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Sample records for childhood enteroviral aseptic

  1. Mesenteric Lymphadenopathy in Childhood Epidemic Aseptic Meningitis: Sonographic Features and Clinical Significance

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    Mun, Sung Hee; Park, Young Chan; Lee, Young Hwan [Catholic University of Daegu, College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-09-15

    To evaluate the sonographic features of mesenteric lymphadenopathy in childhood epidemic aseptic meningitis and to assess their clinical significance. Thirty-three patients (25 male, 8 female: mean age, 8.6 years) with a diagnosis of aseptic meningitis were prospectively evaluated with abdominal ultrasonography for the presence of enlarged mesenteric nodes. The size and number of enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes were analyzed in relationship with the patient's age, between the patients with abdominal pain or diarrhea (16 cases, 48%) and asymptomatic patients (17 cases, 52%). Mesenteric lymphadenopathy was seen in 31 patients (94%), all 16 symptomatic and 15 of the 17 asymptomatic patients. The number of enlarged nodes was most prevalent between 6-10, seen in 16 patients (52%) and the largest node ranged in size from 4 to 8 mm. Among the 31 patients with mesenteric lymphadenopathy, the mean size of the largest node was statistically different between the symptomatic (6.0 mm) and asymptomatic (5.0 mm) groups (p = 0.021). The number of enlarged nodes and the patient's age were not statistically different between the two groups. Mesenteric lymphadenopathy was seen in almost all cases of childhood epidemic aseptic meningitis, and may be related to the mesenteric lymphadenitis caused by enterovirus

  2. Disseminated Enteroviral Infection Associated with Obinutuzumab.

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    Dendle, Claire; Gilbertson, Michael; Korman, Tony M; Golder, Vera; Morand, Eric; Opat, Stephen

    2015-09-01

    Two cases of disseminated enteroviral infection occurred in patients who received the CD20 monoclonal antibody obinutuzumab. Clinical features included hepatitis, edema, and a dermatomyositis-like syndrome. These manifestations may be unfamiliar to clinicians and are possibly responsive to intravenous immunoglobulin. Clinicians should remain vigilant for enteroviral infections in patients receiving obinutuzumab.

  3. Disseminated Enteroviral Infection Associated with Obinutuzumab

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    Dendle, Claire; Gilbertson, Michael; Korman, Tony M; Golder, Vera; Morand, Eric; Opat, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Two cases of disseminated enteroviral infection occurred in patients who received the CD20 monoclonal antibody obinutuzumab. Clinical features included hepatitis, edema, and a dermatomyositis-like syndrome. These manifestations may be unfamiliar to clinicians and are possibly responsive to intravenous immunoglobulin. Clinicians should remain vigilant for enteroviral infections in patients receiving obinutuzumab.

  4. Idiopathic Facial Aseptic Granuloma in a 13-Year-Old Boy Dramatically Improved with Oral Doxycycline and Topical Metronidazole: Evidence for a Link with Childhood Rosacea

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    Camille Orion

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic facial aseptic granuloma (IFAG is a rare, benign pediatric dermatological lesion that occurs in children between 8 months and 13 years of age. The pathogenesis of IFAG is still unclear but it is likely to be associated with granulomatous rosacea in childhood. Here we describe a case of IFAG in a 13-year-old boy who showed a dramatic response to oral doxycycline and topical metronidazole, which supports the hypothesis that IFAG may belong to the spectrum of rosacea.

  5. A Case of Hypogammaglobulinemia with Enteroviral Meningoencephalitis, Associated with Increased Adenosine Deaminase in Cerebrospinal Fluid

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    Alborizi Abdolvahab

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We describe the development of enterovirus meningoencephalitis associated with increased adenosine deaminase in cerebrospinal fluid of a 12-year-old boy, a known case of hypogamaglobulinemia despite monthly replacement of IVIg.The patient was referred to our center with fever, headache and vomiting for 10 days. CSF analysis was compatible with aseptic meningoencephalitis but high CSF protein (>200mg/dl and high level of adenosine deaminase in CSF (30IU/L were against the diagnosis of simple viral meningoencephalitis. Nested PCR of CSF for entrovirus was positive. Treatment with daily high-dose IVIg was commenced, with significant clinical improvement. For patients with increased ADA and lymphocytic pleocytosis in CSF, differential diagnoses should include enteroviral meningitis. Antibodies, although crucial, cannot on their own prevent enteroviral infection in some hypogamaglbulinemic patients.

  6. Paediatric Investigators Collaborative Network on Infections in Canada (PICNIC study of aseptic meningitis

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    Robinson Joan L

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The seasonality, clinical and radiographic features and outcome of aseptic meningitis have been described for regional outbreaks but data from a wider geographic area is necessary to delineate the epidemiology of this condition. Methods A retrospective chart review was completed of children presenting with aseptic meningitis to eight Canadian pediatric hospitals over a two-year period. Results There were 233 cases of proven enteroviral (EV meningitis, 495 cases of clinical aseptic meningitis and 74 cases of possible aseptic meningitis with most cases occurring July to October. Headache, vomiting, meningismus and photophobia were more common in children ≥ 5 years of age, while rash, diarrhea and cough were more common in children Conclusion The clinical presentation of aseptic meningitis varies with the age of the child. Absence of CSF pleocytosis is common in infants

  7. Acute hydrocephalus in a child with a third ventricle arachnoid cyst and coincidental enteroviral meningitis.

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    Jeltema, Hanne-Rinck; Kuijlen, Jos M A; Hoving, Eelco W

    2014-06-01

    We present a 2.5-year-old child suffering from acute hydrocephalus. First, the child was diagnosed with aseptic viral meningitis. The PCR of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was positive for enterovirus. Subsequently, MRI revealed that the hydrocephalus was caused by a cyst in the third ventricle. During ventriculoscopy, the cyst had all aspects of an arachnoid cyst. An endoscopic fenestration and partial removal of the cyst was performed, combined with a ventriculocisternostomy. The coincidental finding of viral meningitis and a third ventricle arachnoid cyst in a patient with acute hydrocephalus has, to our knowledge, not been described in literature before. If there is a relation between the enteroviral meningitis, the arachnoid cyst (possibly causing a pre-existing subclinical hydrocephalus) and the rapidly evolving neurological deterioration, remains speculative. Proposed mechanisms, by which the viral meningitis could accelerate the disease process, are slight brain swelling or increased CSF production. This rare combination of diagnoses could also be coincidental.

  8. Pathogenicity of aseptic Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.

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    Li-hua Zhu

    Full Text Available Pine wilt is a disease of pine (Pinus spp. caused by the pine wood nematode (PWN, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. However, the pathogenic mechanism of pine wilt disease (PWD remains unclear. Although the PWN was thought to be the only pathogenic agent associated with this disease, a potential role for bacterial symbionts in the disease process was recently proposed. Studies have indicated that aseptic PWNs do not cause PWD in aseptic pine trees, while PWNs associated with bacteria cause wilting symptoms. To investigate the pathogenicity of the PWN and its associated bacteria, 3-month-old microcuttings derived from certain clones of Pinus densiflora Siebold & Zucc. produced in vitro were inoculated under aseptic conditions with aseptic PWNs, non-aseptic PWNs and bacteria isolated from the nematodes. Six-month-old aseptic P. densiflora microcuttings and 7-month-old P. massoniana seedlings were also inoculated under aseptic conditions with aseptic PWNs and non-aseptic PWNs. The results showed that the aseptic microcuttings and seedlings inoculated with aseptic PWNs or non-aseptic PWNs wilted, while those inoculated with bacterial isolates did not wilt. Nematodes were recovered from wilted microcuttings and seedlings inoculated with aseptic PWNs and non-aseptic PWNs, and the asepsis of nematodes recovered from aseptic PWN-inoculated microcuttings and seedlings was reconfirmed by culturing them in NB liquid medium at 30°C for more than 7 days. Taken together, the results indicate that the asepsis of PWN did not cause the loss of pathogenicity.

  9. Pathogenicity of aseptic Bursaphelenchus xylophilus.

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    Zhu, Li-hua; Ye, Jianren; Negi, Sapna; Xu, Xu-ling; Wang, Zhang-li; Ji, Jin-yi

    2012-01-01

    Pine wilt is a disease of pine (Pinus spp.) caused by the pine wood nematode (PWN), Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. However, the pathogenic mechanism of pine wilt disease (PWD) remains unclear. Although the PWN was thought to be the only pathogenic agent associated with this disease, a potential role for bacterial symbionts in the disease process was recently proposed. Studies have indicated that aseptic PWNs do not cause PWD in aseptic pine trees, while PWNs associated with bacteria cause wilting symptoms. To investigate the pathogenicity of the PWN and its associated bacteria, 3-month-old microcuttings derived from certain clones of Pinus densiflora Siebold & Zucc. produced in vitro were inoculated under aseptic conditions with aseptic PWNs, non-aseptic PWNs and bacteria isolated from the nematodes. Six-month-old aseptic P. densiflora microcuttings and 7-month-old P. massoniana seedlings were also inoculated under aseptic conditions with aseptic PWNs and non-aseptic PWNs. The results showed that the aseptic microcuttings and seedlings inoculated with aseptic PWNs or non-aseptic PWNs wilted, while those inoculated with bacterial isolates did not wilt. Nematodes were recovered from wilted microcuttings and seedlings inoculated with aseptic PWNs and non-aseptic PWNs, and the asepsis of nematodes recovered from aseptic PWN-inoculated microcuttings and seedlings was reconfirmed by culturing them in NB liquid medium at 30°C for more than 7 days. Taken together, the results indicate that the asepsis of PWN did not cause the loss of pathogenicity.

  10. Erythema dyschromicum perstans in a child following an enteroviral meningitis*

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    de Melo, Cláudia Raquel Ferrão; de Sá, Mário Correia; Carvalho, Sónia

    2017-01-01

    A healthy 6-year-old boy presented with an erythematous macular exanthema, meningeal signs and fever, initially diagnosed with probable bacterial meningitis and treated with antibiotic and anti-inflammatory drugs. Enteroviral meningitis was confirmed, but the skin lesions continued to evolve and the patient was ultimately diagnosed with erythema dyschromicum perstans. The boy was followed during three years until the spontaneous resolution of the dermatosis. PMID:28225976

  11. Enteroviral Meningitis: Natural History and Outcome of Pleconaril Therapy

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    Desmond, R A; Accortt, N. A.; Talley, L.; Villano, S A; Soong, S.-J.; Whitley, R J

    2006-01-01

    Enteroviral meningitis causes appreciable morbidity in adults, including hospitalization, decreased activity, and headache. Limited data define the natural history of disease. No antiviral therapeutic agent has demonstrated improved outcome in controlled clinical trials. Pleconaril, an inhibitor of enterovirus replication, was tested in two placebo-controlled clinical trials. Of 607 randomized patients in a multicenter, double-blind placebo-controlled study of pleconaril (200 mg three times d...

  12. ETIOLOGY OF SEASONAL INCREASING OF ENTEROVIRAL INFECTION INCIDENCE IN ARKHANGELSK OBLAST

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    L. A. Shishko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The etiology of seasonal increasing of enteroviral infection incidence in Arkhangelsk oblast in 2008–2011 has been studied. The ECHO 6, ECHO 9 and ECHO 30 viruses were isolated and identified from patients with enteroviral infection in this period. The highest enteroviral infection incidence rate in Arkhangelsk oblast which was 5,1 times higher in compare with average country index was registered in 2008. It was proved by the virological and molecular biological methods that the main etiological agent caused enteroviral meningitis cases in the seasonal outbreak in 2008 was ECHO 30 virus which was very similar to the ECHO 30 strain identified in the Veliky Novgorod in 2008. In 2009 from patients in enteroviral meningitis epidemic focus the ECHO 9 viruses were isolated. These viruses were similar to the ECHO 9 strains circulated in Russia in 2009. It was established that in the period of seasonal increasing of enteroviral infection in Arkhangelsk oblast in 2010–2011 in general circulated ECHO 6 viruses which clustered in 3 separate phylogenetic groups. Viruses ECHO 6 detected in Arkhangelsk oblast in 2011 were different from viruses identified in 2010. Results of the study confirm that monitoring of viruses in case of enteroviral infection remains the one of the important types of additional measures in the frame of Global Program of poliomyelitis eradication. This monitoring is absolutely necessary to define characteristics of epidemic process of enteroviral infection.

  13. An infant with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest secondary to enteroviral myocarditis surviving up to cardiac transplantation.

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    McGovern, Eimear; Ryan, Ethel; McMahon, Colin J

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a 13-day-old infant with enteroviral myocarditis surviving an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. She underwent orthotopic cardiac transplantation three months later. A year after the transplantation, she is alive and well. Enteroviral infection is common in neonates with high mortality in cases of enteroviral myocarditis. Cardiac transplantation is a treatment option for infants who fail to recover and remain dependent on inotropic support. This is the first report of an infant with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest secondary to enteroviral myocarditis surviving up to cardiac transplantation.

  14. Aseptic meningitis and viral myelitis.

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    Irani, David N

    2008-08-01

    Meningitis and myelitis represent common and very infrequent viral infections of the central nervous system, respectively. The number of cases of viral meningitis that occurs annually exceeds the total number of meningitis cases caused by all other etiologies combined. Focal central nervous system infections, such as occur in the spinal cord with viral myelitis, are much less common and may be confused with noninfectious disorders that cause acute flaccid paralysis. This article reviews some of the important clinical features, epidemiology, diagnostic approaches, and management strategies for patients with aseptic meningitis and viral myelitis. Particular focus is placed on the diseases caused by enteroviruses, which as a group account for most aseptic meningitis cases and many focal infections of the spinal cord.

  15. Amoxicillin-induced aseptic meningoencephalitis

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    Radi Shahien

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Radi Shahien1, Vetaly Vieksler1, Abdalla Bowirrat11Department of Neurology and Neurophysiology, Ziv Medical Center, Safed, IsraelAbstract: Meningitis is usually produced by an infectious agent, but there are multiple noninfectious causes. Drug-induced aseptic meningitis (DIAM is an important entity and has been reported as an uncommon adverse reaction with numerous agents. Thus, DIAM constitutes a diagnostic and patient management challenge. We present a patient with three episodes of aseptic meningitis due to amoxicillin, and then review the literature on this rare idiosyncratic event which may occur after local or systemic drug administration. A 77-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with fever, headache, and neck stiffness. Seven days before admission he had a dental and gingival inflammation. He was treated with two oral doses of 500 mg daily of amoxicillin for one week. The seventh day he awoke with the complaints that prompted hospital admittance. Amoxicillin was stopped 1 day before his admission. From his history we knew of two similar episodes: The first episode was after a dental procedure 3 months before this incident. He had received a 1-week course of postprocedure amoxicillin of 500 mg daily and had similar headache, fever, and chills during the entire course of treatment. He wasn’t admitted to the hospital, because he stopped taking amoxicillin and he felt spontaneous pain relief after taking symptomatic pain treatment. The second episodes was 6 months after his first admission, he had been admitted to our hospital with the same symptoms. Amoxicillin was stopped and changed with intravenous (IV ceftriaxone (CTRX for 10 days due to suspected partial untreated meningitis. The patient improved rapidly within 2 days and was discharged from the hospital. On the basis of these three confirmed episodes of meningitis after recurrent exposure to amoxicillin, with repetitive negative testing for viral, bacterial, and mycobacterial

  16. The changing epidemiology of pediatric aseptic meningitis in Daejeon, Korea from 1987 to 2003

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    Lee Mi-Hee

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aseptic meningitis is a relatively frequent childhood disease and virologic data suggest that enteroviruses are the commonest etiologic agents. We evaluated the epidemiologic characteristics of aseptic meningitis in Daejeon, South Korea from 1987 to 2003. Methods 2201 medical records of children with aseptic meningitis admitted to The Catholic University of Korea, Daejeon St Mary's Hospital were retrospectively analyzed. Results Outbreaks of aseptic meningitis were observed in 1990, 1993, 1996, 1997, 2001 and 2002. The age distribution of cases was relatively uniform, with a higher incidence in those aged P = 0.001. Neurologic sequelae were observed in 0.7% of the patients. Conclusion Aseptic meningitis, rare before the 1980s in Korea, has since become a common clinical entity. Since 1990, outbreaks of aseptic meningitis have occurred every 1 to 3 years in Daejeon in keeping with Korea-wide epidemics. The frequency of disease affecting children less than one year of age may reflect herd immunity to the epidemic strain.

  17. Aseptic Plant Culture System (APCS) Project

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    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aseptic plant culture plays a significant role in biotechnology and plant physiology research, and in vegetative propagation of many plant species. The development...

  18. Aseptic Plant Culture System (APCS) Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aseptic plant culture plays a significant role in biotechnology and plant physiology research and in vegetative propagation of many plant species. The development of...

  19. SPECT scans for monitoring response to pleconaril therapy in chronic enteroviral meningoencephalitis.

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    Tormey, V J; Buscombe, J R; Johnson, M A; Thomson, A P J; Webster, A D B

    2003-02-01

    Chronic enteroviral meningoencephalitis (CEMA) is a rare complication of immunodeficient individuals and may present as insidious intellectual deterioration. Diagnosis requires isolation or PCR identification of enterovirus from the CSF. Pleconaril, a novel anti-picornaviral compound is available on a compassionate release basis to treat patients with potentially life threatening enteroviral infection. Non-invasive neuroimaging is an important new technique for both the diagnosis of encephalitis and as an objective assessment of response to treatment. We report two immunodeficient patients, one with common variable immunodeficiency and one with HIV, with an insidious presentation of CEMA. In both patients, perfusion single photon emission tomography scans were effective in monitoring treatment, correlating with clinical and virological response to pleconaril.

  20. THE SEASONAL INCREASE OF ENTEROVIRAL INFECTION INCIDENCE IN THE NOVGOROD OBLAST

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    M. A. Bichurina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The analysis of epidemic process and definition of the etiology of the seasonal increase of serosal meningitis incidence in the Novgorod oblast in September-November, 2008 has been carried out. It was shown that in the specified period 73 persons had enteroviral meningitis. The proportion of children under 17 years old in the group of patients was 89.9%. The etiological agents of disease (enteroviruses ECHO 6 и ECHO 30 were detected by the virological and molecular-biological methods. It was established that two genetic variants of ECHO 6 and one variant of ECHO 30 co-circulated in the Novgorod oblast. The last virus variant was closely related to the strain isolated from enteroviral meningitis patients in Nizhniy Novgorod in 2007. The obtained data support the idea about necessity of systematic epidemiological and virological surveillance on enteroviral infection to get new information about circulation of non-poliomyelitis enteroviruses in the population and to define peculiarities of epidemic process development.

