively associated with the density of large game animals in the area where birds were found dead or injured. Discontinuous lead exposure in eagles was evidenced by differences in lead concentration in longitudinal portions of the rachis of feathers.

  8. Father's occupational exposure to carcinogenic agents and childhood acute leukemia: a new method to assess exposure (a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez-Rivera Maria

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical research has not been able to establish whether a father's occupational exposures are associated with the development of acute leukemia (AL in their offspring. The studies conducted have weaknesses that have generated a misclassification of such exposure. Occupations and exposures to substances associated with childhood cancer are not very frequently encountered in the general population; thus, the reported risks are both inconsistent and inaccurate. In this study, to assess exposure we used a new method, an exposure index, which took into consideration the industrial branch, specific position, use of protective equipment, substances at work, degree of contact with such substances, and time of exposure. This index allowed us to obtain a grade, which permitted the identification of individuals according to their level of exposure to known or potentially carcinogenic agents that are not necessarily specifically identified as risk factors for leukemia. The aim of this study was to determine the association between a father's occupational exposure to carcinogenic agents and the presence of AL in their offspring. Methods From 1999 to 2000, a case-control study was performed with 193 children who reside in Mexico City and had been diagnosed with AL. The initial sample-size calculation was 150 children per group, assessed with an expected odds ratio (OR of three and a minimum exposure frequency of 15.8%. These children were matched by age, sex, and institution with 193 pediatric surgical patients at secondary-care hospitals. A questionnaire was used to determine each child's background and the characteristics of the father's occupation(s. In order to determine the level of exposure to carcinogenic agents, a previously validated exposure index (occupational exposure index, OEI was used. The consistency and validity of the index were assessed by a questionnaire comparison, the sensory recognition of the work area, and an

  9. Expanding Exposure: Can Increasing the Daily Duration of Head Start Reduce Childhood Obesity?

    OpenAIRE

    David Frisvold; Lumeng, Julie C.

    2009-01-01

    Coinciding with the work requirements of welfare reform in the mid-1990s, the early childhood education program, Head Start, increased the availability of full-day classes. Using unique administrative data, we examine the effect of full-day compared to half-day attendance on childhood obesity. This effect is identified using the elimination of a state-provided full-day expansion grant that led to an exogenous decrease in the supply of full-day classes for the program in our study. Our results...

  10. Studying Practices of Leading--Qualitative Shadowing in Early Childhood Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hognestad, Karin; Bøe, Marit

    2016-01-01

    This article considers qualitative shadowing as a fruitful method to investigate leadership practices. We propose that an approach to practice that takes into account the activities of "sayings, doings and relatings" offers a fresh perspective on how to obtain rich data on practices of leading. The value of this idea is illustrated from…

  11. Postural disequilibrium quantification in children with chronic lead exposure: a pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharya, A.; Shukla, R.; Bornschein, R.; Dietrich, K.; Kopke, J.E.

    Previous studies reported that some children who survive acute lead encephalopathy suffer from ataxia and have difficulties maintaining postural equilibrium. More recent studies have failed to quantify postural imbalance in association with lower levels of lead exposures, perhaps due to the insensitivity of the clinical measure. In our study, we noninvasively measured postural disequilibrium with a microprocessor-based force platform. The test provides a real time quantification of the body's center of gravity movement pattern. Measurements were made in a cohort of 33 inner city children (mean age: six years +/- 0.4 SD) with well documented blood lead histories. The average maximum blood lead of these children during their first six years of life was 23.5 micrograms/dl (range = 8.5 to 49.4). The children performed four postural tests (i.e., standing eyes open (EO) and closed (EC), on firm surface and standing on a compliant foam surface with eyes open (FO) and closed (FC)). The results indicated that the maximum blood lead incurred during the second year of life was significantly positively related to postural sway, and the body balance was most affected in the EC test where visual cues were eliminated and proprioceptive feedback was not modified. Fetal Pb exposure levels as well as Pb exposures during the first year of life were not correlated with postural sway of six year olds. However, the maximum blood lead concentration beyond two years of life was significantly associated with the postural sway at six years of age.

  12. Lead bullet fragments in venison from rifle-killed deer: potential for human dietary exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Grainger Hunt

    Full Text Available Human consumers of wildlife killed with lead ammunition may be exposed to health risks associated with lead ingestion. This hypothesis is based on published studies showing elevated blood lead concentrations in subsistence hunter populations, retention of ammunition residues in the tissues of hunter-killed animals, and systemic, cognitive, and behavioral disorders associated with human lead body burdens once considered safe. Our objective was to determine the incidence and bioavailability of lead bullet fragments in hunter-killed venison, a widely-eaten food among hunters and their families. We radiographed 30 eviscerated carcasses of White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus shot by hunters with standard lead-core, copper-jacketed bullets under normal hunting conditions. All carcasses showed metal fragments (geometric mean = 136 fragments, range = 15-409 and widespread fragment dispersion. We took each carcass to a separate meat processor and fluoroscopically scanned the resulting meat packages; fluoroscopy revealed metal fragments in the ground meat packages of 24 (80% of the 30 deer; 32% of 234 ground meat packages contained at least one fragment. Fragments were identified as lead by ICP in 93% of 27 samples. Isotope ratios of lead in meat matched the ratios of bullets, and differed from background lead in bone. We fed fragment-containing venison to four pigs to test bioavailability; four controls received venison without fragments from the same deer. Mean blood lead concentrations in pigs peaked at 2.29 microg/dL (maximum 3.8 microg/dL 2 days following ingestion of fragment-containing venison, significantly higher than the 0.63 microg/dL averaged by controls. We conclude that people risk exposure to bioavailable lead from bullet fragments when they eat venison from deer killed with standard lead-based rifle bullets and processed under normal procedures. At risk in the U.S. are some ten million hunters, their families, and low

  13. High-order aberration control during exposure for leading-edge lithography projection optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmura, Yasuhiro; Tsuge, Yosuke; Hirayama, Toru; Ikezawa, Hironori; Inoue, Daisuke; Kitamura, Yasuhiro; Koizumi, Yukio; Hasegawa, Keisuke; Ishiyama, Satoshi; Nakashima, Toshiharu; Kikuchi, Takahisa; Onda, Minoru; Takase, Yohei; Nagahiro, Akimasa; Isago, Susumu; Kawahara, Hidetaka

    2016-03-01

    High throughput with high resolution imaging has been key to the development of leading-edge microlithography. However, management of thermal aberrations due to lens heating during exposure has become critical for simultaneous achievement of high throughput and high resolution. Thermal aberrations cause CD drift and overlay error, and these errors lead directly to edge placement errors (EPE). Management and control of high order thermal aberrations is a critical requirement. In this paper, we will show practical performance of the lens heating with dipole and other typical illumination conditions for finer patterning. We confirm that our new control system can reduce the high-order aberrations and enable critical-dimension uniformity CDU during the exposure.

  14. Regional alterations of brain biogenic amines in young rats following chronic lead exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubas, T.C.; Stevenson, A.; Singhal, R.L.; Hrdina, P.D.

    1978-02-01

    An examination was made of neurochemical changes that occur in discrete brain regions of rats that have been chronically exposed to low levels of lead from birth, in order to provide further information on the involvement of brain biogenic amines in lead-induced neurotoxicity. Results indicate a relationship between exposure to lead and alterations in the brain levels of various putative neurotransmitters. However, changes in the functional activity of the neurotransmitter may not be adequately reflected in the change of its steady-state levels or may occur even in the absence of any changes in the actual concentrations. Lead may influence central neurotransmitter function by affecting one or several of the processes involved in the synthesis, release and/or disposition of biogenic amines.

  15. Early Effects of Long-Term Neurotoxic Lead Exposure in Copper Works Employees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Böckelmann

    2011-01-01

    It was found that of the psychometric performance parameters, only the mainly motor performance parameters had a potential for being neurotoxic early indicators. Preferably centrally influenced performance parameters were found to be less suitable early indicators. The lead-exposed subjects exhibited a slowed poststrain resetting behaviour of the vegetative nervous system, which correlated with the individual blood lead level. This was attributed to vagus depression, which had already started in the prevailing situation of exposure and was reflected by diminished cardiac phase duration variability. Our results indicate that it is necessary to more critically choose the lead level standards in the air on the working area. Heart rate variability may be affected even at small lead concentration.

  16. Biologic indicators of exposure to cadmium and lead palmerton, Pennsylvania. Part 2. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarasua, S.M.; McGeehin, M.A.; Stallings, F.L.; Terracciano, G.L.; Amler, R.W.

    1995-05-01

    In Part 2 of this study, no difference was reported in the results of medical tests of the blood, liver, kidney, and immune systems of participants living in the two study areas. No relationships was found between exposure to cadmium and lead and the immune, liver, and blood system tests. No community wide medical action is needed in Palmerton based on the results of this study. No further site-specific health studies are recommended.

  17. Soil intervention as a strategy for lead exposure prevention: The New Orleans lead-safe childcare playground project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of reducing children's exposure to lead (Pb) polluted soil in New Orleans is tested. Childcare centers (median = 48 children) are often located in former residences. The extent of soil Pb was determined by selecting centers in both the core and outlying areas. The initial 558 mg/kg median soil Pb (range 14-3692 mg/kg) decreased to median 4.1 mg/kg (range 2.2-26.1 mg/kg) after intervention with geotextile covered by 15 cm of river alluvium. Pb loading decreased from a median of 4887 μg/m2 (454 μg/ft2) range 603-56650 μg/m2 (56-5263 μg/ft2) to a median of 398 μg/m2 (37 μg/ft2) range 86-980 μg/m2 (8-91 μg/ft2). Multi-Response Permutation Procedures indicate similar (P-values = 0.160-0.231) soil Pb at childcare centers compared to soil Pb of nearby residential communities. At ∼$100 per child, soil Pb and surface loading were reduced within hours, advancing an upstream intervention conceptualization about Pb exposure prevention. - Highlights: → Upstream thinking refers to attending to causative agents that affect outcomes. → New Orleans has a high density soil Pb map of all residential communities. → Many childcare centers are located in Pb polluted residential communities. → Evaluation of childcare center playground soils substantiated severe Pb pollution. → Pursuing upstream thinking, low Pb soil was put on playgrounds to protect children. - Within hours, at a cost of about U.S. $100 (2010) per child, it is feasible to transform exterior play areas at childcare centers from Pb contaminated to Pb-safe with a large margin of safety.

  18. Soil intervention as a strategy for lead exposure prevention: The New Orleans lead-safe childcare playground project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mielke, Howard W., E-mail: howard.mielke@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70118 (United States); Center for Bioenvironmental Research at Tulane and Xavier Universities, 1430 Tulane Avenue SL-3, New Orleans, LA 70112 (United States); Covington, Tina P. [Charity School of Nursing, Delgado Community College, New Orleans, LA 70112-1397 (United States); College of Nursing, University of South Alabama, Doctor of Nursing Practice Program (student), Mobile AL 36688-0002 (United States); Mielke, Paul W. [Department of Statistics, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523-1877 (United States); Wolman, Fredericka J. [Director of Pediatrics, Department of Children and Families, State of Connecticut, Hartford, CT 06473 (United States); Powell, Eric T.; Gonzales, Chris R. [Lead Lab, Inc., New Orleans, LA 70179-1125 (United States)

    2011-08-15

    The feasibility of reducing children's exposure to lead (Pb) polluted soil in New Orleans is tested. Childcare centers (median = 48 children) are often located in former residences. The extent of soil Pb was determined by selecting centers in both the core and outlying areas. The initial 558 mg/kg median soil Pb (range 14-3692 mg/kg) decreased to median 4.1 mg/kg (range 2.2-26.1 mg/kg) after intervention with geotextile covered by 15 cm of river alluvium. Pb loading decreased from a median of 4887 {mu}g/m{sup 2} (454 {mu}g/ft{sup 2}) range 603-56650 {mu}g/m{sup 2} (56-5263 {mu}g/ft{sup 2}) to a median of 398 {mu}g/m{sup 2} (37 {mu}g/ft{sup 2}) range 86-980 {mu}g/m{sup 2} (8-91 {mu}g/ft{sup 2}). Multi-Response Permutation Procedures indicate similar (P-values = 0.160-0.231) soil Pb at childcare centers compared to soil Pb of nearby residential communities. At {approx}$100 per child, soil Pb and surface loading were reduced within hours, advancing an upstream intervention conceptualization about Pb exposure prevention. - Highlights: > Upstream thinking refers to attending to causative agents that affect outcomes. > New Orleans has a high density soil Pb map of all residential communities. > Many childcare centers are located in Pb polluted residential communities. > Evaluation of childcare center playground soils substantiated severe Pb pollution. > Pursuing upstream thinking, low Pb soil was put on playgrounds to protect children. - Within hours, at a cost of about U.S. $100 (2010) per child, it is feasible to transform exterior play areas at childcare centers from Pb contaminated to Pb-safe with a large margin of safety.

  19. Tissue Doppler Imaging Combined with Advanced 12-Lead ECG Analysis Might Improve Early Diagnosis of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Femlund, E.; Schlegel, T.; Liuba, P.

    2011-01-01

    Optimization of early diagnosis of childhood hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is essential in lowering the risk of HCM complications. Standard echocardiography (ECHO) has shown to be less sensitive in this regard. In this study, we sought to assess whether spatial QRS-T angle deviation, which has shown to predict HCM in adults with high sensitivity, and myocardial Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI) could be additional tools in early diagnosis of HCM in childhood. Methods: Children and adolescents with familial HCM (n=10, median age 16, range 5-27 years), and without obvious hypertrophy but with heredity for HCM (n=12, median age 16, range 4-25 years, HCM or sudden death with autopsy-verified HCM in greater than or equal to 1 first-degree relative, HCM-risk) were additionally investigated with TDI and advanced 12-lead ECG analysis using Cardiax(Registered trademark) (IMED Co Ltd, Budapest, Hungary and Houston). Spatial QRS-T angle (SA) was derived from Kors regression-related transformation. Healthy age-matched controls (n=21) were also studied. All participants underwent thorough clinical examination. Results: Spatial QRS-T angle (Figure/ Panel A) and septal E/Ea ratio (Figure/Panel B) were most increased in HCM group as compared to the HCM-risk and control groups (p less than 0.05). Of note, these 2 variables showed a trend toward higher levels in HCM-risk group than in control group (p=0.05 for E/Ea and 0.06 for QRS/T by ANOVA). In a logistic regression model, increased SA and septal E/Ea ratio appeared to significantly predict both the disease (Chi-square in HCM group: 9 and 5, respectively, p less than 0.05 for both) and the risk for HCM (Chi-square in HCM-risk group: 5 and 4 respectively, p less than 0.05 for both), with further increased predictability level when these 2 variables were combined (Chi-square 10 in HCM group, and 7 in HCM-risk group, p less than 0.01 for both). Conclusions: In this small material, Tissue Doppler Imaging and spatial mean QRS-T angle

  20. Gestational lead exposure selectively decreases retinal dopamine amacrine cells and dopamine content in adult mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, Donald A., E-mail: dafox@uh.edu [College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Department of Pharmacology and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Hamilton, W. Ryan [Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Johnson, Jerry E. [Department of Natural Sciences, University of Houston-Downtown, Houston, TX (United States); Xiao, Weimin [College of Optometry, University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Chaney, Shawntay; Mukherjee, Shradha [Department of Biology and Biochemistry, University of Houston, Houston, TX (United States); Miller, Diane B.; O' Callaghan, James P. [Toxicology and Molecular Biology Branch, Health Effects Research Laboratory, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-NIOSH, Morgantown, WV USA (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Gestational lead exposure (GLE) produces supernormal scotopic electroretinograms (ERG) in children, monkeys and rats, and a novel retinal phenotype characterized by an increased number of rod photoreceptors and bipolar cells in adult mice and rats. Since the loss of dopaminergic amacrine cells (DA ACs) in GLE monkeys and rats contributes to supernormal ERGs, the retinal DA system was analyzed in mice following GLE. C57BL/6 female mice were exposed to low (27 ppm), moderate (55 ppm) or high (109 ppm) lead throughout gestation and until postnatal day 10 (PN10). Blood [Pb] in control, low-, moderate- and high-dose GLE was {<=} 1, {<=} 10, {approx} 25 and {approx} 40 {mu}g/dL, respectively, on PN10 and by PN30 all were {<=} 1 {mu}g/dL. At PN60, confocal-stereology studies used vertical sections and wholemounts to characterize tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression and the number of DA and other ACs. GLE dose-dependently and selectively decreased the number of TH-immunoreactive (IR) DA ACs and their synaptic plexus without affecting GABAergic, glycinergic or cholinergic ACs. Immunoblots and confocal revealed dose-dependent decreases in retinal TH protein expression and content, although monoamine oxidase-A protein and gene expression were unchanged. High-pressure liquid chromatography showed that GLE dose-dependently decreased retinal DA content, its metabolites and DA utilization/release. The mechanism of DA selective vulnerability is unknown. However, a GLE-induced loss/dysfunction of DA ACs during development could increase the number of rods and bipolar cells since DA helps regulate neuronal proliferation, whereas during adulthood it could produce ERG supernormality as well as altered circadian rhythms, dark/light adaptation and spatial contrast sensitivity. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Peak [BPb] in control, low-, moderate- and high-dose newborn mice with gestational lead exposure: {<=} 1, {<=} 10, 25 and 40 {mu}g/dL Black

  1. Effect of low lead exposure on gestational age, birth weight and premature rupture of the membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To find out the effect of prenatal exposure to low lead from cosmetics on gestational age, premature rupture of the membrane and birth weight. Methods: The study was carried out in the mountainous Aseer region, Southwest of Saudi Arabia where the air is thought to be clean and free of lead pollution due to the absence of petroleum smelting and other heavy industries. The region is famous as a holiday resort for tourists from Arabia and the gulf countries. All 176 pregnant women included in the study were of singleton pregnancies of gestational age 27 weeks or more who attended the antenatal outpatient clinic of the main maternity hospital. On the day of delivery 4 milliliters of venous blood from each singleton parturient was placed in a heparinized non-silica containing tube and stored at -20 deg. C prior to analysis. Results: Ninety-four (70.1%) women out of 134 had maternal blood lead concentration 200 mu g/L. The mean difference in gestational age was 10.5 days, showing a non significant difference (P=0.152). Ninety-three women (72.7%) out of a total of 128 who had blood lead concentration 200 mu g/L gave birth to infants weighing an average of 2.99 kg. The mean difference was 0.12 kg which is non-significant (P=0.261). Regarding premature rupture of the membrane a total of 127 women with maternal blood lead levels above 200 mu g/L showed no significant differences (P=0.64). The Chi-square test of the relationship between the birth weight (kg) and the levels of blood lead below 150 mu g/L was not significant while the relationship between the birth weight (kg) and the levels of blood lead above 200 mu g/L resulted in very slight differences in the values of infants' birth weight. Conclusion: The detected low lead exposures from cosmetics does not produce statistically significant effects on the three pregnancy outcomes; gestational age, premature rupture of the membrane or birth weight. However, the importance of low lead exposure from the 100% lead

  2. Early childhood environment related to microbial exposure and the occurrence of atopic disease at school age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Meer, G; Janssen, NAH; Brunekreef, B

    2005-01-01

    Background: There is a growing body of evidence that the early childhood environment with respect to day care attendance, older siblings, pet ownership, and early life airway infections may protect from developing atopic disease. Few studies have distinguished between atopic sensitization and sympto

  3. Exposure to magnetic fields and survival after diagnosis of childhood leukemia: a German cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Anne Louise; Weihkopf, Thomas; Kaatsch, Peter;

    2007-01-01

    Inspired by a recent U.S. study showing poorer survival among children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) exposed to magnetic fields above 0.3 microT, we examine this relationship in a German cohort of childhood leukemia cases derived from previous population-based case-control studies...

  4. Exposure to Maternal Distress in Childhood and Cortisol Activity in Young Adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahrer, Nicole E.; Luecken, Linda J.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Sandler, Irwin N.

    2014-01-01

    Dysregulated cortisol is a risk factor for poor health outcomes. Children of distressed mothers exhibit dysregulated cortisol, yet it is unclear whether maternal distress predicts cortisol activity in later developmental stages. This longitudinal study examined the prospective relation between maternal distress during late childhood (9-12 years)…

  5. A multicentre study of air pollution exposure and childhood asthma prevalence: the ESCAPE project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mölter, Anna; Simpson, Angela; Berdel, Dietrich; Brunekreef, Bert; Custovic, Adnan; Cyrys, Josef; de Jongste, Johan; de Vocht, Frank; Fuertes, Elaine; Gehring, Ulrike; Gruzieva, Olena; Heinrich, Joachim; Hoek, Gerard; Hoffmann, Barbara; Klümper, Claudia; Korek, Michal; Kuhlbusch, Thomas A J; Lindley, Sarah; Postma, Dirkje; Tischer, Christina; Wijga, Alet; Pershagen, Göran; Agius, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of six traffic-related air pollution metrics (nitrogen dioxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter <10 μm (PM10), PM2.5, coarse particulate matter and PM2.5 absorbance) on childhood asthma and wheeze prevalence in five E

  6. Changes in exposure temperature lead to changes in pesticide toxicity to earthworms: A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velki, Mirna; Ečimović, Sandra

    2015-11-01

    The occurring climate changes will have direct consequences to all ecosystems, including the soil ecosystems. The effects of climate change include, among other, the changes in temperature and greater frequency and intensity of extreme weather conditions. Temperature is an important factor in ecotoxicological investigations since it can act as a stressor and influence the physiological status of organisms, as well as affect the fate and transport of pollutants present in the environment. However, most of so far conducted (eco)toxicological investigations neglected the possible effects of temperature and focused solely on the effects of toxicants on organisms. Considering that temperature can contribute to the toxicity of pollutants, it is of immense importance to investigate whether the change in the exposure temperature will impact the strength of the toxic effects of pollutants present in soil ecosystems. Therefore, in the present study the toxicity of several commonly used pesticides to earthworms was assessed under different exposure temperatures (15, 20 and 25°C). The results showed that changes in exposure temperature lead to changes in susceptibility of earthworms to particular pesticides. Namely, exposures to the same pesticide concentration at different temperatures lead to different toxicity responses. Increase in exposure temperature in most cases caused increase in toxicity, whereas decrease in temperature mostly caused decrease in toxicity. This preliminary study points to need for an in-depth investigation of mechanisms by which temperature affects the toxicity of pesticides and also provides important data for future research on the effects of temperature change on the soil ecosystems. PMID:26436694

  7. Studies of Lead Exposure on Reproductive System:A Review of Work in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANGXUEZHI; LIANGYOUXIN; 等

    1992-01-01

    This paper,based on a review of a series studies conducted in China from 1978 through 1991,describes the possible links between low level lead exposure and the adverse effects on reproductive system.Effects on menstrual status and pregnancy outcome manifested mainly as higher prevalences of menstrual disturbance,spontaneous abortion and threatened abortion in exposed females.Transfer of lead via placenta and human milk was shown by higher lead levels in milk and blood of infant.Impairment of male reproductive function was observed as decreased volume of ejaculation,prolonged latency of semen melting,reduced total sperm count and alive spermatozoa,retarded sperm activity as well as lowered density of semen fluid in exposed male workers with Pb-B over 40μg·dl-1,In addition,poorer performance of WISC-R test was revealed in children with Pb-B level over 30μg·dl-1,and retarded physical development was observed in children with Pb-B over 20μ g·dl-1.Therefore health surveillance including the assessment of adverse effects on reproductive system of both female and male lead exposed workers should not be ignored.Furthermore,safety exposure limit of work place,particularly for remale workers of child-bearing age,should be developed.

  8. Histomorphological evaluation of mice testis after co-exposure to lead and cadmium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maria de Lourdes Pereira; Neidy Varela Rodrigues; Fernando Garcia e Costa

    2012-01-01

    Objective:The present study investigates the effects of co-exposure to lead and cadmium on mice testis using histomorphological approach.Methods:Male mice were subcutaneously injected with lead chloride on day1 and cadmium chloride on day2(74 and1 mg/kg body weight, respectively), and kept for24 h.Vehicle control group was also considered.Mice were then sacrificed and testis were collected and weighed.Samples were fixed onBouin´s solution and processed for histology.The diameter of seminiferous tubules in both groups was calculated using software based on deformable models(SNAKE).Results:The combined exposure of lead and cadmium induced degenerative changes in testis, namely, wavy contour of seminiferous tulules, germ cell loss, and release of immature cells into the lumen.Atrophy of seminiferous tubules was seen in this group, confirmed by a significant(P<0.001) decrease in the diameter.Conclusions:Cumulative effects of lead and cadmium may have disrupted the blood-testis barrier, then causing the histopathological lesions within testis.

  9. Lead exposure and the 2010 achievement test scores of children in New York counties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strayhorn Jillian C

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lead is toxic to cognitive and behavioral functioning in children even at levels well below those producing physical symptoms. Continuing efforts in the U.S. since about the 1970s to reduce lead exposure in children have dramatically reduced the incidence of elevated blood lead levels (with elevated levels defined by the current U.S. Centers for Disease Control threshold of 10 μg/dl. The current study examines how much lead toxicity continues to impair the academic achievement of children of New York State, using 2010 test data. Methods This study relies on three sets of data published for the 57 New York counties outside New York City: school achievement data from the New York State Department of Education, data on incidence of elevated blood lead levels from the New York State Department of Health, and data on income from the U.S. Census Bureau. We studied third grade and eighth grade test scores in English Language Arts and mathematics. Using the county as the unit of analysis, we computed bivariate correlations and regression coefficients, with percent of children achieving at the lowest reported level as the dependent variable and the percent of preschoolers in the county with elevated blood lead levels as the independent variable. Then we repeated those analyses using partial correlations to control for possible confounding effects of family income, and using multiple regressions with income included. Results The bivariate correlations between incidence of elevated lead and number of children in the lowest achievement group ranged between 0.38 and 0.47. The partial correlations ranged from 0.29 to 0.40. The regression coefficients, both bivariate and partial (both estimating the increase in percent of children in the lowest achievement group for every percent increase in the children with elevated blood lead levels, ranged from 0.52 to 1.31. All regression coefficients, when rounded to the nearest integer, were

  10. Effects of endotoxin exposure on childhood asthma risk are modified by a genetic polymorphism in ACAA1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sordillo Joanne E

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polymorphisms in the endotoxin-mediated TLR4 pathway genes have been associated with asthma and atopy. We aimed to examine how genetic polymorphisms in innate immunity pathways interact with endotoxin to influence asthma risk in children. Methods In a previous analysis of 372 children from the Boston Home Allergens and the Connecticut Childhood Asthma studies, 7 SNPs in 6 genes (CARD15, TGFB1, LY96, ACAA1, DEFB1 and IFNG involved in innate immune pathways were associated with asthma, and 5 SNPs in 3 genes (CD80, STAT4, IRAK2 were associated with eczema. We tested these SNPs for interaction with early life endotoxin exposure (n = 291, in models for asthma and eczema by age 6. Results We found a significant interaction between endotoxin and a SNP (rs156265 in ACAA1 (p = 0.0013 for interaction. Increased endotoxin exposure (by quartile showed protective effects for asthma in individuals with at least one copy of the minor allele (OR = 0.39 per quartile increase in endotoxin, 95% CI 0.15 to 1.01. Endotoxin exposure did not reduce the risk of asthma in children homozygous for the major allele. Conclusion Our findings suggest that protective effects of endotoxin exposure on asthma may vary depending upon the presence or absence of a polymorphism in ACAA1.

  11. Exposure to PM2.5 and Blood Lead Level in Two Populations in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkhbat, Undarmaa; Rule, Ana M.; Resnick, Carol; Ochir, Chimedsuren; Olkhanud, Purevdorj; Williams, D’Ann L.

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 60% of the households in Ulaanbaatar live in gers (a traditional Mongolian dwelling) in districts outside the legal limits of the city, without access to basic infrastructure, such as water, sewage systems, central heating, and paved roads, in contrast to apartment residents. This stark difference in living conditions creates different public health challenges for Ulaanbaatar residents. Through this research study we aim to test our hypothesis that women living in gers burning coal in traditional stoves for cooking and heating during the winter are exposed to higher concentrations of airborne PM2.5 than women living in apartments in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, and this exposure may include exposures to lead in coal with effects on blood lead levels. This cross-sectional study recruited a total of 50 women, 40–60 years of age, from these two settings. Air sampling was carried out during peak cooking and heating times, 5:00 p.m.–11:00 p.m., using a direct-reading instrument (TSI SidePak™) and integrated polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filters using the SKC Personal Environmental Monitor. Blood lead level (BLL) was measured using a LeadCare II rapid field test method. In our study population, measured PM2.5 geometric mean (GM) concentrations using the SidePak™ in the apartment group was 31.5 (95% CI:17–99) μg/m3, and 100 (95% CI: 67–187) μg/m3 in ger households (p < 0.001). The GM integrated gravimetric PM2.5 concentrations in the apartment group were 52.8 (95% CI: 39–297) μg/m3 and 127.8 (95% CI: 86–190) μg/m3 in ger households (p = 0.004). The correlation coefficient for the SidePak™ PM2.5 concentrations and filter based PM2.5 concentrations was r = 0.72 (p < 0.001). Blood Lead Levels were not statistically significant different between apartment residents and ger residents (p = 0.15). The BLL is statistically significant different (p = 0.01) when stratified by length of exposures outside of the home. This statistically significant

  12. Exposure to PM2.5 and Blood Lead Level in Two Populations in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Undarmaa Enkhbat

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 60% of the households in Ulaanbaatar live in gers (a traditional Mongolian dwelling in districts outside the legal limits of the city, without access to basic infrastructure, such as water, sewage systems, central heating, and paved roads, in contrast to apartment residents. This stark difference in living conditions creates different public health challenges for Ulaanbaatar residents. Through this research study we aim to test our hypothesis that women living in gers burning coal in traditional stoves for cooking and heating during the winter are exposed to higher concentrations of airborne PM2.5 than women living in apartments in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, and this exposure may include exposures to lead in coal with effects on blood lead levels. This cross-sectional study recruited a total of 50 women, 40–60 years of age, from these two settings. Air sampling was carried out during peak cooking and heating times, 5:00 p.m.–11:00 p.m., using a direct-reading instrument (TSI SidePak™ and integrated polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE filters using the SKC Personal Environmental Monitor. Blood lead level (BLL was measured using a LeadCare II rapid field test method. In our study population, measured PM2.5 geometric mean (GM concentrations using the SidePak™ in the apartment group was 31.5 (95% CI:17–99 μg/m3, and 100 (95% CI: 67–187 μg/m3 in ger households (p < 0.001. The GM integrated gravimetric PM2.5 concentrations in the apartment group were 52.8 (95% CI: 39–297 μg/m3 and 127.8 (95% CI: 86–190 μg/m3 in ger households (p = 0.004. The correlation coefficient for the SidePak™ PM2.5 concentrations and filter based PM2.5 concentrations was r = 0.72 (p < 0.001. Blood Lead Levels were not statistically significant different between apartment residents and ger residents (p = 0.15. The BLL is statistically significant different (p = 0.01 when stratified by length of exposures outside of the home. This statistically

  13. Exposure to PM2.5 and Blood Lead Level in Two Populations in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkhbat, Undarmaa; Rule, Ana M; Resnick, Carol; Ochir, Chimedsuren; Olkhanud, Purevdorj; Williams, D'Ann L

    2016-02-01

    Approximately 60% of the households in Ulaanbaatar live in gers (a traditional Mongolian dwelling) in districts outside the legal limits of the city, without access to basic infrastructure, such as water, sewage systems, central heating, and paved roads, in contrast to apartment residents. This stark difference in living conditions creates different public health challenges for Ulaanbaatar residents. Through this research study we aim to test our hypothesis that women living in gers burning coal in traditional stoves for cooking and heating during the winter are exposed to higher concentrations of airborne PM2.5 than women living in apartments in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, and this exposure may include exposures to lead in coal with effects on blood lead levels. This cross-sectional study recruited a total of 50 women, 40-60 years of age, from these two settings. Air sampling was carried out during peak cooking and heating times, 5:00 p.m.-11:00 p.m., using a direct-reading instrument (TSI SidePak™) and integrated polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) filters using the SKC Personal Environmental Monitor. Blood lead level (BLL) was measured using a LeadCare II rapid field test method. In our study population, measured PM2.5 geometric mean (GM) concentrations using the SidePak™ in the apartment group was 31.5 (95% CI:17-99) μg/m³, and 100 (95% CI: 67-187) μg/m³ in ger households (p < 0.001). The GM integrated gravimetric PM2.5 concentrations in the apartment group were 52.8 (95% CI: 39-297) μg/m³ and 127.8 (95% CI: 86-190) μg/m³ in ger households (p = 0.004). The correlation coefficient for the SidePak™ PM2.5 concentrations and filter based PM2.5 concentrations was r = 0.72 (p < 0.001). Blood Lead Levels were not statistically significant different between apartment residents and ger residents (p = 0.15). The BLL is statistically significant different (p = 0.01) when stratified by length of exposures outside of the home. This statistically significant difference

  14. Alteration of Pentylenetetrazol-induced kindling parameters by prenatal chronic Lead exposure in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kebriyaei Zadeh A

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of prenatal chronic lead exposure on pentylenetetrazol (PTZ-induced kindling parameters (seizure index, seizure latency and seizure stage in rats was studied. Adult female rats with a weight range of 140-180 g were selected and pretreated with lead acetate (0.05% w/v orally, 25 days prior to mating. The control group was given distilled water containing sodium acetate solution (0.05% w/v. After delivery, treatment was ceased, and after lactation, male neonates were separated from the females in both groups. After maturation of male rats, the PTZ-kindling was induced by daily interapritoneally injection of PTZ (30 mg/kg. Kindling parameters in the control and treated groups were determined. The results indicated that animals with prenatal lead exposure have full kindling state with 9-19 (16.87±1.54 injections, whereas this value for control group was 12-23 (18.62±1.48 injections. The seizure latency for the treated group was lower (P<0.05 than the control (2.29±0.44 min versus 3.65±0.45 min. The seizure severity (regarding to seizure index was statistically higher in the treated group (P<0.05. The seizure stages were also different in the treated and control groups (P<0.05. The seizure frequency of first and second stages of kindling in the control group was higher than that of treated one (P<0.05. Also the seizure frequency in the third and fourth kindling stages of case group was higher than controls (P<0.05. It is concluded that prenatal lead exposure alters seizure susceptibility in rat PTZ-Kindling model.

