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Sample records for childhood kidney tumors

  1. Childhood kidney tumors - the relevance of imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenk, J.-P.; Schrader, C.; Ley, S.; Troeger, J.; Guenther, P.; Furtwaengler, R.; Graf, N.; Leuschner, I.; Edelhaeuser, M.

    2005-01-01

    Kidney tumors represent 6.2% of malignant tumors in children. History, clinical course and radiological findings are necessary elements in the differential diagnosis of the different renal tumors. In the case of nephroblastoma, chemotherapy is based solely on the radiological diagnosis without prior histology. In therapy-optimizing studies of the Society of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology, preoperative chemotherapy is performed. Therapy monitoring is performed in the course of and after preoperative chemotherapy to verify tumor response. Radiological staging plays a significant role in deciding on further treatment and in operative planning. Three-dimensional visualization of the abdominal situs can assist preoperative planning. In summary, diagnostic imaging in renal tumors in children plays a role in differential diagnosis, staging, monitoring of therapy, and surgical planning. (orig.) [de

  2. General Information about Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... through the urethra and leaves the body. Enlarge Anatomy of the female urinary system showing the kidneys, adrenal glands, ureters, bladder, and urethra. Urine is made in the renal tubules and collects in the renal pelvis of ...

  3. Why should survivors of childhood renal tumor and others with only one kidney be denied the chance to play contact sports?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spreafico, Filippo; Terenziani, Monica; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M; Pritchard-Jones, Kathy; Levitt, Gill; Graf, Norbert; Bergeron, Christophe; Massimino, Maura

    2014-04-01

    Over the last few decades advances in the treatment of childhood and young adult cancer have greatly improved survival. As a result most children diagnosed with Wilms' tumor (the most common renal tumor in childhood) or other renal tumors become long-term survivors, living with surgically solitary kidneys. As physical activity is gaining credibility as a therapy enhancing well-being, encouraging cancer survivors do exercise during adolescence and adulthood is advisable. Discussing current evidence-based information would help to provide a framework for the harmonization of guidelines for sport participation of childhood and young adult renal tumor survivors.

  4. Childhood Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain tumors are abnormal growths inside the skull. They are among the most common types of childhood ... still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches and ...

  5. CT findings in adult Wilms' tumor involving both kidneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feijoo, R.; Lasierra, R.; Pina, J.I.; Benito, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    Wilms' tumor is the most common renal neoplasm during childhood, but it rarely presents in adults and even less frequently involves both kidneys at onset. The preoperative diagnosis is difficult, although it should be suspected (despite the low incidence) in cases of renal masses that contain necrotic tissue, calcification or fat. We report the case of a 32-year-old woman who presented with bilateral kidney mass and lung metastases. The patient had never complained of urinary symptoms prior to this finding. (Author) 12 refs

  6. Averting the legacy of kidney disease – focus on childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie R. Ingelfinger

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available World Kidney Day 2016 focuses on kidney disease in childhood and the antecedents of adult kidney disease that can begin in earliest childhood. Chronic kidney disease in childhood differs from that in adults, as the largest diagnostic group among children includes congenital anomalies and inherited disorders, with glomerulopathies and kidney disease in the setting of diabetes being relatively uncommon. In addition, many children with acute kidney injury will ultimately develop sequelae that may lead to hypertension and chronic kidney disease in later childhood or in adult life. Children born early or who are small-for date newborns have relatively increased risk for the development of chronic kidney disease later in life. Persons with a high-risk birth and early childhood history should be watched closely in order to help detect early signs of kidney disease in time to provide effective prevention or treatment. Successful therapy is feasible for advanced chronic kidney disease in childhood; there is evidence that children fare better than adults, if they receive kidney replacement therapy including dialysis and transplantation, while only a minority of children may require this ultimate intervention. Because there are disparities in access to care, effort is needed so that those children with kidney disease, wherever they live, may be treated effectively, irrespective of their geographic or economic circumstances. Our hope is that World Kidney Day will inform the general public, policy makers and caregivers about the needs and possibilities surrounding kidney disease in childhood.

  7. Averting the legacy of kidney disease: focus on childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingelfinger, Julie R; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kamyar; Schaefer, Franz

    2016-01-01

    World Kidney Day 2016 focuses on kidney disease in childhood and the antecedents of adult kidney disease that can begin in earliest childhood. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) in childhood differs from that in adults, as the largest diagnostic group among children includes congenital anomalies and inherited disorders, with glomerulopathies and kidney disease in the setting of diabetes being relatively uncommon. In addition, many children with acute kidney injury will ultimately develop sequelae that may lead to hypertension and CKD in later childhood or in adult life. Children born early or who are small-for date newborns have relatively increased risk for the development of CKD later in life. Persons with a high-risk birth and early childhood history should be watched closely in order to help detect early signs of kidney disease in time to provide effective prevention or treatment. Successful therapy is feasible for advanced CKD in childhood; there is evidence that children fare better than adults, if they receive kidney replacement therapy including dialysis and transplantation, while only a minority of children may require this ultimate intervention. Because there are disparities in access to care, effort is needed so that those children with kidney disease, wherever they live, may be treated effectively, irrespective of their geographic or economic circumstances. Our hope is that World Kidney Day will inform the general public, policy makers and caregivers about the needs and possibilities surrounding kidney disease in childhood. PMID:28031959

  8. Averting the legacy of kidney disease - focus on childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Ingelfinger

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available World Kidney Day 2016 focuses on kidney disease in childhood and the antecedents of adult kidney disease that can begin in earliest childhood. Chronic kidney disease (CKD in childhood differs from that in adults, in that the largest diagnostic group among children includes congenital anomalies and inherited disorders, with glomerulopathies and kidney disease as a consequence of diabetes being relatively uncommon. In addition, many children with acute kidney injury will ultimately develop sequelae that may lead to hypertension and CKD in later childhood or in adult life. Children born early or who are small-for-date newborns have relatively increased risk for the development of CKD later in life. Persons with a high-risk birth and early childhood history should be watched closely in order to help detect early signs of kidney disease in time to provide effective prevention or treatment. Successful therapy is feasible for advanced CKD in childhood; there is evidence that children fare better than adults, if they receive kidney replacement therapy including dialysis and transplantation, although only a minority of children may require this ultimate intervention. Because there are disparities in access to care, effort is needed so that children with kidney disease, wherever they live, may be treated effectively, irrespective of their geographic or economic circumstances. Our hope is that the World Kidney Day will inform the general public, policy makers and caregivers about the needs and possibilities surrounding kidney disease in childhood.

  9. Averting the Legacy of Kidney Disease—Focus on Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie R. Ingelfinger

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available World Kidney Day 2016 focuses on kidney disease in childhood and the antecedents of adult kidney disease that can begin in earliest childhood. Chronic kidney disease (CKD in childhood differs from that in adults, as the largest diagnostic group among children includes congenital anomalies and inherited disorders, with glomerulopathies and kidney disease in the setting of diabetes being relatively uncommon. In addition, many children with acute kidney injury will ultimately develop sequelae that may lead to hypertension and CKD in later childhood or in adult life. Children born early or who are small-for date newborns have relatively increased risk for the development of CKD later in life. Persons with a high-risk birth and early childhood history should be watched closely in order to help detect early signs of kidney disease in time to provide effective prevention or treatment. Successful therapy is feasible for advanced CKD in childhood; there is evidence that children fare better than adults if they receive kidney replacement therapy, including dialysis and transplantation, while only a minority of children may require this ultimate intervention.  Since there are disparities in access to care, effort is needed so that those children with kidney disease, wherever they live, may be treated effectively, irrespective of their geographic or economic circumstances. Our hope is that World Kidney Day will inform the general public, policy makers and caregivers about the needs and possibilities surrounding kidney disease in childhood. “For in every adult there dwells the child that was, and in every child there lies the adult that will be.”—John Connolly, The Book of Lost Things.

  10. A solitary fibrous tumor of the kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuruddha M Abeygunasekera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A solitary fibrous tumor (SFT is an uncommon spindle cell neoplasm that usually occurs in the pleura, but may occur in extrapleural sites. Its occurrence in the kidney is rare. We report a SFT, clinically thought to be a renal cell carcinoma arising in the kidney of a 68-year-old female. The tumor was well-circumscribed and composed of a mixture of spindle cells and dense collagenous bands. Immunohistochemical studies revealed reactivity for CD34, CD99, and Bcl-2 protein, with no staining for keratin or muscle markers, confirming the diagnosis. The immunohistochemical study was the key to diagnosis. Several younger members of her family had colorectal and lung cancers suggesting the possibility of a familial or genetic susceptibility.

  11. Kidney cancer progression linked to shifts in tumor metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Investigators in The Cancer Genome Atlas Research Network have uncovered a connection between how tumor cells use energy from metabolic processes and the aggressiveness of the most common form of kidney cancer, clear cell renal cell carcinoma.

  12. Childhood Laryngeal Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood laryngeal (throat) tumors are tumors of the larynx (voice box). They can be benign (papillomatosis) or cancer. Treatment depends on the type of cell the cancer grew from. Get information about the symptoms, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of newly diagnosed and recurrent childhood laryngeal tumors in this expert-reviewed summary.

  13. Risk of a Second Kidney Carcinoma Following Childhood Cancer: Role of Chemotherapy and Radiation Dose to Kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vathaire, Florent; Scwhartz, Boris; El-Fayech, Chiraz; Allodji, Rodrigue Sètchéou; Escudier, Bernard; Hawkins, Mike; Diallo, Ibrahima; Haddy, Nadia

    2015-11-01

    Kidney carcinoma is a rare second malignancy following childhood cancer. We sought to quantify risk and assess risk factors for kidney carcinoma following treatment for childhood cancer. We evaluated a cohort of 4,350 patients who were 5-year cancer survivors and had been treated for cancer as children in France and the United Kingdom. Patients were treated between 1943 and 1985, and were followed for an average of 27 years. Radiation dose to the kidneys during treatment was estimated with dedicated software, regardless of the site of childhood cancer. Kidney carcinoma developed in 13 patients. The cumulative incidence of kidney carcinoma was 0.62% (95% CI 0.27%-1.45%) at 40 years after diagnosis, which was 13.3-fold higher (95% CI 7.1-22.3) than in the general population. The absolute excess risk strongly increased with longer duration of followup (p kidney carcinoma was 5.7-fold higher (95% CI 1.4-14.7) if radiotherapy was not performed or less than 1 Gy had been absorbed by the kidney but 66.3-fold higher (95% CI 23.8-142.5) if the radiation dose to the kidneys was 10 to 19 Gy and 14.5-fold higher (95% CI 0.8-63.9) for larger radiation doses to the kidney. Treatment with chemotherapy increased the risk of kidney carcinoma (RR 5.1, 95% CI 1.1-22.7) but we were unable to identify a specific drug or drug category responsible for this effect. Moderate radiation dose to the kidneys during childhood cancer treatment increases the risk of a second kidney carcinoma. This incidence will be further increased when childhood cancer survivors reach old age. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Radiotherapy of the most frequent solid tumors in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeiffer, J.; Kamprad, F.

    1980-01-01

    During the past decade the prognosis of malignant tumors in childhood could be clearly improved, realized by combining surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Recommendations for the use of radiotherapy for the most frequent solid tumors in childhood are represented basing on the experience of the study groups 'Pediatric Hematology and Oncology' of the Society for Pediatrics of the GDR and 'Tumors in Childhood' of the Section of Children's Surgery of the GDR. Besides general problems which have to be taken into consideration in the treatment of infantile tumors the radiotherapeutical measures for Wilms' tumors, neuroblastomas, cerebral tumors, embryonal sarcomas of the soft parts and bone tumors are discussed. The necessary close cooperation of the attending branches is pointed out and both the regional centralization of patients' care and a superregional cooperation are required. (author)

  15. Childhood Vascular Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood vascular tumors form from cells that make blood vessels or lymph vessels. They can be benign (not cancer) or malignant (cancer). Get information about the symptoms, tests to diagnose, prognosis, and treatment of the most common type of vascular tumor, infantile hemangioma, and other vascular tumors in this expert-reviewed summary.

  16. Treatment Option Overview (Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment options ... come back) after it has been treated. Treatment Option Overview Key Points There are different types of ...

  17. Childhood brain tumors: epidemiology, current management and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Ian F; Jakacki, Regina I

    2011-07-26

    Brain tumors are the most common solid tumors in children. With the increasingly widespread availability of MRI, the incidence of childhood brain tumors seemed to rise in the 1980s, but has subsequently remained relatively stable. However, management of brain tumors in children has evolved substantially during this time, reflecting refinements in classification of tumors, delineation of risk groups within histological subsets of tumors, and incorporation of molecular techniques to further define tumor subgroups. Although considerable progress has been made in the outcomes of certain tumors, prognosis in other childhood brain tumor types is poor. Among the tumor groups with more-favorable outcomes, attention has been focused on reducing long-term morbidity without sacrificing survival rates. Studies for high-risk groups have examined the use of intensive therapy or novel, molecularly targeted approaches to improve disease control rates. In addition to reviewing the literature and providing an overview of the complexities in diagnosing childhood brain tumors, we will discuss advances in the treatment and categorization of several tumor types in which progress has been most apparent, as well as those in which improvements have been lacking. The latest insights from molecular correlative studies that hold potential for future refinements in therapy will also be discussed.

  18. Computer-Aided Detection of Kidney Tumor on Abdominal Computed Tomography Scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, D.Y.; Park, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To implement a computer-aided detection system for kidney segmentation and kidney tumor detection on abdominal computed tomography (CT) scans. Material and Methods: Abdominal CT images were digitized with a film digitizer, and a gray-level threshold method was used to segment the kidney. Based on texture analysis performed on sample images of kidney tumors, a portion of the kidney tumor was selected as seed region for start point of the region-growing process. The average and standard deviations were used to detect the kidney tumor. Starting at the detected seed region, the region-growing method was used to segment the kidney tumor with intensity values used as an acceptance criterion for a homogeneous test. This test was performed to merge the neighboring region as kidney tumor boundary. These methods were applied on 156 transverse images of 12 cases of kidney tumors scanned using a G.E. Hispeed CT scanner and digitized with a Lumisys LS-40 film digitizer. Results: The computer-aided detection system resulted in a kidney tumor detection sensitivity of 85% and no false-positive findings. Conclusion: This computer-aided detection scheme was useful for kidney tumor detection and gave the characteristics of detected kidney tumors

  19. Fetal first trimester growth is not associated with kidney outcomes in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Hanneke; Gaillard, Romy; Hofman, Albert; Reiss, Irwin K; Steegers, Eric A P; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2017-04-01

    Impaired fetal growth is associated with increased risks of kidney diseases in later life. Because human development rates are highest during the first trimester, this trimester may be a particularly critical period for kidney outcomes. We have therefore examined the association of fetal first trimester growth with kidney outcomes in childhood. This study was embedded in a prospective population-based cohort study among 1176 pregnant women and their children. We used fetal first trimester crown-length as the growth measure among mothers with a regular menstrual cycle and a known first day of the last menstrual period. At the childhood age of 6 (median 5.7-6.8) years, we measured combined kidney volume, microalbuminuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) based on serum creatinine and cystatin C concentrations. No consistent associations of fetal first trimester crown-rump length with childhood combined kidney volume, eGFR and microalbuminuria were observed. Compared to children with a fetal first trimester crown-rump length in the highest quintile, those in the lowest quintile had a larger childhood combined kidney volume (difference 5.32 cm 3 , 95 % confidence interval 1.06 to 9.57), but no differences in kidney function. Our results do not support the hypothesis that fetal first trimester growth restriction affects kidney size and function in childhood. Further studies are needed to focus on critical periods in early life for kidney function and disease in later life.

  20. Application of infrared spectroscopy for diagnosis of kidney tumor tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Bandzevičiūtė, Rimantė

    2016-01-01

    Application of Infrared Spectroscopy for Diagnosis of Kidney Tumor Tissue It is possible to apply the technique of an attenuated total reflection of infrared radiation (ATR IR) for the characterisation of the removed tissues during the surgery. Application of this method for interstitium of the removed tissue does not require any specific sample preparation. For this reason ATR IR technique applied for the interstitium allows to get information about tissues immediately after surgical operati...

  1. Childhood Laryngeal Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laryngeal tumors in children are rare and can be benign (papillomatosis) or malignant. Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common cancer of the larynx in children. Get comprehensive information about childhood laryngeal tumors, including histology, presentation, and treatment in this summary for clinicians.

  2. Stages of Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tumors: Yolk sac tumors make a hormone called alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). They can form in the ovary, testicle, ... are used to detect extracranial germ cell tumors: Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG). For ...

  3. Gonadal status in male survivors following childhood brain tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, M; Lassen, S; Poulsen, H S

    2001-01-01

    The effect of radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy (CT) on gonadal function was assessed in males treated for a childhood brain tumor not directly involving the hypothalamus/pituitary (HP) axis in a population-based study with a long follow-up time. All males......The effect of radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy (CT) on gonadal function was assessed in males treated for a childhood brain tumor not directly involving the hypothalamus/pituitary (HP) axis in a population-based study with a long follow-up time. All males...

  4. Imaging of childhood inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oguz, Berna; Ozcan, Hatice Nursun; Omay, Burak; Ozgen, Burce; Haliloglu, Mithat [Division of Pediatric Radiology, Hacettepe University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Altindag / Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey)

    2015-10-15

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor is a rare benign neoplasm and most commonly involves the lung but occurs in extrapulmonary locations. To present imaging findings in inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors in children based on a single-centre experience. We retrospectively reviewed CT and MRI findings of children diagnosed with inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor in a single institution. We identified 15 children (range: 1-17 years) with inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor. The tumor was localized to the lung (n = 5), mediastinum (n = 3), trachea (n = 1), bronchus (n = 1), abdomen (n = 2) and orbit (n = 3). All the extraorbital tumors were solid masses with homogeneous or heterogeneous enhancement. Four lung tumors and one posterior mediastinal tumor contained calcification. Local recurrence following surgical removal occurred in two children with invasion of the esophagus and of the left atrium in one. Localized masses were seen in all children with orbital tumour. Two of these had episcleritis and perineuritis; one had episcleritis, tendonitis, perineuritis, myositis and dacryoadenitis. The locations and imaging features of inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors are variable. (orig.)

  5. Cytogenetics and molecular genetics of Wilms' tumor of childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slater, R. M.; Mannens, M. M.

    1992-01-01

    We describe the way in which application of cytogenetic and molecular genetic techniques to the study of Wilms' tumor (WT) of the kidney and the associated congenital disorders, such as sporadic aniridia and the Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome, has led to identification of two regions on the short arm

  6. Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET) of the kidney: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomara, Giorgio; Cappello, Francesco; Cuttano, Maria G; Rappa, Francesca; Morelli, Girolamo; Mancini, Pierantonio; Selli, Cesare

    2004-01-01

    A case of Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET) of the kidney in a 27-year-old woman is presented. Few cases are reported in the literature with a variable, nonspecific presentation and an aggressive behaviour. In our case, a radical nephrectomy with lymphadenectomy was performed and there was no residual or recurrent tumour at 24-month follow-up. The surgical specimens were formalin-fixed and paraffin embedded. The sections were stained with routinary H&E. Immunohistochemistry was performed. The immunohistochemical evaluation revealed a diffuse CD99 positivity in the cytoplasm of the neoplastic cells. Pankeratin, cytokeratin AE1/AE3, vimentin, desmin, S100, cromogranin were negative. The clinical presentation and the macroscopic aspect, together with the histological pattern, the cytological characteristic and the cellular immunophenotype addressed the diagnosis towards primary PNET of kidney. Since sometimes it is difficult to discriminate between PNET and Ewing's tumour, we reviewed the difficulties in differential diagnosis. These tumors have a common precursor but the stage of differentiation in which it is blocked is probably different. This could also explain their different biological behaviour and prognosis

  7. Life satisfaction in adult survivors of childhood brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crom, Deborah B; Li, Zhenghong; Brinkman, Tara M; Hudson, Melissa M; Armstrong, Gregory T; Neglia, Joseph; Ness, Kirsten K

    2014-01-01

    Adult survivors of childhood brain tumors experience multiple, significant, lifelong deficits as a consequence of their malignancy and therapy. Current survivorship literature documents the substantial impact such impairments have on survivors' physical health and quality of life. Psychosocial reports detail educational, cognitive, and emotional limitations characterizing survivors as especially fragile, often incompetent, and unreliable in evaluating their circumstances. Anecdotal data suggest some survivors report life experiences similar to those of healthy controls. The aim of our investigation was to determine whether life satisfaction in adult survivors of childhood brain tumors differs from that of healthy controls and to identify potential predictors of life satisfaction in survivors. This cross-sectional study compared 78 brain tumor survivors with population-based matched controls. Chi-square tests, t tests, and linear regression models were used to investigate patterns of life satisfaction and identify potential correlates. Results indicated that life satisfaction of adult survivors of childhood brain tumors was similar to that of healthy controls. Survivors' general health expectations emerged as the primary correlate of life satisfaction. Understanding life satisfaction as an important variable will optimize the design of strategies to enhance participation in follow-up care, reduce suffering, and optimize quality of life in this vulnerable population. © 2014 by Association of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology Nurses.

  8. Ewing Sarcoma/Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor of the Kidney: Two Unusual Presentations of a Rare Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Castro

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Only few cases of primary renal Ewing's sarcoma have been reported in the literature to date. We present here two cases of renal ES/PNET with an uncanny presentation. The first case was discovered after the patient presented clinically with irradiating flank pain, mimicking the pain related with kidney stones. The second case had clinical presentation of pulmonary thromboembolism after the patient was involved in an automobilist accident. The tumors were mainly composed of small blue cells which by immunohistochemical were positive for neural markers, and FISH revealed the translocation 22q12 for the EWSR1 gene. The diagnosis of renal primitive neuroectodermal tumor/EWING tumor is very rare and usually involves several different diagnostic techniques. The differential diagnosis is usually broad with frequent overlapping features between the entities. The cases presented in this paper illustrated the difficulties with which routine anatomical pathologist is faced when dealing with rare renal poorly differentiated neoplasm in adults.

  9. Kidney Damage in Hemorrhagic Vasculitis Occurring in Childhood and Adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Syniachenko

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Nephropathy is diagnosed in 30–60 % of patients with hemorrhagic vasculitis (HV (Schönlein Henoch puprupa and occurred in each fourth of them in the onset of the disease and with the same incidence at first recurrence of the patho­logical process. In recent years, the relative and absolute number of patients with this form of glomerular disease significantly increased. According to the results of the kidney biopsy in children, Henoch glomerulonephritis (HGN is the most common variant of the secondary immunoglobulin (Ig A nephritis. The nature of the clinical course and morphological manifestations of the HGN in patients with HV, which began in childhood and adulthood, remains unexplored. This was the purpose and objectives of this study. Materials and methods. The study included 174 patients with HV (83 % of men and 47 % of women. In 92 cases, vasculitis debuted in children (on average in 12 years, and in 82 — in the adults (on average in 25 years. I, II and III degree of activity of pathological process are set at a ratio of 1 : 2 : 2. Seropositivity for high levels of IgA occurred in 40 % of cases, by the presence of rheumatoid factor — in 27 %. At the time of the survey, cutaneous syndrome was diagnosed in 68 % of patients in the form of urticarial, hemorrhagic, papule-nodular, papule-necro­tic, pustular-ulcerative, necrotic-ulcerative, nodose-ulcerative and polymorphic forms, and articular syndrome — in 48 %. In 24 cases, kidney biopsy was performed. Results. Renal disease was revealed in 71 % of patients with HV, while on the background of nephropathy the integral index of the severity of extrarenal patho­logy was significantly higher. According to the characteristics of the articular syndrome, patients with nephropathy and without it differed little among themselves. The severity of muscle syndrome has the impact on the development of the HV. In turn, renal pathology significantly influenced the development

  10. Chronic Disease and Childhood Development: Kidney Disease and Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Susan D.; Simmons, Roberta G.

    As part of a larger study of transplantation and chronic disease and the family, 124 children (10-18 years old) who were chronically ill with kidney disease (n=72) or were a year or more post-transplant (n=52) were included in a study focusing on the effects of chronic kidney disease and transplantation on children's psychosocial development. Ss…

  11. Tumor-resected kidney transplant – a quality of life survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundararajan S

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Siva Sundararajan,1 Bulang He,1,2 Luc Delriviere,1,2 1WA Liver and Kidney Surgical Transplant Service, Department of General Surgery, Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital, Perth, WA, Australia; 2School of Surgery, The University of Western Australia, Perth, WA, Australia Background: To overcome the organ shortage, a program to use kidney grafts after excision of a small renal tumor (tumor resected kidney [TRK] was implemented in February 2007. All recipients were over 55 years old according to the selection criteria. The aim of this study is to assess the quality of life after kidney transplant in this cohort. Methods: From February 2007 to July 2013, 27 patients received a kidney graft after excision of the small kidney tumor. All patients were given the modified 36-Item Short Form Survey (SF-36 questionnaire with additional information regarding concerns about tumor recurrence and whether they would choose TRK transplantation or prefer to stay on dialysis if they have an option again. Results: Of them, 20 returned the completed questionnaire. There is no tumor recurrence on a mean follow-up of 38 months. The mean scores in all eight domains of the SF-36 were higher posttransplantation. The differences were statistically significant. Ninety-five percent of recipients would prefer to have TRK transplantation rather than remain on dialysis. Eighty percent of patients had no or minimal concerns regarding tumor recurrence. Conclusion: The patients who had kidney transplantation by using the graft after excision of a small tumor have achieved excellent quality of life. It is an important alternative for the solution of organ shortage in kidney transplantation. The concern of tumor recurrence is minimal. Performing a further study is worthwhile, with prospective data collection and a control group. Keywords: quality of life, kidney transplant, tumor, small renal cell carcinoma

  12. Common childhood kidney diseases in Uganda and their prevention.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-03-10

    Mar 10, 2016 ... to households, health education on personal and food hygiene, childhood ... treatment of mal- nutrition will contribute to primary prevention of AKI ... maintaining steady state haemoglobin, and treating acute infections are ...

  13. Somatic mutations in stilbene estrogen-induced Syrian hamster kidney tumors identified by DNA fingerprinting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Deodutta

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Kidney tumors from stilbene estrogen (diethylstilbestrol-treated Syrian hamsters were screened for somatic genetic alterations by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain-reaction (RAPD-PCR fingerprinting. Fingerprints from tumor tissue were generated by single arbitrary primers and compared with fingerprints for normal tissue from the same animal, as well as normal and tumor tissues from different animals. Sixty one of the arbitrary primers amplified 365 loci that contain approximately 476 kbp of the hamster genome. Among these amplified DNA fragments, 44 loci exhibited either qualitative or quantitative differences between the tumor tissues and normal kidney tissues. RAPD-PCR loci showing decreased and increased intensities in tumor tissue DNA relative to control DNA indicate that loci have undergone allelic losses and gains, respectively, in the stilbene estrogen-induced tumor cell genome. The presence or absence of the amplified DNA fragments indicate homozygous insertions or deletions in the kidney tumor DNA compared to the age-matched normal kidney tissue DNA. Seven of 44 mutated loci also were present in the kidney tissues adjacent to tumors (free of macroscopic tumors. The presence of mutated loci in uninvolved (non-tumor surrounding tissue adjacent to tumors from stilbene estrogen-treated hamsters suggests that these mutations occurred in the early stages of carcinogenesis. The cloning and sequencing of RAPD amplified loci revealed that one mutated locus had significant sequence similarity with the hamster Cyp1A1 gene. The results show the ability of RAPD-PCR to detect and isolate, in a single step, DNA sequences representing genetic alterations in stilbene estrogen-induced cancer cells, including losses of heterozygosity, and homozygous deletion and insertion mutations. RAPD-PCR provides an alternative molecular approach for studying cancer cytogenetics in stilbene estrogen-induced tumors in humans and experimental

  14. Perfusion of tumor-bearing kidneys as a model for scintigraphic screening of monoclonal antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Dijk, J.; Oosterwijk, E.; van Kroonenburgh, M.J.; Jonas, U.; Fleuren, G.J.; Pauwels, E.K.; Warnaar, S.O.

    1988-01-01

    Tumor-bearing human kidneys were used in an ex vivo perfusion model to screen monoclonal antibodies, recognizing renal cell carcinoma-associated antigens for diagnostic potential in vivo. Perfusion of tumor-bearing kidneys with /sup 99m/Tc-labeled G250 and RC38 antibody resulted in visualization of the tumor, whereas perfusion with two other monoclonal antibodies, RC2 and RC4, did not lead to tumor visualization. Uptake of radiolabel in normal kidney tissue was low for G250 and RC38 antibody. Tumor-to-kidney tissue ratios after perfusion with G250 and RC38 antibody were 2.7 and 2.2, respectively. After rinsing for 3 hr with unlabeled perfusion fluid the tumor-to-kidney tissue ratios increased to 8.6 for G250 antibody and to 2.7 for RC38 antibody. We conclude that perfusion of tumor-bearing human kidneys with radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies is a relatively simple way to evaluate renal cell carcinoma associated monoclonal antibodies as diagnostic agents in vivo

  15. Kidney fibroxanthoma (malignant fibrous xanthoma): a rare tumor and an unusual cause of retroperitoneal hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witz, M; Bernheim, J; Dinbar, A; Griffel, B

    1984-06-01

    A case of kidney fibroxanthoma (malignant fibrous xanthoma, malignant variant of xanthogranuloma), a rare malignant neoplasm of kidney, is described. In addition to the typical histologic features of retroperitoneal xanthogranuloma, this tumor showed obvious pleomorphism and mitotic activity of the histiocytes. We present this case in view of the rarity of this neoplasm and the unusual presentation as massive retroperitoneal hemorrhage.

  16. Transcript profiling of Wilms tumors reveals connections to kidney morphogenesis and expression patterns associated with anaplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenliang; Kessler, Patricia; Williams, Bryan R G

    2005-01-13

    Anaplasia (unfavorable histology) is associated with therapy resistance and poor prognosis of Wilms tumor, but the molecular basis for this phenotype is unclear. Here, we used a cDNA array with 9240 clones relevant to cancer biology and/or kidney development to examine the expression profiles of 54 Wilms tumors, five normal kidneys and fetal kidney. By linking genes differentially expressed between fetal kidney and Wilms tumors to kidney morphogenesis, we found that genes expressed at a higher level in Wilms tumors tend to be expressed more in uninduced metanephrogenic mesenchyme or blastema than in their differentiated structures. Conversely, genes expressed at a lower level in Wilms tumors tend to be expressed less in uninduced metanephrogenic mesenchyme or blastema. We also identified 97 clones representing 76 Unigenes or unclustered ESTs that clearly separate anaplastic Wilms tumors from tumors with favorable histology. Genes in this set provide insight into the nature of the abnormal nuclear morphology of anaplastic tumors and may facilitate identification of molecular targets to improve their responsiveness to treatment.

  17. DNA methylation profile distinguishes clear cell sarcoma of the kidney from other pediatric renal tumors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitomi Ueno

    Full Text Available A number of specific, distinct neoplastic entities occur in the pediatric kidney, including Wilms' tumor, clear cell sarcoma of the kidney (CCSK, congenital mesoblastic nephroma (CMN, rhabdoid tumor of the kidney (RTK, and the Ewing's sarcoma family of tumors (ESFT. By employing DNA methylation profiling using Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation27, we analyzed the epigenetic characteristics of the sarcomas including CCSK, RTK, and ESFT in comparison with those of the non-neoplastic kidney (NK, and these tumors exhibited distinct DNA methylation profiles in a tumor-type-specific manner. CCSK is the most frequently hypermethylated, but least frequently hypomethylated, at CpG sites among these sarcomas, and exhibited 490 hypermethylated and 46 hypomethylated CpG sites in compared with NK. We further validated the results by MassARRAY, and revealed that a combination of four genes was sufficient for the DNA methylation profile-based differentiation of these tumors by clustering analysis. Furthermore, THBS1 CpG sites were found to be specifically hypermethylated in CCSK and, thus, the DNA methylation status of these THBS1 sites alone was sufficient for the distinction of CCSK from other pediatric renal tumors, including Wilms' tumor and CMN. Moreover, combined bisulfite restriction analysis could be applied for the detection of hypermethylation of a THBS1 CpG site. Besides the biological significance in the pathogenesis, the DNA methylation profile should be useful for the differential diagnosis of pediatric renal tumors.

  18. Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood central nervous system embryonal tumors and pineal tumors are treated with surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, high-dose chemotherapy with stem cell rescue and targeted therapy. Learn more in this expert-reviewed summary.

  19. Synchronous Primary Tumors of the Kidney and Pancreas: Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... of the kidney and pancreas. We present a 62-year-old man who had weight loss of 9 kg and epigastric pain. Findings showed a Furhman grade II renal papillary carcinoma confined to the kidney and a synchronous well differentiated pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Key Words: Synchronous double cancer, renal cell ...

  20. On occurrence of a neurogenic sarcoma in irradiation area after combined operative-radiogenic therapy of an adenosarcoma in kidney during childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eberhardt, H.J.; Friedrich, S.; Herrmann, T.; Roy, U.

    1990-01-01

    Malignant neoplasias in childhood generally are an increased risk for the patient to fall ill with a second tumor. Second tumors in former irradiation field are seldom, but are acknowledged radiogenically if histology is different to that of the first tumor and a sufficiently long period is between the two tumors. A patient is presented who had been operated and irradiated because of an adenosarcoma of the kidney at the age of seven and who has fallen ill with a neurogenic sarcoma in the irradiation area more than 30 years later. The same patient had to suffer from radiogenic retardation during differentiation of the lumbar apparatus of attitude and locomotion and on the other hand be became father of a healthy daughter at the age of 32. (author)

  1. Synergy Effect of Combining Fluorescence and Mid Infrared Fiber Spectroscopy for Kidney Tumor Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Bogomolov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Matching pairs of tumor and non-tumor kidney tissue samples of four patients were investigated ex vivo using a combination of two methods, attenuated total reflection mid infrared spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy, through respectively prepared and adjusted fiber probes. In order to increase the data information content, the measurements on tissue samples in both methods were performed in the same 31 preselected positions. Multivariate data analysis revealed a synergic effect of combining the two methods for the diagnostics of kidney tumor compared to individual techniques.

  2. Retroperitoneal Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor Replacing an Absent Kidney in a Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samin Alavi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs are nonrhabdomyosarcoma soft tissue sarcomas with rare occurrence in children specially in the retroperitoneum. We describe a young child who presented with an abdominal mass. Both ultrasound and computed tomography revealed a large right-sided abdominal mass in the anatomic place of right kidney, while no kidney or ureter was observed at that side. He underwent surgical resection of the tumor with a primary impression of Wilms tumor. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first case of retroperitoneal malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor and absent kidney. This case suggests the very rare probability of association of MPNSTs in children with genitourinary tract anomalies such as renal agenesis.

  3. Cognitive deficits in long-term survivors of childhood brain tumors: Identification of predictive factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimers, Tonny Solveig; Ehrenfels, Susanne; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2003-01-01

    To describe cognitive function and to evaluate the association between potentially predictive factors and cognitive outcome in an unselected population of survivors of childhood brain tumors.......To describe cognitive function and to evaluate the association between potentially predictive factors and cognitive outcome in an unselected population of survivors of childhood brain tumors....

  4. Skeletal sequelae of radiation therapy for malignant childhood tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butler, M.S.; Robertson, W.W. Jr.; Rate, W.; D'Angio, G.J.; Drummond, D.S.

    1990-01-01

    One hundred forty-three patients who received radiation therapy for childhood tumors, and survived to the age of skeletal maturity, were studied by retrospective review of oncology records and roentgenograms. Diagnoses for the patients were the following: Hodgkin's lymphoma (44), Wilms's tumor (30), acute lymphocytic leukemia (26), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (18), Ewing's sarcoma (nine), rhabdomyosarcoma (six), neuroblastoma (six), and others (four). Age at the follow-up examination averaged 18 years (range, 14-28 years). Average length of follow-up study was 9.9 years (range, two to 18 years). Asymmetry of the chest and ribs was seen in 51 (36%) of these children. Fifty (35%) had scoliosis; 14 had kyphosis. In two children, the scoliosis was treated with a brace, while one developed significant kyphosing scoliosis after laminectomy and had spinal fusion. Twenty-three (16%) patients complained of significant pain at the radiation sites. Twelve of the patients developed leg-length inequality; eight of those were symptomatic. Three patients developed second primary tumors. Currently, the incidence of significant skeletal sequelae is lower and the manifestations are less severe than reported in the years from 1940 to 1970. The reduction in skeletal complications may be attributed to shielding of growth centers, symmetric field selection, decreased total radiation doses, and sequence changes in chemotherapy

  5. Epidemiology of brain tumors in childhood--a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, Rachel Tobias; Preston-Martin, Susan

    2004-01-01

    Malignant brain tumors are the leading cause of cancer death among children and the second most common type of pediatric cancer. Despite several decades of epidemiologic investigation, the etiology of childhood brain tumors (CBT) is still largely unknown. A few genetic syndromes and ionizing radiation are established risk factors. Many environmental exposures and infectious agents have been suspected of playing a role in the development of CBT. This review, based on a search of the medical literature through August 2003, summarizes the epidemiologic evidence to date. The types of exposures discussed include ionizing radiation, N-nitroso compounds (NOC), pesticides, tobacco smoke, electromagnetic frequencies (EMF), infectious agents, medications, and parental occupational exposures. We have chosen to focus on perinatal exposures and review some of the recent evidence indicating that such exposures may play a significant role in the causation of CBT. The scientific community is rapidly learning more about the molecular mechanisms by which carcinogenesis occurs and how the brain develops. We believe that advances in genetic and molecular biologic technology, including improved histologic subtyping of tumors, will be of huge importance in the future of epidemiologic research and will lead to a more comprehensive understanding of CBT etiology. We discuss some of the early findings using these technologies

  6. First-trimester maternal protein intake and childhood kidney outcomes: the Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miliku, Kozeta; Voortman, Trudy; van den Hooven, Edith H; Hofman, Albert; Franco, Oscar H; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2015-07-01

    Nutritional exposures during in utero development may have long-lasting consequences for postnatal renal health. Animal studies suggest that specifically maternal dietary protein intake during pregnancy influences childhood kidney function. We examined the associations of total, animal, and vegetable maternal protein intake during pregnancy with kidney volume and function in school-aged children. This study was conducted in 3650 pregnant women and their children who were participating in a population-based cohort study from early life onward. First-trimester energy-adjusted maternal protein intake was assessed with a food-frequency questionnaire. At the child's age of 6 y, we assessed kidney volume, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) using serum creatinine and cystatin C concentrations, and microalbuminuria using urine albumin:creatinine ratios. First-trimester maternal total protein intake was associated with a higher childhood creatinine-based eGFR (difference: 0.06 mL × min(-1) × 1.73 m(-2); 95% CI: 0.01, 0.12 mL · min(-1) · 1.73 m(-2) per gram of protein intake). This association was mainly driven by vegetable protein intake (0.22 mL × min(-1) × 1.73 m(-2); 95% CI: 0.10, 0.35 mL · min(-1) · 1.73 m(-2) per gram of vegetable protein intake). These associations were not explained by protein intake in early childhood. First-trimester maternal protein intake was not significantly associated with childhood kidney volume, cystatin C-based eGFR, or the risk of microalbuminuria. Our findings suggest that higher total and vegetable, but not animal, maternal protein intake during the first trimester of pregnancy is associated with a higher eGFR in childhood. Further follow-up studies are needed to investigate whether maternal protein intake in early pregnancy also affects the risk of kidney diseases in later life. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. [An exceptional mimicker of ovarian tumors: cancer in a pelvic horseshoe kidney].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Mendoza, Carlos Manuel

    2013-01-01

    although the horseshoe kidney is a frequent congenital abnormality, the likelihood of it being the cause of a malignant tumor that looks like an ovarian neoplasm has not been reported. a 53-year-old female came to the hospital with a pelvic tumor. The patient had a history of a simple hysterectomy due to uterine myomatosis. At abdominal physical examination we identified a rounded hypogastric tumor, 20 cm diameter, firm, and fixed. On pelvic examination the mass was easily palpated through the vaginal fornix. The diagnosis of a probable ovarian neoplasm, caused by a residual ovary syndrome was made, therefore she was admitted to the gynecology service. Computed tomography scans showed a tumor located in the right side of a deformed pelvic kidney. Hence, the gynecology service sent the patient to the surgical oncology department, where the assumption was confirmed. The analysis of the RX studies showed a possible neoplasm from a pelvic horseshoe kidney. The patient underwent an exploratory abdominal surgery, and a 19 cm tumor was excised. The pathology department reported a chromophobe cell carcinoma. tumors in the pelvic horseshoe kidney may simulate an ovarian neoplasms in females.

  8. Percutaneous ultrasound-guided radiofrequency ablation for kidney tumors in patients with surgical risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salagierski, Marek; Salagierski, Maciej; Sosnowski, Marek; Salagierska-Barwinska, Anna

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe our experience with percutaneous ultrasound-guided radiofrequency ablation of kidney tumors. From July 2002 to August 2005, 45 radiofrequency ablations (RFA) in 42 selected patients with kidney tumor were performed. The patients had either contraindications to surgery procedures or had a solitary kidney. The average tumor size was 37.5 mm (range, 18-59 mm) with the mean age of 68 years (range, 28-83 years). RFA were performed based on radiographic findings. Needle biopsy was made only twice. Monopolar Cool-tip Tyco or bipolar Celon Olympus radiofrequency devices were used. The procedure was performed under conscious sedation with local anesthesia. Treatment efficacy was assessed by computed tomography and by Doppler ultrasound. The absence of contrast enhancement on computed tomography was considered to be a successful treatment. The average follow up was 14 months (range, 3-36 months). In 42 tumors (93%), total absence of contrast enhancement was obtained after the initial RFA and in three tumors (7%) after the second ablation session. There were no complications following 41 procedures, including all ablations in small (<35 mm) renal masses. In four procedures, minor complications were observed. All patients are alive. There has been no need for chronic hemodialysis and, until now, we have not observed any local recurrences with the exception of one metastasis to an ipsilateral adrenal gland. RFA of kidney tumors is a promising alternative treatment which could be considered for patients who are not suitable for surgery. (author)

  9. Metastatic malignant tumor in native kidney with acquired cystic disease after renal transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia de la Oliva, T.; Gonzalez Molina, M.

    1990-01-01

    Patients on long-term hemodialysis frequently develop Acquired Cystic Renal Disease (ARCD). When hematuria or flank pain occurs, the possibility of malignant renal tumors should be investigated. The authors present an ARCD patient who received a kidney transplant and developed malignancy in a native kidney, the first manifestation being bone metastases, and discuss the role of CT in evaluating these patients. (authors). 9 refs.; 2 figs

  10. Synchronous Primary Tumors of the Kidney and Pancreas: Case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... present a 62-year-old man who had weight loss of 9 kg and epigastric pain. Findings showed a Furhman grade II renal papillary carcinoma confined to the kidney and a synchronous well differentiated pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Key Words: Synchronous double cancer, renal cell carcinoma, pancreatic carcinoma ...

  11. Rare kidney tumor provides insight on metabolic changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Network have uncovered a number of new findings about the biology and development of a rare form of kidney cancer. They found that the disease – chromophobe renal cell carcinoma – stems in part from alteratio

  12. Personalized 3D printed model of kidney and tumor anatomy: a useful tool for patient education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhard, Jean-Christophe; Isotani, Shuji; Matsugasumi, Toru; Duddalwar, Vinay; Hung, Andrew J; Suer, Evren; Baco, Eduard; Satkunasivam, Raj; Djaladat, Hooman; Metcalfe, Charles; Hu, Brian; Wong, Kelvin; Park, Daniel; Nguyen, Mike; Hwang, Darryl; Bazargani, Soroush T; de Castro Abreu, Andre Luis; Aron, Monish; Ukimura, Osamu; Gill, Inderbir S

    2016-03-01

    To assess the impact of 3D printed models of renal tumor on patient's understanding of their conditions. Patient understanding of their medical condition and treatment satisfaction has gained increasing attention in medicine. Novel technologies such as additive manufacturing [also termed three-dimensional (3D) printing] may play a role in patient education. A prospective pilot study was conducted, and seven patients with a primary diagnosis of kidney tumor who were being considered for partial nephrectomy were included after informed consent. All patients underwent four-phase multi-detector computerized tomography (MDCT) scanning from which renal volume data were extracted to create life-size patient-specific 3D printed models. Patient knowledge and understanding were evaluated before and after 3D model presentation. Patients' satisfaction with their specific 3D printed model was also assessed through a visual scale. After viewing their personal 3D kidney model, patients demonstrated an improvement in understanding of basic kidney physiology by 16.7 % (p = 0.018), kidney anatomy by 50 % (p = 0.026), tumor characteristics by 39.3 % (p = 0.068) and the planned surgical procedure by 44.6 % (p = 0.026). Presented herein is the initial clinical experience with 3D printing to facilitate patient's pre-surgical understanding of their kidney tumor and surgery.

  13. Pituitary Tumors in Childhood: an update in their diagnosis, treatment and molecular genetics

    OpenAIRE

    Keil, Margaret F.; Stratakis, Constantine A.

    2008-01-01

    Pituitary tumors are rare in childhood and adolescence, with a reported prevalence of up to 1 per million children. Only 2 - 6% of surgically treated pituitary tumors occur in children. Although pituitary tumors in children are almost never malignant and hormonal secretion is rare, these tumors may result in significant morbidity. Tumors within the pituitary fossa are of two types mainly, craniopharyngiomas and adenomas; craniopharyngiomas cause symptoms by compressing normal pituitary, causi...

  14. Assessment of the kidney tumor vascular supply by two-phase MDCT-angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferda, Jiri [Department of Radiology, Charles University Hospital Plzen, Alej Svobody 80, CZ-306 40 Plzen (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: ferda@fnplzen.cz; Hora, Milan [Department of Urology, Charles University Hospital Plzen, Dr. Edvarda Benese 13, CZ-306 40 Plzen (Czech Republic); Hes, Ondrej [Institute of Pathology, Charles University Hospital Plzen, Alej Svobody 80, CZ-306 40 Plzen (Czech Republic); Ferdova, Eva [Department of Radiology, Charles University Hospital Plzen, Alej Svobody 80, CZ-306 40 Plzen (Czech Republic); Kreuzberg, Boris [Department of Radiology, Charles University Hospital Plzen, Alej Svobody 80, CZ-306 40 Plzen (Czech Republic)

    2007-05-15

    Purpose: Current kidney surgery uses less invasive laparoscopic and nephron-sparring procedures. Thus, perfect imaging of the renal vasculature is essential for surgery planning. The aim of our retrospective study was to evaluate the accuracy of 16-detector-row CT-angiography in assessing the vascular anatomy of the kidney with a tumor. Subjects and methods: Referred for computed tomography (CT) because of a suspected renal tumor, 50 consecutive patients (mean age 58.6 years; range 43-82) were enrolled into our retrospective study. All examinations were performed with 16 x 0.75 mm collimation after the intravenous application of 80 ml of a non-ionic contrast material. The imaging protocol contained two-phase scanning in the arterial and then in the venous phase. The vascular anatomy of the kidney with tumor was evaluated using volume rendered (VRT) and maximum intensity images (MIP). Findings were compared with the anatomy found during surgery. Results: Forty-seven patients underwent nephrectomy, with an advanced clinical stage (IV) found in the three remaining ones. Correct topography of the renal hilus, including a number of arteries and veins, and the anatomy of their branching, was described in 46 patients. A very small upper polar artery was overlooked in one patient. The accuracy for the only-arterial was 97.9% and only-venous anatomy was 100%. The parasitic vasculature of the tumor was discovered in 10 cases and all of them were confirmed by surgery (100% accuracy). Macroscopic intravenous spread of the tumor was discovered in two cases, but microscopic intravenous invasion was confirmed during histology of the kidney specimens in another two cases, the overall tumor staging accuracy reaching 95.7%. Conclusion: Two-phase multidetector CT is a valuable tool for assessing vascular supply of the kidney before surgery due to the tumor and can fully replace catheter-based angiography.

  15. Assessment of the kidney tumor vascular supply by two-phase MDCT-angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferda, Jiri; Hora, Milan; Hes, Ondrej; Ferdova, Eva; Kreuzberg, Boris

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Current kidney surgery uses less invasive laparoscopic and nephron-sparring procedures. Thus, perfect imaging of the renal vasculature is essential for surgery planning. The aim of our retrospective study was to evaluate the accuracy of 16-detector-row CT-angiography in assessing the vascular anatomy of the kidney with a tumor. Subjects and methods: Referred for computed tomography (CT) because of a suspected renal tumor, 50 consecutive patients (mean age 58.6 years; range 43-82) were enrolled into our retrospective study. All examinations were performed with 16 x 0.75 mm collimation after the intravenous application of 80 ml of a non-ionic contrast material. The imaging protocol contained two-phase scanning in the arterial and then in the venous phase. The vascular anatomy of the kidney with tumor was evaluated using volume rendered (VRT) and maximum intensity images (MIP). Findings were compared with the anatomy found during surgery. Results: Forty-seven patients underwent nephrectomy, with an advanced clinical stage (IV) found in the three remaining ones. Correct topography of the renal hilus, including a number of arteries and veins, and the anatomy of their branching, was described in 46 patients. A very small upper polar artery was overlooked in one patient. The accuracy for the only-arterial was 97.9% and only-venous anatomy was 100%. The parasitic vasculature of the tumor was discovered in 10 cases and all of them were confirmed by surgery (100% accuracy). Macroscopic intravenous spread of the tumor was discovered in two cases, but microscopic intravenous invasion was confirmed during histology of the kidney specimens in another two cases, the overall tumor staging accuracy reaching 95.7%. Conclusion: Two-phase multidetector CT is a valuable tool for assessing vascular supply of the kidney before surgery due to the tumor and can fully replace catheter-based angiography

  16. Primitive neuroectodermal tumors of kidney: Our experience in a tertiary care center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, A; Mahapatra, S K; Nayak, B; Saini, A K; Biswas, B

    2016-01-01

    Primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) are rare highly aggressive neoplasms. The diagnosis is made by histopathology with the support of immunohistochemistry (IHC) and cytogenetics. The aggressive multimodality treatment is recommended for the management of these tumors. The purpose of our study is to review our experiences in the diagnoses and treatment of PNET of the kidneys. We retrospectively reviewed the data of all the patients, who were treated for the PNET of the kidneys at our institute between April and March 2011 and compared with the available literature. A total of eight patients were treated for PNET of the kidney. Out of the eight patients, four were males and four females. Nearly 50% of our patients had inferior vena caval thrombus at the time of presentation. The diagnosis was made on histopathology supported by IHC. Out of the eight patients, one patient had intraoperative death due to massive pulmonary thromboembolism and another died on the 7th post-operative day due to disseminated intravascular coagulation and multiorgan failure. Rest six patients were treated with post-operative chemotherapy or a combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. For these six patients, overall median survival was 45 months with a 3 year disease-free survival of 66% and 5 year survival of 44%. PNET of the kidneys are rare peripheral neuroectodermal tumors with an aggressive clinical course. These tumors carry a very poor prognosis. An aggressive treatment approach using a combination of surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy is recommended for a reasonable survival in these tumors.

  17. Childhood Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is a fast-growing tumor of the brain or spinal cord. Treatment may include surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. Get information about the symptoms, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of newly diagnosed and recurrent childhood atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors in this expert-reviewed summary.

  18. Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    CNS germ cell tumors can be diagnosed and classified based on histology, tumor markers, or a combination of both. Get detailed information about newly diagnosed and recurrent childhood CNS germ cell tumors including molecular features and clinical features, diagnostic and staging evaluation, and treatment in this summary for clinicians.

  19. Drugs Approved for Wilms Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for Wilms tumor and other childhood kidney cancers. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  20. Expression of Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein in Human Kidney and in Renal Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosio, Maria R; Rocca, Bruno J; Barone, Aurora; Onorati, Monica; Mundo, Lucia; Crivelli, Filippo; Di Nuovo, Franca; De Falco, Giulia; del Vecchio, Maria T; Tripodi, Sergio A; Tosi, Piero

    2015-01-01

    Translationally controlled tumor protein is a multifaceted protein involved in several physiological and biological functions. Its expression in normal kidney and in renal carcinomas, once corroborated by functional data, may add elements to elucidate renal physiology and carcinogenesis. In this study, translationally controlled tumor protein expression was evaluated by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, and its localization was examined by immunohistochemistry on 84 nephrectomies for cancer. In normal kidney protein expression was found in the cytoplasm of proximal and distal tubular cells, in cells of the thick segment of the loop of Henle, and in urothelial cells of the pelvis. It was also detectable in cells of renal carcinoma with different pattern of localization (membranous and cytoplasmic) depending on tumor histotype. Our data may suggest an involvement of translationally controlled tumor protein in normal physiology and carcinogenesis. However, functional in vitro and in vivo studies are needed to verify this hypothesis.