  1. [A case of chronic enteroviral meningitis and hydrocephalus associated with Bruton type agammaglobulinemia].

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    Ozawa, T; Onodera, O; Iizuka, O; Tanno, Y; Eguchi, I; Soma, Y; Tsuji, S

    1998-02-01

    We report a 10-year-old boy with chronic enteroviral meningitis associated with agammaglobulinemia (CEMA) and hydrocephalus. He was treated with a low-dose intravenous administration (100 mg/kg/4 weeks) of gammaglobulin (gamma-gl) since he was diagnosed as having Bruton type agammaglobulinemia at 1 year of age. At this admission, neurological examination revealed meningeal signs, Babinski sign, frontal signs, urinary incontinence, and mental retardation (IQ = 48) which was considered to be a sequela of the enteroviral encephalitis which had occurred in his first year of life. T 1-weighted MR imaging of the brain following gadolinium administration revealed a marked dilatation of the lateral ventricles and dense enhancement of the meninges. Enterovirus was detected in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) using tissue culture. Histological examination of a biopsied leptomeningeal specimen revealed inflammatory thickening, which was a likely cause of the obstruction to the flow of CSF. The hydrocephalus in this patient was treated with external drainage of CSF from the lateral ventricle. The CEMA was brought into remission by means of the intraventricular administration of gamma-gl, at a dose of 125-250 mg/week (total dose: 1.5 g/8 weeks), in addition to the high dose intravenous administration (400 mg/kg/4 weeks) of gamma-gl. Because of the poor prognosis of patients with CEMA, the intraventricular administration of gamma-gl should be initiated immediately following a diagnosis of enteroviral meningitis.

  2. CT scan of bacterial and aseptic meningitis

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    Takemoto, Kazumasa; Saiwai, Shigeo; Tamaoka, Koichi (Kobe Central Municipal Hospital (Japan))

    1983-01-01

    CT scans of the patients with aseptic and bacterial meningitis were reviewed and compared to previous reports. In aseptic meningitis, no abnormal CT findings were observed. In bacterial meningitis, CT findings were ventricular dilatation, subdural fluid collection, parenchymal low density, intracerebral hematoma and meningeal enhancement after contrast injection. Three patients among 48 suffered from status epileptics during the course of the illness. All of the 3 patients developed parenchymal inhomogeneous low density and progressive ventricular dilatation which did not improve after ventricular peritoneal shunt surgery. We believe that these changes are most likely due to hypoxic hypoxemia during epileptic seizure and meningitis itself seems to play a little role.

  3. Early acute aseptic iritis after cataract extraction.

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    Allen, H F; Grove, A S

    1976-01-01

    Severe iritis which occurs within the first five days after cataract extraction may be categorized as (1) bacterial endophthalmitis, (2) toxic iritis, or (3) aseptic iritis. These entities can sometimes be distinguished because of their clinical features. If bacterial endophthalmitis is suspected, anterior chamber paracentesis should be considered and appropriate antibiotic treatment should be initiated. Acute iritis may result from the introduction of toxic agents into the eye, and may follow the use of products sterilized with ethylene oxide. Early acute aseptic iritis probably occurs more often than has previously been recognized. Response to intensive anti-inflammatory treatment is usually prompt and dramatic. The judicious use of cryoextraction and the careful manipulation of intraocular tissues may minimize the incidence and the severity of postoperative inflammation.

  4. Evaluation of a rapid and completely automated real-time reverse transcriptase PCR assay for diagnosis of enteroviral meningitis.

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    Nolte, Frederick S; Rogers, Beverly B; Tang, Yi-Wei; Oberste, M Steven; Robinson, Christine C; Kehl, K Sue; Rand, Kenneth A; Rotbart, Harley A; Romero, Jose R; Nyquist, Ann-Christine; Persing, David H

    2011-02-01

    Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) for enterovirus RNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) have emerged as the new gold standard for diagnosis of enteroviral meningitis, and their use can improve the management and decrease the costs for caring for children with enteroviral meningitis. The Xpert EV assay (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA) is a rapid, fully automated real-time PCR test for the detection of enterovirus RNA that was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for in vitro diagnostic use in March 2007. In this multicenter trial we established the clinical performance characteristics of the Xpert EV assay in patients presenting with meningitis symptoms relative to clinical truth. Clinical truth for enteroviral meningitis was defined as clinical evidence of meningitis, the absence of another detectable pathogen in CSF, and detection of enterovirus in CSF either by two reference NAATs or by viral culture. A total of 199 prospectively and 235 retrospectively collected specimens were eligible for inclusion in this study. The overall prevalence of enteroviral meningitis was 26.04%. The Xpert EV assay had a sensitivity of 94.69% (90% confidence interval [CI] = 89.79 to 97.66%), specificity of 100% (90% CI = 99.07 to 100%), positive predictive value of 100%, negative predictive value of 98.17, and an accuracy of 98.62% relative to clinical truth. The Xpert EV assay demonstrated a high degree of accuracy for diagnosis of enteroviral meningitis. The simplicity and on-demand capability of the Xpert EV assay should prove to be a valuable adjunct to the evaluation of suspected meningitis cases.

  5. Cleavage of serum response factor mediated by enteroviral protease 2A contributes to impaired cardiac function

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    Jerry Wong; Jingchun Zhang; Bobby Yanagawa; Zongshu Luo; Xiangsheng Yang; Jiang Chang; Bruce McManus; Honglin Luo

    2012-01-01

    Enteroviral infection can lead to dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM),which is a major cause of cardiovascular mortality worldwide.However,the pathogenetic mechanisms have not been fully elucidated.Serum response factor (SRF) is a cardiac-enriched transcription regulator controlling the expression of a variety of target genes,including those involved in the contractile apparatus and immediate early response,as well as microRNAs that silence the expression of cardiac regulatory factors.Knockout of SRF in the heart results in downregulation of cardiac contractile gene expression and development of DCM.The goal of this study is to understand the role of SRF in enterovirus-induced cardiac dysfunction and progression to DCM.Here we report that SRF is cleaved following enteroviral infection of mouse heart and cultured cardiomyocytes.This cleavage is accompanied by impaired cardiac function and downregulation of cardiac-specific contractile and regulatory genes.Further investigation by antibody epitope mapping and site-directed mutagenesis demonstrates that SRF cleavage occurs at the region of its transactivation domain through the action of virus-encoded protease 2A.Moreover,we demonstrate that cleavage of SRF dissociates its transactivation domain from DNA-binding domain,resulting in the disruption of SRF-mediated gene transactivation.In addition to loss of functional SRF,finally we report that the N-terminal fragment of SRF cleavage products can also act as a dominant-negative transcription factor,which likely competes with the native SRF for DNA binding.Our results suggest a mechanism by which virus infection impairs heart function and may offer a new therapeutic strategy to ameliorate myocardial damage and progression to DCM.

  6. Control of the aseptic processing environment.

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    Frieben, W R

    1983-11-01

    Methods used by industry with applications to hospital pharmacy for maintaining an aseptic environment in production of sterile pharmaceutical products are discussed. A major source of product contamination is airborne microorganisms. The laminar-airflow workbench with a high-efficiency particulate air filter provides an ultraclean environment for preparation of sterile products. However, the workbench does not guarantee sterility of products and is not effective if not properly installed and maintained or if the operator uses poor aseptic technique. The laminar-airflow workbench should be tested for leaks, airflow velocity, and airflow patterns when installed, and the workbench should be checked periodically thereafter. The workbench should be placed in a cleanroom where traffic and air disturbances that might affect the laminar airflow are eliminated. A major source of airborne microbial contamination in cleanrooms is people. Personnel movement through an area and presence of personnel without lint-free, nonshedding protective garments increase the levels of microbial contaminants in an area. The transport of nonsterile products (bottles, boxes, paper products) into a cleanroom should be minimized. The cleanroom itself should be sanitized and should be immaculate. Microbial or particulate monitoring should be conducted in the cleanroom using a quantitative method, and corrective-action limits should be set. Hospital pharmacists should examine industrial sterile-processing techniques and apply them to the preparation of sterile products.

  7. Chronic aseptic meningitis in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus.

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    Lancman, M E; Mesropian, H; Granillo, R J

    1989-08-01

    Chronic aseptic meningitis is a rare manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus. It may occur early in the course of the disease and sometimes may be the initial symptom. We report a patient with chronic aseptic meningitis associated with systemic lupus erythematosus. Magnetic resonance imaging showed several ischemic lesions and an appearance which was compatible with chronic inflammation of the ependyma of the lateral ventricles.

  8. Possible Tick-Borne Human Enterovirus Resulting in Aseptic Meningitis

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    Freundt, Eric C.; Beatty, Douglas C.; Stegall-Faulk, Teresa; Wright, Stephen M.

    2005-01-01

    Enterovirus-specific genetic sequences were isolated from two Amblyomma americanum tick pools. Identical genetic sequences were later obtained from cerebrospinal fluid of a patient with aseptic meningitis and a recent history of tick attachment. These observations suggest the possibility of an emerging tick-borne human enterovirus associated with aseptic meningitis.

  9. Acute hydrocephalus in a child with a third ventricle arachnoid cyst and coincidental enteroviral meningitis

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    Jeltema, Hanne-Rinck; Kuijlen, Jos M. A.; Hoving, Eelco W.

    2014-01-01

    We present a 2.5-year-old child suffering from acute hydrocephalus. First, the child was diagnosed with aseptic viral meningitis. The PCR of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was positive for enterovirus. Subsequently, MRI revealed that the hydrocephalus was caused by a cyst in the third ventricle. Duri

  10. Semester-Long Assessment of Aseptic Technique in Microbiology Labs

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    Daniel Aruscavage

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Biology educators emphasize aseptic technique when teaching lab courses. Aseptic technique is very important in microbiology to ensure safety and prevent cross-contamination. Although it can be assessed throughout the semester by examining the students’ technique and observation of contamination, this tool offers a simple semester-long graded assessment of each student’s technique. The procedures allow the students to perform a quick exercise that can determine if cross-contamination occurs, thus determining if aseptic technique was observed. Instructors can quickly check for the presence of cross-contamination. After implementing this procedure, a quantifiable improvement in my students’ aseptic technique throughout the semester was observed. It was noted that between the middle and end of the semester there was a slight increase in the amount of cross-contamination but still well below the contamination observed at the beginning of the semester. This procedure was a valuable way to assess aseptic technique during the course of a semester. A search for “aseptic technique” on the American Society of Microbiology website reveals that several lab experiments and job opportunities mention the importance of aseptic technique. It is a skill that must be used for all laboratory procedures when working with microorganisms. It is important for both the safety of the students and for the proper handling of microorganisms. There are several good explanations of aseptic technique on the Internet, and the Nuffield Foundation provides a very good description of techniques (1. The goal of this project is to provide instructors with a tool to assess the aseptic technique of their students by using simple transfers of bacteria to fresh media to identify cross-contamination. When class experiments do not work students may not understand how poor aseptic technique impacted the project. This tool would work best for undergraduate students in an

  11. Interference of Vaccine Derived Polio Viruses with Diagnosis of Enteroviral Diseases in Neonatal Period

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    Nakhaei, Alireza Ataei; Alborzi, Abdolvahab; Ziyaeyan, Mazyar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Enteroviruses (EV) are a common cause of neonatal sepsis especially at the junction of summer and fall. Aim This study was planned to find the frequency of Enteroviral (EV) sepsis among neonates with clinical sepsis. Materials and Methods This is a prospective descriptive study. Rectal and pharyngeal swab samples were taken from all neonates with clinical sepsis and a control group of neonates with simple jaundice. EV was confirmed by both cell culture and RT-PCR. Anti polio antiserum was used to differentiate Polioviruses from Non Polio EVs (NPEV). Results We had 67 neonates with clinical sepsis and 31 cases of simple jaundice during 105 days. NPEVs were isolated from 2 cases (2.9%) of the sepsis arm and one neonate (3.2%) of the jaundice group. Polio virus was isolated from 16.2% and 15.3% of OPV recipients in the sepsis and jaundice group respectively. Conclusion Enteroviruses were not a common cause for neonatal sepsis in Nemazi hospital at the time of this study. OPV vaccinated neonates commonly pass the vaccine virus in their pharynx and stool which can be mistaken with NPEV. PMID:28050469

  12. Giant Leaking Colloid Cyst Presenting with Aseptic Meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakhtevari, Mehrdad Hosseinzadeh; Sharifi, Guive; Jabbari, Reza

    2015-01-01

    status, and meningismus. Microbiological examination of the cerebrospinal fluid revealed aseptic meningitis. Brain imaging revealed a third ventricular colloid cyst with hydrocephalus. RESULTS: The tumor was resected via endoscopic intervention. There were no persistent operative complications related...

  13. Etiological diagnosis of enteroviral infection%肠道病毒感染的病原诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宗波

    2012-01-01

    Enteroviral infection is a common viral infectious disease, but its etiological diagnosis was ellusive to clinician for a long time. Conventional techniques of enteroviruses (EV) detection in clinical specimens are often unsatisfactory. Virus isolation from cell culture of clinical specimen is inefficient for most of the enteroviruses that can cause disease. This technique is time consuming and had limited sensitivity in testing certain enteroviruses from clinical samples. The detection of enteroviral RNA in clinical samples by RT-PCR has recently been developed. It has been shown to be a rapid and sensitive alternative to traditional cell culture for the diagnosis of EV infections. The RT-PCR assay described in this report has several important advantages to conventional techniques of virus detection, and become a rapid detection method of enteroviral infection.%肠道病毒(EV)感染临床常见,但病原诊断一直是困扰临床医师的一个难题.随着病毒学研究的不断深入,EV感染的诊断方法也逐步完善.传统的EV分离和血清学鉴定技术繁杂费时,从临床标本中检测到EV的阳性率也较低,无法满足病毒感染暴发流行期间同时处理大量样本的需求.RT-PCR技术克服了以上缺点,已成为EV感染快速诊断的重要手段.

  14. [Benign recurring aseptic meningitis. What requires our attention?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruis, T; Kredel, L; Nassir, M; Godbersen, M; Schneider, T

    2016-02-01

    Benign recurrent aseptic meningitis (BRAM) or Mollaret's meningitis is a rare disease characterized by recurrent episodes of aseptic meningitis followed by spontaneous recovery. Disease courses over several years have been reported. In most cases, BRAM is caused by HSV-2, less frequently by other viruses or autoimmune diseases. In up to 10 %, the aetiology remains unclear. We present a case of idiopathic BRAM and discuss clinical findings, diagnosis and therapeutic options of this rare illness.

  15. Aseptic Meningitis with Craniopharyngioma Resection: Consideration after Endoscopic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jenny X.; Alkire, Blake C.; Lam, Allen C.; Curry, William T.; Holbrook, Eric H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives While bacterial meningitis is a concerning complication after endoscopic skull base surgery, the diagnosis can be made without consideration for aseptic meningitis. This article aims to (1) present a patient with recurrent craniopharyngioma and multiple postoperative episodes of aseptic meningitis and (2) discuss the diagnosis and management of aseptic meningitis. Design Case report and literature review. Results A 65-year-old female patient with a symptomatic craniopharyngioma underwent transsphenoidal resection. She returned postoperatively with symptoms concerning for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak and bacterial meningitis. Lumbar puncture demonstrated mildly elevated leukocytes with normal glucose levels. Cultures were sterile and she was discharged on antibiotics. She returned 18 days postoperatively with altered mental status and fever. Again, negative CSF cultures suggested aseptic meningitis. Radiological and intraoperative findings were now concerning for widespread cerebrovascular vasospasm due to leaked craniopharyngioma fluids. In the following months, her craniopharyngioma recurred and required multiple surgical resections. Days after her last operation, she returned with mental status changes and a sterile CSF culture. She was diagnosed with recurrent aseptic meningitis and antibiotics were discontinued. The patient experienced near complete resolution of symptoms. Conclusions Consideration of aseptic meningitis following craniopharyngioma resection is critical to avoid unnecessary surgical re-exploration and prolonged courses of antibiotics. PMID:27722072

  16. Aseptic Meningitis with Craniopharyngioma Resection: Consideration after Endoscopic Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jenny X; Alkire, Blake C; Lam, Allen C; Curry, William T; Holbrook, Eric H

    2016-10-01

    Objectives While bacterial meningitis is a concerning complication after endoscopic skull base surgery, the diagnosis can be made without consideration for aseptic meningitis. This article aims to (1) present a patient with recurrent craniopharyngioma and multiple postoperative episodes of aseptic meningitis and (2) discuss the diagnosis and management of aseptic meningitis. Design Case report and literature review. Results A 65-year-old female patient with a symptomatic craniopharyngioma underwent transsphenoidal resection. She returned postoperatively with symptoms concerning for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak and bacterial meningitis. Lumbar puncture demonstrated mildly elevated leukocytes with normal glucose levels. Cultures were sterile and she was discharged on antibiotics. She returned 18 days postoperatively with altered mental status and fever. Again, negative CSF cultures suggested aseptic meningitis. Radiological and intraoperative findings were now concerning for widespread cerebrovascular vasospasm due to leaked craniopharyngioma fluids. In the following months, her craniopharyngioma recurred and required multiple surgical resections. Days after her last operation, she returned with mental status changes and a sterile CSF culture. She was diagnosed with recurrent aseptic meningitis and antibiotics were discontinued. The patient experienced near complete resolution of symptoms. Conclusions Consideration of aseptic meningitis following craniopharyngioma resection is critical to avoid unnecessary surgical re-exploration and prolonged courses of antibiotics.

