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Sample records for childhood immunization programme

  1. Early effectiveness of heptavalent conjugate pneumococcal vaccination on invasive pneumococcal disease after the introduction in the Danish Childhood Immunization Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harboe, Zitta B.; Valentiner-Branth, Palle; Benfield, Thomas;

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) on invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) 1 year after PCV7's introduction in the childhood immunization programme through a nationwide cohort study based on laboratory surveillance data. There was a decline in the...

  2. Childhood Immunization Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Instant Childhood Immunization Schedule Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Get the ... See Disclaimer for additional details. Based on Immunization Schedule for Children 0 through 6 Years of age ...

  3. Impact of pneumococcal vaccination in Denmark during the first 3 years after PCV introduction in the childhood immunization programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingels, Helene; Rasmussen, Jeppe; Andersen, Peter Henrik;

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was introduced in Denmark in October 2007 in a 2+1 schedule with a catch-up programme for children up to 17 months of age. To assess the impact of PCV we evaluated on the whole population: (1) direct and indirect effects on...

  4. MedlinePlus: Childhood Immunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... well. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention publishes a schedule for childhood vaccines. Although some of ... and Caregivers (08/11/2016, Food and Drug Administration) Malaria Vaccine Protection Short-Lived in Young Children ( ...

  5. Factors influencing childhood immunization in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bbaale, Edward

    2013-03-01

    This paper investigates the factors associated with childhood immunization in Uganda. We used nationally-representative data from Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS) of 2006. Both bivariate and multivariate approaches were employed in the analysis. The bivariate approach involved generating average percentages of children who were immunized, with analysis of pertinent background characteristics. The multivariate approach involved employing maximum likelihood probit technique and generating marginal effects to ascertain the probability of being immunized, given the same background characteristics. It revealed that slightly over 50% of children in Uganda were fully immunized. Additionally, 89%, 24%, 52%, and 64% received BCG, DPT, polio and measles vaccines respectively. Factors which have a significant association with childhood immunization are: maternal education (especially at post-secondary level), exposure to media, maternal healthcare utilization, maternal age, occupation type, immunization plan, and regional and local peculiarities. Children whose mothers had post-secondary education were twice as likely to be fully immunized compared to their counterparts whose mothers had only primary education (p < 0.01). Thus, gender parity in education enhancement efforts is crucial. There is also a need to increase media penetration, maternal healthcare utilization, and to ensure parity across localities and regions. PMID:23617212

  6. Do Maternal Knowledge and Attitudes towards Childhood Immunizations in Rural Uganda Correlate with Complete Childhood Vaccination?

    OpenAIRE

    Bryan J Vonasek; Francis Bajunirwe; Laura E Jacobson; Leonidas Twesigye; James Dahm; Grant, Monica J.; Ajay K Sethi; Conway, James H

    2016-01-01

    Improving childhood vaccination coverage and timeliness is a key health policy objective in many developing countries such as Uganda. Of the many factors known to influence uptake of childhood immunizations in under resourced settings, parents' understanding and perception of childhood immunizations has largely been overlooked. The aims of this study were to survey mothers' knowledge and attitudes towards childhood immunizations and then determine if these variables correlate with the timely ...

  7. Childhood Immune Maturation and Allergy Development: Regulation by Maternal Immunity and Microbial Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Forsberg, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Problem The increasing allergy prevalence in affluent countries may be caused by reduced microbial stimulation, resulting in an abnormal post-natal immune maturation. Most studies investigating the underlying mechanisms have focused on post-natal microbial exposure. Also, the maternal microbial environment during pregnancy may program the immune development of the child, however. Method of study This review focuses on how maternal immunity and microbial exposures regulate childhood immune and...

  8. Childhood Obesity: Immune Response and Nutritional Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Magrone, Thea; Jirillo, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity is characterized by a low-grade inflammation status depending on the multicellular release of cytokines, adipokines, and reactive oxygen species. In particular, the imbalance between anti-inflammatory T regulatory cells and inflammatory T helper 17 cells seems to sustain such a phlogistic condition. Alterations of gut microbiota since childhood also contribute to the maintenance of inflammation. Therefore, besides preventive measures and caloric restrictions, dietary intake ...

  9. Do Maternal Knowledge and Attitudes towards Childhood Immunizations in Rural Uganda Correlate with Complete Childhood Vaccination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonasek, Bryan J; Bajunirwe, Francis; Jacobson, Laura E; Twesigye, Leonidas; Dahm, James; Grant, Monica J; Sethi, Ajay K; Conway, James H

    2016-01-01

    Improving childhood vaccination coverage and timeliness is a key health policy objective in many developing countries such as Uganda. Of the many factors known to influence uptake of childhood immunizations in under resourced settings, parents' understanding and perception of childhood immunizations has largely been overlooked. The aims of this study were to survey mothers' knowledge and attitudes towards childhood immunizations and then determine if these variables correlate with the timely vaccination coverage of their children. From September to December 2013, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1,000 parous women in rural Sheema district in southwest Uganda. The survey collected socio-demographic data and knowledge and attitudes towards childhood immunizations. For the women with at least one child between the age of one month and five years who also had a vaccination card available for the child (N = 302), the vaccination status of this child was assessed. 88% of these children received age-appropriate, on-time immunizations. 93.5% of the women were able to state that childhood immunizations protect children from diseases. The women not able to point this out were significantly more likely to have an under-vaccinated child (PR 1.354: 95% CI 1.018-1.802). When asked why vaccination rates may be low in their community, the two most common responses were "fearful of side effects" and "ignorance/disinterest/laziness" (44% each). The factors influencing caregivers' demand for childhood immunizations vary widely between, and also within, developing countries. Research that elucidates local knowledge and attitudes, like this study, allows for decisions and policy pertaining to vaccination programs to be more effective at improving child vaccination rates. PMID:26918890

  10. Parents' knowledge, attitude, and practice on childhood immunization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolsna Joseph

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Although childhood immunization practices and attitudes are satisfactory, majority do not have specific knowledge on vaccines and the duration of protection they offer. Socio-demographic factors had a significant influence on the immunization status. Hence, efforts should be focused on improving them also besides educating them about vaccines to improve their knowledge. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(6.000: 1201-1207

  11. Childhood obesity: immune response and nutritional approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thea eMagrone

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is characterized by a low grade inflammation status depending on the multicellular release of cytokines, adipokines and reactive oxygen species. In particular, the imbalance between anti-inflammatory T regulatory cells and inflammatory T helper 17 cells seems to sustain such a phlogistic condition. Alterations of gut microbiota since childhood also contribute to the maintenance of inflammation. Therefore, besides preventive measures and caloric restrictions, dietary intake of natural products endowed with anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities may represent a valid interventional approach for preventing and/or attenuating the pathological consequences of obesity. In this regard, the use of prebiotics, probiotics, polyphenols, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins and melatonin in human clinical trials will be described.

  12. Childhood Immunization and Access to Health Care: Evidence From Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devkota, Satis; Panda, Bibhudutta

    2016-03-01

    This article examines the effect of access to health care center, in terms of travel time, on childhood immunization in Nepal using the 2004 and 2011 waves of the Nepal Living Standards Measurement Surveys. We employ probit and instrumental variable probit estimation methods to estimate the causal effect of travel time on the probability of immunization. Results indicate that travel time to the nearest health center displays a significant negative association with the probability of immunization (coefficient = -0.015,Peffect of travel time tends to be stronger in rural and distant areas of Nepal's mountain and hill regions. The results suggest that policy interventions should increase the number of mobile clinics in rural villages and provide conditional cash transfer to incentivize immunization coverage at the household level. In addition, household income, parental education, ethnicity, and household location emerge as important determinants of immunization in Nepal. PMID:26809971

  13. Childhood adversity and cell-mediated immunity in young adulthood: Does type and timing matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Slopen, Natalie; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Erin C Dunn; Koenen, Karestan C.

    2012-01-01

    Childhood adversity can have powerful effects on health over the life course. Persistent changes in cell-mediated immune function may be one pathway linking adverse childhood experiences with later disease risk. However, limited research has examined childhood adversity in relation to cell-mediated immune function, and in particular, immune response to latent viruses in adulthood. The present study investigated the association of two types of childhood adversity, socioeconomic disadvantage du...

  14. Linkages between Maternal Education and Childhood Immunization in India

    OpenAIRE

    Vikram, Kriti; Vanneman, Reeve; Desai, Sonalde

    2012-01-01

    While correlations between maternal education and child health have been observed in diverse parts of the world, the causal pathways explaining how maternal education improves child health remain far from clear. Using data from the nationally representative India Human Development Survey of 2004-5, this analysis examines four possible pathways that may mediate the influence of maternal education on childhood immunization: greater human, social, and cultural capitals and more autonomy within t...

  15. Update on Routine Childhood and Adolescent Immunizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Lani K; Serrano, Jacquelyn L

    2015-09-15

    Recommendations for routine vaccinations in children and adolescents have changed multiple times in recent years, based on findings in clinical trials, licensure of new vaccines, and evidence of waning immunity. Despite the overwhelming success of vaccinations, vaccine delay and refusal are leading to pockets of vaccine-preventable diseases. Schedules for diphtheria and tetanus toxoids, and acellular pertussis (DTaP); hepatitis A and B; Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib); inactivated poliovirus; varicella; and measles, mumps, and rubella are unchanged. However, since 2008, 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine has replaced the 7-valent vaccine; a new two-dose oral rotavirus vaccine has been approved; use of the tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine has been expanded to children seven to 10 years of age who received fewer than five doses of DTaP, as well as during each pregnancy; a booster dose of meningococcal vaccine is recommended in adolescents 16 to 18 years of age (unless the first dose was given after 16 years of age); new meningococcal vaccines have been approved for use in infants at high risk of meningococcal disease; influenza vaccine has been expanded to routine use in all children six months and older; and the human papillomavirus vaccine has been approved for routine immunization of adolescent boys and girls. For the 2015-2016 influenza season, either live attenuated or inactivated vaccine can be administered to healthy children two to eight years of age. PMID:26371731

  16. Delays in childhood immunization in a conflict area: a study from Sierra Leone during civil war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gage George N

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sierra Leone has undergone a decade of civil war from 1991 to 2001. From this period few data on immunization coverage are available, and conflict-related delays in immunization according to the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI schedule have not been investigated. We aimed to study delays in childhood immunization in the context of civil war in a Sierra Leonean community. Methods We conducted an immunization survey in Kissy Mess-Mess in the Greater Freetown area in 1998/99 using a two-stage sampling method. Based on immunization cards and verbal history we collected data on immunization for tuberculosis, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio, and measles by age group (0–8/9–11/12–23/24–35 months. We studied differences between age groups and explored temporal associations with war-related hostilities taking place in the community. Results We included 286 children who received 1690 vaccine doses; card retention was 87%. In 243 children (85%, 95% confidence interval (CI: 80–89% immunization was up-to-date. In 161 of these children (56%, 95%CI: 50–62% full age-appropriate immunization was achieved; in 82 (29%, 95%CI: 24–34% immunization was not appropriate for age. In the remaining 43 children immunization was partial in 37 (13%, 95%CI: 9–17 and absent in 6 (2%, 95%CI: 1–5. Immunization status varied across age groups. In children aged 9–11 months the proportion with age-inappropriate (delayed immunization was higher than in other age groups suggesting an association with war-related hostilities in the community. Conclusion Only about half of children under three years received full age-appropriate immunization. In children born during a period of increased hostilities, immunization was mostly inappropriate for age, but recommended immunizations were not completely abandoned. Missing or delayed immunization represents an additional threat to the health of children living in conflict areas.

  17. The puzzle of immune phenotypes of childhood asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgraf-Rauf, Katja; Anselm, Bettina; Schaub, Bianca

    2016-12-01

    Asthma represents the most common chronic childhood disease worldwide. Whereas preschool children present with wheezing triggered by different factors (multitrigger and viral wheeze), clinical asthma manifestation in school children has previously been classified as allergic and non-allergic asthma. For both, the underlying immunological mechanisms are not yet understood in depth in children. Treatment is still prescribed regardless of underlying mechanisms, and children are not always treated successfully. This review summarizes recent key findings on the complex mechanisms of the development and manifestation of childhood asthma. Whereas traditional classification of childhood asthma is primarily based on clinical symptoms like wheezing and atopy, novel approaches to specify asthma phenotypes are under way and face challenges such as including the stability of phenotypes over time and transition into adulthood. Epidemiological studies enclose more information on the patient's disease history and environmental influences. Latest studies define endotypes based on molecular and cellular mechanisms, for example defining risk and protective single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and new immune phenotypes, showing promising results. Also, regulatory T cells and recently discovered T helper cell subtypes such as Th9 and Th17 cells were shown to be important for the development of asthma. Innate lymphoid cells (ILC) could play a critical role in asthma patients as they produce different cytokines associated with asthma. Epigenetic findings showed different acetylation and methylation patterns for children with allergic and non-allergic asthma. On a posttranscriptional level, miRNAs are regulating factors identified to differ between asthma patients and healthy controls and also indicate differences within asthma phenotypes. Metabolomics is another exciting chapter important for endotyping asthmatic children. Despite the development of new biomarkers and the discovery of

  18. What childhood obesity prevention programmes work? A systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Y.; Cai, L.; Wu, Y.; Wilson, R. F.; WESTON, C.; Fawole, O.; Bleich, S. N.; Cheskin, L. J.; Showell, N. N.; Lau, B. D.; Chiu, D T; Zhang, A; Segal, J.

    2015-01-01

    Previous reviews of childhood obesity prevention have focused largely on schools and findings have been inconsistent. Funded by the US Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) and the National Institutes of Health, we systematically evaluated the effectiveness of childhood obesity prevention programmes conducted in high-income countries and implemented in various settings. We searched MEDLINE®, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL®, ClinicalTrials.gov and the Cochrane Library from inception thro...

  19. Randomised controlled trial of the MEND programme: a family-based community intervention for childhood obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Sacher, P. M.

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims Childhood obesity is a serious global public health issue. The number of children affected has increased dramatically in recent years, and despite extensive research in this field, no effective generalisable prevention or treatment interventions have been achieved as yet. The aim of this randomised controlled trial (RCT) was to evaluate the efficacy of the Mind, Exercise, Nutrition, Do it (MEND) programme, a multicomponent communitybased childhood obesity intervention. Met...

  20. Monitoring and Evaluation of an Early Childhood Development Programme: Implications for Leadership and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Sarah; Papatheodorou, Theodora; James, Mary

    2014-01-01

    The article aims to discuss preliminary findings from a participatory monitoring and evaluation (M&E) framework, used in a community-based early childhood development (ECD) programme in KwaZulu-Natal South Africa, and their implications for leadership and management. The purposes of the M&E were for LETCEE, the implementing organization,…

  1. Genetic variants within the MHC region are associated with immune responsiveness to childhood vaccinations☆

    OpenAIRE

    Yucesoy, Berran; Talzhanov, Yerkebulan; Johnson, Victor J.; Wilson, Nevin W.; Biagini, Raymond E.; Wang, Wei; Frye, Bonnie; Weissman, David N.; Germolec, Dori R.; Luster, Michael I; Barmada, Michael M.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of genetic variability within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region on variations in immune responses to childhood vaccination was investigated. The study group consisted of 135 healthy infants who had been immunized with hepatitis B (HBV), 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate (PCV7), and diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccines according to standard childhood immunization schedules. Genotype analysis was performed on genomic DNA using Illumina Goldengate ...

  2. The influence of routine immunizations on atopy development in infancy and childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Grüber, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Early childhood immunizations have been accused to promote atopy development, either directly by the administration of agents which induce a Th2-type immune response or indirectly by the prevention of infections which otherwise would induce a preferential Th1-type immune response, and would thus skew the cytokine balance away from atopy. By contrast, BCG immunization has gained recent interest as an antagonist of exaggerated Th2-type immune response and as a potential atopy preventive tool. ...

  3. Improving Latino Children's Early Language and Literacy Development: Key Features of Early Childhood Education within Family Literacy Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Youngok; Zuniga, Stephen; Howes, Carollee; Jeon, Hyun-Joo; Parrish, Deborah; Quick, Heather; Manship, Karen; Hauser, Alison

    2016-01-01

    Noting the lack of research on how early childhood education (ECE) programmes within family literacy programmes influence Latino children's early language and literacy development, this study examined key features of ECE programmes, specifically teacher-child interactions and child engagement in language and literacy activities and how these…

  4. Childcare immunization programme – to what extent are children covered by vaccinations in Greenland?

    OpenAIRE

    Bjarnason Skifte, Turid

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: New vaccines in the child healthcare programme are regularly considered. When considering the introduction of the Hepatitis-B vaccine into the programme, it was asked to what extent children in Greenland were actually covered by the existing immunization series. Would introducing new vaccines make any sense if the percentage of children immunized was shown to be low? A telephone enquiry conducted in 2000 showed a tendency of very high percentage of full coverage per child (98-99 %...

  5. Expanded Programme on Immunization in Iran: Last 3 Decades Achievements from 1979 to 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MM Gouya

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available "nExpanded Programme on Immunization (EPI in I.R.Iran began in 1984 after establishing of health network for PHC all over the country and reached to high & accepted coverage rates for active immunization of infants against vaccine prevent­able diseases including Diphteria, Tetanus, Pertussis, Measles, Poliomyelitis and Tuberculosis.

  6. Expanded Programme on Immunization in Iran: Last 3 Decades Achievements from 1979 to 2008

    OpenAIRE

    MM Gouya

    2009-01-01

    "nExpanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) in I.R.Iran began in 1984 after establishing of health network for PHC all over the country and reached to high & accepted coverage rates for active immunization of infants against vaccine prevent­able diseases including Diphteria, Tetanus, Pertussis, Measles, Poliomyelitis and Tuberculosis.

  7. Translating national childhood immunization guidelines to a computer-based reminder recall system within an immunization registry.

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, D.; Jenders, R. A.; Dasgupta, B.

    1999-01-01

    To translate national childhood immunization guidelines to a computer-based reminder recall system, hierarchical system architecture design and combined approach of tabular and procedural knowledge representation are taken. Nested branches with hierarchical combinations of single antecedent variables are used to avoid logical incompleteness, redundancy and inconsistency. Mapping to the local electronic medical vocabulary is implemented to facilitate the integration with the local information ...

  8. Expanded programme on immunization and primary health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, R N

    1982-09-01

    The ultimate objective of the Expanded Program on Immunication, better known as EPI, is to reduce the morbidity of the diseases for which vaccine is available. The EPI is a key component of the country effort to provide Health for All by the year 2000. It is planned that by 1990 immunization services will be available for all infants against diphtheria, whooping cough, tetanus, tuberculosis, and poliomyelitis and for all school children for diptheria, tetanus, and typhoid, and for all pregnant women against tetanus. The immunization services will be a part of the comprehensive health care and will be integrated with all hospitals and dispensaries in urban areas and primary health centers/subcenters in the rural areas. Outreach operations are encouraged to bring these services as close to the mother and children as possible. Steps have already been taken to make the country self-sufficient in the production of different quality vaccines to meet the program requirements. New vaccines will be added where found to be epidemiologically necessary and administratively feasible. The vaccination program is effective only if given at the right age. A national immunization schedule has been prepared which emphasizes vaccination of all infants with 1 dose of BCG, 3 doses of DPT and polio at a minimum interval of 1 month, by the 1st birthday. School entrants are given a booster dose of DT and 2 doses of typhoid vaccine at an interval of 1 month. The children leaving primary school and leaving high school are given 1 booster dose of tetanus toxoid. In case of history of tetanus toxoid immunization in the earlier preganancy, 1 booster dose is adequate. Important components of management of EPI are cold chain maintenance, record keeping and evaluation, uniform vaccination coverage standards, and communication with the public through various media. A table gives the number of children/women proposed to be covered with full course of vaccine during each year of the 6th Plan. Disease

  9. Universal Immunization Programme : In Sarojininagar Block Of Lucknow District

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    Nirupam S

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available The immunization status of infants and pregnant mothers in the community development block of Sarojini Nagar, having a population 1.6 lacs, was assessed for the year 1985-86 (pre UIP year and again in 1987-88(post UIP year using 30 cluster random sampling technique as proposed by WHO to study the impact of U.I.P. A significant increase in vaccine and dose-wise coverage was observed, this being 35.7%, 25.2% and 15.5% for DPT I, II & III in pre U.I.P year as compared to 69.5%, 57.1% &44.8% respectively for the post U.I.P year. Similar differences have been observed for OPV, BCG &Measles. A significant decrease in drop out rates has been observed. The percentage of fully vaccinated children although much higher (17.2% as against 1.9% in pre U.I.P. year was still quite low in relation to the envisaged target. However, only 26.6% infants were un-immunized in 1987-88 as compared to 57.6% in 1985-86. T etvac coverage of pregnant mothers has shown a modest increase from 44.3% to 54.8%. Not many changes were observed in main reasons for non-immunization.

  10. Bach2 represses effector programmes to stabilize Treg-mediated immune homeostasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roychoudhuri, Rahul; Hirahara, Kiyoshi; Mousavi, Kambiz; Clever, David; Klebanoff, Christopher A.; Bonelli, Michael; Sciume, Giuseppe; Zare, Hossein; Vahedi, Golnaz; Dema, Barbara; Yu, Zhiya; Liu, Hui; Takahashi, Hayato; Rao, Mahadev; Muranski, Pawel; Crompton, Joseph G.; Punkosdy, George; Bedognetti, Davide; Wang, Ena; Hoffmann, Victoria; Rivera, Juan; Marincola, Francesco M.; Nakamura, Atsushi; Sartorelli, Vittorio; Kanno, Yuka; Gattinoni, Luca; Muto, Akihiko; Igarashi, Kazuhiko; O’Shea, John J.; Restifo, Nicholas P.

    2013-01-01

    Through their functional diversification, distinct lineages of CD4+ T cells play key roles in either driving or constraining immune-mediated pathology. Transcription factors are critical in the generation of cellular diversity, and negative regulators antagonistic to alternate fates often act in conjunction with positive regulators to stabilize lineage commitment1. Genetic polymorphisms within a single locus encoding the transcription factor BACH2 are associated with numerous autoimmune and allergic diseases including asthma2, Crohn’s disease3–4, coeliac disease5, vitiligo6, multiple sclerosis7 and type 1 diabetes8. While these associations point to a shared mechanism underlying susceptibility to diverse immune-mediated diseases, a function for Bach2 in the maintenance of immune homeostasis has not been established. Here, we define Bach2 as a broad regulator of immune activation that stabilizes immunoregulatory capacity while repressing the differentiation programmes of multiple effector lineages in CD4+ T cells. Bach2 was required for efficient formation of regulatory (Treg) cells and consequently for suppression of lethal inflammation in a manner that was Treg cell dependent. Assessment of the genome-wide function of Bach2, however, revealed that it represses genes associated with effector cell differentiation. Consequently, its absence during Treg polarization resulted in inappropriate diversion to effector lineages. In addition, Bach2 constrained full effector differentiation within Th1, Th2 and Th17 cell lineages. These findings identify Bach2 as a key regulator of CD4+ T-cell differentiation that prevents inflammatory disease by controlling the balance between tolerance and immunity. PMID:23728300

  11. Childhood malignancy and maternal diabetes or other auto-immune disease during pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Westbom, L; Åberg, A; Källén, B

    2002-01-01

    Among 4380 children born in 1987–1997 of women with a diagnosis of diabetes and alive at the age of one, 10 were registered in the Swedish Cancer Registry before the end of 1998. The odds ratio for having a childhood cancer after maternal diabetes, stratified for year of birth, maternal age, parity, multiple birth, and 500 g birth weight class was 2.25 (95%CI 1.22–4.15). Among 5842 children born during the period 1973–1997 whose mothers had other auto-immune diseases (SLE, rheumatoid arthriti...

  12. Impact of the CDC's Section 317 Immunization Grants Program funding on childhood vaccination coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rein, David B; Honeycutt, Amanda A; Rojas-Smith, Lucia; Hersey, James C

    2006-09-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Section 317 Grants Program is the main source of funding for state and jurisdictional immunization programs, yet no study has evaluated its direct impact on vaccination coverage rates. Therefore, we used a fixed-effects model and data collected from 56 US jurisdictions to estimate the impact of Section 317 financial assistance immunization grants on childhood vaccination coverage rates from 1997 to 2003. Our results showed that increases in Section 317 funding were significantly and meaningfully associated with higher rates of vaccination coverage; a 10 dollars increase in per capita funding corresponded with a 1.6-percentage-point increase in vaccination coverage. Policymakers charged with funding public health programs should consider this study's findings, which indicate that money allocated to vaccine activities translates directly into higher vaccine coverage rates. PMID:16873738

  13. Digital epidemiology reveals global childhood disease seasonality and the effects of immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Kevin M; Martinez-Bakker, Micaela Elvira; Helm, Barbara; Stevenson, Tyler J

    2016-06-14

    Public health surveillance systems are important for tracking disease dynamics. In recent years, social and real-time digital data sources have provided new means of studying disease transmission. Such affordable and accessible data have the potential to offer new insights into disease epidemiology at national and international scales. We used the extensive information repository Google Trends to examine the digital epidemiology of a common childhood disease, chicken pox, caused by varicella zoster virus (VZV), over an 11-y period. We (i) report robust seasonal information-seeking behavior for chicken pox using Google data from 36 countries, (ii) validate Google data using clinical chicken pox cases, (iii) demonstrate that Google data can be used to identify recurrent seasonal outbreaks and forecast their magnitude and seasonal timing, and (iv) reveal that VZV immunization significantly dampened seasonal cycles in information-seeking behavior. Our findings provide strong evidence that VZV transmission is seasonal and that seasonal peaks show remarkable latitudinal variation. We attribute the dampened seasonal cycles in chicken pox information-seeking behavior to VZV vaccine-induced reduction of seasonal transmission. These data and the methodological approaches provide a way to track the global burden of childhood disease and illustrate population-level effects of immunization. The global latitudinal patterns in outbreak seasonality could direct future studies of environmental and physiological drivers of disease transmission. PMID:27247405

  14. Enhanced immunization coverage through interventions for childhood cluster diseases in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Globally immunisation has to be considered as a most effective and efficient public health intervention to reduce morbidity and mortality among children. Most of the children from developing countries are still not fully immunized due to multiple factors including lack of interventions, awareness, and financial constraints and due to limited resource. Conversely, this review has identified the effectiveness of interventions to increase the immunisation coverage among children of developing countries. Methods: Systematic review by using PRISMA statement (preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses) has been conducted in English published articles on Pub Med, Scopus, Cochrane, Medline and ISI by searching keywords like immunizations, childhood vaccination and developing countries has been accessed. Only randomised controlled trial and quasi-experimental studies designs were included in the final analysis based on quality assessment by adopting the Down and Black checklist and finally pooled analysis was done by random effect model. This systematic review has been approved and registered by University of York. Results: A total of 16,570 published articles were accessed and finally 10 fulfilled our criteria that were analysed and interpreted. It demonstrated that the interventions has shown significantly increase vaccine coverage for childhood cluster diseases (OR 2.136 and p <0.05).Furthermore, it has been proved that an effect was more prominent for DTP (OR 2.397 and p<0.05) and measles (OR 2.628 and p<0.05), not as much for polio (OR 2.284 and p>0.05) and full vaccination schedule (OR 1.342 and p>0.05). Conclusions: Systematic review has concluded that the professional interventions are an effective while in improving the child immunisation coverage for cluster diseases in developing countries, major effect on DTP and measles. (author)

  15. A SURVEY ON THE REASONS FOR NOT BEGINNING OR COMPLETING THE IMMUNIZATION SCHEDULE OF THE EXPANDED PROGRAMME ON IMMUNIZATION IN IRAN

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    K.Nasseri

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available Not beginning or completing the vaccination schedule as recommended in the Expanded Programme on Immunization is one of the major reasons for low immunization coverage. It should be studied in detail for remedial action, if the objectives of the EPI in Iran are to be achieved as stated. Generally, lack of knowledge, lack of motivation and obstacles ore the basic categorical reasons for low coverage. Studies done shows however, that lack of motivation does not seem to play an important role in Iran. Whereas, unawareness of the need for immunization and previous attack of target diseases, mainly measles, is the major components of lack of knowledge. Among obstacles, illness of the child, including afflictions to low fever, uncomplicated diarrhea, and so on, are the most frequently stated reasons for postponement of immunization. Presently, both cases are handled improperly. Diagnosis of measles is not an easy task and there are no contradictions for injecting such a child with live, attenuated measles vaccine. Moreover, fever and mild diarrhea not cause any harmful side effects. Thus the Ministry of Health and Medical Education has officially recommended insisting on immunizing such children. It is only with following such recommendations and actual expansion of the immunization delivery centers, that immunization coverage can be elevated to reach the stated objectives of EPI in Iran.

  16. Severe infectious diseases of childhood as monogenic inborn errors of immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Jean-Laurent

    2015-12-22

    This paper reviews the developments that have occurred in the field of human genetics of infectious diseases from the second half of the 20th century onward. In particular, it stresses and explains the importance of the recently described monogenic inborn errors of immunity underlying resistance or susceptibility to specific infections. The monogenic component of the genetic theory provides a plausible explanation for the occurrence of severe infectious diseases during primary infection. Over the last 20 y, increasing numbers of life-threatening infectious diseases striking otherwise healthy children, adolescents, and even young adults have been attributed to single-gene inborn errors of immunity. These studies were inspired by seminal but neglected findings in plant and animal infections. Infectious diseases typically manifest as sporadic traits because human genotypes often display incomplete penetrance (most genetically predisposed individuals remain healthy) and variable expressivity (different infections can be allelic at the same locus). Infectious diseases of childhood, once thought to be archetypal environmental diseases, actually may be among the most genetically determined conditions of mankind. This nascent and testable notion has interesting medical and biological implications. PMID:26621750

  17. The performance of the expanded programme on immunization in a rural area of Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanaspa, Miguel; Balcells, Reyes; Sacoor, Charfudin; Nhama, Abel; Aponte, John J; Bassat, Quique

    2015-09-01

    Vaccines are an effective public health measure. Vaccination coverage has improved in Africa in the last decades but has still not reached WHO/UNICEF target of at least 90% first-dose coverage for vaccines in the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) implemented in Mozambique in 1979. There are concerns about reliability of vaccination coverage official data from low-income countries, and inequities in vaccine administration. We randomly sampled 266 under-five years children from Taninga, a poor rural area in Southern Mozambique under a Demographic surveillance system and collected data directly from the individual national health cards when available (BCG, DTP/HepB/Hib, Polio, Measles). We also collected data on socio-economic variables through an interview. Overall, only 5% of the participants did not receive all the doses of the vaccines included in the EPI in a timely manner (overall vaccination coverage 95%, 95% CI: 93.5-95.5%). The socio-economic status was homogenously low and no differences were found between vaccinated and unvaccinated children. Vaccination coverage in Taninga was very high, despite the low socio-economic status of the population. The high performance of the EPI in Taninga is an encouraging experience for achieving high vaccination coverage in low-income rural settings. PMID:26095045

  18. Development of a childhood obesity prevention programme with a focus on UK South Asian communities ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Pallan, Miranda; Parry, Jayne; Cheng, K. K.; Adab, Peymané

    2013-01-01

    Objective We report the development of a childhood obesity prevention intervention for UK South Asian primary school-aged children, guided by the UK Medical Research Council (MRC) framework for complex intervention development and evaluation. Methods We combined information gained from a literature review, stakeholder focus groups, an expert group, review of local resources and mapping to the Analysis Grid for Environments Linked to Obesity (ANGELO framework) in an intervention development pr...

  19. Interventions for Childhood Obesity Control in Cyprus: An analysis and Evaluation of Programmes and Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgianna Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last twenty years, there has been an increase in the prevalence of obesity with a simultaneous increase in chronic diseases.Aim: The aim of this literature review is to discuss available interventions for childhood obesity (2-11 years and to propose effective prevention policies for the Republic of Cyprus.Methods: Childhood obesity prevention and intervention programs in Cyprus were analysed using SWOT analysis and evaluation protocols for compatibility and sustainability among health professionals andgovernment partners.Results: The preliminary literature review reveals that there are specific short comings with regards to the existing NHS and public health. The sustainability of existing health policies and implemented programs is questionable as there are no coherent monitoring systems in place. There are many worthwhile programsand organizations that are often delayed due to conflict of interest.Conclusions: Analysis shows that the implementation, via a Cypriot National Health System, of public health strategies could be effective means of addressing specifically childhood obesity. This includes a more active role for the family physician and policies of a multi- level strategy, aiming as fostering innovative public-private healthcare collaborations, supported by educational institutions, infrastructure, legislation and the wider society.However, such strategies are needed on a long-term basis and throughout a person’s life span.

  20. Efforts of the human immune system to maintain the peripheral CD8+ T cell compartment after childhood thymectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Zlamy, Manuela; Almanzar, Giovanni; Parson, Walther; Schmidt, Christian; Leierer, Johannes; Weinberger, Birgit; Jeller, Verena; Unsinn, Karin; Eyrich, Matthias; Würzner, Reinhard; Prelog, Martina

    2016-01-01

    Background Homeostatic mechanisms to maintain the T cell compartment diversity indicate an ongoing process of thymic activity and peripheral T cell renewal during human life. These processes are expected to be accelerated after childhood thymectomy and by the influence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) inducing a prematurely aged immune system. The study aimed to investigate proportional changes and replicative history of CD8+ T cells, of recent thymic emigrants (RTEs) and CD103+ T cells (mostly gut-e...

  1. Initial Management of Childhood Acute Immune Thrombocytopenia: Single-Center Experience of 32 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Inci; Ozdemir, Nihal; Celkan, Tiraje; Soylu, Selen; Karaman, Serap; Canbolat, Aylin; Dogru, Omer; Erginoz, Ethem; Apak, Hilmi

    2015-01-01

    Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an acute self-limited disease of childhood, mostly resolving within 6 months irrespective of whether therapy is given or not. Treatment options when indicated include corticosteroids, intravenous immune globulin (IVIG), and anti-RhD immunoglobulin. We reviewed our 32 years' experience for first-line therapy of acute ITP. Five hundred forty-one children (mean age: 5.3 years) diagnosed and treated for ITP were evaluated retrospectively. Among 491 acute ITP patients, IVIG was used in 27%, high-dose steroids in 27%, low-dose steroids in 20%, anti-D immunoglobulin G (IgG) in 2%, and no therapy in 22%. When the initial response (platelets >50 × 10(9)/L) to first-line treatment modalities were compared, 89%, 84%, and 78% patients treated by low-dose steroids, high-dose steroids, and IVIG responded to treatment, respectively (P > .05). Mean time to recovery of platelets was 16.8, 3.8, and 3.0 days in patients treated with low-dose steroids, high-dose steroids, and IVIG, respectively (P < .0001). Thrombocytopenia recurred in 23% of low-dose steroid, 39% of high-dose steroid, and in 36% of IVIG (P < .0001) treatment groups. Of 108 patients who were observed alone, 4 (3%) had a recurrence on follow-up and only 2 of these required treatment subsequently. Recurrence was significantly less in no therapy group compared with children treated with 1 of the 3 options of pharmacotherapy (P < .0001). Response rates were similar between patients treated by IVIG and low- and high-dose steroids; however, time to response was slower in patients treated with low-dose steroids compared with IVIG and high-dose steroids. PMID:26154620

  2. More technology, better childhoods? The case of the Portuguese ‘One Laptop per Child’ Programme

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Sara

    2013-01-01

    In 2008, the XVII Portuguese socialist government launched the initiative ‘e.escolinha’ as a programme within its ‘Technological Plan for Education’. This initiative aims to ensure access for all primary school children to a personal computer named ‘Magalhães’ with educational content and generalize the use of computers and the Internet in early learning. This paper presents a documental analysis of policy documents, complemented by interviews of policy makers, examining the ways children ...

  3. The future is in childhood: Evaluation of the quality of sustainability programmes in the early years

    OpenAIRE

    López-Alcarria Abigail; Gutiérrez-Pérez José; Rodríguez-Sabiote Clemente; Poza-Vilches Fátima

    2016-01-01

    During the last decade Environmental Education (EE) programs have drawn attraction from both experts and educators as a way to answer the increasing preoccupation about the different challenges and problems faced by the Environment. For this reason, many schools have started programmes and strategies related to EE with different success. In this work, we have carried out a case study over 30 teachers of Early Years Education (EYE), working at preschools in Granada, Spain, in order to assess t...

  4. Study of compliance with a new, targeted antenatal D immunization prevention programme in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkjaer, M B; Perslev, A; Clausen, F B;

    2012-01-01

    A targeted routine antenatal anti-D prophylaxis programme was implemented in Denmark where anti-D immunoglobulin is given based on the result from noninvasive antenatal screening for fetal RHD. Our objective was to evaluate compliance with this new programme right after its initiation. Materials and...

  5. Cord blood gene expression supports that prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances causes depressed immune functionality in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennings, Jeroen L A; Jennen, Danyel G J; Nygaard, Unni C; Namork, Ellen; Haug, Line S; van Loveren, Henk; Granum, Berit

    2016-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a class of synthetic compounds that have widespread use in consumer and industrial applications. PFAS are considered environmental pollutants that have various toxic properties, including effects on the immune system. Recent human studies indicate that prenatal exposure to PFAS leads to suppressed immune responses in early childhood. In this study, data from the Norwegian BraMat cohort was used to investigate transcriptomics profiles in neonatal cord blood and their association with maternal PFAS exposure, anti-rubella antibody levels at 3 years of age and the number of common cold episodes until 3 years. Genes associated with PFAS exposure showed enrichment for immunological and developmental functions. The analyses identified a toxicogenomics profile of 52 PFAS exposure-associated genes that were in common with genes associated with rubella titers and/or common cold episodes. This gene set contains several immunomodulatory genes (CYTL1, IL27) as well as other immune-associated genes (e.g. EMR4P, SHC4, ADORA2A). In addition, this study identified PPARD as a PFAS toxicogenomics marker. These markers can serve as the basis for further mechanistic or epidemiological studies. This study provides a transcriptomics connection between prenatal PFAS exposure and impaired immune function in early childhood and supports current views on PPAR- and NF-κB-mediated modes of action. The findings add to the available evidence that PFAS exposure is immunotoxic in humans and support regulatory policies to phase out these substances. PMID:25812627

  6. Should hepatitis B vaccination be introduced into childhood immunisation programmes in northern Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, Jane; van Hattum, Jan; Cafferkey, Mary; Gjørup, Ida; Hoel, Terje; Rummukainen, Maija-Liisa; Weiland, Ola

    2007-06-01

    Infection with hepatitis B causes between 500,000 and 1.2 million deaths per year worldwide, and is the leading cause of liver cancer. Over 12 years ago, WHO recommended that universal childhood hepatitis B vaccination be implemented globally. Despite this, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Ireland, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, and the UK have yet to implement such a policy and instead currently adopt an "at-risk" strategy. Although all eight countries are classed as having low endemicity, factors such as increased travel and integration of immigrant communities are increasing the number of at-risk individuals in these countries. Considering the difficulty in identifying all at-risk individuals, and the lack of effectiveness of at-risk vaccination on reducing the overall incidence of hepatitis B, we recommend that these countries reassess their hepatitis B prevention strategies. Universal vaccination against hepatitis B is the only way to eliminate the major public-health impact of this disease. PMID:17521594

  7. Immunity and infectious morbidity in childhood ALL treatment : the benefits of intensity reduction

    OpenAIRE

    van Tilburg, C M

    2011-01-01

    With current childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treatment protocols the cure rate approaches 90%. In the 10 percent of case fatalities, 2 major challenges stand out: incurable relapses of ALL and (infectious) deaths-in-remission. Thus, reducing toxicity is becoming an important goal to further improve childhood ALL survival. The Dutch Childhood Oncology Group (DCOG) ALL 10 protocol was designed to investigate whether a reduction of chemotherapeutic treatment intensity after a standa...

  8. The future is in childhood: Evaluation of the quality of sustainability programmes in the early years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López-Alcarria Abigail

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade Environmental Education (EE programs have drawn attraction from both experts and educators as a way to answer the increasing preoccupation about the different challenges and problems faced by the Environment. For this reason, many schools have started programmes and strategies related to EE with different success. In this work, we have carried out a case study over 30 teachers of Early Years Education (EYE, working at preschools in Granada, Spain, in order to assess the implementation of Environmental Education in their daily practice. By means of an interview protocol we have gathered information about 15 different categories encompassed in topics which are central to EE such as curricular innovation, participation of the educational community and sustainable management of the school. Results show how teachers are positive regarding the inclusion of EE in their daily practice and the participation of the community. On the other hand we observed the difficulties faced by the educators to effectively implement EE programs due to lack of economic support by the Administration and the need to carry out an objective consultancy to overcome possible biases which may exist when teachers evaluate their own performance.

  9. Trends in anti-D immune globulin for childhood immune thrombocytopenia: Usage, response rates, and adverse effects

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Michelle; Kalish, Leslie A.; Neufeld, Ellis J.; Grace, Rachael F.

    2011-01-01

    In 2010, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) added a black box warning to anti-D immune globulin (Rho(D) immune globulin, anti-D) for immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) to warn of the complications related to severe hemolysis. The objective of this retrospective medical record review was to examine recent trends in anti-D use to treat ITP and rates of adverse events in a single large pediatric hematology program. Over a 7-year period, 176 (35%) of 502 ITP patients at our center received anti-D....

  10. The impact of WIC and AFDC in screening and delivering childhood immunizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkhead, G S; Cicirello, H G; Talarico, J

    1996-01-01

    Two publicly funded programs, the Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) and Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), serve large numbers of children who may be at risk for poor immunization status. A review of the literature as well as conference abstracts and program reports for studies of immunization initiatives carried out in these settings was conducted. Although the available literature is limited, it does indicate that children in these programs have low immunization levels and that interventions to improve their immunization status can be successful. Measures to improve immunization status should be implemented through WIC and AFDC. PMID:10186653

  11. Safety evaluation in mice of the childhood immunization vaccines from two south-eastern states of Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oli; Angus; Nnamdi; Agu; Remigus; Uchenna; Oli; Ugochukwu; Chinedum; Nwoye; Charles; Ugochukwu; Ejiofor; Obiora; Shedrack; Esimone; Charles; Okechukwu

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To check the effects of the vaccines on the hematopoietic system and weight of mice after immunization.Methods:The study was done with the Expanded Programme on Immunization vaccines donated by the Ministries of Health of Abia and Imo States of Nigeria.The vaccines were collected from the cold-chain stores and transported in vaccine carriers to the cold-chain facility in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital within 3 hours of collection.They were used to immunize a total of 160 mice.The Ethics Committee of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital,Nnewi of Anambra State,Nigeria approved the protocol.Results:Mice body weight changes test showed that the mice all had increased body weight at Days 3 and 7 post-immunization and none died during the 7 d post-immunization observation.The percentage weight gains of the mice compared with the control were 69%.70%,64%.63%,65%and 68%for oral polio vaccine,diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus.bacillus CalmetteGuerin,measles,yellow fever and hepatitis B vaccines respectively collected from Imo State.The mice immunized with oral polio vaccine,pentavalent.bacillus Calmette-Guerin.measles,yellow fever and hepatitis B vaccines collected from Abia State had 123%.114%,121%.116%,142%and 119%weight gain respectively compared with the control.Leukocytosis promoting toxicity test showed that none of the vaccines was able to induce proliferation of leukocytes up to ten folds.Leukopenic toxicity test showed that all the vaccines had an leukopenic toxicity test value higher than 80%of the control(physiological saline).Conclusions:The vaccine samples tested were safe and did not affect the hematopoietic system adversely.The storage conditions of the vaccines in the States’ cold-chain stores had not compromised the safety of the vaccines.

  12. Prenatal arachidonic acid exposure and selected immune-related variables in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirix, Chantal E. H.; Hogervorst, Janneke G. F.; Rump, Patrick; Hendriks, Johannes J. E.; Bruins, Maaike; Hornstra, Gerard

    2009-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is considered essential in fetal development and some of its metabolites are thought to be important mediators of the immune responses. Therefore, we studied whether prenatal exposure to AA is associated with some immune-related clinical conditions and plasma markers in childho

  13. Immunity and infectious morbidity in childhood ALL treatment : the benefits of intensity reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tilburg, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    With current childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treatment protocols the cure rate approaches 90%. In the 10 percent of case fatalities, 2 major challenges stand out: incurable relapses of ALL and (infectious) deaths-in-remission. Thus, reducing toxicity is becoming an important goal to fur

  14. Advances in childhood immunisation in South Africa: where to now? Programme managers’ views and evidence from systematic reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Wiysonge Charles; Ngcobo Nthombenhle J; Jeena Prakash M; Madhi Shabir A; Schoub Barry D; Hawkridge Anthony; Shey Muki S; Hussey Gregory D

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI) is one of the most powerful and cost-effective public health programmes to improve child survival. We assessed challenges and enablers for the programme in South Africa, as we approach the 2015 deadline for the Millennium Development Goals. Methods Between September 2009 and September 2010 we requested national and provincial EPI managers in South Africa to identify key challenges facing EPI, and to propose appropriate solutions...

  15. Digital epidemiology reveals global childhood disease seasonality and the effects of immunization

    OpenAIRE

    Bakker, Kevin M.; Martinez-Bakker, Micaela Elvira; Helm, Barbara; Stevenson, Tyler J.

    2016-01-01

    Public health surveillance systems are important for tracking disease dynamics. In recent years, social and real-time digital data sources have provided new means of studying disease transmission. Such affordable and accessible data have the potential to offer new insights into disease epidemiology at national and international scales. We used the extensive information repository Google Trends to examine the digital epidemiology of a common childhood disease, chicken pox, caused b...