  15. [Preliminary evidence of neurobiological and behavioral consequences of exposure to childhood maltreatment on regional brain development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomoda, Akemi

    2011-09-01

    In recent years, the topic of child abuse as an issue facing Japanese society has gained considerable attention with regard to the field of medicine and education and also in scenarios that relate to child care. The definition of child abuse includes abusing children verbally or psychologically, and is not limited to abusing children physically such as beating, sexual abuse, or neglect. Recent studies have revealed that emotional trauma during childhood development could be much more difficult to treat than physical abuse. Severe abuse during childhood can cause abnormal brain development and have a negative impact later in life. In this review, I will introduce the mechanisms of brain damage due to child abuse with consideration of how and when child abuse can have an impact on the victims' brains. The information presented is based on a collaborative study with the Psychiatry Department at Harvard University on the relationship between brain functions and the human mind.

  16. Blood pressure and occupational exposure to noise and lead (Pb): A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapisarda, Venerando; Ledda, Caterina; Ferrante, Margherita; Fiore, Maria; Cocuzza, Salvatore; Bracci, Massimo; Fenga, Concettina

    2016-10-01

    Several studies have explored the hypothesis that low blood lead (PbB) and high noise levels may be associated with an increased risk of hypertension. To assess the possible relationship between occupational exposure to lead (Pb) and noise and elevated blood pressure, we studied 105 workers (age: 41.27 ± 6.25 years and length of employment: 4.12 ± 5.33 years) employed in a Pb battery recycling plant by measuring A-weighted equivalent sound level, PbB, δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) levels and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP). Results showed that occupational exposure to higher ambient Pb and noise levels was related to slightly increased SBP and DBP. PbB values correlated significantly with SBP and DBP, whereas noise levels correlated neither with SBP nor with DBP. Furthermore, workers exposed to higher ambient Pb had higher PbB and ZPP and showed more decreased ALAD activity. Blood pressure does not correlate with noise exposure but only with PbB concentration.

  17. Fetal death and reduced birth rates associated with exposure to lead-contaminated drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Marc

    2014-01-01

    This ecologic study notes that fetal death rates (FDR) during the Washington DC drinking water "lead crisis" (2000-2004) peaked in 2001 when water lead levels (WLLs) were highest, and were minimized in 2004 after public health interventions were implemented to protect pregnant women. Changes in the DC FDR vs neighboring Baltimore City were correlated to DC WLL (R(2) = 0.72). Birth rates in DC also increased versus Baltimore City and versus the United States in 2004-2006, when consumers were protected from high WLLs. The increased births in DC neighborhoods comparing 2004 versus 2001 was correlated to the incidence of lead pipes (R(2) = 0.60). DC birth rates from 1999 to 2007 correlated with proxies for maternal blood lead including the geometric mean blood lead in DC children (R(2) = 0.68) and the incidence of lead poisoning in children under age 1.3 years (R(2) = 0.64). After public health protections were removed in 2006, DC FDR spiked in 2007-2009 versus 2004-2006 (p lead service line replacements, and DC FDR dropped to historically low levels in 2010-2011 after consumers were protected and the PSLR program was terminated. Re-evaluation of a historic construction-related miscarriage cluster in the USA Today Building (1987-1988), demonstrates that high WLLs from disturbed plumbing were a possible cause. Overall results are consistent with prior research linking increased lead exposure to higher incidence of miscarriages and fetal death, even at blood lead elevations (≈5 μg/dL) once considered relatively low.

  18. Environmental Exposure to Arsenic, Lead, and Cadmium in People Living near Janghang Copper Smelter in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Dae; Eom, Sang-Yong; Yim, Dong-Hyuk; Kim, In-Soo; Won, Hee-Kwan; Park, Choong-Hee; Kim, Guen-Bae; Yu, Seung-Do; Choi, Byung-Sun; Park, Jung-Duck; Kim, Heon

    2016-04-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals exceed safety thresholds in the soil near Janghang Copper Refinery, a smelter in Korea that operated from 1936 to 1989. This study was conducted to evaluate the level of exposure to toxic metals and the potential effect on health in people living near the smelter. The study included 572 adults living within 4 km of the smelter and compared them with 413 controls group of people living similar lifestyles in a rural area approximately 15 km from the smelter. Urinary arsenic (As) level did not decrease according to the distance from the smelter, regardless of gender and working history in smelters and mines. However, in subjects who had no occupational exposure to toxic metals, blood lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) and urinary Cd decreased according to the distance from the smelter, both in men and women. Additionally, the distance from the smelter was a determinant factor for a decrease of As, Pb, and Cd in multiple regression models, respectively. On the other hands, urinary Cd was a risk factor for renal tubular dysfunction in populations living near the smelter. These results suggest that Janghang copper smelter was a main contamination source of As, Pb, and Cd, and populations living near the smelter suffered some adverse health effects as a consequence. The local population should be advised to make efforts to reduce exposure to environmental contaminants, in order to minimize potential health effects, and to pay close attention to any health problems possibly related to toxic metal exposure. PMID:27051230

  19. Lead exposures and biological responses in military weapons systems: Aerosol characteristics and acute lead effects among US Army artillerymen: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, M.H.; Stebbings, J.H.; Peterson, D.P.; Johnson, S.A.; Kumar, R.; Goun, B.D.; Janssen, I.; Trier, J.E.

    1993-03-01

    This study was to determine the concentration and chemical nature of lead (Pb) aerosols produced during the firing of artillery and to determine the exposures and biological responses of crew members exposed to lead aerosols during such firing. The concentrations of lead-containing aerosols at crew positions depended on wind conditions, with higher concentrations when firing into a head wind. Aerosol concentrations were highest in the muzzle blast zone. Concentrations of lead in the blood of crew members rose during the first 12 days of exposure to elevated airborne lead concentrations and then leveled off. There was no rapid decrease in blood lead concentrations after completion of firing. Small decreases in hematocrit and small increases in free erythrocyte porphyrin were correlated with increasing exposure to airborne lead. These changes were reversed by seven weeks after firing. Changes in nerve conduction velocity had borderline statistical significance to airborne lead exposure. In measuring nerve conduction velocity, differences in skin temperature must be taken into account.

  20. Chronic lead exposure decreases the vascular reactivity of rat aortas: the role of hydrogen peroxide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolini Zuqui Nunes

    Full Text Available We investigated whether exposure to small concentrations of lead alters blood pressure and vascular reactivity. Male Wistar rats were sorted randomly into the following two groups: control (Ct and treatment with 100 ppm of lead (Pb, which was added to drinking water, for 30 days. Systolic blood pressure (BP was measured weekly. Following treatment, aortic ring vascular reactivity was assessed. Tissue samples were properly stored for further biochemical investigation. The lead concentration in the blood reached approximately 8 μg/dL. Treatment increased blood pressure and decreased the contractile responses of the aortic rings to phenylephrine (1 nM-100 mM. Following N-nitro-L arginine methyl ester (L-NAME administration, contractile responses increased in both groups but did not differ significantly between them. Lead effects on Rmax were decreased compared to control subjects following superoxide dismutase (SOD administration. Catalase, diethyldithiocarbamic acid (DETCA, and apocynin increased the vasoconstrictor response induced by phenylephrine in the aortas of lead-treated rats but did not increase the vasoconstrictor response in the aortas of untreated rats. Tetraethylammonium (TEA potentiated the vasoconstrictor response induced by phenylephrine in aortic segments in both groups, but these effects were greater in lead-treated rats. The co-incubation of TEA and catalase abolished the vasodilatory effect noted in the lead group. The present study is the first to demonstrate that blood lead concentrations well below the values established by international legislation increased blood pressure and decreased phenylephrine-induced vascular reactivity. The latter effect was associated with oxidative stress, specifically oxidative stress induced via increases in hydrogen peroxide levels and the subsequent effects of hydrogen peroxide on potassium channels.

  1. Predictors of environmental lead exposure among pregnant women – a prospective cohort study in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kinga Polańska

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Blood lead levels (BLL in women of child-bearing age have been decreasing in recent decades, but still remains a concern for long-term effects of child psychomotor development. The aim of the study was to characterize lead exposure among Polish pregnant women and assess the relationship between BLL and selected socio-demographic, economic and lifestyle factors. The study population consisted of 594 pregnant women who had been the subjects of the prospective Polish Mother and Child Cohort Study (REPRO_PL. The women were interviewed three times during pregnancy (once in each trimester. Lead concentration in the blood collected during the second trimester of pregnancy was analyzed using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS, or inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. Active and passive smoking was analyzed by the cotinine level in saliva using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS. The lead level in the blood ranged from 0.3 – 5.7 μg/dL, with a geometric mean (GM of 1.1 μg/dL (GSD }0.2 μg/dL. Statistically significant associations were found between BLL and factors such as maternal age (β=0.01; p=0.02, education (β=0.08; p=0.04 and prepregnancy BMI (β=0.1; p=0.001. Additionally, BLL increased with increasing cotinine level in saliva (β=0.02; p=0.06 and decreased with the increasing distance from the copper smelter (β=-0.1; p=0.009. Public health interventions, especially in regions with a higher level of exposure to lead, among women with lower SES and among smokers, are still reasonable.

  2. Exposure Evaluation for Benzene, Lead and Noise in Vehicle and Equipment Repair Shops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweeney, Lynn C. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States)

    2013-04-01

    An exposure assessment was performed at the equipment and vehicle maintenance repair shops operating at the U. S. Department of Energy Hanford site, in Richland, Washington. The maintenance shops repair and maintain vehicles and equipment used in support of the Hanford cleanup mission. There are three general mechanic shops and one auto body repair shop. The mechanics work on heavy equipment used in construction, cranes, commercial motor vehicles, passenger-type vehicles in addition to air compressors, generators, and farm equipment. Services include part fabrication, installation of equipment, repair and maintenance work in the engine compartment, and tire and brake services. Work performed at the auto body shop includes painting and surface preparation which involves applying body filler and sanding. 8-hour time-weighted-average samples were collected for benzene and noise exposure and task-based samples were collected for lead dust work activities involving painted metal surfaces. Benzene samples were obtained using 3M™ 3520 sampling badges and were analyzed for additional volatile organic compounds. These compounds were selected based on material safety data sheet information for the aerosol products used by the mechanics for each day of sampling. The compounds included acetone, ethyl ether, toluene, xylene, VM&P naphtha, methyl ethyl ketone, and trichloroethylene. Laboratory data for benzene, VM&P naphtha, methyl ethyl ketone and trichloroethylene were all below the reporting detection limit. Airborne concentrations for acetone, ethyl ether, toluene and xylene were all less than 10% of their occupational exposure limit. The task-based samples obtained for lead dusts were submitted for a metal scan analysis to identify other metals that might be present. Laboratory results for lead dusts were all below the reporting detection limit and airborne concentration for the other metals observed in the samples were less than 10% of the occupational exposure limit

  3. Sources of potential lead exposure among pregnant women in New Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhireva, Ludmila N; Rowland, Andrew S; Young, Bonnie N; Cano, Sandra; Phelan, Sharon T; Artyushkova, Kateryna; Rayburn, William F; Lewis, Johnnye

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to ascertain the prevalence and potential sources of lead exposure among pregnant women residing in a socially-disadvantaged immigrant community in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Pregnant women (n = 140) receiving prenatal care through a community clinic participated in a structured interview and screening to measure their blood lead levels (BLLs). Potential sources of lead exposure were ascertained by the CDC and New Mexico Department of Health questionnaires. Self-reported risk factors were examined as predictors of BLLs using multiple linear regression and partial least squares discriminant analysis. Most patients were Spanish-speaking (88.6%), Latina (95%), foreign-born (87.1%), lacked health insurance (86.4%), and had a high school education or lower (84.3%). While risk factors were prevalent in this population, only three women (2.1%) had BLLs ≥3 μg/dL. Results of multivariate analyses demonstrated that pica symptoms in pregnancy, history of elevated BLLs before pregnancy, use of non-commercial pottery, and living in older houses were important predictors of elevated BLLs. Although the prevalence of other risk factors relevant to immigrant communities (i.e., use of traditional/folk remedies and cosmetics, seasonings and food products from Mexico) was high, they were not predictive of elevated BLLs. Clinics providing prenatal care to immigrant Hispanic communities should carefully assess patients' pica symptoms, use of non-commercial pottery, and a history of elevated BLLs. Moreover, additional efforts need to focus on the development of screening questionnaires which better reflect exposures of concern in this population.

  4. Cadmium, mercury, and lead in kidney cortex of living kidney donors: Impact of different exposure sources,

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Most current knowledge on kidney concentrations of nephrotoxic metals like cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), or lead (Pb) comes from autopsy studies. Assessment of metal concentrations in kidney biopsies from living subjects can be combined with information about exposure sources like smoking, diet, and occupation supplied by the biopsied subjects themselves. Objectives: To determine kidney concentrations of Cd, Hg, and Pb in living kidney donors, and assess associations with common exposure sources and background factors. Methods: Metal concentrations were determined in 109 living kidney donors aged 24-70 years (median 51), using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (Cd and Pb) and cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry (Hg). Smoking habits, occupation, dental amalgam, fish consumption, and iron stores were evaluated. Results: The median kidney concentrations were 12.9 μg/g (wet weight) for cadmium, 0.21 μg/g for mercury, and 0.08 μg/g for lead. Kidney Cd increased by 3.9 μg/g for a 10 year increase in age, and by 3.7 μg/g for an extra 10 pack-years of smoking. Levels in non-smokers were similar to those found in the 1970s. Low iron stores (low serum ferritin) in women increased kidney Cd by 4.5 μg/g. Kidney Hg increased by 6% for every additional amalgam surface, but was not associated with fish consumption. Lead was unaffected by the background factors surveyed. Conclusions: In Sweden, kidney Cd levels have decreased due to less smoking, while the impact of diet seems unchanged. Dental amalgam is the main determinant of kidney Hg. Kidney Pb levels are very low due to decreased exposure.

  5. Cadmium, mercury, and lead in kidney cortex of living kidney donors: Impact of different exposure sources,

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barregard, Lars, E-mail: lars.barregard@amm.gu.se [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and University of Gothenburg, P.O. Box 414, SE 405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden); Fabricius-Lagging, Elisabeth [Department of Nephrology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and Boras Hospital (Sweden); Lundh, Thomas [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University Hospital and Lund University (Sweden); Moelne, Johan [Department of Clinical Pathology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Wallin, Maria [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and University of Gothenburg, P.O. Box 414, SE 405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden); Olausson, Michael [Department of Transplantation and Liver Surgery, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and University of Gothenburg (Sweden); Modigh, Cecilia; Sallsten, Gerd [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital and University of Gothenburg, P.O. Box 414, SE 405 30 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2010-01-15

    Background: Most current knowledge on kidney concentrations of nephrotoxic metals like cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), or lead (Pb) comes from autopsy studies. Assessment of metal concentrations in kidney biopsies from living subjects can be combined with information about exposure sources like smoking, diet, and occupation supplied by the biopsied subjects themselves. Objectives: To determine kidney concentrations of Cd, Hg, and Pb in living kidney donors, and assess associations with common exposure sources and background factors. Methods: Metal concentrations were determined in 109 living kidney donors aged 24-70 years (median 51), using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (Cd and Pb) and cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry (Hg). Smoking habits, occupation, dental amalgam, fish consumption, and iron stores were evaluated. Results: The median kidney concentrations were 12.9 {mu}g/g (wet weight) for cadmium, 0.21 {mu}g/g for mercury, and 0.08 {mu}g/g for lead. Kidney Cd increased by 3.9 {mu}g/g for a 10 year increase in age, and by 3.7 {mu}g/g for an extra 10 pack-years of smoking. Levels in non-smokers were similar to those found in the 1970s. Low iron stores (low serum ferritin) in women increased kidney Cd by 4.5 {mu}g/g. Kidney Hg increased by 6% for every additional amalgam surface, but was not associated with fish consumption. Lead was unaffected by the background factors surveyed. Conclusions: In Sweden, kidney Cd levels have decreased due to less smoking, while the impact of diet seems unchanged. Dental amalgam is the main determinant of kidney Hg. Kidney Pb levels are very low due to decreased exposure.

  6. Effect of subacute exposure to lead and estrogen on immature pre-weaning rat leukocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villagra, R.; Tchernitchin, N.N.; Tchernitchin, A.N. [Univ. of Chile Medical School, Santiago (Chile)

    1997-02-01

    Lead is an environmental pollutant known to cause damage to human health, affecting specially the central nervous system, reproductive organs, the immune system and kidney. From the perspective or reproduction, lead affects both men and women. Reported effects in women include infertility, miscarriage, pre-eclampsia, pregnancy hypertension and premature delivery. In experimental animals, lead affects female reproductive organs through different mechanisms. The heavy metal may interact at the enzyme level. It may interfere with the action of reproductive hormones at the target organ, modifying the activity of estrogen receptors in the pregnant uterus and inhibiting responses where estrogens play a role. Lead may induce imprinting mechanism, causing persistent changes in uterine estrogen receptors and ovary LH receptors following perinatal exposure. Finally, it may interfere at the level of hypothalamus-pituitary, decreasing pituitary response to growth hormone releasing factor, affecting levels of FSH and LH and increasing blood levels of glucocorticoids, which modify the action of estrogens in the uterus. This study examines the mechanisms of lead-induced interference with female reproductive and immune functions. 33 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Foliar or root exposures to smelter particles: consequences for lead compartmentalization and speciation in plant leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreck, Eva; Dappe, Vincent; Sarret, Géraldine; Sobanska, Sophie; Nowak, Dorota; Nowak, Jakub; Stefaniak, Elżbieta Anna; Magnin, Valérie; Ranieri, Vincent; Dumat, Camille

    2014-04-01

    In urban areas with high fallout of airborne particles, metal uptake by plants mainly occurs by foliar pathways and can strongly impact crop quality. However, there is a lack of knowledge on metal localization and speciation in plants after pollution exposure, especially in the case of foliar uptake. In this study, two contrasting crops, lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and rye-grass (Lolium perenne L.), were exposed to Pb-rich particles emitted by a Pb-recycling factory via either atmospheric or soil application. Pb accumulation in plant leaves was observed for both ways of exposure. The mechanisms involved in Pb uptake were investigated using a combination of microscopic and spectroscopic techniques (electron microscopy, laser ablation, Raman microspectroscopy, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy). The results show that Pb localization and speciation are strongly influenced by the type of exposure (root or shoot pathway) and the plant species. Foliar exposure is the main pathway of uptake, involving the highest concentrations in plant tissues. Under atmospheric fallouts, Pb-rich particles were strongly adsorbed on the leaf surface of both plant species. In lettuce, stomata contained Pb-rich particles in their apertures, with some deformations of guard cells. In addition to PbO and PbSO4, chemical forms that were also observed in pristine particles, new species were identified: organic compounds (minimum 20%) and hexagonal platy crystals of PbCO3. In rye-grass, the changes in Pb speciation were even more egregious: Pb-cell wall and Pb-organic acid complexes were the major species observed. For root exposure, identified here as a minor pathway of Pb transfer compared to foliar uptake, another secondary species, pyromorphite, was identified in rye-grass leaves. Finally, combining bulk and spatially resolved spectroscopic techniques permitted both the overall speciation and the minor but possibly highly reactive lead species to be determined in order to better assess the

  8. Hypothalamic sensing of ketone bodies after prolonged cerebral exposure leads to metabolic control dysregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, Lionel; Geller, Sarah; Hébert, Audrey; Repond, Cendrine; Fioramonti, Xavier; Leloup, Corinne; Pellerin, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Ketone bodies have been shown to transiently stimulate food intake and modify energy homeostasis regulatory systems following cerebral infusion for a moderate period of time (neuropeptides. Moreover, insulinemia was increased and caused a decrease in glucose production despite an increased resistance to insulin. The present study confirms that ketone bodies reaching the brain stimulates food intake. Moreover, we provide evidence that a prolonged hyperketonemia leads to a dysregulation of energy homeostasis control mechanisms. Finally, this study shows that brain exposure to ketone bodies alters insulin signaling and consequently glucose homeostasis. PMID:27708432

  9. Levels and source apportionment of children's lead exposure: Could urinary lead be used to identify the levels and sources of children's lead pollution?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a highly toxic heavy metal, the pollution and exposure risks of lead are of widespread concern for human health. However, the collection of blood samples for use as an indicator of lead pollution is not always feasible in most cohort or longitudinal studies, especially those involving children health. To evaluate the potential use of urinary lead as an indicator of exposure levels and source apportionment, accompanying with environmental media samples, lead concentrations and isotopic measurements (expressed as 207Pb/206Pb, 208Pb/206Pb and 204Pb/206Pb) were investigated and compared between blood and urine from children living in the vicinities of a typical coking plant and lead-acid battery factory. The results showed urinary lead might not be a preferable proxy for estimating blood lead levels. Fortunately, urinary lead isotopic measurements could be used as an alternative for identifying the sources of children's lead exposure, which coincided well with the blood lead isotope ratio analysis. - Highlights: • Pb isotopes of environmental media and children's blood and urine were analyzed. • Pb exposure and pollution source were studied in lead-acid battery and coking areas. • Pb isotope ratios in blood and urine were similar to those of food, water and PM. • Urine Pb level may not be used as a proxy for indicating the lead levels in blood. • Urine Pb isotope ratios is an alternative to identify source and exposure pathways. - Urinary lead is not a preferable proxy to estimate blood lead level, but urinary lead isotope ratios could be an alternative for identifying the sources of lead exposure in children

  10. The MOBI-Kids Study Protocol : Challenges in Assessing Childhood and Adolescent Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields from Wireless Telecommunication Technologies and Possible Association with Brain Tumor Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadetzki, Siegal; Langer, Chelsea Eastman; Bruchim, Revital; Kundi, Michael; Merletti, Franco; Vermeulen, Roel; Kromhout, Hans; Lee, Ae-Kyoung; Maslanyj, Myron; Sim, Malcolm R; Taki, Masao; Wiart, Joe; Armstrong, Bruce; Milne, Elizabeth; Benke, Geza; Schattner, Rosa; Hutter, Hans-Peter; Woehrer, Adelheid; Krewski, Daniel; Mohipp, Charmaine; Momoli, Franco; Ritvo, Paul; Spinelli, John; Lacour, Brigitte; Delmas, Dominique; Remen, Thomas; Radon, Katja; Weinmann, Tobias; Klostermann, Swaantje; Heinrich, Sabine; Petridou, Eleni; Bouka, Evdoxia; Panagopoulou, Paraskevi; Dikshit, Rajesh; Nagrani, Rajini; Even-Nir, Hadas; Chetrit, Angela; Maule, Milena; Migliore, Enrica; Filippini, Graziella; Miligi, Lucia; Mattioli, Stefano; Yamaguchi, Naohito; Kojimahara, Noriko; Ha, Mina; Choi, Kyung-Hwa; Mannetje, Andrea 't; Eng, Amanda; Woodward, Alistair; Carretero, Gema; Alguacil, Juan; Aragones, Nuria; Suare-Varela, Maria Morales; Goedhart, Geertje; Schouten-van Meeteren, A Antoinette Y N; Reedijk, A Ardine M J; Cardis, Elisabeth; Goedhart - de Wolf, Geertje

    2014-01-01

    The rapid increase in mobile phone use in young people has generated concern about possible health effects of exposure to radiofrequency (RF) and extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields (EMF). MOBI-Kids, a multinational case-control study, investigates the potential effects of childhood

  11. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in childhood and incidence of cancer in adulthood in never smokers in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chuang, Shu-Chun; Gallo, Valentina; Michaud, Dominique; Overvad, Kim; Tjonneland, Anne; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Romieu, Isabelle; Straif, Kurt; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Panico, Salvatore; Peeters, Petra H.; Lund, Eiliv; Gram, Inger Torhild; Manjer, Jonas; Borgquist, Signe; Riboli, Elio; Vineis, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    The association between childhood environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and adult cancer risk is controversial; we examined this relationship in never smokers within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Over an average of 10 years, 8,372 cases of cance

  12. Prenatal Cigarette Exposure and Infant Learning Stimulation as Predictors of Cognitive Control in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezzacappa, Enrico; Buckner, John C.; Earls, Felton

    2011-01-01

    Prenatal exposures to neurotoxins and postnatal parenting practices have been shown to independently predict variations in the cognitive development and emotional-behavioral well-being of infants and children. We examined the independent contributions of prenatal cigarette exposure and infant learning stimulation, as well as their…

  13. Evaluating the Effect of Educational Media Exposure on Aggression in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrov, Jamie M.; Gentile, Douglas A.; Mullins, Adam D.

    2013-01-01

    Preschool-aged children (M = 42.44 months-old, SD = 8.02) participated in a short-term longitudinal study investigating the effect of educational media exposure on social development (i.e., aggression and prosocial behavior) using multiple informants and methods. As predicted, educational media exposure significantly predicted increases in both…

  14. Effects of environmental lead contamination on cattle in a lead/zinc mining area: changes in cattle immune systems on exposure to lead in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Muroya, Taro; Yabe, John; Konnai, Satoru; Darwish, Wageh Sobhy; Muzandu, Kaampwe; Choongo, Kennedy; Mainda, Geoffrey; Teraoka, Hiroki; Umemura, Takashi; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2012-10-01

    The Republic of Zambia is rich in mineral resources, such as zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb), and mining is a key industry in Zambia. A previous study of Pb pollution in Kabwe, one of the main mining areas, found that soil was contaminated with high levels of toxic metals over a substantial area. In the present study, the authors focus on toxic metal pollution in cattle, one of the most important domestic animals in Zambia. Blood samples from cattle in Kabwe and a control area (Lusaka) were tested for toxic metal content. They also measured mRNA expression of metal-responsive proteins and cytokines in white blood cells using real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. In the present in vitro study, The authors cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from cattle, exposing them to Pb acetate for 24 h and analyzing mRNA expression of metal-responsive proteins and selected cytokines. Lead concentrations in cattle blood from Kabwe were significantly greater than those from Lusaka, as were the mRNA expressions of metallothionein-2 (MT-2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). The present in vitro study demonstrated that Pb exposure led to an increase in the expressions of MT-2, TNF-α, IL-1β, and iNOS, similar to those found in vivo. These results indicate the possibility of immune system modulations in cattle from the Kabwe area.

  15. Environmental, dietary, demographic, and activity variables associated with biomarkers of exposure for benzene and lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, A; Georgopoulos, P G; Ouyang, M; Freeman, N; Lioy, P J

    2003-11-01

    Classification and regression tree methods represent a potentially powerful means of identifying patterns in exposure data that may otherwise be overlooked. Here, regression tree models are developed to identify associations between blood concentrations of benzene and lead and over 300 variables of disparate type (numerical and categorical), often with observations that are missing or below the quantitation limit. Benzene and lead are selected from among all the environmental agents measured in the NHEXAS Region V study because they are ubiquitous, and they serve as paradigms for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and heavy metals, two classes of environmental agents that have very different properties. Two sets of regression models were developed. In the first set, only environmental and dietary measurements were employed as predictor variables, while in the second set these were supplemented with demographic and time-activity data. In both sets of regression models, the predictor variables were regressed on the blood concentrations of the environmental agents. Jack-knife cross-validation was employed to detect overfitting of the models to the data. Blood concentrations of benzene were found to be associated with: (a) indoor air concentrations of benzene; (b) the duration of time spent indoors with someone who was smoking; and (c) the number of cigarettes smoked by the subject. All these associations suggest that tobacco smoke is a major source of exposure to benzene. Blood concentrations of lead were found to be associated with: (a) house dust concentrations of lead; (b) the duration of time spent working in a closed workshop; and (c) the year in which the subject moved into the residence. An unexpected finding was that the regression trees identified time-activity data as better predictors of the blood concentrations than the measurements in environmental and dietary media.

