WorldWideScience

Sample records for childhood immunization decision

  1. Childhood Immunization Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Instant Childhood Immunization Schedule Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Get the ... See Disclaimer for additional details. Based on Immunization Schedule for Children 0 through 6 Years of age ...

  2. Do Maternal Knowledge and Attitudes towards Childhood Immunizations in Rural Uganda Correlate with Complete Childhood Vaccination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonasek, Bryan J; Bajunirwe, Francis; Jacobson, Laura E; Twesigye, Leonidas; Dahm, James; Grant, Monica J; Sethi, Ajay K; Conway, James H

    2016-01-01

    Improving childhood vaccination coverage and timeliness is a key health policy objective in many developing countries such as Uganda. Of the many factors known to influence uptake of childhood immunizations in under resourced settings, parents' understanding and perception of childhood immunizations has largely been overlooked. The aims of this study were to survey mothers' knowledge and attitudes towards childhood immunizations and then determine if these variables correlate with the timely vaccination coverage of their children. From September to December 2013, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1,000 parous women in rural Sheema district in southwest Uganda. The survey collected socio-demographic data and knowledge and attitudes towards childhood immunizations. For the women with at least one child between the age of one month and five years who also had a vaccination card available for the child (N = 302), the vaccination status of this child was assessed. 88% of these children received age-appropriate, on-time immunizations. 93.5% of the women were able to state that childhood immunizations protect children from diseases. The women not able to point this out were significantly more likely to have an under-vaccinated child (PR 1.354: 95% CI 1.018-1.802). When asked why vaccination rates may be low in their community, the two most common responses were "fearful of side effects" and "ignorance/disinterest/laziness" (44% each). The factors influencing caregivers' demand for childhood immunizations vary widely between, and also within, developing countries. Research that elucidates local knowledge and attitudes, like this study, allows for decisions and policy pertaining to vaccination programs to be more effective at improving child vaccination rates. PMID:26918890

  3. MedlinePlus: Childhood Immunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... well. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention publishes a schedule for childhood vaccines. Although some of ... and Caregivers (08/11/2016, Food and Drug Administration) Malaria Vaccine Protection Short-Lived in Young Children ( ...

  4. Factors influencing childhood immunization in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bbaale, Edward

    2013-03-01

    This paper investigates the factors associated with childhood immunization in Uganda. We used nationally-representative data from Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS) of 2006. Both bivariate and multivariate approaches were employed in the analysis. The bivariate approach involved generating average percentages of children who were immunized, with analysis of pertinent background characteristics. The multivariate approach involved employing maximum likelihood probit technique and generating marginal effects to ascertain the probability of being immunized, given the same background characteristics. It revealed that slightly over 50% of children in Uganda were fully immunized. Additionally, 89%, 24%, 52%, and 64% received BCG, DPT, polio and measles vaccines respectively. Factors which have a significant association with childhood immunization are: maternal education (especially at post-secondary level), exposure to media, maternal healthcare utilization, maternal age, occupation type, immunization plan, and regional and local peculiarities. Children whose mothers had post-secondary education were twice as likely to be fully immunized compared to their counterparts whose mothers had only primary education (p < 0.01). Thus, gender parity in education enhancement efforts is crucial. There is also a need to increase media penetration, maternal healthcare utilization, and to ensure parity across localities and regions. PMID:23617212

  5. Do Maternal Knowledge and Attitudes towards Childhood Immunizations in Rural Uganda Correlate with Complete Childhood Vaccination?

    OpenAIRE

    Bryan J Vonasek; Francis Bajunirwe; Laura E Jacobson; Leonidas Twesigye; James Dahm; Grant, Monica J.; Ajay K Sethi; Conway, James H

    2016-01-01

    Improving childhood vaccination coverage and timeliness is a key health policy objective in many developing countries such as Uganda. Of the many factors known to influence uptake of childhood immunizations in under resourced settings, parents' understanding and perception of childhood immunizations has largely been overlooked. The aims of this study were to survey mothers' knowledge and attitudes towards childhood immunizations and then determine if these variables correlate with the timely ...

  6. Childhood Immune Maturation and Allergy Development: Regulation by Maternal Immunity and Microbial Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Forsberg, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Problem The increasing allergy prevalence in affluent countries may be caused by reduced microbial stimulation, resulting in an abnormal post-natal immune maturation. Most studies investigating the underlying mechanisms have focused on post-natal microbial exposure. Also, the maternal microbial environment during pregnancy may program the immune development of the child, however. Method of study This review focuses on how maternal immunity and microbial exposures regulate childhood immune and...

  7. Childhood Obesity: Immune Response and Nutritional Approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Magrone, Thea; Jirillo, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity is characterized by a low-grade inflammation status depending on the multicellular release of cytokines, adipokines, and reactive oxygen species. In particular, the imbalance between anti-inflammatory T regulatory cells and inflammatory T helper 17 cells seems to sustain such a phlogistic condition. Alterations of gut microbiota since childhood also contribute to the maintenance of inflammation. Therefore, besides preventive measures and caloric restrictions, dietary intake ...

  8. Parents' knowledge, attitude, and practice on childhood immunization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolsna Joseph

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Although childhood immunization practices and attitudes are satisfactory, majority do not have specific knowledge on vaccines and the duration of protection they offer. Socio-demographic factors had a significant influence on the immunization status. Hence, efforts should be focused on improving them also besides educating them about vaccines to improve their knowledge. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(6.000: 1201-1207

  9. Childhood obesity: immune response and nutritional approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thea eMagrone

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity is characterized by a low grade inflammation status depending on the multicellular release of cytokines, adipokines and reactive oxygen species. In particular, the imbalance between anti-inflammatory T regulatory cells and inflammatory T helper 17 cells seems to sustain such a phlogistic condition. Alterations of gut microbiota since childhood also contribute to the maintenance of inflammation. Therefore, besides preventive measures and caloric restrictions, dietary intake of natural products endowed with anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities may represent a valid interventional approach for preventing and/or attenuating the pathological consequences of obesity. In this regard, the use of prebiotics, probiotics, polyphenols, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins and melatonin in human clinical trials will be described.

  10. Childhood Immunization and Access to Health Care: Evidence From Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devkota, Satis; Panda, Bibhudutta

    2016-03-01

    This article examines the effect of access to health care center, in terms of travel time, on childhood immunization in Nepal using the 2004 and 2011 waves of the Nepal Living Standards Measurement Surveys. We employ probit and instrumental variable probit estimation methods to estimate the causal effect of travel time on the probability of immunization. Results indicate that travel time to the nearest health center displays a significant negative association with the probability of immunization (coefficient = -0.015,Peffect of travel time tends to be stronger in rural and distant areas of Nepal's mountain and hill regions. The results suggest that policy interventions should increase the number of mobile clinics in rural villages and provide conditional cash transfer to incentivize immunization coverage at the household level. In addition, household income, parental education, ethnicity, and household location emerge as important determinants of immunization in Nepal. PMID:26809971

  11. Childhood adversity and cell-mediated immunity in young adulthood: Does type and timing matter?

    OpenAIRE

    Slopen, Natalie; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Erin C Dunn; Koenen, Karestan C.

    2012-01-01

    Childhood adversity can have powerful effects on health over the life course. Persistent changes in cell-mediated immune function may be one pathway linking adverse childhood experiences with later disease risk. However, limited research has examined childhood adversity in relation to cell-mediated immune function, and in particular, immune response to latent viruses in adulthood. The present study investigated the association of two types of childhood adversity, socioeconomic disadvantage du...

  12. Linkages between Maternal Education and Childhood Immunization in India

    OpenAIRE

    Vikram, Kriti; Vanneman, Reeve; Desai, Sonalde

    2012-01-01

    While correlations between maternal education and child health have been observed in diverse parts of the world, the causal pathways explaining how maternal education improves child health remain far from clear. Using data from the nationally representative India Human Development Survey of 2004-5, this analysis examines four possible pathways that may mediate the influence of maternal education on childhood immunization: greater human, social, and cultural capitals and more autonomy within t...

  13. Update on Routine Childhood and Adolescent Immunizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Lani K; Serrano, Jacquelyn L

    2015-09-15

    Recommendations for routine vaccinations in children and adolescents have changed multiple times in recent years, based on findings in clinical trials, licensure of new vaccines, and evidence of waning immunity. Despite the overwhelming success of vaccinations, vaccine delay and refusal are leading to pockets of vaccine-preventable diseases. Schedules for diphtheria and tetanus toxoids, and acellular pertussis (DTaP); hepatitis A and B; Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib); inactivated poliovirus; varicella; and measles, mumps, and rubella are unchanged. However, since 2008, 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine has replaced the 7-valent vaccine; a new two-dose oral rotavirus vaccine has been approved; use of the tetanus toxoid, reduced diphtheria toxoid, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccine has been expanded to children seven to 10 years of age who received fewer than five doses of DTaP, as well as during each pregnancy; a booster dose of meningococcal vaccine is recommended in adolescents 16 to 18 years of age (unless the first dose was given after 16 years of age); new meningococcal vaccines have been approved for use in infants at high risk of meningococcal disease; influenza vaccine has been expanded to routine use in all children six months and older; and the human papillomavirus vaccine has been approved for routine immunization of adolescent boys and girls. For the 2015-2016 influenza season, either live attenuated or inactivated vaccine can be administered to healthy children two to eight years of age. PMID:26371731

  14. The puzzle of immune phenotypes of childhood asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgraf-Rauf, Katja; Anselm, Bettina; Schaub, Bianca

    2016-12-01

    Asthma represents the most common chronic childhood disease worldwide. Whereas preschool children present with wheezing triggered by different factors (multitrigger and viral wheeze), clinical asthma manifestation in school children has previously been classified as allergic and non-allergic asthma. For both, the underlying immunological mechanisms are not yet understood in depth in children. Treatment is still prescribed regardless of underlying mechanisms, and children are not always treated successfully. This review summarizes recent key findings on the complex mechanisms of the development and manifestation of childhood asthma. Whereas traditional classification of childhood asthma is primarily based on clinical symptoms like wheezing and atopy, novel approaches to specify asthma phenotypes are under way and face challenges such as including the stability of phenotypes over time and transition into adulthood. Epidemiological studies enclose more information on the patient's disease history and environmental influences. Latest studies define endotypes based on molecular and cellular mechanisms, for example defining risk and protective single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and new immune phenotypes, showing promising results. Also, regulatory T cells and recently discovered T helper cell subtypes such as Th9 and Th17 cells were shown to be important for the development of asthma. Innate lymphoid cells (ILC) could play a critical role in asthma patients as they produce different cytokines associated with asthma. Epigenetic findings showed different acetylation and methylation patterns for children with allergic and non-allergic asthma. On a posttranscriptional level, miRNAs are regulating factors identified to differ between asthma patients and healthy controls and also indicate differences within asthma phenotypes. Metabolomics is another exciting chapter important for endotyping asthmatic children. Despite the development of new biomarkers and the discovery of

  15. Genetic variants within the MHC region are associated with immune responsiveness to childhood vaccinations☆

    OpenAIRE

    Yucesoy, Berran; Talzhanov, Yerkebulan; Johnson, Victor J.; Wilson, Nevin W.; Biagini, Raymond E.; Wang, Wei; Frye, Bonnie; Weissman, David N.; Germolec, Dori R.; Luster, Michael I; Barmada, Michael M.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of genetic variability within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region on variations in immune responses to childhood vaccination was investigated. The study group consisted of 135 healthy infants who had been immunized with hepatitis B (HBV), 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate (PCV7), and diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis (DTaP) vaccines according to standard childhood immunization schedules. Genotype analysis was performed on genomic DNA using Illumina Goldengate ...

  16. The influence of routine immunizations on atopy development in infancy and childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Grüber, Christoph

    2010-01-01

    Early childhood immunizations have been accused to promote atopy development, either directly by the administration of agents which induce a Th2-type immune response or indirectly by the prevention of infections which otherwise would induce a preferential Th1-type immune response, and would thus skew the cytokine balance away from atopy. By contrast, BCG immunization has gained recent interest as an antagonist of exaggerated Th2-type immune response and as a potential atopy preventive tool. ...

  17. Translating national childhood immunization guidelines to a computer-based reminder recall system within an immunization registry.

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, D.; Jenders, R. A.; Dasgupta, B.

    1999-01-01

    To translate national childhood immunization guidelines to a computer-based reminder recall system, hierarchical system architecture design and combined approach of tabular and procedural knowledge representation are taken. Nested branches with hierarchical combinations of single antecedent variables are used to avoid logical incompleteness, redundancy and inconsistency. Mapping to the local electronic medical vocabulary is implemented to facilitate the integration with the local information ...

  18. Immune cell profiling to guide therapeutic decisions in rheumatic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermann, Joerg; Rao, Deepak A; Teslovich, Nikola C; Brenner, Michael B; Raychaudhuri, Soumya

    2015-09-01

    Biomarkers are needed to guide treatment decisions for patients with rheumatic diseases. Although the phenotypic and functional analysis of immune cells is an appealing strategy for understanding immune-mediated disease processes, immune cell profiling currently has no role in clinical rheumatology. New technologies, including mass cytometry, gene expression profiling by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and multiplexed functional assays, enable the analysis of immune cell function with unprecedented detail and promise not only a deeper understanding of pathogenesis, but also the discovery of novel biomarkers. The large and complex data sets generated by these technologies--big data--require specialized approaches for analysis and visualization of results. Standardization of assays and definition of the range of normal values are additional challenges when translating these novel approaches into clinical practice. In this Review, we discuss technological advances in the high-dimensional analysis of immune cells and consider how these developments might support the discovery of predictive biomarkers to benefit the practice of rheumatology and improve patient care. PMID:26034835

  19. Developmental Patterns in Decision-Making Autonomy across Middle Childhood and Adolescence: European American Parents’ Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Wray-Lake, Laura; Crouter, Ann C.; McHale, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    Longitudinal patterns in parents’ reports of youth decision-making autonomy from ages 9 to 20 were examined in a study of 201 European American families with two offspring. Multilevel modeling analyses revealed that decision-making autonomy increased gradually across middle childhood and adolescence before rising sharply in late adolescence. Social domain theory was supported by analyses of eight decision types spanning prudential, conventional, personal, and multifaceted domains. Decision ma...

  20. Developmental Patterns in Decision-Making Autonomy across Middle Childhood and Adolescence: European American Parents' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wray-Lake, Laura; Crouter, Ann C.; McHale, Susan M.

    2010-01-01

    Longitudinal patterns in parents' reports of youth decision-making autonomy from ages 9 to 20 were examined in a study of 201 European American families with 2 offspring. Multilevel modeling analyses revealed that decision-making autonomy increased gradually across middle childhood and adolescence before rising sharply in late adolescence. Social…

  1. Serotonin Transporter (5-HTTLPR) Genotype and Childhood Trauma are Associated with Individual Differences in Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Stoltenberg, Scott F.; Lehmann, Melissa K.; Anderson, Cynthia; Nag, Parthasarathi; Anagnopoulos, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    The factors that influence individual differences in decision making are not yet fully characterized, but convergent evidence is accumulating that implicates serotonin (5-HT) system function. Therefore, both genes and environments that influence serotonin function are good candidates for association with risky decision making. In the present study we examined associations between common polymorphisms in the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4; 5-HTTLPR and rs25531), the experience of childhood...

  2. Development of Response Evaluation and Decision (Red) and Antisocial Behavior in Childhood and Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Reid Griffith; Yang, Chongming; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Pettit, Gregory S.; Bates, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Using longitudinal data on 585 youths (48% female; 17% African American, 2% other ethnic minority), the authors examined the development of social response evaluation and decision (RED) across childhood (Study 1; kindergarten through Grade 3) and adolescence (Study 2; Grades 8 and 11). Participants completed hypothetical-vignette-based RED…

  3. Delays in childhood immunization in a conflict area: a study from Sierra Leone during civil war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gage George N

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sierra Leone has undergone a decade of civil war from 1991 to 2001. From this period few data on immunization coverage are available, and conflict-related delays in immunization according to the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI schedule have not been investigated. We aimed to study delays in childhood immunization in the context of civil war in a Sierra Leonean community. Methods We conducted an immunization survey in Kissy Mess-Mess in the Greater Freetown area in 1998/99 using a two-stage sampling method. Based on immunization cards and verbal history we collected data on immunization for tuberculosis, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio, and measles by age group (0–8/9–11/12–23/24–35 months. We studied differences between age groups and explored temporal associations with war-related hostilities taking place in the community. Results We included 286 children who received 1690 vaccine doses; card retention was 87%. In 243 children (85%, 95% confidence interval (CI: 80–89% immunization was up-to-date. In 161 of these children (56%, 95%CI: 50–62% full age-appropriate immunization was achieved; in 82 (29%, 95%CI: 24–34% immunization was not appropriate for age. In the remaining 43 children immunization was partial in 37 (13%, 95%CI: 9–17 and absent in 6 (2%, 95%CI: 1–5. Immunization status varied across age groups. In children aged 9–11 months the proportion with age-inappropriate (delayed immunization was higher than in other age groups suggesting an association with war-related hostilities in the community. Conclusion Only about half of children under three years received full age-appropriate immunization. In children born during a period of increased hostilities, immunization was mostly inappropriate for age, but recommended immunizations were not completely abandoned. Missing or delayed immunization represents an additional threat to the health of children living in conflict areas.

  4. Decision-making on childhood vaccination by highly educated parents

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Luísa Alves Barbieri; Márcia Thereza Couto

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the sociocultural aspects involved in the decision-making process of vaccination in upper-class and highly educated families. METHODS A qualitative approach based on in-depth interviews with 15 couples from the city of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, falling into three categories: vaccinators, late or selective vaccinators, and nonvaccinators. The interpretation of produced empirical material was performed through content analysis. RESULTS The study showed diverse and par...

  5. Long-term follow-up of childhood cancer survivors: clinical decision support and research participation

    OpenAIRE

    Kilsdonk, E.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the research in this thesis was twofold. Part 1 aimed to provide insights into how the use of a (paper-based) clinical guideline for follow-up care of childhood cancer survivors could be improved (CCS) by communicating the guideline through a computerized clinical decision support system (CDSS). We first investigated factors that could facilitate a successful CDSS implementation through a systematic literature review. Subsequently, we investigated whether the use of an established ...

  6. Essays on the effects of childhood experiences on household decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Lehtoranta, Antti

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation studies the effects of personal experience on household decision making. I gauge personal experiences using a novel measure: the childhood experience of father's job loss. This measure is appealing for the following reasons. First, father's job loss constitutes a salient experience that is likely to be remembered for years to come. Second, the experience directly relates to the perceived riskiness of labor income, the most important source of income for the majority of house...

  7. Development of Response Evaluation and Decision (RED) and Antisocial Behavior in Childhood and Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Fontaine, Reid G.; Yang, Chong Ming; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Pettit, Gregory S.; BATES, JOHN E.

    2009-01-01

    Using longitudinal data on 585 youths (48% female; 17% African American; 2% other ethnic minority), we examined the development of social response evaluation and decision (RED) across childhood (Study 1; kindergarten-Grade 3) and adolescence (Study 2; Grades 8 and 11). Participants completed hypothetical-vignette-based RED assessments, and their antisocial behaviors were measured by multiple raters. Structural equation modeling and linear growth analyses indicated that children differentiate ...

  8. Childhood malignancy and maternal diabetes or other auto-immune disease during pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Westbom, L; Åberg, A; Källén, B

    2002-01-01

    Among 4380 children born in 1987–1997 of women with a diagnosis of diabetes and alive at the age of one, 10 were registered in the Swedish Cancer Registry before the end of 1998. The odds ratio for having a childhood cancer after maternal diabetes, stratified for year of birth, maternal age, parity, multiple birth, and 500 g birth weight class was 2.25 (95%CI 1.22–4.15). Among 5842 children born during the period 1973–1997 whose mothers had other auto-immune diseases (SLE, rheumatoid arthriti...

  9. Impact of the CDC's Section 317 Immunization Grants Program funding on childhood vaccination coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rein, David B; Honeycutt, Amanda A; Rojas-Smith, Lucia; Hersey, James C

    2006-09-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Section 317 Grants Program is the main source of funding for state and jurisdictional immunization programs, yet no study has evaluated its direct impact on vaccination coverage rates. Therefore, we used a fixed-effects model and data collected from 56 US jurisdictions to estimate the impact of Section 317 financial assistance immunization grants on childhood vaccination coverage rates from 1997 to 2003. Our results showed that increases in Section 317 funding were significantly and meaningfully associated with higher rates of vaccination coverage; a 10 dollars increase in per capita funding corresponded with a 1.6-percentage-point increase in vaccination coverage. Policymakers charged with funding public health programs should consider this study's findings, which indicate that money allocated to vaccine activities translates directly into higher vaccine coverage rates. PMID:16873738

  10. Digital epidemiology reveals global childhood disease seasonality and the effects of immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Kevin M; Martinez-Bakker, Micaela Elvira; Helm, Barbara; Stevenson, Tyler J

    2016-06-14

    Public health surveillance systems are important for tracking disease dynamics. In recent years, social and real-time digital data sources have provided new means of studying disease transmission. Such affordable and accessible data have the potential to offer new insights into disease epidemiology at national and international scales. We used the extensive information repository Google Trends to examine the digital epidemiology of a common childhood disease, chicken pox, caused by varicella zoster virus (VZV), over an 11-y period. We (i) report robust seasonal information-seeking behavior for chicken pox using Google data from 36 countries, (ii) validate Google data using clinical chicken pox cases, (iii) demonstrate that Google data can be used to identify recurrent seasonal outbreaks and forecast their magnitude and seasonal timing, and (iv) reveal that VZV immunization significantly dampened seasonal cycles in information-seeking behavior. Our findings provide strong evidence that VZV transmission is seasonal and that seasonal peaks show remarkable latitudinal variation. We attribute the dampened seasonal cycles in chicken pox information-seeking behavior to VZV vaccine-induced reduction of seasonal transmission. These data and the methodological approaches provide a way to track the global burden of childhood disease and illustrate population-level effects of immunization. The global latitudinal patterns in outbreak seasonality could direct future studies of environmental and physiological drivers of disease transmission. PMID:27247405

  11. Early effectiveness of heptavalent conjugate pneumococcal vaccination on invasive pneumococcal disease after the introduction in the Danish Childhood Immunization Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harboe, Zitta B.; Valentiner-Branth, Palle; Benfield, Thomas;

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) on invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) 1 year after PCV7's introduction in the childhood immunization programme through a nationwide cohort study based on laboratory surveillance data. There was a decline in the...

  12. HPA axis genes may modulate the effect of childhood adversities on decision-making in suicide attempters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillaume, Sebastien; Perroud, Nader; Jollant, Fabrice; Jaussent, Isabelle; Olié, Emilie; Malafosse, Alain; Courtet, Philippe

    2013-02-01

    Decision-making impairment is found in several neuropsychiatric disorders, including suicidal behavior, and has been shown to be modulated by genes. On the other hand, early trauma have/has been associated with poor mental health outcome in adulthood, in interaction with genetic factors, possibly through sustained alterations in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA axis). Here, we aimed to investigate the effect of childhood trauma and its interaction with HPA-axis related genes on decision-making abilities in adulthood among a sample of suicide attempters. The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) was used to assess decision-making in 218 patients with a history of suicide attempt. Participant fulfilled the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire to report traumatic childhood experiences. Patients were genotyped for single-nucleotide polymorphisms within CRHR1 and CRHR2 genes. Patients with a history of sexual abuse had significantly lower IGT scores than non-sexually abused individuals. Polymorphisms within CRHR1 and CRHR2 genes interacted with both childhood sexual abuse and emotional neglect to influence IGT performance. In conclusion, childhood sexual abuse and emotional neglect may have long-term effects on decision-making through an interaction with key HPA axis genes. Even if these results need to be replicated in other sample, impaired decision-making may thus be the dimension through which child maltreatment, in interaction with HPA axis related genes, may have a sustained negative impact on adult mental health. PMID:23177644

  13. Childhood Cancer-a Hospital based study using Decision Tree Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kalaivani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Cancer is generally regarded as a disease of adults. But there being a higher proportion of childhood cancer (ALL-Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in India. The incidence of childhood cancer has increased over the last 25 years, but the increase is much larger in females. The aim was to increase our understanding of the determinants of south Indian parental reactions and needs. This facilitates the development of the care and follow-up routines for families, paying attention to both individual risk and resilience factors and to ways in which limitations related to treatment centre and organizational characteristics could be compensated. Approach: Decision Trees may be used for classification, clustering, affinity, grouping, prediction or estimation and description. One of the useful medical applications in India is the management of Leukemia, as it accounts for about 33% of childhood malignancies. Results: Female survivors showed greater functional disability in comparison to male survivors-demonstrated by poorer overall health status. Family stress results from a perceived imbalance between the demands on the family and the resources available to meet such demands. Conclusion: The pattern and severity of health and functional outcomes differed significantly between survivors in diagnostic subgroups. Family impact was aggravated by patients’ lasting sequelae and by parent perceived shortcomings of long-term follow-up. Female survivors were at greater risk for health related late effects.

  14. Enhanced immunization coverage through interventions for childhood cluster diseases in developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Globally immunisation has to be considered as a most effective and efficient public health intervention to reduce morbidity and mortality among children. Most of the children from developing countries are still not fully immunized due to multiple factors including lack of interventions, awareness, and financial constraints and due to limited resource. Conversely, this review has identified the effectiveness of interventions to increase the immunisation coverage among children of developing countries. Methods: Systematic review by using PRISMA statement (preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses) has been conducted in English published articles on Pub Med, Scopus, Cochrane, Medline and ISI by searching keywords like immunizations, childhood vaccination and developing countries has been accessed. Only randomised controlled trial and quasi-experimental studies designs were included in the final analysis based on quality assessment by adopting the Down and Black checklist and finally pooled analysis was done by random effect model. This systematic review has been approved and registered by University of York. Results: A total of 16,570 published articles were accessed and finally 10 fulfilled our criteria that were analysed and interpreted. It demonstrated that the interventions has shown significantly increase vaccine coverage for childhood cluster diseases (OR 2.136 and p <0.05).Furthermore, it has been proved that an effect was more prominent for DTP (OR 2.397 and p<0.05) and measles (OR 2.628 and p<0.05), not as much for polio (OR 2.284 and p>0.05) and full vaccination schedule (OR 1.342 and p>0.05). Conclusions: Systematic review has concluded that the professional interventions are an effective while in improving the child immunisation coverage for cluster diseases in developing countries, major effect on DTP and measles. (author)

  15. Severe infectious diseases of childhood as monogenic inborn errors of immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Jean-Laurent

    2015-12-22

    This paper reviews the developments that have occurred in the field of human genetics of infectious diseases from the second half of the 20th century onward. In particular, it stresses and explains the importance of the recently described monogenic inborn errors of immunity underlying resistance or susceptibility to specific infections. The monogenic component of the genetic theory provides a plausible explanation for the occurrence of severe infectious diseases during primary infection. Over the last 20 y, increasing numbers of life-threatening infectious diseases striking otherwise healthy children, adolescents, and even young adults have been attributed to single-gene inborn errors of immunity. These studies were inspired by seminal but neglected findings in plant and animal infections. Infectious diseases typically manifest as sporadic traits because human genotypes often display incomplete penetrance (most genetically predisposed individuals remain healthy) and variable expressivity (different infections can be allelic at the same locus). Infectious diseases of childhood, once thought to be archetypal environmental diseases, actually may be among the most genetically determined conditions of mankind. This nascent and testable notion has interesting medical and biological implications. PMID:26621750

  16. The Case for Absolute Ligand Discrimination: Modeling Information Processing and Decision by Immune T Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    François, Paul; Altan-Bonnet, Grégoire

    2016-03-01

    Some cells have to take decision based on the quality of surroundings ligands, almost irrespective of their quantity, a problem we name "absolute discrimination". An example of absolute discrimination is recognition of not-self by immune T Cells. We show how the problem of absolute discrimination can be solved by a process called "adaptive sorting". We review several implementations of adaptive sorting, as well as its generic properties such as antagonism. We show how kinetic proofreading with negative feedback implement an approximate version of adaptive sorting in the immune context. Finally, we revisit the decision problem at the cell population level, showing how phenotypic variability and feedbacks between population and single cells are crucial for proper decision.

  17. Improving Instructional Practices, Policies, and Student Outcomes for Early Childhood Language and Literacy through Data-Driven Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullo, Dominic F.

    2013-01-01

    Since the passage of No Child Left Behind, data-driven decision making has become one of the central foci in schools in their attempt to attain and maintain adequate levels of student academic performance. The importance of early childhood education is well established with language and literacy proficiency in the early years being viewed as a…

  18. Dark Matter: The "Gravitational Pull" of Maternalist Discourses on Politicians' Decision Making for Early Childhood Policy in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bown, Kathryn; Sumsion, Jennifer; Press, Frances

    2011-01-01

    The article reports on a study investigating influences on Australian politicians' decision making for early childhood education and care (ECEC) policy. The astronomical concept of dark matter is utilised as a metaphor for considering normalising, and therefore frequently difficult to detect and disrupt, influences implicated in politicians'…

  19. Efforts of the human immune system to maintain the peripheral CD8+ T cell compartment after childhood thymectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Zlamy, Manuela; Almanzar, Giovanni; Parson, Walther; Schmidt, Christian; Leierer, Johannes; Weinberger, Birgit; Jeller, Verena; Unsinn, Karin; Eyrich, Matthias; Würzner, Reinhard; Prelog, Martina

    2016-01-01

    Background Homeostatic mechanisms to maintain the T cell compartment diversity indicate an ongoing process of thymic activity and peripheral T cell renewal during human life. These processes are expected to be accelerated after childhood thymectomy and by the influence of cytomegalovirus (CMV) inducing a prematurely aged immune system. The study aimed to investigate proportional changes and replicative history of CD8+ T cells, of recent thymic emigrants (RTEs) and CD103+ T cells (mostly gut-e...

  20. Initial Management of Childhood Acute Immune Thrombocytopenia: Single-Center Experience of 32 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildiz, Inci; Ozdemir, Nihal; Celkan, Tiraje; Soylu, Selen; Karaman, Serap; Canbolat, Aylin; Dogru, Omer; Erginoz, Ethem; Apak, Hilmi

    2015-01-01

    Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is an acute self-limited disease of childhood, mostly resolving within 6 months irrespective of whether therapy is given or not. Treatment options when indicated include corticosteroids, intravenous immune globulin (IVIG), and anti-RhD immunoglobulin. We reviewed our 32 years' experience for first-line therapy of acute ITP. Five hundred forty-one children (mean age: 5.3 years) diagnosed and treated for ITP were evaluated retrospectively. Among 491 acute ITP patients, IVIG was used in 27%, high-dose steroids in 27%, low-dose steroids in 20%, anti-D immunoglobulin G (IgG) in 2%, and no therapy in 22%. When the initial response (platelets >50 × 10(9)/L) to first-line treatment modalities were compared, 89%, 84%, and 78% patients treated by low-dose steroids, high-dose steroids, and IVIG responded to treatment, respectively (P > .05). Mean time to recovery of platelets was 16.8, 3.8, and 3.0 days in patients treated with low-dose steroids, high-dose steroids, and IVIG, respectively (P < .0001). Thrombocytopenia recurred in 23% of low-dose steroid, 39% of high-dose steroid, and in 36% of IVIG (P < .0001) treatment groups. Of 108 patients who were observed alone, 4 (3%) had a recurrence on follow-up and only 2 of these required treatment subsequently. Recurrence was significantly less in no therapy group compared with children treated with 1 of the 3 options of pharmacotherapy (P < .0001). Response rates were similar between patients treated by IVIG and low- and high-dose steroids; however, time to response was slower in patients treated with low-dose steroids compared with IVIG and high-dose steroids. PMID:26154620

  1. Cord blood gene expression supports that prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances causes depressed immune functionality in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennings, Jeroen L A; Jennen, Danyel G J; Nygaard, Unni C; Namork, Ellen; Haug, Line S; van Loveren, Henk; Granum, Berit

    2016-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a class of synthetic compounds that have widespread use in consumer and industrial applications. PFAS are considered environmental pollutants that have various toxic properties, including effects on the immune system. Recent human studies indicate that prenatal exposure to PFAS leads to suppressed immune responses in early childhood. In this study, data from the Norwegian BraMat cohort was used to investigate transcriptomics profiles in neonatal cord blood and their association with maternal PFAS exposure, anti-rubella antibody levels at 3 years of age and the number of common cold episodes until 3 years. Genes associated with PFAS exposure showed enrichment for immunological and developmental functions. The analyses identified a toxicogenomics profile of 52 PFAS exposure-associated genes that were in common with genes associated with rubella titers and/or common cold episodes. This gene set contains several immunomodulatory genes (CYTL1, IL27) as well as other immune-associated genes (e.g. EMR4P, SHC4, ADORA2A). In addition, this study identified PPARD as a PFAS toxicogenomics marker. These markers can serve as the basis for further mechanistic or epidemiological studies. This study provides a transcriptomics connection between prenatal PFAS exposure and impaired immune function in early childhood and supports current views on PPAR- and NF-κB-mediated modes of action. The findings add to the available evidence that PFAS exposure is immunotoxic in humans and support regulatory policies to phase out these substances. PMID:25812627

  2. Artificial Immune Systems (AIS) - A New Paradigm for Heuristic Decision Making

    CERN Document Server

    Uwe, Aickelin

    2008-01-01

    Over the last few years, more and more heuristic decision making techniques have been inspired by nature, e.g. evolutionary algorithms, ant colony optimisation and simulated annealing. More recently, a novel computational intelligence technique inspired by immunology has emerged, called Artificial Immune Systems (AIS). This immune system inspired technique has already been useful in solving some computational problems. In this keynote, we will very briefly describe the immune system metaphors that are relevant to AIS. We will then give some illustrative real-world problems suitable for AIS use and show a step-by-step algorithm walkthrough. A comparison of AIS to other well-known algorithms and areas for future work will round this keynote off. It should be noted that as AIS is still a young and evolving field, there is not yet a fixed algorithm template and hence actual implementations might differ somewhat from the examples given here.

  3. ASSESSMENT OF KNOWLEDGE ABOUT IMMUNIZATION OF UNDER FIVE CHILDREN AMONG MOTHERS ATTENDING OUTPATIENT DEPARTMENT OF PEDIATRICS IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN KOLLAM, KERALA

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Nadeem; Athira; Ankitha K .; Athira V; Asha,; Bency; Anas; Ahemmed

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND : Immunization is the most cost effective public health intervention to reduce childhood morbidity and mortality. Thousands of children can be saved from vaccine preventable diseases each year by immunization. The knowledge of mothers’ is an important factor for better immunization coverage. Less knowledge affects decision making regarding immunization. OBJECTIVES: To assess the knowledge about immunization of under five children among mothers a ...

  4. Immunity and infectious morbidity in childhood ALL treatment : the benefits of intensity reduction

    OpenAIRE

    van Tilburg, C M

    2011-01-01

    With current childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treatment protocols the cure rate approaches 90%. In the 10 percent of case fatalities, 2 major challenges stand out: incurable relapses of ALL and (infectious) deaths-in-remission. Thus, reducing toxicity is becoming an important goal to further improve childhood ALL survival. The Dutch Childhood Oncology Group (DCOG) ALL 10 protocol was designed to investigate whether a reduction of chemotherapeutic treatment intensity after a standa...

  5. Methods for Health Economic Evaluation of Vaccines and Immunization Decision Frameworks : A Consensus Framework from a European Vaccine Economics Community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ultsch, Bernhard; Damm, Oliver; Beutels, Philippe; Bilcke, Joke; Brueggenjuergen, Bernd; Gerber-Grote, Andreas; Greiner, Wolfgang; Hanquet, Germaine; Hutubessy, Raymond; Jit, Mark; Knol, Mirjam; von Kries, Ruediger; Kuhlmann, Alexander; Levy-Bruhl, Daniel; Perleth, Matthias; Postma, Maarten; Salo, Heini; Siebert, Uwe; Wasem, Jurgen; Wichmann, Ole

    2016-01-01

    Incremental cost-effectiveness and cost-utility analyses [health economic evaluations (HEEs)] of vaccines are routinely considered in decision making on immunization in various industrialized countries. While guidelines advocating more standardization of such HEEs (mainly for curative drugs) exist,

  6. Trends in anti-D immune globulin for childhood immune thrombocytopenia: Usage, response rates, and adverse effects

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Michelle; Kalish, Leslie A.; Neufeld, Ellis J.; Grace, Rachael F.

    2011-01-01

    In 2010, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) added a black box warning to anti-D immune globulin (Rho(D) immune globulin, anti-D) for immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) to warn of the complications related to severe hemolysis. The objective of this retrospective medical record review was to examine recent trends in anti-D use to treat ITP and rates of adverse events in a single large pediatric hematology program. Over a 7-year period, 176 (35%) of 502 ITP patients at our center received anti-D....

  7. Immune algorithm for discretization of decision systems in rough set theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Rough set theory plays an important role in knowledge discovery, but cannot deal with continuous attributes, thus discretization is a problem which we cannot neglect. And discretization of decision systems in rough set theory has some particular characteristics. Consistency must be satisfied and cuts for discretization is expected to be as small as possible. Consistent and minimal discretization problem is NP-complete. In this paper, an immune algorithm for the problem is proposed. The correctness and effectiveness were shown in experiments. The discretization method presented in this paper can also be used as a data pretreating step for other symbolic knowledge discovery or machine learning methods other than rough set theory.

  8. The impact of WIC and AFDC in screening and delivering childhood immunizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkhead, G S; Cicirello, H G; Talarico, J

    1996-01-01

    Two publicly funded programs, the Special Supplemental Food Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) and Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC), serve large numbers of children who may be at risk for poor immunization status. A review of the literature as well as conference abstracts and program reports for studies of immunization initiatives carried out in these settings was conducted. Although the available literature is limited, it does indicate that children in these programs have low immunization levels and that interventions to improve their immunization status can be successful. Measures to improve immunization status should be implemented through WIC and AFDC. PMID:10186653

  9. How do thoughts, emotions, and decisions align? A new way to examine theory of mind during middle childhood and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagattuta, Kristin Hansen; Elrod, Noel M; Kramer, Hannah J

    2016-09-01

    The current study examined 4- to 10-year-olds' and adults' (N=280) tendency to connect people's thoughts, emotions, and decisions into valence-matched mental state triads (thought valence=emotion valence=decision valence; e.g., anticipate something bad+feel worried+avoid) and valence-matched mental state dyads (thought-emotion, thought-decision, and emotion-decision). Participants heard vignettes about focal characters who re-encountered individuals who had previously harmed them twice, helped them twice, or both harmed and helped them. Baseline trials involved no past experience. Children and adults predicted the focal characters' thoughts (anticipate something good or bad), emotions (feel happy or worried), and decisions (go near or stay away). Results showed significant increases between 4 and 10years of age in the formation of valence-matched mental state triads and dyads, with thoughts and emotions most often aligned by valence. We also documented age-related improvement in awareness that uncertain situations elicit less valence-consistent mental states than more certain situations, with females expecting weaker coherence among characters' thoughts, emotions, and decisions than males. Controlling for age and sex, individuals with stronger executive function (working memory and inhibitory control) predicted more valence-aligned mental states. These findings add to the emerging literature on development and individual differences in children's reasoning about mental states and emotions during middle childhood and beyond. PMID:27017060

  10. Prenatal arachidonic acid exposure and selected immune-related variables in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dirix, Chantal E. H.; Hogervorst, Janneke G. F.; Rump, Patrick; Hendriks, Johannes J. E.; Bruins, Maaike; Hornstra, Gerard

    2009-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) is considered essential in fetal development and some of its metabolites are thought to be important mediators of the immune responses. Therefore, we studied whether prenatal exposure to AA is associated with some immune-related clinical conditions and plasma markers in childho

  11. Immunity and infectious morbidity in childhood ALL treatment : the benefits of intensity reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tilburg, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    With current childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treatment protocols the cure rate approaches 90%. In the 10 percent of case fatalities, 2 major challenges stand out: incurable relapses of ALL and (infectious) deaths-in-remission. Thus, reducing toxicity is becoming an important goal to fur

  12. Digital epidemiology reveals global childhood disease seasonality and the effects of immunization

    OpenAIRE

    Bakker, Kevin M.; Martinez-Bakker, Micaela Elvira; Helm, Barbara; Stevenson, Tyler J.

    2016-01-01

    Public health surveillance systems are important for tracking disease dynamics. In recent years, social and real-time digital data sources have provided new means of studying disease transmission. Such affordable and accessible data have the potential to offer new insights into disease epidemiology at national and international scales. We used the extensive information repository Google Trends to examine the digital epidemiology of a common childhood disease, chicken pox, caused b...

  13. Monitoring Classroom Behavior in Early Childhood: Using Group Observation Data to Make Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasch, Delilah; Carter, Deborah Russell

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring and evaluating classroom behavior in early childhood for the purpose of improving teaching and learning is critical. There is a clear link between social behavior and academic learning. Classrooms where students are following expectations, engaging academically, and transitioning effectively between activities are classrooms where…

  14. Impact of the introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in the Brazilian routine childhood national immunization program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Marta; Cintra, Otavio; Harriague, Julie; Hausdorff, William P; Hoet, Bernard

    2016-05-27

    Brazil introduced the 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV, Synflorix™, GSK Vaccines) in the routine childhood immunization program in 2010 with a 3+1 schedule (with catch-up for children pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on nasopharyngeal carriage and all the major pneumococcal disease manifestations in a single, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine-naïve, developing country. A total of 15 published articles and 13 congress abstracts were included in the analysis. In children vaccine-type and any-type invasive pneumococcal disease (including decreases in pneumococcal meningitis morbidity and mortality), on pneumonia incidence and mortality, and on otitis media. Nasopharyngeal carriage of vaccine-type and any-type pneumococci decreased after the primary doses, with no early signs of replacement with other pathogens. Finally, herd protection against vaccine-type invasive pneumococcal disease and pneumonia in unvaccinated subjects was shown in some studies for some age groups. In conclusion, pneumococcal disease decreased after the introduction of PHiD-CV into the Brazilian national immunization program. Further follow-up is needed to evaluate the long-term overall impact of PHiD-CV in the Brazilian population. PMID:27113162

  15. Using Human Factors Techniques to Design Text Message Reminders for Childhood Immunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlers-Schmidt, Carolyn R.; Hart, Traci; Chesser, Amy; Williams, Katherine S.; Yaghmai, Beryl; Shah-Haque, Sapna; Wittler, Robert R.