  16. Impact of the introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in the Brazilian routine childhood national immunization program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Marta; Cintra, Otavio; Harriague, Julie; Hausdorff, William P; Hoet, Bernard

    2016-05-27

    Brazil introduced the 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV, Synflorix™, GSK Vaccines) in the routine childhood immunization program in 2010 with a 3+1 schedule (with catch-up for children pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on nasopharyngeal carriage and all the major pneumococcal disease manifestations in a single, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine-naïve, developing country. A total of 15 published articles and 13 congress abstracts were included in the analysis. In children vaccine-type and any-type invasive pneumococcal disease (including decreases in pneumococcal meningitis morbidity and mortality), on pneumonia incidence and mortality, and on otitis media. Nasopharyngeal carriage of vaccine-type and any-type pneumococci decreased after the primary doses, with no early signs of replacement with other pathogens. Finally, herd protection against vaccine-type invasive pneumococcal disease and pneumonia in unvaccinated subjects was shown in some studies for some age groups. In conclusion, pneumococcal disease decreased after the introduction of PHiD-CV into the Brazilian national immunization program. Further follow-up is needed to evaluate the long-term overall impact of PHiD-CV in the Brazilian population. PMID:27113162

  17. Using Human Factors Techniques to Design Text Message Reminders for Childhood Immunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlers-Schmidt, Carolyn R.; Hart, Traci; Chesser, Amy; Williams, Katherine S.; Yaghmai, Beryl; Shah-Haque, Sapna; Wittler, Robert R.

    2012-01-01

    This study engaged parents to develop concise, informative, and comprehensible text messages for an immunization reminder system using Human Factors techniques. Fifty parents completed a structured interview including demographics, technology questions, willingness to receive texts from their child's doctor, and health literacy. Each participant…

  18. Global action plan for childhood diarrhoea: Developing research priorities Report from a Workshop of the Programme for Global Paediatric Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvin Zipursky

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Childhood diarrhoea remains a major public health problem responsible for the deaths of approximately 800 000 children annually, worldwide. The present study was undertaken to further define research priorities for the prevention and treatment of diarrhoea in low and middle income countries. We used the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI process for defining research priorities. This provided a transparent, systematic method of obtaining the opinions of experts regarding research priorities in childhood diarrhoea. The present report describes the deliberations of a workshop that reviewed these research priorities by stakeholders including colleagues from: government agencies, academic institutions, major funding agencies and non–governmental organizations.

  19. An exploratory qualitative assessment of factors influencing childhood vaccine providers' intention to recommend immunization in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mollema Liesbeth

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Under the Dutch national immunization program (NIP, childhood vaccination is not mandatory, but its recommendation by childhood vaccine providers (CVP is important for maintaining high vaccination coverage. We therefore examined factors related to providers' intentions to recommend vaccinations to parents of young children. Methods We conducted four focus group discussions with nurses and physicians who provide vaccines to children 0-4 years old in diverse regions of the Netherlands. Three groups represented CVPs at child welfare centers (CWCs serving the general population, with the fourth representing anthroposophical CWCs. Elements of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB were used to design the groups; thematic analysis was used to structure and analyze the dataset. Results Four main themes emerged, including 1 perceived responsibility: to promote vaccines and discuss pros and cons with parents (although this was usually not done if parents readily accepted the vaccination; 2 attitudes toward the NIP: mainly positive, but doubts as to NIP plans to vaccinate against diseases with a low perceived burden; 3 organizational factors: limited time and information can hamper discussions with parents; 4 relationship with parents: crucial and based mainly on communication to establish trust. Compared to CVPs at standard CWCs, the anthroposophical CWCs spent more time communicating and were more willing to adapt the NIP to individual cases. Conclusions Our qualitative assessment provides an overview of beliefs associated with providers' intention to recommend vaccinations. They were motivated to support the NIP, but their intentions to recommend vaccinations were affected by the perceived relevance of the vaccines, practical issues like limited time and by certain types of resistant parents. These results will inform future studies to test the magnitude and relative impact of these factors.

  20. Early cellular immune response to a new candidate mycobacterial vaccine antigen in childhood tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepers, K; Dirix, V; Mouchet, F; Verscheure, V; Lecher, S; Locht, C; Mascart, F

    2015-02-18

    The search for novel vaccines against tuberculosis (TB) would benefit from in-depths knowledge of the human immune responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. Here, we characterised in a low TB incidence country, the immune responses to a new candidate vaccine antigen against TB, the heparin-binding haemagglutinin (HBHA), in young children in contact with an active TB case (aTB). Children with no history of BCG vaccination were compared to those vaccinated at birth to compare the initial immune responses to HBHA with secondary immune responses. Fifty-eight children with aTB and 76 with latent TB infection (LTBI) were included and they were compared to 90 non-infected children. Whereas Mtb-infected children globally secreted more interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) in response to HBHA compared to the non-infected children, these IFN-γ concentrations were higher in previously BCG-vaccinated compared to non-vaccinated children. The IFN-γ concentrations were similar in LTBI and aTB children, but appeared to differ qualitatively. Whereas the IFN-γ secretion induced by native methylated and recombinant non-methylated HBHA were well correlated for aTB, this was not the case for LTBI children. Thus, Mtb-infected young children develop IFN-γ responses to HBHA that are enhanced by prior BCG vaccination, indicating BCG-induced priming, thereby supporting a prime-boost strategy for HBHA-based vaccines. The qualitative differences between aTB and LTBI in their HBHA-induced IFN-γ responses may perhaps be exploited for diagnostic purposes. PMID:25583385

  1. Noncontaminated Dietary Oats May Hamper Normalization of the Intestinal Immune Status in Childhood Celiac Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Sjöberg, Veronika; Hollén, Elisabet; Pietz, Grzegorz; Magnusson, Karl-Eric; Fälth-Magnusson, Karin; Sundström, Mia; Holmgren Peterson, Kajsa; Sandström, Olof; Hernell, Olle; Hammarström, Sten; Högberg, Lotta; Hammarström, Marie-Louise

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Life-long, strict gluten-free diet (GFD) is the only treatment for celiac disease (CD). Because there is still uncertainty regarding the safety of oats for CD patients, the aim was to investigate whether dietary oats influence the immune status of their intestinal mucosa. METHODS: Paired small intestinal biopsies, before and after >11 months on a GFD, were collected from children with CD who were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind intervention trial to either of two diets: ...

  2. Measles--mumps--rubella immunization: the role of the general practitioner in achieving a high uptake.

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, D.; Roworth, M; Carter, H; Jones, I G

    1989-01-01

    A survey of all general practitioners in Fife conducted prior to the introduction of measles-mumps-rubella immunization on a pilot basis in May 1987 showed that 85% considered mumps worth preventing and 94% believed the rubella programme worth augmenting with universal childhood immunization. Ninety seven per cent considered measles worth preventing and 98% were prepared to recommend measles-mumps-rubella immunization to parents instead of measles vaccine. One year after introducing the measl...

  3. Using human factors techniques to design text message reminders for childhood immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlers-Schmidt, Carolyn R; Hart, Traci; Chesser, Amy; Williams, Katherine S; Yaghmai, Beryl; Shah-Haque, Sapna; Wittler, Robert R

    2012-10-01

    This study engaged parents to develop concise, informative, and comprehensible text messages for an immunization reminder system using Human Factors techniques. Fifty parents completed a structured interview including demographics, technology questions, willingness to receive texts from their child's doctor, and health literacy. Each participant was assigned to one user-centered design test: card sort, needs analysis, or comprehension. The majority of respondents were female (90%), White non-Hispanic (62%), and averaged 29 years (SD = 5). Nearly all (96%) had "adequate" health literacy. The card sort, an activity in which end users organize information into categories, identified six pieces of critical information. These were compiled into eight example texts, which were ranked in the needs assessment. The top two were assessed for comprehension, with 100% of participants able to understand the content and describe intention to act. Using user-centered design methods, the authors developed concise, informative text messages that parents indicated would prompt them to schedule their child's immunization appointment. PMID:21986245

  4. Controversies in the diagnosis and management of childhood acute immune thrombocytopenic purpura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segel, George B; Feig, Stephen A

    2009-09-01

    Acute immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) occurs most commonly in young children who present with severe isolated thrombocytopenia and purpura. A marrow examination is not required unless glucocorticoids are used, lest treatment mask incipient acute lymphoblastic leukemia, but controversy exists here. The recommendations for evaluation and management remain controversial, since prospective controlled trials have not been done. There is some consensus based on experience and empiric data. Almost all children with acute ITP will recover completely without therapy. Although the various treatments may increase the platelet count, they do not influence the outcome of the illness, may increase cost, and cause significant side effects. Therefore, careful observation may be the best management option for the patient with ITP, in the absence of severe bleeding. The data available relevant to these issues are discussed. PMID:19165890

  5. How is childhood development of immunity to Plasmodium falciparum enhanced by certain antimalarial interventions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schellenberg David

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The development of acquired protective immunity to Plasmodium falciparum infection in young African children is considered in the context of three current strategies for malaria prevention: insecticide-impregnated bed nets or curtains, anti-sporozoite vaccines and intermittent preventive therapy. Evidence is presented that each of these measures may permit attenuated P. falciparum blood-stage infections, which do not cause clinical malaria but can act as an effective blood-stage "vaccine". It is proposed that the extended serum half-life, and rarely considered liver-stage prophylaxis provided by the anti-folate combination sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine frequently lead to such attenuated infections in high transmission areas, and thus contribute to the sustained protection from malaria observed among children receiving the combination as intermittent preventative therapy or for parasite clearance in vaccine trials.

  6. Retrospective analysis of rituximab therapy and splenectomy in childhood chronic and refractory immune thrombocytopenic purpura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ay, Yilmaz; Karapinar, Tuba H; Oymak, Yesim; Toret, Ersin; Demirag, Bengu; Ince, Dilek; Ozcan, Esin; Moueminoglou, Nergial; Koker, Sultan A; Vergin, Canan

    2016-06-01

    Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) results from accelerated platelet destruction mediated by autoantibodies to platelet glycoproteins. Some patients with chronic ITP are refractory to all therapies [steroids, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), anti-D and immunosuppresive drugs] and have chronic low platelet counts and episodic bleeding. We retrospectively evaluated the efficacy and safety of rituximab treatment and splenectomy in paediatric patients diagnosed with chronic and refractory ITP who were unresponsive to steroids, IVIG, cyclosporine and mycophenolate mofetil. Records of patients with chronic and refractory ITP in 459 patients with primary ITP who were followed up in our hospital from January 2005 to December 2014 were reviewed. Fifteen of patients received rituximab and/or applied splenectomy. Fifteen chronic ITP patients (10 boys, five girls) with a mean age of 10 years were enrolled in the study. Two of these patients were suffering from Evans syndrome. The median time since diagnosis of ITP was 10 years. The median follow-up duration after starting Rituximab and splenectomy were 13 and 9.5 months, respectively.None of the seven patients who were treated with rituximab achieved a response. A splenectomy was performed in six of the seven patients who had been treated with rituximab. Complete and partial responses were achieved in 67 and 33% of the patients, respectively. We evaluated the clinical characteristics and responses of chronic ITP patients who did not receive rituximab therapy and underwent a splenectomy. The success rate was 100% in the eight patients with chronic and refractory ITP. Rituximab therapy might not be beneficial for some children with severe chronic ITP who are refractory to standard agents. A splenectomy might be useful and preferable to rituximab. PMID:26656905

  7. A cluster randomised school-based lifestyle intervention programme for the prevention of childhood obesity and related early cardiovascular disease (JuvenTUM 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haller Bernhard

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Childhood obesity is not only associated with adult obesity but also with increased risk of adult onset of type 2 diabetes and subsequent coronary heart disease. The potential effects of school-based health intervention programmes on cardiovascular risk and surrogate markers are unclear, as only few studies have attempted to investigate a complete risk profile including a detailed laboratory analysis or micro- and macrovascular function. In this study a comprehensive school-based randomized intervention programme will be investigated in 10-14-year old children addressing the influence of lifestyle intervention on inactivity, cardiometabolic risk factors and early signs of vascular disease. Methods/Design 15 secondary schools in Southern Germany are randomly assigned to intervention or control schools. Children in the fifth grade (10-11 years will be observed over four years. The study combines a school-based with a home-based approach, aiming at children, teachers and parents. The main components are weekly lifestyle-lessons for children, taught by regular classroom teachers to increase physical activity in- and outside of school, to improve eating patterns at school and at home, to reduce media consumption and to amplify well-being. In 4-6 annual meetings, teachers receive information about health-related topics with worksheets for children and supporting equipment, accounting for school-specific needs and strategies. Parents' trainings are provided on a regular basis. All examinations are performed at the beginning and at the end of every school year. Anthropometry includes measurements of BMI, waist and upper arm circumferences, skinfold thickness as well as peripheral blood pressure. Blood sampling includes lipid parameters, insulin, glucose, hsCRP, adiponectin, and IL-6 as well as testosteron and estrogen to determine maturation status. Vascular function is non-invasively assessed by measuring arterial stiffness in large

  8. Advances in childhood immunisation in South Africa: where to now? Programme managers’ views and evidence from systematic reviews

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    Wiysonge Charles

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI is one of the most powerful and cost-effective public health programmes to improve child survival. We assessed challenges and enablers for the programme in South Africa, as we approach the 2015 deadline for the Millennium Development Goals. Methods Between September 2009 and September 2010 we requested national and provincial EPI managers in South Africa to identify key challenges facing EPI, and to propose appropriate solutions. We collated their responses and searched for systematic reviews on the effectiveness of the proposed solutions; in the Health Systems Evidence, Cochrane Library, and PubMed electronic databases. We screened the search outputs, selected systematic reviews, extracted data, and assessed the quality of included reviews (using AMSTAR and the quality of the evidence (using GRADE in duplicate; resolving disagreements by discussion and consensus. Results Challenges identified by EPI managers were linked to healthcare workers (insufficient knowledge of vaccines and immunisation, the public (anti-immunisation rumours and reluctance from parents, and health system (insufficient financial and human resources. Strategies proposed by managers to overcome the challenges include training, supervision, and audit and feedback; strengthening advocacy and social mobilisation; and sustainable EPI funding schemes, respectively. The findings from reliable systematic reviews indicate that interactive educational meetings, audit and feedback, and supportive supervision improve healthcare worker performance. Structured and interactive communication tools probably increase parents’ understanding of immunisation; and reminders and recall, use of community health workers, conditional cash transfers, and mass media interventions probably increase immunisation coverage. Finally, a national social health insurance scheme is a potential EPI financing mechanism; however, given the absence

  9. Community participation and childhood immunization coverage: A comparative study of rural and urban communities of Bayelsa State, south-south Nigeria

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    Kalamawei Itimi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Immunization coverage rates in Nigeria have remained very poor, in spite of numerous programs and strategies, specifically designed to improve coverage. This study was to assess the possible effects of greater community participation on immunization coverage, by comparing the immunization coverage in a rural community with a functional community health committee, with an urban community, with no distinct community structure. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in Ondewari, a rural, riverine community, in Bayelsa State; and Yenagoa, the capital of Bayelsa State, south-south Nigeria; using a cross-sectional, comparative study design. The data were collected using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire, administered on female head of households in both communities, with under-five children; and used to collect information on the socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents, the immunization status of children in the household below the age of 2 years, and reasons for none and incomplete immunization. Results: A total of 288 respondents were studied in the rural community, while 270 respondents were studied in the urban center. The respondents in the urban center were significantly younger (P<0.01, better educated (P<0.001, and had fewer number of children (P<0.01. The immunization status of children in the rural community was significantly better than those in the urban community (P<0.000. Only 11.46% of the children in the rural community were not immunized, compared to 47.04% in the urban community. However, the dropout rate in the rural community was much higher; with a DPT dropout rate of 77.34%, compared to 12.39% in the urban community. Most of the reasons given in the urban community for the incomplete immunization were linked lack of motivation, and include relocation (11.34% and the adverse rumor about childhood immunization (17.23%, while the reasons in the rural community were mostly health

  10. The impact of vaccine side effects on the natural history of immunization programmes: an imitation-game approach

    OpenAIRE

    D'Onofrio, Alberto; Manfredi, Piero; Poletti, Piero

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Abstract When the incidence and prevalence of most common vaccine preventable childhood infectious diseases are constantly low, as is the case in many industrialized countries, the incidence of vaccine-associated side effects might become a key determinant in vaccine demand. We study an SIR transmission model with dynamic vaccine demand based on an imitation mechanism where the perceived risk of vaccination is modelled as a function of the incidence of vaccine s...

  11. Immunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008254 Prokaryotic expression and immunogenicity of Fba,a novel fibronectin-binding protein of group A streptococcus.MA Cuiqing(马翠柳),et al.Dept Immunol,Basic Med Coll,Hebei Med Univ,Shijiazhuang 050017.Chin J Infect Dis 2008;26(3):146-150.Objective To express the novel fibronectin-binding protein Fba ofgroupAstreptococcus(GAS)and analyze its immunogenicity,so to evaluate the immune responses to GAS infection.Methods fbagene was amplified by

  12. The use of innate immune responses as biomarkers in a programme of integrated biological effects monitoring on flounder (Platichthys flesus) from the southern North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skouras, Andreas; Broeg, Katja; Dizer, Halim; von Westernhagen, Hein; Hansen, Peter-Diedrich; Steinhagen, Dieter

    2003-10-01

    Immunological biomarkers that reflect the effects of exposure to environmental contaminants in coastal marine habitats were sought in European flounder (Platichthys flesus) from five locations in the German Bight with different anthropogenic impacts. During a 2-year period of sampling, innate immune responses were monitored from a total of 331 individual flounder of a body length of 18 to 25 cm. From the fish, plasma lysozyme, phagocytosis and respiratory burst activity of head kidney leucocytes were analysed and implemented as part of an integrated biological effects monitoring programme. As the measurements of the parameters applied here varied within wide ranges at some locations, spatial differences could not always be established, but some general trends could be drawn: plasma lysozyme activity was decreased in flounder contaminated with DDT adducts and some PCBs, while cellular functions such as phagocytosis and respiratory burst were stimulated by some chlorinated hydrocarbons. Correlation analysis also revealed connections not only between the parameters applied here and some contaminants but also with some biochemical parameters used as biomarkers in pollution monitoring: in flounder with decreased integrity of hepatocyte lysosomal membranes, immune functions also were impaired, and plasma lysozyme as well as phagocytosis activity of head kidney cells were impaired when the activity of cytochrome P450 1A was induced. The data presented here indicate that innate immune responses may be useful parameters to monitor cellular functions in a battery of biomarkers of different levels of biological organisation.

  13. Disappearance of Vaccine-Type Invasive Pneumococcal Disease and Emergence of Serotype 19A in a Minority Population with a High Prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Low Childhood Immunization Rates▿

    OpenAIRE

    Tasslimi, Azadeh; Sison, Erica J.; Story, Elizabeth; Alland, David; Burday, Michele; Morrison, Susan; Nalmas, Sandhya; Smith, Stephen; Thomas, Pauline A.; Wenger, Peter; Sinha, Anushua

    2009-01-01

    We analyzed the epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) following introduction of pneumococcal conjugated vaccine in an urban population with a 2% human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence and history of low childhood immunization rates. We observed near-elimination of vaccine-type IPD. Substantial disease remains due to non-vaccine-type pneumococci, highlighting the need to increase pneumococcal immunization among HIV-infected adults.

  14. The Seroepidemiology of Haemophilus influenzae Type B Prior to Introduction of an Immunization Programme in Kathmandu, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, Andrew S. J.; Barker, Charlotte I S; Pulickal, Anoop S.; Elizabeth Kibwana; Samir C Gautam; Elizabeth A Clutterbuck; Stephen M Thorson; Shrijana Shrestha; Neelam Adhikari; Andrew J Pollard; Kelly, Dominic F.

    2014-01-01

    Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) is now recognized as an important pathogen in Asia. To evaluate disease susceptibility, and as a marker of Hib transmission before routine immunization was introduced in Kathmandu, 71 participants aged 7 months-77 years were recruited and 15 cord blood samples were collected for analysis of anti-polyribosylribitol phosphate antibody levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Only 20% of children under 5 years old had levels considered protective (>0.15 µg...

  15. The acceptability of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infants (IPTi delivered through the expanded programme of immunization in southern Tanzania

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    Mrisho Mwifadhi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infants (IPTi reduces the incidence of clinical malaria. However, before making decisions about implementation, it is essential to ensure that IPTi is acceptable, that it does not adversely affect attitudes to immunization or existing health seeking behaviour. This paper reports on the reception of IPTi during the first implementation study of IPTi in southern Tanzania. Methods Data were collected through in-depth interviews, focus group discussions and participant observation carried out by a central team of social scientists and a network of key informants/interviewers who resided permanently in the study sites. Results IPTi was generally acceptable. This was related to routinization of immunization and resonance with traditional practices. Promoting "health" was considered more important than preventing specific diseases. Many women thought that immunization was obligatory and that health staff might be unwilling to assist in the future if they were non-adherent. Weighing and socialising were important reasons for clinic attendance. Non-adherence was due largely to practical, social and structural factors, many of which could be overcome. Reasons for non-adherence were sometimes interlinked. Health staff and "road to child health" cards were the main source of information on the intervention, rather than the specially designed posters. Women did not generally discuss child health matters outside the clinic, and information about the intervention percolated slowly through the community. Although there were some rumours about sulphadoxine pyrimethamine (SP, it was generally acceptable as a drug for IPTi, although mothers did not like the way tablets were administered. There is no evidence that IPTi had a negative effect on attitudes or adherence to the expanded programme on immunisation (EPI or treatment seeking or existing malaria prevention. Conclusion In order to improve

  16. Gender based within-household inequality in childhood immunization in India: changes over time and across regions.

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    Ashish Singh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Despite India's substantial economic growth in the past two decades, girls in India are discriminated against in access to preventive healthcare including immunizations. Surprisingly, no study has assessed the contribution of gender based within-household discrimination to the overall inequality in immunization status of Indian children. This study therefore has two objectives: to estimate the gender based within-household inequality (GWHI in immunization status of Indian children and to examine the inter-regional and inter-temporal variations in the GWHI. DATA AND METHODS: The present study used households with a pair of male-female siblings (aged 1-5 years from two rounds of National Family Health Survey (NFHS, 1992-93 and 2005-06. The overall inequality in the immunization status (after controlling for age and birth order of children was decomposed into within-households and between-households components using Mean log deviation to obtain the GWHI component. The analysis was conducted at the all-India level as well as for six specified geographical regions and at two time points (1992-93 and 2005-06. Household fixed-effects models for immunization status of children were also estimated. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Findings from household fixed effects analysis indicated that the immunization scores of girls were significantly lower than that of boys. The inequality decompositions revealed that, at the all-India level, the absolute level of GWHI in immunization status decreased from 0.035 in 1992-93 to 0.023 in 2005-06. However, as a percentage of total inequality, it increased marginally (15.5% to 16.5%. In absolute terms, GWHI decreased in all the regions except in the North-East. But, as a percentage of total inequality it increased in the North-Eastern, Western and Southern regions. The main conclusions are the following: GWHI contributes substantially to the overall inequality in immunization status of Indian

  17. Early-life gut microbiota and breast milk oligosaccharides in relation to childhood immune maturation and allergy

    OpenAIRE

    Sjögren, Ylva Margareta

    2009-01-01

    Atopic allergy is the most common chronic disease among children in the developed world. This high prevalence could be associated with low microbial exposure. The early gut microbiota appears to be important for immune maturation. Immunomodulatory components in human milk might differ between mothers and could therefore explain the contradictory results seen regarding breastfeeding and allergy development. The aim of this thesis was to investigate whether early colonization with certain gut m...

  18. Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae in Romanian children before the introduction of the pneumococcal conjugated vaccination into the national immunization programme: a national, multi-centre, cross-sectional observational study

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    Monica Luminos

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: In Romanian children, the majority of carried S. pneumoniae isolates are vaccine serotypes. The isolates with MICs defining macrolide resistance were very frequent, as well as the isolates with MICs defining penicillin resistance in the case of meningitis or penicillin dose-dependent susceptibility for other infections, mainly for the strains belonging to PCV13 serotypes. The implementation of PCV13 within the Romanian national immunization programme could reduce the circulation of these strains with higher macrolide and/or penicillin MICs.

  19. Study design of 'FRIENDS for Life': process and effect evaluation of an indicated school-based prevention programme for childhood anxiety and depression

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    Kösters Mia P

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anxiety disorders and depression are highly prevalent in children and affect their current and future functioning. 'FRIENDS for Life' is a cognitive-behavioural programme teaching children skills to cope more effectively with feelings of anxiety and depression. Although 'FRIENDS for Life' is increasingly being implemented at Dutch schools, its effectiveness as a preventive intervention in Dutch schools has never been investigated. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of 'FRIENDS for Life' as an indicated school-based prevention programme for children with early or mild signs of anxiety or depression. Methods/Design This study is a controlled trial with one pre-intervention and three post-intervention measurements (directly after, and 6 and 12 months after the end of the programme. The study sample consists of children aged 10-12 years (grades 6, 7 and 8 of Dutch primary schools, who show symptoms of anxiety or depressive disorder. Data are collected through self-report, teacher report and peer nomination. A process evaluation is conducted to investigate programme integrity (whether the programme has been executed according to protocol and to evaluate children's and parents' opinions about 'FRIENDS for Life' using online focus groups and interviews. Discussion The present study will provide insight into the effectiveness of 'FRIENDS for Life' as an indicated school-based prevention programme for children with early or mild signs of anxiety or depression. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register (NTR: NTR2397

  20. Childhood obesity treatment and prevention. Psychological perspectives of clinical approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Catena Quattropani; Teresa Buccheri

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This work focuses on clinical psychologist’ presence within childhood obesity prevention programmes in several countries. Method: The Authors collected articles considering psychological, biological and social aspects linked to childhood obesity. Results: Studies reveal that childhood obesity prevention programmes are based on biological, medical and educational aspects; clinical psychologists up until now have been engaged almost exclusively in the treatment of obesity. Conclusion...

  1. Intracranial hemorrhage in acute and chronic childhood immune thrombocytopenic purpura over a ten-year period: an Egyptian multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elalfy, Mohsen; Elbarbary, Nancy; Khaddah, Normine; Abdelwahab, Magy; El Rashidy, Farida; Hassab, Hoda; Al-Tonbary, Youssef

    2010-01-01

    Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is a rare but major cause of death in immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). The authors reviewed data of 1,840 patient with ITP, from 5 pediatric hematology centers in Egypt from 1997 to 2007, to study the incidence and risk factors of ICH. Ten cases of ICH were identified with a median age at presentation of 7.5 years; 4 patients had acute ITP, 2 persistent and 4 chronic. The platelet count was late referral to a specialized center. Our results suggest that treatment does not prevent ICH and that it can occur at any time during the course of the disease. Delayed referral can be considered a risk factor for unfavorable outcome of ICH, highlighting the importance of teaching sessions for patients and their parents to minimize subsequent morbidity and mortality of ICH in children with ITP. PMID:19955713

  2. Childhood cancer in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Mariana; Hendricks, Marc; Davidson, Alan; Stefan, Cristina D; van Eyssen, Ann L; Uys, Ronelle; van Zyl, Anel; Hesseling, Peter

    2014-04-01

    The majority of children with cancer live in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) with little or no access to cancer treatment. The purpose of the paper is to describe the current status of childhood cancer treatment in Africa, as documented in publications, dedicated websites and information collected through surveys. Successful twinning programmes, like those in Malawi and Cameroon, as well as the collaborative clinical trial approach of the Franco-African Childhood Cancer Group (GFAOP), provide good models for childhood cancer treatment. The overview will hopefully influence health-care policies to facilitate access to cancer care for all children in Africa. PMID:24214130

  3. Initial effects of the National PCV7 Childhood Immunization Program on adult invasive pneumococcal disease in Israel.

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    Gili Regev-Yochay

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: PCV7 was introduced as universal childhood vaccination in Israel in July 2009 and PCV13 in November 2010. Here we report data on adult invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD, two years post PCV7 implementation and before an expected effect of PCV13. METHODS: An ongoing nationwide active-surveillance (all 27 laboratories performing blood cultures in Israel, providing all blood & CSF S. pneumoniae isolates from persons >18 y was initiated in July 2009. Capture-recapture method assured reporting of >95% cases. All isolates were serotyped in one central laboratory. IPD outcome and medical history were recorded in 90%. Second year post PCV implementation is compared to the first year. RESULTS: During July 2009 to June 2011, 970 IPD cases were reported (annual incidence [/100,000] of 9.17 and 10.16 in the two consecutive years, respectively. Respective case fatality rates (CFRs were 20% and 19.1%. Incidence of IPD and CFR increased with age and number of comorbidities. Incidence rate was significantly greater during the second winter, 7.79/100,000 vs. 6.14/100,000 in first winter, p = 0.004, with a non-significant decrease during summer months (3.02 to 2.48/100,000. The proportion of IPD cases due to PCV7-serotypes decreased from 27.5% to 13.1% (first to second year (p64 y. Among younger/healthier patients serotype 5 was the major increasing serotype. Penicillin and ceftriaxone resistance decreased significantly in the second year. CONCLUSIONS: While overall annual incidence of IPD did not change, the indirect effect of PCV7 vaccination was evident by the significant decrease in PCV7 serotypes across all age groups. Increase in non-VT13 strains was significant in immunocompromised patients. A longer follow-up is required to appreciate the full effect of infant vaccination on annual IPD.

  4. Economic Evaluation of Vaccination Programmes in Older Adults and the Elderly: Important Issues and Challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirmesropian, Sevan; Wood, James G; MacIntyre, C Raina; Beutels, Philippe; Newall, Anthony T

    2016-08-01

    High-income countries are undergoing demographic transitions towards populations with substantial larger proportions of older adults. Due to the increased susceptibility of older adults to infectious diseases and their consequences, vaccination programmes are an important health intervention to help maintain healthy ageing. While much of the existing literature suggests that current vaccination programmes targeted at older adults and the elderly are likely to be cost effective in high-income countries, we argue that it is important to more fully consider some important issues and challenges. Since the majority of vaccines have been developed for children, economic evaluations of vaccination programmes have consequentially tended to focus on this age group and on how to incorporate herd-immunity effects. While programmes targeted at older adults and the elderly may also induce some herd effects, there are other important challenges to consider in these economic evaluations. For example, age and time effects in relation to vaccine efficacy and duration of immunity, as well as heterogeneity between targeted individuals in terms of risk of infection, severity of disease and response to vaccination. For some pathogens, there is also the potential for interactions with childhood programmes in the form of herd-immunity effects. PMID:26914091

  5. Using intervention mapping to develop a culturally appropriate intervention to prevent childhood obesity: the HAPPY (Healthy and Active Parenting Programme for Early Years) study

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Natalie J; Sahota, Pinki; Sargent, Judith; Barber, Sally; Loach, Jackie; Louch, Gemma; Wright, John

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Interventions that make extensive use of theory tend to have larger effects on behaviour. The Intervention Mapping (IM) framework incorporates theory into intervention design, implementation and evaluation, and was applied to the development of a community-based childhood obesity prevention intervention for a multi-ethnic population. Methods IM was applied as follows: 1) Needs assessment of the community and culture; consideration of evidence-base, policy and practice; 2) Identif...

  6. Communities of Practice and Participatory Action Research: The Formation of a Synergy for the Development of Museum Programmes for Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampartzaki, Maria; Kypriotaki, Maria; Voreadou, Catherine; Dardioti, Antonia; Stathi, Iasmi

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the integration of two key ideas and working frameworks: a community of educational practice formed by the synergy between a natural history museum and a university department of pre-school education, which undertook participatory action research aimed at the creation of innovative museum programmes for young children. Data…

  7. A Randomized Controlled Trial for Children with Childhood Apraxia of Speech Comparing Rapid Syllable Transition Treatment and the Nuffield Dyspraxia Programme-Third Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Elizabeth; McCabe, Patricia; Ballard, Kirrie J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This randomized controlled trial compared the experimental Rapid Syllable Transition (ReST) treatment to the Nuffield Dyspraxia Programme-Third Edition (NDP3; Williams & Stephens, 2004), used widely in clinical practice in Australia and the United Kingdom. Both programs aim to improve speech motor planning/programming for children…

  8. Immune thrombocytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistangari, Gaurav; McCrae, Keith R

    2013-06-01

    Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a common hematologic disorder characterized by isolated thrombocytopenia. ITP presents as a primary or a secondary form. ITP may affect individuals of all ages, with peaks during childhood and in the elderly, in whom the age-specific incidence of ITP is greatest. Bleeding is the most common clinical manifestation of ITP. The pathogenesis of ITP is complex, involving alterations in humoral and cellular immunity. Corticosteroids remain the most common first line therapy for ITP. This article summarizes the classification and diagnosis of primary and secondary ITP, as well as the pathogenesis and options for treatment. PMID:23714309

  9. Vaccine-Preventable Childhood Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About CDC.gov . Vaccines and Immunizations Share Compartir Vaccine-Preventable Childhood Diseases On this Page Protect Your ... American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP). Descriptions of Vaccine-preventable Child Diseases The following vaccine-preventable diseases, ...

  10. Teaching Advocacy in Early Years Initial Teacher Education Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebovich, Betty J.; Matoba Adler, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Teacher education programmes in the United States and in England with early childhood certification usually include courses with topics such as early childhood theory and curriculum, child development, model programs, and history of early childhood education but less often include courses with content focused specifically on advocacy. This article…

  11. The influence of maternal prenatal and early childhood nutrition and maternal prenatal stress on offspring immune system development and neurodevelopmental disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Horvath Marques; Thomas G O'connor; Christine eRoth; Ezra eSusser; Anne-Lise eBjørke-Monsen

    2013-01-01

    The developing immune system and central nervous system in the fetus and child are extremely sensitive to both exogenous and endogenous signals. Early immune system programming, leading to changes that can persist over the life course, has been suggested, and other evidence suggests that immune dysregulation in the early developing brain may play a role in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. The timing of immune dysregulation with respect to gesta...

  12. More evidence on the impact of India's conditional cash transfer program, Janani Suraksha Yojana: quasi-experimental evaluation of the effects on childhood immunization and other reproductive and child health outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Carvalho

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2005, India established a conditional cash transfer program called Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY, to increase institutional delivery and encourage the use of reproductive and child health-related services. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of maternal receipt of financial assistance from JSY on childhood immunizations, post-partum care, breastfeeding practices, and care-seeking behaviors. METHODS: We use data from the latest district-level household survey (2007-2008 to conduct a propensity score matching analysis with logistic regression. We conduct the analyses at the national level as well as separately across groups of states classified as high-focus and non-high-focus. We carry out several sensitivity analyses including a subgroup analysis stratified by possession of an immunization card. RESULTS: Receipt of financial assistance from JSY led to an increase in immunization rates ranging from 3.1 (95%CI 2.2-4.0 percentage points for one dose of polio vaccine to 9.1 (95%CI 7.5-10.7 percentage points in the proportion of fully vaccinated children. Our findings also indicate JSY led to increased post-partum check-up rates and healthy early breastfeeding practices around the time of childbirth. No effect of JSY was found on exclusive breastfeeding practices and care-seeking behaviors. Effect sizes were consistently larger in states identified as being a key focus for the program. In an analysis stratified by possession of an immunization card, there was little to no effect of JSY among those with vaccination cards, while the effect size was much larger than the base case results for those missing vaccination cards, across nearly all immunization outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Early results suggest the JSY program led to a significant increase in childhood immunization rates and some healthy reproductive health behaviors, but the structuring of financial incentives to pregnant women and health workers warrants further review. Causal

  13. Maternal immunoglobulin E and childhood leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jeffrey S; Buffler, Patricia A; Metayer, Catherine; Chokkalingam, Anand P; Patoka, Joe; Kronish, Daniel; Wiemels, Joseph L

    2009-08-01

    Childhood leukemia, particularly acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), has long been hypothesized to be affected by abnormal immune responses to microbial challenges stemming from a lack of immune modulation in early childhood. Studies of allergies suggest that a child's immune development may be modulated by maternal immune status. We conducted a study to explore the relationship between maternal immunoglobulin E (IgE) and childhood leukemia and to investigate whether maternal immune status can influence childhood leukemia risk. Serum total and specific IgE (respiratory and food) were measured in biological mothers of 352 children (193 healthy controls and 159 leukemia cases, including 139 ALL cases) ages <8 years who were enrolled in the Northern California Childhood Leukemia Study. Odds ratios associated with maternal IgE were calculated using unconditional logistic regression adjusted for child's age, sex, race/ethnicity, and annual household income. A positive association between childhood leukemia or ALL and elevated levels of maternal serum total IgE was observed, especially among Hispanics. In addition, a positive association was observed between childhood leukemia or ALL and maternal respiratory or food IgE status. These results suggest that maternal immune function may play a crucial role in the etiology of childhood leukemia, although additional studies need to be conducted to confirm the results of this study and provide a perspective on mechanisms. PMID:19622720

  14. Childhood obesity treatment and prevention. Psychological perspectives of clinical approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Catena Quattropani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This work focuses on clinical psychologist’ presence within childhood obesity prevention programmes in several countries. Method: The Authors collected articles considering psychological, biological and social aspects linked to childhood obesity. Results: Studies reveal that childhood obesity prevention programmes are based on biological, medical and educational aspects; clinical psychologists up until now have been engaged almost exclusively in the treatment of obesity. Conclusions: There is a clear need to consider psychological aspects (emotional, cognitive and relational related to the childhood obesity’s causes and involve psychologists in its prevention projects. Keywords: childhood obesity, overweight, multidisciplinary approach, clinical psychology, prevention, treatment

  15. Remembering Childhood: Do Our Memories and Experiences Influence Our Understanding of Early Childhood and Our Practice with Young Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsley, Karen; Penn, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Students on the Early Childhood Studies degree programme at the University of East London were asked to reflect on their childhood memories and how these have shaped their understandings of early childhood and practices with young children. Students' rich and varied accounts reflect the diversity of largely non-traditional students from…

  16. The prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection in Nigerian children prior to vaccine introduction into the National Programme on Immunization schedule

    OpenAIRE

    Ikobah, Joanah; Okpara, Henry; Elemi, Iwasam; Ogarepe, Yeonun; Udoh, Ekong; Ekanem, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hepatitis B virus infection is a major global health problem of public health importance. In a bid to control the infection, the Nigerian government in 2004 introduced hepatitis B vaccine into the National Program on Immunization. There are no studies on the prevalence of hepatitis B in adolescent prior to 2004. The study was aimed at determining the seroprevalence and predictors of viral Hepatitis B in Nigerian children aged 11-19 years. Methods A cross sectional analytical stud...

  17. Schistosoma mansoni; relationship between membrane turnover rates and susceptibility to immune damage. Part of a coordinated programme on preparation of irradiated vaccines against some human diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is known that the schistosomulum of Schistosoma mansoni become refractory to damage by antibody and complement in vitro in the presence of serum, or Concanavalin A (Con A), or after contact with host tissues, presumably due to intrinsic changes in the surface membrane. This project studied the effect of dialysed fetal calf serum (DFCS) and Con A on the synthesis and turnover of individual proteins in the surface membrane using the incorporation of 14C- and 3H-labelled Arginine and the separation of the membrane proteins in SDS-PAGE. The results indicate that during the period in which schistosomules become resistant to immune attack, no qualitative alterations in electrophoretic patterns of surface proteins were observed. There was, however, a marked heterogeneity in synthesis and degradation among constituent proteins. In addition, Con A which had been shown to be effective in stimulating loss of susceptibility to immune attack, caused a slight decrease in the synthesis and turnover rate of high molecular weight proteins, whilst DFCS increased synthesis and turnover of low molecular weight proteins. This suggests that at least two processes occur in the membrane which may be related to the development of protection against immune attack. Serum might stimulate the loss of crucial antigens by accelerating their turnover making antibody attachment difficult, and Con A could be stabilizing the membrane by crosslinking large macromolecules. It is possible that in vivo both mechanisms occur to make the schistosomule surface refractory to damage

  18. Assessing Thai Early Childhood Teachers' Knowledge of Inclusive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbenyega, Joseph S.; Klibthong, Sunanta

    2014-01-01

    An ever-increasing number of children with and without disabilities are attending early childhood programmes and learning together. Early childhood inclusion considers all children with and without disabilities, and their families as full members of the early childhood community. Although many early childhood teachers accept the educational rights…

  19. An approach to death as an adverse event following immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Michael S; Balakrishnan, Madhava Ram; Amarasinghe, Ananda; MacDonald, Noni E

    2016-01-01

    Co-incidental death occurring proximate to vaccination may be reported as an adverse event following immunization. Such events are particularly concerning because they may raise community and health provider concerns about the safety of the specific vaccine and often the immunization programme in general. Coincidental events need to be differentiated from vaccine reactions, such as anaphylaxis, which may very rarely result in death. In 2013, the World Health Organization (WHO) released an updated manual for the Causality Assessment of an AEFI. The purpose of this review is to apply the WHO causality methodology to death when this is reported as an AEFI. The causality assessment scheme recommends a four step process to enable classification of the AEFI and to differentiate events which are causally consistent from those that are inconsistent with immunization. However, for some events causality maybe indeterminate. Consistent causal reactions that may result in death are very rare and maybe related to the vaccine product (e.g. anaphylaxis, viscerotrophic disease), vaccine quality defect (e.g. an incompletely attenuated live vaccine agent) or an immunization error (e.g. vaccine vial contamination). Events that are inconsistent with immunizations are due to co-incidental conditions that may account for infant and childhood mortality. In countries with a high infant mortality rate the coincidental occurrence of death and immunization may occur not infrequently and a robust mechanism to obtain information from autopsy and perform an AEFI investigation and causality assessment is essential. Communication with the community and all stakeholders to maintain confidence in the immunization programme is critical. PMID:26608326

  20. Childhood Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cells. It is the most common type of childhood cancer. Your blood cells form in your bone ... in the bones or joints Risk factors for childhood leukemia include having a brother or sister with ...

  1. Childhood Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Childhood Stress KidsHealth > For Parents > Childhood Stress Print A A ... and feel stress to some degree. Sources of Stress Stress is a function of the demands placed ...

  2. The Mobile Solutions for Immunization (M-SIMU) Trial: A Protocol for a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial That Assesses the Impact of Mobile Phone Delivered Reminders and Travel Subsidies to Improve Childhood Immunization Coverage Rates and Timeliness in Western Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Gibson, Dustin G.; Kagucia, E. Wangeci; Ochieng, Benard; Hariharan, Nisha; Obor, David; Moulton, Lawrence H.; Peter J. Winch; Levine, Orin S.; Odhiambo, Frank; O'Brien, Katherine L.; Feikin, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Text message (short message service, SMS) reminders and incentives are two demand-side interventions that have been shown to improve health care–seeking behaviors by targeting participant characteristics such as forgetfulness, lack of knowledge, and transport costs. Applying these interventions to routine pediatric immunizations may improve vaccination coverage and timeliness. Objective The Mobile Solutions for Immunization (M-SIMU) trial aims to determine if text message reminders...

  3. Childhood Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, Justine; Howard, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Childhood obesity has important consequences for health and wellbeing both during childhood and also in later adult life. The rising prevalence of childhood obesity poses a major public health challenge in both developed and developing countries by increasing the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases. Despite the urgent need for effective preventative strategies, there remains disagreement over its definition due to a lack of evidence on the optimal cut-offs linking childhood BMI to dis...

  4. Effect of intakes of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids during pregnancy and early childhood оn development, morbidity and immunity of in infants in fist year of life: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marushko RV

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: at present, there are considered the efficient mechanisms existed by which diets high in n-3 LC PUFAs during pregnancy and early childhood may modulate the development of innative immune disorders and promote the adequate formation of immune system both on general and local levels. Early availability of n-3 LC PUFA could contribute to the normal growth and development, decrease risk factors of diseases or pathological disorders in infants. Goals: to assess the relationship between n-3 LC PUFAs intakes during pregnancy and postnatally and development, morbidity and immunity of infants in first year of life. A retrospective study was conducted using interview method of 300 women, whose children reached the age of one year. Elaborated questionnaires were filled in by pediatricians throughout their daily working hours while attending the patients. Was conducted assessment of frequency of common diseases and disorders like respiratory diseases, functional intestinal disorders and atopic diseases. Were investigated immunity of infants assessing the content of IgA, IgG and IgM by immunological methods and detected DHA, EPA (n-3 LC PUFAs and AA (n-6 LC PUFAs by gas chromatographic analysis in blood serum of children. The outcomes of the study were analysed and processed using statistical methods. Retrospective clinical findings indicate on higher incidence of acute respiratory tract and atopic diseases as well as functional disorders of the gastrointestinal tract in infants whose mothers did not use seafood in their diets during the pregnancy and in the lactating period. The research of immunity of children showed no difference in concentration of IgG and IgM in blood serum (p >> 0,05 but significant difference for IgA concentrations in plasma. In infants of n-3 LC PUFAs group IgA concentration was higher compared to opposite group. The fatty acid composition of the blood serum showed changes in the content of the main representatives of n-3

  5. Childhood Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Childhood Cancer KidsHealth > For Parents > Childhood Cancer Print A A A Text Size What's ... in children, but can happen. The most common childhood cancers are leukemia , lymphoma , and brain cancer . As ...