  16. Estimated lead (Pb) exposures for a population of urban community gardeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spliethoff, Henry M; Mitchell, Rebecca G; Shayler, Hannah; Marquez-Bravo, Lydia G; Russell-Anelli, Jonathan; Ferenz, Gretchen; McBride, Murray

    2016-08-01

    Urban community gardens provide affordable, locally grown, healthy foods and many other benefits. However, urban garden soils can contain lead (Pb) that may pose risks to human health. To help evaluate these risks, we measured Pb concentrations in soil, vegetables, and chicken eggs from New York City community gardens, and we asked gardeners about vegetable consumption and time spent in the garden. We then estimated Pb intakes deterministically and probabilistically for adult gardeners, children who spend time in the garden, and adult (non-gardener) household members. Most central tendency Pb intakes were below provisional total tolerable intake (PTTI) levels. High contact intakes generally exceeded PTTIs. Probabilistic estimates showed approximately 40 % of children and 10 % of gardeners exceeding PTTIs. Children's exposure came primarily from dust ingestion and exposure to higher Pb soil between beds. Gardeners' Pb intakes were comparable to children's (in µg/day) but were dominated by vegetable consumption. Adult household members ate less garden-grown produce than gardeners and had the lowest Pb intakes. Our results suggest that healthy gardening practices to reduce Pb exposure in urban community gardens should focus on encouraging cultivation of lower Pb vegetables (i.e., fruits) for adult gardeners and on covering higher Pb non-bed soils accessible to young children. However, the common practice of replacement of root-zone bed soil with clean soil (e.g., in raised beds) has many benefits and should also continue to be encouraged.

  17. Estimated lead (Pb) exposures for a population of urban community gardeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spliethoff, Henry M; Mitchell, Rebecca G; Shayler, Hannah; Marquez-Bravo, Lydia G; Russell-Anelli, Jonathan; Ferenz, Gretchen; McBride, Murray

    2016-08-01

    Urban community gardens provide affordable, locally grown, healthy foods and many other benefits. However, urban garden soils can contain lead (Pb) that may pose risks to human health. To help evaluate these risks, we measured Pb concentrations in soil, vegetables, and chicken eggs from New York City community gardens, and we asked gardeners about vegetable consumption and time spent in the garden. We then estimated Pb intakes deterministically and probabilistically for adult gardeners, children who spend time in the garden, and adult (non-gardener) household members. Most central tendency Pb intakes were below provisional total tolerable intake (PTTI) levels. High contact intakes generally exceeded PTTIs. Probabilistic estimates showed approximately 40 % of children and 10 % of gardeners exceeding PTTIs. Children's exposure came primarily from dust ingestion and exposure to higher Pb soil between beds. Gardeners' Pb intakes were comparable to children's (in µg/day) but were dominated by vegetable consumption. Adult household members ate less garden-grown produce than gardeners and had the lowest Pb intakes. Our results suggest that healthy gardening practices to reduce Pb exposure in urban community gardens should focus on encouraging cultivation of lower Pb vegetables (i.e., fruits) for adult gardeners and on covering higher Pb non-bed soils accessible to young children. However, the common practice of replacement of root-zone bed soil with clean soil (e.g., in raised beds) has many benefits and should also continue to be encouraged. PMID:26753554

  18. Biomarkers of metals exposure in fish from lead-zinc mining areas of Southeastern Missouri, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, C.J.; Whyte, J.J.; Roberts, A.P.; Annis, M.L.; May, T.W.; Tillitt, D.E.

    2007-01-01

    The potential effects of proposed lead-zinc mining in an ecologically sensitive area were assessed by studying a nearby mining district that has been exploited for about 30 y under contemporary environmental regulations and with modern technology. Blood and liver samples representing fish of three species (largescale stoneroller, Campostoma oligolepis, n=91; longear sunfish, Lepomis megalotis, n=105; and northern hog sucker, Hypentelium nigricans, n=20) from 16 sites representing a range of conditions relative to mining activities were collected. Samples were analyzed for metals (also reported in a companion paper) and for biomarkers of metals exposure [erythrocyte ??-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALA-D) activity; concentrations of zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP), iron, and hemoglobin (Hb) in blood; and hepatic metallothionein (MT) gene expression and lipid peroxidation]. Blood lead concentrations were significantly higher and ALA-D activity significantly lower in all species at sites nearest to active lead-zinc mines and in a stream contaminated by historical mining than at reference or downstream sites. ALA-D activity was also negatively correlated with blood lead concentrations in all three species but not with other metals. Iron and Hb concentrations were positively correlated in all three species, but were not correlated with any other metals in blood or liver in any species. MT gene expression was positively correlated with liver zinc concentrations, but neither MT nor lipid peroxidase differences among fish grouped according to lead concentrations were statistically significant. ZPP was not detected by hematofluorometry in most fish, but fish with detectable ZPP were from sites affected by mining. Collectively, these results confirm that metals are released to streams from active lead-zinc mining sites and are accumulated by fish. ?? 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of low-level lead and arsenic exposure on copper smelter workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilis, R.; Valciukas, J.A.; Malkin, J.; Weber, J.P.

    An analysis of reported symptoms and their relationship with indicators of lead absorption - blood lead (Pb-B) and zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) - and of arsenic absorption - urinary arsenic (As-U) - was undertaken among 680 active copper smelter workers. Lead and arsenic absorption in the copper smelter employees were characterized by the median values of 30.4 ..mu..g/dl for Pb-B, 41.5 ..mu..g/dl for ZPP, and 26 ..mu..g/L for As-U. Blood lead was 40 ..mu..g/dl or higher in 16.7% or cases, ZPP was 50 ..mu..g/dl or higher in 31.2%, and urinary arsenic was 50 ..mu..g/L or higher in 16.4% of currently active copper smelter workers. The number of reported symptoms (from a total of 14 symptoms) increased with ZPP levels; the relationship with Pb-B was less marked. Arsenic contributed relatively little. Mean Pb-B, ZPP, and As-U levels for subjects reporting each of the 14 symptoms were compared with those of subjects who did not report the symptoms. Mean Pb-B was found to differ significantly for one symptom, fatigue. Significant differences in mean ZPP levels were found for fatigue, sleep disturbances, weakness, paresthesia, and joint pain. Prevalence rates for these symptoms rose more markedly with increasing ZPP than with Pb-B levels. The results indicate a relationship between certain CNS and musculo-skeletal symptoms and increased lead absorption in this population. Adherence to exposure standards that preclude undue lead absorption and appropriate biological monitoring including ZPP levels, are necessary to prevent adverse, especially long-term, health effects.

  20. Combined exposure to lead, inorganic mercury and methylmercury shows deviation from additivity for cardiovascular toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildemann, Tanja M; Weber, Lynn P; Siciliano, Steven D

    2015-08-01

    Environmental exposure to metal mixtures in the human population is common. Mixture risk assessments are often challenging because of a lack of suitable data on the relevant mixture. A growing number of studies show an association between lead or mercury exposure and cardiovascular effects. We investigated the cardiovascular effects of single metal exposure or co-exposure to methylmercury [MeHg(I)], inorganic mercury [Hg(II)] and lead [Pb(II)]. Male Wistar rats received four different metal mixtures for 28 days through the drinking water. The ratios of the metals were based on reference and environmental exposure values. Blood and pulse pressure, cardiac output and electrical activity of the heart were selected as end-points. While exposure to only MeHg(I) increased the systolic blood pressure and decreased cardiac output, the effects were reversed with combined exposures (antagonism). In contrast to these effects, combined exposures negatively affected the electrical activity of the heart (synergism). Thus, it appears that estimates of blood total Hg levels need to be paired with estimates of what species of mercury dominate exposure as well as whether lead co-exposure is present to link total blood Hg levels to cardiovascular effects. Based on current human exposure data and our results, there may be an increased risk of cardiac events as a result of combined exposures to Hg(II), MeHg(I) and Pb(II). This increased risk needs to be clarified by analyzing lead and Hg exposure data in relation to cardiac electrical activity in epidemiological studies.

  1. Lead exposure study among workers in lead acid battery repair units of transport service enterprises, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Engidawork Ephrem

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lead exposure is common in automobile battery manufacture and repair, radiator repair, secondary smelters and welding units. Urinary Aminolevulinic acid has validity as a surrogate measure of blood lead level among workers occupationally exposed to lead. This study had therefore assessed the magnitude of lead exposure in battery repair workers of three transport service enterprises. Methods To this effect, a cross-sectional study was carried out on lead exposure among storage battery repair workers between November 2004 and May 2005 from Anbasa, Comet and Walia transport service enterprises, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Subjective information from the workers was obtained by making use of structured questionnaire. Other information was obtained from walkthrough evaluation of the repair units. Aminolevulinic acid levels in urine were used as an index of the exposure. This was coupled to measurements of other relevant parameters in blood and urine collected from adult subjects working in the repair units as well as age matched control subjects that were not occupationally exposed to lead. Aminolevulinic acid was determined by spectrophotometry, while creatinine clearance, serum creatinine, urea and uric acid levels were determined using AMS Autolab analyzer. Results Urinary aminolevulinic acid levels were found to be significantly higher in exposed group (16 μg/ml ± 2.0 compared to the non-exposed ones (7 μg/ml ± 1.0 (p Conclusion Taken together, these findings indicated that workers in lead acid battery repair units of the transport service enterprises are not protected from possibly high lead exposure. Thus, strict enforcement of appropriate and cost effective preventive and control measures is required by all the enterprises.

  2. Foliar or root exposures to smelter particles: Consequences for lead compartmentalization and speciation in plant leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreck, Eva [Université de Toulouse, INP, UPS, EcoLab (Laboratoire Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Environnement), ENSAT, Avenue de l' Agrobiopole, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); CNRS, EcoLab, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); Géosciences Environnement Toulouse (GET), Observatoire Midi Pyrénées, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, IRD, 14 Avenue E. Belin, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Dappe, Vincent [LASIR (UMR CNRS 8516), Université de Lille 1, Bât. C5, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Sarret, Géraldine [ISTerre, UMR 5275, Université Grenoble I, CNRS, F-38041 Grenoble (France); Sobanska, Sophie [LASIR (UMR CNRS 8516), Université de Lille 1, Bât. C5, 59655 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Nowak, Dorota; Nowak, Jakub; Stefaniak, Elżbieta Anna [Department of Chemistry, John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Al. Kraśnicka 102, 20-718 Lublin (Poland); Magnin, Valérie [ISTerre, UMR 5275, Université Grenoble I, CNRS, F-38041 Grenoble (France); Ranieri, Vincent [CEA-INAC, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Dumat, Camille, E-mail: camille.dumat@ensat.fr [Université de Toulouse, INP, UPS, EcoLab (Laboratoire Ecologie Fonctionnelle et Environnement), ENSAT, Avenue de l' Agrobiopole, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France); CNRS, EcoLab, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan (France)

    2014-04-01

    In urban areas with high fallout of airborne particles, metal uptake by plants mainly occurs by foliar pathways and can strongly impact crop quality. However, there is a lack of knowledge on metal localization and speciation in plants after pollution exposure, especially in the case of foliar uptake. In this study, two contrasting crops, lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and rye-grass (Lolium perenne L.), were exposed to Pb-rich particles emitted by a Pb-recycling factory via either atmospheric or soil application. Pb accumulation in plant leaves was observed for both ways of exposure. The mechanisms involved in Pb uptake were investigated using a combination of microscopic and spectroscopic techniques (electron microscopy, laser ablation, Raman microspectroscopy, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy). The results show that Pb localization and speciation are strongly influenced by the type of exposure (root or shoot pathway) and the plant species. Foliar exposure is the main pathway of uptake, involving the highest concentrations in plant tissues. Under atmospheric fallouts, Pb-rich particles were strongly adsorbed on the leaf surface of both plant species. In lettuce, stomata contained Pb-rich particles in their apertures, with some deformations of guard cells. In addition to PbO and PbSO{sub 4}, chemical forms that were also observed in pristine particles, new species were identified: organic compounds (minimum 20%) and hexagonal platy crystals of PbCO{sub 3}. In rye-grass, the changes in Pb speciation were even more egregious: Pb–cell wall and Pb–organic acid complexes were the major species observed. For root exposure, identified here as a minor pathway of Pb transfer compared to foliar uptake, another secondary species, pyromorphite, was identified in rye-grass leaves. Finally, combining bulk and spatially resolved spectroscopic techniques permitted both the overall speciation and the minor but possibly highly reactive lead species to be determined in order to

  3. Foliar or root exposures to smelter particles: Consequences for lead compartmentalization and speciation in plant leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In urban areas with high fallout of airborne particles, metal uptake by plants mainly occurs by foliar pathways and can strongly impact crop quality. However, there is a lack of knowledge on metal localization and speciation in plants after pollution exposure, especially in the case of foliar uptake. In this study, two contrasting crops, lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and rye-grass (Lolium perenne L.), were exposed to Pb-rich particles emitted by a Pb-recycling factory via either atmospheric or soil application. Pb accumulation in plant leaves was observed for both ways of exposure. The mechanisms involved in Pb uptake were investigated using a combination of microscopic and spectroscopic techniques (electron microscopy, laser ablation, Raman microspectroscopy, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy). The results show that Pb localization and speciation are strongly influenced by the type of exposure (root or shoot pathway) and the plant species. Foliar exposure is the main pathway of uptake, involving the highest concentrations in plant tissues. Under atmospheric fallouts, Pb-rich particles were strongly adsorbed on the leaf surface of both plant species. In lettuce, stomata contained Pb-rich particles in their apertures, with some deformations of guard cells. In addition to PbO and PbSO4, chemical forms that were also observed in pristine particles, new species were identified: organic compounds (minimum 20%) and hexagonal platy crystals of PbCO3. In rye-grass, the changes in Pb speciation were even more egregious: Pb–cell wall and Pb–organic acid complexes were the major species observed. For root exposure, identified here as a minor pathway of Pb transfer compared to foliar uptake, another secondary species, pyromorphite, was identified in rye-grass leaves. Finally, combining bulk and spatially resolved spectroscopic techniques permitted both the overall speciation and the minor but possibly highly reactive lead species to be determined in order to better assess

  4. Immediate screening of lead exposure in the workplace using portable X-ray fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorce, Jean-Philippe; Roff, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The use of a portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (PXRF) equipped with a miniaturised X-ray tube producing a small 8 mm diameter X-ray beam required the validation of two new sampling protocols for the immediate screening of occupational lead exposure. First, lead in dust and fumes, collected by Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) inhalable samplers on 25 mm diameter membrane filters, is quantified using PXRF. To account for irregular dust deposition, the filters are rotated manually by quarter turns. Multiple PXRF readings are collected from the central region and from two locations in the outer region. The inner region is distinguishable from the outer region, but the two outer region locations are indistinguishable. High correlations (R(2) > 0.99) are found between the PXRF results and historical results obtained using a reference method based on a laboratory wavelength-dispersive sequential XRF instrument (WDXRF) for lead loadings between 1-161 μg. The PXRF results from the outer regions of the filters show a bias of -13% with respect to the WDXRF. Once this bias is allowed for, 95% of all PXRF results lie within -28% and +38% of the WDXRF results. Neither instrument accounts for potential dust accumulation on the walls of the IOM sampler. Therefore, methods based on their use can only be considered semi-quantitative. Second, a protocol combining direct PXRF measurements on workplace surfaces with surface wipes is designed for immediate on-site quantification of removable surface lead residues. The quantification of such residues by this method is compared with subsequent off-site wet chemistry analysis of the surface wipes. The two methods show a good correlation (R(2) ∼ 0.88). The ratio of the amount of removable residues determined by PXRF and wipe sampling is close to one with range 0.26-3.94. It is demonstrated that PXRF can be used as an effective tool for the immediate screening of occupational lead exposure. Although this article focused on

  5. Exposure to lead in water and cysteine non-oxidative metabolism in Pelophylax ridibundus tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic, low-level exposure to metals is an increasing global problem. Lead is an environmentally persistent toxin that causes many lead-related pathologies, directly affects tissues and cellular components or exerts an effect of the generation of reactive oxygen species causing a diminished level of available sulfhydryl antioxidant reserves. Cysteine is one of substrates in the synthesis of glutathione – the most important cellular antioxidant, and it may also undergo non-oxidative desulfuration that produces compounds containing sulfane sulfur atoms. The aim of the experiment was to examine changes of the non-oxidative metabolism of cysteine and the levels of cysteine and glutathione in the kidneys, heart, brain, liver and muscle of Marsh frogs (Pelophylax ridibundus) exposed to 28 mg/L Pb(NO3)2 for 10 days. The activities of sulfurtransferases, enzymes related to the sulfane sulfur metabolism – 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransfearse, γ-cystathionase and rhodanese – were detected in tissue homogenates. The activity of sulfurtransferases was much higher in the kidneys of frogs exposed to lead in comparison to control frogs, not exposed to lead. The level of sulfane sulfur remained unchanged. Similarly, the total level of cysteine did not change significantly. The total levels of glutathione and the cysteine/cystine and GSH/GSSG ratios were elevated. Thus, it seems that the exposure to lead intensified the metabolism of sulfane sulfur and glutathione synthesis in the kidneys. The results presented in this work not only confirm the participation of GSH in the detoxification of lead ions and/or products appearing in response to their presence, such as reactive oxygen species, but also indicate the involvement of sulfane sulfur and rhodanese in this process (e.g. brain). As long as the expression of enzymatic proteins (rhodanese, MPST and CST) is not examined, no answer will be provided to the question whether changes in their activity are due to differences in

  6. Exposure to lead in water and cysteine non-oxidative metabolism in Pelophylax ridibundus tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaczor, Marta [Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kopernika 7, 31-034 Krakow (Poland); Sura, Piotr [Department of Human Developmental Biology, Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kopernika 7, 31-034 Krakow (Poland); Bronowicka-Adamska, Patrycja [Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kopernika 7, 31-034 Krakow (Poland); Wrobel, Maria, E-mail: mbwrobel@cyf-kr.edu.pl [Jagiellonian University Medical College, Kopernika 7, 31-034 Krakow (Poland)

    2013-02-15

    Chronic, low-level exposure to metals is an increasing global problem. Lead is an environmentally persistent toxin that causes many lead-related pathologies, directly affects tissues and cellular components or exerts an effect of the generation of reactive oxygen species causing a diminished level of available sulfhydryl antioxidant reserves. Cysteine is one of substrates in the synthesis of glutathione - the most important cellular antioxidant, and it may also undergo non-oxidative desulfuration that produces compounds containing sulfane sulfur atoms. The aim of the experiment was to examine changes of the non-oxidative metabolism of cysteine and the levels of cysteine and glutathione in the kidneys, heart, brain, liver and muscle of Marsh frogs (Pelophylax ridibundus) exposed to 28 mg/L Pb(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} for 10 days. The activities of sulfurtransferases, enzymes related to the sulfane sulfur metabolism - 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransfearse, {gamma}-cystathionase and rhodanese - were detected in tissue homogenates. The activity of sulfurtransferases was much higher in the kidneys of frogs exposed to lead in comparison to control frogs, not exposed to lead. The level of sulfane sulfur remained unchanged. Similarly, the total level of cysteine did not change significantly. The total levels of glutathione and the cysteine/cystine and GSH/GSSG ratios were elevated. Thus, it seems that the exposure to lead intensified the metabolism of sulfane sulfur and glutathione synthesis in the kidneys. The results presented in this work not only confirm the participation of GSH in the detoxification of lead ions and/or products appearing in response to their presence, such as reactive oxygen species, but also indicate the involvement of sulfane sulfur and rhodanese in this process (e.g. brain). As long as the expression of enzymatic proteins (rhodanese, MPST and CST) is not examined, no answer will be provided to the question whether changes in their activity are due to

  7. Autoantibodies associated with prenatal and childhood exposure to environmental chemicals in faroese children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osuna, Christa E; Grandjean, Philippe; Weihe, Pál;

    2014-01-01

    to both neural (neurofilaments, cholineacetyltransferase, astrocyte glial fibrillary acidic protein, and myelin basic protein) and non-neural (actin, desmin, and keratin) antigens were measured and the associations of these autoantibody concentrations with chemical exposures were assessed using linear...

  8. Prenatal Exposure to DDE and PCB 153 and Respiratory Health in Early Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gascon, Mireia; Sunyer, Jordi; Casas, Maribel;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Persistent organic pollutants may affect the immune and respiratory systems, but available evidence is based on small study populations. We studied the association between prenatal exposure to dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and polychlorinated biphenyl 153 (PCB 153) and children...... occurrences of the outcomes on the estimates of cord-serum concentrations of PCB 153 and DDE as continuous variables (per doubling exposure) and as cohort-specific tertiles. Summary estimates were obtained through random-effects meta-analyses. RESULTS: The risk of bronchitis or wheeze (combined variable......) assessed before 18 months of age increased with increasing DDE exposure (relative risk [RR] per doubling exposure = 1.03 [95% confidence interval = 1.00-1.07]). When these outcomes were analyzed separately, associations appeared stronger for bronchitis. We also found an association between increasing PCB...

  9. Risk of childhood overweight after exposure to tobacco smoking in prenatal and early postnatal life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Susanne Eifer; Ajslev, Teresa Adeltoft; Andersen, Camilla Schou;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between exposure to mothers smoking during prenatal and early postnatal life and risk of overweight at age 7 years, while taking birth weight into account. METHODS: From the Danish National Birth Cohort a total of 32,747 families were identified with avai......, and with higher OR if exposed both during pregnancy and in early postnatal life. Clear dose-response relationships were observed, which emphasizes the need for prevention of any tobacco exposure of infants....

  10. Prenatal cigarette exposure and infant learning stimulation as predictors of cognitive control in childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Mezzacappa, Enrico; Buckner, John C.; Earls, Felton

    2011-01-01

    Prenatal exposures to neurotoxins and postnatal parenting practices have been shown to independently predict variations in the cognitive development and emotional-behavioral well being of infants and children. We examined the independent contributions of prenatal cigarette exposure and infant learning stimulation, as well as their inter-relationships in predicting variations in the proficiency of executive attention, a core element of cognitive control and self-regulation.

  11. Prenatal Exposure to Organophosphates, Paraoxonase 1, and Cognitive Development in Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Engel, Stephanie M.; Wetmur, James; Chen, Jia; Zhu, Chenbo; Barr, Dana Boyd; Canfield, Richard L.; Wolff, Mary S.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Prenatal exposure to organophosphate pesticides has been shown to negatively affect child neurobehavioral development. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a key enzyme in the metabolism of organophosphates. Objective: We examined the relationship between biomarkers of organophosphate exposure, PON1, and cognitive development at ages 12 and 24 months and 6–9 years. Methods: The Mount Sinai Children’s Environmental Health Study enrolled a multiethnic prenatal population in New York City between...

  12. Multi-biological defects caused by lead exposure exhibit transferable properties from exposed parents to their progeny in Caenorhabditis elegans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Whether the multi-biological toxicity from lead exposure could be transferred to progeny has not been clarified. In the present study, we explored the Caenorhabditis elegans to analyze the multiple toxicities from lead exposure and their possibly transferable properties. The lead exposure could cause series of severe multi-biological defects with a concentration-dependent manner by affecting the endpoints of life span, development, reproduction and locomotion behaviors in nematodes. Moreover, most of these toxicities could be transferred to progeny from lead exposed animals and some of the defects in progeny appeared even more severe than in their parents, such as the body sizes and mean life spans. We summarized the defects caused by lead exposure into three groups according to their transferable properties or rescue patterns. That is, the defects caused by lead exposure could be largely, or partially, or became even more severe in progeny animals. Therefore, our results suggest that lead exposure can cause severely multi-biological defects, and most of these multiple toxicities can be considered as transferable for exposed animals in C. elegans.

  13. Risk of childhood overweight after exposure to tobacco smoking in prenatal and early postnatal life.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Eifer Møller

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between exposure to mothers smoking during prenatal and early postnatal life and risk of overweight at age 7 years, while taking birth weight into account. METHODS: From the Danish National Birth Cohort a total of 32,747 families were identified with available information on maternal smoking status in child's pre- and postnatal life and child's birth weight, and weight and height at age 7 years. Outcome was overweight according to the International Obesity Task Force gender and age specific body mass index. Smoking exposure was categorized into four groups: no exposure (n = 25,076; exposure only during pregnancy (n = 3,343; exposure only postnatally (n = 140; and exposure during pregnancy and postnatally (n = 4,188. Risk of overweight according to smoking status as well as dose-response relationships were estimated by crude and adjusted odds ratios using logistic regression models. RESULTS: Exposure to smoking only during pregnancy, or both during pregnancy and postnatally were both significantly associated with overweight at 7 years of age (OR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.15-1.48, and OR: 1.76, 95% CI: 1.58-1.97, respectively. Analyses excluding children with low birth weight (<2,500 gram revealed similar results. A significant prenatal dose-response relationship was found. Per one additional cigarette smoked per day an increase in risk of overweight was observed (OR: 1.02, 95% CI: 1.01-1.03. When adjusting for quantity of smoking during pregnancy, prolonged exposure after birth further increased the risk of later overweight in the children (OR 1.28, 95% CI:1.09-1.50 compared with exposure only in the prenatal period. CONCLUSIONS: Mother's perinatal smoking increased child's OR of overweight at age 7 years irrespective of birth weight, and with higher OR if exposed both during pregnancy and in early postnatal life. Clear dose-response relationships were observed, which emphasizes the need for

  14. The interaction of glutathione S-transferase M1-null variants with tobacco smoke exposure and the development of childhood asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogers, A J; Brasch-Andersen, C; Ionita-Laza, I;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1)-null variant is a common copy number variant associated with adverse pulmonary outcomes, including asthma and airflow obstruction, with evidence of important gene-by-environment interactions with exposures to oxidative stress. OBJECTIVE......: To explore the joint interactive effects of GSTM1 copy number and tobacco smoke exposure on the development of asthma and asthma-related phenotypes in a family-based cohort of childhood asthmatics. METHODS: We performed quantitative PCR-based genotyping for GSTM1 copy number in children of self......-reported white ancestry with mild to moderate asthma in the Childhood Asthma Management Program. Questionnaire data regarding intrauterine (IUS) and post-natal, longitudinal smoke exposure were available. We performed both family-based and population-based tests of association for the interaction between GSTM1...

  15. Lead Exposure during Synaptogenesis Alters Vesicular Proteins and Impairs Vesicular Release: Potential Role of NMDA Receptor–Dependent BDNF Signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Neal, April P.; Stansfield, Kirstie H.; Worley, Paul F.; Thompson, Richard E.; Guilarte, Tomás R.

    2010-01-01

    Lead (Pb2+) exposure is known to affect presynaptic neurotransmitter release in both in vivo and cell culture models. However, the precise mechanism by which Pb2+ impairs neurotransmitter release remains unknown. In the current study, we show that Pb2+ exposure during synaptogenesis in cultured hippocampal neurons produces the loss of synaptophysin (Syn) and synaptobrevin (Syb), two proteins involved in vesicular release. Pb2+ exposure also increased the number of presynaptic contact sites. H...

  16. MAPK pathway activation by chronic lead-exposure increases vascular reactivity through oxidative stress/cyclooxygenase-2-dependent pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simões, Maylla Ronacher, E-mail: yllars@hotmail.com [Dept. of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória, ES CEP 29040-091 (Brazil); Department of Pharmacology, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz (IdiPAZ), Madrid (Spain); Aguado, Andrea [Department of Pharmacology, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz (IdiPAZ), Madrid (Spain); Fiorim, Jonaína; Silveira, Edna Aparecida; Azevedo, Bruna Fernandes; Toscano, Cindy Medice [Dept. of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória, ES CEP 29040-091 (Brazil); Zhenyukh, Olha; Briones, Ana María [Department of Pharmacology, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz (IdiPAZ), Madrid (Spain); Alonso, María Jesús [Dept. of Biochemistry, Physiology and Molecular Genetics, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, Alcorcón (Spain); Vassallo, Dalton Valentim [Dept. of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória, ES CEP 29040-091 (Brazil); Health Science Center of Vitória-EMESCAM, Vitória, ES CEP 29045-402 (Brazil); Salaices, Mercedes, E-mail: mercedes.salaices@uam.es [Department of Pharmacology, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Instituto de Investigación Hospital Universitario La Paz (IdiPAZ), Madrid (Spain)

    2015-03-01

    Chronic exposure to low lead concentration produces hypertension; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We analyzed the role of oxidative stress, cyclooxygenase-2-dependent pathways and MAPK in the vascular alterations induced by chronic lead exposure. Aortas from lead-treated Wistar rats (1st dose: 10 μg/100 g; subsequent doses: 0.125 μg/100 g, intramuscular, 30 days) and cultured aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from Sprague Dawley rats stimulated with lead (20 μg/dL) were used. Lead blood levels of treated rats attained 21.7 ± 2.38 μg/dL. Lead exposure increased systolic blood pressure and aortic ring contractile response to phenylephrine, reduced acetylcholine-induced relaxation and did not affect sodium nitroprusside relaxation. Endothelium removal and L-NAME left-shifted the response to phenylephrine more in untreated than in lead-treated rats. Apocynin and indomethacin decreased more the response to phenylephrine in treated than in untreated rats. Aortic protein expression of gp91(phox), Cu/Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD and COX-2 increased after lead exposure. In cultured VSMCs lead 1) increased superoxide anion production, NADPH oxidase activity and gene and/or protein levels of NOX-1, NOX-4, Mn-SOD, EC-SOD and COX-2 and 2) activated ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK. Both antioxidants and COX-2 inhibitors normalized superoxide anion production, NADPH oxidase activity and mRNA levels of NOX-1, NOX-4 and COX-2. Blockade of the ERK1/2 and p38 signaling pathways abolished lead-induced NOX-1, NOX-4 and COX-2 expression. Results show that lead activation of the MAPK signaling pathways activates inflammatory proteins such as NADPH oxidase and COX-2, suggesting a reciprocal interplay and contribution to vascular dysfunction as an underlying mechanisms for lead-induced hypertension. - Highlights: • Lead-exposure increases oxidative stress, COX-2 expression and vascular reactivity. • Lead exposure activates MAPK signaling pathway. • ROS and COX-2 activation by

  17. [Exposure to CT scans in childhood and long-term cancer risk: A review of epidemiological studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baysson, Hélène; Journy, Neige; Roué, Tristan; Ducou-Lepointe, Hubert; Etard, Cécile; Bernier, Marie-Odile

    2016-02-01

    Amongst medical exams requiring ionizing radiation, computed tomography (CT) scans are used more frequently, including in children. These CT examinations are associated with absorbed doses that are much higher than those associated with conventional radiology. In comparison to adults, children have a greater sensitivity to radiation and a longer life span with more years at cancer risks. Five epidemiological studies on cancer risks after CT scan exposure during childhood were published between 2012 and 2015. The results of these studies are consistent and show an increase of cancer risks in children who have been exposed to several CT scans. However, methodological limits due to indication bias, retrospective assessment of radiation exposure from CT scans and lack of statistical power are to be taken into consideration. International projects such as EPI-CT (Epidemiological study to quantify risks for pediatric computerized tomography and to optimize dose), with a focus on dosimetric reconstruction and minimization of bias will provide more precise results. In the meantime, available results reinforce the necessity of justification and optimization of doses.