    2012-01-01

    This study engaged parents to develop concise, informative, and comprehensible text messages for an immunization reminder system using Human Factors techniques. Fifty parents completed a structured interview including demographics, technology questions, willingness to receive texts from their child's doctor, and health literacy. Each participant…

  16. An exploratory qualitative assessment of factors influencing childhood vaccine providers' intention to recommend immunization in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mollema Liesbeth

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Under the Dutch national immunization program (NIP, childhood vaccination is not mandatory, but its recommendation by childhood vaccine providers (CVP is important for maintaining high vaccination coverage. We therefore examined factors related to providers' intentions to recommend vaccinations to parents of young children. Methods We conducted four focus group discussions with nurses and physicians who provide vaccines to children 0-4 years old in diverse regions of the Netherlands. Three groups represented CVPs at child welfare centers (CWCs serving the general population, with the fourth representing anthroposophical CWCs. Elements of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB were used to design the groups; thematic analysis was used to structure and analyze the dataset. Results Four main themes emerged, including 1 perceived responsibility: to promote vaccines and discuss pros and cons with parents (although this was usually not done if parents readily accepted the vaccination; 2 attitudes toward the NIP: mainly positive, but doubts as to NIP plans to vaccinate against diseases with a low perceived burden; 3 organizational factors: limited time and information can hamper discussions with parents; 4 relationship with parents: crucial and based mainly on communication to establish trust. Compared to CVPs at standard CWCs, the anthroposophical CWCs spent more time communicating and were more willing to adapt the NIP to individual cases. Conclusions Our qualitative assessment provides an overview of beliefs associated with providers' intention to recommend vaccinations. They were motivated to support the NIP, but their intentions to recommend vaccinations were affected by the perceived relevance of the vaccines, practical issues like limited time and by certain types of resistant parents. These results will inform future studies to test the magnitude and relative impact of these factors.

  17. Early cellular immune response to a new candidate mycobacterial vaccine antigen in childhood tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepers, K; Dirix, V; Mouchet, F; Verscheure, V; Lecher, S; Locht, C; Mascart, F

    2015-02-18

    The search for novel vaccines against tuberculosis (TB) would benefit from in-depths knowledge of the human immune responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. Here, we characterised in a low TB incidence country, the immune responses to a new candidate vaccine antigen against TB, the heparin-binding haemagglutinin (HBHA), in young children in contact with an active TB case (aTB). Children with no history of BCG vaccination were compared to those vaccinated at birth to compare the initial immune responses to HBHA with secondary immune responses. Fifty-eight children with aTB and 76 with latent TB infection (LTBI) were included and they were compared to 90 non-infected children. Whereas Mtb-infected children globally secreted more interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) in response to HBHA compared to the non-infected children, these IFN-γ concentrations were higher in previously BCG-vaccinated compared to non-vaccinated children. The IFN-γ concentrations were similar in LTBI and aTB children, but appeared to differ qualitatively. Whereas the IFN-γ secretion induced by native methylated and recombinant non-methylated HBHA were well correlated for aTB, this was not the case for LTBI children. Thus, Mtb-infected young children develop IFN-γ responses to HBHA that are enhanced by prior BCG vaccination, indicating BCG-induced priming, thereby supporting a prime-boost strategy for HBHA-based vaccines. The qualitative differences between aTB and LTBI in their HBHA-induced IFN-γ responses may perhaps be exploited for diagnostic purposes. PMID:25583385

  18. Noncontaminated Dietary Oats May Hamper Normalization of the Intestinal Immune Status in Childhood Celiac Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Sjöberg, Veronika; Hollén, Elisabet; Pietz, Grzegorz; Magnusson, Karl-Eric; Fälth-Magnusson, Karin; Sundström, Mia; Holmgren Peterson, Kajsa; Sandström, Olof; Hernell, Olle; Hammarström, Sten; Högberg, Lotta; Hammarström, Marie-Louise

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Life-long, strict gluten-free diet (GFD) is the only treatment for celiac disease (CD). Because there is still uncertainty regarding the safety of oats for CD patients, the aim was to investigate whether dietary oats influence the immune status of their intestinal mucosa. METHODS: Paired small intestinal biopsies, before and after >11 months on a GFD, were collected from children with CD who were enrolled in a randomized, double-blind intervention trial to either of two diets: ...

  19. Using human factors techniques to design text message reminders for childhood immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlers-Schmidt, Carolyn R; Hart, Traci; Chesser, Amy; Williams, Katherine S; Yaghmai, Beryl; Shah-Haque, Sapna; Wittler, Robert R

    2012-10-01

    This study engaged parents to develop concise, informative, and comprehensible text messages for an immunization reminder system using Human Factors techniques. Fifty parents completed a structured interview including demographics, technology questions, willingness to receive texts from their child's doctor, and health literacy. Each participant was assigned to one user-centered design test: card sort, needs analysis, or comprehension. The majority of respondents were female (90%), White non-Hispanic (62%), and averaged 29 years (SD = 5). Nearly all (96%) had "adequate" health literacy. The card sort, an activity in which end users organize information into categories, identified six pieces of critical information. These were compiled into eight example texts, which were ranked in the needs assessment. The top two were assessed for comprehension, with 100% of participants able to understand the content and describe intention to act. Using user-centered design methods, the authors developed concise, informative text messages that parents indicated would prompt them to schedule their child's immunization appointment. PMID:21986245

  20. Controversies in the diagnosis and management of childhood acute immune thrombocytopenic purpura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segel, George B; Feig, Stephen A

    2009-09-01

    Acute immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) occurs most commonly in young children who present with severe isolated thrombocytopenia and purpura. A marrow examination is not required unless glucocorticoids are used, lest treatment mask incipient acute lymphoblastic leukemia, but controversy exists here. The recommendations for evaluation and management remain controversial, since prospective controlled trials have not been done. There is some consensus based on experience and empiric data. Almost all children with acute ITP will recover completely without therapy. Although the various treatments may increase the platelet count, they do not influence the outcome of the illness, may increase cost, and cause significant side effects. Therefore, careful observation may be the best management option for the patient with ITP, in the absence of severe bleeding. The data available relevant to these issues are discussed. PMID:19165890

  1. How is childhood development of immunity to Plasmodium falciparum enhanced by certain antimalarial interventions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schellenberg David

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The development of acquired protective immunity to Plasmodium falciparum infection in young African children is considered in the context of three current strategies for malaria prevention: insecticide-impregnated bed nets or curtains, anti-sporozoite vaccines and intermittent preventive therapy. Evidence is presented that each of these measures may permit attenuated P. falciparum blood-stage infections, which do not cause clinical malaria but can act as an effective blood-stage "vaccine". It is proposed that the extended serum half-life, and rarely considered liver-stage prophylaxis provided by the anti-folate combination sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine frequently lead to such attenuated infections in high transmission areas, and thus contribute to the sustained protection from malaria observed among children receiving the combination as intermittent preventative therapy or for parasite clearance in vaccine trials.

  2. Risky decision making from childhood through adulthood: Contributions of learning and sensitivity to negative feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys, Kathryn L; Telzer, Eva H; Flannery, Jessica; Goff, Bonnie; Gabard-Durnam, Laurel; Gee, Dylan G; Lee, Steve S; Tottenham, Nim

    2016-02-01

    Decision making in the context of risk is a complex and dynamic process that changes across development. Here, we assessed the influence of sensitivity to negative feedback (e.g., loss) and learning on age-related changes in risky decision making, both of which show unique developmental trajectories. In the present study, we examined risky decision making in 216 individuals, ranging in age from 3-26 years, using the balloon emotional learning task (BELT), a computerized task in which participants pump up a series of virtual balloons to earn points, but risk balloon explosion on each trial, which results in no points. It is important to note that there were 3 balloon conditions, signified by different balloon colors, ranging from quick- to slow-to-explode, and participants could learn the color-condition pairings through task experience. Overall, we found age-related increases in pumps made and points earned. However, in the quick-to-explode condition, there was a nonlinear adolescent peak for points earned. Follow-up analyses indicated that this adolescent phenotype occurred at the developmental intersection of linear age-related increases in learning and decreases in sensitivity to negative feedback. Adolescence was marked by intermediate values on both these processes. These findings show that a combination of linearly changing processes can result in nonlinear changes in risky decision making, the adolescent-specific nature of which is associated with developmental improvements in learning and reduced sensitivity to negative feedback. PMID:26389647

  3. Expert testimony influences juror decisions in criminal trials involving recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurshid, Ayesha; Jacquin, Kristine M

    2013-01-01

    We examined the impact of expert witness orientation (researcher or clinical practitioner) and type of testimony (testimony for the prosecution, defense, both prosecution and defense, or no testimony) on mock jurors' decisions in a sexual abuse trial. Participants acted as mock jurors on a sexual abuse criminal trial based on recovered memory that included expert witness testimony. Results showed that expert witness testimony provided by a researcher did not impact mock jurors' guilt ratings any differently than the expert witness testimony provided by a clinical practitioner. However, type of testimony had a significant effect on jurors' guilt ratings such that jurors who read only defense or only prosecution testimony made decisions favoring the relevant side. PMID:24283545

  4. Retrospective analysis of rituximab therapy and splenectomy in childhood chronic and refractory immune thrombocytopenic purpura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ay, Yilmaz; Karapinar, Tuba H; Oymak, Yesim; Toret, Ersin; Demirag, Bengu; Ince, Dilek; Ozcan, Esin; Moueminoglou, Nergial; Koker, Sultan A; Vergin, Canan

    2016-06-01

    Immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) results from accelerated platelet destruction mediated by autoantibodies to platelet glycoproteins. Some patients with chronic ITP are refractory to all therapies [steroids, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), anti-D and immunosuppresive drugs] and have chronic low platelet counts and episodic bleeding. We retrospectively evaluated the efficacy and safety of rituximab treatment and splenectomy in paediatric patients diagnosed with chronic and refractory ITP who were unresponsive to steroids, IVIG, cyclosporine and mycophenolate mofetil. Records of patients with chronic and refractory ITP in 459 patients with primary ITP who were followed up in our hospital from January 2005 to December 2014 were reviewed. Fifteen of patients received rituximab and/or applied splenectomy. Fifteen chronic ITP patients (10 boys, five girls) with a mean age of 10 years were enrolled in the study. Two of these patients were suffering from Evans syndrome. The median time since diagnosis of ITP was 10 years. The median follow-up duration after starting Rituximab and splenectomy were 13 and 9.5 months, respectively.None of the seven patients who were treated with rituximab achieved a response. A splenectomy was performed in six of the seven patients who had been treated with rituximab. Complete and partial responses were achieved in 67 and 33% of the patients, respectively. We evaluated the clinical characteristics and responses of chronic ITP patients who did not receive rituximab therapy and underwent a splenectomy. The success rate was 100% in the eight patients with chronic and refractory ITP. Rituximab therapy might not be beneficial for some children with severe chronic ITP who are refractory to standard agents. A splenectomy might be useful and preferable to rituximab. PMID:26656905

  5. An Innovative Approach to Addressing Childhood Obesity: A Knowledge-Based Infrastructure for Supporting Multi-Stakeholder Partnership Decision-Making in Quebec, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nii Antiaye Addy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Multi-stakeholder partnerships (MSPs have become a widespread means for deploying policies in a whole of society strategy to address the complex problem of childhood obesity. However, decision-making in MSPs is fraught with challenges, as decision-makers are faced with complexity, and have to reconcile disparate conceptualizations of knowledge across multiple sectors with diverse sets of indicators and data. These challenges can be addressed by supporting MSPs with innovative tools for obtaining, organizing and using data to inform decision-making. The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyze the development of a knowledge-based infrastructure to support MSP decision-making processes. The paper emerged from a study to define specifications for a knowledge-based infrastructure to provide decision support for community-level MSPs in the Canadian province of Quebec. As part of the study, a process assessment was conducted to understand the needs of communities as they collect, organize, and analyze data to make decisions about their priorities. The result of this process is a “portrait”, which is an epidemiological profile of health and nutrition in their community. Portraits inform strategic planning and development of interventions, and are used to assess the impact of interventions. Our key findings indicate ambiguities and disagreement among MSP decision-makers regarding causal relationships between actions and outcomes, and the relevant data needed for making decisions. MSP decision-makers expressed a desire for easy-to-use tools that facilitate the collection, organization, synthesis, and analysis of data, to enable decision-making in a timely manner. Findings inform conceptual modeling and ontological analysis to capture the domain knowledge and specify relationships between actions and outcomes. This modeling and analysis provide the foundation for an ontology, encoded using OWL 2 Web Ontology Language. The ontology is developed

  6. Community participation and childhood immunization coverage: A comparative study of rural and urban communities of Bayelsa State, south-south Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalamawei Itimi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Immunization coverage rates in Nigeria have remained very poor, in spite of numerous programs and strategies, specifically designed to improve coverage. This study was to assess the possible effects of greater community participation on immunization coverage, by comparing the immunization coverage in a rural community with a functional community health committee, with an urban community, with no distinct community structure. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in Ondewari, a rural, riverine community, in Bayelsa State; and Yenagoa, the capital of Bayelsa State, south-south Nigeria; using a cross-sectional, comparative study design. The data were collected using a structured interviewer-administered questionnaire, administered on female head of households in both communities, with under-five children; and used to collect information on the socio-demographic characteristics of the respondents, the immunization status of children in the household below the age of 2 years, and reasons for none and incomplete immunization. Results: A total of 288 respondents were studied in the rural community, while 270 respondents were studied in the urban center. The respondents in the urban center were significantly younger (P<0.01, better educated (P<0.001, and had fewer number of children (P<0.01. The immunization status of children in the rural community was significantly better than those in the urban community (P<0.000. Only 11.46% of the children in the rural community were not immunized, compared to 47.04% in the urban community. However, the dropout rate in the rural community was much higher; with a DPT dropout rate of 77.34%, compared to 12.39% in the urban community. Most of the reasons given in the urban community for the incomplete immunization were linked lack of motivation, and include relocation (11.34% and the adverse rumor about childhood immunization (17.23%, while the reasons in the rural community were mostly health

  7. Immunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008254 Prokaryotic expression and immunogenicity of Fba,a novel fibronectin-binding protein of group A streptococcus.MA Cuiqing(马翠柳),et al.Dept Immunol,Basic Med Coll,Hebei Med Univ,Shijiazhuang 050017.Chin J Infect Dis 2008;26(3):146-150.Objective To express the novel fibronectin-binding protein Fba ofgroupAstreptococcus(GAS)and analyze its immunogenicity,so to evaluate the immune responses to GAS infection.Methods fbagene was amplified by

  8. Disappearance of Vaccine-Type Invasive Pneumococcal Disease and Emergence of Serotype 19A in a Minority Population with a High Prevalence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Low Childhood Immunization Rates▿

    OpenAIRE

    Tasslimi, Azadeh; Sison, Erica J.; Story, Elizabeth; Alland, David; Burday, Michele; Morrison, Susan; Nalmas, Sandhya; Smith, Stephen; Thomas, Pauline A.; Wenger, Peter; Sinha, Anushua

    2009-01-01

    We analyzed the epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) following introduction of pneumococcal conjugated vaccine in an urban population with a 2% human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence and history of low childhood immunization rates. We observed near-elimination of vaccine-type IPD. Substantial disease remains due to non-vaccine-type pneumococci, highlighting the need to increase pneumococcal immunization among HIV-infected adults.

  9. Gender based within-household inequality in childhood immunization in India: changes over time and across regions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Singh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Despite India's substantial economic growth in the past two decades, girls in India are discriminated against in access to preventive healthcare including immunizations. Surprisingly, no study has assessed the contribution of gender based within-household discrimination to the overall inequality in immunization status of Indian children. This study therefore has two objectives: to estimate the gender based within-household inequality (GWHI in immunization status of Indian children and to examine the inter-regional and inter-temporal variations in the GWHI. DATA AND METHODS: The present study used households with a pair of male-female siblings (aged 1-5 years from two rounds of National Family Health Survey (NFHS, 1992-93 and 2005-06. The overall inequality in the immunization status (after controlling for age and birth order of children was decomposed into within-households and between-households components using Mean log deviation to obtain the GWHI component. The analysis was conducted at the all-India level as well as for six specified geographical regions and at two time points (1992-93 and 2005-06. Household fixed-effects models for immunization status of children were also estimated. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Findings from household fixed effects analysis indicated that the immunization scores of girls were significantly lower than that of boys. The inequality decompositions revealed that, at the all-India level, the absolute level of GWHI in immunization status decreased from 0.035 in 1992-93 to 0.023 in 2005-06. However, as a percentage of total inequality, it increased marginally (15.5% to 16.5%. In absolute terms, GWHI decreased in all the regions except in the North-East. But, as a percentage of total inequality it increased in the North-Eastern, Western and Southern regions. The main conclusions are the following: GWHI contributes substantially to the overall inequality in immunization status of Indian

  10. Safety evaluation in mice of the childhood immunization vaccines from two south-eastern states of Nigeria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oli; Angus; Nnamdi; Agu; Remigus; Uchenna; Oli; Ugochukwu; Chinedum; Nwoye; Charles; Ugochukwu; Ejiofor; Obiora; Shedrack; Esimone; Charles; Okechukwu

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To check the effects of the vaccines on the hematopoietic system and weight of mice after immunization.Methods:The study was done with the Expanded Programme on Immunization vaccines donated by the Ministries of Health of Abia and Imo States of Nigeria.The vaccines were collected from the cold-chain stores and transported in vaccine carriers to the cold-chain facility in Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital within 3 hours of collection.They were used to immunize a total of 160 mice.The Ethics Committee of Nnamdi Azikiwe University Teaching Hospital,Nnewi of Anambra State,Nigeria approved the protocol.Results:Mice body weight changes test showed that the mice all had increased body weight at Days 3 and 7 post-immunization and none died during the 7 d post-immunization observation.The percentage weight gains of the mice compared with the control were 69%.70%,64%.63%,65%and 68%for oral polio vaccine,diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus.bacillus CalmetteGuerin,measles,yellow fever and hepatitis B vaccines respectively collected from Imo State.The mice immunized with oral polio vaccine,pentavalent.bacillus Calmette-Guerin.measles,yellow fever and hepatitis B vaccines collected from Abia State had 123%.114%,121%.116%,142%and 119%weight gain respectively compared with the control.Leukocytosis promoting toxicity test showed that none of the vaccines was able to induce proliferation of leukocytes up to ten folds.Leukopenic toxicity test showed that all the vaccines had an leukopenic toxicity test value higher than 80%of the control(physiological saline).Conclusions:The vaccine samples tested were safe and did not affect the hematopoietic system adversely.The storage conditions of the vaccines in the States’ cold-chain stores had not compromised the safety of the vaccines.

  11. Decision Making for Childhood Vaccinations : an Economic Approach to Explaining Demand for Vaccinations in Mphuka and Bwumve Traditional Authorites, Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Background: There are large variations in vaccination coverage, not only between high and low-income countries but also across low income countries and within low income countries. The reasons behind these variations are only sketchily understood. In particular, the current understanding of demand for childhood vaccinations is limited. Due to inadequate vaccination coverage more than one million children die annually from vaccine preventable diseases. Objective: The study set out to exami...

  12. Early-life gut microbiota and breast milk oligosaccharides in relation to childhood immune maturation and allergy

    OpenAIRE

    Sjögren, Ylva Margareta

    2009-01-01

    Atopic allergy is the most common chronic disease among children in the developed world. This high prevalence could be associated with low microbial exposure. The early gut microbiota appears to be important for immune maturation. Immunomodulatory components in human milk might differ between mothers and could therefore explain the contradictory results seen regarding breastfeeding and allergy development. The aim of this thesis was to investigate whether early colonization with certain gut m...

  13. Intracranial hemorrhage in acute and chronic childhood immune thrombocytopenic purpura over a ten-year period: an Egyptian multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elalfy, Mohsen; Elbarbary, Nancy; Khaddah, Normine; Abdelwahab, Magy; El Rashidy, Farida; Hassab, Hoda; Al-Tonbary, Youssef

    2010-01-01

    Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) is a rare but major cause of death in immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). The authors reviewed data of 1,840 patient with ITP, from 5 pediatric hematology centers in Egypt from 1997 to 2007, to study the incidence and risk factors of ICH. Ten cases of ICH were identified with a median age at presentation of 7.5 years; 4 patients had acute ITP, 2 persistent and 4 chronic. The platelet count was late referral to a specialized center. Our results suggest that treatment does not prevent ICH and that it can occur at any time during the course of the disease. Delayed referral can be considered a risk factor for unfavorable outcome of ICH, highlighting the importance of teaching sessions for patients and their parents to minimize subsequent morbidity and mortality of ICH in children with ITP. PMID:19955713

  14. Initial effects of the National PCV7 Childhood Immunization Program on adult invasive pneumococcal disease in Israel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gili Regev-Yochay

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: PCV7 was introduced as universal childhood vaccination in Israel in July 2009 and PCV13 in November 2010. Here we report data on adult invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD, two years post PCV7 implementation and before an expected effect of PCV13. METHODS: An ongoing nationwide active-surveillance (all 27 laboratories performing blood cultures in Israel, providing all blood & CSF S. pneumoniae isolates from persons >18 y was initiated in July 2009. Capture-recapture method assured reporting of >95% cases. All isolates were serotyped in one central laboratory. IPD outcome and medical history were recorded in 90%. Second year post PCV implementation is compared to the first year. RESULTS: During July 2009 to June 2011, 970 IPD cases were reported (annual incidence [/100,000] of 9.17 and 10.16 in the two consecutive years, respectively. Respective case fatality rates (CFRs were 20% and 19.1%. Incidence of IPD and CFR increased with age and number of comorbidities. Incidence rate was significantly greater during the second winter, 7.79/100,000 vs. 6.14/100,000 in first winter, p = 0.004, with a non-significant decrease during summer months (3.02 to 2.48/100,000. The proportion of IPD cases due to PCV7-serotypes decreased from 27.5% to 13.1% (first to second year (p64 y. Among younger/healthier patients serotype 5 was the major increasing serotype. Penicillin and ceftriaxone resistance decreased significantly in the second year. CONCLUSIONS: While overall annual incidence of IPD did not change, the indirect effect of PCV7 vaccination was evident by the significant decrease in PCV7 serotypes across all age groups. Increase in non-VT13 strains was significant in immunocompromised patients. A longer follow-up is required to appreciate the full effect of infant vaccination on annual IPD.

  15. Immune thrombocytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistangari, Gaurav; McCrae, Keith R

    2013-06-01

    Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a common hematologic disorder characterized by isolated thrombocytopenia. ITP presents as a primary or a secondary form. ITP may affect individuals of all ages, with peaks during childhood and in the elderly, in whom the age-specific incidence of ITP is greatest. Bleeding is the most common clinical manifestation of ITP. The pathogenesis of ITP is complex, involving alterations in humoral and cellular immunity. Corticosteroids remain the most common first line therapy for ITP. This article summarizes the classification and diagnosis of primary and secondary ITP, as well as the pathogenesis and options for treatment. PMID:23714309

  16. Vaccine-Preventable Childhood Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About CDC.gov . Vaccines and Immunizations Share Compartir Vaccine-Preventable Childhood Diseases On this Page Protect Your ... American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP). Descriptions of Vaccine-preventable Child Diseases The following vaccine-preventable diseases, ...

  17. The influence of maternal prenatal and early childhood nutrition and maternal prenatal stress on offspring immune system development and neurodevelopmental disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Horvath Marques; Thomas G O'connor; Christine eRoth; Ezra eSusser; Anne-Lise eBjørke-Monsen

    2013-01-01

    The developing immune system and central nervous system in the fetus and child are extremely sensitive to both exogenous and endogenous signals. Early immune system programming, leading to changes that can persist over the life course, has been suggested, and other evidence suggests that immune dysregulation in the early developing brain may play a role in neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder and schizophrenia. The timing of immune dysregulation with respect to gesta...

  18. Teachers in Early Childhood Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilderry, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines teacher accountability and authority in early childhood policy. It reports on data from a study that investigated the influences affecting early childhood teacher decision-making at the preschool level in Victoria, Australia. Using a question raised by Ball "Where are the teachers in all this [policy]?" provided a…

  19. More evidence on the impact of India's conditional cash transfer program, Janani Suraksha Yojana: quasi-experimental evaluation of the effects on childhood immunization and other reproductive and child health outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Carvalho

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2005, India established a conditional cash transfer program called Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY, to increase institutional delivery and encourage the use of reproductive and child health-related services. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of maternal receipt of financial assistance from JSY on childhood immunizations, post-partum care, breastfeeding practices, and care-seeking behaviors. METHODS: We use data from the latest district-level household survey (2007-2008 to conduct a propensity score matching analysis with logistic regression. We conduct the analyses at the national level as well as separately across groups of states classified as high-focus and non-high-focus. We carry out several sensitivity analyses including a subgroup analysis stratified by possession of an immunization card. RESULTS: Receipt of financial assistance from JSY led to an increase in immunization rates ranging from 3.1 (95%CI 2.2-4.0 percentage points for one dose of polio vaccine to 9.1 (95%CI 7.5-10.7 percentage points in the proportion of fully vaccinated children. Our findings also indicate JSY led to increased post-partum check-up rates and healthy early breastfeeding practices around the time of childbirth. No effect of JSY was found on exclusive breastfeeding practices and care-seeking behaviors. Effect sizes were consistently larger in states identified as being a key focus for the program. In an analysis stratified by possession of an immunization card, there was little to no effect of JSY among those with vaccination cards, while the effect size was much larger than the base case results for those missing vaccination cards, across nearly all immunization outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Early results suggest the JSY program led to a significant increase in childhood immunization rates and some healthy reproductive health behaviors, but the structuring of financial incentives to pregnant women and health workers warrants further review. Causal

  20. Maternal immunoglobulin E and childhood leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jeffrey S; Buffler, Patricia A; Metayer, Catherine; Chokkalingam, Anand P; Patoka, Joe; Kronish, Daniel; Wiemels, Joseph L

    2009-08-01

    Childhood leukemia, particularly acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), has long been hypothesized to be affected by abnormal immune responses to microbial challenges stemming from a lack of immune modulation in early childhood. Studies of allergies suggest that a child's immune development may be modulated by maternal immune status. We conducted a study to explore the relationship between maternal immunoglobulin E (IgE) and childhood leukemia and to investigate whether maternal immune status can influence childhood leukemia risk. Serum total and specific IgE (respiratory and food) were measured in biological mothers of 352 children (193 healthy controls and 159 leukemia cases, including 139 ALL cases) ages <8 years who were enrolled in the Northern California Childhood Leukemia Study. Odds ratios associated with maternal IgE were calculated using unconditional logistic regression adjusted for child's age, sex, race/ethnicity, and annual household income. A positive association between childhood leukemia or ALL and elevated levels of maternal serum total IgE was observed, especially among Hispanics. In addition, a positive association was observed between childhood leukemia or ALL and maternal respiratory or food IgE status. These results suggest that maternal immune function may play a crucial role in the etiology of childhood leukemia, although additional studies need to be conducted to confirm the results of this study and provide a perspective on mechanisms. PMID:19622720

  1. Multiscale Immune System Simulator for the Onset of Type-2 Diabetes for use in online decision support and coaching tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert De Graaf

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: To empower patients to optimize lifestyle factors and compliance in intervention strategies, predictive personalised simulation models such as developed in the framework of the Virtual Physiological Human initiative (http://www.vph-institute.org/ are a potential important asset. Aim:The FP7 EU project MISSION-T2D aims to develop and validate a computer model incorporating genetic, metabolic, and nutritional data for the simulation and prediction of the onset and progression of T2D. The model should include immunological/inflammatory processes contributing to insulin resistance and beta cell function loss, functionally interacting with energy intake/expenditure-associated metabolic regulatory mechanisms. Methods: The overall architecture of the model interconnects and integrates an already established immune system simulator with newly developed and/or adapted discrete and continuous mathematical simulation models for relevant processes as detailed below. The model is programmed in ANSI/C. Results: Model sections are as follows: 1 GUT MICROBIOTA: predicts how different dietary components affect the relative abundance of important gut bacteria, thus influencing butyrate production, and thereby modulating TNF, IL-6 and IL-1β; 2 PANCREATIC BETA CELL employs mTOR signaling as a central mechanism and predicts the beta cell survival and –functionality as a function of concentration of macrophages, acivated macrophages, and beta cell antigenic proteins; 3 WHOLE BODY METABOLISM describes seven tissue compartments: brain, heart, liver, gastrointestinal tract, skeletal muscle, and adipose tissue, by dynamic mass balances for major cellular metabolic reactions involving glucose, lactate, pyruvate, alanine, free fatty acids, triglycerides, glycerol and ATP as driven by macronutrient meal intake and hormonal control by insulin, glucagon and epinphrine; 4 PHYSICAL ACTIVITY predicts epinephrine concentration and IL-6 as a function of exercise

  2. Childhood Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cells. It is the most common type of childhood cancer. Your blood cells form in your bone ... in the bones or joints Risk factors for childhood leukemia include having a brother or sister with ...

  3. Childhood Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Childhood Stress KidsHealth > For Parents > Childhood Stress Print A A ... and feel stress to some degree. Sources of Stress Stress is a function of the demands placed ...

  4. The Mobile Solutions for Immunization (M-SIMU) Trial: A Protocol for a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial That Assesses the Impact of Mobile Phone Delivered Reminders and Travel Subsidies to Improve Childhood Immunization Coverage Rates and Timeliness in Western Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Gibson, Dustin G.; Kagucia, E. Wangeci; Ochieng, Benard; Hariharan, Nisha; Obor, David; Moulton, Lawrence H.; Peter J. Winch; Levine, Orin S.; Odhiambo, Frank; O'Brien, Katherine L.; Feikin, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Text message (short message service, SMS) reminders and incentives are two demand-side interventions that have been shown to improve health care–seeking behaviors by targeting participant characteristics such as forgetfulness, lack of knowledge, and transport costs. Applying these interventions to routine pediatric immunizations may improve vaccination coverage and timeliness. Objective The Mobile Solutions for Immunization (M-SIMU) trial aims to determine if text message reminders...

  5. Childhood Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, Justine; Howard, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Childhood obesity has important consequences for health and wellbeing both during childhood and also in later adult life. The rising prevalence of childhood obesity poses a major public health challenge in both developed and developing countries by increasing the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases. Despite the urgent need for effective preventative strategies, there remains disagreement over its definition due to a lack of evidence on the optimal cut-offs linking childhood BMI to dis...

  6. Effect of intakes of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids during pregnancy and early childhood оn development, morbidity and immunity of in infants in fist year of life: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marushko RV

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: at present, there are considered the efficient mechanisms existed by which diets high in n-3 LC PUFAs during pregnancy and early childhood may modulate the development of innative immune disorders and promote the adequate formation of immune system both on general and local levels. Early availability of n-3 LC PUFA could contribute to the normal growth and development, decrease risk factors of diseases or pathological disorders in infants. Goals: to assess the relationship between n-3 LC PUFAs intakes during pregnancy and postnatally and development, morbidity and immunity of infants in first year of life. A retrospective study was conducted using interview method of 300 women, whose children reached the age of one year. Elaborated questionnaires were filled in by pediatricians throughout their daily working hours while attending the patients. Was conducted assessment of frequency of common diseases and disorders like respiratory diseases, functional intestinal disorders and atopic diseases. Were investigated immunity of infants assessing the content of IgA, IgG and IgM by immunological methods and detected DHA, EPA (n-3 LC PUFAs and AA (n-6 LC PUFAs by gas chromatographic analysis in blood serum of children. The outcomes of the study were analysed and processed using statistical methods. Retrospective clinical findings indicate on higher incidence of acute respiratory tract and atopic diseases as well as functional disorders of the gastrointestinal tract in infants whose mothers did not use seafood in their diets during the pregnancy and in the lactating period. The research of immunity of children showed no difference in concentration of IgG and IgM in blood serum (p >> 0,05 but significant difference for IgA concentrations in plasma. In infants of n-3 LC PUFAs group IgA concentration was higher compared to opposite group. The fatty acid composition of the blood serum showed changes in the content of the main representatives of n-3

  7. Childhood Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Childhood Cancer KidsHealth > For Parents > Childhood Cancer Print A A A Text Size What's ... in children, but can happen. The most common childhood cancers are leukemia , lymphoma , and brain cancer . As ...

  8. Community Immunity (Herd Immunity)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Read more information on enabling JavaScript. Skip Content Marketing Share this: Main Content Area ​Community Immunity ("Herd" ... population is immunized, protecting most community members. The principle of community immunity applies to control of a ...

  9. The Mobile Solutions for Immunization (M-SIMU) Trial: A Protocol for a Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial That Assesses the Impact of Mobile Phone Delivered Reminders and Travel Subsidies to Improve Childhood Immunization Coverage Rates and Timeliness in Western Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagucia, E. Wangeci; Ochieng, Benard; Hariharan, Nisha; Obor, David; Moulton, Lawrence H; Winch, Peter J; Levine, Orin S; Odhiambo, Frank; O'Brien, Katherine L; Feikin, Daniel R

    2016-01-01

    Background Text message (short message service, SMS) reminders and incentives are two demand-side interventions that have been shown to improve health care–seeking behaviors by targeting participant characteristics such as forgetfulness, lack of knowledge, and transport costs. Applying these interventions to routine pediatric immunizations may improve vaccination coverage and timeliness. Objective The Mobile Solutions for Immunization (M-SIMU) trial aims to determine if text message reminders, either with or without mobile phone–based incentives, sent to infant’s parents can improve immunization coverage and timeliness of routine pediatric vaccines in rural western Kenya. Methods This is a four-arm, cluster, randomized controlled trial. Villages are randomized to one of four study arms prior to enrollment of participants. The study arms are: (1) no intervention (a general health-related text message will be texted to this group at the time of enrollment), (2) text message reminders only, (3) text message reminders and a 75 Kenyan Shilling (KES) incentive, or (4) text message reminders and a KES200 incentive. Participants assigned to study arms 2-4 will receive two text message reminders; sent 3 days before and one day before the scheduled immunization visit at 6, 10, and 14 weeks for polio and pentavalent (containing diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, hepatitis B, and Haemophilus influenza type b antigens) type b antigens) vaccines, and at 9 months for measles vaccine. Participants in incentive arms will, in addition to text message reminders as above, receive mobile phone–based incentives after each timely vaccination, where timely is defined as vaccination within 2 weeks of the scheduled date for each of the four routine expanded program immunization (EPI) vaccination visits. Mother-infant pairs will be followed to 12 months of age where the primary outcome, a fully immunized child, will be ascertained. A fully immunized child is defined as a child receiving

  10. Private provider participation in statewide immunization registries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cowan Anne E

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population-based registries have been promoted as an effective method to improve childhood immunization rates, yet rates of registry participation in the private sector are low. We sought to describe, through a national overview, the perspectives of childhood immunization providers in private practice regarding factors associated with participation or non-participation in immunization registries. Methods Two mailed surveys, one for 264 private practices identified as registry non-participants and the other for 971 identified as registry participants, from 15 of the 31 states with population-based statewide immunization registries. Frequency distributions were calculated separately for non-participants and participants regarding the physician-reported factors that influenced decisions related to registry participation. Pearson chi-square tests of independence were used to assess associations among categorical variables. Results Overall response rate was 62% (N = 756. Among non-participants, easy access to records of vaccines provided at other sites (N = 101, 68% and printable immunization records (N = 82, 55% were most often cited as "very important" potential benefits of a registry, while the most commonly cited barriers to participation were too much cost/staff time (N = 36, 38% and that the practice has its own system for recording and monitoring immunizations (N = 35, 37%. Among registry participants, most reported using the registry to input data on vaccines administered (N = 326, 87% and to review immunization records of individual patients (N = 302, 81%. A minority reported using it to assess their practice's immunization coverage (N = 110, 29% or generate reminder/recall notices (N = 54, 14%. Few participants reported experiencing "significant" problems with the registry; the most often cited was cost/staff time to use the registry (N = 71, 20%. Conclusion Most registry participants report active participation with few

  11. Childhood adversity and DNA methylation of genes involved in the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal axis and immune system: Whole-genome and candidate-gene associations

    OpenAIRE

    Bick, Johanna; Naumova, Oksana; Hunter, Scott; Barbot, Baptiste; Lee, Maria; Luthar, Suniya S.; RAEFSKI, ADAM; Grigorenko, Elena L.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, translational research involving humans and animals has uncovered biological and physiological pathways that explain associations between early adverse circumstances and long-term mental and physical health outcomes. In this article, we summarize the human and animal literature demonstrating that epigenetic alterations in key biological systems, the hypothalamus–pituitary–adrenal axis and immune system, may underlie such disparities. We review evidence suggesting that changes...

  12. Childhood Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Aydın, Ahmet; Koca, Fahrettin; Fıçıcıoğlu, Can; Çam, Halit; Mıkla, Şerare

    1995-01-01

    Management of childhood obesity and its early and late complications are among the most difficult problems confronted by pediatricians and practitioners The purpose of this review is to provide information for the evaluation and treatment of childhood obesity Key nbsp;words: nbsp;Child Obesity Etiology Management Complications

  13. Estimates and determinants of HPV non-vaccination and vaccine refusal in girls 12 to 14 y of age in Canada: Results from the Childhood National Immunization Coverage Survey, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Nicolas L; Gilmour, Heather; Dubé, Ève; Wilson, Sarah E; Laroche, Julie

    2016-06-01

    Since the introduction of HPV vaccination programs in Canada in 2007, coverage has been below public health goals in many provinces and territories. This analysis investigated the determinants of HPV non-vaccination and vaccine refusal. Data from the Childhood National Immunization Coverage Survey (CNICS) 2013 were used to estimate the prevalence of HPV non-vaccination and parental vaccine refusal in girls aged 12-14 years, for Canada and the provinces and territories. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with non-vaccination and vaccine refusal, after adjusting for potential confounders. An estimated 27.7% of 12-14 y old girls had not been vaccinated against HPV, and 14.4% of parents reported refusing the vaccine. The magnitude of non-vaccination and vaccine refusal varied by province or territory and also by responding parent's country of birth. In addition, higher education was associated with a higher risk of refusal of the HPV vaccine. Rates of HPV non-vaccination and of refusal of the HPV vaccine differ and are influenced by different variables. These findings warrant further investigation. PMID:26942572

  14. Introduction of sequential inactivated polio vaccine-oral polio vaccine schedule for routine infant immunization in Brazil's National Immunization Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingues, Carla Magda Allan S; de Fátima Pereira, Sirlene; Cunha Marreiros, Ana Carolina; Menezes, Nair; Flannery, Brendan

    2014-11-01

    In August 2012, the Brazilian Ministry of Health introduced inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) as part of sequential polio vaccination schedule for all infants beginning their primary vaccination series. The revised childhood immunization schedule included 2 doses of IPV at 2 and 4 months of age followed by 2 doses of oral polio vaccine (OPV) at 6 and 15 months of age. One annual national polio immunization day was maintained to provide OPV to all children aged 6 to 59 months. The decision to introduce IPV was based on preventing rare cases of vaccine-associated paralytic polio, financially sustaining IPV introduction, ensuring equitable access to IPV, and preparing for future OPV cessation following global eradication. Introducing IPV during a national multivaccination campaign led to rapid uptake, despite challenges with local vaccine supply due to high wastage rates. Continuous monitoring is required to achieve high coverage with the sequential polio vaccine schedule. PMID:25316829

  15. Childhood Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells. It is the most common type of childhood cancer. ... blood cells help your body fight infection. In leukemia, the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood cells. ...

  16. Childhood leukaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The debate on whether there is any link between leukaemia clusters and nuclear installations has been raging since the early eighties. A Government Inquiry found no link between childhood leukaemia and residence near Seascale, an area near British Nuclear Fuels Sellafield plant. Research in the 1980s linked childhood leukaemia to fathers' occupations prior to conception in the Seascale plant but also to workers in the iron, steel, farming and chemical industries. This article reviews research findings to date. (UK)

  17. Decisions, Decisions: The Countless Times Instructional Practice and Reality Meet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Martina L.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines critical issues related to teacher decision-making in early childhood music classrooms. Through the story of one teacher's experience, we take a closer look at specific criteria to guide decision-making, and strategies to deepen awareness of young children's needs in the music classroom and guide instructional…

  18. Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Immune System KidsHealth > For Teens > Immune System Print A A ... put us out of commission. What the Immune System Does The immune (pronounced: ih-MYOON) system, which ...

  19. Childhood obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitmann, Berit L; Koplan, Jeffrey; Lissner, Lauren

    2009-01-01

    Despite progress toward assuring the health of today's young population, the 21(st) century began with an epidemic of childhood obesity. There is general agreement that the situation must be addressed by means of primary prevention, but relatively little is known about how to intervene effectively....... The evidence behind the assumption that childhood obesity can be prevented was discussed critically in this roundtable symposium. Overall, there was general agreement that action is needed and that the worldwide epidemic itself is sufficient evidence for action. As the poet, writer, and scholar...