  6. Community response to intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in infants (IPTi delivered through the expanded programme of immunization in five African settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slutsker Lawrence

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background IPTi delivered through EPI has been shown to reduce the incidence of clinical malaria by 20–59%. However, new health interventions can only be effective if they are also socially and culturally acceptable. It is also crucial to ensure that attitudes to IPTi do not negatively influence attitudes to and uptake of immunization, or that people do not misunderstand IPTi as immunization against malaria and neglect other preventive measures or delay treatment seeking. Methods These issues were studied in five African countries in the context of clinical trials and implementation studies of IPTi. Mixed methods were used, including structured questionnaires (1,296, semi-structured interviews (168, in-depth interviews (748 and focus group discussions (95 with mothers, fathers, health workers, community members, opinion leaders, and traditional healers. Participant observation was also carried out in the clinics. Results IPTi was widely acceptable because it resonated with existing traditional preventive practices and a general concern about infant health and good motherhood. It also fit neatly within already widely accepted routine vaccination. Acceptance and adherence were further facilitated by the hierarchical relationship between health staff and mothers and by the fact that clinic attendance had a social function for women beyond acquiring health care. Type of drug and regimen were important, with newer drugs being seen as more effective, but potentially also more dangerous. Single dose infant formulations delivered in the clinic seem to be the most likely to be both acceptable and adhered to. There was little evidence that IPTi per se had a negative impact on attitudes to EPI or that it had any affect on EPI adherence. There was also little evidence of IPTi having a negative impact on health seeking for infants with febrile illness or existing preventive practices. Conclusion IPTi is generally acceptable across a wide range of

  7. Community Immunity (Herd Immunity)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area ​Community Immunity ("Herd" ... population is immunized, protecting most community members. The principle of community immunity applies to control of a ...

  8. The Mobile Solutions for Immunization (M-SIMU) Trial: A Protocol for a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial That Assesses the Impact of Mobile Phone Delivered Reminders and Travel Subsidies to Improve Childhood Immunization Coverage Rates and Timeliness in Western Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagucia, E. Wangeci; Ochieng, Benard; Hariharan, Nisha; Obor, David; Moulton, Lawrence H; Winch, Peter J; Levine, Orin S; Odhiambo, Frank; O'Brien, Katherine L; Feikin, Daniel R

    2016-01-01

    Background Text message (short message service, SMS) reminders and incentives are two demand-side interventions that have been shown to improve health care–seeking behaviors by targeting participant characteristics such as forgetfulness, lack of knowledge, and transport costs. Applying these interventions to routine pediatric immunizations may improve vaccination coverage and timeliness. Objective The Mobile Solutions for Immunization (M-SIMU) trial aims to determine if text message reminders, either with or without mobile phone–based incentives, sent to infant’s parents can improve immunization coverage and timeliness of routine pediatric vaccines in rural western Kenya. Methods This is a four-arm, cluster, randomized controlled trial. Villages are randomized to one of four study arms prior to enrollment of participants. The study arms are: (1) no intervention (a general health-related text message will be texted to this group at the time of enrollment), (2) text message reminders only, (3) text message reminders and a 75 Kenyan Shilling (KES) incentive, or (4) text message reminders and a KES200 incentive. Participants assigned to study arms 2-4 will receive two text message reminders; sent 3 days before and one day before the scheduled immunization visit at 6, 10, and 14 weeks for polio and pentavalent (containing diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, and Haemophilus influenza type b antigens) type b antigens) vaccines, and at 9 months for measles vaccine. Participants in incentive arms will, in addition to text message reminders as above, receive mobile phone–based incentives after each timely vaccination, where timely is defined as vaccination within 2 weeks of the scheduled date for each of the four routine expanded program immunization (EPI) vaccination visits. Mother-infant pairs will be followed to 12 months of age where the primary outcome, a fully immunized child, will be ascertained. A fully immunized child is defined as a child receiving

  9. Childhood adversity and DNA methylation of genes involved in the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal axis and immune system: Whole-genome and candidate-gene associations

    OpenAIRE

    Bick, Johanna; Naumova, Oksana; Hunter, Scott; Barbot, Baptiste; Lee, Maria; Luthar, Suniya S.; RAEFSKI, ADAM; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, translational research involving humans and animals has uncovered biological and physiological pathways that explain associations between early adverse circumstances and long-term mental and physical health outcomes. In this article, we summarize the human and animal literature demonstrating that epigenetic alterations in key biological systems, the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal axis and immune system, may underlie such disparities. We review evidence suggesting that changes...

  10. Childhood Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Aydın, Ahmet; Koca, Fahrettin; Fıçıcıoğlu, Can; Çam, Halit; Mıkla, Şerare

    1995-01-01

    Management of childhood obesity and its early and late complications are among the most difficult problems confronted by pediatricians and practitioners The purpose of this review is to provide information for the evaluation and treatment of childhood obesity Key nbsp;words: nbsp;Child Obesity Etiology Management Complications

  11. Monitoring programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Pollution's 1992 report on its programme of monitoring radioactive substances is presented. Site operators' returns are verified and the report provides independent data on the environmental impact of authorized disposal of radioactive wastes. Radiation doses which may have been received by members of the public, fall well below the International Commission for Radiological Protection's (ICRP) recommended annual doses. (UK)

  12. Estimates and determinants of HPV non-vaccination and vaccine refusal in girls 12 to 14 y of age in Canada: Results from the Childhood National Immunization Coverage Survey, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Nicolas L; Gilmour, Heather; Dubé, Ève; Wilson, Sarah E; Laroche, Julie

    2016-06-01

    Since the introduction of HPV vaccination programs in Canada in 2007, coverage has been below public health goals in many provinces and territories. This analysis investigated the determinants of HPV non-vaccination and vaccine refusal. Data from the Childhood National Immunization Coverage Survey (CNICS) 2013 were used to estimate the prevalence of HPV non-vaccination and parental vaccine refusal in girls aged 12-14 years, for Canada and the provinces and territories. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with non-vaccination and vaccine refusal, after adjusting for potential confounders. An estimated 27.7% of 12-14 y old girls had not been vaccinated against HPV, and 14.4% of parents reported refusing the vaccine. The magnitude of non-vaccination and vaccine refusal varied by province or territory and also by responding parent's country of birth. In addition, higher education was associated with a higher risk of refusal of the HPV vaccine. Rates of HPV non-vaccination and of refusal of the HPV vaccine differ and are influenced by different variables. These findings warrant further investigation. PMID:26942572

  13. Training Early Childhood Teachers for Sustainability: Towards a "Learning Experience of a Different Kind"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feriver, Sebnem; Teksöz, Gaye; Olgan, Refika; Reid, Alan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we discuss findings from a small-scale project evaluating an in-service teacher training programme focused on "perspective transformation" in early childhood education and education for sustainability (EfS). A bespoke professional development programme was developed for Turkish early childhood teachers, based on a variety…

  14. Management of Overweight during Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lone Marie; Ledderer, Loni; Jarbøl, Dorte Ejg

    2015-01-01

    Background. Because of the increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in childhood in the Western world, focus on the management in general practice has also increased. Objective. To explore the experiences of general practitioners (GPs) and practice nurses participating in a randomised...... professionals considered it their responsibility to offer a management programme to overweight children. They recognised that management of overweight during childhood was a complex task that required an evidence-based strategy with the possibility of supervision. Health professionals experienced a barrier to...... addressing overweight in children. However, increasing awareness of obesity in childhood and its consequences in society was considered helpful to reach an understanding of the articulations concerning how best to address the issue. Conclusions. Health professionals in general practice recognised that they...

  15. Technology Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technology activities carried out by the Euratom-ENEA Association in the framework of the European Fusion Development Agreement concern the Next Step (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor - ITER), the Long-Term Programme (breeder blanket, materials, International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility - IFMIF), Power Plant Conceptual Studies and Socio-Economic Studies. The Underlying Technology Programme was set up to complement the fusion activities as well to develop technologies with a wider range of interest. The Technology Programme mainly involves staff from the Frascati laboratories of the Fusion Technical and Scientific Unit and from the Brasimone laboratories of the Advanced Physics Technologies Unit. Other ENEA units also provide valuable contributions to the programme. ENEA is heavily engaged in component development/testing and in design and safety activities for the European Fusion Technology Programme. Although the work documented in the following covers a large range of topics that differ considerably because they concern the development of extremely complex systems, the high level of integration and coordination ensures the capability to cover the fusion system as a whole. In 2004 the most significant testing activities concerned the ITER primary beryllium-coated first wall. In the field of high-heat-flux components, an important achievement was the qualification of the process for depositing a copper liner on carbon fibre composite (CFC) hollow tiles. This new process, pre-brazed casting (PBC), allows the hot radial pressing (HRP) joining procedure to be used also for CFC-based armour monoblock divertor components. The PBC and HRP processes are candidates for the construction of the ITER divertor. In the materials field an important milestone was the commissioning of a new facility for chemical vapour infiltration/deposition, used for optimising silicon carbide composite (SiCf/SiC) components. Eight patents were deposited during 2004

  16. Technology Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batistoni, Paola; De Marco, Francesco; Pieroni, Leonardo (ed.)

    2005-07-01

    The technology activities carried out by the Euratom-ENEA Association in the framework of the European Fusion Development Agreement concern the Next Step (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor - ITER), the Long-Term Programme (breeder blanket, materials, International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility - IFMIF), Power Plant Conceptual Studies and Socio-Economic Studies. The Underlying Technology Programme was set up to complement the fusion activities as well to develop technologies with a wider range of interest. The Technology Programme mainly involves staff from the Frascati laboratories of the Fusion Technical and Scientific Unit and from the Brasimone laboratories of the Advanced Physics Technologies Unit. Other ENEA units also provide valuable contributions to the programme. ENEA is heavily engaged in component development/testing and in design and safety activities for the European Fusion Technology Programme. Although the work documented in the following covers a large range of topics that differ considerably because they concern the development of extremely complex systems, the high level of integration and coordination ensures the capability to cover the fusion system as a whole. In 2004 the most significant testing activities concerned the ITER primary beryllium-coated first wall. In the field of high-heat-flux components, an important achievement was the qualification of the process for depositing a copper liner on carbon fibre composite (CFC) hollow tiles. This new process, pre-brazed casting (PBC), allows the hot radial pressing (HRP) joining procedure to be used also for CFC-based armour monoblock divertor components. The PBC and HRP processes are candidates for the construction of the ITER divertor. In the materials field an important milestone was the commissioning of a new facility for chemical vapour infiltration/deposition, used for optimising silicon carbide composite (SiCf/SiC) components. Eight patents were deposited during 2004

  17. ROUTINE IMMUNIZATION IN INDIA: A PERSPECTIVE

    OpenAIRE

    G Taneja; KS Sagar; Mishra, S

    2013-01-01

    The Universal Immunization Programme is possibly the longest and one of the biggest public health intervention measures undertaken in India. To improve immunization coverage in the country various initiatives have been undertaken since the inception of the programme in 1985; key inputs being strengthening and expanding the cold chain system, establishing a network of outreach immunization sites, alternate vaccine delivery model, capacity building of health functionaries and medical officers a...

  18. Childhood Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells. It is the most common type of childhood cancer. ... blood cells help your body fight infection. In leukemia, the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood cells. ...

  19. Childhood leukaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The debate on whether there is any link between leukaemia clusters and nuclear installations has been raging since the early eighties. A Government Inquiry found no link between childhood leukaemia and residence near Seascale, an area near British Nuclear Fuels Sellafield plant. Research in the 1980s linked childhood leukaemia to fathers' occupations prior to conception in the Seascale plant but also to workers in the iron, steel, farming and chemical industries. This article reviews research findings to date. (UK)

  20. Teacher Experiences of Delivering an Obesity Prevention Programme (The WAVES Study Intervention) in a Primary School Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Tania L; Clarke, Joanne L; Lancashire, Emma R; Pallan, Miranda J; Passmore, Sandra; Adab, Peymane

    2015-01-01

    Objective: There has been a wealth of childhood obesity prevention studies in school-based settings. However, few have investigated the experiences of school staff charged with delivery of such programmes. This study aimed to elicit teachers' experiences of delivering a childhood obesity prevention programme for children aged 6-7 years. Design:…

  1. Effectiveness of a 2+1 dose schedule pneumococcal conjugate vaccination programme on invasive pneumococcal disease among children in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestrheim, Didrik F; Løvoll, Oistein; Aaberge, Ingeborg S; Caugant, Dominique A; Høiby, E Arne; Bakke, Hilde; Bergsaker, Marianne R

    2008-06-19

    The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV-7) was licensed in Norway in 2001. In July 2006, PCV-7 was introduced in the Norwegian Childhood Vaccination Programme in a 2+1 dose schedule, with immunizations administered at 3, 5 and 12 months of age. PCV-7 was offered through the vaccination programme to all children born from January 2006, i.e. a catch-up for children aged 3-6 months. Prior to 2006 the use of PCV-7 was negligible. The effectiveness of the PCV-7 vaccination programme was assessed using data on invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) incidence obtained from the Norwegian Surveillance System for Communicable Diseases, serotype distribution from the National Reference Laboratory for Pneumococci, and vaccine coverage and vaccination status from the Norwegian National Vaccination Register. Vaccine coverage quickly reached high levels; 95% of children >3 months born from January 2006 had received at least one immunization with PCV-7. The incidence rate of IPD among children <2 years rapidly declined; the rate of vaccine serotype IPD in this age group fell from an average of 47.1 cases/100,000 population in the 2 years prior to PCV-7 introduction to 13.7 cases/100,000 population in 2007. The incidence rate of nonvaccine serotype IPD remained stable. The vaccine programme effectiveness was estimated to be 74% (95% CI 57-85%). No vaccine failure was seen after complete primary immunization with two vaccine doses. Our findings indicate that PCV-7 provides highly effective protection against vaccine serotype IPD when administered in a 2+1 dose schedule. PMID:18456376

  2. Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Immune System KidsHealth > For Teens > Immune System Print A A ... put us out of commission. What the Immune System Does The immune (pronounced: ih-MYOON) system, which ...

  3. GOVERNMENT HEALTH PROGRAMME AWARENESS AND ATTITUDE OF CBSE BOARD STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Prakash Singh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to make survey of awareness and attitude of CBSC Board School Children's toward the selected government health programme. The sample of the present study was drawn from CBSE Board school children's of Allahabad and Gurgaon district with the mean age of 17 (±2. Aquestionnair based study was conducted. The questionnaire comprised of 30 questions covering six government health programmes: (a National Anti Malaria Programme (b National Aids Control Programme (c National Programme for Control of Blindness (d Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD programme (e Universal Immunization programme, (f National Family Welfare Programme. The percentile method was used in the analysis of the results. The majority of the respondents were positive it was hypothesized the most of school children's were aware and had a positive attitude towards Government Health Programmes.

  4. ISOLDE PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    Fedosseev, V; Lynch, K M; Grob, L K; Herfurth, F; Scheidenberger, C; Geppert, C; Gorges, C; Ratajczyk, T; Vogel, S; Munch, M K; Nieminen, P; Pakarinen, J J A; Lecesne, N; Bouzomita, H; Grinyer, J; Marques moreno, F M; Parlog, M; Blank, B A; Pedroza, J; Ghetta, V; Guillemaud mueller, D S; Cottereau, E; Cheikh mhamed, M; Tusseau nenez, S; Tungate, G; Walker, P M; Smith, A G; Fitzpatrick, C; Dominik, W M; Karny, M; Ciemny, A A; Nyman, G H; Thies, R M A; Lindberg, S K G; Langouche, G F; Delaure, B J P; Mayet, P; Ory, G T; Kesteloot, N J K; Papuga, J; Dehairs, M H R; Callens, M; Domnanich, K A; Richter, D; Lutter, R J; Wiehr, S; Tengblad, O; Nacher gonzalez, E; Jungclaus, A; Ribeiro jimenez, G; Marroquin alonso, I; Cal gonzalez, J; Paziy, V; Salsac, M; Murphy, C; Podolyak, Z F; Bajoga, A D; Butler, P; Pritchard, A; Steer, A N; Fox, S P; Wadsworth, B A; Truesdale, V L; Al monthery, M; Hass, M; Guttormsen, M S; Badea, M N; Calinescu, S; Cederkall, J A; Zemlyanoy, S; Golovkov, M; Wu, C; Harrichunder, S; Ncube, M; Gerten, R F; Lehnert, J; Gladnishki, K A; Pospisil, S; Datta pramanik, U; Benzoni, G; Fedorov, D; Molkanov, P; Pfeiffer, B; Griesel, T; Wehner, L W; Mikkelsen, M; Recchia, F; Smith, J F; Kelly, C M; De melo bandeira tavares, P M; Vieira, J M; Martins da silva, M A; Lima lopes, A M; Mader, J; Kessler, P; Schweikhard, L C; Marx, G H; Kulczycka, E; Komorowska, M; Da silva, M F; Goncalves marques, C P; Baptista peres, M A; Welander, J E; Coeck, S; Ryssens, W A M; Knoops, G; Vanbuel, J; Reiter, P; Miller, C; Martin sanchez-cano, D; Wiens, A; Blazhev, A A; Braun, N; Cappellazzo, M V; Birkenbach, B; Gerst, R; Dannhoff, M F; Sithole, M J; Bilgier, B; Nardelli, S; Vetter, U; Araujo mendes, C M; Valencia marin, E; Pantea, E; Hessberger, F P; Leduc, A J; Mitsuoka, S; Carbonari, A W; Buchegger, F J; Garzon camacho, A; Stachura, M K; Stora, T; Marsh, B A; Thiboud, J A; Antalic, S; Stahl, C; Bauer, C; Thurauf, M; Maass, B; Sturm, S; Boehm, C; Wolf, N R; Ways, M; Riisager, K; Ruotsalainen, P A; Bastin, B; Duval, F T; Penessot, G; Flechard, X D; Desrues, P; Giovinazzo, J; Kurtukian nieto, T; Ascher, P E L; Roccia, S; Matea, I; Croizet, H A G; Bonnin, C M; Morfouace, P; Smith, A J; Guin, R; Banerjee, D; Ohtsubo, T; Zhukov, M V; Tengborn, E A; Dessagne, P; Juscamaita vivanco, Y; De rydt, M A E; Vermaelen, P; Monten, R; Yang, X; De coster, A; Kruecken, R; Muecher, D; Nowak, A K; Cano ott, D; Murphy, A S J; Shand, C M; Regan, P H; Jones, G D; Herzberg, R; Ikin, P; Davies, P J; Napoli, D R; Scarel, G; Larsen, A; Tornyi, T G; Pascu, S G; Stroe, L; Toma, S; Jansson, K; Dronjak fahlander, M; Krupko, S; Hurst, A M; Veskovic, M; Nikolov, J; Sibanda, W N; Rocchini, M; Deicher, M; Wichert, T; Wolf, E; Kronenberg, J; Helmke, A; Meliani, Z; Ivanov, V S; Kuti, I; Halasz, Z; Henry, M O; Bras de sequeira amaral, V; Espirito santo, F; Carvalho teixeira, R C; Rosendahl, S; Speidel, K; Agarwal, I; Faul, T; Kownacki, J M; Martins correia, J G; Lorenz, K; Costa miranda, S M; Granadeiro costa, A R; Keupers, M; Stukken, R; Wursten, E J; Kotthaus, T; Pfeiffer, M; Stegemann, S T; Gironi, L; Cakirli, R B; Jensen, A; Romstedt, F; Constantino silva furtado, I; Heredia cardona, J A; Jordan martin, M D; Montaner piza, A; Plewinski, F; Mesli, A; Pichard, A; Fallis starhunter, J P; Voulot, D; Mrazek, J; Ugryumov, V; Savreux, R P; Kojouharov, I M; Stegmann, R; Fitting, J; Lauer, M; Kirsebom, O S; Jensen, K L; Jokinen, A; Rahkila, P J; Hager, U D K; Dubois, M; Orr, N A; Fabian, X; Huikari, J E; Goigoux, T; Magron, C; Zakari, A A; Maietta, M; Bachelet, C E M; Roussiere, B; Li, R; Mertzimekis, T; Gislason, H P; Shayestehaminzadeh, S; Qi, B; Mukai, M; Watanabe, Y; Willmann, L; Kurcewicz, W; Wimmer, K; Meisel, Z P; Lievens, P; Neyens, G; Darby, I G; Descamps, B O; Bunka, M; Vermeulen, C; Podadera aliseda, I; Alcorta moreno, M; Pesudo fortes, V; Algora, A; Zielinska, M; Korten, W; Wang, C H; Lotay, G J; Mason, P; Rice, S J; Willenegger, L M; Judson, D S; Revill, J P; Andreev, A; Yavuzkanat, N; Kumar, V; Zamfir, N - V; Deleanu, D; Golubev, P I; Jeppesen, H B; Pain, S D; Stracener, D W; Matousek, V; Venhart, M; Birova, M; Li, X; Stuchbery, A E; Lellep, G M; Poves paredes, A; Chakraborty, S; Leoni, S; Chupp, T; Yilmaz, C; Severin, G; Garcia ramos, J E; Hadinia, B; Mc glynn, E; Monteiro de sena silvares de carvalho, I; Friedag, P; Koos, V; Meot, V H; Pauwels, D B; Jancso, A; Srebrny, J; Alves, E J; David bosne, E; Dexters, W M M; Velten, P; Kalkuehler, M; Albers, M; Bharuth-ram, K; Akkus, B; Hemmingsen, L B S; Pedersen, J T; Dos santos redondo, L M; Rubio barroso, B; Kozlov, V; Mokhles gerami, A; Bernardo da silva, E; Unzueta solozabal, I; Schell, J; Szybowicz, M; Lassen, J; Johnston, K; Miyazaki, A; Macko, M; Coquard, L; Bloch, T P; Bonig, E S; Ignatov, A

    2002-01-01

    The experiments aim at a broad exploration of the properties of atomic nuclei far away from the region of beta stability. Furthermore, the unique radioactive beams of over 60~elements produced at the on-line isotope separators ISOLDE-2 and ISOLDE-3 are used in a wide programme of atomic, solid state and surface physics. Around 300 scientists are involved in the project, coming from about 70 laboratories. \\\\ \\\\ The electromagnetic isotope separators are connected on-line with their production targets in the extracted 600 MeV proton or 910~MeV Helium-3 beam of the Synchro-Cyclotron. Secondary beams of radioactive isotopes are available at the facility in intensities of 10$^1

  5. Childhood obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitmann, Berit L; Koplan, Jeffrey; Lissner, Lauren

    2009-01-01

    Despite progress toward assuring the health of today's young population, the 21(st) century began with an epidemic of childhood obesity. There is general agreement that the situation must be addressed by means of primary prevention, but relatively little is known about how to intervene effectively....... The evidence behind the assumption that childhood obesity can be prevented was discussed critically in this roundtable symposium. Overall, there was general agreement that action is needed and that the worldwide epidemic itself is sufficient evidence for action. As the poet, writer, and scholar...

  6. Adverse childhood experience and asthma onset: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Exley; Alyson Norman; Michael Hyland

    2015-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences such as abuse and neglect are associated with subsequent immune dysregulation. Some studies show an association between adverse childhood experiences and asthma onset, although significant disparity in results exists in the published literature. We aimed to review available studies employing a prospective design that investigates associations between adverse childhood experience and asthma. A search protocol was developed and studies were drawn from four electron...

  7. Immunity to Diphtheria in Haemodialysis Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Abdolreza S. Jahromi; Mortaza Pourahmd; Sara Azhdari; Gita Manshoori; Abdolhossain Madani; Seyed H. Moosavy

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: The incidence of infectious diseases is increased in patients with chronic renal failure. Chronic renal failure severely influences the immune functions of the host. Diphtheria is of great epidemiological concern. Although mainly observed during childhood, unvaccinated adults and relatively immunocompromised patients are at increased risk for acquiring diphtheria. Approach: To evaluate the anti-Diphtheria immunity level in southern Iranian patients ...

  8. Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuca, Sevil Ari, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book aims to provide readers with a general as well as an advanced overview of the key trends in childhood obesity. Obesity is an illness that occurs due to a combination of genetic, environmental, psychosocial, metabolic and hormonal factors. The prevalence of obesity has shown a great rise both in adults and children in the last 30 years.…

  9. Childhood Obesity

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-06

    In this podcast, Dr. Tom Frieden, CDC Director, discusses the decrease in childhood obesity rates and what strategies have been proven to work to help our children grow up and thrive.  Created: 8/6/2013 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control.   Date Released: 3/6/2014.

  10. 盘锦市双台子区部分儿童免疫规划四种疫苗免疫效果监测%Immune effect monitoring on four vaccine in immunization programmes for some children of Shuangzitai district

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵冰

    2014-01-01

    目的:了解双台子区儿童免疫规划四种疫苗接种后抗体阳性率。方法采用随机抽样方法,以双台子区1~15岁儿童为调查对象,用酶联免疫法检测麻疹、乙脑、流脑A+C、脊髓灰质炎IgG抗体。结果共检测2980例,四种疫苗的抗体阳性率分别为:麻疹96.01%、乙脑95.11%、流脑86.98%、脊髓灰质炎91.48%。结论双台子区1~15岁儿童四种疫苗抗体阳性率维持在较高水平。%Objective To understand the antibody positive rate of four vaccine in immunization programmes for children in Shuangtaizi district. Methods Adopting the method of random sampling, taking Shuangtaizi district aged 1~15 years old children as the research object, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, measles,encephalitis, meningitis A+C , poliomyelitis antibody of IgG. Results A total of 2980 test cases, the antibody positive rate of four vaccines were:measles 96.01%, encephalitis 95.11%, meningitis A+C 86.98%, poliomyelitis 91.48%. Conclusion Shuangtaizi district, 1~15 years old children in 4 kinds of vaccine antibody positive rate is maintained at a high level.

  11. Technology programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technology activities carried out by the EURATOM-ENEA Association concern the continuation of the European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA) as well as the ITER activities coordinated by the ITER International Office and Fusion for Energy. Also included in the activities are design and RD under the Broader Approach Agreement between the EU and Japan. In order to better contribute to the programme a number of consortium agreements among the Associations are being signed. Collaboration with industries in view of their participation in the construction of ITER was further strengthened, mainly in the field of magnet and divertor components. The new European Test Blanket Facility at ENEA Brasimone was completed; the design of the ITER radial neutron camera was optimised and the performance achievable with the in-vessel viewing system was further assessed by experimental trials. Design activities for the JT-60SA magnet and power supply system as well as the design and experimental activities related to the target of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility were continued. Significant work was done to define quality assurance for neutronics analyses. Mockups of the ITER pre-compression ring made in glass fibre epoxy were tested. The activities and results documented in the following illustrate ENEA's efforts to support fusion development

  12. Breast milk IL-1β level associates with development of eczema during early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, A. A.; Chawes, B. L. K.; Carson, C. G.;

    2015-01-01

    We recently demonstrated adual effect of breastfeeding with increasedrisk of eczema and decreased risk ofwheezing in early childhood. We hypothesizethat maternal immune constitutioncharacterized by breast milk mediatorsmay explain such association.......We recently demonstrated adual effect of breastfeeding with increasedrisk of eczema and decreased risk ofwheezing in early childhood. We hypothesizethat maternal immune constitutioncharacterized by breast milk mediatorsmay explain such association....

  13. Childhood Immunization - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hrvatski) French (français) German (Deutsch) Haitian Creole (Kreyol) Hindi (हिन्दी) Hmong (Hmoob) Ilocano (ilokano) Japanese (日本語) ... Action Coalition; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Hindi (हिन्दी) Vaccines for Your Children हिन्दी ( ...

  14. Childhood vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Palit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood vitiligo is often encountered in dermatological practice. When present in infancy or early childhood, various nevoid and hereditary disorders are to be differentiated. In many cases, familial aggregation of the disease is seen and other autoimmune disorders may be associated. Segmental presentation is more common, and limited body surface area involvement is usual in this age group. Children with vitiligo often suffer from anxiety and depression because of their unusual appearance. Management of vitiligo in children is difficult as therapeutic options are restricted when compared to that in adult patients. Selection of treatment should be careful in these patients with the aim to achieve best results with minimal side effects as well as relieving patients′ and parents′ anxiety.

  15. Delivery by Cesarean Section and risk of childhood cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Momen, Natalie; Olsen, Jørn; Gissler, Mika;

    suggest CS does not influence overall childhood cancer risk. We did not see any difference between the two types of CS. Additionally it was not strongly associated with any specific childhood cancer, but power was limited for some types. Considering the high CS rates, even a small increase in risk of......Introduction Studies suggest delivery by Cesarean section (CS) may impact the development of the immune system. Meta-analyses on CS and risks of type I diabetes mellitus and asthma have found risks increased by 20%. Three different mechanisms have been proposed by which CS may influence immune...... childhood cancer could therefore have public health impact....

  16. Childhood psoriasis

    OpenAIRE

    Dogra Sunil; Kaur Inderjeet

    2010-01-01

    Psoriasis is a common dermatosis in children with about one third of all patients having onset of disease in the first or second decade of life. A chronic disfiguring skin disease, such as psoriasis, in childhood is likely to have profound emotional and psychological effects, and hence requires special attention. Psoriasis in children has been reported to differ from that among adults being more frequently pruritic; plaque lesions are relatively thinner, softer, and less scaly; face and flexu...

  17. Childhood Traumatic Grief

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Educators Resources for Kids and Teens Childhood Traumatic Grief What is Childhood Traumatic Grief? Children grieve in their own way following the ... child may have a condition called Childhood Traumatic Grief (CTG). Thinking about the person who died—even ...

  18. Childhood Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Shop With CureSearch Blog Donate Now Select Page Childhood Cancer Statistics Home > Understanding Children’s Cancer > Childhood Cancer Statistics Childhood Cancer Statistics – Graphs and Infographics Number of Diagnoses ...

  19. Childhood psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogra Sunil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a common dermatosis in children with about one third of all patients having onset of disease in the first or second decade of life. A chronic disfiguring skin disease, such as psoriasis, in childhood is likely to have profound emotional and psychological effects, and hence requires special attention. Psoriasis in children has been reported to differ from that among adults being more frequently pruritic; plaque lesions are relatively thinner, softer, and less scaly; face and flexural involvement is common and guttate type is the characteristic presentation. Whether onset in childhood predicts a more severe form of psoriasis is a matter of controversy, it may cause significant morbidity particularly if it keeps relapsing. Most children have mild form of psoriasis which can be generally treated effectively with topical agents such as emollients, coal tar, corticosteroids, dithranol, calcipotriol etc. according to age and the sites affected. Narrow band UVB is the preferred form of phototherapy in children for moderate to severe disease or in patients not responding to topical therapy alone. Systemic therapies are reserved for more severe and extensive cases that cannot be controlled with topical treatment and/or phototherapy such as severe plaque type, unstable forms like erythrodermic and generalized pustular psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. There are no controlled trials of systemic therapies in this age group, most experience being with retinoids and methotrexate with favorable results. Cyclosporine can be used as a short-term intermittent crisis management drug. There is an early promising experience with the use of biologics (etanercept and infliximab in childhood psoriasis. Systemic treatments as well as phototherapy have limited use in children due to cumulative dose effects of drugs, low acceptance, and risk of gonadal toxicity. More evidence-based data is needed about the effectiveness and long-term safety of topical

  20. Childhood Maltreatment and Headache Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietjen, Gretchen E

    2016-04-01

    Childhood maltreatment is substantiated in 12 % of children, but nearly 50 % adults recall having been neglected or abused as children. Maltreatment, especially emotional abuse, is associated with migraine. Dysregulation of the HPA axis, autonomic, immune, and metabolic systems appears to be a consequence of maltreatment, and is also reported in migraine. Areas of the brain structurally and functionally affected by childhood abuse and by migraine are also similar, and include the limbic system structures, which connect to pain regions in the brainstem. Putative mechanisms by which early life stress increases the likelihood of developing migraine include gene x environment interactions, in addition to epigenetic modifications via DNA methylation. These modifications are stable and may be transferred across generations, but they may also be reversed by some medications commonly used in migraine, including valproic acid and topiramate. PMID:26936357

  1. THE ROLE OF EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION IN ACHIEVING CHILD RIGHTS

    OpenAIRE

    Vijaykumar R. Londhe; B. Yuvakumar Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, more than 200 million children aged under five do not reach their full developmental potential due to the absence of early childhood care programmes. Education is the mainstay of a development of a human being. Childhood education lays foundation of the child leading to awareness of child rights and empowerment. The awareness about child rights is even more necessary in lieu of various crimes being committed against children. Qualitative school education should not m...

  2. Childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Joan C; Lawlor, Debbie A; Kimm, Sue Y S

    2010-05-15

    Worldwide prevalence of childhood obesity has increased greatly during the past three decades. The increasing occurrence in children of disorders such as type 2 diabetes is believed to be a consequence of this obesity epidemic. Much progress has been made in understanding of the genetics and physiology of appetite control and from these advances, elucidation of the causes of some rare obesity syndromes. However, these rare disorders have so far taught us few lessons about prevention or reversal of obesity in most children. Calorie intake and activity recommendations need reassessment and improved quantification at a population level because of sedentary lifestyles of children nowadays. For individual treatment, currently recommended calorie prescriptions might be too conservative in view of evolving insight into the so-called energy gap. Although quality of research into both prevention and treatment has improved, high-quality multicentre trials with long-term follow-up are needed. Meanwhile, prevention and treatment approaches to increase energy expenditure and decrease intake should continue. Recent data suggest that the spiralling increase in childhood obesity prevalence might be abating; increased efforts should be made on all fronts to continue this potentially exciting trend. PMID:20451244

  3. Ghana's nuclear programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Paper gives the purpose of Ghana's Nuclear Programme and describes some specific research activities and peaceful applications of atomic energy in agriculture, medicine and industry. A discussion of some of the problem facing the programme concludes the Paper. (author)

  4. Olympic Partner Programme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The Olympic Partner Programme (TOP) is an international Olympic marketing programme created by the International Olympic Committee (IOC),which includes the Organising Committees of the Games,the National Olympic Committees and the TOP Partners.

  5. Childhood cataract in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Courtright, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Investment by organizations and agencies has led to a growing body of evidence and information to assist ophthalmologists and others to meet the needs of children with cataract in Africa. The geographic distribution of research, training, and programme development across Africa has been uneven; investment has been greatest in eastern and southern Africa. Population based surveys (using key informants) suggest that 15–35% of childhood blindness is due to congenital or developmental cataract. T...

  6. The Winfrith DSN programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The programme, which is written in the Fortran language, solves the Carlson discrete Sn approximation to the Boltzmann transport equation in cylindrical geometry. This report describes the input and output facilities of the WINFRITH DSN programme and the associated editing programme WED. (author)

  7. Linking Children's and Women's Rights: An early childhood perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard P Y Combes

    2001-01-01

    Bernard P.Y. Combes argues that early childhood programmes have a direct impact on children, women, parents and families. Such programmes recognize that ensuring women's rights is basic to ensuring children's rights as they seek to train caregivers and trainers (a majority of whom are women) in child development and education; to provide advocacy for children's rights, in particular equality of opportunities and chances for young girls; and to inform and help parents to take better care of th...

  8. How Are Childhood Cancers Found?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topic How are childhood cancers treated? How are childhood cancers found? Screening for childhood cancers Screening is testing for a disease such ... in people who don’t have any symptoms. Childhood cancers are rare, and there are no widely ...

  9. Echinoderm immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L Courtney; Ghosh, Julie; Buckley, Katherine M; Clow, Lori A; Dheilly, Nolwenn M; Haug, Tor; Henson, John H; Li, Chun; Lun, Cheng Man; Majeske, Audrey J; Matranga, Valeria; Nair, Sham V; Rast, Jonathan P; Raftos, David A; Roth, Mattias; Sacchi, Sandro; Schrankel, Catherine S; Stensvåg, Klara

    2010-01-01

    A survey for immune genes in the genome for the purple sea urchin has shown that the immune system is complex and sophisticated. By inference, immune responses of all echinoderms maybe similar. The immune system is mediated by several types of coelomocytes that are also useful as sensors of environmental stresses. There are a number of large gene families in the purple sea urchin genome that function in immunity and of which at least one appears to employ novel approaches for sequence diversification. Echinoderms have a simpler complement system, a large set of lectin genes and a number of antimicrobial peptides. Profiling the immune genes expressed by coelomocytes and the proteins in the coelomic fluid provide detailed information about immune functions in the sea urchin. The importance of echinoderms in maintaining marine ecosystem stability and the disastrous effects of their removal due to disease will require future collaborations between ecologists and immunologists working towards understanding and preserving marine habitats. PMID:21528703

  10. Childhood medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massimino, Maura; Biassoni, Veronica; Gandola, Lorenza; Garrè, Maria Luisa; Gatta, Gemma; Giangaspero, Felice; Poggi, Geraldina; Rutkowski, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    Medulloblastoma accounts for 15-20% of childhood nervous system tumours. The risk of dying was reduced by 30% in the last twenty years. Patients are divided in risk strata according to post-surgical disease, dissemination, histology and some molecular features such as WNT subgroup and MYC status. Sixty to 70% of patients older than 3 years are assigned to the average-risk group. High-risk patients include those with disseminated and/or residual disease, large cell and/or anaplastic histotypes, MYC genes amplification. Current and currently planned clinical trials will: (1) evaluate the feasibility of reducing both the dose of craniospinal irradiation and the volume of the posterior fossa radiotherapy (RT) for those patients at low biologic risk, commonly identified as those having a medulloblastoma of the WNT subgroup; (2) determine whether intensification of chemotherapy (CT) or irradiation can improve outcome in patients with high-risk disease; (3) find target therapies allowing tailored therapies especially for relapsing patients and those with higher biological risk. PMID:27375228

  11. Strong Foundations: Early Childhood Care and Education. EFA Global Monitoring Report, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), 2006

    2006-01-01

    Early childhood is a time of remarkable transformation and extreme vulnerability. Programmes that support young children during the years before they go to primary school provide strong foundations for subsequent learning and development. Such programmes also compensate for disadvantage and exclusion, offering a way out of poverty. This Report…

  12. Childhood leukaemia clusters around Sellafield and Dounreay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1983, a television programme identified a striking cluster of childhood leukaemia in the coastal village of Seascale, adjacent to the Sellafield nuclear complex in England. Excesses of childhood leukaemia near certain other nuclear installations in Britain were later reported during the 1980s, notably a cluster in west Thurso near Dounreay in Scotland. Detailed radiological investigations demonstrated that radiation exposures from discharged radioactive material were most unlikely to be the cause of these excesses and no serious deficiencies in these assessments have been discovered despite exhaustive searches. In 1990, a report was published suggesting that occupational radiation exposure of men before the conception of their children could be responsible for the Seascale cluster. Extensive research has not supported a causal link between paternal preconceptional radiation dose and childhood leukaemia, and the idea that radiation exposure of fathers materially increases the risk of leukaemia in offspring and could account for the clusters has now effectively been abandoned. In contrast, evidence has mounted that childhood leukaemia has an infectious basis and that unusual population mixing increases the risk of the disease. It now seems that population mixing is the explanation for the excesses of childhood leukaemia near nuclear sites and at other locations with no enhanced exposure to radiation. (author)

  13. Ensuring Adequate Early Childhood Development for Uganda’s Children

    OpenAIRE

    Kasirye, Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Although Uganda has made significant progress in reducing child deaths in the past five years, the country still faces major challenges in ensuring adequate early childhood development. This briefing highlights some of the major challenges affecting children during the first five years of life with focus on: the low immunization coverage rates and vaccine availability; poor child nutritional health status; and the limited enrolment of children in Early Childhood Development Centres.

  14. Development of Interleukin-12-Producing Capacity throughout Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Upham, John W.; Lee, Peter T.; Holt, Barbara J.; Heaton, Tricia; Prescott, Susan L.; Sharp, Mary J.; Peter D Sly; Holt, Patrick G

    2002-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that the capacity to induce protective Th1 immune responses is impaired in early childhood, an observation that can be partially attributed to deficiencies in antigen-presenting-cell function. Synthesis of interleukin 12 (IL-12), a key Th1-trophic cytokine, is markedly reduced in the neonatal period, though there is a paucity of knowledge concerning the ontogeny of IL-12-synthetic capacity throughout the childhood years. Hence, we examined the production of bioac...

  15. Causes of childhood deaths in Bangladesh: results of a nationwide verbal autopsy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baqui, A. H.; Black, R. E.; Arifeen, S. E.; Hill, K.; Mitra, S. N.; al Sabir, A.

    1998-01-01

    While knowledge of causes of deaths is important for health sector planning, little is known from conventional sources about the causes of deaths in Bangladesh. This is partly due to deficiencies in the registration system and partly because few deaths are attended by qualified physicians. The present study was undertaken to update the information available on causes of deaths among under-5-year-olds, taking advantage of advances in verbal autopsy methodology and of the national Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey conducted in 1993-94. About 25% of the deaths were associated with acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) and about 20% with diarrhoea. Neonatal tetanus and measles remained important causes of death, and drowning was a major cause for 1-4-year-olds. Research and programmes to enable mothers to identify ALRI cases, particularly pneumonia, and to encourage timely and appropriate care-seeking and strengthening of ALRI case management at the primary care facilities are important priorities. While promotion of oral rehydration for watery diarrhoea and antibiotic treatment for dysentery should continue, broader preventive interventions including provision of safe water and sanitation, and improvements in personal hygiene require more attention. Further intensification of immunization programmes and innovative experimental interventions to reduce childhood from drowning should be designed and tested. PMID:9648357

  16. Increasing immunization coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Lawrence D; Curry, Edward S; Harlor, Allen D; Laughlin, James J; Leeds, Andrea J; Lessin, Herschel R; Rodgers, Chadwick T; Granado-Villar, Deise C; Brown, Jeffrey M; Cotton, William H; Gaines, Beverly Marie Madry; Gambon, Thresia B; Gitterman, Benjamin A; Gorski, Peter A; Kraft, Colleen A; Marino, Ronald Vincent; Paz-Soldan, Gonzalo J; Zind, Barbara

    2010-06-01

    Internet as well as standard media outlets to advance a position, wholly unsupported by any scientific evidence, linking vaccines with various childhood conditions, particularly autism. Much remains to be accomplished by physician organizations; vaccine manufacturers; third-party payers; the media; and local, state, and federal governments to ensure dependable vaccine supply and payments that are sufficient to continue to provide immunizations in public and private settings and to promote effective strategies to combat unjustified misstatements by the antivaccination movement. Pediatricians should work individually and collectively at the local, state, and national levels to ensure that all children without a valid contraindication receive all childhood immunizations on time. Pediatricians and pediatric organizations, in conjunction with government agencies such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, must communicate effectively with parents to maximize their understanding of the overall safety and efficacy of vaccines. Most parents and children have not experienced many of the vaccine-preventable diseases, and the general public is not well informed about the risks and sequelae of these conditions. A number of recommendations are included for pediatricians, individually and collectively, to support further progress toward the goal of universal immunization coverage of all children for whom vaccines are not contraindicated. PMID:20513736

  17. Childhood Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... They are among the most common types of childhood cancers. Some are benign tumors, which aren't ... can still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches ...

  18. Childhood Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain tumors are abnormal growths inside the skull. They are among the most common types of childhood ... still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches and ...

  19. Childhood Overweight and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Childhood Obesity Facts The prevalence of obesity among low-income children aged 2 through 4 years, by state ... Obesity now affects 1 in 6 children and adolescents in the United States. Childhood Obesity Facts How ...

  20. Reducing Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Reducing Childhood Obesity Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents For ... page please turn Javascript on. The We Can! childhood obesity-prevention program involves parents, caregivers, and community leaders ...

  1. ASSESSMENT OF KNOWLEDGE ABOUT IMMUNIZATION OF UNDER FIVE CHILDREN AMONG MOTHERS ATTENDING OUTPATIENT DEPARTMENT OF PEDIATRICS IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN KOLLAM, KERALA

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Nadeem; Athira; Ankitha K .; Athira V; Asha,; Bency; Anas; Ahemmed

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND : Immunization is the most cost effective public health intervention to reduce childhood morbidity and mortality. Thousands of children can be saved from vaccine preventable diseases each year by immunization. The knowledge of mothers’ is an important factor for better immunization coverage. Less knowledge affects decision making regarding immunization. OBJECTIVES: To assess the knowledge about immunization of under five children among mothers a ...

  2. Early Childhood Education in Nigeria: A Reality or a Mirage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajayi, Hannah O.

    2008-01-01

    Education is the right of every child and must not be denied it for any reason. This has been the assertion of the World Summit on the state of global children, which has led to the inclusion and expansion of early childhood care and education in the global Education for All programme (EFA). As Nigeria has pledged its commitment to this, with the…

  3. Urban Early Childhood Teachers' Attitudes towards Inclusive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Wu-Ying; Hsieh, Chang-Ming

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between urban early childhood teachers' attitudes towards inclusive education and personal characteristics, professional background, and programme context. Questionnaires were completed by teachers (n = 130) who taught preschool children in primarily low-income, urban neighbourhoods. Attitude ratings were…

  4. Echinoderm immunity

    OpenAIRE

    JE García-Arrarás; F Ramírez-Gómez

    2010-01-01

    Echinoderms are exclusively marine animals that, after the chordates, represent the second largest group of deuterostomes. Their diverse species composition and singular ecological niches provide at the same time challenges and rewards when studying the broad range of responses that make up their immune mechanisms. Two types of responses comprise the immune system of echinoderms: a cellular response and a humoral one. Cell-based immunity is carried by the celomocytes, a morphologically hetero...

  5. DNA Immunization

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Shixia; Lu, Shan

    2013-01-01

    DNA immunization was discovered in early 1990s and its use has been expanded from vaccine studies to a broader range of biomedical research, such as the generation of high quality polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies as research reagents. In this unit, three common DNA immunization methods are described: needle injection, electroporation and gene gun. In addition, several common considerations related to DNA immunization are discussed.

  6. Immune Thrombocytopenia

    OpenAIRE

    Kistanguri, Gaurav; McCrae, Keith R

    2013-01-01

    Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a common hematologic disorder characterized by isolated thrombocytopenia. ITP presents as a primary form characterized by isolated thrombocytopenia (platelet count < 100 × 109/L) in the absence of other causes or disorders that may be associated with thrombocytopenia, or a secondary form in which immune thrombocytopenia develops in association with another disorder that is usually immune or infectious. ITP may affect individuals of all ages, with peaks during ...