  17. MR features in patients with residual paralysis following aseptic meningitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Dae Chul; Park, Young Seo [College of Medicine, Asan Meidcal Center, University of Ulsan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-01-15

    MR studies were performed in three patients with paralysis in the lower extremities. Poliomyelitis-like paralysis can be caused by neurovirulent strains of nonpolioenteroviruses. Entervirus 71 (EV 71) is documented as one of the potentially neurovirulent strains and a causative agent of some epidemics (1-7). The clinical manifestations associated with the EV 71 infection include aseptic meningitis, hand-food-mouth disease (HFMD), acute respiratory illness and gastrointestinal disease(6). Although rarely fatal, flaccidparalysis can be followed by EV 71 induced aseptic meningitis. Anterior horn cell necrosis was suggested on MR in two patients with residual paralysis (7). MR features, however, have not yet been described in detail. In this report we present three cases of patients with clinical evidence of EV 71 induced aseptic meningitis whose MR studies showed residual changes in spinal cord.

  18. Cat scratch disease complicated with aseptic meningitis and neuroretinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Laerte Pinto Jr.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Cat scratch disease (CSD is a self limited condition characterized by fever, lymph node enlargement and less often eye involvement. Central nervous system involvement by Bartonella henselae infection is possibly an important cause of morbidity; its role as an agent of aseptic meningitis is unknown. We report a case of a 40 years-old man with CSD accompanied by aseptic meningitis and neuroretinitis. Serum indirect immmunofluorescence (IFI assays for B. henselae were positive and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF analysis showed mononuclear pleocytosis and increased level of protein. Serological tests for other etiologies were negative. The patient responded well to antibiotic therapy with oral doxycicline plus rifampin and in the 12th day of hospitalization evolved to total regression of the headache and partial regression of the visual loss. Clinicians should consider CSD as a differential diagnosis when assessing previously healthy patients with aseptic meningitis associated with regional lymphadenopathy and epidemiological history of feline contact.

  19. Aseptic meningitis in children: analysis of 506 cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios G Michos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Non-polio human enteroviruses are the leading cause of aseptic meningitis in children. The role of enterovirus PCR for diagnosis and management of aseptic meningitis has not been fully explored. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A retrospective study was conducted to determine the epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory characteristics of aseptic meningitis and to evaluate the role of enterovirus PCR for the diagnosis and management of this clinical entity. The medical records of children who had as discharge diagnosis aseptic or viral meningitis were reviewed. A total of 506 children, median age 5 years, were identified. The annual incidence rate was estimated to be 17/100,000 children less than 14 years of age. Most of the cases occurred during summer (38% and autumn (24%. The dominant clinical symptoms were fever (98%, headache (94% and vomiting (67%. Neck stiffness was noted in 60%, and irritation in 46% of the patients. The median number of CSF cell count was 201/mm(3 with polymorphonuclear predominance (>50% in 58.3% of the cases. Enterovirus RNA was detected in CSF in 47 of 96 (48.9% children tested. Children with positive enterovirus PCR had shorter hospitalization stay as compared to children who had negative PCR or to children who were not tested (P = 0.01. There were no serious complications or deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Enteroviruses accounted for approximately one half of cases of aseptic meningitis. PCR may reduce the length of hospitalization and plays important role in the diagnosis and management of children with aseptic meningitis.

  20. Enteroviral infection outbreak in the Republic of Belarus: principal characteristics and phylogenetic analysis of etiological agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amvrosieva, Tamara V; Paklonskaya, Natallia V; Biazruchka, Aliaksei A; Kazinetz, Olga N; Bohush, Zoya F; Fisenko, Elena G

    2006-06-01

    For the last decade enterovirus outbreaks were registered in all of six districts of Belarus. Two of them, reported in 1997 (in Gomel) and in 2003 (in Minsk), were the most extensive and involved 461 and 1,351 patients respectively. Virus ECHO 30 was identified as the dominant etiologic agent of the outbreak in 1997 whereas co-circulation of ECHO 30, ECHO 6 and Coxsackievirus B5 took place in 2003. Analysis of clinical manifestations during the Minsk outbreak revealed unusually high rate of severe clinical forms of infection including aseptic meningitis, encephalitis and myocardial disorders. Epidemiologic observation was ordinary for enterovirus epidemics in temperate climates: the peak of the outbreak was recorded during summer-autumn period of 2003, and 0-14 years old children predominated. Data from the case-control study indicated that illness was associated with drinking water from community water system. Also the laboratory examination demonstrated contamination of different water samples with the epidemic virus serotypes and sequence analysis showed high level of genetic similarity between waterborne and clinical isolates. For these reasons the outbreak should be classified as a waterborne one. Phylogenetic reconstruction showed that all Belarusian ECHO 30 isolates belong to the major genotype of ECHO 30 which has been circulating for last 15 years in Europe and North America. Viral agents of 2003 were very similar and substantially differed from isolates of 1997. Comparison of nucleotide sequences of isolates from myocarditis patients revealed their considerable genetic similarity with ECHO 30 isolates from patients with aseptic meningitis and from water. The results of the study draw attention to the importance of virological control of tap and bottled water as a relevant measure aimed at reduction of epidemiological risks.

  1. A Case of Bilateral Aseptic Necrosis of the Femoral Head

    Science.gov (United States)

    KAMAL, DIANA; TRĂISTARU, RODICA; KAMAL, C.K.; ALEXANDRU, D.O.; MOGOANTĂ, L.; GRECU, D.C.

    2014-01-01

    Aseptic necrosis of the femoral head is a disease whose etiology is not completely elucidated and generally affects young adults aged between 30 and 50 years. In a significant number of patients bilateral disease occurs, which makes detection in its early stages constitute an important objective. We present the case of a male patient, aged 23 years, with the following risk factors: smoking and chronic alcohol consumption, who is diagnosed with aseptic necrosis of the left femoral head, ARCO stage IV, and in just six months after the diagnosis and hip arthroplasty, he suffers an injury which leads to the same diagnosis in the contralateral hip. We want to emphasize that for all patients with a high index of suspicion there should be an MRI examination, because the plane radiographs or CT are most often not relevant in detecting early signs of this condition. Diagnosis of aseptic necrosis of the femoral head in the early stages is a necessity in order to obtain an optimal result of conservative treatment. PMID:26788359

  2. A Case of Bilateral Aseptic Necrosis of the Femoral Head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Diana; Trăistaru, Rodica; Kamal, C K; Alexandru, D O; Mogoantă, L; Grecu, D C

    2014-01-01

    Aseptic necrosis of the femoral head is a disease whose etiology is not completely elucidated and generally affects young adults aged between 30 and 50 years. In a significant number of patients bilateral disease occurs, which makes detection in its early stages constitute an important objective. We present the case of a male patient, aged 23 years, with the following risk factors: smoking and chronic alcohol consumption, who is diagnosed with aseptic necrosis of the left femoral head, ARCO stage IV, and in just six months after the diagnosis and hip arthroplasty, he suffers an injury which leads to the same diagnosis in the contralateral hip. We want to emphasize that for all patients with a high index of suspicion there should be an MRI examination, because the plane radiographs or CT are most often not relevant in detecting early signs of this condition. Diagnosis of aseptic necrosis of the femoral head in the early stages is a necessity in order to obtain an optimal result of conservative treatment.

  3. Viral etiology of aseptic meningitis among children in southern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseininasab, Ali; Alborzi, Abdolvahab; Ziyaeyan, Mazyar; Jamalidoust, Marzieh; Moeini, Mahsa; Pouladfar, Gholamreza; Abbasian, Amin; Kadivar, Mohamad Rahim

    2011-05-01

    Aseptic meningitis refers to a clinical syndrome of meningeal inflammation in which bacteria cannot be identified in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The viral etiology and the epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory characteristics of aseptic meningitis among children aged 2 months to 15 years in Shiraz, southern Iran were determined. From May 2007 to April 2008, 65 patients were admitted to the hospital with aseptic meningitis. Seven viruses, non-polio human enteroviruses, mumps virus, herpes simplex virus (HSV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), human cytomegalovirus (HCMV), human herpes virus type 6 (HHV-6), and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) were investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. Viruses were detected in 30 (46.2%) patients in whom non-polio human enterovirus and mumps virus were detected in 13 (43.3%) and 11 (36.7%), respectively. The remaining 6 (20%) of the cases were caused by HSV, VZV, HCMV, and HHV-6. Haemophilus influenzae and non-polio human enterovirus were detected in one patient simultaneously. Viral meningitis was found to be more frequent during spring and summer. The majority (66.6%) of the patients were treated in the hospital for 10 days and had received antibiotics in the case of bacterial meningitis. Rapid diagnosis of viral meningitis using PCR testing of CSF can help shorten hospitalization, and avoid the unnecessary use of antibiotics.

  4. [Value of polymerase chain reaction in serum for the diagnosis of enteroviral meningitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marque Juillet, S; Lion, M; Pilmis, B; Tomini, E; Dommergues, M-A; Laporte, S; Foucaud, P

    2013-06-01

    Enteroviruses (EV) are a common cause of aseptic meningitis in children. Virological diagnosis of EV meningitis is currently based on the detection of the viral genome in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This study attempted to determine the correlation and the temporality of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay in serum and CSF and to evaluate the possibility of diagnosing EV infection only on the serum PCR. The EV genome was sought by RT real-time PCR (Smart Cycler EV Primer and Probe Set(®), Cepheid) in CSF and serum, collected at the same time, for all children who underwent a lumbar puncture for suspected meningitis, between 1 June and 31 July 2010 at the Versailles Hospital. Forty-four patients were included in the study. EV infection was documented for 22 of them. In 10 patients, the EV genome was detected in CSF only; in 3 patients in serum only, and in 9 patients in both. Among patients with acute EV neurological infection, viremic children were significantly younger (1.6 months versus 5.8 years; Pvalue of EV PCR in serum. It suggests that in some children and under certain conditions (age >3 months, clinical and biological compatibility with a viral infection, no previous antibiotic therapy, time from symptom onset to blood sampling <30 h, PCR in serum analyzed within 3h), PCR in serum, when positive, is a possible alternative. Therefore, it may be possible to diagnose EV infection without performing a lumbar puncture in a limited number of young children (11.4% of our suspected cases). This study needs to be reinforced by a multicenter study with a broader panel of patients.

  5. Molecular detection and genotyping of enteroviruses from CSF samples of patients with suspected sepsis-like illness and/or aseptic meningitis from 2012 to 2015 in West Bank, Palestine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumaidi, Kamal; Al-Jawabreh, Amer

    2017-01-01

    Background Human enteroviruses (HEVs) are the most frequently reported cause of aseptic meningitis with or without CSF pleocytosis in childhood. Rapid detection and genotype of HEVs is essential to determine the causative agent and variant causing sepsis-like illness and/or aseptic meningitis. Aim To investigate the molecular epidemiology of enteroviruses (EVs) among patients with sepsis-like illness and/or aseptic meningitis admitted to three major hospitals in West Bank, Palestine from 2012 to 2015. Methods During the study period, 356 CSF samples were collected from patients with sepsis-like illness and/or aseptic meningitis. Two RT-nested PCR assays targeting a partial part of 5'UTR for direct diagnosis and the VP1 region for genotyping by sequence analysis of the viral genome were used. Results HEV RNA was detected in 66 of 356 (18.5%) of CSF samples. Age distribution showed that 64% (42/66) were infants (sepsis-like illness and/or aseptic meningitis. In addition, the molecular method utilized for direct diagnosis and genotyping of HEV from CSF revealed that more than one HEV type circulated in the West Bank, Palestine during the study period. PMID:28225788

  6. Evidence for neuronal localisation of enteroviral sequences in motor neurone disease/amyotrophic lateral sclerosis by in situ hybridization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodall, C J; Graham, D I

    2004-01-01

    Sequences resembling those of human enterovirus type B sequences have been associated with motor neurone disease/amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In a previous study we detected enteroviral sequences in spinal cord/brain stem from cases of motor neurone disease/amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, but not controls. Adjacent tissue sections to two of those strongly positive for these sequences by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction were analyzed by in situ hybridization with digoxigenin-labelled virus-specific antisense riboprobes. In one case, a female aged 83 showing 12 month rapid progressive disease, signal was specifically localized to cells identifiable as motor neurones of the anterior horn. In another case, a male aged 63 with a 60-month history of progressive muscle weakness, dysarthia, dyspnoea and increased tendon reflexes, signal was located to neurones in the gracile/cuneate nuclei of the brain stem tissue block that had been analyzed. This case showed loss of neurones in the anterior horn of the spinal cord by histopathologic examination which would account for clinical signs of motor neurone disease/amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Dysfunction of the gracile/cuneate nuclei might have been masked by the paralytic disease. These structures are adjacent to the hypoglossal nuclei, and suggest either localised dissemination from hypoglossal nuclei or a possible route of dissemination of infection through the brainstem to the hypoglossal nuclei. These findings provide further evidence for the possible involvement of enteroviruses in motor neurone disease/amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

  7. Evidence for neuronal localisation of enteroviral sequences in motor neurone disease/amyotrophic lateral sclerosis by in situ hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CJ Woodall

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Sequences resembling those of human enterovirus type B sequences have been associated with motor neurone disease/ amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In a previous study we detected enteroviral sequences in spinal cord/brain stem from cases of motor neurone disease/amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, but not controls. Adjacent tissue sections to two of those strongly positive for these sequences by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction were analyzed by in situ hybridization with digoxigenin-labelled virus-specific antisense riboprobes. In one case, a female aged 83 showing 12 month rapid progressive disease, signal was specifically localized to cells identifiable as motor neurones of the anterior horn. In another case, a male aged 63 with a 60-month history of progressive muscle weakness, dysarthia, dyspnoea and increased tendon reflexes, signal was located to neurones in the gracile/cuneate nuclei of the brain stem tissue block that had been analyzed. This case showed loss of neurones in the anterior horn of the spinal cord by histopathologic examination which would account for clinical signs of motor neurone disease/amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Dysfunction of the gracile/cuneate nuclei might have been masked by the paralytic disease. These structures are adjacent to the hypoglossal nuclei, and suggest either localised dissemination from hypoglossal nuclei or a possible route of dissemination of infection through the brainstem to the hypoglossal nuclei. These findings provide further evidence for the possible involvement of enteroviruses in motor neurone disease/amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

  8. Aseptic Meningitis Caused by Lassa Virus: Case Series Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okokhere, Peter O; Bankole, Idowu A; Iruolagbe, Christopher O; Muoebonam, Benard E; Okonofua, Martha O; Dawodu, Simeon O; Akpede, George O

    2016-01-01

    The Lassa virus is known to cause disease in different organ systems of the human body, with varying clinical manifestations. The features of severe clinical disease may include bleeding and/or central nervous system manifestations. Whereas Lassa fever encephalopathy and encephalitis are well described in the literature, there is paucity of data on Lassa virus meningitis. We present the clinical description, laboratory diagnosis, and management of 4 consecutive cases of aseptic meningitis associated with Lassa virus infection without bleeding seen in a region of Nigeria known to be endemic for both the reservoir rodent and Lassa fever. The 4 patients recovered fully following intravenous ribavirin treatment and suffered no neurologic complications.

  9. Clinical application of mesenchymal stem cells for aseptic bone necrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoki Aoyama

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Since 2007, we had started clinical trial using mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs for the treatment of aseptic bone necrosis as a first clinical trial permitted by Japanese Health, Labour and Welfare Ministry.Aseptic bone necrosis of the femoral head commonly occurs in patients with two to four decades, causing severe musculoskeletal disability. Although its diagnosis is easy with X-ray and MRI, there has been no gold standard invented for treatment of this disease. MSCs represent a stem cell population in adult tissues that can be isolated and expanded in culture, and differentiate into cells with different nature. Combination with β-tri-calcium phosphate and vascularized bone graft, we succeeded to treat bone necrosis of the femoral head.Regenerative medicine using stem cells is hopeful and shed a light on intractable disease. To become widespread, Basic, Translational, Application, and Developmental study is needed.? From an experience of cell therapy using MSCs, we started to research induced pluripotent stem cell (iPS for clinical application.

  10. Performance analysis of exam gloves used for aseptic rodent surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMoine, Dana M; Bergdall, Valerie K; Freed, Carrie

    2015-05-01

    Aseptic technique includes the use of sterile surgical gloves for survival surgeries in rodents to minimize the incidence of infections. Exam gloves are much less expensive than are surgical gloves and may represent a cost-effective, readily available option for use in rodent surgery. This study examined the effectiveness of surface disinfection of exam gloves with 70% isopropyl alcohol or a solution of hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid (HP-PA) in reducing bacterial contamination. Performance levels for asepsis were met when gloves were negative for bacterial contamination after surface disinfection and sham 'exertion' activity. According to these criteria, 94% of HP-PA-disinfected gloves passed, compared with 47% of alcohol-disinfected gloves. In addition, the effect of autoclaving on the integrity of exam gloves was examined, given that autoclaving is another readily available option for aseptic preparation. Performance criteria for glove integrity after autoclaving consisted of: the ability to don the gloves followed by successful simulation of wound closure and completion of stretch tests without tearing or observable defects. Using this criteria, 98% of autoclaved nitrile exam gloves and 76% of autoclaved latex exam gloves met performance expectations compared with the performance of standard surgical gloves (88% nitrile, 100% latex). The results of this study support the use of HP-PA-disinfected latex and nitrile exam gloves or autoclaved nitrile exam gloves as viable cost-effective alternatives to sterile surgical gloves for rodent surgeries.

  11. Recurrent aseptic encephalitis in periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and adenopathy (PFAPA) syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Richard E

    2006-05-01

    An 11-year-old boy with episodes of periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and adenitis (PFAPA) is reported. Two PFAPA episodes were associated with aseptic encephalitis and seizures. Recurrent acute aseptic encephalitis or seizures have never been reported during the febrile episodes of PFAPA. This possible association is discussed within the context of the etiology of PFAPA.

  12. RECURRENT ASEPTIC ENCEPHALITIS IN PERIODIC FEVER, APHTHOUS STOMATITIS, PHARYNGITISAND ADENOPATHY (PFAPA) SYNDROME

    OpenAIRE

    Frye, Richard E.

    2006-01-01

    An 11-year-old boy with episodes of periodic fever, aphthous stomatitis, pharyngitis and adenopathy (PFAPA) is reported. Two PFAPA episodes were associated with aseptic encephalitis and seizures. Recurrent acute aseptic encephalitis or seizures have never been reported during the febrile episodes of PFAPA. This possible association is discussed within the context of the etiology of PFAPA.