  18. Early childhood exposure to parental nudity and scenes of parental sexuality ("primal scenes"): an 18-year longitudinal study of outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okami, P; Olmstead, R; Abramson, P R; Pendleton, L

    1998-08-01

    As part of the UCLA Family Lifestyles Project (FLS), 200 male and female children participated in an 18-year longitudinal outcome study of early childhood exposure to parental nudity and scenes of parental sexuality ("primal scenes"). At age 17-18, participants were assessed for levels of self-acceptance; relations with peers, parents, and other adults; antisocial and criminal behavior; substance use; suicidal ideation; quality of sexual relationships; and problems associated with sexual relations. No harmful "main effect" correlates of the predictor variables were found. A significant crossover Sex of Participant X Primal Scenes interaction was found such that boys exposed to primal scenes before age 6 had reduced risk of STD transmission or having impregnated someone in adolescence. In contrast, girls exposed to primal scenes before age 6 had increased risk of STD transmission or having become pregnant. A number of main effect trends in the data (nonsignificant at p nudity and exposure to primal scenes with beneficial outcomes. However, a number of these findings were mediated by sex of participant interactions showing that the effects were attenuated or absent for girls. All effects were independent of family stability, pathology, or child-rearing ideology; sex of participant; SES; and beliefs and attitudes toward sexuality. Limitations of the data and of long-term regression studies in general are discussed, and the sex of participant interactions are interpreted speculatively. It is suggested that pervasive beliefs in the harmfulness of the predictor variables are exaggerated. PMID:9681119

  19. Desire to dissociate: implications for problematic drinking in college students with childhood or adolescent sexual abuse exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klanecky, Alicia; McChargue, Dennis E; Bruggeman, Lindsay

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol use to replace inadequate dissociative capabilities, or chemical dissociation, has been linked to college students with childhood or adolescent sexual abuse (CASA). Insofar as CASA-exposed persons experience a restricted range of dissociative capabilities, what remains relatively unclear is whether some desire to achieve greater dissociative experiences. Nonclinical levels of dissociative tendencies have positively predicted alcohol-related blackouts in CASA-exposed students, and dissociation mediated the relations between CASA and intoxication frequency. Although alcohol (similar to dissociation) can reduce physiological and psychological responses to stress, alcohol consumption may be prompted by a desire to dissociate rather than inadequate dissociative tendencies alone. To investigate this interpretation of the chemical dissociation phenomenon, researchers examined the mediating potential of dissociative tendencies using the Dissociative Experiences Scale-II (DES-II) as well as the desire to dissociate concept (ie, a modified version of the DES-II) on the relations between CASA exposure and problematic alcohol use in college students (N = 298). Results indicated that dissociation scores did not replicate previous mediation findings whereas desire to dissociate scores fully mediated CASA exposure and problematic alcohol use. Implications of the results are discussed including possible reasons why prior mediation results were not replicated as well as links to experiential avoidance.

  20. Prenatal exposure to tobacco and alcohol are associated with chronic daily headaches at childhood: A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arruda, Marco Antônio; Guidetti, Vincenzo; Galli, Federica; Albuquerque, Regina Célia Ajeje Pires de; Bigal, Marcelo Eduardo

    2011-02-01

    The influence of prenatal events on the development of headaches at childhood has not been investigated and is the scope of our study. Of 2,173 children identified as the target sample, consents and analyzable data were provided by 1,440 (77%). Parents responded to a standardized questionnaire with a validated headache module and specific questions about prenatal exposures. Odds of chronic daily headache (CDH) were significantly higher when maternal tabagism was reported. When active and passive smoking were reported, odds ratio (OR) of CDH were 2.29 [95% confidence intervals (CI)=1.6 vs. 3.6)]; for active tabagism, OR=4.2 (95% CI=2.1-8.5). Alcohol use more than doubled the chance of CDH (24% vs. 11%, OR=2.3, 95% CI=1.2-4.7). In multivariate analyses, adjustments did not substantially change the smoking/CDH association. Prenatal exposure to tobacco and alcohol are associated with increased rates of CDH onset in preadolescent children. PMID:21359419

  1. Prenatal exposure to tobacco and alcohol are associated with chronic daily headaches at childhood: A population-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antônio Arruda

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The influence of prenatal events on the development of headaches at childhood has not been investigated and is the scope of our study. Of 2,173 children identified as the target sample, consents and analyzable data were provided by 1,440 (77%. Parents responded to a standardized questionnaire with a validated headache module and specific questions about prenatal exposures. Odds of chronic daily headache (CDH were significantly higher when maternal tabagism was reported. When active and passive smoking were reported, odds ratio (OR of CDH were 2.29 [95% confidence intervals (CI=1.6 vs. 3.6]; for active tabagism, OR=4.2 (95% CI=2.1-8.5. Alcohol use more than doubled the chance of CDH (24% vs. 11%, OR=2.3, 95% CI=1.2-4.7. In multivariate analyses, adjustments did not substantially change the smoking/CDH association. Prenatal exposure to tobacco and alcohol are associated with increased rates of CDH onset in preadolescent children.

  2. Occupational lead exposure among automotive garage workers – a case study for Jimma town, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela Yalemsew

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Ethiopia, although there are numerous small-scale and medium industries which use lead-based raw materials that may pose health risks to workers, there are no workplace regulations for lead exposure. Moreover, there are no studies carried out on the blood lead levels (BLLs of workers or on the contribution of common workplace practices to lead poisoning. Method A cross-sectional study on the BLLs of 45 automotive garage workers and 40 non-garage workers was carried out in the town of Jimma, Ethiopia. In addition to BLL analysis, data on some risk factors such as smoking, and chewing ‘khat’ (the leaves of Catha adulis were gathered through structured questionnaires and interviews and data analysis was performed using SPSS (version 16. The t-test was used to compare mean BLLs of study groups. The analysis of variance (ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, Pearson chi-square and odds ratio tests were used to investigate the associations between specific job type, smoking and/or ‘khat’ chewing, service years and occurrence of non-specific symptoms with BLLs. Results The mean BLL of the automotive-garage workers was found to be significantly greater than that of the controls. The BLLs of all the lead-exposed individuals were found to be over 10 μg/dL, and 53% of them had BLLs ranging 12 – 20 μg/dL, with the remaining 47% having over 20 μg/dL. The BLL of the workers increased with the duration of working in an automotive garage. Individuals involved in manual car painting comprise a larger percentage (58% of those with the highest BLLs (≥ 20 μg/dL. Lead accumulation in individuals who chew ‘khat’ in the work place was found to be faster than in those who are not used to chewing ‘khat’. ‘Khat’ is an evergreen shrub native to tropical East Africa, with dark green opposite leaves which are chewed when fresh for their stimulating effects. Conclusion The findings of the study have clearly demonstrated that the

  3. Exposure of C. elegans eggs to a glyphosate-containing herbicide leads to abnormal neuronal morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McVey, Kenneth A; Snapp, Isaac B; Johnson, Megan B; Negga, Rekek; Pressley, Aireal S; Fitsanakis, Vanessa A

    2016-01-01

    Recent data demonstrate that chronic exposure of Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) to a high-use glyphosate-containing herbicide, Touchdown (TD), potentially damages the adult nervous system. It is unknown, however, whether unhatched worms exposed to TD during the egg stage show abnormal neurodevelopment post-hatching. Therefore, we investigated whether early treatment with TD leads to aberrant neuronal or neurite development in C. elegans. Studies were completed in three different worm strains with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged neurons to facilitate visual neuronal assessment. Initially, eggs from C. elegans with all neurons tagged with GFP were chronically exposed to TD. Visual inspection suggested decreased neurite projections associated with ventral nerve cord neurons. Data analysis showed a statistically significant decrease in overall green pixel numbers at the fourth larval (L4) stage (*p<0.05). We further investigated whether specific neuronal populations were preferentially vulnerable to TD by treating eggs from worms that had all dopaminergic (DAergic) or γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAergic) neurons tagged with GFP. As before, green pixel number associated with these discrete neuronal populations was analyzed at multiple larval stages. Data analysis indicated statistically significant decreases in pixel number associated with DAergic, but not GABAergic, neurons (***p<0.001) at all larval stages. Finally, statistically significant decreases (at the first larval stage, L1) or increases (at the fourth larval stage, L4) in superoxide levels, a developmental signaling molecule, were detected (*p<0.05). These data suggest that early exposure to TD may impair neuronal development, perhaps through superoxide perturbation. Since toxic insults during development may late render individuals more vulnerable to neurodegenerative diseases in adulthood, these studies provide some of the first evidence in this model organism that early exposure to TD may adversely

  4. Occupational and environmental lead exposure to adolescent workers in battery recycling workshops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Shah, Faheem; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Naeemullah

    2015-12-01

    Lead (Pb), as other environmental neurotoxicant substances, has the capability to interfere with many biochemical events present in cells throughout the body. In the present study, the environmental and occupational exposure to Pb has been assessed by analyzing the scalp hair samples of male adolescents aged 12-15 years, who have worked for the last 12-36 months in Pb battery recycling workshops (BRWs). For comparative purposes, gender and age-matched subjects living in the vicinity of recycling workshops as well as in areas without industrial activity were used as controls. The scalp hair samples were oxidized by acid in a microwave oven prior to determination of Pb by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The results indicated that both workers and nonworking exposed subjects had higher levels of Pb than nonexposed controls. The contents of Pb in scalp hair of adolescent workers in the present study were compared with those reported in other studies.

  5. Childhood asthma and environmental exposures at swimming pools: state of the science and research recommendations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weisel, C.P.; Richardson, S.D.; Nemery, B.; Aggazzotti, G.; Baraldi, E.; Blatchley, E.R.; Blount, B.C.; Carlsen, K.H.; Eggleston, P.A.; Frimmel, F.H.; Goodman, M.; Gordon, G.; Grinshpun, S.A.; Heederik, D.J.J.; Kogevinas, M.; LaKind, J.S.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.J.; Piper, F.C.; Sattar, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Recent studies have explored the potential for swimming pool disinfection by-products (DBPs), which are respiratory irritants, to cause asthma in young children. Here we describe the state of the science on methods for understanding children's exposure to DBPs and biologics at swimming p

  6. Prenatal arachidonic acid exposure and selected immune-related variables in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirix, Chantal E. H.; Hogervorst, Janneke G. F.; Rump, Patrick; Hendriks, Johannes J. E.; Bruins, Maaike; Hornstra, Gerard

    2009-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is considered essential in fetal development and some of its metabolites are thought to be important mediators of the immune responses. Therefore, we studied whether prenatal exposure to AA is associated with some immune-related clinical conditions and plasma markers in childho

  7. Exposure to Neighborhood Affluence and Poverty in Childhood and Adolescence and Academic Achievement and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Sara; Leventhal, Tama; Dupéré, Véronique

    2014-01-01

    Evidence points to associations between the socioeconomic composition of neighborhoods and children's and adolescents' development. A minimal amount of research, however, examines how timing of exposure to neighborhood socioeconomic conditions matters. This study used longitudinal data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth…

  8. Occurrence of mental illness following prenatal and early childhood exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE-contaminated drinking water: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aschengrau Ann

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While many studies of adults with solvent exposure have shown increased risks of anxiety and depressive disorders, there is little information on the impact of prenatal and early childhood exposure on the subsequent risk of mental illness. This retrospective cohort study examined whether early life exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE-contaminated drinking water influenced the occurrence of depression, bipolar disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and schizophrenia among adults from Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Methods A total of 1,512 subjects born between 1969 and 1983 were studied, including 831 subjects with both prenatal and early childhood PCE exposure and 547 unexposed subjects. Participants completed questionnaires to gather information on mental illnesses, demographic and medical characteristics, other sources of solvent exposure, and residences from birth through 1990. PCE exposure originating from the vinyl-liner of water distribution pipes was assessed using water distribution system modeling software that incorporated a leaching and transport algorithm. Results No meaningful increases in risk ratios (RR for depression were observed among subjects with prenatal and early childhood exposure (RR: 1.1, 95% CI: 0.9-1.4. However, subjects with prenatal and early childhood exposure had a 1.8-fold increased risk of bipolar disorder (N = 36 exposed cases, 95% CI: 0.9-1.4, a 1.5-fold increased risk post-traumatic stress disorder (N = 47 exposed cases, 95% CI: 0.9-2.5, and a 2.1-fold increased risk of schizophrenia (N = 3 exposed cases, 95% CI: 0.2-20.0. Further increases in the risk ratio were observed for bipolar disorder (N = 18 exposed cases, RR; 2.7, 95% CI: 1.3-5.6 and post-traumatic stress disorder (N = 18 exposed cases, RR: 1.7, 95% CI: 0.9-3.2 among subjects with the highest exposure levels. Conclusions The results of this study provide evidence against an impact of early life exposure to PCE on the risk of

  9. Mortality in Young Adults following in Utero and Childhood Exposure to Arsenic in Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Guillermo; Liaw, Jane; Yuan, Yan; Ferreccio, Catterina; Steinmaus, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Background: Beginning in 1958, the city of Antofagasta in northern Chile was exposed to high arsenic concentrations (870 µg/L) when it switched water sources. The exposure abruptly stopped in 1970 when an arsenic-removal plant commenced operations. A unique exposure scenario like this—with an abrupt start, clear end, and large population (125,000 in 1970), all with essentially the same exposure—is rare in environmental epidemiology. Evidence of increased mortality from lung cancer, bronchiectasis, myocardial infarction, and kidney cancer has been reported among young adults who were in utero or children during the high-exposure period. Objective: We investigated other causes of mortality in Antofagasta among 30- to 49-year-old adults who were in utero or ≤ 18 years of age during the high-exposure period. Methods: We compared mortality data between Antofagasta and the rest of Chile for people 30–49 years of age during 1989–2000. We estimated expected deaths from mortality rates in all of Chile, excluding Region II where Antofagasta is located, and calculated standardized mortality ratios (SMRs). Results: We found evidence of increased mortality from bladder cancer [SMR = 18.1; 95% confidence interval (CI): 11.3, 27.4], laryngeal cancer (SMR = 8.1; 95% CI: 3.5, 16.0), liver cancer (SMR = 2.5; 95% CI: 1.6, 3.7), and chronic renal disease (SMR = 2.0; 95% CI: 1.5, 2.8). Conclusions: Taking together our findings in the present study and previous evidence of increased mortality from other causes of death, we conclude that arsenic in Antofagasta drinking water has resulted in the greatest increases in mortality in adults < 50 years of age ever associated with early-life environmental exposure. PMID:22949133

  10. Combination Therapy for the Cardiovascular Effects of Perinatal Lead Exposure in Young and Adult Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaspar, Andréia Fresneda [Departamento de Farmacologia, Instituto de Biociências - Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Faculdade da Alta Paulista (FAP), Tupã, SP (Brazil); Cordellini, Sandra, E-mail: cordelli@ibb.unesp.br [Departamento de Farmacologia, Instituto de Biociências - Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil)

    2014-09-15

    Combination therapy can play a significant role in the amelioration of several toxic effects of lead (Pb) and recovery from associated cardiovascular changes. To investigate the effects of combination therapy on the cardiovascular effects of perinatal lead exposure in young and adult rats Female Wistar rats received drinking water with or without 500 ppm of Pb during pregnancy and lactation. Twenty-two- and 70-day-old rat offspring who were or were not exposed to Pb in the perinatal period received meso-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), L-arginine, or enalapril and a combination of these compounds for 30 additional days. Noradrenaline response curves were plotted for intact and denuded aortas from 23-, 52-, 70-, and 100-day-old rats stratified by perinatal Pb exposure (exposed/unexposed) and treatment received (treated/untreated). Systolic blood pressure was evaluated and shown to be higher in the 23-, 52-, 70-, and 100-day age groups with Pb exposure than in the corresponding control age groups: 117.8 ± 3.9*, 135.2 ± 1.3*, 139.6 ± 1.6*, and 131.7 ± 2.8*, respectively and 107.1 ± 1.8, 118.8 ± 2.1, 126.1 ± 1.1, and 120.5 ± 2.2, respectively (p < 0.05). Increased reactivity to noradrenaline was observed in intact, but not denuded, aortas from 52-, 70-, and 100-day-old exposed rats, and the maximum responses (g of tension) in the respective Pb-exposed and control age groups were as follows: 3.43 ± 0.16*, 4.32 ± 0.18*, and 4.21 ± 0.23*, respectively and 2.38 ± 0.33, 3.37 ± 0.13, and 3.22 ± 0.21, respectively (p < 0.05). All treatments reversed the changes in vascular reactivity to noradrenaline in rats perinatally exposed to Pb. The combination therapy resulted in an earlier restoration of blood pressure in Pb-exposed rats compared with the monotherapies, except for enalapril therapy in young rats. These findings represent a new approach to the development of therapeutic protocols for the treatment of Pb-induced hypertension.

  11. The conjoint influence of home enriched environment and lead exposure on children's cognition and behaviour in a Mexican lead smelter community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodie, Sue; Ialongo, Nick; López, Patricia; Rosado, Jorge; García-Vargas, Gonzalo; Ronquillo, Dolores; Kordas, Katarzyna

    2013-01-01

    A range of studies has been conducted on the detrimental effects of lead in mining and smelting communities. The neurocognitive and behavioural health effects of lead on children are well known. This research characterized the conjoint influence of lead exposure and home enriched environment on neurocognitive function and behaviour for first-grade children living in a Mexican lead smelter community. Structural equation models were used for this analysis with latent outcome variables, Cognition and Behaviour, constructed based on a battery of assessments administered to the first-grade children, their parents, and teachers. Structural equation modelling was used to describe complex relationships of exposure and health outcomes in a manner that permitted partition of both direct and indirect effects of the factors being measured. Home Environment (a latent variable constructed from information on mother's education and support of school work and extracurricular activities), and child blood lead concentration each had a main significant effect on cognition and behaviour. However, there were no statistically significant moderation relationships between lead and Home Environment on these latent outcomes. Home Environment had a significant indirect mediation effect between lead and both Cognition and Behaviour (p-valueeffect with respect to lead effects on Behaviour (β=0.305) and a lower mediation effect on Cognition (β=0.184). The extent of home enrichment in this study was most highly related to the mother's support of schoolwork and slightly less by the mother's support of extracurricular activities or mother's education. Further research may be able to develop approaches to support families to make changes within their home and child rearing practices, or advocate for different approaches to support their child's behaviour to reduce the impact of lead exposure on children's cognitive and behavioural outcomes. PMID:23110976

  12. Effects of early-life lead exposure on oxidative status and phagocytosis activity in great tits (Parus major)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rainio, Miia J.; Eeva, Tapio; Lilley, Thomas; Stauffer, Janina; Ruuskanen, Suvi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Lead is a highly poisonous metal with a very long half-life, distributing throughout the body in blood and accumulating primarily in bones and kidney. We studied the short and long-term effects of early-life lead exposure on antioxidant defense and phagocytosis activity in a small passerine

  13. Long-term dietary exposure to lead in young children living in different European countries. Scientific report submitted to EFSA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, P.E.; Sioen, I.; Voet, van der H.; Huybrechts, I.; Neve, De M.; Amiano, P.; Azpiri, M.; Busk, L.; Christensen, T.; Hilbig, A.; Hirvonen, T.; Koulouridaki, S.; Lafay, L.; Liukkonen, K.H.; Moschandreas, J.; Papoutsou, S.; Ribas-Barba, L.; Ruprich, J.; Serra-Majem, L.; Tornaritis, M.; Turrini, A.; Urtizberea, M.; Verger, E.; Westerlund, A.; Kersting, M.; Henauw, de S.; Klaveren, van J.D.

    2010-01-01

    Long-term dietary exposure to lead in children aged 1 up to 14 years living in 12 different European countries was estimated using daily food consumption patterns and mean lead concentrations in various food commodities. Food consumption data were all categorised according to a harmonised system to

  14. The Pb isotopic record of historical to modern human lead exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamenov, George D., E-mail: kamenov@ufl.edu [Department of Geological Sciences, University of Florida, 241 Williamson Hall, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Gulson, Brian L. [Graduate School of the Environment, Faculty of Science, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia)

    2014-08-15

    Human teeth and bones incorporate trace amounts of lead (Pb) from the local environment during growth and remodeling. Anthropogenic activities have caused changes in the natural Pb isotopic background since historical times and this is reflected in the Pb isotopes of historical European teeth. Lead mining and use increased exponentially during the last century and the isotopic compositions of modern human teeth reflect the modern anthropogenic Pb. USA teeth show the most radiogenic Pb and Australian teeth show the least radiogenic Pb, a result of different Pb ores used in the two regions. During the last century the Australian Pb was exported to Europe, Asia, South America, and Africa, resulting in swamping of the local environmental Pb signal by the imported Pb. As a result, the modern human teeth in Europe show a significant drop to lower isotopic values compared with historical times. Similarly, modern human teeth in other regions of the world show similar Pb isotopic ratios to modern European teeth reflecting the Pb imports. The specific pattern of human Pb exposure allows us to use the Pb isotopic signal recorded in the skeleton as a geo-referencing tool. As historical European teeth show a distinct Pb signal, we can identify early European skeletal remains in the New World and likely elsewhere. In modern forensic investigations we can discriminate to some extent Eastern Europeans from Western and Northern Europeans. Australians can be identified to some extent in any region in the world, although there is some overlap with Western European individuals. Lead isotopes can be used to easily identify foreigners in the USA, as modern USA teeth are distinct from any other region of the world. By analogy, USA individuals can be identified virtually in any other region of the world. - Highlights: • We present high-precision Pb isotope data for historical and modern human teeth. • Human teeth reflect human Pb exposure since historical times. • Modern teeth show

  15. Allergy and sensitization during childhood associated with prenatal and lactational exposure to marine pollutants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Poulsen, Lars Kærgaard; Heilmann, Carsten;

    2010-01-01

    -specific IgE concentration compatible with sensitization was positively associated with the duration of breast-feeding and inversely associated with prenatal methylmercury exposure. However, a history of asthma or atopic dermatitis was not associated with the duration of breast-feeding, although children...... was to assess whether sensitization and development of allergic disease is associated with duration of breast-feeding and prenatal or postnatal exposures to PCBs and methylmercury. METHODS: A cohort of 656 singleton births was formed in the Faroe Islands during 1999-2001. Duration of breast-feeding and history...... of asthma and atopic dermatitis were recorded at clinical examinations at 5 and 7 years of age. PCB and mercury concentrations were determined in blood samples obtained at parturition and at follow-up. Serum from 464 children (71%) at 7 years of age was analyzed for total immunoglobulin E (IgE) and grass...

  16. The adjuvant effect of phthalate exposure on IgE sensitisation in early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Callesen, M.; Weschler, Charles J.; Jensen, T.;

    2012-01-01

    Background: Dust phthalate concentrations have previously been shown to be weakly associated with parentally reported allergic diseases, but the validity of the results have been questioned. Our aims were to investigate the association between phthalate diester exposure from two environments and Ig...... doctor diagnosed allergic diseases (asthma, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis or atopic dermatitis). The same physician conducted a clinical examination of all the 500 children including a structured interview on allergic heredity, clinical and medical history Specific serum-IgE against inhalant and food...... allergens was determined. Samples of settled dust were collected from the children’s bedroom and daycare center for analyses of five phthalates (DEP, DnBP, DiBP, BBzp & DEHP). Phthalate intakes through three different exposure routes were calculated. The diagnosis of allergic disease was based...

  17. Using a mobile transparent plastic-lead-boron shielding barrier to reduce radiation dose exposure in the work place

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parra, S A; Mecozzi, J M

    2001-01-11

    Moveable radiation shielding barriers made of plastic material containing lead and boron can be used to reduce radiation exposure near the work place. Personnel can maneuver and position the transparent radiation shielding barriers anywhere within the work place. The lead in the shielding barrier provides an effective shielding material against radiation exposure (approximately a 1.0 mm lead equivalent protection) while the boron in the shielding barrier provides neutron absorption to reduce the moderation/reflection effects of the shielding materials (approximately a 2% {Delta}k/k reduction).

  18. The contribution of childhood parental rejection and early androgen exposure to impairments in socio-cognitive skills in intimate partner violence perpetrators with high alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Martínez, Ángel; Lila, Marisol; Catalá-Miñana, Alba; Williams, Ryan K; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2013-08-01

    Alcohol consumption, a larger history of childhood parental rejection, and high prenatal androgen exposure have been linked with facilitation and high risk of recidivism in intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators. Participants were distributed into two groups according to their alcohol consumption scores as high (HA) and low (LA). HA presented a higher history of childhood parental rejection, prenatal masculinization (smaller 2D:4D ratio), and violence-related scores than LA IPV perpetrators. Nonetheless, the former showed poor socio-cognitive skills performance (cognitive flexibility, emotional recognition and cognitive empathy). Particularly in HA IPV perpetrators, the history of childhood parental rejection was associated with high hostile sexism and low cognitive empathy. Moreover, a masculinized 2D:4D ratio was associated with high anger expression and low cognitive empathy. Parental rejection during childhood and early androgen exposure are relevant factors for the development of violence and the lack of adequate empathy in adulthood. Furthermore, alcohol abuse plays a key role in the development of socio-cognitive impairments and in the proneness to violence and its recidivism. These findings contribute to new coadjutant violence intervention programs, focused on the rehabilitation of basic executive functions and emotional decoding processes and on the treatment of alcohol dependence. PMID:23965927

  19. The relationship between adult sexual adjustment and childhood experiences regarding exposure to nudity, sleeping in the parental bed, and parental attitudes toward sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, R J; Janda, L H

    1988-08-01

    The relationship between adult sexual functioning and childhood experiences with exposure to nudity, sleeping in the parents' bed, and parental attitudes toward sexuality was examined. Although a variety of experts have provided their opinion on this issue, empirical research on this topic has been lacking. In this study, male and female college students were asked to retrospectively report on the frequency of sleeping in the parental bed as a child, the frequency of seeing others nude during childhood, and parental attitudes regarding sexuality. Information on current sexual functioning and adjustment was also obtained. The results suggest that childhood experiences with exposure to nudity and sleeping in the parental bed are not adversely related to adult sexual functioning and adjustment. In fact, there is modest support that these childhood experiences are positively related to indices of adjustment. Results also suggest that a positive attitude toward sexuality can be beneficial for a child's comfort with his/her sexuality. Finally, examination of gender differences revealed that male and female experience paternal attitudes toward sexuality differently but are similar in their perceptions of maternal attitudes. PMID:3421828

  20. The Contribution of Childhood Parental Rejection and Early Androgen Exposure to Impairments in Socio-Cognitive Skills in Intimate Partner Violence Perpetrators with High Alcohol Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Moya-Albiol

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol consumption, a larger history of childhood parental rejection, and high prenatal androgen exposure have been linked with facilitation and high risk of recidivism in intimate partner violence (IPV perpetrators. Participants were distributed into two groups according to their alcohol consumption scores as high (HA and low (LA. HA presented a higher history of childhood parental rejection, prenatal masculinization (smaller 2D:4D ratio, and violence-related scores than LA IPV perpetrators. Nonetheless, the former showed poor socio-cognitive skills performance (cognitive flexibility, emotional recognition and cognitive empathy. Particularly in HA IPV perpetrators, the history of childhood parental rejection was associated with high hostile sexism and low cognitive empathy. Moreover, a masculinized 2D:4D ratio was associated with high anger expression and low cognitive empathy. Parental rejection during childhood and early androgen exposure are relevant factors for the development of violence and the lack of adequate empathy in adulthood. Furthermore, alcohol abuse plays a key role in the development of socio-cognitive impairments and in the proneness to violence and its recidivism. These findings contribute to new coadjutant violence intervention programs, focused on the rehabilitation of basic executive functions and emotional decoding processes and on the treatment of alcohol dependence.

  1. Prenatal stress exposure related to maternal bereavement and risk of childhood overweight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiong Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has been suggested that prenatal stress contributes to the risk of obesity later in life. In a population-based cohort study, we examined whether prenatal stress related to maternal bereavement during pregnancy was associated with the risk of overweight in offspring during school age. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We followed 65,212 children born in Denmark from 1970-1989 who underwent health examinations from 7 to 13 years of age in public or private schools in Copenhagen. We identified 459 children as exposed to prenatal stress, defined by being born to mothers who were bereaved by death of a close family member from one year before pregnancy until birth of the child. We compared the prevalence of overweight between the exposed and the unexposed. Body mass index (BMI values and prevalence of overweight were higher in the exposed children, but not significantly so until from 10 years of age and onwards, as compared with the unexposed children. For example, the adjusted odds ratio (OR for overweight was 1.68 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08-2.61 at 12 years of age and 1.63 (95% CI 1.00-2.61 at 13 years of age. The highest ORs were observed when the death occurred in the period from 6 to 0 month before pregnancy (OR 3.31, 95% CI 1.71-6.42 at age 12, and OR 2.31, 95% CI 1.08-4.97 at age 13. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that severe pre-pregnancy stress is associated with an increased risk of overweight in the offspring in later childhood.

  2. IMPACT OF GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS AND GENE–ENVIRONMENT INTERACTIONS ASSESING HEALTH EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL AND OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE TO LEAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Pawlas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Health effects of exposure to xenobiotics, e.g. lead, differ between individuals. They are mainly influenced by xenobiotics’ concentration, however genetic polymorphisms may play a role in the interindividual variation. There is a number of reports indicating the influence of polymorphisms in the genes of δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD, the vitamin D receptor (VDR, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS on blood lead concentration in lead-exposed workers and environmentally exposed children.

  3. Long-term dietary exposure to lead in young children living in different European countries. Scientific report submitted to EFSA

    OpenAIRE

    Boon, P.E.; Sioen, I.; Voet, van der, Monique; Huybrechts, I.; Neve, De, M.; Amiano, P.; Azpiri, M; Busk, L.; Christensen, T.; Hilbig, A.; Hirvonen, T. (Teemu); Koulouridaki, S.; Lafay, L.; Liukkonen, K.H.; Moschandreas, J.

    2010-01-01

    Long-term dietary exposure to lead in children aged 1 up to 14 years living in 12 different European countries was estimated using daily food consumption patterns and mean lead concentrations in various food commodities. Food consumption data were all categorised according to a harmonised system to allow for linkage with lead concentration data in a standardised way. Two different models were used for the calculations: the beta-binomial-normal (BBN) model and the observed individual means (OI...

  4. The relationship between occupational exposure to lead and hearing loss in a cross sectional survey of Iranian workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh eGhiasvand

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Ototoxic effect of exposure to lead has been reported by many researchers to be leading to deafness. This study was undertaken with a view to evaluate the effects of occupational lead exposure on hearing loss in workers in a lead-acid battery manufacturing plant in Tehran, Iran.Methods: In a cross sectional study, 609 male workers were recruited from different locations in the factory. Association between blood lead level (BLL and hearing loss in different frequencies were measured. Logistic regression analysis was used to measure the relationship between exposure to lead and hearing loss. Statistical significance was defined as P-value 40 µg/dl. Mean noise exposure level was 80 dB. High frequency hearing loss (3, 4, 6 and 8 KHz above 25 db in either ear was significantly more prevalent in workers with BLL > 40 µg/dl (Adjusted Odds Ratio =2.66, 95% CI:1.86 -3080, p<0.001 and Adjusted Odds ratio = 1.60, 95% CI: 1.13-2.27, p<0.008 for age and work duration respectively. Conclusion: Health surveillance program should include conservation of hearing program in workers exposed to lead even if the ambient noise level is less than of time weighted average of 85 db A. Periodic Hearing assessment by pure tone audiometry is recommended since it is a relatively simple procedure to identify hearing loss. An early detection will help in prevention of permanent hearing loss.