  7. En Note om Programmering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørmark, Kurt

    2012-01-01

    Denne note er en introduktion til programmering. Formålet er at give dig et indblik i hvad programmering egentlig er for noget. Jeg vil vise at programmering kan foregå på forskellige måder, og at der er mange forskellige udfordringer forbundet med at programmere. Noten vil ikke knytte sig til et...... bestemt programmeringssprog. Noten vil kunne supplere et egentlig undervisningsmateriale, der støtter dig i en bestemt form for programmering i et udvalgt programmeringssprog....

  8. Finnish bioenergy research programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, D. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Finland is a leading country in the use of biofuels and has excellent opportunities to increase the use of biofuels by up to 25-30 %. The Finnish Government has set an objective for the promotion of bioenergy. The aim is to increase the use of bioenergy by about 25 % from the present level by 2005, and the increment corresponds to 1.5 million tonnes of oil equivalent (toe) per year. The R and D work has been considered as an important factor to achieve this ambitious goal. Energy research was organised into a series of research programmes in 1988 in accordance with the proposal of Finnish Energy Research Committee. The object of the research programmes is to enhance research activities and to bundle individual projects together into larger research packages. The common target of the Finnish energy research programmes is to proceed from basic and applied research to product development and pilot operation, and after that to the first commercial applications, e.g. demonstrations. As the organisation of energy research to programmes has led to good results, the Finnish Ministry of Trade and Industry decided to go on with this practice by launching new six-year programmes in 1993-1998. One of these programmes is the Bioenergy Research Programme and the co-ordination of this programme is carried out by VTT Energy. Besides VTT Energy the Finnish Forest Research Institute, Work Efficiency Institute, Metsaeteho and University of Joensuu are participating in the programme 7 refs.

  9. The impact of helminths on the response to immunization and on the incidence of infection and disease in childhood in Uganda: design of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, factorial trial of deworming interventions delivered in pregnancy and early childhood [ISRCTN32849447

    OpenAIRE

    Alison M Elliott; Kizza, Moses; Maria A Quigley; Ndibazza, Juliet; Nampijja, Margaret; Muhangi, Lawrence; Morison, Linda; Namujju, Proscovia B; Muwanga, Moses; Kabatereine, Narcis; Whitworth, James AG

    2007-01-01

    Background Helminths have profound effects on the immune response, allowing long-term survival of parasites with minimal damage to the host. Some of these effects "spill-over", altering responses to non-helminth antigens or allergens. It is suggested that this may lead to impaired responses to immunizations and infections, while conferring benefits against inflammatory responses in allergic and autoimmune disease. These effects might develop in utero, through exposure to maternal helminth inf...

  10. Schizophrenia patients with a history of childhood trauma have a pro-inflammatory phenotype

    OpenAIRE

    Dennison, Una; McKernan, Declan P.; Cryan, John F; Dinan, Timothy G.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Increasing evidence indicates that childhood trauma is a risk factor for schizophrenia and patients with this syndrome have a pro-inflammatory phenotype. We tested the hypothesis that the pro-inflammatory phenotype in schizophrenia is associated with childhood trauma and that patients without a history of such trauma have a similar immune profile to healthy controls. Method. We recruited 40 schizophrenia patients and 40 controls, all of whom completed the Childhood Trauma ...

  11. Childhood proptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proptosis in children is a hallmark of orbital diseases which can present a diagnostic challenge requiring thoughtful investigation. The aim of this review is to provide the reader an overview of the subject of childhood proptosis with an emphasis on the systematic and practical approach for the work-up of proptosis in children. Use of proper imaging studies is essential for the correct diagnosis. Computed tomography is a good screening test for any space occupying lesion of the orbit. Proptosis describes eye prominence due to space occupying orbital lesions. Congenital lesions usually present in the first decade of life. Acquired orbital lesions such as lymphangiomas, orbital varix, rhabdomyosarcoma and neural tumors may present at the end of the first decade of life. Metastatic tumors to the orbit, adenocarcinoma of lacrimal gland and rapidly growing masses may present with proptosis associated with pain. Visual loss can be the presenting symptoms in the patients with optic nerve (ON) gliomas, orbital meningiomas and posteriorly located tumors. Cystic lesions of the orbit may be congenital or acquired, dermoid cysts being the most common congenital orbital lesions. Some of the vascular lesions of the orbit include capillary hemangiomas, lymphangiomas, orbital varix, and arteriovenous malformations. Inflammatory process of the orbit in children include cellulitis and pseudotumor. Neural tumors such as neurofibromas, ON gilomas and meningiomas are less common causes of proptosis in children. Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common primary orbital malignancy in children which can present with acute proptosis and is one of the few life-threatening diseases seen initially by an ophthalmologist. Secondary orbital tumors invade the orbit from adjacent sinuses, cranium or extended from the eye itself. The most common distant metastases in children include neuroblastoma and Ewing's sarcoma. Although many orbital processes can be diagnosed based on history, clinical

  12. Health and Safety in Early Childhood Centres. AECA Resource Book Series, No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plested, Dawn

    This guide is designed to provide practical support and information about health and safety to workers in all early childhood settings. The booklet outlines the main attributes of a safe early childhood center, and then covers the following specific topics: (1) health care; (2) self-esteem; (3) immunizations; (4) nutrition; (5) medical and safety…

  13. Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    A properly functioning immune system is essential to good health. It defends the body against infectious agents and in some cases tumor cells. Individuals with immune deficiencies resulting from genetic defects, diseases (e.g., AIDS, leukemia), or drug therapies are more suscepti...

  14. SET-Routes programme

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN audiovisual service

    2009-01-01

    The SET-Routes programme, launched in 2007 with the goal of attracting girls and young women to careers in science, came to an end in April this year. The result of a collaboration between EMBL, EMBO and CERN, the programme established a network of "ambassadors", women scientists who went out to talk about their careers in science at schools and universities across Europe.

  15. Fusion technology programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KfK participates to the Fusion Technology Programme of the European Community. Most of the work in progress addresses the Next European Torus (NET) and the long term technology aspects as defined in the 82/86 programme. A minor part serves to preparation of future contributions and to design studies on fusion concepts in a wider perspective. The Fusion Technology Programme of Euratom covers mainly aspects of nuclear engineering. Plasma engineering, heating, refueling and vacuum technology are at present part of the Physics Programme. In view of NET, integration of the different areas of work will be mandatory. KfK is therefore prepared to address technical aspects beyond the actual scope of the physics experiments. The technology tasks are reported project wise under title and code of the Euratom programme. Most of the projects described here are shared with other European fusion laboratories as indicated in the table annexed to this report. (orig./GG)

  16. Cesarean Section and Chronic Immune Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sevelsted, Astrid; Stokholm, Jakob; Bønnelykke, Klaus;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Immune diseases such as asthma, allergy, inflammatory bowel disease, and type 1 diabetes have shown a parallel increase in prevalence during recent decades in westernized countries. The rate of cesarean delivery has also increased in this period and has been associated with the...... development of some of these diseases. METHODS: Mature children born by cesarean delivery were analyzed for risk of hospital contact for chronic immune diseases recorded in the Danish national registries in the 35-year period 1977-2012. Two million term children participated in the primary analysis. We...... studied childhood diseases with a suspected relation to a deviant immune-maturation and a debut at young age. The effect of cesarean delivery on childhood disease incidences were estimated by means of confounder-adjusted incidence rate ratios with 95% confidence intervals obtained in Poisson regression...

  17. 新诊断儿童免疫性血小板减少症与人细小病毒B19 感染的相关性研究%A Retrospective Analysis of Human Parvovirus B19 Infection in Childhood Immune Thrombocytopenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程衍杨; 熊昊; 徐之良

    2015-01-01

    目的 明确人细小病毒B19(human parvovirus B19,B19)感染对儿童新诊断免疫性血小板减少症(immune thrombo-cytopenia, ITP)的影响. 方法 选取2011年1月~2013年12月间416例首次住院并确诊为新诊断ITP患儿为疾病组;随机选取无血小板减少及其他血液系统疾病的普通呼吸道感染住院患儿130例作为对照组. ITP患儿及对照组儿童按年龄段分为0.05). ITP患儿均未接受针对B19的相关抗病毒治疗,而针对血小板减少经丙种球蛋白和(或)激素治疗后,疾病组与对照组患儿PLT缓解率差异无统计学意义,与各年龄段B19阴性的ITP患儿治疗后缓解率比较差异均无统计学意义(P均>0.05). 结论 B19感染可能不是新诊断ITP患儿发病的一个主要致病因素;是否治疗B19并不影响儿童急性ITP的治疗效果,因此B19感染的新诊断ITP患儿无需同时接受B19抗病毒的相关治疗.%Objective To confirm the role of human parvovirus B 19 ( B19) infection in childhood immune thrombocytopenia ( ITP) patients.Methods A total of 416 cases of newly diagnosed childhood ITP patients from Jan .2011 to Dec.2013 had been summarized to be cases group , Then a total of 130 childhood patients with common respiratory tract infection were selected randomly as the control group . All patients had been divided in grouped by age as 0.05) was found.All the ITP patients had not been given anti -B19 treatment.The PLT remission rate,respectively, after treated with the same pro-tocol including glucocorticoid and/or immunoglobulin had a declining trend as the ages increasing .The B19 infection groups of all ages al-so had no significant difference PLT remission rate had been confirmed in non -B19 infection patients in each age groups (all P>0.05). Conclusions B19 infection may not be a major cause in childhood newly ITP , and treatment protocol with no anti -B19 treatment had no influence on the clinical curative efficacy .

  18. Adult immunization-Need of the hour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarthi, P Srinivas; Ganta, Avani; Kattimani, Vivekanand S; Tiwari, Rahul V C

    2016-01-01

    Immunization is the process or the act of making individuals immune, which is usually done during childhood. Everyone is aware about immunization during childhood, however, very few know about adult immunization. This led us to review the adult immunization literature for the preventive strategies through various vaccination protocols. Adults do require vaccination protocols with booster doses for hepatitis B, Shingles, communicable diseases, traveler's diseases, etc. In this context, this article revises much of the available adult immunization literature and presents comprehensive guidelines. This article will increase the awareness regarding the importance of vaccination for adults to prevent a variety of conditions prevalent in our country as well as epidemics. The article comprehensively provides insights into the available vaccination and preventive strategy of human papilloma virus (HPV), hepatitis, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in this part of the review. We strongly recommend all the health care professionals to educate their co-professionals and the public to use the benefits of adult immunization. It is the need of the hour and reduces the burden of treatment and increases productivity. PMID:27583212

  19. Echinoderm immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JE García-Arrarás

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Echinoderms are exclusively marine animals that, after the chordates, represent the second largest group of deuterostomes. Their diverse species composition and singular ecological niches provide at the same time challenges and rewards when studying the broad range of responses that make up their immune mechanisms. Two types of responses comprise the immune system of echinoderms: a cellular response and a humoral one. Cell-based immunity is carried by the celomocytes, a morphologically heterogeneous population of free roaming cells that are capable of recognizing and neutralizing pathogens. Celomocytes present diverse morphologies and functions, which include phagocytosis, encapsulation, clotting, cytotoxicity, wound healing among others. Humoral immunity is mediated by a wide variety of secreted compounds that can be found in the celomic fluid and play important roles in defense against infection. Compounds such as lectins, agglutinins, perforins, complement and some cytokines make up some of the humoral responses of echinoderms. Recent advances in the field of molecular biology, genomics and transcriptomics have allowed for the discovery of new immune genes and their products. These discoveries have expanded our knowledge of echinoderm immunity and are setting up the stage for future experiments to better understand the evolution of the immune mechanisms of deuterostomes

  20. Immunity booster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The immunity booster is, according to its patent description, microbiologically pure water with an D/(D+H) isotopic concentration of 100 ppm, with physical-chemical characteristics similar to those of distilled water. It is obtained by sterilization of a mixture of deuterium depleted water, with a 25 ppm isotopic concentration, with distilled water in a volume ratio of 4:6. Unlike natural immunity boosters (bacterial agents as Bacillus Chalmette-Guerin, Corynebacterium parvum; lipopolysaccharides; human immunoglobulin) or synthetical products (levamysol; isoprinosyne with immunostimulating action), which cause hypersensitivity and shocks, thrill, fever, sickness and the immunity complex disease, the water of 100 ppm D/(D + H) isotopic concentration is a toxicity free product. The testing for immune reaction of the immunity booster led to the following results: - an increase of cell action capacity in the first immunity shielding stage (macrophages), as evidenced by stimulation of a number of essential characterizing parameters, as well as of the phagocytosis capacity, bactericide capacity, and opsonic capacity of serum; - an increase of the number of leucocyte particularly of the granulocyte in peripheral blood, produced especially when medullar toxic agents like caryolysine are used; - it hinders the effect of lowering the number of erythrocytes in peripheral blood produced by experimentally induced chronic inflammation; - an increase of nonspecific immunity defence capacity against specific bacterial aggression of both Gram-positive bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae558) and of the Gram-negative ones (Klebsiella pneumoniae 507); - an increase of immunity - stimulating activity (proinflamatory), like that of levamisole as evidenced by the test of stimulation of experimentally induced inflammation by means of carrageenan. The following advantages of the immunity booster are stressed: - it is toxicity free and side effect free; - can be orally administrated as food

  1. Immunity challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, R John

    2003-06-11

    As people get older, their immune systems falter. The elderly are more susceptible to infections than youngsters are, and hyperactive inflammatory responses appear to contribute to some age-associated illnesses, including Alzheimer's disease and atherosclerosis. Investigating the effect of aging on the immune system was once a scientific stepchild, but card-carrying immunologists are now tackling the problem head-on. Despite the immune system's complexity, researchers have started to make sense of how its components change with age. As the research progresses, scientists hope to bolster elderly people's response to infectious diseases and quiet the inflammation that can make aging a painful experience. PMID:12844525

  2. Characteristics and Treatment Programmes of Adolescent Sexual Offenders

    OpenAIRE

    CANKURTARAN ÖNTAŞ, Doç. Dr. Özlem

    2010-01-01

    Modern childhood approach provided that juvenile offenders are treated different form adult. This article is given information about theoritical expalanation, characteristics, treatment programmes of adolescent sexual offenders. There are two explanation about causes of juvenile sexual offenders. One of model is Ryan, Lane, Davis ve Lsaac (1987)’s sexual abuse cycle. This model assert that when adolescent meet negative reflections, He has negative self concept then has negative coping strateg...

  3. Childhood trauma and childhood urbanicity in relation to psychotic disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frissen, Aleida; Lieverse, Ritsaert; Drukker, Marjan; van Winkel, Ruud; Delespaul, Philippe; Cahn, W

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urban upbringing and childhood trauma are both associated with psychotic disorders. However, the association between childhood urbanicity and childhood trauma in psychosis is poorly understood. The urban environment could occasion a background of social adversity against which any effect

  4. ROUTINE IMMUNIZATION IN INDIA: A PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Taneja

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Universal Immunization Programme is possibly the longest and one of the biggest public health intervention measures undertaken in India. To improve immunization coverage in the country various initiatives have been undertaken since the inception of the programme in 1985; key inputs being strengthening and expanding the cold chain system, establishing a network of outreach immunization sites, alternate vaccine delivery model, capacity building of health functionaries and medical officers and intensified polio control measures. Introduction of new and underutilized vaccines, drafting of the national vaccine policy, tracking of beneficiaries through the Maternal and Child Tracking system are some of the recent developments. However in spite of more than 25 years since inception the programme is still adversely impacted by challenges across key thematic areas of programme management, cold chain and vaccine management, recording and reporting and injection safety. To further strengthen and improve service delivery 2012-13 has been declared as the “Year of Intensification of Routine Immunization” with the objective of improving immunization coverage rates across poor performing districts and states so as to attain Global Immunization Vision and Strategy goals of 90% coverage at national and more than 80% coverage at district level. Key activities planned during the year include sustained advocacy at all levels, improved communication and social mobilization, robust and regular program reviews, comprehensive microplanning, strengthening cold chain and vaccine logistics system, special catch up rounds through immunization weeks, piloting the teeka express, improved surveillance systems, strengthened partnerships and operational research activities. The current review pertains to the existing scenario of Universal Immunization Program in the country with impetus on the existing challenges, progress achieved till date as a result of various

  5. The European Fusion Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Fusion Programme is coordinated by Euratom and represents a long term cooperative project of Member States of the European Communities in the field of fusion, designed to lead to the joint construction of prototypes. The main lines of the programme proposed for 1982 to 1986 are: (1) the continuation of a strong effort on tokamaks with emphasis on JET construction, operation and upgrading, (2) conceptual design of NET and development of the related technology, and (3) further work on two alternative magnetic confinement systems. The current status and future plans for this programme are discussed in the paper. (author)

  6. Adult Immunization

    OpenAIRE

    Omer Coskun

    2008-01-01

    Despite the many advances in modern medicine, each year thousands of people in the world die from diseases that are easily prevented by safe and effective vaccines. Few measures in preventive medicine are of such proven value and as easy to implement as routine immunization against infectious diseases. Prevention of infection by immunization is a lifelong process. There are a number of vaccines that all adults (¡I18 years) require. There are also other vaccines that need to be tailored t...

  7. Childhood as a value

    OpenAIRE

    EWELINA PIECUCH

    2011-01-01

    The article encompasses the problems of childhood and its influence on the rest of one's life. I have concentrated on this crucial and specific time in life. It is demonstrated by biology, medicine, psychology, and psychoanalysis that human habits are formed in childhood. Health, hygiene and aesthetic behaviour determine one's further fate and influence life in its entirety. It is that phase of human life that determines the rest of it. In childhood children manifest their cogn...

  8. Network virtualization and programmability

    OpenAIRE

    Colle, Didier; Jooris, Bart; Gurzi, Pasquale; Pickavet, Mario; Demeester, Piet

    2010-01-01

    We present network virtualization (building virtual or logical networks over a physical infrastructure) and network programmability (allowing the network operator to at least control the network but more fundamentally to define its behavior) concepts.

  9. Elukestva õppe programm : Erasmus+

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2014-01-01

    Erasmus+ programm liidab senised koostööprogrammid „Euroopa elukestva õppe programm“, „Euroopa Noored“ ning Euroopa komisjoni rahvusvahelised kõrgharidusprogrammid. Elukestva õppe programmi 2013 kokkuvõte

  10. Fellows, Associates & Students Programmes

    CERN Document Server

    2005-01-01

    The present document reviews the CERN Fellows, Associates and Students Programmes emphasizing the developments since 2000, when the previous review was presented to the Scientific Policy Committee, Finance Committee and Council (CERN/2325), and makes proposals for the coming five years. In summary, it is proposed to â?¢ Simplify the payment scheme for the Paid Scientific Associates Programme, which will no longer depend on candidateâ??s home support and age; â?¢ Broaden the scope of the Fellowship Programme, in order to facilitate the recruitment of young graduates in computing and engineering. Age-related eligibility conditions and payment levels will be replaced with experience-based criteria; â?¢ Modify subsistence rates for the Doctoral and Technical Student Programme in order to harmonize CERNâ??s payment levels with those offered by other research establishments. This document is presented for discussion and recommendation by the Scientific Policy Committee and approval by the Council. Additiona...

  11. Greek Teachers Programme 2015

    CERN Multimedia

    Hoch, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The 3rd edition of this year's Greek Teachers Programme was co-organized by CERN Education Group and the Hellenic Physical Society and took place from 8 to 12 November 2015. The programme targets physics high-school teachers from all over Greece. It aims to help teachers inspire the next generation of scientists and engineers by motivating their students to understand and appreciate how science works at the world's largest physics laboratory, whereby increasing their interest in pursuing studies in STEM fields in secondary and post-secondary education. 33 teachers took part in this programme which comprised lectures by Greek members of the CERN scientific community, with visits to experimental facilities, hands-on activities and dedicated sessions on effective and creative ways through which participants may bring physics, particle physics and CERN closer to their school classroom. In 2015, more than 100 teachers took part in the three editions of the Greek Teachers Programme.

  12. Childhood Cancer Survivor Study: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancers of Childhood Treatment Childhood Cancer Genomics Research Childhood Cancer Survivor Study: An Overview In 2016, it ... Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer .) The Childhood Cancer Survivor Study ( CCSS ), funded by the National ...

  13. The Gold Standard Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumann, Tim; Rasmussen, Mette; Ghith, Nermin;

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the real-life effect of an evidence-based Gold Standard Programme (GSP) for smoking cessation interventions in disadvantaged patients and to identify modifiable factors that consistently produce the highest abstinence rates.......To evaluate the real-life effect of an evidence-based Gold Standard Programme (GSP) for smoking cessation interventions in disadvantaged patients and to identify modifiable factors that consistently produce the highest abstinence rates....

  14. Stay Safe Programme

    OpenAIRE

    MacIntyre, Deirdre; Carr, Alan.

    1999-01-01

    Objective. This child abuse prevention study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the Stay Safe Programme in training unscreened 7 and 10 year old children in personal safety skills. Subsidiary aims were to evaluate the programme's impact on children's self-esteem and parents' and teachers' knowledge and attitudes of relevance to child abuse and protection. Method. Changes in safety knowledge and skills and self-esteem of 339 children who participated in the Stay Safe Program...

  15. Punch Card Programmable Microfluidics

    OpenAIRE

    George Korir; Manu Prakash

    2014-01-01

    Small volume fluid handling in single and multiphase microfluidics provides a promising strategy for efficient bio-chemical assays, low-cost point-of-care diagnostics and new approaches to scientific discoveries. However multiple barriers exist towards low-cost field deployment of programmable microfluidics. Incorporating multiple pumps, mixers and discrete valve based control of nanoliter fluids and droplets in an integrated, programmable manner without additional required external component...

  16. Etiology of common childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: the adrenal hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, K.; Vestergaard, T.; Nielsen, S.M.;

    2008-01-01

    The pattern of infections in the first years of life modulates our immune system, and a low incidence of infections has been linked to an increased risk of common childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We here present a new interpretation of these observations--the adrenal hypothesis...

  17. 免疫规划专业人员对脊髓灰质炎疫苗使用知识态度行为的调查%Survey on Knowledge, Attitude, Practice of Poliomyelitis Vaccine among Expanded Programme Immunization Staff

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温宁; 王兆南; 樊春祥; 罗会明

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To understand the knowledge, attitudes, and practice of poliomyelitis vaccine among the EPI staff in order to provide more standard reference for adjustment the polio myelitis vaccine strategy at Post-eradication stage and polio free status maintenance in China. Methods A self-administered questionnaire was designed and carried out among 842 EPI staff in center for diseas control and prevention (CDC) from 300 counties, 333 cities, and 31 provinces respectively. At the same time, focus group interviews were conducted in five provinces. Result Of all the participants surveyed, correctly awareness of oral poliomyelitis live attenuated vaccine and inactivated poliovirus vaccine, two vaccines sequential immunization programs and vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis and vaccine-derived poliovirus are 58%, 59%and 82%, respectively. Conclusion The awareness level of the two vaccines need to be further improved among the EPI staff. It is necessary to provide a guidance and strengthen management for how to correctly administer the polio vaccines.%目的 了解免疫规划专业人员对脊髓灰质炎(脊灰)疫苗的知识、态度、行为,为我国调整消灭脊灰后时代维持无脊灰状态的脊灰疫苗免疫策略提供参考.方法 在31个省(自治区、直辖市,下同)333个设区的市(地区、州、盟,下同)300个县(区、市、旗,下同)疾病预防控制中心,对842名免疫规划专业人员进行了自填式问卷调查,在5个省进行了专题小组访谈.结果 接受调查的免疫规划专业人员对口服脊灰减毒活疫苗和灭活脊灰病毒疫苗的认知正确率为58%,对两种疫苗序贯免疫程序认知正确率为59%,对疫苗相关麻痹型脊灰和疫苗衍生脊灰病毒的认知正确率为82%.结论 免疫规划专业人员对两种疫苗的认知程度有待提高.加强对脊灰疫苗的使用指导与管理,避免影响脊灰疫苗接种率.

  18. In vitro amplified human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-haploidentical donor immune cell infusion (HDICI) is not commonly used in children. Therefore, our study sought to evaluate its safety for treating childhood malignancies. Between September 2011 and September 2012, 12 patients with childhood malignancies underwent HDICI in Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center. The median patient age was 5.1 years (range, 1.7-8.4 years). Of the 12 patients, 9 had high-risk neuroblastoma (NB) [7 showed complete response (CR), 1 showed partial response (PR), and 1 had progressive disease (PD) after multi-modal therapies], and 3 had Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive lymphoproliferative disease (EBV-LPD). The 12 patients underwent a total of 92 HDICIs at a mean dose of 1.6×108 immune cells/kg body weight: 71 infusions with natural killer (NK) cells, 8 with cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells, and 13 with cascade primed immune cells (CAPRIs); 83 infusions with immune cells from the mothers, whereas 9 with cells from the fathers. Twenty cases (21.7%) of fever, including 6 cases (6.5%) accompanied with chills and 1 (1.1%) with febrile convulsion, occurred during infusions and were alleviated after symptomatic treatments. Five cases (5.4%) of mild emotion changes were reported. No other adverse events occurred during and after the completion of HDIDIs. Neither acute nor chronic graft versus host disease (GVHD) was observed following HDICIs. After a median of 5.0 months (range, 1.0-11.5 months) of follow-up, the 2 NB patients with PR and PD developed PD during HDICIs. Of the other 7 NB patients in CR, 2 relapsed in the sixth month of HDICIs, and 5 maintained CR with disease-free survival (DFS) ranging from 4.5 to 11.5 months (median, 7.2 months). One EBV-LPD patient achieved PR, whereas 2 had stable disease (SD). Our results show that HDICI is a safe immunotherapy for childhood malignancies, thus warranting further studies.

    OpenAIRE

    Fei Zhang; Xiao-Fei Sun

    2013-01-01

    In vitro amplified human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-haploidentical donor immune cell infusion (HDICI) is not commonly used in children. Therefore, our study sought to evaluate its safety for treating childhood malignancies. Between September 2011 and September 2012, 12 patients with childhood malignancies underwent HDICI in Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center. The median patient age was 5.1 years (range, 1.7-8.4 years). Of the 12 patients, 9 had high-risk neuroblastoma (NB) [7 showed complete r...

  19. ADS National Programmes: France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies related to nuclear reactors and radioactive waste started at the French National Centre for Scientific research, CNRS, as a result of the French law on radioactive waste that was published in 1991. They were initially organized around the programme PACE (Physique pour l’Aval du Cycle Electronucléaire = physics of the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle), which became PACEN (Physique pour l’Aval du Cycle et production d’Energie Nucléaire = Physics of the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle and production of nuclear energy) in 2006. Research on accelerator driven systems was from the beginning part of this programme. This research is mainly funded by the National Institute for Nuclear end Particle Physics (IN2P3) of CNRS and within the EURATOM European programmes (FP5, 6 and 7). The programme took place in several stages, and covered various scientific fields, benefitting from expertise of CNRS in the field. More specifically, it aimed and still aims to: – Test and verify the feasibility and design of the ADS concept, in terms of neutronics, physics of materials, design of the accelerator and tests of its prototypical components that have been built (or are at present under construction); – Measure and-or improve nuclear data related to radioactive waste transmutation. Today, most of the activities in support to ADS development carried out by CNRS focus on accelerator developments, GUINEVERE (Generator of Uninterrupted Intense NEutron at the lead VEnus REactor) experiment, ADS core studies, deployment scenarios and nuclear data measurements. The CEA R&D programmes on ADS are mainly focused on the European project EUROTRANS of the 6th Framework programme (2005–2010) and continued in the FREYA project of the 7th Framework Programme

  20. Childhood Obesity. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerfield, Liane M.

    In this discussion of childhood obesity, the medical and psychological problems associated with the condition are noted. Childhood obesity most likely results from an interaction of nutritional, psychological, familial, and physiological factors. Three factors--the family, low-energy expenditure, and heredity--are briefly examined. Early…

  1. Reframing Early Childhood Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamopoulos, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Rapid changes in Australian education have intensified the role of early childhood leaders and led to unprecedented challenges. The Australian Curriculum (ACARA, 2011), mandated Australian "National Quality Framework" (NQF) for Early Childhood Education & Care (DEEWR, 2010b) and the "National Early Years Learning Framework" (EYLF) (DEEWR, 2009)…

  2. Quality Management in Slovenian Education Programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Alič

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Product and service quality, effective process management, continuous improvement and innovation are some essential conditions for making a successful business. They are often emphasised by managers of successful organizations, by authors of professional and scientific papers and even by politicians and journalists. Quality management standards and models, such as ISO 9001 and EFQM model appeared in assistance to the needs of organisations to assure stable product and service quality, to improve it and to make the production process and its supporting processes effective. It has been 28 years since the standard ISO 9001 appeared. Now it is the most widely spread global standard implemented in more than 1.100.000 organizations worldwide. If quality management was proved to be an important approach to make organizations operate better and thus to contribute to well-being of the society, it would be expected that it is somehow included in our regular school programmes on all the levels. We expect that learning and living quality approaches in childhood and youth would be the least costly way to improve the culture of quality in the society and to implement it in our organizations as well. The paper gives some insight in the situation by searching for quality management related programmes and approaches in our primary, secondary and tertiary school programmes. The purpose of this paper is only to highlight the issue of teaching for quality in our regular education programmes – just to become aware of it and to find some improvement opportunities. There should be still some more detailed research on this topic to give strong suggestions.

  3. ADS National Programmes: Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The German R&D programme for ADS development is related to the partitioning and transmutation of spent fuel. This programme is implemented mainly by the three national research centres belonging to the Helmholtz Association, i.e. Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Forschungszentrum Jülich (FZJ) in cooperation with the Technical University of Aachen (RWTH Aachen) and the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden Rossendorf (HZDR). The main purpose of this R&D programme is the prospect to manage the high level radioactive waste such as to reduce the burden on a final repository. P&T does not eliminate the need for a final repository whatever the strategy, but it allows the reduction of the radio-toxicity associated with radioactive waste, the increase of the repository capacity as a consequence of the reduction of masses to be stored and their associated residual heat load. Different fuel cycle scenarios to implement P&T can be envisaged. These scenarios have been evaluated to identify the impact of P&T on the characteristics, number and deployment pace of the installations of the fuel cycle (reprocessing, fuel fabrication, storage etc). Almost all activities conducted in the R&D programme are embedded in European and international projects and initiatives. In the following more details on the relevant components of the R&D programme are summarized

  4. Impact of the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on immunization coverage among infants

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Feifei; Xu Stanley; France Eric K; Yu Xian-Jie; Chan K Arnold; Kleinman Ken; Lin Nancy D; Mullooly John; Santoli Jeanne; Lieu Tracy A

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background The introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) to the U.S. recommended childhood immunization schedule in the year 2000 added three injections to the number of vaccinations a child is expected to receive during the first year of life. Surveys have suggested that the addition of PCV has led some immunization providers to move other routine childhood vaccinations to later ages, which could increase the possibility of missing these vaccines. The purpose of this stud...

  5. Susceptibility to Lower Respiratory Infections in Childhood is Associated with Perturbation of the Cytokine Response to Pathogenic Airway Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, Nadja Hawwa; Larsen, Jeppe Madura; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neonatal colonization of the airways with respiratory pathogens is associated with increased risk of lower respiratory infections (LRI) in early childhood. Therefore, we hypothesized that children developing LRI have an aberrant immune response to pathogenic bacteria in infancy. OBJEC...

  6. Vitamin D and Atopic Dermatitis in Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelangelo Vestita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D features immunomodulatory effects on both the innate and adaptive immune systems, which may explain the growing evidence connecting vitamin D to allergic diseases. A wealth of studies describing a beneficial effect of vitamin D on atopic dermatitis (AD prevalence and severity are known. However, observations linking high vitamin D levels to an increased risk of developing AD have also been published, effectively creating a controversy. In this paper, we review the existing literature on the association between AD and vitamin D levels, focusing on childhood. As of today, the role of vitamin D in AD is far from clear; additional studies are particularly needed in order to confirm the promising therapeutic role of vitamin D supplementation in childhood AD.

  7. Vitamin D and Atopic Dermatitis in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestita, Michelangelo; Filoni, Angela; Congedo, Maurizio; Foti, Caterina

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D features immunomodulatory effects on both the innate and adaptive immune systems, which may explain the growing evidence connecting vitamin D to allergic diseases. A wealth of studies describing a beneficial effect of vitamin D on atopic dermatitis (AD) prevalence and severity are known. However, observations linking high vitamin D levels to an increased risk of developing AD have also been published, effectively creating a controversy. In this paper, we review the existing literature on the association between AD and vitamin D levels, focusing on childhood. As of today, the role of vitamin D in AD is far from clear; additional studies are particularly needed in order to confirm the promising therapeutic role of vitamin D supplementation in childhood AD. PMID:25973433

  8. Lifestyle changes and childhood asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Neil; Douwes, Jeroen

    2013-03-01

    In recent decades there have been marked increases in asthma prevalence in Western countries. More recently, asthma prevalence has peaked, or even begun to decline, in Western countries, but many low and middle income countries are now beginning to experience increases in prevalence (although there is no evidence of increases in prevalence in India to date). "Established" risk factors for asthma cannot account for the global prevalence increases, or the international patterns that have been observed, or the recent declines in prevalence in some Western countries. It seems that as a result of the "package" of changes in the intrauterine and infant environment that are occurring with "Westernization", we are seeing an increased susceptibility to the development of asthma and/or allergy. There are a number of elements of this "package" including changes in maternal diet, increased fetal growth, smaller family size, reduced infant infections and increased use of antibiotics and paracetamol, and immunization, all of which have been (inconsistently) associated with an increased risk of childhood asthma, but none of which can alone explain the increases in prevalence. It is likely that the "package" is more than the sum of its parts, and that these social and environmental changes are all pushing the infants' immune systems towards an increased risk of asthma. PMID:22555908

  9. Punch Card Programmable Microfluidics

    CERN Document Server

    Korir, George

    2014-01-01

    Small volume fluid handling in single and multiphase microfluidics provides a promising strategy for efficient bio-chemical assays, low-cost point-of-care diagnostics and new approaches to scientific discoveries. However multiple barriers exist towards low-cost field deployment of programmable microfluidics. Incorporating multiple pumps, mixers and discrete valve based control of nanoliter fluids and droplets in an integrated, programmable manner without additional required external components has remained elusive. Combining the idea of punch card programming with arbitrary fluid control, here we describe a self-contained, hand-crank powered, multiplex and robust programmable microfluidic platform. A paper tape encodes information as a series of punched holes. A mechanical reader/actuator reads these paper tapes and correspondingly executes a series of operations onto a microfluidic chip coupled to the platform in a plug-and-play fashion. Enabled by the complexity of codes that can be represented by a series ...

  10. External Mobility Programme

    CERN Document Server

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    Every year, a significant number of highly-skilled staff members leave the Organization and offer their talents on the European job market. CERN is launching a programme aiming to help staff members to whom the Organization cannot offer an indefinite contract in the transition towards their next employment. The programme, which is based on the establishment of a number of partnerships with potential employers in the private sector, will run on a voluntary basis. Staff members who have received confirmation that they will not be offered an indefinite contract and who are interested in availing themselves of the opportunities offered by the programme, are invited to enrol by following the procedure described at: https://ert.cern.ch/browse_intranet/wd_pds?p_web_page_id=5841 Applications will be processed in the strictest confidence by the Human Resources Department and eligible profiles will then be made available to partner companies for recruitment purposes. Any subsequent ...

  11. The French nuclear programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EDF has long been interested in the use of nuclear energy for thermal power generation. After a period of apprenticeship and experiments, EDF launched a major PWR plant programme so as to reduce France's energy dependence and master generation costs. This programme, based on standardization, has achieved the desired results. It must now be adapted to suit the needs of the 21st century. For this programme, all those involved (Governmental authorities, EDF, manufacturers) were mobilized to an unprecedented extent and rigorous working methods were imposed. Experience feedback has been used to make improvements both to the installations themselves and to procedures. Results have proved satisfactory as regards nuclear safety but vigilance must be maintained. Public opinion on nuclear power is reserved we are sentenced to achieving a 'fault-free' track record, all the while mastering costs, so as to ensure the continuing use of nuclear energy. (author)

  12. Childhood trauma and childhood urbanicity in relation to psychotic disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Frissen, Aleida; Lieverse, Ritsaert; Drukker, Marjan; van Winkel, Ruud; Delespaul, Philippe; [...

    2015-01-01

    Background Urban upbringing and childhood trauma are both associated with psychotic disorders. However, the association between childhood urbanicity and childhood trauma in psychosis is poorly understood. The urban environment could occasion a background of social adversity against which any effect of childhood trauma increases. Also, any impact of the urban environment on likelihood of exposure to childhood trauma could be stronger in children who later develop psychotic disorder. The aim of...

  13. Childhood trauma and childhood urbanicity in relation to psychotic disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Frissen, Aleida; Lieverse, Ritsaert; Drukker, Marjan; van Winkel, Ruud; Delespaul, Philippe; Cahn, W.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urban upbringing and childhood trauma are both associated with psychotic disorders. However, the association between childhood urbanicity and childhood trauma in psychosis is poorly understood. The urban environment could occasion a background of social adversity against which any effect of childhood trauma increases. Also, any impact of the urban environment on likelihood of exposure to childhood trauma could be stronger in children who later develop psychotic disorder. The aim o...

  14. Governments, off-patent vaccines, smallpox and universal childhood vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Music, Stanley

    2010-01-22

    WHO is now celebrating more than 30 years of freedom from smallpox. What was originally seen as a victory over an ancient scourge can now be viewed as an epidemiologically driven programme to overcome governmental inertia and under-achievement in delivering an off-patent vaccine. Though efforts are accelerating global vaccine use, a plea is made to push the world's governments to commit to universal childhood vaccination via a proposed new programme. The latter should begin by exploiting a long list of ever more affordable off-patent vaccines, vaccines that can virtually eliminate the bulk of the world's current vaccine-preventable disease burden. PMID:19699330

  15. Situação vacinal infantil e características individuais e familiares do interior de São Paulo = Childhood immunization status, and individual and family characteristics in the interior of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia Molina

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available O estudo teve como objetivo descrever e analisar características individuais e familiares das crianças e características do serviço de saúde e suas relações com a situação vacinal para diferentes tipos de vacinas e doses. Utilizaram-se três fontes de informações: registros do Sistema Municipal de Informação em Saúde, carteira de vacinação e entrevista, mediante questionário fechado. As famílias entrevistadas estavam em fase de “maturação” de crescimento, com proles de um ou dois filhos; os cuidadores eram, na maioria, mães jovens,economicamente inativas e havia facilidade de acesso ao serviço de saúde. Cerca de 30% não receberam orientação sobre a vacina aplicada, reações e retorno da próxima vacina. Os maiores atrasos foram das vacinas contra o sarampo (6,3% e o Haemophilus influenzae tipo B(4,2%. Observa-se que o motivo do atraso vacinal e a não-vacinação parecem estar mais relacionados a características do serviço do que às da população.The aim of this study was to describe and analyze individual and family characteristics of children and those of health services, as well as their relationship with the immunization status for different kinds of vaccines and doses. Three sources of information were used: records from the Municipal Health Information System, immunization charts, and interviews using closed-ended questions. The familiesinterviewed still had one or two growing children; caretakers were usually young unemployed mothers with easy access to health services. Around 30% of them were not instructed on the vaccine being given, its reactions or when to return for the next shot. The greatest levels of tardiness occurred with the vaccines against measles (6.3% and Haemophilus influenzae B (4.2%. It was possible to observe that tardiness or absence of vaccinations seem to have a stronger relationship with service characteristics than with population characteristics.

  16. Funktionell Programmering : En framtidsprognos

    OpenAIRE

    Holmer, Mattias

    2011-01-01

    Trenden inom systemutveckling och programutveckling går mot ett mer användande av multi programmeringsparadigmer. Funktionell programmering har fått mer uppmärksamhet på senare tid och utvecklingen tycks över lag gå än mer åt det deklarativa hållet där programmeraren fokuserar mer på vad som skall utföras och inte lika mycket på hur. Under en tid har det objektorienterade paradigmet varit dominerande, kommer det vara så i framtiden? Funktionell programmering skiljer sig från imperativ program...

  17. A programmer's geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bowyer, Adrian

    1983-01-01

    A Programmer's Geometry provides a guide in programming geometric shapes. The book presents formulas and examples of computer representation and coding of geometry. Each of the nine chapters of the text deals with the representation and solution of a specific geometrical problem, such as areas, vectors, and volumes. The last chapter provides a brief discussion on generating image through a computer. The codes presented in the book are written in FORTRAN 77. The text will be of great use to programmers who are working on projects that involve geometric calculations.

  18. Computer mathematics for programmers

    CERN Document Server

    Abney, Darrell H; Sibrel, Donald W

    1985-01-01

    Computer Mathematics for Programmers presents the Mathematics that is essential to the computer programmer.The book is comprised of 10 chapters. The first chapter introduces several computer number systems. Chapter 2 shows how to perform arithmetic operations using the number systems introduced in Chapter 1. The third chapter covers the way numbers are stored in computers, how the computer performs arithmetic on real numbers and integers, and how round-off errors are generated in computer programs. Chapter 4 details the use of algorithms and flowcharting as problem-solving tools for computer p

  19. Community Screening for Preschool Child Inhibition to Offer the "Cool Little Kids" Anxiety Prevention Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatson, Ruth M.; Bayer, Jordana K.; Perry, Alexandra; Mathers, Megan; Hiscock, Harriet; Wake, Melissa; Beesley, Kate; Rapee, Ronald M.

    2014-01-01

    Temperamental inhibition has been identified as a key risk factor for childhood anxiety and internalizing problems. An efficacious early prevention programme for shy/inhibited children has been developed; however, accurate, efficient and acceptable screening is needed to support wider implementation. We explore community screening options in the…

  20. The role of childhood trauma in bipolar disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aas, Monica; Henry, Chantal; Andreassen, Ole A; Bellivier, Frank; Melle, Ingrid; Etain, Bruno

    2016-12-01

    This review will discuss the role of childhood trauma in bipolar disorders. Relevant studies were identified via Medline (PubMed) and PsycINFO databases published up to and including July 2015. This review contributes to a new understanding of the negative consequences of early life stress, as well as setting childhood trauma in a biological context of susceptibility and discussing novel long-term pathophysiological consequences in bipolar disorders. Childhood traumatic events are risk factors for developing bipolar disorders, in addition to a more severe clinical presentation over time (primarily an earlier age at onset and an increased risk of suicide attempt and substance misuse). Childhood trauma leads to alterations of affect regulation, impulse control, and cognitive functioning that might decrease the ability to cope with later stressors. Childhood trauma interacts with several genes belonging to several different biological pathways [Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, serotonergic transmission, neuroplasticity, immunity, calcium signaling, and circadian rhythms] to decrease the age at the onset of the disorder or increase the risk of suicide. Epigenetic factors may also be involved in the neurobiological consequences of childhood trauma in bipolar disorder. Biological sequelae such as chronic inflammation, sleep disturbance, or telomere shortening are potential mediators of the negative effects of childhood trauma in bipolar disorders, in particular with regard to physical health. The main clinical implication is to systematically assess childhood trauma in patients with bipolar disorders, or at least in those with a severe or instable course. The challenge for the next years will be to fill the gap between clinical and fundamental research and routine practice, since recommendations for managing this specific population are lacking. In particular, little is known on which psychotherapies should be provided or which targets therapists should focus

  1. Mexican medfly programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This film tells the story of the fight against and final extinction of the Mediterranean fruit-fly (Ceratitis capitata) in Mexico. By producing billions of high quality sterile flies in the Medfly reproduction and sterilization laboratory in the province of Chiapas and releasing them over infested areas, the Moscamed Programme succeeded in eradicating this pest from Mexico in 1982

  2. Kulturalistische Unternehmensethik : ein Programm

    OpenAIRE

    Hanekamp, Gerd

    2001-01-01

    "Das Programm einer kulturalistischen Unternehmensethik wird vorgestellt. Es gründet auf einem philosophischen Ansatz, der sich als instrumentalistisch, kontextualistisch, transsubjektivistisch und individualistisch charakterisieren lässt. Hinsichtlich der ethischen Grundlagen werden starke Thesen durch den Rekurs auf eine kontextualistisch-normative Anthropologie vermieden." (Autorenreferat)

  3. Air Quality Monitoring Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kemp, K.; Palmgren, F.

    The Danish Air Quality Monitoring Programme (LMP IV) has been revised in accordance with the Framework Directive and the first three daughter directives of SO2, NOx/NO2, PM10, lead, benzene, CO and ozone. PM10 samplers are under installation and the installation will be completed during 2002...

  4. En model for programmer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Henrik Bærbak

    Dette undervisningsmateriale beskriver en model for, hvordan programmer er opbygget. Materialet er skrevet til brug i det gymnasiale forsøgsfag Informationsteknologi. Seneste version af dette undervisningsmateriale kan findes på http:// www.imhotep.dk. Tak til Elisabeth Husum for en kritisk...

  5. SET-Routes programme

    CERN Multimedia

    Marietta Schupp, EMBL Photolab

    2008-01-01

    Dr Sabine Hentze, specialist in human genetics, giving an Insight Lecture entitled "Human Genetics – Diagnostics, Indications and Ethical Issues" on 23 September 2008 at EMBL Heidelberg. Activities in a achool in Budapest during a visit of Angela Bekesi, Ambassadors for the SET-Routes programme.

  6. Turkey's Basic Education Programme

    OpenAIRE

    A. Remzi Sezgin

    2000-01-01

    In August 1997, the Government of Turkey greatly increased its efforts to implement eight-year obligatory education, through parliamentary approval of Law No. 4306 for Basic Education. The law mobilises significant resources for a major investment in school facilities through earmarked taxes, establishes a timetable for the Basic Education Programme and streamlines procedures to allow for swift action and implementation.