  1. A Rare Case of Breast Malignant Phyllodes Tumor With Metastases to the Kidney: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karczmarek-Borowska, Bożenna; Bukala, Agnieszka; Syrek-Kaplita, Karolina; Ksiazek, Mariusz; Filipowska, Justyna; Gradalska-Lampart, Monika

    2015-08-01

    Phyllodes tumors are rare breast neoplasms. Surgery is the treatment of choice. The role of postoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy is still under dispute, as there are no equivocal prognostic factors. Treatment failure results in the occurrence of distant metastasis-mainly to the lungs, bones, liver, and brain. We have described the case of a woman with a malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast that was surgically treated. She did not receive adjuvant therapy because there is no consensus on the role of postoperative chemotherapy and radiotherapy. One year following the surgery, the patient had left-sided nephrectomy performed because of a rapidly growing tumor of the kidney. Renal cancer was suspected; however, a histopathological examination revealed that it was a metastatic phyllodes tumor. At the same time, the patient was diagnosed as having metastases in the other kidney, the lungs, liver, and bones.Our case report describes not only an unusual localization of the metastases (in the kidneys), but also failure of the chemotherapy and the aggressive course of malignant phyllodes tumor. Identification of patients with high risk for distant metastasis and the introduction of uniform rules for the management of adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy would make planning treatment as efficacious as possible.

  2. Maternal and Birth Characteristics and Childhood Embryonal Solid Tumors: A Population-Based Report from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula Silva, Neimar; de Souza Reis, Rejane; Garcia Cunha, Rafael; Pinto Oliveira, Júlio Fernando; Santos, Marceli de Oliveira; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S; de Camargo, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Several maternal and birth characteristics have been reported to be associated with an increased risk of many childhood cancers. Our goal was to evaluate the risk of childhood embryonal solid tumors in relation to pre- and perinatal characteristics. A case-cohort study was performed using two population-based datasets, which were linked through R software. Tumors were classified as central nervous system (CNS) or non-CNS-embryonal (retinoblastoma, neuroblastoma, renal tumors, germ cell tumors, hepatoblastoma and soft tissue sarcoma). Children aged birth anomalies were independent risk factors. Among children diagnosed older than 24 months of age, cesarean section (CS) was a significant risk factor. Five-minute Apgar ≤8 was an independent risk factor for renal tumors. A decreasing risk with increasing birth order was observed for all tumor types except for retinoblastoma. Among children with neuroblastoma, the risk decreased with increasing birth order (OR = 0.82 (95% CI 0.67-1.01)). Children delivered by CS had a marginally significantly increased OR for all tumors except retinoblastoma. High maternal education level showed a significant increase in the odds for all tumors together, CNS tumors, and neuroblastoma. This evidence suggests that male gender, high maternal education level, and birth anomalies are risk factors for childhood tumors irrespective of the age at diagnosis. Cesarean section, birth order, and 5-minute Apgar score were risk factors for some tumor subtypes.

  3. Serum tumor markers in chronic kidney disease: as clinical tool in diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Fateme Shamekhi

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is singled out as the biggest cause of death in the world, predicted to reach 13.1 million cancer-related deaths by the year 2030. Although there are no specific tumor markers used in cancer screening, some markers can be used to assist in making a diagnosis and determining a prognosis. They can be used to follow in cases where the diagnosis is cancer through monitoring of the disease recurrence and/or evaluating the response to therapy. These markers are not specific as the number increases in multiple cases of cancer. Some markers are positive in a single type of cancer; others are detectable in more than one type. An ideal tumor marker should be highly sensitive, specific, and reliable with high prognostic value. Other characteristics of an ideal tumor marker are organ specificity and correlation of it with tumor stages. However, none of the tumor markers reported to date has all these characteristics. Influence of different stages of chronic kidney function on serum tumor markers is variable. Furthermore, hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and kidney transplantation affect on tumor markers differently. Sometimes, no study has been found in the literature review. Combined serum tumor markers may also be valuable. This literature review points the role of serum tumor markers in screening, diagnosis, and follow-up of cancer patients in chronic kidney disease patients and renal allograft recipients. In addition, impact of chronic kidney disease and kidney transplantation on different serum tumor markers is briefly explored.

  4. Intermittent hypoxia increases kidney tumor vascularization in a murine model of sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilaseca, Antoni; Campillo, Noelia; Torres, Marta; Musquera, Mireia; Gozal, David; Montserrat, Josep M; Alcaraz, Antonio; Touijer, Karim A; Farré, Ramon; Almendros, Isaac

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the effects of intermittent hypoxia (IH), a characteristic feature of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), on renal cancer progression in an animal and cell model. An in vivo mouse model (Balb/c, n = 50) of kidney cancer was used to assess the effect of IH on tumor growth, metastatic capacity, angiogenesis and tumor immune response. An in vitro model tested the effect of IH on RENCA cells, macrophages and endothelial cells. Tumor growth, metastatic capacity, circulating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and content of endothelial cells, tumor associated macrophages and their phenotype were assessed in the tumor. In vitro, VEGF cell expression was quantified.Although IH did not boost tumor growth, it significantly increased endothelial cells (p = 0.001) and circulating VEGF (p<0.001) in the in vivo model. Macrophages exposed to IH in vitro increased VEGF expression, whereas RENCA cells and endothelial cells did not. These findings are in keeping with previous clinical data suggesting that OSA has no effect on kidney cancer size and that the association observed between OSA and higher Fuhrman grade of renal cell carcinoma may be mediated though a proangiogenic process, with a key role of macrophages.

  5. Intermittent hypoxia increases kidney tumor vascularization in a murine model of sleep apnea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Vilaseca

    Full Text Available We investigate the effects of intermittent hypoxia (IH, a characteristic feature of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA, on renal cancer progression in an animal and cell model. An in vivo mouse model (Balb/c, n = 50 of kidney cancer was used to assess the effect of IH on tumor growth, metastatic capacity, angiogenesis and tumor immune response. An in vitro model tested the effect of IH on RENCA cells, macrophages and endothelial cells. Tumor growth, metastatic capacity, circulating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and content of endothelial cells, tumor associated macrophages and their phenotype were assessed in the tumor. In vitro, VEGF cell expression was quantified.Although IH did not boost tumor growth, it significantly increased endothelial cells (p = 0.001 and circulating VEGF (p<0.001 in the in vivo model. Macrophages exposed to IH in vitro increased VEGF expression, whereas RENCA cells and endothelial cells did not. These findings are in keeping with previous clinical data suggesting that OSA has no effect on kidney cancer size and that the association observed between OSA and higher Fuhrman grade of renal cell carcinoma may be mediated though a proangiogenic process, with a key role of macrophages.

  6. Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood central nervous system (CNS) germ cell tumors form from germ cells (a type of cell that forms as a fetus develops and later becomes sperm in the testicles or eggs in the ovaries). Learn about the signs, tests to diagnose, and treatment of pediatric germ cell tumors in the brain in this expert-reviewed summary.

  7. Current diagnostic approach of bone tumors in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torre, Marcia Barbosa; Scatigno Neto, Andre

    1995-01-01

    The authors analyze the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as the imaging modality of choice for evaluation of patients with bone tumors or soft tissue tumors. The advent of such a sensitive imaging modality is fortuitous and coincides with a recent change in the therapeutic approach to primary bone tumors. MRI is extremely valuable in monitoring the tumor response to the initial chemotherapy and is accurate defining the margins of tumor, facilitating planning of limb salvage surgical procedures. (author). 5 refs., 8 figs

  8. Primitive neuroectodermal tumor or small cell carcinoma of the kidney, arare neoplasm: Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radhi, A.; Ratnakar, K.S.; Al-Durazi, M.; Khalifa, F.

    2002-01-01

    Small cell carcinoma is a malignancy primarily recognized in thebronchopulmonary region. Extrapulmonary locations are extremely uncommon. Wereport here a case of renal tumor encountered in a 34-year-old female, withextensive metastases in liver, lung and bone. Histological examination wasmost compatible with primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET) small cellcarcinoma. There were negative immunohistochemical markers for cytokeratin,any hormonal peptides and epithelial membrane antigens, which is consistentwith the designation of neoplasm as PNET. Previously reported cases have allbeen in the elderly and, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first caseof proven PNET of the kidney described in a young female. (author)

  9. Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumors Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... make hormones. Yolk sac tumors make the hormone alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Mixed germ cell tumors are made of ... used to diagnose some CNS germ cell tumors: Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG). Blood ...

  10. Treatment Options for Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tumors: Yolk sac tumors make a hormone called alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). They can form in the ovary, testicle, ... are used to detect extracranial germ cell tumors: Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG). For ...

  11. General Information about Childhood Extracranial Germ Cell Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tumors: Yolk sac tumors make a hormone called alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). They can form in the ovary, testicle, ... are used to detect extracranial germ cell tumors: Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Beta-human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG). For ...

  12. Childhood Central Nervous System Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... teratoid/rhabdoid tumor. There is no standard staging system for central nervous system atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor. The extent or spread ... different types of treatment for patients with central nervous system atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor. Different types of treatment ...

  13. 3D segmentation of kidney tumors from freehand 2D ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Anis; Cool, Derek; Chew, Ben H.; Pautler, Stephen E.; Peters, Terry M.

    2006-03-01

    To completely remove a tumor from a diseased kidney, while minimizing the resection of healthy tissue, the surgeon must be able to accurately determine its location, size and shape. Currently, the surgeon mentally estimates these parameters by examining pre-operative Computed Tomography (CT) images of the patient's anatomy. However, these images do not reflect the state of the abdomen or organ during surgery. Furthermore, these images can be difficult to place in proper clinical context. We propose using Ultrasound (US) to acquire images of the tumor and the surrounding tissues in real-time, then segmenting these US images to present the tumor as a three dimensional (3D) surface. Given the common use of laparoscopic procedures that inhibit the range of motion of the operator, we propose segmenting arbitrarily placed and oriented US slices individually using a tracked US probe. Given the known location and orientation of the US probe, we can assign 3D coordinates to the segmented slices and use them as input to a 3D surface reconstruction algorithm. We have implemented two approaches for 3D segmentation from freehand 2D ultrasound. Each approach was evaluated on a tissue-mimicking phantom of a kidney tumor. The performance of our approach was determined by measuring RMS surface error between the segmentation and the known gold standard and was found to be below 0.8 mm.

  14. Pancreatoblastoma, a Rare Childhood Tumor: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asuman ARGON

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatoblastoma, rarely encountered in the literature, is a malignant exocrine tumor seen in the pancreas. A 5-year-old boy suffering from abdominal pain was sent to our institute for further examination and treatment. Clinical examination was normal but for a palpable abdominal tumor mass. Abdominal Doppler ultrasonography showed a mass with well-defined margins within the body of the pancreas. Laboratory tests, including lactic dehydrogenase, alpha-fetoprotein and cancer antigen 125 were abnormal. The tumor invading the splenic vein and transverse colon was removed totally. We observed a hypercellular tumor in histopathological examination. The tumor had epithelial acinar cells and squamoid morules (corpuscles separated by stromal bands. Adjuvant chemotherapy was used after surgery. However, the patient died 14 months later. All data about pancreatoblastoma have to be collected in order to choose the treatment to elucidate the molecular pathogenesis of the tumor, to diagnose it early and to develop target-specific treatments.

  15. Maternal and Birth Characteristics and Childhood Embryonal Solid Tumors: A Population-Based Report from Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neimar de Paula Silva

    Full Text Available Several maternal and birth characteristics have been reported to be associated with an increased risk of many childhood cancers. Our goal was to evaluate the risk of childhood embryonal solid tumors in relation to pre- and perinatal characteristics.A case-cohort study was performed using two population-based datasets, which were linked through R software. Tumors were classified as central nervous system (CNS or non-CNS-embryonal (retinoblastoma, neuroblastoma, renal tumors, germ cell tumors, hepatoblastoma and soft tissue sarcoma. Children aged <6 years were selected. Adjustments were made for potential confounders. Odds ratios (OR with 95% confidence intervals (CI were computed by unconditional logistic regression analysis using SPSS.Males, high maternal education level, and birth anomalies were independent risk factors. Among children diagnosed older than 24 months of age, cesarean section (CS was a significant risk factor. Five-minute Apgar ≤8 was an independent risk factor for renal tumors. A decreasing risk with increasing birth order was observed for all tumor types except for retinoblastoma. Among children with neuroblastoma, the risk decreased with increasing birth order (OR = 0.82 (95% CI 0.67-1.01. Children delivered by CS had a marginally significantly increased OR for all tumors except retinoblastoma. High maternal education level showed a significant increase in the odds for all tumors together, CNS tumors, and neuroblastoma.This evidence suggests that male gender, high maternal education level, and birth anomalies are risk factors for childhood tumors irrespective of the age at diagnosis. Cesarean section, birth order, and 5-minute Apgar score were risk factors for some tumor subtypes.

  16. Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor of the kidney in a 51-year-old female following breast cancer: A case report and review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    ZHONG, JINJING; CHEN, NI; CHEN, XUEQIN; GONG, JING; NIE, LING; XU, MIAO; ZHOU, QIAO

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumor/Ewing’s sarcoma (pPNET/EWS) is an aggressive type of sarcoma that is rarely observed in the kidney. pPNET of the kidney principally occurs in young patients (

  17. EXPERIMENTAL RATIONALE FOR HEMOSTATIC SUTURES DURING RESECTION OF THE KIDNEY FOR ITS TUMOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Popkov

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The investigation deals with the study of the biomechanical properties of renal tissues and the comparison of different hemostatic suture procedures used during resection of the kidney for its tumor. The performed experimental study allows one to recommend that a renal capsule as the organ’s most stable and plastic part must be necessarily inserted into the hemostatic suture on both sides. The elastic modulus (Young’s modulus serves as an integral indicator of the deformation-strength properties of renal tissues, which enables it to be recommended for the wider use in experimental and clinical studies. The proposed modified suture can minimize the number of postoperative bleedings from the renal parenchyma and reduce the time of surgery, thereby improving the results of organ-saving treatment in patients with kidney cancer.

  18. Primary Ewing's Sarcoma/Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor of Kidney with Caval Involvement in a Pregnant Woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yinghui; Huang, Zhenlin; Ding, Yafei; Jia, Zhankui; Gu, Chaohui; Xue, Rui; Yang, Jinjian

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we report the case of a woman in whom was found an abdominal mass during pregnancy and who underwent nephrectomy and extraction of the emboli after delivery. The kidney had a volume of 15 × 10 × 8 cm and pathological diagnosis was primary Ewing's sarcoma. The patient was treated with conventional chemotherapy for 1 year after surgery, at which time multiple metastases were found. From this case, we surmise that hormonal changes that occur during pregnancy may accelerate the growth of Ewing's sarcoma of the kidney, suggesting that renal tumors in pregnant women demand serious attention and that anti-cancer treatment should begin as soon as possible. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Childhood Salivary Gland Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most salivary gland tumors in children are benign (not cancer) and do not spread to other tissues, but some are malignant (cancer). The prognosis for salivary gland cancer in children is usually good. Get information about of the risk factors, symptoms, tests to diagnose, and treatment of salivary gland tumors in this expert-reviewed summary.

  20. Childhood Vascular Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vascular tumors in children are a spectrum of diseases that includes infantile, congenital, spindle cell and epithelioid hemangiomas, as well as angiofibromas, hemangioendotheliomas, and angiosarcomas. Get detailed information about the many types of vascular tumors including clinical presentation, diagnosis, prognosis and treatment in this summary for clinicians.

  1. Thermoablation of Malignant Kidney Tumors Using Magnetic Nanoparticles: An In Vivo Feasibility Study in a Rabbit Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruners, Philipp; Braunschweig, Till; Hodenius, Michael; Pietsch, Hubertus; Penzkofer, Tobias; Baumann, Martin; Guenther, Rolf W.; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Mahnken, Andreas H.

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the technical feasibility of CT-guided magnetic thermoablation for the treatment of malignant kidney tumors in a VX2 tumor rabbit model. VX2 tumors were implanted into the kidneys of five rabbits and allowed to grow for 2 weeks. After preinterventional CT perfusion imaging, CT-guided injection of superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (300 μl) was performed, followed by exposure of the animals to an alternating electromagnetic field for 15 min (∼0.32 kA/m). Then animals underwent CT perfusion imaging again. Afterward, animals were sacrificed and kidneys were dissected for macroscopic and histological evaluation. Changes in perfusion before and after exposure to the alternating magnetic field were analyzed. In one animal no tumor growth could be detected so the animal was used for optimization of the ablation procedure including injection technique and peri-interventional cross-sectional imaging (CT, MRI). After image-guided intratumoral injection of ferrofluids, the depiction of nanoparticle distribution by CT correlated well with macroscopic evaluation of the dissected kidneys. MRI was limited due to severe susceptibility artefacts. Postinterventional CT perfusion imaging revealed a perfusion deficiency around the ferrofluid deposits. Histological workup showed different zones of thermal damage adjacent to the ferrofluid deposits. In conclusion, CT-guided magnetic thermoablation of malignant kidney tumors is technically feasible in an animal model and results in a perfusion deficiency indicating tumor necrosis as depicted by CT perfusion imaging and shown in histological evaluation.

  2. Expression of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated protein 1 and its clinical significance in kidney cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Tong; Yang, Guosheng; Qiu, Xiaofu; Luo, Youhua; Liu, Baichuan; Wang, Bingwei

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the expression and clinical significance of TRAP1 (tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated protein 1) in kidney cancer. TRAP1 expression was detected in kidney cancer and normal kidney tissues by qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry (IHC), respectively. Then, the correlation of TRAP1 expression with clinicopathological characters and patients' prognosis was evaluated in kidney cancer. IHC results revealed that the high-expression rates of TRAP1 in kidney cancer tissues and normal kidney tissues were 51.3% (41/80), 23.3% (7/30), and the difference was statistically significant (P=0.01). Also, TRAP1 mRNA level in kidney cancer was found to be significantly greater compared with those in normal kidney by qRT-PCR. In addition, TRAP1 expression in kidney cancer significantly correlated with lymph node metastasis and clinical stage (Pkidney cancer and correlates with patients prognosis, which may be served as a potential marker for the diagnosis and treatment of kidney cancer.

  3. Thoracoabdominal peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors in childhood: radiological features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulman, H.; Laufer, L.; Newman-Heinman, N.; Kurtzbart, E.; Maor, E.; Zirkin, H.

    2000-01-01

    Peripheral primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) are extremely uncommon, malignant neoplasms affecting mostly children and young adults. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data and radiological studies of four such cases. All cases were pathologically proven. Plain films, US, and CT scans were used. The youngest child had a huge pelvic tumor and two adolescents each had a chest wall (Askin) tumor. The fourth patient had a most unusual location of the PNET in the anterior mediastinum. The CT findings are emphasized. We emphasize that the markedly abnormal CT findings are not specific for PNET. (orig.)

  4. Pathology, treatment and management of posterior fossa brain tumors in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, K.; Siegel, K.R.

    1988-01-01

    Brain tumors are the second most common childhood malignancy. Between 1975 and 1985, 462 newly diagnosed patients were treated at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia; 207 (45%) tumors arose in the posterior fossa and 255 (55%) appeared supratentorially. A wide variety of histological subtypes were seen, each requiring tumor-specific treatment approaches. These included primitive neuroectodermal tumor (n = 86, 19%), astrocytoma (n = 135, 30%), brainstem glioma (n = 47, 10%), anaplastic astrocytoma (n = 32, 7%), and ependymoma (n = 30, 6%). Because of advances in diagnostic abilities, surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, between 60% and 70% of these patients are alive today. Diagnostic tools such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging allow for better perioperative management and follow-up, while the operating microscope, CO 2 laser, cavitron ultrasonic aspirator and neurosurgical microinstrumentation allow for more extensive and safer surgery. Disease specific treatment protocols, utilizing radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy, have made survival common in tumors such as medulloblastoma. As survival rates increase, cognitive, endocrinologic and psychologic sequelae become increasingly important. The optimal management of children with brain tumors demands a multidisciplinary approach, best facilitated by a neuro-oncology team composed of multiple subspecialists. This article addresses incidence, classification and histology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, pre-, intra- and postoperative management, long-term effects and the team approach in posterior fossa tumors in childhood. Management of specific tumor types is included as well. 57 references

  5. [Augmented reality for image guided therapy (ARIGT) of kidney tumor during nephron sparing surgery (NSS): animal model and clinical approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drewniak, Tomasz; Rzepecki, Maciej; Juszczak, Kajetan; Kwiatek, Wojciech; Bielecki, Jakub; Zieliński, Krzysztof; Ruta, Andrzej; Czekierda, Łukasz; Moczulskis, Zbigniew

    2011-01-01

    The main problem in nephron sparing surgery (NSS) is to preserve renal tumors oncological purity during the removal of the tumor with a margin of macroscopically unchanged kidney tissue while keeping the largest possible amount of normal parenchyma of the operated kidney. The development of imaging techniques, in particular IGT (Image Guided Therapy) allows precise imaging of the surgical field and, therefore, is essential in improving the effectiveness of NSS (increase of nephron sparing with the optimal radicality). The aim of this study was to develop a method of the three-dimensional (3D) imaging of the kidney tumor and its lodge in the operated kidney using 3D laser scanner during NSS procedure. Additionally, the animal model of visualization was developed. The porcine kidney model was used to test the set built up with HD cameras and linear laser scanner connected to a laptop with graphic software (David Laser Scanner, Germany) showing the surface of the kidney and the lodge after removal the chunk of renal parenchyma. Additionally, the visualization and reconstruction was performed on animal porcine model. Moreover, 5 patients (3 women, 2 men) aged from 37 to 68 years (mean 56), diagnosed with kidney tumors in CT scans with a diameter of 3.7-6.9 cm (mean 4.9) were operated in our Department this year, scanning the surface during the treatment with the kidney tumor and kidney tumor after it is removed with a margin of renal tissue. In one case, the lodge of removed tumor was scanned. Dimensions in 3D reconstruction images of laser scans in the study of animal model and the images obtained intraoperatively were compared with the dimensions evaluated during preoperative CT scans, intraoperative measurements. Three-dimensional imaging laser scanner operating field loge resected tumor and the tumor on the kidney of animal models and during NSS treatments for patients with kidney tumors is possible in real time with an accuracy of -2 mm do +9 mm (+/- 3 mm). The

  6. Specific aspects of radiotherapy of malignant tumors in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bek, V.; Abrahamova, J.

    1987-01-01

    Based on the experience with radiotherapy of malignant tumors in 1839 children treated at the Oncological Clinic in Prague from 1946 to 1985, the conclusion is arrived at that some specific aspects of radiotherapy of tumors in children, such as kinetics and biological features are so important that it can be considered a special sub-discipline of clinical radiotherapy. An opinion is expressed about the application of irradiation in non-malignant affections in children. (author). 2 figs., 4 tabs., 25 refs

  7. Incidence and Curability of Tumors in Childhood in Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaiserova, E.; Subova, Z.; Bubanska, E.; Stancokova, T.; Oravkinova, I.; Plank, L.

    2006-01-01

    Annual incidence of cancer in Slovak Republic for children 0 - 14 years old in 1991 - 2002 was 115,2 - 143 per million and for adolescents 15 - 19 years old 156 - 196 per million, in which mild increase was observed. Most often malignancies in children have been acute lymphoblastic leukemia and tumors of central nervous system. For children 0 - 4 years old have been characteristic also embryonal tumors (neuroblastoma, Wilms' tumor, retinoblastoma). In older than 10 years incidence of Hodgkins' lymphoma, osteosarcoma and carcinomas has been increasing. All children and adolescents 0 - 18 years have been treated exclusively in the last 10 years in three pediatric oncological centers. The survival significantly improved in last 10 years. Overall 4-years survival has been 76 % in years 2000 - 2003 in comparison with 5-years survival 63 % in 1990 - 1994. More than 75 % survival was achieved in acute lymphoblastic leukemia, Hodgkins' and non-Hodgkins' lymphomas, retinoblastoma, Wilms' tumor, germinal cell tumors and soft-tissue sarcomas. The worst survival was observed in acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia (56 %) and liver tumors (41 %). (author)

  8. Current diagnostic approach of bone tumors in childhood; Abordagem diagnostica atual dos tumores osseos na infancia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torre, Marcia Barbosa; Scatigno Neto, Andre [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Hospital das Clinicas

    1995-09-01

    The authors analyze the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as the imaging modality of choice for evaluation of patients with bone tumors or soft tissue tumors. The advent of such a sensitive imaging modality is fortuitous and coincides with a recent change in the therapeutic approach to primary bone tumors. MRI is extremely valuable in monitoring the tumor response to the initial chemotherapy and is accurate defining the margins of tumor, facilitating planning of limb salvage surgical procedures. (author). 5 refs., 8 figs.

  9. Differential diagnosis of cystic bone tumors in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Refior, H.J.; Stuerz, H.

    1982-09-01

    Skeletal changes leading to a suspicion of the presence of a tumour frequently occur in childhood with the roentgenological manifestation of a cyst. X-ray morphology can differ depending upon the localisation and the course. In childhood, however such findings are mainly classified as tumour-like bone lesions. This group comprises, inter alia, the juvenile bone cyst, the aneurysmatic bone cyst and fibrous dysplasia. However, it is necessary to exclude by differential diagnosis - even though the main age of manifestation is after completion of growth - genuine bone tumours with cystic phenomena, such as the giant cell tumour, chondroma or chondroblastoma. Verification of the diagnosis can be effected via radiologic-diagnostic methods such as tomography and angiography as well as computerized tomography. The use of scintigraphy of the skeleton can likewise be indicated. Numerous laboratory parameters can be used in individual cases to exclude certain diagnoses. Taking these aspects into consideration, the article reviews differential diagnosis of the most frequent skeletal affections in childhood. Great emphasis is given to the ranking and importance of the individual diagnostic methods.

  10. Molecular analysis of childhood primitive neuroectodermal tumors defines markers associated with poor outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheurlen, W G; Schwabe, G C; Joos, S

    1998-01-01

    PURPOSE: The diagnostic and prognostic significance of well-defined molecular markers was investigated in childhood primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using microsatellite analysis, Southern blot analysis, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), 30 primary tumors......: In our study, amplification of c-myc was a poor-prognosis marker in PNET. LOH of chromosome 17p was associated with metastatic disease. Molecular analysis of primary tumors using these markers may be useful for stratification of children with PNET in future prospective studies. The other aberrations...... investigated were not of significant prognostic value, but may provide an entry point for future large-scale molecular studies....

  11. Comparison of one-, two-, and three-dimensional measurements of childhood brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, K E; Patronas, N; Aikin, A A; Albert, P S; Balis, F M

    2001-09-19

    End points for assessing drug activity in brain tumors are determined by measuring the change in tumor size by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) relative to a pretreatment or best-response scan. Traditionally, two-dimensional (2D) tumor measurements have been used, but one-dimensional (1D) measurements have recently been proposed as an alternative. Because software to estimate three-dimensional (3D) tumor volume from digitized MRI images is available, we compared all three methods of tumor measurement for childhood brain tumors and clinical outcome. Tumor size from 130 MRI scans from 32 patients (32 baseline and 98 follow-up scans, for a total of 130 scans; median, three scans per patient; range, two to 18 scans) was measured by each method. Tumor-response category (partial response, minor response, stable disease, or progressive disease) was determined from the percentage change in tumor size between the baseline or best-response scan and follow-up scans. Time to clinical progression was independently determined by chart review. All statistical tests were two-sided. Concordances between 1D and 2D, 1D and 3D, and 2D and 3D were 83% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 67% to 99%), 61% (95% CI = 47% to 75%), and 66% (95% CI = 52% to 80%), respectively, on follow-up scans. Concordances for 1D and 3D and for 2D and 3D were statistically significantly lower than the concordance for 1D and 2D (Ptumors in the minor response and progressive-disease categories. Median times to progression measured by the 1D, 2D, and 3D methods were 154, 105, and 112 days, respectively, compared with 114 days based on neurologic symptoms and signs (P = .09 for overall comparison). Detection of partial responses was not influenced by the measurement method, but estimating time to disease progression may be method dependent for childhood brain tumors.

  12. Small renal masses: The molecular markers associated with outcome of patients with kidney tumors 7 cm or less

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirina, L. V.; Usynin, Y. A.; Kondakova, I. V.; Yurmazov, Z. A.; Slonimskaya, E. M.; Pikalova, L. V.

    2016-08-01

    The investigation of molecular mechanisms of tumor cell behavior in small renal masses is required to achieve the better cancer survival. The aim of the study is to find molecular markers associated with outcome of patients with kidney tumors 7 cm or less. A homogenous group of 20 patients T1N0M0-1 (mean age 57.6 ± 2.2 years) with kidney cancer was selected for the present analysis. The content of transcription and growth factors was determined by ELISA. The levels of AKT-mTOR signaling pathway components were measured by Western blotting analysis. The molecular markers associated with unfavorable outcome of patients with kidney tumors 7 cm or less were high levels of NF-kB p50, NF-kB p65, HIF-1, HIF-2, VEGF and CAIX. AKT activation with PTEN loss also correlated with the unfavorable outcome of kidney cancer patients with tumor size 7 cm or less. It is observed that the biological features of kidney cancer could predict the outcome of patients.

  13. Multifocal osteosarcoma as second tumor after childhood retinoblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potepan, P.; Laffranchi, A.; Danesini, G.M.; Spagnoli, I.; Luksch, R.; Sozzi, G.; Testi, A.; Parafioriti, A.; Giardini, R.

    1999-01-01

    We present a case of multifocal osteosarcoma (MFOS) arising 11.5 years after successful treatment of bilateral retinoblastoma. The clinical, imaging and pathological findings at onset, after therapy, and during follow-up are described. Fluorescent in situ hybridization did not reveal a deletion of the RB-1 retinoblastoma gene, although the presence of an inactivating mutation invisible to this method cannot be ruled out. The MFOS may have been a second multifocal tumor associated with the original retinoblastoma or a post-irradiation sarcoma with extensive metastases. (orig.)

  14. Proceedings of the 3. Muenster symposium on late effects after tumor therapy in childhood and adolescence. Abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willich, Normann; Boelling, Tobias

    2009-01-01

    The volume on the 3rd Muenster Symposion on late effects after tumor therapy in childhood and adolescence contains 7 contributions: Evaluation of side effects after radiotherapy in childhood and adolescence; from retrospective case reports to a perspective, multicentric and transnational approach; late effects surveillance system after childhood cancer in Germany, Austria and parts of Switzerland - update 2009; second malignant neoplasm after childhood cancer in Germany - results from the long-term follow-up of the German childhood cancer registry; secondary neoplasm after Wilm's tumor in Germany; second cancer after total-body irradiation (TBI) in childhood; late toxicity in children undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with TBI-containing conditioning regimens for hematological malignancies; radiation toxicity following busulfan/melphalan high-dose chemotherapy in the EURO-EWING-99-trials: review of GPOH data

  15. Proceedings of the 3. Muenster symposium on late effects after tumor therapy in childhood and adolescence. Abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willich, Normann; Boelling, Tobias (eds.) [Univ. Hospital Muenster (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy

    2009-08-15

    The volume on the 3rd Muenster Symposion on late effects after tumor therapy in childhood and adolescence contains 7 contributions: Evaluation of side effects after radiotherapy in childhood and adolescence; from retrospective case reports to a perspective, multicentric and transnational approach; late effects surveillance system after childhood cancer in Germany, Austria and parts of Switzerland - update 2009; second malignant neoplasm after childhood cancer in Germany - results from the long-term follow-up of the German childhood cancer registry; secondary neoplasm after Wilm's tumor in Germany; second cancer after total-body irradiation (TBI) in childhood; late toxicity in children undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation with TBI-containing conditioning regimens for hematological malignancies; radiation toxicity following busulfan/melphalan high-dose chemotherapy in the EURO-EWING-99-trials: review of GPOH data.

  16. A Case of Recurrent Solid Pseudopapillary Tumor of the Pancreas with Involvement of the Spleen and Kidney

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sang Eun; Park, Nam Sook; Chun, Jae Min; Park, Nam Whan; Yang, Young Joon; Yun, Gak Won; Lee, Hyo Jin; Yun, Hwan Jung; Jo, Deog Yeon; Song, Kyu Sang; Kim, Samyong

    2006-01-01

    Solid pseudopapillary tumor of the pancreas (SPTP) is a rare primary pancreatic tumor of an unknown etiology that is usually diagnosed in adolescent girls and young women. Most SPTPs are considered to be benign and only rarely metastasize. We report here on a 27-year old woman with recurrent SPTP with involvement of both the spleen and left kidney at the time of the initial diagnosis, and with aggressive behavior. In July 1995, she was admitted with abdominal discomfort and mass. She underwen...

  17. Primary carcinoid tumor arising within mature teratoma of the kidney: report of a rare entity and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parwani Anil V

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary carcinoid tumor arising within mature teratoma of the kidney is extremely rare, and their clinicopathologic features are not well described. Our objective was to further define the clinical features and pathologic spectra of primary carcinoid tumor arising within mature teratoma of the kidney. Methods Six previously reported case reports were identified using MEDLINE and a subsequent bibliographic search of all pertinent reports and reviews was performed. We also searched the electronic medical archival records of our institution and identified one additional unreported case. Data were extracted on the demographics, predisposing factors, clinical presentation, radiographic features, gross pathology, microscopic pathology, immunophenotype, therapy, and outcome of each of these seven cases. Results Primary carcinoid tumor arising within mature teratoma of the kidney was found at a mean age of 41.4 years. Of the 7 cases, 3 were female and 4 were male. Two of the 7 cases (28.6% were associated with horseshoe kidney. It typically presented with abdominal pain without carcinoid syndrome. It typical radiologic appearance was well circumscribed partly calcified Bosniak II-III lesion. Histologically, the carcinoid tumor showed monotonous small round cells arranged in classic anastomosing cords/ribbons intermixed with solid nests. Surgery was curative, no additional treatment was required, no local recurrences occurred, and no metastases occurred in all 7 cases. The 3 cases with available outcome data were alive at the time of publication of their respective cases (mean, 5 months. Conclusion Primary carcinoid tumor arising within mature teratoma of the kidney is a rare tumor that typically presents with abdominal pain without carcinoid syndrome. It is not associated with local recurrence and metastasis, is surgically curable, and has excellent prognosis.

  18. Pituitary Tumors in Childhood: an update in their diagnosis, treatment and molecular genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Margaret F.; Stratakis, Constantine A.

    2009-01-01

    Pituitary tumors are rare in childhood and adolescence, with a reported prevalence of up to 1 per million children. Only 2 - 6% of surgically treated pituitary tumors occur in children. Although pituitary tumors in children are almost never malignant and hormonal secretion is rare, these tumors may result in significant morbidity. Tumors within the pituitary fossa are of two types mainly, craniopharyngiomas and adenomas; craniopharyngiomas cause symptoms by compressing normal pituitary, causing hormonal deficiencies and producing mass effects on surrounding tissues and the brain; adenomas produce a variety of hormonal conditions such as hyperprolactinemia, Cushing disease and acromegaly or gigantism. Little is known about the genetic causes of sporadic lesions, which comprise the majority of pituitary tumors, but in children, more frequently than in adults, pituitary tumors may be a manifestation of genetic conditions such as multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN 1), Carney complex, familial isolated pituitary adenoma (FIPA), and McCune-Albright syndrome. The study of pituitary tumorigenesis in the context of these genetic syndromes has advanced our knowledge of the molecular basis of pituitary tumors and may lead to new therapeutic developments. PMID:18416659

  19. Meningeous sarcoma: a rare tumor among the central nervous system neoplasia in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rondinelli, Patricia Imperatriz Porto; Salvajoli, Joao Victor; Sredni, Simone Treiger; Araujo, Maria Betania Mahler

    2003-01-01

    We describe a case of meningeous malignancy in childhood, diagnosed by the Pediatric Department of the Cancer Hospital in Sao Paulo, Brazil, and do revise the world literature as well. The meningeous sarcoma (M S) is an extremely aggressive tumor, which appears in the central nervous system, at any age, but mainly in children. They represent a tiny percentage of brain tumors in children and sporadic cases are related in the world literature. Consequently, there are not enough clinical experiences about this distinct entity to allow the conclusion about which is the best therapeutic approach. (author)

  20. Recurrent multifocal cutaneous Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma: A rare vascular tumor of infancy and childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhagyalakshmi Atla

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma (KHE is a locally aggressive vascular tumor of childhood although cases occurring in adulthood are also described. The features overlap with juvenile capillary hemangioma and Kaposi sarcoma. We report a rare case of recurrent, multifocal (nose and chin cutaneous KHE initially occurring in a 3-year-old female child, uncomplicated by Kasabach–Merritt syndrome. Recurrences occurred over the next 6 years and resulted in complete distortion of the nose, requiring plastic repair.

  1. Recurrent multifocal cutaneous Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma: A rare vascular tumor of infancy and childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atla, Bhagyalakshmi; Sudhakar, P V; Rao, Nagarjun; Prasad, Uma

    2016-01-01

    Kaposiform hemangioendothelioma (KHE) is a locally aggressive vascular tumor of childhood although cases occurring in adulthood are also described. The features overlap with juvenile capillary hemangioma and Kaposi sarcoma. We report a rare case of recurrent, multifocal (nose and chin) cutaneous KHE initially occurring in a 3-year-old female child, uncomplicated by Kasabach-Merritt syndrome. Recurrences occurred over the next 6 years and resulted in complete distortion of the nose, requiring plastic repair.

  2. Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kind of kidney cancer called Wilms' tumor. The incidence of kidney cancer seems to be increasing. One ... doesn't go away Loss of appetite Unexplained weight loss Tiredness Fever, which usually comes and goes ( ...

  3. PPARα inhibition modulates multiple reprogrammed metabolic pathways in kidney cancer and attenuates tumor growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Aboud, Omran; Donohoe, Dallas; Bultman, Scott; Fitch, Mark; Riiff, Tim; Hellerstein, Marc; Weiss, Robert H

    2015-06-01

    Kidney cancer [renal cell carcinoma (RCC)] is the sixth-most-common cancer in the United States, and its incidence is increasing. The current progression-free survival for patients with advanced RCC rarely extends beyond 1-2 yr due to the development of therapeutic resistance. We previously identified peroxisome proliferator-activating receptor-α (PPARα) as a potential therapeutic target for this disease and showed that a specific PPARα antagonist, GW6471, induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 in RCC cell lines associated with attenuation of cell cycle regulatory proteins. We now extend that work and show that PPARα inhibition attenuates components of RCC metabolic reprogramming, capitalizing on the Warburg effect. The specific PPARα inhibitor GW6471, as well as a siRNA specific to PPARα, attenuates the enhanced fatty acid oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation associated with glycolysis inhibition, and PPARα antagonism also blocks the enhanced glycolysis that has been observed in RCC cells; this effect did not occur in normal human kidney epithelial cells. Such cell type-specific inhibition of glycolysis corresponds with changes in protein levels of the oncogene c-Myc and has promising clinical implications. Furthermore, we show that treatment with GW6471 results in RCC tumor growth attenuation in a xenograft mouse model, with minimal obvious toxicity, a finding associated with the expected on-target effects on c-Myc. These studies demonstrate that several pivotal cancer-relevant metabolic pathways are inhibited by PPARα antagonism. Our data support the concept that targeting PPARα, with or without concurrent inhibition of glycolysis, is a potential novel and effective therapeutic approach for RCC that targets metabolic reprogramming in this tumor.

  4. Memory deficits in long-term survivors of childhood brain tumors may primarily reflect general cognitive dysfunctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimers, Tonny Solveig; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Schmiegelow, Kjeld

    2007-01-01

    To analyze the impact of potential predictors on memory performance in survivors of childhood brain tumors and to examine whether deficits in memory after radiotherapy (RT) should be considered part of a more global mental dysfunction.......To analyze the impact of potential predictors on memory performance in survivors of childhood brain tumors and to examine whether deficits in memory after radiotherapy (RT) should be considered part of a more global mental dysfunction....

  5. Wilms tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... suggested. Alternative Names Nephroblastoma; Kidney tumor - Wilms Images Kidney anatomy Wilms tumor References Babaian KN, Delacroix SE, Wood CG, Jonasch E. Kidney cancer. In: Skorecki K, Chertow GM, Marsden PA, ...

  6. Games of lives in surviving childhood brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chin-Mi; Chen, Yueh-Chih; Haase, Joan E

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe the commonality of the lived experience of adolescent and young adult survivors (AYAS) of brain tumors in Taiwan from a sociocultural perspective. Seven AYAS aged 13 to 22 years, who had survived 5 to 10 years from the time of diagnosis, participated in this study. In consideration of their emotional duress, each participant was interviewed only once. The data revealed an essential structure: the game of life. The essential structure included six themes as follows: (a) no longer playing well, (b) wandering on the outer edges of social life, (c) helplessly struggling with role obligations, (d) rationally regulating the meaning of surviving, (e) winning a new social face, and (f) mastering the game of life. The findings suggest how nurses might help AYAS to succeed in psychosocial adjustment.

  7. Increased frontal functional networks in adult survivors of childhood brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbo Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood brain tumors and associated treatment have been shown to affect brain development and cognitive outcomes. Understanding the functional connectivity of brain many years after diagnosis and treatment may inform the development of interventions to improve the long-term outcomes of adult survivors of childhood brain tumors. This work investigated the frontal region functional connectivity of 16 adult survivors of childhood cerebellar tumors after an average of 14.9 years from diagnosis and 16 demographically-matched controls using resting state functional MRI (rs-fMRI. Independent component analysis (ICA was applied to identify the resting state activity from rs-fMRI data and to select the specific regions associated with executive functions, followed by the secondary analysis of the functional networks connecting these regions. It was found that survivors exhibited differences in the functional connectivity in executive control network (ECN, default mode network (DMN and salience network (SN compared to demographically-matched controls. More specifically, the number of functional connectivity observed in the survivors is higher than that in the controls, and with increased strength, or stronger correlation coefficient between paired seeds, in survivors compared to the controls. Observed hyperconnectivity in the selected frontal functional network thus is consistent with findings in patients with other neurological injuries and diseases.

  8. Birth weight and order as risk factors for childhood central nervous system tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Jane; Partap, Sonia; Reynolds, Peggy; Von Behren, Julie; Fisher, Paul Graham

    2010-09-01

    To determine whether birth characteristics related to maternal-fetal health in utero are associated with the development of childhood central nervous system tumors. We identified, from the California Cancer Registry, 3733 children under age 15 diagnosed with childhood central nervous system tumors between 1988 and 2006 and linked these cases to their California birth certificates. Four controls per case, matched on birth date and sex, were randomly selected from the same birth files. We evaluated associations of multiple childhood CNS tumor subtypes with birth weight and birth order. Low birth weight was associated with a reduced risk of low-grade gliomas (OR=0.67; 95% CI, 0.46 to 0.97) and high birth weight was associated with increased risk of high-grade gliomas (OR=1.57; 95% CI, 1.16 to 2.12). High birth order (fourth or higher) was associated with decreased risk of low-grade gliomas (OR=0.75; 95% CI, 0.56 to 0.99) and increased risk of high-grade gliomas (OR=1.32; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.72 for second order). Factors that drive growth in utero may increase the risk of low-grade gliomas. There may be a similar relationship in high-grade gliomas, although other factors, such as early infection, may modify this association. Additional investigation is warranted to validate and further define these findings. Copyright (c) 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Rhabdomyosarcoma of the kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Samkari

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Rhabdomyosarcoma is considered the most common soft tissue sarcoma arising in patients younger than 15 years old, accounting for 5%–10% of childhood solid tumors. Sarcoma of the kidney represents 1% of all primary renal malignancies. Primary renal rhabdomyosarcoma is a very rare entity with limited number of cases reported in the literature. In this paper we present two cases of primary renal rhabdomyosarcoma in pediatric patients. The two tumors involved the renal parenchyma and occurred in 2-year-old girl and 6-year-old boy, respectively. Histopathology examination and immunohistochemistry studies confirm the diagnosis of embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma with pleomorphic component, and pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma, respectively. Both cases are treated with chemotherapy and show a good response with no evidence of recurrence or metastasis. The aim of this paper is to expand the differential diagnosis of primary mesenchymal kidney tumors in pediatric age group. Keywords: Rhabdomyosarcoma, Renal neoplasm, Pediatric, Oncology

  10. High prevalence of early hypothalamic-pituitary damage in childhood brain tumor survivors: need for standardized follow-up programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clement, Sarah C.; Meeteren, Antoinette Y. N. Schouten-van; Kremer, Leontien C. M.; van Trotsenburg, A. S. Paul; Caron, Huib N.; van Santen, Hanneke M.

    2014-01-01

    Childhood brain tumor survivors (CBTS) are at increased risk to develop endocrine disorders. Alerted by two cases who experienced delay in diagnosis of endocrine deficiencies within the first 5 years after brain tumor diagnosis, our aim was to investigate the current screening strategy and the

  11. Tumors of the brain and nervous system after radiotherapy in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ron, E.; Modan, B.; Boice, J.D. Jr.; Alfandary, E.; Stovall, M.; Chetrit, A.; Katz, L.

    1988-01-01

    We investigated the relation between radiotherapy in childhood for tinea capitis and the later development of tumors of the brain and nervous system among 10,834 patients treated between 1948 and 1960 in Israel. Benign and malignant tumors were identified from the pathology records of all Israeli hospitals and from Israeli national cancer and death registries. Doses of radiation to the neural tissue were retrospectively estimated for each patient (mean, 1.5 Gy). Sixty neural tumors developed in the patients exposed as children, and the 30-year cumulative risk (+/- SE) was 0.8 +/- 0.2 percent. The incidence of tumors was 1.8 per 10,000 persons per year. The estimated relative risk as compared with that for 10,834 matched general-population controls and 5392 siblings who had not been irradiated was 6.9 (95 percent confidence interval, 4.1 to 11.6) for all tumors and 8.4 (confidence interval, 4.8 to 14.8) when the analysis was restricted to neural tumors of the head and neck. Increased risks were apparent for meningiomas (relative risk, 9.5; n = 19), gliomas (relative risk, 2.6; n = 7), nerve-sheath tumors (relative risk, 18.8; n = 25), and other neural tumors (relative risk, 3.4; n = 9). A strong dose--response relation was found, with the relative risk approaching 20 after estimated doses of approximately 2.5 Gy. Our study confirms that radiation doses on the order of 1 to 2 Gy can significantly increase the risk of neural tumors

  12. Fetal first trimester growth is not associated with kidney outcomes in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Bakker (Hanneke); R. Gaillard (Romy); A. Hofman (Albert); I.K.M. Reiss (Irwin); E.A.P. Steegers (Eric); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Impaired fetal growth is associated with increased risks of kidney diseases in later life. Because human development rates are highest during the first trimester, this trimester may be a particularly critical period for kidney outcomes. We have therefore examined the

  13. Successful Endovascular Control of Renal Artery in a Transplant Kidney During Nephron Sparing Surgery (NSS) for Large Centrally Located Tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shprits, Sagi; Moskovits, Boaz; Sachner, Robert; Nativ, Ofer

    2016-05-01

    Renal cell carcinoma in a transplant kidney is a rare condition. Nephron Sparing Surgery (NSS) is the treatment of choice. One of the main technical challenges is obtaining adequate vascular control. We present a rare case of large centrally located hillar tumor in a kidney 18 years after transplantation treated with NSS. Vascular control was achieved by using a novel approach. Post-operative course was uneventful with minimal decrease in renal function. We believe that this unique choice of treatment can be used in cases of NSS where the access to the renal pedicle is limited.

  14. Evaluation of malignant solid tumor in childhood with FDG-PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Amane; Goto, Hiroaki; Kuroki, Fumiko

    2006-01-01

    Usefulness of FDG-PET (18F-deoxyglucose PET) was examined in evaluation of diagnosis and therapeutic efficacy of childhood malignant solid tumors. Subjects were 32 patients (16 males) of the median age of 7 y (1 - 27 y), involving those with neuroblastoma (9 cases), hepatoblastoma (4), chronic granulomatous disorder (4) and others (each ≤2). They underwent 75 FDG-PET examinations for diagnosis before and during treatment in authors' hospital in the period from May 2001 to December 2003. Standard uptake value (SUV), 1 x 1 cm region of interest (ROI) of abnormally high distribution area of radioactivity in the lesion/FDG dose/kg body wt., was used for evaluation: SUV>1.5 was defined positive. In neuroblastoma, FDG was found to be highly distributed and kinetics of SUV, to be useful for evaluation of therapeutic efficacy and early metastasis detection. In some cases of hepatoblastoma, the therapeutic effectiveness and recurrence were not satisfactorily evaluative. The distribution of FDG was not satisfactory in Wilms' tumor relative to other tumors. The PET was thought to be useful, despite their small case number examined, for those evaluations of Ewing's tumor, dysgerminoma and Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Thus FDG-PET was found useful for detection, evaluation of therapeutic efficacy and early metastasis detection of pediatric malignant solid tumors. (T.I.)

  15. Dose-dependent effects of (anti)folate preinjection on 99mTc-radiofolate uptake in tumors and kidneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Cristina; Schibli, Roger; Forrer, Flavio; Krenning, Eric P.; Jong, Marion de

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: The folate receptor (FR) is frequently overexpressed in tumors and can be targeted with folate-based (radio)pharmaceuticals. However, significant accumulation of radiofolates in FR-positive kidneys represents a drawback. We have shown that preadministration of the antifolate pemetrexed (PMX) significantly improved the tumor-to-kidney ratio of radiofolates in mice. The aim of this study was to investigate the dose dependence of these effects and whether the same results could be achieved with folic acid (FA) or 5-methyl-tetrahydrofolate (5-Me-THF). Methods: Biodistribution was assessed 4 h postinjection of the organometallic 99m Tc-picolylamine monoacetic acid folate in nude mice bearing FR-positive KB tumor xenografts. PMX (50-400 μg/mouse) was injected 1 h previous to radioactivity. The effects of FA and 5-Me-THF (0.5-50 μg/mouse) were investigated likewise. Tissues and organs were collected and counted for radioactivity and the values tabulated as percentage of injected dose per gram tissue (% ID/g). Results: PMX administration reduced renal retention ( 10% ID/g), while the tumor uptake (average 1.35%±0.40% ID/g vs. control: 1.79%±0.49% ID/g) was only slightly affected independent of the PMX dose. Replacement of PMX by FA or 5-Me-THF (50 μg/mouse) resulted in a significant renal blockade (<0.1% ID/g) but at the same time in an undesired reduction of tumor uptake (<0.2% ID/g). Conclusions: Selective reduction of radiofolate uptake in kidneys under retention of high tumor accumulation could be achieved in combination with PMX over a broad dose range but not with FA or 5-Me-THF

  16. Failure-to-thrive syndrome associated with tumor formation by Madin-Darby canine kidney cells in newborn nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinster, Lauren R; Omeir, Romelda L; Foseh, Gideon S; Macauley, Juliete N; Snoy, Philip J; Beren, Joel J; Teferedegne, Belete; Peden, Keith; Lewis, Andrew M

    2013-08-01

    Tumors that formed in newborn nude mice that were inoculated with 10(7) Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells were associated with a failure-to-thrive (FTT) syndrome consisting of growth retardation, lethargy, weakness, and dehydration. Scoliosis developed in 41% of affected pups. Pups were symptomatic by week 2; severely affected pups became moribund and required euthanasia within 3 to 4 wk. Mice with FTT were classified into categories of mild, moderate, and severe disease by comparing their weight with that of age-matched normal nude mice. The MDCK-induced tumors were adenocarcinomas that invaded adjacent muscle, connective tissue, and bone; 6 of the 26 pups examined had lung metastases. The induction of FTT did not correlate with cell-line aggressiveness as estimated by histopathology or the efficiency of tumor formation (tumor-forming dose 50% endpoint range = 10(2.8) to 10(7.5)); however, tumor invasion of the paravertebral muscles likely contributed to the scoliosis noted. In contrast to the effect of MDCK cells, tumor formation observed in newborn mice inoculated with highly tumorigenic, human-tumor-derived cell lines was not associated with FTT development. We suggest that tumor formation and FTT are characteristics of these MDCK cell inocula and that FTT represents a new syndrome that may be similar to the cachexia that develops in humans with cancer or other diseases.

  17. Information needs of survivors and families after childhood CNS tumor treatment: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovén, Emma; Lannering, Birgitta; Gustafsson, Göran; Boman, Krister K

    2018-05-01

    This study examines information needs and satisfaction with provided information among childhood central nervous system (CNS) tumor survivors and their parents. In a population-based sample of 697 adult survivors in Sweden, 518 survivors and 551 parents provided data. Information needs and satisfaction with information were studied using a multi-dimensional standardized questionnaire addressing information-related issues. Overall, 52% of the survivors and 48% of the parents reported no, or only minor, satisfaction with the extent of provided information, and 51% of the survivors expressed a need for more information than provided. The information received was found useful (to some extent/very much) by 53%, while 47% did not find it useful, or to a minor degree only. Obtaining written material was associated with greater satisfaction and usefulness of information. Dissatisfaction with information was associated with longer time since diagnosis, poorer current health status and female sex. The survivors experienced unmet information needs vis-à-vis late effects, illness education, rehabilitation and psychological services. Overall, parents were more dissatisfied than the survivors. These findings have implications for improvements in information delivery. Information in childhood CNS tumor care and follow-up should specifically address issues where insufficiency was identified, and recognize persistent and with time changing needs at the successive stages of long-term survivorship.