  20. Adverse childhood experience and asthma onset: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Exley; Alyson Norman; Michael Hyland

    2015-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences such as abuse and neglect are associated with subsequent immune dysregulation. Some studies show an association between adverse childhood experiences and asthma onset, although significant disparity in results exists in the published literature. We aimed to review available studies employing a prospective design that investigates associations between adverse childhood experience and asthma. A search protocol was developed and studies were drawn from four electron...

  1. Immunity to Diphtheria in Haemodialysis Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Abdolreza S. Jahromi; Mortaza Pourahmd; Sara Azhdari; Gita Manshoori; Abdolhossain Madani; Seyed H. Moosavy

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: The incidence of infectious diseases is increased in patients with chronic renal failure. Chronic renal failure severely influences the immune functions of the host. Diphtheria is of great epidemiological concern. Although mainly observed during childhood, unvaccinated adults and relatively immunocompromised patients are at increased risk for acquiring diphtheria. Approach: To evaluate the anti-Diphtheria immunity level in southern Iranian patients ...

  2. Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuca, Sevil Ari, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book aims to provide readers with a general as well as an advanced overview of the key trends in childhood obesity. Obesity is an illness that occurs due to a combination of genetic, environmental, psychosocial, metabolic and hormonal factors. The prevalence of obesity has shown a great rise both in adults and children in the last 30 years.…

  3. Childhood Obesity

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-06

    In this podcast, Dr. Tom Frieden, CDC Director, discusses the decrease in childhood obesity rates and what strategies have been proven to work to help our children grow up and thrive.  Created: 8/6/2013 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control.   Date Released: 3/6/2014.

  4. Breast milk IL-1β level associates with development of eczema during early childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, A. A.; Chawes, B. L. K.; Carson, C. G.;

    2015-01-01

    We recently demonstrated adual effect of breastfeeding with increasedrisk of eczema and decreased risk ofwheezing in early childhood. We hypothesizethat maternal immune constitutioncharacterized by breast milk mediatorsmay explain such association.......We recently demonstrated adual effect of breastfeeding with increasedrisk of eczema and decreased risk ofwheezing in early childhood. We hypothesizethat maternal immune constitutioncharacterized by breast milk mediatorsmay explain such association....

  5. Childhood Immunization - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hrvatski) French (français) German (Deutsch) Haitian Creole (Kreyol) Hindi (हिन्दी) Hmong (Hmoob) Ilocano (ilokano) Japanese (日本語) ... Action Coalition; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Hindi (हिन्दी) Vaccines for Your Children हिन्दी ( ...

  6. Childhood vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Palit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood vitiligo is often encountered in dermatological practice. When present in infancy or early childhood, various nevoid and hereditary disorders are to be differentiated. In many cases, familial aggregation of the disease is seen and other autoimmune disorders may be associated. Segmental presentation is more common, and limited body surface area involvement is usual in this age group. Children with vitiligo often suffer from anxiety and depression because of their unusual appearance. Management of vitiligo in children is difficult as therapeutic options are restricted when compared to that in adult patients. Selection of treatment should be careful in these patients with the aim to achieve best results with minimal side effects as well as relieving patients′ and parents′ anxiety.

  7. Delivery by Cesarean Section and risk of childhood cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Momen, Natalie; Olsen, Jørn; Gissler, Mika;

    suggest CS does not influence overall childhood cancer risk. We did not see any difference between the two types of CS. Additionally it was not strongly associated with any specific childhood cancer, but power was limited for some types. Considering the high CS rates, even a small increase in risk of......Introduction Studies suggest delivery by Cesarean section (CS) may impact the development of the immune system. Meta-analyses on CS and risks of type I diabetes mellitus and asthma have found risks increased by 20%. Three different mechanisms have been proposed by which CS may influence immune...... childhood cancer could therefore have public health impact....

  8. Childhood psoriasis

    OpenAIRE

    Dogra Sunil; Kaur Inderjeet

    2010-01-01

    Psoriasis is a common dermatosis in children with about one third of all patients having onset of disease in the first or second decade of life. A chronic disfiguring skin disease, such as psoriasis, in childhood is likely to have profound emotional and psychological effects, and hence requires special attention. Psoriasis in children has been reported to differ from that among adults being more frequently pruritic; plaque lesions are relatively thinner, softer, and less scaly; face and flexu...

  9. Childhood Traumatic Grief

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Educators Resources for Kids and Teens Childhood Traumatic Grief What is Childhood Traumatic Grief? Children grieve in their own way following the ... child may have a condition called Childhood Traumatic Grief (CTG). Thinking about the person who died—even ...

  10. Childhood Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Shop With CureSearch Blog Donate Now Select Page Childhood Cancer Statistics Home > Understanding Children’s Cancer > Childhood Cancer Statistics Childhood Cancer Statistics – Graphs and Infographics Number of Diagnoses ...

  11. Childhood roots of financial literacy

    OpenAIRE

    Grohmann, Antonia; Kouwenberg, Roy; Menkhoff, Lukas

    2015-01-01

    Financial literacy predicts informed financial decisions, but what explains financial literacy? We use the concept of financial socialization and aim to represent three major agents of financial socialization: family, school and work. Thus we compile twelve relevant childhood characteristics in a new survey study and examine their relation to financial literacy, while controlling for established socio-demographic characteristics. We find in a mediation analysis that both family and school pos...

  12. Adverse childhood experiences and health risk behaviours in female prisoners

    OpenAIRE

    Alves, Joana Ferreira Cardoso; Maia, Ângela

    2010-01-01

    Adversity during childhood has been the object of innumerous Psychology studies, justified by its prevalence and decisive impact in the development of human being. The most relevant results confirm that adverse childhood experiences increase the incidence of physical and psychological disturbances in adult age. We intends to characterizes adverse childhood experiences and relate them to health risk behaviour and with psychopathological symptoms, as found within a sample group of 4...

  13. Investigating Reported Data Practices in Early Childhood: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brawley, Susan; Stormont, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    The importance of collecting and using data for educational decision making is clear. However, little information has been gathered about the systematic collection and use of data in early childhood. The purpose of this study was to explore teacher perceptions of data collection practices in early childhood. Participants included 137 early…

  14. Generating Visionary Policy for Early Childhood Education and Care: Politicians' and Early Childhood Sector Advocate/Activists' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bown, Kathryn; Sumsion, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    This article contributes to the global conversation about generating a "vision" in early childhood education and care policy by reporting on an investigation of influences on politicians' policy decisions in early childhood education and care in Australia. This article is inspired by the provocations of social and political theorists who…

  15. Childhood psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogra Sunil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a common dermatosis in children with about one third of all patients having onset of disease in the first or second decade of life. A chronic disfiguring skin disease, such as psoriasis, in childhood is likely to have profound emotional and psychological effects, and hence requires special attention. Psoriasis in children has been reported to differ from that among adults being more frequently pruritic; plaque lesions are relatively thinner, softer, and less scaly; face and flexural involvement is common and guttate type is the characteristic presentation. Whether onset in childhood predicts a more severe form of psoriasis is a matter of controversy, it may cause significant morbidity particularly if it keeps relapsing. Most children have mild form of psoriasis which can be generally treated effectively with topical agents such as emollients, coal tar, corticosteroids, dithranol, calcipotriol etc. according to age and the sites affected. Narrow band UVB is the preferred form of phototherapy in children for moderate to severe disease or in patients not responding to topical therapy alone. Systemic therapies are reserved for more severe and extensive cases that cannot be controlled with topical treatment and/or phototherapy such as severe plaque type, unstable forms like erythrodermic and generalized pustular psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. There are no controlled trials of systemic therapies in this age group, most experience being with retinoids and methotrexate with favorable results. Cyclosporine can be used as a short-term intermittent crisis management drug. There is an early promising experience with the use of biologics (etanercept and infliximab in childhood psoriasis. Systemic treatments as well as phototherapy have limited use in children due to cumulative dose effects of drugs, low acceptance, and risk of gonadal toxicity. More evidence-based data is needed about the effectiveness and long-term safety of topical

  16. Childhood Maltreatment and Headache Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietjen, Gretchen E

    2016-04-01

    Childhood maltreatment is substantiated in 12 % of children, but nearly 50 % adults recall having been neglected or abused as children. Maltreatment, especially emotional abuse, is associated with migraine. Dysregulation of the HPA axis, autonomic, immune, and metabolic systems appears to be a consequence of maltreatment, and is also reported in migraine. Areas of the brain structurally and functionally affected by childhood abuse and by migraine are also similar, and include the limbic system structures, which connect to pain regions in the brainstem. Putative mechanisms by which early life stress increases the likelihood of developing migraine include gene x environment interactions, in addition to epigenetic modifications via DNA methylation. These modifications are stable and may be transferred across generations, but they may also be reversed by some medications commonly used in migraine, including valproic acid and topiramate. PMID:26936357

  17. Childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Joan C; Lawlor, Debbie A; Kimm, Sue Y S

    2010-05-15

    Worldwide prevalence of childhood obesity has increased greatly during the past three decades. The increasing occurrence in children of disorders such as type 2 diabetes is believed to be a consequence of this obesity epidemic. Much progress has been made in understanding of the genetics and physiology of appetite control and from these advances, elucidation of the causes of some rare obesity syndromes. However, these rare disorders have so far taught us few lessons about prevention or reversal of obesity in most children. Calorie intake and activity recommendations need reassessment and improved quantification at a population level because of sedentary lifestyles of children nowadays. For individual treatment, currently recommended calorie prescriptions might be too conservative in view of evolving insight into the so-called energy gap. Although quality of research into both prevention and treatment has improved, high-quality multicentre trials with long-term follow-up are needed. Meanwhile, prevention and treatment approaches to increase energy expenditure and decrease intake should continue. Recent data suggest that the spiralling increase in childhood obesity prevalence might be abating; increased efforts should be made on all fronts to continue this potentially exciting trend. PMID:20451244

  18. Decision and decision makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuta Porutiu

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the current economic context, decision making requires complex and multiple actions on the part of the policy makers, who are more challenged than in previous situations, due to the crisis that we are facing. Decision problems cannot be solved by focusing on manager’s own experience or intuition, but require constant adaptation of the methods used effectively in the past to new challenges. Thus, a systemic analysis and modeling of arising issues is required, resulting in the stringent use of Decision Support Systems (DSS, as a necessity in a competitive environment. DSS optimize the situation by getting a timely decision because the decision making process must acquire, process and interpret an even larger amount of data in the shortest possible time. A solution for this purpose is the artificial intelligence systems, in this case Decision Support Systems (DSS, used in a wider area due to expansion of all the new information technologies in decisionmaking processes. These substantial cyber innovations have led to a radical shift in the relationship between enterprise success and quality of decisions made by managers.

  19. Decisions Based on Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Vincent; Lofstrom, Jocelyn; Jerome, Brian

    This guide makes the case for a decision-making focus in the science curriculum as a response to concern over preparing scientifically literate students. The student activities are organized by guided activities and independent exercises. Themes of the guided activities include xenotransplants, immunizations, household cleaning products, ozone,…

  20. Decision and decision makers

    OpenAIRE

    Anuta Porutiu

    2010-01-01

    In the current economic context, decision making requires complex and multiple actions on the part of the policy makers, who are more challenged than in previous situations, due to the crisis that we are facing. Decision problems cannot be solved by focusing on manager’s own experience or intuition, but require constant adaptation of the methods used effectively in the past to new challenges. Thus, a systemic analysis and modeling of arising issues is required, resulting in the stringent use ...

  1. How Are Childhood Cancers Found?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topic How are childhood cancers treated? How are childhood cancers found? Screening for childhood cancers Screening is testing for a disease such ... in people who don’t have any symptoms. Childhood cancers are rare, and there are no widely ...

  2. Echinoderm immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L Courtney; Ghosh, Julie; Buckley, Katherine M; Clow, Lori A; Dheilly, Nolwenn M; Haug, Tor; Henson, John H; Li, Chun; Lun, Cheng Man; Majeske, Audrey J; Matranga, Valeria; Nair, Sham V; Rast, Jonathan P; Raftos, David A; Roth, Mattias; Sacchi, Sandro; Schrankel, Catherine S; Stensvåg, Klara

    2010-01-01

    A survey for immune genes in the genome for the purple sea urchin has shown that the immune system is complex and sophisticated. By inference, immune responses of all echinoderms maybe similar. The immune system is mediated by several types of coelomocytes that are also useful as sensors of environmental stresses. There are a number of large gene families in the purple sea urchin genome that function in immunity and of which at least one appears to employ novel approaches for sequence diversification. Echinoderms have a simpler complement system, a large set of lectin genes and a number of antimicrobial peptides. Profiling the immune genes expressed by coelomocytes and the proteins in the coelomic fluid provide detailed information about immune functions in the sea urchin. The importance of echinoderms in maintaining marine ecosystem stability and the disastrous effects of their removal due to disease will require future collaborations between ecologists and immunologists working towards understanding and preserving marine habitats. PMID:21528703

  3. Childhood medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massimino, Maura; Biassoni, Veronica; Gandola, Lorenza; Garrè, Maria Luisa; Gatta, Gemma; Giangaspero, Felice; Poggi, Geraldina; Rutkowski, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    Medulloblastoma accounts for 15-20% of childhood nervous system tumours. The risk of dying was reduced by 30% in the last twenty years. Patients are divided in risk strata according to post-surgical disease, dissemination, histology and some molecular features such as WNT subgroup and MYC status. Sixty to 70% of patients older than 3 years are assigned to the average-risk group. High-risk patients include those with disseminated and/or residual disease, large cell and/or anaplastic histotypes, MYC genes amplification. Current and currently planned clinical trials will: (1) evaluate the feasibility of reducing both the dose of craniospinal irradiation and the volume of the posterior fossa radiotherapy (RT) for those patients at low biologic risk, commonly identified as those having a medulloblastoma of the WNT subgroup; (2) determine whether intensification of chemotherapy (CT) or irradiation can improve outcome in patients with high-risk disease; (3) find target therapies allowing tailored therapies especially for relapsing patients and those with higher biological risk. PMID:27375228

  4. Ensuring Adequate Early Childhood Development for Uganda’s Children

    OpenAIRE

    Kasirye, Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    Although Uganda has made significant progress in reducing child deaths in the past five years, the country still faces major challenges in ensuring adequate early childhood development. This briefing highlights some of the major challenges affecting children during the first five years of life with focus on: the low immunization coverage rates and vaccine availability; poor child nutritional health status; and the limited enrolment of children in Early Childhood Development Centres.

  5. Development of Interleukin-12-Producing Capacity throughout Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Upham, John W.; Lee, Peter T.; Holt, Barbara J.; Heaton, Tricia; Prescott, Susan L.; Sharp, Mary J.; Peter D Sly; Holt, Patrick G

    2002-01-01

    Increasing evidence indicates that the capacity to induce protective Th1 immune responses is impaired in early childhood, an observation that can be partially attributed to deficiencies in antigen-presenting-cell function. Synthesis of interleukin 12 (IL-12), a key Th1-trophic cytokine, is markedly reduced in the neonatal period, though there is a paucity of knowledge concerning the ontogeny of IL-12-synthetic capacity throughout the childhood years. Hence, we examined the production of bioac...

  6. Increasing immunization coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Lawrence D; Curry, Edward S; Harlor, Allen D; Laughlin, James J; Leeds, Andrea J; Lessin, Herschel R; Rodgers, Chadwick T; Granado-Villar, Deise C; Brown, Jeffrey M; Cotton, William H; Gaines, Beverly Marie Madry; Gambon, Thresia B; Gitterman, Benjamin A; Gorski, Peter A; Kraft, Colleen A; Marino, Ronald Vincent; Paz-Soldan, Gonzalo J; Zind, Barbara

    2010-06-01

    Internet as well as standard media outlets to advance a position, wholly unsupported by any scientific evidence, linking vaccines with various childhood conditions, particularly autism. Much remains to be accomplished by physician organizations; vaccine manufacturers; third-party payers; the media; and local, state, and federal governments to ensure dependable vaccine supply and payments that are sufficient to continue to provide immunizations in public and private settings and to promote effective strategies to combat unjustified misstatements by the antivaccination movement. Pediatricians should work individually and collectively at the local, state, and national levels to ensure that all children without a valid contraindication receive all childhood immunizations on time. Pediatricians and pediatric organizations, in conjunction with government agencies such as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, must communicate effectively with parents to maximize their understanding of the overall safety and efficacy of vaccines. Most parents and children have not experienced many of the vaccine-preventable diseases, and the general public is not well informed about the risks and sequelae of these conditions. A number of recommendations are included for pediatricians, individually and collectively, to support further progress toward the goal of universal immunization coverage of all children for whom vaccines are not contraindicated. PMID:20513736

  7. Childhood Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... They are among the most common types of childhood cancers. Some are benign tumors, which aren't ... can still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches ...

  8. Childhood Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain tumors are abnormal growths inside the skull. They are among the most common types of childhood ... still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches and ...

  9. Childhood Overweight and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Childhood Obesity Facts The prevalence of obesity among low-income children aged 2 through 4 years, by state ... Obesity now affects 1 in 6 children and adolescents in the United States. Childhood Obesity Facts How ...

  10. Reducing Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Reducing Childhood Obesity Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents For ... page please turn Javascript on. The We Can! childhood obesity-prevention program involves parents, caregivers, and community leaders ...

  11. Echinoderm immunity

    OpenAIRE

    JE García-Arrarás; F Ramírez-Gómez

    2010-01-01

    Echinoderms are exclusively marine animals that, after the chordates, represent the second largest group of deuterostomes. Their diverse species composition and singular ecological niches provide at the same time challenges and rewards when studying the broad range of responses that make up their immune mechanisms. Two types of responses comprise the immune system of echinoderms: a cellular response and a humoral one. Cell-based immunity is carried by the celomocytes, a morphologically hetero...

  12. DNA Immunization

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Shixia; Lu, Shan

    2013-01-01

    DNA immunization was discovered in early 1990s and its use has been expanded from vaccine studies to a broader range of biomedical research, such as the generation of high quality polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies as research reagents. In this unit, three common DNA immunization methods are described: needle injection, electroporation and gene gun. In addition, several common considerations related to DNA immunization are discussed.

  13. Immune Thrombocytopenia

    OpenAIRE

    Kistanguri, Gaurav; McCrae, Keith R

    2013-01-01

    Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is a common hematologic disorder characterized by isolated thrombocytopenia. ITP presents as a primary form characterized by isolated thrombocytopenia (platelet count < 100 × 109/L) in the absence of other causes or disorders that may be associated with thrombocytopenia, or a secondary form in which immune thrombocytopenia develops in association with another disorder that is usually immune or infectious. ITP may affect individuals of all ages, with peaks during ...

  14. The impact of helminths on the response to immunization and on the incidence of infection and disease in childhood in Uganda: design of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, factorial trial of deworming interventions delivered in pregnancy and early childhood [ISRCTN32849447

    OpenAIRE

    Alison M Elliott; Kizza, Moses; Maria A Quigley; Ndibazza, Juliet; Nampijja, Margaret; Muhangi, Lawrence; Morison, Linda; Namujju, Proscovia B; Muwanga, Moses; Kabatereine, Narcis; Whitworth, James AG

    2007-01-01

    Background Helminths have profound effects on the immune response, allowing long-term survival of parasites with minimal damage to the host. Some of these effects "spill-over", altering responses to non-helminth antigens or allergens. It is suggested that this may lead to impaired responses to immunizations and infections, while conferring benefits against inflammatory responses in allergic and autoimmune disease. These effects might develop in utero, through exposure to maternal helminth inf...

  15. Schizophrenia patients with a history of childhood trauma have a pro-inflammatory phenotype

    OpenAIRE

    Dennison, Una; McKernan, Declan P.; Cryan, John F; Dinan, Timothy G.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Increasing evidence indicates that childhood trauma is a risk factor for schizophrenia and patients with this syndrome have a pro-inflammatory phenotype. We tested the hypothesis that the pro-inflammatory phenotype in schizophrenia is associated with childhood trauma and that patients without a history of such trauma have a similar immune profile to healthy controls. Method. We recruited 40 schizophrenia patients and 40 controls, all of whom completed the Childhood Trauma ...

  16. Childhood proptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proptosis in children is a hallmark of orbital diseases which can present a diagnostic challenge requiring thoughtful investigation. The aim of this review is to provide the reader an overview of the subject of childhood proptosis with an emphasis on the systematic and practical approach for the work-up of proptosis in children. Use of proper imaging studies is essential for the correct diagnosis. Computed tomography is a good screening test for any space occupying lesion of the orbit. Proptosis describes eye prominence due to space occupying orbital lesions. Congenital lesions usually present in the first decade of life. Acquired orbital lesions such as lymphangiomas, orbital varix, rhabdomyosarcoma and neural tumors may present at the end of the first decade of life. Metastatic tumors to the orbit, adenocarcinoma of lacrimal gland and rapidly growing masses may present with proptosis associated with pain. Visual loss can be the presenting symptoms in the patients with optic nerve (ON) gliomas, orbital meningiomas and posteriorly located tumors. Cystic lesions of the orbit may be congenital or acquired, dermoid cysts being the most common congenital orbital lesions. Some of the vascular lesions of the orbit include capillary hemangiomas, lymphangiomas, orbital varix, and arteriovenous malformations. Inflammatory process of the orbit in children include cellulitis and pseudotumor. Neural tumors such as neurofibromas, ON gilomas and meningiomas are less common causes of proptosis in children. Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common primary orbital malignancy in children which can present with acute proptosis and is one of the few life-threatening diseases seen initially by an ophthalmologist. Secondary orbital tumors invade the orbit from adjacent sinuses, cranium or extended from the eye itself. The most common distant metastases in children include neuroblastoma and Ewing's sarcoma. Although many orbital processes can be diagnosed based on history, clinical

  17. Health and Safety in Early Childhood Centres. AECA Resource Book Series, No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plested, Dawn

    This guide is designed to provide practical support and information about health and safety to workers in all early childhood settings. The booklet outlines the main attributes of a safe early childhood center, and then covers the following specific topics: (1) health care; (2) self-esteem; (3) immunizations; (4) nutrition; (5) medical and safety…

  18. Split Decisions, Split Decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The lead stories in Nature and Science went in opposite directions this week. Science chose outer space, launching into NASA’s hotly disputed decision to shelve a planned mission to Pluto. Nature plunged into inner space with a story about a report to the European Commission advising against granting “premature” approval to create human embryos for stem-cell research.

  19. Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    A properly functioning immune system is essential to good health. It defends the body against infectious agents and in some cases tumor cells. Individuals with immune deficiencies resulting from genetic defects, diseases (e.g., AIDS, leukemia), or drug therapies are more suscepti...

  20. Cesarean Section and Chronic Immune Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sevelsted, Astrid; Stokholm, Jakob; Bønnelykke, Klaus;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Immune diseases such as asthma, allergy, inflammatory bowel disease, and type 1 diabetes have shown a parallel increase in prevalence during recent decades in westernized countries. The rate of cesarean delivery has also increased in this period and has been associated with the...... development of some of these diseases. METHODS: Mature children born by cesarean delivery were analyzed for risk of hospital contact for chronic immune diseases recorded in the Danish national registries in the 35-year period 1977-2012. Two million term children participated in the primary analysis. We...... studied childhood diseases with a suspected relation to a deviant immune-maturation and a debut at young age. The effect of cesarean delivery on childhood disease incidences were estimated by means of confounder-adjusted incidence rate ratios with 95% confidence intervals obtained in Poisson regression...

  1. 新诊断儿童免疫性血小板减少症与人细小病毒B19 感染的相关性研究%A Retrospective Analysis of Human Parvovirus B19 Infection in Childhood Immune Thrombocytopenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程衍杨; 熊昊; 徐之良

    2015-01-01

    目的 明确人细小病毒B19(human parvovirus B19,B19)感染对儿童新诊断免疫性血小板减少症(immune thrombo-cytopenia, ITP)的影响. 方法 选取2011年1月~2013年12月间416例首次住院并确诊为新诊断ITP患儿为疾病组;随机选取无血小板减少及其他血液系统疾病的普通呼吸道感染住院患儿130例作为对照组. ITP患儿及对照组儿童按年龄段分为0.05). ITP患儿均未接受针对B19的相关抗病毒治疗,而针对血小板减少经丙种球蛋白和(或)激素治疗后,疾病组与对照组患儿PLT缓解率差异无统计学意义,与各年龄段B19阴性的ITP患儿治疗后缓解率比较差异均无统计学意义(P均>0.05). 结论 B19感染可能不是新诊断ITP患儿发病的一个主要致病因素;是否治疗B19并不影响儿童急性ITP的治疗效果,因此B19感染的新诊断ITP患儿无需同时接受B19抗病毒的相关治疗.%Objective To confirm the role of human parvovirus B 19 ( B19) infection in childhood immune thrombocytopenia ( ITP) patients.Methods A total of 416 cases of newly diagnosed childhood ITP patients from Jan .2011 to Dec.2013 had been summarized to be cases group , Then a total of 130 childhood patients with common respiratory tract infection were selected randomly as the control group . All patients had been divided in grouped by age as 0.05) was found.All the ITP patients had not been given anti -B19 treatment.The PLT remission rate,respectively, after treated with the same pro-tocol including glucocorticoid and/or immunoglobulin had a declining trend as the ages increasing .The B19 infection groups of all ages al-so had no significant difference PLT remission rate had been confirmed in non -B19 infection patients in each age groups (all P>0.05). Conclusions B19 infection may not be a major cause in childhood newly ITP , and treatment protocol with no anti -B19 treatment had no influence on the clinical curative efficacy .

  2. Adult immunization-Need of the hour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarthi, P Srinivas; Ganta, Avani; Kattimani, Vivekanand S; Tiwari, Rahul V C

    2016-01-01

    Immunization is the process or the act of making individuals immune, which is usually done during childhood. Everyone is aware about immunization during childhood, however, very few know about adult immunization. This led us to review the adult immunization literature for the preventive strategies through various vaccination protocols. Adults do require vaccination protocols with booster doses for hepatitis B, Shingles, communicable diseases, traveler's diseases, etc. In this context, this article revises much of the available adult immunization literature and presents comprehensive guidelines. This article will increase the awareness regarding the importance of vaccination for adults to prevent a variety of conditions prevalent in our country as well as epidemics. The article comprehensively provides insights into the available vaccination and preventive strategy of human papilloma virus (HPV), hepatitis, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in this part of the review. We strongly recommend all the health care professionals to educate their co-professionals and the public to use the benefits of adult immunization. It is the need of the hour and reduces the burden of treatment and increases productivity. PMID:27583212

  3. Does Early Childhood Teacher Education Affect Students' Cognitive Orientations? The Effect of Different Education Tracks in Teacher Education on Prospective Early Childhood Teachers' Cognitive Orientations in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischo, Christoph; Wahl, Stefan; Strohmer, Janina; Wolf, Carina

    2014-01-01

    Early childhood teachers may differ regarding the knowledge base they use when making professional decisions. In this study two orientations are distinguished: the orientation towards scientific knowledge vs. the orientation towards intuition and subjective experience. As different tracks in early childhood teacher education qualify for…

  4. A Web-Based Tool to Support Data-Based Early Intervention Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzhardt, Jay; Greenwood, Charles; Walker, Dale; Carta, Judith; Terry, Barbara; Garrett, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Progress monitoring and data-based intervention decision making have become key components of providing evidence-based early childhood special education services. Unfortunately, there is a lack of tools to support early childhood service providers' decision-making efforts. The authors describe a Web-based system that guides service providers…

  5. Echinoderm immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JE García-Arrarás

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Echinoderms are exclusively marine animals that, after the chordates, represent the second largest group of deuterostomes. Their diverse species composition and singular ecological niches provide at the same time challenges and rewards when studying the broad range of responses that make up their immune mechanisms. Two types of responses comprise the immune system of echinoderms: a cellular response and a humoral one. Cell-based immunity is carried by the celomocytes, a morphologically heterogeneous population of free roaming cells that are capable of recognizing and neutralizing pathogens. Celomocytes present diverse morphologies and functions, which include phagocytosis, encapsulation, clotting, cytotoxicity, wound healing among others. Humoral immunity is mediated by a wide variety of secreted compounds that can be found in the celomic fluid and play important roles in defense against infection. Compounds such as lectins, agglutinins, perforins, complement and some cytokines make up some of the humoral responses of echinoderms. Recent advances in the field of molecular biology, genomics and transcriptomics have allowed for the discovery of new immune genes and their products. These discoveries have expanded our knowledge of echinoderm immunity and are setting up the stage for future experiments to better understand the evolution of the immune mechanisms of deuterostomes

  6. Immunity booster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The immunity booster is, according to its patent description, microbiologically pure water with an D/(D+H) isotopic concentration of 100 ppm, with physical-chemical characteristics similar to those of distilled water. It is obtained by sterilization of a mixture of deuterium depleted water, with a 25 ppm isotopic concentration, with distilled water in a volume ratio of 4:6. Unlike natural immunity boosters (bacterial agents as Bacillus Chalmette-Guerin, Corynebacterium parvum; lipopolysaccharides; human immunoglobulin) or synthetical products (levamysol; isoprinosyne with immunostimulating action), which cause hypersensitivity and shocks, thrill, fever, sickness and the immunity complex disease, the water of 100 ppm D/(D + H) isotopic concentration is a toxicity free product. The testing for immune reaction of the immunity booster led to the following results: - an increase of cell action capacity in the first immunity shielding stage (macrophages), as evidenced by stimulation of a number of essential characterizing parameters, as well as of the phagocytosis capacity, bactericide capacity, and opsonic capacity of serum; - an increase of the number of leucocyte particularly of the granulocyte in peripheral blood, produced especially when medullar toxic agents like caryolysine are used; - it hinders the effect of lowering the number of erythrocytes in peripheral blood produced by experimentally induced chronic inflammation; - an increase of nonspecific immunity defence capacity against specific bacterial aggression of both Gram-positive bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae558) and of the Gram-negative ones (Klebsiella pneumoniae 507); - an increase of immunity - stimulating activity (proinflamatory), like that of levamisole as evidenced by the test of stimulation of experimentally induced inflammation by means of carrageenan. The following advantages of the immunity booster are stressed: - it is toxicity free and side effect free; - can be orally administrated as food

  7. Immunity challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, R John

    2003-06-11

    As people get older, their immune systems falter. The elderly are more susceptible to infections than youngsters are, and hyperactive inflammatory responses appear to contribute to some age-associated illnesses, including Alzheimer's disease and atherosclerosis. Investigating the effect of aging on the immune system was once a scientific stepchild, but card-carrying immunologists are now tackling the problem head-on. Despite the immune system's complexity, researchers have started to make sense of how its components change with age. As the research progresses, scientists hope to bolster elderly people's response to infectious diseases and quiet the inflammation that can make aging a painful experience. PMID:12844525

  8. Childhood trauma and childhood urbanicity in relation to psychotic disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frissen, Aleida; Lieverse, Ritsaert; Drukker, Marjan; van Winkel, Ruud; Delespaul, Philippe; Cahn, W

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urban upbringing and childhood trauma are both associated with psychotic disorders. However, the association between childhood urbanicity and childhood trauma in psychosis is poorly understood. The urban environment could occasion a background of social adversity against which any effect

  9. Adult Immunization

    OpenAIRE

    Omer Coskun

    2008-01-01

    Despite the many advances in modern medicine, each year thousands of people in the world die from diseases that are easily prevented by safe and effective vaccines. Few measures in preventive medicine are of such proven value and as easy to implement as routine immunization against infectious diseases. Prevention of infection by immunization is a lifelong process. There are a number of vaccines that all adults (¡I18 years) require. There are also other vaccines that need to be tailored t...

  10. Childhood as a value

    OpenAIRE

    EWELINA PIECUCH

    2011-01-01

    The article encompasses the problems of childhood and its influence on the rest of one's life. I have concentrated on this crucial and specific time in life. It is demonstrated by biology, medicine, psychology, and psychoanalysis that human habits are formed in childhood. Health, hygiene and aesthetic behaviour determine one's further fate and influence life in its entirety. It is that phase of human life that determines the rest of it. In childhood children manifest their cogn...

  11. TLR Stimulation of Bone Marrow Lymphoid Precursors from Childhood Acute Leukemia Modifies Their Differentiation Potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Dorantes-Acosta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute leukemias are the most frequent childhood malignancies worldwide and remain a leading cause of morbidity and mortality of relapsed patients. While remarkable progress has been made in characterizing genetic aberrations that may control these hematological disorders, it has also become clear that abnormalities in the bone marrow microenvironment might hit precursor cells and contribute to disease. However, responses of leukemic precursor cells to inflammatory conditions or microbial components upon infection are yet unexplored. Our previous work and increasing evidence indicate that Toll-like receptors (TLRs in the earliest stages of lymphoid development in mice and humans provide an important mechanism for producing cells of the innate immune system. Using highly controlled co-culture systems, we now show that lymphoid precursors from leukemic bone marrow express TLRs and respond to their ligation by changing cell differentiation patterns. While no apparent contribution of TLR signals to tumor progression was recorded for any of the investigated diseases, the replenishment of innate cells was consistently promoted upon in vitro TLR exposure, suggesting that early recognition of pathogen-associated molecules might be implicated in the regulation of hematopoietic cell fate decisions in childhood acute leukemia.

  12. Childhood Cancer Survivor Study: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancers of Childhood Treatment Childhood Cancer Genomics Research Childhood Cancer Survivor Study: An Overview In 2016, it ... Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer .) The Childhood Cancer Survivor Study ( CCSS ), funded by the National ...

  13. ASSESSMENT OF KNOWLEDGE ABOUT IMMUNIZATION OF UNDER FIVE CHILDREN AMONG MOTHERS ATTENDING OUTPATIENT DEPARTMENT OF PEDIATRICS IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL IN KOLLAM, KERALA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Nadeem

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND : Immunization is the most cost effective public health intervention to reduce childhood morbidity and mortality. Thousands of children can be saved from vaccine preventable diseases each year by immunization. The knowledge of mothers’ is an important factor for better immunization coverage. Less knowledge affects decision making regarding immunization. OBJECTIVES: To assess the knowledge about immunization of under five children among mothers a ttending outpatient department of paediatrics in a tertiary care hospital in Kollam, Kerala and to find out the association of the knowledge level of mothers with some selected variables. MATERIAL AND METHODS : A Cross sectional study was done among mothers of under five children attending the OPD of pediatrics in a tertiary care hospital in Kollam, Kerala from 1 st to 30 th May, 2014. The sample size was 210 and simple random sampling was used. Statistical analysis was done and chi - square test & percentages w ere calculated. RESULT: 93.8% of mothers knew that vaccines are beneficial for their child. 58% were aware about the side effects of few vaccines. 50% of mothers believed that as polio is eradicated from India, there is no need to give polio vaccine. 35% o f mothers acquired knowledge regarding immunization through health workers. All of them had knowledge about polio vaccine but only half of them knew about rotavirus vaccine. 60% mothers believed that multiple vaccines are beneficial although 26% hold their view that it has no benefit at all. 39.5% of mothers’ had adequate knowledge about immunization. It was positively associated with education, working class and high socio - economic status of mothers. CONCLUSION: There are several loopholes in the mother’s knowledge regarding immunization. Many of them had no knowledge about optional vaccines. There is a need to improve knowledge regarding immunization among general population. Adequate information about completin g the

  14. Etiology of common childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: the adrenal hypothesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, K.; Vestergaard, T.; Nielsen, S.M.;

    2008-01-01

    The pattern of infections in the first years of life modulates our immune system, and a low incidence of infections has been linked to an increased risk of common childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We here present a new interpretation of these observations--the adrenal hypothesis...

  15. Sexual Revictimization in Adult Women: Examining Factors Associated with Their Childhood and Adulthood Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmel, Cassandra; Postmus, Judy L.; Lee, Inseon

    2012-01-01

    Using data collected from a sample of adult women (n = 234), this study examined the relationship between the experience and disclosure of childhood sexual abuse and subsequent adult sexual violence. Multivariate analyses revealed that physical force during the childhood sexual abuse experience was significant in both children's decisions to…

  16. African American Pastors' Beliefs and Actions Regarding Childhood Incest in the African American Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Tesia Denis

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study sought to explore African American pastors' beliefs and actions regarding childhood incest in the African American community and their decisions to inform the proper authorities. This exploratory study was developed in order to draw both public and academic attention to the understudied phenomenon of childhood incest…

  17. In vitro amplified human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-haploidentical donor immune cell infusion (HDICI) is not commonly used in children. Therefore, our study sought to evaluate its safety for treating childhood malignancies. Between September 2011 and September 2012, 12 patients with childhood malignancies underwent HDICI in Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center. The median patient age was 5.1 years (range, 1.7-8.4 years). Of the 12 patients, 9 had high-risk neuroblastoma (NB) [7 showed complete response (CR), 1 showed partial response (PR), and 1 had progressive disease (PD) after multi-modal therapies], and 3 had Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive lymphoproliferative disease (EBV-LPD). The 12 patients underwent a total of 92 HDICIs at a mean dose of 1.6×108 immune cells/kg body weight: 71 infusions with natural killer (NK) cells, 8 with cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells, and 13 with cascade primed immune cells (CAPRIs); 83 infusions with immune cells from the mothers, whereas 9 with cells from the fathers. Twenty cases (21.7%) of fever, including 6 cases (6.5%) accompanied with chills and 1 (1.1%) with febrile convulsion, occurred during infusions and were alleviated after symptomatic treatments. Five cases (5.4%) of mild emotion changes were reported. No other adverse events occurred during and after the completion of HDIDIs. Neither acute nor chronic graft versus host disease (GVHD) was observed following HDICIs. After a median of 5.0 months (range, 1.0-11.5 months) of follow-up, the 2 NB patients with PR and PD developed PD during HDICIs. Of the other 7 NB patients in CR, 2 relapsed in the sixth month of HDICIs, and 5 maintained CR with disease-free survival (DFS) ranging from 4.5 to 11.5 months (median, 7.2 months). One EBV-LPD patient achieved PR, whereas 2 had stable disease (SD). Our results show that HDICI is a safe immunotherapy for childhood malignancies, thus warranting further studies.

    OpenAIRE

    Fei Zhang; Xiao-Fei Sun

    2013-01-01

    In vitro amplified human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-haploidentical donor immune cell infusion (HDICI) is not commonly used in children. Therefore, our study sought to evaluate its safety for treating childhood malignancies. Between September 2011 and September 2012, 12 patients with childhood malignancies underwent HDICI in Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center. The median patient age was 5.1 years (range, 1.7-8.4 years). Of the 12 patients, 9 had high-risk neuroblastoma (NB) [7 showed complete r...

  18. Childhood Obesity. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summerfield, Liane M.

    In this discussion of childhood obesity, the medical and psychological problems associated with the condition are noted. Childhood obesity most likely results from an interaction of nutritional, psychological, familial, and physiological factors. Three factors--the family, low-energy expenditure, and heredity--are briefly examined. Early…

  19. Reframing Early Childhood Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamopoulos, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Rapid changes in Australian education have intensified the role of early childhood leaders and led to unprecedented challenges. The Australian Curriculum (ACARA, 2011), mandated Australian "National Quality Framework" (NQF) for Early Childhood Education & Care (DEEWR, 2010b) and the "National Early Years Learning Framework" (EYLF) (DEEWR, 2009)…

  20. Rational decisions

    CERN Document Server

    Binmore, Ken

    2008-01-01

    It is widely held that Bayesian decision theory is the final word on how a rational person should make decisions. However, Leonard Savage--the inventor of Bayesian decision theory--argued that it would be ridiculous to use his theory outside the kind of small world in which it is always possible to ""look before you leap."" If taken seriously, this view makes Bayesian decision theory inappropriate for the large worlds of scientific discovery and macroeconomic enterprise. When is it correct to use Bayesian decision theory--and when does it need to be modified? Using a minimum of mathematics,

  1. Impact of the introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine on immunization coverage among infants

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Feifei; Xu Stanley; France Eric K; Yu Xian-Jie; Chan K Arnold; Kleinman Ken; Lin Nancy D; Mullooly John; Santoli Jeanne; Lieu Tracy A

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background The introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) to the U.S. recommended childhood immunization schedule in the year 2000 added three injections to the number of vaccinations a child is expected to receive during the first year of life. Surveys have suggested that the addition of PCV has led some immunization providers to move other routine childhood vaccinations to later ages, which could increase the possibility of missing these vaccines. The purpose of this stud...

  2. Susceptibility to Lower Respiratory Infections in Childhood is Associated with Perturbation of the Cytokine Response to Pathogenic Airway Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, Nadja Hawwa; Larsen, Jeppe Madura; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neonatal colonization of the airways with respiratory pathogens is associated with increased risk of lower respiratory infections (LRI) in early childhood. Therefore, we hypothesized that children developing LRI have an aberrant immune response to pathogenic bacteria in infancy. OBJEC...

  3. Vitamin D and Atopic Dermatitis in Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelangelo Vestita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D features immunomodulatory effects on both the innate and adaptive immune systems, which may explain the growing evidence connecting vitamin D to allergic diseases. A wealth of studies describing a beneficial effect of vitamin D on atopic dermatitis (AD prevalence and severity are known. However, observations linking high vitamin D levels to an increased risk of developing AD have also been published, effectively creating a controversy. In this paper, we review the existing literature on the association between AD and vitamin D levels, focusing on childhood. As of today, the role of vitamin D in AD is far from clear; additional studies are particularly needed in order to confirm the promising therapeutic role of vitamin D supplementation in childhood AD.