  13. Aseptic multiplication of banana from excised floral apices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronauer, S S; Krikorian, A D

    1985-08-01

    Most economically important bananas and plantains are large triploid seedless herbs that must be propagated vegetatively by removing small side shoots or "suckers" from the parent plant or by planting seed pieces of larger corms. Consequently, multiplication of stock material is time consuming, Recently, the rapid production of young banana plantlets suitable for use as "seed" material has been described. Vegetative shoot apices were isolated and multiplied using aseptic tissue culture techniques. Although these multiplication systems, once established, can produce thousands of plants in a relatively short period of time, their establishment necessitates the initial sacrifice of an individual specimen, which may not always be desirable or prudent should a limited parent stock be available. We describe here the production and multiplication of rooted banana plantlets from the isolation and culture of terminal floral apices.

  14. Cloning higher plants from aseptically cultured tissues and cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krikorian, A. D.

    1982-01-01

    A review of aseptic culture methods for higher plants is presented, which focuses on the existing problems that limit or prevent the full realization of cloning plants from free cells. It is shown that substantial progress in clonal multiplication has been made with explanted stem tips or lateral buds which can be stimulated to produce numerous precocious axillary branches. These branches can then be separated or subdivided and induced to root in order to yield populations of genetically and phenotypically uniorm plantlets. Similarly, undifferentiated calluses can sometimes be induced to form shoots and/or roots adventitiously. Although the cell culture techniques required to produce somatic embryos are presently rudimentary, steady advances are being made in learning how to stimulate formation of somatic or adventive embryos from totipotent cells grown in suspension cultures. It is concluded that many problems exist in the producing and growing of totipotent or morphogenetically competent cell suspensions, but the potential benefits are great.

  15. Aseptic Meningitis Caused by Lassa Virus: Case Series Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter O. Okokhere

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lassa virus is known to cause disease in different organ systems of the human body, with varying clinical manifestations. The features of severe clinical disease may include bleeding and/or central nervous system manifestations. Whereas Lassa fever encephalopathy and encephalitis are well described in the literature, there is paucity of data on Lassa virus meningitis. We present the clinical description, laboratory diagnosis, and management of 4 consecutive cases of aseptic meningitis associated with Lassa virus infection without bleeding seen in a region of Nigeria known to be endemic for both the reservoir rodent and Lassa fever. The 4 patients recovered fully following intravenous ribavirin treatment and suffered no neurologic complications.

  16. Early morbidity after aseptic revision hip arthroplasty in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg-Larsen, M.; Hansen, Torben Bæk

    2014-01-01

    aseptic revision THRs from 1st October 2009 to 30th September 2011 using the Danish National Patient Registry, with additional information from the Danish Hip Arthroplasty Registry. There were 1553 procedures (1490 patients) performed in 40 centres and we divided them into total revisions, acetabular...... component revisions, femoral stem revisions and partial revisions. The mean age of the patients was 70.4 years (25 to 98) and the median hospital stay was five days (interquartile range 3 to 7). Within 90 days of surgery, the readmission rate was 18.3%, mortality rate 1.4%, re-operation rate 6.......1%, dislocation rate 7.0% and infection rate 3.0%. There were no differences in these outcomes between high- and low-volume centres. Of all readmissions, 255 (63.9%) were due to 'surgical' complications versus 144 (36.1%) 'medical' complications. Importantly, we found no differences in early morbidity across...

  17. Hand hygiene and aseptic technique in the emergency department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Damouk, M; Pudney, E; Bleetman, A

    2004-02-01

    Hand hygiene and simple aseptic measures before invasive procedures are effective in reducing rates of healthcare-associated infection. The perceived urgency of a clinical situation in the emergency department, however, may influence medical staff's compliance with good practice in infection control. The aims of this prospective, single-blinded, observational study were twofold. First, to assess doctors' compliance with good practice in hand hygiene between patient episodes and asepsis during invasive procedures in the emergency department. Second, to assess the effect of clinical urgency on compliance with good practice in hand hygiene and asepsis during invasive procedures. Good practice standards for asepsis in invasive procedures and hand hygiene between patient episodes were compiled from a literature search. Doctors' compliance with these standards was observed in two emergency departments (UK and New Zealand). Observed clinical cases were classified as immediate, urgent and non-urgent based on the triage system. There was poor compliance with good practice guidelines for asepsis in invasive procedures in both centres. Staff achieved high compliance with the guidelines in only 27% of cases in the UK and 58% of cases in New Zealand. Clinical urgency did not appear to adversely affect compliance with aseptic good practice. Hand hygiene between patient consultations was very low at 14% in the UK and 12% in New Zealand. Asepsis and hand hygiene was poor in both the UK and New Zealand emergency departments. There may be a need for some compromise in standards of asepsis in very sick patients due to the urgency of the clinical situation. Compliance in all situations especially non-urgent procedures needs to be improved.

  18. Pesquisa de enterovírus em casos de síndrome de meningite asséptica de Belém, PA Investigation of enterovirus in cases of aseptic meningitis syndrome of Belém, PA

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    Letícia Martins Lamarão

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de isolar e identificar os sorotipos de enterovírus, agentes etiológicos mais freqüentes da síndrome de meningite asséptica, foram estudadas amostras de líquor de pacientes da unidade de saúde de referência da Cidade de Belém-PA, do período de março de 2002 a março de 2003. As amostras foram inoculadas em cultivos celulares RD e HEp-2, e as positivas identificadas por neutralização ou imunofluorescência indireta. De 249 amostras, 33 (13,2% foram positivas sendo 57,6% (n=19 em pacientes menores de 11 anos (pWith the objective of isolating and identifying enteroviral serotypes, which are the most frequent etiologic agents of aseptic meningitis syndrome, cerebrospinal fluid samples were studied from patients referred to the health unit in the City of Belém (State of Pará, Brazil, from March 2002 to March 2003. The samples were inoculated in RD and HEp-2 cells line, and the positive were identified by neutralization test or indirect immunofluorescence. Out of 249 samples, 33 (13.2% were positive 57.6% (n = 19 in patients under 11 years of age (p <0.03 and predominantly (72.7% in males (p <0.008. The serotypes isolated were: Echovirus 30 (n = 31, Coxsackievirus B5 (n = 1 and Echovirus 30 and 4. In conclusion, this type of study also serves to determine the national picture, which is still little defined, regarding the most prevalent viral agents in AMS cases.

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of patients with aseptic meningoencephalitis and connective tissue disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appenzeller, Simone; Kobayashi, Eliane; Costallat, Lilian T.L.; Zanardi, Veronica de Araujo; Ribeiro Neto, Jose Menezes; Damasceno, Benito Pereira; Cendes, Fernando [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas

    2000-03-01

    To describe the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the evaluation of patients with chronic and recurrent aseptic meningitis. Method: A retrospective study of five patients with aseptic meningoencefalitis diagnosed by clinical and CSF findings. CT scans showed without no relevant findings. Results: MRI showed small multifocal lesions hyperintense on T2 weight images and FLAIR, with mild or no gadolinium enhancement, mainly in periventricular and subcortical regions. Meningoencephalitis preceded the diagnosis of the underlying disease in four patients (Behcet's disease or systemic lupus erythematosus). After the introduction of adequate treatment for the rheumatic disease, they did not present further symptoms of aseptic meningoencephalitis. Conclusion: Aseptic meningoencephalitis can be an early presentation of an autoimmune disease. It is important to emphasize the role of MRI in the diagnosis and follow-up of these patients. (author)

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of patients with aseptic meningoencephalitis and connective tissue disorders

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    APPENZELLER SIMONE

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in the evaluation of patients with chronic and recurrent aseptic meningitis.METHOD: A retrospective study of five patients with aseptic meningoencefalitis diagnosed by clinical and CSF findings. CT scans showed without no relevant findings. RESULTS: MRI showed small multifocal lesions hyperintense on T2 weighted images and FLAIR, with mild or no gadolinium enhancement, mainly in periventricular and subcortical regions. Meningoencephalitis preceded the diagnosis of the underlying disease in four patients (Behçet´s disease or systemic lupus erythematosus. After the introduction of adequate treatment for the rheumatic disease, they did not present further symptoms of aseptic meningoencephalitis. CONCLUSION: Aseptic meningoencephalitis can be an early presentation of an autoimmune disease. It is important to emphasize the role of MRI in the diagnosis and follow-up of these patients.

  1. Application and evaluation of improved surgical aseptic technique curriculum in specialty nurse training in Henan Province

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    Bing Bai

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: Novel surgical aseptic technique and application in the curriculum design of training for OR nurses should be developed to enhance their mastery of theoretical and practical skills and to modify their behaviors.

  2. Aseptic Splenic Abscess as Precursory Extraintestinal Manifestation of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

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    Joel Brooks

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Splenic abscesses are most often secondary to aerobic bacterial infections due to Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, and Enterococcus species of organisms. Sterile splenic abscesses rarely occur and diagnosis and treatment of those are challenging. We report a case of a previously healthy young female presenting with aseptic splenic abscesses as the initial manifestation of Crohn’s disease along with a review of the literature on aseptic splenic abscess as an extraintestinal manifestation of Crohn’s disease.

  3. Cerebrospinal fluid lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes in children with bacterial and aseptic meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussinovitch, Moshe; Finkelstein, Yaron; Elishkevitz, Keren Politi; Volovitz, Benjamin; Harel, Daniella; Klinger, Gil; Razon, Yaron; Nussinovitch, Udi; Nussinovitch, Naomi

    2009-10-01

    Differentiation of bacterial from aseptic meningitis may be difficult. Our aim was to determine the pattern of distribution of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isoenzymes in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with bacterial and aseptic meningitis. One hundred and fifty-seven patients with suspected meningitis were enrolled in the study. They were divided into 3 groups according to the culture- or bacterial antigen assay-proven diagnosis and CSF findings: bacterial meningitis (n = 31), aseptic meningitis (n = 65), and non-meningitis (n = 61). Total LDH level and percentages of LDH isoenzymes in the CSF were measured in each patient. Each group showed a distinct LDH isoenzyme distribution pattern, with a statistically significant difference among the groups in the percentages of the various isoenzymes. Compared with the non-meningitis group, total LDH activity in the CSF was high in the aseptic meningitis group (49.82+/-35.59 U/L, P < 0.001) and exaggerated in the bacterial meningitis group (944.53+/-112.3 U/L, P < 0.001). Low LDH-2 levels were unique to bacterial meningitis (P < 0.01), whereas high LDH-3 levels were characteristic of aseptic meningitis (P < 0.05). Both groups had low levels of LDH-1 and high levels of LDH-4 and LDH-5. In conclusion, the LDH isoenzyme pattern may be of clinical diagnostic value in meningitis, particularly when culture results are pending.

  4. Unusually severe varicella zoster (VZV) virus viral (aseptic) meningitis in an unimmunized, immunocompetent host with chickenpox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Burke A; Warren-Favorito, Heather; Mickail, Nardeen

    2011-01-01

    Chickenpox is caused by the varicella zoster virus (VZV) and may be more severe in adults than in children. Central nervous system (CNS) manifestations of chickenpox and VZV are uncommon, for example, encephalitis and cerebellar ataxis. Viral (aseptic) meningitis is a rare CNS complication of VZV. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) profile in VZV viral (aseptic) meningitis is indistinguishable from other causes of viral meningitis. The clue to most of the diagnoses of VZV aseptic meningitis is based on the temporal relationship between antecedent or concomitant chickenpox. Chickenpox is a clinical diagnosis based on the appearance and distribution of the rash. The rash of chickenpox is vesicular/pruritic and typically appears in crops over 3 successive days. VZV vesicles are fragile, superficial, and surrounded by a erythematous halo. Common nonspecific laboratory findings in chickenpox include leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and elevated serum transaminases (serum glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase/serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase). The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) is not highly elevated in chickenpox. In VZV aseptic meningitis, the CSF shows a lymphocytic pleocytosis with normal protein, glucose, and lactic acid levels. CSF red blood cells are not a feature of VZV meningitis. We present the case of a healthy unimmunized adult who was hospitalized with chickenpox complicated by VZV aseptic meningitis with an unusually severe headache and nuchal rigidity that occurred during hospitalization.

  5. Recurrent aseptic meningitis in association with Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease: case report and literature review

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    Komagamine Tomoko

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kikuchi Fujimoto disease (KFD, or histiocytic necrotising lymphadenitis, is a benign and self-limiting condition characterised by primarily affecting the cervical lymph nodes. Recurrent aseptic meningitis in association with KFD is extremely rare and remains a diagnostic challenge. Case presentation We report a 28-year-old man who presented 7 episodes of aseptic meningitis associated with KFD over the course of 7 years. Histopathological findings of enlarged lymph nodes led to the diagnosis of KFD. The patient’s headache and lymphadenopathy spontaneously resolved without any sequelae. Conclusions A diagnosis of KFD should be considered when enlarged cervical lymph nodes are observed in patients with recurrent aseptic meningitis. A long-term prognosis remains uncertain, and careful follow-up is preferred.

  6. District nurses' and aseptic technique: where did it all go wrong?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unsworth, John

    2011-01-01

    Concerns have been raised about whether it is possible to perform aseptic procedures within a community setting. Hallett (2000) has described how community nurses often have a fatalistic view about whether such procedures can really be performed at home. At the same time there has been an increase in the number of patients being cared for at home who need interventions which must adhere to the principles of asepsis. While it has been acknowledged for some time that community nurses must be resourceful and adapt the procedure, the view that community nurses cannot really perform aseptic procedures is a fairly new phenomenon. This article explores the reasons why concerns about the performance of aseptic procedures in the community may have arisen and what steps can be taken to address these concerns to ensure that care at home is both safe and effective.

  7. Etiology of aseptic meningitis and clinical characteristics in immune-competent adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Su-Hyun; Choi, Hye-Yeon; Kim, Jeong-Min; Park, Kwang-Ryul; Youn, Young Chul; Shin, Hae-Won

    2016-01-01

    Viral meningitis is the most common cause of aseptic meningitis. Use of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has increased the ability to determine the etiology of viral meningitis. This study used PCR analysis to evaluate the etiology of aseptic meningitis in 177 previously healthy adults over a 5-year period, as well as analyzing the clinical characteristics, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings, and prognosis according to each etiology. The most frequent cause of aseptic meningitis was enterovirus (EV), followed by varicella zoster virus (VZV). Patients with EV meningitis were significantly younger than those with VZV meningitis. The percentage of lymphocytes in white blood cell counts and protein concentrations in the CSF differed significantly among patients with EV, VZV and meningitis of undetermined etiology. Younger age and lower percentage of lymphocyte and protein level in CSF analysis may be suggestive of EV meningitis. Further prospective studies are warranted to identify the correlations between the clinical characteristics and the etiologies of meningitis.

  8. An investigation of the aseptic loosening of an AISI 316L stainless steel hip prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godec, Matjaz; Kocijan, Aleksandra; Dolinar, Drago; Mandrino, Djordje; Jenko, Monika; Antolic, Vane

    2010-08-01

    The total replacement of joints by the implantation of permanently indwelling prosthetic components has been one of the major successes of modern surgery in terms of relieving pain and correcting deformity. However, the aseptic loosening of a prosthetic-joint component is the most common reason for joint-revision surgery. Furthermore, it is thought that wear particles are one of the major contributors to the development and perpetuation of aseptic loosening. The aim of the present study was to identify the factors related to the aseptic loosening of an AISI 316L stainless steel total hip prosthesis. The stem was evaluated by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, with polished and rough regions being analyzed in order to establish the differences in the chemical compositions of both regions. Specific areas were examined using scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and light microscopy.

  9. MOLECULAR-EPIDEMIOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION OF THE OUTBREAK OF ASEPTIC MENINGITIS IN NOVOSIBIRSK REGION

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    A. V. Demina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the outbreak of aseptic meningitis in theNovosibirskregion in 2008–2009. We studied genetic diversity and molecular-epidemiological characteristics of human enteroviruses that caused aseptic meningitis. Materials and metods. In the present study we investigated samples of cerebrospinal fluid from 199 patients with a diagnosis “aseptic meningitis”, based on the clinical characteristics of the disease (headache, stiff neck, fever, nausea, vomiting, and confirmed by laboratory tests of spinal fluid (lymphocyte cell count > 10 cells/ml.All samples were tested by PCR for RNA of Enterovirus and Flavivirus and DNA Myc. tuberculosis, Borrelia spp., Neisseria spp. In the samples there were not found RNA Flavivirus, DNA Myc. tuberculosis, Borrelia spp., Neisseria spp., but in 73 samples (37% was identified RNA enterovirus (EV. Determination of nucleotide sequences of 5’UTR and VP1-region of EV revealed that they belong to the following genotypes: the highest percentage was presented by genotype ECHO 30 (62%; another genotypes were Cox A2 (8%, Cox A4 (5%, Cox A14 (3%, Cox A16 (5%, Cox B5 (8%, ECHO 6 (3%, ECHO 9 (3% and ECHO 25 (3%. In 2008 most of the EV that caused the symptoms of aseptic meningitis belonged to genotype ECHO 30 (76%. In 2009 the clinical specimens containing genotype ECHO 30 were not found, but the largest percentage of EV belonged to genotypes Cox A2 (33% and Cox A4 (22%. Thus, in 2008 we recorded outbreak of aseptic meningitis, the major etiological factor was enterovirus ECHO 30. And the rise of the incidence of aseptic meningitis in 2009 is related to the circulation of new genotypes of EV. The investigated strains were deposited in an international database GenBank under accession numbers KP258231-KP258235, HM559584.

  10. Dual infection with hepatitis A and E virus presenting with aseptic meningitis:A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kushal Naha; Suman Karanth; Mukhyaprana Prabhu; Manpreet Singh Sidhu

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT We report the case of a young male who presented with features of aseptic meningitis and elevated serum liver enzymes, but no symptoms or signs suggestive of an acute hepatitis. Subsequently, he was diagnosed with dual infection with hepatitisA andE viruses, and recovered completely with symptomatic therapy.Isolated aseptic meningitis, unaccompanied by hepatitic features is an unusual presentation of a hepatotrophic viral infection, and is yet to be reported with hepatitisA andE virus co-infection.

  11. Re-admissions, re-operations and length of stay in hospital after aseptic revision knee replacement in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg-Larsen, M; Jørgensen, C C; Bæk Hansen, T;

    2014-01-01

    We present detailed information about early morbidity after aseptic revision knee replacement from a nationwide study. All aseptic revision knee replacements undertaken between 1st October 2009 and 30th September 2011 were analysed using the Danish National Patient Registry with additional inform...