  18. Predicting survival in patients with metastatic kidney cancer by gene-expression profiling in the primary tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasselli, James R; Shih, Joanna H; Iyengar, Shuba R; Maranchie, Jodi; Riss, Joseph; Worrell, Robert; Torres-Cabala, Carlos; Tabios, Ray; Mariotti, Andra; Stearman, Robert; Merino, Maria; Walther, McClellan M; Simon, Richard; Klausner, Richard D; Linehan, W Marston

    2003-06-10

    To identify potential molecular determinants of tumor biology and possible clinical outcomes, global gene-expression patterns were analyzed in the primary tumors of patients with metastatic renal cell cancer by using cDNA microarrays. We used grossly dissected tumor masses that included tumor, blood vessels, connective tissue, and infiltrating immune cells to obtain a gene-expression "profile" from each primary tumor. Two patterns of gene expression were found within this uniformly staged patient population, which correlated with a significant difference in overall survival between the two patient groups. Subsets of genes most significantly associated with survival were defined, and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) was the gene most predictive for survival. Therefore, despite the complex biological nature of metastatic cancer, basic clinical behavior as defined by survival may be determined by the gene-expression patterns expressed within the compilation of primary gross tumor cells. We conclude that survival in patients with metastatic renal cell cancer can be correlated with the expression of various genes based solely on the expression profile in the primary kidney tumor.

  19. High-fat-diet-induced obesity causes an inflammatory and tumor-promoting microenvironment in the rat kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Stemmer

    2012-09-01

    Obesity and concomitant comorbidities have emerged as public health problems of the first order. For instance, obese individuals have an increased risk for kidney cancer. However, direct mechanisms linking obesity with kidney cancer remain elusive. We hypothesized that diet-induced obesity (DIO promotes renal carcinogenesis by inducing an inflammatory and tumor-promoting microenvironment. We compared chow-fed lean Wistar rats with those that were sensitive (DIOsens or partially resistant (DIOres to DIO to investigate the impact of body adiposity versus dietary nutrient overload in the development of renal preneoplasia and activation of tumor-promoting signaling pathways. Our data clearly show a correlation between body adiposity, the severity of nephropathy, and the total number and incidence of preneoplastic renal lesions. However, similar plasma triglyceride, plasma free fatty acid and renal triglyceride levels were found in chow-fed, DIOres and DIOsens rats, suggesting that lipotoxicity is not a critical contributor to the renal pathology. Obesity-related nephropathy was further associated with regenerative cell proliferation, monocyte infiltration and higher renal expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1, interleukin (IL-6, IL-6 receptor and leptin receptor. Accordingly, we observed increased signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3 and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR phosphorylation in tubules with preneoplastic phenotypes. In summary, our results demonstrate that high body adiposity induces an inflammatory and proliferative microenvironment in rat kidneys that promotes the development of preneoplastic lesions, potentially via activation of the STAT3 and mTOR signaling pathways.

  20. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Early Endocrine Disorders in Childhood Brain Tumor Survivors : A Nationwide, Multicenter Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clement, Sarah C; Schouten-van Meeteren, Antoinette Y N; Boot, Annemieke M; Claahsen-van der Grinten, Hedy L; Granzen, Bernd; Sen Han, K; Janssens, Geert O; Michiels, Erna M; van Trotsenburg, A S Paul; Vandertop, W Peter; van Vuurden, Dannis G; Kremer, Leontien C M; Caron, Hubert N; van Santen, Hanneke M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the prevalence of, and risk factors for, early endocrine disorders in childhood brain tumor survivors (CBTS). Patients and Methods This nationwide study cohort consisted of 718 CBTS who were diagnosed between 2002 and 2012, and who survived ≥ 2 years after diagnosis. Patients

  1. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Early Endocrine Disorders in Childhood Brain Tumor Survivors: A Nationwide, Multicenter Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clement, Sarah C.; Schouten-van Meeteren, Antoinette Y. N.; Boot, Annemieke M.; Claahsen-van der Grinten, Hedy L.; Granzen, Bernd; Sen Han, K.; Janssens, Geert O.; Michiels, Erna M.; van Trotsenburg, A. S. Paul; Vandertop, W. Peter; van Vuurden, Dannis G.; Kremer, Leontien C. M.; Caron, Hubert N.; van Santen, Hanneke M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the prevalence of, and risk factors for, early endocrine disorders in childhood brain tumor survivors (CBTS). Patients and Methods This nationwide study cohort consisted of 718 CBTS who were diagnosed between 2002 and 2012, and who survived ≥ 2 years after diagnosis. Patients

  2. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Early Endocrine Disorders in Childhood Brain Tumor Survivors: A Nationwide, Multicenter Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clement, S.C.; Schouten-van Meeteren, A.Y.; Boot, A.M.; Claahsen-van der Grinten, H.L.; Granzen, B.; Han, K.; Janssens, G.O.; Michiels, E.M.; Trotsenburg, A.S. van; Vandertop, W.P.; Vuurden, D.G. van; Kremer, L.C.; Caron, H.N.; Santen, H.M. van

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the prevalence of, and risk factors for, early endocrine disorders in childhood brain tumor survivors (CBTS). Patients and Methods This nationwide study cohort consisted of 718 CBTS who were diagnosed between 2002 and 2012, and who survived >/= 2 years after diagnosis. Patients

  3. Collecting and Storing Blood and Brain Tumor Tissue Samples From Children With Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-11

    Childhood Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Grade I Meningioma; Childhood Grade II Meningioma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Newly Diagnosed Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma

  4. Calcification of the bilateral basal ganglia after radiation therapy for childhood brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubo, Osami; Tajika, Yasuhiko; Sakairi, Mitsuhiko; Katahira, Masako; Shimizu, Takashi; Kitamura, Koichi

    1987-12-01

    Calcification of the basal ganglia subsequent to radiation therapy for childhood brain tumors has rarely been reported. Three cases of this calcification subsequent to radiation are presented here. Case 1 is a 7 year-old boy who underwent irradiation of 5000 rads locally for craniopharyngioma at the age of 4 years. Case 2 is a 4 year-old boy who was treated with irradiation of 4500 rads locally for cerebellar medulloblastoma at the age of 1 year. Case 3 is a 15 year-old girl who was treated with irradiation of 5000 rads to the brain and 3000 rads locally for suprasellar germinoma at the age of 11 years. In all these cases, the interval between radiation and evidence of calcification as detected only by CT scan, was more than 3 years and 2 cases are experiencing mild mental retardation. These findings suggest the possibility of long-term complications due to radiation therapy.

  5. Quality of life and late-effects among childhood brain tumor survivors: a mixed method analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Mirja Erika; Mört, Susanna; Arola, Mikko; Taskinen, Mervi; Riikonen, Pekka; Möttönen, Merja; Lähteenmäki, Päivi Maria

    2016-06-01

    Reports on the quality of life (QOL) of childhood brain tumor (BT) survivors have been inconsistent. As cognitive limitations may restrict their participation in questionnaire-based studies, our aim was to evaluate in depth the QOL with a mixed-method analysis. The 5-year survivors of childhood BTs born in 1975-2000 and alive in 2010 were identified via the Finnish Cancer Registry and treating clinics. Twenty-one survivors (32%) participated in a mixed-method analysis including 15D (a general health-related QOL questionnaire), the Beck Depression Inventory, and a qualitative semi-structured interview. Based on the 15D-questionnaire, the BT survivors had an impaired health-related QOL in several dimensions such as speech and usual activities. On the other hand, no difference was found in other dimensions such as distress or vitality. A majority (95%) of the survivors showed no increased risk for depression. The qualitative interview revealed that the most important aspects affecting the QOL of the survivors were positive mental growth, negative conceptions concerning illness, living one day at a time, age at diagnosis, time since diagnosis, social relationships, learning disabilities and limitations in vocational opportunities, limitations in independent life, and changed understanding of the term 'health'. Childhood BT survivors have heterogeneous attitudes on QOL. The survivors assess social aspects to be more important than functionality for their QOL. Social concerns should actively be brought up to offer support for those with significant social difficulties. Interventions for social difficulties should be more actively developed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. The pathology of childhood thyroid tumors in the Russian Federation after Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrosimov, A.Yu.; Lushnikov, E.F.; Tsyb, A.F.; Harach, H.R.; Thomas, G.A.; Williams, E.D.

    1996-01-01

    The histological verification of thyroid carcinoma that have occurred in children in the contaminated areas of the Russian Federation after Chernobyl has been performed by pathologists from Obninsk and Cambridge. Formalin fixed material and paraffin blocks of 10 cases of childhood thyroid cancer were received from different hospitals in Russia during 1993-1995. 4 of the cases were female, and 6 male. In one of these cases the material available in Cambridge unfortunately showed no tumor. Of the other 9 cases, all were papillary carcinomas. 5 showed the solid follicular pattern, predominant in younger children in the UK and forming the great majority of the recent childhood cases in both Belarus and the Ukraine. 2 were predominantly oxyphil carcinomas which were classified with papillary carcinomas on both architectural and cytological grounds, and 2 showed the features of the classic type of papillary carcinoma, predominant among the older children in the UK. All children came from areas contaminated by fallout from the Chernobyl accident, with 6 from Bryansk 1 from Kaluga and 3 from Tula. All cases were confirmed by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization for thyroid differentiation markers. The oncogenes ret, met and p53 were also studied by immunohistochemistry

  7. Childhood malignant blue nevus of the ear associated with two intracranial melanocytic tumors-metastases or neurocutaneous melanosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popović, Mara; Dolenc-Strazar, Zvezdana; Anzic, Jozica; Luzar, Bostjan

    2004-10-01

    Blue nevus is an uncommon pigmented tumor of dermal melanocytes that has traditionally been classified into common and cellular variant. It is usually a skin tumor in adults but can become apparent in early childhood or even be present at birth. Malignant blue nevus is a rare melanocytic tumor of the skin arising from a preexisting cellular blue nevus. We report a multinodular blue nevus of the left ear in an 11-year-old girl who also had 2 intracranial melanocytic lesions. Differential diagnosis between metastases from malignant blue nevus and neurocutaneous melanosis is discussed.

  8. Identification of activated enhancers and linked transcription factors in breast, prostate, and kidney tumors by tracing enhancer networks using epigenetic traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhie, Suhn Kyong; Guo, Yu; Tak, Yu Gyoung; Yao, Lijing; Shen, Hui; Coetzee, Gerhard A; Laird, Peter W; Farnham, Peggy J

    2016-01-01

    Although technological advances now allow increased tumor profiling, a detailed understanding of the mechanisms leading to the development of different cancers remains elusive. Our approach toward understanding the molecular events that lead to cancer is to characterize changes in transcriptional regulatory networks between normal and tumor tissue. Because enhancer activity is thought to be critical in regulating cell fate decisions, we have focused our studies on distal regulatory elements and transcription factors that bind to these elements. Using DNA methylation data, we identified more than 25,000 enhancers that are differentially activated in breast, prostate, and kidney tumor tissues, as compared to normal tissues. We then developed an analytical approach called Tracing Enhancer Networks using Epigenetic Traits that correlates DNA methylation levels at enhancers with gene expression to identify more than 800,000 genome-wide links from enhancers to genes and from genes to enhancers. We found more than 1200 transcription factors to be involved in these tumor-specific enhancer networks. We further characterized several transcription factors linked to a large number of enhancers in each tumor type, including GATA3 in non-basal breast tumors, HOXC6 and DLX1 in prostate tumors, and ZNF395 in kidney tumors. We showed that HOXC6 and DLX1 are associated with different clusters of prostate tumor-specific enhancers and confer distinct transcriptomic changes upon knockdown in C42B prostate cancer cells. We also discovered de novo motifs enriched in enhancers linked to ZNF395 in kidney tumors. Our studies characterized tumor-specific enhancers and revealed key transcription factors involved in enhancer networks for specific tumor types and subgroups. Our findings, which include a large set of identified enhancers and transcription factors linked to those enhancers in breast, prostate, and kidney cancers, will facilitate understanding of enhancer networks and mechanisms

  9. Diagnostic Value Of Dynamic Magnetic Resonance Urography In Childhood Obstructive Kidney Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafer Ozmen

    2017-12-01

    Results: In order to find whether there was a functional difference between dynamic MRU and DRS measurement results, dependent t-test for paired samples was used .There was no statistically significant difference between (p = 0.978 in split renal function(SRF results which calculated from dynamic MRU and DRS examinations. Conclusions: We found a very strong and highly significant correlation and consistency between dynamic MRU and DRS methods in terms of evaluation of renal functions. Dynamic MRU is 100% effective for discrimination of normal and abnormal kidneys in terms of excretion. [J Contemp Med 2017; 7(4.000: 306-315

  10. Long-term follow-up of brain tumors in childhood after radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katahira, Masako; Kubo, Osami; Inoue, Norio; Muragaki, Yoshihiro; Uchinuno, Hideaki; Nitta, Masae; Tajika, Yasuhiko; Sakairi, Mitsuhiko (Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan))

    1990-06-01

    An increase in the survival rate of children with brain tumors has produced a new problem: the late impairment effects of radiotherapy on intelligence. We conducted a follow-up study of intelligence levels in a total of 23 children who had tumors with a relatively good prognosis, i.e., craniopharyngioma, germinoma, and cerebellar astrocytoma. The cases were aged 1-14 years, and the period of follow-up was 3-15 years. Intellectual development was categorized depending on the situation of school attendance, and was evaluated on a 5-point scale. As radiation to the posterior fossa doesn't cause a big problem on intelligence, the cases of cerebellar astrocytoma were excluded. Of the remaining cases, 45% (7/16) were intellectually retarded. They were less than 11 years of age at the time of radiation. Three of those with especially severe impairment were less than 5 years old at the time of radiation. We need to think about the influence of radiation on intelligence in childhood, although we can't exclude other factors influencing intelligence. (author).

  11. Long-term follow-up of brain tumors in childhood after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katahira, Masako; Kubo, Osami; Inoue, Norio; Muragaki, Yoshihiro; Uchinuno, Hideaki; Nitta, Masae; Tajika, Yasuhiko; Sakairi, Mitsuhiko

    1990-01-01

    An increase in the survival rate of children with brain tumors has produced a new problem: the late impairment effects of radiotherapy on intelligence. We conducted a follow-up study of intelligence levels in a total of 23 children who had tumors with a relatively good prognosis, i.e., craniopharyngioma, germinoma, and cerebellar astrocytoma. The cases were aged 1-14 years, and the period of follow-up was 3-15 years. Intellectual development was categorized depending on the situation of school attendance, and was evaluated on a 5-point scale. As radiation to the posterior fossa doesn't cause a big problem on intelligence, the cases of cerebellar astrocytoma were excluded. Of the remaining cases, 45% (7/16) were intellectually retarded. They were less than 11 years of age at the time of radiation. Three of those with especially severe impairment were less than 5 years old at the time of radiation. We need to think about the influence of radiation on intelligence in childhood, although we can't exclude other factors influencing intelligence. (author)

  12. Maxillary brown tumor associated with chronic kidney failure: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stênio Medeiros Queiroz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The brown tumor is a bone lesion that may affect the entire skeleton, including the maxillary bones. These tumors are characterized as focal giant cell lesions that may be associated with primary or secondary hyperparathyroidism (HPT. Brown tumors are invasive in some cases and an association with chronic renal failure (CRF has been reported. With the aim to facilitate the differential diagnosis of bone lesions that may affect dialysis patients, this paper describes a case of brown tumor in a 36- year old patient with CRF, secondary HPT carrier, who had a lesion on the right maxilla for approximately five months.

  13. Parental smoking and risk of childhood brain tumors by functional polymorphisms in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolism genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L Barrington-Trimis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A recent meta-analysis suggested an association between exposure to paternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood brain tumor risk, but no studies have evaluated whether this association differs by polymorphisms in genes that metabolize tobacco-smoke chemicals. METHODS: We assessed 9 functional polymorphisms in 6 genes that affect the metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH to evaluate potential interactions with parental smoking during pregnancy in a population-based case-control study of childhood brain tumors. Cases (N = 202 were ≤10 years old, diagnosed from 1984-1991 and identified in three Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER registries in the western U.S. Controls in the same regions (N = 286 were frequency matched by age, sex, and study center. DNA for genotyping was obtained from archived newborn dried blood spots. RESULTS: We found positive interaction odds ratios (ORs for both maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy, EPHX1 H139R, and childhood brain tumors (P(interaction = 0.02; 0.10, such that children with the high-risk (greater PAH activation genotype were at a higher risk of brain tumors relative to children with the low-risk genotype when exposed to tobacco smoke during pregnancy. A dose-response pattern for paternal smoking was observed among children with the EPHX1 H139R high-risk genotype only (OR(no exposure = 1.0; OR(≤3 hours/day = 1.32, 95% CI: 0.52-3.34; OR(>3 hours/day = 3.18, 95% CI: 0.92-11.0; P(trend = 0.07. CONCLUSION: Parental smoking during pregnancy may be a risk factor for childhood brain tumors among genetically susceptible children who more rapidly activate PAH in tobacco smoke.

  14. Asymmetric expression of protein kinase CK2 subunits in human kidney tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stalter, G; Siemer, S; Becht, E

    1994-01-01

    of protein kinase CK2 alpha in tumors/normal tissue (T/N) was 1.58 and that of the protein kinase CK2 beta (T/N) was 2.65. The data suggest that the generally described increase in protein kinase CK2 activity in tumor cells may to some extent result from a deregulation in subunit biosynthesis or degradation...

  15. I'll show them: the social construction of (in)competence in survivors of childhood brain tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boydell, Katherine M; Stasiulis, Elaine; Greenberg, Mark; Greenberg, Corin; Spiegler, Brenda

    2008-01-01

    Multimodal therapy for the treatment of childhood cancer has resulted in increased survival rates, yet as growing cohorts of children mature, late effects are becoming apparent. Specifically, brain tumor survivors tend to have poor social skills, peer relationship problems, academic difficulties, and delayed college entry. This article addresses findings specific to the unique experience of childhood cancer survivors as they transition from adolescence to adulthood. Qualitative methods involving focus groups and in-depth interviews with 14 childhood cancer survivors and 22 family members were used. The dialectic of incompetence/competence pervaded all narratives. Contradictory concepts of integration/ isolation, realistic/unrealistic goals, and the need for special help/no help were underscored by respondents. The struggle to deal with these contradictory factors led to the simultaneous resistance and acceptance of feelings of competence.

  16. Neuropsychology reports for childhood brain tumor survivors: implementation of recommendations at home and school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Lorraine L T; Wakefield, Claire E; Ellis, Sarah J; Mandalis, Anna; Frow, Eleanor; Cohn, Richard J

    2014-06-01

    As pediatric brain tumor survivors may experience cognitive decline post-treatment, a neuropsychology assessment is often conducted. The assessment evaluates the child's cognitive functioning and highlights potential challenges. Whilst neuropsychology reports provide recommendations for the home and school, how this translates in practice is under researched. This study explored parent and teacher understanding of neuropsychology reports, implementation rates for recommendations and their perceived effectiveness. Barriers to implementation were also investigated. Twenty-five semi-structured interviews were conducted with 17 parents and 8 teachers of childhood brain tumor survivors from 15 Australian families who had received a neuropsychology report within 2 years of the interview. Twenty-four neuropsychology reports encompassing 131 recommendations were reviewed. The qualitative methodological framework of Miles and Huberman [Miles M, Huberman A. Qualitative data analysis: An expanded sourcebook. London: Sage; 1994] was used to analyze interview transcripts with QSR NVivo 9.0. The majority of parents and teachers had a sound understanding of the report. Implementation of recommendations at home and school was 47% and 41%, respectively. Recommendations that did not require extra effort and organization appeared more likely to be implemented, however, those perceived to be more effective or helpful did not necessarily have higher implementation rates. Key reported barriers to implementation barrier were patient reluctance, and a lack of parents' willingness to adopt the recommendation. Patient understanding and willingness play a significant role in the implementation of neuropsychology recommendations. Collaboration and clear communication between the patient, teacher, parent, and neuropsychologist is vital for effective management. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Birth weight and risk of childhood solid tumors in Brazil: a record linkage between population-based data sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neimar de Paula Silva

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To analyze the relationship between the development of childhood solid tumors and 1 birth weight and 2 fetal growth, using two Brazilian population-based data sets. Methods A case–cohort study was performed using two population-based data sets, and linkage between the Live Birth Information System (Sistema de Informação sobre Nascidos Vivos, SINASC and 14 population-based cancer registries (PBCRs was established. Four controls per case were chosen randomly from the SINASC data set. Tumors were classified as central nervous system (CNS, non-CNS embryonal, and other tumors (“miscellaneous”. Adjustments were made for potential confounders (maternal age, mode of delivery, maternal education, birth order, gestational age, sex, and geographic region. Odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were computed using unconditional logistic regression analysis. Results In a trend analysis, for every 500 g of additional birth weight, the crude OR was 1.12 (CI: 1.00–1.24 and the adjusted OR was 1.02 (CI: 0.90–1.16 for all tumors. For every 1 000 g of additional birth weight, the crude OR was 1.25 (CI: 1.00–1.55 and the adjusted OR was 1.04 (CI: 0.82–1.34 for all tumors. Among children diagnosed after reaching the age of 3 years, in the miscellaneous tumor category, the OR was significantly increased for every additional 500 g and 1 000 g of birth weight. Conclusions The study data suggested that increased birth weight was associated with childhood solid tumor development, especially among children more than 3 years old with “miscellaneous” tumors.

  18. Birth weight and risk of childhood solid tumors in Brazil: a record linkage between population-based data sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula Silva, Neimar; de Souza Reis, Rejane; Cunha, Rafael Garcia; Oliveira, Julio Fernando; da Silva de Lima, Fernanda Cristina; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria Socorro; Santos, Marceli Oliveira; de Camargo, Beatriz

    2017-04-20

    To analyze the relationship between the development of childhood solid tumors and 1) birth weight and 2) fetal growth, using two Brazilian population-based data sets. A case-cohort study was performed using two population-based data sets, and linkage between the Live Birth Information System (Sistema de Informação sobre Nascidos Vivos, SINASC) and 14 population-based cancer registries (PBCRs) was established. Four controls per case were chosen randomly from the SINASC data set. Tumors were classified as central nervous system (CNS), non-CNS embryonal, and other tumors ("miscellaneous"). Adjustments were made for potential confounders (maternal age, mode of delivery, maternal education, birth order, gestational age, sex, and geographic region). Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed using unconditional logistic regression analysis. In a trend analysis, for every 500 g of additional birth weight, the crude OR was 1.12 (CI: 1.00-1.24) and the adjusted OR was 1.02 (CI: 0.90-1.16) for all tumors. For every 1 000 g of additional birth weight, the crude OR was 1.25 (CI: 1.00-1.55) and the adjusted OR was 1.04 (CI: 0.82-1.34) for all tumors. Among children diagnosed after reaching the age of 3 years, in the miscellaneous tumor category, the OR was significantly increased for every additional 500 g and 1 000 g of birth weight. The study data suggested that increased birth weight was associated with childhood solid tumor development, especially among children more than 3 years old with "miscellaneous" tumors.

  19. Exploring parental factors related to weight management in survivors of childhood central nervous system tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santa Maria, Diane; Swartz, Maria C; Markham, Christine; Chandra, Joya; McCurdy, Sheryl; Basen-Engquist, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Childhood central nervous system tumor survivors (CCNSTS) are at risk for adverse health issues. Little research has been conducted to explore the role of parental factors in weight management to mitigate adverse health outcomes. We conducted 9 group interviews (n=20) with CCNSTS, their parents, and health care providers to ascertain parental factors that may influence weight management practices in CCNSTS. Three main themes were identified: parenting style, parent-child connectedness, and food and physical activity (PA) environment. Although most parents adopted an authoritative parenting style related to diet and PA practices, some adopted a permissive parenting style. Participants expressed high levels of connection that may hinder the development of peer relationships and described the food and PA environments that promote or hinder weight management through parental modeling of healthy eating and PA and access to healthy food and activities. Weight management interventions for CCNSTS may experience greater benefit from using a family-focused approach, promoting positive food and PA environments, parental modeling of healthy eating and exercise, and partnering with youth to adopt weight management behaviors.

  20. A Rare Case of Breast Malignant Phyllodes Tumor With Metastases to the Kidney

    OpenAIRE

    Karczmarek-Borowska, Bożenna; Bukala, Agnieszka; Syrek-Kaplita, Karolina; Ksiazek, Mariusz; Filipowska, Justyna; Gradalska-Lampart, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Phyllodes tumors are rare breast neoplasms. Surgery is the treatment of choice. The role of postoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy is still under dispute, as there are no equivocal prognostic factors. Treatment failure results in the occurrence of distant metastasis—mainly to the lungs, bones, liver, and brain. We have described the case of a woman with a malignant phyllodes tumor of the breast that was surgically treated. She did not receive adjuvant therapy because there is no...

  1. Palbociclib Isethionate in Treating Younger Patients With Recurrent, Progressive, or Refractory Central Nervous System Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-27

    Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Ependymoblastoma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood High-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Gliomatosis Cerebri; Recurrent Childhood Gliosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

  2. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) and C-reactive protein (CRP) are positively associated with the risk of chronic kidney disease in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Eun-Sil; Hwang, Ji-Yun; Park, Ji Eun; Choi, Young Ju; Huh, Kap Bum; Kim, Wha Young

    2010-07-01

    Chronic low-grade inflammation may induce chronic kidney disease in patients with type 2 diabetes. This study investigated the relation between inflammatory biomarkers and chronic kidney disease in patients with type 2 diabetes, which has not yet been reported in Asian populations. A cross-sectional study was performed in 543 patients recruited from diabetic clinics for an ongoing, prospective study. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between inflammatory biomarkers and the presence of chronic kidney disease (estimated glomerular filtration rate Disease equation using plasma creatinine). The risk of chronic kidney disease increased in the highest quartiles of C-reactive protein (CRP) [multivariate odds ratio (OR) = 3.73; 95% CI = 1.19-1.70] and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (multivariate OR = 4.45; 95% CI = 1.63-12.11) compared to the lowest quartiles after adjustments for age, sex, zinc intake, and other putative risk factors for chronic kidney disease. Our results suggest that CRP and tumor necrosis factor-alpha may be independent risk factors for chronic kidney disease in patients with type 2 diabetes. A causal mechanism of this association should be evaluated in a followup study of Korean patients with type 2 diabetes.

  3. Spot-scanning proton therapy for malignant soft tissue tumors in childhood: First experiences at the Paul Scherrer Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmermann, Beate; Schuck, Andreas; Niggli, Felix; Weiss, Markus; Lomax, Antony Jonathan; Pedroni, Eros; Coray, Adolf; Jermann, Martin; Rutz, Hans Peter; Goitein, Gudrun

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy plays a major role in the treatment strategy of childhood sarcomas. Consequences of treatment are likely to affect the survivor's quality of life significantly. We investigated the feasibility of spot-scanning proton therapy (PT) for soft tissue tumors in childhood. Methods and Materials: Sixteen children with soft tissue sarcomas were included. Median age at PT was 3.3 years. In 10 children the tumor histology was embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma. All tumors were located in the head or neck, parameningeal, or paraspinal, or pelvic region. In the majority of children, the tumor was initially unresectable (Intergroup Rhabdomyosarcoma Study [IRS] Group III in 75%). In 50% of children the tumors exceeded 5 cm. Fourteen children had chemotherapy before and during PT. Median total dose of radiotherapy was 50 cobalt Gray equivalent (CGE). All 16 children were treated with spot-scanning proton therapy at the Paul Scherrer Institute, and in 3 children the PT was intensity-modulated (IMPT). Results: After median follow-up of 1.5 years, local control was achieved in 12 children. Four children failed locally, 1 at the border of the radiation field and 3 within the field. All 4 children died of tumor recurrence. All 4 showed unfavorable characteristic either of site or histopathology of the tumor. Acute toxicity was low, with Grade 3 or 4 side effects according to Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (RTOG/EORTC) criteria occurring in the bone marrow only. Conclusions: Proton therapy was feasible and well tolerated. Early local control rates are comparable to those being achieved after conventional radiotherapy. For investigations on late effect, longer follow-up is needed

  4. Role of immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH in the diagnosis of spindle and round cell tumors of the kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abbas

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: In summary we advise an immunohistochemical panel for round/spindle cell tumors of the kidney and for unclear cases we advise to add (FISH to get the correct diagnosis, as they are completely different regarding surgical approach and post-operative adjuvant therapy.

  5. Synchronous primary carcinoid tumor and primary adenocarcinoma arising within mature cystic teratoma of horseshoe kidney: a unique case report and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perepletchikov Aleksandr M

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant transformation of mature cystic teratoma is a rare complication. While any of the constituent tissues of a teratoma has the potential to undergo malignant transformation, squamous cell carcinoma is the most commonly associated malignancy. Renal carcinoid tumors are rare and frequently associated with horseshoe kidney and renal teratoma. Renal teratoma rarely presents together with carcinoid tumor or adenocarcinoma. To the best of our knowledge, there has never been a report of renal teratoma coexisting with both carcinoid tumor and adenocarcinoma. Methods Here, we present a unique and first case of synchronous primary carcinoid tumor and moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma arising within mature cystic teratoma of horseshoe kidney in a 50-year-old female. Lumbar spine X-ray, done for her complaint of progressive chronic low back pain, accidentally found a large calcification overlying the lower pole of the right kidney. Further radiologic studies revealed horseshoe kidney and a large multiseptated cystic lesion immediately anterior to the right renal pelvis with central calcification and peripheral enhancement. She underwent right partial nephrectomy. Results Macroscopically, the encapsulated complex solid and multiloculated cystic tumor with large calcification, focal thickened walls and filled with yellow-tan gelatinous material. Microscopically, the tumor showed coexistent mature cystic teratoma, moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma and carcinoid tumor. Immunohistochemically, alpha-methylacyl-coenzyme A-racemase, calretinin, CD10 and thyroid transcription factor-1 were negative in all the three components of the tumor. The teratomatous cysts lined by ciliated epithelium showed strong staining for cytokeratin 7 and pancytokeratin, and those lined by colonic-like epithelium showed strong staining for CDX2, cytokeratin 20 and pancytokeratin, but both were negative for calretinin. Additionally, the

  6. Nitrates in drinking water and the risk of death from childhood brain tumors in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Hsu-Huei; Tsai, Shang-Shyue; Wu, Trong-Neng; Sung, Fung-Chang; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to (1) examine the relationship between nitrate (NO₃-N) levels in public water supplies and risk of death from childhood brain tumors (CBT) and (2) determine whether calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) levels in drinking water might modify the effects of NO₃-N on development of CBT. A matched cancer case-control study was used to investigate the relationship between the risk of death attributed to CBT and exposure to NO₃-N in drinking water in Taiwan. All CBT deaths of Taiwan residents from 1999 through 2008 were obtained from the Bureau of Vital Statistics of the Taiwan Provincial Department of Health. Controls were deaths from other causes and were pair-matched to the cases by gender, year of birth, and year of death. Information on the levels of nitrate-nitrogen NO₃-N, Ca, and Mg in drinking water were collected from Taiwan Water Supply Corporation. The municipality of residence for CBT cases and controls was presumed to be the source of the subject's NO₃-N, Ca, and Mg exposure via drinking water. Relative to individuals whose NO₃-N exposure level was ≤ 0.31 ppm, and the adjusted odds ration (OR) (95% confidence interval [CI]) for CBT occurrence was 1.4 (1.07-1.84) for individuals who resided in municipalities served by drinking water with a NO₃-N exposure > 0.31 ppm. No significant effect modification was observed by Ca and Mg intake via drinking water. Data suggest that exposure to NO₃-N in drinking water is associated with a higher risk of CBT development in Taiwan.

  7. Social Competence in Childhood Brain Tumor Survivors: Feasibility and Preliminary Outcomes of a Peer-Mediated Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Katie A.; Bukowski, William M.; Sahler, Olle Jane Z.; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Smith, Tristram H.; Lown, E. Anne; Patenaude, Andrea Farkas; Korones, David N.; Noll, Robert B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Evaluate the acceptability, feasibility, and preliminary outcomes of a peer-mediated intervention to improve social competence of brain tumor survivors and classmates. Methods Twelve childhood brain tumor survivors and 217 classroom peers in intervention (n = 8) or comparison (n = 4) classrooms completed measures of social acceptance and reputation at two time points in the year. The intervention (5–8 sessions over 4–6 weeks) taught peer leaders skills for engaging classmates. Individual and classroom outcomes were analyzed with ANCOVA. Results Recruitment rates of families of brain tumor survivors (81%) and schools (100%) were adequate. Peer leaders reported satisfaction with the intervention. Preliminary outcome data trended toward some benefit in increasing the number of friend nominations for survivors of brain tumors but no changes in other peer-reported metrics. Preliminary results also suggested some positive effects on classroom levels of victimization and rejection. Conclusions A peer-mediated intervention was acceptable to families of brain tumor survivors and feasible to implement in schools. Findings warrant a larger trial to evaluate improvements for children with brain tumors and their peers. PMID:27355881

  8. TUMORS OF THE KIDNEY AND URINARY TRACT IN ENDEMIC AREA OF VILLAGE BRESTOVAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rade Cukuranovic

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available During the twenty- five-year period the incidence of urothelial tumors was followed in the endemic village Brestovac. Thirty patients (3 of which with confirmed endemic nephropathy and 15 persons with suspected nephropathy were investigated. Our retrograde study showed that there is a relationship between endemic nephropathy and urothelial cancer, and this association persisted with marked tendency to rise. Tumors were more common among males, aged from 50 to 70 years, with upper urinary tract urothelial cancer, papillary or trancellular forms, predominantly. Clinical feature showed classic triad of hematuria, flank pain and, rarely, flank mass, accompanied with non-specific symptomatology. Normal renal function was observed in 25 patients, but chronic renal failure was proven in five. Ten patients were treated by surgery, while 20 patients were treated by conservative therapy. There are no marked risk factors.

  9. Childhood Salivary Gland Tumors Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salivary gland tumors in children are very rare and prognosis is usually good. Salivary gland tumors may occur after radiation therapy and chemotherapy for treatment of primary leukemia or solid tumors. Get detailed information about the incidence, histology, clinical presentation and treatment of salivary gland tumors in this summary for clinicians.

  10. Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumors (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pediatric CNS embryonal tumors are a collection of heterogeneous lesions (medulloblastoma, and nonmedulloblastoma). Molecular genetic studies are used to classify embryonal tumors, stratify risk, and plan treatment. Get detailed information about tumor biology, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of untreated and recurrent CNS embryonal tumors in this summary for clinicians.

  11. Kidney transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... always take your medicine as directed. Alternative Names Renal transplant; Transplant - kidney Patient Instructions Kidney removal - discharge Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow Kidneys Kidney transplant - ...

  12. Management for Patients with De Novo or Recurrent Tumors in the Residual Kidney after Surgery for Nonfamilial Bilateral Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noboru Hara

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The tumor de novo in the residual kidney after surgery for nonfamilial bilateral renal cell carcinoma (RCC is problematic. We reviewed 5 patients who experienced such a situation. Three patients had had metachronous bilateral RCC, treated with radical nephrectomy in one kidney and nephron-sparing surgery (NSS in the other. Two patients had had synchronous disease; one patient had received radical nephrectomy and NSS, and the other bilateral NSS. The 5 patients had another solid mass/de novo tumor in the residual kidney 16–88 (mean 46.8 months after surgery. For the tumor de novo in earlier years (1992–1999, one patient underwent surgery and hemodialysis, and the other selected a conservative observation. In recent years (2000–2007, one patient was conservatively observed; the remaining 2 received computerized-tomography-guided radiofrequency ablation, and the local tumors were well controlled postoperatively for 20 and 12 months with their renal function unimpaired. Ablative techniques can potentially strike a balance between oncological and nephrological outcomes in patients with sporadic multiple RCC, successful management of which was difficult previously.

  13. Malignant renal tumors in pediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pena, C.; Torterolo, J.; Irigoyen, B.; Bel, M.; Elias, E.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Professionals who work in pediatric oncology, we see childhood cancer as a common disease, but in fact constitutes about 2% of all cancers diagnosed worldwide. Wilms tumor accounts for 6% of all childhood tumors and presentation bilateral accounts for 4-6% of all Wilms tumors diagnosed. Theoretical Framework: In the period between the year 1994-2003 period were attended in the Pediatric Hematology-Oncology Center, a total of 29 cases of malignant renal tumors, corresponding to 86% (25 cases) to Wilms tumor or nephroblastoma tumor. The Wilms is of embryonic origin, capable of metastatic spread, (85% lungs 15% liver). Very sensitive to chemotherapy and radiotherapy, which confers high cure rates (85%); having a multidisciplinary treatment model, combining surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. The role of nursing in comprehensive cancer care child is essential in the prevention and early detection of side effects or complications. Case report: S.D. currently 10 years old. In 10/1994, at 8 months of age, was diagnosed with bilateral Wilms tumor. On admission her weight was 8200gr with abdominal circumference 50cm. Conducted pre-operative MDT and 02/1995 nephrectomy of the left kidney and right kidney lumpectomy (tumor nodule 420gr. and a 250gr.). MDT begins in 03/1995 01/1996 ending. 09/2003 with abdominal pain and vomiting, and kidney failure. 10/2003 lumpectomy biopsy (sclerotic nodule associated with maturation nephroblastoma). Currently severe renal insufficiency plan enters dialysis. Nursing process: Objectives: 1) To prepare the child and family to the side effects and possible complications of chemotherapy and / or radiotherapy 2) Prevent and minimize related complications tumor and / or treatment. Care Plan comprises four stages: A) rating and customer income. B) Implement care chemotherapy C) post-operative Care D) Implement radiation care

  14. Contribution of Matrix Metalloproteinase-7 Genotypes to the Risk of Non-solid Tumor, Childhood Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Jen-Sheng; Chou, An-Kuo; Hsu, Pei-Chen; Tsai, Chia-Wen; Chang, Wen-Shin; Wu, Meng-Feng; Wu, Ming-Hsien; Hsia, Te-Chun; Cheng, Shun-Ping; Bau, DA-Tian

    2017-12-01

    The matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are important in inflammation and carcinogenesis, and the genotypic role of MMP7 has never been examined in leukemia to date. Therefore, in this study we aimed to evaluate the contribution of the genotypic variants in the promoter region of MMP7 (A-181G and C-153T) to childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) risk in Taiwan. In this case-control study, 266 patients with childhood ALL and 266 non-cancer controls were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism methodology. The distribution of AA, AG and GG for MMP7 promoter A-181G genotype was 83.5, 12.0 and 4.5% in the childhood ALL group and 89.8%, 9.4 and 0.8% in the non-cancer control group, respectively (p for trend=0.0134), significantly differentially distributed between childhood ALL and control groups. The comparisons in allelic frequency distribution also support the findings that G appears to be the risky allele in childhood ALL. In genotype and gender interaction analysis, it was found that boys carrying the MMP7 A-181G GG and AG+GG genotypes had 9.05- and 2.45-fold odds ratios (ORs) (p=0.0135 and 0.0142, respectively) for childhood ALL compared to those carrying wild-type AA genotype. But these differences were not found in girls. Analysis of genotype interaction with age of onset age showed those aged less than 3.5 years at onset carrying the GG or AG+GG genotypes also had elevated ORs of 8.79- and 2.04-fold (p=0.0150 and 0.0413, respectively) for childhood ALL, but there was no such difference for those having an age at onset of 3.5 years or more. Our results indicate that the MMP7 A-181G genotype interacts with age and gender and may serve as an early and predictive biomarker for childhood ALL. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  15. Acute kidney injury in idiopathic nephrotic syndrome of childhood is a major risk factor for the development of chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaseen, Afshan; Tresa, Vina; Lanewala, Ali Asghar; Hashmi, Seema; Ali, Irshad; Khatri, Sabeeta; Mubarak, Muhammed

    2017-11-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an important complication of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS) and is associated with adverse outcomes, especially the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD). We aimed to determine the clinical profile of children with INS who developed AKI and its short-term outcome. This prospective study was conducted from March 2014 to October 2015. A total of 119 children of INS (age: 2-18 years) fulfilling the pediatric RIFLE criteria for the diagnosis of AKI were enrolled and followed up for 3 months to determine the outcome. Factors predisposing to CKD were studied. The mean age at presentation was 8.8 ± 3.59 years and males were 74 (62.2%). At presentation, 61 (51.3%) children were in Risk category, 43 (36.1%) in Injury category, and 15 (12.6%) in Failure category. Most of them (41.2%) had steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) on histopathology (33.6%). Infections were the major predisposing factor for AKI in 67 (56.3%) cases. Drug toxicity was the next common, found in 52 (43.7%) children. A total of 65 (54.6%) children recovered from AKI, while 54 (45.4%) did not. CKD developed in 49 (41.2%) non-recovered cases and 5 (4.2%) children succumbed to acute illness. SRNS, cyclosporine use, FSGS on histology, and drug toxicity were significant factors associated with the development of CKD. AKI associated with INS is a reversible condition in most cases but it can progress to CKD, especially among those who have SRNS, FSGS, and drug toxicity.

  16. Disability, body image and sports/physical activity in adult survivors of childhood CNS tumors: population-based outcomes from a cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boman, Krister K.; Hörnquist, Lina; de Graaff, Lisanne; Rickardsson, Jenny; Lannering, Birgitta; Gustafsson, Göran

    2013-01-01

    Childhood CNS tumor survivors risk health and functional impairments that threaten normal psychological development and self-perception. This study investigated the extent to which health and functional ability predict adult survivors' body image (BI) and self-confidence regarding sports and

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging textural evaluation of posterior cranial fossa tumors in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Joelson Alves dos; Costa, Maria Olivia Rodrigues da; Otaduy, Maria Concepcion Garcia; Lacerda, Maria Teresa Carvalho de; Leite, Claudia da Costa; Matsushita, Hamilton

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To distinguish healthy from pathological tissues in pediatric patients with posterior cranial fossa tumors using calculated textural parameters from magnetic resonance images. Materials And Methods: We evaluated 14 pediatric patients with posterior cranial fossa tumors using the software MaZda to define the texture parameters in selected regions of interest representing healthy and pathological tissues based on T2-weighted magnetic resonance images. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between normal and tumoral tissues as well as between supposedly normal tissues adjacent and distant from the tumoral lesion. Conclusion: Magnetic resonance textural evaluation is an useful tool for determining differences among various tissues, including tissues that appear apparently normal on visual analysis. (author)

  18. Surviving a brain tumor in childhood: impact on family functioning in adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, Laura; Schappin, Renske; Gooskens, Rob; Huisman, Jaap; Jongmans, Marian

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate family functioning in families with an adolescent survivor of a pediatric brain tumor. We explored whether adolescent, parent, disease and treatment factors, and demographic characteristics predicted family functioning. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 45 adolescent

  19. Differential Expression of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes in Normal and Tumor Tissues from Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Ortiz, Dora; Camacho-Carranza, Rafael; González-Zamora, José Francisco; Shalkow-Kalincovstein, Jaime; Cárdenas-Cardós, Rocío; Ností-Palacios, Rosario; Vences-Mejía, Araceli

    2014-01-01

    Intratumoral expression of genes encoding Cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP) might play a critical role not only in cancer development but also in the metabolism of anticancer drugs. The purpose of this study was to compare the mRNA expression patterns of seven representative CYPs in paired tumor and normal tissue of child patients with rabdomyosarcoma (RMS). Using real time quantitative RT-PCR, the gene expression pattern of CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1, CYP2E1, CYP2W1, CYP3A4, and CYP3A5 were analyzed in tumor and adjacent non-tumor tissues from 13 child RMS patients. Protein concentration of CYPs was determined using Western blot. The expression levels were tested for correlation with the clinical and pathological data of the patients. Our data showed that the expression levels of CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 were negligible. Elevated expression of CYP1B1 mRNA and protein was detected in most RMS tumors and adjacent normal tissues. Most cancerous samples exhibit higher levels of both CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 compared with normal tissue samples. Expression of CYP2E1 mRNA was found to be significantly higher in tumor tissue, however no relation was found with protein levels. CYP2W1 mRNA and/or protein are mainly expressed in tumors. In conclusion, we defined the CYP gene expression profile in tumor and paired normal tissue of child patients with RMS. The overexpression of CYP2W1, CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 in tumor tissues suggests that they may be involved in RMS chemoresistance; furthermore, they may be exploited for the localized activation of anticancer prodrugs. PMID:24699256

  20. Childhood BMI and Adult Type 2 Diabetes, Coronary Artery Diseases, Chronic Kidney Disease, and Cardiometabolic Traits: A Mendelian Randomization Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Tingting; Smith, Caren E; Li, Changwei; Huang, Tao

    2018-05-01

    To test the causal effect of childhood BMI on adult cardiometabolic diseases using a Mendelian randomization analysis. We used 15 single nucleotide polymorphisms as instrumental variables for childhood BMI to test the causal effect of childhood BMI on cardiometabolic diseases using summary-level data from consortia. We found that a 1-SD increase in childhood BMI (kg/m 2 ) was associated with an 83% increase in risk of type 2 diabetes (odds ratio [OR] 1.83 [95% CI 1.46, 2.30]; P = 2.5 × 10 -7 ) and a 28% increase in risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) (OR 1.28 [95% CI 1.17, 1.39]; P = 2.1 × 10 -8 ) at the Bonferroni-adjusted level of significance ( P BMI was associated with a 0.587-SD increase in adulthood BMI (kg/m 2 ), a 0.062-SD increase in hip circumference (cm), a 0.602-SD increase in waist circumference (cm), a 0.111 pmol/L increase in log fasting insulin, a 0.068 increase in log-transformed HOMA of ß-cell function (%), a 0.126 increase in log-transformed HOMA of insulin resistance (%), and a 0.109-SD increase in triglyceride (mg/dL) but a 0.138-SD decrease in HDL (mg/dL) in adults at the Bonferroni-adjusted level of significance ( P BMI was associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes and CAD in adult life. These results provide evidence supportive of a causal association between childhood BMI and these outcomes. © 2018 by the American Diabetes Association.

  1. Amplification of 9q34 in childhood adrenocortical tumors: a specific feature unrelated to ethnic origin or living conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueiredo B.C.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Adrenocortical tumors (ACT in children under 15 years of age exhibit some clinical and biological features distinct from ACT in adults. Cell proliferation, hypertrophy and cell death in adrenal cortex during the last months of gestation and the immediate postnatal period seem to be critical for the origin of ACT in children. Studies with large numbers of patients with childhood ACT have indicated a median age at diagnosis of about 4 years. In our institution, the median age was 3 years and 5 months, while the median age for first signs and symptoms was 2 years and 5 months (N = 72. Using the comparative genomic hybridization technique, we have reported a high frequency of 9q34 amplification in adenomas and carcinomas. This finding has been confirmed more recently by investigators in England. The lower socioeconomic status, the distinctive ethnic groups and all the regional differences in Southern Brazil in relation to patients in England indicate that these differences are not important to determine 9q34 amplification. Candidate amplified genes mapped to this locus are currently being investigated and Southern blot results obtained so far have discarded amplification of the abl oncogene. Amplification of 9q34 has not been found to be related to tumor size, staging, or malignant histopathological features, nor does it seem to be responsible for the higher incidence of ACT observed in Southern Brazil, but could be related to an ACT from embryonic origin.

  2. Educational level of patients with germ cell tumor radiated in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamizo, Akira; Inamura, Takanori; Inoha, Satoshi; Nishio, Shunji; Ikezaki, Kiyonobu; Fukui, Masashi

    2001-01-01

    In order to estimate the influence of radiotherapy on the intellectual development of children with brain tumor, we investigated the educational level of 21 patients with germ cell tumor who had undergone radiotherapy. They were divided into three groups in accordance with their age at the time of radiation; under school age group (under 6 years of age), elementary school age group (from 7 to 12 years of age), and junior high and high school age group (from 13 to 18 years of age). There were 2 cases in the under school age group, one of them graduated from high school and the other is presently a junior high school student. There were 5 cases in the elementary school age group. Three of these graduated from university, 1 is presently a university student and 1 is a high school student. There were 14 cases in the junior high and high school age group. Two of these are university students, 7 graduated from high school, 1 is presently a junior high school student, and 4 died because of tumor progression. The mean period of hospitalization of the patients who have been admitted to university was 63.0 days, and that of patients who have not been admitted university was 135 days. There is a statistical difference (p<0.05). It could be concluded that the period of hospitalization rather than radiotherapy seemed to influence the educational status of children with brain tumor. (author)

  3. Health-related quality of life in long-term survivors of childhood brain tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimers, Tonny Solveig; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Nysom, Karsten

    2009-01-01

    while tumor location in the third ventricle region remained significant for body image, younger age at diagnosis for social functioning and intimate relations, and younger age at follow-up for physical symptoms. In contrasts, neither gender nor presence of hydrocephalus requiring shunt inserted...

  4. Late health effects of childhood nasopharyngeal radium irradiation: nonmelanoma skin cancers, benign tumors, and hormonal disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ronckers, Cécile M.; Land, Charles E.; Hayes, Richard B.; Verduijn, Pieter G.; Stovall, Marilyn; van Leeuwen, Flora E.

    2002-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal radium irradiation (NRI) was widely used from 1940 through 1970 to treat otitis serosa in children and barotrauma in airmen and submariners. We assessed whether NRI-exposed individuals were at higher risk for benign tumors, nonmelanoma skin cancer, thyroid disorders, and conditions

  5. Surviving a brain tumor in childhood : impact on family functioning in adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, Laura; Schappin, R; Gooskens, Rob; Huisman, Jaap; Jongmans, Marian

    ObjectiveTo investigate family functioning in families with an adolescent survivor of a pediatric brain tumor. We explored whether adolescent, parent, disease and treatment factors, and demographic characteristics predicted family functioning. MethodsIn this cross-sectional study, 45 adolescent

  6. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells correlates with early childhood social interaction in autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makinodan, Manabu; Iwata, Keiko; Ikawa, Daisuke; Yamashita, Yasunori; Yamamuro, Kazuhiko; Toritsuka, Michihiro; Kimoto, Sohei; Okumura, Kazuki; Yamauchi, Takahira; Yoshino, Hiroki; Tsujii, Masatsugu; Sugiyama, Toshiro; Tsuchiya, Kenji; Mori, Norio; Matsuzaki, Hideo; Kishimoto, Toshifumi

    2017-03-01

    Autism spectrum disorder is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impaired social interaction, poor communication skills, and repetitive/restrictive behaviors. Elevated blood levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines have been reported in subjects with autism spectrum disorder. On the other hand, early childhood adverse experience also increases blood levels of these cytokines. Since social experience of children with autism spectrum disorder is generally unlike to typically developing children, we hypothesized that social interaction during childhood contribute to pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in subjects with autism spectrum disorder. We compared revised Autism Diagnostic Interview scores and expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of subjects with autism spectrum disorder (n = 30). The score of domain A on the revised Autism Diagnostic Interview, indicating social interaction impairment in early childhood, was negatively correlated with tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA expression level in peripheral blood mononuclear cells but not interleukin-1β or -6. Consistently, tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA expression was markedly low in subjects with autism spectrum disorder compared to typically developing children who presumably experienced the regular levels of social interaction. These findings suggest that the low blood levels of tumor necrosis factor-α mRNA in subjects with autism spectrum disorder might be due to impaired social interaction in early childhood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Long-Term Outcomes of Sacrococcygeal Germ Cell Tumors in Infancy and Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rangsan Niramis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of this study was to evaluate long-term outcomes of sacrococcygeal germ cell tumors (SC-GCTs over a 15-year period. Materials and Methods. A retrospective review was conducted of all pediatric patients treated for SC-GCTs at our hospital from 1998 to 2012. Results. Fifty-seven patients were treated for SC-GCTs with the most common in Altman’s classification type I. Age at surgery ranged from one day to 5.6 years. Tumor resection and coccygectomy were primarily performed in about 84% of the cases. Pathology revealed mature, immature, malignant sacrococcygeal teratomas (SCTs, and endodermal sinus tumors (ESTs in 41 (72%, 4 (77%, 6 (10.5%, and 6 (10.5%, respectively. Recurrence of discase occurred in 3 of 41 patients with mature teratomas (7.3%; 2 recurrences with mature teratomas and one recurrence with EST. Five of 6 malignant SCTs and 3 of 6 ESTs responded well to the treatment. Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP level was elevated in both malignant teratomas and ESTs. No immediate patient death was noted in any of the 57 cases, but 4 patients with malignant tumors and distant metastasis succumbed at home within 2 years of the initial treatment. Conclusion. Benign SCTs have a significant recurrence rate of approximately 7%. Close follow-up with serial AFP level monitoring should be done for 5 years after initial tumor resection and coccygectomy. The survival rate for malignant SC-GCTs with distant metastasis was unfavorable in the present study.