  4. Vitamin D and Atopic Dermatitis in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestita, Michelangelo; Filoni, Angela; Congedo, Maurizio; Foti, Caterina

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D features immunomodulatory effects on both the innate and adaptive immune systems, which may explain the growing evidence connecting vitamin D to allergic diseases. A wealth of studies describing a beneficial effect of vitamin D on atopic dermatitis (AD) prevalence and severity are known. However, observations linking high vitamin D levels to an increased risk of developing AD have also been published, effectively creating a controversy. In this paper, we review the existing literature on the association between AD and vitamin D levels, focusing on childhood. As of today, the role of vitamin D in AD is far from clear; additional studies are particularly needed in order to confirm the promising therapeutic role of vitamin D supplementation in childhood AD. PMID:25973433

  5. Lifestyle changes and childhood asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Neil; Douwes, Jeroen

    2013-03-01

    In recent decades there have been marked increases in asthma prevalence in Western countries. More recently, asthma prevalence has peaked, or even begun to decline, in Western countries, but many low and middle income countries are now beginning to experience increases in prevalence (although there is no evidence of increases in prevalence in India to date). "Established" risk factors for asthma cannot account for the global prevalence increases, or the international patterns that have been observed, or the recent declines in prevalence in some Western countries. It seems that as a result of the "package" of changes in the intrauterine and infant environment that are occurring with "Westernization", we are seeing an increased susceptibility to the development of asthma and/or allergy. There are a number of elements of this "package" including changes in maternal diet, increased fetal growth, smaller family size, reduced infant infections and increased use of antibiotics and paracetamol, and immunization, all of which have been (inconsistently) associated with an increased risk of childhood asthma, but none of which can alone explain the increases in prevalence. It is likely that the "package" is more than the sum of its parts, and that these social and environmental changes are all pushing the infants' immune systems towards an increased risk of asthma. PMID:22555908

  6. Making Healthy Decisions About Sex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sleep Safety & Prevention Safety & Prevention Safety and Prevention Immunizations At Home At Play On The Go All ... Healthy Decisions About Sex Ages & Stages ... read on. Your doctor wants to make sure you know the facts. Important Reminders: No one should ever be forced to have ...

  7. Childhood trauma and childhood urbanicity in relation to psychotic disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Frissen, Aleida; Lieverse, Ritsaert; Drukker, Marjan; van Winkel, Ruud; Delespaul, Philippe; [...

    2015-01-01

    Background Urban upbringing and childhood trauma are both associated with psychotic disorders. However, the association between childhood urbanicity and childhood trauma in psychosis is poorly understood. The urban environment could occasion a background of social adversity against which any effect of childhood trauma increases. Also, any impact of the urban environment on likelihood of exposure to childhood trauma could be stronger in children who later develop psychotic disorder. The aim of...

  8. Childhood trauma and childhood urbanicity in relation to psychotic disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Frissen, Aleida; Lieverse, Ritsaert; Drukker, Marjan; van Winkel, Ruud; Delespaul, Philippe; Cahn, W.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urban upbringing and childhood trauma are both associated with psychotic disorders. However, the association between childhood urbanicity and childhood trauma in psychosis is poorly understood. The urban environment could occasion a background of social adversity against which any effect of childhood trauma increases. Also, any impact of the urban environment on likelihood of exposure to childhood trauma could be stronger in children who later develop psychotic disorder. The aim o...

  9. Situação vacinal infantil e características individuais e familiares do interior de São Paulo = Childhood immunization status, and individual and family characteristics in the interior of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia Molina

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available O estudo teve como objetivo descrever e analisar características individuais e familiares das crianças e características do serviço de saúde e suas relações com a situação vacinal para diferentes tipos de vacinas e doses. Utilizaram-se três fontes de informações: registros do Sistema Municipal de Informação em Saúde, carteira de vacinação e entrevista, mediante questionário fechado. As famílias entrevistadas estavam em fase de “maturação” de crescimento, com proles de um ou dois filhos; os cuidadores eram, na maioria, mães jovens,economicamente inativas e havia facilidade de acesso ao serviço de saúde. Cerca de 30% não receberam orientação sobre a vacina aplicada, reações e retorno da próxima vacina. Os maiores atrasos foram das vacinas contra o sarampo (6,3% e o Haemophilus influenzae tipo B(4,2%. Observa-se que o motivo do atraso vacinal e a não-vacinação parecem estar mais relacionados a características do serviço do que às da população.The aim of this study was to describe and analyze individual and family characteristics of children and those of health services, as well as their relationship with the immunization status for different kinds of vaccines and doses. Three sources of information were used: records from the Municipal Health Information System, immunization charts, and interviews using closed-ended questions. The familiesinterviewed still had one or two growing children; caretakers were usually young unemployed mothers with easy access to health services. Around 30% of them were not instructed on the vaccine being given, its reactions or when to return for the next shot. The greatest levels of tardiness occurred with the vaccines against measles (6.3% and Haemophilus influenzae B (4.2%. It was possible to observe that tardiness or absence of vaccinations seem to have a stronger relationship with service characteristics than with population characteristics.

  10. The role of childhood trauma in bipolar disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aas, Monica; Henry, Chantal; Andreassen, Ole A; Bellivier, Frank; Melle, Ingrid; Etain, Bruno

    2016-12-01

    This review will discuss the role of childhood trauma in bipolar disorders. Relevant studies were identified via Medline (PubMed) and PsycINFO databases published up to and including July 2015. This review contributes to a new understanding of the negative consequences of early life stress, as well as setting childhood trauma in a biological context of susceptibility and discussing novel long-term pathophysiological consequences in bipolar disorders. Childhood traumatic events are risk factors for developing bipolar disorders, in addition to a more severe clinical presentation over time (primarily an earlier age at onset and an increased risk of suicide attempt and substance misuse). Childhood trauma leads to alterations of affect regulation, impulse control, and cognitive functioning that might decrease the ability to cope with later stressors. Childhood trauma interacts with several genes belonging to several different biological pathways [Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, serotonergic transmission, neuroplasticity, immunity, calcium signaling, and circadian rhythms] to decrease the age at the onset of the disorder or increase the risk of suicide. Epigenetic factors may also be involved in the neurobiological consequences of childhood trauma in bipolar disorder. Biological sequelae such as chronic inflammation, sleep disturbance, or telomere shortening are potential mediators of the negative effects of childhood trauma in bipolar disorders, in particular with regard to physical health. The main clinical implication is to systematically assess childhood trauma in patients with bipolar disorders, or at least in those with a severe or instable course. The challenge for the next years will be to fill the gap between clinical and fundamental research and routine practice, since recommendations for managing this specific population are lacking. In particular, little is known on which psychotherapies should be provided or which targets therapists should focus

  11. Childhood cancer in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Mariana; Hendricks, Marc; Davidson, Alan; Stefan, Cristina D; van Eyssen, Ann L; Uys, Ronelle; van Zyl, Anel; Hesseling, Peter

    2014-04-01

    The majority of children with cancer live in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) with little or no access to cancer treatment. The purpose of the paper is to describe the current status of childhood cancer treatment in Africa, as documented in publications, dedicated websites and information collected through surveys. Successful twinning programmes, like those in Malawi and Cameroon, as well as the collaborative clinical trial approach of the Franco-African Childhood Cancer Group (GFAOP), provide good models for childhood cancer treatment. The overview will hopefully influence health-care policies to facilitate access to cancer care for all children in Africa. PMID:24214130

  12. Ethics and the Early Childhood Educator: Using the NAEYC Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Stephanie; Freeman, Nancy K.

    Ethics--in the form of knowledge and skill in making responsible professional decisions--is one of the most fundamental qualities of a competent early childhood educator. The National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) developed its Code of Ethical Conduct to promote the application of core values, ideals, and principles to…

  13. Adult Immunization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Coskun

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the many advances in modern medicine, each year thousands of people in the world die from diseases that are easily prevented by safe and effective vaccines. Few measures in preventive medicine are of such proven value and as easy to implement as routine immunization against infectious diseases. Prevention of infection by immunization is a lifelong process. There are a number of vaccines that all adults (¡I18 years require. There are also other vaccines that need to be tailored to meet individual variations in risk resulting from occupation, foreign travel, underlying illness, lifestyle and age. In this study, we tried to review this important subject. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2008; 7(2: 159-166

  14. Adult Immunization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Coskun

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Despite the many advances in modern medicine, each year thousands of people in the world die from diseases that are easily prevented by safe and effective vaccines. Few measures in preventive medicine are of such proven value and as easy to implement as routine immunization against infectious diseases. Prevention of infection by immunization is a lifelong process. There are a number of vaccines that all adults (¡I18 years require. There are also other vaccines that need to be tailored to meet individual variations in risk resulting from occupation, foreign travel, underlying illness, lifestyle and age. In this study, we tried to review this important subject. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(2.000: 159-166

  15. Immune checkpoints

    OpenAIRE

    Chawla, Akhil; Philips, Anne V; Alatrash, Gheath; Mittendorf, Elizabeth,

    2014-01-01

    Early clinical trials investigating monoclonal antibodies targeting the T-cell inhibitory receptor programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and its ligand PD-L1 have shown efficacy in melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer and renal cell carcinoma. We recently demonstrated PD-L1 expression in 20% of triple negative breast cancers suggesting that targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint may be an effective treatment modality in patients with this disease.

  16. Earthworm Immunity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bilej, Martin; Procházková, Petra; Šilerová, Marcela; Josková, Radka

    New York: Landes Biosciences and Springer Science +Business Media, 2010 - (Söderhäll, K.), 66-79. (Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. 708). ISBN 978-1-4419-8058-8 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/07/0378; GA AV ČR IAA600200704; GA MŠk 2B06155 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : earthworms * immunity Subject RIV: EC - Immunology

  17. Cardiovascular Conditions of Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This childhood illness can result in long-term heart complications. Learn the symptoms, diagnosis and treatment for Kawasaki disease. Rheumatic Fever This inflammatory infection can occur after strep ...

  18. Reducing Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Reducing Childhood Obesity Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents For ... Ga. were the first three We Can! cities. Obesity Research: A New Approach The percentage of children ...

  19. Childhood vitiligo: Treatment paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrinder Jit Kanwar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood vitiligo differs from the adults by showing a higher incidence in females, segmental vitiligo being more common and less frequent association with other systemic autoimmune and endocrine disorders.Childhood vitiligo is often associated with a marked psychosocial and long lasting effect on the self-esteem of the affected children and their parents, hence an adequate treatment is very essential. Treatment of vitiligo is indeed a tough challenge for the dermatologists′ more so in the background of childhood vitiligo. Although multiple therapeutic modalities are available in the therapeutic armamentarium, not all can be used in children. This brief report updates regarding various therapies available in the treatment of childhood vitiligo.

  20. Childhood Vaccine Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Childhood Vaccine Schedule Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents ... please turn Javascript on. When to Vaccinate What Vaccine Why Birth (or any age if not previously ...

  1. Tooth decay - early childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ribeiro NM, Ribeiro MA. Breastfeeding and early childhood caries: a critical review. J Pediatr (Rio J) . 2004;80:S199-S210. Sexton S, Natale R. Risks and benefits of pacifiers. Am Fam Physician . 2009; ...

  2. Early Childhood Caries

    OpenAIRE

    Kawashita, Yumiko; Kitamura, Masayasu; Saito, Toshiyuki

    2011-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the most common childhood diseases, and people continue to be susceptible to it throughout their lives. Although dental caries can be arrested and potentially even reversed in its early stages, it is often not self-limiting and progresses without proper care until the tooth is destroyed. Early childhood caries (ECC) is often complicated by inappropriate feeding practices and heavy infection with mutans streptococci. Such children should be targeted with a professional ...

  3. Endobronchial tumours in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endobronchial tumours are rare in childhood and are not often considered in the differential diagnosis of persistent pneumonitis and atelectasis. We present the clinical and radiological features of seven cases of childhood bronchial 'adenoma' seen at our hospital over a 16-year period. Because they are relatively slow growing, prompt diagnosis and early surgical treatment offer the best chance of cure in these patients. A review of the literature is given

  4. Abdominal MRI in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MRI provides diagnostic information in multiple abdominal diseases in childhood. Additional information to sonographic findings can be achieved in the diagnosis of abdominal malformation as well as in several inflammatory processes. In childhood cancer imaging MRI is essential at the beginning as well as during therapy to assess response to therapy. Because of radiation protection MRI has to replace CT in abdominal imaging in children. Some technical details have to be considered when children are examined. (orig.)

  5. Meningeal hemangiopericytoma in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meningeal hemangiopericytoma (MHP) is extremely rare in childhood. Mean age at diagnosis is between 38 and 43 years. We present an 8-year-old boy with MHP of the middle cranial fossa. Imaging findings were indistinguishable from an aggressive bone tumor such as Ewing's sarcoma. Imaging findings are presented and discussed. Our case indicates that MHP should be considered in the differential diagnosis of skull-base tumors despite the fact that MHP is extremely rare in childhood. (orig.)

  6. Endobronchial tumours in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endobronchial tumours are rare in childhood and are not often considered in the differential diagnosis of persistent pneumonitis and atelectasis. We present the clinical and radiological features of seven cases of childhood bronchial 'adenoma' seen at our hospital over a 16-year period. Because they are relatively slow growing, prompt diagnosis and early surgical treatment offer the best chance of cure in these patients. A review of the literature is given. (Copyright (c) Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  7. Fractures in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinical diagnosis of fractures in childhood can be very difficult. Therefore imaging, not only x-rays but also ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are of special importance. There are typical pediatric types of fractures due to epiphyseal plates and high flexibility of the bone. Fractures heal faster and dislocations can be spontaneously corrected better but also growth disturbance can occur. The second part of the article describes the special types of fractures with special attention to the characteristics in childhood.

  8. Stress and childhood epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Campen, J.S. van

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic diseases in childhood, characterized by the enduring predisposition to generate epileptic seizures. Children with epilepsy and their parents often report seizures precipitated by stress. In order to increase our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the effects of stress on seizures in childhood epilepsy, we performed a variety of studies, which are described in this thesis. In part I we evaluate the extent of stress sensitivi...

  9. Early childhood aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Alink, Lenneke Rosalie Agnes

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis the development, stability, and correlates of early childhood aggression were investigated. The normative development was examined in a general population sample using questionnaires completed by the parents of 12-, 24-, and 36-month-old children and again one year later. Results showed an early childhood aggression curve, with increasing rates of aggression in the second year of life and decreasing rates in the fourth year. One-year stabilities were moderate for 12-month-olds ...

  10. Pesticides and childhood cancers.

    OpenAIRE

    Daniels, J L; Olshan, A.F.; Savitz, D A

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the possible association between pesticides and the risk of childhood cancers, epidemiologic studies published between 1970 and 1996 were critically reviewed. Thirty-one studies investigated whether occupational or residential exposure to pesticides by either parents or children was related to increased risk of childhood cancer. In general, the reported relative risk estimates were modest. Risk estimates appeared to be stronger when pesticide exposure was measured in more detail. ...

  11. Childhood Ovarian Malignancy

    OpenAIRE

    Mahadik, Kalpana; Ghorpade, Kanchanmala

    2014-01-01

    Objective of this article is to appraise diagnostic aspects and treatment modalities in childhood ovarian tumor in background of available evidence. Literature search on Pubmed revealed various aspects of epidemiology, histopathological diagnosis, and treatment of pediatric ovarian tumor. 85 % of childhood tumors are germ cell tumors. The varied histopathological picture in germ cell tumors poses a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Immunohistochemistry and newer genetic markers like SALL4...

  12. Adverse childhood experience and asthma onset: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Exley

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Adverse childhood experiences such as abuse and neglect are associated with subsequent immune dysregulation. Some studies show an association between adverse childhood experiences and asthma onset, although significant disparity in results exists in the published literature. We aimed to review available studies employing a prospective design that investigates associations between adverse childhood experience and asthma. A search protocol was developed and studies were drawn from four electronic journal databases. Studies were selected in accordance with pre-set inclusion criteria and relevant data were extracted. 12 studies, assessing data from a total of 31 524 individuals, were identified that investigate the impact of a range of adverse childhood experiences on the likelihood of developing asthma. Evidence suggests that chronic stress exposure and maternal distress in pregnancy operate synergistically with known triggers such as traffic-related air pollution to increase asthma risk. Chronic stress in early life is associated with an increased risk of asthma onset. There is evidence that adverse childhood experience increases the impact of traffic-related air pollution and inconsistent evidence that adverse childhood experience has an independent effect on asthma onset.

  13. The human spleen. Development and role in the immune system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timens, Willem

    1988-01-01

    In the present thesis an extensive in situ characterization is given of cellular constituents of the human spleen, that play a role in the human immune system. The development of immunocompetent cells in their micro-environment was studied in early embryonic life, fetal life, infancy and childhood,

  14. Immunizing Infants (A Minute of Health with CDC)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-04-18

    Parents can protect the health of their children by making sure they’re up-to-date on all recommended vaccines. This podcast discusses the importance of childhood immunization.  Created: 4/18/2013 by MMWR.   Date Released: 4/18/2013.

  15. Influences of Childhood Experiences on Early Childhood Education Students

    OpenAIRE

    Strekalova-Hughes, Ekaterina; Maarouf, Saoussan; Keskin, Burhanettin

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study examined whether or not childhood experiences of the early childhood education students affected their present personal beliefs and pedagogies. A digital survey was filled out by 58 students majoring in Early Childhood Education program. The participants were asked to identify and reflect on their impactful early experiences. The follow-up interviews with two participants were conducted to deepen the reflections on childhood experiences and explore their effects on the ...

  16. Cytokine response to pregnancy-associated recrudescence of Plasmodium berghei infection in mice with pre-existing immunity to malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Megnekou, Rosette; Staalsoe, Trine; Hviid, Lars

    2013-01-01

    During childhood, residents of areas with stable transmission of Plasmodium falciparum parasites acquire substantial protective immunity to malaria, and adults therefore rarely experience clinical disease episodes. However, susceptibility to infection reappears in pregnant women, particularly pri...

  17. Emotional Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Allison; Thagard, Paul

    1996-01-01

    Recent research has yielded an explosion of literature that establishes a strong connection between emotional and cognitive processes. Most notably, Antonio Damasio draws an intimate connection between emotion and cognition in practical decision making. Damasio presents a "somatic marker" hypothesis which explains how emotions are biologically indispensable to decisions. His research on patients with frontal lobe damage indicates that feelings normally accompany response options and operate a...

  18. Childhood psychosocial stressors and adult onset arthritis: Broad spectrum risk factors and allostatic load

    OpenAIRE

    Von Korff, Michael; Alonso, Jordi; Ormel, Johan; Angermeyer, Matthais; Bruffaerts, Ronny; Fleiz, Clara; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Ronald C. Kessler; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane; Posada-Villa, Jose; Scott, Kate M.; Uda, Hidenori

    2009-01-01

    Neural, endocrine, and immune stress mediators are hypothesized to increase risks of diverse chronic diseases, including arthritis. Retrospective data from the World Mental Health Surveys (N = 18,309) were employed to assess whether adult onset of arthritis was associated with childhood adversities and early onset psychological disorder. Cox proportional hazard models assessed the association of number of childhood adversities and the presence of early onset psychological disorder with arthri...

  19. Early Childhood Professionals and Children's Rights: Tensions and Possibilities around the United Nations "General Comment No. 7" on Children's Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Naughton, Glenda; Hughes, Patrick; Smith, Kylie

    2007-01-01

    Young children's views are heard rarely in public debates and are often subordinated to adults' views. This article examines how early childhood staff could support and enhance young children's participation in public decision making. We argue that when early childhood staff use their expertise in young children's physical, social and cognitive…

  20. Child-parent shared decision making about asthma management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnett, Victoria; Smith, Joanna; Ormandy, Paula

    2016-05-01

    Aim To explore and describe child-parent shared decision making for the management of childhood asthma. Methods A qualitative, descriptive, interview-based study was undertaken. Eight children and nine parents participated. The framework approach underpinned data analysis. Findings A dynamic model of the way children and parents transfer, shift and share asthma management decisions was uncovered. Asthma management decisions between children and parents were non-linear, with responsibility transferring from parent to child under different conditions. Children made a range of decisions about their asthma, often sharing decisions with their parents. However, during acute illness episodes, children often relied on parents to make decisions about their asthma. Conclusion Neither the child nor parent has complete autonomy over asthma management decisions. Decision making is a dynamic, shifting and shared process, dependent on contextual factors and child and parent decision preferences. PMID:27156418

  1. Integrated Circuit Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sketoe, J. G.; Clark, Anthony

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a DOD E3 program overview on integrated circuit immunity. The topics include: 1) EMI Immunity Testing; 2) Threshold Definition; 3) Bias Tee Function; 4) Bias Tee Calibration Set-Up; 5) EDM Test Figure; 6) EMI Immunity Levels; 7) NAND vs. and Gate Immunity; 8) TTL vs. LS Immunity Levels; 9) TP vs. OC Immunity Levels; 10) 7805 Volt Reg Immunity; and 11) Seventies Chip Set. This paper is presented in viewgraph form.

  2. Economic Evaluation of Childhood Obesity Interventions: Reflections and Suggestions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frew, Emma

    2016-08-01

    Rising levels of childhood obesity present a serious global public health problem amounting to 7 % of GDP in developed countries and affecting 14 % of children. As such, many countries are investing increasingly large quantities of resource towards treatment and prevention. Whilst it is important to demonstrate the clinical effectiveness of any intervention, it is equally as important to demonstrate cost effectiveness as policy makers strive to get the best value for money from increasingly limited public resources. Economic evaluation assists with making these investment decisions and whilst it can offer considerable support in many healthcare contexts, applying it to a childhood obesity context is not straightforward. Childhood obesity is a complex disease with interventions being multi-component in nature. Furthermore, the interventions are implemented in a variety of settings such as schools, the community, and the home, and have costs and benefits that fall outside the health sector. This paper provides a reflection from a UK perspective on the application of the conventional approach to economic evaluation to childhood obesity. It offers suggestions for how evaluations should be designed to fit better within this context, and to meet the needs of local decision makers. An excellent example is the need to report costs using a micro-costing format and for benefit measurement to go beyond a health focus. This is critical as the organisation and commissioning of childhood obesity services is done from a Local Authority setting and this presents further challenges for what is the most appropriate economic evaluation approach to use. Given that adult obesity is now of epidemic proportions, the accurate assessment of childhood obesity interventions to support public health decision making is critical. PMID:26968705

  3. Childhood Eye Diseases and Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things College Students Should Do For Their Eyes Childhood Eye Diseases and Conditions Nov. 01, 2013 The ... cataract or eye disorder that needs treatment. Common Childhood Eye Diseases & Conditions When the following diseases are ...

  4. General Information about Childhood Ependymoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... without radiation therapy . Childhood ependymoma, anaplastic ependymoma, or RELA fusion–positive ependymoma Treatment of newly diagnosed childhood ... Grade II), anaplastic ependymoma (WHO Grade III), or RELA fusion–positive ependymoma is: Surgery . After surgery, the ...

  5. Treatment Option Overview (Childhood Ependymoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... without radiation therapy . Childhood ependymoma, anaplastic ependymoma, or RELA fusion–positive ependymoma Treatment of newly diagnosed childhood ... Grade II), anaplastic ependymoma (WHO Grade III), or RELA fusion–positive ependymoma is: Surgery . After surgery, the ...

  6. Oral zinc and common childhood infections--An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basnet, Sudha; Mathisen, Maria; Strand, Tor A

    2015-01-01

    Zinc is an essential micronutrient important for growth and for normal function of the immune system. Many children in developing countries have inadequate zinc nutrition. Routine zinc supplementation reduces the risk of respiratory infections and diarrhea, the two leading causes of morbidity and mortality in young children worldwide. In childhood diarrhea oral zinc also reduces illness duration and risk of persistent episodes. Oral zinc is therefore recommended for the treatment of acute diarrhea in young children. The results from the studies that have measured the therapeutic effect of zinc on acute respiratory infections, however, are conflicting. Moreover, the results of therapeutic zinc for childhood malaria also are so far not promising.This paper gives a brief outline of the current evidence from clinical trials on therapeutic effect of oral zinc on childhood respiratory infections, pneumonia and malaria and also of new evidence of the effect on serious bacterial illness in young infants. PMID:24906347

  7. Childhood trauma in bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, S; Gallagher, P.; Dougall, D.; R Porter; Moncrieff, J.; Ferrier, I. N.; Young, A. H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: There has been little investigation of early trauma in bipolar disorder despite evidence that stress impacts on the course of this illness. We aimed to compare the rates of childhood trauma in adults with bipolar disorder to a healthy control group, and to investigate the impact of childhood trauma on the clinical course of bipolar disorder. Methods: Retrospective assessment of childhood trauma was conducted using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) in 60 outpatients with bipo...

  8. Reconceptualizing the "Nature" of Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Affrica

    2011-01-01

    This interdisciplinary article draws upon human geography to bring fresh new perspectives to the relationship between two commonly conflated concepts: "childhood" and "nature". Childhood studies scholars have gone a long way towards retheorizing childhood beyond the "natural" and the "universal" by pointing to its historical and cultural…

  9. Discovering the Culture of Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plank, Emily

    2016-01-01

    We often filter our interactions with children through the lens of adulthood. View the culture of childhood through a whole new lens. Identify age-based bias and expand your outlook on and understanding of early childhood as a culture. Examine various elements of childhood culture: language, the power of believing, artistic expressions, and social…

  10. Immune thrombocytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, George M

    2014-10-01

    Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) in children is a relatively uncommon and generally benign condition presenting as abrupt onset of bruising, petechiae and thrombocytopenia in an otherwise healthy child due to production of anti-platelet autoantibodies. Diagnosis is largely clinical and laboratory investigation should be kept to a minimum. Indications for treatment have not been standardized and include bleeding, parental anxiety and quality of life. Multiple treatments are available that have been proven to increase the platelet count; the most commonly employed include IVIG, steroids and WinRho (anti-D). Intracranial hemorrhage is the most serious potential complication but is extremely rare and splenectomy is reserved for chronically symptomatic patients who have not responded to other modalities. Identification of molecular targets may be a promising avenue for future research. PMID:25423768

  11. Birthweight and Childhood Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paltiel, Ora; Tikellis, Gabriella; Linet, Martha; Golding, Jean; Lemeshow, Stanley; Phillips, Gary; Lamb, Karen; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Håberg, Siri E; Strøm, Marin; Granstrøm, Charlotta; Northstone, Kate; Klebanoff, Mark; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Milne, Elizabeth; Pedersen, Marie; Kogevinas, Manolis; Ha, Eunhee; Dwyer, Terence

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence relating childhood cancer to high birthweight is derived primarily from registry and case-control studies. We aimed to investigate this association, exploring the potential modifying roles of age at diagnosis and maternal anthropometrics, using prospectively collected data from...... the International Childhood Cancer Cohort Consortium. METHODS: We pooled data on infant and parental characteristics and cancer incidence from six geographically and temporally diverse member cohorts [the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (UK), the Collaborative Perinatal Project (USA......). Childhood cancer (377 cases diagnosed prior to age 15 years) risk was analysed by type (all sites, leukaemia, acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, and non-leukaemia) and age at diagnosis. We estimated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) from Cox proportional hazards models stratified by cohort...

  12. Metabolic origins of childhood asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasemann, Hartmut

    2015-12-01

    Childhood obesity and incidence of asthma are increasing globally. The parallel increase of the two suggests that obesity and asthma may be related and that abnormalities in the lipid and/or glucose metabolism may contribute to the pathogenesis of asthma. The clinical presentation of obese asthma is distinct from other asthma phenotypes and depending on age of onset of symptoms. Asthma in obese people tends to be more severe, not typically associated with allergy, and less responsive to standard anti-inflammatory therapy, including corticosteroids. Obesity and obesity-related comorbidities may lead to asthma via a number of mechanisms including changes in lung mechanics, the nitric oxide metabolism, and by causing inflammation. Furthermore, evidence suggests that nutrition during pregnancy contributes to intrauterine immune and metabolic programming in the offspring, which may have major influences on predisposition to cardiovascular, metabolic, and allergic diseases, including asthma, later in life. This review will highlight some suggested mechanistic links between obesity and diabetes with asthma. PMID:26542296

  13. Immune thrombocytopenic purpura in a child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and mumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurekci, A Emin; Atay, A Avni; Demirkaya, Erkan; Sarici, S Umit; Ozcan, Okan

    2006-03-01

    Immune thrombocytopenic purpura in childhood is characterized by a typical history of acute development of purpura and bruising in an otherwise healthy child. In children it usually follows a viral infection (eg, mumps, rubella) or immunization. We report for the first time a child with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who developed immune thrombocytopenic purpura due to mumps during the maintenance phase of acute lymphoblastic leukemia treatment. PMID:16679943

  14. Measles--mumps--rubella immunization: the role of the general practitioner in achieving a high uptake.

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, D.; Roworth, M; Carter, H; Jones, I G

    1989-01-01

    A survey of all general practitioners in Fife conducted prior to the introduction of measles-mumps-rubella immunization on a pilot basis in May 1987 showed that 85% considered mumps worth preventing and 94% believed the rubella programme worth augmenting with universal childhood immunization. Ninety seven per cent considered measles worth preventing and 98% were prepared to recommend measles-mumps-rubella immunization to parents instead of measles vaccine. One year after introducing the measl...

  15. A Tewo Tibetan Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rdo rje tshe brtan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Rdo rje tshe brtan (b. 1986 describes his childhood in Dredze Village, Yiwa Township, Tewo County, Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu Province, China, as well as being a student in Xining City, Qinghai Province. Topics covered include his family, childhood injuries and illnesses, education, Terang (malicious household deities, mountain deities and associated rituals and sacrifices, death, conflict with other locals, collecting local plants, a birth in the village, stealing fruit, a wedding, plowing, a visit to a hot spring, a lost yak, slaughtering pigs, government confiscation of fields, and slaughtering pigs. Photos provide additional detail.

  16. Childhood Malnutrition and the Intestinal Microbiome Malnutrition and the microbiome

    OpenAIRE

    Kane, Anne V.; Dinh, Duy M.; Ward, Honorine D

    2014-01-01

    Malnutrition contributes to almost half of all deaths in children under the age of 5 years, particularly those who live in resource-constrained areas. Those who survive frequently suffer from long-term sequelae including growth failure and neurodevelopmental impairment. Malnutrition is part of a vicious cycle of impaired immunity, recurrent infections and worsening malnutrition. Recently, alterations in the gut microbiome have also been strongly implicated in childhood malnutrition. It has be...

  17. Failing Decision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    deals not with traffic delays, but with failing decisions in organizations. The assumption of this chapter is that failing decisions today are as normal as delayed trains. Instead of being the exception, failure is part of the everyday reproduction of organizations – as an uncontrolled effect but also...... also propelled by an interest in failure as one way of improving understanding of present-day decision making in organizations.......Recently the Danish subway trains have begun to announce “on time” when they arrive at a station on time. This action reflects a worrying acceptance of the normality of failure. If trains were generally expected to be on time, there would be no reason to – triumphantly – announce it. This chapter...

  18. Social networks and vaccination decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Rao, Neel; Möbius, Markus M.; Rosenblat, Tanya

    2007-01-01

    We combine information on social networks with medical records and survey data in order to examine how friends affect one’s decision to get vaccinated against the flu. The random assignment of undergraduates to residential halls at a large private university allows us to estimate how peer effects influence health beliefs and vaccination choices. Our results indicate that social exposure to medical information raises people’s perceptions of the benefits of immunization. The average student’s b...

  19. Immune System Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to find out more! Email * Zipcode The Immune System and Psoriatic Disease What is an autoimmune disease? ... and painful joints and tendons. Treating the immune system The immune system is not only the key ...

  20. Immune System Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Quiz: Immune System KidsHealth > For Kids > Quiz: Immune System Print A A A Text Size How much do you know about your immune system? Find out by taking this quiz! View Survey ...

  1. Sequential immune responses: The weapons of immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Mills, Charles; Ley, Klaus; Buchmann, Kurt; Canton, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Sequential immune responses (SIR) is a new model that describes what ‘immunity’ means in higher animals. Existing models, such as self/nonself discrimination or danger, focus on how immune responses are initiated. However, initiation is not protection. SIR describes the actual immune responses that provide protection. SIR resulted from a comprehensive analysis of the evolution of immune systems that revealed that several very different types of host innate responses occur (and at different te...

  2. Recording information about immunizations

    OpenAIRE

    Gadsby, Roger

    1980-01-01

    The recording of information on triple plus polio and rubella immunizations is reviewed and immunization rates determined for patients in a single-handed practice. Rates of triple plus polio immunizations are satisfactory but rates for rubella immunization are very poor. Immunization information is not exchanged between different sections of the Health Service in Stoke-on-Trent and so the general practitioner has no reliable immunization record for his patients.

  3. Atopic endotype in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoos, Ann-Marie Malby; Chawes, Bo Lund Krogsgaard; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt;

    2016-01-01

    with asthma through early childhood (0-6 years) when analyzed as any sensitization (odds ratio [OR] range, 0.78-1.29; P ≥ .48). However, at 13 years of age, any sensitization was associated with asthma (OR range, 4.02-5.94; all P contrast, any sensitization was associated with eczema at ½, 1...

  4. Malignant tumors of childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains 34 papers about malignant tumors. some of the titles are: Invasive Cogenital Mesoblastic Nephroma, Leukemia Update, Unusual Perinatal Neoplasms, Lymphoma Update, Gonadal Germ Cell Tumors in Children, Nutritional Status and Cancer of Childhood, and Chemotherapy of Brain tumors in Children

  5. Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pui, Ching-Hon; Yang, Jun J; Hunger, Stephen P;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To review the impact of collaborative studies on advances in the biology and treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children and adolescents. METHODS: A review of English literature on childhood ALL focusing on collaborative studies was performed. The resulting article was...

  6. Managing childhood obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The prevalence of childhood obesity has steadily increased over the last decades, with approximately 35% of children aged 6-19 classified as overweight or obese. Recently, a plateau in the increasing rates of obesity has been observed. Despite this leveling off, overweight and obese children are hea...

  7. Dietary Patterns in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise Beltoft Borup

    childhood. These associations might contribute to the identification of families, who would benefit from guidance to help them establish healthy dietary patterns for their infants. Finding tracking for some infants and changes in adherence to dietary patterns for others as well as the association between...

  8. Childhood environment and obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    US children are at risk for developing childhood obesity. Currently, 23% of children ages 2–5 are overweight or obese, i.e., at or above the 85th percentile. This prevalence becomes even higher as children age, with 34% of children ages 6–11 being overweight or obese. Ethnic minority children are at...

  9. Childhood Obesity: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, John J.

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews recent research evidence, largely from systematic reviews, on a number of aspects of childhood obesity: its definition and prevalence; consequences; causes and prevention. The basis of the body mass index (BMI) as a means of defining obesity in children and adolescents is discussed: a high BMI for age constitutes obesity. In…

  10. Early childhood aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alink, Lenneke Rosalie Agnes

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis the development, stability, and correlates of early childhood aggression were investigated. The normative development was examined in a general population sample using questionnaires completed by the parents of 12-, 24-, and 36-month-old children and again one year later. Results show

  11. Childhood disintegrative disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik

    2003-01-01

    sometimes associated with this disorder, but contrary to earlier belief this is not typical. Interest in childhood disintegrative disorder has increased markedly in recent years and in this review attention is given to more recently published cases based on ICD-9, ICD-10 and DSM-IV diagnostic systems...

  12. Conscientiousness: Origins in Childhood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Duckworth, Angela L.; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Valiente, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we evaluate developmental and personality research with the aim of determining whether the personality trait of conscientiousness can be identified in children and adolescents. After concluding that conscientiousness does emerge in childhood, we discuss the developmental origins of conscientiousness with a specific focus on…

  13. Early Childhood Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Edgar, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Focused on early childhood development, this "UNICEF Intercom" asserts that developmental programs should aim to give children a fair chance at growth beyond survival. First presented are moral, scientific, social equity, economic, population, and programatic arguments for looking beyond the fundamental objective of saving young lives.…

  14. Childhood disintegrative disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Hari Charan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We are presenting a case of a 10-year-old female child who presented with normal development till 5 years of age followed by deterioration in previously acquired language and social skills with stereotypic hand movements suggestive of childhood disintegrative disorder. This case is reported as this condition is very rare.

  15. Early Childhood Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Early childhood trauma generally refers to the traumatic experiences that occur to children aged 0-6. Because infants' and young children's reactions may be different from older children's, and because they may not be able to verbalize their reactions to threatening or dangerous events, many people assume that young age protects children from the…

  16. Tanzania : Early Childhood Development

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    This report presents an analysis of the Early Childhood Development (ECD) programs and policies that affect young children in Tanzania. This report is part of a series of reports prepared by the World Bank using the Systems Approach for Better Education Results (SABER)-ECD framework and includes analysis of early learning, health, nutrition and social and child protection policies and inte...

  17. Uganda : Early Childhood Development

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    This report presents an analysis of the Early Childhood Development (ECD) programs and policies that affect young children in Uganda and recommendations to move forward. This report is part of a series of reports prepared by the World Bank using the Systems Approach for Better Education Results (SABER)-ECD framework1 and includes analysis of early learning, health, nutrition and social and ...

  18. Childhood microbial keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah G Al Otaibi

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Children with suspected microbial keratitis require comprehensive evaluation and management. Early recognition, identifying the predisposing factors and etiological microbial organisms, and instituting appropriate treatment measures have a crucial role in outcome. Ocular trauma was the leading cause of childhood microbial keratitis in our study.

  19. Survivors of childhood cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradwell, Moira

    2009-05-01

    Treatment of childhood cancer aims to cure with minimum risk to the patient's subsequent health. Monitoring the long-term effects of treatment on children and young adults is now an essential part of the continued care of survivors. Late effects include: impact on growth, development and intellectual function; organ system impairment; the development of second malignancies; and psychosocial problems. These can adversely affect long-term survival and the quality of life. In the UK, models of long-term follow up for survivors of childhood cancer vary from centre to centre but nurses have a significant role to play. Combining the nurse specialist role with that of the advanced practitioner ensures that the goals of improving the quality of nursing care to the survivors of childhood cancer are achieved and maximises the nursing contribution to their follow up. With the number of childhood cancer survivors increasing, providing holistic, health promotional care, tailored to the specific needs of survivors will be crucial for their future. PMID:19505060

  20. Organizational Decision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    architectural competitions and claim that they reflect necessity more than vice. They are ways around the fundamental incommensurability of the alternative design proposals. The garbage can model is used as a framework for making sense of the observed counterintuitive ways of decision making. Its attempt to...

  1. Statistical decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Topics covered in this chapter include a discussion of hypothesis tests as related to the concept of nuclear materials management and accounting in nuclear facilities. Hypothesis tests related to an individual measurement, an individual material balance, and a sequence of materials balances are discussed. The discussion of a sequence of materials balances includes the innovation sequence, sequential decision making, and performance measures

  2. The acute abdomen in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The acute abdomen in childhood demands early diagnosis for the sake of appropriate and early therapy. A high number of differential diagnosis in the assessment of acute abdominal pain and problems, as well as different causes of diseases in different age of the children, make a partition with respect to the age of the children considerable. A partition in diseases, which are leading to acute abdominal pain in neonates, in toddlers and small infants and in schoolchildren makes sense. In older schoolchildren and adolescents also diseases of the grown up generation are possible as a cause of acute abdominal pain. The lack of compliance (cooperation and communication) in small children obstructs clinical and radiological assessment and elucidates the necessity of knowledge of causes of acute abdominal pain as much as possible. A lot of patience and experience are mandatory in the evaluation of small children and therefore make a dedicated, trained and experienced stuff necessary. A dedicated paediatric radiologist will find a safe and proper technique, and in cooperation with the referring clinician the necessary decision for therapy will be made. (orig.)

  3. Reproductive effort reduces specific immune response and parasite resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Nordling, D.; Andersson, M.; Zohari, S.; Gustafsson, L.

    1998-01-01

    If a trade-off exists between reproductive effort and immune function, life-history decisions may have important implications for parasite resistance. Here, we report effects of experimental manipulation of reproductive effort on subsequent specific immune function and parasite resistance in the collared flycatcher, Ficedula albicollis. Our results show that increased reproductive effort of females immunized with Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine negatively affected the ability to respond...

  4. By how much would limiting TV food advertising reduce childhood obesity?

    OpenAIRE

    Veerman, J Lennert; van Beeck, Eduard F.; Barendregt, Jan J; Mackenbach, Johan P.

    2009-01-01

    Background: There is evidence suggesting that food advertising causes childhood obesity. The strength of this effect is unclear. To inform decisions on whether to restrict advertising opportunities, we estimate how much of the childhood obesity prevalence is attributable to food advertising on television (TV). Methods: We constructed a mathematical simulation model to estimate the potential effects of reducing the exposure of 6- to 12-year-old US children to TV advertising for food on the pre...