  5. Effects of Exposure to Lead and Cadmium on the Oxidative Damage of Livers in Laying Hens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen; Dawei; Pu; Junhua; Tang; Xiujun; Lu; Junxian; Liu; Yinyin; Jia; Xiaoxu; Ge; Qinglian; Gao; Yushi

    2014-01-01

    [Objective] To detect the effects of exposure to lead and cadmium on the oxidative damage of livers in laying hens. [Methods] One hundred and twenty 40-week-old Hyline brown hens were randomly divided into four groups. 100 mg / L Pb and / or 50 mg / L Cd was added into the drinking water for eight weeks. [Results] Compared with control group,AST and ALT activities in Pb group enhanced; but there were no significant differences. AST and ALT activities in Cd group and( Pb + Cd) group significantly or extremely significantly increased( P < 0. 05 or P < 0. 01). SOD activity,GSH- Px activity and GSH content in( Pb + Cd) group,Cd group and Pb group were significantly or extremely significantly lower than those in control group( P <0. 05 or P <0. 01). Among them,( Pb + Cd) group showed the greatest reduction( P <0. 01). MDA contents in the three groups were significantly higher than that of control group; and( Pb +Cd) group was significantly higher than Pb group and Cd group. Cu,Fe and Zn contents in three groups were higher than those in control group in different degrees( P <0. 05 or P <0. 01). Se contents in Cd group and( Pb + Cd) group were significantly lower than that in control group( P <0. 01). Residue contents in livers in Pb group and Cd group were significantly greater than that in control group; while residue content in( Pb + Cd) group was significantly higher than those in Pb group and Cd group. Ultrastructure showed that there were symptoms of mitochondrial swelling and fractured cristae in liver cells of laying hens after the exposure to Cd and Pb. In( Pb + Cd) group,these symptoms were even greater. [Conclusion] Oxidative damage and disturbance of trace element metabolism were one of the mechanisms for hepatotocity in laying hens induced by Pb and Cd,and synergistic effect lied in the coadministration.

  6. Aluminium exposure from parenteral nutrition in preterm infants and later health outcomes during childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fewtrell, Mary S; Edmonds, Caroline J; Isaacs, Elizabeth; Bishop, Nick J; Lucas, Alan

    2011-08-01

    Aluminium is the most common metallic element, but has no known biological role. It accumulates in the body when protective gastrointestinal mechanisms are bypassed, renal function is impaired, or exposure is high - all of which apply frequently to preterm infants. Recognised clinical manifestations of aluminium toxicity include dementia, anaemia and bone disease. Parenteral nutrition (PN) solutions are liable to contamination with aluminium, particularly from acidic solutions in glass vials, notably calcium gluconate. When fed parenterally, infants retain >75% of the aluminium, with high serum, urine and tissue levels. Later health effects of neonatal intravenous aluminium exposure were investigated in a randomised trial comparing standard PN solutions with solutions specially sourced for low aluminium content. Preterm infants exposed for >10 d to standard solutions had impaired neurologic development at 18 months. At 13-15 years, subjects randomised to standard PN had lower lumbar spine bone mass; and, in non-randomised analyses, those with neonatal aluminium intake above the median had lower hip bone mass. Given the sizeable number of infants undergoing intensive care and still exposed to aluminium via PN, these findings have contemporary relevance. Until recently, little progress had been made on reducing aluminium exposure, and meeting Food and Drug Administration recommendations (<5 μg/kg per d) has been impossible in patients <50 kg using available products. Recent advice from the UK Medicines and Healthcare regulatory Authority that calcium gluconate in small volume glass containers should not be used for repeated treatment in children <18 years, including preparation of PN, is an important step towards addressing this problem.

  7. Beauty product-related exposures and childhood brain tumors in seven countries: results from the SEARCH International Brain Tumor Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efird, J T; Holly, E A; Cordier, S; Mueller, B A; Lubin, F; Filippini, G; Peris-Bonet, R; McCredie, M; Arslan, A; Bracci, P; Preston-Martin, S

    2005-04-01

    Data from 1218 cases of childhood brain tumors (CBT) diagnosed between 1976 and 1994 and 2223 matched controls from the general population were included in an analysis of maternal beauty product exposure and beauty-related employment in 9 centers in 7 countries. A 50% increased odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.0-2.1] for CBT was observed among children of mothers who were exposed via personal use of and/or possible ambient contact with beauty products during the 5 years preceding the index child's birth compared with children of mothers never exposed to beauty products during this time period. Overall maternal personal use of hair-coloring agents in the month before or during the pregnancy of the index child's birth was not associated with CBT (OR = 1.0, CI = 0.83-1.3) or with astroglial (OR = 1.1, CI = 0.85-1.4), PNET (OR = 1.0, CI = 0.71-1.5) and other glial subtypes (OR = 1.0, CI = 0.62-1.0). Similarly, no statistically increased ORs or discernable pattern of risk estimates were observed for period of use or for number of applications per year for maternal personal use of hair-coloring agents overall or by histologic type. Among children born on or after 1980, increased ORs for CBT were associated with maternal non-work-related exposure to any beauty products (OR = 2.6, CI = 1.2-5.9), hair-dyes (OR = 11, CI = 1.2-90), and hair sprays (OR = 3.4, CI = 1.0-11). No overall increased OR for CBT was observed among children of mothers employed in beauty-related jobs during the 5 years preceding the index child's birth compared with those who reported no beauty-related employment. In general, other specific beauty product-related exposures were not associated with increased ORs for CBT. Data from our study provide little evidence of an increased risk for CBT with mothers' exposures to beauty products.

  8. Beauty product-related exposures and childhood brain tumors in seven countries: results from the SEARCH International Brain Tumor Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efird, J T; Holly, E A; Cordier, S; Mueller, B A; Lubin, F; Filippini, G; Peris-Bonet, R; McCredie, M; Arslan, A; Bracci, P; Preston-Martin, S

    2005-04-01

    Data from 1218 cases of childhood brain tumors (CBT) diagnosed between 1976 and 1994 and 2223 matched controls from the general population were included in an analysis of maternal beauty product exposure and beauty-related employment in 9 centers in 7 countries. A 50% increased odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.0-2.1] for CBT was observed among children of mothers who were exposed via personal use of and/or possible ambient contact with beauty products during the 5 years preceding the index child's birth compared with children of mothers never exposed to beauty products during this time period. Overall maternal personal use of hair-coloring agents in the month before or during the pregnancy of the index child's birth was not associated with CBT (OR = 1.0, CI = 0.83-1.3) or with astroglial (OR = 1.1, CI = 0.85-1.4), PNET (OR = 1.0, CI = 0.71-1.5) and other glial subtypes (OR = 1.0, CI = 0.62-1.0). Similarly, no statistically increased ORs or discernable pattern of risk estimates were observed for period of use or for number of applications per year for maternal personal use of hair-coloring agents overall or by histologic type. Among children born on or after 1980, increased ORs for CBT were associated with maternal non-work-related exposure to any beauty products (OR = 2.6, CI = 1.2-5.9), hair-dyes (OR = 11, CI = 1.2-90), and hair sprays (OR = 3.4, CI = 1.0-11). No overall increased OR for CBT was observed among children of mothers employed in beauty-related jobs during the 5 years preceding the index child's birth compared with those who reported no beauty-related employment. In general, other specific beauty product-related exposures were not associated with increased ORs for CBT. Data from our study provide little evidence of an increased risk for CBT with mothers' exposures to beauty products. PMID:15925993

  9. Genital examination and exposure experienced as nosocomial sexual abuse in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Money, J; Lamacz, M

    1987-12-01

    Three pediatric cases of girls, one with idiopathic precocious puberty and two with a birth defect of the sex organs, exemplify the proposition that genital exposure and the physical examination of the genitals may be experienced subjectively as nosocomial sexual abuse. Negative sequelae persisted into adulthood. The dogma of the new victimology industry is that children never lie about sexual abuse. Consequently providers of pediatric and ephebiatric (pubertal and adolescent) sexual health care already are progressively at risk of being falsely accused of nosocomial (from the Greek nosokomeion, from nosos, disease, + komeion, to take care of: pertaining to or originating in a hospital, as nosocomial disease) sexual abuse.

  10. Lead exposure and biological effects in pied flycatchers (Ficedula hypoleuca) before and after the closure of a lead mine in northern Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berglund, A.M.M., E-mail: asa.berglund@emg.umu.s [Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umea University, SE-901 87 Umea (Sweden); Ingvarsson, P.K. [Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umea University, SE-901 87 Umea (Sweden); Danielsson, H. [IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute Ltd., P.O. Box 5302, SE-400 14 Gothenburg (Sweden); Nyholm, N.E.I. [Department of Ecology and Environmental Science, Umea University, SE-901 87 Umea (Sweden)

    2010-05-15

    Mining activities affect the surrounding environment by increasing exposure to metals. In this study, metal accumulation and its effects on reproduction and health of pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) nestlings were monitored before and up to five years after a lead mine and enrichment plant closed down. The lead concentration in moss, nestling blood, liver and feces all indicated decreased lead exposure by at least 31% after closure, although only blood lead decreased significantly. Although the birds responded fairly well to the changed atmospheric deposition (based on moss samples), concentrations were still higher compared with birds in a reference area, and breeding was affected at the mine (smaller clutches and higher mortality). Surviving nestlings suffered from lower hemoglobin levels, mean cell hemoglobin concentrations and inhibited delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity. Lead poisoning contributed to poor health and adverse reproductive effects, but other factors (e.g. increased parasitic load) probably also affected the birds. - Increased mortality and lower blood values in pied flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca) nestlings near a closed lead mine.

  11. Prevalence of lead exposure among age and sex cohorts of Canada geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeStefano, S.; Brand, C.J.; Rusch, D.H.

    1992-01-01

    We examined the prevalence of lead exposure from ingestion of waste lead shot among age and sex cohorts of Canada geese (Branta canadensis) on the breeding, migration, and wintering grounds of the Eastern Prairie Population. Blood samples from 6963 geese were assayed for lead concentration by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. On the breeding grounds, no goslings and 1 year old) had lead concentrations greater-than-or-equal-to 0.18 ppm. Median background lead levels remained higher in adults than in immatures throughout fall and winter. We also found that more immature males than immature females had elevated lead concentrations. Higher rates of intake of food and grit (including shot) probably partially account for the higher prevalence of elevated lead concentrations in immature Canada geese.//Nous avons ??tudi?? l'importance des expositions au plomb par ingestion de plombs de chasse chez les diff??rentes cohortes (??ge et sexe) de Bernaches du Canada (Branta canadensis) dans les zones de reproduction et de migration et dans les territoires d'hiver chez la population de la Prairie de l'Est. Des ??chantillons de sang ont ??t?? pr??lev??s chez 6963 bernaches et analys??s au sphectrophotom??tre ? absorption atomique pour en d??terminer le contenu en plomb. Dans les zones de reproduction, les traces d'exposition r??cente ? des plombs (i.e. concentrations de plomb dans le sang au-dessus de la valeur seuil de 0,18 ppm) ??taient apparentes chez moins de 1% des adultes et aucun oison n'en portait. Cependant, les concentrations sanguines m??dianes de base (??chantillons de sang contenant moins de 0,18 ppm de plomb) ??taient plus ??lev??es chez les adultes que chez les oisons, ce qui signifie probablement que les adultes avaient ??t?? expos??s au plomb au cours de saisons pr??c??dentes. Les plombs perdus ??taient abondants dans les territoires de migration et les territoires d'hiver et la proportion d'??chantillons de sang contenant des concentrations a?Y 0,18 ppm ??tait

  12. Multi-Exposure and Clustering of Adverse Childhood Experiences, Socioeconomic Differences and Psychotropic Medication in Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Emma Björkenstam; Anders Hjern; Ellenor Mittendorfer-Rutz; Bo Vinnerljung; Johan Hallqvist; Rickard Ljung

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Stressful childhood experiences have negative long-term health consequences. The present study examines the association between adverse childhood experiences, socioeconomic position, and risk of psychotropic medication in young adulthood. METHODS: This register-based cohort study comprises the birth cohorts between 1985 and 1988 in Sweden. We followed 362 663 individuals for use of psychotropic medication from January 2006 until December 2008. Adverse childhood experiences were sever...

  13. Exposure of Prague's homeless population to lead and cadmium, compared to Prague's general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrncírová, Dana; Batáriová, Andrea; Cerná, Milena; Procházka, Bohumír; Dlouhý, Pavel; Andel, Michal

    2008-10-01

    Homelessness is a growing problem in the Czech Republic where homeless people represent a specific minority group beset by many problems linked to their divergent lifestyle. It was therefore expected that the homeless population would be at greater risk of exposure to environmental pollutants than the general population. The aim of our study was to compare blood lead (B-Pb) and blood cadmium (B-Cd) levels in the homeless population (HP) with those obtained from the Human Biomonitoring Project (CZ-HBM), which used blood donors considered representative of the general population (GP). We present data obtained between 2004 and 2006 for B-Pb and B-Cd in 257 Prague homeless adults and compare them to B-Pb and B-Cd levels in 104 Prague adult blood donors from the CZ-HBM project in 2005. The mean (geometric) B-Pb levels in men were 36.5 (HP) and 35.4microg/l (GP), which is not significantly different. However, statistically significant differences were observed between men and women in the GP (Phomeless nonsmokers (geometric means 1.06 and 1.18microg/l in men and women, respectively) were more than 2.5 times higher than in the nonsmoking GP (0.36 and 0.38microg/l for men and women, respectively). B-Cd levels were significantly (Phomeless population under study might be exposed to lead and cadmium more extensively than the general population of Prague and that homeless women represent a particularly vulnerable population group.

  14. Does Early-Life Exposure to Organophosphate Insecticides Lead to Prediabetes and Obesity?

    OpenAIRE

    Slotkin, Theodore A.

    2010-01-01

    Human exposures to organophosphate insecticides are ubiquitous. Although regarded as neurotoxicants, increasing evidence points toward lasting metabolic disruption from early-life organophosphate exposures. We gave neonatal rats chlorpyrifos, diazinon or parathion in doses devoid of any acute signs of toxicity, straddling the threshold for barely-detectable cholinesterase inhibition. Organophosphate exposure during a critical developmental window altered the trajectory of hepatic adenylyl cyc...

  15. Affinity for risky behaviors following prenatal and early childhood exposure to tetrachloroethylene (PCE-contaminated drinking water: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aschengrau Ann

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many studies of adults with acute and chronic solvent exposure have shown adverse effects on cognition, behavior and mood. No prior study has investigated the long-term impact of prenatal and early childhood exposure to the solvent tetrachloroethylene (PCE on the affinity for risky behaviors, defined as smoking, drinking or drug use as a teen or adult. Objectives This retrospective cohort study examined whether early life exposure to PCE-contaminated drinking water influenced the occurrence of cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and drug use among adults from Cape Cod, Massachusetts. Methods Eight hundred and thirty-one subjects with prenatal and early childhood PCE exposure and 547 unexposed subjects were studied. Participants completed questionnaires to gather information on risky behaviors as a teenager and young adult, demographic characteristics, other sources of solvent exposure, and residences from birth through 1990. PCE exposure was estimated using the U.S. EPA's water distribution system modeling software (EPANET that was modified to incorporate a leaching and transport model to estimate PCE exposures from pipe linings. Results Individuals who were highly exposed to PCE-contaminated drinking water during gestation and early childhood experienced 50-60% increases in the risk of using two or more major illicit drugs as a teenager or as an adult (Relative Risk (RR for teen use = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.2-2.2; and RR for adult use = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2-1.9. Specific drugs for which increased risks were observed included crack/cocaine, psychedelics/hallucinogens, club/designer drugs, Ritalin without a prescription, and heroin (RRs:1.4-2.1. Thirty to 60% increases in the risk of certain smoking and drinking behaviors were also seen among highly exposed subjects. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that risky behaviors, particularly drug use, are more frequent among adults with high PCE exposure levels during gestation

  16. Association of prenatal exposure to acetaminophen and coffee with childhood asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaoqin; Liew, Zeyan; Olsen, Jørn;

    2016-01-01

    PurposeSome studies have suggested that maternal acetaminophen use during pregnancy is associated with asthma in the offspring, and coffee consumption may modify the toxicity of acetaminophen. We aim to examine whether pregnancy maternal acetaminophen use increases the risk for offspring asthma......, and whether such a potential association could be modified by maternal coffee consumption. MethodsWe included 63 652 live-born singletons enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort. Maternal acetaminophen use and coffee consumption during pregnancy were assessed prospectively via the enrolment questionnaire...... and three computer-assisted telephone interviews. Asthma cases were identified by using the Danish National Patient Register and the Danish National Prescription Registry. We estimated the hazard ratios (HRs) for asthma according to prenatal acetaminophen and coffee exposure using Cox proportional hazards...

  17. Childhood exposure to DEHP, DBP and BBP under the existing chemical management systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Jihyun; Lee, Jong-Hyeon; Kim, Chan-Kook;

    -butyl phthalate (BBP) have been gradually under regulations. Despite the similar adverse health effects, no harmonized regulations exist for these substances. Varying regulations are focused on single/multiple substances in separate product categories, e.g. toys, childcare articles, cosmetics and food packaging......Since early 20th century, phthalates have been widely used as plasticizers. Due to the potential for adverse health effects - particularly reproductive effects - for vulnerable population such as children, phthalates like Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and Benzyl...... materials. Cumulative risks of DEHP, DBP and BBP to children in Korea and Denmark were estimated based on exposure via the environment and food. While the estimated risk was higher in Korea with a median RCR of 0.32 (KR) vs. 0.16 (DK), the back calculated risk from urinary metabolites was higher in Denmark...

  18. Betel quid chewing elevates human exposure to arsenic, cadmium and lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several studies have reported increased skin lesions in betel quid (a mixture of Piper betel leaves, areca nut, tobacco/flavoured tobacco, lime) chewers compared to non-chewers, exposed to arsenic (As) contaminated drinking water in Bangladesh and India. The current study has determined As, cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels of betel quids and its components using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The highest concentrations of As were found in slaked lime (4.56 mg kg-1) followed by Piper betel leaves (0.406 mg kg-1) and flavoured tobacco (zarda) (0.285 mg kg-1), with a mean concentrations of As in betel quids of 0.035 mg kg-1 (SD 0.02 mg kg-1). Mean concentrations of Cd and Pb in ordinary quids were 0.028 (SD 0.07 mg kg-1) and 0.423 (SD 1.4 mg kg-1), respectively. We estimated that a daily intake of 6 betel quids could contribute 1.2, 1.9 and 8.5% of the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMDTI) for As, Cd and Pb, respectively. Since betel quid chewing is most prevalent among women, our finding raises concern that women chewers - especially pregnant chewers - may be harming their health and that of their unborn babies through increased exposure to a mixture of toxic elements (As, Cd and Pb).

  19. Betel quid chewing elevates human exposure to arsenic, cadmium and lead

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Rmalli, Shaban W.; Jenkins, Richard O. [Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester LE1 9BH (United Kingdom); Haris, Parvez I., E-mail: pharis@dmu.ac.uk [Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, De Montfort University, The Gateway, Leicester LE1 9BH (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-15

    Several studies have reported increased skin lesions in betel quid (a mixture of Piper betel leaves, areca nut, tobacco/flavoured tobacco, lime) chewers compared to non-chewers, exposed to arsenic (As) contaminated drinking water in Bangladesh and India. The current study has determined As, cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels of betel quids and its components using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The highest concentrations of As were found in slaked lime (4.56 mg kg{sup -1}) followed by Piper betel leaves (0.406 mg kg{sup -1}) and flavoured tobacco (zarda) (0.285 mg kg{sup -1}), with a mean concentrations of As in betel quids of 0.035 mg kg{sup -1} (SD 0.02 mg kg{sup -1}). Mean concentrations of Cd and Pb in ordinary quids were 0.028 (SD 0.07 mg kg{sup -1}) and 0.423 (SD 1.4 mg kg{sup -1}), respectively. We estimated that a daily intake of 6 betel quids could contribute 1.2, 1.9 and 8.5% of the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMDTI) for As, Cd and Pb, respectively. Since betel quid chewing is most prevalent among women, our finding raises concern that women chewers - especially pregnant chewers - may be harming their health and that of their unborn babies through increased exposure to a mixture of toxic elements (As, Cd and Pb).

  20. Salvia miltiorrhiza Injection Ameliorates Renal Damage Induced by Lead Exposure in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to lead (Pb can induce kidney injury and our recent studies have found that Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM injection, a traditional Chinese medicine, could protect against the organ injury induced by iron overload. This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of SM injection on nephrotoxicity induced by Pb acetate in mice and to elucidate the potential mechanism(s. Healthy male mice were randomly divided into four groups: control, Pb, low-dose Salvia miltiorrhiza (L-SM, and high-dose Salvia miltiorrhiza (H-SM. SM injection dose dependently reduced the Pb accumulation in the kidney, decreased kidney coefficients, and ameliorated renal structure and function from the morphology analysis. Meanwhile, SM administration downregulated serum levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN and creatinine (CR, decreased malondialdehyde (MAD content, and increased activities of super oxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px in the kidney homogenate. Moreover, SM injection reduced the level of renal apoptosis by immunohistochemical staining analysis. Our findings implicate the therapeutic potential of SM injection for Pb-induced nephrotoxicity, which were at least partly due to the decrease of Pb accumulation, inhibition of lipid peroxidation, and suppression of renal apoptosis. These results provided preliminary experimental support for Danshen as a therapeutic drug for Pb poisoning diseases.

  1. Salvia miltiorrhiza injection ameliorates renal damage induced by lead exposure in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lei; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Ma, Juanjuan; Dong, Weichong; Song, Qiongtao; Zhang, Jianping; Chu, Li

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to lead (Pb) can induce kidney injury and our recent studies have found that Salvia miltiorrhiza (SM) injection, a traditional Chinese medicine, could protect against the organ injury induced by iron overload. This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of SM injection on nephrotoxicity induced by Pb acetate in mice and to elucidate the potential mechanism(s). Healthy male mice were randomly divided into four groups: control, Pb, low-dose Salvia miltiorrhiza (L-SM), and high-dose Salvia miltiorrhiza (H-SM). SM injection dose dependently reduced the Pb accumulation in the kidney, decreased kidney coefficients, and ameliorated renal structure and function from the morphology analysis. Meanwhile, SM administration downregulated serum levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (CR), decreased malondialdehyde (MAD) content, and increased activities of super oxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in the kidney homogenate. Moreover, SM injection reduced the level of renal apoptosis by immunohistochemical staining analysis. Our findings implicate the therapeutic potential of SM injection for Pb-induced nephrotoxicity, which were at least partly due to the decrease of Pb accumulation, inhibition of lipid peroxidation, and suppression of renal apoptosis. These results provided preliminary experimental support for Danshen as a therapeutic drug for Pb poisoning diseases. PMID:24696648

  2. An analysis of multimodal occupational exposure leading to blood borne infections among health care workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Lakshmi Priya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Occupational exposure poses a significant risk of transmission of blood-borne pathogens to healthcare workers (HCWs. Adherence to standard precautions, awareness about post exposure prophylaxis is poor in developing countries. This retrospective study analyzes the self-reported cases of occupational exposure in a tertiary care hospital. During the study period, 105 HCWs sustained occupational exposure to blood and body fluids. Majority of the victims 36 (34.2% were interns and the clinical practice that led to the occupational exposure was withdrawal of blood (45.7%. Good infection control practices and emphasis on appropriate disposal are needed to increase the occupational safety for HCWs.

  3. Effects of Lead Exposure, Environmental Conditions, and Metapopulation Processes on Population Dynamics of Spectacled Eiders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flint, Paul L.; Grand, James B.; Petersen, Margaret; Robert Rockwell,

    2016-01-01

    Spectacled eider Somateria fischeri numbers have declined and they are considered threatened in accordance with the US Endangered Species Act throughout their range. We synthesized the available information for spectacled eiders to construct deterministic, stochastic, and metapopulation models for this species that incorporated current estimates of vital rates such as nest success, adult survival, and the impact of lead poisoning on survival. Elasticities of our deterministic models suggested that the populations would respond most dramatically to changes in adult female survival and that the reductions in adult female survival related to lead poisoning were locally important. We also examined the sensitivity of the population to changes in lead exposure rates. With the knowledge that some vital rates vary with environmental conditions, we cast stochastic models that mimicked observed variation in productivity. We also used the stochastic model to examine the probability that a specific population will persist for periods of up to 50 y. Elasticity analysis of these models was consistent with that for the deterministic models, with perturbations to adult female survival having the greatest effect on population projections. When used in single population models, demographic data for some localities predicted rapid declines that were inconsistent with our observations in the field. Thus, we constructed a metapopulation model and examined the predictions for local subpopulations and the metapopulation over a wide range of dispersal rates. Using the metapopulation model, we were able to simulate the observed stability of local subpopulations as well as that of the metapopulation. Finally, we developed a global metapopulation model that simulates periodic winter habitat limitation, similar to that which might be experienced in years of heavy sea ice in the core wintering area of spectacled eiders in the central Bering Sea. Our metapopulation analyses suggested that no

  4. Childhood lead poisoning data for California by county, age, and blood lead level for the years 2007-2009; and age of housing data for 2000.

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Environmental Health Tracking Program — This dataset contains counts and percentages of blood lead levels among children tested for lead poisoning during 2007-2009 within California . The data are...

  5. Impact of ferromanganese alloy plants on household dust manganese levels: implications for childhood exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, E L; Bertrand, P; Guazzetti, S; Donna, F; Peli, M; Jursa, T P; Lucchini, R; Smith, D R

    2015-04-01

    Adolescents living in communities with ferromanganese alloy plant activity have been shown to exhibit deficits in olfactory and fine motor function. Household dust may serve as an important manganese (Mn) exposure pathway to children, though dust Mn concentrations have not previously been measured to assess household contamination from ferromanganese alloy plant emissions. Here we determined the association between dust concentrations and surface loadings of Mn and other metals (Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, and Zn) in indoor and outdoor household dust from three Italian communities that differ by history of ferromanganese alloy plant activity: Bagnolo Mella, with an active ferromanganese alloy plant (n=178 households); Valcamonica, with historically active plants (n=166); and Garda Lake, with no history of ferromanganese plant activity (n=99). We also evaluated Mn levels in other environmental (soil, airborne particulates) and candidate biomarker (blood, hair, saliva, fingernails) samples from children within the households. Household dust Mn concentrations and surface loadings were significantly different between the three sites, with levels highest in Bagnolo Mella (outdoor median Mn concentration=4620, range 487-183,000µg/g), intermediate in Valcamonica (median=876, range 407-8240µg/g), and lowest in Garda Lake (median=407, range 258-7240µg/g). Outdoor dust Mn concentrations in Bagnolo Mella, but not the other communities, were significantly inversely related with distance from the plant (R(2)=0.6630, P<0.0001). Moreover, outdoor dust Mn concentrations and loadings were highly predictive of but significantly higher than indoor dust Mn concentrations and loadings by ~2 to ~7-fold (Mn concentrations) and ~7 to ~20-fold (Mn loadings). Finally, both indoor and outdoor dust Mn concentrations and outdoor dust Mn loading values were highly significantly correlated with both soil and air Mn concentrations, and with children's hair and fingernail Mn concentrations, but

  6. Cancer Development Following Childhood Exposure to Ionizing Radiation - 45 Years of Follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between the years 1949 and 1959, the period of mass migration to Israel, more than 20,000 children were treated with radiotherapy for tinea capitis, a benign fungal infection of the scalp. In 1965, our group initiated a comprehensive prospective follow-up in order to determine possible delayed radiation effects among this group. The aim of this study is to update risk of developing cancer by site and to examine the influence of dose, age at irradiation, attained age and latent period on cancer risk, controlling for gender and origin. Description of the Work: The tinea capitis cohort includes 10,834 irradiated subjects, an equal number of non-irradiated population controls, and 5,392 non-irradiated sibling controls. The controls are matched to the irradiated group by sex, age, country of origin and immigration year. Dosimetric studies revealed that the brain received 140 cGy, the thyroid 9 cGy and the breast 1.6 cGy. The present analysis brings the latent period to over 45 years since exposure

  7. Non-occupational lead and cadmium exposure of adult women in Bangkok, Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z.-W.; Shimbo, S. [Department of Food and Nutrition, Kyoto Women' s University, Kyoto (Japan); Watanabe, T. [Miyagi University of Education, Sendai (Japan); Srianujata, S. [Research Center, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Banjong, O.; Chitchumroonchokchai, C. [Institute of Nutrition, Mahidol University, Salaya, Phuthamonthon, Nakhonpathom (Thailand); Nakatsuka, H.; Matsuda-Inoguchi, N. [Miyagi University, Taiwa-cho (Japan); Higashikawa, K.; Ikeda, M. [Kyoto Industrial Health Association, Kyoto (Japan)

    1999-02-02

    This survey was conducted to examine the extent of the exposure of Bangkok citizens to lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd), and to evaluate the role of rice as the source of these heavy metals. In practice, 52 non-smoking adult women in an institution in the vicinity of Bangkok, volunteered to offer blood, spot urine, boiled rice and 24-h total food duplicate samples. Samples were wet-ashed, and then analyzed for Pb and Cd by ICP-MS. Geometric means for the levels in blood (Pb-B and Cd-B) and urine (Pb-U and Cd-U as corrected for creatinine concentration), and also for dietary intake (Pb-F and Cd-F) were 32.3 {mu}g/l for Pb-B, 0.41 {mu}g/l for Cd-B, 2.06 {mu}g/g creatinine for Pb-U, 1.40 {mu}g/g creatinine for Cd-U, 15.1 {mu}g/day for Pb-F and 7.1 {mu}g/day for Cd-F. Rice contributed 30% and 4% of dietary Cd and Pb burden, respectively. When compared with the counterpart values obtained in four neighboring cities in southeast Asia (i.e. Nanning, Tainan, Manila, and Kuala Lumpur), dietary Pb burden of the women in Bangkok was middle in the order among the values for the five cities. Pb level in the blood was the lowest of the levels among the five cities and Pb in urine was also among the low group. This apparent discrepancy in the order between Pb-B (i.e. the fifth) and Pb-F (the third) might be attributable to recent reduction of Pb levels in the atmosphere in Bangkok. Regarding Cd exposure, Cd levels in blood and urine as well as dietary Cd burden of Bangkok women were either the lowest or the next lowest among those in the five cities. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  8. Childhood trauma and childhood urbanicity in relation to psychotic disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Frissen, Aleida; Lieverse, Ritsaert; Drukker, Marjan; van Winkel, Ruud; Delespaul, Philippe; [...

    2015-01-01

    Background Urban upbringing and childhood trauma are both associated with psychotic disorders. However, the association between childhood urbanicity and childhood trauma in psychosis is poorly understood. The urban environment could occasion a background of social adversity against which any effect of childhood trauma increases. Also, any impact of the urban environment on likelihood of exposure to childhood trauma could be stronger in children who later develop psychotic disorder. The aim of...