  8. Surviving a brain tumor in childhood: impact on family functioning in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beek, Laura; Schappin, Renske; Gooskens, Rob; Huisman, Jaap; Jongmans, Marian

    2015-01-01

    To investigate family functioning in families with an adolescent survivor of a pediatric brain tumor. We explored whether adolescent, parent, disease and treatment factors, and demographic characteristics predicted family functioning. In this cross-sectional study, 45 adolescent survivors of pediatric brain tumors and their parents completed self-report questionnaires on family functioning, and emotional and behavioral problems. Parents completed questionnaires on their own mental health and the burden of treatment. Compared to general population norms, adolescents reported higher levels of cohesion, expressiveness, organization, control, family values and social orientation, and absence of conflict. Parents reported higher levels of social orientation and lower levels of conflict and family values. The only predictor of family functioning was current age of the adolescent; older adolescents reported less family conflict. No relation was found between family functioning and emotional and behavioral problems, disease- or treatment factors, and demographic variables. In this exploratory study, adolescent survivors of a pediatric brain tumor characterized their families by higher levels of cohesion, expressiveness, organization, control, family values and social orientation, and absence of conflict, which differs from the more normative view held by their parents. A higher adolescent age predicted less family conflict, which may indicate deviant autonomy development in these survivors. Because of limitations of this study, conclusions should be considered provisional; they provide clues for further research in this area. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. 肾移植术后并发恶性肿瘤患者免疫抑制剂方案的选择%The choice of the immunosuppressant for the patients of the malignant tumors after kidney transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haihao Wang; Weijie Zhang; Zhishui Chen; Qi Mei; Ke Ma

    2008-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the immunosuppressant treatment among 10 post-renal transplantation recipients with malignant tumors.Methods:Conversion to sirolimus (SRL) treatment was performed for 10 cases which had found malignant tumors after kidney transplantation.During the follow-up period,the recurrence and diffusion of the tumor,the renal function and rejection were monitored.Results:All these cases despite the death had been followed up for at least 1 year.9 cases had no recurrence and diffusion.1 case died due to the tumor diffusion 7 months after the drug conversion.1 case suffered once acute rejection 2 months after the drug conversion.This acute rejection had been inhibited by flushing dose MP.Conclusion:As a new immunosuppressant,SRL not only can prevent the generation of AR,but inhibit proliferation and development of malignant tumors in kidney transplantation recipients as well.

  10. Evaluation of 2 amino acid protocols for kidney protection in patients treated with 90Y-DOTATOC for neuroendocrine tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arveschoug, A.K.; Kramer, S.M.J.; Iversen, P.; Froekiaer, J.; Groenbaek, H.

    2015-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. Background: peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) is an established treatment for progressive neuroendocrine tumours (NET). Nephrotoxicity is the limiting factor using 90 Y-DOTATOC. Although administration of amino acids lowers the radioactive dose to the kidneys, delayed renal damage is a concern following therapy. Studies have indicated that prolonging the infusion of amino acids offers improved kidney protection. The intermittent infusion of amino acids up two days after PRRT has also been shown to further reduce renal uptake of radioactivity in pilot studies. Aim: We evaluated whether differences could be detected in GFR in patients treated with two different protocols for kidney protection using commercially available (Vamin-18) amino acid mixture (AAM); a standard protocol with 2 litres of AAM infused over 4 hours or a 24-hour infusion protocol with 3 litres of AAM. Material and method: GFR in 18 patients treated with infusion of 2 litres AAM of 4 hours was compared with GFR in 13 patients treated with 3 litres of AAM over 24 hours at 3 months, 6 months and 12 months after therapy with 90 Y DOTATOC. The majority of patients received the standard treatment of 3.7 GBq/m 2 90 Y DOTATOC every 8-10 weeks. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated using the 51 Cr-EDTA plasma clearance by a single sample technique according to Groth and Aasted. Results: pre-existing risk factors associated with kidney failure were seen in 84 % of the patients. Other identified risk factors associated with kidney failure were former treatment with 90 Y-DOTATOC and/or chemotherapy, hypertension and diabetes. In the whole group of patients a significant fall in renal function was seen up to twelve months after PRRT. The median loss of kidney function was 30 ml/min/1.73m 2 (27 %) 12 months after treatment compared to pre-therapeutic values. Although no significant statistical difference was found comparing the two amino acid protocols

  11. Tipifarnib in Treating Young Patients With Recurrent or Progressive High-Grade Glioma, Medulloblastoma, Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor, or Brain Stem Glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-07

    Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma

  12. Radiodiagnostic methods in determining the structure of tumor thrombus in the inferior vena cava in kidney cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. B. Vikhrova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma (RCC is the most common primary tumor of the renal parenchyma. Venous involvement is one of the most important anatomic characteristics of tumor. It is known that venous spread influences the survival of patients with RCC. Tumor thrombosis of IVC in patients with renal cell carcinoma has been reported in 4–10 %. The reference standard for RCC with tumor thrombus remains surgical resection. The structure of thrombus determines some technical difficulties in the management of tumor. Spongeous thrombus correlate with higher risk of thrombus detachment during surgery resulting in PE. Therefore determination of IVC thrombus consistency is very important part of preoperative radiologic assessment of tumor in patients with RCC.

  13. Expression of Truncated Neurokinin-1 Receptor in Childhood Neuroblastoma is Independent of Tumor Biology and Stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Alexandra; Kappler, Roland; Mühling, Jakob; VON Schweinitz, Dietrich; Berger, Michael

    2017-11-01

    Neuroblastoma is an embryonal malignancy arising from the aberrant growth of neural crest progenitor cells of the sympathetic nervous system. The tachykinin receptor 1 (TACR1) - substance P complex is associated with tumoral angiogenesis and cell proliferation in a variety of cancer types. Inhibition of TACR1 was recently described to impede growth of NB cell lines. However, the relevance of TACR1 in clinical settings is unknown. We investigated gene expression levels of full-length and truncated TACR1 in 59 neuroblastomas and correlated these data with the patients' clinical parameters such as outcome, metastasis, International Neuroblastoma Staging System (INSS) status, MYCN proto-oncogene, bHLH transcription factor (MYCN) status, gender and age. Our results indicated that TACR1 is ubiquitously expressed in neuroblastoma but expression levels are independent of clinical parameters. Our data suggest that TACR1 might serve as a potent anticancer target in a large variety of patients with neuroblastoma, independent of tumor biology and clinical stage. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  14. DTI fiber tractography of cerebro-cerebellar pathways and clinical evaluation of ataxia in childhood posterior fossa tumor survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Myung Eun; Driever, Pablo Hernáiz; Khajuria, Rajiv K; Rueckriegel, Stefan Mark; Koustenis, Elisabeth; Bruhn, Harald; Thomale, Ulrich-Wilhelm

    2017-01-01

    Pediatric posterior fossa (PF) tumor survivors experience long-term motor deficits. Specific cerebrocerebellar connections may be involved in incidence and severity of motor dysfunction. We examined the relationship between long-term ataxia as well as fine motor function and alteration of differential cerebellar efferent and afferent pathways using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and tractography. DTI-based tractography was performed in 19 patients (10 pilocytic astrocytoma (PA) and 9 medulloblastoma patients (MB)) and 20 healthy peers. Efferent Cerebello-Thalamo-Cerebral (CTC) and afferent Cerebro-Ponto-Cerebellar (CPC) tracts were reconstructed and analyzed concerning fractional anisotropy (FA) and volumetric measurements. Clinical outcome was assessed with the International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (ICARS). Kinematic parameters of fine motor function (speed, automation, variability, and pressure) were obtained by employing a digitizing graphic tablet. ICARS scores were significantly higher in MB patients than in PA patients. Poorer ICARS scores and impaired fine motor function correlated significantly with volume loss of CTC pathway in MB patients, but not in PA patients. Patients with pediatric post-operative cerebellar mutism syndrome showed higher loss of CTC pathway volume and were more atactic. CPC pathway volume was significantly reduced in PA patients, but not in MB patients. Neither relationship was observed between the CPC pathway and ICARS or fine motor function. There was no group difference of FA values between the patients and healthy peers. Reduced CTC pathway volumes in our cohorts were associated with severity of long-term ataxia and impaired fine motor function in survivors of MBs. We suggest that the CTC pathway seems to play a role in extent of ataxia and fine motor dysfunction after childhood cerebellar tumor treatment. DTI may be a useful tool to identify relevant structures of the CTC pathway and possibly avoid surgically induced long

  15. Urogenital tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    An overview is provided for veterinary care of urogenital tumors in companion animals, especially the dog. Neoplasms discussed include tumors of the kidney, urinary bladder, prostate, testis, ovary, vagina, vulva and the canine transmissible venereal tumor. Topics addressed include description, diagnosis and treatment.

  16. Meningeous sarcoma: a rare tumor among the central nervous system neoplasia in childhood; Sarcoma meningeo: rara entidade dentre as neoplasias de sistema nervoso central na infancia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rondinelli, Patricia Imperatriz Porto; Salvajoli, Joao Victor; Sredni, Simone Treiger; Araujo, Maria Betania Mahler [Hospital do Cancer de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Pediatria

    2003-07-01

    We describe a case of meningeous malignancy in childhood, diagnosed by the Pediatric Department of the Cancer Hospital in Sao Paulo, Brazil, and do revise the world literature as well. The meningeous sarcoma (M S) is an extremely aggressive tumor, which appears in the central nervous system, at any age, but mainly in children. They represent a tiny percentage of brain tumors in children and sporadic cases are related in the world literature. Consequently, there are not enough clinical experiences about this distinct entity to allow the conclusion about which is the best therapeutic approach. (author)

  17. Social problem solving and social performance after a group social skills intervention for childhood brain tumor survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Fiona; Vannatta, Kathryn; Barrera, Maru

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the ability of a group social skills intervention program for childhood brain tumor survivors to effect two steps of the social information processing model: social problem solving and social performance. Participants were 15 survivors (eight men and seven women) aged 7-15 years. The intervention consisted of eight 2-h weekly sessions focused on social skills including friendship making. Social problem solving, using hypothetical scenarios, was assessed during sessions 1 and 8. Social performance was observed during intervention sessions 1, 4, and 8. Compared with session 1, significant increases were found in social performance: frequency of maintaining eye contact and social conversations with peers over the course of the intervention. No significant changes in social problem solving were noted. This pilot study is the first to report improvements related to group social skills intervention at the level of observed social performance over the course of intervention. The lack of change in social problem solving suggests that survivors may possess the social knowledge required for social situations but have difficulty enacting social behaviors. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. A CASE-CONTROL STUDY OF CHILDHOOD BRAIN TUMORS AND FATHERS’ HOBBIES — A CHILDREN’S ONCOLOGY GROUP STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, Andrea L.; Hovinga, Mary E.; Rorke-Adams, Lucy B.; Spector, Logan G.; Bunin, Greta R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective A comprehensive case-control study was conducted to evaluate parental risk factors for medulloblastoma (MB) and primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET). This analysis was conducted to evaluate associations between fathers’ hobbies and risk of their children developing MB/PNET. The hobbies chosen for study were those with similar exposures as occupations associated with childhood cancers. Methods Cases were 318 subjects under 6 years of age at diagnosis between 1991-1997 and registered with the Children’s Cancer Group. An equal number of controls were selected through random digit dialing and individually matched to cases. Results In multivariate analyses, a significant association was seen for lawn care with pesticides [during pregnancy: odds ratio (OR) = 1.6, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.0, 2.5; after birth: OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2, 2.8] and a weak association was seen for stripping paint [during pregnancy: OR = 1.4, 95% CI: 0.8, 2.6; after birth: OR = 1.4, 95% CI: 0.7, 2.6]. Conclusions This study suggests that household exposures from hobbies, particularly pesticides, may increase risk of MB/PNET in children; previous research has been mostly limited to occupational exposures. PMID:18560982

  19. A case-control study of childhood brain tumors and fathers' hobbies: a Children's Oncology Group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, Andrea L; Hovinga, Mary E; Rorke-Adams, Lucy B; Spector, Logan G; Bunin, Greta R

    2008-12-01

    A comprehensive case-control study was conducted to evaluate parental risk factors for medulloblastoma (MB) and primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET). This analysis was conducted to evaluate associations between fathers' hobbies and risk of their children developing MB/PNET. The hobbies chosen for study were those with similar exposures as occupations associated with childhood cancers. Cases were 318 subjects under six years of age at diagnosis between 1991 and 1997 and registered with the Children's Cancer Group. An equal number of controls were selected through random digit dialing and individually matched to cases. In multivariate analyses, a significant association was seen for lawn care with pesticides [during pregnancy: odds ratio (OR) = 1.6, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.0, 2.5; after birth: OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.2, 2.8] and a weak association was seen for stripping paint [during pregnancy: OR = 1.4, 95% CI: 0.8, 2.6; after birth: OR = 1.4, 95% CI: 0.7, 2.6]. This study suggests that household exposures from hobbies, particularly pesticides, may increase risk of MB/PNET in children; previous research has been mostly limited to occupational exposures.

  20. Ultrasonography of polycystic kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Seung Chul; Cho, Seung Gi; Lee, Kwan Seh; Kim, Kun Sang

    1980-01-01

    Polycystic disease is defined as a heritable disorder with diffuse involvement of both kidneys. The term 'Polycystic disease' comprises at least two separate, genetically different disease-one with an onset typically in childhood (infantile polycystic disease) and the other with an onset typically in adulthood (adult polycystic disease). Adult polycystic kidney disease is the most common form of cystic kidney disease in humans. Ultrasonography is a very useful noninvasive diagnostic modality in the patient with clinically suspected renal diseases as well as screening test. 14 cases of ultrasonography in patient with polycystic kidney were reviewed. All cases show unilateral or bilateral enlarged kidneys. 7 cases reveal kidneys and liver replaced by multiple cysts of varing size. Screening ultrasonography for a familial tree is reported

  1. Spectrum of Childhood and Adolescent Ovarian Tumors in India: 25 Years Experience at a Single Institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Rathore

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ovarian tumour in children and adolescent girls form an uncommon but important part of gynaecological malignancies. They account for 1% of all the childhood malignancies and 8% of all abdominal tumours in children. Since the ovarian cysts are thought to arise from mature follicles, these tumours were considered to be infrequent in the paediatric population. AIM: The rarity of this condition prompted us to conduct this study and share our experience on the incidence and clinicopathological features of different ovarian tumours in girls up to 20 years of age observed in last 25 years at a single tertiary care hospital. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study conducted in the Department of Pathology at a tertiary hospital, Delhi. All ovarian tumours up to the age of 20 years in the past 25 years (1990-2014 were included for the purpose of studying the clinicopathological aspects of ovarian tumours in this age group. Descriptive statistics for prevalence and age-wise prevalence was done. Chi-square test, to find an association between the age, laterality and size with malignancy was performed. RESULTS: We received a total of 1102 cases of ovarian tumours over the period of 25 years  (1990 to 2014, of which 112 (10% cases were seen in girls up to 20 years of age. The mean age of the patients was 15.3 ± 4 years. The most common presenting complaint was pain abdomen (46.4 % There was a statistically significant correlation found between size and malignancy status of tumours in our study (p = 0.00. Of 112 cases of ovarian tumours, 39/112 (34.8% were malignant and 73/112 (65.2% were benign. Mature  cystic teratoma (27.6% was the most common type of benign tumour in this age group and immature teratomas were the most common type of malignant ovarian neoplasms. CONCLUSION: Premenarchal girls with ovarian masses may have varied presentations. Abdominal pain is the most common presenting complaint of young adolescent girls with

  2. Laparoscopic Non-clamping Tumor Enucleation of Renal Hilum Schwannoma in a Single Kidney: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuminari Hanashima

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A 56-year-old woman underwent laparoscopic right nephrectomy due to pyonephrosis associated with right ureteral stones. Moreover, the patient developed a brain stem hemorrhage and became bedridden. At the time of nephrectomy, a renal tumor, with a size of 24 × 24 × 20 mm, was observed in the left renal hilum; the tumor did not show contrast enhancement on computed tomography. After 3 years, the tumor gradually grew to a size of 45 × 35 × 34 mm, and therefore, laparoscopic non-clamping tumor enucleation was performed. Pathological examination confirmed a diagnosis of renal schwannoma.

  3. Palbociclib in Treating Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Rb Positive Advanced Solid Tumors, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, or Histiocytic Disorders With Activating Alterations in Cell Cycle Genes (A Pediatric MATCH Treatment Trial)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-15

    Advanced Malignant Solid Neoplasm; RB1 Positive; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Ewing Sarcoma; Recurrent Glioma; Recurrent Hepatoblastoma; Recurrent Kidney Wilms Tumor; Recurrent Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis; Recurrent Malignant Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Malignant Glioma; Recurrent Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Neuroblastoma; Recurrent Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Recurrent Osteosarcoma; Recurrent Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Rhabdoid Tumor; Recurrent Rhabdomyosarcoma; Recurrent Soft Tissue Sarcoma; Refractory Ependymoma; Refractory Ewing Sarcoma; Refractory Glioma; Refractory Hepatoblastoma; Refractory Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis; Refractory Malignant Germ Cell Tumor; Refractory Malignant Glioma; Refractory Medulloblastoma; Refractory Neuroblastoma; Refractory Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma; Refractory Osteosarcoma; Refractory Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Refractory Rhabdoid Tumor; Refractory Rhabdomyosarcoma; Refractory Soft Tissue Sarcoma

  4. [C1q/tumor necrosis factor related protein 6 (CTRP6) is involved in gentamicin-induced acute kidney injury in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rong; Yang, Xiaoxia; Yu, Yan; Zhou, Meilan; Tian, Xiujuan; Feng, Shidong; Wang, Hanmin

    2016-11-01

    Objective To explore the role of the anti-inflammatory cytokine C1q/tumor necrosis factor related protein 6 (CTRP6) in gentamicin-induced acute kidney injury in rats. Methods SD rats were divided into 5 groups including control group, model group and the other 3 experimental groups. The rats in model group and experimental groups were subcutaneously injected with gentamicin at the dose of 400 mg/(kg.d) for consecutive 2 days to induce acute renal injury. Two days before gentamicin injection, the rats in the 3 experimental groups were given pAd-CTRP6 at the doses of 0.5, 5 and 50 mg/kg, respectively. The serum levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr) were respectively assayed with picric acid colorimetry and ultraviolet spectrophotometry; ELISA was used to detect serum CTRP6 content and the production of interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) in the kidney homogenate; Western blotting was performed to detect the expressions of CTRP6, caspase-1 and pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) proteins in the renal tissues of rats. Results Compared with control group, serum BUN and Cr contents increased in the model rats; the secretion of inflammatory factors IL-1β and TNF-α, as well as the expressions of caspase-1 and NLRP3 were also enhanced in the model group. Compared with the model group, serum BUN and Cr contents decreased in the experimental groups; the secretion of IL-1β and TNF-α, as well as the expressions of caspase-1 and NLRP3 were also attenuated in the experimental groups. Moreover, with the increase of the injection dosage of pAd-CTRP6, the suppressive effect was gradually strengthened. Conclusion CTRP6 can attenuate gentamicin-induced acute renal injury in rats in a dose-dependent manner.

  5. Ion channelopathies of the kidney and adrenal gland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, B. B.; Wollnik, B.; Koemhoff, M.

    2013-01-01

    Genetic kidney diseases represent a significant proportion of kidney diseases manifesting in childhood and adolescence, but are also gaining importance in slowly progressive or late-onset adult diseases. A significant portion of kidney diseases particularly in childhood are associated with end stage

  6. Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Kidney Disease KidsHealth / For Teens / Kidney Disease What's in ... Coping With Kidney Conditions Print What Do the Kidneys Do? You might never think much about some ...

  7. Kidney Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Kidney Problems Basic Facts & Information The kidneys are two ... kidney (renal) diseases are called nephrologists . What are Kidney Diseases? For about one-third of older people, ...

  8. Outcomes of Patients With Revised Stage I Clear Cell Sarcoma of Kidney Treated in National Wilms Tumor Studies 1-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalapurakal, John A.; Perlman, Elizabeth J.; Seibel, Nita L.; Ritchey, Michael; Dome, Jeffrey S.; Grundy, Paul E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To report the clinical outcomes of children with revised stage I clear cell sarcoma of the kidney (CCSK) using the National Wilms Tumor Study Group (NWTS)-5 staging criteria after multimodality treatment on NWTS 1-5 protocols. Methods and Materials: All CCSK patients enrolled in the National Wilms Tumor Study Group protocols had their pathology slides reviewed, and only those determined to have revised stage I tumors according to the NWTS-5 staging criteria were included in the present analysis. All patients were treated with multimodality therapy according to the NWTS 1-5 protocols. Results: A total of 53 children were identified as having stage I CCSK. All patients underwent primary surgery with radical nephrectomy. The chemotherapy regimens used were as follows: regimen A, C, F, or EE in 4 children (8%); regimen DD or DD4A in 33 children (62%); regimen J in 4 children (8%); and regimen I in 12 children (22%). Forty-six patients (87%) received flank radiation therapy (RT). Seven children (13%) did not receive flank RT. The median delay between surgery and the initiation of RT was 9 days (range, 3-61). The median RT dose was 10.8 Gy (range, 10-36). The flank RT doses were as follows: 10.5 or 10.8 Gy in 25 patients (47%), 11-19.9 Gy in 2 patients (4%), 20-29.9 Gy in 9 patients (17%), and 30-40 Gy in 10 patients (19%). The median follow-up for the entire group was 17 years (range, 2-36). The relapse-free and cancer-specific survival rate was 100% at the last follow-up examination. Conclusions: The present results have demonstrated that children with revised stage I CCSK using the NWTS-5 staging criteria have excellent survival rates despite the use of varying RT doses and chemotherapy regimens in the NWTS 1-5 protocols.

  9. Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidney cancer can develop in adults and children. The main types of kidney cancer are renal cell cancer, transitional cell cancer, and Wilms tumor. Certain inherited conditions increase the risk of kidney cancer. Start here to find information on kidney cancer treatment, research, and statistics.

  10. Residential exposure to pesticides as risk factor for childhood and young adult brain tumors: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Maele-Fabry, Geneviève; Gamet-Payrastre, Laurence; Lison, Dominique

    2017-09-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests a positive association between exposure to non-agricultural pesticides and childhood brain tumors (CBT). (1) To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies on the association between residential/household/domestic exposure to pesticides and childhood brain tumors. (2) To clarify variables that could impact the results. Publications in English were identified from a MEDLINE search through 28 February 2017 and from the reference list of identified publications. Risk estimates were extracted from 18 case-control studies published between 1979 and 2016 and study quality assessments were performed. Summary odds ratios (mOR) were calculated according to fixed and random-effect meta-analysis models. Separate analyses were conducted after stratification for study quality, critical exposure period, exposure location, specific exposures, pesticide category, application methods, type of pest treated, type of CBT, child's age at diagnosis and geographic location. Statistically significant associations were observed with CBT after combining all studies (mOR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.13-1.40) without evidence of inconsistency between study results or publication bias. Specifically, increased risks were observed for several groupings and more particularly for gliomas and exposure involving insecticides. Statistical significance was also reached for high quality studies, for all exposure periods, for indoor exposure and, more particularly, during the prenatal period for all stratifications involving insecticides (except for outdoor use), for pet treatments, for flea/tick treatment, for studies from USA/Canada and studies from Europe (borderline) as well as for data from studies including children of up to 10years at diagnosis and of up to 15years. Our findings support an association between residential exposure to pesticides and childhood brain tumors. Although causality cannot be established, these results add to the evidence leading

  11. Renal tumors in infancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucaya, J.; Garcia, P.

    1997-01-01

    The classification of childhood renal masses in updated, including the clinical signs and imaging techniques currently employed to confirm their presence and type them. Several bening and malignant childhood tumors are described in substantial detail. (Author) 24 refs

  12. Teratoid Wilms′ tumor - A rare renal tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswanath Mukhopadhyay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Teratoid Wilms′ tumor is an extremely rare renal tumor. We report a case of unilateral teratoid Wilms′ tumor in a 4-year-old girl. The patient was admitted with a right-sided abdominal mass. The mass was arising from the right kidney. Radical nephrectomy was done and the patient had an uneventful recovery. Histopathology report showed teratoid Wilms′ tumor.

  13. β-HPV Infection Correlates with Early Stages of Carcinogenesis in Skin Tumors and Patient-Derived Xenografts from a Kidney Transplant Recipient Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgogna, Cinzia; Olivero, Carlotta; Lanfredini, Simone; Calati, Federica; De Andrea, Marco; Zavattaro, Elisa; Savoia, Paola; Trisolini, Elena; Boldorini, Renzo; Patel, Girish K; Gariglio, Marisa

    2018-01-01

    Many malignancies that occur in high excess in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) are due to viruses that thrive in the setting of immunosuppression. Keratinocyte carcinoma (KC), the most frequently occurring cancer type in KTR, has been associated with skin infection by human papillomavirus (HPV) from the beta genus. In this report, we extend our previous investigation aimed at identifying the presence of active β-HPV infection in skin tumors from KTRs through detection of viral protein expression. Using a combination of antibodies raised against the E4 and L1 proteins of the β-genotypes, we were able to visualize infection in five tumors [one keratoacanthoma (KA), three actinic keratoses (AKs), and one seborrheic keratoses (SKs)] that were all removed from two patients who had been both transplanted twice, had developed multiple KCs, and presented with a long history of immunosuppression (>30 years). These infected tissues displayed intraepidermal hyperplasia and increased expression of the ΔNp63 protein, which extended into the upper epithelial layers. In addition, using a xenograft model system in nude mice displaying a humanized stromal bed in the site of grafting, we successfully engrafted three AKs, two of which were derived from the aforementioned KTRs and displayed β-HPV infection in the original tumor. Of note, one AK-derived xenograft, along with its ensuing lymph node metastasis, was diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). In the latter, both β-HPV infection and ΔNp63 expression were no longer detectable. Although the overall success rate of engrafting was very low, the results of this study show for the first time that β-HPV + and ΔNp63 + intraepidermal hyperplasia can indeed progress to an aggressive SCC able to metastasize. Consistent with a series of reports attributing a causative role of β-HPV at early stages of skin carcinogenesis through ΔNp63 induction and increased keratinocytes stemness, here we provide in vivo evidence that

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging textural evaluation of posterior cranial fossa tumors in childhood; Avaliacao textural por ressonancia magnetica dos tumores da fossa posterior em criancas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Joelson Alves dos; Costa, Maria Olivia Rodrigues da; Otaduy, Maria Concepcion Garcia; Lacerda, Maria Teresa Carvalho de; Leite, Claudia da Costa [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Radiologia]. E-mail: joelson_alves@ig.com.br; Matsushita, Hamilton [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Neurologia

    2004-08-01

    Objective: To distinguish healthy from pathological tissues in pediatric patients with posterior cranial fossa tumors using calculated textural parameters from magnetic resonance images. Materials And Methods: We evaluated 14 pediatric patients with posterior cranial fossa tumors using the software MaZda to define the texture parameters in selected regions of interest representing healthy and pathological tissues based on T2-weighted magnetic resonance images. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between normal and tumoral tissues as well as between supposedly normal tissues adjacent and distant from the tumoral lesion. Conclusion: Magnetic resonance textural evaluation is an useful tool for determining differences among various tissues, including tissues that appear apparently normal on visual analysis. (author)

  15. Characterizing and Targeting Bone Marrow-Derived Inflammatory Cells in Driving the Malignancy and Progression of Childhood Astrocytic Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    tumors were monitored by bioluminescence. The quantification of bioluminescence based tumor growth. Figure 2-4. Immuno-staining of vascular ...marrow developed high-grade tumors, which had typical malignant features, including robust gadolinium enhancement on MRI, pseudopalisading necrosis , and...perfused with Rhodamine-Dextran. Upper scale bar, 50 µm. Lower panels are magnified views to highlight vascular permeability, scale bar, 20 µm

  16. Obesity and kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Bezerra da Silva Junior

    Full Text Available Abstract Obesity has been pointed out as an important cause of kidney diseases. Due to its close association with diabetes and hypertension, excess weight and obesity are important risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD. Obesity influences CKD development, among other factors, because it predisposes to diabetic nephropathy, hypertensive nephrosclerosis and focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis. Excess weight and obesity are associated with hemodynamic, structural and histological renal changes, in addition to metabolic and biochemical alterations that lead to kidney disease. Adipose tissue is dynamic and it is involved in the production of "adipokines", such as leptin, adiponectin, tumor necrosis factor-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, transforming growth factor-β and angiotensin-II. A series of events is triggered by obesity, including insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis and hypertension. There is evidence that obesity itself can lead to kidney disease development. Further studies are required to better understand the association between obesity and kidney disease.

  17. Kidney biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the kidney (in rare cases, may require a blood transfusion) Bleeding into the muscle, which might cause soreness Infection (small risk) Alternative Names Renal biopsy; Biopsy - kidney Images Kidney anatomy ...

  18. A new method using multiphoton imaging and morphometric analysis for differentiating chromophobe renal cell carcinoma and oncocytoma kidney tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Binlin; Mukherjee, Sushmita; Jain, Manu

    2016-03-01

    Distinguishing chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (chRCC) from oncocytoma on hematoxylin and eosin images may be difficult and require time-consuming ancillary procedures. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM), an optical imaging modality, was used to rapidly generate sub-cellular histological resolution images from formalin-fixed unstained tissue sections from chRCC and oncocytoma.Tissues were excited using 780nm wavelength and emission signals (including second harmonic generation and autofluorescence) were collected in different channels between 390 nm and 650 nm. Granular structure in the cell cytoplasm was observed in both chRCC and oncocytoma. Quantitative morphometric analysis was conducted to distinguish chRCC and oncocytoma. To perform the analysis, cytoplasm and granules in tumor cells were segmented from the images. Their area and fluorescence intensity were found in different channels. Multiple features were measured to quantify the morphological and fluorescence properties. Linear support vector machine (SVM) was used for classification. Re-substitution validation, cross validation and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve were implemented to evaluate the efficacy of the SVM classifier. A wrapper feature algorithm was used to select the optimal features which provided the best predictive performance in separating the two tissue types (classes). Statistical measures such as sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and area under curve (AUC) of ROC were calculated to evaluate the efficacy of the classification. Over 80% accuracy was achieved as the predictive performance. This method, if validated on a larger and more diverse sample set, may serve as an automated rapid diagnostic tool to differentiate between chRCC and oncocytoma. An advantage of such automated methods are that they are free from investigator bias and variability.

  19. Characterizing and Targeting Bone Marrow-Derived Inflammatory Cells in Driving the Malignancy and Progression of Childhood Astrocytic Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    described previously (21). Bioluminesence IVIS -100 (Xenogen) and MRI (Bruker Biospin) were performed to monitor the progression of tumor. Tumor margins in...Cancer Cell 2006;9:157–73. 16. Tang Z, Arjunan P, Lee C, Li Y, Kumar A, Hou X, et al. Survival effect of PDGF-CC rescues neurons from apoptosis in both

  20. Altered self-perception in adult survivors treated for a CNS tumor in childhood or adolescence: population-based outcomes compared with the general population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörnquist, Lina; Rickardsson, Jenny; Lannering, Birgitta; Gustafsson, Göran; Boman, Krister K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Survivors of pediatric CNS tumors are at risk for persistent tumor/treatment-related morbidity, physical disability and social consequences that may alter self-perception, vital for self-identity, mental health and quality of survival. We studied the long-term impact of childhood CNS tumors and their treatment on the self-perception of adult survivors and compared outcomes with those of the general population. Methods The cohort included 697 Swedish survivors diagnosed with a primary CNS tumor during 1982–2001. Comparison data were randomly collected from a stratified general population sample. Survivors and general population individuals were compared as regards self-perception in 5 domains: body image, sports/physical activities, peers, work, and family, and with a global self-esteem index. Within the survivor group, determinants of impact on self-perception were identified. Results The final analyzed sample included 528 survivors, 75.8% of the entire national cohort. The control sample consisted of 995, 41% of 2500 addressed. Survivors had significantly poorer self-perception outcomes in domains of peers, work, body image, and sports/physical activities, and in the global self-perception measure, compared with those of the general population (all P type and a history of cranial radiation therapy were associated with outcomes. Conclusion An altered self-perception is a potential late effect in adult survivors of pediatric CNS tumors. Self-perception and self-esteem are significant elements of identity, mental health and quality of survival. Therefore, care and psychosocial follow-up of survivors should include measures for identifying disturbances and for assessing the need for psychosocial intervention. PMID:25332406

  1. Altered self-perception in adult survivors treated for a CNS tumor in childhood or adolescence: population-based outcomes compared with the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörnquist, Lina; Rickardsson, Jenny; Lannering, Birgitta; Gustafsson, Göran; Boman, Krister K

    2015-05-01

    Survivors of pediatric CNS tumors are at risk for persistent tumor/treatment-related morbidity, physical disability and social consequences that may alter self-perception, vital for self-identity, mental health and quality of survival. We studied the long-term impact of childhood CNS tumors and their treatment on the self-perception of adult survivors and compared outcomes with those of the general population. The cohort included 697 Swedish survivors diagnosed with a primary CNS tumor during 1982-2001. Comparison data were randomly collected from a stratified general population sample. Survivors and general population individuals were compared as regards self-perception in 5 domains: body image, sports/physical activities, peers, work, and family, and with a global self-esteem index. Within the survivor group, determinants of impact on self-perception were identified. The final analyzed sample included 528 survivors, 75.8% of the entire national cohort. The control sample consisted of 995, 41% of 2500 addressed. Survivors had significantly poorer self-perception outcomes in domains of peers, work, body image, and sports/physical activities, and in the global self-perception measure, compared with those of the general population (all P self-perception is a potential late effect in adult survivors of pediatric CNS tumors. Self-perception and self-esteem are significant elements of identity, mental health and quality of survival. Therefore, care and psychosocial follow-up of survivors should include measures for identifying disturbances and for assessing the need for psychosocial intervention. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Actual and future strategies in interdisciplinary treatment of medulloblastomas, supratentorial PNET and intracranial germ cell tumors in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kortmann, R.D.; Timmermann, B.; Bamberg, M.; Kuehl, J.; Calaminus, G.; Goebel, U.; Dieckmann, K.; Wurm, R.; Soerensen, N.; Urban, C.

    2001-01-01

    Methods: Systemic irradiation of neuroaxis is an essential part in the management of medulloblastoma, stPNET and intracranial germ cell tumors. The introduction of quality assurance programs in radiooncology assures a precise radiotherapy of target volumes and is a prerequisite to improve survival. Results: Hyperfractionated radiotherapy has the potential of increasing dose to tumor more safely without increasing the risk for late adverse effects. Pilot studies revealed excellent tumor control in medulloblastoma with acceptable acute toxicity and a long-term survival of up to 96%. In medulloblastoma stereotactic radiation techniques reveal an acceptable toxicity and promising results in tumor control in recurrent disease or as primary treatment. They are now part of future treatment protocols in case of persisting residual tumor. Radiotherapy alone in pure germinoma is continuously yielding high cure rates. In secreting germ cell tumors cisplatin containing chemotherapies in conjunction with radiotherapy achieve a long-term survival rate of 80% today. Especially in high risk medulloblastoma and secreting germ cell tumors chemotherapies are playing an increasingly important role in the interdisciplinary management. It can be expected that future developments of chemotherapeutic protocols and the introduction of new cytostatic substances will further improve the therapeutic outcome. (orig.) [de

  3. Simple Kidney Cysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Solitary Kidney Your Kidneys & How They Work Simple Kidney Cysts What are simple kidney cysts? Simple kidney cysts are abnormal, fluid-filled ... that form in the kidneys. What are the kidneys and what do they do? The kidneys are ...

  4. Tumors of the soft tissues of the knee in childhood; Osteo-articulaire masse des tissus mous de genou. Imagerie des masses des tissus mous du genou chez l'enfant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludig, T.; Mainard, L.; Galloy, M.A.; Arnould, V.; Gerber, R.; Hoeffel, J.C. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Nancy-Brabois, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    1998-04-01

    Soft tissue tumors of the knee are rare in childhood. Modern imaging modalities are very useful to evaluate these tumors. Their diagnosis has to be considered in view of the clinical content, their precise location and imaging features. Succinct review of the normal anatomy of the knee is made. We offer a diagnostic approach to these tumors in children including conventional radiology, ultrasound and MRI. We discuss the role of the different imaging techniques available for the diagnosis of these lesions, including pseudo-tumors such as popliteal cysts, hematoma, ossifying myositis, extra-articular benign and malignant tumors, as well as intra-articular lesions, synovial lipoma, osteochondromatosis and pigmented villo-nodular synovitis. MRI is particularly useful to evaluate the extent of the malignant tumors. (authors)

  5. The MOBI-Kids Study Protocol: Challenges in Assessing Childhood and Adolescent Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields from Wireless Telecommunication Technologies and Possible Association with Brain Tumor Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadetzki, Siegal; Langer, Chelsea Eastman; Bruchim, Revital; Kundi, Michael; Merletti, Franco; Vermeulen, Roel; Kromhout, Hans; Lee, Ae-Kyoung; Maslanyj, Myron; Sim, Malcolm R.; Taki, Masao; Wiart, Joe; Armstrong, Bruce; Milne, Elizabeth; Benke, Geza; Schattner, Rosa; Hutter, Hans-Peter; Woehrer, Adelheid; Krewski, Daniel; Mohipp, Charmaine; Momoli, Franco; Ritvo, Paul; Spinelli, John; Lacour, Brigitte; Delmas, Dominique; Remen, Thomas; Radon, Katja; Weinmann, Tobias; Klostermann, Swaantje; Heinrich, Sabine; Petridou, Eleni; Bouka, Evdoxia; Panagopoulou, Paraskevi; Dikshit, Rajesh; Nagrani, Rajini; Even-Nir, Hadas; Chetrit, Angela; Maule, Milena; Migliore, Enrica; Filippini, Graziella; Miligi, Lucia; Mattioli, Stefano; Yamaguchi, Naohito; Kojimahara, Noriko; Ha, Mina; Choi, Kyung-Hwa; Mannetje, Andrea ’t; Eng, Amanda; Woodward, Alistair; Carretero, Gema; Alguacil, Juan; Aragones, Nuria; Suare-Varela, Maria Morales; Goedhart, Geertje; Schouten-van Meeteren, A. Antoinette Y. N.; Reedijk, A. Ardine M. J.; Cardis, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    The rapid increase in mobile phone use in young people has generated concern about possible health effects of exposure to radiofrequency (RF) and extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields (EMF). MOBI-Kids, a multinational case–control study, investigates the potential effects of childhood and adolescent exposure to EMF from mobile communications technologies on brain tumor risk in 14 countries. The study, which aims to include approximately 1,000 brain tumor cases aged 10–24 years and two individually matched controls for each case, follows a common protocol and builds upon the methodological experience of the INTERPHONE study. The design and conduct of a study on EMF exposure and brain tumor risk in young people in a large number of countries is complex and poses methodological challenges. This manuscript discusses the design of MOBI-Kids and describes the challenges and approaches chosen to address them, including: (1) the choice of controls operated for suspected appendicitis, to reduce potential selection bias related to low response rates among population controls; (2) investigating a young study population spanning a relatively wide age range; (3) conducting a large, multinational epidemiological study, while adhering to increasingly stricter ethics requirements; (4) investigating a rare and potentially fatal disease; and (5) assessing exposure to EMF from communication technologies. Our experience in thus far developing and implementing the study protocol indicates that MOBI-Kids is feasible and will generate results that will contribute to the understanding of potential brain tumor risks associated with use of mobile phones and other wireless communications technologies among young people. PMID:25295243

  6. The MOBI-Kids study protocol: challenges in assessing childhood and adolescent exposure to electromagnetic fields from wireless telecommunication technologies and possible association with brain tumor risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegal eSadetzki

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The rapid increase in mobile phone use in young people has generated concern about possible health effects of exposure to radiofrequency (RF, extremely low frequency (ELF electromagnetic fields (EMF. MOBI-Kids, a multinational case-control study, investigates the potential effects of childhood and adolescent exposure to EMF from mobile communications technologies on brain tumor risk in 14 countries. The study, which aims to include approximately 1,000 brain tumor cases aged 10-24 years and two individually matched controls for each case, follows a common protocol and builds upon the methodological experience of the INTERPHONE study. The design and conduct of a study on EMF exposure and brain tumor risk in young people in a large number of countries is complex and poses methodological challenges. This manuscript discusses the design of MOBI-Kids and describes the challenges and approaches chosen to address them, including: 1 the choice of controls operated for suspected appendicitis, to reduce potential selection bias related to low response rates among population controls; 2 investigating a young study population spanning a relatively wide age-range. 3 conducting a large, multinational epidemiological study, while adhering to increasingly stricter ethics requirements; 4 investigating a rare and potentially fatal disease; and 5 assessing exposure to EMF from communication technologies. Our experience thus far developing and implementing the study protocol indicates that MOBI-Kids is feasible and will generate results that will contribute to the understanding of potential brain tumor risks associated with use of mobile phones and other wireless communications technologies among young people.

  7. Increased Daytime Sleepiness in Patients with Childhood Craniopharyngioma and Hypothalamic Tumor Involvement: Review of the Literature and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann L. Müller

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood craniopharyngiomas are rare embryogenic malformations of the sellar region, presumably derived from Rathke cleft epithelium. The overall survival rates after neurosurgical intervention and/or irradiation are high (92%. However, the quality of survival is frequently impaired due to endocrine deficiencies, sleep disturbances, daytime sleepiness, and severe obesity caused by hypothalamic lesions. Based on self-assessment using nutritional diaries, caloric intake was similar in patients and BMI-matched controls. Analyses of physical activity by accelerometric measurements showed a markedly lower level of physical activity. Significant daytime sleepiness and disturbances of circadian rhythms have been demonstrated in obese childhood craniopharyngioma patients. Daytime sleepiness and obesity in these patients were both correlated with low nocturnal and early morning melatonin levels. Polysomnographic studies in patients with severe daytime sleepiness revealed sleeping patterns typical for secondary narcolepsy. Reports on a beneficial effect of treatment with central stimulating agents supported the hypothesis that secondary narcolepsy should be considered as a rare cause for severe daytime sleepiness in patients with childhood craniopharyngioma.

  8. Tendencia de la incidencia de los tumores hepáticos en la infancia Incidence trends of hepatic tumors in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Mejía-Aranguré

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar la tendencia de la incidencia de los diferentes tumores hepáticos en niños residentes en el Distrito Federal. Material y métodos. Encuesta hospitalaria. Se realizó un análisis de dos bases de datos. La primera tiene registrados todos los casos de tumores hepáticos que se encontraron entre el periodo de l982 a 1991, de hospitales que atienden a niños con cáncer, residentes en la Ciudad de México. La segunda base de datos tiene registrados todos los casos de tumores hepáticos que se encontraron de 1996 a 1999 en el Hospital de Pediatría Centro Médico Nacional (CMN "Siglo XXI" y en el Hospital General del Centro Médico Nacional "La Raza", del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS. Se calcularon las tasas de incidencia anual promedio (TIAP por cada tipo de tumor hepático. Las tasas fueron estandarizadas por el método directo, usando como población de referencia a la mundial estándar menor de l5 años. La tendencia se evaluó con las tasas de incidencia anuales y se calculó la tasa de cambio promedio que emplea la distribución de Poisson. Resultados. Durante el periodo de 1982 a 1991 la TIAP para hepatoblastoma fue el triple en hombres con 0.6 x 10(6. El grupo más afectado fue el de 1 a 4 años.(Para los hepatocarcinomas la TIAP fue de 0.14 para el sexo femenino, siendo el doble que la del sexo masculino. Para el periodo de 1996 a 1999 la TIAP para hepatoblastomas fue de 5.11 en mujeres y de 1.85 en hombres. El grupo de edad con la tasa más alta fue el de mujeres menores de un año. Para hepatocarcinomas la TIAP fue de 0.64 para hombres y de 1.23 en mujeres. El grupo de edad más afectado fue el de hombres de 10 a 14 años. No se observó tendencia significativa al incremento o decremento en la incidencia de hepatoblastomas. Para hepatocarcinomas hubo una tasa de cambio de 10%, pero tampoco fue significativa. Conclusiones. No existe en la Ciudad de México una tendencia en la incidencia de los tumores hep

  9. Are clinical parameters valuable prognostic factors in childhood primitive neuroectodermal tumors? A multivariate analysis of 105 cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michiels, E. M.; Heikens, J.; Jansen, M. J.; Oldenburger, F.; Voûte, T.

    2000-01-01

    Medulloblastoma is one of the most frequent brain tumors in children. Long-term survivors are often confronted with serious late sequelae, caused by the therapy. Therefore, prognostic markers must be identified that allow the children to be assigned to different treatment schedules according to

  10. Risk of Subsequent Leukemia After a Solid Tumor in Childhood: Impact of Bone Marrow Radiation Therapy and Chemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allodji, Rodrigue S., E-mail: rodrigue.allodji@gustaveroussy.fr [Inserm, Radiation Epidemiology Team, CESP-Unit 1018, Villejuif (France); Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Paris Sud University, Orsay (France); Schwartz, Boris; Veres, Cristina; Haddy, Nadia; Rubino, Carole; Le Deley, Marie-Cécile; Labbé, Martine; Diop, Fara; Jackson, Angela; Dayet, Florent; Benabdennebi, Aymen; Llanas, Damien; Vu Bezin, Jérémi [Inserm, Radiation Epidemiology Team, CESP-Unit 1018, Villejuif (France); Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Paris Sud University, Orsay (France); Chavaudra, Jean; Lefkopoulos, Dimitri [Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Deutsch, Eric [Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Inserm, UMR 1030, Villejuif (France); Oberlin, Odile [Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Vathaire, Florent de; Diallo, Ibrahima [Inserm, Radiation Epidemiology Team, CESP-Unit 1018, Villejuif (France); Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Paris Sud University, Orsay (France)

    2015-11-01

    Purpose: To investigate the roles of radiation therapy and chemotherapy in the occurrence of subsequent leukemia after childhood cancer. Methods and Materials: We analyzed data from a case-control study with 35 cases and 140 controls. The active bone marrow (ABM) was segmented into 19 compartments, and the radiation dose was estimated in each. The chemotherapy drug doses were also estimated to enable adjustments. Models capable of accounting for radiation dose heterogeneity were implemented for analysis. Results: Univariate analysis showed a significant trend in the increase of secondary leukemia risk with radiation dose, after accounting for dose heterogeneity (P=.046). This trend became nonsignificant after adjustment for doses of epipodophyllotoxins, alkylating agents, and platinum compounds and the first cancer on multivariate analysis (P=.388). The role of the radiation dose appeared to be dwarfed, mostly by the alkylating agents (odds ratio 6.9, 95% confidence interval 1.9-25.0). Among the patients who have received >16 Gy to the ABM, the radiogenic risk of secondary leukemia was about 4 times greater in the subgroup with no alkylating agents than in the subgroup receiving ≥10 g/m{sup 2}. Conclusions: Notwithstanding the limitations resulting from the size of our study population and the quite systematic co-treatment with chemotherapy, the use of detailed information on the radiation dose distribution to ABM enabled consideration of the role of radiation therapy in secondary leukemia induction after childhood cancer.

  11. Risk of Subsequent Leukemia After a Solid Tumor in Childhood: Impact of Bone Marrow Radiation Therapy and Chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allodji, Rodrigue S.; Schwartz, Boris; Veres, Cristina; Haddy, Nadia; Rubino, Carole; Le Deley, Marie-Cécile; Labbé, Martine; Diop, Fara; Jackson, Angela; Dayet, Florent; Benabdennebi, Aymen; Llanas, Damien; Vu Bezin, Jérémi; Chavaudra, Jean; Lefkopoulos, Dimitri; Deutsch, Eric; Oberlin, Odile; Vathaire, Florent de; Diallo, Ibrahima

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the roles of radiation therapy and chemotherapy in the occurrence of subsequent leukemia after childhood cancer. Methods and Materials: We analyzed data from a case-control study with 35 cases and 140 controls. The active bone marrow (ABM) was segmented into 19 compartments, and the radiation dose was estimated in each. The chemotherapy drug doses were also estimated to enable adjustments. Models capable of accounting for radiation dose heterogeneity were implemented for analysis. Results: Univariate analysis showed a significant trend in the increase of secondary leukemia risk with radiation dose, after accounting for dose heterogeneity (P=.046). This trend became nonsignificant after adjustment for doses of epipodophyllotoxins, alkylating agents, and platinum compounds and the first cancer on multivariate analysis (P=.388). The role of the radiation dose appeared to be dwarfed, mostly by the alkylating agents (odds ratio 6.9, 95% confidence interval 1.9-25.0). Among the patients who have received >16 Gy to the ABM, the radiogenic risk of secondary leukemia was about 4 times greater in the subgroup with no alkylating agents than in the subgroup receiving ≥10 g/m"2. Conclusions: Notwithstanding the limitations resulting from the size of our study population and the quite systematic co-treatment with chemotherapy, the use of detailed information on the radiation dose distribution to ABM enabled consideration of the role of radiation therapy in secondary leukemia induction after childhood cancer.

  12. Radiological diagnostics of malignant tumors of the musculoskeletal system in childhood and adolescence; Radiologische Diagnostik maligner Tumoren des Muskuloskelettalsystems im Kindes- und Adoleszentenalter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemec, S.F.; Krestan, C.R. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Klinische Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie und muskuloskelettale Radiologie, Wien (Austria); Hojreh, A.; Hoermann, M. [Medizinische Universitaet Wien, Klinische Abteilung fuer Allgemeine Radiologie und Kinderradiologie, Wien (Austria)

    2008-10-15

    Rhabdomyosarcoma, osteosarcoma and Ewing's sarcoma are the most common malignant tumors of the musculoskeletal system in childhood and adolescence representing about 10% of newly diagnosed cancers in children and adolescents. In the last two decades the prognosis of patients with such malignancies improved significantly. On the one hand because of the advances in chemotherapy and orthopedic surgery, on the other hand also because of the innovations in radiological diagnostics. The precise pre-therapeutical staging of tumors of the musculoskeletal system provides important prognostic information and has impact on the entire therapy management. During respectively after therapy, imaging is extremely important in the follow-up and in diagnosing a possible recurrent disease. Modern imaging diagnostics of musculoskeletal tumors basically consist of conventional X-ray, of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and of modalities of nuclear medicine such as szintigraphy, positron emission tomography (PET) and PET CT. (orig.) [German] Das Rhabdomyosarkom, das Osteosarkom und das Ewing-Sarkom sind die am haeufigsten auftretenden malignen Tumoren des Muskuloskelettalsystems im Kindes- und Adoleszentenalter. Diese Erkrankungen repraesentieren etwa 10% der bei Kindern und Jugendlichen neu diagnostizierten Tumoren. In den letzten beiden Jahrzehnten hat sich insgesamt die Prognose der Patienten mit solchen Malignomen deutlich gebessert. Einerseits aufgrund der Fortschritte in der Chemotherapie und orthopaedischen Tumorchirurgie, andererseits nicht zuletzt aufgrund der zahlreichen Innovationen der radiologischen Diagnostik. Das praezise praetherapeutische Staging von Tumoren des Muskuloskelettalsystems liefert wichtige prognostische Informationen und beeinflusst das gesamte Therapiemanagement. Waehrend bzw. nach erfolgter Therapie ist die Bildgebung ganz entscheidend im Follow-up und bei der Diagnostik einer moeglichen Rezidiverkrankung. Die moderne

  13. Kidney Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy kidneys clean your blood by removing excess fluid, minerals, and wastes. They also make hormones that keep your ... strong and your blood healthy. But if the kidneys are damaged, they don't work properly. Harmful ...