  5. Rediscovering Morality through the Concept of Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdick-Shepherd, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    This chapter looks at John Dewey's consideration of childhood as a platform which to view the significance of childhood in moral life. It argues that the concept of childhood is integral to our thinking in the teaching and learning relationship. When we consider childhood from Dewey's platform, we see that childhood is relevant to…

  6. Medical Versus Nonmedical Immunization Exemptions for Child Care and School Attendance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Routine childhood immunizations against infectious diseases are an integral part of our public health infrastructure. They provide direct protection to the immunized individual and indirect protection to children and adults unable to be immunized via the effect of community immunity. All 50 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico have regulations requiring proof of immunization for child care and school attendance as a public health strategy to protect children in these settings and to secondarily serve as a mechanism to promote timely immunization of children by their caregivers. Although all states and the District of Columbia have mechanisms to exempt school attendees from specific immunization requirements for medical reasons, the majority also have a heterogeneous collection of regulations and laws that allow nonmedical exemptions from childhood immunizations otherwise required for child care and school attendance. The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) supports regulations and laws requiring certification of immunization to attend child care and school as a sound means of providing a safe environment for attendees and employees of these settings. The AAP also supports medically indicated exemptions to specific immunizations as determined for each individual child. The AAP views nonmedical exemptions to school-required immunizations as inappropriate for individual, public health, and ethical reasons and advocates for their elimination. PMID:27573087

  7. Decision rules for decision tables with many-valued decisions

    KAUST Repository

    Chikalov, Igor

    2011-01-01

    In the paper, authors presents a greedy algorithm for construction of exact and partial decision rules for decision tables with many-valued decisions. Exact decision rules can be \\'over-fitted\\', so instead of exact decision rules with many attributes, it is more appropriate to work with partial decision rules with smaller number of attributes. Based on results for set cover problem authors study bounds on accuracy of greedy algorithm for exact and partial decision rule construction, and complexity of the problem of minimization of decision rule length. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  8. Inescapable Decisions

    OpenAIRE

    Wieser, Bernhard

    2006-01-01

    The main ethical principle in prenatal testing is the autonomous decision of the pregnant woman concerned. However, recent developments in prenatal testing undermine this model. The overall number of invasive prenatal examinations has dropped significantly. Yet, the amount of pathologic results has increased. Due to the improvement in ultrasound diagnostics the predictability of possible disabilities or diseases of the unborn child has increased substantially. As a result of this pregnant wom...

  9. Our Immune System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our Immune System A story for children with primary immunodeficiency diseases Written by Sara LeBien IMMUNE DEFICIENCY FOUNDATION A note from ... are immune deficient to better understand their immune system. What is a “ B-cell, ” a “ T-cell, ” ...

  10. Early Childhood Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumiko Kawashita

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is one of the most common childhood diseases, and people continue to be susceptible to it throughout their lives. Although dental caries can be arrested and potentially even reversed in its early stages, it is often not self-limiting and progresses without proper care until the tooth is destroyed. Early childhood caries (ECC is often complicated by inappropriate feeding practices and heavy infection with mutans streptococci. Such children should be targeted with a professional preventive program that includes oral hygiene instructions for mothers or caregivers, along with fluoride and diet counseling. However, these strategies alone are not sufficient to prevent dental caries in high-risk children; prevention of ECC also requires addressing the socioeconomic factors that face many families in which ECC is endemic. The aim of this paper is to systematically review information about ECC and to describe why many children are suffering from dental caries.

  11. Genetics of Childhood Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major health problem and an immense economic burden on the health care systems both in the United States and the rest of the world. The prevalence of obesity in children and adults in the United States has increased dramatically over the past decade. Besides environmental factors, genetic factors are known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of obesity. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have revealed strongly associated genomic variants associated with most common disorders; indeed there is general consensus on these findings from generally positive replication outcomes by independent groups. To date, there have been only a few GWAS-related reports for childhood obesity specifically, with studies primarily uncovering loci in the adult setting instead. It is clear that a number of loci previously reported from GWAS analyses of adult BMI and/or obesity also play a role in childhood obesity.

  12. Tibetan Nomad Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karma Dondrub

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A Tibetan Nomad Childhood by Kar+ma don 'grub. Kar+ma's life begins on the boundless Tibetan grassland in 1983 in Yushu (Yul shul Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Mtsho sgnon (Qinghai Province. Living in a black yak hair tent, Kar+ma begins tending his family's yak calves as soon as he can walk, in a grassland so barren that he is startled upon first seeing a tree at the age of eight. Charlatan livestock-stealing monks, anthrax, death, birth, happiness, and encounters with modern education create a powerful, unparalleled account of Tibetan nomad childhood in the late twentieth century - a way of life that will soon be forever gone.

  13. Cytokine response to pregnancy-associated recrudescence of Plasmodium berghei infection in mice with pre-existing immunity to malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Megnekou, Rosette; Staalsoe, Trine; Hviid, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Background During childhood, residents of areas with stable transmission of Plasmodium falciparum parasites acquire substantial protective immunity to malaria, and adults therefore rarely experience clinical disease episodes. However, susceptibility to infection reappears in pregnant women, particularly primigravidae. This is due to appearance of antigenic parasite variants that are restricted to pregnancy. Variant-specific immunity also governs pregnancy-associated recrudescence of Plasmodiu...

  14. Brain Development in Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Taki, Yasuyuki; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2012-01-01

    Although human brain development continues throughout childhood and adolescence, it is a non-linear process both structurally and functionally. Here we review studies of brain development in healthy children from the viewpoint of structure and the perfusion of gray and white matter. Gray matter volume increases and then decreases with age, with the developmental time of the peak volume differing among brain regions in the first and second decades of life. On the other hand, white matter volum...

  15. Epidemiology of childhood cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Terracini Benedetto

    2011-01-01

    Abstract At least in economically developed countries, in the last decades, the incidence of childhood cancer has increased and the increase is unlikely to be an artefact. Causes of the increase have not been identified: a role of preventable environmental exposures is possible. Changes have also occurred in the age distribution of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Currently, children with cancer can be successfully treated and cured. However, access to the best therapy differs widely among coun...

  16. Cultivating childhood obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Greene-Martin, DeCleasha

    2013-01-01

    In recent years the levels of obesity in the United States has risen greatly especially amongst children. Doctors, psychologists, and other scientists have been studying the growing problem for years. Implications for childhood obesity not only have enormous physical consequences but emotional repercussions which can affect the child’s academic and social development. A number of factors have been identified as having an effect on these children; family life reveals the grocery store habits o...

  17. Conscientiousness: Origins in Childhood?

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Duckworth, Angela L.; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Valiente, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    In this review, we evaluate developmental and personality research with the aim of determining if the personality trait of conscientiousness can be identified in children and adolescents. After concluding that conscientiousness does emerge in childhood, we discuss the developmental origins of conscientiousness with a specific focus on self-regulation, academic motivation, and internalized compliance/internalization of standards. Based on the accumulated body of evidence, we conclude that self...

  18. Childhood lymphoma in Yorkshire.

    OpenAIRE

    Davison, A. M.; McKinney, P A; Bailey, C C; Lewis, I.; Cartwright, R A; O'Brien, C.

    1992-01-01

    AIMS: A histopathological review of 43 cases of childhood non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in an attempt to identify histological variables of prognostic importance. METHOD: Each case was reclassified according to the Working Formulation and an attempt made to allocate an immunophenotype using a panel of monoclonal antibodies. Results were correlated with clinical data on site and survival. RESULTS: Of the 43 cases, 30 were males and 13 females. There were 17 cases of lymphoblastic lymphoma, 15 c...

  19. Peer Bullying During Early Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Hatice UYSAL; Çağlayan DİNÇER

    2012-01-01

    Peer bullying during early childhood is discussed along with the literature reviewed in this article with the purpose of drawing attention to peer bullying during early childhood and its significance, and contributing to studies which are few in number in Turkey. Peer bullying during early childhood was considered with its definition and types, people who play key roles in peer bullying, factors (gender, age, parents, and friendship) that relate to peer bullying, and what should be done befor...

  20. Stress and Obesity in Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Felix-Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a serious health problem and prevalence increases dramatically around the world, including Sweden. The aim of the current thesis was to examine parents’ and children’s stress in relation to childhood obesity. Parenting stress, social support, parental worries, and serious life events, as well as children’s temperament, self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, saliva cortisol, weight and height were measured to estimate stress and the relation between stress and childhood obesit...

  1. Psychiatric Aspects of Childhood Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Pattanayak, Raman Deep; Sagar, Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    How to Cite this Article: Pattanayak RD, Sagar R. Psychiatric Aspects of Childhood Epilepsy. Iran J Child Neurol 2012;6(2):9-18.Childhood epilepsy is a chronic, recurrent disorder of unprovoked seizures. Theonset of epilepsy in childhood has significant implications for brain growth anddevelopment. Seizures may impair the ongoing neurodevelopmental processes and compromise the child’s intellectual and cognitive functioning, leading totremendous cognitive, behavioral and psychosocial consequen...

  2. Investigation of Childhood Abuse Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    AYDIN, Oktay

    2013-01-01

    In this study childhood abuse experiences between 18-25 years old males wasinvestigated according to some variables. The sample consist of 308 male. ChildhoodTrauma Questionnaire was applied to sample group to determine their childhood abuseexperiences. In addition to this, to determine some of demographical characteristics of thesubjects, a questionnaire was used. ANOVA and Pearson Moment Correlation CoefficentTechniques were used on the obtained results.At the and of the research;- People u...

  3. Childhood obesity and prevention approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Dilek Yildiz; Berna Eren Fidanci; Derya Suluhan

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity has increased dramatically during the past two decades. The growing incidence of childhood obesity is alarming, given the significant short and long term health problems associated with obesity. Being overweight or obese may increase the rate of non-communicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in adulthood. It may contribute to shortening life expectancy and adversely affects the quality of life. Therefore, it is important to prevent childhood obe...

  4. Childhood ovarian malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadik, Kalpana; Ghorpade, Kanchanmala

    2014-04-01

    Objective of this article is to appraise diagnostic aspects and treatment modalities in childhood ovarian tumor in background of available evidence. Literature search on Pubmed revealed various aspects of epidemiology, histopathological diagnosis, and treatment of pediatric ovarian tumor. 85 % of childhood tumors are germ cell tumors. The varied histopathological picture in germ cell tumors poses a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Immunohistochemistry and newer genetic markers like SALL4 and karyopherin-2 (KPNA2) have been helpful in differentiating ovarian yolk sac tumor from dysgerminoma, teratomas, and other pictures of hepatoid, endometrioid, clear cell carcinomatous, and adenocarcinomatous tissues with varied malignant potential. Before platinum therapy, these tumors were almost fatal in children. Fertility-conserving surgery with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin has dramatically changed the survival rates in these patients. This modality gives cancer cure with healthy offspring to female patients with childhood ovarian tumor. Evidence also supports this protocol resulting in successful pregnancy rates and safety of cytotoxic drugs in children born to these patients. PMID:24757335

  5. Administrative decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article reviews relevant administrative decisions that have been taken in various countries during the last semester of 1999 and the first one of 2000. In Argentina, an inter-ministerial commission has been settled to examine the prospects of completing the construction of the Atucha-2 unit. In Sweden, an agreement has been signed between Sydkraft, Vattenfall and the Swedish government on a compensation plan for the early shutdown of the Barsebaeck unit 1. In Switzerland, the government of the canton of Bern has rejected a constitutional initiative requesting the shutdown of the Muehleberg nuclear power plant. (A.C.)

  6. Changes in Childhood Pneumonia Hospitalizations by Race and Sex Associated with Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiese, Andrew D; Grijalva, Carlos G; Zhu, Yuwei; Mitchel, Edward F; Griffin, Marie R

    2016-06-01

    Introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in the childhood immunization schedule was associated with decreases in all-cause pneumonia hospitalizations among black and white children in Tennessee, USA. Although racial disparities that existed before introduction of these vaccines have been substantially reduced, rates remain higher in boys than in girls among young children. PMID:27197048

  7. RESPONSE TO METHYLPREDNISOLONE PULSE THERAPY IN REFRACTORY CHILDHOOD PYODERMA GANGRENOSUM : A CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Anila Sunandini; Venkata Chalam; Suryanarayana; Ajay Kumar; Priyadarshini

    2015-01-01

    Pyoderma gangrenosum is a rare , non - infectious, immune mediated, neutrophilic dermatosis associated with underlying systemic disease in 50% of cases. Brocq first described pyoderma gangrenosum in 1916.It is common in fourth and fifth decade . But childhood PG , reported was 4% percent. PG has been associated with systemic disorders like...

  8. Changes in Childhood Pneumonia Hospitalizations by Race and Sex Associated with Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grijalva, Carlos G.; Zhu, Yuwei; Mitchel, Edward F.; Griffin, Marie R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in the childhood immunization schedule was associated with decreases in all-cause pneumonia hospitalizations among black and white children in Tennessee, USA. Although racial disparities that existed before introduction of these vaccines have been substantially reduced, rates remain higher in boys than in girls among young children. PMID:27197048

  9. High breast milk IL-1β level is associated with reduced risk of childhood eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, A A; Chawes, B L; Carson, C G;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We recently demonstrated a dual effect of breastfeeding with increased risk of eczema and decreased risk of wheezing in early childhood by increasing breastfeeding length. We hypothesize that immune mediators in breast milk could explain such association either through a direct effect...... or as a surrogate marker of maternal immune constitution. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the possible association between cytokine and chemokine levels in breast milk and development of eczema and recurrent wheeze during early childhood. METHODS: Levels of 19 pro-inflammatory and immunoregulatory...... eczema (aHR = 0.82; 95% CI = 0.68-0.98; P = 0.03). No associations were observed for recurrent wheeze. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Elevated breast milk IL-1β level was associated with decreased risk of early childhood eczema suggesting either a direct protective effect of IL-1β or IL-1b acting as...

  10. Immunization Finance Toolkit : A Resource for Policy-Makers and Program Managers

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank; GAVI Alliance

    2010-01-01

    Financing is a critical component of a sustainable Immunization program. The Immunization Financing Toolkit is a series of short briefs on different options for financing national immunization programs and vaccines. It is intended to serve as a resource for program managers and decision---makers in ministries of health, planning, and finance. The Toolkit brings together the most up---to---date ...

  11. Epidemiology and etiology of childhood pneumonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Rudan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Childhood pneumonia is the leading single cause of mortality in children aged less than 5 years. The incidence in this age group is estimated to be 0.29 episodes per child-year in developing and 0.05 episodes per child-year in developed countries. This translates into about 156 million new episodes each year worldwide, of which 151 million episodes are in the developing world. Most cases occur in India (43 million, China (21 million and Pakistan (10 million, with additional high numbers in Bangladesh, Indonesia and Nigeria (6 million each. Of all community cases, 7-13% are severe enough to be life-threatening and require hospitalization. Substantial evidence revealed that the leading risk factors contributing to pneumonia incidence are lack of exclusive breastfeeding, undernutrition, indoor air pollution, low birth weight, crowding and lack of measles immunization. Pneumonia is responsible for about 19% of all deaths in children aged less than 5 years, of which more than 70% take place in sub-Saharan Africa and south-east Asia. Although based on limited available evidence, recent studies have identified Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and respiratory syncytial virus as the main pathogens associated with childhood pneumonia.

  12. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Childhood Autobiographical Memory Disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David W.; Anda, Robert F.; Edwards, Valerie J.; Felitti, Vincent J.; Dube, Shanta R.; Giles, Wayne H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine relationships between childhood autobiographical memory disturbance (CAMD) and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) which are defined as common forms of child maltreatment and related traumatic stressors. Methods: We use the ACE score (an integer count of eight different categories of ACEs) as a measure of cumulative exposure…

  13. Group Decision Process Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, John; Hijikata, Masao

    1997-01-01

    Introducing the notion of Group Decision Process Support Systems (GDPSS) to traditional decision-support theorists.......Introducing the notion of Group Decision Process Support Systems (GDPSS) to traditional decision-support theorists....

  14. Decision theory and decision behaviour

    CERN Document Server

    Rapoport, Anatol

    1998-01-01

    The book treats two approaches to decision theory: (1) the normative, purporting to determine how a 'perfectly rational' actor ought to choose among available alternatives; (2) the descriptive, based on observations of how people actually choose in real life and in laboratory experiments. The mathematical tools used in the normative approach range from elementary algebra to matrix and differential equations. Sections on different levels can be studied independently. Special emphasis is made on 'offshoots' of both theories to cognitive psychology, theoretical biology, and philosophy.

  15. Aetiology of childhood acute leukaemias: Current status of knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute leukaemia is a consequence of malignant transformation of a haematopoietic progenitor cell. Molecular studies have revealed a prenatal origin of many childhood leukaemias. According to current models, a pre-leukaemic stem cell clone is generated by a first mutation in utero which, in a minority of children, progresses to leukaemia after receiving further postnatal genetic hits. The nature of pre- and postnatal events involved in leukemogenesis in children is not well understood. Although genetic predisposition and specific environmental exposures may account for individual cases, the bulk of childhood leukaemia cannot be explained by any of these factors. The higher incidence of the most common leukaemia subtype in affluent societies, as well as the age peak between 2-5 y, suggest a contributory role of socioeconomic factors. An abnormal immune response during delayed exposure to common infections provides a plausible mechanism for malignant progression of pre-leukaemic clones in a subgroup of children. As highlighted in this review, a common cause for all types and subtypes of childhood leukaemia is highly unlikely. Deeper insights into the pathogenesis of childhood leukaemia will rely on large-scale and combined epidemiological and bio-molecular studies. (authors)

  16. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Hallucinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, C.L.; Dube, S.R.; Felitti, V.J.; Anda, R.F.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: Little information is available about the contribution of multiple adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) to the likelihood of reporting hallucinations. We used data from the ACE study to assess this relationship. Methods:: We conducted a survey about childhood abuse and household dysfunction while growing up, with questions about health…

  17. Markets and Childhood Obesity Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawley, John

    2006-01-01

    In examining the childhood obesity epidemic from the perspective of economics, John Cawley looks at both possible causes and possible policy solutions that work through markets. The operation of markets, says Cawley, has contributed to the recent increase in childhood overweight in three main ways. First, the real price of food fell. In…

  18. Administrative decisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On 17 January 2002, the Finnish Council of State (the Government) had issued a positive Decision in Principle on the application made by the utility Teollisuuden Voima Oy (TVO) to construct a new nuclear power plant unit (see Nuclear Law Bulletin No. 69). At that time, the Council of State also declared that the liability amount of nuclear operators should be raised significantly, and three ministers issued a statement according to which the 1987 Nuclear Energy Act (the text of this Act is reproduced in the Supplement to Nuclear Law Bulletin No. 41) should be amended to ensure that the nuclear operator has to bear liability for the costs of radioactive waste management for 50 years after the repository has been closed. (author)

  19. Practitioners' Views on Involving Young Children in Decision Making: Challenges for the Children's Rights Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Kim

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the key findings and discussion from a research project and subsequent report: "Involving young children in decision making: An exploration of practitioners' views". This research explored early childhood practitioners'--childcare workers, kindergarten, pre-primary and grade 1-2 teachers--views on decision making for young…

  20. Combined dyslipidemia in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavey, Rae-Ellen W

    2015-01-01

    Combined dyslipidemia (CD) is now the predominant dyslipidemic pattern in childhood, characterized by moderate-to-severe elevation in triglycerides and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), minimal elevation in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and reduced HDL-C. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy shows that the CD pattern is represented at the lipid subpopulation level as an increase in small, dense LDL and in overall LDL particle number plus a reduction in total HDL-C and large HDL particles, a highly atherogenic pattern. In youth, CD occurs almost exclusively with obesity and is highly prevalent, seen in more than 40% of obese adolescents. CD in childhood predicts pathologic evidence of atherosclerosis and vascular dysfunction in adolescence and young adulthood, and early clinical cardiovascular events in adult life. There is a tight connection between CD, visceral adiposity, insulin resistance, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and the metabolic syndrome, suggesting an integrated pathophysiological response to excessive weight gain. Weight loss, changes in dietary composition, and increases in physical activity have all been shown to improve CD significantly in children and adolescents in short-term studies. Most importantly, even small amounts of weight loss are associated with significant decreases in triglyceride levels and increases in HDL-C levels with improvement in lipid subpopulations. Diet change focused on limitation of simple carbohydrate intake with specific elimination of all sugar-sweetened beverages is very effective. Evidence-based recommendations for initiating diet and activity change are provided. Rarely, drug therapy is needed, and the evidence for drug treatment of CD in childhood is reviewed. PMID:26343211

  1. Migraine and lifestyle in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casucci, Gerardo; Villani, Veronica; d'Onofrio, Florindo; Russo, Antonio

    2015-05-01

    Migraine is one of the most frequently reported somatic complaints in childhood, with a negative impact on health-related quality of life. The incidence of migraine in childhood has substantially increased over the past 30 years, probably due to both increased awareness of the disease and lifestyle changes in this age group. Indeed, several conditions have been identified as risk factors for migraine in childhood. Amongst these, dysfunctional family situation, the regular consumption of alcohol, caffeine ingestion, low level of physical activity, physical or emotional abuse, bullying by peers, unfair treatment in school and insufficient leisure time seem to play a critical role. Nevertheless, there are only few studies about the association between migraine and lifestyle in childhood, due to previous observations specifically focused on "headache" in children. In this brief review, we will concentrate upon recent studies aimed to explore migraine and lifestyle risk factors in childhood. PMID:26017522

  2. Stroke in childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Serap Teber; Gülhis Deda

    2011-01-01

    Stroke in childhood is one of the most common causes of death or severe impairment worldwide, with annual incidence estimated from 1,3 to 13 cases/100.000 population. The definition of stroke consists both of arterial ischemic stroke (AIS) and hemorrhagic stroke. The incidence of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke in children is approximately the same, in contrast to adults, while the incidence is higher in boys than it is in girls. Risks factors for pediatric stroke differ from those for adults...

  3. Subclinical hypothyroidism in childhood.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Grady, M J

    2012-02-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) is defined as an elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in association with a normal total or free thyroxine (T4) or triiodothyronine (T3). It is frequently encountered in both neonatology and general paediatric practice; however, its clinical significance is widely debated. Currently there is no broad consensus on the investigation and treatment of these patients; specifically who to treat and what cut-off level of TSH should be used. This paper reviews the available evidence regarding investigation, treatments and outcomes reported for childhood SH.

  4. 基于全部资产负债利率风险免疫优化的增量资产组合决策模型%The Incremental Portfolio Decision-Making Model Based on the Interest Rate Risk Immune Optimizing of Total Assets and Liabilities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    迟国泰; 张玉玲; 王元斌

    2011-01-01

    rates of risk immunization for all asset and liability portfolios can be achieved by establishing functional relationships between a bank's net value changes, incremental asset and liability, and stock asset-liability duration.The first goal of this study is to minimize the deviation between the duration gaps of all asset-liability portfolios as “O. ” The second goal is to maximize interest incomes of banks' assets. Supervisory policies and regulations are constraints. We constructed an incremental asset portfolio decision-making model based on the risk immunization optimum of all asset-liability interest rates.This paper is made of 5 sections. Section I reviewed current literature on immune conditions of interest rate risks. Section 2 discussed theories on asset and liability portfolio optimization and developed immune conditions to assess interest rate risks based on a bank's net worth function and the duration of incremental stock portfolios. Section 3 discussed incremental asset portfolios based on the risk immunization of asset-liability interest rates. Section 4 modeled the decision-making process and discussed optimal results using real examples. Section 5 concluded this study with major findings and future research directions.This study made two major contributions. First, the proposed interest rate immunization conditions to maximize the return of assetliability portfolios changes the existing ways of controlling partial risks based on incremental asset-liability portfolio. Second, this study replaces duration stock asset-liability terms. Our design can better reflect both incremental asset-liability duration and stock assetliability duration, and solve risk measurement problems of mixed portfolios, including asset-liability incremental portfolio and stock portfolio.

  5. Nonfatal suicidal behavior among women prisoners: the predictive roles of childhood victimization, childhood neglect, and childhood positive support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripodi, Stephen J; Onifade, Eyitayo; Pettus-Davis, Carrie

    2014-04-01

    Women entering prison report high rates of childhood victimization. Women in prison also report higher rates of nonfatal suicidal behavior (self-reported suicide attempts) than women in the general population and similar rates to their male counterparts despite having significantly lower suicide rates than males in the general population. Yet, there is a dearth of research that addresses the relationship between childhood victimization and suicidality for women prisoners in the United States. The purpose of this study is (a) to assess the relationship between childhood victimization and nonfatal suicidal behavior for a random sample of women prisoners; (b) to investigate predictive differences between childhood physical victimization, childhood sexual victimization, childhood neglect, and childhood support; and (c) to determine whether women prisoners with higher frequencies of childhood victimization and neglect are more likely to have attempted suicide than women prisoners with lower frequencies. Results indicate that childhood victimization, neglect, and lack of support are all significantly associated with nonfatal suicidal behavior among women prisoners. Frequency of childhood neglect had a larger effect size than frequency of childhood physical victimization, childhood sexual victimization, and lack of support. The results of this study add to the growing body of literature on childhood victimization and suicidality in general, and nonfatal suicidal behavior for prisoner populations in particular. The article ends with a discussion on clinical implications; particularly the finding that frequency of childhood victimization, childhood neglect, and lack of childhood support matters when determining the risk of suicidality. PMID:23315427

  6. Immunity to Diphtheria in Haemodialysis Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolreza S. Jahromi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The incidence of infectious diseases is increased in patients with chronic renal failure. Chronic renal failure severely influences the immune functions of the host. Diphtheria is of great epidemiological concern. Although mainly observed during childhood, unvaccinated adults and relatively immunocompromised patients are at increased risk for acquiring diphtheria. Approach: To evaluate the anti-Diphtheria immunity level in southern Iranian patients with end stage renal disease undergoing hemodialysis and to find its association with sex, age, blood hemoglobin, serum albumin and duration of dialysis. This cross sectional study was carried out on a total of 52 patients, who were on hemodialysis and 52 age and sex matched healthy individuals with without any underlying renal disease as a control group. Subjects in the both groups receiving antidiphtheria toxoid vaccine or immunoglubins a year prior to the study were excluded. The serum antidiphtheria IgG antibody levels were measured by an ELISA method. Results: Diphtheria protected individuals in the patients and the control groups were 34.6 and 63.30% respectively. Of the evaluating factors just hemodialysis duration found to affect on diphtheria immunity. Conclusion: Diphtheria protected individuals in the patients group were significantly less than diphtheria protected individuals in the control group (p = 0.011. Hemodialysis duration has significant effect on anti-diphtheria immunity level.

  7. Aging changes in immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cells and antibodies that destroy these harmful substances. Aging Changes and Their Effects on the Immune System ... Prevention To decrease the risks from immune system aging: Get the flu and pneumonia vaccines, and any ...

  8. Immune System and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your immune system is a complex network of cells, tissues, and organs that work together to defend against germs. It helps ... to find and destroy them. If your immune system cannot do its job, the results can be ...

  9. Pneumonia - weakened immune system

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/article/000093.htm Pneumonia - weakened immune system To use the sharing features on this page, ... off infection because of problems with the immune system. This type of disease is called "pneumonia in ...

  10. Immune Reconstitution Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... opportunistic infections have been linked to immune restoration. IRIS is a sign of improving immune health. Normally it is not treated. Continuing HIV therapy takes care of any problems. In rare ...

  11. Immune System and Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your immune system is a complex network of cells, tissues, and organs that work together to defend against germs. It ... t, to find and destroy them. If your immune system cannot do its job, the results can be ...

  12. Aging changes in immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004008.htm Aging changes in immunity To use the sharing features ... cells and antibodies that destroy these harmful substances. Aging Changes and Their Effects on the Immune System ...

  13. Immune response to HHV-6 and implications for immunotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Becerra, Aniuska; Gibson, Laura; Stern, Lawrence J.; Calvo-Calle, J. Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    Most adults remain chronically infected with HHV-6 after resolution of a primary infection in childhood, with the latent virus held in check by the immune system. Iatrogenic immunosuppression following solid organ transplantation (SOT) or hematopoetic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) can allow latent viruses to reactivate. HHV-6 reactivation has been associated with increased morbidity, graft rejection, and neurological complications post-transplantation. Recent work has identified HHV-6 anti...

  14. Biomarkers for immune thrombocytopenia

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Lingjia; Zhang, Chunmei; Zhang, Liping; Shi, Yongyu; Ji, Xuebin

    2015-01-01

    Immune thrombocytopenia is an autoimmune disease with abnormal biomarkers. Immune thrombocytopenia pathogenesis is a complicated process in which the patient’s immune system is activated by platelet autoantigens resulting in immune mediated platelet destruction or suppression of platelet production. The autoantibodies produced by autoreactive B cells against self antigens are considered to play a crucial role. In addition, biomarkers such as transforming growth factor-beta1,Toll-like receptor...

  15. Innate immunity and adjuvants

    OpenAIRE

    Akira, Shizuo

    2011-01-01

    Innate immunity was for a long time considered to be non-specific because the major function of this system is to digest pathogens and present antigens to the cells involved in acquired immunity. However, recent studies have shown that innate immunity is not non-specific, but is instead sufficiently specific to discriminate self from pathogens through evolutionarily conserved receptors, designated Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Indeed, innate immunity has a crucial role in early host defence aga...

  16. Immune mechanisms in vasculopathies

    OpenAIRE

    Nityanand, Soniya

    1996-01-01

    Soniya Nityanand AB STRACT Most of the inflammatory vasculopathies, termed as vasculitides are considered to be mediated at least in part by immunopathogenic mechanisms. With the recent demonstration of immune cells in atherosclerotic plaques, immune mechanisms are considered to play an important role in atherosclerotic vasculopathies too. The main components involved in the immune-mediated vascular injury are immune complexes, antibodies to vascular wall antigens...

  17. Immunizations for foreign travel.

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, D. R.

    1992-01-01

    One of the most important aspects of preparing travelers for destinations throughout the world is providing them with immunizations. Before administering any vaccines, however, a careful health and immunization history and travel itinerary should be obtained in order to determine vaccine indications and contraindications. There are three categories of immunizations for foreign travel. The first category includes immunizations which are routinely recommended whether or not the individual is tr...

  18. A Study of the Relationship between Early Childhood Program Attributes and Early Childhood Reading Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Novella M.

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative correlational study focuses on the relationship between early childhood program attributes and early childhood reading success. Data will be gathered from early childhood sites with grades prekindergarten through second grade in which early childhood program attributes exist and early childhood reading is measured by the…

  19. [Eating disorders of infancy and early childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagielska, Gabriela

    2009-01-01

    Feeding problems are frequently observed among the population of infants and small children. This problems include food refusal, overeating, selective eating and bizarre food habits. That problems might be transient, but they may last for many years among some of children. They could lead to poor weight gain, specific nutritional deficiencies and even failure to thrive. In ICD-10 classification two diagnostic categories regarding eating disorders during this life period have been proposed (Eating disorders and Pica of infancy and early childhood). That criteria are too general though, they don't tell much about etiology and they don't allow to make decision about using specific therapy for the disorder as well. The author presents American authors' propositions regarding more specific categories of feeding problems differentiation in this particular age group and presents casuistic descriptions. PMID:19485268

  20. Immune Disorder HSCT Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-09

    Immune Deficiency Disorders:; Severe Combined Immunodeficiency; Chronic Granulomatous Disease; X-linked Agammaglobulinemia; Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome; Hyper-IgM; DiGeorge Syndrome; Chediak-Higashi Syndrome; Common Variable Immune Deficiency; Immune Dysregulatory Disorder:; Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis; IPEX; Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome; X-linked Lymphoproliferative Syndrome

  1. The Immune System Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Kirsten A.; Gibbs, Melissa A.; Friedman, Erich J.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a card game that helps introductory biology students understand the basics of the immune response to pathogens. Students simulate the steps of the immune response with cards that represent the pathogens and the cells and molecules mobilized by the immune system. In the process, they learn the similarities and differences between the…

  2. Acute hemiplegia in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuno, Takehiko; Takao, Tatsuo; Itoh, Masatoshi; Konishi, Yukuo; Nakano, Shozo (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1983-04-01

    The results of CT in 100 patients with acute hemiplegia in childhood are reported here. The etiology was various: 2 patients had infratentorial brain tumors, 56 had cerebral vascular diseases, 3 had head injuries, 16 had intracranial infectious diseases, one had postinfectious encephalomyelitis, one had multiple sclerosis, 2 had epilepsy, and the diagnosis of 19 were unknown. Eleven patients had a normal CT and a good prognosis. As for the type of onset, there were patients of type 1 with fever and 42 with convulsions and unconsciousness; those of type 2 with convulsions and unconsciousness were 12, and those of type 3 without fever and convulsions were 46. This classification is assumed to be useful, as the type of onset is characteristic of the etiology. Six patients were diagnosed correctly by repeated examinations, although the first CT did not reveal any remarkable findings. Capsular infarction, occlusion of the posterior cerebral artery in acute hemiplegia in childhood, abnormal findings of the internal capsule, thalamus, and midbrain in a patient with postinfectious encephalomyelitis, and a diffuse low density in the CT of the unilateral hemisphere in the patients with acute encephalopathy and acute hemiplegia of an obscure origin have been found after the introduction of computerized tomography.

  3. Childhood depression: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima NNR

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Nádia Nara Rolim Lima,1 Vânia Barbosa do Nascimento,1 Sionara Melo Figueiredo de Carvalho,1 Luiz Carlos de Abreu,1,3 Modesto Leite Rolim Neto,2 Aline Quental Brasil,2 Francisco Telésforo Celestino Junior,2 Gislene Farias de Oliveira,2 Alberto Olavo Advíncula Reis3 1Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Saúde, Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo André, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Departamento de Medicina. Universidade Federal do Ceará, UFC, Barbalha, Ceará, Brazil; 3Departamento de Saúde Materno Infantil, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: As an important public health issue, childhood depression deserves special attention, considering the serious and lasting consequences of the disease to child development. Taking this into consideration, the present study was based on the following question: what practical contributions to clinicians and researchers does the current literature on childhood depression have to offer? The objective of the present study was to conduct a systematic review of articles regarding childhood depression. To accomplish this purpose, a systematic review of articles on childhood depression, published from January 1, 2010 to November 24, 2012, on MEDLINE and SciELO databases was carried out. Search terms were “depression” (medical subject headings [MeSH], “child” (MeSH, and "childhood depression" (keyword. Of the 180 retrieved studies, 25 met the eligibility criteria. Retrieved studies covered a wide range of aspects regarding childhood depression, such as diagnosis, treatment, prevention and prognosis. Recent scientific literature regarding childhood depression converge to, directly or indirectly, highlight the negative impacts of depressive disorders to the children's quality of life. Unfortunately, the retrieved studies show that childhood depression commonly grows in a background of vulnerability and poverty, where individual and familiar needs

  4. Decision Making with Imperfect Decision Makers

    CERN Document Server

    Guy, Tatiana Valentine; Wolpert, David H

    2012-01-01

    Prescriptive Bayesian decision making has reached a high level of maturity and is well-supported algorithmically. However, experimental data shows that real decision makers choose such Bayes-optimal decisions surprisingly infrequently, often making decisions that are badly sub-optimal. So prevalent is such imperfect decision-making that it should be accepted as an inherent feature of real decision makers living within interacting societies. To date such societies have been investigated from an economic and gametheoretic perspective, and even to a degree from a physics perspective. However, lit

  5. Peer Bullying During Early Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice UYSAL

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Peer bullying during early childhood is discussed along with the literature reviewed in this article with the purpose of drawing attention to peer bullying during early childhood and its significance, and contributing to studies which are few in number in Turkey. Peer bullying during early childhood was considered with its definition and types, people who play key roles in peer bullying, factors (gender, age, parents, and friendship that relate to peer bullying, and what should be done before and after peer bullying.

  6. Kell immunization: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasić Marija

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The frequency of occurrence of RhD alloimmunization, due to preventive protocols, is decreased in our country, but more often there are other antigens that emerge as a cause of hemolytic disease of fetus. The most prominent is Kell antigen, which promotes specific course of disease based on an innate pathogenetic mechanism. Anti- Kell antibody production is, just as in other atypical antibodies, provoked with transfusion of incompatible blood. Except for the immune-mediated hemolysis, anti - Kell antibodies can also inhibit the function of progenitor (erytroid and megakariocyte cell lines. Case report. We present the case of G1P1 woman in whom a distinct fetal hydrops was sonographically detected in the 28th week of pregnancy. The results of immunological tests undoubtedly pointed to Kell immunization (anti - Kell antibody titer was more than 1:32, and antenatal tests for evaluation of fetal condition (Doppler ultrasound and CTG clearly showed the severe form of hemolytic disease. We concluded that the fetus was in a hopeless, terminal stage of the disease, and then decided to terminate the pregnancy. Conclusion. The only clinical approach to a problem of Kell alloimunization is active one. Early cordocentesis is recommended as the optimal method for evaluation of fetal condition. The clinical outcome of the fetus will strictly depend on a timely intrauterine transfusion (IUT procedure. Prophylaxis emerges as a crucial factor in prevention of Kell - alloimmunization. It is to be considered that all females in childhood and throughout the reproductive period should take only K1 - negative blood transfusion in order to decrease the incidence of Kell - alloimmunization.

  7. Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Aktepe

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually towards male child. Thirty-fifty percent of abuse cases among child and adolescent are outside the family including strangers or familiar person. Some features of abusers are introvert personality, pedophilic and antisocial personality. Most of the abusers have a history of sexual abuse or aggression during childhood. Sexual intercourse between two people who are not allowed to marry by law is called as incest. Family pattern of incest is defined globally as disorganized and dysfunctional. The most commonly reported familial pattern is rigid and patriarchal family pattern with a harsh father using force quite frequently. The clinical features and impacts of the sexual abuse on the child varies according to the relation between abusers and the child, form of abuse, duration of abuse, presence of physical assault, developmental phase, child age and psychological development before the abuse. Sexual abuse history may result in psychiatric disorders including anxiety, depression, substance dependence, suicide act, borderline personality disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder. Abuse negatively affects interpersonal relationships and self esteem of abused individuals. Several studies reported close association between risky sexual behaviors in adulthood and a history of of sexual abuse during childhood. Four traumatic dynamics including traumatic sexuality with abuse, feeling of betrayal, weakness, and stigmatization exist in childhood abuse. Trauma can cause

  8. Fatty liver in childhood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yesim; Ozturk; Ozlem; Bekem; Soylu

    2014-01-01

    Fatty liver is a growing health problem worldwide. It might evolve to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, cirrhosis and cause hepatocellular carcinoma. This disease, which has increased because of eating habits, changes in food content and lifestyle, affects people from childhood. The most important risk factors are obesity and insulin resistance. Besides these factors, gender, ethnicity, genetic predisposition and some medical problems are also important. Cirrhosis in children is rare but is reported. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD) has no specific symptoms or signs but should be considered in obese children. NAFLD does not have a proven treatment. Weight loss with family based treatments is the most acceptable management. Exercise and an applicable diet with low glycemic index and appropriate calorie intake are preferred. Drugs are promising but not sufficient in children for today.

  9. Monitoring asthma in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin C. Lødrup Carlsen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The goal of asthma treatment is to obtain clinical control and reduce future risks to the patient. However, to date there is limited evidence on how to monitor patients with asthma. Childhood asthma introduces specific challenges in terms of deciding what, when, how often, by whom and in whom different assessments of asthma should be performed. The age of the child, the fluctuating course of asthma severity, variability in clinical presentation, exacerbations, comorbidities, socioeconomic and psychosocial factors, and environmental exposures may all influence disease activity and, hence, monitoring strategies. These factors will be addressed in herein. We identified large knowledge gaps in the effects of different monitoring strategies in children with asthma. Studies into monitoring strategies are urgently needed, preferably in collaborative paediatric studies across countries and healthcare systems.

  10. Pyoderma gangrenosum in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khatri M

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available We have treated 4 cases of pyoderma gangrenosum in infancy and childhood in past 2 years. The ages at onset were 6 months, 8 months, 6 months and 11.5 years respectively. Initial lesions were papulopustular in 3 and nodular in 1 patients but later on all of them developed ulcerative lesions with erythematous, violaceous, infiltrated or undermined edges. The lesions were numerous in 3 patients but few in 1 patient. The first patient had very high leucocyte count. In the second patient skin lesions of PG followed measles vaccinations. We could not reveal any association in the other two patients. None of the patient responded to antibiotic therapy. Three patients were treated successfully with dapsone and one with a combination of dapsone and prednisolone. We conclude that pyoderma gangrenosum is not so rare in infancy and it is more likely to occur without associated systemic diseases.

  11. Adiponectin in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffery, Alison N; Murphy, Michael J; Metcalf, Brad S; Hosking, Joanne; Voss, Linda D; English, Patrick; Sattar, Naveed; Wilkin, Terence J

    2008-01-01

    Adiponectin, a hormone produced and secreted by adipocytes, is present in circulation in high circulating concentrations, suggesting an important physiological role. An indirect regulator of glucose metabolism, adiponectin increases insulin sensitivity, improves glucose tolerance and inhibits inflammation. Plasma adiponectin relates inversely to adiposity and, importantly, reflects the sequelae of accumulation of excess adiposity. The role of adiponectin in adults has been explored in detail. Studies in children are now available and, given the increasing rates of childhood obesity, it is important to establish the role of adiponectin in mediating insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease in this age group. This paper reviews the regulation of adiponectin, its effect on body mass, glucose metabolism and cardiovascular risk in infants, children and adolescents. It demonstrates clear links between adiponectin and features of the metabolic syndrome in obese children and adolescents. However, adiponectin's role as a predictor of metabolic dysfunction in healthy, normal-weight youngsters is less clear. PMID:19086185

  12. [Food allergy in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Kirsten; Niggemann, Bodo

    2016-06-01

    IgE-mediated immediate type reactions are the most common form of food allergy in childhood. Primary (often in early childhood) and secondary (often pollen-associated) allergies can be distinguished by their level of severity. Hen's egg, cow's milk and peanut are the most common elicitors of primary food allergy. Tolerance development in hen's egg and cow's milk allergy happens frequently whereas peanut allergy tends toward a lifelong disease. For the diagnostic patient history, detection of sensitization and (in many cases) oral food challenges are necessary. Especially in peanut and hazelnut allergy component-resolves diagnostic (measurement of specific IgE to individual allergens, e. g. Ara h 2) seem to be helpful. In regard to therapy elimination diet is still the only approved approach. Patient education through dieticians is extremely helpful in this regard. Patients at risk for anaphylactic reactions need to carry emergency medications including an adrenaline auto-injector. Instruction on the usage of the adrenaline auto-injector should take place and a written management plan handed to the patient. Moreover, patients or caregivers should be encouraged to attending a structured educational intervention on knowledge and emergency management. In parallel, causal therapeutic options such as oral, sublingual or epicutaneous immunotherapies are currently under development. In regard to prevention of food allergy current guidelines no longer advise to avoid highly allergenic foods. Current intervention studies are investigating wether early introduction of highly allergic foods is effective and safe to prevent food allergy. It was recently shown that peanut introduction between 4 and 11  months of age in infants with severe atopic dermatitis and/or hen's egg allergy (if they are not already peanut allergic) prevents peanut allergy in a country with high prevalence. PMID:27207693

  13. Decision time for clinical decision support systems

    OpenAIRE

    O'Sullivan, D.; Fraccaro, P.; Carson, E; Weller, P

    2014-01-01

    Clinical decision support systems are interactive software systems designed to assist clinicians with decision making tasks, such as determining a diagnosis or recommending a treatment for a patient. Clinical decision support systems are a widely researched topic in the Computer Science community but their inner workings are less well understood by and known to clinicians. In this article we provide a brief explanation of clinical decision support systems and provide some examples of real wor...