  9. Childhood trauma and childhood urbanicity in relation to psychotic disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Frissen, Aleida; Lieverse, Ritsaert; Drukker, Marjan; van Winkel, Ruud; Delespaul, Philippe; Cahn, W.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urban upbringing and childhood trauma are both associated with psychotic disorders. However, the association between childhood urbanicity and childhood trauma in psychosis is poorly understood. The urban environment could occasion a background of social adversity against which any effect of childhood trauma increases. Also, any impact of the urban environment on likelihood of exposure to childhood trauma could be stronger in children who later develop psychotic disorder. The aim o...

  10. The varying impact of type, timing and frequency of exposure to childhood adversity on its association with adult psychotic disorder.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fisher, H L

    2010-12-01

    Childhood adversity has been associated with onset of psychosis in adulthood but these studies have used only general definitions of this environmental risk indicator. Therefore, we sought to explore the prevalence of more specific adverse childhood experiences amongst those with and without psychotic disorders using detailed assessments in a large epidemiological case-control sample (AESOP).

  11. Associations between home dampness-related exposures and childhood eczema among 13,335 preschool children in Shanghai, China: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jiao; Liu, Wei; Hu, Yu; Zou, Zhijun; Shen, Li; Huang, Chen

    2016-04-01

    From April 2011 to April 2012, we conducted a cross-sectional study in Shanghai, China. A total of 13,335 modified ISAAC questionnaires (response rate: 85.3%) were returned by parents or guardians for 4-6 year-old children. Six dampness-related indicators (visible mold spots, visible damp stains, damp bed clothing, water damage, window pane condensation, and moldy odor) were used to evaluate home dampness-related exposures. In the present study, we applied logistic regression model to reveal associations, dose-response relationships, and statistical interaction effects of these dampness-related exposures, with childhood eczema, during lifetime since birth (ever) and in the last 12 months before the questionnaire. The dampness-related indicators were frequently reported in the perinatal and current residences. Prevalences of eczema ever and in the last 12 months were 22.9% and 13.2%, respectively. The dampness-related indicators were robustly associated and dose-response related with increased risk of eczema ever and in the last 12 months in the logistic regression analyses, with adjusted for potential confounders. Specifically, in the perinatal residence, visible mold spots or damp stains could increase 46% (OR, 95% CI: 1.46, 1.29-1.66) odds of childhood eczema (ever); in the current residence, visible mold spots and visible damp stains could increase 34% (1.34, 1.14-1.58) and 38% (1.38, 1.22-1.56) odds of childhood eczema (ever), respectively. Associations were not appreciably different between boys and girls, nor were they different between children with and without parental history of atopy. In conclusion, perinatal and current dampness-related exposures in the residence perhaps are risk factors for childhood eczema. PMID:26708528

  12. XRF-measured bone lead (Pb) as a biomarker for Pb exposure and toxicity among children diagnosed with Pb poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, Aaron J; Lin, Yanfen; Weisskopf, Marc; Yan, Chonghuai; Hu, Howard; Xu, Jian; Nie, Linda H

    2016-01-01

    Childhood lead (Pb) poisoning remains a global issue, especially in industrial areas. In this study, 115 children with average age 5.7 years were recruited as either patient diagnosed with Pb poisoning or controls at Xinhua Hospital in China. The subjects' bone Pb was measured with a K-shell X-ray fluorescence (KXRF) and a portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) system. A significant correlation between KXRF bone Pb and blood Pb and portable XRF and KXRF measurements were observed. The half-life of blood-lead was calculated to be 9.96 ± 3.92 d. Our results indicate that bone is a useful biomarker for Pb in children. PMID:26856822

  13. Dose-Response Relationship between Cumulative Occupational Lead Exposure and the Associated Health Damages: A 20-Year Cohort Study of a Smelter in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Wu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Long-term airborne lead exposure, even below official occupational limits, has been found to cause lead poisoning at higher frequencies than expected, which suggests that China’s existing occupational exposure limits should be reexamined. A retrospective cohort study was conducted on 1832 smelting workers from 1988 to 2008 in China. These were individuals who entered the plant and came into continuous contact with lead at work for longer than 3 months. The dose-response relationship between occupational cumulative lead exposure and lead poisoning, abnormal blood lead, urinary lead and erythrocyte zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP were analyzed and the benchmark dose lower bound confidence limits (BMDLs were calculated. Statistically significant positive correlations were found between cumulative lead dust and lead fumes exposures and workplace seniority, blood lead, urinary lead and ZPP values. A dose-response relationship was observed between cumulative lead dust or lead fumes exposure and lead poisoning (p < 0.01. The BMDLs of the cumulative occupational lead dust and fumes doses were 0.68 mg-year/m3 and 0.30 mg-year/m3 for lead poisoning, respectively. The BMDLs of workplace airborne lead concentrations associated with lead poisoning were 0.02 mg/m3 and 0.01 mg/m3 for occupational exposure lead dust and lead fume, respectively. In conclusion, BMDLs for airborne lead were lower than occupational exposure limits, suggesting that the occupational lead exposure limits need re-examination and adjustment. Occupational cumulative exposure limits (OCELs should be established to better prevent occupational lead poisoning.

  14. Is there any interaction between domestic radon exposure and air pollution from traffic in relation to childhood leukemia risk?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, E.V.; Andersen, Claus Erik; Andersen, H.P.;

    2010-01-01

    Background: In a recent population-based case-control study using 2,400 cases of childhood cancer, we found a statistically significant association between residential radon and acute lymphoblastic leukemia risk. Hypothesis: Traffic exhaust in the air enhances the risk association between radon...... and childhood leukemia. Methods: We included 985 cases of childhood leukemia and 1,969 control children. We used validated models to calculate residential radon and street NOx concentrations for each home. Conditional logistic regression analyses were used to analyze the effect of radon on childhood leukemia...... risk within different strata of air pollution and traffic density. Results: The relative risk for childhood leukemia in association with a 103 Bq/m3-years increase in radon was 1.77 (1.11, 2.82) among those exposed to high levels of NOx and 1.23 (0.79, 1.91) for those exposed to low levels of NOx...

  15. Is there any interaction between domestic radon exposure and air pollution from traffic in relation to childhood leukemia risk?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik; Andersen, Claus Erik; Andersen, Helle P.;

    2010-01-01

    In a recent population-based case-control study using 2,400 cases of childhood cancer, we found a statistically significant association between residential radon and acute lymphoblastic leukemia risk. Traffic exhaust in the air enhances the risk association between radon and childhood leukemia. We...... included 985 cases of childhood leukemia and 1,969 control children. We used validated models to calculate residential radon and street NOx concentrations for each home. Conditional logistic regression analyses were used to analyze the effect of radon on childhood leukemia risk within different strata...... of air pollution and traffic density. The relative risk for childhood leukemia in association with a 10(3) Bq/m(3)-years increase in radon was 1.77 (1.11, 2.82) among those exposed to high levels of NOx and 1.23 (0.79, 1.91) for those exposed to low levels of NOx (p (interaction,) 0.17). Analyses...

  16. Benzene exposure, assessed by urinary trans,trans-muconic acid, in urban children with elevated blood lead levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, V.M.; Fitzwilliam, A.; Peters, H.L.; Groopman, J.D. [Johns Hopkins Univ. School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States)] [and others

    1996-03-01

    A pilot study was performed to evaluate the feasibility of using trans, trans-muconic acid (MA) as a biomarker of environmental benzene exposure. A secondary aim was to provide data on the extent of exposure to selected toxicants in a unique population consisting of inner-city children who were already overexposed to one urban hazard, lead. Potential sources of benzene were assessed by a questionnaire. Exposure biomarkers included urinary MA and cotinine and blood lead. Mean MA was 176.6 {plus_minus} 341.7 ng/mg creatinine in the 79 children who participated. A wide range of values was found with as many as 10.1%, depending on the comparison study, above the highest levels reported in adults not exposed by occupation. Mean MA was increased in children evaluated in the afternoon compared to morning, those at or above the median for time spent playing near the street, and those studied in the first half of the investigation. MA levels were not associated with blood lead or, consistently, with either questionnaire environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) data or cotinine. As expected, the mean blood lead level was elevated (23.6 {mu}g/dl). Mean cotinine was also increased at 79.2 ng/mg creatinine. We conclude that the use of MA as a biomarker for environmental benzene exposure is feasible since it was detectable in 72% of subjects with a wide range of values present. In future studies, correlation of MA with personal air sampling in environmental exposure will be essential to fully interpret the significance of these findings. In addition, these inner-city children comprise a high risk group for exposure to environmental toxicants including ETS, lead, and probably benzene, based on questionnaire sources and its presence in ETS. 22 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  17. E-cigarette vapour is not inert and exposure can lead to cell damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Richard; Kist, Ralf; Bauld, Linda

    2016-03-01

    Materials and methodsIn vitro experiments were performed on normal epithelial cells as well as head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines. The widely available cell line HaCat, a spontaneously transformed immortal keratinocyte and the HNSCC cell lines HN30 and UMSCC10B were used. Cells were exposed to nicotine-containing and nicotine-free vapour extract from two popular e-cigarette brands for periods ranging from 48 hours to eight weeks. Cytotoxicity was assessed using Annexin V flow cytometric analysis, trypan blue exclusion and clonogenic assays. Genotoxicity in the form of DNA strand breaks was quantified using the neutral comet assay and γ-H2AX immunostaining.ResultsE-cigarette-exposed cells showed significantly reduced cell viability and clonogenic survival, along with increased rates of apoptosis and necrosis, regardless of e-cigarette vapour nicotine content. They also exhibited significantly increased comet tail length and accumulation of γ-H2AX foci, demonstrating increased DNA strand breaks.ConclusionsIn conclusion, our study strongly suggests that electronic cigarettes are not as safe as their marketing makes them appear to the public. Our in vitro experiments employing two brands of e-cigs show that at biologically relevant doses, vapourised e-cig liquids induce increased DNA strand breaks and cell death, and decreased clono- genic survival in both normal epithelial and HNSCC cell lines independently of nicotine content. Further research is needed to definitively determine the long-term effects of e-cig usage, as well as whether the DNA damage shown in our study as a result of e-cig exposure will lead to mutations that ultimately result in cancer. PMID:27012563

  18. Neonatal Nicotine Exposure Leads to Hypothalamic Gliosis in Adult Overweight Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younes-Rapozo, V; Moura, E G; Manhães, A C; Pinheiro, C R; Carvalho, J C; Barradas, P C; de Oliveira, E; Lisboa, P C

    2015-12-01

    Astrocytes and microglia, the immune competent cells of central nercous system, can be activated in response to metabolic signals such as obesity and hyperleptinaemia. In rats, maternal exposure to nicotine during lactation leads to central obesity, hyperleptinaemia, leptin resistance and alterations in hypothalamic neuropeptides in the offspring during adulthood. In the present study, we studied the activation of astrocytes and microglia, as well as the pattern of inflammatory mediators, in adult offspring of this experimental model. On postnatal day 2 (P2), osmotic minipumps releasing nicotine (NIC) (-6 mg/kg/day) or saline for 14 days were s.c. implanted in dams. Male offspring were killed on P180 and hypothalamic immunohistochemistry, retroperitoneal white adipose tissue (WAT) polymerase chain reaction analysis and multiplex analysis for plasma inflammatory mediators were carried out. At P180, NIC astrocyte cell number was higher in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) (medial: +82%; lateral: +110%), in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) (+144%) and in the lateral hypothalamus (+121%). NIC glial fibrillary acidic protein fibre density was higher in the lateral ARC (+178%) and in the PVN (+183%). Interleukin-6 was not affected in the hypothalamus. NIC monocyte chemotactic protein 1 was only higher in the periventricular nucleus (+287%). NIC microglia (iba-1-positive) cell number was higher (+68%) only in the PVN, as was the chemokine (C-X3-C motif) receptor 1 density (+93%). NIC interleukin-10 was lower in the WAT (-58%) and plasma (-50%). Thus, offspring of mothers exposed to nicotine during lactation present hypothalamic astrogliosis at adulthood and microgliosis in the PVN.

  19. Effect of prenatal alcohol exposure on childhood academic outcomes: contrasting maternal and paternal associations in the ALSPAC study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Alati

    Full Text Available The impact of low-to-moderate levels of alcohol consumption during pregnancy on child cognitive outcomes has been of recent concern. This study has tested the hypothesis that low-to-moderate maternal alcohol use in pregnancy is associated with lower school test scores at age 11 in the offspring via intrauterine mechanisms.We used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC, a birth cohort study based in the South West of England. Analyses were conducted on 7062 participants who had complete data on: maternal and paternal patterns of alcohol use in the first trimester and at 18 weeks' gestation, child's academic outcomes measured at age 11, gender, maternal age, parity, marital status, ethnicity, household crowding, home ownership status and parental education. We contrasted the association of mother's alcohol consumption during pregnancy with child's National Curriculum Key Stage 2 (KS2 test scores with the association for father's alcohol consumption (during the time the mother was pregnant with child's National Curriculum Key Stage 2 (KS2 test scores. We used multivariate linear regression to estimate mean differences and 95% confidence intervals [CI] in KS2 scores across the exposure categories and computed f statistics to compare maternal and paternal associations.Drinking up to 1 unit of alcohol a day during pregnancy was not associated with lower test scores. However, frequent prenatal consumption of 4 units (equivalent to 32 grams of alcohol on each single drinking occasion was associated with reduced educational attainment [Mean change in offspring KS2 score was -0.68 (-1.03, -0.33 for maternal alcohol categories compared to 0.27 (0.07, 0.46 for paternal alcohol categories]. Frequent consumption of 4 units of alcohol during pregnancy may adversely affect childhood academic outcomes via intrauterine mechanisms.

  20. Childhood urine mercury excretion: dental amalgam and fish consumption as exposure factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors investigated the effect of amalgam fillings and fish consumption on urine mercury level (UHg), in children aged 4-8 years old inclusive. Using a sample of 60 children, we found that children with amalgam fillings had significantly higher UHg levels than children without amalgams (geometric mean=1.412 μg Hg/g versus 0.436 μg Hg/g, respectively, P=0.0001). Subjects with reported higher fish consumption also had significantly higher UHgs (P=0.004). Univariate analyses provide evidence of an association between elevated UHg level and young age (P=0.009), short height (P=0.024), and low weight (P=0.049) in children with amalgam chewing surfaces. We also found a negative correlation between urine mercury and age (-0.378), height (-0.418), and weight (-0.391). A multiple logistic regression model shows that the presence of amalgam fillings leads to increased odds of high UHg in children (OR=47.18), even after adjusting for high fish consumption (OR=8.66) and height (OR=11.36)

  1. Intrauterine exposure to fine particulate matter as a risk factor for increased susceptibility to acute broncho-pulmonary infections in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrychowski, Wiesław A; Perera, Frederica P; Spengler, John D; Mroz, Elzbieta; Stigter, Laura; Flak, Elżbieta; Majewska, Renata; Klimaszewska-Rembiasz, Maria; Jacek, Ryszard

    2013-07-01

    Over the last decades many epidemiologic studies considered the morbidity patterns for respiratory diseases and lung function of children in the context of ambient air pollution usually measured in the postnatal period. The main purpose of this study is to assess the impact of prenatal exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) on the recurrent broncho-pulmonary infections in early childhood. The study included 214 children who had measurements of personal prenatal PM2.5 exposure and regularly collected data on the occurrence of acute bronchitis and pneumonia diagnosed by a physician from birth over the seven-year follow-up. The effect of prenatal exposure to PM2.5 was adjusted in the multivariable logistic models for potential confounders, such as prenatal and postnatal ETS (environmental tobacco smoke), city residence area as a proxy of postnatal urban exposure, children's sensitization to domestic aeroallergens, and asthma. In the subgroup of children with available PM2.5 indoor levels, the effect of prenatal exposure was additionally adjusted for indoor exposure as well. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for incidence of recurrent broncho-pulmonary infections (five or more spells of bronchitis and/or pneumonia) recorded in the follow-up significantly correlated in a dose-response manner with the prenatal PM2.5 level (OR=2.44, 95%CI: 1.12-5.36). In conclusion, the study suggests that prenatal exposure to PM2.5 increases susceptibility to respiratory infections and may program respiratory morbidity in early childhood. The study also provides evidence that the target value of 20μg/m(3) for the 24-h mean level of PM2.5 protects unborn babies better than earlier established EPA guidelines.

  2. 铅作业工人293名血铅水平的调查%Investigation on The Blood Lead Levels of 293 Workers with Lead Exposure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王庆丰; 顾庆华; 沈美枫

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]To understand the in vivo lead levels of workers with lead exposure.[Methods]Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer and blood analyzer XS - 1000i were used for determination of blood lead level and hemoglobin level respectively.[Results]Of 293 workers, the blood lead level of 192 workers ( 65.5% ) was over 1.9 μmol/L.The results showed negative correlations between blood lead level and hemoglobin level on male and female workers.[Conclusion]The blood lead level is relatively high in 293 lead-exposed workers.The enterprises should improve manufacturing technique, enhance protective measures,eliminate lead in workers with high lead level and perform health examination on workers regularly.%目的:了解铅作业工人体内铅含量水平.方法:采用石墨原子吸收法测定血铅含量,采用希斯美康1000 i血球仪测定血红蛋白含量.结果:293名铅作业工人中血铅超过1.9 μmol/L有192人;超标率为65.53%;男工和女工的血铅水平和血红蛋白水平都存在负相关.结论:293铅作业工人血铅水平较高,企业应改进生产工艺,增强防护措施,对血铅超标者进行驱铅治疗,定期对工人进行体检.

  3. Effects of low level lead exposure on associative learning and memory in the rat: Influences of sex and developmental timing of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D W; Mettil, W; Schneider, J S

    2016-03-30

    Lead (Pb) exposure during development impairs a variety of cognitive, behavioral and neurochemical processes resulting in deficits in learning, memory, attention, impulsivity and executive function. Numerous studies have attempted to model this effect of Pb in rodents, with the majority of studies focusing on hippocampus-associated spatial learning and memory processes. Using a different paradigm, trace fear conditioning, a process requiring coordinated integration of both the medial prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus, we have assessed the effects of Pb exposure on associative learning and memory. The present study examined both female and male long evans rats exposed to three environmentally relevant levels of Pb (150 ppm, 375 ppm and 750 ppm) during different developmental periods: perinatal (PERI; gestation-postnatal day 21), early postnatal (EPN; postnatal days 1-21) and late postnatal (LPN; postnatal days 1-55). Testing began at postnatal day 55 and consisted of a single day of acquisition training, and three post training time points (1, 2 and 10 days) to assess memory consolidation and recall. All animals, regardless of sex, developmental window or level of Pb-exposure, successfully acquired conditioned-unconditioned stimulus association during training. However, there were significant effects of Pb-exposure on consolidation and memory recall at days 1-10 post training. In females, EPN and LPN exposure to 150 ppm Pb (but not PERI exposure) significantly impaired recall. In contrast, only PERI 150 ppm and 750 ppm-exposed males had significant recall deficits. These data suggest a complex interaction between sex, developmental window of exposure and Pb-exposure level on consolidation and recall of associative memories.

  4. Effects of lead exposure on the status of platelet indices in workers involved in a lead-acid battery manufacturing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Tapu; Kalahasthi, Ravibabu; Rajmohan, H R

    2014-11-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effect of Pb exposure on the status of platelet indices in workers exposed to Pb during lead-acid battery plant process. Platelet indices and blood lead levels (BLLs) were determined in 429 male workers. BLLs were determined by using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Platelet indices in the samples were quantified by using the Sysmex KX-21 hematology analyzer. The levels of platelet count (PLT), plateletcrit (PCT) and mean platelet mass (MPM) were significantly decreased and platelet distribution width (PDW), platelet large cell ratio (P-LCR) and mean platelet volume were increased with an increase in BLLs. The results of linear multiple regression analysis showed that the platelet count (β -0.143, P=0.005), PCT (β -0.115, P=0.023) and MPM (β -0.110, P=0.030) were negatively associated with BLLs and P-LCR (β 0.122, P=0.016) was positively associated with BLLs. The variable of body mass index showed a positive association with PCT (β 0.105, P=0.032) and MPM (β 0.101, P=0.039). The results of the study may indicate that lead exposure may impair coagulation function through endothelial tissue injury and reduction of nitric oxide.

  5. Long-term dietary exposure to lead in young European children: Comparing a pan-European approach with a national exposure assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boon, P.E.; Te Biesebeek, J.D.; van Klaveren, J.D.;

    2012-01-01

    in children living in the Netherlands were compared with a long-term lead intake assessment in the same group using Dutch lead concentration data and linking the consumption and concentration data at the highest possible level of detail. Exposures obtained with the pan-European approach were higher than...... linkage between foods analysed and consumed for that country. In the case of lack of occurrence data, these data can be supplemented with data from the "European" concentration database or by generating additional concentration data at country level. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC....

  6. Potential hazard to human health from exposure to fragments of lead bullets and shot in the tissues of game animals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah J Pain

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Lead is highly toxic to animals. Humans eating game killed using lead ammunition generally avoid swallowing shot or bullets and dietary lead exposure from this source has been considered low. Recent evidence illustrates that lead bullets fragment on impact, leaving small lead particles widely distributed in game tissues. Our paper asks whether lead gunshot pellets also fragment upon impact, and whether lead derived from spent gunshot and bullets in the tissues of game animals could pose a threat to human health. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Wild-shot gamebirds (6 species obtained in the UK were X-rayed to determine the number of shot and shot fragments present, and cooked using typical methods. Shot were then removed to simulate realistic practice before consumption, and lead concentrations determined. Data from the Veterinary Medicines Directorate Statutory Surveillance Programme documenting lead levels in raw tissues of wild gamebirds and deer, without shot being removed, are also presented. Gamebirds containing > or =5 shot had high tissue lead concentrations, but some with fewer or no shot also had high lead concentrations, confirming X-ray results indicating that small lead fragments remain in the flesh of birds even when the shot exits the body. A high proportion of samples from both surveys had lead concentrations exceeding the European Union Maximum Level of 100 ppb w.w. (0.1 mg kg(-1 w.w. for meat from bovine animals, sheep, pigs and poultry (no level is set for game meat, some by several orders of magnitude. High, but feasible, levels of consumption of some species could result in the current FAO/WHO Provisional Weekly Tolerable Intake of lead being exceeded. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The potential health hazard from lead ingested in the meat of game animals may be larger than previous risk assessments indicated, especially for vulnerable groups, such as children, and those consuming large amounts of game.

  7. Lead tolerance capacity of clinical bacterial isolates and change in their antibiotic susceptibility pattern after exposure to a heavy metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Garhwal

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Heavy metal pollutions of soil and wastewater are a significant environmental problem as they are not degraded or destroyed. Several metal resistance mechanisms have been identified which is responsible for alteration of normal cell physiology leading to development of drug resistance in microorganisms. Heavy metals used in industry and in household products are, along with antibiotics, creating a selective pressure in the environment that leads to the mutations in microorganisms. The present study was carried out to study the heavy metal lead tolerance by bacteria and change in antibiotic-sensitivity pattern after its exposure. Materials and Methods: 30 clinical isolates from various samples received in the Department of Microbiology, Government Medical College, Surat, were included in the study. To check the lead tolerance capacity, isolates were exposed to graded concentration of lead nitrate by plate dilution method, starting from 50 up to 1000 μg/ml strength. Antibiotic susceptibility was performed by the Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. A change in antibiotic susceptibility pattern was studied before and after lead exposure. Result: 30 clinical isolates were included in the study, 25 Gram negative (83.3% and 5 Gram positive (16.7%. MIC to lead was higher in Acinetobacter spp. and Pseudomonas spp. (600-1000 μg/ml as compared to E. coli, Klebsiella spp., S. aureus (50-150 μg/ml. Multiple antibiotic resistance indexes were changed significantly after lead exposure. Conclusion: Bacteria exposed to high levels of heavy metals in their environment have adapted to this stress by developing various resistance mechanism. Infection with antibiotic-resistant organisms create problem in treatment and management of patients. We should take efforts to prevent environmental pollution with such heavy metals and transmission of antibiotic-resistant microorganism from environment to health care set up.

  8. Fetal alcohol exposure leads to abnormal olfactory bulb development and impaired odor discrimination in adult mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.G. Akers (Katherine); S.A. Kushner (Steven); A.T. Leslie (Ana); L. Clarke (Laura); D. van der Kooy (Derek); J.P. Lerch (Jason); P.W. Frankland (Paul)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Children whose mothers consumed alcohol during pregnancy exhibit widespread brain abnormalities and a complex array of behavioral disturbances. Here, we used a mouse model of fetal alcohol exposure to investigate relationships between brain abnormalities and specific behavior

  9. Effectiveness of a positive pressure respirator for controlling lead exposure in acid storage battery manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grauvogel, L W

    1986-02-01

    Effective protection factors for lead-acid storage battery manufacturing workers using powered air-purifying respirators and their corresponding blood lead histories are reported and compared with results for half-mask, negative pressure respirators. Airborne lead protection factors for the powered, air-purifying respirator ranged from 2 to 74, while lead levels in the blood remained stable or decreased for 8 of the 13 workers monitored when compared to negative pressure respirator use levels.

  10. Disposition of lead (Pb) in blood of rats following oral exposure to lipstick

    OpenAIRE

    Hashemi-Moghaddam H.; Shiravi A.; Shadab-Shamsabad F.; Torabi M.

    2013-01-01

    Information about the health risks that might be associated with lipstick consumption effects is scarce in the literature. The present work investigated the bioaccumulation of lead (Pb) in blood of rats originated from lipstick sample. First, Lead contents were determined in 12 different brands of lipsticks. Lead was detected in all the studied samples. The average lead content in 14 lipsticks samples was 12.2 PPM wet wt. Then, one brand was selected for feeding to the rats and amount of oral...

  11. Dietary exposure to cadmium, lead and nickel among students from the south-east region of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Marzec

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Dietary intake of cadmium, lead and nickel was determined among students from three universities in Lublin to assess the levels of exposure to these contaminants compared to PTWI and TDI values. The study was performed in 2006–2010 and involved 850 daily food rations of students from the south–east region of Poland. The technique of 24-hour dietary recall and diet duplicates was used. Cadmium, lead and nickel complexes with ammonium-pyrrolidindithiocarbamate were formed and extracted to the organic phase with 4-methylpentan-2-one – MIBK in which their content was measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The highest intake of the elements studied was observed in 2008. The data show that in none of the cases, the level of intake reached 70 % of PTWI/TDI values and thus the risk of developing diseases related to high exposure to these toxic metals absorbed from foodstuffs was low. The parameters of methods were checked during determinations by adding standard solutions to the samples before mineralization and by using two reference materials: Total diet ARC/CL HDP and Bovine muscle RM NIST 8414. The dietary exposure to lead and cadmium has significantly decreased in recent years whereas the exposures to nickel remain on stable levels.

  12. Implications for wildlife and humans of dietary exposure to lead from fragments of lead rifle bullets in deer shot in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lead poisoning caused by ingested spent lead shotgun pellets has long been known to be a cause of unnecessary mortality in waterfowl and has led to legislation limiting its use in many countries. Recent evidence has shown that the problem extends to terrestrial ecosystems and to fragmented rifle bullets eaten by scavengers as well as shotgun pellets. Dietary exposure of human consumers to lead from spent ammunition in game meat also poses potential risks to human health. To assess the degree of fragmentation of lead bullets used to kill wild deer, twelve deer were shot in the thorax using copper-jacketed lead-cored bullets, as part of planned deer management operations. The thoracic region of the eviscerated carcasses and the abdominal viscera of each deer were X-rayed. An average of 356 metal fragments was visible on radiographs of the carcass and 180 fragments in the viscera. The weight of fragments was estimated by reference to an X-rayed scale of fragments of known weight. The average total weight of metal fragments, likely to be mostly lead, was estimated to be 1.2 g for the carcass and 0.2 g for the viscera. The total estimated weight of fragments in the entire carcass was estimated to be 17% of the weight of the bullet. Most fragments were small in size, with those in the viscera being smaller than those in the carcass. Metal fragments in the viscera were sufficiently small that at least 80% of the metallic bullet-derived lead in the viscera would be expected to be ingested by scavenging birds, such as buzzards and eagles, which feed on them.

  13. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CHRONIC LEAD ACETATE EXPOSURE AND HYPERTENSION IN RAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Karimi

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available Effects of 28 days lead acetate (IOC, 500, 1000 ppm treatment on hypertension ami relationship between blood lead levels and hypertension in male. Spraguc-Dawley rats were studied. Results of this study showed tlxat lead acetate treatment did run decrease, body wcight or water consumption, except for lead acetate (1000 ppm and sodium acetate (500 ppm which increased fluid consumption when compared with controls. Tlte doses of lead acetate (100, 500, lOOOppm used in this study, caused blood concentrations of 26.84 ± 2.23, 43.12+2.40 and 52.8 ±3.44 g/dl respectively. Treatment of animals with different doses (100, 500, 1000 ppm} of lead acetate Jor 28 days, caused a significant change (P< 0.05 in systolic blood pressure when compared to control rats. No dose dependent correlation was observed between blood pressure elevation and blood lead levels in treated rats.

  14. Influencing factors of colostrum exposure to low-level lead and their relationship with early neural development of infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to low-level lead has a toxic effect on the development of neonates, which has attracted wide attention. Colostrum lead level can be used as the indication of lead exposure.OBJECTIVE: To observe the relationship of colostrum lead level and the neurobehavioral development of infants.DESIGN: A prospective control observation.SETTING: Center for Maternal and Child Health, Shanxi Provincial Children's Hospital.PARTICIPANTS: Totally 128 neonates of full-term normal delivery, 76 male and 52 female, from Shanxi Provincial Maternal and Child Health Center and Jiexiu Maternal and Child Health Center were involved in this study. All the involved neonates had no peripartal ischemic/hypoxic history or fetus intrauterine developmental lag. Pregnant women had no various acute and chronic diseases in pregnancy, family history of neurological disease or occupational lead exposure. 128 portions of colostrum sample of full-term normal delivery were collected. Informed consents of detected items were obtained from the puerperants and their relatives.METHODS: ①Experimental grouping: Lead level in the colostrum was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry. According to lead level in the colostrum, the neonates were classified into two exposure groups of greater than or equal to 0.24 μ mol/L in a high-level lead group and less than 0.24 μ mol/L in a low-level lead group. ② Experimental evaluation: Mental developmental index (MDI) and psychological developmental index (PDI) of 3-month-old infants were evaluated with Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID). The relationships of MDI, PDI and colostrum lead level were performed correlation regression analysis; The relationship of colostrum lead level and development was performed multi-factor analysis with family environment and health questionnaires.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ① Evaluation results of MDI and PDI. ② Multi-factor analysis results.RESULTS: Totally 128 neonates were involved in the study. Ten

  15. Effect of developmental lead exposure on synaptic plasticity and N—methyl—D—aspartate receptor subunit in rat hippocampus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RuanDY; SuiL

    2002-01-01

    Chronic lead(Pb) exposure is known to be associated with learning and memory,and cognitive dysfunction in children.Previous studies have demonstrated that Pb exposure may impair neuronal process underlying synaptic plasticity via a direct interaction with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors(NMDARs).The studies described here were carried out to investigate effect of developmental Pb exposure on long-term potentiation(LTP),long-tern depression(LTD) and NMDAs subunits in rat hippocampus.The results are listed as follows:(1)low-level Pb exposture can impair the induction and maintenance of LTP in vivo and in vitro;(2)the Pb-induced impairment of LTD magnitude was an age-related decline in area CA1 of rat hippocampus;(3)chronic Pb exposure affected two components,voltage-gated calcium channel-dependent LTD and NMDARs-dependent LTD,of LTD induction in area CA1 of rat hippocampus;(4)different effects of developmental Pb exposure on NMDA receptor NR1,NR2A,NR2B,NR2C,NR2D and NR3A subunits in area CA1,CA2,CA3 and CA4 of rat hippocampus were observed;(5)the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptors enriched in area CA1,CA3 and dentate gyrus and kainite receptors enriched in area CA1 and dentate gyrus of rat hippocampus were impaired by Pb exposure.