  12. Improving Quality of Refrigerated Potato Strips by Near-Aseptic Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of hot water blanching and near-aseptic packaging on the shelf-life of refrigerated potato strips was investigated based on quality; microbial, textural and color. Potato strips were first blanched at low temperature (60 °C) for 10- or 20-min, and then second blanched at high temperature ...

  13. Magnetic thermometry in the aseptic processing of foods containing particulates (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiron, Kenneth; Litchfield, Bruce

    1997-04-01

    Aseptic processing of foods has many advantages over canning, including higher efficiency, lighter packaging, better taste, and higher nutritional value. Aseptic processing is different from canning where the food and container are sterilized together. Instead, a thin stream of food is heated and the packaging is independently sterilized before the food is placed in the package. However, no aseptic processes have been successfully filed with the FDA for foods containing sizable solid particles because of uncertainties in the thermal sterilization of the particles (e.g., soup). We have demonstrated that by inserting small paramagnetic particles in the interior of the simulated and real food particles, the local temperature can be measured. With this information, any questions about the adequate sterilization of the particles can be resolved. The measurements were done by directing the food stream through a magnetic field and sensing the voltages induced in a pickup coil by the motion of the magnetized particles. Details of the equipment design and data analysis will be discussed along with an introduction to the aseptic processing of foods.

  14. Excacerbation of systemic lupus erythematodes, aseptic meningitis and acute mental symptoms, following metrizamide lumbar myelography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelmers, H.J.

    1984-01-01

    A clinical constellation of excacerbation of systemic lupus erythematodes (SLE), together with aseptic meningitis, and acutre mental symptoms occurred following lumbar myelography with metrizamide. Excacerbation of SLE has not been previously described following myelography with any contrast agent. Meningeal reactions and acute mental symptoms have been reported earlier, but this clinical constellation is new.

  15. Childhood Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood schizophrenia Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Childhood schizophrenia is an uncommon but severe mental disorder in which children interpret reality abnormally. Schizophrenia involves a range of problems with thinking (cognitive), ...

  16. Childhood obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, Justine; Howard, Simon

    2006-01-01

    Childhood obesity has important consequences for health and wellbeing both during childhood and also in later adult life. The rising prevalence of childhood obesity poses a major public health challenge in both developed and developing countries by increasing the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases. Despite the urgent need for effective preventative strategies, there remains disagreement over its definition due to a lack of evidence on the optimal cut-offs linking childhood BMI to dis...

  17. Etiologies and Management of Aseptic Meningitis in Patients Admitted to an Internal Medicine Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrin, Irène; Sellier, Pierre; Lopes, Amanda; Morgand, Marjolaine; Makovec, Tamara; Delcey, Veronique; Champion, Karine; Simoneau, Guy; Green, Andrew; Mouly, Stéphane; Bergmann, Jean-François; Lloret-Linares, Célia

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have focused on the clinical and biological characteristics of meningitis in order to distinguish between bacterial and viral meningitis in the emergency setting. However, little is known about the etiologies and outcomes of aseptic meningitis in patients admitted to Internal Medicine.The aim of the study is to describe the etiologies, characteristics, and outcomes of aseptic meningitis with or without encephalitis in adults admitted to an Internal Medicine Department.A retrospective cohort study was conducted in the Internal Medicine Department of the Lariboisière Hospital in Paris, France, from January 2009 to December 2011. Clinical and biological characteristics of aseptic meningitis were recorded. These included cerebrospinal fluid analysis, results of polymerase chain reaction testing, final diagnoses, and therapeutic management.The cohort included 180 patients fulfilling the criteria for aseptic meningitis with (n = 56) or without (n = 124) encephalitis. A definitive etiological diagnosis was established in 83 of the 180 cases. Of the cases with a definitive diagnosis, 73 were due to infectious agents, mainly enteroviruses, Herpes Simplex Virus 2, and Varicella Zoster Virus (43.4%, 16.8%, and 14.5% respectively). Inflammatory diseases were diagnosed in 7 cases. Among the 97 cases without definitive diagnoses, 26 (26.8%) remained free of treatment throughout their management whereas antiviral or antibiotic therapy was initiated in the emergency department for the remaining 71 patients. The treatment was discontinued in only 10 patients deemed to have viral meningitis upon admission to Internal Medicine.The prevalence of inflammatory diseases among patients admitted to internal medicine for aseptic meningitis is not rare (4% of overall aseptic meningitis). The PCR upon admission to the emergency department is obviously of major importance for the prompt optimization of therapy and management. However, meningitis due to viral agents or

  18. Transorbital superior ophthalmic vein sacrifice to preserve vision in ocular hypertension from aseptic cavernous sinus thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladner, Travis R; Davis, Brandon J; He, Lucy; Mawn, Louise A; Mocco, J

    2015-12-01

    Aseptic cavernous sinus thrombosis (CST) is rare and may clinically masquerade as a carotid cavernous fistula. Conventional management includes oral anticoagulation, but cases of ocular hypertension affecting vision may require more aggressive intervention. We report a case of a woman with spontaneous bilaterally occluded cavernous sinuses with elevated intraocular pressure (IOP), which resolved immediately following unilateral superior ophthalmic vein (SOV) sacrifice. She was subsequently placed on oral anticoagulants. By 4 months postoperatively her IOP was normalized and her vision had improved. Repeat angiography demonstrated stable venous filling, with some mild improvement of flow through the cavernous sinus. Coil-mediated sacrifice of the SOV might be an effective means to relieve ocular hypertension and preserve vision in the setting of aseptic CST.

  19. Molecular epidemiology of human enterovirus associated with aseptic meningitis in Shandong Province, China, 2006-2012.

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    Zexin Tao

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human enteroviruses (HEVs are common causes of acute meningitis. However, there is limited information about HEV associated with aseptic meningitis in mainland China because it has not been classified as a notifiable disease. OBJECTIVES: To characterize the HEVs associated with sporadic aseptic meningitis in China and to analyze their genetic features. STUDY DESIGN: Cerebrospinal fluid, throat swab and feces specimens were collected from patients with aseptic meningitis in 5 sentinel hospitals in Shandong Province, China between 2006 and 2012. Virological investigation (viral isolation and molecular identification and phylogenetic analysis were performed. RESULTS: A total of 437 hospitalized patients were reported, and enteroviruses were detected in the specimens from 84 patients (19.2% and were identified into 17 serotypes. The nine main serotypes were echovirus (E 30 (27.4%, EV71 (13.1%, coxsackievirus (CV B1 (9.5%, CVB3 (7.1%, CVB5 (7.1%, E6 (7.1%, E9 (7.1%, CVA9 (6.0%, and CVA10 (3.6%. Monthly distribution of isolated enteroviruses revealed a major peak in summer-fall season and a small second peak in winter constituted totally by EV71. Sequence analysis on VP1 coding region suggested Shandong strains had great genetic divergence with isolates from other countries. CONCLUSIONS: Multiple serotypes were responsible for enterovirus meningitis in mainland China. Aseptic meningitis caused by EV71 and coxsackie A viruses-the predominant pathogens for the hand, foot, and mouth disease-is currently an important concern in mainland China.

  20. Densitometric evaluation might prevent failure of knee artroplasty for aseptic loosening

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To study the correlation between quantitative ultrasound (QUS) expressed as stiffness index (SI) and the risk of aseptic loosening of knee arthroplasty. Methods: An observational retrospective controlled study was performed on 85 female patients (mean age: 73.3 years) divided into 2 groups from January 2007 to March 2015 and carried out at the Orthopedic Rehabilitation Unit, Casa di Cura Eremo, Arco, Trento, Italy. Group A included 42 patients who had undergone a revision of knee ...

  1. Storage stability of cashew apple juice preserved by hot fill and aseptic processes

    OpenAIRE

    Costa,Maria Cecília Oliveira; MAIA Geraldo Arraes; Figueiredo,Raimundo Wilane de; Souza Filho,Men de Sá Moreira de; Brasil, Isabella Montenegro

    2003-01-01

    Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) apples from Pacajus, Ceará State, Brazil, were processed into high pulp content juice. The juice was packed either by hot fill or an aseptic process and evaluated for physical, physical-chemical, and sensorial changes during a 12-month storage period at room temperature. The results indicated that pH, soluble solids, total acidity, total sugar content and color did not change significantly during storage nor were affected by the type of filling. The sensoria...

  2. Behçet's disease complicated by multiple aseptic abscesses of the liver and spleen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeshima, Keisuke; Ishii, Koji; Inoue, Megumi; Himeno, Katsuro; Seike, Masataka

    2013-05-28

    Aseptic abscesses are an emergent entity and have been described in inflammatory bowel disease, especially in Crohn's disease, and in other diseases. However, aseptic abscesses associated with Behçet's disease are extremely rare. We report a Japanese male diagnosed with an incomplete type of Behçet's disease who developed multiple aseptic abscesses of the spleen and liver. In 2002, the spleen abscesses were accompanied by paroxysmal oral aphthous ulcers and erythema nodosum. As the patient's response to antibiotic treatment was inadequate, a splenectomy was performed. Severe inflammatory cell infiltration, largely of polymorphonuclear neutrophils, was observed without evidence of bacterial or fungal growth. Although the patient had no history of ocular symptoms or genital ulcers, a diagnosis of incomplete Behçet's disease was made according to the Japanese diagnostic criteria because of the presence of paroxysmal arthritis and epididymitis since 2002. In 2005, multiple liver abscesses developed with right hypochondrial pain and seemed to be attributed to Behçet's disease because the abscesses yielded negative results during a microbiologic investigation and failed to go into remission under antibiotic therapy. Oral prednisone (15 mg/d) was started in May 2006, and the abscesses dramatically disappeared 4 wk after treatment. Although the patient had a relapse of the liver abscesses in association with the tapering of prednisone, the augmentation of prednisone dosage yielded a response. The abscesses of the liver and spleen were strongly suggested to be attributed to Behçet's disease. Clinician should be aware of the existence of aseptic abscesses as uncommon manifestations of Behçet's disease.

  3. The BCL2 -938C>A Promoter Polymorphism Is Associated with Risk for and Time to Aseptic Loosening of Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmach, Patrick; Wedemeyer, Christian; Fuest, Lena; Kurscheid, Gina; Gehrke, Thorsten; Klenke, Stefanie; Jäger, Marcus; Kauther, Max D; Bachmann, Hagen S

    2016-01-01

    Aseptic loosening is a major cause of revision surgery of total hip arthroplasty (THA). Only few host factors affecting aseptic loosening have been identified until now, although they are urgently needed to identify and possibly treat those patients at higher risk for aseptic loosening. To determine whether the functional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) c.-938C>A (rs2279115), located in the promoter region of the BCL2 gene has an impact on aseptic loosening of THA we genotyped and analyzed 234 patients suffering from aseptic loosening and 231 patients after primary THA. The polymorphism is associated with risk for aseptic loosening with the CC genotype at highest risk for aseptic loosening, Odds Ratio CC vs. AA 1.93, 95%CI 1.15-3.25, p = 0.013. In contrast, low risk AA genotype carriers that still developed aseptic loosening showed a significantly shorter time to aseptic loosening than patients carrying the C allele (p = 0.004). These results indicate that the BCL2 -938C>A polymorphism influences the occurrence and course of aseptic loosening and suggests this polymorphism as an interesting candidate for prospective studies and analyses in THA registers.

  4. The BCL2 -938C>A Promoter Polymorphism Is Associated with Risk for and Time to Aseptic Loosening of Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Stelmach

    Full Text Available Aseptic loosening is a major cause of revision surgery of total hip arthroplasty (THA. Only few host factors affecting aseptic loosening have been identified until now, although they are urgently needed to identify and possibly treat those patients at higher risk for aseptic loosening. To determine whether the functional single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP c.-938C>A (rs2279115, located in the promoter region of the BCL2 gene has an impact on aseptic loosening of THA we genotyped and analyzed 234 patients suffering from aseptic loosening and 231 patients after primary THA. The polymorphism is associated with risk for aseptic loosening with the CC genotype at highest risk for aseptic loosening, Odds Ratio CC vs. AA 1.93, 95%CI 1.15-3.25, p = 0.013. In contrast, low risk AA genotype carriers that still developed aseptic loosening showed a significantly shorter time to aseptic loosening than patients carrying the C allele (p = 0.004. These results indicate that the BCL2 -938C>A polymorphism influences the occurrence and course of aseptic loosening and suggests this polymorphism as an interesting candidate for prospective studies and analyses in THA registers.

  5. Legal, ethical, and procedural bases for the use of aseptic techniques to implant electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahy, Daniel M.

    2013-01-01

    animals often mask the signs of infection to avoid attracting predators (Wobeser 2006). Guidance specific to sterilization of electronic devices for implantation is limited in the wildlife record (Burger et al. 1994; Mulcahy 2003). Few biologists have been formally trained in aseptic technique, but most biologists know that electronic devices should be treated in some way to reduce the chance for infection of the host animal by bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi. Most biologists (73%) who implant devices into fishes believe aseptic techniques are important (Wagner and Cooke 2005). However, I maintain that many biologists find it difficult to place the concept of asepsis into practice in their work because of confusion about what constitutes aseptic technique, a lack of surgical knowledge and training, the perception of increased costs, or the belief that aseptic surgeries are impractical or unnecessary for their application. Some have even argued that, while compromising surgical techniques in the field might result in complications or mortalities, the money saved would allow for a compensatory increase in sample size (Anderson and Talcott 2006). In this paper I define aseptic surgical techniques, document the legal and professional guidance for performing aseptic surgeries on wild animals, and present options for sterilizing electronic devices and surgical instruments for field use.

  6. An echovirus 18-associated outbreak of aseptic meningitis in Taiwan: epidemiology and diagnostic and genetic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Huey-Pin; Huang, Sheng-Wen; Wu, Feng-Ling; Kuo, Pin-Hwa; Wang, Shih-Min; Liu, Ching-Chuan; Su, Ih-Jen; Wang, Jen-Ren

    2011-09-01

    In 2006, an outbreak of aseptic meningitis was noted in Taiwan. From January to October 2006, a total of 3283 specimens collected from patients with viral infection, including 173 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples, were examined for virus isolation and identification. Overall, 339 enterovirus (EV)-positive cases were identified by virus culture: echovirus 18 (E18) formed the majority (27.4 %, 93 cases), followed by coxsackievirus B2 (13.8 %, 47 cases) and coxsackievirus A2 (10.8 %, 37 cases). The manifestations of the 93 E18 cases were aseptic meningitis (44.1 %), viral exanthema (23.6 %), acute tonsillitis (15.1 %), acute pharyngitis (14.0 %), acute gastritis (11.8 %), herpangina (7.5 %) and bronchopneumonia (5.3 %). Of 107 E18 isolates identified, 100, 62.5 and 19 % were obtained following culture in RD, MRC-5 and A549 cells, respectively. E18 was identified most frequently from throat swabs (67.2 %) and less frequently from stool samples (15.9 %) and CSF (16.8 %). The detection rate of E18 was 78.2 % from CSF, 50 % from stool samples and 22.9 % from throat swabs. Phylogenetic relationships among the E18 strains were examined. Analysis of the partial VP1 gene showed 3.7-23.8 % variation in sequence compared with sequences from GenBank and, notably, the amino acid change V152S was detected in a protruding loop within the VP1 protein. These results indicate that a genetic variant of E18 was circulating and caused an outbreak of aseptic meningitis in Taiwan in 2006.

  7. A case of aseptic vertebral necrosis in the context of metastatic lumbar disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panow, C. [Radiologie Florissant, Geneva (Switzerland); Valavanis, A. [Institut fuer Neuroradiologie, Universitaetsspital Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2002-03-01

    Aseptic bone necrosis has many well recognized etiologies: caisson disease, corticosteroids, alcohol, Gaucher's disease and sickle cell anemia being a few of a long list. Little attention has been paid to metastatic disease as a possible cause and we were unable to find reference in the literature to this association. We present imaging features of metastatic Ewing's sarcoma involving the vertebral spine, which, in certain aspects, mimics other well-known entities of this region, such as Kuemmell's and Scheuermann's diseases. (orig.)

  8. Somatic embryogenesis ofCyclamen persicum Mill. 'Anneke' from aseptic seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamura, T; Miyajima, I; Matsuo, E

    1995-01-01

    InCyclamen persicum 'Anneke', explants from the various vegetative organs of aseptic seedling formed embryoids. The optimal responses were recorded in Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium enriched with 5.0µM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 0.5µM kinetin and 3-6% sucrose. Embryogenesis was enhanced at higher temperature of 25-30°C. On the other hand, light inhibited embryogenesis. Histological and morphological studies confirmed that the embryoids were indeed somatic embryos.

  9. Childhood Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Room Employment Feedback Contact Select Page Childhood Cancer Statistics Home > Cancer Resources > Childhood Cancer Statistics Childhood Cancer Statistics – Graphs and Infographics Number of Diagnoses Incidence Rates ...

  10. Childhood Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... emergency physicians. They receive comprehensive training in treating childhood emergencies and have more training in pediatric emergencies than other physicians, including pediatricians. Does Your Child's School Know About Food Allergies? - 8/10/2015 The nation's emergency physician ...

  11. Childhood Craniopharyngioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... has any of the following: Headaches, including morning headache or headache that goes away after vomiting . Vision changes. Nausea ... Cancer Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Children with Cancer: ...