  14. Simultaneous immunization against tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elma Z Tchilian

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: BCG, the only licensed vaccine against tuberculosis, provides some protection against disseminated disease in infants but has little effect on prevention of adult pulmonary disease. Newer parenteral immunization prime boost regimes may provide improved protection in experimental animal models but are unproven in man so that there remains a need for new and improved immunization strategies. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Mice were immunized parenterally, intranasally or simultaneously by both routes with BCG or recombinant mycobacterial antigens plus appropriate adjuvants. They were challenged with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb and the kinetics of Mtb growth in the lungs measured. We show that simultaneous immunization (SIM of mice by the intranasal and parenteral routes is highly effective in increasing protection over parenteral BCG administration alone. Intranasal immunization induces local pulmonary immunity capable of inhibiting the growth of Mtb in the early phase (the first week of infection, while parenteral immunization has a later effect on Mtb growth. Importantly, these two effects are additive and do not depend on priming and boosting the immune response. The best SIM regimes reduce lung Mtb load by up to 2 logs more than BCG given by either route alone. CONCLUSIONS: These data establish SIM as a novel and highly effective immunization strategy for Mtb that could be carried out at a single clinic visit. The efficacy of SIM does not depend on priming and boosting an immune response, but SIM is complementary to prime boost strategies and might be combined with them.

  15. Childhood cancers and atmospheric carcinogens

    OpenAIRE

    Knox, E

    2005-01-01

    Study objectives: To retest previous findings that childhood cancers are probably initiated by prenatal exposures to combustion process gases and to volatile organic compounds (VOCs); and to identify specific chemical hazards.

  16. Fiber Intake and Childhood Appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brender, Jean D.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Parents of 135 children with appendicitis and of 212 comparison children were interviewed about their children's diet. Results suggest that a liberal intake of whole-grain breads and cereals may decrease the risk of appendicitis during childhood. (KH)

  17. [The impact of childhood caries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid, Carlos; Abarca, Marcelo; Bouferrache, Kahina; Gehri, Mario; Bodenmann, Patrick; Pop, Sabina

    2012-04-01

    The early childhood caries affect primary dentition before the eruption of the permanent teeth. It is set to extended use of a bottle containing fermentable carbohydrates. The early childhood caries is not only a dental disease: it is a social, cultural and behavioral condition that reflects the practices and beliefs around the child. Swiss data indicate that in aged 2 children, one of for could be affected by this devastating oral disease, mainly in vulnerable populations. The primary care physician has an important role in the screening of preschool children, in determining the risk level of the child for early childhood caries. Physicians can advise families, especially pregnant women, about preventive measures and behavior, leading to a dramatic drop of early childhood caries prevalence. PMID:22545498

  18. Leydig cell tumours in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengel, W; Knorr, D

    1983-01-01

    Two cases of Leydig cell tumours in childhood are presented. In one case, delayed diagnosis and operation led to pubertas praecox vera whereas in the other case normal growth and development occurred after early diagnosis and operation. PMID:6878724

  19. Childhood Deaths from Physical Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasim, Mohd. Sham; and Others

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes 30 cases of childhood deaths caused by physical abuse in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Data presented include ethnic origins, age, causes of death, identity of perpetrators, and marital situation of parents. (DB)

  20. General Overview on Childhood Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Sevil İnal; Nejla Canbulat

    2013-01-01

    Until recently, it has not been put much emphasis on obesity in children and the view of “obese child is healthy” is widely accepted by families. However, understanding that a close relation exists between obesity prevalence and childhood obesity, which increased in recent years both across the world and in our country, and many diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases changed the opinion of both of health care professionals and the society about childhood obesity in T...

  1. Childhood obesity, prevalence and prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Merchant Anwar T; Akhtar-Danesh Noori; Dehghan Mahshid

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed countries. Twenty five percent of children in the US are overweight and 11% are obese. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising pre...

  2. Childhood obesity and cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Bridger, Tracey

    2009-01-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions. Many of these children have risk factors for later disease, including cardiovascular disease. For optimal cardiovascular health, health care professionals must be able to identify children and youth at risk and provide appropriate support as needed. The present article reviews the current medical literature on obesity and cardiovascular disease risk factors in the paediatric population, the long-term cardiovascular consequences of childhood ...

  3. Childhood obesity: causes and consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Sahoo, Krushnapriya; Sahoo, Bishnupriya; Choudhury, Ashok Kumar; Sofi, Nighat Yasin; Kumar, Raman; Bhadoria, Ajeet Singh

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed as well as in developing countries. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. Overweight and obese children are likely to stay obese into adulthood and more likely to develop non-communicable diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with m...

  4. Cranial nerve palsies in childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Lyons, C J; Godoy, F; ALQahtani, E

    2015-01-01

    We review ocular motor cranial nerve palsies in childhood and highlight many of the features that differentiate these from their occurrence in adulthood. The clinical characteristics of cranial nerve palsies in childhood are affected by the child's impressive ability to repair and regenerate after injury. Thus, aberrant regeneration is very common after congenital III palsy; Duane syndrome, the result of early repair after congenital VI palsy, is invariably associated with retraction of the g...

  5. CHILDHOOD OBESITY AND ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMCALS

    OpenAIRE

    La Merrill, Michele; Birnbaum, Linda S.

    2011-01-01

    Childhood and adolescent rates of obesity and overweight are continuing to increase in much of the world. Risk factors such as diet composition, excess caloric intake, decreased exercise, genetics, and the built environment are active areas of etiologic research. The obesogen hypothesis, which postulates that pre- and peri- natal chemical exposure can contribute to risk of childhood and adolescent obesity, remains relatively under-examined. This review surveys numerous classes of chemicals fo...

  6. Multilevel Determinants of Childhood Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Yen-Jung

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity among US children and adolescents has rapidly increased in the past several decades, and the epidemic of childhood obesity is currently a serious public health concern in the United States. This dissertation consists of three studies examining individual- and neighborhood-level determinants of childhood obesity. The study area was Los Angeles County in California. Our first study examined the effects of maternal employment, individual socioeconomic status (SES), and ...

  7. Testicular defense systems: immune privilege and innate immunity

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Shutao; Zhu, Weiwei; Xue, Shepu; Han, Daishu

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian testis possesses a special immunological environment because of its properties of remarkable immune privilege and effective local innate immunity. Testicular immune privilege protects immunogenic germ cells from systemic immune attack, and local innate immunity is important in preventing testicular microbial infections. The breakdown of local testicular immune homeostasis may lead to orchitis, an etiological factor of male infertility. The mechanisms underlying testicular immune...

  8. Responsive Decision-Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Carsten Lund; Andersen, Torben Juul

    environmental developments and feeding that information into strategic decisions will enable higher quality outcomes and better adaptive responses for persistent performance. Thus we review relevant parts of the strategic decision making literature to conceptualize the responsive decision making model and...

  9. Integration of vitamin A supplementation with the expanded program on immunization does not affect seroconversion to oral poliovirus vaccine in infants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.D. Semba; M. Muhilal; N.E. Mohgaddam (Nasrin); Z. Munasir; A. Akib; D. Permaesih; M.S. Muherdiyantiningsih; A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractChildhood immunization programs may provide infrastructure for delivering vitamin A supplements to infants in developing countries. The effect of giving vitamin A, an immune enhancer, on antibody responses to trivalent oral poliovirus vaccine (TOPV) is unknown. A randomized, double-blind

  10. Factors determing children's decision-making in Slovene pre-schools

    OpenAIRE

    Turnšek, Nada

    2008-01-01

    Children’s participation – their involvement in creating their life in kindergarten and making decisions about things that concern them – is a key principle of democratic early childhood education. The Slovene early childhood curriculum (Kurikulum za vrtce, 1999), adopted within the context of an independent state and democratic political system, strongly emphasises the ‘philosophy’ of making choices and respecting differences. The study conducted in Slovene and Finnish kind...

  11. Maternal Immune-Mediated Conditions, Autism Spectrum Disorders, and Developmental Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyall, Kristen; Ashwood, Paul; Van de Water, Judy; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2014-01-01

    The maternal immune system may play a role in offspring neurodevelopment. We examined whether maternal autoimmune disease, asthma, and allergy were associated with child autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and developmental delay without autism (DD) using 560 ASD cases, 391 typically developing controls, and 168 DD cases from the CHildhood Autism Risk…

  12. Adverse childhood experiences, allostasis, allostatic load, and age-related disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danese, Andrea; McEwen, Bruce S

    2012-04-12

    How do adverse childhood experiences get 'under the skin' and influence health outcomes through the life-course? Research reviewed here suggests that adverse childhood experiences are associated with changes in biological systems responsible for maintaining physiological stability through environmental changes, or allostasis. Children exposed to maltreatment showed smaller volume of the prefrontal cortex, greater activation of the HPA axis, and elevation in inflammation levels compared to non-maltreated children. Adults with a history of childhood maltreatment showed smaller volume of the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, greater activation of the HPA axis, and elevation in inflammation levels compared to non-maltreated individuals. Despite the clear limitations in making longitudinal claims from cross-sectional studies, work so far suggests that adverse childhood experiences are associated with enduring changes in the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems. These changes are already observable in childhood years and remain apparent in adult life. Adverse childhood experiences induce significant biological changes in children (biological embedding), modifying the maturation and the operating balance of allostatic systems. Their chronic activation can lead to progressive wear and tear, or allostatic load and overload, and, thus, can exert long-term effects on biological aging and health. PMID:21888923

  13. Decision Making and Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Reyna, Valerie F.; Nelson, Wendy L.; Han, Paul K.; Pignone, Michael P

    2015-01-01

    We review decision-making along the cancer continuum in the contemporary context of informed and shared decision making, in which patients are encouraged to take a more active role in their health care. We discuss challenges to achieving informed and shared decision making, including cognitive limitations and emotional factors, but argue that understanding the mechanisms of decision making offers hope for improving decision support. Theoretical approaches to decision making that explain cogni...

  14. THE EFFECT OF STATE INSURANCE MANDATES ON INFANT IMMUNIZATION RATES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Lenisa V

    2016-03-01

    While US infant immunization rates have been increasing in the last 20 years, the cost of fully immunizing a child with all recommended vaccines has almost tripled. This is partly not only due to new additions in the list of recommended vaccines but also due to the use of new, safer, but more expensive technologies in vaccine production and distribution. In recent years, many states have mandated that recommended childhood vaccines be covered by private health insurance companies. Currently, there are 33 states with such a mandate. In this paper, I examine whether the introduction of mandates on private insurers affected immunization rates. Using state and time variation, I find that mandates increased the immunization rate for three vaccines--the diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis, polio, and measles-mumps-rubella vaccines--by about 1.8 percentage points. These results may provide a lower bound for the expected effect of the Affordable Care Act, which mandates coverage of childhood vaccines for all private insurers in the USA. I also find evidence that the mandates shifted a significant portion of vaccinations from publicly funded sources to private ones, with a decline in public health clinic visits and an increase in vaccinations at hospitals and doctor's offices. PMID:25773053

  15. Neural circuitry and immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlov, Valentin A; Tracey, Kevin J

    2015-12-01

    Research during the last decade has significantly advanced our understanding of the molecular mechanisms at the interface between the nervous system and the immune system. Insight into bidirectional neuro-immune communication has characterized the nervous system as an important partner of the immune system in the regulation of inflammation. Neuronal pathways, including the vagus nerve-based inflammatory reflex, are physiological regulators of immune function and inflammation. In parallel, neuronal function is altered in conditions characterized by immune dysregulation and inflammation. Here, we review these regulatory mechanisms and describe the neural circuitry modulating immunity. Understanding these mechanisms reveals possibilities to use targeted neuromodulation as a therapeutic approach for inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. These findings and current clinical exploration of neuromodulation in the treatment of inflammatory diseases define the emerging field of Bioelectronic Medicine. PMID:26512000

  16. Proteomics and insect immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Shi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Insect innate immunity is both a model for vertebrate immunity as well as a key system that impactsmedically important pathogens that are transmitted by insects. Recent developments in proteomics andprotein identification techniques combined with the completion of genome sequences for Anophelesgambiae and Drosophila melanogaster provided the tools for examining insect immunity at a new level ofmolecular detail. Application of proteomics to insect immunity resulted in predictions of new roles inimmunity for proteins already known in other contexts (e.g. ferritin, transferrin, Chi-lectins and helped totarget specific members of multi-gene families that respond to different pathogens (e.g. serine proteases,thioester proteins. In addition, proteomics studies verify that post-translational modifications play a keyrole in insect immunity since many of the identified proteins are modified in some way. These studiescomplement recent work on insect transcriptomes and provide new directions for further investigation ofinnate immunity.

  17. Origins of adaptive immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liongue, Clifford; John, Liza B; Ward, Alister

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive immunity, involving distinctive antibody- and cell-mediated responses to specific antigens based on "memory" of previous exposure, is a hallmark of higher vertebrates. It has been argued that adaptive immunity arose rapidly, as articulated in the "big bang theory" surrounding its origins, which stresses the importance of coincident whole-genome duplications. Through a close examination of the key molecules and molecular processes underpinning adaptive immunity, this review suggests a less-extreme model, in which adaptive immunity emerged as part of longer evolutionary journey. Clearly, whole-genome duplications provided additional raw genetic materials that were vital to the emergence of adaptive immunity, but a variety of other genetic events were also required to generate some of the key molecules, whereas others were preexisting and simply co-opted into adaptive immunity. PMID:21395512

  18. A Fractal Immune Network

    OpenAIRE

    Bentley, Peter J.; Timmis, Jon

    2004-01-01

    Proteins are the driving force in development (embryogenesis) and the immune system. Here we describe how a model of proteins designed for evolutionary development in computers can be combined with a model of immune systems. Full details of a prototype system are provided, and preliminary experiments presented. Results show that evolution is able to adjust the mapping between input data and antigens and cause useful changes to the subnetworks formed by the immune algorithm.

  19. Impact of community-based immunization services.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sing K

    1986-07-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge, attitude and practice of mothers toward childhood immunization was surveyed in 2 neighborhoods in greater Bombay, India. The areas were a slum of 75,000 called Malavani, and a nearby area called Kharodi. Measles and triple (DPT or DPV vaccines were available at local health centers, 1.5 km away at the most; oral polio vaccines were given by field workers to the Malavani community to children in their homes, but only in the center for those in Kharodi. BCG tuberculosis vaccinations were available to all, but from a center 5 km away. Malavani mothers had significantly better knowledge of triple and measles vaccines, but knowledge about BCG was similar in the 2 groups. Slightly more women from Kharodi expressed negative attitudes toward immunization. Coverage of children, established from clinic records, was significantly better in the Malavani area: 91% vs. 58% for polio; 71% vs 61% for BCG (n.s.; 85% vs. 55% for triple vaccine; and 21% vs 1% for measles. Evidently, visitation by field teams with polio vaccinations affected mothers′ knowledge and practice for other immunizations available only at the center.

  20. [Childhood and transsexualism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiland, C

    1988-01-01

    on the childhood of adult patients. Often, they have little to say about their own childhood. Interviews with parents give still another point of view. Most of the cases seen in consultation resulting from problems with gender-identity are mixed and secondary, rarely in a pure, clear-cut state.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:3051066

  1. [Recommendations for making decisions when parents refuse to vaccinate their children: ethical analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaño Galán, I; Martínez González, C; Sánchez Jacob, M

    2013-07-01

    Vaccinating children is the most effective primary prevention activity and many lives have been saved due to vaccines. Anti-vaccine movements have spread doubts about the safety and effectiveness of childhood vaccines, leading to some parents refusing to vaccinate their children. This refusal raises a conflict of values between the right of parents to the upbringing of their children according to their beliefs and justice, putting the immunity of the group at risk. In Spain, the law protects this ability for parents to decide not to comply with the official vaccine program. Pediatricians play an essential role in a parent's decision, and must provide accurate information about vaccination. It is necessary to explore The values of the parents, their concerns need to be empathetically examined, in order to reach an agreement. Respect for freedom does not exempt us from using discussion and persuasion to achieve attitudes and healthy choices for children. Our commitment to responsability promotion is essential for maintaining high vaccination levels that protect the health of children. PMID:23453399

  2. Possible new antiaging strategies related to neuroendocrine-immune interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocchegiani, Eugenio; Malavolta, Marco

    2008-01-01

    The aging process demonstrates gradual and spontaneous changes, resulting in maturation through childhood, puberty and young adulthood, and then decline through middle and late age. However, animals and humans are capable of reaching the extreme limit of life span characteristic for the species with a very efficient network of antiaging mechanisms. Among them, neuroendocrine-immune interactions play a pivotal role. The loss of the capacity of the organism in remodeling the neuroendocrine-immune response leads to the appearance of age-associated pathologies. We herein report some substances which can be proposed as new antiaging strategies because of their capacity to remodel some biological functions in old animals and humans. These substances are: L-deprenyl, leptin, ghrelin, carnosine and NO donors. Their role as possible antiaging strategies in healthy people in relation to neuroendocrine-immune responses and zinc ion bioavailability is reported and discussed. PMID:19047810

  3. Brucellosis in Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulku Gul

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Brucellosis is still an important infectious disease, being widespread as endemic and sporadic cases in Turkey. The aim of this study was to evaluate clinical and laboratory findings, treatment modalities and final outcomes of brucellosis in children. Material and Methods: This is a retrospective record review of all patients 0-18 years of age with brucellosis admitted during a 8-year period between January 2003 and September 2010.Results: Of the 62 patients, 39 (63% were male. The mean age and standard deviation of patients was 120±51.7 months (4 months-18 years. Most common symptoms on admission were fever (88%, arthralgia (64% and dizziness (19%. On physical examination, the findings and percentages were as follows; arthritis (29%, lymphadenopathy (25%, hepatomegaly (24% and splenomegaly (17%. Fifty-one percent of the patients had high sedimentation rate, 41% had high transaminase levels, and 40% had positivity for C-Reactive Protein. Brucella agglutination tests were positive in all cases. Brucella spp. was isolated from blood cultures in 27% of the cases. All of the cases were given combined drug therapy. Three of the cases (4.8% had relapses during the follow up period. No mortality was seen in patients with brucellosis.Conclusion: Childhood brucellosis remains an important public health problem in our country. It may cause serious complications in children, and treatment with at least two antibiotics for not less than six weeks appears to be effective.

  4. Childhood drowning in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hss, Amar-Singh; Tan, Pui San; Hashim, Lina

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to collate data on childhood drowning in Malaysia and review existing drowning prevention measures. This study used secondary data from governmental and non-governmental agencies. All reported fatal drownings from 2000 to 2007 and all reported non-fatal drownings from 2000 to 2008 were included. Data were analysed to provide understanding of the epidemiology of drowning incidents, risk factors and available preventive efforts. On average 286 (range 248-344) children died yearly due to drowning with a death rate of 3.05 per 100,000 annually. An additional average of 207 children drowned but survived annually (1.99 per 100,000). The estimated burden of drowning in children (death and non-death) is 5 per 100,000. There was no reduction in annual drowning fatalities over time. Most drowning took place in east coast regions during the annual monsoon season. It was 3.52 (2.80-4.41) times more common in boys and most prevalent among 10-14 years. Most prevalent sites of all-age drowning were seas and rivers. Limited water safety regulations are currently available in the country. This is the first comprehensive national study in Malaysia on paediatric drowning and highlights the magnitude of the problem. It calls for concerted effort to devise effective national drowning prevention measures. PMID:23651461

  5. Brain SPECT in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modalities and the indications of perfusion and neurotransmission SPECT in childhood are presented. The perfusion as well as neurotransmission tracers have not yet authorization for use in children; they have to be used by prescription of magistral preparation or in research protocols. The radioprotection rules have to be strictly respected. The most frequent indication of perfusion SPECT is pharmacologically resistant epilepsy; the ictal SPECT before surgery allows the localization of the epileptogenic focus. Other indications are relevant in the prognosis of neonatal anoxia and encephalitis. In psychiatric disorders, especially in autism, the interest is the physiopathological approach of the brain dysfunctions. The neurotransmission SPECT is emerging as a consequence of the development of new radiotracer, as the dopaminergic system ligands. The decrease of the dopamine D2 receptors in the striatum can be imaged and quantified in the neonate. The lesions of dopamine system seem to be a consequence of the neonatal hypoxia-ischemia and it is predictive of motor sequelae. Brain SPECT should become a routine examination in child neurologic and psychiatric disorders. (authors)

  6. Reinfection immunity in schistosomiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schistosomiasis is one of the most important parasitic diseases in the world, especially in endemic areas of developing countries. This situation has prompted parasitologist to attempt intensive researches on immune mechanisms, especially those of reinfection immunity associated with eliminating challenge infection. The current knowledge of reinfection immunity against Schistosoma spp. infection was therefore reviewed briefly and discussed with special reference to our data on protective immune responses induced by radiation-attenuated cercarial infection. A recently developed technique of compressed organ autoradiography (COA) has contributed to assessing parasite attrition in immune animals following challenge infection. Our study using COA has demonstrated that major attrition of schistosomula from challenge infection occurs in the skin of CBA/Ca mice vaccinated with 20 Krad gamma radiation-attenuated cercariae of S. mansoni, while in both lungs and liver of similarly vaccinated guinea pig model. Furthermore, gamma-irradiation to cercariae affected their migration potential and surface-antigen profiles. The immunizing stimuli of gamma radiation-attenuated cercariae profoundly affected the expression of responsiveness in vaccinated animals. The change in antigenic profiles and migration potential of those vaccinating population was discussed in relation to the kinetics of reinfection immunity induced in vaccinated amimal models. These works might provide a base line data to develop a practical vaccine for schistosomiasis using defined antigens. It must be emphasized that these vaccines could serve as a practical prophylactic measure for schistosomiasis in the endemic areas, even if the vaccines fail to induce sterilizing immunity. (author). 141 refs

  7. Innate immunity and adjuvants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akira, Shizuo

    2011-10-12

    Innate immunity was for a long time considered to be non-specific because the major function of this system is to digest pathogens and present antigens to the cells involved in acquired immunity. However, recent studies have shown that innate immunity is not non-specific, but is instead sufficiently specific to discriminate self from pathogens through evolutionarily conserved receptors, designated Toll-like receptors (TLRs). Indeed, innate immunity has a crucial role in early host defence against invading pathogens. Furthermore, TLRs were found to act as adjuvant receptors that create a bridge between innate and adaptive immunity, and to have important roles in the induction of adaptive immunity. This paradigm shift is now changing our thinking on the pathogenesis and treatment of infectious, immune and allergic diseases, as well as cancers. Besides TLRs, recent findings have revealed the presence of a cytosolic detector system for invading pathogens. I will review the mechanisms of pathogen recognition by TLRs and cytoplasmic receptors, and then discuss the roles of these receptors in the development of adaptive immunity in response to viral infection. PMID:21893536

  8. Immunization Action Coalition

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contact | A-Z Index | Donate | Shop | SUBSCRIBE Immunization Action Coalition Handouts for Patients & Staff A-Z Screening ... Z Index • Site Map • Disclaimer • Privacy Policy Immunization Action Coalition • 2550 University Avenue West • Suite 415 North • ...

  9. Epigenetic Alterations Associated with War Trauma and Childhood Maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramo-Fernández, Laura; Schneider, Anna; Wilker, Sarah; Kolassa, Iris-Tatjana

    2015-10-01

    Survivors of war trauma or childhood maltreatment are at increased risk for trauma-spectrum disorders such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In addition, traumatic stress has been associated with alterations in the neuroendocrine and the immune system, enhancing the risk for physical diseases. Traumatic experiences might even affect psychological as well as biological parameters in the next generation, i.e. traumatic stress might have transgenerational effects. This article outlines how epigenetic processes, which represent a pivotal biological mechanism for dynamic adaptation to environmental challenges, might contribute to the explanation of the long-lasting and transgenerational effects of trauma. In particular, epigenetic alterations in genes regulating the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis as well as the immune system have been observed in survivors of childhood and adult trauma. These changes could result in enduring alterations of the stress response as well as the physical health risk. Furthermore, the effects of parental trauma could be transmitted to the next generation by parental distress and the pre- and postnatal environment, as well as by epigenetic marks transmitted via the germline. While epigenetic research has a high potential of advancing our understanding of the consequences of trauma, the findings have to be interpreted with caution, as epigenetics only represent one piece of a complex puzzle of interacting biological and environmental factors. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26358541

  10. Project Decision Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rolstadås, Asbjørn; Pinto, Jeffrey K.; Falster, Peter;

    2015-01-01

    To add value to project performance and help obtain project success, a new framework for decision making in projects is defined. It introduces the project decision chain inspired by the supply chain thinking in the manufacturing sector and uses three types of decisions: authorization, selection......, and plan decision. A primitive decision element is defined where all the three decision types can be accommodated. Each task in the primitive element can in itself contain subtasks that in turn will comprise new primitive elements. The primitive elements are nested together in a project decision chain....

  11. ABC of childhood memories [artists' book

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Philippa; MacLellan, Tamar

    2009-01-01

    The limited edition artists' book by Philippa Wood and Tamar MacLellan – ABC of Childhood Memories was a collaborative project that explored the 1960s/70s childhood memories of each artist through text based narrative and image.

  12. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS): Childhood Adversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... childhood maltreatment. In particular, for women, emotional and sexual abuse during childhood was associated with a greater risk ... risk for chronic fatigue syndrome: results from a population-based study. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2006 Nov;63( ...

  13. Childhood Asthma: A Chance to HEAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Childhood Asthma: A Chance to HEAL Past Issues / Fall ... HEAL is seeking ways to reduce the nation's childhood asthma challenge. Even before Hurricane Katrina swept through ...

  14. Childhood Diseases - What Parents Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Childhood Diseases - What Parents Need to Know Past Issues / ... centers is continuing to improve the outlook for childhood diseases every day. Photo: iStock When the Eunice ...

  15. Maternal postpartum distress and childhood overweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ajslev, Teresa A; Andersen, Camilla S; Ingstrup, Katja G;

    2010-01-01

    We investigated associations between maternal postpartum distress covering anxiety, depression and stress and childhood overweight.......We investigated associations between maternal postpartum distress covering anxiety, depression and stress and childhood overweight....

  16. Behavioral Immunity in Insects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry Lefèvre

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Parasites can dramatically reduce the fitness of their hosts, and natural selection should favor defense mechanisms that can protect hosts against disease. Much work has focused on understanding genetic and physiological immunity against parasites, but hosts can also use behaviors to avoid infection, reduce parasite growth or alleviate disease symptoms. It is increasingly recognized that such behaviors are common in insects, providing strong protection against parasites and parasitoids. We review the current evidence for behavioral immunity in insects, present a framework for investigating such behavior, and emphasize that behavioral immunity may act through indirect rather than direct fitness benefits. We also discuss the implications for host-parasite co-evolution, local adaptation, and the evolution of non-behavioral physiological immune systems. Finally, we argue that the study of behavioral immunity in insects has much to offer for investigations in vertebrates, in which this topic has traditionally been studied.

  17. Artificial Immune Systems (2010)

    CERN Document Server

    Greensmith, Julie; Aickelin, Uwe

    2010-01-01

    The human immune system has numerous properties that make it ripe for exploitation in the computational domain, such as robustness and fault tolerance, and many different algorithms, collectively termed Artificial Immune Systems (AIS), have been inspired by it. Two generations of AIS are currently in use, with the first generation relying on simplified immune models and the second generation utilising interdisciplinary collaboration to develop a deeper understanding of the immune system and hence produce more complex models. Both generations of algorithms have been successfully applied to a variety of problems, including anomaly detection, pattern recognition, optimisation and robotics. In this chapter an overview of AIS is presented, its evolution is discussed, and it is shown that the diversification of the field is linked to the diversity of the immune system itself, leading to a number of algorithms as opposed to one archetypal system. Two case studies are also presented to help provide insight into the m...

  18. Immunization Status of Young People Attending a Youth Clinic in Geneva, Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meynard, Anne; Genequand, Lydia Markham; Jeannot, Emilien; Wyler-Lazarevic, Claire-Anne; Cerutti, Bernard; Narring, Françoise

    2016-04-01

    Adolescent vaccination coverage is very variable in European countries and data are scarce. The aim of this study was to assess immunization status and analyze potential variations according to sociodemographic variables in a youth clinic in Geneva, Switzerland. Immunization status was assessed retrospectively: Tetanus (number of doses or in absence of data tetanus antibodies) and measles as indicators of childhood coverage as well as hepatitis B and human papillomavirus. All new patients (N = 390) of Geneva University Hospital's youth clinic were included between January 2010 and June 2011. Vaccine coverage was low for all vaccines regardless of sex or origin. 89 % of young people tested (mostly recent immigrants with no available data) had tetanus antibodies indicating adequate childhood immunization but hepatitis B and HPV coverage was low especially in recent immigrants. Systematic assessment allows better adolescent vaccine coverage and can improve safety by avoiding unnecessary dosis. PMID:25774037

  19. Immunotherapy of childhood Sarcomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen S Roberts

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric sarcomas are a heterogeneous group of malignant tumors of bone and soft tissue origin. Although more than 100 different histologic subtypes have been described, the majority of pediatric cases belong to the Ewing’s family of tumors, rhabdomyosarcoma and osteosarcoma. Most patients that present with localized stage are curable with surgery and/or chemotherapy; however, those with metastatic disease at diagnosis or those who experience a relapse continue to have a very poor prognosis. New therapies for these patients are urgently needed. Immunotherapy is an established treatment modality for both liquid and solid tumors, and in pediatrics, most notably for neuroblastoma and osteosarcoma. In the past, immunomodulatory agents such as interferon, interleukin-2, and Liposomal-muramyl  tripeptide phosphatidyl-ethanolamine (L-MTP have been tried, with some activity seen in subsets of patients; additionally, various cancer vaccines have been studied with possible benefit. Monoclonal antibody therapies against tumor antigens such as disialoganglioside GD2 or immune checkpoint targets such as CTLA4 and PD-1 are being actively explored in pediatric sarcomas. Building on the success of adoptive T cell therapy for EBV-related lymphoma, strategies to redirect T cells using chimeric antigen receptors and bispecific antibodies are rapidly evolving with potential for the treatment of sarcomas. This review will focus on recent preclinical and clinical developments in targeted agents for pediatric sarcomas with emphasis on the immunobiology of immune checkpoints, immunoediting, tumor microenvironment, antibody engineering, cell engineering, and tumor vaccines. The future integration of antibody based and cell based therapies into an overall treatment strategy of sarcoma will be discussed.

  20. Immunotherapy of Childhood Sarcomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Stephen S; Chou, Alexander J; Cheung, Nai-Kong V

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric sarcomas are a heterogeneous group of malignant tumors of bone and soft tissue origin. Although more than 100 different histologic subtypes have been described, the majority of pediatric cases belong to the Ewing's family of tumors, rhabdomyosarcoma and osteosarcoma. Most patients that present with localized stage are curable with surgery and/or chemotherapy; however, those with metastatic disease at diagnosis or those who experience a relapse continue to have a very poor prognosis. New therapies for these patients are urgently needed. Immunotherapy is an established treatment modality for both liquid and solid tumors, and in pediatrics, most notably for neuroblastoma and osteosarcoma. In the past, immunomodulatory agents such as interferon, interleukin-2, and liposomal-muramyl tripeptide phosphatidyl-ethanolamine have been tried, with some activity seen in subsets of patients; additionally, various cancer vaccines have been studied with possible benefit. Monoclonal antibody therapies against tumor antigens such as disialoganglioside GD2 or immune checkpoint targets such as CTLA-4 and PD-1 are being actively explored in pediatric sarcomas. Building on the success of adoptive T cell therapy for EBV-related lymphoma, strategies to redirect T cells using chimeric antigen receptors and bispecific antibodies are rapidly evolving with potential for the treatment of sarcomas. This review will focus on recent preclinical and clinical developments in targeted agents for pediatric sarcomas with emphasis on the immunobiology of immune checkpoints, immunoediting, tumor microenvironment, antibody engineering, cell engineering, and tumor vaccines. The future integration of antibody-based and cell-based therapies into an overall treatment strategy of sarcoma will be discussed. PMID:26301204

  1. Income in Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Wengenroth, Laura; Sommer, Grit; Schindler, Matthias, 1968-; Spycher, Ben D.; von der Weid, Nicolas X.; Stutz-Grunder, Eveline; Michel, Gisela; Kuehni, Claudia E.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Little is known about the impact of childhood cancer on the personal income of survivors. We compared income between survivors and siblings, and determined factors associated with income. METHODS As part of the Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (SCCSS), a questionnaire was sent to survivors, aged ≥18 years, registered in the Swiss Childhood Cancer Registry (SCCR), diagnosed at age

  2. Health lifestyles in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie; James-Hawkins, Laurie; Lawrence, Elizabeth; Fomby, Paula

    2014-12-01

    This study integrates two important developments, the concept of health lifestyles (which has focused on adults and adolescents) and the increased attention to early childhood. We introduce the concept of children's health lifestyles, identifying differences from adult health lifestyles and articulating intergenerational transmission and socialization processes shaping children's health lifestyles. Using the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (2001-2007; N ≈ 6,150), latent class analyses identify predominant health lifestyles among U.S. preschoolers. Five distinct empirical patterns representing health lifestyles emerge, two capturing low and medium levels of overall risk across domains and three capturing domain-specific risks. Social background predicts children's health lifestyles, but lower household resources often explain these relationships. Across kindergarten measures of cognition, behavior, and health, preschool health lifestyles predict children's development even after controlling for social disadvantage and concurrent household resources. Further research on health lifestyles throughout childhood is warranted. PMID:25413801

  3. Psychiatric comorbidity of childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalarchian, Melissa A; Marcus, Marsha D

    2012-06-01

    The onset of psychiatric symptoms and disorders is relatively common in childhood, occurring among youths across the weight spectrum. However, available research suggests that certain psychiatric comorbidities are more prevalent in obese children and adolescents than in healthy weight youths. First, we review research on disordered eating, including evidence to suggest that loss of control eating is associated with weight gain and obesity in youths, as well as poor outcome in family-based treatment of paediatric obesity. Second, we highlight evidence on the relationship between depression and obesity, especially in girls. Third, we present data on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), particularly the symptoms of impulsivity and inattention, and childhood obesity. We also consider that some medical conditions and psychotropic medications contribute to weight gain and obesity in children and adolescents. Throughout the review, we emphasize that psychiatric comorbidity may be a cause or consequence of childhood obesity, or they may share common aetiological factors. PMID:22724645

  4. Management of Overweight during Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lone Marie; Ledderer, Loni; Jarbøl, Dorte Ejg

    2015-01-01

    Background. Because of the increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in childhood in the Western world, focus on the management in general practice has also increased. Objective. To explore the experiences of general practitioners (GPs) and practice nurses participating in a randomised...... professionals considered it their responsibility to offer a management programme to overweight children. They recognised that management of overweight during childhood was a complex task that required an evidence-based strategy with the possibility of supervision. Health professionals experienced a barrier to...... addressing overweight in children. However, increasing awareness of obesity in childhood and its consequences in society was considered helpful to reach an understanding of the articulations concerning how best to address the issue. Conclusions. Health professionals in general practice recognised that they...

  5. Psychotic spectrum disorders in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović-Deušić Smiljka

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, there was a strong belief of existing continuity between childhood-onset psychoses and adult psychoses. Important moment in understanding psychotic presentations during infancy and childhood is Kanner's description of early infantile autism. Later studies of Rutter and Kolvin, as well as new classification systems, have delineated pervasive developmental disorders from all other psychotic disorders in childhood. But clinical experience is showing that in spite of existence of the group of pervasive developmental disorders with subgroups within it and necessary diagnostic criteria there are children with pervasive symptoms, who are not fulfilling all necessary diagnostic criteria for pervasive developmental disorder. Therefore, in this paper we are discussing and pointing at psychotic spectrum presentations in children, which have not the right place in any existing classification system (ICD-10, DSM-IV.

  6. Vitamin D status and childhood health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youn Ho Shin

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D is an essential component of bone and mineral metabolism; its deficiency causes growth retardation and skeletal deformities in children and osteomalacia and osteoporosis in adults. Hypovi­ taminosis D (vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency is observed not only in adults but also in infants, children, and adolescents. Previous studies suggest that sufficient serum vitamin D levels should be maintained in order to enhance normal calcification of the growth plate and bone mineralization. Moreover, emerging evidence supports an association between 25­hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D levels and immune function, respiratory diseases, obesity, metabolic syndrome, insulin resistance, infection, allergy, cancers, and cardiovascular diseases in pediatric and adolescent populations. The risk factors for vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency in the pediatric population are season (winter, insufficient time spent outdoors, ethnicity (non­white, older age, more advanced stage of puberty, obesity, low milk consumption, low socioeconomic status, and female gender. It is recommended that all infants, children, and adolescents have a minimum daily intake of 400 IU (10 μg of vitamin D. Since the vitamin D status of the newborn is highly related to maternal vitamin D levels, optimal vitamin D levels in the mother during pregnancy should be maintained. In conclusion, given the important role of vitamin D in childhood health, more time spent in outdoor activity (for sunlight exposure and vitamin D supplementation may be necessary for optimal health in infants, children, and adolescents.

  7. Testicular defense systems: immune privilege and innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shutao; Zhu, Weiwei; Xue, Shepu; Han, Daishu

    2014-09-01

    The mammalian testis possesses a special immunological environment because of its properties of remarkable immune privilege and effective local innate immunity. Testicular immune privilege protects immunogenic germ cells from systemic immune attack, and local innate immunity is important in preventing testicular microbial infections. The breakdown of local testicular immune homeostasis may lead to orchitis, an etiological factor of male infertility. The mechanisms underlying testicular immune privilege have been investigated for a long time. Increasing evidence shows that both a local immunosuppressive milieu and systemic immune tolerance are involved in maintaining testicular immune privilege status. The mechanisms underlying testicular innate immunity are emerging based on the investigation of the pattern recognition receptor-mediated innate immune response in testicular cells. This review summarizes our current understanding of testicular defense mechanisms and identifies topics that merit further investigation. PMID:24954222

  8. Prenatal irradiation and childhood cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This letter addresses a technical question in connection with the recent paper by Knox et al. In particular, it concerns a correction to the estimate of childhood cancer risk following obstetric radiography, based on the Oxford Survey of Childhood Cancers (OSCC). One of us (CRM) enquired about the centring values for variables used in the analysis and particularly about the formulae used to calculate the higher order interactions of the radiation risk with birth year and age at diagnosis. These centring values and formulae are given in Table 1. This letter arises from that enquiry. (author)

  9. An Un-American Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Flor Christine

    2014-01-01

    An Un-American Childhood is my memoir about growing up unconventionally in a religious sex cult with my parents and eleven siblings until I was a teenager. We lived in Thailand because Father David, our leader, didn't want us in the west when the world ended in 1993. When Father David died suddenly, the cult broke apart, and we found ourselves alone in the world with no money, food, very little clothing, and no direction. An Un-American Childhood takes the reader on a journey from the Childr...

  10. Children, playing and childhood cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Medeiros Veiga Ramires Monteiro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper will address the ideas of authors of Childhood Studies, who question the strict concepts society has of children as being passive and immature; and the issue of play as being an instrument for the purposes of educational learning, or simply of recreation. The aim is to bring the issue of play closer to the concept of childhood cultures, accounting for and sustaining the importance of listening to the points of view of the actual subjects of research with children about this important and complex way of creating and experiencing their cultures, which cannot be reduced to adult-centered purposes.

  11. Childhood versus adulthood-onset autoinflammatory disorders: myths and truths intertwined

    OpenAIRE

    Cantarini, L; Vitale, A; Lucherini, O M; Muscari, I; Magnotti, F; G. Brizi; Frediani, B; G.D. Sebastiani; Galeazzi, M; Rigante, D

    2013-01-01

    Autoinflammatory disorders are characterized by spontaneous episodes of systemic inflammation deriving from inherited defects of the innate immune system. Childhood is usually the lifetime involved in most inherited autoinflammatory disorders, but a moderate number of patients may experience disease onset during adulthood. Herein we report our experience in the clinical and genetic approach to the diagnosis of autoinflammatory disorders in regard of the first 500 pediatric and adult patients ...

  12. Seasonality and comparative dynamics of six childhood infections in pre-vaccination Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Metcalf, C. Jessica E.; Bjørnstad, Ottar N.; Grenfell, Bryan T.;

    2009-01-01

    Seasonal variation in infection transmission is a key determinant of epidemic dynamics of acute infections. For measles, the best-understood strongly immunizing directly transmitted childhood infection, the perception is that term-time forcing is the main driver of seasonality in developed countr...... the three bacterial infections, pertussis, scarlet fever and diphtheria, there is additionally a strong increase in transmission during the late summer before the end of school vacations....