  14. Nephrogenic tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiesbauer, P.

    2008-01-01

    Nephroblastomas are the most common malignant renal tumors in childhood. According to the guidelines of the SIOP (Societe Internationale d'Oncologie Pediatrique) and GPOH (Gesellschaft fuer Paediatrische Onkologie und Haematologie) pre-operative chemotherapy can be started without histological confirmation and thus initial imaging studies, in particular ultrasound, play an outstanding role for diagnostic purposes

  15. Current evidence of anti-tumor necrosis factor α treatment efficacy in childhood chronic uveitis: a systematic review and meta-analysis approach of individual drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonini, Gabriele; Druce, Katie; Cimaz, Rolando; Macfarlane, Gary J; Jones, Gareth T

    2014-07-01

    To summarize evidence regarding the effectiveness of anti-tumor necrosis factor α (anti-TNFα) treatments in childhood autoimmune chronic uveitis (ACU), refractory to previous disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). A systematic search between January 2000 and October 2012 was conducted using EMBase, Ovid Medline, Evidence-Based Medicine (EBM) Reviews: American College of Physicians Journal Club, Cochrane libraries, and EBM Reviews. Studies investigating the efficacy of anti-TNFα therapy, in children ages ≤16 years, as the first treatment with a biologic agent for ACU, refractory to topical and/or systemic steroid therapy and at least 1 DMARD, were eligible for inclusion. The primary outcome measure was the improvement of intraocular inflammation, as defined by the Standardization of Uveitis Nomenclature Working Group criteria. We determined a combined estimate of the proportion of children responding to anti-TNFα treatment, including etanercept (ETA), infliximab (INF), or adalimumab (ADA). We initially identified 989 articles, of which 148 were potentially eligible. In total, 22 retrospective chart reviews and 1 randomized clinical trial were deemed eligible, thus including 229 children (ADA: n = 31, ETA: n = 54, and INF: n = 144). On pooled analysis of observational studies, the proportion of responding children was 87% (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 75-98%) for ADA, 72% (95% CI 64-79%) for INF, and 33% (95% CI 19-47%) for ETA. There was no difference in the proportion of responders between ADA and INF (χ(2) = 3.06, P = 0.08), although both showed superior efficacy compared with ETA (ADA versus ETA: χ(2) = 20.9, P < 0.001 and INF versus ETA: χ(2) = 20.9, P < 0.001). Although randomized controlled trials are needed, the available evidence suggests that INF and ADA provide proven similar benefits in the treatment of childhood ACU, and they are both superior to ETA. Copyright © 2014 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  16. Maternal consumption of coffee and tea during pregnancy and risk of childhood brain tumors: results from an Australian case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenop, Kathryn R; Miller, Margaret; Attia, John; Ashton, Lesley J; Cohn, Richard; Armstrong, Bruce K; Milne, Elizabeth

    2014-10-01

    The causes of childhood brain tumors (CBT) are largely unknown, but gestational diet may influence this risk. The aim of this analysis was to investigate whether maternal coffee or tea consumption during pregnancy was associated with the risk of CBT. The Australian Study of the Causes of Childhood Brain Tumours was a population-based, Australian case-control study conducted between 2005 and 2010. Case children were recruited from 10 pediatric oncology centers and control children by nationwide random-digit dialing, frequency matched to cases on the basis of age, sex and state of residence. Coffee and tea intake were assessed using a food frequency questionnaire. Data on coffee and tea consumption during pregnancy were available from 293 case mothers and 726 control mothers. Odds ratios (ORs) and confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using multivariable unconditional logistic regression. There was little evidence of an association between gestational consumption of any coffee (OR 1.23, 95% CI 0.92, 1.64) or tea (OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.74, 1.36) and CBT risk. Among children aged under 5 years, the OR for any coffee consumption during pregnancy was 1.76 (95% CI 1.09, 2.84) and for ≥2 cups per day during pregnancy was 2.52 (95% CI 1.26, 5.04). There was little evidence that associations with coffee or tea intake differed by parental smoking status. These results suggest a positive association between coffee intake ≥2 cups per day and risk of CBT in younger children, although some estimates are imprecise. There was no association between maternal tea drinking and risk of CBT.

  17. Efficacy of 68Ga-DOTATOC Positron Emission Tomography (PET) CT in Children and Young Adults With Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-27

    Acoustic Schwannoma; Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Meningioma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Choroid Plexus Tumor; Adult Craniopharyngioma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoblastoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Grade I Meningioma; Adult Grade II Meningioma; Adult Medulloblastoma; Adult Meningeal Hemangiopericytoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Myxopapillary Ependymoma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Papillary Meningioma; Adult Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Pineoblastoma; Adult Pineocytoma; Adult Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Adult Subependymoma; Adult Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET); Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Ependymoblastoma; Childhood Grade I Meningioma; Childhood Grade II Meningioma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood High-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Meningeal Melanocytoma; Newly Diagnosed Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Diffuse Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Fibrillary Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Gemistocytic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Gliomatosis Cerebri; Recurrent Childhood Gliosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood

  18. Primary Leiomyosarcoma of the Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusuma Venkatesh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary leiomyosarcoma of the kidney is a rare tumor with an aggressive behaviour. A 55-year-old woman presented with a left sided abdominal mass in our outpatient department. Radiologic investigations revealed the mass to be renal in origin with colonic adhesions for which radical nephrectomy and hemicolectomy were done. The tumor completely appeared to replace the left kidney and had a whorled character focally on cut section. Microscopically, spindle cells having malignant features with cigar shaped nuclei were seen. The smooth muscle origin of the cells was confirmed by immunohistochemical positivity for smooth muscle actin. Sarcomatoid variant of the renal cell carcinoma was ruled out as the tumor was negative for cytokeratin. Tumors with spindle cell morphology in the kidney should not always be taken for a sarcomatoid variant of renal cell carcinoma and should be investigated thoroughly.

  19. Wilms' Tumor: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spanish Wilms tumor (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Wilms Tumor updates ... ENCYCLOPEDIA After chemotherapy - discharge Wilms tumor Related Health Topics Kidney Cancer National Institutes of Health The primary ...

  20. The Online Parent Information and Support project, meeting parents' information and support needs for home-based management of childhood chronic kidney disease: research protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swallow, Veronica; Knafl, Kathleen; Sanatacroce, Sheila; Hall, Andrew; Smith, Trish; Campbell, Malcolm; Webb, Nicholas J A

    2012-09-01

    This article is a report of a protocol for studying the development and evaluation of an online parent information and support package for home-based care of children with chronic kidney disease stages 3-5. The study is funded by a National Institute of Health Research, Research for Patient Benefit Grant awarded (December 2010). Approval to undetake the study was obtained from the Department of Health National Research Ethics Service (June 2011). Children with chronic kidney disease require skilled, home-based care by parents, supported by professionals. Parents have identified a need for continuously available online resources to supplement professional support, and structured resources tailored to parents' needs are highlighted by policy makers as key to optimizing care; yet, online resource provision is patchy with little evidence base. Using mixed methods, we will (i) conduct parent/child/young person/professional/patient and parent volunteer focus groups to explore views on existing resources, (ii) collaboratively define gaps in provision, identify desirable components, develop/test resources and conduct a feasibility randomized controlled trial, and (iii) of usual professional support versus usual support supplemented by the package. Eighty parents of children with chronic kidney disease will be randomized. Primary outcomes will assess parents' self-efficacy and views of resources, using standardized measures at entry and 24 weeks, and semi-structured interviews at 24 weeks. We will finalize trial components for a later definitive trial. By working collaboratively, we will derive a detailed insight into parents' information and support needs and experiences of using the package, and should see improved parental self-efficacy. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Childhood rhabdomyosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba Rovira, S M; Inarejos Clemente, E J

    Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common soft-tissue sarcoma in children; it can appear in any part of the body. Its biological behavior varies widely, and despite the absence of specific clinical or radiological characteristics, rhabdomyosarcoma should be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of solid tumors in children. This review focuses primarily on the imaging findings and anatomical distribution of the histological subtypes of childhood rhabdomyosarcoma and secondarily on the differential findings in histological studies. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Wilms tumors: genotypes and phenotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Segers (Heidi)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWilms tumor, or nephroblastoma, represents about 90% of all pediatric renal tumors and about 7% of all pediatric malignancies. Most Wilms tumors are unilateral, although in 5-10 % of the patients both kidneys are infected. Wilms tumor typically occurs between the age of 2 and 4 years,

  3. General Information about Unusual Cancers of Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause both male and female children to develop masculine traits, such as body hair or a deep ... remove the tumor. Whether the child has developed masculine traits. These tumors can spread to the kidneys, ...

  4. Treatment Option Overview (Unusual Cancers of Childhood)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause both male and female children to develop masculine traits, such as body hair or a deep ... remove the tumor. Whether the child has developed masculine traits. These tumors can spread to the kidneys, ...

  5. Kidney Stones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información ... Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información ...

  6. Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    You have two kidneys. They are fist-sized organs on either side of your backbone above your waist. The tubes inside filter and ... blood, taking out waste products and making urine. Kidney cancer forms in the lining of tiny tubes ...

  7. Factors relating to pregnancy and birth and the risk of childhood brain tumors: results from an Australian case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenop, Kathryn R; Blair, Eve M; Bower, Carol; Armstrong, Bruce K; Milne, Elizabeth

    2014-03-01

    Childhood brain tumors (CBT) are the leading cause of cancer death in children, yet their causes are largely known. This study investigated the association between maternal and birth characteristics and risk of CBT. Cases families were recruited from all 10 Australian pediatric oncology centers between 2005 and 2010. Control families were recruited via random-digit dialing, frequency matched to cases on the basis of child's age, sex, and State of residence. Maternal and birth characteristics of children were ascertained by questionnaires. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression, adjusting for relevant confounders. For this analysis, data on 319 case children and 1,079 control children were available. No association was found between risk of CBT and birth weight, fetal growth, birth order, gestational age, or maternal body mass index. The ORs for inadequate and excessive maternal gestational weight gain (GWG) (Institute of Medicine 2009 guidelines) were 1.8 (95% CI 1.2-2.6) and 1.4 (95% CI 1.0-2.1), respectively; similar findings for GWG were seen across categories of child's age, fetal growth, maternal body mass index and height, maternal smoking, and parental education. Risk of low grade glioma appeared increased with preterm birth (OR 1.6 (95% CI 0.8-3.1) and admission to neonatal intensive care (NICU) for >2 days (OR 1.7, 95% CI 0.9-3.6). We found little evidence of associations between risk of CBT and most birth characteristics. The associations we observed with GWG, prematurity and NICU admission require corroboration in other studies. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Injury - kidney and ureter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kidney; Ureteral injury; Pre-renal failure - injury, Post-renal failure - injury; Kidney obstruction - injury Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow References Molitoris BA. Acute kidney injury. In: Goldman ...

  9. Chronic Kidney Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Chronic Kidney Diseases KidsHealth / For Kids / Chronic Kidney Diseases What's ... re talking about your kidneys. What Are the Kidneys? Your kidneys are tucked under your lower ribs ...

  10. Kidney Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cares Peers Support Ask the Doctor My Food Coach Nutrition Dialysis Patient & Family Resources Emergency Resources A ... State Charity Registration Disclosures © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc., 30 East 33rd Street, New York, NY 10016, ...

  11. Kidney Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that links the kidney to the bladder — is connected to your bladder. After the procedure After your ... three to eight weeks after transplant. No lifting objects weighing more than 10 pounds or exercise other ...

  12. Kidney School

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... but food is a major focus of family life and social events. Learn how to balance your food intake so you can eat the foods ... Getting Adequate Dialysis Healthy kidneys work 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. ...

  13. Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... common cancers in the United States. Cancer Home Kidney Cancer Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Anatomy of the male urinary system (left panel) and ...

  14. Kidney Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Institute Veterans Administration Special thanks to our corporate sponsor for supporting excellence in transplant education: Learn more about the UNOS Kidney Transplant Learning Center Patient brochures What Every Patient Needs to ...

  15. Kidney Dysplasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... whose mothers used certain prescription medications or illegal drugs during pregnancy What are the signs of kidney dysplasia? Many ... the use of certain prescription medications or illegal drugs during pregnancy. Pregnant women should talk with their health care ...

  16. Kidney Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to know FAQ Living donation What is living donation? Organs Types Being a living donor First steps Being ... treatment option for kidney failure or disease through organ donation from a healthy, living person who is a ...

  17. Hereditary Causes of Kidney Stones and Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edvardsson, Vidar O.; Goldfarb, David S.; Lieske, John C.; Beara-Lasic, Lada; Anglani, Franca; Milliner, Dawn S.; Palsson, Runolfur

    2013-01-01

    Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) deficiency, cystinuria, Dent disease, familial hypomagnesemia with hypercalciuria and nephrocalcinosis (FHHNC) and primary hyperoxaluria (PH) are rare but important causes of severe kidney stone disease and/or chronic kidney disease in children. Recurrent kidney stone disease and nephrocalcinosis, particularly in pre-pubertal children, should alert the physician to the possibility of an inborn error of metabolism as the underlying cause. Unfortunately, the lack of recognition and knowledge of the five disorders has frequently resulted in an unacceptable delay in diagnosis and treatment, sometimes with grave consequences. A high index of suspicion coupled with early diagnosis may reduce or even prevent the serious long-term complications of these diseases. In this paper, we review the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and outcome of patients with APRT deficiency, cystinuria, Dent disease, FHHNC and PH with emphasis on childhood manifestations. PMID:23334384

  18. End Stage and Chronic Kidney Disease: Associations with Renal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russo, Paul

    2012-01-01

    There is a well known association between end stage renal disease and the development of kidney cancer in the native kidney of patients requiring renal replacement therapy. There is now emerging evidence that lesser degrees of renal insufficiency (chronic kidney disease, CKD) are also associated with an increased likelihood of cancer in general and kidney cancer in particular. Nephropathological changes are commonly observed in the non-tumor bearing portions of kidney resected at the time of partial and radical nephrectomy (RN). In addition, patients with renal cancer are more likely to have CKD at the time of diagnosis and treatment than the general population. The exact mechanism by which renal insufficiency transforms normal kidney cells into tumor cells is not known. Possible mechanisms include uremic immune inhibition or increased exposure to circulating toxins not adequately cleared by the kidneys. Surgeons managing kidney tumors must have an increased awareness of their patient’s renal functional status as they plan their resection. Kidney sparing approaches, including partial nephrectomy (PN) or active surveillance in older and morbidly ill patients, can prevent CKD or delay the further decline in renal function which is well documented with RN. Despite emerging evidence that PN provides equivalent local tumor control to RN while at the same time preventing CKD, this operation remains under utilized in the United States and abroad. Increased awareness of the bi directional relationship between kidney function and kidney cancer is essential in the contemporary management of kidney cancer.

  19. Kidney (Renal Cell) Cancer—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidney cancer has three main types. Renal cell cancer, or renal cell adenocarcinoma, forms in the tubules of the kidney. Transitional cell carcinoma forms in the renal pelvis and ureter. Wilms tumors are common in children. Find evidence-based information on kidney cancer treatment, research, genetics, and statistics.

  20. Wilms tumor in adult: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albuquerque, Mauro Guimaraes; Vieira, Sabas Carlos; Rego, Cristiane Fortes Napoleao do; Fortes, Emanuel Augusto de C.; Santana, Gerusia Ibiapina

    2004-01-01

    Wilms' tumor is the renal tumor with the higher incidence on the childhood, however it rarely occurs in adults.The incidence in this group is estimated at about 1% of all the cases and they have an obscure prognosis. In this report is related a new case in a 52 years old man presenting intensive abdominal pain associated by weightiness. Abdominal ultrasound revealed expansive and complex lesion with indefinite contour in the left flank. Computed tomography of abdomen demonstrated solid lesion on antero-superior pole of the left kidney invading para-vertebral musculature, peri and para-renal spaces. Total nephrectomy and the histopathologic analysis were realized. A nephroblastoma (Wilms' tumor) in stage II without anaplasia was diagnosed by the anatomopathological studies.Local radiotherapy was applied. Thereafter was diagnosed pulmonary and hepatic metastasis, and then initiated the chemotherapy with adriamycin, actinomycin and vincristine. The prognosis of Wilms' tumor is worse in adult and it requires an aggressive therapeutic and follow up. (author)

  1. Stereotactic Neurosurgical Treatment Options for Childhood Craniopharyngioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eTrippel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Craniopharyngioma are the most common non glial tumors in childhood. The results of different studies indicate that radical excision surgery is not an appropriate treatment strategy for childhood craniopharyngioma with hypothalamic involvement. Stereotactic neurosurgery provides save, minimal invasive and cost efficient options in the treatment of childhood craniopharyngioma. In this review a summary of the contribution of the stereotactic neurosurgery in the interdisciplinary treatment regime of childhood craniopharyngioma will be given and discussed in detail.

  2. Nephrectomy (Kidney Removal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nephrectomy is needed because of other kidney diseases. Kidney function Most people have two kidneys — fist-sized ... and the disease that prompted the surgery? Monitoring kidney function Most people can function well with only ...

  3. Kidney Stones (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Kidney Stones KidsHealth / For Parents / Kidney Stones What's in ... other treatments to help remove the stones. How Kidney Stones Form It's the kidneys' job to remove ...

  4. Radiological methods for diagnostics of kidney cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popkov V.M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available It is stated that kidney cancer takes one of the leading places in the cancer incidence. Particular attention should be paid to renal cell carcinoma. By means of modern methods of volume visualization it is possible to diagnose small renal tumors, to prognose the process of tumor development and to save organs by surgical intervention.

  5. Kidney pain (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A kidney stone is a solid piece of material that forms in a kidney. Kidney stones may be the size of sand or ... A kidney stone is a solid piece of material that forms in a kidney. Kidney stones may be the ...

  6. Wilms tumor in adult: case report; Tumor de Wilms em adulto: relato de caso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albuquerque, Mauro Guimaraes; Vieira, Sabas Carlos; Rego, Cristiane Fortes Napoleao do [Universidade Estadual do Piaui (UESPI), Teresina, PI (Brazil); Fortes, Emanuel Augusto de C.; Santana, Gerusia Ibiapina [Hospital Sao Marcos, Teresina, PI (Brazil)]. E-mail: sabasvieira@uol.com.br

    2004-07-01

    Wilms' tumor is the renal tumor with the higher incidence on the childhood, however it rarely occurs in adults.The incidence in this group is estimated at about 1% of all the cases and they have an obscure prognosis. In this report is related a new case in a 52 years old man presenting intensive abdominal pain associated by weightiness. Abdominal ultrasound revealed expansive and complex lesion with indefinite contour in the left flank. Computed tomography of abdomen demonstrated solid lesion on antero-superior pole of the left kidney invading para-vertebral musculature, peri and para-renal spaces. Total nephrectomy and the histopathologic analysis were realized. A nephroblastoma (Wilms' tumor) in stage II without anaplasia was diagnosed by the anatomopathological studies.Local radiotherapy was applied. Thereafter was diagnosed pulmonary and hepatic metastasis, and then initiated the chemotherapy with adriamycin, actinomycin and vincristine. The prognosis of Wilms' tumor is worse in adult and it requires an aggressive therapeutic and follow up. (author)

  7. Radiological evaluation of the intraabdominal masses in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. J.; Oh, K. K.; Park, C. Y.

    1980-01-01

    The spectrum of types of cancer in childhood differs strikingly from that in adults. Leukemia, central nervous system tumors, embryonal tumors, and sarcomas are much more common in children than are adenocarcinoma and carcinomas, which constitute the majority of cancers in adults. In children under 15 years of age, intraabdominal tumors are the third most common one, preceded only by leukemia and brain tumors. It is well recognized that these tumors remain silent until they assume huge size, and early detection and treatment are important. X-ray examination is the most important method among diagnostic approaches. 150 cases of intraabdominal masses were reviewed in respect of age, sex, incidence, site of origin and radiographic findings. The results are summarized as follows; 1. The most common site was retroperitoneum (80 cases: 53.3%), followed by intraperitoneum (47 cases: 31.3%), and pelvic cavity (23 cases: 15.4%). The kidney was the single most common site of origin (33%). 2. Hydronephrosis was most common (23 cases: 15.3%) and Wilms' tumor (22 cases: 14.7%), teratoma (21 cases: 14.0%), and neuroblastoma (18 cases: 12.0%) were descending order of frequency. One renal cell carcinoma in 9 year old female patient and bilateral duplications of pelvis with ureteroceles in 5 month old twin infants were found. 3. Male outnumbered female in most childhood abdominal diseases, however female was predominant in teratoma (1:20) and choledochal cyst (3:7). 97 cases were under the age of 5 years. 4. Radiographic findings were as follow, a. Simple abdomen: In retroperitoneal tumors, mass shadows were the most common finding (89.7%) and obliteration of psoas shadows was noted in 73%. Calcifications were seen in 6 cases (100%) of teratoma as bone, teeth or amorphous, 1 case (4.5%) of Wilms' tumor as amorphous, and 5 cases (33%) or neuroblastoma as amorphous or psammomatous. Fat shadow was seen in 5 cases (83%) of teratoma. In intraperitoneal tumors, mass was the most common

  8. The kidneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, L.M.; Lutzker, L.G.

    1984-01-01

    It has unfortunately remained true that radionuclide renal imaging studies have not been so widely accepted as other types of scintigraphy, despite improvements in radiopharmaceuticals and imaging techniques. Perhaps this is because of the variety of established radiologic techniques available for the study of the kidneys and the addition of new modalities such as CT scanning and ultrasound. Clinicians may have become confused by the multiplicity of options, which has obscured the distinction between renal scintigraphy and all other methods of imaging the kidney, i.e., that renal scintigraphy provides functional information in an easily quantifiable form. It is interesting that pediatric practitioners have more easily recognized the functional importance of this modality than have the practitioners of adult medicine, who more often prefer anatomic modalities, either traditional or new

  9. Adult Wilms tumor with inferior vena cava thrombus and distal deep vein thrombosis - a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajczyk, Krzysztof; Czekaj, Adrian; Rogala, Joanna; Kowal, Pawel

    2018-02-23

    Adult Wilms tumor (WT, nephroblastoma) is a rare, but well-described renal neoplasm. Although inferior vena cava tumor thrombosis is present in up to 10% of Wilms tumors in childhood, only few cases of this clinical manifestation in adults have been reported. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of adult WT infiltrating into inferior vena cava (IVC) with concomitant distal deep vein thrombosis. A 28-year-old male patient with gross hematuria and right flank pain was diagnosed with right kidney tumor penetrating to IVC. Preoperatively, acute distal thrombosis in inferior vena cava and lower extremities veins occurred. Right radical nephrectomy with tumor thrombectomy via cavotomy was performed. In order to prevent pulmonary embolism, IVC was ligated below left renal vein level. Histopathological examination revealed a triphasic nephroblastoma without anaplastic features. Postoperatively, patient was diagnosed with metastatic liver disease, which was treated with two lines of chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy with achievement of complete response. Adult WT occurs usually in young patients, under 40 years of age. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy proved to be effective in children, resulting with tumor shrinkage and venous tumor thrombus regression. Therefore, percutaneous biopsy should be always considered in young patients presenting with renal tumor invading venous system. IVC ligation is a safe treatment option in the event of complete inferior vena cava occlusion due to distal thrombosis concomitant to tumor thrombus, provided collateral venous pathways are well-developed.

  10. Childhood Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Childhood Stress KidsHealth / For Parents / Childhood Stress What's in this ... and feel stress to some degree. Sources of Stress Stress is a function of the demands placed ...

  11. Childhood Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SUBSCRIBE Emergency 101 Share this! Home » Emergency 101 Childhood Emergencies Keeping children healthy and safe is every ... and tools to prevent, recognize and address a childhood emergency is the first step in keeping your ...

  12. Acute kidney failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Renal failure - acute; ARF; Kidney injury - acute Images Kidney anatomy References Devarajan P. Biomarkers for assessment of renal function during acute kidney injury. In: Alpern RJ, Moe OW, Caplan M, ...

  13. Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    You have two kidneys, each about the size of your fist. Their main job is to filter your blood. They remove wastes and ... help control blood pressure, and make hormones. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) means that your kidneys are damaged ...

  14. Diabetic Kidney Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... too high. Over time, this can damage your kidneys. Your kidneys clean your blood. If they are damaged, waste ... in your blood instead of leaving your body. Kidney damage from diabetes is called diabetic nephropathy. It ...

  15. Medullary Sponge Kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... UTI removing any kidney stones Curing an Existing Urinary Tract Infection To treat a UTI , the health care provider ... UTIs and kidney stones. Medications to Prevent Future Urinary Tract Infections and Kidney Stones Health care providers may prescribe ...

  16. Childhood Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Trandafir, Laura Mihaela; Ioniuc, Ileana; Miron, Ingrith

    2017-01-01

    Childhood obesity has important consequences for health and wellbeing both during childhood and also in later adult life. The rising prevalence of childhood obesity poses a major public health challenge in both developed and developing countries by increasing the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases. Despite the urgent need for effective preventative strategies, there remains disagreement over its definition due to a lack of evidence on the optimal cut-offs linking childhood BMI to dis...

  17. Cadmium and the kidney.

    OpenAIRE

    Friberg, L

    1984-01-01

    The paper is a review of certain aspects of importance of cadmium and the kidney regarding the assessment of risks and understanding of mechanisms of action. The review discusses the following topics: history and etiology of cadmium-induced kidney dysfunction and related disorders; cadmium metabolism, metallothionein and kidney dysfunction; cadmium in urine as indicator of body burden, exposure and kidney dysfunction; cadmium levels in kidney and liver as indicators of kidney dysfunction; cha...

  18. Radiation dose and relapse are predictors for development of second malignant solid tumors after cancer in childhood and adolescence: A population-based case-control study in the five Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svahn-Tapper, Gudrun; Garwicz, Stanislaw; Anderson, Harald

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the risk with radiation therapy and chemotherapy of the first cancer in childhood and adolescence for the development of a second malignant solid tumor (SMST). Also, the role of relapse of the primary tumor was studied. It is a nested case-control study within a Nordic cohort of patients less than 20 years of age at first diagnosis 1960-1987. SMSTs were diagnosed in 1960-1991. There were 196 cases and 567 controls. The risk was increased only for radiotherapy given more than five years before the development of the SMST. A significantly increased relative risk of 1.8 was found already at doses below 1 Gy. The risk increased rapidly up to a maximum of 18.3 for doses above 30 Gy. Chemotherapy alone did not increase the risk to develop an SMST. However, in combination with radiotherapy, chemotherapy showed a significant potentiating effect. Relapse was found to be an independent risk factor for development of an SMST, with a higher relative risk for females than for males

  19. Avaliação textural por ressonância magnética dos tumores da fossa posterior em crianças Magnetic resonance imaging textural evaluation of posterior cranial fossa tumors in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelson Alves dos Santos

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Possibilitar a distinção entre tecidos sãos e patológicos em pacientes da faixa etária pediátrica portadores de tumores da fossa posterior, por meio da análise de parâmetros texturais calculados a partir de imagens de ressonância magnética. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Foram analisados 14 pacientes da faixa etária pediátrica, portadores de tumores da fossa posterior, através da definição dos valores texturais das regiões de interesse representando tecidos sãos e patológicos, com base em imagens de ressonância magnética pesadas em T2 pelo "software" MaZda. RESULTADOS: Houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os tecidos normal e tumoral, bem como entre os tecidos presumidamente normais adjacentes e distantes da lesão. Não foi possível a distinção entre edema e tumor. CONCLUSÃO: A avaliação textural por ressonância magnética é uma técnica útil para a determinação de diferenças entre diversos tipos de tecidos, inclusive entre áreas de tecidos presumidamente normais à análise visual.OBJECTIVE: To distinguish healthy from pathological tissues in pediatric patients with posterior cranial fossa tumors using calculated textural parameters from magnetic resonance images. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated 14 pediatric patients with posterior cranial fossa tumors using the software MaZda to define the texture parameters in selected regions of interest representing healthy and pathological tissues based on T2-weighted magnetic resonance images. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant difference between normal and tumoral tissues as well as between supposedly normal tissues adjacent and distant from the tumoral lesion. CONCLUSION: Magnetic resonance textural evaluation is an useful tool for determining differences among various tissues, including tissues that appear apparently normal on visual analysis.

  20. Higher occurrence of childhood cancer in families with germline mutations in BRCA2, MMR and CDKN2A genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnusson, S.; Borg, A.; Kristoffersson, U.

    2008-01-01

    The contribution of hereditary factors for development of childhood tumors is limited to some few known syndromes associated with predominance of tumors in childhood. Occurrence of childhood tumors in hereditary cancer syndromes such as BRCA1/2 associated breast and ovarian cancer, DNA-mismatch r......-mismatch repair (MMR) genes associated hereditary non polyposis colorectal cancer and CDKN2A associated familial malignant melanoma are very little studied. Herein we report the prevalence of childhood tumors (diagnosed...

  1. Chronic Kidney Disease and Kidney Failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... death rates limited life expectancy. Some patients were lucky enough to get a kidney transplant, which greatly ... epidemic rates. Through the 1980s and 1990s, the number of patients developing end-stage kidney failure nearly ...

  2. Epidemiology of Kidney Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pascual

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Some tumors are known to have a definite cause-effect etiology, but renal cell carcinoma (RCC is not one of them precisely. With regard to RCC we can only try to identify some clinical and occupational factors as well as substances related to tumorigenesis. Smoking, chemical carcinogens like asbestos or organic solvents are some of these factors that increase the risk of the RCC. Viral infections and radiation therapy have also been described as risk factors. Some drugs can increase the incidence of RCC as well as other neoplasms. Of course, genetics plays an outstanding role in the development of some cases of kidney cancer. Chronic renal failure, hypertension, and dialysis need to be considered as special situations. Diet, obesity, lifestyle, and habits can also increase the risk of RCC. The aim of this review is to summarize the well-defined causes of renal cell carcinoma.

  3. Differences in patterns of allelic loss between two common types of adult cancer, breast and colon carcinoma, and Wilms' tumor of childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Devilee, P.; van den Broek, M.; Mannens, M.; Slater, R.; Cornelisse, C. J.; Westerveld, A.; Khan, P. M.

    1991-01-01

    Several chromosomal regions exhibit loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in different types of human tumor, and on this basis are presumed to carry-suppressor genes. We studied 7 of such chromosome regions, including 3p, 5q, 11p, 13q, 17p, 18q and 22q, using a selected set of DNA markers in 44 Wilms'

  4. Breast cancer metastatic to the kidney with renal vein involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasu, Hatsuko; Miura, Katsutoshi; Baba, Megumi; Nagata, Masao; Yoshida, Masayuki; Ogura, Hiroyuki; Takehara, Yasuo; Sakahara, Harumi

    2015-02-01

    The common sites of breast cancer metastases include bones, lung, brain, and liver. Renal metastasis from the breast is rare. We report a case of breast cancer metastatic to the kidney with extension into the renal vein. A 40-year-old woman had undergone left mastectomy for breast cancer at the age of 38. A gastric tumor, which was later proved to be metastasis from breast cancer, was detected by endoscopy. Computed tomography performed for further examination of the gastric tumor revealed a large left renal tumor with extension into the left renal vein. It mimicked a primary renal tumor. Percutaneous biopsy of the renal tumor confirmed metastasis from breast cancer. Surgical intervention of the stomach and the kidney was avoided, and she was treated with systemic chemotherapy. Breast cancer metastatic to the kidney may present a solitary renal mass with extension into the renal vein, which mimics a primary renal tumor.

  5. Diagnostic imaging of lymphoma of the kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grzesiakowska, U.; Smorczewska, M.; Huczynska-Szubert, E.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this paper is to discuss both the clinical and radiological signs and the diagnostic principles of lymphomatous infiltrations of the kidney. Materials and methods. The studied group consisted of 20 patients (9 women, 11 men) aged 18-79 years. The follows-up varied from 2 to 156 months. All patients underwent CT and ultrasound investigations, while only 1 patient had an MRI examination. In 7 cases surgical treatment was performed, while the remaining 13 patients received chemotherapy. One patient died, 12 are in remission and seven are under observation and considered cured. Results. The radiological signs of kidney lymphoma may be divided into groups: a) kidney enlargement, obliteration of the cortex-core differentiation and obliteration of the outline; b) heterogenous kidney structure with undefined hypodense fociand lack of enhancement after the administration of contrasting material; c) presence of a well-defined tumor within the renal pelvis and external infiltration of the kidney, d) infiltration of the kidney originating from the retroperitoneal space encompassing the organ from the outside. Conclusions. The radiological signs of lymphoma differ in the kidney and exhibit a characteristic set of features. Radiology results combined with clinical symptoms may suggest lymphoma in the kidney and thus advocate the necessity of pathological evaluation prior to surgical treatment. (authors)

  6. Role of Axumin PET Scan in Germ Cell Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-01

    Testis Cancer; Germ Cell Tumor; Testicular Cancer; Germ Cell Tumor of Testis; Germ Cell Tumor, Testicular, Childhood; Testicular Neoplasms; Testicular Germ Cell Tumor; Testicular Yolk Sac Tumor; Testicular Choriocarcinoma; Testicular Diseases; Germ Cell Cancer Metastatic; Germ Cell Neoplasm of Retroperitoneum; Germ Cell Cancer, Nos

  7. Usefulness of CT in diagnosing and staging of kidney cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batycka-Ugorska, I.

    1993-01-01

    Article presents 170 patients with suspected kidney cancer and applicability of CT in the diagnosis. According to author CT imaging is better than others (ultrasonography, urography) in assessment of the tumor development and detection of metastases to lymphatic nodes of abdomen and other organs. The method is compared with angiography in diagnosis of metastases of kidney cancer to veins

  8. Tumor desmoplásico de pequenas células redondas abdominal da infância: relato de caso Abdominal desmoplastic small round cell tumor of childhood: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulysses dos Santos Torres

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available O tumor desmoplásico de pequenas células redondas (TDPCR é uma neoplasia rara e altamente agressiva, que afeta predominantemente jovens do sexo masculino. Relata-se um caso de TDPCR em um paciente do sexo masculino, de 11 anos, com acometimento intra-abdominal marcado por volumosa massa retroperitoneal em hipocôndrio esquerdo. O estudo histológico da massa revelou presença de blocos de pequenas células tumorais redondas e azuis, envoltas por estroma desmoplásico; a análise imuno-histoquímica evidenciou positividade para desmina, WT-1 e citoceratinas. Após o diagnóstico, o paciente foi submetido a tratamento quimiorradioterápico, tendo evoluído a óbito durante o 24º mês de acompanhamento.Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT is a rare and highly aggressive neoplasm, which predominantly affects young males. We report a case of DSRCT affecting an 11-year-old male patient, with intra-abdominal involvement characterized by a large retroperitoneal mass in left hypochondrium. Histological examination of the mass showed the presence of clusters of small blue round tumor cells surrounded by a dense desmoplastic stroma. Immunohistochemical analysis disclosed a positive reaction to desmin, WT-1 and cytokeratins. After diagnosis, the patient underwent chemo radiotherapy treatment, but died at the 24th month of follow-up.

  9. Kidneys and Urinary Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Kidneys and Urinary Tract KidsHealth / For Teens / Kidneys and Urinary Tract What's ... a sign of diabetes . What the Kidneys and Urinary Tract Do Although the two kidneys work together to ...

  10. [Acute kidney injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, D.; Kooman, J.P.; Lance, M.D.; van Heurn, L.W.; Snoeijs, M.G.

    2012-01-01

    - 'Acute kidney injury' is modern terminology for a sudden decline in kidney function, and is defined by the RIFLE classification (RIFLE is an acronym for Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss and End-stage kidney disease).- Acute kidney injury occurs as a result of the combination of reduced perfusion in the

  11. Ultrasonography of the Kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindskov Hansen, Kristoffer; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Ewertsen, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonography of the kidneys is essential in the diagnosis and management of kidney-related diseases. The kidneys are easily examined, and most pathological changes in the kidneys are distinguishable with ultrasound. In this pictorial review, the most common findings in renal ultrasound...

  12. [Leiomyoma of the bladder causing the destruction of a kidney].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehila, Mehdi; Mekni, Karima; Abouda, Hassine Saber; Chtourou, Maher; Zeghal, Dorra; Chanoufi, Mohamed Badis

    2016-01-01

    Leiomyoma of the bladder is a rare benign tumor deemed to have a good prognosis after surgical treatment. This is unfortunately not always true. We report the case of a 33 year-old patient who consulted for lumbar pain on right side. Exploration of patient revealed bladder floor solid tumor with non-functioning right kidney and left urinary tract dilation. Cystoscopy objectified solid tumor of the right perimeatal bladder. Tumor biopsies were performed together with the insertion of a left double J stent. Anatomo-pathologic study showed leiomyoma of the bladder. The patient underwent laparoscopic myomectomy. The postoperative course was uneventful. Pathological effect and sequelae was complete distruction of kidney.

  13. Childhood Liver Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood liver cancer has two major histologic subgroups: hepatoblastoma and hepatocellular carcinoma. Less common histologies are undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma of the liver, infantile choriocarcinoma, and vascular liver tumors. Get detailed information about newly diagnosed and recurrent childhood liver cancers including tumor biology, presentation, prognosis, staging, and treatment in this summary for clinicians.

  14. Wilm's tumor in adulthood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matveev, B.P.; Bukharkin, B.V.; Gotsadze, D.T.

    1984-01-01

    Wilms' tumor occurs extremely rarely in adults. There is no consensus in the literature on the problems of clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of the diseasa. Ten adult patients (aged 16-29) with Wilms' tumor formed the study group. They made up 0.9 per cent of the total number of kidney tumor patients. The peculiarities of the clinical course that distinguish adult nephroblastoma from renal cancer and Wilms' tumor of the infancy were analysed. The latent period appeared to be long. Problems of diagnosis are discussed. Angiography proved to be of the highest diagnostic value. Complex treatment including transperitoneal nephrectory, radiation and chemotherapy was carried out in 7 cases, palliative radiation treatmenchemotherapy andn 3. Unlike pediatric nephroblastomt - i Wilms' tumor in adults was resistant to radiation. Treatment results still remained unsatisfactory: 6 patients died 7-19 months after the beginning of treatment

  15. Adrenocortical tumors in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C. Ribeiro

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Childhood adrenocortical tumors (ACT are rare. In the USA, only about 25 new cases occur each year. In Southern Brazil, however, approximately 10 times that many cases are diagnosed each year. Most cases occur in the contiguous states of São Paulo and Paraná. The cause of this higher rate has not been identified. Familial genetic predisposition to cancer (p53 mutations and selected genetic syndromes (Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome have been associated with childhood ACT in general but not with the Brazilian counterpart. Most of the affected children are young girls with classic endocrine syndromes (virilizing and/or Cushing. Levels of urinary 17-ketosteroids and plasma dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S, which are abnormal in approximately 90% of the cases, provide the pivotal clue to a diagnosis of ACT. Typical imaging findings of pediatric ACT consist of a large, well-defined suprarenal tumor containing calcifications with a thin capsule and central necrosis or hemorrhage. The pathologic classification of pediatric ACT is troublesome. Even an experienced pathologist can find it difficult to differentiate carcinoma from adenoma. Surgery is the single most important procedure in the successful treatment of ACT. The role of chemotherapy in the management of childhood ACT has not been established although occasional tumors are responsive to mitotane or cisplatin-containing regimens. Because of the heterogeneity and rarity of the disease, prognostic factors have been difficult to establish in pediatric ACT. Patients with incomplete tumor resection or with metastatic disease at diagnosis have a dismal prognosis. In patients with localized and completely resected tumors, the size of the tumor has predictive value. Patients with large tumors have a much higher relapse rate than those with small tumors.

  16. CT diagnosis of neuroblastoma in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xin; Zhang Liqun; Yang Zhiyong

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate CT in the diagnosis of neuroblastoma in childhood. Materials and methods: Analysis of CT manifestations in 26 cases proved by operation and pathology, including neuroblastoma 21 cases, ganglioneuroblastoma 5 cases. Thorax 7 cases (27%), adrenal gland 16 cases (62%), abdomen-pelvis paravertebral sympathetic chain 3 cases (11%). Bolus injection of contrast medium was given in all cases. Results: Adrenal gland and posterior superior mediastinum were the most common sites for neuroblastoma. 73% of neuroblastoma had calcifications. Neuroblastoma was more commonly calcified than ganglioneuroblastoma. Metastases were also calcified. Degree of enhancement was associated with the type of neuroblastoma. Tumor extension into the spinal canal was seen in 2 cases. 43% neuroblastoma of adrenal directly invaded the kidney in 7 cases. Right lobe of liver was involved in 3 cases, metastases to liver in 1 case, enlargement of lymph nodes 19 cases. Approximately 68% of patients showed increase of urinary Vanilly-mandelic acid (VMA). Preoperative diagnostic accuracy was 92%. Conclusion: CT is recognized as a useful technique for the diagnosis of neuroblastoma. The site of predilection, calcification, lymph node metastases and VMA increase in urine or serum are important basis for diagnosis

  17. End Stage and Chronic Kidney Disease:Associations with Renal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul eRusso

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a well known association between end stage renal disease and the development of kidney cancer in the native kidney of patients requiring renal replacement therapy. There is now emerging evidence that lesser degrees of renal insufficiency (chronic kidney disease, CKD are also associated with an increased likelihood of cancer in general and kidney cancer in particular. Nephro pathological changes are commonly observed in the non tumor bearing portions of kidney resected at the time of partial and radical nephrectomy. In addition, patients with renal cancer are more likely to have CKD at the time of diagnosis and treatment than the general population. The exact mechanism by which renal insufficiency transforms normal kidney cells into tumor cells is not known. Possible mechanisms include uremic immune inhibition or increased exposure to circulating toxins not adequately cleared by the kidneys. Surgeons managing kidney tumors must have an increased awareness of their patient’s renal functional status as they plan their resection. Kidney sparing approaches, including partial nephrectomy or active surveillance in older and morbidly ill patients, can prevent CKD or delay the further decline in renal function which is well documented with radical nephrectomy. Despite emerging evidence that partial nephrectomy provides equivalent local tumor control to radical nephrectomy while at the same time preventing CKD, this operation remains under utilized in the United States and abroad. Increased awareness of the bi directional relationship between kidney function and kidney cancer is essential in the contemporary management of kidney cancer.

  18. Intrathoracic desmoid tumor in a child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krause, L.M.; Schey, W.L.; Bassuk, A.; Shrock, P.

    1985-01-01

    The case history of a child with an intrathoracic desmoid tumor is presented. The insidious nature of the tumor's development and its possible relationship to previous surgery are noted. Desmoid tumors are rare in the childhood population and an intrathoracic site as the origin of one has not been reported previously. (orig.)

  19. Bone tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumor - bone; Bone cancer; Primary bone tumor; Secondary bone tumor; Bone tumor - benign ... The cause of bone tumors is unknown. They often occur in areas of the bone that grow rapidly. Possible causes include: Genetic defects ...

  20. Mechanism of Platinum Derivatives Induced Kidney Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feifei YAN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Platinum derivatives are the most widely used chemotherapeutic agents to treat solid tumors including ovarian, head and neck, and testicular germ cell tumors, lung cancer, and colorectal cancer. Two major problems exist, however, in the clinic use of platinum derivatives. One is the development of tumor resistance to the drug during therapy, leading to treatment failure. The other is the drug’s toxicity such as the cisplatin’s nephrotoxicity, which limits the dose that can be administered. This paper describes the mechanism of platinum derivatives induced kidney injury.

  1. Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease: Antenatal Diagnosis and Histopathological Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayananda Kumar Rajanna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD is one of the most common inheritable disease manifesting in infancy and childhood with a frequency of 1:6,000 to 1:55,000 births. The patient in her second trimester presented with a history of amenorrhea. Ultrasound examination revealed bilateral, enlarged, hyperechogenic kidneys, placentomegaly, and severe oligohydramnios. The pregnancy was terminated. An autopsy was performed on the fetus. Both the kidneys were found to be enlarged and the cut surface showed numerous cysts. The liver sections showed changes due to fibrosis. The final diagnosis of autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease was made based on these findings. In this article, we correlate the ante-natal ultrasound and histopathological findings in autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease.

  2. 3D-visualization by MRI for surgical planning of Wilms tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenk, J.P.; Wunsch, R.; Jourdan, C.; Troeger, J.; Waag, K.-L.; Guenther, P.; Graf, N.; Behnisch, W.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To improve surgical planning of kidney tumors in childhood (Wilms tumor, mesoblastic nephroma) after radiologic verification of the presumptive diagnosis with interactive colored 3D-animation in MRI. Materials and Methods: In 7 children (1 boy, 6 girls) with a mean age of 3 years (1 month to 11 years), the MRI database (DICOM) was processed with a raycasting-based 3D-volume-rendering software (VG Studio Max 1.1/Volume Graphics). The abdominal MRI-sequences (coronal STIR, coronal T1 TSE, transverse T1/T2 TSE, sagittal T2 TSE, transverse and coronal T1 TSE post contrast) were obtained with a 0.5T unit in 4-6 mm slices. Additionally, phase-contrast-MR-angiography was applied to delineate the large abdominal and retroperitoneal vessels. A notebook was used to demonstrate the 3D-visualization for surgical planning before surgery and during the surgical procedure. Results: In all 7 cases, the surgical approach was influenced by interactive 3D-animation and the information found useful for surgical planning. Above all, the 3D-visualization demonstrates the mass effect of the Wilms tumor and its anatomical relationship to the renal hilum and to the rest of the kidney as well as the topographic relationship of the tumor to the critical vessels. One rupture of the tumor capsule occurred as a surgical complication. For the surgeon, the transformation of the anatomical situation from MRI to the surgical situs has become much easier. Conclusion: For surgical planning of Wilms tumors, the 3D-visualization with 3D-animation of the situs helps to transfer important information from the pediatric radiologist to the pediatric surgeon and optimizes the surgical preparation. A reduction of complications is to be expected. (orig.)

  3. [3D-visualization by MRI for surgical planning of Wilms tumors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, J P; Waag, K-L; Graf, N; Wunsch, R; Jourdan, C; Behnisch, W; Tröger, J; Günther, P

    2004-10-01

    To improve surgical planning of kidney tumors in childhood (Wilms tumor, mesoblastic nephroma) after radiologic verification of the presumptive diagnosis with interactive colored 3D-animation in MRI. In 7 children (1 boy, 6 girls) with a mean age of 3 years (1 month to 11 years), the MRI database (DICOM) was processed with a raycasting-based 3D-volume-rendering software (VG Studio Max 1.1/Volume Graphics). The abdominal MRI-sequences (coronal STIR, coronal T1 TSE, transverse T1/T2 TSE, sagittal T2 TSE, transverse and coronal T1 TSE post contrast) were obtained with a 0.5T unit in 4 - 6 mm slices. Additionally, a phase-contrast-MR-angiography was applied to delineate the large abdominal and retroperitoneal vessels. A notebook was used to demonstrate the 3D-visualization for surgical planning before surgery and during the surgical procedure. In all 7 cases, the surgical approach was influenced by interactive 3D-animation and the information found useful for surgical planning. Above all, the 3D-visualization demonstrates the mass effect of the Wilms tumor and its anatomical relationship to the renal hilum and to the rest of the kidney as well as the topographic relationship of the tumor to the critical vessels. One rupture of the tumor capsule occurred as a surgical complication. For the surgeon, the transformation of the anatomical situation from MRI to the surgical situs has become much easier. For surgical planning of Wilms tumors, the 3D-visualization with 3D-animation of the situs helps to transfer important information from the pediatric radiologist to the pediatric surgeon and optimizes the surgical preparation. A reduction of complications is to be expected.

  4. A case report of extrarenal Wilms' tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Chul; Suh, Kwang Sun

    1997-01-01

    Extrarenal Wilms' tumor is a very rare disease, and usually occurs in pediatric patients. We present a case of extrarenal retroperitoneal Wilms' tumor in a six-year old girl with a six-month history of a palpable left abdominal mass. The ultrasonographic and CT features of this tumor showed a well-defined large, inhomogeneous predominantly solid mass which was separate from the left kidney. Surgical pathology confirmed this to be an extrarenal Wilms' tumor

  5. INDIAN CHILDHOOD AND OTHER CHILDHOODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alceu Zoia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to show how children of the Indian community Terena, from North Mato Grosso, live, how they are educated, and what are the conceptions of childhood among the members of this community. Taking childhood in various contexts, we seek to analyze how this education process has been carried out.

  6. At Risk for Kidney Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heart Disease Mineral & Bone Disorder Causes of Chronic Kidney Disease Diabetes and high blood pressure are the most ... blood vessels in your kidneys. Other causes of kidney disease Other causes of kidney disease include a genetic ...

  7. Kidney function tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidney function tests are common lab tests used to evaluate how well the kidneys are working. Such tests include: ... Oh MS, Briefel G. Evaluation of renal function, water, electrolytes ... and Management by Laboratory Methods . 23rd ed. Philadelphia, ...

  8. Pregnancy and Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... who has a kidney transplant have a baby? Yes. If you have a kidney transplant, you are likely to have regular menstrual periods and good general health. Therefore, getting pregnant and having a child is possible. But ...

  9. Cytogenetic analysis of a leiomyosarcoma of the kidney.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Eva; Molenaar, W M; Echten, J van; Dam, A; Mensink, H J; Jong, B de

    Nonepithelial malignant renal tumors are very rare, comprising approximately 2-3% of all malignant renal tumors. We were able to culture and subsequently karyotype a leiomyosarcoma (LMS) of the kidney that showed the following representative karyotype: 84,XY,add(X)(q25), -Y,add(1)(p11),dic(1;20)

  10. Hydronephrosis of one kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydronephrosis; Chronic hydronephrosis; Acute hydronephrosis; Urinary obstruction; Unilateral hydronephrosis; Nephrolithiasis - hydronephrosis; Kidney stone - hydronephrosis; Renal calculi - hydronephrosis; ...

  11. The senile kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisova Т.Р.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The given work summarizes external data and self-obtained results on development and diagnostic of kidney involution modifications. Article discusses definition of "senile kidney" as a clinical and pathomorphological term. Major statements on pathophysiological causes of age-associated renal disorders and their prognosis, specifics of chronic kidney disease in elderly and senile patients have been reviewed. Phenomenon of renal "multimorbidity" in eldely maximizes worsening risk of unmodifiable kidney function.

  12. Acute arterial occlusion - kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... main artery to the kidney is called the renal artery. Reduced blood flow through the renal artery can hurt kidney function. ... need include: Duplex Doppler ultrasound exam of the renal arteries to test blood flow MRI of the kidney arteries, which can show ...

  13. Diabetes and Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... et.al. Clinical manifestations of kidney disease among US adults with diabetes. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2016;316( ... of Washington, Associate Director, Kidney Research Institute ... The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases Health Information Center ...

  14. Childhood Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Watchdog Ratings Feedback Contact Select Page Childhood Cancer Statistics Home > Cancer Resources > Childhood Cancer Statistics Childhood Cancer Statistics – Graphs and Infographics Number of Diagnoses Incidence Rates ...

  15. Metanephric stromal tumor: A novel pediatric renal neoplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajalakshmi V

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Metanephric stromal tumor of kidney is a novel pediatric benign stromal specific renal neoplasm. A few cases have been reported in adults also. This tumor is usually centered in the renal medulla with a characteristic microscopic appearance which differentiates this lesion from congenital mesoblastic nephroma and clear cell sarcoma of the kidney. In most cases complete excision alone is curative. The differentiation of metanephric stromal tumor from clear cell sarcoma of the kidney will spare the child from the ill effects of adjuvant chemotherapy. In this communication we describe the gross and microscopic features of metanephric stromal tumor in a one-month-old child with good prognosis.

  16. Radiological evaluation of nonvisualizing kidney on IVP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, J. H.; Sung, K. B.; Cho, O. K.; Hahm, C. K.

    1983-01-01

    IVP is simple, noninvasive screening examination of the kidneys and is helpful for evaluation of the functional and structural changes if the pyelogram was obtained. Unilateral nonvisualizing kidney may be resulted from various diseases that can produce vascular obstruction, functional determination of the glomerular filtration and obstruction of the lower urinary tract. In cases of nonvisualizing kidney further study including RGP, renal angiography, CT, ultrasonography and RI imaging is needed. During the perfect of 10 years from 1972 to 1981, 100 cases of nonvisualizing kidney which could be diagnosed by other imaging studies. The authors reviews medical records and finding of RGP, renal angiography, CT and ultrasonography of the nonvisualizing kidneys. The results were as follows: 1. The material included 53 male and 47 female patterns. The age distribution was broad, but mostly in the twenties and forties of ages. 2. There was no remarkable differentiation between sides of involvement in both sexes. 3. The underlying diseases of nonvisualizng kidney on IVP were renal tuberculosis (33 patients), ureteral stricture (16 patients), ureteral stone (12 patients), real tumor (10 patients), pelvic mass (10 patients), chronic pyelonephritis (8 patients), renal agenesis (5 patients), renal trauma (4 patients), and renal disease of vascular origin (2 patients) respectively. 4. RGP was performed in 79 out of 100 cases. RGP was the most confirmative diagnostic procedure in cases of inflammatory diseases of the kidney and renal pelvic tumors. 5. Renal angiography was performed in 19 cases. Renal angiography was very helpful in the diagnosis and evaluation of the extent of the diseases in 6 cases of renal tumors, 3 cases renal trauma, 2 cases of renal vascular diseases and 3 cases of renal agenesis. 6. Body CT was performed in one case of renal cell carcinoma and other 6 cases of hydronephrosis mainly from tumors of the pelvic cavity including 4 cervical carcinomas and a

  17. Childhood Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... acute types. Symptoms include Infections Fever Loss of appetite Tiredness Easy bruising or bleeding Swollen lymph nodes Night sweats Shortness of breath Pain in the bones or joints Risk factors for childhood leukemia include having a brother ...