  12. Neuro-Behçet disease: Coexistence of transverse myelitis and aseptic meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkan Solmaz

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Behçet’s disease is a disorder that the etiology and pathogenesisis not well known and this episodic disease ischaracterized with recurrent oral and genital ulcers, panuveitis.The incidence of Behçet’s disease increased inMediterranean region, Middle East region, East Asian region,some part of Japan. The prevalence of this diseasewas 110/100000 in Turkey. If a neurological symptom isadded to Behçet’s disease it is called Neuro-Behçet syndrome.The most seen neurological complication of Neuro-Behçet syndrome is headache. In Behçet’s syndromeif the neurological symptoms are not completely occur,to diagnose neuro-Behçet may be very difficult. However,sometimes neurological complications can be progressvery fast. Especially the formation of transverse myelitisis very rare neurologic condition for this syndrome. Herewe presented a 17-year-old girl with Behçet’s disease;she admitted for her headache and confusion, in lumbarpuncture findings we considered aseptic meningitis. 1day later she complained paraparesis and hypoesthesiaunder thoracal 5 level, MRI scanning showed transversemyelitis in almost all thoracic levels. We presented thiscase because coexistence of transverse myelitis andaseptic meningitis is very rare.Key words: Behçet’s disease, neuro-Behçet, transversemyelitis, aseptic meningitis

  13. Genotyping of human parechoviruses in Iranian young children with aseptic meningitis and sepsis-like illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Pooneh; Naser, Hakimeh Mahdian; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Sohrabi, Amir; Mostafavi, Ehsan; Motamedirad, Mahdieh; Bahramali, Golnaz; Sadat, Seyed Mehdi; Ardestani, Mehdi Shafiee

    2013-12-01

    Human parechoviruses (HPeV) are classified into 14 genotypes. HPeV1 and HPeV2 are the most prevalent genotypes in young children, which have been associated with mild to severe diseases. This study was conducted to investigate the involvement of HPeVs in aseptic meningitis and sepsis-like illness in Iran. Viral RNA was extracted from 148 cerebrospinal fluid samples from children meningitis and/or sepsis-like illness. Specific HPeV, HEV real-time PCR and HPeV typing were done to identify the infection rate of these viruses. HPeV and HEV were detected in 64 (43.24 %), 31 (20.94 %) of 148 patients with 10 (6.75 %) coinfection. VP1/VP3 junction region was successfully sequenced from 12 of the HPeV-positive specimens, and all of them were identified as HPeV1. HPeV was more prevalent than HEV in both aseptic meningitis and sepsis-like illness, so further studies are needed to understand the disease burden of HPeV infections, and clinical manifestations especially in specific illnesses of possible viral etiology. Direct detection of these viruses leads to reduce hospitalization and use of antibiotic, which are often followed by other complications in neonates and young children.

  14. Intravenous Immunoglobulin with Enhanced Polyspecificity Improves Survival in Experimental Sepsis and Aseptic Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djoumerska-Alexieva, Iglika; Roumenina, Lubka; Pashov, Anastas; Dimitrov, Jordan; Hadzhieva, Maya; Lindig, Sandro; Voynova, Elisaveta; Dimitrova, Petya; Ivanovska, Nina; Bockmeyer, Clemens; Stefanova, Zvetanka; Fitting, Catherine; Bläss, Markus; Claus, Ralf; von Gunten, Stephan; Kaveri, Srini; Cavaillon, Jean-Marc; Bauer, Michael; Vassilev, Tchavdar

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis is a major cause for death worldwide. Numerous interventional trials with agents neutralizing single proinflammatory mediators have failed to improve survival in sepsis and aseptic systemic inflammatory response syndromes. This failure could be explained by the widespread gene expression dysregulation known as “genomic storm” in these patients. A multifunctional polyspecific therapeutic agent might be needed to thwart the effects of this storm. Licensed pooled intravenous immunoglobulin preparations seemed to be a promising candidate, but they have also failed in their present form to prevent sepsis-related death. We report here the protective effect of a single dose of intravenous immunoglobulin preparations with additionally enhanced polyspecificity in three models of sepsis and aseptic systemic inflammation. The modification of the pooled immunoglobulin G molecules by exposure to ferrous ions resulted in their newly acquired ability to bind some proinflammatory molecules, complement components and endogenous “danger” signals. The improved survival in endotoxemia was associated with serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines, diminished complement consumption and normalization of the coagulation time. We suggest that intravenous immunoglobulin preparations with additionally enhanced polyspecificity have a clinical potential in sepsis and related systemic inflammatory syndromes. PMID:26701312

  15. A Fuzzy Expert System for Distinguishing between Bacterial and Aseptic Meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Langarizadeh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Bacterial meningitis is a known infectious disease which occurs at early ages and should be promptly diagnosed and treated. Bacterial and aseptic meningitis are hard to be distinguished. Therefore, physicians should be highly informed and experienced in this area. The main aim of this study was to suggest a system for distinguishing between bacterial and aseptic meningitis, using fuzzy logic.    Materials and Methods In the first step, proper attributes were selected using Weka 3.6.7 software. Six attributes were selected using Attribute Evaluator, InfoGainAttributeEval, and Ranker search method items. Then, a fuzzy inference engine was designed using MATLAB software, based on Mamdani’s fuzzy logic method with max-min composition, prod-probor, and centroid defuzzification. The rule base consisted of eight rules, based on the experience of three specialists and information extracted from textbooks. Results Data were extracted from 106 records of patients with meningitis (42 cases with bacterial meningitis in order to evaluate the proposed system. The system accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity were 89%, 92 %, and 97%, respectively. The area under the ROC curve was 0.93, and Kappa test revealed a good level of agreement (k=0.84, P

  16. A diagnostic dilemma: drug-induced aseptic meningitis in a 45-year-old HIV-positive man.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rowley, D

    2014-03-01

    We describe a case of aseptic meningitis following the administration of moxifloxacin in a 45-year-old man with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). At presentation he was receiving tuberculosis treatment on a modified regimen following severe hepatotoxicity; this included moxifloxacin, started 8 days previously. Initial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis was grossly abnormal. Anti-viral and -bacterial treatments were started. All microbiological tests proved negative and his moxifloxacin was withheld resulting in a complete normalisation of CSF. Drug-induced aseptic meningitis is a diagnosis of exclusion and presents a serious diagnostic dilemma. The decision to withhold medication cannot be taken lightly.

  17. Potential application of quantitative microbiological risk assessment techniques to an aseptic-UHT process in the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol, Laure; Albert, Isabelle; Johnson, Nicholas Brian; Membré, Jeanne-Marie

    2013-04-01

    Aseptic ultra-high-temperature (UHT)-type processed food products (e.g., milk or soup) are ready to eat products which are consumed extensively globally due to a combination of their comparative high quality and long shelf life, with no cold chain or other preservation requirements. Due to the inherent microbial vulnerability of aseptic-UHT product formulations, the safety and stability-related performance objectives (POs) required at the end of the manufacturing process are the most demanding found in the food industry. The key determinants to achieving sterility, and which also differentiates aseptic-UHT from in-pack sterilised products, are the challenges associated with the processes of aseptic filling and sealing. This is a complex process that has traditionally been run using deterministic or empirical process settings. Quantifying the risk of microbial contamination and recontamination along the aseptic-UHT process, using the scientifically based process quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA), offers the possibility to improve on the currently tolerable sterility failure rate (i.e., 1 defect per 10,000 units). In addition, benefits of applying QMRA are (i) to implement process settings in a transparent and scientific manner; (ii) to develop a uniform common structure whatever the production line, leading to a harmonisation of these process settings, and; (iii) to bring elements of a cost-benefit analysis of the management measures. The objective of this article is to explore how QMRA techniques and risk management metrics may be applied to aseptic-UHT-type processed food products. In particular, the aseptic-UHT process should benefit from a number of novel mathematical and statistical concepts that have been developed in the field of QMRA. Probabilistic techniques such as Monte Carlo simulation, Bayesian inference and sensitivity analysis, should help in assessing the compliance with safety and stability-related POs set at the end of the manufacturing

  18. MRI findings of enteroviral encephalomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Saied Abdelgawad

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: Enterovirus encephalomyelitis has characteristic lesion locations in the posterior portions of the brain stem, substantia nigra, dentate nucleus and within the anterior horns of spinal cord. Recognition of these findings in the presence of suggestive clinical presentation can help to establish the diagnosis of enterovirus encephalomyelitis.

  19. Childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Anju; Sharma, Rajni

    2013-04-01

    Childhood obesity is an issue of serious medical and social concern. In developing countries including India, it is a phenomenon seen in higher socioeconomic strata due to the adoption of a western lifestyle. Consumption of high calorie food, lack of physical activity and increased screen time are major risk factors for childhood obesity apart from other genetic, prenatal factors and socio-cultural practices. Obese children and adolescents are at increased risk of medical and psychological complications. Insulin resistance is commonly present especially in those with central obesity and manifests as dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance, hypertension, polycystic ovarian syndrome and metabolic syndrome. Obese children and adolescents often present to general physicians for management. The latter play a key role in prevention and treatment of obesity as it involves lifestyle modification of the entire family. This article aims at discussing the approach to diagnosis and work-up, treatment and preventive strategies for childhood obesity from a general physician's perspective.

  20. Childhood obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitmann, Berit L; Koplan, Jeffrey; Lissner, Lauren

    2009-01-01

    Despite progress toward assuring the health of today's young population, the 21(st) century began with an epidemic of childhood obesity. There is general agreement that the situation must be addressed by means of primary prevention, but relatively little is known about how to intervene effectively....... The evidence behind the assumption that childhood obesity can be prevented was discussed critically in this roundtable symposium. Overall, there was general agreement that action is needed and that the worldwide epidemic itself is sufficient evidence for action. As the poet, writer, and scholar Wittner Bynner...... (1881-1968) wrote, "The biggest problem in the world could have been solved when it was small"....

  1. Prospective study on the chemokine CXCL13 in neuroborreliosis and other aseptic neuroinfections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pícha, D; Moravcová, L; Smíšková, D

    2016-09-15

    The study evaluates the clinical significance of CXCL13 (leukocyte chemoattractant synthesized in CSF ) in Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) and other aseptic CNS infections. 244 patients with symptoms of neuroinfection and/or LNB were divided into groups: A - patients with LNB-positive antibodies in serum and CSF (96) or CSF only (14); B - patients with aseptic non-borrelial neuroinfections (82); C - negative controls (52). Group A was divided into A1-A4 according to pleocytosis in CSF and AIIgG positivity. The highest CSF CXCL13 concentrations (max. 81,287.60pg/ml; median 1766.90pg/ml) were in A1 (positive AI, pleocytosis) and A3 (negative AIIgG, pleocytosis; max. 7201,60pg/ml, median 56.22pg/ml). A2 (positive AI without pleocytosis) and A4 (negative AI without pleocytosis) had low CXCL13 levels - A2 max. 650.50pg/ml (median<7.80pg/ml); A4 max. 118.56pg/ml (median<7.8pg/ml). In B the median was 28.10pg/ml (max. 595.87pg/ml). In C the CXCL13 concentrations were the lowest (max. 83.83pg/ml; median<7.80pg/ml). The lowest cut-off was 29pg/ml (sensitivity 90.0%, specificity 72.2%), the highest one 400pg/ml (sensitivity 59.6%, specificity 94.0%). The group differences of serum CXCL13 were insignificant. The highest concentrations were at the beginning of the disease. In LNB CXCL13 correlates better with the CSF pleocytosis than AI positivity.

  2. Establishing and monitoring an aseptic workspace for building the MOMA mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalime, Erin N.; Berlin, David

    2016-09-01

    Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) is an instrument suite on the European Space Agency (ESA) ExoMars 2020 Rover, and the Mass Spectrometer (MOMA-MS) is being built at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). MOMA-MS is a life-detection instrument and thus falls in the most stringent category of Planetary Protection (PP) biological cleanliness requirements. Less than 0.03 spore/m2 are allowed in the instrument sample path. In order to meet these PP requirements, MOMA-MS must be built and maintained in a low bioburden environment. The MOMA-MS project at GSFC maintains three clean rooms with varying levels of bioburden control. The Aseptic Assembly Clean room has the highest level of control, applying three different bioburden reducing methods: 70% Isopropyl Alcohol (IPA), 7.5% Hydrogen Peroxide, and Ultra-Violet C (UVC) light. The three methods are used in rotation and each kills microorganisms by a different mechanism, reducing the likelihood of microorganisms developing resistance to all three. The Integration and Mars Chamber Clean rooms use less biocidal cleaning, with the option to deploy extra techniques as necessary. To support the monitoring of clean rooms and verification that MOMA-MS hardware meets PP requirements, a new Planetary Protection lab was established that currently has the capabilities of standard growth assays for spore or vegetative bacteria, rapid bioburden analysis that detects Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP), plus autoclave and Dry Heat microbial Reduction (DHMR) verification. The clean rooms are monitored for vegetative microorganisms and by rapid ATP assay, and a clear difference in bioburden is observed between the aseptic and other clean room.

  3. Imaging and histopathological aspects in aseptic osteonecrosis of the femoral head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trăistaru, Magdalena Rodica; Kamal, Diana; Kamal, Kamal Constantin; Rogoveanu, Otilia Constantina; Popescu, Mihai; Bondari, Simona; Alexandru, Dragoş Ovidiu; Ionovici, Nina; Grecu, Dan Cristian

    2015-01-01

    Aseptic osteonecrosis causes various clinical manifestations, depending on its location, but has in common a histopathological and radiological substrate. Aseptic osteonecrosis of the femoral head is a condition whose pathogenesis remains unclear despite many theories developed so far, and the discovery of numerous risk factors. The objective of this study is to emphasize the role of imaging techniques and correlating histology and immunohistochemistry methods in order to more accurately stage the disease. This retrospective study was performed on a total of 103 patients with clinical and radiological suspicion of unilateral or bilateral osteonecrosis. For the diagnosis criteria, we used clinical information, pelvic X-ray images, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT). For the inclusion of patients in a disease stage, we used the Association Research Circulation Osseous (ARCO) classification system. For patients diagnosed at an advanced stage, who underwent hip arthroplasty, we harvested biological material necessary for the histopathological study. There were differences in the appearance and extent of the lesion on the histological samples compared to macroscopic examination and even those obtained through imaging means, particularly for patients in evolutionary stage III. Aspects such as the extension of the area of fibrosis, bone tissue remodeling, the density of the newly formed vascular network and degree of impairment of the cartilage, are determined more accurately using histology and immunohistochemistry techniques. Before classifying patients in a certain stage, after correlating clinical and imaging data, histopathological aspects have to be considered, particularly in patients in stages III and IV, in which total hip arthroplasty could be delayed.

  4. Macrophage response in patients diagnosed with aseptic necrosis of the femoral head presenting different risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Diana; Trăistaru, Rodica; Kamal, Constantin Kamal; Alexandru, Dragoş Ovidiu; Ion, Daniela Adriana; Grecu, Dan Cristian

    2015-01-01

    Aseptic necrosis of the femoral head is a condition caused by partial or total interruption of blood supply to the femoral head. The diminished blood supply causes necrosis of the cellular elements and of the bone marrow, followed by the collapse of the bone structure, events that ultimately lead to the destruction of the bone tissue, the appearance of local pain and loss of function in the affected coxofemoral joint. The importance of this condition is that it mainly affects young adults aged 30-50 years, active from a socio-professional standpoint, and increased life expectancy. The material studied to achieve CD68 immunostaining was represented by bone fragments from the area of necrosis and from the adjacent areas of the femoral heads, harvested from 39 patients when performing hip arthroplasty surgery. The patients were diagnosed with aseptic necrosis of the femoral head and hospitalized in the Clinic of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Emergency County Hospital of Craiova, Romania, from June 2014 to January 2015. The 39 patients included in the study were divided into four categories according to presented risk factors (alcohol, alcohol and smoking, trauma, corticosteroids). All the 39 cases had positive immunostaining for CD68, macrophage being highlighted both in the area of necrosis and in the adjacent areas. We noted significant differences in the number and arrangement of macrophages in patients presenting different risk factors. The highest number of macrophages was present in patients presenting a risk factor corticosteroids, and the lowest number of macrophages was found in patients who had trauma as the main risk factor.

  5. Establishing and Monitoring an Aseptic Workspace for Building the MOMA Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalime, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) is an instrument suite on the ESA ExoMars 2018 Rover, and the Mass Spectrometer (MOMA-MS) is being built at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). As MOMA-MS is a life-detection instrument and it thus falls in the most stringent category of Planetary Protection (PP) biological cleanliness requirements. Less than 0.03 sporem2 is allowed in the instrument sample path. In order to meet these PP requirements, MOMA-MS must be built and maintained in a low bioburden environment. The MOMA-MS project at GSFC maintains three cleanrooms with varying levels of bioburden control. The Aseptic Assembly Cleanroom has the highest level of control, applying three different bioburden reducing methods: 70 IPA, 7.5 Hydrogen Peroxide, and Ultra-Violet C light. The three methods are used in rotation and each kills microbes by a different mechanism, reducing the likelihood of microorganisms developing resistance to all three. The Integration and Mars Chamber Cleanrooms use less biocidal cleaning, with the option to deploy extra techniques as necessary. To support the monitoring of cleanrooms and verification that MOMA-MS hardware meets PP requirements, a new Planetary Protection lab was established that currently has the capabilities of standard growth assays for spore or vegetative bacteria, rapid bioburden analysis that detects Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP), plus autoclave and DHMR verification. The cleanrooms are monitored both for vegetative microorganisms and by rapid ATP assay, and a clear difference in bioburden is observed between the aseptic the other cleanroom.

  6. Childhood Obesity

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-06

    In this podcast, Dr. Tom Frieden, CDC Director, discusses the decrease in childhood obesity rates and what strategies have been proven to work to help our children grow up and thrive.  Created: 8/6/2013 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control.   Date Released: 3/6/2014.

  7. Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuca, Sevil Ari, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book aims to provide readers with a general as well as an advanced overview of the key trends in childhood obesity. Obesity is an illness that occurs due to a combination of genetic, environmental, psychosocial, metabolic and hormonal factors. The prevalence of obesity has shown a great rise both in adults and children in the last 30 years.…

  8. Childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, R

    1999-01-01

    Approximately 10% of children are obese. Twin and adoption studies demonstrate a large genetic component to obesity, especially in adults. However, the increasing prevalence of obesity over the last 20 years can only be explained by environmental factors. In most obese individuals, no measurable differences in metabolism can be detected. Few children engage in regular physical activity. Obese children and adults uniformly underreport the amount of food they eat. Obesity is particularly related to increased consumption of high-fat foods. BMI is a quick and easy way to screen for childhood obesity. Treating childhood obesity relies on positive family support and lifestyle changes involving the whole family. Food preferences are influenced early by parental eating habits, and when developed in childhood, they tend to remain fairly constant into adulthood. Children learn to be active or inactive from their parents. In addition, physical activity (or more commonly, physical inactivity) habits that are established in childhood tend to persist into adulthood. Weight loss is usually followed by changes in appetite and metabolism, predisposing individuals to regain their weight. However, when the right family dynamics exist--a motivated child with supportive parents--long-term success is possible.