  13. Host genome variations and risk of infections during induction treatment for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Bendik; Wesolowska-Andersen, Agata; Lausen, Birgitte;

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate association of host genomic variation and risk of infections during treatment for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Methods: We explored association of 34 000 singlenucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related primarily to pharmacogenomics and immune function...... to risk of infections among 69 ALL patients on induction therapy. Results: Forty-eight (70%) patients experienced infectious events including 23 with positive blood cultures. Infectious events and positive blood cultures were associated significantly with 24 and 21 SNPs, respectively (P

  14. Informatics perspectives on decision taking

    OpenAIRE

    Bergstra, J. A.

    2011-01-01

    A decision is an act or event of decision taking. Decision making always includes decision taking, the latter not involving significant exchanges with non-deciding agents. A decision outcome is a piece of storable information constituting the result of a decision. Decision outcomes are typed, for instance: plan, command, assertion, or boolean reply to a question. A decision effect is any consequence of putting a decision outcome into effect. Decision outcomes must be expected by the decider t...

  15. Siblings Promote a Type 1/Type 17-oriented immune response in the airways of asymptomatic neonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolsk, Helene Mygind; Chawes, Bo L.; Følsgaard, Nilofar V.;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Siblings have been shown to reduce the risk of later asthma and allergy, but the mechanism driving this association is unknown. The objective was to study whether siblings affect the airway immune response in healthy neonates. We hypothesized that siblings exert immune modulatory...... effects on neonates mirrored in the airway mucosa. METHODS: We measured 20 immune-mediators related to the Type 1, Type 2, Type 17 or regulatory immune pathways in the airway mucosa of 571 one-month-old asymptomatic neonates from the Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood2010 birth......-cohort (COPSAC2010). The association between airway mediator levels and presence of siblings was investigated using conventional statistics and principle component analyses (PCA). RESULTS: Neonates with siblings had an up-regulated level of airway immune-mediators, with predominance of Type 1- and Type 17...

  16. Children with asthma by school age display aberrant immune responses to pathogenic airway bacteria as infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jeppe Madura; Pedersen, Susanne Brix; Thysen, Anna Hammerich;

    2014-01-01

    (P = .001), and IL-10 (P = .028), whereas there were no differences in T-cell activation or peripheral T-cell composition. ConclusionsChildren with asthma by school age exhibited an aberrant immune response to pathogenic bacteria in infancy. We propose that an abnormal immune response to pathogenic...... Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood birth cohort was followed prospectively, and asthma was diagnosed at age 7 years. The immune response to H influenzae, M catarrhalis, and S pneumoniae was analyzed in 292 infants using PBMCs isolated and stored since the age of 6 months. The immune response was...... assessed based on the pattern of cytokines produced and T-cell activation. ResultsThe immune response to pathogenic bacteria was different in infants with asthma by 7 years of age (P = .0007). In particular, prospective asthmatic subjects had aberrant production of IL-5 (P = .008), IL-13 (P = .057), IL-17...

  17. Childhood sarcoidosis: Louisiana experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedalia, Abraham; Khan, Tahir A; Shetty, Avinash K; Dimitriades, Victoria R; Espinoza, Luis R

    2016-07-01

    A retrospective chart review was conducted to detect patients with sarcoidosis seen by pediatric rheumatology service from the period of 1992 to 2013 at Children's hospital of New Orleans. Twenty-seven patients were identified. The average duration of symptoms before diagnosis was 5 (range 1-120) months. Five patients had onset before the age of 5 years and were diagnosed with early-onset sarcoidosis. The most common manifestations at presentation were constitutional symptoms (62 %) followed by ocular (38 %). During the course of illness, 19/27 (70 %) had multiorgan involvement. Common manifestations included uveitis/iritis (77 %), fever (50 %), hilar adenopathy (42 %), arthritis (31 %), peripheral lympadenopathy (31 %), hepatosplenomegaly (31 %), parenchymal lung disease (27 %), and skin rash (19 %). Unusual manifestations included granulomatous bone marrow disease (3 cases), hypertension (2), abdominal aortic aneurysm (large vessel vasculitis; 1), granulomatous hepatitis (1), nephrocalcinosis (1), membranous nephropathy (1), refractory granulomatous interstitial nephritis with recurrence in transplanted kidney (1), CNS involvement (2), parotid gland enlargement (1), and sensorineural hearing loss (1). Biopsy specimen was obtained in 21/27 (77 %) patients, and demonstration of noncaseating granuloma associated with negative stains for mycobacteria and fungi was seen in 18 patients. Elevated angiotensin-converting enzyme level was seen in 74 % of patients. Treatment with oral prednisone was initiated in symptomatic patients with significant clinical improvement. Low-dose methotrexate (MTX) 10-15 mg/m(2)/week orally, as steroid-sparing agent, was administered in 14 patients. Other immunomodulators included cyclophosphamide (2 patients), etanercept (2), infliximab (2), mycophenolate mofetil (1), and tacrolimus (1). Childhood sarcoidosis is prevalent in Louisiana. Most of the affected children present with a multisystem disease associated with

  18. Early immune response patterns to pathogenic bacteria are associated to increased risk of lower respiratory infections in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, N. H.; Larsen, Jeppe Madura; Rasmussen, Mette Annelie; Thysen, Anna Hammerich; Chawes, B. L.; Bønnelykke, K.; Pedersen, Susanne Brix; Bisgaard, Hans Flinker

    Neonatal colonisation of the airways with respiratory pathogens is associated with increased risk of lower respiratory infections (LRI) in early childhood (1). Therefore, we hypothesized that children developing LRI have an abnormal immune response to pathogenic bacteria in infancy. We aimed to...... characterise the systemic immune response to pathogenic bacteria at the age of 6 months and study the association with incidence of LRI during the first 3 years of life....

  19. Vaccines: Engineering immune evasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascola, John R.

    2006-05-01

    One obstacle to realizing the promise of viral vectors for vaccine delivery is pre-existing immunity to such vectors. An adroit application of structure-based design points to a way around that problem.

  20. Immunization for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Immunization History Vaccine Safety Articles Resources Personal Stories Vaccine Education Videos Research Articles ACOG Resources Resources & Links ACOG Update on Zika Virus Pregnancy Attention pregnant women! Pregnant women, their ...

  1. HIV and Immunizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    HIV Treatment HIV and Immunizations (Last updated 3/1/2016; last reviewed 3/1/2016) Key Points Vaccines are products that ... a disease outbreak. Is there a vaccine against HIV? Testing is underway on experimental vaccines to prevent ...

  2. Immune System (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lock onto them. T cells are like the soldiers, destroying the invaders that the intelligence system has ... can't be prevented, you can help your child's immune system stay stronger and fight illnesses by ...

  3. Immunizations: Active vs. Passive

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Action Medical Editor & Editorial Advisory Board Sponsors Sponsorship Opporunities Spread the Word Shop AAP ... Active vs. Passive Page Content Article Body Pediatricians can protect your child by administering not only active immunizations , but sometimes ...

  4. Immunity of international organizations

    CERN Document Server

    Schrijver, Nico

    2015-01-01

    Immunity rules are part and parcel of the law of international organizations. It has long been accepted that international organizations and their staff need to enjoy immunity from the jurisdiction of national courts. However, it is the application of these rules in practice that increasingly causes controversy. Claims against international organizations are brought before national courts by those who allegedly suffer from their activities. These can be both natural and legal persons such as companies. National courts, in particular lower courts, have often been less willing to recognize the immunity of the organization concerned than the organization s founding fathers. Likewise, public opinion and legal writings frequently criticize international organizations for invoking their immunity and for the lack of adequate means of redress for claimants. It is against this background that an international conference was organized at Leiden University in June 2013. A number of highly qualified academics and practit...

  5. THE CONCEPT OF CHILDHOOD IN LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Igorevna KRUPENINA

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the nature, types, characteristics of the phenomenon of childhood as a social phenomenon of our time. The author notes the complexity of the definition of “childhood” and its different interpretations. The author also notes that social “construction” considers not childhood itself in its entirety but childhood through the "prism of adulthood". Childhood is often seen as something natural through which goes everyone and something that everybody must have as a result of education and development. At the same time, is lost the understanding of childhood as a valuable phenomenon in itself. The author draws attention to different ways of studying childhood in psychology, literature and history and correlates concepts of childhood in psychology, history and culturology. The author considers the childhood concept by Philippe Aries in correlation with the image of childhood in the novels by Charles Dickens. This choice is determined by specific periodizations of childhood in history and culture what makes the specific development of the world of childhood dependent on the evolution of the world of grown-ups and its culture. 

  6. Acceptability, acceptance and decision making

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    discussion, defines itself through the explicit and total rejection of nuclear energy. The opponents of nuclear energy are immune to conviction because of their specific decision-making strategy. Because they value the residual risk as a criterion against the use of nuclear energy that can not be compensated by any benefit, their strategy is described as non-compensatory strategy. Any communication about the technology but also concerning proceedings must be directed to target groups using decision-making strategies that are open to receiving new information. Also to be taken into account is that the opponents try to convince others about their decision strategy. Openness and transparency in decision-making processes regarding radiation protection and the nuclear industry are necessary conditions for further progress on radiation protection issues. However, they are not sufficient, because discussion on energy policy is trivialized, simplified and politically abused. For society, the benefits of nuclear technology in the energy sector are out of focus. (author)

  7. Adults Need Immunizations, Too!

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-03-19

    In this podcast, Dr. Andrew Kroger from CDC’s National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases discusses simple, safe, and effective ways adults can help protect themselves, their family, and their community from serious and deadly diseases.  Created: 3/19/2012 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 3/19/2012.

  8. Immune dysfunction in cirrhosis

    OpenAIRE

    Sipeki Nóra; Antal-Szalmás Péter (1968-) (laboratóriumi szakorvos, laboratóriumi hematológus és immunológus, klinikai farmakológus szakorvos); Lakatos Péter László; Papp Mária (1975-) (belgyógyász, gasztroenterológus)

    2014-01-01

    Innate and adaptive immune dysfunction, also referred to as cirrhosis-associated immune dysfunction syndrome, is a major component of cirrhosis, and plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of both the acute and chronic worsening of liver function. During the evolution of the disease, acute decompensation events associated with organ failure(s), so-called acute-on chronic liver failure, and chronic decompensation with progression of liver fibrosis and also development of disease specific comp...

  9. Immune effects of probiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Wold, Agnes E.

    2001-01-01

    Twenty papers concerning the effects on the immune system of ingestion of probiotic bacteria in humans have been reviewed. Several studies report that intake of probiotics stimulate cell-mediated immune effector functions. Thus, enhanced production of interferon-y by blood cells, enhanced phagocytosis by polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and to a lesser extent monocytes, and enhanced expression of complement receptors on PMNs are effects quite consistently seen in subjects consuming probioti...

  10. Teaching Mathematics in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moomaw, Sally

    2011-01-01

    Children who learn math fundamentals in preschool and kindergarten have the best chance of later achievement in school--but too often, children don't get the effective early math instruction that makes all the difference. Now there's a core early childhood textbook that helps current and future educators teach the most critical math concepts to…

  11. Boys' Bodies in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Murray

    2012-01-01

    This paper is based on qualitative research data from a project investigating early childhood boys' constructions of masculinities in relation to sport, health and the body. The focus group data, with 33 boys, has been collected in each of the boys' first three years at school. It is part of the data that will be collected over eight years with…

  12. Promoting Health in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossin-Slater, Maya

    2015-01-01

    Children who are healthy early in life--from conception to age five--not only grow up to be healthier adults, they are also better educated, earn more, and contribute more to the economy. The United States lags behind other advanced countries in early childhood health, threatening both the health of future generations and the nation's long-term…

  13. Childhood Obesity: The Caregiver's Role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haschke, Bernadette

    2003-01-01

    Describes the role caregivers play in helping young children dealing with obesity. Examines: (1) causes of childhood obesity; (2) caregiver's position; (3) learning nutrition concepts; (4) preparing and serving healthy foods; (5) encouraging physical activity; (6) working with parents; and (7) assisting an obese child. (SD)

  14. Childhood obesity: causes and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Krushnapriya; Sahoo, Bishnupriya; Choudhury, Ashok Kumar; Sofi, Nighat Yasin; Kumar, Raman; Bhadoria, Ajeet Singh

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed as well as in developing countries. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. Overweight and obese children are likely to stay obese into adulthood and more likely to develop non-communicable diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising prevalence of obesity worldwide. In general, overweight and obesity are assumed to be the results of an increase in caloric and fat intake. On the other hand, there are supporting evidence that excessive sugar intake by soft drink, increased portion size, and steady decline in physical activity have been playing major roles in the rising rates of obesity all around the world. Childhood obesity can profoundly affect children's physical health, social, and emotional well-being, and self esteem. It is also associated with poor academic performance and a lower quality of life experienced by the child. Many co-morbid conditions like metabolic, cardiovascular, orthopedic, neurological, hepatic, pulmonary, and renal disorders are also seen in association with childhood obesity. PMID:25949965

  15. Early Childhood Educator's Nutrition Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Christine; And Others

    This nutrition handbook is designed to provide enough information on nutrition and food habits to enable early childhood educators to add a nutrition dimension to children's learning activities. Topics covered are the role of nutrition in growth during the preschool years; nutrients and their functions; selecting a healthy diet; common nutritional…

  16. Predicting adult asthma in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, JM; Boezen, HM

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There still is no cure for asthma. Early identification of patients at risk for disease progression may lead to better treatment opportunities and hopefully better disease outcomes in adulthood. Recent literature on childhood risk factors associated with the outcome of asthma in a

  17. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C. Bouw; N. Dors; H. van Ommen; N.L. Ramakers-van Woerden

    2009-01-01

    Thrombotic thrombocytopenic puripura (TTP) is a rare disease, especially in childhood, and has a high mortality rate in the absence of appropriate treatment. it is characterised by microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia and consumptive thrombocytopenia. TTP may be difficult to distinguish from haemolyt

  18. Childhood Obesity Demands New Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satter, Ellyn

    1991-01-01

    Health professionals suggest creating achievable goals in childhood obesity. The article recommends correcting factors that distort normal growth and providing positive eating and exercise management to slow weight gain. Rather than trying for weight loss, children must learn positive lifelong eating and exercise patterns and attitudes toward self…

  19. Childhood Obesity and Academic Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    James B. Hunt Jr. Institute for Educational Leadership and Policy, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Childhood obesity is on the rise across the country and in North Carolina, with four times as many children exhibiting signs of obesity now as they did 20 years ago. The costs in terms of medical expenses are staggering, with one estimate putting the cost to North Carolina at $16 million a year. Some North Carolina legislators have expressed…

  20. Early Childhood: Child, Teacher, Parent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroody, Christie

    2006-01-01

    The field of early childhood holds promising keys to unlocking many of the mysteries in learning. Educators in the field, given the right tools, have the potential to have a profound impact on the long-term success of their students. The design of this curriculum comes directly out of the incredible possibilities set in motion while exploring…

  1. Sociological Factors Affecting Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster-Scott, Latisha

    2007-01-01

    According to data from the National Center for Health Statistics, childhood obesity rates are highest among ethnic minorities. It is very helpful to consider the role of culture when attempting to analyze and explain obesity rates in ethnic minority populations. Culture influences the attitudes and beliefs toward exercise, food and nutrition, and…

  2. Indoor radon and childhood leukaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarises the epidemiological literature on domestic exposure to radon and risk for childhood leukaemia. The results of 12 ecological studies show a consistent pattern of higher incidence and mortality rates for childhood leukaemia in areas with higher average indoor radon concentrations. Although the results of such studies are useful to generate hypotheses, they must be interpreted with caution, as the data were aggregated and analysed for geographical areas and not for individuals. The seven available case - control studies of childhood leukaemia with measurement of radon concentrations in the residences of cases and controls gave mixed results, however, with some indication of a weak (relative risk < 2) association with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. The epidemiological evidence to date suggests that an association between indoor exposure to radon and childhood leukaemia might exist, but is weak. More case - control studies are needed, with sufficient statistical power to detect weak associations and based on designs and methods that minimise misclassification of exposure and provide a high participation rate and low potential selection bias. (authors)

  3. Early Childhood Education in Azerbaijan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starnes, Lisa

    2000-01-01

    Describes the Early Learning Childhood Center in Azerbaijan's capital city. Focuses on the goals of the program; its initial development; staff ratios, compensation, and teacher training; curriculum; cultural challenges and compromise; and relationships with parents. Asserts that developing a culturally sensitive program is extremely difficult,…

  4. Childhood Vestibular Disorders: A Tutorial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Zarin; Stakiw, Daria B.

    2004-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence that childhood disorders affecting the vestibular system, although rare, do exist. Describing symptoms associated with the vestibular mechanism for children may be difficult, resulting in misdiagnosing or under-diagnosing these conditions. The pathophysiology, symptoms, and management options of the more common…

  5. Artificial Immune Systems Tutorial

    CERN Document Server

    Aickelin, Uwe

    2008-01-01

    The biological immune system is a robust, complex, adaptive system that defends the body from foreign pathogens. It is able to categorize all cells (or molecules) within the body as self-cells or non-self cells. It does this with the help of a distributed task force that has the intelligence to take action from a local and also a global perspective using its network of chemical messengers for communication. There are two major branches of the immune system. The innate immune system is an unchanging mechanism that detects and destroys certain invading organisms, whilst the adaptive immune system responds to previously unknown foreign cells and builds a response to them that can remain in the body over a long period of time. This remarkable information processing biological system has caught the attention of computer science in recent years. A novel computational intelligence technique, inspired by immunology, has emerged, called Artificial Immune Systems. Several concepts from the immune have been extracted an...

  6. Artificial Immune Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Aickelin, Uwe

    2009-01-01

    The biological immune system is a robust, complex, adaptive system that defends the body from foreign pathogens. It is able to categorize all cells (or molecules) within the body as self-cells or non-self cells. It does this with the help of a distributed task force that has the intelligence to take action from a local and also a global perspective using its network of chemical messengers for communication. There are two major branches of the immune system. The innate immune system is an unchanging mechanism that detects and destroys certain invading organisms, whilst the adaptive immune system responds to previously unknown foreign cells and builds a response to them that can remain in the body over a long period of time. This remarkable information processing biological system has caught the attention of computer science in recent years. A novel computational intelligence technique, inspired by immunology, has emerged, called Artificial Immune Systems. Several concepts from the immune have been extracted an...

  7. Shared decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    When facing a decision, your provider will fully explain your options. You can bring friends or family members to your visits to help in the shared decision making process. You will learn about the risks and ...

  8. Categorization = Decision Making + Generalization

    OpenAIRE

    Seger, Carol A; Peterson, Erik J.

    2013-01-01

    We rarely, if ever, repeatedly encounter exactly the same situation. This makes generalization crucial for real world decision making. We argue that categorization, the study of generalizable representations, is a type of decision making, and that categorization learning research would benefit from approaches developed to study the neuroscience of decision making. Similarly, methods developed to examine generalization and learning within the field of categorization may enhance decision making...

  9. Childhood Maltreatment and Educational Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Elisa; Babchishin, Lyzon; Marquis, Robyn; Fréchette, Sabrina

    2015-10-01

    Children (0-18 years) with maltreatment histories are vulnerable to experiencing difficulties across multiple domains of functioning, including educational outcomes that encompass not only academic achievement but also mental well-being. The current literature review adopted Slade and Wissow's model to examine (1) the link between childhood maltreatment and academic achievement, (2) the link between childhood maltreatment and mental health outcomes (i.e., emotional and behavioral difficulties), and (3) the bidirectional relationship between childhood academic achievement and mental health. In addition, we reviewed variables that might influence or help explain the link between childhood maltreatment and educational outcomes, drawing on developmental perspectives and Bronfenbrenner's ecological model. Finally, whenever possible, we presented findings specific to maltreated children in out-of-home care to highlight the unique challenges experienced by this population. Results indicated that children with maltreatment histories often experience impairments in both their academic performance (e.g., special education, grade retention, lower grades) and mental well-being (e.g., anxiety, low mood, aggression, social skills deficits, poor interpersonal relationships). These impairments appeared to be particularly pronounced among maltreated children in out-of-home care. Findings, albeit sparse, also indicated that mental health difficulties are negatively associated with children's academic achievement and, similarly, that academic achievement deficits are linked with mental health problems. The link between childhood maltreatment and educational outcomes may be partly explained through the disruption of key developmental processes in children, such as attachment, emotion regulation, and sense of agency. As well, maltreatment characteristics and the functioning of various systems in which children are embedded (e.g., family, school, child welfare) can serve to positively

  10. Marketing Decisions and Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John Ernest

    The marketing literature generally assumes that managers and customers always make rational (reasonable and logical) decisions. In real life, however, decision making process is hardly rational and straight forward. Managers and customers normally make decisions “in-action” – i.e. as they grapple...

  11. NFC as a Childhood Obesity Treatment Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Hellín, P; Fontecha, J; Hervás, R; Bravo, J

    2015-09-01

    Childhood Obesity is associated with a wide range of serious health complications and constitutes an increased risk of premature syndromes, including diabetes or heart diseases. Its treatment seems to be complicated. So, in order to help parents we have developed a system that will try to make easier the process of choosing foodstuff for overweight and obese children at the supermarket. To interact with the system, Near Field Communication mobile phones and tags are used. Those tags would have nutritional information such as energy or fat contain of each product. When the interaction takes place, the system will generate an alert determining if the product is adequate for the user diet or not. Decision will be influenced by specific prescript diets, which would have been previously generated by the system based on user profile parameters. At the same time the diet is established, the shopping list would be generated automatically. Therefore, the user could download and print both things at home easily by the PC application. The system also takes into account physical activity of the user. Children mobile phone includes an accelerometer that will detect and collect user activities in order to modify calorical requirements and, if necessary, to change physical activity too. In the future, it would be possible to extend this project system for adults, managing diets not just for obese and overweight, but also to diabetic or celiac people. PMID:26254253

  12. Parent-Child Collaborative Decision Making for the Management of Chronic Illness: A Qualitative Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Victoria A.

    2009-01-01

    Parent-child collaborative decision making (CDM) is a potentially important precursor to full decision making independence and may be particularly significant for the management of childhood chronic illnesses. The primary aim of this qualitative study was to explore the concept of CDM from the perspective of children and parents. Children (ages 8-19 years) with asthma, type 1 diabetes, or cystic fibrosis and parents of children with these illnesses participated in focus groups and individual ...

  13. The combined role of task, child's age and individual differences in understanding decision processes

    OpenAIRE

    Levin, Irwin P.; Elaine A. Bossard; Gaeth, Gary J.; Haoyang Yan

    2014-01-01

    It is important to understand the impact of individual differences in decision making from childhood to adulthood. This cohort-based study extends our knowledge by comparing decision making of children across the age range of 8 to 17 years and their parents. Based on prior research and theory focusing on different types of framing effects, we uncover several key differences across ages, including levels of risk taking and sensitivity to expected value differences between ...

  14. Management of chronic immune thrombocytopenia in children and adolescents: lessons from an Austrian national cross-sectional study of 81 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipurzynski, J; Fahrner, B; Kerbl, R; Crazzolara, R; Jones, N; Ebetsberger, G; Jauk, B; Strenger, V; Wohlmuther, B; Schwinger, W; Lackner, H; Urban, C; Holter, W; Minkov, M; Kager, L; Benesch, M; Seidel, M G

    2016-04-01

    Chronic immune thrombocytopenia (cITP) is often associated with an underlying predisposition towards autoimmunity, recognition of which is relevant to guide treatment. International recommendations on diagnostic steps and therapeutic measures of cITP in childhood exist. However, due to the low prevalence (1-2/100,000) and a variation of availability of immunological and hematological tests and treatments across pediatric units, we postulated that these guidelines are not uniformly adhered to and that immune dysregulation syndromes remained undiscovered. To delineate the current management of children and adolescents with cITP in Austria, we performed a nationwide cross-sectional study. Between 2011 and 2014, 81 children with cITP were seen at seven centers (median age 8.75 years; range 1-17; female:male ratio 47:34) at 641 visits during 180 patient years after diagnosis of cITP (>12 months ITP duration). Additional diagnoses were noted, most frequently immune or autoimmune disorders, hematologic diseases, or infections (in 37.3%, including Evans syndrome, autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome, systemic lupus erythematosus, and Fanconi anemia), or other symptoms like bi- or pancytopenia (n=9), lymphoproliferation or granulomatous inflammation (n = 3). Both decision to treat as well as choice of treatment varied: smaller centers tended to observe more frequently, larger centers applied a pattern of treatment modalities that appeared to depend less on bleeding tendency than on center policy. More than 50% of therapeutic interventions occurred in bleedings scores ≤2 (of 5), suggesting a strong psychosocial intention to treat. Platelet increment upon 479 therapeutic interventions of eight types was evaluated, with multiple treatment approaches being pursued sequentially in refractory patients. These data confirm the hypothesis of heterogeneous diagnostic and therapeutic management of cITP in Austrian children and corroborate the need for (1) a precise panel of

  15. The integrated decision support system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper has introduced development history, present situation, popular decision support technology of decision support system, and discussed the integrated decision support system form with technical foundation. (authors)

  16. Alara and decision analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In applying ALARA somebody has to determine what is reasonable. A decision has to be made. Decision Analysis is a procedure for structuring decision problems, and therefore it might be expected to be of use in the application of the ALARA principle. This paper explores the contribution that Decision Analysis may make in this context, particularly discussing the application of multi-attribute value theory. An example of using the theory on a problem of radioactive waste disposal is given, and the potential of an increased use of Decision Analysis in making the ALARA principle work, is discussed

  17. Business making decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Benjamín Franklin Fincowsky

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available People and organizations make better or get wrong as consequence of making decisions. Sometimes making decisions is just a trial and error process. Some others, decisions are good and the results profitable with a few of mistakes, most of the time because it’s considered the experience and the control of a specific field or the good intention of who makes them. Actually, all kinds of decisions bring learning. What is important is the intention, the attitude and the values considered in this process. People from different scenes face many facts and circumstances—almost always out of control—that affect the making decisions process. There is not a unique way to make decisions for all companies in many settings. The person who makes a decision should identify the problem, to solve it later using alternatives and solutions. Even though, follow all the steps it’s not easy as it seems. Looking back the conditions related to the decisions, we can mention the followings: uncertainty, risk and certainty. When people identify circumstances and facts, as well as its effects in a possible situation, they will make decisions with certainty. As long as the information decreases and it becomes ambiguous the risk becomes an important factor in the making decisions process because they are connected to probable objectives (clear or subjective (opinion judgment or intuition. To finish, uncertainty, involves people that make a decision with no or little information about circumstances or criteria with basis

  18. MicroRNAs as regulatory elements in immune system logic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Arnav; Baltimore, David

    2016-04-28

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are crucial post-transcriptional regulators of haematopoietic cell fate decisions. They act by negatively regulating the expression of key immune development genes, thus contributing important logic elements to the regulatory circuitry. Deletion studies have made it increasingly apparent that they confer robustness to immune cell development, especially under conditions of environmental stress such as infectious challenge and ageing. Aberrant expression of certain miRNAs can lead to pathological consequences, such as autoimmunity and haematological cancers. In this Review, we discuss the mechanisms by which several miRNAs influence immune development and buffer normal haematopoietic output, first at the level of haematopoietic stem cells, then in innate and adaptive immune cells. We then discuss the pathological consequences of dysregulation of these miRNAs. PMID:27121651

  19. Iron overload and immunity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gra(c)a Porto; Maria De Sousa

    2007-01-01

    Progress in the characterization of genes involved in the control of iron homeostasis in humans and in mice has improved the definition of iron overload and of the cells affected by it. The cell involved in iron overload with the greatest effect on immunity is the macrophage.Intriguing evidence has emerged, however, in the last 12 years indicating that parenchymal iron overload is linked to genes classically associated with the immune system. This review offers an update of the genes and proteins relevant to iron metabolism expressed in cells of the innate immune system, and addresses the question of how this system is affected in clinical situations of iron overload. The relationship between iron and the major cells of adaptive immunity, the T lymphocytes,will also be reviewed. Most studies addressing this last question in humans were performed in the clinical model of Hereditary Hemochromatosis. Data will also be reviewed demonstrating how the disruption of molecules essentially involved in adaptive immune responses result in the spontaneous development of iron overload and how they act as modifiers of iron overload.

  20. Measles immune suppression: lessons from the macaque model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory D de Vries

    Full Text Available Measles remains a significant childhood disease, and is associated with a transient immune suppression. Paradoxically, measles virus (MV infection also induces robust MV-specific immune responses. Current hypotheses for the mechanism underlying measles immune suppression focus on functional impairment of lymphocytes or antigen-presenting cells, caused by infection with or exposure to MV. We have generated stable recombinant MVs that express enhanced green fluorescent protein, and remain virulent in non-human primates. By performing a comprehensive study of virological, immunological, hematological and histopathological observations made in animals euthanized at different time points after MV infection, we developed a model explaining measles immune suppression which fits with the "measles paradox". Here we show that MV preferentially infects CD45RA(- memory T-lymphocytes and follicular B-lymphocytes, resulting in high infection levels in these populations. After the peak of viremia MV-infected lymphocytes were cleared within days, followed by immune activation and lymph node enlargement. During this period tuberculin-specific T-lymphocyte responses disappeared, whilst strong MV-specific T-lymphocyte responses emerged. Histopathological analysis of lymphoid tissues showed lymphocyte depletion in the B- and T-cell areas in the absence of apoptotic cells, paralleled by infiltration of T-lymphocytes into B-cell follicles and reappearance of proliferating cells. Our findings indicate an immune-mediated clearance of MV-infected CD45RA(- memory T-lymphocytes and follicular B-lymphocytes, which causes temporary immunological amnesia. The rapid oligoclonal expansion of MV-specific lymphocytes and bystander cells masks this depletion, explaining the short duration of measles lymphopenia yet long duration of immune suppression.

  1. An approach to death as an adverse event following immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Michael S; Balakrishnan, Madhava Ram; Amarasinghe, Ananda; MacDonald, Noni E

    2016-01-01

    Co-incidental death occurring proximate to vaccination may be reported as an adverse event following immunization. Such events are particularly concerning because they may raise community and health provider concerns about the safety of the specific vaccine and often the immunization programme in general. Coincidental events need to be differentiated from vaccine reactions, such as anaphylaxis, which may very rarely result in death. In 2013, the World Health Organization (WHO) released an updated manual for the Causality Assessment of an AEFI. The purpose of this review is to apply the WHO causality methodology to death when this is reported as an AEFI. The causality assessment scheme recommends a four step process to enable classification of the AEFI and to differentiate events which are causally consistent from those that are inconsistent with immunization. However, for some events causality maybe indeterminate. Consistent causal reactions that may result in death are very rare and maybe related to the vaccine product (e.g. anaphylaxis, viscerotrophic disease), vaccine quality defect (e.g. an incompletely attenuated live vaccine agent) or an immunization error (e.g. vaccine vial contamination). Events that are inconsistent with immunizations are due to co-incidental conditions that may account for infant and childhood mortality. In countries with a high infant mortality rate the coincidental occurrence of death and immunization may occur not infrequently and a robust mechanism to obtain information from autopsy and perform an AEFI investigation and causality assessment is essential. Communication with the community and all stakeholders to maintain confidence in the immunization programme is critical. PMID:26608326

  2. Allergy and risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia: a population-based and record-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jeffrey S; Tsai, Yi-Wen; Tsai, Chia-Rung; Wiemels, Joseph L

    2012-12-01

    A deficit of normal immune stimulation in early childhood is a suspected risk factor for both childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and allergies. The present study utilized a population-based case-control design using medical claims data from the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan to evaluate the association between allergy and childhood leukemia. Eight hundred forty-six childhood ALL patients who were newly diagnosed during 2000 to 2008 and were older than 1 but less than 10 years of age were individually matched with 3,374 controls based on sex, birth date, and time of diagnosis (reference date for the controls). Conditional logistic regression was performed to assess the association between childhood ALL and allergies. An increased risk of ALL was observed with having an allergy less than 1 year before the case's ALL diagnosis (odds ratio (OR) = 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.5, 2.0), more than 1 year before the case's diagnosis (OR = 1.3, 95% CI: 1.1, 1.5), and before the age of 1 year (OR = 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1, 1.7). These results suggest that the pathogenesis of childhood ALL and allergy share a common biologic mechanism. PMID:23171876

  3. [Immune-mediated neuropathies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, G; Reiners, K

    2016-08-01

    The Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) are the most common immune-mediated polyneuropathies, which can show variable clinical and electrophysiological manifestations. Rarer immune-mediated neuropathies encompass paraproteinemic neuropathies (PPN), multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) and vasculitic neuropathies. The diagnosis usually relies on the history of symptom evolution, distribution of nerve dysfunction and particularly on characteristic features in nerve conduction studies, aided by cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination and nerve biopsy findings. The therapeutic toolbox encompasses corticosteroids, immunoglobulins and plasmapheresis often accompanied by long-term immunosuppression. It is important to note that immune-mediated neuropathies selectively respond to treatment and contraindications need to be considered. Despite treatment a considerable number of patients suffer from permanent neurological deficits. PMID:27474733

  4. Immune system simulation online

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapin, Nicolas; Lund, Ole; Castiglione, Filippo

    2011-01-01

    MOTIVATION: The recognition of antigenic peptides is a major event of an immune response. In current mesoscopic-scale simulators of the immune system, this crucial step has been modeled in a very approximated way. RESULTS: We have equipped an agent-based model of the immune system with immuno......-specific scoring matrices based on information from known HLA epitopes prediction tools, and TCR binding to HLA–peptide complex calculated as the averaged sum of a residue–residue contact potential. These steps are executed for all lymphocytes agents encountering the antigen in a wide-reaching Monte Carlo......-informatics methods to allow the simulation of the cardinal events of the antigenic recognition, going from single peptides to whole proteomes. The recognition process accounts for B cell-epitopes prediction through Parker-scale affinity estimation, class I and II HLA peptide prediction and binding through position...

  5. Regulatory decision making by decision analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) has studied with the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK) the applicability of decision analytic approach to the treatment of nuclear safety related problems at the regulatory body. The role of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) in decision making has also been discussed. In the study, inspectors from STUK exercised with a decision analytic approach by reoperationalizing two occurred and solved problems. The research scientist from VTT acted as systems analysts guiding the analysis process. The first case was related to a common cause failure phenomenon in solenoid valves controlling pneumatic valves important to safety of the plant. The problem of the regulatory body was to judge whether to allow continued operation or to require more detailed inspections and in which time chedule the inspections should be done. The latter problem was to evaluate design changes of external electrical grid connections after a fire incident had revealed weakness in the separation of electrical system. In both cases, the decision analysis was carried out several sessions in which decision makers, technical experts as well as experts of decision analysis participated. A multi-attribute value function was applied as a decision model so that attributes had to be defined to quantify the levels of achievements of the objectives. The attributes included both indicators related to the level of operational safety of the plant such as core damage frequency given by PSA, and indicators related to the safety culture, i.e., how well the chosen option fits on the regulatory policy. (24 refs., 6 figs., 9 tabs.)

  6. Childhood pneumonia and vitamin A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Heidarian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the major causes of mortality in children younger than 5 years old is acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRI. ALRI clinical features are cough, tachypnea, fever, coryza, chest retraction, crackles and wheeze. Increased white blood cell count with left shift might happen in pneumonia. C-reactive protein (CRP and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR might rise in children with respiratory tract infections. Vitamin A deficiency is associated with severe childhood infections. The effect of vitamin A supplementation in childhood pneumonia depends on the prevalence and the level of vitamin A deficiency in the population. Some studies confirmed that retinol levels were significantly higher after recovery from acute pneumonia compared to acute phase. But there were no significant association between serum retinol level and the clinical manifestation.

  7. Childhood leukaemia around nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In December 2007 the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) published a report on the incidence of childhood cancers among children living in the vicinity of 16 German nuclear power plants. The results show a significantly enhanced risk of leukaemia in children aged below 5 years, who live within 5 km from a nuclear power plant. The study is known as KiKK (Epidemiologische Studie zu Kinderkrebs in der Umgebung von Kernkraftwerken) and stirred considerable concern about the safety of nuclear installations. In this review we summarise the present state-of-the art regarding childhood leukaemia in the vicinity of nuclear installations and present the main results of the KiKK study with a critical evaluation

  8. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia;

    2013-01-01

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... objective reports of various anthropometric and other measures of fatness from the IDEFICS study of children aged 2-9 in 16 regions of eight European countries. Based on such data as accelerometer measures and information from nutritional diaries, we also investigate the effects of maternal employment...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  9. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia;

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... objective reports of various anthropometric and other measures of fatness from the IDEFICS study of children aged 2-9 in 16 regions of eight European countries. Based on such data as accelerometer measures and information from nutritional diaries, we also investigate the effects of maternal employment...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  10. Neuropsychological findings in childhood narcolepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posar, Annio; Pizza, Fabio; Parmeggiani, Antonia; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2014-10-01

    Narcolepsy with cataplexy is a severely disabling disorder very often arising in childhood. Data on neuropsychological impairment in children are scant. We administered standardized neuropsychological tests to 13 children with narcolepsy with cataplexy. Overall, our patients displayed multiple patterns of cognitive and behavioral dysfunction, and often academic failure (7 cases out of 13). All children had a normal full intelligence quotient (IQ), but 3 patients presented a significantly higher and 2 a significantly lower Verbal IQ compared to Performance IQ, respectively. Mean sleep latency was significantly correlated (P emotional symptoms and conduct problems prevailed. Childhood narcolepsy with cataplexy represents a risk factor for subtle and heterogeneous cognitive impairments potentially resulting in academic failure, despite the normal IQ. These children also have a certain psychopathological risk. All this seems to be at least partially detached from the direct effects of daytime sleepiness. PMID:24293310

  11. Protection of Childhood in Greece

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deligeoroglou E; Christopoulos P; Salakos N; Roupa Z; Sotiropoulou P; Papadimitriou P

    2005-01-01

    The early childhood care is important not only for individual Greek children and families but also for Greek society at large. Furthermore, it needs to be secured that the burden of labour and the raising of child is not only a woman's duty. There is a broad recognition that a strategy for developing early childhood services and childcare to support mother's labour force participation is in the public interest and should be the primary scope of the national health and social care policy. The inadequate organization of the child welfare system has adverse effects on the well-being, and function of the family. Only the improvement of the expected protection can lead to social politics that will give a chance to mother and child to live in conditions fitting human value and dignity. Herein, we presented the regulations and services along with health care professionals that refer to the protection of child in Greece.

  12. Childhood leukaemia around nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojcik, Andrzej (Centre for Radiation Protection Research, GMT Dept., Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden)); Feychting, Maria (Inst. of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-06-15

    In December 2007 the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) published a report on the incidence of childhood cancers among children living in the vicinity of 16 German nuclear power plants. The results show a significantly enhanced risk of leukaemia in children aged below 5 years, who live within 5 km from a nuclear power plant. The study is known as KiKK (Epidemiologische Studie zu Kinderkrebs in der Umgebung von Kernkraftwerken) and stirred considerable concern about the safety of nuclear installations. In this review we summarise the present state-of-the art regarding childhood leukaemia in the vicinity of nuclear installations and present the main results of the KiKK study with a critical evaluation

  13. Bipolar Disorder and Childhood Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Erten

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar disorder is a chronic disorder in which irregular course of depressive, mania or mixed episodes or a complete recovery between episodes can be observed. The studies about the effects of traumatic events on bipolar disorder showed that they had significant and long-term effects on the symptoms of the disorder. Psychosocial stress might change the neurobiology of bipolar disorder over time. The studies revealed that the traumatic events could influence not only the onset of the disorder but also the course of the disorder and in these patients the rate of suicide attempt and comorbid substance abuse might increase. Bipolar patients who had childhood trauma had an earlier onset, higher number of episodes and comorbid disorders. In this review, the relationship between childhood trauma and bipolar disorder is reviewed. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(2: 157-165

  14. Allergic Rhinitis in Childhood - Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Babayiğit

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Allergic rhinitis, an immunoglobulin E mediated disease, is the most common chronic allergic childhood disease. The disease is characterized by nasal sneezing, rhinorrhea, palate and eye itchiness, and congestion and it can significantly impact children’s health. It causes uncomfortable symptoms, impairs quality of life and can predispose to the development of comorbidities such as asthma. Etiological diagnosis is based on cutaneous prick tests, which have a high sensitivity and specificity rate and which can be easily applied to young children. Treatment initially involves avoidance measures and, when necessary, pharmacotherapy or immunotherapy. Pharmacotherapy generally involves antihistamines and/or nasal corticosteroids, but leukotriene antagonists have also demonstrated effectiveness in treating allergic rhinitis symptoms. In this article, the symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of allergic rhinitis in childhood are discussed. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2010; 8: 105-12

  15. Norwegian Childhood Diabetes Registry: Childhood onset diabetes in Norway 1973-2012

    OpenAIRE

    Torild Skrivarhaug

    2013-01-01

    The Norwegian Childhood Diabetes Registry (NCDR) is a prospective, population-based, nationwide registry which systematically register all incident cases of childhood diabetes, and systematically monitors the outcome of diabetes care in children and adolescents. NCDR includes data on childhood onset diabetes since 1973, and diabetes care outcome since 2001. NCDR was founded with the following objectives: To improve the diagnostics, classifications and treatment of childhood-onset diabetes, su...

  16. IL–18 AND IMMUNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Yakushenko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Interleukin–18 is one of the main cytokines, inducing production of IFNg. It is the important factor of anti–infectious and anti–tumor immunity. The review represent molecular–genetic and biochemical characteristics of IL–18. The data about producers, the structure of the receptor and of IL–18 binding protein, as well as signal transduction in the cell are considered. Besides that, the main immune effects of IL–18 are discussed. (Med. Immunol., 2005, vol.7, № 4, pp 355–364

  17. Childhood Obesity: A New Menace

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar, Maria L.; Lea S Eiland

    2007-01-01

    Childhood obesity is increasing in prevalence in the United States. Comorbid diseases once thought of as adult issues such as hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia, are now being encountered in the pediatric population as a result of obesity. Primary prevention is still the most cost-effective approach to this growing problem. In terms of management, the treatment of obesity in children is not identical to that in adults. Thus far, the only accepted weight loss therapy for children are die...