  7. Fast reactor programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This progress report summarises the fast reactor research carried out at the Netherlands Energy Research Centre during the year 1981. The neutron and fission product cross sections of various isotopes have been evaluated. In the fuel performance programme, some preliminary results are given and irradiation facilities described. Creep experiments on various stainless steel components are reported

  8. Fusion technology programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KfK is involved in the European Fusion Programme predominantly in the NET and Fusion Technology part. The following fields of activity are covered: Studies for NET, alternative confinement concepts, and needs and issues of integral testing. Research on structural materials. Development of superconducting magnets. Gyrotron development (part of the Physics Programme). Nuclear technology (breeding materials, blanket design, tritium technology, safety and environmental aspects of fusion, remote maintenance). Reported here are status and results of work under contracts with the CEC within the NET and Technology Programme. The aim of the major part of this R and D work is the support of NET, some areas (e.g. materials, safety and environmental impact, blanket design) have a wider scope and address problems of a demonstration reactor. In the current working period, several new proposals have been elaborated to be implemented into the 85/89 Euratom Fusion Programme. New KfK contributions relate to materials research (dual beam and fast reactor irradiations, ferritic steels), to blanket engineering (MHD-effects) and to safety studies (e.g. magnet safety). (orig./GG)

  9. The Productive Programmer

    CERN Document Server

    Ford, Neal

    2009-01-01

    Anyone who develops software for a living needs a proven way to produce it better, faster, and cheaper. The Productive Programmer offers critical timesaving and productivity tools that you can adopt right away, no matter what platform you use. Master developer Neal Ford details ten valuable practices that will help you elude common traps, improve your code, and become more valuable to your team.

  10. The European Programme Manager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larson, Anne; Bergman, E.; Ehlers, S.;

    The publication is a result of a cooperation between organisations in six European countries with the aim to develop a common European education for programme managers. It contains of a description of the different elements of the education together with a number of case-studies from the counties...... involved in the cooperation (Finland, Denmark, Portugal, Iceland, United Kingdom and Austria)....

  11. Early childhood educator training as a service to society

    OpenAIRE

    María Eliana Arias Meriño

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a small portion of a research project conducted at Chile’s Bernardo O’Higgins University (UBO), which aspires to recognition as a national pacesetter in the education of outstanding graduates and professionals. The general objective of the research is to do society a service by assessing the UBO’s early childhood education degree programme (major in first-year primary school teaching) and to verify the consistency...

  12. ADS National Programmes: China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In China the conceptual study of an ADS concept which lasted for about five years ended in 1999. As one project of the National Basic Research Programme of China (973 Programme) in energy domain, which is sponsored by the China Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST), a five year programme of fundamental research of ADS physics and related technology was launched in 2000 and passed national review at the end of 2005. From 2007, another five year 973 Programme Key Technology Research of Accelerator Driven Subcritical System for Nuclear waste Transmutation started. The research activities were focused on HPPA physics and technology, reactor physics of external source driven subcritical assembly, nuclear data base and material study. For HPPA, a high current injector consisting of an ECR ion source, LEBT and an RFQ accelerating structure of 3.5 MeV has been built and were being improved. In reactor physics study, a series of neutron multiplication experimental study has been carrying out. The VENUS I facility has been constructed as the basic experimental platform for neutronics study in ADS blanket. VENUS I a zero power subcritical neutron multiplying assembly driven by external neutron produced by a pulsed neutron generator or 252Cf neutron source. The theoretical, experimental and simulation studies on nuclear data, material properties and nuclear fuel circulation related to ADS are carried out in order to provide the database for ADS system analysis. China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE), Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP) and other Chinese institutes carried out the MOST project together. Besides CIAE, China Academy of Science (CAS) pays more and more attention to Advanced Nuclear Fuel Cycles (ANFC). A large programme of ANFC, including ADS and Th based nuclear fuel cycle, has been launched by CAS

  13. Adult Immunization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Coskun

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the many advances in modern medicine, each year thousands of people in the world die from diseases that are easily prevented by safe and effective vaccines. Few measures in preventive medicine are of such proven value and as easy to implement as routine immunization against infectious diseases. Prevention of infection by immunization is a lifelong process. There are a number of vaccines that all adults (¡I18 years require. There are also other vaccines that need to be tailored to meet individual variations in risk resulting from occupation, foreign travel, underlying illness, lifestyle and age. In this study, we tried to review this important subject. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2008; 7(2: 159-166

  14. Adult Immunization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Coskun

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the many advances in modern medicine, each year thousands of people in the world die from diseases that are easily prevented by safe and effective vaccines. Few measures in preventive medicine are of such proven value and as easy to implement as routine immunization against infectious diseases. Prevention of infection by immunization is a lifelong process. There are a number of vaccines that all adults (¡I18 years require. There are also other vaccines that need to be tailored to meet individual variations in risk resulting from occupation, foreign travel, underlying illness, lifestyle and age. In this study, we tried to review this important subject. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(2.000: 159-166

  15. Immune checkpoints

    OpenAIRE

    Chawla, Akhil; Philips, Anne V; Alatrash, Gheath; Mittendorf, Elizabeth,

    2014-01-01

    Early clinical trials investigating monoclonal antibodies targeting the T-cell inhibitory receptor programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and its ligand PD-L1 have shown efficacy in melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer and renal cell carcinoma. We recently demonstrated PD-L1 expression in 20% of triple negative breast cancers suggesting that targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint may be an effective treatment modality in patients with this disease.

  16. Earthworm Immunity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bilej, Martin; Procházková, Petra; Šilerová, Marcela; Josková, Radka

    New York: Landes Biosciences and Springer Science +Business Media, 2010 - (Söderhäll, K.), 66-79. (Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. 708). ISBN 978-1-4419-8058-8 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/07/0378; GA AV ČR IAA600200704; GA MŠk 2B06155 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : earthworms * immunity Subject RIV: EC - Immunology

  17. Cardiovascular Conditions of Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This childhood illness can result in long-term heart complications. Learn the symptoms, diagnosis and treatment for Kawasaki disease. Rheumatic Fever This inflammatory infection can occur after strep ...

  18. Reducing Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Reducing Childhood Obesity Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents For ... Ga. were the first three We Can! cities. Obesity Research: A New Approach The percentage of children ...

  19. Childhood vitiligo: Treatment paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrinder Jit Kanwar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood vitiligo differs from the adults by showing a higher incidence in females, segmental vitiligo being more common and less frequent association with other systemic autoimmune and endocrine disorders.Childhood vitiligo is often associated with a marked psychosocial and long lasting effect on the self-esteem of the affected children and their parents, hence an adequate treatment is very essential. Treatment of vitiligo is indeed a tough challenge for the dermatologists′ more so in the background of childhood vitiligo. Although multiple therapeutic modalities are available in the therapeutic armamentarium, not all can be used in children. This brief report updates regarding various therapies available in the treatment of childhood vitiligo.

  20. Childhood Vaccine Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Childhood Vaccine Schedule Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents ... please turn Javascript on. When to Vaccinate What Vaccine Why Birth (or any age if not previously ...

  1. Tooth decay - early childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ribeiro NM, Ribeiro MA. Breastfeeding and early childhood caries: a critical review. J Pediatr (Rio J) . 2004;80:S199-S210. Sexton S, Natale R. Risks and benefits of pacifiers. Am Fam Physician . 2009; ...

  2. Getting the balance right : qualitative evaluation of a holistic weight management intervention to address childhood obesity.

    OpenAIRE

    Visram, Shelina; Hall, T. D.; Geddes, Lesley

    2013-01-01

    Background Childhood obesity is linked to a range of health and social problems. Solutions include the delivery of appropriate weight management interventions for those aged 16 and under. The ‘Balance It! Getting the Balance Right’ programme appears to be effective for those who complete the intervention, but the non-completion rate remains high. A qualitative evaluation was undertaken to explore the views of key stakeholders in the programme and identify possible reasons for non-completi...

  3. Early Childhood Caries

    OpenAIRE

    Kawashita, Yumiko; Kitamura, Masayasu; Saito, Toshiyuki

    2011-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the most common childhood diseases, and people continue to be susceptible to it throughout their lives. Although dental caries can be arrested and potentially even reversed in its early stages, it is often not self-limiting and progresses without proper care until the tooth is destroyed. Early childhood caries (ECC) is often complicated by inappropriate feeding practices and heavy infection with mutans streptococci. Such children should be targeted with a professional ...

  4. Endobronchial tumours in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endobronchial tumours are rare in childhood and are not often considered in the differential diagnosis of persistent pneumonitis and atelectasis. We present the clinical and radiological features of seven cases of childhood bronchial 'adenoma' seen at our hospital over a 16-year period. Because they are relatively slow growing, prompt diagnosis and early surgical treatment offer the best chance of cure in these patients. A review of the literature is given

  5. Abdominal MRI in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MRI provides diagnostic information in multiple abdominal diseases in childhood. Additional information to sonographic findings can be achieved in the diagnosis of abdominal malformation as well as in several inflammatory processes. In childhood cancer imaging MRI is essential at the beginning as well as during therapy to assess response to therapy. Because of radiation protection MRI has to replace CT in abdominal imaging in children. Some technical details have to be considered when children are examined. (orig.)

  6. Meningeal hemangiopericytoma in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meningeal hemangiopericytoma (MHP) is extremely rare in childhood. Mean age at diagnosis is between 38 and 43 years. We present an 8-year-old boy with MHP of the middle cranial fossa. Imaging findings were indistinguishable from an aggressive bone tumor such as Ewing's sarcoma. Imaging findings are presented and discussed. Our case indicates that MHP should be considered in the differential diagnosis of skull-base tumors despite the fact that MHP is extremely rare in childhood. (orig.)

  7. Endobronchial tumours in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endobronchial tumours are rare in childhood and are not often considered in the differential diagnosis of persistent pneumonitis and atelectasis. We present the clinical and radiological features of seven cases of childhood bronchial 'adenoma' seen at our hospital over a 16-year period. Because they are relatively slow growing, prompt diagnosis and early surgical treatment offer the best chance of cure in these patients. A review of the literature is given. (Copyright (c) Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  8. Fractures in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinical diagnosis of fractures in childhood can be very difficult. Therefore imaging, not only x-rays but also ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are of special importance. There are typical pediatric types of fractures due to epiphyseal plates and high flexibility of the bone. Fractures heal faster and dislocations can be spontaneously corrected better but also growth disturbance can occur. The second part of the article describes the special types of fractures with special attention to the characteristics in childhood.

  9. Stress and childhood epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Campen, J.S. van

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic diseases in childhood, characterized by the enduring predisposition to generate epileptic seizures. Children with epilepsy and their parents often report seizures precipitated by stress. In order to increase our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the effects of stress on seizures in childhood epilepsy, we performed a variety of studies, which are described in this thesis. In part I we evaluate the extent of stress sensitivi...

  10. Early childhood aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Alink, Lenneke Rosalie Agnes

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis the development, stability, and correlates of early childhood aggression were investigated. The normative development was examined in a general population sample using questionnaires completed by the parents of 12-, 24-, and 36-month-old children and again one year later. Results showed an early childhood aggression curve, with increasing rates of aggression in the second year of life and decreasing rates in the fourth year. One-year stabilities were moderate for 12-month-olds ...

  11. Pesticides and childhood cancers.

    OpenAIRE

    Daniels, J L; Olshan, A.F.; Savitz, D A

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the possible association between pesticides and the risk of childhood cancers, epidemiologic studies published between 1970 and 1996 were critically reviewed. Thirty-one studies investigated whether occupational or residential exposure to pesticides by either parents or children was related to increased risk of childhood cancer. In general, the reported relative risk estimates were modest. Risk estimates appeared to be stronger when pesticide exposure was measured in more detail. ...

  12. Childhood Ovarian Malignancy

    OpenAIRE

    Mahadik, Kalpana; Ghorpade, Kanchanmala

    2014-01-01

    Objective of this article is to appraise diagnostic aspects and treatment modalities in childhood ovarian tumor in background of available evidence. Literature search on Pubmed revealed various aspects of epidemiology, histopathological diagnosis, and treatment of pediatric ovarian tumor. 85 % of childhood tumors are germ cell tumors. The varied histopathological picture in germ cell tumors poses a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Immunohistochemistry and newer genetic markers like SALL4...

  13. Mammographic screening programmes in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giordano, Livia; von Karsa, Lawrence; Tomatis, Mariano; Majek, Ondrej; de Wolf, Chris; Lancucki, Lesz; Hofvind, Solveig; Nyström, Lennarth; Segnan, Nereo; Ponti, Antonio; Van Hal, G; Martens, P; Májek, O; Danes, J; von Euler-Chelpin, My Catarina; Aasmaa, A; Anttila, A; Becker, N; Péntek, Z; Budai, A; Mádai, S; Fitzpatrick, P; Mooney, T; Zappa, M; Ventura, L; Scharpantgen, A; Hofvind, S; Seroczynski, P; Morais, A; Rodrigues, V; Bento, M J; Gomes de Carvalho, J; Natal, C; Prieto, M; Sánchez-Contador Escudero, C; Zubizarreta Alberti, R; Fernández Llanes, S B; Ascunce, N; Ederra Sanza, M; Sarriugarte Irigoien, G; Salas Trejo, D; Ibáñez Cabanell, J; Wiege, M; Ohlsson, G; Törnberg, S; Korzeniewska, M; de Wolf, C; Fracheboud, J; Patnick J, J; Lancucki, L; Ducarroz, S; Suonio, E

    To summarize participation and coverage rates in population mammographic screening programmes for breast cancer in Europe.......To summarize participation and coverage rates in population mammographic screening programmes for breast cancer in Europe....

  14. Donor transplant programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transplantation of organs and tissues from one human to another human has become an essential and well established form of therapy for many types of organ and tissue failure. In Malaysia, kidney, cornea and bone marrow transplantation are well established. Recently, liver, bone and heart transplanation have been performed. Unfortunately, because of the lack of cadaveric organ donation, only a limited number of solid organ transplantation have been performed. The cadaveric organ donor rate in Malaysia is low at less than one per million population. The first tissue transplanted in Malaysia was the cornea which was performed in the early 1970s. At that time and even now the majority of corneas came from Sri Lanka. The first kidney transplant was performed in 1975 from a live related donor. The majority of the 629 kidney transplants done at Hospital Kuala Lumpur to date have been from live related donors. Only 35 were from cadaver donors. Similarly, the liver transplantation programme which started in 1995 are from live related donors. A more concerted effort has been made recently to increase the awareness of the public and the health professionals on organ and tissue donation. This national effort to promote organ and tissue donation seems to have gathered momentum in 1997 with the first heart transplant successfully performed at the National Heart Institute. The rate of cadaveric donors has also increased from a previous average of I to 2 per year to 6 per year in the last one year. These developments are most encouraging and may signal the coming of age of our transplantati on programme. The Ministry of Health in conjunction with various institutions, organizations and professional groups, have taken a number of proactive measures to facilitate the development of the cadaveric organ donation programme. Efforts to increase public awareness and to overcome the negative cultural attitude towards organ donation have been intensified. Equally important are efforts

  15. Adverse childhood experience and asthma onset: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Exley

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Adverse childhood experiences such as abuse and neglect are associated with subsequent immune dysregulation. Some studies show an association between adverse childhood experiences and asthma onset, although significant disparity in results exists in the published literature. We aimed to review available studies employing a prospective design that investigates associations between adverse childhood experience and asthma. A search protocol was developed and studies were drawn from four electronic journal databases. Studies were selected in accordance with pre-set inclusion criteria and relevant data were extracted. 12 studies, assessing data from a total of 31 524 individuals, were identified that investigate the impact of a range of adverse childhood experiences on the likelihood of developing asthma. Evidence suggests that chronic stress exposure and maternal distress in pregnancy operate synergistically with known triggers such as traffic-related air pollution to increase asthma risk. Chronic stress in early life is associated with an increased risk of asthma onset. There is evidence that adverse childhood experience increases the impact of traffic-related air pollution and inconsistent evidence that adverse childhood experience has an independent effect on asthma onset.

  16. The INTEGRAL Core Observing Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, C.; Gehrels, N.; Lund, Niels; Schonfelder, V.; Ubertini, P.

    The Core Programme of the INTEGRAL mission is defined as the portion of the scientific programme covering the guaranteed time observations for the INTEGRAL Science Working Team. This paper describes the current status of the Core Programme preparations and summarizes the key elements of the...

  17. Estimating the costs of achieving the WHO-UNICEF Global Immunization Vision and Strategy, 2006-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara J Wolfson

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To estimate the cost of scaling up childhood immunization services required to reach the WHO-UNICEF Global Immunization Vision and Strategy (GIVS goal of reducing mortality due to vaccine-preventable diseases by two-thirds by 2015. METHODS: A model was developed to estimate the total cost of reaching GIVS goals by 2015 in 117 low- and lower-middle- income countries. Current spending was estimated by analysing data from country planning documents, and scale-up costs were estimated using a bottom-up, ingredients-based approach. Financial costs were estimated by country and year for reaching 90% coverage with all existing vaccines; introducing a discrete set of new vaccines (rotavirus, conjugate pneumococcal, conjugate meningococcal A and Japanese encephalitis; and conducting immunization campaigns to protect at-risk populations against polio, tetanus, measles, yellow fever and meningococcal meningitis. FINDINGS: The 72 poorest countries of the world spent US$ 2.5 (range: US$ 1.8-4.2 billion on immunization in 2005, an increase from US$ 1.1 (range: US$ 0.9-1.6 billion in 2000. By 2015 annual immunization costs will on average increase to about US$ 4.0 (range US$ 2.9-6.7 billion. Total immunization costs for 2006-2015 are estimated at US$ 35 (range US$ 13-40 billion; of this, US$ 16.2 billion are incremental costs, comprised of US$ 5.6 billion for system scale-up and US$ 8.7 billion for vaccines; US$ 19.3 billion is required to maintain immunization programmes at 2005 levels. In all 117 low- and lower-middle-income countries, total costs for 2006-2015 are estimated at US$ 76 (range: US$ 23-110 billion, with US$ 49 billion for maintaining current systems and $27 billion for scaling-up. CONCLUSION: In the 72 poorest countries, US$ 11-15 billion (30%-40% of the overall resource needs are unmet if the GIVS goals are to be reached. The methods developed in this paper are approximate estimates with limitations, but provide a roadmap of

  18. Fusion technology programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The KfK-Association has continued work on 17 R and D contracts of the Fusion Technology Programme. An effort of 94 manyears per year is at present contributed by 10 KfK departments, covering all aereas defined in the Fusion Technology Programme. The dominant part of the work is directed towards the need of the NET design or supporting experiments. Some additional effort addresses long term technological issues and system studies relevant to DEMO or confinement schemes alternative to tokamaks. Direct contribution to the NET team has increased by augmentation of NET study contracts and delegation of personnel, three KfK delegates being at present members of the NET team. In reverse, specifications and design guidelines worked out by NET have started to have an impact on the current R and D-work in the laboratory. (orig./GG)

  19. Bioergia Research Programme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asplund, D.

    1997-12-31

    The main objectives of Finland`s Bioenergia Research Programme are (1) To develop new methods of producing biofuels which can compete with imported fuels, demonstrating the most promising production methods through pilot schemes, (2) To develop and demonstrate 3 - 4 new pieces of equipment or methods connected with handling and using bioenergy, (3) To produce basic information on conversion techniques and evaluate the quality, usability and environmental impacts of the products as well as the overall economy of the entire production chain and to create 2-3 conversion methods for follow-up development by industry. The principle research areas are (1) Development of production technology for wood-derived fuels, (2) Peat production, (3) The use of bioenergy and (4) Biomass conversion. This conference paper discusses the results obtained so far and reviews in some detail the activities of the programme. 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Bioergia Research Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objectives of Finland's Bioenergia Research Programme are (1) To develop new methods of producing biofuels which can compete with imported fuels, demonstrating the most promising production methods through pilot schemes, (2) To develop and demonstrate 3 - 4 new pieces of equipment or methods connected with handling and using bioenergy, (3) To produce basic information on conversion techniques and evaluate the quality, usability and environmental impacts of the products as well as the overall economy of the entire production chain and to create 2-3 conversion methods for follow-up development by industry. The principle research areas are (1) Development of production technology for wood-derived fuels, (2) Peat production, (3) The use of bioenergy and (4) Biomass conversion. This conference paper discusses the results obtained so far and reviews in some detail the activities of the programme. 3 figs., 3 tabs

  1. Pharmacovigilance programme of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalaiselvan Vivekanandan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring and reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs through pharmacovigilance is vital to patient safety and rational prescribing. In India, Central Drugs Standard Control Organization (CDSCO initiated Pharmacovigilance Programme of India (PvPI to report ADRs through ADRs monitoring centres in India. Indian Pharmacopoeia Commission (IPC is functioning as National Coordination Centre (NCC for PvPI. The ADRs are reported to NCC through VigiFlow by various centres are evaluated and committed to Uppsala Monitoring Centre, Sweden. The potential benefit of the PvPI is aimed to reducing or eliminating a harm of medicine. Continuous efforts of the healthcare professionals and the patients are expected to make this as one of the most successful and effective programmes. The present article updates the status and future plan of PvPI.

  2. Programme budget 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are 11 main fields of KfK R + D activities which are connected with one or more of the research goals of a) assurance of nuclear fuel supply, b) nuclear waste management, c) safety of nuclear facilities, d) basic research and research on new technologies. The scientific and technical tasks connected with these goals in 1981 and on a medium-term basis as well as the financial requirements are presented in the programme budget. (orig.)

  3. The Italian hydrogen programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogen could become an important option in the new millennium. It provides the potential for a sustainable energy system as it can be used to meet most energy needs without harming the environment. In fact, hydrogen has the potential for contributing to the reduction of climate-changing emissions and other air pollutants as it exhibits clean combustion with no carbon or sulphur oxide emissions and very low nitrogen oxide emissions. Furthermore, it is capable of direct conversion to electricity in systems such as fuel cells without generating pollution. However, widespread use of hydrogen is not feasible today because of economic and technological barriers. In Italy, there is an ongoing national programme to facilitate the introduction of hydrogen as an energy carrier. This programme aims to promote, in an organic frame, a series of actions regarding the whole hydrogen cycle. It foresees the development of technologies in the areas of production, storage, transport and utilisation. Research addresses the development of technologies for separation and sequestration of CO2, The programme is shared by public organisations (research institutions and universities) and national industry (oil companies, electric and gas utilities and research institutions). Hydrogen can be used as a fuel, with significant advantages, both for electric energy generation/ co-generation (thermo-dynamic cycles and fuel cells) and transportation (internal combustion engine and fuel cells). One focus of research will be the development of fuel cell technologies. Fuel cells possess all necessary characteristics to be a key technology in a future economy based on hydrogen. During the initial phase of the project, hydrogen will be derived from fossil sources (natural gas), and in the second phase it will be generated from renewable electricity or nuclear energy. The presentation will provide a review of the hydrogen programme and highlight future goals. (author)

  4. Multilateral Interoperability Programme

    OpenAIRE

    Burita, L.

    2009-01-01

    The Multilateral Interoperability Programme (MIP) is a voluntary and independent activity in NATO environment by the participating nations and organizations. The MIP concept is based on data exchange in form of common exchange data model to achieve the international interoperability in command and control information systems (C2IS) of the tactical units. The article describes the basis of the MIP organizations, structure, planning and testing processes. The core of the MIP solution is the Inf...

  5. Neural Programmer-Interpreters

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, Scott; De Freitas, Nando

    2015-01-01

    We propose the neural programmer-interpreter (NPI): a recurrent and compositional neural network that learns to represent and execute programs. NPI has three learnable components: a task-agnostic recurrent core, a persistent key-value program memory, and domain-specific encoders that enable a single NPI to operate in multiple perceptually diverse environments with distinct affordances. By learning to compose lower-level programs to express higher-level programs, NPI reduces sample complexity ...

  6. The Mathematica programmer

    CERN Document Server

    Maeder, Roman E

    1994-01-01

    The Mathematica Programmer covers the fundamental programming paradigms and applications of programming languages. This book is organized into two parts encompassing 10 chapters. Part 1 begins with an overview of the programming paradigms. This part also treats abstract data types, polymorphism and message passing, object-oriented programming, and relational databases. Part 2 looks into the practical aspects of programming languages, including in lists and power series, fractal curves, and minimal surfaces.This book will prove useful to mathematicians and computer scientists.

  7. ADS National Programmes: Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following a preliminary design developed in 1998, based on the Energy Amplifier concept proposed by CERN, a first configuration of a lead-bismuth Eutectic cooled Experimental ADS (LBE-XADS) was worked out in the period 1999–2001, under the aegis of MURST, by a group of Italian organizations led by Ansado Nucleare, with the aim of assessing the feasibility of a small sized (80 MWth) ADS. At the end of 1997 a joint effort of ENEA (National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment) and INFN (National Institute for Nuclear Physics) led to the approval of a national programme by MURST (Minister for University and Scientific and Technological Research) named TRASCO (TRAsmutazione SCOrie) aiming at the study of physics and technologies needed to design an ADS for radioactive waste transmutation. The programme consisted of research subprogrammes on accelerator, neutronics, thermalhydraulics analysis, beam window technology, and material technology and compatibility with Pb and Pb-Bi. At now, most of the activities in support to the ADS development carried out at national level are part of EU-funded Projects. These activities are complemented by the programme agreement (AdP -Accordo di programma), signed between ENEA and the Ministry of Economic Development, which provides in general a range of activities aimed at the development of sustainable nuclear fission systems. Several universities and the national industry are involved, besides ENEA, in the activities

  8. Programmable matter by folding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, E.; An, B.; Benbernou, N. M.; Tanaka, H.; Kim, S.; Demaine, E. D.; Rus, D.; Wood, R. J.

    2010-01-01

    Programmable matter is a material whose properties can be programmed to achieve specific shapes or stiffnesses upon command. This concept requires constituent elements to interact and rearrange intelligently in order to meet the goal. This paper considers achieving programmable sheets that can form themselves in different shapes autonomously by folding. Past approaches to creating transforming machines have been limited by the small feature sizes, the large number of components, and the associated complexity of communication among the units. We seek to mitigate these difficulties through the unique concept of self-folding origami with universal crease patterns. This approach exploits a single sheet composed of interconnected triangular sections. The sheet is able to fold into a set of predetermined shapes using embedded actuation. To implement this self-folding origami concept, we have developed a scalable end-to-end planning and fabrication process. Given a set of desired objects, the system computes an optimized design for a single sheet and multiple controllers to achieve each of the desired objects. The material, called programmable matter by folding, is an example of a system capable of achieving multiple shapes for multiple functions. PMID:20616049

  9. Programmable Quantitative DNA Nanothermometers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gareau, David; Desrosiers, Arnaud; Vallée-Bélisle, Alexis

    2016-07-13

    Developing molecules, switches, probes or nanomaterials that are able to respond to specific temperature changes should prove of utility for several applications in nanotechnology. Here, we describe bioinspired strategies to design DNA thermoswitches with programmable linear response ranges that can provide either a precise ultrasensitive response over a desired, small temperature interval (±0.05 °C) or an extended linear response over a wide temperature range (e.g., from 25 to 90 °C). Using structural modifications or inexpensive DNA stabilizers, we show that we can tune the transition midpoints of DNA thermometers from 30 to 85 °C. Using multimeric switch architectures, we are able to create ultrasensitive thermometers that display large quantitative fluorescence gains within small temperature variation (e.g., > 700% over 10 °C). Using a combination of thermoswitches of different stabilities or a mix of stabilizers of various strengths, we can create extended thermometers that respond linearly up to 50 °C in temperature range. Here, we demonstrate the reversibility, robustness, and efficiency of these programmable DNA thermometers by monitoring temperature change inside individual wells during polymerase chain reactions. We discuss the potential applications of these programmable DNA thermoswitches in various nanotechnology fields including cell imaging, nanofluidics, nanomedecine, nanoelectronics, nanomaterial, and synthetic biology. PMID:27058370

  10. A new video programme

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN video productions

    2011-01-01

    "What's new @ CERN?", a new monthly video programme, will be broadcast on the Monday of every month on webcast.cern.ch. Aimed at the general public, the programme will cover the latest CERN news, with guests and explanatory features. Tune in on Monday 3 October at 4 pm (CET) to see the programme in English, and then at 4:20 pm (CET) for the French version.   var flash_video_player=get_video_player_path(); insert_player_for_external('Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-129/CERN-MOVIE-2011-129-0753-kbps-640x360-25-fps-audio-64-kbps-44-kHz-stereo', 'mms://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-129/CERN-MOVIE-2011-129-Multirate-200-to-753-kbps-640x360-25-fps.wmv', 'false', 480, 360, 'https://mediastream.cern.ch/MediaArchive/Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-129/CERN-MOVIE-2011-129-posterframe-640x360-at-10-percent.jpg', '1383406', true, 'Video/Public/Movies/2011/CERN-MOVIE-2011-129/CERN-MOVIE-2011-129-0600-kbps-maxH-360-25-fps-...

  11. The human spleen. Development and role in the immune system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timens, Willem

    1988-01-01

    In the present thesis an extensive in situ characterization is given of cellular constituents of the human spleen, that play a role in the human immune system. The development of immunocompetent cells in their micro-environment was studied in early embryonic life, fetal life, infancy and childhood,

  12. Immunizing Infants (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-18

    Parents can protect the health of their children by making sure they’re up-to-date on all recommended vaccines. This podcast discusses the importance of childhood immunization.  Created: 4/18/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 4/18/2013.

  13. Influences of Childhood Experiences on Early Childhood Education Students

    OpenAIRE

    Strekalova-Hughes, Ekaterina; Maarouf, Saoussan; Keskin, Burhanettin

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study examined whether or not childhood experiences of the early childhood education students affected their present personal beliefs and pedagogies. A digital survey was filled out by 58 students majoring in Early Childhood Education program. The participants were asked to identify and reflect on their impactful early experiences. The follow-up interviews with two participants were conducted to deepen the reflections on childhood experiences and explore their effects on the ...

  14. Institutional, Material and Economic Constraints in Languages Education: Unequal Provision of Linguistic Resources in Early Childhood and Primary Settings in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones Díaz, Criss

    2014-01-01

    In Australia, languages education in early childhood and primary education includes three main approaches: transitional, enrichment and full bilingual programmes. This article proposes that transitional and enrichment programmes in Australia are constituted and shaped by competing and contested institutional, material, discursive and economic…

  15. Cytokine response to pregnancy-associated recrudescence of Plasmodium berghei infection in mice with pre-existing immunity to malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Megnekou, Rosette; Staalsoe, Trine; Hviid, Lars

    2013-01-01

    During childhood, residents of areas with stable transmission of Plasmodium falciparum parasites acquire substantial protective immunity to malaria, and adults therefore rarely experience clinical disease episodes. However, susceptibility to infection reappears in pregnant women, particularly pri...

  16. Childhood psychosocial stressors and adult onset arthritis: Broad spectrum risk factors and allostatic load

    OpenAIRE

    Von Korff, Michael; Alonso, Jordi; Ormel, Johan; Angermeyer, Matthais; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Fleiz, Clara; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Ronald C. Kessler; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Posada-Villa, Jose; Scott, Kate M.; Uda, Hidenori

    2009-01-01

    Neural, endocrine, and immune stress mediators are hypothesized to increase risks of diverse chronic diseases, including arthritis. Retrospective data from the World Mental Health Surveys (N = 18,309) were employed to assess whether adult onset of arthritis was associated with childhood adversities and early onset psychological disorder. Cox proportional hazard models assessed the association of number of childhood adversities and the presence of early onset psychological disorder with arthri...

  17. Integrated Circuit Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sketoe, J. G.; Clark, Anthony

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a DOD E3 program overview on integrated circuit immunity. The topics include: 1) EMI Immunity Testing; 2) Threshold Definition; 3) Bias Tee Function; 4) Bias Tee Calibration Set-Up; 5) EDM Test Figure; 6) EMI Immunity Levels; 7) NAND vs. and Gate Immunity; 8) TTL vs. LS Immunity Levels; 9) TP vs. OC Immunity Levels; 10) 7805 Volt Reg Immunity; and 11) Seventies Chip Set. This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  18. Study of the pattern of adverse events following immunization of children in a tertiary care hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Rekha Y. Aherkar; Pradeep K. Deshpande; Ghongane, Balasaheb B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Success of an immunization programme depends upon awareness regarding usefulness and safety of vaccines. Widespread information on vaccine safety is very essential. Objective of study was to analyze pattern of Adverse Events Following Immunization (AEFI) in children. Methods: Prospective, observational study was carried out at immunization OPD of B. J. Government Medical College and Sassoon General hospital, Pune, where children receiving routine immunization were analyzed and...

  19. Childhood Eye Diseases and Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things College Students Should Do For Their Eyes Childhood Eye Diseases and Conditions Nov. 01, 2013 The ... cataract or eye disorder that needs treatment. Common Childhood Eye Diseases & Conditions When the following diseases are ...

  20. General Information about Childhood Ependymoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... without radiation therapy . Childhood ependymoma, anaplastic ependymoma, or RELA fusion–positive ependymoma Treatment of newly diagnosed childhood ... Grade II), anaplastic ependymoma (WHO Grade III), or RELA fusion–positive ependymoma is: Surgery . After surgery, the ...

  1. Treatment Option Overview (Childhood Ependymoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... without radiation therapy . Childhood ependymoma, anaplastic ependymoma, or RELA fusion–positive ependymoma Treatment of newly diagnosed childhood ... Grade II), anaplastic ependymoma (WHO Grade III), or RELA fusion–positive ependymoma is: Surgery . After surgery, the ...

  2. Types of conflict, types of relationships and preferred conflict resolution strategies: Implications for constructive conflict resolution programmes

    OpenAIRE

    Petrović Danijela S.; Vučetić Milica

    2012-01-01

    Constructive conflict resolution programmes are based on the idea that children and youth do no have sufficient knowledge of the procedures and skills for conflict resolution, which is why the conflicts they take part in soon become destructive. Notwithstanding the indubitable practical significance of the constructive conflict resolution programmes, it can be objected that they are not sufficiently based on empirical findings about the characteristics of conflicts in childhood and adol...

  3. Oral zinc and common childhood infections--An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basnet, Sudha; Mathisen, Maria; Strand, Tor A

    2015-01-01

    Zinc is an essential micronutrient important for growth and for normal function of the immune system. Many children in developing countries have inadequate zinc nutrition. Routine zinc supplementation reduces the risk of respiratory infections and diarrhea, the two leading causes of morbidity and mortality in young children worldwide. In childhood diarrhea oral zinc also reduces illness duration and risk of persistent episodes. Oral zinc is therefore recommended for the treatment of acute diarrhea in young children. The results from the studies that have measured the therapeutic effect of zinc on acute respiratory infections, however, are conflicting. Moreover, the results of therapeutic zinc for childhood malaria also are so far not promising.This paper gives a brief outline of the current evidence from clinical trials on therapeutic effect of oral zinc on childhood respiratory infections, pneumonia and malaria and also of new evidence of the effect on serious bacterial illness in young infants. PMID:24906347

  4. Childhood trauma in bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, S; Gallagher, P.; Dougall, D.; R Porter; Moncrieff, J.; Ferrier, I. N.; Young, A. H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: There has been little investigation of early trauma in bipolar disorder despite evidence that stress impacts on the course of this illness. We aimed to compare the rates of childhood trauma in adults with bipolar disorder to a healthy control group, and to investigate the impact of childhood trauma on the clinical course of bipolar disorder. Methods: Retrospective assessment of childhood trauma was conducted using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) in 60 outpatients with bipo...

  5. Reconceptualizing the "Nature" of Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Affrica

    2011-01-01

    This interdisciplinary article draws upon human geography to bring fresh new perspectives to the relationship between two commonly conflated concepts: "childhood" and "nature". Childhood studies scholars have gone a long way towards retheorizing childhood beyond the "natural" and the "universal" by pointing to its historical and cultural…

  6. Discovering the Culture of Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plank, Emily

    2016-01-01

    We often filter our interactions with children through the lens of adulthood. View the culture of childhood through a whole new lens. Identify age-based bias and expand your outlook on and understanding of early childhood as a culture. Examine various elements of childhood culture: language, the power of believing, artistic expressions, and social…

  7. Immune thrombocytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, George M

    2014-10-01

    Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) in children is a relatively uncommon and generally benign condition presenting as abrupt onset of bruising, petechiae and thrombocytopenia in an otherwise healthy child due to production of anti-platelet autoantibodies. Diagnosis is largely clinical and laboratory investigation should be kept to a minimum. Indications for treatment have not been standardized and include bleeding, parental anxiety and quality of life. Multiple treatments are available that have been proven to increase the platelet count; the most commonly employed include IVIG, steroids and WinRho (anti-D). Intracranial hemorrhage is the most serious potential complication but is extremely rare and splenectomy is reserved for chronically symptomatic patients who have not responded to other modalities. Identification of molecular targets may be a promising avenue for future research. PMID:25423768

  8. Birthweight and Childhood Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paltiel, Ora; Tikellis, Gabriella; Linet, Martha; Golding, Jean; Lemeshow, Stanley; Phillips, Gary; Lamb, Karen; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Håberg, Siri E; Strøm, Marin; Granstrøm, Charlotta; Northstone, Kate; Klebanoff, Mark; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Milne, Elizabeth; Pedersen, Marie; Kogevinas, Manolis; Ha, Eunhee; Dwyer, Terence

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence relating childhood cancer to high birthweight is derived primarily from registry and case-control studies. We aimed to investigate this association, exploring the potential modifying roles of age at diagnosis and maternal anthropometrics, using prospectively collected data from...... the International Childhood Cancer Cohort Consortium. METHODS: We pooled data on infant and parental characteristics and cancer incidence from six geographically and temporally diverse member cohorts [the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (UK), the Collaborative Perinatal Project (USA......). Childhood cancer (377 cases diagnosed prior to age 15 years) risk was analysed by type (all sites, leukaemia, acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, and non-leukaemia) and age at diagnosis. We estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) from Cox proportional hazards models stratified by cohort...

  9. CASINDO Programme Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Linden, N.; Smekens, K.; Bole-Rentel, T.; Saidi, R. [Unit ECN Policy Studies, Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Petten (Netherlands); Wijnker, M. [Eindhoven University of Technology TUE, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Kamphuis, E. [ETC Netherlands, Leusden (Netherlands); Winarno, Oetomo Tri [Institute of Technology, Bandung (Indonesia); Permana, Iman [Technical Education Development Centre, Bandung (Indonesia)

    2012-06-15

    The overall objective of the CASINDO programme is to establish a self-sustaining and self-developing structure at both the national and regional level to build and strengthen human capacity to enable the provinces of North Sumatra, Yogyakarta, Central Java, West Nusa Tenggara and Papua to formulate sound policies for renewable energy and energy efficiency and to develop and implement sustainable energy projects. CASINDO stands for Capacity development and strenghtening for energy policy formulation adn implementation of sustainable energy projects in Indonesia.

  10. Accident prevention programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study by the Steel Industry Safety and Health Commission was made within the context of the application by undertakings of the principles of accident and disease prevention previously adopted by the said Commission. It puts forward recommendations for the effective and gradual implementation of a programme of action on occupational health and safety in the various departments of an undertaking and in the undertaking as a whole. The methods proposed in this study are likely to be of interest to all undertakings in the metallurgical industry and other industrial sectors

  11. Fusion technology programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the current Fusion Technology Programme of the European Community the KfK association is working at present on 16 R and D contracts. Most of the work is strongly oriented towards the Next European Torus. Direct support to NET is given by three KfK delegates being member of the NET study group. In addition to the R and D contracts the association is working on 11 NET study contracts. Though KfK contributes to all areas defined in fusion technology, the main emphasis is put on superconducting magnet and breeding blanket development. Other important fields are tritium technology, materials research, and remote handling. (orig./GG)

  12. Multilateral Interoperability Programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Burita

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Multilateral Interoperability Programme (MIP is a voluntary and independent activity in NATO environment by the participating nations and organizations. The MIP concept is based on data exchange in form of common exchange data model to achieve the international interoperability in command and control information systems (C2IS of the tactical units. The article describes the basis of the MIP organizations, structure, planning and testing processes. The core of the MIP solution is the Information Exchange Data Model (IEDM. The Czech Armed Forces (CAF MIP process implementation is mentioned. The MIP example is a part of university education process.

  13. Research and training programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daksha Patel

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Research is defined in the Oxford English Dictionary as “a systematic investigation and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions.”Research is embedded in the curricula of most postgraduate training programmes; students are expected to complete some form of original work towards a dissertation. This often evokes a range of reactions: “What is the purpose of this exercise? Why do I have to do research when I just want to do a job? Shouldn’t research rather be left to experts? I can’t do the course; I have no research background!”

  14. Research and training programmes

    OpenAIRE

    Daksha Patel

    2007-01-01

    Research is defined in the Oxford English Dictionary as “a systematic investigation and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions.”Research is embedded in the curricula of most postgraduate training programmes; students are expected to complete some form of original work towards a dissertation. This often evokes a range of reactions: “What is the purpose of this exercise? Why do I have to do research when I just want to do a job? Shouldn’t research r...

  15. Programmable ferroelectric tunnel memristor

    OpenAIRE

    Andy eQuindeau; Dietrich eHesse; Marin eAlexe

    2014-01-01

    We report an analogously programmable memristor based on genuine electronic resistive switching combining ferroelectric switching and electron tunneling. The tunnel current through an 8 unit cell thick epitaxial Pb(Zr[0.2]Ti[0.8])O[3] film sandwiched between La[0.7]Sr[0.3]MnO[3] and cobalt electrodes obeys the Kolmogorov-Avrami-Ishibashi model for bidimensional growth with a characteristic switching time in the order of 10^-7 seconds. The analytical description of switching kinetics allows us...

  16. The community programme revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Anne Gray

    1999-01-01

    This paper examines the lessons for the New Deal era of some older strands in UK and European labour market measures; the Community Programme of the 1980s and the experience of “entreprises d'insertion in France, Spain and the Netherlands. It considers whether the institutional infrastructure of the New Deal is appropriate for the realisation of "intermediate labour marketsâ€. This raises some further questions; whether ILMs are about creating employment or merely redistributing it, and whe...

  17. Progress in Programmable Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Cuntala

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Programmable logic devices (PLD are situated on important place among microelectronic components thanks to the continuing technological development of semiconductor components, due to new architectures and new approaches to digital systems design. Software design of various complicated digital systems becomes advantageous article of many firms. The Department of Electronics and Electrotechnology pays pemanent attention to mentioned components in application field. The collective of authors wants in this article point out on possibilities of design of digital system using the PLD. The paper plan contains the following basic parts: Technological aspects that influence development of configurable logic devices, Methodology od design and implementation and Flexibility of PLD interface.

  18. A programmable Fortran preprocessor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosing, M.

    1995-06-01

    A programmable Fortran preprocessor is described. It allows users to define compile time operations that can examine and modify the source tree before it is compiled with a traditional compiler. This intermediate step allows the definition of routines and operations that adapt to the context in which they are used. Context sensitive operations increase the flexibility of abstractions that can be built without degrading efficiency, as compared to using traditional run time based abstractions such as libraries or objects. The preprocessor is described briefly along with an example of how it is used to add CMFortran array operations to Fortran77. Other preprocessors that have been implemented are also briefly described.

  19. Programme Biology - Health protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scientific results for 1975, of the five-year Biology-Health Protection programme adopted in 1971, are presented in two volumes. In volume one, Research in Radiation Protection are developed exclusively, including the following topics: measurement and interpretation of radiation (dosimetry); transfer of radioactive nuclides in the constituents of the environment; hereditary effects of radiation; short-term effects (acute irradiation syndrome and its treatment); long-term effects and toxicology of radioactive elements. In volume, two Research on applications in Agriculture and Medicine are developed. It includes: mutagenesis; soil-plant relations; radiation analysis; food conservation; cell culture; radioentomology. Research on applications in Medicine include: Nuclear Medicine and Neutron Dosimetry

  20. Metabolic origins of childhood asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasemann, Hartmut

    2015-12-01

    Childhood obesity and incidence of asthma are increasing globally. The parallel increase of the two suggests that obesity and asthma may be related and that abnormalities in the lipid and/or glucose metabolism may contribute to the pathogenesis of asthma. The clinical presentation of obese asthma is distinct from other asthma phenotypes and depending on age of onset of symptoms. Asthma in obese people tends to be more severe, not typically associated with allergy, and less responsive to standard anti-inflammatory therapy, including corticosteroids. Obesity and obesity-related comorbidities may lead to asthma via a number of mechanisms including changes in lung mechanics, the nitric oxide metabolism, and by causing inflammation. Furthermore, evidence suggests that nutrition during pregnancy contributes to intrauterine immune and metabolic programming in the offspring, which may have major influences on predisposition to cardiovascular, metabolic, and allergic diseases, including asthma, later in life. This review will highlight some suggested mechanistic links between obesity and diabetes with asthma. PMID:26542296

  1. Primary prevention of childhood obesity through counselling sessions at Swedish child health centres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Döring, Nora; Hansson, Lena M; Andersson, Elina Scheers;

    2014-01-01

    on-going population-based PRIMROSE trial, which targets childhood obesity, is embedded in the regular national (routine) preventive child health services that are available free-of-charge to all young families in Sweden. Of the participants (n = 1369), 489 intervention and 550 control mothers (75......-day food diary. We are not aware of any previous RCT, concerned with the primary prevention of childhood obesity through sessions at CHC that addresses healthy eating habits and physical activity in the context of a routine child health services programme. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN16991919.......BACKGROUND: Childhood obesity is a growing concern in Sweden. Children with overweight and obesity run a high risk of becoming obese as adults, and are likely to develop comorbidities. Despite the immense demand, there is still a lack of evidence-based comprehensive prevention programmes targeting...