  18. Bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unni, K.K.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings on bone tumors. Topics covered include: Bone tumor imaging: Contribution of CT and MRI, staging of bone tumors, perind cell tumors of bone, and metastatic bone disease

  19. The role of tumor necrosis factor-alpha -308 G/A and transforming growth factor-beta 1 -915 G/C polymorphisms in childhood idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel Okulu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To increase our understanding of the etiology of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP some cytokine gene polymorphisms were analyzed for susceptibility to the disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α -308 G/A and transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1 –915 G/C polymorphisms in the development and clinical progression of childhood ITP.Materials and Methods: In all, 50 pediatric patients with ITP (25 with acute ITP and 25 with chronic ITP and 48 healthy controls were investigated via LightCycler® PCR analysis for TNF-α -308 G/A and TGF-β1 -915 G/C polymorphisms.Results: The frequency of TNF-α -308 G/A polymorphism was 20%, 16%, and 22.9% in the acute ITP patients, chronic ITP patients, and controls, respectively (p>0.05. The frequency of TGF-β1 -915 G/C polymorphism was 16%, 8%, and 8.3% in the acute ITP patients, chronic ITP patients, and controls, respectively (p>0.05. The risk of developing ITP and clinical progression were not associated with TNF-α -308 G/A (OR: 0.738, 95% CI: 0.275-1.981, and OR: 0.762, 95% CI: 0.179-3.249 or TGF-β1 -915 G/C (OR: 1.5, 95% CI: 0.396-5.685, and OR: 0.457, 95% CI: 0.076-2.755 polymorphisms. Conclusion: The frequency of TNF-α -308 G/A and TGF-β1 -915 G/C polymorphisms did not differ between pediatric ITP patients and healthy controls, and these polymorphisms were not associated with susceptibility to the development and clinical progression of the disease.

  20. Pure Ethiodized Oil-based Transcatheter Ablative Therapy in Normal Rabbit Kidneys and Kidneys Inoculated with VX-2 Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kónya, András; Stephens, L. Clifton; Wright, Kenneth C.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of ablation with selective arterial injection of pure ethiodized oil followed by arterial occlusion with 9:1 ethanol–Ethiodol mixture (EEM) and coil placement in normal rabbit kidneys and kidneys inoculated with VX-2 carcinoma. Materials and Methods: All experiments were conducted with Animal Care and Use Committee approval. In six rabbits (group 1), one kidney was embolized with pure Ethiodol until capillary stasis, followed by injection of 9:1 EEM until arterial stasis and then coil placement into the main renal artery. In 12 other rabbits, one kidney was inoculated with VX-2 tumor. Ethiodol and EEM embolization and coil placement followed 7 days later (group 2, n = 6) or 11–14 days later (group 3, n = 6). Kidneys were evaluated (angiography, computed tomography, macro- and microscopy) 7 days after treatment. Results: Capillary stasis was achieved in groups 1, 2, and 3 with (mean ± standard deviation) 0.47 ± 0.03, 0.53 ± 0.02, and 0.56 ± 0.04 ml of pure Ethiodol, followed by 0.47 ± 0.05, 0.42 ± 0.03, and 0.38 ± 0.04 ml of EEM, respectively, which caused complete arterial occlusion in 17 of 18 kidneys. In group 1, all but one kidney showed at least 95% generalized coagulative necrosis. In group 2, all six kidneys exhibited 100% coagulative necrosis, with no viable tumor present. In group 3, 100% coagulative necrosis was present in all kidneys, with a small viable tumor in one. Conclusion: In the rabbit, selective arterial injection of pure Ethiodol can cause complete renal parenchyma and tumor ablation when it is followed by prompt, contiguous, and permanent occlusion of the arterial compartment.

  1. Study of wilms' tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.H.; Yaqub, N.

    2001-01-01

    This study is an effort to bring into light data related to children with Wilms' tumor managed at Islamabad as local literature on this topic is lacking. It was retrospective study. The study was conducted at Children Hospital, Pakistan Institute of Medical Science, Islamabad between January, 1987 and December 1995. All patients managed during the study period were included in the study. In all the patients complete blood count (CBC), urine analysis (D/R),X-ray abdomen and chest, ultrasound abdomen and in selected cases CT scan were performed. National Wilms' Tumor Study Group (NWTS 3) protocol was followed for further management. Fifty patients including 28 males and 22 females with the age range from 9 months to 8 years were managed in 9 years period. Left kidney was involved in 31 patients. Most of the tumors were solid on ultrasound, 76% patients were in stage III and IV. In one case bilateral involvement of kidney was found. Forty patients underwent primary surgery. Only 14 patients received complete course of chemotherapy while 31 radiotherapy. Nineteen patients died and 15 lost to follow-up. The survival and mortality rates are comparable to NWTS-3 results, although, most of the patients were presented in advance stage of Wilms tumor. The survival of these patients can be improved by increasing awareness of society through electronic and print media. (author)

  2. Src family kinases in chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Zhuang, Shougang

    2017-09-01

    Src family kinases (SFKs) belong to nonreceptor protein tyrosine kinases and have been implicated in the regulation of numerous cellular processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, migration and invasion, and angiogenesis. The role and mechanisms of SFKs in tumorgenesis have been extensively investigated, and some SFK inhibitors are currently under clinical trials for tumor treatment. Recent studies have also demonstrated the importance of SFKs in regulating the development of various fibrosis-related chronic diseases (e.g., idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, liver fibrosis, renal fibrosis, and systemic sclerosis). In this article, we summarize the roles of SFKs in various chronic kidney diseases, including glomerulonephritis, diabetic nephropathy, human immunodeficiency virus-associated nephropathy, autosomal dominant form of polycystic kidney disease, and obesity-associated kidney disease, and discuss the mechanisms involved. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  3. What is a pediatric tumor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mora J

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Jaume Mora1,21Department of Oncology, 2Developmental Tumor Biology Laboratory, Hospital Sant Joan de Deu, Fundacio Sant Joan de Deu, Barcelona, SpainAbstract: Working together with medical oncologists, the question of whether a Ewing sarcoma in a 25-year-old is a pediatric tumor comes up repeatedly. Like Ewing's, some tumors present characteristically at ages that cross over what has been set as the definition of pediatrics (15 years, 18 years, or 21 years?. Pediatric oncology textbooks, surprisingly, do not address the subject of defining a pediatric tumor. They all begin with an epidemiology chapter defining the types of tumors appearing at distinct stages of childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood. Describing the epidemiology of tumors in relation to age, it becomes clear that the disease is related to the phenomenon of aging. The question, however, remains: is there a biological definition of what pediatric age is? And if so, will tumors occurring during this period of life have anything to do with such biological definition? With the aim of finding an objective definition, the fundamental concepts of what defines "pediatrics" was reviewed and then the major features of tumors arising during development were analyzed. The tumors were explored from the perspective of a host immersed in the normal process of growth and development. This physiological process, from pluripotential and undifferentiated cells, makes possible the differentiation, maturation, organization, and function of tissues, organs, and apparatus. A biological definition of pediatric tumors and the infancy–childhood–puberty classification of developmental tumors according to the infancy–childhood–puberty model of normal human development are proposed.Keywords: growth and development, pediatric tumor, infant, childhood and adolescence, pubertal tumors

  4. [Kidney function and renal cancer surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzedine, Hassan; Méjean, Arnaud; Escudier, Bernard

    2014-02-01

    Although radical nephrectomy is still practiced in many patients with large renal tumors, oncology and nephrology arguments for kidney-sparing approach for small renal masses has taken over this first. Indeed, partial nephrectomy provides equivalent oncologic results while preserving renal function and thereby limit morbidity and cardiovascular mortality related to chronic kidney disease. In addition, patients who develop kidney cancer often have medical comorbidities that may affect renal function, such as diabetes and hypertension. Histological examination of renal tissue adjacent to the tumor showed significant pathological changes in the majority of patients. For elderly patients or patients with comorbidities, active surveillance allows kidney-sparing approach with extremely low rates of progression and metastasis of cancer disease. Despite these significant advances in understanding for the treatment of small renal masses, partial nephrectomy remains underused. Better management must take into account the preservation of renal function in order to increase overall survival. A strategy for the systematic evaluation of renal function in patients with CR, with multidisciplinary staff (nephrologist urologist and oncologist), is therefore highly desirable.

  5. Childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabin, M A; Shield, J P H

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood obesity continues to increase worldwide. Its presence is associated with significant adverse effects on health including an increased propensity to type II diabetes, cardiovascular, respiratory, and liver disease. In the vast majority of children, obesity is lifestyle-related, yet there is a dearth of evidence on how to best develop effective prevention and treatment strategies. This review outlines the importance of childhood and adolescent growth on long-term health, the definitions used to define obesity in children (along with up-to-date prevalence data), causes and consequences, and aspects of prevention and management.

  6. Chronic kidney disease, severe arterial and arteriolar sclerosis and kidney neoplasia: on the spectrum of kidney involvement in MELAS syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccoli, Giorgina Barbara; Bonino, Laura Davico; Campisi, Paola; Vigotti, Federica Neve; Ferraresi, Martina; Fassio, Federica; Brocheriou, Isabelle; Porpiglia, Francesco; Restagno, Gabriella

    2012-02-21

    MELAS syndrome (MIM ID#540000), an acronym for Mitochondrial Encephalopathy, Lactic Acidosis and Stroke-like episodes, is a genetically heterogeneous mitochondrial disorder with protean manifestations and occasional kidney involvement. Interest in the latter is rising due to the identification of cases with predominant kidney involvement and to the hypothesis of a link between mitochondrial DNA and kidney neoplasia. We report the case of a 41-year-old male with full blown MELAS syndrome, with lactic acidosis and neurological impairment, affected by the "classic" 3243A > G mutation of mitochondrial DNA, with kidney cancer. After unilateral nephrectomy, he rapidly developed severe kidney functional impairment, with nephrotic proteinuria. Analysis of the kidney tissue at a distance from the two tumor lesions, sampled at the time of nephrectomy was performed in the context of normal blood pressure, recent onset of diabetes and before the appearance of proteinuria. The morphological examination revealed a widespread interstitial fibrosis with dense inflammatory infiltrate and tubular atrophy, mostly with thyroidization pattern. Vascular lesions were prominent: large vessels displayed marked intimal fibrosis and arterioles had hyaline deposits typical of hyaline arteriolosclerosis. These severe vascular lesions explained the different glomerular alterations including ischemic and obsolescent glomeruli, as is commonly observed in the so-called "benign" arteriolonephrosclerosis. Some rare glomeruli showed focal segmental glomerulosclerosis; as the patient subsequently developed nephrotic syndrome, these lesions suggest that silent ischemic changes may result in the development of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis secondary to nephron loss. Nephron loss may trigger glomerular sclerosis, at least in some cases of MELAS-related nephropathy. Thus the incidence of kidney disease in the "survivors" of MELAS syndrome may increase as the support therapy of these patients improves.

  7. Epigenetics of kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanner, Nicola; Bechtel-Walz, Wibke

    2017-07-01

    DNA methylation and histone modifications determine renal programming and the development and progression of renal disease. The identification of the way in which the renal cell epigenome is altered by environmental modifiers driving the onset and progression of renal diseases has extended our understanding of the pathophysiology of kidney disease progression. In this review, we focus on current knowledge concerning the implications of epigenetic modifications during renal disease from early development to chronic kidney disease progression including renal fibrosis, diabetic nephropathy and the translational potential of identifying new biomarkers and treatments for the prevention and therapy of chronic kidney disease and end-stage kidney disease.

  8. Suramin protects from cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupre, Tess V.; Doll, Mark A.; Shah, Parag P.; Sharp, Cierra N.; Kiefer, Alex; Scherzer, Michael T.; Saurabh, Kumar; Saforo, Doug; Siow, Deanna; Casson, Lavona; Arteel, Gavin E.; Jenson, Alfred Bennett; Megyesi, Judit; Schnellmann, Rick G.; Beverly, Levi J.

    2015-01-01

    Cisplatin, a commonly used cancer chemotherapeutic, has a dose-limiting side effect of nephrotoxicity. Approximately 30% of patients administered cisplatin suffer from kidney injury, and there are limited treatment options for the treatment of cisplatin-induced kidney injury. Suramin, which is Federal Drug Administration-approved for the treatment of trypanosomiasis, improves kidney function after various forms of kidney injury in rodent models. We hypothesized that suramin would attenuate cisplatin-induced kidney injury. Suramin treatment before cisplatin administration reduced cisplatin-induced decreases in kidney function and injury. Furthermore, suramin attenuated cisplatin-induced expression of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and apoptosis in the kidney cortex. Treatment of mice with suramin 24 h after cisplatin also improved kidney function, suggesting that the mechanism of protection is not by inhibition of tubular cisplatin uptake or its metabolism to nephrotoxic species. If suramin is to be used in the context of cancer, then it cannot prevent cisplatin-induced cytotoxicity of cancer cells. Suramin did not alter the dose-response curve of cisplatin in lung adenocarcinoma cells in vitro. In addition, suramin pretreatment of mice harboring lung adenocarcinomas did not alter the initial cytotoxic effects of cisplatin (DNA damage and apoptosis) on tumor cells. These results provide evidence that suramin has potential as a renoprotective agent for the treatment/prevention of cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury and justify future long-term preclinical studies using cotreatment of suramin and cisplatin in mouse models of cancer. PMID:26661653

  9. Bone-metastasizing primary renal tumors in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamego, C.M.B.; Zerbini, M.C.N.

    1984-01-01

    Seven cases of childhood renal tumor with extensive bone involvement are reported. These neoplasms had been classified originally as wills tumors with atypical clinical and pathologic features. Subsequent to a retrospective histologic analysis, the lesions were reclassified as follows: three cases as bone-metastasizing renal tumors of childhood, one as rhabdomyosarcoma, two as indifferentiated Sarcomas and one case as indifferentiated malignant neoplasm. (Author) [pt

  10. Oncologic imaging: kidney and ureter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClennan, B.L.; Balfe, D.M.

    1983-01-01

    Malignant cancers of the kidney and ureter account for only 2 to 3% of all neoplasms in man. However, early diagnosis and treatment can have a profound effect on patient prognosis and survival. This article seeks to amalgamate a large body of information related to the pathology of primary renal tumors and metastatic disease with current imaging strategies to assist the clinician and enhance his understanding of the wide variety of modern imaging techniques available. Current tumor staging classifications are presented and the various imaging strategies are keyed to detection, definition and treatment options for tumors of the renal parenchyma and ureter. The strengths and limitations of all available imaging modalities are reviewed. An optimal approach to the imaging workup is developed with regard to availability, evolving technology and most importantly, cost efficacy. The controversies and conflicts in imaging and treatment options are explored while constructing a step by step approach that will be both flexible and utilitarian for the clinician faced with daily oncologic management choices

  11. Prenatal detection of a Wilms` tumor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Applegate, K.E.; Ghei, M. [Department of Radiology, Cleveland Clinic Foundation and Children`s Hospital, OH (United States); Perez-Atayde, A.R. [Department of Pathology, Children`s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); *

    1999-01-01

    Kidney tumors occur very rarely in utero but when present, they are most often congenital mesoblastic nephroma. A newborn boy was transferred to our hospital with a history of fetal renal mass which proved to be a Wilms` tumor. The clinical history, imaging results, and differential diagnosis are presented with a discussion of neonatal Wilms` tumor. While imaging may not specify the exact diagnosis, it provides staging and anatomic information for the surgeon and the oncologist. (orig.) With 4 figs., 6 refs.

  12. Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuca, Sevil Ari, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book aims to provide readers with a general as well as an advanced overview of the key trends in childhood obesity. Obesity is an illness that occurs due to a combination of genetic, environmental, psychosocial, metabolic and hormonal factors. The prevalence of obesity has shown a great rise both in adults and children in the last 30 years.…

  13. End-stage kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... stage; Kidney failure - end stage; ESRD; ESKD Images Kidney anatomy References Fogarty DG, Taal MW. A stepped care approach to the management of chronic kidney disease. In: Skorecki K, Chertow GM, Marsden PA, ...

  14. Childhood Craniopharyngioma Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood craniopharyngiomas are benign (not cancer) brain tumors found near the pituitary gland. Learn about the signs, tests to diagnose, and treatment (surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and immunotherapy) of pediatric craniopharyngioma in this expert-reviewed summary.

  15. Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumors Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medicine . These may include the following specialists : Pediatrician . Neurosurgeon . Neurologist . Neuropathologist . Neuroradiologist . Rehabilitation specialist . Radiation oncologist . Psychologist . ...

  16. Extraintestinal Complications: Kidney Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the ureters, bladder, and urethra for the passage, storage, and voiding of urine. Serious kidney complications associated with IBD are rare, ... Proteinuria, an elevated level of protein in the urine, is one sign of amyloidosis. A biopsy (tissue sample) of the kidney can confirm the diagnosis. Various ...

  17. Complicated Horseshoe Kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K. S.; Kim, S. R.; Cha, K. S.; Park, S. S. [Chung Ang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    Horseshoe kidney is an important urological anomaly when it is complicated or accompanied by other diseases. Recently we have experienced four cases of horseshoe kidney which were complicated with hydronephrosis, renal stone and adrenal pheochromocytoma. With review of literatures, we emphasize the importance of detection of these complications.

  18. Complicated Horseshoe Kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, K. S.; Kim, S. R.; Cha, K. S.; Park, S. S.

    2010-01-01

    Horseshoe kidney is an important urological anomaly when it is complicated or accompanied by other diseases. Recently we have experienced four cases of horseshoe kidney which were complicated with hydronephrosis, renal stone and adrenal pheochromocytoma. With review of literatures, we emphasize the importance of detection of these complications.

  19. Kidney removal - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100069.htm Kidney removal (nephrectomy) - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Go to slide 1 out of 5 Go to slide 2 out of ... to slide 5 out of 5 Overview The kidneys are paired organs that lie posterior to the ...

  20. Kidney Stones in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información ... Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información ...

  1. Kidney Infection (Pyelonephritis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información ... Kidney Disease Weight Management Liver Disease Urologic Diseases Endocrine Diseases Diet & Nutrition Blood Diseases Diagnostic Tests La información ...

  2. Kidney Disease Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease, you can continue to live a productive life, work, spend time with friends and family, stay physically active, and do other things you enjoy. You may need to change what you eat and add healthy ... active, and enjoy life. Will my kidneys get better? Kidney disease is ...

  3. Evaluation of Renal Function in Pediatric Patients After Treatment for Wilms' Tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janeczko, Małgorzata; Niedzielska, Ewa; Pietras, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    Wilms' tumor is the most common kidney cancer in children. Treatment consists of pre- and post-operative chemotherapy, surgery and in some cases radiotherapy. The treatment of nephroblastomas is very effective. Hence, the population of adult patients cured of this cancer in their childhood is steadily growing, generating a need for long-term health assessment, including renal function, due to the specifications of the therapy and the location of the tumor. The aim of the study was to evaluate nephrological complications after treatment for nephroblastoma. The study group consisted of 50 children treated in the Department of Pediatric Hematology, Oncology and Bone Marrow Transplantation at Wroclaw Medical University (Poland) from 2002 to 2012. An analysis of the patients' medical histories was carried out. The glomerular filtration rate estimated by the Schwartz formula (GFR by Schwartz), serum creatinine levels, urea and electrolyte concentrations; the results of urinalysis and blood pressure were assessed. Each of these analyses was performed at the time of diagnosis, at the end of therapy, as well as 6 months, one year and two years after its completion. The study showed that, in most cases, implemented therapy had no significant impact on the deterioration of renal parameters in the two-year period following treatment for Wilms' tumor. However, the group of patients treated with cyclophosphamide and carboplatin required more careful monitoring, due to a higher risk of renal function deterioration. The study shows that the problem of nephrotoxicity after treatment for Wilms' tumor is more frequent than indicated in other studies; however, the deterioration of kidney function in most cases is not serious. Additional attention should be paid to patients treated with cyclophosphamide and carboplatin. Assessment of the early and late effects of the treatment is a key element in improving the quality of the patients' life.

  4. Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder in childhood: radiological findings and differential diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casado, L.; Mansilla, F.; Mansilla, M.D.; Marin, A.

    1998-01-01

    We present a case of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder in an 11-year-old boy. The rarity of these tumors during childhood is pointed out. The radiological and ultrasonographic findings are described and the differential diagnosis is discussed with respect to other bladder tumors occurring in childhood. (Author) 11 refs

  5. Kidney Transplantation: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as They Affect Physical Fitness: A Physical Therapist's Point of View (National Kidney Foundation) Solitary Kidney (National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases) Travel Tips: A Guide for Kidney Patients (National Kidney ...

  6. Childhood vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Palit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood vitiligo is often encountered in dermatological practice. When present in infancy or early childhood, various nevoid and hereditary disorders are to be differentiated. In many cases, familial aggregation of the disease is seen and other autoimmune disorders may be associated. Segmental presentation is more common, and limited body surface area involvement is usual in this age group. Children with vitiligo often suffer from anxiety and depression because of their unusual appearance. Management of vitiligo in children is difficult as therapeutic options are restricted when compared to that in adult patients. Selection of treatment should be careful in these patients with the aim to achieve best results with minimal side effects as well as relieving patients′ and parents′ anxiety.

  7. [Childhood obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chueca, M; Azcona, C; Oyárzabal, M

    2002-01-01

    Obesity during childhood and adolescence is an increasingly frequent cause for medical consultation. The increase in the prevalence of this disease, which has been considered as an epidemic by the World Health Organisation, is worrying. Obesity is a complex disease, whose aetiology still remains to be clarified due to the numerous factors involved: environmental, genetic, life style and behavioural, neuroendocrinological and metabolic. The persistence of childhood obesity until adulthood significantly increases the risk of suffering from diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, cholecystitis and cholelithiasis. Treatment of obesity is complicated and few patients regularly attend follow up examinations. A multidisciplinary team is required to carry out a suitable treatment, composed of paediatricians, dieticians, nurses, psychologists and psychiatrists. Successful treatment of obesity resides in reducing the calorie intake in relation to energy expenditure, and at the time providing instruction in appropriate eating habits and life styles that in the long term will promote the maintenance of the ideal weight.

  8. Multimodality imaging spectrum of complications of horseshoe kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardik U Shah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Horseshoe kidney is the most common congenital renal fusion anomaly with an incidence of 1 in 400–600 individuals. The most common type is fusion at the lower poles seen in greater than 90% of the cases, with the rest depicting fusion at the upper poles, resulting in an inverted horseshoe kidney. Embryologically, there are two theories hypothesizing the genesis of horseshoe kidney – mechanical fusion theory and teratogenic event theory. As an entity, horseshoe kidney is an association of two anatomic anomalies, namely, ectopia and malrotation. It is also associated with other anomalies including vascular, calyceal, and ureteral anomalies. Horseshoe kidney is prone to a number of complications due to its abnormal position as well as due to associated vascular and ureteral anomalies. Complications associated with horseshoe kidney include pelviureteric junction obstruction, renal stones, infection, tumors, and trauma. It can also be associated with abnormalities of cardiovascular, central nervous, musculoskeletal and genitourinary systems, as well as chromosomal abnormalities. Conventional imaging modalities (plain films, intravenous urogram as well as advanced cross-sectional imaging modalities (ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging play an important role in the evaluation of horseshoe kidney. This article briefly describes the embryology and anatomy of the horseshoe kidney, enumerates appropriate imaging modalities used for its evaluation, and reviews cross-sectional imaging features of associated complications.

  9. [Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorge Adad, S; Estevão Barbosa, M; Fácio Luíz, J M; Furlan Rodrigues, M C; Iwamoto, S

    1996-01-01

    A 48-year-old male had autosomic dominant polycystic kidneys with dimensions, to the best of our knowledge, never previously reported; the right kidney weighed 15,100 g and measured 53 x 33 x 9cm and the left one 10.200 g and 46 x 21 x 7cm, with cysts measuring up to 14cm in diameter. Nephrectomy was done to control persistent hematuria and to relief disconfort caused by the large kidneys. The renal function is stable four years after transplantation.

  10. Childhood Obesity Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Local Programs Related Topics Diabetes Nutrition Childhood Obesity Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Children (WIC) Program, 2000-2014 Prevalence of Childhood Obesity in the United States Childhood obesity is a ...

  11. Malignant Epithelioid Angiomyolipoma of the Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-How Huang

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Angiomyolipoma (AML is a common benign renal tumor composed of thick-walled blood vessels, smooth muscle, and adipose tissue, but the malignant epithelioid variant is extremely rare. A 78-year-old woman presented with fever and left flank pain for 3 days. Computed tomography showed a heterogeneously enhanced mass without fat density in the left kidney. Radical nephrectomy was performed and pathology showed malignant epithelioid AML with regional lymph node metastases. The tumor cells were positive for human melanosome-associated protein (HMB-45 on immunohistochemical staining. The patient died of disseminated metastases (lungs and bones 5 months postoperatively. Epithelioid AML is a potentially aggressive tumor. The prognosis is poor in metastatic disease. HMB-45 immunoreactivity is a useful marker to make diagnosis. [J Formos Med Assoc 2007;106(2 Suppl:S51-S54

  12. Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cysts Solitary Kidney Your Kidneys & How They Work Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease What is anemia? Anemia is a condition in which the body ... function as well as they should. How is anemia related to chronic kidney disease? Anemia commonly occurs ...

  13. Acute hemiplegia in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuno, Takehiko; Takao, Tatsuo; Itoh, Masatoshi; Konishi, Yukuo; Nakano, Shozo

    1983-01-01

    The results of CT in 100 patients with acute hemiplegia in childhood are reported here. The etiology was various: 2 patients had infratentorial brain tumors, 56 had cerebral vascular diseases, 3 had head injuries, 16 had intracranial infectious diseases, one had postinfectious encephalomyelitis, one had multiple sclerosis, 2 had epilepsy, and the diagnosis of 19 were unknown. Eleven patients had a normal CT and a good prognosis. As for the type of onset, there were patients of type 1 with fever and 42 with convulsions and unconsciousness; those of type 2 with convulsions and unconsciousness were 12, and those of type 3 without fever and convulsions were 46. This classification is assumed to be useful, as the type of onset is characteristic of the etiology. Six patients were diagnosed correctly by repeated examinations, although the first CT did not reveal any remarkable findings. Capsular infarction, occlusion of the posterior cerebral artery in acute hemiplegia in childhood, abnormal findings of the internal capsule, thalamus, and midbrain in a patient with postinfectious encephalomyelitis, and a diffuse low density in the CT of the unilateral hemisphere in the patients with acute encephalopathy and acute hemiplegia of an obscure origin have been found after the introduction of computerized tomography. (author)

  14. Childhood Overweight and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Childhood Overweight and Obesity: Helping Your Child Achieve a Healthy Weight Childhood Overweight and Obesity: Helping Your Child Achieve a Healthy Weight Share ...

  15. Images in kidney trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Jose Luis; Rodriguez, Sonia Pilar; Manzano, Ana Cristina

    2007-01-01

    A case of a 3 years old female patient, who suffered blunt lumbar trauma (horse kick) with secondary kidney trauma, is reported. Imaging findings are described. Renal trauma classification and imaging findings are reviewed

  16. About Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... detect CKD: blood pressure, urine albumin and serum creatinine. What causes CKD? The two main causes of chronic kidney disease are diabetes and high blood pressure , which are responsible for up to ...

  17. Polycystic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... don't have other diseases may be good candidates for a kidney transplant. Possible Complications Health problems ... www.urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. ...

  18. Kidney removal - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Schwartz MJ, Rais-Bahrami S, Kavoussi LR. Laparoscopic and robotic surgery of the kidney. In: Wein AJ, Kavoussi ... Urology, West Bloomfield, MI. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, ...

  19. Kidney Cancer Risk Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... NCI Cancer Information A to Z Treatment Roles Cancer Types Bladder Brain/Spine Breast Cervical Colorectal Esophageal Gallbladder Head/Neck Kidney Leukemia Liver Lung Lymphoma Multiple Myeloma Ovarian Pancreatic ...

  20. American Kidney Fund

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that you see in the box: Spam Control Text: Please leave this field empty Submit Change ... a kidney health educator Clinical Scientist in Nephrology program Online continuing education Search clinical ...

  1. National Kidney Foundation Newsroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 11/2018 Using a Home Test Kit and Smartphone to Test for Kidney Disease - 04/10/2018 ... of millions of Americans at risk. The Better Business Bureau Wise Giving Alliance Charity Seal provides the ...

  2. Kidney compartment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gullberg, G.T.

    1976-09-01

    A multiparameter kidney compartment model which quantitates the amount of iodohippurate concentration as a function of time in the blood, tissue, kidneys and bladder is developed from a system of differential equations which represent first order kinetics. The kinetic data are obtained using a gamma camera and an HP5407 computer system which allows one to delineate areas of interest for the blood and tissue, kidneys, and bladder thus separating the data into four data sets. The estimated tubular transit times have a high ratio of the signal to the variance whereas the estimates of the amount of iodohippurate in the blood, tissue and kidneys have a low ratio of the signal to the variance. Application of this model to patient data requires better statistics than available with conventional 131 I-hippurate doses; thus a true test of the efficacy awaits availability of 123 I-hippurate

  3. Testing for Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mean for you. If you have kidney disease, measuring the albumin in your urine helps your provider ... Staff Directory Budget & Legislative Information Advisory & Coordinating Committees Strategic Plans & Reports Research Areas FAQs Jobs at NIDDK ...

  4. Acquired Cystic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... including diabetes, high blood pressure, glomerulonephritis, and cys tic kidney diseases. Participants in clinical trials can play ... Life Options Rehabilitation Resource Center c/o Medical Education Institute, Inc. 414 D’Onofrio Drive, Suite 200 ...

  5. Pathologic femur fracture due to a brown tumor in a patient with secondary hyperparathyroidism and vitamin D-resistant rickets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Eric; Day, Matthew; Fadare, Oluwole; Schaefer, Heidi

    2013-02-01

    Vitamin D-resistant rickets is the common clinical outcome of multiple genetic mutations that alter the regulation of phosphorus and vitamin D metabolism, mainly through their effects on fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23). These diseases typically present in childhood with the classic physical examination finding of nutritional rickets, such as genu varum/valgum and rachitic rosary. Treatment, which is aimed at improving severe bone disease with vitamin D and phosphorus supplementation, can cause secondary hyperparathyroidism and/or kidney failure from nephrocalcinosis over the life of the patient. Although FGF-23 has been shown to downregulate parathyroid hormone in vitro, its effect on parathyroid secretion in disease states such as chronic kidney disease and X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets is unclear because elevations in FGF-23 and parathyroid hormone levels characterize both of these disease states. We describe a case of vitamin D-resistant rickets that presented with a femur fracture through a brown tumor. Radiographs show the combination of severe bony abnormalities associated with both long-standing hyperparathyroidism and vitamin D-resistant rickets. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Marriage and divorce among childhood cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Susanne Vinkel; Kejs, Anne Mette Tranberg; Engholm, Gerda; Møller, Henrik; Johansen, Christoffer; Schmiegelow, Kjeld

    2011-10-01

    Many childhood cancer survivors have psychosocial late effects. We studied the risks for cohabitation and subsequent separation. Through the Danish Cancer Register, we identified a nationwide, population-based cohort of all 1877 childhood cancer survivors born from 1965 to 1980, and in whom cancer was diagnosed between 1965 and 1996 before they were 20 years of age. A sex-matched and age-matched population-based control cohort was used for comparison (n=45,449). Demographic and socioeconomic data were obtained from national registers and explored by discrete-time Cox regression analyses. Childhood cancer survivors had a reduced rate of cohabitation [rate ratio (RR) 0.78; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.73-0.83], owing to lower rates among survivors of both noncentral nervous system (CNS) tumors (RR 0.88; 95% CI: 0.83-0.95) and CNS tumors (RR 0.52; 95% CI: 0.45-0.59). Male CNS tumor survivors had a nonsignificantly lower rate (RR 0.47; 95% CI: 0.38-0.58) than females (RR 0.56; 95% CI: 0.47-0.68). The rates of separation were almost identical to those of controls. In conclusion, the rate of cohabitation was lower for all childhood cancer survivors than for the population-based controls, with the most pronounced reduction among survivors of CNS tumors. Mental deficits after cranial irradiation are likely to be the major risk factor.

  7. Neurocognitive Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Robert W.; Haser, Jennifer K.

    2006-01-01

    We review research on the neuropsychological effects that central nervous system (CNS) cancer treatments have on the cognitive abilities of children and adolescents. The authors focus on the two most common malignancies of childhood: leukemias and brain tumors. The literature review is structured so as to separate out earlier studies, generally…

  8. Childhood Renal Neoplasms in Lagos Nigera- A 28 Year Review ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Childhood Renal Neoplasms in Lagos Nigera- A 28 Year Review. ... Most of the patients presented with abdominal mass with a unilaterally enlarged kidney, abdominal pain, haematuria and weight loss. All of them had nephrectomy as initial treatment followed by radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Nigerian Quarterly Journal ...

  9. Radiology of the kidneys in patients under maintenance hemodialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahner, M.L.; Kaick, G. van; Bommer, J.; Sommerer, C.

    1999-01-01

    The kidneys of patients with chronic renal failure undergoing maintenance hemodialysis may show different variances or complications. Most common are secondarily acquired renal cysts, which my be found in as many as 92% of patients after 8 years of hemodialysis. Single (in 12.5% of patients) or multiple (8.3%) cysts with bleeding are common; additionally, hematuria or ruptured cysts may be found. Bleeding into cysts is more common in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease. Due to the decreasing urinary production development of kidney stones is very uncommon, but calcification in or around cysts can be found in 71% of patients. Kidney tumors occur 41 times more often in patients with chronic renal failure than in patients without kidney disease. We detected tumors in 4.2% of our patients on long-term dialysis. Diagnostic differentiation of the relatively slow growing and fairly late metastasizing malignant tumors from adenomas is not possible. Nevertheless, we screen our patients every 3-4 years. Computed tomography is superior to ultrasonography for this purpose, because ultrasonography lacks the necessary sensitivity in this group of patients. (orig.) [de

  10. Computerized tomography of kidneys in long-term dialysis patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srp, A.; Merta, M.; Sulkova, S.

    1990-01-01

    A cohort is presented of 21 patients with irreversible kidney failure who were examined by computerized tomography in 1986-1987. The mean period of dialysis programme was 5.7 years, chronic glomerulonephritis and interstitial nephritis were the basic conditions. According to the results of computerized tomography, the patients were divided into four groups: 1. the presence of cysts or tumors was not established, 2. multiplecysts were found in bilateral location, 3. less than 3 cysts were found, 4. kidney tumor was diagnosed. The factor causing the development of the cysts was not identified. It is presumed that the disease is caused by a biologically active substance which is not efficiently dialyzed. The examination of the kidneys is recommended in patients in the stage of chronic kidney insufficiency and particularly in patients on dialysis for a long period of time. The recommended examination uses computerized tomography, and attention should be given to the possible occurence of acquired cystic disease or kidney tumors. (author). 6 figs., 8 refs

  11. Urology and nephrology update: bladder and kidney cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, David C; Fox, Cara-Louise

    2014-01-01

    It has been estimated that bladder and kidney cancers would be diagnosed in approximately 140,000 Americans in 2013, with approximately 30,000 dying from these cancers. Urinary tract cancers affect men more commonly than they do women, and the median age at diagnosis is 65 years. Major risk factors for these cancers include tobacco smoking, certain chemical exposures, family history, age, and obesity. Unexplained hematuria in adults should be evaluated to exclude bladder and kidney cancer. Staging of bladder and kidney cancer should be based on the TNM staging system, which, along with tumor grade, provides important treatment and prognostic information. Urothelial cell carcinoma is the most common type of bladder cancer; it also can occur in the kidneys or ureters. Renal cell carcinoma is the most common type of kidney cancer. Treatment options for bladder cancer vary widely, depending on the grade of the cancer. Early non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer may be removed cystoscopically and/or treated with intravesical immunotherapy or chemotherapy, whereas patients with muscle-invasive bladder tumors typically require surgery. Management of kidney cancer is almost always surgical, unless the patient is too ill to undergo surgery or chooses palliative care. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  12. [Chronic kidney disease and kidney transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuret, R; Timsit, M O; Kleinclauss, F

    2016-11-01

    To report epidemiology and characteristics of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients and renal transplant candidates, and to evaluate access to waiting list and results of renal transplantation. An exhaustive systematic review of the scientific literature was performed in the Medline database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) and Embase (http://www.embase.com) using different associations of the following keywords: "chronic kidney disease, epidemiology, kidney transplantation, cost, survival, graft, brain death, cardiac arrest, access, allocation". French legal documents have been reviewed using the government portal (http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr). Articles were selected according to methods, language of publication and relevance. The reference lists were used to identify additional historical studies of interest. Both prospective and retrospective series, in French and English, as well as review articles and recommendations were selected. In addition, French national transplant and health agencies (http://www.agence-biomedecine.fr and http://www.has-sante.fr) databases were screened using identical keywords. A total of 3234 articles, 6 official reports and 3 newspaper articles were identified; after careful selection 99 publications were eligible for our review. The increasing prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) leads to worsen organ shortage. Renal transplantation remains the best treatment option for ESRD, providing recipients with an increased survival and quality of life, at lower costs than other renal replacement therapies. The never-ending lengthening of the waiting list raises issues regarding treatment strategies and candidates' selection, and underlines the limits of organ sharing without additional source of kidneys available for transplantation. Allocation policies aim to reduce medical or geographical disparities regarding enrollment on a waiting list or access to an allotransplant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. An 11-Year-Old Child with Autosomal Dominant Polycystic Kidney Disease Who Presented with Nephrolithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Firinci

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease become symptomatic and are diagnosed usually at adulthood. The rate of nephrolithiasis in these patients is 5–10 times the rate in the general population, and both anatomic and metabolic abnormalities play role in the formation of renal stones. However, nephrolithiasis is rare in childhood age group. In this paper, an 11-year-old child with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease presenting with nephrolithiasis is discussed.

  14. [Paired kidneys in transplant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regueiro López, Juan C; Leva Vallejo, Manuel; Prieto Castro, Rafael; Anglada Curado, Francisco; Vela Jiménez, Francisco; Ruiz García, Jesús

    2009-02-01

    Many factors affect the graft and patient survival on the renal transplant outcome. These factors depend so much of the recipient and donor. We accomplished a study trying to circumvent factors that depend on the donor. We checked the paired kidneys originating of a same donor cadaver. We examined the risk factors in the evolution and follow-up in 278 couples of kidney transplant. We describe their differences, significance, the graft and patient survival, their functionality in 3 and 5 years and the risk factors implicated in their function. We study immunogenic and no immunogenic variables, trying to explain the inferior results in the grafts that are established secondly. We regroup the paired kidneys in those that they did not show paired initial function within the same couple. The results yield a discreet deterioration in the graft and patient survival for second group establish, superior creatinina concentration, without obtaining statistical significance. The Cox regression study establishes the early rejection (inferior to three months) and DR incompatibility values like risk factors. This model of paired kidneys would be able to get close to best-suited form for risk factors analysis in kidney transplant from cadaver donors, if more patients examine themselves in the same way. The paired kidneys originating from the same donor do not show the same function in spite of sharing the same conditions of the donor and perioperative management.

  15. Childhood psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogra Sunil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a common dermatosis in children with about one third of all patients having onset of disease in the first or second decade of life. A chronic disfiguring skin disease, such as psoriasis, in childhood is likely to have profound emotional and psychological effects, and hence requires special attention. Psoriasis in children has been reported to differ from that among adults being more frequently pruritic; plaque lesions are relatively thinner, softer, and less scaly; face and flexural involvement is common and guttate type is the characteristic presentation. Whether onset in childhood predicts a more severe form of psoriasis is a matter of controversy, it may cause significant morbidity particularly if it keeps relapsing. Most children have mild form of psoriasis which can be generally treated effectively with topical agents such as emollients, coal tar, corticosteroids, dithranol, calcipotriol etc. according to age and the sites affected. Narrow band UVB is the preferred form of phototherapy in children for moderate to severe disease or in patients not responding to topical therapy alone. Systemic therapies are reserved for more severe and extensive cases that cannot be controlled with topical treatment and/or phototherapy such as severe plaque type, unstable forms like erythrodermic and generalized pustular psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. There are no controlled trials of systemic therapies in this age group, most experience being with retinoids and methotrexate with favorable results. Cyclosporine can be used as a short-term intermittent crisis management drug. There is an early promising experience with the use of biologics (etanercept and infliximab in childhood psoriasis. Systemic treatments as well as phototherapy have limited use in children due to cumulative dose effects of drugs, low acceptance, and risk of gonadal toxicity. More evidence-based data is needed about the effectiveness and long-term safety of topical

  16. 3D-visualization by MRI for surgical planning of Wilms tumors; 3-D-Visualisierung in der MRT zur Operationsplanung von Wilms-Tumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenk, J.P.; Wunsch, R.; Jourdan, C.; Troeger, J. [Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg (Germany). Abteilung Paediatrische Radiologie; Waag, K.-L.; Guenther, P. [Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg (Germany). Abteilung Kinderchirurgie; Graf, N. [Universitaetsklinik Homburg (Germany). Abteilung Paediatrische Haematologie und Onkologie; Behnisch, W. [Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg (Germany). Abteilung Paediatrische Haematologie und Onkologie

    2004-10-01

    Purpose: To improve surgical planning of kidney tumors in childhood (Wilms tumor, mesoblastic nephroma) after radiologic verification of the presumptive diagnosis with interactive colored 3D-animation in MRI. Materials and Methods: In 7 children (1 boy, 6 girls) with a mean age of 3 years (1 month to 11 years), the MRI database (DICOM) was processed with a raycasting-based 3D-volume-rendering software (VG Studio Max 1.1/Volume Graphics). The abdominal MRI-sequences (coronal STIR, coronal T1 TSE, transverse T1/T2 TSE, sagittal T2 TSE, transverse and coronal T1 TSE post contrast) were obtained with a 0.5T unit in 4-6 mm slices. Additionally, phase-contrast-MR-angiography was applied to delineate the large abdominal and retroperitoneal vessels. A notebook was used to demonstrate the 3D-visualization for surgical planning before surgery and during the surgical procedure. Results: In all 7 cases, the surgical approach was influenced by interactive 3D-animation and the information found useful for surgical planning. Above all, the 3D-visualization demonstrates the mass effect of the Wilms tumor and its anatomical relationship to the renal hilum and to the rest of the kidney as well as the topographic relationship of the tumor to the critical vessels. One rupture of the tumor capsule occurred as a surgical complication. For the surgeon, the transformation of the anatomical situation from MRI to the surgical situs has become much easier. Conclusion: For surgical planning of Wilms tumors, the 3D-visualization with 3D-animation of the situs helps to transfer important information from the pediatric radiologist to the pediatric surgeon and optimizes the surgical preparation. A reduction of complications is to be expected. (orig.)

  17. Advances in diagnosis and follow-up in kidney cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rioja, J.; Rosette, de la J.J.M.C.H.; Wijkstra, H.; Laguna, M.P.

    2008-01-01

    Although few changes are evident in the diagnostic imaging of kidney tumors, percutaneous core biopsy has gained attention and in the light of the current results might play an extended role in the preoperative workup of renal masses. New techniques should be investigated for monitoring after

  18. Survival Following Kidney Sparing Management of Upper Urinary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Survival Following Kidney Sparing Management of Upper Urinary Tract Transitional Cell Carcinoma is Adversely Affected By Prior History of Bladder Cancer. ... The tumor biology rather than the surgical approach dictates prognosis. Patients with higher stage and grade disease may be better served with a more aggressive ...

  19. Augmented reality in a tumor resection model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvet, Pauline; Collins, Toby; Debize, Clement; Novais-Gameiro, Lorraine; Pereira, Bruno; Bartoli, Adrien; Canis, Michel; Bourdel, Nicolas

    2018-03-01

    Augmented Reality (AR) guidance is a technology that allows a surgeon to see sub-surface structures, by overlaying pre-operative imaging data on a live laparoscopic video. Our objectives were to evaluate a state-of-the-art AR guidance system in a tumor surgical resection model, comparing the accuracy of the resection with and without the system. Our system has three phases. Phase 1: using the MRI images, the kidney's and pseudotumor's surfaces are segmented to construct a 3D model. Phase 2: the intra-operative 3D model of the kidney is computed. Phase 3: the pre-operative and intra-operative models are registered, and the laparoscopic view is augmented with the pre-operative data. We performed a prospective experimental study on ex vivo porcine kidneys. Alginate was injected into the parenchyma to create pseudotumors measuring 4-10 mm. The kidneys were then analyzed by MRI. Next, the kidneys were placed into pelvictrainers, and the pseudotumors were laparoscopically resected. The AR guidance system allows the surgeon to see tumors and margins using classical laparoscopic instruments, and a classical screen. The resection margins were measured microscopically to evaluate the accuracy of resection. Ninety tumors were segmented: 28 were used to optimize the AR software, and 62 were used to randomly compare surgical resection: 29 tumors were resected using AR and 33 without AR. The analysis of our pathological results showed 4 failures (tumor with positive margins) (13.8%) in the AR group, and 10 (30.3%) in the Non-AR group. There was no complete miss in the AR group, while there were 4 complete misses in the non-AR group. In total, 14 (42.4%) tumors were completely missed or had a positive margin in the non-AR group. Our AR system enhances the accuracy of surgical resection, particularly for small tumors. Crucial information such as resection margins and vascularization could also be displayed.

  20. PET/CT in kidney and bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochev, P.; Klisarova, A.

    2013-01-01

    Full text: FDG PET/CT has traditionally been considered a method of limited use in tumors of the kidneys and excretory system. Major shortcoming of the method in kidney cancer is considered variable fixation and a more general lack of significant therapeutic alternatives that require early diagnosis of recurrence after nephrectomy. In the context of the modern methods of systemic anticancer therapy in kidney cancer, marking a significant success in terms of time to progression, the need of more detailed selection of the patients and the search methods for the early diagnosis and assessment of therapeutic response arises. While CT remains the primary method for the diagnosis of parenchymal metastases (lung, liver), the use of FDG PET/CT has a significant advantage in detecting of nodal metastasis, locoregional recurrence and bone metastasis. Interesting direction in the use of PET/CT remains the monitoring of therapeutic response to systemic therapy of metastatic kidney cancer. Unlike kidney cancer in transitional cell carcinoma of bladder (TCC), the application of FDG PET/CT is non- systematic and based on the specific clinical indications. As the main indicator can be observed the distant staging in locally advanced tumors and recurrences in restading after cystectomy. Besides the general advantages of PET/CT in terms of nodal and peritoneal involvement it should be noted that the role of the PET/CT in TCC is discussible. Application of FDG PET / CT in kidney cancer and TCC at this stage can not be considered as established, but while in TCCs, the method has sporadically application, mostly for specific clinical questions, the application in kidney cancer is significantly more systemic and in the context of systemic anti-tumor therapy allows early diagnosis and therapeutic approach modulation

  1. Childhood immunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romain, Sandra; Schillaci, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To examine childhood immunization levels relative to the number of family physicians, pediatricians, and public health nurses in Ontario. DESIGN Retrospective comparative analysis of publicly available data on immunization coverage levels and the relative number of family physicians, pediatricians, and public health nurses. SETTING Ontario. PARTICIPANTS Seven-year-old children, family physicians, pediatricians, and public health nurses in Ontario. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The association between immunization coverage levels and the relative number of family physicians, pediatricians, and public health nurses. RESULTS We found correlations between immunization coverage levels and the relative number (ie, per 1000 Ontario residents) of family physicians (ρ = 0.60) and pediatricians (ρ = 0.70) and a lower correlation with the relative number of public health nurses (ρ = 0.40), although none of these correlations was significant. A comparison of temporal trends illustrated that variation in the relative number of family physicians and pediatricians in Ontario was associated with similar variation in immunization coverage levels. CONCLUSION Increasing the number of family physicians and pediatricians might help to boost access to immunizations and perhaps other components of cost-saving childhood preventive care. PMID:19910599

  2. Sinus Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... RESOURCES Medical Societies Patient Education About this Website Font Size + - Home > CONDITIONS > Sinus Tumors Adult Sinusitis Pediatric ... and they vary greatly in location, size and type. Care for these tumors is individualized to each ...

  3. Tumors markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi-Mizumoto, N.H.

    1989-01-01

    In order to study blood and cell components alterations (named tumor markers) that may indicate the presence of a tumor, several methods are presented. Aspects as diagnostic, prognostic, therapeutic value and clinical evaluation are discussed. (M.A.C.)

  4. Combining miRNA and mRNA Expression Profiles in Wilms Tumor Subtypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Ludwig

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Wilms tumor (WT is the most common childhood renal cancer. Recent findings of mutations in microRNA (miRNA processing proteins suggest a pivotal role of miRNAs in WT genesis. We performed miRNA expression profiling of 36 WTs of different subtypes and four normal kidney tissues using microarrays. Additionally, we determined the gene expression profile of 28 of these tumors to identify potentially correlated target genes and affected pathways. We identified 85 miRNAs and 2107 messenger RNAs (mRNA differentially expressed in blastemal WT, and 266 miRNAs and 1267 mRNAs differentially expressed in regressive subtype. The hierarchical clustering of the samples, using either the miRNA or mRNA profile, showed the clear separation of WT from normal kidney samples, but the miRNA pattern yielded better separation of WT subtypes. A correlation analysis of the deregulated miRNA and mRNAs identified 13,026 miRNA/mRNA pairs with inversely correlated expression, of which 2844 are potential interactions of miRNA and their predicted mRNA targets. We found significant upregulation of miRNAs-183, -301a/b and -335 for the blastemal subtype, and miRNAs-181b, -223 and -630 for the regressive subtype. We found marked deregulation of miRNAs regulating epithelial to mesenchymal transition, especially in the blastemal subtype, and miRNAs influencing chemosensitivity, especially in regressive subtypes. Further research is needed to assess the influence of preoperative chemotherapy and tumor infiltrating lymphocytes on the miRNA and mRNA patterns in WT.

  5. Spinal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goethem, J.W.M. van; Hauwe, L. van den; Oezsarlak, Oe.; Schepper, A.M.A. de; Parizel, P.M.

    2004-01-01

    Spinal tumors are uncommon lesions but may cause significant morbidity in terms of limb dysfunction. In establishing the differential diagnosis for a spinal lesion, location is the most important feature, but the clinical presentation and the patient's age and gender are also important. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging plays a central role in the imaging of spinal tumors, easily allowing tumors to be classified as extradural, intradural-extramedullary or intramedullary, which is very useful in tumor characterization. In the evaluation of lesions of the osseous spine both computed tomography (CT) and MR are important. We describe the most common spinal tumors in detail. In general, extradural lesions are the most common with metastasis being the most frequent. Intradural tumors are rare, and the majority is extramedullary, with meningiomas and nerve sheath tumors being the most frequent. Intramedullary tumors are uncommon spinal tumors. Astrocytomas and ependymomas comprise the majority of the intramedullary tumors. The most important tumors are documented with appropriate high quality CT or MR images and the characteristics of these tumors are also summarized in a comprehensive table. Finally we illustrate the use of the new World Health Organization (WHO) classification of neoplasms affecting the central nervous system

  6. Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are ...

  7. Kidney and innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying-Hui; Zhang, Yu-Gen

    2017-03-01

    Innate immune system is an important modulator of the inflammatory response during infection and tissue injury/repair. The kidney as a vital organ with high energy demand plays a key role in regulating the disease related metabolic process. Increasing research interest has focused on the immune pathogenesis of many kidney diseases. However, innate immune cells such as dendritic cells, macrophages, NK cells and a few innate lymphocytes, as well as the complement system are essential for renal immune homeostasis and ensure a coordinated balance between tissue injury and regeneration. The innate immune response provides the first line of host defense initiated by several classes of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), such as membrane-bound Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs), together with inflammasomes responsible for early innate immune response. Although the innate immune system is well studied, the research on the detailed relationship between innate immunity and kidney is still very limited. In this review, we will focus on the innate immune sensing system in renal immune homeostasis, as well as the corresponding pathogenesis of many kidney diseases. The pivotal roles of innate immunity in renal injury and regeneration with special emphasis on kidney disease related immunoregulatory mechanism are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Diabetic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Merlin C; Brownlee, Michael; Susztak, Katalin; Sharma, Kumar; Jandeleit-Dahm, Karin A M; Zoungas, Sophia; Rossing, Peter; Groop, Per-Henrik; Cooper, Mark E

    2015-07-30

    The kidney is arguably the most important target of microvascular damage in diabetes. A substantial proportion of individuals with diabetes will develop kidney disease owing to their disease and/or other co-morbidity, including hypertension and ageing-related nephron loss. The presence and severity of chronic kidney disease (CKD) identify individuals who are at increased risk of adverse health outcomes and premature mortality. Consequently, preventing and managing CKD in patients with diabetes is now a key aim of their overall management. Intensive management of patients with diabetes includes controlling blood glucose levels and blood pressure as well as blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system; these approaches will reduce the incidence of diabetic kidney disease and slow its progression. Indeed, the major decline in the incidence of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) over the past 30 years and improved patient prognosis are largely attributable to improved diabetes care. However, there remains an unmet need for innovative treatment strategies to prevent, arrest, treat and reverse DKD. In this Primer, we summarize what is now known about the molecular pathogenesis of CKD in patients with diabetes and the key pathways and targets implicated in its progression. In addition, we discuss the current evidence for the prevention and management of DKD as well as the many controversies. Finally, we explore the opportunities to develop new interventions through urgently needed investment in dedicated and focused research. For an illustrated summary of this Primer, visit: http://go.nature.com/NKHDzg.