  18. Chronic granulomatous disease of childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) of childhood is a rare entity. The disease is characterized by recurrent infections with granuloma and abscess formation caused by an inherited defective neutrophil leukocyte function. The most common sites of involvements are the lungs, lymph nodes, skin, liver, spleen and bones. Rarely are other organs affected. Two children with CGD are presented. The children were cousins, the older with bone, lung and splenic involvement. The younger had circumferential thickening of the gastric antrum. (orig./GDG)

  19. Childhood pneumonia and vitamin A

    OpenAIRE

    Farhad Heidarian; Tahereh Ansarinezhad

    2014-01-01

    One of the major causes of mortality in children younger than 5 years old is acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRI). ALRI clinical features are cough, tachypnea, fever, coryza, chest retraction, crackles and wheeze. Increased white blood cell count with left shift might happen in pneumonia. C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) might rise in children with respiratory tract infections. Vitamin A deficiency is associated with severe childhood infections. The...

  20. Childhood Obesity for Pediatric Gastroenterologists

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Jeannie S; Barlow, Sarah E.; Quiros-Tejeira, Ruben E.; Scheimann, Ann; Skelton, Joseph; Suskind, David; Tsai, Patrika; Uko, Victor; Warolin, Joshua P.; Xanthakos, Stavra A.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity in childhood is one of the major health issues in pediatric health care today. As expected, the prevalence of obesity-related comorbidities has risen in parallel with that of obesity. Consultation regarding these concomitant diseases and subsequent management by subspecialists, including pediatric gastroenterologists, is now common and has resulted in obesity being recognized as a chronic disease requiring coordination of care. Although medications and even surgery may provide effecti...

  1. Childhood obesity in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Steven; Swinburn, Boyd

    2015-07-01

    New Zealand has an unacceptably high rate of childhood obesity at 11 percent of children. The cause is due to an over consumption of food particularly in the form of junk food. To reverse this serious problem an all-of-society approach with leadership from the government is going to be required. The consequence of ignoring the problem will threaten the future viability of the health service. PMID:26149897

  2. Temperament, Emotion and Childhood Stuttering

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Robin; Choi, Dahye; Conture, Edward; Walden, Tedra

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a brief description of temperament and emotion, review empirical evidence pertaining to their possible association with childhood stuttering, and discuss possible clinical implications. In general, temperament is typically thought of as an individual's constitutionally (biologically) based behavioral proclivities. These proclivities often include emotional reactivity and self-regulation. Reactivity refers to arousal of emotions, motor activity, and at...

  3. Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis in childhood

    OpenAIRE

    MULLER, Judit

    2010-01-01

    Histiocytoses are rare and heterogeneous group of disorders in childhood. The clinical presentation of Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is highly variable, from asymptomatic to clinically significant symptoms and consequences. As it can involve nearly every organ of the body, the clinical manifestations depend on the site of the lesions, on the organs and systems involved and whether their function is affected. The most common sites of involvement in LCH are bone, skin, lymph nodes, lung, ...

  4. Chronic avulsive injuries of childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Children and adolescents are prone to avulsive injuries related to a combination of their propensity for great strength, ability to sustain extreme levels of activity, and immature growing apophyses. Appropriate interpretation of imaging studies showing chronic avulsive injuries is essential so that the irregularity and periostitis that can be associated with chronic avulsions is not misinterpreted as probable malignancy. This article reviews the chronic avulsive injuries of childhood. (orig.)

  5. Chronic avulsive injuries of childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, L.F.; Helms, C.A. [Dept. of Radiology, Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Bisset, G.S. III [Dept. of Radiology, Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)]|[Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Squire, D.L. [Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    1999-03-01

    Children and adolescents are prone to avulsive injuries related to a combination of their propensity for great strength, ability to sustain extreme levels of activity, and immature growing apophyses. Appropriate interpretation of imaging studies showing chronic avulsive injuries is essential so that the irregularity and periostitis that can be associated with chronic avulsions is not misinterpreted as probable malignancy. This article reviews the chronic avulsive injuries of childhood. (orig.) With 12 figs., 8 refs.

  6. Childhood asthma and risk factors

    OpenAIRE

    Ljuština-Pribić Radmila; Petrović Slobodanka; Tomić Jelena

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. This article summarizes the contribution of epidemiology to the understanding of childhood asthma. The first task in epidemiology is to determine prevalence and incidence of any disease. Prevalence. Epidemiological investigations are aimed at evaluating hypotheses about causes of disease by defining demographic characteristics of a certain population as well as by determining possible effects of environmental factors. In spite of some limitations, data obtained by epidemio...

  7. Nuclear power and childhood leukaemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimston, M. (AEA Technology, London (UK))

    1991-06-19

    The possibility of illness caused by exposure to emissions from nuclear power plants continues to raise enormous public concern. Nowhere is this more evident than in the debate over the aetiology of childhood leukaemias. This review explores the evidence in relation to this and other diseases which are linked in the public's mind to nuclear power. The scientific evidence presented suggests that these links are more tenuous than is commonly believed. (author).

  8. Treatment of Newly Diagnosed and Recurrent Childhood Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment of Newly Diagnosed and Recurrent Childhood Brain Tumors The brain is made of different kinds of cells . Childhood ... following: What You Need To Know About™ Brain Tumors Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium (PBTC) For more childhood cancer information ...

  9. Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... healthy liver are important for survivors of childhood cancer. Pancreas Radiation therapy increases the risk of pancreatic late ... are important for survivors of childhood cancer. Childhood cancer survivors with liver ... Pancreas Radiation therapy increases the risk of pancreatic late ...

  10. Perceptions of childhood undernutrition among rural households on the Kenyan coast – a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Berkley, JA; Jones, C.; Molyneux, CS; Muraya, KW

    2016-01-01

    Background: Nutrition plays an important role in child survival and development. Treatment action in the management of child health and nutrition is influenced by perceptions of illness, and gender plays an important role. However, little is known about if and how moderate malnutrition is recognised among lay populations, or how local social norms and intra-household dynamics affect decisions to seek biomedical assistance for nutritional concerns. In this paper we describe how childhood nutri...

  11. Childhood obesity: A global public health crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Sameera Karnik; Amar Kanekar

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Childhood obesity is a major public health crisis nationally and internationally. The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased over few years. It is caused by imbalance between calorie intake and calories utilized. One or more factors (genetic, behavioral, and environmental) cause obesity in children. Physical, psychological, and social health problems are caused due to childhood obesity. Hence, effective intervention strategies are being used to prevent and control obesity...

  12. Familial Aggregation and Childhood Blood Pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaoling; Xu, Xiaojing; Su, Shaoyong; Snieder, Harold

    2015-01-01

    There is growing concern about elevated blood pressure (BP) in children. The evidence for familial aggregation of childhood BP is substantial. Twin studies have shown that a large part of the familial aggregation of childhood BP is due to genes. The first part of this review provides the latest progress in gene finding for childhood BP, focusing on the combined effects of multiple loci identified from the genome-wide association studies on adult BP. We further review the evidence on the contr...

  13. General Overview on Childhood Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevil İnal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, it has not been put much emphasis on obesity in children and the view of “obese child is healthy” is widely accepted by families. However, understanding that a close relation exists between obesity prevalence and childhood obesity, which increased in recent years both across the world and in our country, and many diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases changed the opinion of both of health care professionals and the society about childhood obesity in Turkey, like it changed the opinion in all around the world. Although there are no studies in our country, which have been conducted to investigate obesity prevalence and affecting factors in children nationwide, it is reported in studies carried out in various cities that rate of overweight children in preschool children is between 4-13%, whereas rate of obese children is between 9-27%. In the literature, a positive correlation was found between the frequency of taking the children to fast-food restaurants, compelling children to eat foods on their dishes, one or two of the parents being obese and obesity of children in Turkey. In this review will focus on the risk factors of childhood obesity in Turkey. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2013; 11: 27-30

  14. Childhood leukaemia and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been considerable scientific and media interest in the question of whether the risk of childhood leukemia is raised near nuclear facilities, and, if so, the reasons why. Serious consideration of this issue was initiated by a media report of an unusually large number of cases around the Sellafield installation in England, and reports of excess cases in the vicinity of other facilities in Britain have followed. Detailed radiological assessments have demonstrated that radioactive discharges are most unlikely to have been the cause of these reported excess cases, seemingly contradicting the epidemiological evidence. However, epidemiology is an observational (non-experimental) science, and the results of such studies must be interpreted with considerable care. The influence of prior knowledge of data upon the structure of a study has been a particular inferential problem. Furthermore, there are indications that non-radiological factors may be important in communities near nuclear facilities. Recently, a study has shown an association between childhood leukaemia cases near Sellafield and the recorded occupational radiation doses received by fathers before the conception of these children; but this novel finding has received little independent scientific support. At present, the British childhood leukaemia findings have not been replicated in studies based in other countries, and the reasons for the reported case excesses around British nuclear facilities remain unclear

  15. Cranial nerve palsies in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, C J; Godoy, F; ALQahtani, E

    2015-02-01

    We review ocular motor cranial nerve palsies in childhood and highlight many of the features that differentiate these from their occurrence in adulthood. The clinical characteristics of cranial nerve palsies in childhood are affected by the child's impressive ability to repair and regenerate after injury. Thus, aberrant regeneration is very common after congenital III palsy; Duane syndrome, the result of early repair after congenital VI palsy, is invariably associated with retraction of the globe in adduction related to the innervation of the lateral rectus by the III nerve causing co-contraction in adduction. Clinical features that may be of concern in adulthood may not be relevant in childhood; whereas the presence of mydriasis in III palsy suggests a compressive aetiology in adults, this is not the case in children. However, the frequency of associated CNS abnormalities in III palsy and the risk of tumour in VI palsy can be indications for early neuroimaging depending on presenting features elicited through a careful history and clinical examination. The latter should include the neighbouring cranial nerves. We discuss the impact of our evolving knowledge of congenital cranial dysinnervation syndromes on this field. PMID:25572578

  16. The long reach of childhood: childhood experiences influence close relationships and loneliness across life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merz, E.-M.; Jak, S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper intends to gain insight into the role of childhood relationships and experiences within the parental home for the formation and meaning of later family relationships and loneliness. Particularly, childhood attachment to mother and father and stressful childhood experiences were studied in

  17. The long reach of childhood. Childhood experiences influence close relationships and loneliness across life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Merz; S. Jak

    2013-01-01

    This paper intends to gain insight into the role of childhood relationships and experiences within the parental home for the formation and meaning of later family relationships and loneliness. Particularly, childhood attachment to mother and father and stressful childhood experiences were studied in

  18. The Concept of Childhood: An Introduction to Theoretical Discussion

    OpenAIRE

    Novoa-Vargas, Luz Nelly

    2016-01-01

    Some historical conceptions formed a place for childhood in different periods for the sake of understanding childhood. The present paper analyzes childhood and family in the classical world, the medieval child, the childhood Psychogenic Theory and the childhood feeling in the modern society. Likewise, some childhood conceptions facing the Piaget contributions in the Cognitive Revolution setting and its incidence in the education field are presented as well as a general pa­norama in front of t...

  19. The genetics of childhood obesity and interaction with dietary macronutrients

    OpenAIRE

    Garver, William S.; Newman, Sara B.; Gonzales-Pacheco, Diana M.; Castillo, Joseph J.; Jelinek, David; Heidenreich, Randall A.; Orlando, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    The genes contributing to childhood obesity are categorized into three different types based on distinct genetic and phenotypic characteristics. These types of childhood obesity are represented by rare monogenic forms of syndromic or non-syndromic childhood obesity, and common polygenic childhood obesity. In some cases, genetic susceptibility to these forms of childhood obesity may result from different variations of the same gene. Although the prevalence for rare monogenic forms of childhood...

  20. Childhood opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome: diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaes, Franz; Dharmalingam, Backialakshmi

    2016-06-01

    Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) is a rare and primarily immune-mediated disease in children and adults. The main symptoms include opsoclonus, myoclonus and ataxia. In children, the symptoms also include irritability, and, over a long-term course, learning and behavioural disturbances. OMS can be idiopathic, parainfectious or occur as a paraneoplastic (tumour-associated) syndrome. Paraneoplastic OMS in children is almost exclusively associated with neuroblastoma, whereas in adults, small cell lung cancer and breast cancer are the main underlying tumours. An autoimmune pathophysiology is suspected because childhood OMS patients have functionally active autoantibodies, proinflammatory changes in the cytokine network and immunotherapy responses. Children appear to respond regularly to immunosuppressive treatment. However, although the neurological symptoms show a good response, most children continue to show neuropsychological disturbances. PMID:27095464

  1. Managerial Decision Making

    OpenAIRE

    Langhammerová, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis the attention is not concentrated only on the manager, his knowledge and skills, functions etc., but mainly on one of the basic management activities, which is the decision making. Decision-making includes additional terms related to this very important managerial function. The first part of this thesis is the literature review. The aim is the explanation of the theoretical knowledge and explanation of basic terminology in the area of managerial decision-making. It shows a numb...

  2. Handbook on Decision Making

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Lakhmi C

    2010-01-01

    The present "Volume 1: Techniques and Applications" of the "Handbook on Decision Making" presents a useful collection of AI techniques, as well as other complementary methodologies, that are useful for the design and development of intelligent decision support systems. Application examples of how these intelligent decision support systems can be utilized to help tackle a variety of real-world problems in different domains, such as business, management, manufacturing, transportation and food industries, and biomedicine, are presented. The handbook includes twenty condensed c

  3. Decision support basics

    CERN Document Server

    Power, Daniel J

    2009-01-01

    This book is targeted to busy managers and MBA students who need to grasp the basics of computerized decision support. Some of the topics covered include: What is a DSS? What do managers need to know about computerized decision support? And how can managers identify opportunities to create innovative DSS? Overall the book addresses 35 fundamental questions that are relevant to understanding computerized decision support.

  4. Ethical decision making

    OpenAIRE

    Zsolnai, László

    1997-01-01

    The self-centeredness of modern organizations leads to environmental destruction and human deprivation. The principle of responsibility developed by Hans Jonas requires caring for the beings affected by our decisions and actions. Ethical decision-making creates a synthesis of reverence for ethical norms, rationality in goal achievement, and respect for the stakeholders. The maximin rule selects the "least worst alternative" in the multidimensional decision space of deontologica...

  5. T-cell receptor Vbeta CDR3 oligoclonality frequently occurs in childhood refractory cytopenia (MDS-RC) and severe aplastic anemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vries, A.C. de; Langerak, A.W.; Verhaaf, B.;

    2008-01-01

    (Very) severe acquired aplastic anemia ((v)SAA) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) are rare diseases in childhood. (V)SAA is a bone marrow (BM) failure syndrome characterized by immune-mediated destruction of hematopoietic progenitors. MDS is a malignant clonal stem cell disorder, of which...

  6. Immune recovery vitritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dujić Mirjana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Immune recovery vitritis (IRV is symptomatic vitritis of > 1+ severity associated with inactive cytomegalovirus (CMV retinitis. It is an opportunistic infection of the eye, in the patients who suffer from AIDS, and is treated with a highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART. As a result of this therapy, there is an immune reconstitution in the body and inflammation of the vitreous body. Objective The aim of the study was to show the incidence of IRV in patients treated with HAART. Method A retrospective study was conducted in patients who suffered from CMV retinitis. Twenty-one were treated with HAART and had the diagnosis of CMV retinitis, as well. All of them were examined by the same ophthalmologist who peformed slit lamp examination with mydriasis and indirect ophthalmoscopy. Results Nine of 21 patients developed IRV as a complication of HAART, two had cystoid macular edema (CMO. Conclusion CMV retinitis develops when the number of CD4+ T lymphocytes drops below 50/mm3. This results in necrotic retinitis which, if untreated, leads to complete loss of vision. With the introduction of HAART, we learned that the reconstitution of immune status was achieved as well as life expectancy, but there was a dramatic decline in the opportunistic infection, including CMV retinitis, as well. With the immune reconstitution, the inflammation develops in the eye, known as IRV. Sometimes, it is necessary to treat this condition, but in the case of our patients, the inflammation was mild, and no treatment was necessary.

  7. Lymphoma: Immune Evasion Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyay, Ranjan; Hammerich, Linda; Peng, Paul [Division of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Brown, Brian [Department of Genetics and Genomic Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Merad, Miriam [Department of Oncological Sciences, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029 (United States); Brody, Joshua D., E-mail: joshua.brody@mssm.edu [Division of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY 10029 (United States)

    2015-04-30

    While the cellular origin of lymphoma is often characterized by chromosomal translocations and other genetic aberrations, its growth and development into a malignant neoplasm is highly dependent upon its ability to escape natural host defenses. Neoplastic cells interact with a variety of non-malignant cells in the tumor milieu to create an immunosuppressive microenvironment. The resulting functional impairment and dysregulation of tumor-associated immune cells not only allows for passive growth of the malignancy but may even provide active growth signals upon which the tumor subsequently becomes dependent. In the past decade, the success of immune checkpoint blockade and adoptive cell transfer for relapsed or refractory lymphomas has validated immunotherapy as a possible treatment cornerstone. Here, we review the mechanisms by which lymphomas have been found to evade and even reprogram the immune system, including alterations in surface molecules, recruitment of immunosuppressive subpopulations, and secretion of anti-inflammatory factors. A fundamental understanding of the immune evasion strategies utilized by lymphomas may lead to better prognostic markers and guide the development of targeted interventions that are both safer and more effective than current standards of care.

  8. Genetic Immunity to AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In an article on genetic immunity to AIDS published in Science magazine, American and Chinese scientists claim to have discovered why certain HIV carriers do not develop full-blown AIDS. They say that the key to this conundrum lies in a particular protein in the endocrine system that inhibits development of HIV.

  9. Lymphoma: Immune Evasion Strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While the cellular origin of lymphoma is often characterized by chromosomal translocations and other genetic aberrations, its growth and development into a malignant neoplasm is highly dependent upon its ability to escape natural host defenses. Neoplastic cells interact with a variety of non-malignant cells in the tumor milieu to create an immunosuppressive microenvironment. The resulting functional impairment and dysregulation of tumor-associated immune cells not only allows for passive growth of the malignancy but may even provide active growth signals upon which the tumor subsequently becomes dependent. In the past decade, the success of immune checkpoint blockade and adoptive cell transfer for relapsed or refractory lymphomas has validated immunotherapy as a possible treatment cornerstone. Here, we review the mechanisms by which lymphomas have been found to evade and even reprogram the immune system, including alterations in surface molecules, recruitment of immunosuppressive subpopulations, and secretion of anti-inflammatory factors. A fundamental understanding of the immune evasion strategies utilized by lymphomas may lead to better prognostic markers and guide the development of targeted interventions that are both safer and more effective than current standards of care

  10. Bed rest and immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Aviles, Hernan; Butel, Janet S.; Shearer, William T.; Niesel, David; Pandya, Utpal; Allen, Christopher; Ochs, Hans D.; Blancher, Antoine; Abbal, Michel

    2007-02-01

    Space flight has been shown to result in altered immune responses. The current study was designed to investigate this possibility by using the bed rest model of some space flight conditions. A large number of women are included as subjects in the study. The hypothesis being tested is: 60 days head-down tilt bed rest of humans will affect the immune system and resistance to infection. Blood, urine and saliva samples will be obtained from bed rest subjects prior to, at intervals during, and after completion of 60 days of head-down tilt bed rest. Leukocyte blastogenesis, cytokine production and virus reactivation will be assessed. The ability of the subjects to respond appropriately to immunization with the neoantigen bacteriophage φX-174 will also be determined. Bed rest is being carried out at MEDES, Toulouse France, and the University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX. The studies to be carried out in France will also allow assessment of the effects of muscle/bone exercise and nutritional countermeasures on the immune system in addition to the effects of bed rest.

  11. Lymphoma: Immune Evasion Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjan Upadhyay

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available While the cellular origin of lymphoma is often characterized by chromosomal translocations and other genetic aberrations, its growth and development into a malignant neoplasm is highly dependent upon its ability to escape natural host defenses. Neoplastic cells interact with a variety of non-malignant cells in the tumor milieu to create an immunosuppressive microenvironment. The resulting functional impairment and dysregulation of tumor-associated immune cells not only allows for passive growth of the malignancy but may even provide active growth signals upon which the tumor subsequently becomes dependent. In the past decade, the success of immune checkpoint blockade and adoptive cell transfer for relapsed or refractory lymphomas has validated immunotherapy as a possible treatment cornerstone. Here, we review the mechanisms by which lymphomas have been found to evade and even reprogram the immune system, including alterations in surface molecules, recruitment of immunosuppressive subpopulations, and secretion of anti-inflammatory factors. A fundamental understanding of the immune evasion strategies utilized by lymphomas may lead to better prognostic markers and guide the development of targeted interventions that are both safer and more effective than current standards of care.

  12. Immunity to intracellular bacteria

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan H. E. Kaufmann; Follows, George A.; Martin E. Munik

    1992-01-01

    Immunity to intracellular bacteria including Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mycobacterium leprae, and Listeria monocytogenes depends on specific T cells. Evidence to be described suggests that CD4 (alpha/beta)T cells which interact with each other and with macrophages contribute to acquired resistence against as well as pathogenesis of intracellular bacterial infections.

  13. Immunity to intracellular bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan H. E. Kaufmann

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Immunity to intracellular bacteria including Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mycobacterium leprae, and Listeria monocytogenes depends on specific T cells. Evidence to be described suggests that CD4 (alpha/betaT cells which interact with each other and with macrophages contribute to acquired resistence against as well as pathogenesis of intracellular bacterial infections.

  14. Tick Innate Immunity.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopáček, Petr; Hajdušek, Ondřej; Burešová, Veronika; Daffre, S.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 708, - (2010), 137-162. ISSN 0065-2598 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP506/10/2136; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06009 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : tick * pathogen transmission * innate immunity Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 1.379, year: 2010

  15. Mucosal immunity in invertebrates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bilej, Martin

    Vol. 1. Elsevier: Academic Press, 2015 - (Městecký, J.; Strober, W.; Russell, M.; Kelsall, B.; Cheroutre, H.; Lambrecht, B.), s. 135-144. (Fourth Edition). ISBN 978-0-12-415847-4 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : mucosal immunity * invertebrates Subject RIV: EC - Immunology

  16. Cytokines and antitumor immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Ludmila; Pawelec, Graham

    2003-06-01

    Currently, the notion of immunosurveillance against tumors is enjoying something of a renaissance. Even if we still refuse to accept that tumors arising in the normal host are unable to trigger an immune response because of the lack of initiation ("danger") signals, there is no doubt that the immune system can be manipulated experimentally and by implication therapeutically to exert anti-tumor effects. For this activity to be successful, the appropriate cytokine milieu has to be provided, making cytokine manipulation central to immunotherapy. On the other hand, the major hurdle currently preventing successful immunotherapy is the ability of tumors to evolve resistant variants under the pressure of immune selection. Here, too, the cytokine milieu plays an essential role. The purpose of this brief review is to consider the current status of the application of cytokines in facilitating antitumor immunity, as well their role in inhibiting responses to tumors. Clearly, encouraging the former but preventing the latter will be the key to the effective clinical application of cancer immunotherapy. PMID:12779349

  17. Food Allergy in childhood: phenotypes, prevention and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-García, Silvia; Cipriani, Francesca; Ricci, Giampaolo

    2015-12-01

    The prevalence of food allergy in childhood increased in the last decades, especially in Westernized countries where this phenomenon has been indicated as a second wave of the allergic epidemic. In parallel, scientific interest also increased with the effort to explain the reasons of this sudden rise and to identify potential protective and risk factors. A great attention has been focused on early exposures to allergenic foods, as well as on other nutritional factors or supplements that may influence the immune system in a positive direction. Both interventions on maternal diet before birth or during breastfeeding and then directly on infant nutrition have been investigated. Furthermore, the natural history of food allergy also seems to be changing over time; IgE-mediated cow's milk allergy and egg allergy seem to be more frequently a persistent rather than a transient disease in childhood, as described in the last years. Food avoidance and the emergency drugs in case of an adverse event, such as epinephrine self-injector, are currently the first-line treatment in patients with food allergies, with a resulting impairment in the quality of life and social behaviour. During the last decade, oral immunotherapy emerged as an optional treatment with remarkable results, offering a novel perspective in the treatment for and management of food allergy. PMID:26595763

  18. Decision Making in Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orasanu, Judith; Statler, Irving C. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The importance of decision-making to safety in complex, dynamic environments like mission control centers and offshore installations has been well established. NASA-ARC has a program of research dedicated to fostering safe and effective decision-making in the manned spaceflight environment. Because access to spaceflight is limited, environments with similar characteristics, including aviation and nuclear power plants, serve as analogs from which space-relevant data can be gathered and theories developed. Analyses of aviation accidents cite crew judgement and decision making as causes or contributing factors in over half of all accidents. A similar observation has been made in nuclear power plants. Yet laboratory research on decision making has not proven especially helpful in improving the quality of decisions in these kinds of environments. One reason is that the traditional, analytic decision models are inappropriate to multidimensional, high-risk environments, and do not accurately describe what expert human decision makers do when they make decisions that have consequences. A new model of dynamic, naturalistic decision making is offered that may prove useful for improving decision making in complex, isolated, confined and high-risk environments. Based on analyses of crew performance in full-mission simulators and accident reports, features that define effective decision strategies in abnormal or emergency situations have been identified. These include accurate situation assessment (including time and risk assessment), appreciation of the complexity of the problem, sensitivity to constraints on the decision, timeliness of the response, and use of adequate information. More effective crews also manage their workload to provide themselves with time and resources to make good decisions. In brief, good decisions are appropriate to the demands of the situation. Effective crew decision making and overall performance are mediated by crew communication. Communication

  19. Inertia and Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alós-Ferrer, Carlos; Hügelschäfer, Sabine; Li, Jiahui

    2016-01-01

    Decision inertia is the tendency to repeat previous choices independently of the outcome, which can give rise to perseveration in suboptimal choices. We investigate this tendency in probability-updating tasks. Study 1 shows that, whenever decision inertia conflicts with normatively optimal behavior (Bayesian updating), error rates are larger and decisions are slower. This is consistent with a dual-process view of decision inertia as an automatic process conflicting with a more rational, controlled one. We find evidence of decision inertia in both required and autonomous decisions, but the effect of inertia is more clear in the latter. Study 2 considers more complex decision situations where further conflict arises due to reinforcement processes. We find the same effects of decision inertia when reinforcement is aligned with Bayesian updating, but if the two latter processes conflict, the effects are limited to autonomous choices. Additionally, both studies show that the tendency to rely on decision inertia is positively associated with preference for consistency. PMID:26909061

  20. Decision analysis multicriteria analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ALARA procedure covers a wide range of decisions from the simplest to the most complex one. For the simplest one the engineering judgement is generally enough and the use of a decision aiding technique is therefore not necessary. For some decisions the comparison of the available protection option may be performed from two or a few criteria (or attributes) (protection cost, collective dose,...) and the use of rather simple decision aiding techniques, like the Cost Effectiveness Analysis or the Cost Benefit Analysis, is quite enough. For the more complex decisions, involving numerous criteria or for decisions involving large uncertainties or qualitative judgement the use of these techniques, even the extended cost benefit analysis, is not recommended and appropriate techniques like multi-attribute decision aiding techniques are more relevant. There is a lot of such particular techniques and it is not possible to present all of them. Therefore only two broad categories of multi-attribute decision aiding techniques will be presented here: decision analysis and the outranking analysis

  1. Constructing an account by contrast in counselling for childhood genetic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarangi, Srikant; Clarke, Angus

    2002-01-01

    Genetic counselling sessions are rich and complex sites of accounting practices for decision-making in which clinicians are meant to facilitate rather than control the decisions made by their clients. This often means the adoption of a non-directive stance as counsellors lay out various possible courses of action from which the client can choose, while both client and counsellor may need to bear in mind a wide range of practical and ethical issues. With regard to childhood predictive testing, the complexity of decision-making is manifest not only in relation to the severity of the genetic condition being discussed, but also in terms of who controls the information, who might be affected by it and who makes decisions on whose behalf. In this paper we use discourse analytic methods to examine a single case where the clinician and the parent negotiate decisions about childhood testing and the extent to which the parent can influence this process. In discursive terms, we show how the child's future autonomy is juxtaposed against the parent's current rights. In order fully to understand the various characters and events deployed in the accounting practices of the parent and the genetic counsellor, we focus on one rhetorical device, i.e., contrast, as it is manifest at different levels of representation. We conclude that the interplay between a selected set of the contrast pairs contributes towards recursive interactional patterns as far as non-directive counselling is concerned, and consequently has implications for procedural outcomes. PMID:11824933

  2. The Urban Environment and Childhood Asthma (URECA birth cohort study: design, methods, and study population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandel Megan T

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence and morbidity of wheezing illnesses and childhood asthma is especially high in poor urban areas. This paper describes the study design, methods, and population of the Urban Environment and Childhood Asthma (URECA study, which was established to investigate the immunologic causes of asthma among inner-city children. Methods and Results URECA is an observational prospective study that enrolled pregnant women in central urban areas of Baltimore, Boston, New York City, and St. Louis and is following their offspring from birth through age 7 years. The birth cohort consists of 560 inner-city children who have at least one parent with an allergic disease or asthma, and all families live in areas in which at least 20% of the population has incomes below the poverty line. In addition, 49 inner-city children with no parental history of allergies or asthma were enrolled. The primary hypothesis is that specific urban exposures in early life promote a unique pattern of immune development (impaired antiviral and increased Th2 responses that increases the risk of recurrent wheezing and allergic sensitization in early childhood, and of asthma by age 7 years. To track immune development, cytokine responses of blood mononuclear cells stimulated ex vivo are measured at birth and then annually. Environmental assessments include allergen and endotoxin levels in house dust, pre- and postnatal maternal stress, and indoor air nicotine and nitrogen dioxide. Nasal mucous samples are collected from the children during respiratory illnesses and analyzed for respiratory viruses. The complex interactions between environmental exposures and immune development will be assessed with respect to recurrent wheeze at age 3 years and asthma at age 7 years. Conclusion The overall goal of the URECA study is to develop a better understanding of how specific urban exposures affect immune development to promote wheezing illnesses and asthma.

  3. Maternal immunization with pneumococcal surface protein A protects against pneumococcal infections among derived offspring.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masamitsu Kono

    Full Text Available Pathogen-specific antibody plays an important role in protection against pneumococcal carriage and infections. However, neonates and infants exhibit impaired innate and adaptive immune responses, which result in their high susceptibility to pneumococci. To protect neonates and infants against pneumococcal infection it is important to elicit specific protective immune responses at very young ages. In this study, we investigated the protective immunity against pneumococcal carriage, pneumonia, and sepsis induced by maternal immunization with pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA. Mother mice were intranasally immunized with recombinant PspA (rPspA and cholera toxin B subunit (CTB prior to being mated. Anti-PspA specific IgG, predominantly IgG1, was present at a high level in the serum and milk of immunized mothers and in the sera of their pups. The pneumococcal densities in washed nasal tissues and in lung homogenate were significantly reduced in pups delivered from and/or breast-fed by PspA-immunized mothers. Survival after fatal systemic infections with various types of pneumococci was significantly extended in the pups, which had received anti-PspA antibody via the placenta or through their milk. The current findings strongly suggest that maternal immunization with PspA is an attractive strategy against pneumococcal infections during early childhood.

  4. Innate immune memory in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer-Michalski, Eva-Maria; Conrath, Uwe

    2016-08-01

    The plant innate immune system comprises local and systemic immune responses. Systemic plant immunity develops after foliar infection by microbial pathogens, upon root colonization by certain microbes, or in response to physical injury. The systemic plant immune response to localized foliar infection is associated with elevated levels of pattern-recognition receptors, accumulation of dormant signaling enzymes, and alterations in chromatin state. Together, these systemic responses provide a memory to the initial infection by priming the remote leaves for enhanced defense and immunity to reinfection. The plant innate immune system thus builds immunological memory by utilizing mechanisms and components that are similar to those employed in the trained innate immune response of jawed vertebrates. Therefore, there seems to be conservation, or convergence, in the evolution of innate immune memory in plants and vertebrates. PMID:27264335

  5. A Service Oriented Architecture Approach to Achieve Interoperability between Immunization Information Systems in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Masoud; Ahmadi, Maryam; Dixon, Brian E

    2014-01-01

    Clinical decision support (CDS) systems can support vaccine forecasting and immunization reminders; however, immunization decision-making requires data from fragmented, independent systems. Interoperability and accurate data exchange between immunization information systems (IIS) is an essential factor to utilize Immunization CDS systems. Service oriented architecture (SOA) and Health Level 7 (HL7) are dominant standards for web-based exchange of clinical information. We implemented a system based on SOA and HL7 v3 to support immunization CDS in Iran. We evaluated system performance by exchanging 1500 immunization records for roughly 400 infants between two IISs. System turnaround time is less than a minute for synchronous operation calls and the retrieved immunization history of infants were always identical in different systems. CDS generated reports were accordant to immunization guidelines and the calculations for next visit times were accurate. Interoperability is rare or nonexistent between IIS. Since inter-state data exchange is rare in United States, this approach could be a good prototype to achieve interoperability of immunization information. PMID:25954452

  6. Adverse events due to the immunization: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medić Snežana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. An adverse event after immunization is a medical incident following the administration of vaccine, which can be connected with vaccine usage. This event could be a reaction to a vaccine component or lapse in vaccine handling, transport and storage or coincidental event. The assessment of severity of this reaction and the decision about prospective permanent contraindications for futher immunization are to be made by the regional expert team for permanent contraindications. This is regulated by low. Case report. A series of adverse events after immunization in three children of a single family is reported. As regulated by law, all three children were vaccinated with different vaccines, from 2007. to 2010. Although the recorded events were diverse by their nature, way of clinical manifestation and severity they all required hospitalization. In addition to being siblings, the three children had the same atopic diseases in their personal and family anamnesis. All adverse events were explored including allergological/immunological tests. Thanks to the good cooperation of involved general practicioners, pediatricians, members of expert team for permanent contraindications and clinicians, two of three children received the full series of vaccines in optimal time. Discussion. Decision making about futher immunization of children with adverse event after vaccine administration depends on the nature and severity of developed medical condition, results of medical exploration, existing immunity and personal risk of getting disease and subsequent complications. Conclusion. Bearing in mind the significance of immunization for personal and collective immunity, good cooperation of all physicians and experts involved in each single case of adverse event is required.

  7. Decision Making: Superiority Degree

    OpenAIRE

    Zhukovin, Vladimer; Alimbarashvili, Zurab

    2010-01-01

    It is introduced the concept of Superiority Degree one competitive decision over another. On the basis of this concept the mathematics theoretic structure is developed, which is part of pairs comparisons branch in modern decision making theory. It will be useful for practice and interesting for scientific research.

  8. Shared decision making

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Shared decision making is when health care providers and patients work together to decide ... There many test and treatment options for most health conditions. So your condition may be ... decision making helps you and your provider choose a treatment ...

  9. Games and Platform Decisions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Poul H. Kyvsgård; Mikkola, Juliana Hsuan

    2007-01-01

    application of on-line games in order to provide training for decision makers and in order to generate overview over the implications of platform decisions. However, games have to be placed in a context with other methods and we argue that a mixture of games, workshops, and simulations can provide improved...

  10. Consumer Decisions. Student Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florida State Dept. of Education, Tallahassee. Div. of Vocational Education.

    This student manual covers five areas relating to consumer decisions. Titles of the five sections are Consumer Law, Consumer Decision Making, Buying a Car, Convenience Foods, and Books for Preschool Children. Each section may contain some or all of these materials: list of objectives, informative sections, questions on the information and answers,…

  11. Decision making and imperfection

    CERN Document Server

    Karny, Miroslav; Wolpert, David

    2013-01-01

    Decision making (DM) is ubiquitous in both natural and artificial systems. The decisions made often differ from those recommended by the axiomatically well-grounded normative Bayesian decision theory, in a large part due to limited cognitive and computational resources of decision makers (either artificial units or humans). This state of a airs is often described by saying that decision makers are imperfect and exhibit bounded rationality. The neglected influence of emotional state and personality traits is an additional reason why normative theory fails to model human DM process.   The book is a joint effort of the top researchers from different disciplines to identify sources of imperfection and ways how to decrease discrepancies between the prescriptive theory and real-life DM. The contributions consider:   ·          how a crowd of imperfect decision makers outperforms experts' decisions;   ·          how to decrease decision makers' imperfection by reducing knowledge available;   ...

  12. Difference Decision Diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeller, Jesper; Lichtenberg, Jacob; Andersen, Henrik Reif; Hulgaard, Henrik

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a new data structure, difference decision diagrams (DDDs), for representing a Boolean logic over inequalities of the form $x-y......This paper describes a new data structure, difference decision diagrams (DDDs), for representing a Boolean logic over inequalities of the form $x-y...

  13. Immune modulators with parasite infections

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Xiangsheng

    2014-01-01

    SNPs in immune-related genes (IL-2 and IL-2R alpha) may used for future prospective studies examining disease susceptibility or may better elucidate various physiological responses. Distinctive immune response profiles could provide a better understanding of the immune response during disease progression or regression and improve the monitoring of alveolar echinococcosis patients.

  14. Diversity in the Immune System

    OpenAIRE

    Borghans, J.A.M.; Boer, R.J. de

    2000-01-01

    Diversity is one of the key characteristics of the vertebrate immune system. Lymphocyte repertoires of at least 3x10⁷ different clonotypes protect humans against infections, while avoiding unwanted immune responses against self-peptides and innocuous antigens. It is this lymphocyte diversity that forms the main difference between the immune systems of invertebrate and vertebrate species.

  15. Risk factors of childhood leukaemia with a focus on environmental hazards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leukaemia is the most common malignancy in childhood. In Germany, there are annually about 620 new cases of childhood leukaemia among 13.2 million children. The causes of most leukaemias are still not known. Previous studies suggested a major role of environmental factors like low doses of ionizing radiation as well as electric and magnetic fields or pesticides. But recent studies contradict these assumptions. While weak associations between such factors and childhood leukaemia can not be ruled out, it can be estimated that they contribute at most to a minor fraction of leukaemias. Since leukaemia incidence is much higher in developed countries and since space-time clustering seems to be established for this disease, hypotheses involving a role of infectious agents have been put forward. Recent studies are suggestive that children with an appropriately modulated immune system have a lower risk of developing a leukaemia during childhood. As international collaborations emerge, it must be an aim that preventive actions are not only wishful thinking. (orig.)

  16. Childhood leukaemia risks: from unexplained findings near nuclear installations to recommendations for future research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent findings related to childhood leukaemia incidence near nuclear installations have raised questions which can be answered neither by current knowledge on radiation risk nor by other established risk factors. In 2012, a workshop was organised on this topic with two objectives: (a) review of results and discussion of methodological limitations of studies near nuclear installations; (b) identification of directions for future research into the causes and pathogenesis of childhood leukaemia. The workshop gathered 42 participants from different disciplines, extending widely outside of the radiation protection field. Regarding the proximity of nuclear installations, the need for continuous surveillance of childhood leukaemia incidence was highlighted, including a better characterisation of the local population. The creation of collaborative working groups was recommended for consistency in methodologies and the possibility of combining data for future analyses. Regarding the causes of childhood leukaemia, major fields of research were discussed (environmental risk factors, genetics, infections, immunity, stem cells, experimental research). The need for multidisciplinary collaboration in developing research activities was underlined, including the prevalence of potential predisposition markers and investigating further the infectious aetiology hypothesis. Animal studies and genetic/epigenetic approaches appear of great interest. Routes for future research were pointed out. (review)

  17. How brains make decisions

    CERN Document Server

    Yukalov, V I

    2014-01-01

    This chapter, dedicated to the memory of Mino Freund, summarizes the Quantum Decision Theory (QDT) that we have developed in a series of publications since 2008. We formulate a general mathematical scheme of how decisions are taken, using the point of view of psychological and cognitive sciences, without touching physiological aspects. The basic principles of how intelligence acts are discussed. The human brain processes involved in decisions are argued to be principally different from straightforward computer operations. The difference lies in the conscious-subconscious duality of the decision making process and the role of emotions that compete with utility optimization. The most general approach for characterizing the process of decision making, taking into account the conscious-subconscious duality, uses the framework of functional analysis in Hilbert spaces, similarly to that used in the quantum theory of measurements. This does not imply that the brain is a quantum system, but just allows for the simple...

  18. Accessible Family Involvement in Early Childhood Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Johnetta W.; Storey, Pamela; Zhang, Chenyi

    2011-01-01

    Family involvement in early childhood classrooms benefits children, school staff, and families. The development of a strong relationship between early childhood programs and families is a critical component of developmentally appropriate practices. What strategies enable families to be full and active participants in their young children's…

  19. Early Childhood Practice and Refrains of Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Tamara; Sumsion, Jennifer; Wong, Sandie

    2015-01-01

    Early childhood practice has often been described as complex in both policy documents and research literature; however, less attention has been given to exploring the nature and consequences of complexity in early childhood practice. At a time of intense policy attention in many national contexts, there is the potential for closing down, as well…

  20. Early Childhood Systems: Transforming Early Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Sharon Lynn, Ed.; Kauertz, Kristie, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    In this seminal volume, leading authorities strategize about how to create early childhood systems that transcend politics and economics to serve the needs of all young children. The authors offer different interpretations of the nature of early childhood systems, discuss the elements necessary to support their development, and examine how…