  16. Current sources of lead exposure and their relative contributions to the blood lead levels in the general adult population of Northern France: The IMEPOGE Study, 2008-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagne-Fotso, Romuald; Leroyer, Ariane; Howsam, Mike; Dehon, Betty; Richeval, Camille; Nisse, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    There is justification for limiting lead (Pb) exposure as much as possible, given its impact on health at low concentrations. Consequently, the aim of this study was to measure blood lead levels (BLL) and examine exposure factors related to BLL variations in the general adult population of northern France, a current and past industrial area. Two thousand inhabitants of northern France, aged between 20 and 59 years, were recruited using the quota method with caution. Blood lead levels were quantified by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS), and variation factors were studied separately in men and women using multivariate stepwise linear and logistic regression models. The geometric mean of the BLL was 18.8 μg/L (95% confidence interval [CI]: 18.3-19.3). Occupational factors affected BLL only in men and represented 14% of total explained variance of BLL. External occupational factors significantly increasing mean levels of BLL were tobacco, consumption of some beverages (wine, coffee, tea, and/or tap water), raw vegetables, housing characteristics (built prior to 1948, Pb piping in the home) and do-it-yourself or leisure activities (paint stripping or rifle shooting). Consumption habits accounted together for 25% and 18% of the total explained variance, respectively, in men and women. Industrial environment did not significantly contribute to BLL variations. Blood lead levels observed in the general population of this industrial part of France did not appear to be excessively elevated compared to values found internationally. Nonetheless, these BLL remain a public health issue in regard to nonthreshold toxicity attributed to Pb. PMID:27074096

  17. Occupational exposure and biological evaluation of lead in Iranian workers-a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kourosh Sayehmiri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lead exposure is considered as a global health problem. The irreparable harmful effects of this heavy metal on human have been proven in various studies. Comparing to general population, workers in related industries are more exposed to lead. Several studies have investigated lead occupational exposure and its biological evaluation in Iran; however there is no overall estimate. Thus, the present study was conducted to determine the occupational exposure to lead and its biological evaluation in Iranian workers, using systematic review and meta-analysis. Material and Method: This study was carried out based on information obtained from databases including Magiran, Iranmedex, SID, Medlib, Trials Register, Scopus, Pubmed, Science Direct, Cochran, Embase, Medline, Web of Science, Springer, Online Library Wiley, and Google Scholar from 1991 to 2016, using standard key words. All of the reviewed papers which met the inclusion criteria have been evaluated. Data combination was performed according to Random Effects Model using Stata software version 11.1. Result: In the 34 qualified studies, the mean blood lead level (BLL concentration in Iranian workers was estimated 42.8µg/dl (95% CI: 35.15-50.49. The minimum and maximum BLL were belonged to west (28.348µg/dl and center (45.928µg/dl regions of Iran, respectively. Considering different occupations, the lowest mean value was reported in textile industry workers (12.3 µg/dl, while the highest value was for zinc-lead mine workers (72.6 µg/dl. Mean breathing air lead level of Iranian workers reported in 4 studies was estimated 0.23 mg/m3 (95% CI: 0.14-0.33. Conclusion: According to the high concentration of BLL and breathing air, it is recommended to increase protective measures and frequent screening. Scheduled clinical and paraclinical examination should also be performed for workers.

  18. Calculation of Buildup Factor for Gamma-ray Exposure in Two Layered Shields Made of Water and Lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The buildup factor for gamma ray exposure is most useful in calculations for biological protective shields.The buildup factors for gamma ray exposure were calculated in tow layered shields consist of water-lead and lead-water up to optical Thickness 20 mean free path (mfp) at gamma ray energies 1, 2 and 6MeV by using kalos's formula.The program has been designed to work at any atomic number of the attenuating medium, photon energy, slab thickness and and the arrangement of materials.The results obtained in this search leading to the buildup factor for gamma ray exposure at energies (1and2MeV) in lead-water were higher than the reverse case,while at energy 6 MeV the effect was opposite.The calculated data were parameterized by an empirical formula as a function of optical thickness of tow materials.The results obtained were in reasonable agreement with a previous work

  19. Peeling Lead Paint Turns into Poisonous Dust. Guess Where It Ends Up? A Media Campaign to Prevent Childhood Lead Poisoning in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Danielle; Tehranifar, Parisa; DeMartini, Diana P.; Faciano, Andrew; Nagin, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Successful public health media campaigns promote messages, increase awareness, engage the public, and encourage behavior change. Between 2004 and 2006, the Lead Poisoning Prevention Program of the New York City Department of Health and Mental Hygiene conducted a media campaign grounded in social learning theory and the social marketing model to…

  20. Exposure of preschoolers to lead in the Makati area of Metro Manila, the Philippines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, K; Reutergardh, L B

    2000-07-01

    A study was conducted in the Makati area of Metro Manila, the Philippines. The study evaluated the significance of playground soil lead intake to the total daily lead burden in preschool children. The lead concentration was measured in residential playground soils, food, water, and hair samples by atomic absorption spectrometer and the data were used to draw conclusions. All of the playground soils were contaminated with lead levels ranging from a minimum of 34.54 microg/g to a maximum of 283.13 microg/g in comparison to the naturally occurring lead level of 15 microg/g in soils. Further, the study conducted a lead analysis on the hair of the study population to determine the accumulated lead intake. Ingestion of 25 mg/day of soil contributed to 4% of the total lead intake per day by children exposed to the study sites. Food (83%) was found to be the major source of lead compared to other sources. The study also includes economic valuation and cost benefit analysis from reducing lead in gasoline.

  1. Lead Policy and Academic Performance: Insights from Massachusetts. NBER Working Paper No. 18327

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, Jessica Wolpaw

    2012-01-01

    Childhood exposure to even low levels of lead can adversely affect neurodevelopment, behavior, and cognitive performance. This paper investigates the link between lead exposure and student achievement in Massachusetts. Panel data analysis is conducted at the school-cohort level for children born between 1991 and 2000 and attending 3rd and 4th…

  2. Prenatal exposure to methyldopa leading to hypertensive crisis and cardiac failure in a neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jennifer A; Tang, William; Rivero, Niurka; Bar-Cohen, Yaniv

    2014-05-01

    A 2-week-old infant with normal intracardiac anatomy presented to the emergency department in a hypertensive crisis with acute cardiac failure. Despite extensive evaluation, no underlying disease was found. The patient's hypertension and cardiac dysfunction resolved after 1 week of supportive care in the PICU, and she was discharged within 2 weeks of presentation. The patient's history revealed transplacental exposure to the α-adrenergic agonist methyldopa for 10 weeks before delivery. Her age at presentation and the self-limited nature of cardiac sequelae with complete resolution of cardiac dysfunction suggest withdrawal effects from this exposure. Whereas the rebound hypertensive effects of α-adrenergic agonists are well established in the adult population, this report shows an unusual adverse outcome of in utero exposure to methyldopa.

  3. Chrysophanol attenuates lead exposure-induced injury to hippocampal neurons in neonatal mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji Zhang; Chunlin Yan; Shu Wang; Yong Hou; Guiping Xue; Li Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that chrysophanol protects against learning and memory impairments in lead-exposed adult mice. In the present study, we investigated whether chrys-ophanol can alleviate learning and memory dysfunction and hippocampal neuronal injury in lead-exposed neonatal mice. At the end of lactation, chrysophanol (0.1, 1.0, 10.0 mg/kg) was administered to the neonatal mice by intraperitoneal injection for 15 days. Chrysophanol signifi-cantly alleviated injury to hippocampal neurons and improved learning and memory abilities in the lead-poisoned neonatal mice. Chrysophanol also significantly decreased lead content in blood, brain, heart, spleen, liver and kidney in the lead-exposed neonatal mice. The levels of malondialdehyde in the brain, liver and kidney were significantly reduced, and superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities were significantly increased after chrysophanol treatment. Collectively, these findings indicate that chrysophanol can significantly reduce damage to hippocampal neurons in lead-exposed neonatal mice.

  4. Exposure of young children to household water lead in the Montreal area (Canada): the potential influence of winter-to-summer changes in water lead levels on children's blood lead concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngueta, G; Prévost, M; Deshommes, E; Abdous, B; Gauvin, D; Levallois, P

    2014-12-01

    Drinking water represents a potential source of lead exposure. The purpose of the present study was to estimate the magnitude of winter-to-summer changes in household water lead levels (WLLs), and to predict the impact of these variations on BLLs in young children. A study was conducted from September, 2009 to March, 2010 in 305 homes, with a follow-up survey carried out from June to September 2011 in a subsample of 100 homes randomly selected. The first 1-L sample was drawn after 5 min of flushing, followed by a further 4 consecutive 1-L samples after 30 min of stagnation. Non-linear regression and general linear mixed models were used for modelling seasonal effects on WLL. The batchrun mode of Integrated Exposure Uptake Biokinetic (IEUBK) model was used to predict the impact of changes in WLL on children's blood lead levels (BLLs). The magnitude of winter-to-summer changes in average concentrations of lead corresponded to 6.55 μg/L in homes served by lead service lines (LSL+ homes) and merely 0.30 μg/L in homes without lead service lines. For stagnant samples, the value reached 10.55 μg/L in 'LSL+ homes' and remained very low (0.36 μg/L) in 'LSL- homes'. The change in the probability of BLLs ≥5 μg/dL due to winter-to-summer changes in WLL was increased from water.

  5. In vivo measurements of lead-210 for assessing cumulative radon exposure in uranium miners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilmette, R.A.; Laurer, G.R. [New York Univ. Inst. of Environmental Medicine, Tuxedo, NY (United States); Lambert, W.E.; Gilliland, F.D. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-01

    It has long been recognized that a major contributor to the uncertainty in risk analysis of lung cancer in uranium and other hard rock miners is the estimation of total radon progeny exposure of individual miners under study. These uncertainties arise from the fact that only a limited number of measurements of airborne {sup 222}Rn progeny concentrations were made in the mines during the times that the miners were being exposed, and that dosimeters capable of integrating the Rn progeny exposures of the miners did not exist. Historically, the cumulative exposures for individual uranium and other hard rock miners have been calculated by combining the employee`s work history, which may or may not have included time spent at different jobs within the mines and at different locations within the mines, with whatever periodic measurements of Rn and Rn progeny were available. The amount and quality of the measurement data varied enormously from mine to mine and from population to population. Because the quality of the exposure data collected during the period of active mining in the United STates cannot now be altered substantially, significant improvement in individual miner exposure estimates is only likely to be achieved if a new cumulative exposure metric is developed and implemented. The decay chain of Rn includes the production of {sup 210}Pb, which can accumulate in the skeleton in amounts proportional to the intake of Rn progeny. We hypothesize that the in vivo measurement of {sup 210}Pb in the skulls of miners will provide such a metric. In summary, the primary purpose of this pilot study to demonstrate the feasibility of measuring {sup 210}Pb in the heads of former uranium miners has been accomplished.

  6. A multinational case-control study on childhood brain tumours, anthropogenic factors, birth characteristics and prenatal exposures: A validation of interview data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vienneau, Danielle; Infanger, Denis; Feychting, Maria; Schüz, Joachim; Schmidt, Lisbeth Samsø; Poulsen, Aslak Harbo; Tettamanti, Giorgio; Klæboe, Lars; Kuehni, Claudia E; Tynes, Tore; Von der Weid, Nicolas; Lannering, Birgitta; Röösli, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about the aetiology of childhood brain tumours. We investigated anthropometric factors (birth weight, length, maternal age), birth characteristics (e.g. vacuum extraction, preterm delivery, birth order) and exposures during pregnancy (e.g. maternal: smoking, working, dietary supplement intake) in relation to risk of brain tumour diagnosis among 7-19 year olds. The multinational case-control study in Denmark, Sweden, Norway and Switzerland (CEFALO) included interviews with 352 (participation rate=83.2%) eligible cases and 646 (71.1%) population-based controls. Interview data were complemented with data from birth registries and validated by assessing agreement (Cohen's Kappa). We used conditional logistic regression models matched on age, sex and geographical region (adjusted for maternal age and parental education) to explore associations between birth factors and childhood brain tumour risk. Agreement between interview and birth registry data ranged from moderate (Kappa=0.54; worked during pregnancy) to almost perfect (Kappa=0.98; birth weight). Neither anthropogenic factors nor birth characteristics were associated with childhood brain tumour risk. Maternal vitamin intake during pregnancy was indicative of a protective effect (OR 0.75, 95%-CI: 0.56-1.01). No association was seen for maternal smoking during pregnancy or working during pregnancy. We found little evidence that the considered birth factors were related to brain tumour risk among children and adolescents. PMID:26625087

  7. Intrauterine exposure to alcohol and tobacco use and childhood IQ: findings from a parental-offspring comparison within the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alati, Rosa; Macleod, John; Hickman, Matthew; Sayal, Kapil; MAY, Margaret; Smith, George Davey; Lawlor, Debbie A

    2008-12-01

    This study aims to test the hypothesis that moderate maternal alcohol and tobacco use in pregnancy is associated with intelligent quotient (IQ) scores in childhood through intrauterine mechanisms. We conducted parental-offspring comparisons between the associations of tobacco and alcohol consumption with child's IQ in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Analyses were conducted on 4332 participants with complete data on maternal and paternal use of alcohol and tobacco at 18 wk gestation, child's IQ and a range of confounders. IQ was measured at child age 8 with the Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III). We used multivariable linear and logistic regression to estimate mean differences and 95% confidence intervals in IQ scores across the exposure categories and computed f statistics to compare maternal and paternal associations. In fully adjusted models, there was no strong statistical evidence that maternal alcohol and tobacco consumption during pregnancy were associated with childhood IQ with any greater magnitude than paternal alcohol and tobacco consumption (also assessed during their partners' pregnancy). Our findings suggest that the relationship between maternal moderate alcohol and tobacco use in early pregnancy and childhood IQ may not be explained by intrauterine mechanisms. PMID:18670372

  8. Contrasting effects of age on the plasma/whole blood lead ratio in men and women with a history of lead exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examined the effect of age and sex on the relationship between the concentrations of Pb in blood (Pb-B) and in plasma (Pb-P) in an adult population with a history of lead exposure. Pb-P was determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and Pb-B by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF AAS). We studied 154 adults (56 men and 98 women) from 18 to 60-year old. Pb-B levels varied from 10.0 to 428.0 μg/L, with a mean of 76 μg/L. Blood lead levels varied from 10.0 to 428.0 μg/L in men (mean, 98.3 μg/L) and from 10.0 to 263.0 μg/L (mean, 62.8 μg/L) in women. Corresponding Pb-Ps were 0.02-2.9 μg/L (mean, 0.66 μg/L) and 0.02-1.5 μg/L (mean, 0.42 μg/L) in men and women, respectively. The relationship between Pb-B and Pb-P was found to be curvilinear (r=0.757, P1492 (y=Pb-P, and x=Pb-B). The %Pb-P/Pb-B ratio ranged from 0.03% to 1.85%. A positive association was found between %Pb-P/Pb-B ratio and Pb-B levels. When data were separated by sex, this association was also relevant for men (y=0.0184x 0.702) and women (y=0.0534x 0.5209) (y=%Pb-P/Pb-B and x=Pb-B). Moreover, we found an interesting positive correlation between Log (Pb-P/Pb-B) and age for women (r=0.31, P<0.0001) and a negative correlation for men (r=-0.164, P=0.07). Taken together, these results suggest contrasting effects of age on the plasma/whole blood lead ratio in men and women with a history of lead exposure. Moreover, sex might play an important role in the metabolism of lead, implying further consideration on the kinetic models constructed of lead toxicity

  9. Prenatal phthalate exposure: epigenetic changes leading to lifelong impact on steroid formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Arguelles, D B; Papadopoulos, V

    2016-07-01

    Endocrine disruptors (ED) are environmental pollutants that mimic endogenous hormonal signals. Exposure to EDs during fetal and early life is a public health concern because these are periods characterized by high cellular plasticity that influence the physiology and development of disease later in life. Phthalates are plasticizers used in the industry to manufacture polyvinyl chloride products and several consumer products. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is one of the most produced plasticizers; it is ubiquitously found contaminating the environment, and has been shown to be an ED. Human exposure to phthalates starts during fetal development and continues after birth through contact of the newborn with the environment and contaminated food sources. We used a rat model in which pregnant dams are gavaged with DEHP from gestational day 14 until birth to study the long-term effects of DEHP. This window of fetal exposure results in decreased circulating testosterone and aldosterone levels in adult male offspring and estradiol in the female. The observed steroid changes are likely of an epigenetic origin as DEHP is rapidly cleared after birth. Here, we review the long-term effects of fetal exposure to DEHP with a focus on the molecular and epigenetic changes, including DNA methylation, which may mediate long-term endocrine dysfunction. PMID:27044004

  10. An international pooled analysis for obtaining a benchmark dose for environmental lead exposure in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Bellinger, David; Lanphear, Bruce;

    2013-01-01

    Lead is a recognized neurotoxicant, but estimating effects at the lowest measurable levels is difficult. An international pooled analysis of data from seven cohort studies reported an inverse and supra-linear relationship between blood lead concentrations and IQ scores in children. The lack of a ...

  11. Evaluation of nephrotoxic effect of lead exposure among automobile repairers in Nnewi Metropolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ubuo K. Amah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lead toxicity is one of the most common occupational hazards that affect several organs of the body, kidney inclusive. Auto repairers are exposed to lead in petrol, radiator, leaded battery, lead soldering wire, and spray paints, thus this study was designed to evaluate lead-induced nephrotoxic effect among automobile repairers. Methods: A total of 80 male subjects within the age range of 20 and 65 years were recruited for this study. 50 subjects were occupationally exposed automobile repairers, of which 15 were electricians, 21 mechanics and 14 panel beaters/spray painters, whereas 30 were non-exposed students and staff from Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Nnewi campus. Blood sample was collected from these individuals and their blood lead levels were determined alongside creatinine, urea, uric acid, sodium, potassium, chloride and bicarbonate. Results: The results showed that the mean levels of blood lead is significantly higher in automobile repairers than in control group (P 0.05. The evaluation of the renal function markers show that, there were significant increases in the mean serum concentration of creatinine, urea, and uric acid in the study group compare to the control subjects (P 0.05. Conclusion: Findings from this study show that blood lead level is high among automobile repairers above CDC recommended level for adults. This high blood lead level among automobile repairers may be responsible for raised levels of renal markers which may eventually lead to their renal damage. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(3.000: 1107-1111

  12. Comments on: High fat intake leads to acute postprandial exposure to circulating endotoxin in type 2 diabetic subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Yu Vorotnikova

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Comments on: Harte AL, Varma MC, Tripathi G, McGee KC, Al-Daghri NM, Al-Attas OS, Sabico S, O'Hare JP, Ceriello A, Saravanan P, Kumar S, McTernan PG. High fat intake leads to acute postprandial exposure to circulating endotoxin in type 2 diabetic subjects. Diabetes Care. 2012 Feb; 35(2: 375-82

  13. Developmental immunotoxicology of lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The heavy metal, lead, is a known developmental immunotoxicant that has been shown to produce immune alterations in humans as well as other species. Unlike many compounds that exert adverse immune effects, lead exposure at low to moderate levels does not produce widespread loss of immune cells. In contrast, changes resulting from lead exposure are subtle at the immune cell population level but, nevertheless, can be functionally dramatic. A hallmark of lead-induced immunotoxicity is a pronounced shift in the balance in T helper cell function toward T helper 2 responses at the expense of T helper 1 functions. This bias alters the nature and range of immune responses that can be produced thereby influencing host susceptibility to various diseases. Immunotoxic responses to lead appear to differ across life stages not only quantitatively with regard to dose response, but also qualitatively in terms of the spectrum of immune alterations. Experimental studies in several lab animal species suggest the latter stages of gestation are a period of considerable sensitivity for lead-induced immunotoxicity. This review describes the basic characteristics of lead-induced immunotoxicity emphasizing experimental animal results. It also provides a framework for the consideration of toxicant exposure effects across life stages. The existence of and probable basis for developmental windows of immune hyper-susceptibility are presented. Finally, the potential for lead to serve as a perinatal risk factor for childhood asthma as well as other diseases is considered

  14. Trends in preschool lead exposure, mental retardation, and scholastic achievement: association or causation?

    OpenAIRE

    Nevin, Rick

    2008-01-01

    This study shows that 1936-1990 preschool blood lead trends explain 65% of the 1948-2001 variation in USA mental retardation (MR) prevalence, 45% of the 1953-2003 variation in the average Scholastic Achievement Test (SAT) verbal score, and 65% of the 1953-2003 variation in the average SAT math score. These temporal relationships are characterized by best-fit time lags (highest R2 and t-value for blood lead) consistent with lead-induced cognitive damage in the first year of life: A 12-year la...

  15. How lead exposure relates to temporal changes in IQ, violent crime, and unwed pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Nevin, Rick

    1999-01-01

    This study compares changes in children’s blood lead levels in the United States with subsequent changes in IQ, based on norm comparisons for the Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT) given to representative national samples of children in 1984 and 1992. The CogAT norm comparisons indicate shifts in IQ levels consistent with the blood lead to IQ relationship reported by an earlier study and population shifts in average blood lead for children under age six between 1976 and 1991. The CogAT norm com...

  16. Spices as a source of lead exposure: a market-basket survey in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senanayake, M P; Perera, R; Liyanaarachchi, L A; Dassanayake, M P

    2013-12-01

    We performed a laboratory analysis of spices sold in Sri Lanka for lead content. Samples of curry powder, chili powder and turmeric powder from seven provinces, collected using the market basket survey method, underwent atomic absorption spectrometry. Blanks and standards were utilised for instrument calibration and measurement accuracy. The results were validated in two different laboratories. All samples were found to have lead levels below the US Food and Drug Administration's action level of 0.5 μg/g. Spices sold in Sri Lanka contain lead concentrations that are low and within the stipulated safety standards.

  17. Inverse association of intellectual function with very low blood lead but not with manganese exposure in Italian adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Pediatric lead (Pb) exposure impacts cognitive function and behavior and co-exposure to manganese (Mn) may enhance neurotoxicity. Objectives: To assess cognitive and behavioral function in adolescents with environmental exposure to Pb and Mn. Methods: In this cross sectional study, cognitive function and behavior were examined in healthy adolescents with environmental exposure to metals. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) and the Conners-Wells’ Adolescent Self-Report Scale Long Form (CASS:L) were used to assess cognitive and behavioral function, respectively. ALAD polymorphisms rs1800435 and rs1139488 were measured as potential modifiers. Results: We examined 299 adolescents (49.2% females) aged 11–14 years. Blood lead (BPb) averaged 1.71 μg/dL (median 1.5, range 0.44–10.2), mean Blood Manganese (BMn) was 11.1 μg/dL (median 10.9, range 4.00–24.1). Average total IQ was 106.3 (verbal IQ=102, performance IQ=109.3). According to a multiple regression model considering the effect of other covariates, a reduction of about 2.4 IQ points resulted from a two-fold increase of BPb. The Benchmark Level of BPb associated with a loss of 1 IQ-point (BML01) was 0.19 μg/dL, with a lower 95% confidence limit (BMLL01) of 0.11 μg/dL. A very weak correlation resulted between BPb and the ADHD-like behavior (Kendall's tau rank correlation=0.074, p=0.07). No influence of ALAD genotype was observed on any outcome. Manganese was not associated with cognitive and behavioral outcomes, nor was there any interaction with lead. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that very low level of lead exposure has a significant negative impact on cognitive function in adolescent children. Being an essential micro-nutrient, manganese may not cause cognitive effects at these low exposure levels.

  18. Inverse association of intellectual function with very low blood lead but not with manganese exposure in Italian adolescents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucchini, Roberto G., E-mail: lucchini@med.unibs.it [Department of Preventive Medicine, Mount Sinai School of Medicine, NY (United States); Section of Occupational Medicine, University of Brescia, P.le Spedali Civili 1, 25123 Brescia (Italy); Zoni, Silvia [Section of Occupational Medicine, University of Brescia, P.le Spedali Civili 1, 25123 Brescia (Italy); Guazzetti, Stefano [Public Health Service, Reggio Emilia (Italy); Bontempi, Elza [INSTM and Chemistry for Technologies Laboratory, University of Brescia (Italy); Micheletti, Serena [Cognition Psychology Neuroscience lab., University of Pavia and Unit of Child Neurology and Psychiatry, Civil Hospital of Brescia (Italy); Broberg, Karin [Division of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Lund University (Sweden); Parrinello, Giovanni [Statistics and Biometry, University of Brescia (Italy); Smith, Donald R. [Microbiology and Environmental Toxicology, University of California at Santa Cruz (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Background: Pediatric lead (Pb) exposure impacts cognitive function and behavior and co-exposure to manganese (Mn) may enhance neurotoxicity. Objectives: To assess cognitive and behavioral function in adolescents with environmental exposure to Pb and Mn. Methods: In this cross sectional study, cognitive function and behavior were examined in healthy adolescents with environmental exposure to metals. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) and the Conners-Wells' Adolescent Self-Report Scale Long Form (CASS:L) were used to assess cognitive and behavioral function, respectively. ALAD polymorphisms rs1800435 and rs1139488 were measured as potential modifiers. Results: We examined 299 adolescents (49.2% females) aged 11-14 years. Blood lead (BPb) averaged 1.71 {mu}g/dL (median 1.5, range 0.44-10.2), mean Blood Manganese (BMn) was 11.1 {mu}g/dL (median 10.9, range 4.00-24.1). Average total IQ was 106.3 (verbal IQ=102, performance IQ=109.3). According to a multiple regression model considering the effect of other covariates, a reduction of about 2.4 IQ points resulted from a two-fold increase of BPb. The Benchmark Level of BPb associated with a loss of 1 IQ-point (BML01) was 0.19 {mu}g/dL, with a lower 95% confidence limit (BMLL01) of 0.11 {mu}g/dL. A very weak correlation resulted between BPb and the ADHD-like behavior (Kendall's tau rank correlation=0.074, p=0.07). No influence of ALAD genotype was observed on any outcome. Manganese was not associated with cognitive and behavioral outcomes, nor was there any interaction with lead. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that very low level of lead exposure has a significant negative impact on cognitive function in adolescent children. Being an essential micro-nutrient, manganese may not cause cognitive effects at these low exposure levels.

  19. Spatial Positioning of RET and H4 Following Radiation Exposure Leads to Tumor Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri E. Nikiforov

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to ionizing radiation is a well-known risk factor for a number of human cancers, including leukemia, thyroid cancer, soft tissue sarcomas, and many others. Although it has been known for a long time that radiation exposure to the cell results in extensive DNA damage, including double strand DNA breaks, the exact mechanisms of radiation-induced carcinogenesis remain unknown. Recently, a large increase in incidence of thyroid cancer was observed in children exposed to radiation after the Chernobyl nuclear accident [1]. A high prevalence of chromosomal rearrangements involving the RET gene was found among these radiation-induced thyroid tumors [2,3]. As a result of such rearrangement, a portion of the RET gene is fused with another gene, typically with the H4 or ELE1. However, since the DNA targets of ionizing radiation are randomly distributed throughout the cell nucleus, the reason for predilection for the RET rearrangements in thyroid cells was unclear.

  20. Waterfowl Lead Exposure Data in Alaska and Russia, 1993-1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set identifies lead levels found in blood of waterfowl sampled in Russia and Alaska during 1993-1999. This data set includes information on the species,...

  1. PRENATAL ETHANOL EXPOSURE LEADS TO GREATER ETHANOL-INDUCED APPETITIVE REINFORCEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo M. Pautassi; Nizhnikov, Michael E.; Norman E. Spear; Molina, Juan C.

    2012-01-01

    Prenatal ethanol significantly heightens later alcohol consumption, but the mechanisms that underlie this phenomenon are poorly understood. Little is known about the basis of this effect of prenatal ethanol on the sensitivity to ethanol’s reinforcing effects. One possibility is that prenatal ethanol exposure makes subjects more sensitive to the appetitive effects of ethanol or less sensitive to ethanol’s aversive consequences. The present study assessed ethanol-induced second-order conditione...

  2. Grit selection in waterfowl and how it determines exposure to ingested lead shot in Mediterranean wetlands

    OpenAIRE

    Figuerola, Jordi; Mateo, Rafael; Green, Andy J.; Mondain-Monval, J. Y.; Lefranc, H.; Mentaberre, Gregorio

    2005-01-01

    Waterfowl ingest lead shot because they confuse it with grit, but there has been limited study of differences among species and locations. The spatial and interspecific variation in the quantity and size composition of ingested grit and in the ingestion of lead shot by eight waterfowl species in the three main wintering areas in the western Mediterranean (Do˜nana, Ebro Delta and Camargue) was investigated. Variation in the mass of grit in the gizzard was r...