  9. [Living kidney donation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timsit, M-O; Kleinclauss, F; Mamzer Bruneel, M F; Thuret, R

    2016-11-01

    To review ethical, legal and technical aspects of living kidney donor surgery. An exhaustive systematic review of the scientific literature was performed in the Medline database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov) and Embase (http://www.embase.com) using different associations of the following keywords: Donor nephrectomy; Kidney paired donation; Kidney transplantation; Laparoscopic nephrectomy; Living donor; Organs trafficking; Robotic assisted nephrectomy; Vaginal extraction. French legal documents have been reviewed using the government portal (http://www.legifrance.gouv.fr). Articles were selected according to methods, language of publication and relevance. A total of 6421 articles were identified; after careful selection, 161 publications were considered of interest and were eligible for our review. The ethical debate focuses on organ shortage, financial incentive, organ trafficking and the recent data suggesting a small but significant increase risk for late renal disease in donor population. Legal decisions aim to increase the number of kidneys available for donation, such as kidney-paired donation that faces several obstacles in France. Laparoscopic approach became widely used, while robotic-assisted donor nephrectomy failed to demonstrate improved outcome as compared with other minimal invasive techniques. Minimally invasive living donor nephrectomy aims to limit side effects in the donor without increasing the morbidity in this specific population of healthy persons; long term surveillance to prevent the onset of renal disease in mandatory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Hereditary Kidney Cancer Syndromes and Surgical Management of the Small Renal Mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Kevin A; Syed, Jamil S; Shuch, Brian

    2017-05-01

    The management of patients with hereditary kidney cancers presents unique challenges to clinicians. In addition to an earlier age of onset compared with patients with sporadic kidney cancer, those with hereditary kidney cancer syndromes often present with bilateral and/or multifocal renal tumors and are at risk for multiple de novo lesions. This population of patients may also present with extrarenal manifestations, which adds an additional layer of complexity. Physicians who manage these patients should be familiar with the underlying clinical characteristics of each hereditary kidney cancer syndrome and the suggested surgical approaches and recommendations of genetic testing for at-risk individuals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Kidney recipients experiences before during and after kidney transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Charlotte

    Background Kidney transplantation is considered to be the best treatment for terminal renal insufficiency. Kidney transplant patients report higher quality of life because they avoid regular dialysis treatment that causes side effects, complications, restrictions and limitations in their daily...... and after the kidney transplant, through outpatient visits and during possible hospitalization, which can occur due to complications or disease progression. Objective To explore the coherence of the kidney transplant process in order to explain the lived experiences of kidney recipients before, during...... and after kidney transplantation. Method Participant observation and semi-structured individual interviews was conducted with kidney recipients before, during and after kidney transplantation. Data analysis is inspired by Ricoeur's interpretation theory on three levels: Naive reading; structural analysis...

  12. Connexins and the kidney

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanner, Fiona; Sørensen, Charlotte Mehlin; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Connexins (Cxs) are widely-expressed proteins that form gap junctions in most organs, including the kidney. In the renal vasculature, Cx37, Cx40, Cx43, and Cx45 are expressed, with predominant expression of Cx40 in the endothelial cells and Cx45 in the vascular smooth muscle cells. In the tubules......, the major function of Cxs in the kidney appears to be intercellular communication, although they may also form hemichannels that allow cellular secretion of large signaling molecules. Renal Cxs facilitate vascular conduction, juxtaglomerular apparatus calcium signaling, and tubular purinergic signaling....... Accordingly, current evidence points to roles for these Cxs in several important regulatory mechanisms in the kidney, including the renin angiotensin system, tubuloglomerular feedback, and salt and water reabsorption. At the systemic level, renal Cxs may help regulate blood pressure and may be involved...

  13. Tumor immunology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otter, W. den

    1987-01-01

    Tumor immunology, the use of immunological techniques for tumor diagnosis and approaches to immunotherapy of cancer are topics covered in this multi-author volume. Part A, 'Tumor Immunology', deals with present views on tumor-associated antigens, the initiation of immune reactions of tumor cells, effector cell killing, tumor cells and suppression of antitumor immunity, and one chapter dealing with the application of mathematical models in tumor immunology. Part B, 'Tumor Diagnosis and Imaging', concerns the use of markers to locate the tumor in vivo, for the histological diagnosis, and for the monitoring of tumor growth. In Part C, 'Immunotherapy', various experimental approaches to immunotherapy are described, such as the use of monoclonal antibodies to target drugs, the use of interleukin-2 and the use of drugs inhibiting suppression. In the final section, the evaluation, a pathologist and a clinician evaluate the possibilities and limitations of tumor immunology and the extent to which it is useful for diagnosis and therapy. refs.; figs.; tabs

  14. Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Angela C; Nagler, Evi V; Morton, Rachael L; Masson, Philip

    2017-03-25

    The definition and classification of chronic kidney disease (CKD) have evolved over time, but current international guidelines define this condition as decreased kidney function shown by glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of less than 60 mL/min per 1·73 m 2 , or markers of kidney damage, or both, of at least 3 months duration, regardless of the underlying cause. Diabetes and hypertension are the main causes of CKD in all high-income and middle-income countries, and also in many low-income countries. Incidence, prevalence, and progression of CKD also vary within countries by ethnicity and social determinants of health, possibly through epigenetic influence. Many people are asymptomatic or have non-specific symptoms such as lethargy, itch, or loss of appetite. Diagnosis is commonly made after chance findings from screening tests (urinary dipstick or blood tests), or when symptoms become severe. The best available indicator of overall kidney function is GFR, which is measured either via exogenous markers (eg, DTPA, iohexol), or estimated using equations. Presence of proteinuria is associated with increased risk of progression of CKD and death. Kidney biopsy samples can show definitive evidence of CKD, through common changes such as glomerular sclerosis, tubular atrophy, and interstitial fibrosis. Complications include anaemia due to reduced production of erythropoietin by the kidney; reduced red blood cell survival and iron deficiency; and mineral bone disease caused by disturbed vitamin D, calcium, and phosphate metabolism. People with CKD are five to ten times more likely to die prematurely than they are to progress to end stage kidney disease. This increased risk of death rises exponentially as kidney function worsens and is largely attributable to death from cardiovascular disease, although cancer incidence and mortality are also increased. Health-related quality of life is substantially lower for people with CKD than for the general population, and falls as GFR

  15. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Childhood Period Nasopharynx Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aktas, Elif; Sahin, Burcu; Ciledag, Nazan; Arda, Kemal Niyazi; Caglar, Emrah; Ilhan, Inci Ergurhan

    2015-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a rarely seen tumor in childhood. It is mostly detected late as the clinical features are similar to other childhood tumors which affect the nasopharynx and adenoidal hypertrophy. Therefore, the radiological features of childhood tumors of the nasopharynx must be well known. The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of MR imaging features of childhood nasopharynx cancer. The study included 10 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients under the age of 18 years who presented at hospital between February 2008 and March 2014 and who had tissue diagnosis and MRI of the nasopharynx region. The MRI scans were evaluated by two radiologists. Loco-regional spread, asymmetry, signal intensity of the tumors, and lymph nodes were evaluated. In all the patients there was a mass which narrowed the nasopharynx. In all cases, unilateral mastoid opacification was observed. In 9 cases (90%), parapharyngeal extension was found. In 8 cases (80%), the mass showed an extension into the nasal cavity or oropharynx. In 5 cases (50%), there was an involvement of the skull base. In 3 patients (30%), an extension to the masticator space and pterygopalatine fossa was found. There were enlarged cervical lymph nodes bilaterally in 10 cases (100%). In 4 cases (40%), a lateral retropharyngeal lymph node was detected. Childhood nasopharyngeal cancers are often diagnosed at an advanced stage. MR imaging can be helpful in diagnosis and differential diagnosis of childhood nasopharynx cancer from other diseases of the nasopharynx

  16. Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Task Force Recommendations Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (Task Force) has issued a final recommendation on Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) . This recommendation ...

  17. Environmental pollution and kidney diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xin; Nie, Sheng; Ding, Hanying; Hou, Fan Fan

    2018-05-01

    The burden of disease and death attributable to environmental pollution is becoming a public health challenge worldwide, especially in developing countries. The kidney is vulnerable to environmental pollutants because most environmental toxins are concentrated by the kidney during filtration. Given the high mortality and morbidity of kidney disease, environmental risk factors and their effect on kidney disease need to be identified. In this Review, we highlight epidemiological evidence for the association between kidney disease and environmental pollutants, including air pollution, heavy metal pollution and other environmental risk factors. We discuss the potential biological mechanisms that link exposure to environmental pollutants to kidney damage and emphasize the contribution of environmental pollution to kidney disease. Regulatory efforts should be made to control environmental pollution and limit individual exposure to preventable or avoidable environmental risk. Population studies with accurate quantification of environmental exposure in polluted regions, particularly in developing countries, might aid our understanding of the dose-response relationship between pollutants and kidney diseases.

  18. National Kidney Disease Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Living Tips About WIN NIDDK Information Clearinghouses National Kidney Disease Education Program Improving the understanding, detection, and ... Group Learn more about Working Groups Learn about Kidney Disease Find information for people with or at ...

  19. Kidney stones - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... self-care; Nephrolithiasis and self-care; Stones and kidney - self-care; Calcium stones and self-care; Oxalate ... provider or the hospital because you have a kidney stone. You will need to take self-care ...

  20. Pattern multiplicity and fumarate hydratase (FH)/S-(2-succino)-cysteine (2SC) staining but not eosinophilic nucleoli with perinucleolar halos differentiate hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma-associated renal cell carcinomas from kidney tumors without FH gene alteration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Marie; Guillaud-Bataille, Marine; Salleron, Julia; Genestie, Catherine; Deveaux, Sophie; Slama, Abdelhamid; de Paillerets, Brigitte Bressac; Richard, Stéphane; Benusiglio, Patrick R; Ferlicot, Sophie

    2018-02-06

    Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma syndrome is characterized by an increased risk of agressive renal cell carcinoma, often of type 2 papillary histology, and is caused by FH germline mutations. A prominent eosinophilic macronucleolus with a perinucleolar clear halo is distinctive of hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma syndrome-associated renal cell carcinoma according to the 2012 ISUP and 2016 WHO kidney tumor classification. From an immunohistochemistry perspective, tumors are often FH-negative and S-(2-succino)-cysteine (2SC) positive. We performed a pathology review of 24 renal tumors in 23 FH mutation carriers, and compared them to 12 type 2 papillary renal cell carcinomas from FH wild-type patients. Prominent eosinophilic nucleoli with perinucleolar halos were present in almost all FH-deficient renal cell carcinomas (23/24). Unexpectedly, they were also present in 58% of type 2 papillary renal cell carcinomas from wild-type patients. Renal cell carcinoma in mutation carriers displayed a complex architecture with multiple patterns, typically papillary, tubulopapillary, and tubulocystic, but also sarcomatoid and rhabdoid. Such pattern diversity was not seen in non-carriers. FH/2SC immunohistochemistry was informative as all hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma-associated renal cell carcinomas were either FH- or 2SC+. For FH and 2SC immunohistochemistries taken separately, sensitivity of negative anti-FH immunohistochemistry was 87.5% and specificity was 100%. For positive anti-2SC immunohistochemistry, sensitivity, and specificity were 91.7% and 91.7%, respectively. All FH wild-type renal cell carcinoma were FH-positive, and all but one were 2SC-negative. In conclusion, multiplicity of architectural patterns, rhabdoid/sarcomatoid components and combined FH/2SC staining, but not prominent eosinophilic nucleoli with perinucleolar halos, differentiate hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma-associated renal

  1. A Rare Case of a Renal Cell Carcinoma Confined to the Isthmus of a Horseshoe Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kongnyuy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Horseshoe kidney (HSK is the most common renal anomaly. Reports of the incidence of renal cell carcinoma (RCC in HSK are conflicting. Very few cases of isthmus-located RCC have been reported in the literature. We report a unique case of an isthmus-located RCC. Proper vascular and tumor imaging prior to surgery is key to successful tumor removal.

  2. The importance of time interval to development of second tumor in metachronous bilateral wilms' tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulino, Arnold C.; Thakkar, Bharat; Henderson, William G.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the time interval to development of second tumor is a prognostic factor for overall survival in children with metachronous bilateral Wilms' tumor and to give a recommendation regarding screening of the contralateral kidney in patients with Wilms' tumor. Materials and Management: A literature search using MEDLINE was performed of manuscripts in the English language from 1950-1996 and identified 108 children with metachronous bilateral Wilms' tumor. Children were classified according to time interval to development of a contralateral Wilms' tumor ( 78 mos (2), 78 - < 84 mos (1), 84 - < 90 mos (0), 90 - < 96 mos (1), ≥ 96 mos (0). Analysis of overall survival in patients with a time interval of < 18 months and ≥ 18 months showed a 10 year survival of 39.6% and 55.2%, respectively (p = 0.024, log-rank test). Conclusions: Children with metachronous bilateral Wilms' tumor who develop a contralateral tumor at a time interval of ≥ 18 months from the initial Wilms' tumor had a better overall survival than children with a time interval of < 18 months. Screening by abdominal ultrasound of the contralateral kidney for more than 5 years after initial diagnosis of Wilms' tumor may not be necessary since 102/106 (96.2%) of children had a time interval to second tumor of < 60 months

  3. Bilateral clear cell sarcoma of the kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zekri, W.; Yehia, D.; Alfaar, A.S.; Elshafie, M.M.; Younes, A.A.; Zaghloul, M.S.; El-Kinaai, N.; Taha, H.; Refaat, A.; Zekri, W.; Elshafie, M.M.; Zaghloul, M.S.; Taha, H.; Refaat, A.; Younes, A.A.; Alfaar, A.S.; Yehia, D.

    2015-01-01

    Clear cell sarcoma of the kidney (CCSK) accounts for 2-5% of all pediatric renal malignancies, and is known for its propensity to metastasize to bone and other sites. We are reporting two cases with bilateral CCSK that were diagnosed at our institution. One patient initially presented with bilateral renal masses, as well as pulmonary, hepatic and bone metastasis; while other present only with bilateral masses with no evident distant metastasis. Both patients received aggressive neo-adjuvant chemotherapy to decrease tumor size. One patient completed his designated treatment and initially showed complete remission (CR); eventually suffering from relapse. The other patient’s tumor progressed during the course of chemotherapy. Both cases manifested brain dissemination at the time of relapse or progression. This emphasizes the importance of staging stratification in CCSK. This also illustrates CCSK’s ability to metastasize to bone and other sites including the brain (a primary relapse site in our cases)

  4. Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... artérielle Heart Disease Mineral & Bone Disorder Anemia in Chronic Kidney Disease What is anemia? Anemia is a condition in ... as they should. How is anemia related to chronic kidney disease? Anemia commonly occurs in people with chronic kidney ...

  5. Urological Complications in Kidney Transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.K.B. Slagt (Inez)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The kidney is an essential organ that plays an crucial role in acid-base balance, sodium and potassium balance, calcium metabolism, regulation of blood pressure, red blood cell synthesis and excretion of metabolites. Kidney diseases may result in kidney

  6. Chapter 12. Kidneys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Floyrac, R.; Sulman, C.

    1975-01-01

    The isotopic kidney check-up consists of the isotopic nephrogram with simultaneous clearance measurement. For clinicians it supplies a set of data which no other method can provide so quickly. This check-up offers many advantages. The examination is simple: after intraveinous injection of hippuran 131 I the radioactivity is followed for 20 minutes in the kidney, heart and bladder by external counting. A blood sample is taken between the 10th and 20th minutes and the urine collected at the 20th minute. The glomerular clearance may be calculated by injecting 125 I hypaque at the same time. The examination is fast: the process lasts half an hour altogether. The only preparation is an adequate hydration of the patient before the test. The examination is absolutely harmless: internal irradiation of the patient is negligible. Numerous data are obtained: pathological changes in the nephrogram: reduced affinity of a kidney for hippuran, heterogeneity of the nephrons, slowing down of transit times, intraparenchyme stases; blood concentration of hippuran and hypaque at the 10th or 20th minute, elimination in the urine at the 20th minute; total blood purification and glomerular and tubular excretion clearances, clearance of each kidney separately. No other method as simple, fast and harmless can yield such a complete set of data. Very often the nephrograms are obtained from gamma-camera recording on the dynamic mode, which allows a morphological study to be carried out at the same time [fr

  7. Drugs and the kidney

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Occasionally, strategies to prevent acute kidney insufficiency cause irreversible CKD, ... heart failure (acute or chronic), pulmonary ... wide range of pathological and physiological effects. ... and indomethacin have short half-lives, ... Tissue injury .... changed. Maintenance doses or the dosing interval may have to be adjusted.

  8. Kidneys and urinary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, G

    1993-12-31

    Nuclear medicine studies, through primarily concerned with the functional aspects of the organ, can also provide useful information about the anatomy. An understanding of the anatomy and physiology of the kidneys and urinary system greatly helps in the interpretation of data from radionuclide studies 9 figs, 3 tabs

  9. Kidney transplantation and hyperparathyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. N. Vetchinnikova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Successful kidney transplantation eliminates endocrine and metabolic disorders that predispose to the development of hyperparathyroidism, the complication typical for the chronic kidney disease; but the process of recovery from mineral and bone disorders is slowed down. The highest incidence of post-transplant hyperparathyroidism is recorded in the first postoperative year. The risk factors for its development or persistence include the high blood levels of parathyroid hormone, calcium, phosphorus, and/or alkaline phosphatase, a prolonged dialysis therapy, severe hyperparathyroidism in the preoperative period, vitamin D deficiency, a suboptimal transplanted kidney function, and also the recipient's previous history of subtotal or incomplete parathyroidectomy. The characteristic clinical and laboratory signs of posttransplant hyperparathyroidism are bone lesions, kidney graft abnormalities, hypercalcemia, and hypophosphatemia. The diagnostic algorithm includes monitoring the markers of mineral and bone metabolism, determining the bone mineral density, and imaging of thyroid glands. Correction of post-transplant hyperparathyroidism is performed surgically or pharmacologically. The article specifies the indications to, the extent and timing of parathyroidectomy, discusses the use of native vitamin D formulations, its analogues, and calcimimetics.

  10. Hypertension after kidney transplantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobrowolski, L.C.

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension increases the cardiovascular risk in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). In chapter 2 we found that hypertension was highly prevalent in adult (77.2%), paediatric (62.7%) and young adult (86.4%) KTRs. Transition from the paediatric to adult care did not affect hypertension and there

  11. Kidneys and urinary system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, G.

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear medicine studies, through primarily concerned with the functional aspects of the organ, can also provide useful information about the anatomy. An understanding of the anatomy and physiology of the kidneys and urinary system greatly helps in the interpretation of data from radionuclide studies

  12. Kidney injury in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Krag, Aleksander; Bendtsen, Flemming

    2014-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is frequent in patients with cirrhosis. AKI and hyponatraemia are major determinants of the poor prognosis in advanced cirrhosis. The hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) denotes a functional and potential reversible impairment of renal function. Type 1 HRS, a special type of AKI...

  13. Childhood kidney disease in developing countries: Is it a forgotten ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    caregivers, young patients, the general public, and policymakers of the importance ... AKI in older children are haemolytic uraemic syndrome (35%), acute tubular necrosis ... had primary vesicoureteric reflux (Kala – personal communication).

  14. Detection of cancerous kidney tissue areas by means of infrared spectroscopy of intercellular fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urboniene, V.; Jankevicius, F.; Zelvys, A.; Steiner, G.; Sablinskas, V.

    2014-03-01

    In this work the infrared absorption spectra of intercellular fluid of normal and tumor kidney tissue were recorded and analyzed. The samples were prepared by stamping freshly resected tissue onto a CaF2 substrate. FT-IR spectra obtained from intracellular fluid of tumor tissue exhibit stronger absorption bands in the spectral region from 1000-1200 cm-1 and around 1750 cm-1 than those obtained from normal tissue. It is likely the spectra of extracellular matrix of kidney tumor tissue with large increases in the intensities of these bands represent a higher concentration of fatty acids and glycerol. Amide I and amide II bands are stronger in spectra of normal tissue indicating a higher level of proteins. The results demonstrate that FT-IR spectroscopy of intercellular fluids is a novel approach for a quick diagnosis during surgical resection, which can improve the therapy of kidney tumors.

  15. Genetic predisposition to kidney cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Laura S; Linehan, W Marston

    2016-10-01

    Kidney cancer is not a single disease but is made up of a number of different types of cancer classified by histology that are disparate in presentation, clinical course, and genetic basis. Studies of families with inherited renal cell carcinoma (RCC) have provided the basis for our understanding of the causative genes and altered metabolic pathways in renal cancer with different histologies. Von Hippel-Lindau disease was the first renal cancer disorder with a defined genetic basis. Over the next two decades, the genes responsible for a number of other inherited renal cancer syndromes including hereditary papillary renal carcinoma, Birt-Hogg-Dube´syndrome, hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma, and succinate dehydrogenase-associated renal cancer were identified. Recently, renal cell carcinoma has been confirmed as part of the clinical phenotype in individuals from families with BAP1-associated tumor predisposition syndrome and MiTF-associated cancer syndrome. Here we summarize the clinical characteristics of and causative genes for these and other inherited RCC syndromes, the pathways that are dysregulated when the inherited genes are mutated, and recommended clinical management of patients with these inherited renal cancer syndromes. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Premalignant Lesions in the Kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziva Kirkali

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma (RCC is the most malignant urologic disease. Different lesions, such as dysplasia in the tubules adjacent to RCC, atypical hyperplasia in the cyst epithelium of von Hippel-Lindau syndrome, and adenoma have been described for a number of years as possible premalignant changes or precursor lesions of RCC. In two recent papers, kidneys adjacent to RCC or removed from other causes were analyzed, and dysplastic lesions were identified and defined in detail. Currently renal intraepithelial neoplasia (RIN is the proposed term for classification. The criteria for a lesion to be defined as premalignant are (1 morphological similarity; (2 spatial association; (3 development of microinvasive carcinoma; (4 higher frequency, severity, and extent then invasive carcinoma; (5 progression to invasive cancer; and (6 similar genetic alterations. RIN resembles the neoplastic cells of RCC. There is spatial association. Progression to invasive carcinoma is described in experimental cancer models, and in some human renal tumors. Similar molecular alterations are found in some putative premalignant changes. The treatment for RCC is radical or partial nephrectomy. Preneoplastic lesions may remain in the renal remnant in patients treated by partial nephrectomy and may be the source of local recurrences. RIN seems to be a biologic precursor of some RCCs and warrants further investigation. Interpretation and reporting of these lesions would reveal important resources for the biological nature and clinical significance. The management of RIN diagnosed in a renal biopsy and partial nephrectomy needs to be answered.

  17. MicroRNAs in the pathogenesis of cystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phua, Yu Leng; Ho, Jacqueline

    2015-04-01

    Cystic kidney diseases are common renal disorders characterized by the formation of fluid-filled epithelial cysts in the kidneys. The progressive growth and expansion of the renal cysts replace existing renal tissue within the renal parenchyma, leading to reduced renal function. While several genes have been identified in association with inherited causes of cystic kidney disease, the molecular mechanisms that regulate these genes in the context of post-transcriptional regulation are still poorly understood. There is increasing evidence that microRNA (miRNA) dysregulation is associated with the pathogenesis of cystic kidney disease. In this review, recent studies that implicate dysregulation of miRNA expression in cystogenesis will be discussed. The relationship of specific miRNAs, such as the miR-17∼92 cluster and cystic kidney disease, miR-92a and von Hippel-Lindau syndrome, and alterations in LIN28-LET7 expression in Wilms tumor will be explored. At present, there are no specific treatments available for patients with cystic kidney disease. Understanding and identifying specific miRNAs involved in the pathogenesis of these disorders may have the potential to lead to the development of novel therapies and biomarkers.

  18. Genitourinary tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epstein, B.E.

    1991-01-01

    The author discusses the pathology and treatment of cancer of the kidneys, bladder, prostate and testes. Treatment methods are described using radiation therapy alone and in combination with chemotherapy. Surgery alone has proven successful with some patients. In some cases chemotherapy alone has been successful

  19. Surgical strategies in childhood craniopharyngioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg eFlitsch

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Craniopharyngiomas are biologically benign lesions (WHO Grade 1 of the sellar and suprasellar region, associated with a serious morbidity. About 50% of these tumors become clinically apparent during childhood. Clinical symptoms include headaches, chiasm syndrome, hydrocephalus, pituitary insufficiencies, and obesity. Growth arrest is a typical symptom in children. The treatment of craniopharyngiomas includes surgery as well as radiotherapy. The goal of surgery varies according to the tumor location and extension and may range from complete resection to biopsy. Surgical complications are well known and cause constant evaluation of surgical strategies. Diencephalic obesity is related to surgical manipulation of hypothalamic tissue. Therefore, a classification system for craniopharyngiomas based on preoperative MRI is suggested by the authors, which may help assess the surgical risk. Recurrences are frequent in craniopharyngiomas, even after complete or gross-total resection. Radiotherapy is therefore recommended to patients with incomplete resections. However, the ideal time for radiotherapy after surgery is under discussion.The treatment of craniopharyngiomas requires an interdisciplinary and multimodal approach. Each patient should receive an individually tailored treatment. Surgically, different approaches as well as different degrees of resection can be considered, depending on tumor location and tumor extension.

  20. Childhood Obesity Causes & Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Local Programs Related Topics Diabetes Nutrition Childhood Obesity Causes & Consequences Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... determine how a community is designed. Consequences of Obesity More Immediate Health Risks Obesity during childhood can ...

  1. Childhood Obesity: Common Misconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Childhood Obesity: Common Misconceptions Page Content Article Body Everyone, it ... for less than 1% of the cases of childhood obesity. Yes, hypothyroidism (a deficit in thyroid secretion) and ...

  2. Stereotactic body radiotherapy of primary and metastatic renal lesions for patients with only one functioning kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svedman, Christer; Sandstroem, P.; Wersaell, Peter; Karlsson, Kristin; Rutkowska, Eva; Lax, Ingmar; Blomgren, H.

    2008-01-01

    Background. About 2% of patients with a carcinoma in one kidney develop either metastases or a new primary tumor in the contralateral kidney. Often, renal cancers progress rapidly at peripheral sites and a metastasis to the second kidney may not be the patient's main problem. However, when an initial renal cancer is more indolent yet spreads to the formerly unaffected kidney or a new primary tumor forms there, local treatment may be needed. Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) has been demonstrated as a valuable treatment option for tumors that cause local symptoms. Presented here is a retrospective analysis of patients in whom SBRT was used to control primary or metastatic renal disease. Patients and methods. Seven patients with a mean age of 64 (44-76) were treated for metastases from a malignant kidney to its contralateral counterpart. Dose/fractionation schedules varied between 10 Gyx3 and 10 Gyx4 depending on target location and size, given within one week. Follow-up times for patients who remained alive were 12, 52 and 66 months and for those who subsequently died were 10, 16, 49 and 70 months. Results. Local control, defined as radiologically stable disease or partial/complete response, was obtained in six of these seven patients and regained after retreatment in the one patient whose lesion progressed. Side effects were generally mild, and in five of the seven patients, kidney function remained unaffected after treatment. In two patients, the creatinine levels remained moderately elevated at approximately 160 μmol/L post treatment. At no time was dialysis required. Conclusion. These results indicate that SBRT is a valuable alternative to surgery and other options for patients with metastases from a cancer-bearing kidney to the remaining kidney and provides local tumor control with satisfactory kidney function

  3. Tumoral tracers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camargo, E.E.

    1979-01-01

    Direct tumor tracers are subdivided in the following categories:metabolite tracers, antitumoral tracers, radioactive proteins and cations. Use of 67 Ga-citrate as a clinically important tumoral tracer is emphasized and gallium-67 whole-body scintigraphy is discussed in detail. (M.A.) [pt

  4. Animal tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillette, E.L.

    1983-01-01

    There are few trained veterinary radiation oncologists and the expense of facilities has limited the extent to which this modality is used. In recent years, a few cobalt teletherapy units and megavoltage x-ray units have been employed in larger veterinary institutions. In addition, some radiation oncologists of human medical institutions are interested and willing to cooperate with veterinarians in the treatment of animal tumors. Carefully designed studies of the response of animal tumors to new modalities serve two valuable purposes. First, these studies may lead to improved tumor control in companion animals. Second, these studies may have important implications to the improvement of therapy of human tumors. Much remains to be learned of animal tumor biology so that appropriate model systems can be described for such studies. Many of the latter studies can be sponsored by agencies interested in the improvement of cancer management

  5. Radiation therapy in the management of childhood cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kun, L.E.

    1987-01-01

    Over the past two decades, multimodality treatment regimens have produced significant improvement in survival rates for most types of childhood cancer. The role of radiation therapy has been critically evaluated in prospective clinical trials that established the importance of irradiation in assuring local and regional control of disease central to ultimate survival. Indications for cranial and craniospinal irradiation in acute lymphoblastic leukemia are reviewed, as is difficult technical factors important for successful management. The role of radiation therapy in neuroblastoma and Wilms tumor is reviewed in the context of tumor biology and increasing data from multi-institutional trials. Interactions of irradiation with surgery and chemotherapy are stressed in childhood rhabdomyosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma. Current results in the more common central nervous tumors of childhood are presented, including the central role of radiation therapy in medulloblastoma, astrocytoma, and craniopharyngioma. Concerns regarding late effects of radiation therapy are balanced with the importance of achieving disease control

  6. Features of proteasome functioning in malignant tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondakova, I. V.; Spirina, L. V.; Shashova, E. E.; Kolegova, E. S.; Slonimskaya, E. M.; Kolomiets, L. A.; Afanas'ev, S. G.; Choinzonov, Y. L.

    2017-09-01

    Proteasome ubiquitin system is the important system of intracellular proteolysis. The activity of the proteasomes may undergo changes during cancer development. We studied the chymotrypsin-like activity of proteasomes, their subunit composition, and their association with tumor stage in breast cancer, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, endometrial cancer, renal cancer, bladder cancer, stomach cancer, ovarian cancer, and colorectal cancer. The increase in chymotrypsin-like activity of proteasomes and decrease in total proteasome pool compared with adjacent tissues were shown in all malignant tumors excluding kidney cancer. The increase in chymotrypsin-like activity of proteasomes was found in primary tumors with all types of metastasis: lymphogenous of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, intraperitoneal metastasis of ovarian cancer, hematogenous metastasis colorectal cancer. The exception was kidney cancer, in which there was a decrease in chymotrypsin-like activity with distant metastasis.

  7. Kidney Transplantation in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Behzad Einollahi

    2010-01-01

    Kidney transplantation in patients with end stage renal diseaseis preferred to dialysis because transplantation provides a betterquality of life and improved survival. However, the gapbetween the supply and demand for a renal allograft is wideningand the waiting time is increasing. Iranian protocol, a controlledtransplant program supported by the government forliving unrelated donors, was initiated for solving the problemof organ shortage. Although this system might experiencechallenges, clea...

  8. Pediatric Acute Kidney Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragasso, Tiziana; Ricci, Zaccaria; Goldstein, Stuart L

    2018-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) in children is a serious condition with an important impact on morbidity and mortality. Onset can be insidious and it is frequently unrecognized in the early phase when the therapeutic opportunities are theoretically more effective. The present review focuses on the most recent epidemiology studies and the progress in pediatric AKI (pAKI) research. Standardization of definition (presented in the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes) and novel biomarkers have been developed to help clinicians recognize kidney injury in a timely manner, both in adult and pediatric populations. Strengths and weaknesses of these diagnostic tools are discussed and the clinical scoring system (Renal Angina Index), which aims to provide a rational context for biomarker utilization, is also presented. Even if effective treatments are not currently available for established AKI, specific preventive approaches and some promising pharmacological treatments will be detailed. Renal replacement therapy is currently considered the most effective way to manage fluid balance when severe AKI occurs. Key Messages: Great efforts in pAKI research have today led to new strategies for early AKI detection and prevention strategies. Further studies have to be conducted in the next future in order to definitely improve the outcomes of pediatric patients experiencing this deadly syndrome. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Breast carcinoma after cancer therapy in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, F.P.; Corkery, J.; Vawter, G.; Fine, W.; Sallan, S.E.

    1983-01-01

    Among 910 survivors of childhood cancer, four developed infiltrating carcinoma of the breast and another had noninfiltrating breast tumor. Expected frequency was 0.3 cases of breast cancer in the series. The affected women developed breast carcinoma at ages 20, 25 and 38 years, and the men at ages 38 and 39 years, respectively. Each patient had received orthovoltage chest irradiation for treatment of Wilms' tumor or bone sarcoma between seven and 34 years previously, and estimated radiation dose to the breast exceeded 300 rad in each instance. Four patients also received diverse forms of chemotherapy. Survivors of childhood cancer have increased risk of developing breast cancer and should undergo periodic screening, particularly after breast tissue had been irradiated. Individualized radiotherapy planning can help exclude the breasts from treatment fields for some thoracic neoplasms

  10. Kidney Cancer in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tumor receive chemotherapy and some receive radiation therapy. Chemotherapy (chemo) The drugs used most often are dactinomycin and vincristine. These drugs have been used for 30 years with very good success. With surgery alone, the survival rate is only ...

  11. Comment: Kidney exchange to overcome financial barriers to kidney transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Baines, L.S.; Jindal, R.M.

    2017-01-01

    Rees et al. have shown the feasibility of global kidney exchange (GKE) to overcome financial cost and address the current shortage of organs for transplantation. Wiseman and Gill, question their interpretation of definition of "financial incompatibility". The authors1 do not factor in the well documented cognitive and emotional aspects of kidney transplantation. Particularly, relevant to kidney transplantation is how patients calculate risk and the emotional turmoil characterised by anxiety a...

  12. Nivolumab as the new standard of metastatic kidney cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Matveev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The last decade was marked by the rapid development of kidney cancer drug treatment and advent of targeted drugs aimed at inhibition of angiogenesis which plays a crucial role in tumor growth. Despite certain success, targeted antiangiogenetic therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors, mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors (mTOR, and monoclonal antibodies against vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF in most cases do not achieve long-term remission, are highly toxic, and never lead to full cure for the patients. Development of modern immunological approaches to application of inhibitors of the crucial immune response regulators opens up new possibilities in treatment of disseminated kidney cancer. In this review, results of the studies of nivolumab (PD-1 inhibitor, first checkpoint inhibitor registered for treatment of metastatic kidney cancer are presented.

  13. Clinical significance of anaplasia in childhood rhabdomyosarcoma

    OpenAIRE

    Sidhom, Iman; El Nadi, Enas; Taha, Hala; Elkinaai, Naglaa; Zaghloul, Mohamed S.; Younes, Alaa; Labib, Rania; Sabry, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Background: The presence of anaplastic features has been known to correlate with poor clinical outcome in various pediatric malignancies, including Wilms tumor and medulloblastoma but not in rhabdomyosarcoma. Aim: Aim was to study the frequency of anaplasia at presentation in childhood rhabdomyosarcoma and its relationship to clinical and pathological characteristics as well as to outcome. Patients and Methods: Anaplasia was retrospectively assessed in 105 consecutive pediatric rhabdomy...

  14. ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, Karoline; Titlestad, Kjell; Baudier, Francois

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Kidney transplantation is the optimal treatment for many patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Due to shortage of donor kidneys in Denmark, there is a need to expand the possibilities for donation. At the Odense University Hospital (OUH), we have introduced ABO......-incompatible kidney transplantation. We used antigenspecific immunoadsorptions to remove blood group antibodies and anti-CD20 antibody (rituximab) to inhibit the antibody production. The aim of introducing the ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation at the OUH was to increase the rate of living donor kidney...... transplantation without increasing rejection or mortality rates. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective evaluation. Eleven patients received ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation. The patients were followed for 3-26 months. RESULTS: One patient had an antibody-mediated rejection, one patient suffered T...

  15. Pituitary Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Association (ABTA) International RadioSurgery Association National Brain Tumor Society National Institute of Child Health and Human Development ... Definition The pituitary is a small, bean-sized gland ...

  16. Hypothalamic tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in the brain to reduce spinal fluid pressure. Risks of radiation therapy include damage to healthy brain cells when tumor cells are destroyed. Common side effects from chemotherapy include loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting, and fatigue.

  17. Chronic kidney disease and anticoagulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sciascia, Savino; Radin, Massimo; Schreiber, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Anticoagulation in patients with impaired kidney function can be challenging since drugs' pharmacokinetics and bioavailability are altered in this setting. Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) treated with conventional anticoagulant agents [vitamin K antagonist (VKA), low-molecular weight...... are eliminated via the kidneys pose additional challenges. More recently, two classes of direct oral anticoagulant agents (DOACs) have been investigated for the prevention and management of venous thromboembolic events: the direct factor Xa inhibitors rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban, and the direct thrombin...

  18. Bilateral Wilms' tumor with anaplasia: lessons from the National Wilms' Tumor Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Thomas E; Green, Daniel M; Perlman, Elizabeth J; Argani, Pedram; Grundy, Paul; Ritchey, Michael L; Shamberger, Robert C

    2006-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether initial diagnostic technique influenced the ability to identify anaplastic histology, to determine the time interval to diagnosis of anaplasia, and to delineate the incidence of discordant pathology in bilateral Wilms' tumor. We hypothesized that delay in diagnosis of anaplasia could affect time to appropriate surgery and intensive multimodality therapy. One hundred eight-nine children were enrolled in the fourth National Wilms' Tumor Study with synchronous bilateral tumors, 27 of whom were eventually shown to have anaplastic histology. Initial diagnostic technique, time interval to diagnosis of anaplasia, and the incidence of discordant pathology were determined. Anaplasia was identified in 0 of 7 tumors by core needle biopsy, 3 of 9 tumors by open wedge biopsy, and in 7 of 9 cases by partial or complete nephrectomy. The mean duration of first chemotherapy regimen (DD or EE) was 20, 39, and 36 weeks, respectively, before anaplasia was identified at second surgery. Discordant pathology between bilateral tumors was identified on final tissue diagnosis in 20 patients. Only 4 patients had anaplastic tumors in both kidneys. Core needle biopsy did not identify anaplasia in 7 of 7 children. Open biopsy or partial/complete nephrectomy identified anaplasia at initial diagnostic procedure in 10 of 18 children. Twenty of 24 patients at final tissue diagnosis had discordant pathology between the 2 kidneys. Earlier interval incisional biopsy or resection may identify anaplastic histology and limit the duration of chemotherapy targeted to favorable histology for children with bilateral Wilms' tumor and anaplasia.

  19. Immune System and Kidney Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Badri Man

    2017-01-01

    The immune system recognises a transplanted kidney as foreign body and mounts immune response through cellular and humoral mechanisms leading to acute or chronic rejection, which ultimately results in graft loss. Over the last five decades, there have been significant advances in the understanding of the immune responses to transplanted organs in both experimental and clinical transplant settings. Modulation of the immune response by using immunosuppressive agents has led to successful outcomes after kidney transplantation. The paper provides an overview of the general organisation and function of human immune system, immune response to kidney transplantation, and the current practice of immunosuppressive therapy in kidney transplantation in the United Kingdom.

  20. Childhood Leukemia Survivors and Their Return to School: A Literature Review, Case Study, and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, D. Scott; Thurber, Jill R.; Miles, Kenneth; Gilbert, Gloria

    2011-01-01

    Leukemias (blood cell cancers) and central nervous system tumors are the most frequently occurring types of cancer in children. Mortality rates from all childhood cancers have decreased over the past 2 decades. As a result, many childhood cancer survivors are now returning to their schools after having been successfully treated. Although most of…

  1. Collecting duct carcinoma of the kidney : a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Igawa, Mikio; Honda, Satoshi; Yoneda, Tatsuaki; Shiina, Hiroaki; Ishibe, Tomoyuki; Kadena, Hitoshi; Nakamoto, Takahisa; Usui, Tsuguru

    1996-01-01

    We present a case of collecting duct carcinoma of the kidney that is an unusual variant of renal cell carcinoma, whose appearance and behavior are not well established. A 55-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with a left large renal cystic mass detected during a health examination. He had undergone radical nephrectomy under the clinical diagnosis of renal cell carcinoma. Histologically, the tumor was not typical renal cell carcinoma and immunohistochemical study was performed. The tumo...

  2. Genetics of Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome-associated tumors: common genetic pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenman, M.; Westerveld, A.; Mannens, M.

    2000-01-01

    A specific subset of solid childhood tumors-Wilms' tumor, adrenocortical carcinoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, and hepatoblastoma-is characterized by its association with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. Genetic abnormalities found in these tumors affect the same chromosome region (11p15), which has been

  3. Marginal kidney donor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh Gopalakrishnan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Renal transplantation is the treatment of choice for a medically eligible patient with end stage renal disease. The number of renal transplants has increased rapidly over the last two decades. However, the demand for organs has increased even more. This disparity between the availability of organs and waitlisted patients for transplants has forced many transplant centers across the world to use marginal kidneys and donors. We performed a Medline search to establish the current status of marginal kidney donors in the world. Transplant programs using marginal deceased renal grafts is well established. The focus is now on efforts to improve their results. Utilization of non-heart-beating donors is still in a plateau phase and comprises a minor percentage of deceased donations. The main concern is primary non-function of the renal graft apart from legal and ethical issues. Transplants with living donors outnumbered cadaveric transplants at many centers in the last decade. There has been an increased use of marginal living kidney donors with some acceptable medical risks. Our primary concern is the safety of the living donor. There is not enough scientific data available to quantify the risks involved for such donation. The definition of marginal living donor is still not clear and there are no uniform recommendations. The decision must be tailored to each donor who in turn should be actively involved at all levels of the decision-making process. In the current circumstances, our responsibility is very crucial in making decisions for either accepting or rejecting a marginal living donor.

  4. Transplantation of Kidneys From Donors With Acute Kidney Injury: Friend or Foe?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boffa, C.; van de Leemkolk, F.; Curnow, E.; Homan van der Heide, J.; Gilbert, J.; Sharples, E.; Ploeg, R. J.

    2017-01-01

    The gap between supply and demand in kidney transplantation has led to increased use of marginal kidneys; however, kidneys with acute kidney injury are often declined/discarded. To determine whether this policy is justified, we analyzed outcomes of donor kidneys with acute kidney injury (AKI) in a

  5. Kidney Exchange to Overcome Financial Barriers to Kidney Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, M A; Dunn, T B; Kuhr, C S; Marsh, C L; Rogers, J; Rees, S E; Cicero, A; Reece, L J; Roth, A E; Ekwenna, O; Fumo, D E; Krawiec, K D; Kopke, J E; Jain, S; Tan, M; Paloyo, S R

    2017-03-01

    Organ shortage is the major limitation to kidney transplantation in the developed world. Conversely, millions of patients in the developing world with end-stage renal disease die because they cannot afford renal replacement therapy-even when willing living kidney donors exist. This juxtaposition between countries with funds but no available kidneys and those with available kidneys but no funds prompts us to propose an exchange program using each nation's unique assets. Our proposal leverages the cost savings achieved through earlier transplantation over dialysis to fund the cost of kidney exchange between developed-world patient-donor pairs with immunological barriers and developing-world patient-donor pairs with financial barriers. By making developed-world health care available to impoverished patients in the developing world, we replace unethical transplant tourism with global kidney exchange-a modality equally benefitting rich and poor. We report the 1-year experience of an initial Filipino pair, whose recipient was transplanted in the United states with an American donor's kidney at no cost to him. The Filipino donor donated to an American in the United States through a kidney exchange chain. Follow-up care and medications in the Philippines were supported by funds from the United States. We show that the logistical obstacles in this approach, although considerable, are surmountable. © 2016 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  6. Brachytherapy in childhood rhabdomyosarcoma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novaes, Paulo Eduardo Ribeiro dos Santos

    1995-01-01

    A retrospective study of 21 children with rhabdomyosarcoma treated by brachytherapy to the primary site of the tumor at the Radiotherapy Department of the A.C.Camargo Hospital between january/1980 to june/1993 was undertaken. The main objectives were to comprove the utility of brachytherapy in childhood rhabdomyosarcoma, to evaluate the local control and survival, in association with chemotherapy, to analyze the late effects of the treatment and to determinate the preferential technique to each clinical situation. All patients received brachytherapy to the tumor site. The radioactive isotopes employed were Gold 198 , Cesium 137 and Iridium 192 . The brachytherapy techniques depended on the tumor site, period of treatment, availability of the radioactive material and stage of the disease. Patients treated exclusively by brachytherapy received 40 Gy to 60 Gy. When brachytherapy was associated with external radiotherapy the dose ranged from 20 Gy to 40 Gy. Local control was achieved in 18 of 20 patients (90%). The global survival and local control survival rates were 61.9% (13/21 patients) and 72,2% (13/18 patients) respectively. (author)

  7. Prevalence of bone and soft tissue tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücetürk, Güven; Sabah, Dündar; Keçeci, Burçin; Kara, Ahmet Duran; Yalçinkaya, Selçuk

    2011-01-01

    Multidisciplinary approach is a necessity for the appropriate diagnosis and treatment of bone and soft tissue tumors. The Ege University Musculoskeletal Tumor Council offers consultation services to other hospitals in the Aegean region. Since 1988 the Council has met weekly and spent approximately 1,500 hours evaluating almost 6,000 patients with suspected skeletal system tumors. Our objective was to present the data obtained from this patient group. A total of 5,658 patients, suspected to have a musculoskeletal tumor, were evaluated retrospectively. Multiple records of the patients due to multiple attendance to the Council were excluded. The prevalance of the bone and soft tissue tumors in these patients were analysed. Malignant mesenchymal tumors accounted for 39.7% of the total patients, benign tumors for 17%, tumor-like lesions for 17.8% and metastatic carsinomas for 8.6%. Malignant bone tumors were 50.2% and malignant soft tissue tumors were 49.8% of all the sarcomas. Among the malignant bone tumors the most common was osteosarcomas at a rate of 33.6%, followed by Ewing-PNET at 25.5%, chondrosarcomas at 19.4% and haematopoietic tumors at 17.6%. Pleomorphic sarcomas (24.5%), liposarcoma (16.4%), synovial sarcoma (13%) and undifferential sarcomas (8.8%) were the most common types of malignant sof tissue tumors. Benign soft tissue tumors (48%), benign cartilage tumors (28%), giant cell tumor (15%) and osteogenic tumors (9%) were found among the benign tumors. Hemangioma, lipoma, agressive fibromatosis, enchondroma, solitary chondroma and osteoid osteoma were the most common tumors in their groups. Lung (27%), breast (24%), gastrointestinal system (10.5%) and kidney (8.2%) carcinomas were the most common primary sites of the bone metastasis. Turkey still lacks a comprehensive series indicating the incidence and diagnostic distribution of bone and soft tissue tumors. The presented data would add to our knowledge on the specific rates of the bone and soft tissue

  8. Tumor Types: Understanding Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... May cause excessive secretion of hormones Common among men and women in their 50s-80s Accounts for about 13 percent of all brain tumors Symptoms Headache Depression Vision loss Nausea or vomiting Behavioral and cognitive ...

  9. Urinary acylcarnitines are altered in human kidney cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganti, Sheila; Taylor, Sandra L; Kim, Kyoungmi; Hoppel, Charles L; Guo, Lining; Yang, Joy; Evans, Christopher; Weiss, Robert H

    2012-06-15

    Kidney cancer often diagnosed at late stages when treatment options are severely limited. Thus, greater understanding of tumor metabolism leading ultimately to novel approaches to diagnosis is needed. Our laboratory has been utilizing metabolomics to evaluate compounds appearing in kidney cancer patients' biofluids at concentrations different from control patients. Here, we collected urine samples from kidney cancer patients and analyzed them by chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Once normalized to control for urinary concentration, samples were analyzed by two independent laboratories. After technical validation, we now show differential urinary concentrations of several acylcarnitines as a function of both cancer status and kidney cancer grade, with most acylcarnitines being increased in the urine of cancer patients and in those patients with high cancer grades. This finding was validated in a mouse xenograft model of human kidney cancer. Biological validation shows carbon chain length-dependent effects of the acylcarnitines on cytotoxicity in vitro, and higher chain length acylcarnitines demonstrated inhibitory effects on NF-κB activation, suggesting an immune modulatory effect of these compounds. Thus, acylcarnitines in the kidney cancer urine may reflect alterations in metabolism, cell component synthesis and/or immune surveillance, and may help explain the profound chemotherapy resistance seen with this cancer. This study shows for the first time the value of a novel class of metabolites which may lead to new therapeutic approaches for cancer and may prove useful in cancer biomarker studies. Furthermore, these findings open up a new area of investigation into the metabolic basis of kidney cancer. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  10. Use of Readily Accessible Inflammatory Markers to Predict Diabetic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Winter

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic kidney disease is a common complication of type 1 and type 2 diabetes and is the primary cause of end-stage renal disease in developed countries. Early detection of diabetic kidney disease will facilitate early intervention aimed at reducing the rate of progression to end-stage renal disease. Diabetic kidney disease has been traditionally classified based on the presence of albuminuria. More recently estimated glomerular filtration rate has also been incorporated into the staging of diabetic kidney disease. While albuminuric diabetic kidney disease is well described, the phenotype of non-albuminuric diabetic kidney disease is now widely accepted. An association between markers of inflammation and diabetic kidney disease has previously been demonstrated. Effector molecules of the innate immune system including C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α are increased in patients with diabetic kidney disease. Furthermore, renal infiltration of neutrophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes are observed in renal biopsies of patients with diabetic kidney disease. Similarly high serum neutrophil and low serum lymphocyte counts have been shown to be associated with diabetic kidney disease. The neutrophil–lymphocyte ratio is considered a robust measure of systemic inflammation and is associated with the presence of inflammatory conditions including the metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance. Cross-sectional studies have demonstrated a link between high levels of the above inflammatory biomarkers and diabetic kidney disease. Further longitudinal studies will be required to determine if these readily available inflammatory biomarkers can accurately predict the presence and prognosis of diabetic kidney disease, above and beyond albuminuria, and estimated glomerular filtration rate.

  11. Description of a clinical case of synchronous cancer in the native and graft kidneys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Khaylenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Kidney transplantation is the most frequently performed organ transplant procedure in the world. The occurrence of malignant tumors is one of the well-known late complications of organ transplantation, which is induced by immunosuppressive therapy. In the vast majority of patients, kidney cancer occurs in the native organs; however, in a small percentage of cases, malignancies are found in the graft organ. The article describes a rare clinical case of a patient with synchronous cancer in the native and graft kidneys.

  12. Congenital tumors of the central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severino, Mariasavina [G. Gaslini Children' s Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Genoa (Italy); Schwartz, Erin S. [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Thurnher, Majda M. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Rydland, Jana [MR Center, St. Olav' s Hospital HF, Trondheim (Norway); Nikas, Ioannis [Agia Sophia Children' s Hospital, Imaging Department, Athens (Greece); Rossi, Andrea [G. Gaslini Children' s Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Genoa (Italy); G. Gaslini Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Neuroradiology, Genoa (Italy)

    2010-06-15

    Congenital tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) are often arbitrarily divided into ''definitely congenital'' (present or producing symptoms at birth), ''probably congenital'' (present or producing symptoms within the first week of life), and ''possibly congenital'' (present or producing symptoms within the first 6 months of life). They represent less than 2% of all childhood brain tumors. The clinical features of newborns include an enlarged head circumference, associated hydrocephalus, and asymmetric skull growth. At birth, a large head or a tense fontanel is the presenting sign in up to 85% of patients. Neurological symptoms as initial symptoms are comparatively rare. The prenatal diagnosis of congenital CNS tumors, while based on ultrasonography, has significantly benefited from the introduction of prenatal magnetic resonance imaging studies. Teratomas constitute about one third to one half of these tumors and are the most common neonatal brain tumor. They are often immature because of primitive neural elements and, rarely, a component of mixed malignant germ cell tumors. Other tumors include astrocytomas, choroid plexus papilloma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors, and medulloblastomas. Less common histologies include craniopharyngiomas and ependymomas. There is a strong predilection for supratentorial locations, different from tumors of infants and children. Differential diagnoses include spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage that can occur in the presence of coagulation factor deficiency or underlying vascular malformations, and congenital brain malformations, especially giant heterotopia. The prognosis for patients with congenital tumors is generally poor, usually because of the massive size of the tumor. However, tumors can be resected successfully if they are small and favorably located. The most favorable outcomes are achieved with choroid plexus tumors

  13. Congenital tumors of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severino, Mariasavina; Schwartz, Erin S.; Thurnher, Majda M.; Rydland, Jana; Nikas, Ioannis; Rossi, Andrea

    2010-01-01

    Congenital tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) are often arbitrarily divided into ''definitely congenital'' (present or producing symptoms at birth), ''probably congenital'' (present or producing symptoms within the first week of life), and ''possibly congenital'' (present or producing symptoms within the first 6 months of life). They represent less than 2% of all childhood brain tumors. The clinical features of newborns include an enlarged head circumference, associated hydrocephalus, and asymmetric skull growth. At birth, a large head or a tense fontanel is the presenting sign in up to 85% of patients. Neurological symptoms as initial symptoms are comparatively rare. The prenatal diagnosis of congenital CNS tumors, while based on ultrasonography, has significantly benefited from the introduction of prenatal magnetic resonance imaging studies. Teratomas constitute about one third to one half of these tumors and are the most common neonatal brain tumor. They are often immature because of primitive neural elements and, rarely, a component of mixed malignant germ cell tumors. Other tumors include astrocytomas, choroid plexus papilloma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors, and medulloblastomas. Less common histologies include craniopharyngiomas and ependymomas. There is a strong predilection for supratentorial locations, different from tumors of infants and children. Differential diagnoses include spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage that can occur in the presence of coagulation factor deficiency or underlying vascular malformations, and congenital brain malformations, especially giant heterotopia. The prognosis for patients with congenital tumors is generally poor, usually because of the massive size of the tumor. However, tumors can be resected successfully if they are small and favorably located. The most favorable outcomes are achieved with choroid plexus tumors, where aggressive surgical treatment leads to disease

  14. Obesity and kidney protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Aravind; Biersmith, Michael; Tolouian, Ramin

    2014-07-01

    Obesity, both directly and indirectly, increases the risk for a variety of disease conditions including diabetes, hypertension, liver disease, and certain cancers, which in turn, decreases the overall lifespan in both men and women. Though the cardiovascular risks of obesity are widely acknowledged, less often identified is the relationship between obesity and renal function. Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Google Scholar, PubMed, EBSCO and Web of Science has been searched. The concept of the "Metabolic Syndrome" helps us to understand this close link between obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and renal dysfunction. An elevated body mass index has shown to be one of the major determinants of glomerular hyperfiltration that lead to the development of chronic kidney disease. Interestingly, weight loss can lead to attenuation of hyperfiltration in severely obese patients suggesting a possible therapeutic option to combat obesity-related hyperfiltration. Various treatment strategies had been suggested to decrease impact of obesity on kidneys. These are blood pressure controling, inhibition of the renin-angiotensinaldosterone axis, improving glycemic control, improving dyslipidemia, improving protein uriaand lifestyle modifications. Regardless of the numerous pharmacotherapies, the focus should be on the root cause: obesity.