  2. Immune thrombocytopenic purpura in a child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and mumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurekci, A Emin; Atay, A Avni; Demirkaya, Erkan; Sarici, S Umit; Ozcan, Okan

    2006-03-01

    Immune thrombocytopenic purpura in childhood is characterized by a typical history of acute development of purpura and bruising in an otherwise healthy child. In children it usually follows a viral infection (eg, mumps, rubella) or immunization. We report for the first time a child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who developed immune thrombocytopenic purpura due to mumps during the maintenance phase of acute lymphoblastic leukemia treatment. PMID:16679943

  3. A Tewo Tibetan Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rdo rje tshe brtan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Rdo rje tshe brtan (b. 1986 describes his childhood in Dredze Village, Yiwa Township, Tewo County, Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu Province, China, as well as being a student in Xining City, Qinghai Province. Topics covered include his family, childhood injuries and illnesses, education, Terang (malicious household deities, mountain deities and associated rituals and sacrifices, death, conflict with other locals, collecting local plants, a birth in the village, stealing fruit, a wedding, plowing, a visit to a hot spring, a lost yak, slaughtering pigs, government confiscation of fields, and slaughtering pigs. Photos provide additional detail.

  4. Childhood Malnutrition and the Intestinal Microbiome Malnutrition and the microbiome

    OpenAIRE

    Kane, Anne V.; Dinh, Duy M.; Ward, Honorine D

    2014-01-01

    Malnutrition contributes to almost half of all deaths in children under the age of 5 years, particularly those who live in resource-constrained areas. Those who survive frequently suffer from long-term sequelae including growth failure and neurodevelopmental impairment. Malnutrition is part of a vicious cycle of impaired immunity, recurrent infections and worsening malnutrition. Recently, alterations in the gut microbiome have also been strongly implicated in childhood malnutrition. It has be...

  5. ADS National Programmes: Belgium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Belgian activities in the field of Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) are mainly related to the MYRRHA project development. MYRRHA is an accelerator driven, multi purpose fast neutron spectrum facility for R&D, cooled by a lead-bismuth eutectic. SCK•CEN has started the MYRRHA project as a national programme with several national & international bilateral collaboration agreements; the project has now evolved as an European integrated project in the frame of the IPEUROTRANS (European Commission, Sixth Framework Programme). The MYRRHA ‘Draft-2’ predesign file (completed in the early 2005) has been proposed to the partners as a basis for the XT-ADS machine. After a detailed investigation of potential alternatives, the MYRRHA concept (for the subcritical core, the primary coolant system, the accommodation of experimental rigs, the reactor vessel and the spallation target) has been kept with some modifications to achieve the XT-ADS objectives. The most recent version of the XT-ADS design was presented in the 2007 TWG meeting

  6. Fast reactor programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This progress report summarizes the fast reactor research carried out by ECN during the period covering the year 1980. This research is mainly concerned with the cores of sodium-cooled breeders, in particular the SNR-300, and its related safety aspects. It comprises six items: A programme to determine relevant nuclear data of fission- and corrosion-products; A fuel performance programme comprising in-pile cladding failure experiments and a study of the consequences of loss-of-cooling and overpower; Basic research on fuel; Investigation of the changes in the mechanical properties of austenitic stainless steel DIN 1.4948 due to fast neutron doses, this material has been used in the manufacture of the reactor vessel and its internal components; Study of aerosols which could be formed at the time of a fast reactor accident and their progressive behaviour on leaking through cracks in the concrete containment; Studies on heat transfer in a sodium-cooled fast reactor core. As fast breeders operate at high power densities, an accurate knowledge of the heat transfer phenomena under single-phase and two-phase conditions is sought. (Auth.)

  7. Reactor Physics Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Reactor Physics and Department of SCK-CEN offers expertise in various areas of reactor physics, in particular in neutronics calculations, reactor dosimetry, reactor operation, reactor safety and control and non-destructive analysis on reactor fuel. This expertise is applied within the Reactor Physics and MYRRHA Research Department's own research projects in the VENUS critical facility, in the BR1 reactor and in the MYRRHA project (this project aims at designing a prototype Accelerator Driven System). Available expertise is also used in programmes external to the Department such as the reactor pressure steel vessel programme, the BR2 reactor dosimetry, and the preparation and interpretation of irradiation experiments. Progress and achievements in 1999 in the following areas are reported on: (1) investigations on the use of military plutonium in commercial power reactors; (2) neutron and gamma calculations performed for BR-2 and for other reactors; (3) the updating of neutron and gamma cross-section libraries; (4) the implementation of reactor codes; (6) the management of the UNIX workstations; and (6) fuel cycle studies

  8. Accelerator programme at CAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Accelerator Programme at the Centre for Advanced Technology (CAT), Indore, has very broad based concept under which all types of accelerators are to be taken up for design and fabrication. This centre will be housing a wide variety of accelerators to serve as a common facility for the universities, national laboratories in addition to laboratories under the Department of Atomic Energy. In the first phase of the programme, a series of electron accelerators are designed and fabricated. They are synchrotron radiation sources of 450 MeV (INDUS-I) and of 2 GeV (INDUS-II), microtron upto energy of 20 MeV, linear accelerator upto 20 MeV, and DC Accelerator for industrial irradiation upto 750 KeV and 20 KW. A proton accelerator of 300 MeV with 20 MeV linac injector is also designed. CAT is also developing a strong base for support technologies like ultra high vacuum, radio frequency and microwaves, DC pulsed and superconducting magnets, power supplies and controls etc. These technologies are very useful for other industrial applications also. To develop user groups to utilise INDUS-II synchrotron radiation source, a batch production of rotating Anode X-ray generators with power supplies has been initiated. So also, the sputter ion pumps, electron guns, turbo molecular pumps are brought into batch production. (author)

  9. PREPARATION FOR RETIREMENT PROGRAMME

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    27 March 2001 from 2.00 p.m. to 5.30 p.m. 28 March 2001 from 2.00 p.m. to 5.30 p.m. 29 March 2001 from 2.00 p.m. to 5.30 p.m. 30 March 2001 from 2.00 p.m. to 4.45 p.m. Auditorium (Main Building) After the success of the preparation seminars held in recent years, it has been decided that the programme should continue. The forthcoming seminar has been prepared in close collaboration with the CERN Pensioners' Association. The programme will be organised over several half-day sessions. Once again this year, a special session will be devoted to the 10th revision of the Swiss state pension scheme, the 'AVS' (Assurance-Vieillesse et Survivants), and the consequences for international civil servants. A talk will be given by Mrs Danièle Siebold, Director of the Caisse Cantonale Genevoise de Compensation, aimed mainly at those residing in or intending to move to Switzerland, or who worked in Switzerland before joining CERN. To enable Mrs Siebold to respond to your concerns as effectively as possible, please ...

  10. Nuclear programme in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Implementation of the energy policy covers several aspects such as issuance of regulations, standards, energy pricing incentives and disincentives, and the application of appropriate technologies. The policies and implementation of the technologies can fully be supported by the use of nuclear technology, especially toward the now popular issue concerning the environment. In view of these policies and the need to implement these policies. i.e. for the diversification of energy and environmental concern, the Department of Mines and Energy has established an Indonesian Energy Coordination Board (BAKOREN). This board has realised the importance of considering nuclear as a source of energy, which has led to a decision in September 1989, for The National Atomic Energy Agency (BATAN) to conduct a feasibility study to introduce nuclear power plants in Indonesia. The establishment of an authority for the construction and operation of Nuclear Power Plants in Indonesia, which is primarily related to the safe and efficient operation of nuclear power plants, must also be prepared. This authority is still under considerations by the Indonesian Government. In implementing the Indonesia Nuclear Programme, it is important that cooperation exists among countries of the world, Korea, in this respect, as learning from experiences of other countries are very necessary to plan for a successful Nuclear Programme

  11. Assessing Interventions: IAEA Technical Cooperation Enhances Nutrition Programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malnutrition — in all its forms — is a significant development challenge, affecting childhood health, workplace productivity, and national health programmes in countries around the world. While the effects of undernutrition are well recognized, there is less recognition of the fact that the long term impact of obesity or inappropriate nutrition can also be very damaging to health and to national economies. Increasingly, countries around the world are taking action to implement nutritional or physical activity interventions designed to improve the future health of children, as well as the health of their populations in general. Such interventions may include the promotion of exclusive breastfeeding, school breakfast or lunch programmes, nutrition awareness campaigns, food fortification, and investment in sports activities and facilities. The IAEA, through its Technical Cooperation (TC) programme, is working with its Member States to help them to assess the efficiency and effectiveness of such intervention programmes, in order to ensure that government efforts are having the desired effect, and that resources are being well applied. For such assessments, reliable data are essential, and it is here that nuclear science and technology come into play

  12. CAMAC modular programmable function generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A CAMAC modular programmable function generator has been developed. The device contains a 1024 word by 12-bit memory, a 12-bit digital-to-analog converter with a 600 ns settling time, an 18-bit programmable frequency register, and two programmable trigger output registers. The trigger registers can produce programmed output logic transitions at various (binary) points in the output function curve, and are used to synchronize various other data acquisition devices with the function curve

  13. Immune System Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to find out more! Email * Zipcode The Immune System and Psoriatic Disease What is an autoimmune disease? ... and painful joints and tendons. Treating the immune system The immune system is not only the key ...

  14. Immune System Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Quiz: Immune System KidsHealth > For Kids > Quiz: Immune System Print A A A Text Size How much do you know about your immune system? Find out by taking this quiz! View Survey ...

  15. Sequential immune responses: The weapons of immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Mills, Charles; Ley, Klaus; Buchmann, Kurt; Canton, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Sequential immune responses (SIR) is a new model that describes what ‘immunity’ means in higher animals. Existing models, such as self/nonself discrimination or danger, focus on how immune responses are initiated. However, initiation is not protection. SIR describes the actual immune responses that provide protection. SIR resulted from a comprehensive analysis of the evolution of immune systems that revealed that several very different types of host innate responses occur (and at different te...

  16. Recording information about immunizations

    OpenAIRE

    Gadsby, Roger

    1980-01-01

    The recording of information on triple plus polio and rubella immunizations is reviewed and immunization rates determined for patients in a single-handed practice. Rates of triple plus polio immunizations are satisfactory but rates for rubella immunization are very poor. Immunization information is not exchanged between different sections of the Health Service in Stoke-on-Trent and so the general practitioner has no reliable immunization record for his patients.

  17. Dissociation of Innate Immune Responses in Microglia Infected with Listeria monocytogenes

    OpenAIRE

    Frande-Cabanes, Elisabet; Fernandez-Prieto, Lorena; Calderon-Gonzalez, Ricardo; Rodríguez-Del Río, Estela; Yañez-Diaz, Sonsoles; López-Fanarraga, Monica; Alvarez-Domínguez, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Microglia, the innate immune cells of the brain, plays a central role in cerebral listeriosis. Here, we present evidence that microglia control Listeria infection differently than macrophages. Infection of primary microglial cultures and murine cell lines with Listeria resulted in a dual function of the two gene expression programmes involved in early and late immune responses in macrophages. Whereas the bacterial gene hly seems responsible for both transcriptional programmes in macrophages, ...

  18. Atopic endotype in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoos, Ann-Marie Malby; Chawes, Bo Lund Krogsgaard; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt;

    2016-01-01

    with asthma through early childhood (0-6 years) when analyzed as any sensitization (odds ratio [OR] range, 0.78-1.29; P ≥ .48). However, at 13 years of age, any sensitization was associated with asthma (OR range, 4.02-5.94; all P contrast, any sensitization was associated with eczema at ½, 1...

  19. Malignant tumors of childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains 34 papers about malignant tumors. some of the titles are: Invasive Cogenital Mesoblastic Nephroma, Leukemia Update, Unusual Perinatal Neoplasms, Lymphoma Update, Gonadal Germ Cell Tumors in Children, Nutritional Status and Cancer of Childhood, and Chemotherapy of Brain tumors in Children

  20. Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pui, Ching-Hon; Yang, Jun J; Hunger, Stephen P;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To review the impact of collaborative studies on advances in the biology and treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children and adolescents. METHODS: A review of English literature on childhood ALL focusing on collaborative studies was performed. The resulting article was...

  1. Managing childhood obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prevalence of childhood obesity has steadily increased over the last decades, with approximately 35% of children aged 6-19 classified as overweight or obese. Recently, a plateau in the increasing rates of obesity has been observed. Despite this leveling off, overweight and obese children are hea...

  2. Dietary Patterns in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise Beltoft Borup

    childhood. These associations might contribute to the identification of families, who would benefit from guidance to help them establish healthy dietary patterns for their infants. Finding tracking for some infants and changes in adherence to dietary patterns for others as well as the association between...

  3. Childhood environment and obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    US children are at risk for developing childhood obesity. Currently, 23% of children ages 2–5 are overweight or obese, i.e., at or above the 85th percentile. This prevalence becomes even higher as children age, with 34% of children ages 6–11 being overweight or obese. Ethnic minority children are at...

  4. Childhood Obesity: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, John J.

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews recent research evidence, largely from systematic reviews, on a number of aspects of childhood obesity: its definition and prevalence; consequences; causes and prevention. The basis of the body mass index (BMI) as a means of defining obesity in children and adolescents is discussed: a high BMI for age constitutes obesity. In…

  5. Early childhood aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alink, Lenneke Rosalie Agnes

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis the development, stability, and correlates of early childhood aggression were investigated. The normative development was examined in a general population sample using questionnaires completed by the parents of 12-, 24-, and 36-month-old children and again one year later. Results show

  6. Childhood disintegrative disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik

    2003-01-01

    sometimes associated with this disorder, but contrary to earlier belief this is not typical. Interest in childhood disintegrative disorder has increased markedly in recent years and in this review attention is given to more recently published cases based on ICD-9, ICD-10 and DSM-IV diagnostic systems...

  7. Conscientiousness: Origins in Childhood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Duckworth, Angela L.; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Valiente, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we evaluate developmental and personality research with the aim of determining whether the personality trait of conscientiousness can be identified in children and adolescents. After concluding that conscientiousness does emerge in childhood, we discuss the developmental origins of conscientiousness with a specific focus on…

  8. Early Childhood Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Edgar, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Focused on early childhood development, this "UNICEF Intercom" asserts that developmental programs should aim to give children a fair chance at growth beyond survival. First presented are moral, scientific, social equity, economic, population, and programatic arguments for looking beyond the fundamental objective of saving young lives.…

  9. Childhood disintegrative disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Hari Charan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We are presenting a case of a 10-year-old female child who presented with normal development till 5 years of age followed by deterioration in previously acquired language and social skills with stereotypic hand movements suggestive of childhood disintegrative disorder. This case is reported as this condition is very rare.

  10. Early Childhood Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Early childhood trauma generally refers to the traumatic experiences that occur to children aged 0-6. Because infants' and young children's reactions may be different from older children's, and because they may not be able to verbalize their reactions to threatening or dangerous events, many people assume that young age protects children from the…

  11. Tanzania : Early Childhood Development

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    This report presents an analysis of the Early Childhood Development (ECD) programs and policies that affect young children in Tanzania. This report is part of a series of reports prepared by the World Bank using the Systems Approach for Better Education Results (SABER)-ECD framework and includes analysis of early learning, health, nutrition and social and child protection policies and inte...

  12. Uganda : Early Childhood Development

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    This report presents an analysis of the Early Childhood Development (ECD) programs and policies that affect young children in Uganda and recommendations to move forward. This report is part of a series of reports prepared by the World Bank using the Systems Approach for Better Education Results (SABER)-ECD framework1 and includes analysis of early learning, health, nutrition and social and ...

  13. Childhood microbial keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah G Al Otaibi

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Children with suspected microbial keratitis require comprehensive evaluation and management. Early recognition, identifying the predisposing factors and etiological microbial organisms, and instituting appropriate treatment measures have a crucial role in outcome. Ocular trauma was the leading cause of childhood microbial keratitis in our study.

  14. Survivors of childhood cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradwell, Moira

    2009-05-01

    Treatment of childhood cancer aims to cure with minimum risk to the patient's subsequent health. Monitoring the long-term effects of treatment on children and young adults is now an essential part of the continued care of survivors. Late effects include: impact on growth, development and intellectual function; organ system impairment; the development of second malignancies; and psychosocial problems. These can adversely affect long-term survival and the quality of life. In the UK, models of long-term follow up for survivors of childhood cancer vary from centre to centre but nurses have a significant role to play. Combining the nurse specialist role with that of the advanced practitioner ensures that the goals of improving the quality of nursing care to the survivors of childhood cancer are achieved and maximises the nursing contribution to their follow up. With the number of childhood cancer survivors increasing, providing holistic, health promotional care, tailored to the specific needs of survivors will be crucial for their future. PMID:19505060

  15. The ONTARGET trial programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unger, Thomas; Kintscher, Ulrich; Kappert, Kai;

    2009-01-01

    The ONTARGET trial programme tested the effects of the angiotensin AT1 receptor blocker (ARB), telmisartan, alone or in combination with the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, ramipril, in more than 25.000 patients at high cardiovascular risk including diabetes on a combined endpoint....... Telmisartan thus proved to be the first and so far the only representative of the ARB class that can be used as an alternative to the "gold standard" ACE-inhibitor, ramipril, in patients at high cardiovascular risk with or without hypertension. © 2009 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd....... consisting of cardiovascular death, non-fatal stroke or myocardial infarction and hospitalisation for congestive heart failure. Patient selection and study procedures followed the previous HOPE trial. In the parallel TRANSCEND study, nearly 6.000 patients, all intolerant to ACE inhibition, were subjected...

  16. Country programme review Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A five-expert mission was organized from 21-26 August 1993 and this document reflects the findings and recommendations of the team. Intensive contacts with heads of institutions, scientists and decision making persons in various sectors in the country were co-ordinated by the Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission. The terms of reference of the mission were: To assess the on-going TC projects; to assist the Bangladesh nationals to finalize the formulation of the new requests for 1995-96 TC programme and to establish priority areas with regard to the introduction of national projects involving accelerated technological transfer in order to catalyze national development plans in specific areas; to examine institutional framework suitable for the introduction of these priority nuclear techniques

  17. Photovoltaic programme - edition 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This publication issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's Photovoltaics (PV) Programme presents an overview (in English) of activities and projects in the photovoltaics research and pilot and demonstration area in Switzerland. Progress in the area of future solar cell technologies, modules and building integration, system technologies, planning and operating aids is summarised. Also, PV for applications in developing countries, thermo-photovoltaics and international co-operation are commented on. In the area of pilot and demonstration projects, component development, PV integration in sloping roofs, on flat roofs and noise barriers as well as further PV plant are looked at. Also, measurement campaigns, studies, statistics and further PV-related topics are summarised. This volume also presents the abstracts of reports made by the project managers of 73 research and pilot and demonstration projects in these areas for 2002.

  18. Programmable ferroelectric tunnel memristor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy eQuindeau

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We report an analogously programmable memristor based on genuine electronic resistive switching combining ferroelectric switching and electron tunneling. The tunnel current through an 8 unit cell thick epitaxial Pb(Zr[0.2]Ti[0.8]O[3] film sandwiched between La[0.7]Sr[0.3]MnO[3] and cobalt electrodes obeys the Kolmogorov-Avrami-Ishibashi model for bidimensional growth with a characteristic switching time in the order of 10^-7 seconds. The analytical description of switching kinetics allows us to develop a characteristic transfer function that has only one parameter viz. the characteristic switching time and fully predicts the resistive states of this type of memristor.

  19. Programmability of nanowire networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellew, A. T.; Bell, A. P.; McCarthy, E. K.; Fairfield, J. A.; Boland, J. J.

    2014-07-01

    Electrical connectivity in networks of nanoscale junctions must be better understood if nanowire devices are to be scaled up from single wires to functional material systems. We show that the natural connectivity behaviour found in random nanowire networks presents a new paradigm for creating multi-functional, programmable materials. In devices made from networks of Ni/NiO core-shell nanowires at different length scales, we discover the emergence of distinct behavioural regimes when networks are electrically stressed. We show that a small network, with few nanowire-nanowire junctions, acts as a unipolar resistive switch, demonstrating very high ON/OFF current ratios (>105). However, large networks of nanowires distribute an applied bias across a large number of junctions, and thus respond not by switching but instead by evolving connectivity. We demonstrate that these emergent properties lead to fault-tolerant materials whose resistance may be tuned, and which are capable of adaptively reconfiguring under stress. By combining these two behavioural regimes, we demonstrate that the same nanowire network may be programmed to act both as a metallic interconnect, and a resistive switch device with high ON/OFF ratio. These results enable the fabrication of programmable, multi-functional materials from random nanowire networks.Electrical connectivity in networks of nanoscale junctions must be better understood if nanowire devices are to be scaled up from single wires to functional material systems. We show that the natural connectivity behaviour found in random nanowire networks presents a new paradigm for creating multi-functional, programmable materials. In devices made from networks of Ni/NiO core-shell nanowires at different length scales, we discover the emergence of distinct behavioural regimes when networks are electrically stressed. We show that a small network, with few nanowire-nanowire junctions, acts as a unipolar resistive switch, demonstrating very high ON

  20. INDUSTRIAL RISK Programme development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    INC-DTCI ICIS Rm. Valcea conducts basic and applied research among which there is the INDUSTRIAL RISK Programme that comprises studies of risk analysis and evaluation at objectives and activities in zones were risk factors are in operation, factors leading potentially to natural or technological disasters. The risk analysis and evaluation methodology proposed is a follow-up of the action plan for risk reduction in industry. The risk management refers to risk and its components assessment and identification of places where improvements are to be introduced. The risk analysis and evaluation model was developed for installations in chemical industry and are also applicable for the installations of heavy water production by H2O-H2S isotopic exchange. The risk studies supply information necessary in making decisions, aiming at preventing the operation incidence and reducing their consequences

  1. Multinational design approval programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The licensing of new nuclear power facilities is likely to pose many challenges to national regulatory organizations. The majority of nuclear power plants to be built around the world in the next 15 years will likely be limited to a small number of relatively standardized designs, purchased from a limited number of multinational corporations. Such standardization creates an opportunity to leverage the resources and knowledge of the national regulatory authorities who will be tasked with the review of the new reactor power plant designs. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has developed an innovative proposal for a multinational design approval programme (MDAP). This paper describes the stages of the MDAP and the benefits that could be derived from its implementation. (author)

  2. Deadlock Immunity: Enabling Systems To Defend Against Deadlocks

    OpenAIRE

    Jula, Horatiu; Tralamazza, Daniel; Zamfir, Cristian; Candea, George

    2008-01-01

    Deadlock immunity is a property by which programs, once afflicted by a given deadlock, develop resistance against future occurrences of that and similar deadlocks. We describe a technique that enables programs to automatically gain such immunity without assistance from programmers or users. We implemented the technique for both Java and POSIX threads and evaluated it with several real systems, including MySQL, JBoss, SQLite, Apache ActiveMQ, Limewire, and Java JDK. The results demonstrate eff...

  3. [Toward a New Immunization Schedule in Spain, 2016 (Part 1)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limia-Sánchez, Aurora; Andreu, María Mar; Torres de Mier, María de Viarce; Navarro-Alonso, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The immunization Schedule is a dynamic public health tool that has incorporated different changes over the years influenced by the epidemiologic situation and the scientific evidence. The Immunization Advisory Committee [Ponencia de Programa y Registro de Vacunaciones], as the Interterritorial Council scientific and technical advisory body, carries out assessments of different programmes and vaccines and proposes changes that after approval will be introduced in the Regions schedule. This article is divided into two parts presenting the rationale followed to propose a new schedule for the immunization against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B and invasive disease by Haemophilus influenzae type b. This first part is focused in the reasoning to undertake the assessment, the review of the immunization policy and the impact of immunization in Spain, as well as a review of the immunization schedules in similar countries. PMID:26960253

  4. Swiss breeder research programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new initiative for a Swiss Fast Breeder Research Program has been started during 1991. This was partly the consequence of a vote in Fall 1990, when the Swiss public voted for maintaining nuclear reactors in operation, but also for a moratorium of 10 years, within which period no new reactor project should be proposed. On the other hand the Swiss government decided to keep the option 'atomic reactors' open and therefore it was essential to have programmes which guaranteed that the knowledge of reactor technology could be maintained in the industry and the relevant research organisations. There is also motivation to support a Swiss Breeder Research Program on the part of the utilities, the licensing authorities and the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). The utilities recognise the breeder reactor as an advanced reactor system which has to be developed further and might be a candidate, somewhere in the future, for electricity production. In so far they have great interest that a know-how base is maintained in our country, with easy access for technical questions and close attention to the development of this reactor type. The licensing authorities have a legitimate interest that an adequate knowledge of the breeder reactor type and its functions is kept at their disposal. PSI and the former EIR have had for many years a very successful basic research programme concerning breeder reactors, and were in close cooperation with EFR. The activities within this programme had to be terminated owing to limitations in personnel and financial resources. The new PSI research programme is based upon two main areas, reactor physics and reactor thermal hydraulics. In both areas relatively small but valuable basic research tasks, the results of which are of interest to the breeder community, will be carried out. The lack of support of the former Breeder Programme led to capacity problems and finally to a total termination. Therefore one of the problems which had to be solved first was

  5. Childhood obesity: prevention is better than cure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandita A

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aakash Pandita,1 Deepak Sharma,2 Dharti Pandita,3 Smita Pawar,4 Mir Tariq,5 Avinash Kaul6 1Department of Pediatrics, SMGS Hospital Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, India; 2Department of Pediatrics, Pt Bhagwat Dayal Sharma Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Rohtak, Haryana, India; 3Department of Microbiology Jammu University, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, India; 4Department of OBG Fernandez Hospital, Hyderabad,Telangana, India; 5Department of Orthopedics, Kokilaben Dhirubhai Ambani Hospital, Mumbai, India; 6Department of Surgery, Acharya Shri Chander College of Medical Sciences and Hospital, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, India Abstract: Obesity and its associated comorbidities have emerged as a major health problem garnering interests from both public health agencies and mainstream media consumers. With increasing awareness on its impact on health, finances, and community at large, it has come to the forefront for scientific research and development of health plans. The need for better strategies and novel interventions to manage obesity is now being recognized by the entire health care system. Obesity and overweight is now the fifth leading global risk factor for mortality. Strategic investment is thus urgently needed to implement population-based childhood obesity prevention programmes which are effective and also culturally appropriate. Population-based prevention is crucial to stem this rising tide of childhood obesity which is fast reaching epidemic proportions. Obesity has its onset very early in life; therefore, children constitute a major group of this disease. It is thus imperative to lay utmost importance on prevention of obesity in children and herald its progress, if present already. Furthermore, treatment is still in preliminary stage, so early prevention holds better than treatment at later stages. This article is an attempt to lay emphasis on childhood obesity as a problem that needs to be recognized early and measures for its

  6. Rediscovering Morality through the Concept of Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick-Shepherd, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    This chapter looks at John Dewey's consideration of childhood as a platform which to view the significance of childhood in moral life. It argues that the concept of childhood is integral to our thinking in the teaching and learning relationship. When we consider childhood from Dewey's platform, we see that childhood is relevant to…

  7. An automatic bibliography indexing programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Morris

    1974-12-01

    Full Text Available A relatively simple FORTRAN IV programme, designed for a small computer, for author and key-word indexes to bibliographic records is described, and examples of output are given. It is com­pared with some other systems. Suggested improvements to the programme are given.

  8. Medical Versus Nonmedical Immunization Exemptions for Child Care and School Attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Routine childhood immunizations against infectious diseases are an integral part of our public health infrastructure. They provide direct protection to the immunized individual and indirect protection to children and adults unable to be immunized via the effect of community immunity. All 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico have regulations requiring proof of immunization for child care and school attendance as a public health strategy to protect children in these settings and to secondarily serve as a mechanism to promote timely immunization of children by their caregivers. Although all states and the District of Columbia have mechanisms to exempt school attendees from specific immunization requirements for medical reasons, the majority also have a heterogeneous collection of regulations and laws that allow nonmedical exemptions from childhood immunizations otherwise required for child care and school attendance. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) supports regulations and laws requiring certification of immunization to attend child care and school as a sound means of providing a safe environment for attendees and employees of these settings. The AAP also supports medically indicated exemptions to specific immunizations as determined for each individual child. The AAP views nonmedical exemptions to school-required immunizations as inappropriate for individual, public health, and ethical reasons and advocates for their elimination. PMID:27573087

  9. Loss of population levels of immunity to malaria as a result of exposure-reducing interventions: consequences for interpretation of disease trends.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azra C Ghani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The persistence of malaria as an endemic infection and one of the major causes of childhood death in most parts of Africa has lead to a radical new call for a global effort towards eradication. With the deployment of a highly effective vaccine still some years away, there has been an increased focus on interventions which reduce exposure to infection in the individual and -by reducing onward transmission-at the population level. The development of appropriate monitoring of these interventions requires an understanding of the timescales of their effect. METHODS & FINDINGS: Using a mathematical model for malaria transmission which incorporates the acquisition and loss of both clinical and parasite immunity, we explore the impact of the trade-off between reduction in exposure and decreased development of immunity on the dynamics of disease following a transmission-reducing intervention such as insecticide-treated nets. Our model predicts that initially rapid reductions in clinical disease incidence will be observed as transmission is reduced in a highly immune population. However, these benefits in the first 5-10 years after the intervention may be offset by a greater burden of disease decades later as immunity at the population level is gradually lost. The negative impact of having fewer immune individuals in the population can be counterbalanced either by the implementation of highly-effective transmission-reducing interventions (such as the combined use of insecticide-treated nets and insecticide residual sprays for an indefinite period or the concurrent use of a pre-erythrocytic stage vaccine or prophylactic therapy in children to protect those at risk from disease as immunity is lost in the population. CONCLUSIONS: Effective interventions will result in rapid decreases in clinical disease across all transmission settings while population-level immunity is maintained but may subsequently result in increases in clinical disease many

  10. Our Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our Immune System A story for children with primary immunodeficiency diseases Written by Sara LeBien IMMUNE DEFICIENCY FOUNDATION A note from ... are immune deficient to better understand their immune system. What is a “ B-cell, ” a “ T-cell, ” ...

  11. ADS National Programmes: Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Japan, the research and development (R&D) activities on partitioning and transmutation (P&T) technology had been promoted under the OMEGA programme since 1988. The main institutes involved in these activities were the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC), and the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI). Among these institutes, JAERI had mainly conducted the R&D on ADS. In 1999 and 2000, the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) of Japan implemented the check and review (C&R) on the P&T technology, and the ADS was considered as one of candidates for transmutation systems together with fast reactors. In 2005, JAERI and JNC were merged and the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) was established. In JAEA, the R&D activities on both ADS and fast reactors have been continued. In August, 2008, the AEC of Japan launched the Technical Subcommittee on P&T Technology under the Advisory Committee on R&D, and conducted the discussion about the current state of the art concerning P&T technology in Japan and the future R&D programme. The Subcommittee issued the final report in April, 2009. The final report covered the impact of the P&T technology, the state of the art of the technology, evaluation on the progress of the R&D, and the recommendations of the future R&D. As the basic policy on the P&T technology, the report stated that the R&D should not aim at only the improvement of the P&T performance, but at the achievement of the requirements for whole performance of nuclear power generation. This means that the performance of the Double strata fuel cycle concept should be evaluated from viewpoints of safety, economy, environmental friendliness, saving resource, and non-proliferation of the first stratum as well as those of the second stratum. The Double strata concept, therefore, should be studied as a part of the whole nuclear system both in the transient phase of LWR to FBR and the equilibrium

  12. France's nuclear power programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prospects of development of France's consumption of electricity will widen the deficit of her national energy resources. Nuclear power stations should enable this deficit to be reduced, provided a certain number of uncertainties prevailing today are resolved. The first programme, put forward by Messrs. AILLERET and TARANGER at the 1955 Geneva Conference aimed at commissioning 850 MWe by 1965; the programme was devoted to developing the natural uranium graphite-gas sequence and reaches its completion with the construction of EDF 3, the world's first unit capable of 500 MWe. Before changing over from the prototype stage to their duplication, Electricite De France decided, in agreement with the Commissariat A L'energie Atomique to build EDF 4, which, while reproducing EDF 3's reactor, together with the referring equipment, the entire control equipment and various other systems, pioneers an important innovation by incorporating the heat exchangers and fans inside the prestressed concrete pressure vessel housing the core. At the same time, studies are being carried on on the same type of reactor enabling possible use of a new annular-shaped fuel element, whose use would considerably improve the performance of EDF 5, to be envisaged. On the heavy water side, the construction of EL 4 at Brennilis jointly by the Commissariat A L'energie Atomique and Electricite De France is continuing. Design work on a 500 MWe reactor of this type has already started. As regards pressurized water reactors, the Chooz power station is built jointly by Electricite De France and Belgian Utilities. Finally, the Commissariat A L'energie Atomique is continuing the construction of the 'Rapsodie' rapid neutron reactor at Cadarache, together with studies on a larger power reactor. It may thus be seen that the technical and economic knowledge gained on these various types of reactor mean that an equipment program may be contemplated which will endow nuclear power stations with a place of ever

  13. Private provider participation in statewide immunization registries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cowan Anne E

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population-based registries have been promoted as an effective method to improve childhood immunization rates, yet rates of registry participation in the private sector are low. We sought to describe, through a national overview, the perspectives of childhood immunization providers in private practice regarding factors associated with participation or non-participation in immunization registries. Methods Two mailed surveys, one for 264 private practices identified as registry non-participants and the other for 971 identified as registry participants, from 15 of the 31 states with population-based statewide immunization registries. Frequency distributions were calculated separately for non-participants and participants regarding the physician-reported factors that influenced decisions related to registry participation. Pearson chi-square tests of independence were used to assess associations among categorical variables. Results Overall response rate was 62% (N = 756. Among non-participants, easy access to records of vaccines provided at other sites (N = 101, 68% and printable immunization records (N = 82, 55% were most often cited as "very important" potential benefits of a registry, while the most commonly cited barriers to participation were too much cost/staff time (N = 36, 38% and that the practice has its own system for recording and monitoring immunizations (N = 35, 37%. Among registry participants, most reported using the registry to input data on vaccines administered (N = 326, 87% and to review immunization records of individual patients (N = 302, 81%. A minority reported using it to assess their practice's immunization coverage (N = 110, 29% or generate reminder/recall notices (N = 54, 14%. Few participants reported experiencing "significant" problems with the registry; the most often cited was cost/staff time to use the registry (N = 71, 20%. Conclusion Most registry participants report active participation with few

  14. Isotopes Help Design Better Nutrition Programmes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Good nutrition is essential for good health. To ensure proper nutrition, energydense fat, protein and carbohydrates need to be accompanied by vitamins and minerals. Malnutrition is the result of too much food or too little food and a lack of variety in the kinds of food eaten. More than 30% of young children suffer from some form of malnutrition with devastating consequences for health, learning, future earning potential, economic development, resilience and security. Undernutrition in early life, when accompanied by excessive weight gain later in childhood, increases the risk of chronic diseases in adulthood. Obesity has reached epidemic proportions globally, with at least 2.8 million adults dying each year from diseases related to overweight or obesity such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and some forms of cancer. Stable isotope techniques play an important role in the development and monitoring of interventions against malnutrition. Compared to other conventional techniques, these methods, which do not involve radiation, offer much more sensitive and specific measurements. They can be used to establish the ratio of lean tissue to fat in body composition; to estimate the number of calories spent each day; to determine whether breastfed babies are exclusively breastfed according to the recommendations issued by the World Health Organization (WHO); to assess a person’s vitamin A reserves; and to establish how well iron and zinc are utilized from local foods and diets. This provides Member States with information to help them design or improve their national health and nutrition programmes

  15. A human rights-based approach to assess disadvantaged mothers' experiences with a nutrition supplementation programme provided at primary health care clinics. : A study from Cape Town, South Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Summary A major health problem in South Africa is inadequate nutritional health among infants and young children which contributes to increased childhood morbidity and mortality. The health authorities in South Africa have implemented various health and nutrition programmes addressing this vulnerable group. However, so far there have been few evaluations of these programmes and hence the effectiveness and quality of the programmes are not certain. South Africa has, with its Bill of R...

  16. Early Childhood Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumiko Kawashita

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is one of the most common childhood diseases, and people continue to be susceptible to it throughout their lives. Although dental caries can be arrested and potentially even reversed in its early stages, it is often not self-limiting and progresses without proper care until the tooth is destroyed. Early childhood caries (ECC is often complicated by inappropriate feeding practices and heavy infection with mutans streptococci. Such children should be targeted with a professional preventive program that includes oral hygiene instructions for mothers or caregivers, along with fluoride and diet counseling. However, these strategies alone are not sufficient to prevent dental caries in high-risk children; prevention of ECC also requires addressing the socioeconomic factors that face many families in which ECC is endemic. The aim of this paper is to systematically review information about ECC and to describe why many children are suffering from dental caries.

  17. Genetics of Childhood Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major health problem and an immense economic burden on the health care systems both in the United States and the rest of the world. The prevalence of obesity in children and adults in the United States has increased dramatically over the past decade. Besides environmental factors, genetic factors are known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of obesity. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have revealed strongly associated genomic variants associated with most common disorders; indeed there is general consensus on these findings from generally positive replication outcomes by independent groups. To date, there have been only a few GWAS-related reports for childhood obesity specifically, with studies primarily uncovering loci in the adult setting instead. It is clear that a number of loci previously reported from GWAS analyses of adult BMI and/or obesity also play a role in childhood obesity.

  18. Tibetan Nomad Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karma Dondrub

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A Tibetan Nomad Childhood by Kar+ma don 'grub. Kar+ma's life begins on the boundless Tibetan grassland in 1983 in Yushu (Yul shul Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Mtsho sgnon (Qinghai Province. Living in a black yak hair tent, Kar+ma begins tending his family's yak calves as soon as he can walk, in a grassland so barren that he is startled upon first seeing a tree at the age of eight. Charlatan livestock-stealing monks, anthrax, death, birth, happiness, and encounters with modern education create a powerful, unparalleled account of Tibetan nomad childhood in the late twentieth century - a way of life that will soon be forever gone.

  19. Social influence in childhood obesity interventions: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, M S; Sharafi-Avarzaman, Z; Rahmandad, H; Ammerman, A S

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study is to understand the pathways through which social influence at the family level moderates the impact of childhood obesity interventions. We conducted a systematic review of obesity interventions in which parents' behaviours are targeted to change children's obesity outcomes, because of the potential social and environmental influence of parents on the nutrition and physical activity behaviours of children. PubMed (1966-2013) and the Web of Science (1900-2013) were searched, and 32 studies satisfied our inclusion criteria. Results for existing mechanisms that moderate parents' influence on children's behaviour are discussed, and a causal pathway diagram is developed to map out social influence mechanisms that affect childhood obesity. We provide health professionals and researchers with recommendations for leveraging family-based social influence mechanisms to increase the efficacy of obesity intervention programmes. © 2016 World Obesity. PMID:27138986

  20. The Finnish Allergy Programme 2008-2018 - scientific rationale and practical implementation

    OpenAIRE

    Haahtela, Tari; Valovirta, Erkka; Kauppi, Paula; Tommila, Erja; Saarinen, Kimmo; von Hertzen, Leena; Mika J. Mäkelä

    2012-01-01

    There are no nationwide, comprehensive public health programmes on allergic disorders with set goals and systematic follow-up. The Finnish initiative is based on the idea that the so called allergy epidemic in modern, urban societies is caused by inadequately developed or broken tolerance. The immune system is not trained to make the difference between danger and non-danger (allergy) or the difference between self and non-self (autoimmune diseases). The immune dysfunction leads to inappropria...

  1. Project Energize: intervention development and 10 years of progress in preventing childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, Elaine; Cairncross, Carolyn; Williams, Margaret Hinepo; Tseng, Marilyn; Coppinger, Tara; McLennan, Steph; Latimer, Kasha

    2016-01-01

    Prevention of childhood obesity is a global priority. The school setting offers access to large numbers of children and the ability to provide supportive environments for quality physical activity and nutrition. This article describes Project Energize, a through-school physical activity and nutrition programme that celebrated its 10-year anniversary in 2015 so that it might serve as a model for similar practices, initiatives and policies elsewhere. The programme was envisaged and financed by the Waikato District Health Board of New Zealand in 2004 and delivered by Sport Waikato to 124 primary schools as a randomised controlled trial from 2005 to 2006. The programme has since expanded to include all 242 primary schools in the Waikato region and 70 schools in other regions, including 53,000 children. Ongoing evaluation and development of Project Energize has shown it to be sustainable (ongoing for >10 years), both effective (lower obesity, higher physical fitness) and cost effective (one health related cost quality adjusted life year between $18,000 and $30,000) and efficient ($45/child/year) as a childhood 'health' programme. The programme's unique community-based approach is inclusive of all children, serving a population that is 42% Māori, the indigenous people of New Zealand. While the original nine healthy eating and seven quality physical activity goals have not changed, the delivery and assessment processes has been refined and the health service adapted over the 10 years of the programme existence, as well as adapted over time to other settings including early childhood education and schools in Cork in Ireland. Evaluation and research associated with the programme delivery and outcomes are ongoing. The dissemination of findings to politicians and collaboration with other service providers are both regarded as priorities. PMID:26809555

  2. Cytokine response to pregnancy-associated recrudescence of Plasmodium berghei infection in mice with pre-existing immunity to malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Megnekou, Rosette; Staalsoe, Trine; Hviid, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Background During childhood, residents of areas with stable transmission of Plasmodium falciparum parasites acquire substantial protective immunity to malaria, and adults therefore rarely experience clinical disease episodes. However, susceptibility to infection reappears in pregnant women, particularly primigravidae. This is due to appearance of antigenic parasite variants that are restricted to pregnancy. Variant-specific immunity also governs pregnancy-associated recrudescence of Plasmodiu...

  3. Brain Development in Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Taki, Yasuyuki; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2012-01-01

    Although human brain development continues throughout childhood and adolescence, it is a non-linear process both structurally and functionally. Here we review studies of brain development in healthy children from the viewpoint of structure and the perfusion of gray and white matter. Gray matter volume increases and then decreases with age, with the developmental time of the peak volume differing among brain regions in the first and second decades of life. On the other hand, white matter volum...

  4. Epidemiology of childhood cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Terracini Benedetto

    2011-01-01

    Abstract At least in economically developed countries, in the last decades, the incidence of childhood cancer has increased and the increase is unlikely to be an artefact. Causes of the increase have not been identified: a role of preventable environmental exposures is possible. Changes have also occurred in the age distribution of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Currently, children with cancer can be successfully treated and cured. However, access to the best therapy differs widely among coun...

  5. Cultivating childhood obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Greene-Martin, DeCleasha

    2013-01-01

    In recent years the levels of obesity in the United States has risen greatly especially amongst children. Doctors, psychologists, and other scientists have been studying the growing problem for years. Implications for childhood obesity not only have enormous physical consequences but emotional repercussions which can affect the child’s academic and social development. A number of factors have been identified as having an effect on these children; family life reveals the grocery store habits o...

  6. Conscientiousness: Origins in Childhood?

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Duckworth, Angela L.; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Valiente, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    In this review, we evaluate developmental and personality research with the aim of determining if the personality trait of conscientiousness can be identified in children and adolescents. After concluding that conscientiousness does emerge in childhood, we discuss the developmental origins of conscientiousness with a specific focus on self-regulation, academic motivation, and internalized compliance/internalization of standards. Based on the accumulated body of evidence, we conclude that self...

  7. Childhood lymphoma in Yorkshire.

    OpenAIRE

    Davison, A. M.; McKinney, P A; Bailey, C C; Lewis, I.; Cartwright, R A; O'Brien, C.

    1992-01-01

    AIMS: A histopathological review of 43 cases of childhood non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in an attempt to identify histological variables of prognostic importance. METHOD: Each case was reclassified according to the Working Formulation and an attempt made to allocate an immunophenotype using a panel of monoclonal antibodies. Results were correlated with clinical data on site and survival. RESULTS: Of the 43 cases, 30 were males and 13 females. There were 17 cases of lymphoblastic lymphoma, 15 c...

  8. Management and Communication programme

    CERN Multimedia

    Nathalie Dumeaux

    2005-01-01

    We are pleased to announce the launch of three new courses in the Management and Communication programme: 1.     Managing Time (Open to all Staff Members) The objectives are: To enhance your personal effectiveness through better organisation skills To acquire ways of making the most of your time through improved work habits To reduce stress For the description of this course, please see:  http://humanresources.web.cern.ch/humanresources/external/training/MANCO/P9798/S8E_e.asp 2.     Service Orientation (Open to all Staff Members working in a service-related function) The objectives are: To understand the key elements in an effective client/service provider relationship To develop a client focused approach to providing services For the description of this course, please see:  http://humanresources.web.cern.ch/humanresources/external/training/MANCO/P9798/serv_e.asp 3.   Introduction to Leadership (Open to Staff in Career Paths E & above, including newly appointed supervisors and Secti...

  9. Management and Communication programme

    CERN Multimedia

    Nathalie Dumeaux

    2005-01-01

    We are pleased to announce the launch of three new courses in the Management and Communication programme: 1.     Managing Time (Open to all Staff Members) The objectives are: To enhance your personal effectiveness through better organisation skills To acquire ways of making the most of your time through improved work habits To reduce stress For the description of this course, please see:  http://humanresources.web.cern.ch/humanresources/external/training/MANCO/P9798/S8E_e.asp 2.     Service Orientation (Open to all Staff Members working in a service-related function) The objectives are: To understand the key elements in an effective client/service provider relationship To develop a client focused approach to providing services For the description of this course, please see:  http://humanresources.web.cern.ch/humanresources/external/training/MANCO/P9798/serv_e.asp 3.   Introduction to Leadership (Open to Staff in Career Paths E & above, including newly appointed supervisors and Sect...