  3. Exposure of the mouse perinatal testis to radiation leads to hypospermia at sexual maturity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forand, A.; Messiaen, S.; Habert, R.; Bernardino-Sgherri, J. [Laboratory of Differentiation and Radiobiology of the Gonads, CEA, DSV, iRCM, SCSR, Fontenay aux Roses F-92265 (France); Unit of Gametogenesis and Genotoxicity, Universite Paris 7 Denis Diderot, Fontenay aux Roses F-92265 (France); INSERM, U566, Fontenay aux Roses F-92265 (France)

    2009-07-01

    The first round of mouse spermatogenesis begins from 3 to 4 days after birth through differentiation of gonocytes into spermatogonial-stem cells and type A spermatogonia. Consequently, this step of differentiation may determine generation of the original population of stem cells and the fertility potential of the adult mouse. We aimed to determine the effect of perinatal exposure to ionizing radiation on the testis at the end of the first wave of spermatogenesis and at sexual maturity. Our results show that, radiation sensitivity of the testis substantially decreases from late foetal life to the end of the first week after birth. In addition, partial or full recovery from radiation induced testicular weight loss occurred between the first round of spermatogenesis and sexual maturity, and this was associated with the stimulation of spermatogonial proliferation. Exposure of mice at 17.5 days after conception or at 1 day after birth to {gamma}-rays decreased the sperm counts at sexual maturity, while exposure of 8 day-old mice had no effect. This suggests that irradiation of late foetal or early neonatal testes has a direct impact on the generation of the neonatal spermatogonial-stem cell pool. (authors)

  4. Maternal nicotine exposure leads to higher liver oxidative stress and steatosis in adult rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, E P; Peixoto-Silva, N; Pinheiro, C R; Oliveira, E; Moura, E G; Lisboa, P C

    2015-04-01

    Early nicotine exposure causes future obesity and insulin resistance. We evaluated the long-term effect of the maternal nicotine exposure during lactation in liver oxidative status, insulin sensitivity and morphology in adult offspring. Two days after birth, osmotic minipumps were implanted in the dams: nicotine (N), 6 mg/kg/day for 14 days or saline (C). Offspring were killed at 180 days. Protein content of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, nitrotyrosine, 4HNE, IRS1, Akt1 and PPARs were measured. MDA, bound protein carbonyl content, SOD, GPx and catalase activities were determined in liver and plasma. Hepatic morphology and triglycerides content were evaluated. Albumin and bilirubin were determined. In plasma, N offspring had higher catalase activity, and SOD/GPx ratio, albumin and bilirubin levels but lower MDA content. In liver, they presented higher MDA and 4HNE levels, bound protein carbonyl content, SOD activity but lower GPx activity. N offspring presented an increase of lipid droplet, higher triglyceride content and a trend to lower PPARα in liver despite unchanged insulin signaling pathway. Early nicotine exposure causes oxidative stress in liver at adulthood, while protect against oxidative stress at plasma level. In addition, N offspring develop liver microsteatosis, which is related to oxidative stress but not to insulin resistance. PMID:25662863

  5. Exposure of the mouse perinatal testis to radiation leads to hypospermia at sexual maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forand, A; Messiaen, S; Habert, R; Bernardino-Sgherri, J

    2009-03-01

    The first round of mouse spermatogenesis begins from 3 to 4 days after birth through differentiation of gonocytes into spermatogonial-stem cells and type A spermatogonia. Consequently, this step of differentiation may determine generation of the original population of stem cells and the fertility potential of the adult mouse. We aimed to determine the effect of perinatal exposure to ionizing radiation on the testis at the end of the first wave of spermatogenesis and at sexual maturity. Our results show that, radiation sensitivity of the testis substantially decreases from late foetal life to the end of the first week after birth. In addition, partial or full recovery from radiation induced testicular weight loss occurred between the first round of spermatogenesis and sexual maturity, and this was associated with the stimulation of spermatogonial proliferation. Exposure of mice at 17.5 days after conception or at 1 day after birth to gamma-rays decreased the sperm counts at sexual maturity, while exposure of 8 day-old mice had no effect. This suggests that irradiation of late foetal or early neonatal testes has a direct impact on the generation of the neonatal spermatogonial-stem cell pool. PMID:19109333

  6. The relationship between difficulties in psychological adjustment in young adulthood and exposure to bullying behaviour in childhood and adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Kristina Sesar; Marijana Barišić; Maja Pandža; Arta Dodaj

    2012-01-01

    Objective. This study investigates the relationship between involvement in bullying in childhood and adolescence and psychological difficulties in young adulthood. Materials and method. A total of 249college students completed the Retrospective Bullying Questionnaireand Trauma Symptom Checklist. Results. The results showed significantdifferences in psychological adjustment among respondents whowere exposed to bullying compared to respondents who were not exposedto bullying. Those exposed to b...

  7. Child Sexual Abuse and Women's Sexual Health: The Contribution of CSA Severity and Exposure to Multiple Forms of Childhood Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacelle, Celine; Hebert, Martine; Lavoie, Francine; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    Research studies have provided increasing evidence for the potential adverse impact of child sexual abuse on women's sexual health. The present study examined the association between child sexual abuse and sexual health while controlling for various forms of childhood victimization. Self-report questionnaires were administered to 889 young women…

  8. Exposición infantil al plomo en sitios contaminados Children exposure to lead in contaminated sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogelio Flores-Ramírez

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar el grado de la exposición infantil al plomo en diversos tipos de sitios contaminados. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: El estudio se realizó de junio 2008 a diciembre 2009 en cuatro sitios de México: metalúrgica de Ávalos, Chihuahua.; metalúrgica de Morales, San Luis Potosí (SLP; zona alfarera en La Trinidad, Tlaxcala, y sitio minero en Cedral, SLP. Se cuantificó plomo en polvo y se realizó un biomonitoreo humano en niños de la comunidad. RESULTADOS: Los valores obtenidos de plomo en polvo exterior superaron el límite establecido de 400 mg/kg para suelos residenciales en un intervalo de valores para los cuatro sitios de 62 a 5 187 mg/kg. En cuanto al monitoreo biológico, todas las poblaciones presentaron valores extremos, desde los 22 µg/dL en Cedral, 31 µg/dL en Morales, y 32 µg/dL en Ávalos, hasta los 52 µg/dL en La Trinidad. Es importante señalar que encontramos una correlación positiva y significativa entre los valores de plomo en polvo y plomo en sangre en todos los sitios de estudio (pOBJECTIVE: To assess the exposure to lead in children living in various types of contaminated sites. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted from June 2008 to December 2009 at four sites in Mexico: Avalos metallurgical, Chihuahua; Morales metallurgical, San Luis Potosí (SLP; Trinidad pottery area, Tlaxcala and Cedral mine site, SLP. These sites contain different sources of lead. The metal levels were quantified in outdoor dust and in peripheral blood of children. RESULTS: Lead dust concentrations exceed the National Guidelines for residential soils (400 mg/kg in a range of values for the four sites from 62 to 5 187 mg/kg. Regarding biological monitoring, the studied children showed maximum lead blood levels of 22 µg/dL in Cedral, 31 µg/dL in Morales, 32 µg/dL in Avalos, and 52 µg/dL in Trinidad. It is important to mention that in all the studied sites, a significative positive correlation was found between blood lead

  9. Addressing and Assessing Lead Threats in Drinking Water: Non-Leaded Brass, Product Testing, Particulate Lead Occurrence and Effects of the Chloride to Sulfate Mass Ratio on Corrosion

    OpenAIRE

    Triantafyllidou, Simoni

    2006-01-01

    Growing concern over adverse health effects from low level lead exposure motivated reassessment of lead occurrence in drinking water, from the perspective of 1) possibly eliminating lead from new brass materials, and 2) performance testing of existing products. During the course of this thesis work, it was discovered that several cases of childhood lead poisoning in North Carolina, South Carolina and Washington D.C. occurred from contaminated potable water. That disconcerting finding prompt...

  10. Lead Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in children over time may lead to reduced IQ, slow learning, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), or ... avoid exposure to soil. Is there a medical test for lead exposure? • Blood samples can be tested ...

  11. Influence of bicarbonate and humic acid on effects of chronic waterborne lead exposure to the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mager, Edward M; Brix, Kevin V; Grosell, Martin

    2010-01-31

    Historically, the USEPA has only considered water hardness when establishing acute and chronic water quality criteria (WQC) for lead (Pb) in freshwater. Yet, recent evidence suggests that hardness may not be protective during chronic Pb exposure and that other factors (e.g., dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and alkalinity) influence toxicity. In fact, we have recently shown that Ca(2+) (as CaSO(4)) does not protect against Pb accumulation in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) during chronic exposures whereas DOC as humic acid (HA) clearly does. To more clearly define the water chemistry parameters mediating chronic Pb toxicity we carried out 300 d exposures to study the influence of DOC and alkalinity on Pb accumulation and toxicity to fathead minnows at 2 different Pb concentrations (170 and 580 nM (35 and 120 microg/L)). Alkalinity was adjusted by addition of 500 microM NaHCO(3) and DOC by addition of 4 mg/L HA. Fish were collected at 4, 30, 150 and 300 d of exposure to measure growth and Pb accumulation. Breeding assays (21 d) were performed at the end of these exposures to assess reproductive and larval behavioral endpoints. To determine whether effects were acute or chronic, switched breeding exposures were performed in which control breeders were transferred to either high or low Pb conditions and Pb-exposed breeders transferred to tap water without Pb. Mortality and growth effects were observed primarily in the high Pb treatments and within the first 10 d of exposure. Strong protection against Pb accumulation was afforded by increased DOC at both Pb concentrations. Increased alkalinity also appeared to moderately reduce Pb accumulation although not to the level of statistical significance. Tissue distribution of Pb was analyzed at 300 d and was found to accumulate mostly in bone, gill, intestine and kidney. Unexpectedly, high Pb reduced total reproductive output and increased average egg mass in the HCO(3)(-) and DOC treatments but not in the control water

  12. Pesticides and childhood cancers.

    OpenAIRE

    Daniels, J L; Olshan, A.F.; Savitz, D A

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the possible association between pesticides and the risk of childhood cancers, epidemiologic studies published between 1970 and 1996 were critically reviewed. Thirty-one studies investigated whether occupational or residential exposure to pesticides by either parents or children was related to increased risk of childhood cancer. In general, the reported relative risk estimates were modest. Risk estimates appeared to be stronger when pesticide exposure was measured in more detail. ...

  13. Noninvasive Biomonitoring Approaches to Determine Dosimetry and Risk Following Acute Chemical Exposure: Analysis of Lead or Organophosphate Insecticide in Saliva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a need to develop approaches for assessing risk associated with acute exposures to a broad-range of chemical agents and to rapidly determine the potential implications to human health. Non-invasive biomonitoring approaches are being developed using reliable portable analytical systems to quantitate dosimetry utilizing readily obtainable body fluids, such as saliva. Saliva has been used to evaluate a broad range of biomarkers, drugs, and environmental contaminants including heavy metals and pesticides. To advance the application of non-invasive biomonitoring a microfluidic/ electrochemical device has also been developed for the analysis of lead (Pb), using square wave anodic stripping voltammetry. The system demonstrates a linear response over a broad concentration range (1 2000 ppb) and is capable of quantitating saliva Pb in rats orally administered acute doses of Pb-acetate. Appropriate pharmacokinetic analyses have been used to quantitate systemic dosimetry based on determination of saliva Pb concentrations. In addition, saliva has recently been used to quantitate dosimetry following exposure to the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos in a rodent model system by measuring the major metabolite, trichloropyridinol, and saliva cholinesterase inhibition following acute exposures. These results suggest that technology developed for non-invasive biomonitoring can provide a sensitive, and portable analytical tool capable of assessing exposure and risk in real-time. By coupling these non-invasive technologies with pharmacokinetic modeling it is feasible to rapidly quantitate acute exposure to a broad range of chemical agents. In summary, it is envisioned that once fully developed, these monitoring and modeling approaches will be useful for accessing acute exposure and health risk

  14. Embryonic Ethanol Exposure Dysregulates BMP and Notch Signaling, Leading to Persistent Atrio-Ventricular Valve Defects in Zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmah, Swapnalee; Muralidharan, Pooja; Marrs, James A

    2016-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), birth defects associated with ethanol exposure in utero, includes a wide spectrum of congenital heart defects (CHDs), the most prevalent of which are septal and conotruncal defects. Zebrafish FASD model was used to dissect the mechanisms underlying FASD-associated CHDs. Embryonic ethanol exposure (3-24 hours post fertilization) led to defects in atrio-ventricular (AV) valvulogenesis beginning around 37 hpf, a morphogenetic event that arises long after ethanol withdrawal. Valve leaflets of the control embryos comprised two layers of cells confined at the compact atrio-ventricular canal (AVC). Ethanol treated embryos had extended AVC and valve forming cells were found either as rows of cells spanning the AVC or as unorganized clusters near the AV boundary. Ethanol exposure reduced valve precursors at the AVC, but some ventricular cells in ethanol treated embryos exhibited few characteristics of valve precursors. Late staged larvae and juvenile fish exposed to ethanol during embryonic development had faulty AV valves. Examination of AVC morphogenesis regulatory networks revealed that early ethanol exposure disrupted the Bmp signaling gradient in the heart during valve formation. Bmp signaling was prominent at the AVC in controls, but ethanol-exposed embryos displayed active Bmp signaling throughout the ventricle. Ethanol exposure also led to mislocalization of Notch signaling cells in endocardium during AV valve formation. Normally, highly active Notch signaling cells were organized at the AVC. In ethanol-exposed embryos, highly active Notch signaling cells were dispersed throughout the ventricle. At later stages, ethanol-exposed embryos exhibited reduced Wnt/β-catenin activity at the AVC. We conclude that early embryonic ethanol exposure alters Bmp, Notch and other signaling activities during AVC differentiation leading to faulty valve morphogenesis and valve defects persist in juvenile fish. PMID:27556898

  15. Environmental Exposure to Arsenic, Lead, and Cadmium in People Living near Janghang Copper Smelter in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Yong-Dae; Eom, Sang-Yong; Yim, Dong-Hyuk; Kim, In-Soo; Won, Hee-Kwan; Park, Choong-Hee; Kim, Guen-Bae; Yu, Seung-Do; Choi, Byung-Sun; Park, Jung-Duck; Kim, Heon

    2016-01-01

    Concentrations of heavy metals exceed safety thresholds in the soil near Janghang Copper Refinery, a smelter in Korea that operated from 1936 to 1989. This study was conducted to evaluate the level of exposure to toxic metals and the potential effect on health in people living near the smelter. The study included 572 adults living within 4 km of the smelter and compared them with 413 controls group of people living similar lifestyles in a rural area approximately 15 km from the smelter. Urina...

  16. Low-level lead exposure and children's IQ: A meta-analysis and search for a threshold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, J. (Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA (United States))

    1994-04-01

    To assess the strength of the association between blood lead and children's IQ, a meta-analysis of the studies examining the relationship in school age children was performed. Emphasis was given to the size of the effect, since that allow comparisons that are informative about potential confounding and effect modifiers. Sensitivity analyses were also performed. A highly significant association was found between lead exposure and children's IQ (P < 0.001). An increase in blood lead from 10 to 20 [mu]g/dl was associated with a decrease of 2.6 IQ points in the meta-analysis. This result was robust to inclusion or exclusion of the strongest individual studies and to relaxing the age requirements (school age children) of the meta-analysis. Adding eight studies with effect estimates of O would still leave a significant association with blood lead (P < 0.01). There was no evidence that the effect was limited to disadvantaged children and there was a suggestion of the opposite. The studies with mean blood lead levels of 15 [mu]g/dl or lower in their sample had higher estimated blood lead slopes, suggesting that a threshold at 10 [mu]g/dl is implausible. The study with the lowest mean blood lead level was examined using nonparametric smoothing. It showed no evidence of a threshold down to blood lead concentrations of 1 [mu]g/dl. Lead interferes with GABAergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission. It has been shown to bind to the NMDA receptor and inhibit long-term potentiation in the hippocampal region of the brain. Moreover, experimental studies have demonstrated that blood levels of 10 [mu]g/dl interfere with a broad range of cognitive function in primates. Given this support, these associations in humans should be considered causal. 32 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Chronic arsenic trioxide exposure leads to enhanced aggressiveness via Met oncogene addiction in cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryeziu, Kushtrim; Pirker, Christine; Englinger, Bernhard; van Schoonhoven, Sushilla; Spitzwieser, Melanie; Mohr, Thomas; Körner, Wilfried; Weinmüllner, Regina; Tav, Koray; Grillari, Johannes; Cichna-Markl, Margit; Berger, Walter; Heffeter, Petra

    2016-01-01

    As an environmental poison, arsenic is responsible for many cancer deaths. Paradoxically, arsenic trioxide (ATO) presents also a powerful therapy used to treat refractory acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) and is intensively investigated for treatment of other cancer types. Noteworthy, cancer therapy is frequently hampered by drug resistance, which is also often associated with enhancement of tumor aggressiveness. In this study, we analyzed ATO-selected cancer cells (A2780ATO) for the mechanisms underlying their enhanced tumorigenicity and aggressiveness. These cells were characterized by enhanced proliferation and spheroid growth as well as increased tumorigenicity of xenografts in SCID mice. Noteworthy, subsequent studies revealed that overexpression of Met receptor was the underlying oncogenic driver of these effects, as A2780ATO cells were characterized by collateral sensitivity against Met inhibitors. This finding was also confirmed by array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) and whole genome gene expression arrays, which revealed that Met overexpression by chronic ATO exposure was based on the transcriptional regulation via activation of AP-1. Finally, it was shown that treatment with the Met inhibitor crizotinib was also effective against A2780ATO cell xenografts in vivo, indicating that targeting of Met presents a promising strategy for the treatment of Met-overexpressing tumors after either arsenic exposure or failure to ATO treatment. PMID:27036042

  18. Metabolic responses of clams, Ruditapes decussatus and Ruditapes philippinarum, to short-term exposure to lead and zinc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aru, Violetta; Sarais, Giorgia; Savorani, Francesco; Engelsen, Søren Balling; Cesare Marincola, Flaminia

    2016-06-15

    This study investigated the effects of 48h heavy metal exposure upon the metabolic profiles of Ruditapes decussatus and Ruditapes philippinarum using (1)H NMR metabolomics. Both species were exposed to increasing concentrations of lead nitrate (10, 40, 60 and 100μg/L) and zinc chloride (20, 50, 100 and 150μg/L), under laboratory conditions. ICP-OES analysis was further performed on the clams' samples in order to verify the occurrence of heavy metal bioaccumulation. With respect to the controls, the metabolic profiles of treated R. decussatus exhibited higher levels of organic osmolytes and lower contents of free amino acids. An opposite behavior was shown by R. philippinarum. In terms of heavy metal, the exposure effects were more evident in the case of Pb rather than Zn. These findings show that NMR-based metabolomics has the required sensitivity and specificity for the identification of metabolites that can act as sensitive indicators of contaminant-induced stress.

  19. Potential Association of Lead Exposure During Early Development of Mice With Alteration of Hippocampus Nitric Oxide Levels and Learning Memory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI SUN; ZHENG-YAN ZHAO; JIAN HU; XIE-LAI ZHOU

    2005-01-01

    Objective Chronic lead (Pb) exposure during development is known to produce learning deficits. Nitric oxide participates in the synaptic mechanisms involved in certain forms of learning and memory. This study was designed to clarify whether Pb-induced impairment in learning and memory was associated with the changes of nitric oxide levels in mice brains.Methods Sixty Balb/c mice aged 10 days were chosen. A model of lead exposure was established by drinking 0.025%, 0.05%,0.075% lead acetate, respectively for 8 weeks. The controls were orally given distilled water. The ability to learn and memorize was examined by open field test, T-water maze test. In parallel with the behavioral data, NO level of hippocampus tissue was detected by biochemical assay. Results Compared with control groups, (1) the weight of 0.075% group was significantly reduced (P<0.05); (2) The number of times in mice attaining the required standards in T-water maze test was lower in 0.075%group (P<0.01). No significant difference was found between experimental and control groups in open field test (P>0.05); (3)NO level of mouse hippocampus tissue was decreased in 0.075% group (P<0.01). Conclusions The findings suggest that decreased hippocampus NO level may contribute to the Pb-induced deficits in learning and memory processes.

  20. Chronic Cadmium Exposure Lead to Inhibition of Serum and Hepatic Alkaline Phosphatase Activity in Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treviño, Samuel; Andrade-García, Alejandra; Herrera Camacho, Irma; León-Chavez, Bertha Alicia; Aguilar-Alonso, Patricia; Flores, Gonzalo; Brambila, Eduardo

    2015-12-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in the serum and liver from rats administered with cadmium (Cd) in drinking water was studied. After metal administration, Cd showed a time-dependent accumulation in the liver, meanwhile metallothionein had a maximum increase at 1 month, remaining in this level until the end of the study. On the other hand, serum and liver ALP activity was decreased after 3 months exposure. To determine if Cd produced an inhibition on enzyme, apo-ALP prepared from both nonexposed and exposed rats was reactivated with Zn, showing 60% more activity as compared with the enzyme isolated from nonexposed rats. In vitro assays showed that Cd-ALP was partially reactivated with Zn; however, in the presence of cadmium, Zn-ALP was completely inhibited. Kinetic studies indicate a noncompetitive inhibition by Cd; these results suggest that Cd can substitute Zn, and/or Cd can interact with nucleophilic ligands essential for the enzymatic activity.

  1. Neonatal exposure to LPS leads to heightened exploratory activity in adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, Javier Leonardo Rodríguez; Ferraz, Denise Brufato; Ramalho-Pinto, Francisco Juarez; Morato, Silvio

    2010-12-20

    Although several reports have demonstrated physiological and behavioral changes in adult rats due to neonatal immune challenges, little is known about their effects in adolescence. Since neonatal exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) alters the neural substrates involved in cognitive disorders, we tested the hypothesis that it may also alter the response to novel environments in adolescent rats. At 3 and 5 days of age, male Wistar rats received intraperitoneal injections of either vehicle solution or E. coli LPS (0.05mg/kg) or were left undisturbed. In the mid-adolescent period, between 40 and 46 days of age, the rats were exposed to the following behavioral tests: elevated plus-maze, open-field, novel-object exploration task, hole-board and the modified Porsolt forced swim test. The results showed that, in comparison with control animals, LPS-treated rats exhibited (1) less anxiety-related behaviors and enhanced patterns of locomotion and rearing in the plus-maze and the open-field tests, (2) high levels of exploration of both objects in the novel-object task and of corner and central holes in hole-board test, and (3) more time spent diving, an active behavior in the forced swim test. The present findings suggest that neonatal LPS exposure has long-lasting effects on the behavior profile adolescent rats exhibit in response to novelty. This behavioral pattern, characterized by heightened exploratory activity in novel environments, also suggests that early immune stimulation may contribute to the development of impulsive behavior in adolescent rats.

  2. Prenatal ethanol exposure leads to greater ethanol-induced appetitive reinforcement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pautassi, Ricardo M; Nizhnikov, Michael E; Spear, Norman E; Molina, Juan C

    2012-09-01

    Prenatal ethanol significantly heightens later alcohol consumption, but the mechanisms that underlie this phenomenon are poorly understood. Little is known about the basis of 'this effect of prenatal ethanol on the sensitivity to ethanol's reinforcing effects. One possibility is that prenatal ethanol exposure makes subjects more sensitive to the appetitive effects of ethanol or less sensitive to ethanol's aversive consequences. The present study assessed ethanol-induced second-order conditioned place preference (CPP) and aversion and ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA) in infant rats prenatally exposed to ethanol (2.0 g/kg) or vehicle (water) or left untreated. The involvement of the κ opioid receptor system in ethanol-induced CTA was also explored. When place conditioning occurred during the ascending limb of the blood-ethanol curve (Experiment 1), the pups exposed to ethanol in utero exhibited greater CPP than untreated controls, with a shift to the right of the dose-response curve. Conditioning during a later phase of intoxication (30-45 min post-administration; Experiment 2) resulted in place aversion in control pups exposed to vehicle during late gestation but not in pups that were exposed to ethanol in utero. Ethanol induced a reliable and similar CTA (Experiment 3) in the pups treated with vehicle or ethanol during gestation, and CTA was insensitive to κ antagonism. These results suggest that brief exposure to a moderate ethanol dose during late gestation promotes ethanol-mediated reinforcement and alters the expression of conditioned aversion by ethanol. This shift in the motivational reactivity to ethanol may be an underlying basis of the effect of prenatal ethanol on later ethanol acceptance.

  3. Maternal and fetal exposure to cadmium, lead, manganese and mercury: The MIREC study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbuckle, Tye E; Liang, Chun Lei; Morisset, Anne-Sophie; Fisher, Mandy; Weiler, Hope; Cirtiu, Ciprian Mihai; Legrand, Melissa; Davis, Karelyn; Ettinger, Adrienne S; Fraser, William D

    2016-11-01

    Given the susceptibility of the fetus to toxicants, it is important to estimate their exposure. Approximately 2000 pregnant women were recruited in 2008-2011 from 10 cities across Canada. Cd, Pb, Mn and total Hg were measured in maternal blood from the 1st and 3rd trimesters, umbilical cord blood, and infant meconium. Nutrient intakes of vitamin D, iron, and calcium (Ca) were assessed using a food frequency questionnaire and a dietary supplement questionnaire. Median concentrations in 1st trimester maternal blood (n = 1938) were 0.20, 8.79 and 0.70 μg/L for Cd, Mn and Hg, respectively, and 0.60 μg/dL for Pb. While the median difference between the paired 1st and 3rd trimester concentrations of Cd was 0, there was a significant decrease in Pb (0.04 μg/dL) and Hg (0.12 μg/L) and an increase in Mn (3.30 μg/L) concentrations over the course of the pregnancy. While Cd was rarely detected in cord blood (19%) or meconium (3%), median Pb (0.77 μg/dL), Mn (31.87 μg/L) and Hg (0.80 μg/L) concentrations in cord blood were significantly higher than in maternal blood. Significant negative associations were observed between estimated Ca intake and maternal Cd, Pb, Mn and Hg, as well as cord blood Pb. Vitamin D intake was associated with lower maternal Cd, Pb, and Mn as well as Pb in cord blood. Even at current metal exposure levels, increasing dietary Ca and vitamin D intake during pregnancy may be associated with lower maternal blood Pb and Cd concentrations and lower Pb in cord blood. PMID:27540762

  4. Lead Exposure Impairs Hippocampus Related Learning and Memory by Altering Synaptic Plasticity and Morphology During Juvenile Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Guan, Rui-Li; Liu, Ming-Chao; Shen, Xue-Feng; Chen, Jing Yuan; Zhao, Ming-Gao; Luo, Wen-Jing

    2016-08-01

    Lead (Pb) is an environmental neurotoxic metal. Pb exposure may cause neurobehavioral changes, such as learning and memory impairment, and adolescence violence among children. Previous animal models have largely focused on the effects of Pb exposure during early development (from gestation to lactation period) on neurobehavior. In this study, we exposed Sprague-Dawley rats during the juvenile stage (from juvenile period to adult period). We investigated the synaptic function and structural changes and the relationship of these changes to neurobehavioral deficits in adult rats. Our results showed that juvenile Pb exposure caused fear-conditioned memory impairment and anxiety-like behavior, but locomotion and pain behavior were indistinguishable from the controls. Electrophysiological studies showed that long-term potentiation induction was affected in Pb-exposed rats, and this was probably due to excitatory synaptic transmission impairment in Pb-exposed rats. We found that NMDA and AMPA receptor-mediated current was inhibited, whereas the GABA synaptic transmission was normal in Pb-exposed rats. NR2A and phosphorylated GluR1 expression decreased. Moreover, morphological studies showed that density of dendritic spines declined by about 20 % in the Pb-treated group. The spine showed an immature form in Pb-exposed rats, as indicated by spine size measurements. However, the length and arborization of dendrites were unchanged. Our results suggested that juvenile Pb exposure in rats is associated with alterations in the glutamate receptor, which caused synaptic functional and morphological changes in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons, thereby leading to behavioral changes. PMID:26141123

  5. Honey prevents neurobehavioural deficit and oxidative stress induced by lead acetate exposure in male Wistar rats- a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulmajeed, Wahab Imam; Sulieman, Habeeb Bolakale; Zubayr, Maymunah Oloruntosin; Imam, Aminu; Amin, Abdulbasit; Biliaminu, Sikiru Abayomi; Oyewole, Lukuman Aboyeji; Owoyele, Bamidele Victor

    2016-02-01

    This research sought to investigate the possible neuroprotective effects of honey against lead (Pb)-induced neurotoxicity. Twenty four male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: Control group that received 1 ml/kg distilled orally for 28 days; while groups II-IV received 0.2% lead in drinking water and 1 ml/kg of distilled water, 1 ml/kg of honey, 1.5 ml/kg of honey respectively for 28 days. Anxiety and exploratory activities were determined in the open field test. Memory function was determined using Morris water maze after which the animals were sacrificed. The brains were then excised, homogenized and Lipid peroxidation (MDA), Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase, Glutathione (GSH) and Glutathione -S- Transferase (GST) activities were determined in the brains. Results showed that lead exposure causes decrease in locomotor and exploratory activities; increase anxiety, memory impairment, lipid peroxidation and decrease antioxidant activities. However, co-administration of honey with lead inhibited neurotoxicity as indicated by the improvement in memory function as evidenced by decreased latency period and increased in time spent in target quadrant in honey-fed rats compared to the lead-exposed animals. Furthermore, honey increased locomotion, exploration and decreased anxiety in lead-exposed rats as indicated by the frequency of rearing, freezing duration and the number of line crossed by animals. Also administration of honey improves antioxidant activities as shown by increased brain SOD, GST and GSH activities compared to the lead-treated groups but no significant effect on MDA level. It can be concluded that honey has neuroprotective effects against lead-induced cognitive deficit probably by enhancing antioxidant activities. PMID:26435406

  6. Honey prevents neurobehavioural deficit and oxidative stress induced by lead acetate exposure in male Wistar rats- a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulmajeed, Wahab Imam; Sulieman, Habeeb Bolakale; Zubayr, Maymunah Oloruntosin; Imam, Aminu; Amin, Abdulbasit; Biliaminu, Sikiru Abayomi; Oyewole, Lukuman Aboyeji; Owoyele, Bamidele Victor

    2016-02-01

    This research sought to investigate the possible neuroprotective effects of honey against lead (Pb)-induced neurotoxicity. Twenty four male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: Control group that received 1 ml/kg distilled orally for 28 days; while groups II-IV received 0.2% lead in drinking water and 1 ml/kg of distilled water, 1 ml/kg of honey, 1.5 ml/kg of honey respectively for 28 days. Anxiety and exploratory activities were determined in the open field test. Memory function was determined using Morris water maze after which the animals were sacrificed. The brains were then excised, homogenized and Lipid peroxidation (MDA), Superoxide dismutase (SOD), Catalase, Glutathione (GSH) and Glutathione -S- Transferase (GST) activities were determined in the brains. Results showed that lead exposure causes decrease in locomotor and exploratory activities; increase anxiety, memory impairment, lipid peroxidation and decrease antioxidant activities. However, co-administration of honey with lead inhibited neurotoxicity as indicated by the improvement in memory function as evidenced by decreased latency period and increased in time spent in target quadrant in honey-fed rats compared to the lead-exposed animals. Furthermore, honey increased locomotion, exploration and decreased anxiety in lead-exposed rats as indicated by the frequency of rearing, freezing duration and the number of line crossed by animals. Also administration of honey improves antioxidant activities as shown by increased brain SOD, GST and GSH activities compared to the lead-treated groups but no significant effect on MDA level. It can be concluded that honey has neuroprotective effects against lead-induced cognitive deficit probably by enhancing antioxidant activities.

  7. Non-occupational exposure of Malay women in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, to cadmium and lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, C S; Zhang, Z W; Watanabe, T; Shimbo, S; Ismail, N H; Hashim, J H; Lkeda, M

    1996-01-01

    Abstract Peripheral blood and 24-h total food duplicate samples were obtained from 49 adult Malay women in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, in July, 1995. Samples of boiled and uncooked (raw) rice were also collected from the subjects. The blood samples, homogenates of each food duplicates and rice samples (both cooked and raw) were digested by heating in the presence of mineral acids, and the digests were subjected to analysis for cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) with a system composed of a fully automated liquid sampler, a graphiie furnace atomic absorption spe