  15. Mineral & Bone Disorder in Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical trials that are currently open and are recruiting can be viewed at www.ClinicalTrials.gov . This ... about Kidney Failure and How it’s Treated Treatment Methods for Kidney Failure: Hemodialysis Treatment Methods for Kidney ...

  16. Kidney Disease: Early Detection and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Kidney Disease: Early Detection and Treatment Past Issues / Winter ... called a "urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio." Treating Kidney Disease Kidney disease is usually a progressive disease, ...

  17. Kidney Stones in Children and Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Kidney Stones in Children and Teens Page Content Article ... teen girls having the highest incidence. Types of Kidney Stones There are many different types of kidney ...

  18. Kidney Tests: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spanish Total protein (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Kidney Tests updates ... hour volume Show More Show Less Related Health Topics Kidney Cancer Kidney Diseases National Institutes of Health ...

  19. Childhood trauma and childhood urbanicity in relation to psychotic disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frissen, Aleida; Lieverse, Ritsaert; Drukker, Marjan; van Winkel, Ruud; Delespaul, Philippe; Bruggeman, Richard; Cahn, Wiepke; de Haan, Lieuwe; Kahn, René; Meije, Carin; Myin-Germeys, Inez; van Os, Jim; Wiersma, Durk

    2015-01-01

    Urban upbringing and childhood trauma are both associated with psychotic disorders. However, the association between childhood urbanicity and childhood trauma in psychosis is poorly understood. The urban environment could occasion a background of social adversity against which any effect of

  20. Childhood trauma and childhood urbanicity in relation to psychotic disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frissen, Aleida; Lieverse, Ritsaert; Drukker, Marjan; van Winkel, Ruud; Delespaul, Philippe; Cahn, W

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urban upbringing and childhood trauma are both associated with psychotic disorders. However, the association between childhood urbanicity and childhood trauma in psychosis is poorly understood. The urban environment could occasion a background of social adversity against which any effect

  1. Tumor immunology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocellin, Simone; Lise, Mario; Nitti, Donato

    2007-01-01

    Advances in tumor immunology are supporting the clinical implementation of several immunological approaches to cancer in the clinical setting. However, the alternate success of current immunotherapeutic regimens underscores the fact that the molecular mechanisms underlying immune-mediated tumor rejection are still poorly understood. Given the complexity of the immune system network and the multidimensionality of tumor/host interactions, the comprehension of tumor immunology might greatly benefit from high-throughput microarray analysis, which can portrait the molecular kinetics of immune response on a genome-wide scale, thus accelerating the discovery pace and ultimately catalyzing the development of new hypotheses in cell biology. Although in its infancy, the implementation of microarray technology in tumor immunology studies has already provided investigators with novel data and intriguing new hypotheses on the molecular cascade leading to an effective immune response against cancer. Although the general principles of microarray-based gene profiling have rapidly spread in the scientific community, the need for mastering this technique to produce meaningful data and correctly interpret the enormous output of information generated by this technology is critical and represents a tremendous challenge for investigators, as outlined in the first section of this book. In the present Chapter, we report on some of the most significant results obtained with the application of DNA microarray in this oncology field.

  2. [Case report of rare co-occurrence of renal cell carcinoma and crossed renal dystopia (L-shaped kidney)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakov, V N; Los, M S

    2017-10-01

    L-shaped kidney refers to a rare anomaly of the relative kidney positioning. Due to low prevalence, the literature on the co-occurrence of this anomaly with malignancy is lacking. And, if the diagnosis of a renal anomaly does not present difficulties, if a tumor is detected in such a kidney, even MSCT does not always help differentiate a pelvic tumor from a tumor of the renal parenchyma spreading to the pelvicalyceal system. This has important implications for choosing an appropriate surgical strategy. A feature of the presented clinical observation is the co-occurrence of the rare anomaly of kidney position and locally advanced renal cell carcinoma spreading to the renal pelvis. Due to the massive spread of the tumor, an organ-sparing surgery was not feasible. Due to the suspicion of tumor spread to the renal pelvis, the patient underwent nephrureterectomy of the L-shaped kidney. Introduction to renoprival state with transfer to chronic hemodialysis became the only option to maintain homeostasis and extend the patients life. Histological examination revealed clear cell renal cell carcinoma with invasion of the pelvis and renal capsule, with no clear demarcation between the fused kidneys.

  3. Pancreatic islet cell tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cell tumors; Islet of Langerhans tumor; Neuroendocrine tumors; Peptic ulcer - islet cell tumor; Hypoglycemia - islet cell tumor ... stomach acid. Symptoms may include: Abdominal pain Diarrhea ... and small bowel Vomiting blood (occasionally) Glucagonomas make ...

  4. Mapping of Carboxypeptidase M in Normal Human Kidney and Renal Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, Catherine J.; Van Acker, Nathalie; De Schepper, Stefanie; De Bie, Martine; Andries, Luc; Fransen, Erik; Hendriks, Dirk; Kockx, Mark M.

    2013-01-01

    Although the kidney generally has been regarded as an excellent source of carboxypeptidase M (CPM), little is known about its renal-specific expression level and distribution. This study provides a detailed localization of CPM in healthy and diseased human kidneys. The results indicate a broad distribution of CPM along the renal tubular structures in the healthy kidney. CPM was identified at the parietal epithelium beneath the Bowman’s basement membrane and in glomerular mesangial cells. Capillaries, podocytes, and most interstitial cells were CPM negative. Tumor cells of renal cell carcinoma subtypes lose CPM expression upon dedifferentiation. Tissue microarray analysis demonstrated a correlation between low CPM expression and tumor cell type. CPM staining was intense on phagocytotic tumor-associated macrophages. Immunoreactive CPM was also detected in the tumor-associated vasculature. The absence of CPM in normal renal blood vessels points toward a role for CPM in angiogenesis. Coexistence of CPM and the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was detected in papillary renal cell carcinoma. However, the different subcellular localization of CPM and EGFR argues against an interaction between these h proteins. The description of the distribution of CPM in human kidney forms the foundation for further study of the (patho)physiological activities of CPM in the kidney. PMID:23172796

  5. 75 FR 16490 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Development of PANVAC and Tumor Associated Antigens as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... exclusive license should be directed to: Sabarni K. Chatterjee, Ph.D. Licensing and Patenting Associate... indicates that Brachyury is aberrantly expressed on tumors of the lung, intestine, stomach, kidney, bladder...

  6. Kidneys and How They Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Clinical Trials Anemia High Blood Pressure Heart Disease Mineral & Bone Disorder Diabetes Inspidus Glomerular Diseases Goodpasture Syndrome Henoch- ... The kidneys are important because they keep the composition, or makeup, of the blood ... blood cells bones stay strong How do the kidneys work? The ...

  7. Cancer rates after kidney transplantation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sodemann, Ulrik; Bistrup, Claus; Marckmann, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated a 3-5-fold increased cancer risk in kidney allograft recipients compared with the general population. Our aim was to estimate cancer frequencies among kidney allograft recipients who were transplanted in 1997-2000 and who were immunosuppressed according to a more...

  8. Imaging of brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaensler, E.H.L.

    1995-01-01

    The contents are diagnostic approaches, general features of tumors -hydrocephalus, edema, attenuation and/or intensity value, hemorrhage, fat, contrast enhancement, intra-axial supratentorial tumors - tumors of glial origin, oligodendrogliomas, ependymomas, subependymomas, subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, choroid plexus papilloma; midline tumors - colloid cysts, craniopharyngiomas; pineal region tumors and miscellaneous tumors i.e. primary intracerebral lymphoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, hemangioblastomas; extraaxial tumors - meningiomas; nerve sheath tumors -schwannomas, epidermoids, dermoids, lipomas, arachnoid cysts; metastatic tumors (8 refs.)

  9. Imaging of brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaensler, E H.L. [California Univ., San Francisco, CA (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    1996-12-31

    The contents are diagnostic approaches, general features of tumors -hydrocephalus, edema, attenuation and/or intensity value, hemorrhage, fat, contrast enhancement, intra-axial supratentorial tumors - tumors of glial origin, oligodendrogliomas, ependymomas, subependymomas, subependymal giant cell astrocytomas, choroid plexus papilloma; midline tumors - colloid cysts, craniopharyngiomas; pineal region tumors and miscellaneous tumors i.e. primary intracerebral lymphoma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, hemangioblastomas; extraaxial tumors - meningiomas; nerve sheath tumors -schwannomas, epidermoids, dermoids, lipomas, arachnoid cysts; metastatic tumors (8 refs.).

  10. Improving Care in Pediatric Neuro-oncology Patients: An Overview of the Unique Needs of Children With Brain Tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Cheryl; Petriccione, Mary; Donzelli, Maria; Pottenger, Elaine

    2016-03-01

    Brain tumors represent the most common solid tumors in childhood, accounting for almost 25% of all childhood cancer, second only to leukemia. Pediatric central nervous system tumors encompass a wide variety of diagnoses, from benign to malignant. Any brain tumor can be associated with significant morbidity, even when low grade, and mortality from pediatric central nervous system tumors is disproportionately high compared to other childhood malignancies. Management of children with central nervous system tumors requires knowledge of the unique aspects of care associated with this particular patient population, beyond general oncology care. Pediatric brain tumor patients have unique needs during treatment, as cancer survivors, and at end of life. A multidisciplinary team approach, including advanced practice nurses with a specialty in neuro-oncology, allows for better supportive care. Knowledge of the unique aspects of care for children with brain tumors, and the appropriate interventions required, allows for improved quality of life. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. Stages of Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Version Key Points Childhood Hodgkin lymphoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the lymph system. There are two types of childhood Hodgkin lymphoma. Epstein-Barr virus infection increases the risk of childhood Hodgkin ...

  12. Bilateral renal cell carcinoma in a horseshoe kidney: preoperative assessment with MRI and digital subtraction angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, R.A.; Soeldner, J.; Kaiser, W.A.; Steiner, T.; Schubert, J.

    1998-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma in a horseshoe kidney is an unusual entity. To our knowledge, only 123 cases have been published to date. We report the first bilateral case of two clear-cell carcinomas in an asymmetrically fused kidney. Optimum preservation of renal function after radical tumor removal requires accurate preoperative imaging. Since the vascular supply in fusion anomalies is extremely variable, angiography is mandatory. Magnetic resonance imaging was most suitable to predict the tumor extent and localization, because it simultaneously gave the most comprehensive anatomical overview of the malformation. (orig.)

  13. Donor Kidney With Renal Cell Carcinoma Successfully Treated With Radiofrequency Ablation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, S F; Hansen, Jesper Melchior

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The risk of donor-transmitted cancer is evident. CASE REPORT: We report the case of a 69-year-old woman who was transplanted with a kidney from a deceased donor. Four days after transplantation a routine ultrasound scan revealed a 3-cm tumor in the middle-upper pole of the allograft....... A biopsy showed the tumor to be papillary renal cell carcinoma. The patient was treated with radiofrequency ablation. This procedure was complicated by the development of a cutaneous fistula and open surgery was done with resection of an area of necrosis in the kidney and of the fistula. The maintenance...

  14. Childhood obesity case statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Paul W; Caskey, Paul; Heaton, Lisa E; Otsuka, Norman

    2013-04-01

    The goal of this publication is to raise awareness of the impact of childhood obesity on the musculoskeletal health of children and its potential long-term implications. Relevant articles dealing with musculoskeletal disorders either caused by or worsened by childhood obesity were reviewed through a Pub Med search. Efforts to recognize and combat the childhood obesity epidemic were also identified through Internet search engines. This case statement was then reviewed by the members of the pediatric specialty group of the US Bone and Joint Initiative, which represents an extensive number of organizations dealing with musculoskeletal health. Multiple musculoskeletal disorders are clearly caused by or worsened by childhood obesity. The review of the literature clearly demonstrates the increased frequency and severity of many childhood musculoskeletal disorders. Concerns about the long-term implications of these childhood onset disorders such as pain and degenerative changes into adulthood are clearly recognized by all the member organizations of the US Bone and Joint Initiative. It is imperative to recognize the long-term implications of musculoskeletal disorders caused by or worsened by childhood obesity. It is also important to recognize that the ability to exercise comfortably is a key factor to developing a healthy lifestyle and maintaining a healthy body weight. Efforts to develop reasonable and acceptable programs to increase physical activity by all facets of society should be supported. Further research into the long-term implications of childhood musculoskeletal disorders related to childhood obesity is necessary. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Exploring metabolic dysfunction in chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slee Adrian D

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Impaired kidney function and chronic kidney disease (CKD leading to kidney failure and end-stage renal disease (ESRD is a serious medical condition associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and in particular cardiovascular disease (CVD risk. CKD is associated with multiple physiological and metabolic disturbances, including hypertension, dyslipidemia and the anorexia-cachexia syndrome which are linked to poor outcomes. Specific hormonal, inflammatory, and nutritional-metabolic factors may play key roles in CKD development and pathogenesis. These include raised proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1 and −6, tumor necrosis factor, altered hepatic acute phase proteins, including reduced albumin, increased C-reactive protein, and perturbations in normal anabolic hormone responses with reduced growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-1 axis activity. Others include hyperactivation of the renin-angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS, with angiotensin II and aldosterone implicated in hypertension and the promotion of insulin resistance, and subsequent pharmacological blockade shown to improve blood pressure, metabolic control and offer reno-protective effects. Abnormal adipocytokine levels including leptin and adiponectin may further promote the insulin resistant, and proinflammatory state in CKD. Ghrelin may be also implicated and controversial studies suggest activities may be reduced in human CKD, and may provide a rationale for administration of acyl-ghrelin. Poor vitamin D status has also been associated with patient outcome and CVD risk and may indicate a role for supplementation. Glucocorticoid activities traditionally known for their involvement in the pathogenesis of a number of disease states are increased and may be implicated in CKD-associated hypertension, insulin resistance, diabetes risk and cachexia, both directly and indirectly through effects on other systems including activation of the mineralcorticoid

  16. Radiotherapy for bladder cancer and kidney cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Keiichi; Iizumi, Takashi; Shimizu, Shosei; Okumura, Toshiyuki; Sakurai, Hideyuki; Kimura, Tomokazu; Nishiyama, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    This paper explained the current state of radiotherapy for bladder cancer and kidney cancer, and discussed the role of radiotherapy in curative treatment and the future development. In the diagnosis and treatment of bladder cancer, it is important to judge the existence of pathological muscular layer invasion based on transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TUR-BT). In surgical results in Japan, the U.S., and Switzerland, 5-year survival rate is about 60 to 70%. Standard treatment for bladder cancer with muscle layer invasion had been surgery, and radiotherapy had been applied to the cases without resistance to surgery. Three combined therapy with TUR-BT and simultaneous chemoradiotherapy is the current standard bladder conserving therapy. The 5-year survival rate is approximately 60%, which is superior to the treatment with irradiation alone. Radiotherapy for kidney cancer is most often used as perioperative treatment for locally advanced cancer or as symptomatic treatment for metastatic lesions. However, due to recent improvement in radiotherapy technology, correspondence to respiratory movement and high dose administration associated with improvement in dose concentration have been realized, and stereotactic irradiation using a high single dose for inoperable disease cases or surgery refusal disease cases has come to be clinically applied. (A.O.)

  17. Paraneoplastic syndrome in urothelial carcinoma of the kidney: difficulty in diagnosis and deterioration in prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. E. Mamaev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraneoplastic syndrome is not a common concomitance of urothelial tumors. The literature describes a few tens of clinical cases in which urothelial cancer has become a cause of marked nonspecific tumor-associated reactions, associated with the presence of the tumor. Bladder tumors are at stake in all cases. The given clinical observation describes paraneoplastic manifestations in high-grade urothelial carcinoma of the kidney. It demonstrates difficulties in differential diagnosis and gives a retrospective estimate of diagnostic and therapeutic tactics.

  18. Controversies and research agenda in nephropathic cystinosis: conclusions from a "Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes" (KDIGO) Controversies Conference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langman, C.B.; Barshop, B.A.; Deschenes, G.; Emma, F.; Goodyer, P.; Lipkin, G.; Midgley, J.P.; Ottolenghi, C.; Servais, A.; Soliman, N.A.; Thoene, J.G.; Levtchenko, E.N.; Janssen, M.C.H.; Heuvel, L.P.W.J. van den

    2016-01-01

    Nephropathic cystinosis is an autosomal recessive metabolic, lifelong disease characterized by lysosomal cystine accumulation throughout the body that commonly presents in infancy with a renal Fanconi syndrome and, if untreated, leads to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) in the later childhood years.

  19. Loss of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine is linked to gene body hypermethylation in kidney cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ke; Zhang, Jing; Guo, Zhongqiang; Ma, Qin; Xu, Zhengzheng; Zhou, Yuanyuan; Xu, Ziying; Li, Zhongwu; Liu, Yiqiang; Ye, Xiongjun; Li, Xuesong; Yuan, Bifeng; Ke, Yuwen; He, Chuan; Zhou, Liqun; Liu, Jiang; Ci, Weimin

    2016-01-01

    Both 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and its oxidized form 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) have been proposed to be involved in tumorigenesis. Because the readout of the broadly used 5mC mapping method, bisulfite sequencing (BS-seq), is the sum of 5mC and 5hmC levels, the 5mC/5hmC patterns and relationship of these two modifications remain poorly understood. By profiling real 5mC (BS-seq corrected by Tet-assisted BS-seq, TAB-seq) and 5hmC (TAB-seq) levels simultaneously at single-nucleotide resolution, we here demonstrate that there is no global loss of 5mC in kidney tumors compared with matched normal tissues. Conversely, 5hmC was globally lost in virtually all kidney tumor tissues. The 5hmC level in tumor tissues is an independent prognostic marker for kidney cancer, with lower levels of 5hmC associated with shorter overall survival. Furthermore, we demonstrated that loss of 5hmC is linked to hypermethylation in tumors compared with matched normal tissues, particularly in gene body regions. Strikingly, gene body hypermethylation was significantly associated with silencing of the tumor-related genes. Downregulation of IDH1 was identified as a mechanism underlying 5hmC loss in kidney cancer. Restoring 5hmC levels attenuated the invasion capacity of tumor cells and suppressed tumor growth in a xenograft model. Collectively, our results demonstrate that loss of 5hmC is both a prognostic marker and an oncogenic event in kidney cancer by remodeling the DNA methylation pattern.

  20. Bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moylan, D.J.; Yelovich, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    Primary bone malignancies are relatively rare with less than 4,000 new cases per year. Multiple myeloma (more correctly a hematologic malignancy) accounts for 40%; osteosarcomas, 28%; chondrosarcomas, 13%; fibrosarcomas arising in bone, 4%; and Ewing's sarcoma, 7%. The authors discuss various treatments for bone tumors, including radiotherapy, chemotherapy and surgery

  1. Wilms Tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a child's general health and to detect any adverse side effects (such as low red or white blood cell ... medicine needed, which helps reduce long-term side effects. The most common ... can be completely removed by surgery. About 41% of all Wilms tumors are stage ...

  2. Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma in childhood: report of a case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herman, T.E.; McAlister, W.H.; Dehner, L.P.; Kaufman, B.A.

    1995-01-01

    Dedifferentiated chondrosarcoma is an unconventional chondrosarcoma of distinctive pathology. The tumor, not previously reported in childhood, is characterized by a very poor prognosis with an average survival of only 6 months. Imaging features include a lytic lesion, focal calcifications, and a soft tissue mass. (orig.)

  3. Childhood Thyroid Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood thyroid cancer usually presents as a thyroid mass with or without painless cervical adenopathy. It may occur as part of a tumor predisposition syndrome such as multiple endocrine neoplasia or DICER1 syndrome. Get detailed information about the risk factors, histopathology, molecular features, presentation, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment of papillary, follicular, and medullary thyroid cancer in this summary for clinicians.

  4. Lin28 sustains early renal progenitors and induces Wilms tumor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbach, Achia; Yermalovich, Alena; Zhang, Jin; Spina, Catherine S.; Zhu, Hao; Perez-Atayde, Antonio R.; Shukrun, Rachel; Charlton, Jocelyn; Sebire, Neil; Mifsud, William; Dekel, Benjamin; Pritchard-Jones, Kathy; Daley, George Q.

    2014-01-01

    Wilms Tumor, the most common pediatric kidney cancer, evolves from the failure of terminal differentiation of the embryonic kidney. Here we show that overexpression of the heterochronic regulator Lin28 during kidney development in mice markedly expands nephrogenic progenitors by blocking their final wave of differentiation, ultimately resulting in a pathology highly reminiscent of Wilms tumor. Using lineage-specific promoters to target Lin28 to specific cell types, we observed Wilms tumor only when Lin28 is aberrantly expressed in multiple derivatives of the intermediate mesoderm, implicating the cell of origin as a multipotential renal progenitor. We show that withdrawal of Lin28 expression reverts tumorigenesis and markedly expands the numbers of glomerulus-like structures and that tumor formation is suppressed by enforced expression of Let-7 microRNA. Finally, we demonstrate overexpression of the LIN28B paralog in a significant percentage of human Wilms tumor. Our data thus implicate the Lin28/Let-7 pathway in kidney development and tumorigenesis. PMID:24732380

  5. Isotope scanning for tumor localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1961-09-15

    At the request of the Government of the United Arab Republic, the Agency provided the services of an expert for the establishment in the UAR of a tumor localization program using photoscanning techniques and appropriate radioactive tracers. Photoscanning is a recently developed technique whereby the differences in isotope concentrations are enhanced on the record, and this facilitates the interpretation of the record. A variety of brain tumors were located, using a suitable radioactive tracer (Hg-203 - labelled Neohydrin) obtained from the USA. In some other investigations, processes in the kidney were scanned. Further, radioactive gold was used to demonstrate the normal and pathological spleen and liver and these tests showed various types of space occupying lesions resulting from malignancy and the parasitic infections endemic to the area. While the localization of brain tumors by scanning techniques is extremely useful, it does not always establish the precise extent of the tumor which should be known at the time of surgery. Dr. Bender, therefore, thought it advisable to instruct personnel in the use of what is known as an in-vivo needle scintillation probe - a technique for the investigation of the isotope concentration in a particular tissue during operation. The necessary instrument was obtained for this purpose and demonstrations were given; one patient was examined in this way at the time of surgery at the University of Alexandria Hospital.

  6. Malignent diseases in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havers, W.

    1980-01-01

    As malignant diseases in childhood are rare, and only a small group of radiotherapists have been able to gain experience in this field, this chapter treats the particularities of childhood from this aspect. The side effects of radiotherapy are particularly important here for the growing and developing organism of the child. The most frequently occuring malignant diseases are treated individually. (MG) [de

  7. Keep Your Kidneys Healthy: Catch Kidney Disease Early

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your blood. Each kidney contains about a million tiny filters that can process around 40 gallons of fluid every day—about enough to fill a house’s hot water heater. When blood passes through the ...

  8. Diagnosis of diabetic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Frederik; Rossing, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Approximately 20% to 40% of patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes mellitus develop diabetic kidney disease. This is a clinical syndrome characterized by persistent albuminuria (> 300 mg/24 h, or > 300 mg/g creatinine), a relentless decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR), raised arterial...... sign of diabetic nephropathy, the first symptom is usually peripheral edema, which occurs at a very late stage. Regular, systematic screening for diabetic kidney disease is needed in order to identify patients at risk of or with presymptomatic diabetic kidney disease. Annual monitoring of urinary...

  9. Mucinous tubular and spindle cell carcinoma of kidney: A clinicopathologic study of six cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudassar Hussain

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mucinous tubular and spindle carcinoma (MTSCC of kidney is a rare, low-grade polymorphic tumor. Recent studies have described a wide morphology spectrum of this tumor. Aim: To report the clinico-pathologic features of six cases of MTSCC of kidney. Materials and Methods: Six cases of MTSCC of kidney were studied and literature was reviewed. Immunohistochemistry was done by Envision method. Results: The age of the patients ranged from 44 to 84 years (mean 58.5 years. Four patients were males and two were females. The tumor was located in the left kidney in four cases and in the right kidney in two cases. The tumor size ranged from 4.5 to 15 cm (mean 6.4 cm. All tumors exhibited an admixture of tubules, spindle cells, and mucinous stroma in variable proportions. Tubules were predominant in five cases and spindle cells in one case. Psammomatous calcifications, papillations, and necrosis were seen in two cases. Collections of foamy histiocytes were noted in four cases. Cytoplasmic vacuoles and osseous metaplasia were seen in one case each. All cases were Fuhrman′s nuclear grade II. Five cases were of stage pT1, and one was pT3. All cases stained positive for alcian blue at pH 2.5. Immunohistochemical stain CK7 was positive in all cases and CD10 was positive in 1/1 case. All patients were alive and well at follow-up of 12-59 months (mean 33.5 months. No metastases were detected. Conclusions: We report six cases of MTSCC of kidney, a rare distinct variant of RCC, with a favorable prognosis. A male predominance was seen in our cases. MTSCC shares histologic and immunohistochemical overlap with papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC and cytogenetic analysis should be performed in difficult cases to avoid a misdiagnosis.

  10. Radiofrequency ablation for renal tumors. Our experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraoka, Kenji; Kawauchi, Akihiro; Nakamura, Terukazu; Soh, Jintetsu; Mikami, Kazuya; Miki, Tsuneharu

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to report our results of percutaneous radiofrequency ablation (RFA) for renal tumors and to assess predictors of therapeutic efficacy. Forty patients (median age 73 years) with renal tumors were treated with RFA under local or epidural anesthesia. All of them had high surgical risk or refused radical surgery. Tumors were punctured percutaneously using the Radionics Cool-tip RF System under computed tomography or ultrasonographic guidance. Median tumor diameter was 24 mm. After RFA, contrast-enhanced computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging was performed within 1 month. Complete response (CR) was defined as no enhancement inside the tumor. Factors related to the outcome and to renal function were assessed. Median follow up was 16 months. CR was observed in 34 cases (85.0%). A significant difference in CR rate was observed between tumors ≤30 mm and those >30 mm. Outcomes tended to be better for tumors in the mid to lower kidney, and those away from the renal hilum. Recurrence was observed in one case (2.9%), but a CR was obtained again by additional RFA. Out of a total of 77 RFA procedures, complications occurred in only three cases (3.9%), and conservative treatment was possible in all cases. Serum creatinine levels 3 months after RFA did not differ from those before RFA. Percutaneous RFA is a safe and effective treatment for small renal tumors in patients with high surgical risk or who refuse radical surgery. (author)

  11. Asthma phenotypes in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Monica B; Covar, Ronina A

    2016-04-01

    This review describes the literature over the past 18 months that evaluated childhood asthma phenotypes, highlighting the key aspects of these studies, and comparing these studies to previous ones in this area. Recent studies on asthma phenotypes have identified new phenotypes on the basis of statistical analyses (using cluster analysis and latent class analysis methodology) and have evaluated the outcomes and associated risk factors of previously established early childhood asthma phenotypes that are based on asthma onset and patterns of wheezing illness. There have also been investigations focusing on immunologic, physiologic, and genetic correlates of various phenotypes, as well as identification of subphenotypes of severe childhood asthma. Childhood asthma remains a heterogeneous condition, and investigations into these various presentations, risk factors, and outcomes are important since they can offer therapeutic and prognostic relevance. Further investigation into the immunopathology and genetic basis underlying childhood phenotypes is important so therapy can be tailored accordingly.

  12. Kidney cancer in Lebanon: a specific histological distribution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khafaja, Sarah; Kourie, Hampig Raphael; Matar, Dany; Sader-Ghorra, Claude; Kattan, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Kidney cancer is the third most frequent urologic cancer in Lebanon after prostate and bladder cancer, accounting for 1.5% of all diagnosed cancers. In this paper, we report the histologic characteristics and distribution of kidney cancer, never described in Lebanon or the Middle East. Pathology results of operated kidney cancer were collected during a two year period (2010-2011) from two different Lebanese hospitals (Hotel-Dieu de France University Hospital and Saint Joseph Hospital). A total of 124 reports were reviewed and analyzed according to WHO classification of 2009. The 124 patients diagnosed with kidney cancer had a median age of 62.4 [18-86], 75% being men and 25% women. Some 71 % of the lesions were renal cell carcinoma (RCC), 25.8% had a urothelial histology, 1.6% were lymphomas and 1.6% were metastases to the kidney. Patients having RCC had a median age of 60.3 [18-85], 77.3% were men and 22.7% women. Of the RCCs, 59.1% were clear cell carcinoma, 22.7% papillary, 11.4% chromophobic, 3.4% rom the collecting ducts of Bellini and 3.4% were not otherwise classified. Histological distribution of Lebanese kidney cancer seems unusual when compared to the literature. The percentage of urothelial renal pelvis tumors is strikingly high. Moreover, clear cell carcinoma accounts for only 59.1% of RCCS in contrast to the 75% described elsewhere, while papillary carcinoma represents more than 22.7% compared to 10%.

  13. Lapatinib Plasma and Tumor Concentrations and Effects on HER Receptor Phosphorylation in Tumor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil L Spector

    Full Text Available The paradigm shift in cancer treatment from cytotoxic drugs to tumor targeted therapies poses new challenges, including optimization of dose and schedule based on a biologically effective dose, rather than the historical maximum tolerated dose. Optimal dosing is currently determined using concentrations of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in plasma as a surrogate for tumor concentrations. To examine this plasma-tumor relationship, we explored the association between lapatinib levels in tumor and plasma in mice and humans, and those effects on phosphorylation of human epidermal growth factor receptors (HER in human tumors.Mice bearing BT474 HER2+ human breast cancer xenografts were dosed once or twice daily (BID with lapatinib. Drug concentrations were measured in blood, tumor, liver, and kidney. In a randomized phase I clinical trial, 28 treatment-naïve female patients with early stage HER2+ breast cancer received lapatinib 1000 or 1500 mg once daily (QD or 500 mg BID before evaluating steady-state lapatinib levels in plasma and tumor.In mice, lapatinib levels were 4-fold higher in tumor than blood with a 4-fold longer half-life. Tumor concentrations exceeded the in vitro IC90 (~ 900 nM or 500 ng/mL for inhibition of HER2 phosphorylation throughout the 12-hour dosing interval. In patients, tumor levels were 6- and 10-fold higher with QD and BID dosing, respectively, compared to plasma trough levels. The relationship between tumor and plasma concentration was complex, indicating multiple determinants. HER receptor phosphorylation varied depending upon lapatinib tumor concentrations, suggestive of changes in the repertoire of HER homo- and heterodimers.Plasma lapatinib concentrations underestimated tumor drug levels, suggesting that optimal dosing should be focused on the site of action to avoid to inappropriate dose escalation. Larger clinical trials are required to determine optimal dose and schedule to achieve tumor concentrations that maximally

  14. Childhood Soft Tissue Sarcoma Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pediatric soft tissue sarcomas are a heterogenous group of malignant tumors that originate from primitive mesenchymal tissue and account for 7% of all childhood tumors. Get detailed information about clinical presentation, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of newly diagnosed and recurrent soft tissue sarcoma in this summary for clinicians.

  15. Acute Kidney Injury Complicated Epstein-Barr Virus Infection in Infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze Ozgurhan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Infectious mononucleosis is an acute lymphoproliferative disorder caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV and seen most commonly in children and young adults. Clinical presentation of the disease is characterized by fever, tonsillopharyngitis, lymphadenopathy, and hepatosplenomegaly, whereas serological findings of this benign disorder include positive heterophilic antibody formation (transient increase in heterophilic antibodies and prominence of hematological lymphocytosis of more than 10% of atypical lymphocytes. An EBV infection is usually asymptomatic in childhood, but acute kidney injury can be a rare complication during its course. Most cases recover from the disease completely. Early recognition of EBV infection and estimation of its complication are important for its prognosis. In light of previous literature, we discuss the case evaluated as an EBV infection complicated by acute kidney injury in early childhood and results of tubulointerstitial nephritis shown on a renal biopsy that was later diagnosed as an EBV infection by serological examination.

  16. "Cancer tumor".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronshtehn, V. A.

    The title is a phrase borrowed from a speech by a Leningrad pressman, V. E. Lvov, who called upon those attending a theoretical conference on ideological issues in astronomy held by the Leningrad Branch of the All-Union Astronomic and Geodetic Society (13 - 4 December 1948), "to make a more radical emphasis on the negative role of relativistic cosmology which is a cancer tumor disintegrating the contemporary astronomy theory, and a major ideological enemy of a materialist astronomy".

  17. Can selective pharmaco-angiography of renal tumor replace the examination under surgery?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Will, C.H.; Bach, D.; Koop, H.; Impekoven, P.

    1996-01-01

    Can primary nephrectomy be performed without preliminary sample excision of the tumor if pharmaco-angiography of the kidney has demonstrated the typical tumor vascularization? To clarify this question in 32 patients with 'displacing mass' of the kidney, verified in sonography and computer-tomography, or hematuria of unknown origin, we prospectively performed an additional pharmaco-angiography of the respective kidney. In 18 patients with tumor vascularization in the pharmaco-angiography, intraoperatively we found 15 malignant renal cell carcinomas, 1 patient with transitional cell carcinoma of the renal pelvis, 1 leiomyosarcoma, and 1 high-differentiated tumor of only 2 cm in diameter with unclear dignity, which was treated by enucleation. In cases of an intrarenal lesion of more than 3 cm in diameter and additional tumor vascularization seen in selective pharmaco-angiography, the kidney undoubtedly can be removed by primary nephrectomy without a preliminary sample excision to confirm the diagnosis. For tumors with a diameter of less than 3 cm and additional tumor-vascularization, the option should be enucleation. If there is a 'tumor' without typical malignant vascularization, the exploration by sample excision should be performed. Depending on the histological result the tumor should be removed by enucleation or nephrectomy. (orig.) [de

  18. Flu Season and Your Kidneys

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cares Peers Support Ask the Doctor My Food Coach Nutrition Dialysis Patient & Family Resources Emergency Resources A ... State Charity Registration Disclosures © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc., 30 East 33rd Street, New York, NY 10016, ...

  19. Compensative hypertrophy of the kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raynaud, C.

    1976-01-01

    Several measurement methods are available to practitioners to reveal a compensative hypertrophy. Mensuration of the kidney has the advantage of simplicity but is in fact an unreliable and inaccurate method. Separate clearances in their traditional form have never entered into routine use because of the disadvantages of ureteral catheterism. The use of radioactive tracers avoids this drawback, but clearances calculated in this way are only valid in the absence of obstructive urinary disorders. Solutions have been proposed, but the values obtained are no longer identical with the clearances. The Hg uptake test quantifies quite accurately the function of each kidney. From the results obtained a complete compensative hypertrophy developed on a healthy kidney and an incomplete compensative hypertrophy developed on the diseased kidney have been described. In each of these situations the degree to which compensative hypertrophy develops seems to be fixed at a given level peculiar to each patient [fr

  20. Sexuality and Chronic Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy Donate A to Z Health Guide Sexuality and Kidney Disease Tweet Share Print Email Can ... It's something everyone needs. Many people think that sexuality refers only to sexual intercourse. But sexuality includes ...

  1. Organoids: Modelling polycystic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romagnani, Paola

    2017-11-01

    Cysts were generated from organoids in vitro and the removal of adherent cues was shown to play a key role in polycystic kidney disease progression. These cysts resembled those of diseased tissue phenotypically and were capable of remodelling their microenvironment.

  2. Kidney transplantation in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Neeraj; Nori, Uday; Pesavento, Todd

    2009-08-01

    Recent outcome data, ongoing organ shortage and proposed changes in allocation policies are driving the need to review current practices and possible future course of kidney transplantation in the elderly patients. A proposed new kidney allocation system based on matching donor and recipient characteristics to enable 'age-matched' kidney allocation is currently being discussed in the USA. While this system benefits younger recipients, implications for elderly recipients receiving older grafts remain a matter of debate. Despite improved outcomes, there remain significant challenges to kidney transplantation in the elderly, including organ shortage, poor transplant rate, evolving allocation policies, high wait-list mortality and nonstandardized immunosuppression. Prospective studies are needed to evaluate the strategies to meet these challenges and to study the impact of proposed new allocation system.

  3. Pain Medicines and Kidney Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... acute illnesses involving fluid loss or decreased fluid intake. Other patients in these reports had risk factors such as systemic lupus erythematosus, advanced age, chronic kidney disease, or recent heavy alcohol consumption. These cases involved a single dose in ...

  4. Imaging of a supernumerary kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koureas, A.P.; Panourgias, E.C.; Gouliamos, A.D.; Trakadas, S.J.; Vlahos, L.J.

    2000-01-01

    A 33-year-old female patient was investigated for a right lower quadrant pain. The investigation, which included an excretory urography and a computed tomography examination, revealed a normal kidney on the right side and another two normal sized, complete kidneys on the left side, which appeared to have a small parenchymal bridge. The patient was treated surgically for a cyst of the right ovary. (orig.)

  5. Imaging of a supernumerary kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koureas, A.P.; Panourgias, E.C.; Gouliamos, A.D.; Trakadas, S.J.; Vlahos, L.J. [Dept. of Radiology, Areteion Hospital, Athens (Greece)

    2000-11-01

    A 33-year-old female patient was investigated for a right lower quadrant pain. The investigation, which included an excretory urography and a computed tomography examination, revealed a normal kidney on the right side and another two normal sized, complete kidneys on the left side, which appeared to have a small parenchymal bridge. The patient was treated surgically for a cyst of the right ovary. (orig.)

  6. A rare malformation of urinary system: Right ectopic thoracic kidney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musab Ilgi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An ectopic kidney is a common developmental anomaly of the urinary system. However, the thoracic kidney (TK is the rarest state form of an aberrant kidney. The aim of this case report is defining the symptoms in TK diagnosis and constructing a treatment model will promote the best outcomes. These patients come to the physician with the various symptoms, and they could be diagnosed incidentally. In our case, we describe 40 years female patient with severe respiratory problems and upper back pain. In the pulmonary clinic, suspected mass was diagnosed with chest X-ray, and computerized tomography detected nontraumatic nonhernia associated, a truly ectopic TK. Moreover, the thoracic surgeon and urologist team decided to exploration and reconstructed the right ectopic kidney. The 1st month of the control of patient symptoms was disappeared. Overall, TK should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of thoracic tumors. Surgical exploration and reconstruction should be thought in patients who have severe respiratory symptoms.

  7. Kidney-specific Sonoporation-mediated Gene Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Ryo; Kami, Daisuke; Kusaba, Tetsuro; Kirita, Yuhei; Kishida, Tsunao; Mazda, Osam; Adachi, Takaomi; Gojo, Satoshi

    2016-02-01

    Sonoporation can deliver agents to target local organs by systemic administration, while decreasing the associated risk of adverse effects. Sonoporation has been used for a variety of materials and in a variety of organs. Herein, we demonstrated that local sonoporation to the kidney can offer highly efficient transfer of oligonucleotides, which were systemically administrated to the tubular epithelium with high specificity. Ultrasonic wave irradiation to the kidney collapsed the microbubbles and transiently affected the glomerular filtration barrier and increased glomerular permeability. Oligonucleotides were passed through the barrier all at once and were absorbed throughout the tubular epithelium. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), which plays a central role in renal ischemia-reperfusion injury, was targeted using small interfering RNA (siRNA) with renal sonoporation in a murine model. The reduction of TNFα expression after single gene transfer significantly inhibited the expression of kidney injury markers, suggesting that systemic administration of siRNA under temporary and local sonoporation could be applicable in the clinical setting of ischemic acute kidney injury.

  8. Value of lymphography in the diagnosis of urological tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, G.E.

    1981-01-01

    Between 1975 and 1979, 204 lymphadenectomies in patients with tumors of the prostate, kidneys, bladder and testicles were carried through following bilateral pedal lymphography. Referred to all organs, the positive and negative initial lymphographic findings were in accordance with the histological ones in about 67%. The more extended the primary tumor, the greater was the consistency of lymphographic and histological findings. This is most obvious in renal adenocarcinomas. (orig./MG) [de

  9. Pregnancy in autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Nicole; Bryant, Joy; Fischer, Roxanne; Huizing, Marjan; Gahl, William A; Gunay-Aygun, Meral

    2015-03-01

    Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) is the most common childhood-onset ciliopathy. As treatments improve, more women are reaching reproductive age, but little is known about ARPKD and pregnancy. In our ongoing study on ARPKD and other ciliopathies, 12 females over 18 years of age were identified and systematically evaluated. Six had children; four carried pregnancies and delivered, one used assisted reproductive technology and had a surrogate carry the pregnancy, and one adopted. We report the outcomes of four pregnancies with live birth deliveries and two women who chose alternate family building options. Patient one was diagnosed at 6 months, and at age 21 had a pregnancy complicated by transient worsening of renal function (creatinine increase from 1.15 to 1.78 mg/dL). Patient two was diagnosed with ARPKD at age seven and had an uncomplicated pregnancy at age 23. Patient three was diagnosed incidentally with ARPKD at age 23, 3 months after completion of an uncomplicated pregnancy. Patient four who had an uncomplicated pregnancy at age 33 was diagnosed with ARPKD at age 46. Women with ARPKD face reproductive decisions largely bereft of information about the pregnancies of other ARPKD patients. We report four cases of pregnancy and ARPKD to expand current knowledge and encourage further research.

  10. Understanding Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Know About Brain Tumors . What is a Brain Tumor? A brain tumor is an abnormal growth
 ... Tumors” from Frankly Speaking Frankly Speaking About Cancer: Brain Tumors Download the full book Questions to ask ...

  11. Brain tumor - primary - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... Primary brain tumors include any tumor that starts in the brain. Primary brain tumors can start from brain cells, ...

  12. Brain tumor - children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - children; Meningioma - children; Cancer - brain tumor (children) ... The cause of primary brain tumors is unknown. Primary brain tumors may ... (spread to nearby areas) Cancerous (malignant) Brain tumors ...

  13. Adrenal Gland Tumors: Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gland Tumor: Statistics Request Permissions Adrenal Gland Tumor: Statistics Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 03/ ... primary adrenal gland tumor is very uncommon. Exact statistics are not available for this type of tumor ...

  14. Radiological imaging of the kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaia, Emilio (ed.) [Trieste Univ. Ospedale di Cattinara (Italy). Ist. Radiologia

    2011-07-01

    This book provides a unique and comprehensive analysis of the normal anatomy and pathology of the kidney and upper urinary tract from the modern diagnostic imaging point of view. The first part is dedicated to the embryology and normal radiological anatomy of the kidney and anatomic variants. The second part presents in detail all of the imaging modalities which can be employed to assess the kidney and the upper urinary tract, including ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography. Patient preparation and investigation protocols are accurately described, and the principal fields of application of each imaging modality are clearly highlighted. The entire spectrum of kidney pathologies is then presented in a series of detailed chapters. Each pathology is illustrated by high-quality images obtained with state of the art equipment and the most advanced imaging modalities, as well as by figures showing macroscopic and microscopic specimens. The latest innovations in interventional radiology, biopsy procedures, and parametric and molecular imaging are also described, as is the relationship between contrast media and kidney function. This book will be of great interest to all radiologists, oncologists, and urologists who are involved in the management of kidney pathologies in their daily clinical practice. (orig.)

  15. Radiological imaging of the kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quaia, Emilio

    2011-01-01

    This book provides a unique and comprehensive analysis of the normal anatomy and pathology of the kidney and upper urinary tract from the modern diagnostic imaging point of view. The first part is dedicated to the embryology and normal radiological anatomy of the kidney and anatomic variants. The second part presents in detail all of the imaging modalities which can be employed to assess the kidney and the upper urinary tract, including ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography. Patient preparation and investigation protocols are accurately described, and the principal fields of application of each imaging modality are clearly highlighted. The entire spectrum of kidney pathologies is then presented in a series of detailed chapters. Each pathology is illustrated by high-quality images obtained with state of the art equipment and the most advanced imaging modalities, as well as by figures showing macroscopic and microscopic specimens. The latest innovations in interventional radiology, biopsy procedures, and parametric and molecular imaging are also described, as is the relationship between contrast media and kidney function. This book will be of great interest to all radiologists, oncologists, and urologists who are involved in the management of kidney pathologies in their daily clinical practice. (orig.)

  16. The three-kidney rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provoost, A.P.; Van Aken, M.

    1984-01-01

    In contrast to the numerous research into the adaption of renal function when nephons are lost, much less attention has been paid to the effects of an extra kidney. Through the availability of inbred rat strains, techniques to transplant rat kidneys, and methods to measure total and individual kidney function repeatedly in the same animal, it became possible to study the renal function in rats with three kidneys. Adult male rats of a highly inbred Wistar strain were used. Nine recipients of a third kidney (3-K) were compared with 5 sham operated control (2-K) rats. The total GFR, as measured by the plasma clearance of Cr-5l EDTA, was taken 1,3,6,9, and 15 weeks after operation. The contribution of each kidney to the total renal function was determined by a Tc-99m DTPA scan performed at weeks 10 and 16. After transplantation the total GFR of 3-K rats was, in general, not different from the value before transplantation or from that of 2-K rats. The lack of increase of the GFR of 3-K rats was not the result of a non-functioning graft

  17. Pediatric brain tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poussaint, Tina Y. [Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Panigrahy, Ashok [Children' s Hospital of Pittsburgh of University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Huisman, Thierry A.G.M. [Charlotte R. Bloomberg Children' s Center, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Division of Pediatric Radiology and Pediatric Neuroradiology, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Among all causes of death in children from solid tumors, pediatric brain tumors are the most common. This article includes an overview of a subset of infratentorial and supratentorial tumors with a focus on tumor imaging features and molecular advances and treatments of these tumors. Key to understanding the imaging features of brain tumors is a firm grasp of other disease processes that can mimic tumor on imaging. We also review imaging features of a common subset of tumor mimics. (orig.)

  18. Histological Comparison of Kidney Tissue Following Radioembolization with Yttrium-90 Resin Microspheres and Embolization with Bland Microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Suresh de, E-mail: suresh.desilva@unsw.edu.au [Southern Radiology Group, Radiology Department Sutherland Hospital (Australia); Mackie, Simon [Western General Hospital, Department of Urology (United Kingdom); Aslan, Peter [St George Hospital, Department of Urology (Australia); Cade, David [Sirtex Technology Pty Ltd (Australia); Delprado, Warick [Douglass Hanly Moir Pathology (Australia)

    2016-12-15

    BackgroundIntra-arterial brachytherapy with yttrium-90 ({sup 90}Y) resin microspheres (radioembolization) is a procedure to selectively deliver high-dose radiation to tumors. The purpose of this research was to compare the radioembolic effect of {sup 90}Y-radioembolization versus the embolic effect of bland microspheres in the porcine kidney model.MethodsIn each of six pigs, ~25–33 % of the kidney volume was embolized with {sup 90}Y resin microspheres and an equivalent number of bland microspheres in the contralateral kidney. Kidney volume was estimated visually from contrast-enhanced fluoroscopy imaging. Morphologic and histologic analysis was performed 8–9 weeks after the procedure to assess the locations of the microspheres and extent of tissue necrosis from {sup 90}Y-radioembolization and bland embolization. A semi-quantified evaluation of the non-acute peri-particle and perivascular tissue reaction was conducted. All guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.ResultsKidneys embolized with {sup 90}Y-radioembolization decreased in mass by 30–70 % versus the contralateral kidney embolized with bland microspheres. These kidneys showed significant necrosis/fibrosis, avascularization, and glomerular atrophy in the immediate vicinity of the {sup 90}Y resin microspheres. By contrast, glomerular changes were not observed, even with clusters of bland microspheres in afferent arterioles. Evidence of a foreign body reaction was recorded in some kidneys with bland microspheres, and subcapsular scarring/infarction only with the highest load (4.96 × 10{sup 6}) of bland microspheres.ConclusionThis study showed that radioembolization with {sup 90}Y resin microspheres produces localized necrosis/fibrosis and loss of kidney mass in a porcine kidney model. This result supports the study of {sup 90}Y resin microspheres for the localized treatment of kidney tumors.

  19. Histological Comparison of Kidney Tissue Following Radioembolization with Yttrium-90 Resin Microspheres and Embolization with Bland Microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Suresh de; Mackie, Simon; Aslan, Peter; Cade, David; Delprado, Warick

    2016-01-01

    BackgroundIntra-arterial brachytherapy with yttrium-90 ("9"0Y) resin microspheres (radioembolization) is a procedure to selectively deliver high-dose radiation to tumors. The purpose of this research was to compare the radioembolic effect of "9"0Y-radioembolization versus the embolic effect of bland microspheres in the porcine kidney model.MethodsIn each of six pigs, ~25–33 % of the kidney volume was embolized with "9"0Y resin microspheres and an equivalent number of bland microspheres in the contralateral kidney. Kidney volume was estimated visually from contrast-enhanced fluoroscopy imaging. Morphologic and histologic analysis was performed 8–9 weeks after the procedure to assess the locations of the microspheres and extent of tissue necrosis from "9"0Y-radioembolization and bland embolization. A semi-quantified evaluation of the non-acute peri-particle and perivascular tissue reaction was conducted. All guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed.ResultsKidneys embolized with "9"0Y-radioembolization decreased in mass by 30–70 % versus the contralateral kidney embolized with bland microspheres. These kidneys showed significant necrosis/fibrosis, avascularization, and glomerular atrophy in the immediate vicinity of the "9"0Y resin microspheres. By contrast, glomerular changes were not observed, even with clusters of bland microspheres in afferent arterioles. Evidence of a foreign body reaction was recorded in some kidneys with bland microspheres, and subcapsular scarring/infarction only with the highest load (4.96 × 10"6) of bland microspheres.ConclusionThis study showed that radioembolization with "9"0Y resin microspheres produces localized necrosis/fibrosis and loss of kidney mass in a porcine kidney model. This result supports the study of "9"0Y resin microspheres for the localized treatment of kidney tumors.

  20. Experimental tumor therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-06-01

    This is a report on the work of the joint research group of the Institute of Radiation Biology (Strahlenbiologisches Institut) of the university of Munich and the Department of Radiation Biology of the Society for Radiation and Environmental Research (Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- u. Umweltforschung - GSF -) at Neuherberg. The presented results are not in all cases definitely confirmed or have, in part, merely provisional character. It is the target of the joint research to investigate problems of cancer therapy of practical impact in model form and to develop recommendations in discussions with therapists. Thus, the aim is not so much to examine mechanisms of action of certain radiations in detail but to look for the general rules they are governed by and to analyze the quantitative aspects of cancer therapy. To achieve this, a great variety of test models must be at hand. Numerous cell cultivies and tumors of mice resp. rats are therefore used. The acute reactions to irradiation are examined on the skin, the small intestine crypts, the bone marrow and spleen colonies of mice and the chronic reactions are tested on the colon and heart of rats and on the vascular connective tissue and kidneys of mice. (orig./MG) [de