  10. SUMMER STUDENT LECTURE PROGRAMME

    CERN Document Server

    Françoise Benz

    2002-01-01

    SUMMER STUDENT LECTURE PROGRAMME Main Auditorium, bldg. 500   DATE TIME LECTURER TITLE Monday 29 July 09:15 - 10:00 R. RATTAZZI Beyond the Standard Model (3/3) 10:15 - 11:00 P. WELLS Experimental test of the SM - LEP (3/3) 11:15 - 12:00 P. WELLS Discussion Session 14:00 - 16:00 R. ASSMANN The CLIC Concept for a Future Particle Collider at the Energy Frontier Tuesday 30 July 09:15 - 10:00 F. ANTINORI Heavy Ions (1/2) 10:15 - 12:00 F. DYDAK Neutrino Physics (1&2/4) Wednesday 31 July  09:15 - 10:00 F. ANTINORI Heavy Ions (2/2) 10:15 - 11:00 F. DYDAK Neutrino Physics (3/4) 11:15 - 12:00 F. DYDAK / F. ANTINORI Discussion Session Thursday 1 August 09:15 - 10:00 T. NAKADA CP Violation (1/4) 10:15 - 11:00 F. DYDAK Neutrino Physics (4/4) 11:15 - 12:00 F. BEDESCHI Experimental test of the SM Tevatron (1/2) Friday 2 August 09:15 - 10:00 T. NAKADA CP Violation (2/4) 10:15 ? 11:00 F. BEDESCHI Experimental test of the SM Tevatron (2/2) 11:15 ? 12:00 F. BEDESCHI / T. NAKADA Di...

  11. SUMMER STUDENT LECTURE PROGRAMME

    CERN Document Server

    Françoise Benz

    2002-01-01

    Main Auditorium, bldg. 500   DATE TIME LECTURER TITLE Wednesday 3 July 09:15 - 10:00 L. FAYARD, O. ULLALAND Presentation of the Summer Student Programm 10:15 - 12:00 L. MAIANI Introduction to CERN (1&2/2) 14:00 - 15:00 G. Stevenson Radiation Protection (Council Chamber, bldg.503) Thursday 4 July 09:15 - 11:00 F. CLOSE Introduction to Particle Physics for non Physics Students (1&2/4) 11:15 - 12:00 C. JORAM Particle Detectors (1/5) Friday 5 July 09:15 - 11:00 F. CLOSE Introduction to Particle Physics for non Physics Students (3&4/4) 11:15 - 12:00 Discussion Session Monday 8 July 09:15 - 10:00 R. KLEISS Fundamental Concepts of Particle Physics (1/6) 10:15 - 11:00 C. JORAM Particle Detectors (2/5) 11:15 - 12:00 M. FRANKLIN Classic Experiments (1/3) 14:00 - 15:00 M. LINDROOS Isolde 15:30 - 16:30 M. LINDROOS Visit of the Experiment Tuesday 9 july 09:15 - 10:00 R. KLEISS Fundamental Concepts of Particle Physics (2/6) 10:15 - 11:00 C. JORAM Part...

  12. Scientific Programme Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Scientific Programme Committee A. Blondel, University of Geneva A. Cervera, IFIC M. Dracos, IN2P3 I. Efhymiopoulos, CERN J. Ellis, CERN S. Geer, FNAL R. Garoby, CERN M. Goodman, ANL D. Harris, FNAL T. Hasegawa, KEK P. Huber, Virginia Tech. D. Kaplan, IIT Y.D. Kim, Sejong University H. Kirk, BNL Y. Kuno, Osaka University K. Long, Imperial College N.K. Mondal, TIFR J. Morfin, FNAL Y. Mori, Kyoto University K. Nishikawa, KEK V. Palladino, University of Napoli C. Prior, RAL F.J.P. Soler, University of Glasgow J. Strait, FNAL R. Svoboda, University of California Davis F. Terranova, LN Frascati M. Zisman, LBNL Local Organizing Committee E. Benedetto, CERN/NTUA C. Blanchard, University of Geneva A. Blondel, University of Geneva (co-chair) I. Efthymiopoulos, CERN (co-chair) F. Dufour, University of Geneva F. Girard-Madoux, CERN E. Gschwendtner, CERN A. Korzenev, University of Geneva M. Morer-Olafsen, CERN S. Murphy, University of Geneva G. Prior, CERN G. Wikström, University of Geneva E. Wildner, CERN Sponsors EuCARD European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) Swiss Institute for Particle Physics (CHIPP) University of Geneva

  13. Summer Student Programme

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Date Time Title Speaker 05/07/2006 09:15 - 10:00 Presentation of the Summer Student Programme F. CERUTTI Information on Computing Rules D. HEAGERTY Workshops presentation O. ULLALAND 10:15 - 11:00 Introduction to CERN J. ENGELEN 11:15 Film on CERN 11:00 Introduction to Particle Physics F. CLOSE 11:15 - 12:00 Accelerators (1/5) S. GILARDONI / E. METRAL 12:00 Discussion Session 7/07/2006 09:15 - 11:00 Introduction to Particle Physics F. CLOSE 11:15 - 12:00 Accelerators (2/5) S. GILARDONI / E. METRAL 12:00 Discussion Session 09:15 - 10:00 Accelerators (3/5) S. GILARDONI / E. METRAL 10:15 - 12:00 Detectors (1-2/5) O. ULLALAND 12:00 Discussion Session 11/07/2006 09:15 - 10:00 Accelerators (4/5) S. GILARDONI / E. METRAL 10:15 - 11:00 Detectors (3/5) O. ULLALAND 11:15 - 12:00 Introduction to Nuclear Physics (1/4) P. CHOMAZ P. CHOMAZ 10:15 - 11:00 Accelerators (5/5) S. GILARDONI / E. METRAL 11:15 - 12:00 Detectors (4/5) O. ULLALAND 12:00 Discus...

  14. Summer Student Lecture Programme

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 More Information DATE TIME LECTURER TITLE Wednesday 7 July 09:15 - 10:00 L. Fayard, O. Ullaland, D. Heagerty (CERN) Programme Presentation Workshops presentation Information on Computing Rules 10:15 - 11:00 R. Aymar (CERN) Introduction to CERN (1/2) 11:15 - 12:00 J. Engelen (CERN) Introduction to CERN (2/2) 15:00 - 16:30 H. Menzel (CERN) An Introduction to Radiation Protection DATE TIME LECTURER TITLE Thursday 8 july 09:15 - 10:00 L. Di Lella (CERN) Introduction to Particle Physics (1/4) 10:15 - 11:00 L. Di Lella (CERN) Introduction to Particle Physics (2/4) 11:15 - 12:00 P. Chomaz (GANIL / CERN) Fundamental questions in modern nuclear physics: The challenge of exotic nuclei (1/2) DATE TIME LECTURER TITLE Friday 9 July 09:15 - 10:00 L. Di Lella (CERN) Introduction to Particle Physics (3/4) 10:15 - 11:00 P. Chomaz (GANIL / CERN) Fundamental questions in modern nuclear physics: The challenge of exotic nuclei (2/2) 11:15 - 12:00 P....

  15. Programmable electronic synthesized capacitance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinberg, Leonard L. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A predetermined and variable synthesized capacitance which may be incorporated into the resonant portion of an electronic oscillator for the purpose of tuning the oscillator comprises a programmable operational amplifier circuit. The operational amplifier circuit has its output connected to its inverting input, in a follower configuration, by a network which is low impedance at the operational frequency of the circuit. The output of the operational amplifier is also connected to the noninverting input by a capacitor. The noninverting input appears as a synthesized capacitance which may be varied with a variation in gain-bandwidth product of the operational amplifier circuit. The gain-bandwidth product may, in turn, be varied with a variation in input set current with a digital to analog converter whose output is varied with a command word. The output impedance of the circuit may also be varied by the output set current. This circuit may provide very small ranges in oscillator frequency with relatively large control voltages unaffected by noise.

  16. ALICE pp physics programme

    CERN Document Server

    Kraus, Ingrid

    2009-01-01

    The physics programme of the ALICE experiment at CERN-LHC comprises besides studies of high-energy heavy-ion collisions measurements of proton-proton interactions at unprecedented energies, too. This paper focuses on the global event characterisation in terms of the multiplicity distribution of charged hadrons and mean transverse momentum. These bulk observables become accessible because the detector features excellent track reconstruction, especially at low transverse momenta. The measurement of strange hadrons is of particular interest since the strange-particle phase-space was found to be suppressed beyond canonical reduction at lower center-of-mass energies and the production mechanism of soft particles is not yet fully understood. Here we benefit in particular from particle identification down to very low transverse momentum, i.e. 100 - 300 MeV/c, giving access to spectra and integrated yields of identified hadrons. Equipped with these features, ALICE will play a complementary role w.r.t. other LHC exper...

  17. The BGAN extension programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Juan J.; Trachtman, Eyal; Richharia, Madhavendra

    2005-11-01

    Mobile satellite telecommunications systems have undergone an enormous evolution in the last decades, with the interest in having advanced telecommunications services available on demand, anywhere and at any time, leading to incredible advances. The demand for braodband data is therefore rapidly gathering pace, but current solutions are finding it increasingly difficult to combine large bandwidth with ubiquitous coverage, reliability and portability. The BGAN (Broadband Global Area Network) system, designed to operate with the Inmarsat-4 satellites, provides breakthrough services that meet all of these requirements. It will enable broadband connection on the move, delivering all the key tools of the modern office. Recognising the great impact that Inmarsat's BGAN system will have on the European satellite communications industry, and the benefits that it will bring to a wide range of European industries, in 2003 ESA initiated the "BGAN Extension" project. Its primary goals are to provide the full range of BGAN services to truly mobile platforms, operating in aeronautical, vehicular and maritime environments, and to introduce a multicast service capability. The project is supported by the ARTES Programme which establishes a collaboration agreement between ESA, Inmarsat and a group of key industrial and academic institutions which includes EMS, Logica, Nera and the University of Surrey (UK).

  18. Photovoltaic programme, edition 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This comprehensive publication issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy's Photovoltaics (PV) Programme presents an overview (in English) of activities and projects in the photovoltaics research and pilot and demonstration areas in Switzerland for the year 2003. Progress in future solar cell technologies as well as in the area of modules, building integration and system technologies is summarised. Also, national and international co-operation and multi-national pilot and demonstration projects are commented on. Associated projects such as eco-balances for PV systems, forecasting and modelling tools as well as system monitoring tools are discussed. In the area of pilot and demonstration projects, component development, PV integration in sloping roofs, on flat roofs and on facades as well as further PV plant are looked at. Also, measurement campaigns, studies, statistics and other PV-related topics are summarised. This volume presents a list of 92 projects in the PV area including the appropriate Internet links and is completed with a collection of project abstracts.

  19. Digitally programmable signal generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A digitally programmable signal generator (DPSG) includes a first memory from which data is written into a second memory formed of n banks. Each bank includes four memories and a multiplexer, the banks being read once during each time frame, the read-out bits being multiplexed and fed out serially in synchronism with a plurality of clock pulses occuring during a time frame. The resulting serial bit streams may be fed in parallel to a digital-to-analog converter. The DPSG can be used in applications such as Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) to create an optimal match between the process laser's spectral profile and that of the vaporized material, optical telecommunications, non-optical telecommunication in the microwave and radio spectrum, radar, electronic countermeasures, high speed computer interconnects, local area networks, high definition video transport and the multiplexing of large quantities of slow digital memory into high speed data streams. This invention extends the operation of DPSGs into the GHz range. (author)

  20. Fusion technology programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1982, KfK joined the fusion programme of EURATOM as a further association introducing its experience in nuclear technology. KfK closely cooperates with IPP Garching, the two institutions forming a research unit aiming at planning and realization of future development steps of fusion. KfK has combined its forces in the Nuclear Fusion Project (PKF) with participation of several KfK departments to the project tasks. Previous work of KfK in magnetic fusion has addressed mainly superconducting magnets, plasma heating by cluster ions and studies on structural materials. At present, emphasis of our work has concentrated increasingly on the nuclear part, i.e. the first wall and blanket structures and the elements of the tritium extraction and purification system. Associated to this component development are studies of remote maintenance and safety. Most of the actual work addresses NET, the next step to a demonstration of fusion feasibility. NET is supposed to follow JET, the operating plasma physics experiment of Euratom, on the 1990's. Detailed progress of the work in the past half year is described in this report. (orig./GG)

  1. Swedish waste management programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweden has developed a comprehensive system for the management of all wastes arising from its nuclear power production. An interim storage for spent nuclear fuel is in operation since 1985. A repository for low and medium level waste has been constructed and is in operation since 1988. Transportation of the fuel and other radioactive wastes is made by a sea transport system. The existing facilities will with some moderate expansion be sufficient to handle all radioactive wastes for a long time. An encapsulation plant for spent nuclear fuel and a repository for final disposal of a limited amount of spent fuel is planned to be built till 2008. In the repository the fuel will be isolated by multiple engineered and geological barriers. The ongoing waste management RD and D-programme is mainly concerned with questions related to the encapsulation of fuel and construction of such a repository in the granitic bedrock in Sweden. During the 1990s the emphasize will be on finalizing the development and the design of the needed facilities and on the characterization of candidate repository sites. The cost for spent fuel management including final disposal has been calculated to 4800 SEK/kg U. (author). 6 figs

  2. FPGAs for software programmers

    CERN Document Server

    Hannig, Frank; Ziener, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This book makes powerful Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and reconfigurable technology accessible to software engineers by covering different state-of-the-art high-level synthesis approaches (e.g., OpenCL and several C-to-gates compilers). It introduces FPGA technology, its programming model, and how various applications can be implemented on FPGAs without going through low-level hardware design phases. Readers will get a realistic sense for problems that are suited for FPGAs and how to implement them from a software designer’s point of view. The authors demonstrate that FPGAs and their programming model reflect the needs of stream processing problems much better than traditional CPU or GPU architectures, making them well-suited for a wide variety of systems, from embedded systems performing sensor processing to large setups for Big Data number crunching. This book serves as an invaluable tool for software designers and FPGA design engineers who are interested in high design productivity through behavi...

  3. Peer Bullying During Early Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Hatice UYSAL; Çağlayan DİNÇER

    2012-01-01

    Peer bullying during early childhood is discussed along with the literature reviewed in this article with the purpose of drawing attention to peer bullying during early childhood and its significance, and contributing to studies which are few in number in Turkey. Peer bullying during early childhood was considered with its definition and types, people who play key roles in peer bullying, factors (gender, age, parents, and friendship) that relate to peer bullying, and what should be done befor...

  4. Stress and Obesity in Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Felix-Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a serious health problem and prevalence increases dramatically around the world, including Sweden. The aim of the current thesis was to examine parents’ and children’s stress in relation to childhood obesity. Parenting stress, social support, parental worries, and serious life events, as well as children’s temperament, self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, saliva cortisol, weight and height were measured to estimate stress and the relation between stress and childhood obesit...

  5. Psychiatric Aspects of Childhood Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Pattanayak, Raman Deep; Sagar, Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    How to Cite this Article: Pattanayak RD, Sagar R. Psychiatric Aspects of Childhood Epilepsy. Iran J Child Neurol 2012;6(2):9-18.Childhood epilepsy is a chronic, recurrent disorder of unprovoked seizures. Theonset of epilepsy in childhood has significant implications for brain growth anddevelopment. Seizures may impair the ongoing neurodevelopmental processes and compromise the child’s intellectual and cognitive functioning, leading totremendous cognitive, behavioral and psychosocial consequen...

  6. Investigation of Childhood Abuse Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    AYDIN, Oktay

    2013-01-01

    In this study childhood abuse experiences between 18-25 years old males wasinvestigated according to some variables. The sample consist of 308 male. ChildhoodTrauma Questionnaire was applied to sample group to determine their childhood abuseexperiences. In addition to this, to determine some of demographical characteristics of thesubjects, a questionnaire was used. ANOVA and Pearson Moment Correlation CoefficentTechniques were used on the obtained results.At the and of the research;- People u...

  7. Childhood obesity and prevention approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Dilek Yildiz; Berna Eren Fidanci; Derya Suluhan

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity has increased dramatically during the past two decades. The growing incidence of childhood obesity is alarming, given the significant short and long term health problems associated with obesity. Being overweight or obese may increase the rate of non-communicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in adulthood. It may contribute to shortening life expectancy and adversely affects the quality of life. Therefore, it is important to prevent childhood obe...

  8. Childhood ovarian malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadik, Kalpana; Ghorpade, Kanchanmala

    2014-04-01

    Objective of this article is to appraise diagnostic aspects and treatment modalities in childhood ovarian tumor in background of available evidence. Literature search on Pubmed revealed various aspects of epidemiology, histopathological diagnosis, and treatment of pediatric ovarian tumor. 85 % of childhood tumors are germ cell tumors. The varied histopathological picture in germ cell tumors poses a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Immunohistochemistry and newer genetic markers like SALL4 and karyopherin-2 (KPNA2) have been helpful in differentiating ovarian yolk sac tumor from dysgerminoma, teratomas, and other pictures of hepatoid, endometrioid, clear cell carcinomatous, and adenocarcinomatous tissues with varied malignant potential. Before platinum therapy, these tumors were almost fatal in children. Fertility-conserving surgery with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin has dramatically changed the survival rates in these patients. This modality gives cancer cure with healthy offspring to female patients with childhood ovarian tumor. Evidence also supports this protocol resulting in successful pregnancy rates and safety of cytotoxic drugs in children born to these patients. PMID:24757335

  9. Initial results from the newborn hearing screening programme in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, A

    2013-03-02

    INTRODUCTION: Hearing screening programmes aim to detect hearing loss in the neonate. The Health Service Executive (HSE) South was the first phase of a national roll-out of a neonatal hearing screening programme in Ireland, going live on 28 April 2011. RESULTS: Over 11,738 babies have been screened for permanent childhood hearing impairment (PCHI) during the first 12 months. The percentage of eligible babies offered hearing screening was 99.2 %. Only 0.2 % (n = 25) of those offered screening declined. 493 (4 %) were referred for immediate diagnostic audiological assessment. The average time between screen and diagnostic audiology appointment was 2 weeks. 15 (1.3\\/1,000) babies have been identified with a PCHI over the 12-month period. 946 (4 %) babies screened were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) for >48 h. The prevalance of PCHI is 7.3\\/1,000 in the NICU population compared to 0.6\\/1000 in the well baby population. 214 (1.8 % of total babies screened) had a clear response in the screening programmes, but were deemed to be at risk of an acquired childhood hearing impairment. These babies will be reassessed with a diagnostic audiology appointment at 8-9 months of age. To date, there is one case of acquired hearing impairment through this targeted follow-up screen. Of the 15 cases of PCHI identified, 8 (53 %) of these had one or more risk factors for hearing loss and 7 (37 %) were admitted to the NICU for >48 h. Four babies were referred for assessment at the National Cochlear Implant Centre.

  10. Nuclear waste management programme 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear Waste Commission of Finnish Power Companies (YJT) founded by nuclear energy producing Imatran Voima Oy (IVO) and Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO), coordinates the research work of the companies on nuclear waste management. In YJT's Nuclear Waste Management Programme 1995, an account of the nuclear waste management measures of IVO and TVO is given as required by the sections 74 and 75 of the Finnish Nuclear Energy Degree. At first, the nuclear waste management situation and the programme of activities are reported. The nuclear waste management research programme for the year 1996 and more generally for the years 1997-2000 is presented. (1 fig., 1 tab.)

  11. Nuclear Waste Management Programme 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear Waste Commission of Finnish Power Companies (YJT), founded by nuclear energy producing Imatran Voima Oy (IVO) and Teollisuuden Voima (TVO), coordinates the research work of the companies on nuclear waste management. In YJT's Nuclear Waste Management Programme 1993, an account of the nuclear waste management measures of IVO and TVO is given as required by the sections 74 and 75 of the Finnish Nuclear Energy Degree. At first, the nuclear waste management situation and the programme of activities are reported. Then the nuclear waste management research programme for the year 1993 and more generally for the years 1994-1997 is presented

  12. Nuclear waste management programme 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear Waste Commission of Finnish Power Companies (YJT), founded by nuclear energy producing Imatran Voima Oy (IVO) and Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO), coordinates the research work of the companies on nuclear waste management. In YJT's Nuclear Waste Management Programme 1994, an account of the nuclear waste management measures of IVO and TVO is given as required by the sections 74 and 75 of the Finnish Nuclear Energy Degree. At first, the nuclear waste management situation and the programme of activities are reported. The the nuclear waste management research programme for the year 1994 and more generally for the years 1995-1997 is presented. (2 figs., 1 tab.)

  13. Nuclear Waste Management Programme 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear Waste Commission of Finnish Power Companies (YJT), founded by nuclear energy producing Imatran Voima Oy (IVO) and Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO), coordinates the research work of the companies on nuclear waste management. In YJT's Nuclear Waste Management Programme 1992, an account of the nuclear waste management measures of IVO and TVO is given as required by the Sections 74 and 75 of the Finnish Nuclear Energy Degree. At first, the nuclear waste management situation and the programme of activities are reported. Then the nuclear waste management research programme for the year 1992 and more generally for the years 1993 - 1996 is presented. (author)

  14. A Statistical Programme Assignment Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, Michael; Staghøj, Jonas; Svarer, Michael

    When treatment effects of active labour market programmes are heterogeneous in an observable way  across the population, the allocation of the unemployed into different programmes becomes a particularly  important issue. In this paper, we present a statistical model designed to improve the present...... duration of unemployment spells may result if a statistical programme assignment model is introduced. We discuss several issues regarding the  plementation of such a system, especially the interplay between the statistical model and  case workers....

  15. Hat das Internet ein Programm?

    OpenAIRE

    Coy, Wolfgang

    1998-01-01

    Hat das Internet ein Programm? Ist der Papst katholisch? Natürlich hat das Internet Millionen Programme - solche, die es nutzt und solche die man per FTP - File Transfer Protocol auf die eigene Maschine herunter laden kann und solche, die sich unbemerkt auf der Festplatte festsetzen. Letztere heißen Viren, Würmer oder trojanische Pferde. Aber das sind natürlich Programme im Sinne der Informatik, nicht im Sinne der broadcast media. Im amerikanisch-englischen Sprachraum, dem die...

  16. Changes in Childhood Pneumonia Hospitalizations by Race and Sex Associated with Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiese, Andrew D; Grijalva, Carlos G; Zhu, Yuwei; Mitchel, Edward F; Griffin, Marie R

    2016-06-01

    Introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in the childhood immunization schedule was associated with decreases in all-cause pneumonia hospitalizations among black and white children in Tennessee, USA. Although racial disparities that existed before introduction of these vaccines have been substantially reduced, rates remain higher in boys than in girls among young children. PMID:27197048

  17. RESPONSE TO METHYLPREDNISOLONE PULSE THERAPY IN REFRACTORY CHILDHOOD PYODERMA GANGRENOSUM : A CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Anila Sunandini; Venkata Chalam; Suryanarayana; Ajay Kumar; Priyadarshini

    2015-01-01

    Pyoderma gangrenosum is a rare , non - infectious, immune mediated, neutrophilic dermatosis associated with underlying systemic disease in 50% of cases. Brocq first described pyoderma gangrenosum in 1916.It is common in fourth and fifth decade . But childhood PG , reported was 4% percent. PG has been associated with systemic disorders like...

  18. Changes in Childhood Pneumonia Hospitalizations by Race and Sex Associated with Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grijalva, Carlos G.; Zhu, Yuwei; Mitchel, Edward F.; Griffin, Marie R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in the childhood immunization schedule was associated with decreases in all-cause pneumonia hospitalizations among black and white children in Tennessee, USA. Although racial disparities that existed before introduction of these vaccines have been substantially reduced, rates remain higher in boys than in girls among young children. PMID:27197048

  19. High breast milk IL-1β level is associated with reduced risk of childhood eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, A A; Chawes, B L; Carson, C G;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We recently demonstrated a dual effect of breastfeeding with increased risk of eczema and decreased risk of wheezing in early childhood by increasing breastfeeding length. We hypothesize that immune mediators in breast milk could explain such association either through a direct effect...... or as a surrogate marker of maternal immune constitution. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the possible association between cytokine and chemokine levels in breast milk and development of eczema and recurrent wheeze during early childhood. METHODS: Levels of 19 pro-inflammatory and immunoregulatory...... eczema (aHR = 0.82; 95% CI = 0.68-0.98; P = 0.03). No associations were observed for recurrent wheeze. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Elevated breast milk IL-1β level was associated with decreased risk of early childhood eczema suggesting either a direct protective effect of IL-1β or IL-1b acting as...

  20. Epidemiology and etiology of childhood pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Rudan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Childhood pneumonia is the leading single cause of mortality in children aged less than 5 years. The incidence in this age group is estimated to be 0.29 episodes per child-year in developing and 0.05 episodes per child-year in developed countries. This translates into about 156 million new episodes each year worldwide, of which 151 million episodes are in the developing world. Most cases occur in India (43 million, China (21 million and Pakistan (10 million, with additional high numbers in Bangladesh, Indonesia and Nigeria (6 million each. Of all community cases, 7-13% are severe enough to be life-threatening and require hospitalization. Substantial evidence revealed that the leading risk factors contributing to pneumonia incidence are lack of exclusive breastfeeding, undernutrition, indoor air pollution, low birth weight, crowding and lack of measles immunization. Pneumonia is responsible for about 19% of all deaths in children aged less than 5 years, of which more than 70% take place in sub-Saharan Africa and south-east Asia. Although based on limited available evidence, recent studies have identified Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and respiratory syncytial virus as the main pathogens associated with childhood pneumonia.

  1. Immune modelling and programming of a mobile robot demo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Tao; CAI Zi-xing; HE Han-gen

    2006-01-01

    An artificial immune system was modelled with self/non-self selection to overcome abnormity in a mobile robot demo. The immune modelling includes the innate immune modelling and the adaptive immune modelling. The self/non-self selection includes detection and recognition, and the self/non-self detection is based on the normal model of the demo. After the detection, the non-self recognition is based on learning unknown non-self for the adaptive immunization. The learning was designed on the neural network or on the learning mechanism from examples. The last step is elimination of all the non-self and failover of the demo. The immunization of the mobile robot demo is programmed with Java to test effectiveness of the approach. Some worms infected the mobile robot demo, and caused the abnormity. The results of the immunization simulations show that the immune program can detect 100% worms,recognize all known Worms and most unknown worms, and eliminate the worms. Moreover, the damaged files of the mobile robot demo can all be repaired through the normal model and immunization. Therefore, the immune modelling of the mobile robot demo is effective and programmable in some anti-worms and abnormity detection applications.

  2. Plan voor evaluatie van het Rijksvaccinatieprogramma. Een discussienota

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rumke HC; Conyn-van Spaendonck MAE; Plantinga AD; MCI; CIE; LLV

    1994-01-01

    The Netherlands Immunization Programme has greatly reduced the incidence of target childhood diseases and their complications. However, continuous vigilance is required. In this report we propose an integrated approach for surveillance of the Netherlands Immunization Programme. Data collection fo

  3. (More) Men in Early Childhood Education and Care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wohlgemuth, Ulla Gerner

    2016-01-01

    European legislation but also by national resolutions and therefore is very interested in ways to break down the gender segregated labour market and the gender segregated choices of education. The five projects spread across Denmark in five different municipalities took place in day-care institutions of...... profession. Obviously, attracting men to a BA study programme within care and Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) is one thing, recruiting men afterwards to ECEC is quite another matter, especially when gender and ECEC hold so very strong gender associated expectations. The participants and especially...

  4. The VULCANO spreading programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the currently studied core-catcher projects, some of them suppose corium spreading before cooling, in particular the EPR (European Pressurized Reactor) core-catcher concept is based on mixing the corium with a special concrete, spreading the molten mixture on a large multi-layer surface cooled from the bottom and subsequently cooling by flooding with water. Therefore, melt spreading deserves intensive investigation in order to determine and quantify key phenomena which govern the stopping of spreading. In France, for some years, the Nuclear Reactor Division of the Atomic Energy Commission (CEA/DRN) has undertaken a large program to improve knowledge on corium behaviour and coolability. This program is based on experimental and theoretical investigations which are finally gathered in scenario and mechanistic computer codes. In this framework, the real material experimental programme, VULCANO, conducted within an European frame, is currently devoted to the study of corium spreading. In 1997 and 1998, several tests have been performed on dry corium spreading with various composition of melts. Although all the observed phenomena, in particular the differences between simulant and real material melts have not been yet totally explained, these tests have already provided a lot of information about: The behaviour of complex mixtures including refractory oxides, silica, iron oxides and in one case iron metal; Spreading progression, which was never stopped in any of these tests by a crust formation at the front; The structure of spread melts (porosity, crusts,...); Physico-chemical interaction between melt and the refractory substratum which was composed of zirconia bricks. (authors)

  5. Effects of the immunization program in Vojvodina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šeguljev Zorica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. With the widespread use of active immunization, significant results have been achieved in the control and prevention of numerous communicable diseases. The Expanded Programme on Immunization of the World Health Organization is intended to strengthen national programs for the reduction in the incidence and mortality rates and global elimination or eradication of communicable diseases. The aim of this paper is to analyze results of the immunization program in Vojvodina. Material and methods. The results of the immunization program were analyzed on the basis of the incidence rates, since the introduction of the mandatory reporting system, till 2006. The analysis included immunization coverage against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, poliomyelitis and measles as well as reported cases of missed opportunities in the period from 1997 to 2006. Results. Poliomyelitis has not been reported in Vojvodina since 1963, diphtheria since 1978 and measles in the period from 2001 to 2006. Sporadic cases of pertussis have been reported in unimmunized children of the youngest age, and tetanus in unimmunized elderly population. Vaccination coverage against poliomyelitis, diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis was above 96%. Vaccination coverage against measles was lower (95% vaccination, 87% revaccination. The highest proportion of missed opportunities was caused by not responding to immunization calls (46.6%. Conclusion. These results can be maintained by up-to-date (UTD immunization and high vaccination coverage without territorial and population differences. Data on the total number of children without up-to-date vaccination cannot be obtained on the basis of administrative coverage follow-up. It is necessary to establish follow-up mechanisms for UTD immunization, which would reveal the number of children at risk from vaccine preventable diseases and characteristics of unimmunized population.

  6. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Childhood Autobiographical Memory Disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David W.; Anda, Robert F.; Edwards, Valerie J.; Felitti, Vincent J.; Dube, Shanta R.; Giles, Wayne H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine relationships between childhood autobiographical memory disturbance (CAMD) and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) which are defined as common forms of child maltreatment and related traumatic stressors. Methods: We use the ACE score (an integer count of eight different categories of ACEs) as a measure of cumulative exposure…

  7. Electrically-programmable diffraction grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricco, A.J.; Butler, M.A.; Sinclair, M.B.; Senturia, S.D.

    1998-05-26

    An electrically-programmable diffraction grating is disclosed. The programmable grating includes a substrate having a plurality of electrodes formed thereon and a moveable grating element above each of the electrodes. The grating elements are electrostatically programmable to form a diffraction grating for diffracting an incident beam of light as it is reflected from the upper surfaces of the grating elements. The programmable diffraction grating, formed by a micromachining process, has applications for optical information processing (e.g. optical correlators and computers), for multiplexing and demultiplexing a plurality of light beams of different wavelengths (e.g. for optical fiber communications), and for forming spectrometers (e.g. correlation and scanning spectrometers). 14 figs.

  8. CERN openlab summer student programme

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    CERN openlab is currently taking applications for its summer student programme. The closing date for applications is 31 March 2013.   The openlab summer student programme is open for applications from bachelor, master and PhD students in computer science and physics. Successful applicants will spend 9 weeks at CERN, during the period from June to September 2013, working with some of the latest hardware and software technologies. The programme is more than just a summer at CERN: it can lead to follow-on projects at the home institute and may even inspire students to become entrepreneurs in cutting-edge computing technologies. A series of lectures will be given by experts in various domains of CERN-related high-throughput computing. Study tours of external companies and universities as well as of CERN facilities are also part of the programme. Please visit the CERN openlab website for more information.

  9. CERN openlab Summer Student Programme

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    CERN openlab is currently taking applications for its summer student programme. The closing date for applications is 30 March 2012.   The openlab Summer Student Programme is open for applications from bachelor, master and PhD students in computer science and physics. Successful applicants will spend 8 weeks at CERN, during the period June to September 2012, to work with some of the latest hardware and software technologies. The programme is more than just a summer at CERN: it can lead to follow-on projects at the home institute and may even inspire the students to become entrepreneurs in cutting-edge computing technologies. A series of lectures will be given by experts in various domains of CERN related high-throughput computing. Study tours to external companies and universities as well as to CERN facilities are also part of the programme. Please visit www.cern.ch/openlab-students for more information.

  10. Climate Ambassador Programmes in Municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard; Pedersen, Stine Rahbek

    Some Danish municipalities have developed ambassador programmes which generate environmental and climate change mitigation efforts in local public administrations and institutions. This chapter analyses the characteristics and experiences of four ambassador programmes now operating in the...... municipalities of Furesø, Lyngby-Taarbæk, Frederiksberg and Hvidovre. Two of the ambassador programmes presented here focus primarily on climate change mitigation initiatives, and two have a broader focus on sustainable development. Important elements for the impact of these programmes are the networking among...... the local ambassadors, the central coordinator’s ability to support the local ambassador with knowledge about mapping, reduction of environmental impacts and facilitation of development of initiatives, and mechanisms for the allocation of cost savings from local resource savings....

  11. Critical programme for nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This July should see the award of the first contracts under a Pound 25 million programme designed to lead to a better understanding of control systems for safety-critical uses. The research and development programme is aimed at safety-critical circuits in everything form electronically-controlled car suspensions to safety systems in nuclear power stations. This article looks specifically at the latter. (author)

  12. Field Evaluation of Programmable Thermostats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachs, O. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Cambridge, MA (United States); Tiefenbeck, V. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Cambridge, MA (United States); Duvier, C. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Cambridge, MA (United States); Qin, A. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Cambridge, MA (United States); Cheney, K. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Cambridge, MA (United States); Akers, C. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Cambridge, MA (United States); Roth, K. [Fraunhofer Center for Sustainable Energy Systems (CSE), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Prior research suggests that poor programmable thermostats usability may prevent their effective use to save energy. The Fraunhofer team hypothesized that home occupants with high-usability thermostats would be more likely to use them to save energy than people with a basic thermostats. In this report, the team discusses results of a project in which the team monitored and compared programmable thermostats with basic thermostats in an affordable housing apartment complex.

  13. The internationalisation of postgraduate programmes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fink, Flemming Kobberøe; Andersen, Ole K.; Bak, Thomas;

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the efforts and experiences of globalisation of the study programmes within electronic engineering at Aalborg University. The Project-Organised Problem-Based Learning Model, which have been employed since 1974 is presented and discussed. The consequences this has for the inter...... international students are presented and discussed in terms of e.g. the teamwork situation, professional and cultural differences. A student enrolment programme, implemented through the provision of scholarships, jointly paid by government and industry funds is presented...

  14. The MERLIN programme: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MERLIN rig at the Northern Research Laboratories, Springfields, was intended to investigate the deformation behaviour of Zircaloy fuel rod cladding under conditions approximating those of a large break Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA). In this rig, an assembly of electrically heated fuel rod simulators (6x6 cluster) was subjected to a temperature transient simulating that predicted to occur in a LOCA, including the initiation of bottom reflooding at a suitable stage. The main aim of the MERLIN programme was to investigate the extent of sub-channel blockage produced during clad deformation under conditions of high mechanical restraint, in two phase cooling conditions. The programme was to consist of four test bundles, the final two of which would be used for ballooning experiments in which high sub-channel blockage would be produced by a suitable choice of test conditions. A major part of the programme was to provide validation data for reactor accident codes used in the CEGB clad ballooning safety case for Sizewell B. This report, one of a series which describes the programme in detail, is an overview of the MERLIN programme. It provides background, summarises those reports which discuss the programme in detail and draws attention to those areas where useful information has been obtained. (author)

  15. The Prevention of Childhood Anxiety and Promotion of Resilience among Preschool-Aged Children: A Universal School Based Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anticich, Sarah A. J.; Barrett, Paula M.; Silverman, Wendy; Lacherez, Philippe; Gillies, Robyn

    2013-01-01

    This study is the first to examine the effectiveness of the "Fun FRIENDS" programme, a school-based, universal preventive intervention for early childhood anxiety and promotion of resilience delivered by classroom teachers. Participants (N = 488) included children aged 4-7 years attending 1 of 14 Catholic Education schools in Brisbane,…

  16. Early Childhood Educators Working with Children Who Have Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual and Transgender Parents: What Does the Literature Tell Us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloughessy, Kathy; Waniganayake, Manjula

    2014-01-01

    Early childhood (EC) educators are expected to cater for all types of families from diverse backgrounds. Research involving EC educators and the spaces they create indicate the dominance of heteronormative practices. This silences programmes, policies, experiences and interactions that could reflect and support children with parents who identify…

  17. School, Community, and Family Working Together to Address Childhood Obesity: Perceptions from the KOALA Lifestyle Intervention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smibert, Asa; Abbott, Rebecca; Macdonald, Doune; Hogan, Anna; Leong, Gary

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological data on childhood obesity has prompted a significant response from both governments and academics seeking to recommend solutions to the reported "crisis". The "Kinder Overweight Active Living Action" (KOALA) healthy lifestyle programme is a randomized obesity prevention and intervention study designed to provide an understanding of…

  18. The Student Profile, Service Delivery Model, and Support Practices of Four Early Childhood Intervention Environments in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, Kenneth K.; Yang, Xueyan

    2016-01-01

    The student profile, model of service delivery, and support practices for young children with disabilities receiving early childhood intervention (ECI) in Singapore is reported and contrasted in this study. The supervisors/managers/principals of eight Early Intervention Programme for Infants and Children (EIPIC) centres, eight Integrated Child…

  19. Aetiology of childhood acute leukaemias: Current status of knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute leukaemia is a consequence of malignant transformation of a haematopoietic progenitor cell. Molecular studies have revealed a prenatal origin of many childhood leukaemias. According to current models, a pre-leukaemic stem cell clone is generated by a first mutation in utero which, in a minority of children, progresses to leukaemia after receiving further postnatal genetic hits. The nature of pre- and postnatal events involved in leukemogenesis in children is not well understood. Although genetic predisposition and specific environmental exposures may account for individual cases, the bulk of childhood leukaemia cannot be explained by any of these factors. The higher incidence of the most common leukaemia subtype in affluent societies, as well as the age peak between 2-5 y, suggest a contributory role of socioeconomic factors. An abnormal immune response during delayed exposure to common infections provides a plausible mechanism for malignant progression of pre-leukaemic clones in a subgroup of children. As highlighted in this review, a common cause for all types and subtypes of childhood leukaemia is highly unlikely. Deeper insights into the pathogenesis of childhood leukaemia will rely on large-scale and combined epidemiological and bio-molecular studies. (authors)

  20. Developing thinking with four and five year old pupils: the impact of a cognitive acceleration programme through early science skill development

    OpenAIRE

    Gallagher, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    This thesis examines the extent to which a specific learning intervention programme, based on specific early science skill development may increase development in thinking in a particular early childhood sample. The background literature has focused on Piaget's and Vygotsky's theories of cognitive development as they relate to the intervention programme and the age group of the participants in this research study. The review discusses the need to teach thinking and the relevant literature ...

  1. Parental depression and child conduct problems: evaluation of parental service use and associated costs after attending the Incredible Years Basic Parenting Programme

    OpenAIRE

    Charles, Joanna M; Bywater, Tracey J; Edwards, Rhiannon Tudor; Hutchings, Judy; Zou, Lu

    2013-01-01

    Background There is co-morbidity between parental depression and childhood conduct disorder. The Incredible Years (IY) parenting programmes reduce both conduct disorder in children and depression in their parents. Recent U.K. and Ireland trials of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of IY parenting programmes have assessed children’s health and social care service use, but little is known about the programme’s impact on parental service use. This paper explores whether an above clinical ...

  2. Teachers in Early Childhood Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilderry, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines teacher accountability and authority in early childhood policy. It reports on data from a study that investigated the influences affecting early childhood teacher decision-making at the preschool level in Victoria, Australia. Using a question raised by Ball "Where are the teachers in all this [policy]?" provided a…

  3. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Hallucinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, C.L.; Dube, S.R.; Felitti, V.J.; Anda, R.F.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: Little information is available about the contribution of multiple adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) to the likelihood of reporting hallucinations. We used data from the ACE study to assess this relationship. Methods:: We conducted a survey about childhood abuse and household dysfunction while growing up, with questions about health…

  4. Markets and Childhood Obesity Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawley, John

    2006-01-01

    In examining the childhood obesity epidemic from the perspective of economics, John Cawley looks at both possible causes and possible policy solutions that work through markets. The operation of markets, says Cawley, has contributed to the recent increase in childhood overweight in three main ways. First, the real price of food fell. In…

  5. Norwegian mastitis control programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Østerås O

    2009-04-01

    changes in attitude and breeding, eradicating bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV and a better implementation of mastitis prevention programmes.

  6. Combined dyslipidemia in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavey, Rae-Ellen W

    2015-01-01

    Combined dyslipidemia (CD) is now the predominant dyslipidemic pattern in childhood, characterized by moderate-to-severe elevation in triglycerides and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), minimal elevation in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and reduced HDL-C. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy shows that the CD pattern is represented at the lipid subpopulation level as an increase in small, dense LDL and in overall LDL particle number plus a reduction in total HDL-C and large HDL particles, a highly atherogenic pattern. In youth, CD occurs almost exclusively with obesity and is highly prevalent, seen in more than 40% of obese adolescents. CD in childhood predicts pathologic evidence of atherosclerosis and vascular dysfunction in adolescence and young adulthood, and early clinical cardiovascular events in adult life. There is a tight connection between CD, visceral adiposity, insulin resistance, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and the metabolic syndrome, suggesting an integrated pathophysiological response to excessive weight gain. Weight loss, changes in dietary composition, and increases in physical activity have all been shown to improve CD significantly in children and adolescents in short-term studies. Most importantly, even small amounts of weight loss are associated with significant decreases in triglyceride levels and increases in HDL-C levels with improvement in lipid subpopulations. Diet change focused on limitation of simple carbohydrate intake with specific elimination of all sugar-sweetened beverages is very effective. Evidence-based recommendations for initiating diet and activity change are provided. Rarely, drug therapy is needed, and the evidence for drug treatment of CD in childhood is reviewed. PMID:26343211

  7. Migraine and lifestyle in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casucci, Gerardo; Villani, Veronica; d'Onofrio, Florindo; Russo, Antonio

    2015-05-01

    Migraine is one of the most frequently reported somatic complaints in childhood, with a negative impact on health-related quality of life. The incidence of migraine in childhood has substantially increased over the past 30 years, probably due to both increased awareness of the disease and lifestyle changes in this age group. Indeed, several conditions have been identified as risk factors for migraine in childhood. Amongst these, dysfunctional family situation, the regular consumption of alcohol, caffeine ingestion, low level of physical activity, physical or emotional abuse, bullying by peers, unfair treatment in school and insufficient leisure time seem to play a critical role. Nevertheless, there are only few studies about the association between migraine and lifestyle in childhood, due to previous observations specifically focused on "headache" in children. In this brief review, we will concentrate upon recent studies aimed to explore migraine and lifestyle risk factors in childhood. PMID:26017522

  8. Stroke in childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Serap Teber; Gülhis Deda

    2011-01-01

    Stroke in childhood is one of the most common causes of death or severe impairment worldwide, with annual incidence estimated from 1,3 to 13 cases/100.000 population. The definition of stroke consists both of arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) and hemorrhagic stroke. The incidence of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke in children is approximately the same, in contrast to adults, while the incidence is higher in boys than it is in girls. Risks factors for pediatric stroke differ from those for adults...

  9. Subclinical hypothyroidism in childhood.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Grady, M J

    2012-02-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) is defined as an elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in association with a normal total or free thyroxine (T4) or triiodothyronine (T3). It is frequently encountered in both neonatology and general paediatric practice; however, its clinical significance is widely debated. Currently there is no broad consensus on the investigation and treatment of these patients; specifically who to treat and what cut-off level of TSH should be used. This paper reviews the available evidence regarding investigation, treatments and outcomes reported for childhood SH.

  10. Seroepidemiology of diphtheria, tetanus, poliomyelitis and pertussis : evaluation of the national immunisation programme in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melker, de H.

    1999-01-01

    In view of the evaluation of the National Immunisation Programme in the Netherlands the main objectives were to obtain insight into the immunity to diphtheria, tetanus and poliomyelitis, into the occurrence of pertussis and to improve serodiagnosis of pertussis.In a population-based nationwide sampl

  11. Nonfatal suicidal behavior among women prisoners: the predictive roles of childhood victimization, childhood neglect, and childhood positive support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripodi, Stephen J; Onifade, Eyitayo; Pettus-Davis, Carrie

    2014-04-01

    Women entering prison report high rates of childhood victimization. Women in prison also report higher rates of nonfatal suicidal behavior (self-reported suicide attempts) than women in the general population and similar rates to their male counterparts despite having significantly lower suicide rates than males in the general population. Yet, there is a dearth of research that addresses the relationship between childhood victimization and suicidality for women prisoners in the United States. The purpose of this study is (a) to assess the relationship between childhood victimization and nonfatal suicidal behavior for a random sample of women prisoners; (b) to investigate predictive differences between childhood physical victimization, childhood sexual victimization, childhood neglect, and childhood support; and (c) to determine whether women prisoners with higher frequencies of childhood victimization and neglect are more likely to have attempted suicide than women prisoners with lower frequencies. Results indicate that childhood victimization, neglect, and lack of support are all significantly associated with nonfatal suicidal behavior among women prisoners. Frequency of childhood neglect had a larger effect size than frequency of childhood physical victimization, childhood sexual victimization, and lack of support. The results of this study add to the growing body of literature on childhood victimization and suicidality in general, and nonfatal suicidal behavior for prisoner populations in particular. The article ends with a discussion on clinical implications; particularly the finding that frequency of childhood victimization, childhood neglect, and lack of childhood support matters when determining the risk of suicidality. PMID:23315427

  12. Immunity to Diphtheria in Haemodialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolreza S. Jahromi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The incidence of infectious diseases is increased in patients with chronic renal failure. Chronic renal failure severely influences the immune functions of the host. Diphtheria is of great epidemiological concern. Although mainly observed during childhood, unvaccinated adults and relatively immunocompromised patients are at increased risk for acquiring diphtheria. Approach: To evaluate the anti-Diphtheria immunity level in southern Iranian patients with end stage renal disease undergoing hemodialysis and to find its association with sex, age, blood hemoglobin, serum albumin and duration of dialysis. This cross sectional study was carried out on a total of 52 patients, who were on hemodialysis and 52 age and sex matched healthy individuals with without any underlying renal disease as a control group. Subjects in the both groups receiving antidiphtheria toxoid vaccine or immunoglubins a year prior to the study were excluded. The serum antidiphtheria IgG antibody levels were measured by an ELISA method. Results: Diphtheria protected individuals in the patients and the control groups were 34.6 and 63.30% respectively. Of the evaluating factors just hemodialysis duration found to affect on diphtheria immunity. Conclusion: Diphtheria protected individuals in the patients group were significantly less than diphtheria protected individuals in the control group (p = 0.011. Hemodialysis duration has significant effect on anti-diphtheria immunity level.