  9. Childhood pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uretsky, G; Goldschmiedt, M; James, K

    1999-05-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a rare finding in childhood but probably more common than is generally realized. This condition should be considered in the evaluation of children with vomiting and abdominal pain, because it can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Clinical suspicion is required to make the diagnosis, especially when the serum amylase concentration is normal. Recurrent pancreatitis may be familial as a result of inherited biochemical or anatomic abnormalities. Patients with hereditary pancreatitis are at high risk for pancreatic cancer.

  10. Childhood rhabdomyosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba Rovira, S M; Inarejos Clemente, E J

    Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common soft-tissue sarcoma in children; it can appear in any part of the body. Its biological behavior varies widely, and despite the absence of specific clinical or radiological characteristics, rhabdomyosarcoma should be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of solid tumors in children. This review focuses primarily on the imaging findings and anatomical distribution of the histological subtypes of childhood rhabdomyosarcoma and secondarily on the differential findings in histological studies.

  11. Childhood Obesity Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Childhood Obesity Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Children (WIC) Program, 2000–2014 Prevalence of Childhood Obesity in the United States, 2011-2014 Childhood obesity ...

  12. Increased levels of cytokines in cerebrospinal fluid of children with aseptic meningitis caused by mumps virus and echovirus 30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulik, A; Kroten, A; Wojtkowska, M; Oldak, E

    2014-01-01

    We measured levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with mumps meningitis, enteroviral echovirus 30 meningitis and children without central nervous system infection to investigate whether these molecules were involved in the pathogenesis of viral meningitis. The CSF was obtained from 62 children suspected with meningitis. These patients were classified to the mumps meningitis (n = 19), echovirus 30 meningitis (n = 22) and non-meningitis (n = 21) groups. The concentrations of interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-1 soluble receptor type 2 (IL-1R2), interleukin-8 (IL-8), human interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and human tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were determined by immunoassay. A significant increase was noted in the levels of IL-8, TNF-α and IL-1R2 in the CSF of both meningitis groups as compared to controls. The concentrations of IFN-γ and IL-1 differed significantly only between the mumps group and control. The levels of IL-1, IFN-γ and TNF-α were significantly higher in mumps meningitis when compared to the echovirus 30 group. Of all cytokines examined, only IFN-γ correlated with pleocytosis (r = 0.58) in the mumps meningitis group. The increased CSF cytokine levels are markers of meningeal inflammation, and each virus may cause a specific profile of the cytokine pattern.

  13. A case of cerebral salt-wasting syndrome associated with aseptic meningitis in an 8-year-old boy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inatomi, Jun; Yokoyama, Yoshiki; Sekine, Takashi; Igarashi, Takashi

    2008-04-01

    Cerebral salt-wasting syndrome is a disorder in which excessive natriuresis and subsequent hyponatremic dehydration occur in patients with intracranial diseases. Cerebral salt-wasting syndrome often develops in patients with severe neurosurgical disorders, such as hydrocephalus, cerebral infarction, and tuberculous meningitis. Here, we report on the case of an 8-year-old boy with cerebral salt-wasting syndrome associated with aseptic meningitis. He showed mild developmental retardation and had a history of convulsion. Four days after his admission, cerebral salt-wasting syndrome abruptly started: natriuresis and hyponatremia gradually improved over 10 days. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on cerebral salt-wasting syndrome associated with clinically benign aseptic meningitis.

  14. Aseptic Abscesses and Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Two Cases and Review of Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaffidi, Michael A.; Al-Mazroui, Ahmed; Tessolini, Jenna; Showler, Adrienne; Colak, Errol

    2017-01-01

    Background. Aseptic abscesses (AA) are sterile lesions that represent an extraintestinal manifestation (EIM) of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Though Canada has the highest prevalence of IBD in the world, reports of IBD-associated AA are absent in Canada. This may represent a different IBD phenotype or underrecognition and underreporting. Purpose. To explore AA as a possible EIM of IBD and evaluate clinical and investigative findings among patients with IBD-associated AA. Methods. Retrospective chart and literature reviews were performed to find cases of IBD-associated AA at our institution and in the literature. Results. We identified 2 cases of IBD-associated AA in our institution. Both patients had ulcerative colitis and presented with fever, abdominal pain, and weight loss. Radiological workup and aspiration showed sterile splenic abscesses. The AA were unresponsive to antibiotics. One patient improved on corticosteroids and one underwent splenectomy. We retrieved 37 cases of IBD-associated AA from the literature. All patients showed no evidence of infection, failed to resolve with antibiotics, and, if attempted, improved on corticosteroids. Conclusions. Our cases are the first reported in Canada. They support literature which suggests AA as an EIM of IBD and may help increase recognition and reporting of this phenomenon.

  15. MRI evaluation of aseptic osteonecrosis in children over the course of hyperbaric oxygen therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherer, A.; Engelbrecht, V.; May, P.; Moedder, U. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische Radiologie; Bernbeck, B.; Goebel, U. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Pediatric Hematology and Oncology; Willers, R. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Statistics

    2000-10-01

    Purpose: The study aimed at MRI evaluation of aseptic osteonecrosis (AON) in children over the course of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy. Material and methods: Retrospective analysis of 72 MRI studies in 20 children presenting with AON during chemotherapy. Two groups were differentiated: Gr. I (n=8) was treated exclusively with relief of weightbearing structures, Gr. II (n=12) was additionally treated with HBO therapy. The MRI examinations were evaluated by a point-score system (1-6 points) by two radiologists. Results: Gr. II initially showed more severe findings (average score: 3.4) in comparison to Gr. I (average score: 2.65). During the follow-up time period the average scores rose to 3.2 score-points in Gr. I and 4.1 points in Gr. II. No statistically significant difference was evident between the two groups in the course of AON. Conclusion: The majority of chemotherapy associated AON which initially present with advanced findings show a progression in MRI over their further course. HBO therapy in addition to the relief of affected weightbearing structures statistically shows no significant improvement in MRI morphology during the course of the treatment. (orig.)

  16. Herpes simplex virus type 2-associated recurrent aseptic (Mollaret's meningitis in genitourinary medicine clinic: a case report

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    Abou-Foul AK

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ahmad K Abou-Foul, Thajunisha M Buhary, Sedki L Gayed Department of Genitourinary Medicine, Royal Blackburn Hospital, East Lancashire Hospitals NHS Trust, Blackburn, UK Introduction: Cases of idiopathic recurrent benign aseptic meningitis were first described by Mollaret. Today, herpes simplex virus (HSV is considered the cause of most cases of Mollaret's meningitis. Case report: A 40-year-old male was referred to our genitourinary medicine clinic with recurrent genital herpetic lesions. He had HSV-2-positive genital ulcers 8 years earlier. One year after the first infection, he developed severe recurrent attacks of headache associated with meningitis symptoms. The results of all radiological and biochemical tests were normal, but the patient reported a correlation between his attacks and genital herpes flare-ups. We diagnosed the patient with Mollaret's meningitis and started him on continuous suppressive acyclovir therapy, which resulted in marked clinical improvement. Discussion: Mollaret's meningitis is a rare form of idiopathic recurrent aseptic meningitis that has a sudden onset, short duration, and spontaneous remission with unpredictable recurrence. We believe that the presence of concurrent or recurrent mucocutaneous herpetic lesions can aid its diagnosis, prior to which, affected patients usually have many unnecessary investigations and treatments. Therefore, detailed sexual history should be sought in all patients with aseptic meningitis, and clinicians should also ask about history of recurrent headaches in all patients with recurrent herpetic anogenital lesions. Continuous suppressive acyclovir therapy may reduce the frequency and severity of attacks and can dramatically improve lifestyle. Keywords: HSV-2 virus, acyclovir, Mollaret's meningitis, recurrent aseptic meningitis, HSV-2 virus, viral meningitis, acyclovir

  17. Epidemiological and clinical studies on aseptic meningitis in 377 cases, 3. A study on brain CT scan in acute phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Masaaki; Kondo, Tomio; Takashima, Akira; Kono, Shinya; Yamashina, Manabu (Ogaki Shimin Hospital, Gifu (Japan))

    1984-02-01

    Brain CT scan performed in the acute phase of aseptic meningitis in 88 cases revealed abnormal findings in 5 consisting of 2 of cerebral edema, 2 of subdural hygroma and one of cerebral atrophy. Clinical findings showed no particular relation to the age, but cerebral edema was observed in the cases of possible cephalomeningitis diagnosed on the basis of accompanying convulsion and disturbance of consciousness. Abnormal findings were associated with 25% of symptoms diagnosed more than 4 days after onset.

  18. Comparative experimental evaluation of the efficacy of Prostamol Uno and Samprost on rat model of chronic aseptic prostate inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahomova, A V; Borovskaja, T G; Fomina, T I; Ermolaeva, L A; Vychuzhanina, A V; Rumpel, O A; Granstrem, O K; Baranova, O V

    2011-11-01

    Comparative experimental evaluation of the efficiency of prostatotropic drugs Prostamol Uno and Samprost on the model of the chronic aseptic prostate inflammation in rats was performed. It was established that peptide drug Samprost decelerates sclerotic processes in the prostate gland to a greater extent than herbal preparation Prostamol Uno. Both products equally stimulate secretory activity of the gland. Prostamol Uno, unlike Samprost, prevents the development of reduced sexual motivation, one of the complications of chronic prostatitis.

  19. COMPARISON OF THE FREQUENCY AND COMPLICATIONS OF INAPPROPRIATE ANTIDIURETIC HORMONE SECRETION IN PATIENTS WITH SEPTIC AND ASEPTIC MENINGITIS

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    Ali HONARPISHEH MD

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveDue to the high prevalence of syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion (SIADH. This study was carried out to evaluate the prevalence and relevant parameters of SIADH in children with septic and aseptic memingitis hospitalized at Kashan Shahid Beheshti Hospital between 1996 and 2006.Materials & MethodsThis descriptive study was conducted on 230 patients with meningitis hospitalized in the pediatric wards of Kashan Shahid Beheshti Hospital between 1996 and 2006. Relevant information (age, gender, type of meningitis, serum sodium and potassium, urine specific gravity (USG, blood sugar, blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinin, hydration condition was collected from patients' records. Data was analyzed using Mann-Whitney and K2 tests.ResultsOut of 230 patients with meningitis, 33 had incomplete records and only 197 patients were recruited for this study. Sixty eight cases (34.5% suffered from SIADH. It was more frequent among 1-2 year old  children.According to this research, SIADH was diagnosed in 57% of the 121 patients with hyponatremia, 58.7% of the 167 patients with USG > 1.004, 74% of the 93 patients with serum osmolity ConclusionDue to the high prevalence of SIADH in septic and aseptic meningitis and its complication, it is recommended to restrict fluid therapy and monitor serum sodium, urine specific gravity and other diagnostic tests for SIADH.Keywords: Hyponatremia; Meningitis; SIADH, Septic, Aseptic

  20. Establishment of an operating room committee and a training program to improve aseptic techniques for rodent and large animal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Héon, Hélène; Rousseau, Nathalie; Montgomery, Jane; Beauregard, Gilles; Choiniére, Manon

    2006-11-01

    Investigators of our research facility generally accept the concept of asepsis as an important component of adequate surgical care for animals. However, they experience difficulties putting it into practice, especially in the case of rodents. The reasons for this are inconvenience, cost, and lack of training. To better assist investigators in the implementation of aseptic surgical techniques in their laboratories, we have created an Operating Room (OR) Committee modeled after OR committees found in human hospitals. A reconstructive surgeon, a veterinarian, a research scientist, a nurse involved in the training of OR personnel, interns, graduate students, and an animal health technician were chosen as committee members in light of their OR and animal care expertise. The first task of the OR Committee was to establish institutional guidelines for aseptic surgery, taking into account the costs imposed on research budgets by these procedures. The OR Committee also supports a complete training program in aseptic surgery techniques, which consists of lectures, a training manual, videos, and a practical course. Furthermore, when experimental procedures require specialized equipment, the OR Committee collaborates with researchers to develop strategies to achieve asepsis. This OR Committee and the training program proved to be important tools to promote and improve the quality of animal care during surgery.

  1. Successful human infection with P. falciparum using three aseptic Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes: a new model for controlled human malaria infection.

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    Matthew B Laurens

    Full Text Available Controlled human malaria infection (CHMI is a powerful method for assessing the efficacy of anti-malaria vaccines and drugs targeting pre-erythrocytic and erythrocytic stages of the parasite. CHMI has heretofore required the bites of 5 Plasmodium falciparum (Pf sporozoite (SPZ-infected mosquitoes to reliably induce Pf malaria. We reported that CHMI using the bites of 3 PfSPZ-infected mosquitoes reared aseptically in compliance with current good manufacturing practices (cGMP was successful in 6 participants. Here, we report results from a subsequent CHMI study using 3 PfSPZ-infected mosquitoes reared aseptically to validate the initial clinical trial. We also compare results of safety, tolerability, and transmission dynamics in participants undergoing CHMI using 3 PfSPZ-infected mosquitoes reared aseptically to published studies of CHMI using 5 mosquitoes. Nineteen adults aged 18-40 years were bitten by 3 Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes infected with the chloroquine-sensitive NF54 strain of Pf. All 19 participants developed malaria (100%; 12 of 19 (63% on Day 11. The mean pre-patent period was 258.3 hours (range 210.5-333.8. The geometric mean parasitemia at first diagnosis by microscopy was 9.5 parasites/µL (range 2-44. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR detected parasites an average of 79.8 hours (range 43.8-116.7 before microscopy. The mosquitoes had a geometric mean of 37,894 PfSPZ/mosquito (range 3,500-152,200. Exposure to the bites of 3 aseptically-raised, PfSPZ-infected mosquitoes is a safe, effective procedure for CHMI in malaria-naïve adults. The aseptic model should be considered as a new standard for CHMI trials in non-endemic areas. Microscopy is the gold standard used for the diagnosis of Pf malaria after CHMI, but qPCR identifies parasites earlier. If qPCR continues to be shown to be highly specific, and can be made to be practical, rapid, and standardized, it should be considered as an alternative for diagnosis

  2. Tissue engineering chamber promotes adipose tissue regeneration in adipose tissue engineering models through induced aseptic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhangsong; Dong, Ziqing; Chang, Qiang; Zhan, Weiqing; Zeng, Zhaowei; Zhang, Shengchang; Lu, Feng

    2014-11-01

    Tissue engineering chamber (TEC) makes it possible to generate significant amounts of mature, vascularized, stable, and transferable adipose tissue. However, little is known about the role of the chamber in tissue engineering. Therefore, to investigate the role of inflammatory response and the change in mechanotransduction started by TEC after implantation, we placed a unique TEC model on the surface of the groin fat pads in rats to study the expression of cytokines and tissue development in the TEC. The number of infiltrating cells was counted, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) expression levels in the chamber at multiple time points postimplantation were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Tissue samples were collected at various time points and labeled for specific cell populations. The result showed that new adipose tissue formed in the chamber at day 60. Also, the expression of MCP-1 and VEGF in the chamber decreased slightly from an early stage as well as the number of the infiltrating cells. A large number of CD34+/perilipin- perivascular cells could be detected at day 30. Also, the CD34+/perilipin+ adipose precursor cell numbers increased sharply by day 45 and then decreased by day 60. CD34-/perilipin+ mature adipocytes were hard to detect in the chamber content at day 30, but their number increased and then peaked at day 60. Ki67-positive cells could be found near blood vessels and their number decreased sharply over time. Masson's trichrome showed that collagen was the dominant component of the chamber content at early stage and was replaced by newly formed small adipocytes over time. Our findings suggested that the TEC implantation could promote the proliferation of adipose precursor cells derived from local adipose tissue, increase angiogenesis, and finally lead to spontaneous adipogenesis by inducing aseptic inflammation and changing local mechanotransduction.

  3. Aseptic loosening rate of megaprostheses and related factors%肿瘤型人工关节假体无菌性松动率及相关因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖何; 牛晓辉

    2014-01-01

    With the development of chemotherapy, imaging, surgical techniques and material science, limb-salvage has become a widely accepted concept in the treatment of bone and soft tissue tumors. Prosthetic reconstruction after tumor segment resection has become a common operation method. In the history, there appeared many kinds of materials for the reconstruction after the resection of tumors. The megaprosthesis has a history of more than 60 years, and has become the mainstream now, with many advantages over the other reconstruction materials. The aseptic loosening of megaprotheses is a common postoperative complication and also a prominent cause of prosthesis failure. How high is the aseptic loosening rate? Will the rate be affected by such factors as the patient’s age, gender, disease category, implantation site, reconstruction length, chemotherapy and so on? Will the rate be obviously reduced due to the improvement of megaprotheses? These questions are worth researching. The aseptic loosening rate of megaprostheses and related factors are reviewed in this article based on previous studies. According to previous reports, many factors concerning the patient and the prosthesis have an impact on the aseptic loosening rate. The clear and deifnite related factors included the implantation site, porous coating in the collar, type of articulation, age at the time of surgery and reconstruction length, and the gender and disease category are irrelevant factors. As to the size of intramedullary stem, ifxation mode, modular/custom and chemotherapy, their correlation with the aseptic loosening rate is still unclear.

  4. Childhood Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain tumors are abnormal growths inside the skull. They are among the most common types of childhood ... still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches and ...

  5. Vitrified sperm banks: the new aseptic technique for human spermatozoa allows cryopreservation at -86 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, R; Risopatrón, J; Schulz, M; Villegas, J V; Isachenko, V; Isachenko, E

    2012-12-01

    The vitrification technique is simple, quick, cost-effective and has showed a significantly stronger cryoprotective effect in contrast to conventional freezing. The method is based on the rapid cooling of the cell by direct immersion in liquid nitrogen (LN (2) ), thereby avoiding the formation of ice crystals, due to the lower risk of water thawing, which impairs cell function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of storage at -86 °C compared to the conventional -196 °C (under LN (2) ) on essential parameters of the functioning of aseptically vitrified human sperm. Sperm motility, integrity of mitochondrial membrane potential and the rate of DNA fragmentation were determined. The comparison of -86 °C and -196 °C demonstrated no statistical difference in sperm progressive motility (73% vs. 77%), integrity of mitochondrial membrane potential (71% vs. 74%) or DNA fragmentation (3.1% vs. 2.9%). In conclusion, aseptically vitrified sperm can be preserved at -86 °C; eliminating the use of LN (2) simplifies and significantly reduces the costs associated with storage in sperm banks by decreasing the time and space needed for storage, the effort in finding stored samples, and by improving safety for the operator. However, for prolonged storage further studies are needed.