  13. Aging changes in immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cells and antibodies that destroy these harmful substances. Aging Changes and Their Effects on the Immune System ... Prevention To decrease the risks from immune system aging: Get the flu and pneumonia vaccines, and any ...

  14. Immune System and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your immune system is a complex network of cells, tissues, and organs that work together to defend against germs. It helps ... to find and destroy them. If your immune system cannot do its job, the results can be ...

  15. Pneumonia - weakened immune system

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/article/000093.htm Pneumonia - weakened immune system To use the sharing features on this page, ... off infection because of problems with the immune system. This type of disease is called "pneumonia in ...

  16. Immune Reconstitution Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... opportunistic infections have been linked to immune restoration. IRIS is a sign of improving immune health. Normally it is not treated. Continuing HIV therapy takes care of any problems. In rare ...

  17. Immune System and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your immune system is a complex network of cells, tissues, and organs that work together to defend against germs. It ... t, to find and destroy them. If your immune system cannot do its job, the results can be ...

  18. Aging changes in immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004008.htm Aging changes in immunity To use the sharing features ... cells and antibodies that destroy these harmful substances. Aging Changes and Their Effects on the Immune System ...

  19. Immune response to HHV-6 and implications for immunotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Becerra, Aniuska; Gibson, Laura; Stern, Lawrence J.; Calvo-Calle, J. Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    Most adults remain chronically infected with HHV-6 after resolution of a primary infection in childhood, with the latent virus held in check by the immune system. Iatrogenic immunosuppression following solid organ transplantation (SOT) or hematopoetic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) can allow latent viruses to reactivate. HHV-6 reactivation has been associated with increased morbidity, graft rejection, and neurological complications post-transplantation. Recent work has identified HHV-6 anti...

  20. Biomarkers for immune thrombocytopenia

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Lingjia; Zhang, Chunmei; Zhang, Liping; Shi, Yongyu; Ji, Xuebin

    2015-01-01

    Immune thrombocytopenia is an autoimmune disease with abnormal biomarkers. Immune thrombocytopenia pathogenesis is a complicated process in which the patient’s immune system is activated by platelet autoantigens resulting in immune mediated platelet destruction or suppression of platelet production. The autoantibodies produced by autoreactive B cells against self antigens are considered to play a crucial role. In addition, biomarkers such as transforming growth factor-beta1,Toll-like receptor...

  1. Innate immunity and adjuvants

    OpenAIRE

    Akira, Shizuo

    2011-01-01

    Innate immunity was for a long time considered to be non-specific because the major function of this system is to digest pathogens and present antigens to the cells involved in acquired immunity. However, recent studies have shown that innate immunity is not non-specific, but is instead sufficiently specific to discriminate self from pathogens through evolutionarily conserved receptors, designated Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Indeed, innate immunity has a crucial role in early host defence aga...

  2. Immune mechanisms in vasculopathies

    OpenAIRE

    Nityanand, Soniya

    1996-01-01

    Soniya Nityanand AB STRACT Most of the inflammatory vasculopathies, termed as vasculitides are considered to be mediated at least in part by immunopathogenic mechanisms. With the recent demonstration of immune cells in atherosclerotic plaques, immune mechanisms are considered to play an important role in atherosclerotic vasculopathies too. The main components involved in the immune-mediated vascular injury are immune complexes, antibodies to vascular wall antigens...

  3. Immunizations for foreign travel.

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, D. R.

    1992-01-01

    One of the most important aspects of preparing travelers for destinations throughout the world is providing them with immunizations. Before administering any vaccines, however, a careful health and immunization history and travel itinerary should be obtained in order to determine vaccine indications and contraindications. There are three categories of immunizations for foreign travel. The first category includes immunizations which are routinely recommended whether or not the individual is tr...

  4. A Study of the Relationship between Early Childhood Program Attributes and Early Childhood Reading Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Novella M.

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative correlational study focuses on the relationship between early childhood program attributes and early childhood reading success. Data will be gathered from early childhood sites with grades prekindergarten through second grade in which early childhood program attributes exist and early childhood reading is measured by the…

  5. NDA National Graduate Programme 'nucleargraduates'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to outline the NDA National Graduate Programme (nuclear graduates). The NDA has a remit under the Energy Act (2004) 'to maintain and develop the skills for decommissioning and nuclear clean-up'. Although current research is now being reviewed, there is significant evidence to suggest that the age profile in the Site Licence Companies is skewed towards older workers and there is likely to be a skill shortage in 3-5 years. As nuclear clean-up is a national issue; skill shortages also become a national issue in a very real sense. In addition, evidence suggests that the industry needs to be constantly challenged in order to achieve its targets for decommissioning. The NDA has a unique position under the Act. It is both a strategic overseer and direct employer. To this end the 'National Graduate Programme' is aligned to both the NDA's previous succession plans and the needs of the industry. Industry needs leadership that challenges the status quo and moves the UK nuclear industry to become best in class; Industry needs a dedicated to programme to address skills shortages and difficult to recruit areas such as, but not exclusively, estimators, schedulers, contract managers, site engineers, decommissioning technicians, safety monitors; The NDA has indicated a 'commercial and politically savvy' cohort is required to meet its own internal challenges and to ensure sustainability in its own workforce, and to be sensitive to the needs of customers and suppliers alike; Need to create a more diversified workforce in the nuclear industry and also plan for new skills evolving from research and development breakthroughs; Need to ensure that Tier 1, 2, 3 and 4 contractors invest in the leadership and skills for the future. World Class - delivery will be benchmarked against UK based multinational companies who operate in a global graduate attraction and development marketplace. The graduates targeted will be from leading institutions and will have a blend of

  6. Immune Disorder HSCT Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-09

    Immune Deficiency Disorders:; Severe Combined Immunodeficiency; Chronic Granulomatous Disease; X-linked Agammaglobulinemia; Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome; Hyper-IgM; DiGeorge Syndrome; Chediak-Higashi Syndrome; Common Variable Immune Deficiency; Immune Dysregulatory Disorder:; Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis; IPEX; Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome; X-linked Lymphoproliferative Syndrome

  7. The Immune System Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Kirsten A.; Gibbs, Melissa A.; Friedman, Erich J.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a card game that helps introductory biology students understand the basics of the immune response to pathogens. Students simulate the steps of the immune response with cards that represent the pathogens and the cells and molecules mobilized by the immune system. In the process, they learn the similarities and differences between the…

  8. Acute hemiplegia in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuno, Takehiko; Takao, Tatsuo; Itoh, Masatoshi; Konishi, Yukuo; Nakano, Shozo (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1983-04-01

    The results of CT in 100 patients with acute hemiplegia in childhood are reported here. The etiology was various: 2 patients had infratentorial brain tumors, 56 had cerebral vascular diseases, 3 had head injuries, 16 had intracranial infectious diseases, one had postinfectious encephalomyelitis, one had multiple sclerosis, 2 had epilepsy, and the diagnosis of 19 were unknown. Eleven patients had a normal CT and a good prognosis. As for the type of onset, there were patients of type 1 with fever and 42 with convulsions and unconsciousness; those of type 2 with convulsions and unconsciousness were 12, and those of type 3 without fever and convulsions were 46. This classification is assumed to be useful, as the type of onset is characteristic of the etiology. Six patients were diagnosed correctly by repeated examinations, although the first CT did not reveal any remarkable findings. Capsular infarction, occlusion of the posterior cerebral artery in acute hemiplegia in childhood, abnormal findings of the internal capsule, thalamus, and midbrain in a patient with postinfectious encephalomyelitis, and a diffuse low density in the CT of the unilateral hemisphere in the patients with acute encephalopathy and acute hemiplegia of an obscure origin have been found after the introduction of computerized tomography.

  9. Childhood depression: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima NNR

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Nádia Nara Rolim Lima,1 Vânia Barbosa do Nascimento,1 Sionara Melo Figueiredo de Carvalho,1 Luiz Carlos de Abreu,1,3 Modesto Leite Rolim Neto,2 Aline Quental Brasil,2 Francisco Telésforo Celestino Junior,2 Gislene Farias de Oliveira,2 Alberto Olavo Advíncula Reis3 1Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Saúde, Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo André, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Departamento de Medicina. Universidade Federal do Ceará, UFC, Barbalha, Ceará, Brazil; 3Departamento de Saúde Materno Infantil, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: As an important public health issue, childhood depression deserves special attention, considering the serious and lasting consequences of the disease to child development. Taking this into consideration, the present study was based on the following question: what practical contributions to clinicians and researchers does the current literature on childhood depression have to offer? The objective of the present study was to conduct a systematic review of articles regarding childhood depression. To accomplish this purpose, a systematic review of articles on childhood depression, published from January 1, 2010 to November 24, 2012, on MEDLINE and SciELO databases was carried out. Search terms were “depression” (medical subject headings [MeSH], “child” (MeSH, and "childhood depression" (keyword. Of the 180 retrieved studies, 25 met the eligibility criteria. Retrieved studies covered a wide range of aspects regarding childhood depression, such as diagnosis, treatment, prevention and prognosis. Recent scientific literature regarding childhood depression converge to, directly or indirectly, highlight the negative impacts of depressive disorders to the children's quality of life. Unfortunately, the retrieved studies show that childhood depression commonly grows in a background of vulnerability and poverty, where individual and familiar needs

  10. New Euratom research programme 2002-2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mustonen, R. [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    2003-06-01

    The European Union funded research is carried out under two distinct programmes; the European Community Framework Programme (EC Programme) covering research, technological development and demonstration activities; and the Euratom Framework Programme covering research and training activities in the nuclear sector. The contents, funding and timetable of the sixth Euratom Framework Programme (FP6) are shortly reviewed in this paper. The European Union (EU) FP6 for the years 2002 - 2006 starts at the beginning of the year 2003.

  11. Evaluation of the FWF Doctoral Programme (DK Programme)

    OpenAIRE

    Ecker, Brigitte; Kottmann, Andrea; Meyer, Susanne; Brandl, Bianca

    2014-01-01

    In the winter term 2013 a total of 27,634 doctoral students were enrolled at Austrian universities and a total of 2,165 students obtained a doctoral degree; thereof 204 (9.4%) students graduated in a PhD Programme. In total 7,158 doctoral students were employed at Austrian universities in 2012. These numbers include those doctoral students with temporary positions who were funded by competitive means, as provided by the funding programmes of the FWF. In total the FWF as the most important fun...

  12. Programmable automation systems in PSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Finnish safety authority (STUK) requires plant specific PSAs, and quantitative safety goals are set on different levels. The reliability analysis is more problematic when critical safety functions are realized by applying programmable automation systems. Conventional modeling techniques do not necessarily apply to the analysis of these systems, and the quantification seems to be impossible. However, it is important to analyze contribution of programmable automation systems to the plant safety and PSA is the only method with system analytical view over the safety. This report discusses the applicability of PSA methodology (fault tree analyses, failure modes and effects analyses) in the analysis of programmable automation systems. The problem of how to decompose programmable automation systems for reliability modeling purposes is discussed. In addition to the qualitative analysis and structural reliability modeling issues, the possibility to evaluate failure probabilities of programmable automation systems is considered. One solution to the quantification issue is the use of expert judgements, and the principles to apply expert judgements is discussed in the paper. A framework to apply expert judgements is outlined. Further, the impacts of subjective estimates on the interpretation of PSA results are discussed. (orig.) (13 refs.)

  13. Comparison of programme MOBY-DICK with nodal programmes on benchmark problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we compare programme MOBY-DICK (which is diffusion difference programme) with nodal programmes no two-dimensional hexagonal benchmark problems for the VVER-type reactors (published by Chao and Shatilla). Nodal results are partly from one's own programme NODRAM and partly from literature. There is presented dependence on lattice pitch by difference programme and influence of boundary conditions (Author)

  14. Radon programmes and health marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fojtikova, Ivana; Rovenska, Katerina

    2011-05-01

    Being aware of negative health effects of radon exposure, many countries aim for the reduction of the radon exposure of their population. The Czech radon programme was commenced >20 y ago. Since then experts have gathered a lot of knowledge, necessary legislation has been enacted, tens of thousands of inhabitants have been offered free measurement and subsidy for the mitigation. Despite the effort, the effectiveness of the radon programme seems to be poor. Newly built houses still exhibit elevated radon concentrations and the number of houses mitigated is very low. Is it possible to enhance the effectivity of radon programme while keeping it on a voluntary basis? One possible way is to employ health marketing that draws together traditional marketing theories and science-based strategies to prevention. The potential of using marketing principles in communication and delivery of radon information will be discussed. PMID:21498864

  15. Energy Management Programmes for Industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-05

    The IEA Policy Pathway publications provide details on how to implement specific recommendations drawn from the IEA 25 Energy Efficiency Policy Recommendations. This Policy Pathway, jointly produced by the International Energy Agency and the Institute for Industrial Productivity, develops the critical steps for policy makers implementing energy management programmes for industry. Optimising energy use in industry is essential to improve industrial competitiveness and achieve wider societal goals such as energy security, economic recovery and development, climate change mitigation and environmental protection. While there is significant potential to decrease energy consumption in this sector, opportunities to improve energy efficiency are still under-exploited. Energy management programmes have shown to be instrumental in addressing many of the barriers that inhibit wide-scale uptake of energy management in industry. The Policy Pathway builds on lessons learned from country experiences and provides actionable guidance on how to plan and design, implement, evaluate and monitor energy management programmes for industry.

  16. Peer Bullying During Early Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice UYSAL

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Peer bullying during early childhood is discussed along with the literature reviewed in this article with the purpose of drawing attention to peer bullying during early childhood and its significance, and contributing to studies which are few in number in Turkey. Peer bullying during early childhood was considered with its definition and types, people who play key roles in peer bullying, factors (gender, age, parents, and friendship that relate to peer bullying, and what should be done before and after peer bullying.

  17. Kell immunization: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasić Marija

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The frequency of occurrence of RhD alloimmunization, due to preventive protocols, is decreased in our country, but more often there are other antigens that emerge as a cause of hemolytic disease of fetus. The most prominent is Kell antigen, which promotes specific course of disease based on an innate pathogenetic mechanism. Anti- Kell antibody production is, just as in other atypical antibodies, provoked with transfusion of incompatible blood. Except for the immune-mediated hemolysis, anti - Kell antibodies can also inhibit the function of progenitor (erytroid and megakariocyte cell lines. Case report. We present the case of G1P1 woman in whom a distinct fetal hydrops was sonographically detected in the 28th week of pregnancy. The results of immunological tests undoubtedly pointed to Kell immunization (anti - Kell antibody titer was more than 1:32, and antenatal tests for evaluation of fetal condition (Doppler ultrasound and CTG clearly showed the severe form of hemolytic disease. We concluded that the fetus was in a hopeless, terminal stage of the disease, and then decided to terminate the pregnancy. Conclusion. The only clinical approach to a problem of Kell alloimunization is active one. Early cordocentesis is recommended as the optimal method for evaluation of fetal condition. The clinical outcome of the fetus will strictly depend on a timely intrauterine transfusion (IUT procedure. Prophylaxis emerges as a crucial factor in prevention of Kell - alloimmunization. It is to be considered that all females in childhood and throughout the reproductive period should take only K1 - negative blood transfusion in order to decrease the incidence of Kell - alloimmunization.

  18. Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Aktepe

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually towards male child. Thirty-fifty percent of abuse cases among child and adolescent are outside the family including strangers or familiar person. Some features of abusers are introvert personality, pedophilic and antisocial personality. Most of the abusers have a history of sexual abuse or aggression during childhood. Sexual intercourse between two people who are not allowed to marry by law is called as incest. Family pattern of incest is defined globally as disorganized and dysfunctional. The most commonly reported familial pattern is rigid and patriarchal family pattern with a harsh father using force quite frequently. The clinical features and impacts of the sexual abuse on the child varies according to the relation between abusers and the child, form of abuse, duration of abuse, presence of physical assault, developmental phase, child age and psychological development before the abuse. Sexual abuse history may result in psychiatric disorders including anxiety, depression, substance dependence, suicide act, borderline personality disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder. Abuse negatively affects interpersonal relationships and self esteem of abused individuals. Several studies reported close association between risky sexual behaviors in adulthood and a history of of sexual abuse during childhood. Four traumatic dynamics including traumatic sexuality with abuse, feeling of betrayal, weakness, and stigmatization exist in childhood abuse. Trauma can cause

  19. The challenges of iodine supplementation: a public health programme perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Untoro, Juliawati; Timmer, Arnold; Schultink, Werner

    2010-02-01

    An adequate iodine intake during pregnancy, lactation and early childhood is particularly critical for optimal brain development of the foetus and of children 7-24 months of age. While the primary strategy for sustainable elimination of iodine deficiency remains universal salt iodisation, the World Health Organization and the United Nations Children's Fund recommend a complementary strategy of iodine supplements as a temporary measure when salt iodisation could not be implemented. This article aims to review current evidence on efficacy and implications of implementing iodine supplementation as a public health measure to address iodine deficiency. Iodine supplementation seems unlikely to reach high coverage in a rapid, equitable and sustained way. Implementing the programme requires political commitment, effective and efficient supply, distribution and targeting, continuous education and communication and a robust monitoring system. Thus, universal salt iodisation should remain the primary strategy to eliminate iodine deficiency. PMID:20172473

  20. Accelerator Neutrino Programme at FERMILAB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accelerator neutrino programme in the USA consists primarily of the Fermilab neutrino programme. Currently, Fermilab operates two neutrino beamlines, the Booster neutrino beamline and the NuMI neutrino beamline and is the planning stages for a third neutrino beam to send neutrinos to DUSEL. The experiments in the Booster neutrino beamline are miniBooNE, SciBooNE and in the future microBooNE, whereas in the NuMI beamline we have MINOS, ArgoNut, MINERVA and coming soon NOA. The major experiment in the beamline to DUSEL will be LBNE. (author)

  1. The ESO Observing Programmes Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerlund, B. E.

    1982-06-01

    Since 1978 the ESO Observing Programmes Committee (OPC) has "the function to inspect and rank the proposals made for observing programmes at La Silla, and thereby to advise the Director General on the distribution of observing time". The members (one from each member country) and their alternates are nominated by the respective national committees for five-year terms (not immediately renewable). The terms are staggered so that each year one or two persons are replaced. The Chairman is appointed annually by the Council. He is invited to attend Council meetings and to report to its members.

  2. Algorithmique et langages de programmation

    OpenAIRE

    Arsac, Jacques

    1991-01-01

    Dans les débuts de l'informatique, un cours de programmation consistait essentiellement en une description des organigrammes, comme représentation graphique de la structure d'un programme (tellement embrouillée qu'il fallait bien en passer par là), et la liste des instructions d'un langage : les constantes entières s'écrivent avec des chiffres sans point décimal ni partie exposant, un identificateur... l'instruction LIRE, etc. Pour le reste, l'apprenti programmeur devait se débrouiller tout s...

  3. British Energy Operating Experience Programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Energy is the major nuclear generator in the U.K. It has a market share varying between 22% and 25% of the total U.K. generation. The fleet of power stations operated by British Energy consists of one 1250 MWe Pressurised Water Reactor, six Advanced Gas Cooled reactor sites, each with two reactor units of 660 MWe, and one coal fired site with four units of 500 Mwe. In early 1999 British Energy set a strategic goal, for all its reactor units, to achieve 'World Class Performance through Cost leadership' by the end of year 2004. This would be measured against the applicable Upper Quartile performance indicators of the World Association of Nuclear Operators (WANO). Against this strategic goal six fundamental objectives were identified, one of which was to define, deploy and measure the effectiveness of a world class Operating Experience programme. British Energy has clearly re-defined its Operating Experience programme and, recognised the value of learning from Operating Experience. Commitment to the programme, and communicating the value of an effective OE programme is being clearly demonstrated by all managers throughout the organisation. Making the information easily accessible at the workplace has been achieved via the British Energy intranet, the harder step is to ensure OE is consulted before commencing an assigned task or plant evolution. Early signs of this are encouraging, but a continuous sustained effort will be required for probably the next two years. The full deployment of the OE programme is scheduled to be complete by 2004. There will however be a redefined programme identified by then to incorporate the lessons learnt and to ensure the programme is aligned with the business as it evolves. An analysis of event root causes and precursors since May 2001 will be undertaken in June 2002. These will be compared with data from previous years to ascertain the effect on the number of recurring events. The critical question, 'has this prevented recurring

  4. Management of Overweight during Childhood: A Focus Group Study on Health Professionals’ Experiences in General Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Lone Marie Larsen; Loni Ledderer; Dorte Ejg Jarbøl

    2015-01-01

    Background. Because of the increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in childhood in the Western world, focus on the management in general practice has also increased. Objective. To explore the experiences of general practitioners (GPs) and practice nurses participating in a randomised controlled trial (RCT) comparing two management programmes in general practice for children who are overweight or obese. Methods. Three focus groups with GPs and nurses participating in the RCT. Transcrib...

  5. Exploring the relationship between childhood obesity and proximity to the coast: A rural/urban perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Sophie L; Demougin, Philippe R; Higgins, Sahran; Husk, Kerryn; Wheeler, Benedict W; White, Mathew

    2016-07-01

    Childhood obesity is one of the 21st century's most serious global health challenges. Research suggests that better access to 'greenspace' (e.g. parks) may encourage physical activity and reduce the risk of obesity amongst children. We extend earlier work by considering childhood obesity in relation to proximity to the coast, using data from England's National Child Measurement Programme. Results suggest that although the overall prevalence of childhood obesity is slightly lower at the coast (-0.68% points comparing 20km, parea type. Specifically, although a coastal proximity gradient (lower obesity rates nearer the coast) was found for rural areas and smaller cities and towns, it was not present among large urban conurbations (interaction p-valueareas, and research to explore potential impacts on child health is warranted. PMID:27262662

  6. Fatty liver in childhood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yesim; Ozturk; Ozlem; Bekem; Soylu

    2014-01-01

    Fatty liver is a growing health problem worldwide. It might evolve to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, cirrhosis and cause hepatocellular carcinoma. This disease, which has increased because of eating habits, changes in food content and lifestyle, affects people from childhood. The most important risk factors are obesity and insulin resistance. Besides these factors, gender, ethnicity, genetic predisposition and some medical problems are also important. Cirrhosis in children is rare but is reported. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD) has no specific symptoms or signs but should be considered in obese children. NAFLD does not have a proven treatment. Weight loss with family based treatments is the most acceptable management. Exercise and an applicable diet with low glycemic index and appropriate calorie intake are preferred. Drugs are promising but not sufficient in children for today.

  7. Monitoring asthma in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin C. Lødrup Carlsen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of asthma treatment is to obtain clinical control and reduce future risks to the patient. However, to date there is limited evidence on how to monitor patients with asthma. Childhood asthma introduces specific challenges in terms of deciding what, when, how often, by whom and in whom different assessments of asthma should be performed. The age of the child, the fluctuating course of asthma severity, variability in clinical presentation, exacerbations, comorbidities, socioeconomic and psychosocial factors, and environmental exposures may all influence disease activity and, hence, monitoring strategies. These factors will be addressed in herein. We identified large knowledge gaps in the effects of different monitoring strategies in children with asthma. Studies into monitoring strategies are urgently needed, preferably in collaborative paediatric studies across countries and healthcare systems.

  8. Pyoderma gangrenosum in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khatri M

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available We have treated 4 cases of pyoderma gangrenosum in infancy and childhood in past 2 years. The ages at onset were 6 months, 8 months, 6 months and 11.5 years respectively. Initial lesions were papulopustular in 3 and nodular in 1 patients but later on all of them developed ulcerative lesions with erythematous, violaceous, infiltrated or undermined edges. The lesions were numerous in 3 patients but few in 1 patient. The first patient had very high leucocyte count. In the second patient skin lesions of PG followed measles vaccinations. We could not reveal any association in the other two patients. None of the patient responded to antibiotic therapy. Three patients were treated successfully with dapsone and one with a combination of dapsone and prednisolone. We conclude that pyoderma gangrenosum is not so rare in infancy and it is more likely to occur without associated systemic diseases.

  9. Adiponectin in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Alison N; Murphy, Michael J; Metcalf, Brad S; Hosking, Joanne; Voss, Linda D; English, Patrick; Sattar, Naveed; Wilkin, Terence J

    2008-01-01

    Adiponectin, a hormone produced and secreted by adipocytes, is present in circulation in high circulating concentrations, suggesting an important physiological role. An indirect regulator of glucose metabolism, adiponectin increases insulin sensitivity, improves glucose tolerance and inhibits inflammation. Plasma adiponectin relates inversely to adiposity and, importantly, reflects the sequelae of accumulation of excess adiposity. The role of adiponectin in adults has been explored in detail. Studies in children are now available and, given the increasing rates of childhood obesity, it is important to establish the role of adiponectin in mediating insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease in this age group. This paper reviews the regulation of adiponectin, its effect on body mass, glucose metabolism and cardiovascular risk in infants, children and adolescents. It demonstrates clear links between adiponectin and features of the metabolic syndrome in obese children and adolescents. However, adiponectin's role as a predictor of metabolic dysfunction in healthy, normal-weight youngsters is less clear. PMID:19086185

  10. [Food allergy in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Kirsten; Niggemann, Bodo

    2016-06-01

    IgE-mediated immediate type reactions are the most common form of food allergy in childhood. Primary (often in early childhood) and secondary (often pollen-associated) allergies can be distinguished by their level of severity. Hen's egg, cow's milk and peanut are the most common elicitors of primary food allergy. Tolerance development in hen's egg and cow's milk allergy happens frequently whereas peanut allergy tends toward a lifelong disease. For the diagnostic patient history, detection of sensitization and (in many cases) oral food challenges are necessary. Especially in peanut and hazelnut allergy component-resolves diagnostic (measurement of specific IgE to individual allergens, e. g. Ara h 2) seem to be helpful. In regard to therapy elimination diet is still the only approved approach. Patient education through dieticians is extremely helpful in this regard. Patients at risk for anaphylactic reactions need to carry emergency medications including an adrenaline auto-injector. Instruction on the usage of the adrenaline auto-injector should take place and a written management plan handed to the patient. Moreover, patients or caregivers should be encouraged to attending a structured educational intervention on knowledge and emergency management. In parallel, causal therapeutic options such as oral, sublingual or epicutaneous immunotherapies are currently under development. In regard to prevention of food allergy current guidelines no longer advise to avoid highly allergenic foods. Current intervention studies are investigating wether early introduction of highly allergic foods is effective and safe to prevent food allergy. It was recently shown that peanut introduction between 4 and 11  months of age in infants with severe atopic dermatitis and/or hen's egg allergy (if they are not already peanut allergic) prevents peanut allergy in a country with high prevalence. PMID:27207693

  11. Farm-to-School Programmes in the USA: An Examination of State-Level Enacted, Pending and Vetoed or Dead Bills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Olivia M.; Ghelardini, Lauren; Keene, Kristin L.; Stewart, Kendra B.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: We sought to determine the prevalence and distribution of state-level legislation regulating farm-to-school programmes throughout the United States of America (USA). The research is timely given national goals put forth by the Let's Move Campaign and the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act to reduce childhood obesity prevalence and…

  12. Simultaneous immunization against tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elma Z Tchilian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: BCG, the only licensed vaccine against tuberculosis, provides some protection against disseminated disease in infants but has little effect on prevention of adult pulmonary disease. Newer parenteral immunization prime boost regimes may provide improved protection in experimental animal models but are unproven in man so that there remains a need for new and improved immunization strategies. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Mice were immunized parenterally, intranasally or simultaneously by both routes with BCG or recombinant mycobacterial antigens plus appropriate adjuvants. They were challenged with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb and the kinetics of Mtb growth in the lungs measured. We show that simultaneous immunization (SIM of mice by the intranasal and parenteral routes is highly effective in increasing protection over parenteral BCG administration alone. Intranasal immunization induces local pulmonary immunity capable of inhibiting the growth of Mtb in the early phase (the first week of infection, while parenteral immunization has a later effect on Mtb growth. Importantly, these two effects are additive and do not depend on priming and boosting the immune response. The best SIM regimes reduce lung Mtb load by up to 2 logs more than BCG given by either route alone. CONCLUSIONS: These data establish SIM as a novel and highly effective immunization strategy for Mtb that could be carried out at a single clinic visit. The efficacy of SIM does not depend on priming and boosting an immune response, but SIM is complementary to prime boost strategies and might be combined with them.

  13. Childhood cancers and atmospheric carcinogens

    OpenAIRE

    Knox, E

    2005-01-01

    Study objectives: To retest previous findings that childhood cancers are probably initiated by prenatal exposures to combustion process gases and to volatile organic compounds (VOCs); and to identify specific chemical hazards.

  14. Fiber Intake and Childhood Appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brender, Jean D.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Parents of 135 children with appendicitis and of 212 comparison children were interviewed about their children's diet. Results suggest that a liberal intake of whole-grain breads and cereals may decrease the risk of appendicitis during childhood. (KH)

  15. [The impact of childhood caries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid, Carlos; Abarca, Marcelo; Bouferrache, Kahina; Gehri, Mario; Bodenmann, Patrick; Pop, Sabina

    2012-04-01

    The early childhood caries affect primary dentition before the eruption of the permanent teeth. It is set to extended use of a bottle containing fermentable carbohydrates. The early childhood caries is not only a dental disease: it is a social, cultural and behavioral condition that reflects the practices and beliefs around the child. Swiss data indicate that in aged 2 children, one of for could be affected by this devastating oral disease, mainly in vulnerable populations. The primary care physician has an important role in the screening of preschool children, in determining the risk level of the child for early childhood caries. Physicians can advise families, especially pregnant women, about preventive measures and behavior, leading to a dramatic drop of early childhood caries prevalence. PMID:22545498

  16. Leydig cell tumours in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengel, W; Knorr, D

    1983-01-01

    Two cases of Leydig cell tumours in childhood are presented. In one case, delayed diagnosis and operation led to pubertas praecox vera whereas in the other case normal growth and development occurred after early diagnosis and operation. PMID:6878724

  17. Childhood Deaths from Physical Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasim, Mohd. Sham; and Others

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes 30 cases of childhood deaths caused by physical abuse in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Data presented include ethnic origins, age, causes of death, identity of perpetrators, and marital situation of parents. (DB)

  18. General Overview on Childhood Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Sevil İnal; Nejla Canbulat

    2013-01-01

    Until recently, it has not been put much emphasis on obesity in children and the view of “obese child is healthy” is widely accepted by families. However, understanding that a close relation exists between obesity prevalence and childhood obesity, which increased in recent years both across the world and in our country, and many diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases changed the opinion of both of health care professionals and the society about childhood obesity in T...

  19. Childhood obesity, prevalence and prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Merchant Anwar T; Akhtar-Danesh Noori; Dehghan Mahshid

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed countries. Twenty five percent of children in the US are overweight and 11% are obese. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising pre...

  20. Childhood obesity and cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Bridger, Tracey

    2009-01-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions. Many of these children have risk factors for later disease, including cardiovascular disease. For optimal cardiovascular health, health care professionals must be able to identify children and youth at risk and provide appropriate support as needed. The present article reviews the current medical literature on obesity and cardiovascular disease risk factors in the paediatric population, the long-term cardiovascular consequences of childhood ...

  1. Childhood obesity: causes and consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Sahoo, Krushnapriya; Sahoo, Bishnupriya; Choudhury, Ashok Kumar; Sofi, Nighat Yasin; Kumar, Raman; Bhadoria, Ajeet Singh

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed as well as in developing countries. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. Overweight and obese children are likely to stay obese into adulthood and more likely to develop non-communicable diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with m...

  2. Cranial nerve palsies in childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Lyons, C J; Godoy, F; ALQahtani, E

    2015-01-01

    We review ocular motor cranial nerve palsies in childhood and highlight many of the features that differentiate these from their occurrence in adulthood. The clinical characteristics of cranial nerve palsies in childhood are affected by the child's impressive ability to repair and regenerate after injury. Thus, aberrant regeneration is very common after congenital III palsy; Duane syndrome, the result of early repair after congenital VI palsy, is invariably associated with retraction of the g...

  3. CHILDHOOD OBESITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMCALS

    OpenAIRE

    La Merrill, Michele; Birnbaum, Linda S.

    2011-01-01

    Childhood and adolescent rates of obesity and overweight are continuing to increase in much of the world. Risk factors such as diet composition, excess caloric intake, decreased exercise, genetics, and the built environment are active areas of etiologic research. The obesogen hypothesis, which postulates that pre- and peri- natal chemical exposure can contribute to risk of childhood and adolescent obesity, remains relatively under-examined. This review surveys numerous classes of chemicals fo...

  4. Multilevel Determinants of Childhood Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Yen-Jung

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity among US children and adolescents has rapidly increased in the past several decades, and the epidemic of childhood obesity is currently a serious public health concern in the United States. This dissertation consists of three studies examining individual- and neighborhood-level determinants of childhood obesity. The study area was Los Angeles County in California. Our first study examined the effects of maternal employment, individual socioeconomic status (SES), and ...

  5. Summer Student Programme – Report

    CERN Document Server

    Bellora, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    This is the report on the studies about radiation damage on silicon strips detectors I've performed during my Summer Student Programme. A parameter to describe the damage amount has been defined, as well as his behaviour over time and absorbed dose.

  6. Carioca hospitality programme: Rio 2016

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The "Hospitality programme" at the Rio 2016 Games venues was designed to attend the specific needs of partners and their clients in a transparent and flexible manner. In this guide, you will find information and standards that will help in your choice, and in the planning of this incredible experience.

  7. The Massey Kiwi Friend Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Philip; Ramsey, Deborah; Mason, Robyn

    2007-01-01

    Like many institutions, Massey University has experienced growth in enrolments of international students. Increasing numbers of international students has led to frustrations for international and domestic students, and for staff. This paper describes an innovative programme designed to help with the orientation of international students. Domestic…

  8. The MERLIN programme: Pt. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MERLIN rig is intended to investigate the deformation behaviour of Zircaloy fuel rod cladding under conditions approximating those of a large break loss of coolant accident (LOCA). An assembly of electrically heated fuel rod simulators (6X6 cluster) is subjected to a temperature transient simulating that predicted to occur in a LOCA, including the initiation of bottom reflooding at a suitable stage. The Bundle B Thermal-Hydraulic test series was intended to commission the test facility and to obtain the operating conditions which would produce a suitable temperature transient for the investigation of clad ballooning at high coolant sub-channel blockages. In addition, the vibration produced by reflooding was to be measured during the course of the programme. The early stages of the programme (ramp test and low power reflooding tests) were successfully accomplished, although a major part of the test section instrumentation was found to be unreliable. A limited number of low power tests designed to investigate starting conditions was followed by an accelerated programme to derive a high temperature burst test transient, with the limited aim of allowing good rig commissioning data to be obtained. A successful burst test was carried out as the final experiment of the programme. (author)

  9. Portugal's Secondary School Modernisation Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitor, Teresa V.; Freire da Silva, Jose M. R.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the Secondary School Modernisation Programme, being implemented in Portugal by "Parque Escolar, EPE", is based on the pursuit of quality and makes Portuguese education a potential international benchmark. This paper discusses the strategies adopted to reorganise school spaces. It describes the conceptual model and highlights the…

  10. Testicular defense systems: immune privilege and innate immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Shutao; Zhu, Weiwei; Xue, Shepu; Han, Daishu

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian testis possesses a special immunological environment because of its properties of remarkable immune privilege and effective local innate immunity. Testicular immune privilege protects immunogenic germ cells from systemic immune attack, and local innate immunity is important in preventing testicular microbial infections. The breakdown of local testicular immune homeostasis may lead to orchitis, an etiological factor of male infertility. The mechanisms underlying testicular immune...

  11. Integration of vitamin A supplementation with the expanded program on immunization does not affect seroconversion to oral poliovirus vaccine in infants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.D. Semba; M. Muhilal; N.E. Mohgaddam (Nasrin); Z. Munasir; A. Akib; D. Permaesih; M.S. Muherdiyantiningsih; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractChildhood immunization programs may provide infrastructure for delivering vitamin A supplements to infants in developing countries. The effect of giving vitamin A, an immune enhancer, on antibody responses to trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (TOPV) is unknown. A randomized, double-blind

  12. Maternal Immune-Mediated Conditions, Autism Spectrum Disorders, and Developmental Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyall, Kristen; Ashwood, Paul; Van de Water, Judy; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2014-01-01

    The maternal immune system may play a role in offspring neurodevelopment. We examined whether maternal autoimmune disease, asthma, and allergy were associated with child autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and developmental delay without autism (DD) using 560 ASD cases, 391 typically developing controls, and 168 DD cases from the CHildhood Autism Risk…

  13. Adverse childhood experiences, allostasis, allostatic load, and age-related disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danese, Andrea; McEwen, Bruce S

    2012-04-12

    How do adverse childhood experiences get 'under the skin' and influence health outcomes through the life-course? Research reviewed here suggests that adverse childhood experiences are associated with changes in biological systems responsible for maintaining physiological stability through environmental changes, or allostasis. Children exposed to maltreatment showed smaller volume of the prefrontal cortex, greater activation of the HPA axis, and elevation in inflammation levels compared to non-maltreated children. Adults with a history of childhood maltreatment showed smaller volume of the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, greater activation of the HPA axis, and elevation in inflammation levels compared to non-maltreated individuals. Despite the clear limitations in making longitudinal claims from cross-sectional studies, work so far suggests that adverse childhood experiences are associated with enduring changes in the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems. These changes are already observable in childhood years and remain apparent in adult life. Adverse childhood experiences induce significant biological changes in children (biological embedding), modifying the maturation and the operating balance of allostatic systems. Their chronic activation can lead to progressive wear and tear, or allostatic load and overload, and, thus, can exert long-term effects on biological aging and health. PMID:21888923

  14. Childhood obesity treatment: targeting parents exclusively v. parents and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golan, Moria; Kaufman, Vered; Shahar, Danit R

    2006-05-01

    There is a consensus that interventions to prevent and treat childhood obesity should involve the family; however, the extent of the child's involvement has received little attention. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the relative efficacy of treating childhood obesity via a family-based health-centred intervention, targeting parents alone v. parents and obese children together. Thirty-two families with obese children of 6-11 years of age were randomised into groups, in which participants were provided for 6 months a comprehensive educational and behavioural programme for a healthy lifestyle. These groups differed in their main agent of change: parents-only v. the parents and the obese child. In both groups, parents were encouraged to foster authoritative parenting styles (parents are both firm and supportive; assume a leadership role in the environmental change with appropriate granting of child's autonomy). Only the intervention aimed at parents-only resulted in a significant reduction in the percentage overweight at the end of the programme (P=0.02) as well as at the 1-year follow-up meeting. The differences between groups at both times were significant (Panalysis shows that the level of attendance in sessions explained 28 % of the variability in the children's weight status change, the treatment group explained another 10 %, and the improvement in the obesogenic load explained 11 % of the variability. These results suggest that omitting the obese child from active participation in the health-centred programme may be beneficial for weight loss and for the promotion of a healthy lifestyle among obese children. PMID:16611394

  15. THE EFFECT OF STATE INSURANCE MANDATES ON INFANT IMMUNIZATION RATES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Lenisa V

    2016-03-01

    While US infant immunization rates have been increasing in the last 20 years, the cost of fully immunizing a child with all recommended vaccines has almost tripled. This is partly not only due to new additions in the list of recommended vaccines but also due to the use of new, safer, but more expensive technologies in vaccine production and distribution. In recent years, many states have mandated that recommended childhood vaccines be covered by private health insurance companies. Currently, there are 33 states with such a mandate. In this paper, I examine whether the introduction of mandates on private insurers affected immunization rates. Using state and time variation, I find that mandates increased the immunization rate for three vaccines--the diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis, polio, and measles-mumps-rubella vaccines--by about 1.8 percentage points. These results may provide a lower bound for the expected effect of the Affordable Care Act, which mandates coverage of childhood vaccines for all private insurers in the USA. I also find evidence that the mandates shifted a significant portion of vaccinations from publicly funded sources to private ones, with a decline in public health clinic visits and an increase in vaccinations at hospitals and doctor's offices. PMID:25773053

  16. Immunization: An Important Strategy to Control Hepatitis B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed-Moayed Alavian MD

    2006-12-01

    available in 1982, their widespread use in many areas of the world has dramatically reduced the carrier rate of HBV and significantly decreased the incidence of childhood HCC (12, 13.Following the neonatal vaccination programmes that were begun in 1989 in Saudi Arabia, the overall HBsAg carrier rate in children under 12 years oldfell from 6.7% in 1989 to 0.3% in 1997 (14. Chen et al showed that 10 years after implementation of mass vaccination in Taiwan, the HBsAg seropositivity rate declined from 9.8% to 1.3% (15. A study carried out in Iran showed a significant reduction in the rate of HBsAg positivity in the subgroup of children aged 2-14 years after EPI. And postnatal horizontal transmission of HBV was prevented partly (16. Moreover, the children perinatally infected by their mothers may themselves be a source of horizontal transmission to their younger siblings and playmates, especially in overcrowded living conditions. Therefore, breaking the mother-to-child transmission will interrupt most of the secondary routes of transmission, as well (17. Giving vaccines to infants of HBeAg-positive mothers as soon as possible after birth is reasonable. In some countries, high protective efficacy rates have been reported without concomitant administration of hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG to high risk infants whose mothers were HBsAg-positive (18, 19. The importance of hepatitis B immunoglobulin is overstated. It provides comparatively little additional protection to immunization in preventing infection in infants of HBeAg-positive mothers (20, 21. Besides, the results of some studies in Taiwan and Hong Kong showed that the protective efficacy of vaccine alone was significantly low, especially when the mother is HBeAg- positive (17, 22. Hepatitis B vaccination strategies may vary from one country to another, depending on HBV endemicity, predominant modes of the infection, age of contracting the infection, and available health care resources (23. The rate of transmission and HBV

  17. Neural circuitry and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Valentin A; Tracey, Kevin J

    2015-12-01

    Research during the last decade has significantly advanced our understanding of the molecular mechanisms at the interface between the nervous system and the immune system. Insight into bidirectional neuro-immune communication has characterized the nervous system as an important partner of the immune system in the regulation of inflammation. Neuronal pathways, including the vagus nerve-based inflammatory reflex, are physiological regulators of immune function and inflammation. In parallel, neuronal function is altered in conditions characterized by immune dysregulation and inflammation. Here, we review these regulatory mechanisms and describe the neural circuitry modulating immunity. Understanding these mechanisms reveals possibilities to use targeted neuromodulation as a therapeutic approach for inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. These findings and current clinical exploration of neuromodulation in the treatment of inflammatory diseases define the emerging field of Bioelectronic Medicine. PMID:26512000

  18. Proteomics and insect immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Shi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Insect innate immunity is both a model for vertebrate immunity as well as a key system that impactsmedically important pathogens that are transmitted by insects. Recent developments in proteomics andprotein identification techniques combined with the completion of genome sequences for Anophelesgambiae and Drosophila melanogaster provided the tools for examining insect immunity at a new level ofmolecular detail. Application of proteomics to insect immunity resulted in predictions of new roles inimmunity for proteins already known in other contexts (e.g. ferritin, transferrin, Chi-lectins and helped totarget specific members of multi-gene families that respond to different pathogens (e.g. serine proteases,thioester proteins. In addition, proteomics studies verify that post-translational modifications play a keyrole in insect immunity since many of the identified proteins are modified in some way. These studiescomplement recent work on insect transcriptomes and provide new directions for further investigation ofinnate immunity.

  19. Origins of adaptive immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liongue, Clifford; John, Liza B; Ward, Alister

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive immunity, involving distinctive antibody- and cell-mediated responses to specific antigens based on "memory" of previous exposure, is a hallmark of higher vertebrates. It has been argued that adaptive immunity arose rapidly, as articulated in the "big bang theory" surrounding its origins, which stresses the importance of coincident whole-genome duplications. Through a close examination of the key molecules and molecular processes underpinning adaptive immunity, this review suggests a less-extreme model, in which adaptive immunity emerged as part of longer evolutionary journey. Clearly, whole-genome duplications provided additional raw genetic materials that were vital to the emergence of adaptive immunity, but a variety of other genetic events were also required to generate some of the key molecules, whereas others were preexisting and simply co-opted into adaptive immunity. PMID:21395512

  20. A Fractal Immune Network

    OpenAIRE

    Bentley, Peter J.; Timmis, Jon

    2004-01-01

    Proteins are the driving force in development (embryogenesis) and the immune system. Here we describe how a model of proteins designed for evolutionary development in computers can be combined with a model of immune systems. Full details of a prototype system are provided, and preliminary experiments presented. Results show that evolution is able to adjust the mapping between input data and antigens and cause useful changes to the subnetworks formed by the immune algorithm.