  6. Description of a widespread outbreak of aseptic meningitis due to echovirus 30 in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil

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    Vitor Laerte Pinto Junior

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Echovirus 30 belongs to the genus Enterovirus and is widely associated with aseptic meningitis (AM outbreaks. In Brazil epidemics due to this serotype were reported in several states but in Rio de Janeiro, before this study, it was only involved in sporadic episodes. We retrospectively collected data from AM notifications charts and enterovirus isolation database from Rio de Janeiro State Health Department (RJSHD and Enterovirus Reference Laboratory in the year of 2005. An outbreak of AM was detected during March, April and May associated with a high cell culture isolation rate for echovirus 30 (17.4%. Male children with ages varying from 1 to 9 years were more affected. Of the 22 patients with confirmed echovirus 30 disease, clinical information was available in eight; fever, headache and vomiting were the most common manifestations. CSF analysis showed a typical pattern of viral infection with median of cellularity of 100 cells/mm³ and mononuclear cell predominance in 64.7% of the cases. The median of protein and glucose levels of 49 mg/dL and 56.5 mg/dL. The fatality rate was null. Despite its benign course and the lack of treatment options, aseptic meningitis surveillance is crucial for early identification of causative agents of outbreaks, which helps to avoid additional testing and inappropriate use of antimicrobials.

  7. An outbreak of aseptic meningitis caused by coxsackievirus A9 in Gansu, the People's Republic of China

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    Mao Naiying

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An outbreak of aseptic meningitis occurred in Tianshui city of Gansu Province, the People's Republic of China, from March to June 2005. A total of 85 patients were clinical confirmed as aseptic meningitis in this outbreak. Results CVA9 was mainly responsible for this outbreak supported by the clinical manifestations of the patients, epidemiological data of the outbreak, the results of RT-PCR and complete VP1 sequence determination, conventional neutralization assays, IgM serological assays, viral isolation and phylogenetics analysis. Through phylogenetic analysis and homogeneity analysis for partial VP1 gene, the nucleotide and amino acid homologies between Gansu isolates and former Chinese CVA9 strains were 88.2%-96.1% and 97.2%-99.2%, respectively. Multiple transmission chains of CVA9 occurred in different provinces or years in China. Moreover, in order to clarify the genotype of CVA9, Gansu CVA9 strains isolated in this outbreak were compared with other CVA9 isolates based on VP1/2A junction regions (genotyping region and they might belong to a new genotype of CVA9, which could be assigned for genotype XIII, Conclusions CVA9 was confirmed as the pathogen responsible for this outbreak. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that the CVA9 strains isolated in this outbreak might belong to a new genotype.

  8. Percutaneous bone cement refixation of aseptically loose hip prostheses: the effect of interface tissue removal on injected cement volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malan, Daniel F. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Orthopaedics, Leiden (Netherlands); Delft University of Technology, Department of Intelligent Systems, Delft (Netherlands); Valstar, Edward R. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Orthopaedics, Leiden (Netherlands); Delft University of Technology, Department of Biomechanical Engineering, Delft (Netherlands); Nelissen, Rob G.H.H. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Orthopaedics, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2014-11-15

    To quantify whether injected cement volumes differed between two groups of patients who underwent experimental minimally invasive percutaneous cement injection procedures to stabilize aseptically loose hip prostheses. One patient group was preoperatively treated using gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy to remove fibrous interface tissue, while the other group received no preoperative treatment. It was hypothesized that cement penetration may have been inhibited by the presence of fibrous interface tissue in periprosthetic lesions. We analyzed 17 patients (14 female, 3 male, ages 72-91, ASA categories 2-4) who were treated at our institution. Osteolytic lesions and injected cement were manually delineated using 3D CT image segmentation, and the deposition of injected cement was quantified. Patients who underwent preoperative gene-directed enzyme therapy to remove fibrous tissue exhibited larger injected cement volumes than those who did not. The observed median increase in injected cement volume was 6.8 ml. Higher cement leakage volumes were also observed for this group. We conclude that prior removal of periprosthetic fibrous interface tissue may enable better cement flow and penetration. This might lead to better refixation of aseptically loosened prostheses. (orig.)

  9. The Protective Effect of Bafilomycin A1 Against Cobalt Nanoparticle-Induced Cytotoxicity and Aseptic Inflammation in Macrophages In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Songhua; Liu, Fan; Zeng, Zhaoxun; Yang, Huilin; Jiang, Haitao

    2016-01-01

    Co ions released due to corrosion of Co nanoparticles (CoNPs) in the lysosomes of macrophages may be a factor in the particle-induced cytotoxicity and aseptic inflammation accompanying metal-on-metal (MOM) hip prosthesis failure. Here, we show that CoNPs are easily dissolved under a low pH, simulating the acidic lysosomal environment. We then used bafilomycin A1 to change the pH inside the lysosome to inhibit intracellular corrosion of CoNPs and then investigated its protective effects against CoNP-induced cytotoxicity and aseptic inflammation on murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells. XTT {2,3-bis (2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-5-[(phenylamino) carbonyl]-2H-tetrazolium hydroxide} assays revealed that bafilomycin A1 can significantly decrease CoNP-induced cytotoxicity in RAW264.7 cells. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays showed that bafilomycin A1 can significantly decrease the subtoxic concentration of CoNP-induced levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6), but has no effect on anti-inflammatory cytokines (transforming growth factor-β and interleukin-10) in RAW264.7 cells. We studied the protective mechanism of bafilomycin A1 against CoNP-induced effects in RAW264.7 cells by measuring glutathione/oxidized glutathione (GSH/GSSG), superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase levels and employed scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectrometer assays to observe the ultrastructural cellular changes. The changes associated with apoptosis were assessed by examining the pAKT and cleaved caspase-3 levels using Western blotting. These data strongly suggested that bafilomycin A1 can potentially suppress CoNP-induced cytotoxicity and aseptic inflammation by inhibiting intracellular corrosion of CoNPs and that the reduction in Co ions released from CoNPs may play an important role in downregulating oxidative stress in RAW264.7 cells.

  10. Data on the cost effective surface sterilization method for C.carandas (L.) seeds and callus induction from aseptic seedling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhadane, Bhushan S; Patil, Ravindra H

    2016-06-01

    Surface sterilization of explant is an important and most sensitive step in plant tissue culture. Inappropriate concentrations of sterilants have lethal effect in cell division and it restricts growth and development of explant. Therefore, suitable concentration, combinations and duration of exposure of sterilant is essential to raise in vitro cultures successfully. This data demonstrates use of various sterilizing agents for aseptic plantlet germination from seed of Carissa carandas (Apocynaceae). The present dataset provides information in support of cost-effective explant sterilization potential of benzalkonium chloride containing commercial bleach (Lizol) and its comparison with traditionally used surface sterilants in plant tissue culture i.e. 0.1% HgCl2 alone and in combination with 70% alcohol. The data on callogenic response using MS medium supplemented with plant growth regulators is also shared.

  11. Data on the cost effective surface sterilization method for C.carandas (L. seeds and callus induction from aseptic seedling

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    Bhushan S. Bhadane

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Surface sterilization of explant is an important and most sensitive step in plant tissue culture. Inappropriate concentrations of sterilants have lethal effect in cell division and it restricts growth and development of explant. Therefore, suitable concentration, combinations and duration of exposure of sterilant is essential to raise in vitro cultures successfully. This data demonstrates use of various sterilizing agents for aseptic plantlet germination from seed of Carissa carandas (Apocynaceae. The present dataset provides information in support of cost-effective explant sterilization potential of benzalkonium chloride containing commercial bleach (Lizol and its comparison with traditionally used surface sterilants in plant tissue culture i.e. 0.1% HgCl2 alone and in combination with 70% alcohol. The data on callogenic response using MS medium supplemented with plant growth regulators is also shared.

  12. Metal is not inert: role of metal ions released by biocorrosion in aseptic loosening--current concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadosch, Dieter; Chan, Erwin; Gautschi, Oliver P; Filgueira, Luis

    2009-12-15

    Metal implants are essential therapeutic tools for the treatment of bone fractures and joint replacements. The metals and metal alloys used in contemporary orthopedic and trauma surgery are well tolerated by the majority of patients. However, complications resulting from inflammatory and immune reactions to metal implants have been well documented. This review briefly discusses the different mechanisms of metal implant corrosion in the human body, which lead to the release of significant levels of metal ions into the peri-implant tissues and the systemic blood circulation. Additionally, this article reviews the effects of the released ions on bone metabolism and the immune system and discusses their involvement in the pathophysiological mechanisms of aseptic loosening and metal hypersensitivity in patients with metal implants.

  13. Childhood trauma and childhood urbanicity in relation to psychotic disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frissen, Aleida; Lieverse, Ritsaert; Drukker, Marjan; van Winkel, Ruud; Delespaul, Philippe; Cahn, W

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urban upbringing and childhood trauma are both associated with psychotic disorders. However, the association between childhood urbanicity and childhood trauma in psychosis is poorly understood. The urban environment could occasion a background of social adversity against which any effect

  14. Aseptic meningitis in a large MMR vaccine campaign (590,609 people in Curitiba, Paraná, Brazil, 1998

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    ARRUDA Walter Oleschko

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The aseptic meningitis after Measles-Mumps-Rubella vaccine (MMR is a well recognized complication, and different incidences have been observed in several studies. We retrospectively analyzed forty cases of aseptic meningitis, during a large public immunization campaign (1998 in Curitiba, Southern Brazil (590,609 people, admitted in our Service. The vaccine utilized was Leningrad-3-Zagreb mumps strain, Edmonston-Zagreb measles strain, and RA 27#3 rubella strain. In all county, a total number of 87 cases were reported, resulting in a incidence of 1.7 cases per 10,000 given doses . The mean age was 23.7 ± 12.8 years. The female:male ratio was 1.35:1. Severe headache with meningismus (92.5%, fever (87.5%, nausea/vomiting (82.5% were the most common clinical findings. Three cases (7.5% developed mild mumps. All patients underwent cerebrospinal fluid (CSF tap with the following findings: mononuclear pleocytosis from 100 to 500 cells/mm³ in 17 cases (42.5%; 257.5 ± 260.6 cells/mm³; increased protein 28 cases (67.5%; 92.1 ± 76.9 mg/dL; glucose was normal in all cases (56.8 ± 11.2 mg/dL except in 4 (10% cases, which presented less than 44 mg/dL. All serological tests (latex to bacterial meningitis, Cryptococcus, cysticercosis, VDRL and bacteriological cultures were negative. Virus identification were also negative in 8 samples. None of the patients had neurological deficits or related symptoms after one year of onset. We believe the benefit of vaccination clearly outweights the incidence of benign vaccine-associated meningitis.

  15. Plasmodium falciparum malaria challenge by the bite of aseptic Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes: results of a randomized infectivity trial.

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    Kirsten E Lyke

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Experimental infection of malaria-naïve volunteers by the bite of Plasmodium falciparum-infected mosquitoes is a preferred means to test the protective effect of malaria vaccines and drugs. The standard model relies on the bite of five infected mosquitoes to induce malaria. We examined the efficacy of malaria transmission using mosquitoes raised aseptically in compliance with current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMPs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Eighteen adults aged 18-40 years were randomized to receive 1, 3 or 5 bites of Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes infected with the chloroquine-sensitive NF54 strain of P. falciparum. Seventeen participants developed malaria; fourteen occurring on Day 11. The mean prepatent period was 10.9 days (9-12 days. The geometric mean parasitemia was 15.7 parasites/µL (range: 4-70 by microscopy. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR detected parasites 3.1 (range: 0-4 days prior to microscopy. The geometric mean sporozoite load was 16,753 sporozoites per infected mosquito (range: 1,000-57,500. A 1-bite participant withdrew from the study on Day 13 post-challenge and was PCR and smear negative. CONCLUSIONS: The use of aseptic, cGMP-compliant P. falciparum-infected mosquitoes is safe, is associated with a precise prepatent period compared to the standard model and appears more efficient than the standard approach, as it led to infection in 100% (6/6 of volunteers exposed to three mosquito bites and 83% (5/6 of volunteers exposed to one mosquito bite. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00744133.

  16. Strontium-doped calcium polyphosphate/ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene composites: A new class of artificial joint components with enhanced biological efficacy to aseptic loosening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Zhipeng [College of Polymer Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Department of Neurosurgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Huang, Bingxue; Li, Yiwen [College of Polymer Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Tian, Meng [Department of Neurosurgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Li, Li [Department of Oncology, the 452 Hospital of Chinese PLA, Chengdu 610021 (China); Yu, Xixun, E-mail: yuxixun@163.com [College of Polymer Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China)

    2016-04-01

    To enhance implant stability and prolong the service life of artificial joint component, a new approach was proposed to improve the wear resistance of artificial joint component and endow artificial joint component with the biological efficacy of resistance to aseptic loosening. Strontium calcium polyphosphate (SCPP) were interfused in ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) by a combination of liquid nitrogen ball-milling and flat-panel curing process to prepare the SCPP/UHMWPE composites. The micro-structure, mechanical characterization, tribological characterization and bioactivities of various SCPP/UHMWPE composites were investigated. The results suggested that this method could statistically improve the wear resistance of UHMWPE resulting from a good SCPP particle dispersion. Moreover, it is also observed that the SCPP/UHMWPE composites-wear particles could promote the production of OPG by osteoblasts and decrease the production of RANKL by osteoblasts, and then increase the OPG/RANKL ratio. This indicated that the SCPP/UHMWPE composites had potential efficacy to prevent and treat aseptic loosening. Above all, the SCPP/UHMWPE composites with a suitable SCPP content would be the promising materials for fabricating artificial joint component with ability to resist aseptic loosening. - Highlights: • SCPP/UHMWPE composites could enhance biological efficacy of resistance to aseptic loosening. • SCPP would improve biological efficacy with a few sacrifice of wear resistance. • The results might provide a promising wear-resistant material for fabricating acetabular cup.

  17. Why does it take so long? ‘Lean processing’ in the aseptic compounding unit at the Midland Regional Hospital Tullamore

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Greene, C

    2011-06-01

    Increasing numbers of oncology\\/haematology patients attending Midland Regional Hospital Tullamore (MRHT) has increased the workload of the Regional Oncology Haematology Pharmacy (ROHP) compounding unit. Staff restrictions require optimisation of current workflow practices. This audit (November 2010 and June 2011) focused on workflow in the aseptic compounding unit.\\r\

  18. Characteristic of endocrine cells of rat small intestine after administration of cryopreserved placenta on the background of acute aseptic peritoneal inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shepitko K.V.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background. Modern conceptions about mechanisms of inflammation of the small intestine could not be formed without an understanding of intercellular relationships that are realized by biologically active signaling molecules produced by endocrine cells. Methods. The experimental study has been carried out on the small intestine extracted from 140 adult male rats. Electron and light microscopy methods were used. Acute aseptic inflammation was modeled by intraperitoneal carrageenan injection; influence of subcutaneously cryopreserved placenta injection was analyzed. Results. After modeling of the acute aseptic peritoneal inflammation the maximal increase of ECL-cells was noted on the 21st day. The slowest restoration of endocrine cells number occurred on all measured parameters and was observed on day 30th of the observation. In case of administration of cryopreserved placenta at the early stages (days 3rd – 7th the increase of average number of EC- and ECL-cells promoted the enhanced permeability of vessels in the lamina propria. The decrease in number of P-cells prevented the development of hyperacid gastritis. Reduction in the average number of D1- cells prevented the excessive vasodilatation and facilitated the excretion of excess fluid from the foci of inflammation. In simultaneous subcutaneous administration of cryopreserved placenta and modeling of acute aseptic peritoneal inflammation the number of ЕС- and ЕСL-cells increased, accelerating the vascular response to inflammation. Conclusion. Active appearance of low-differentiated cells including those with “shapes of mitosis” on the day 14th indicates restoration of structural components of the small intestine mucosa and processes of absorption and parietal digestion after placenta administration during acute aseptic inflammation. Citation: Shepitko KV. [Characteristic of endocrine cells of rat small intestine after administration of cryopreserved placenta on the background of

  19. [EVALUATION OF THE BACTERIOSTATIC EFFECT OF IMMOBILIZED ON COLLAGEN CARRIER ANTIBIOTICS AND SILVER IONS IN PROVISION OF THE ASEPTIC STATE OF THE TISSUE WOUNDS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storublevtsev, S A; Popov, V I; Antipova, L V; Stukalo, O G; Bolgova, S B

    2015-01-01

    In the treatment of tissue wounds practically all the time there is necessary the establishment of aseptic conditions in the area of the damaged tissue. In modern medical practice quite a while the use of materials on the basis of collagen aroused widespread. The aim of the study was an assessment the bacteriostatic properties both of collagenic substance with the antibiotics immobilized on it, and ions of silver also. The presence on a surface of collagen of a large number of active functional groups allow to use it as a matrix for an immobilization of various biologically active and medicinal agents. Authors performed an assessment of possibility of an immobilization of antibiotics on the collagenic carrier. The purpose of an immobilization was in the prolongation of the impact of an active component--Polymyxin-M or Gentamycin. Besides aseptic effect, availability of specific amino acids of collagen will promote the acceleration of the reparative processes in a wound. There were performed investigations on determination of bacteriostatic effect of immobilized on the protein carrier (collagen of hydrobionts) antibiotics, and silver ions also. Bacteriostatic effect was estimated by the disco--a diffusive method with use of E. coli as test culture. Results of the studies showed that the delivered preparation had bacteriostatic effect on the test culture. At that the area of a zone of a growth inhibition in case of the of use--Polymyxin was 1.3 time more than, than in case of the use of a preparation of Gentamycin. The obtained collagenic substances of an origin with the immobilized bacteriostatic components and ions of silver have considerable prospects and real opportunity in the delivery of aseptic preparations of a domestic production. Taking into account the available data in further there is planned the development of aseptic preparations with the occluded biologically active agents and nanoparticles of metals for providing an aseptics and acceleration the

  20. Childhood Roots of Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Norman F.; Lubensky, Amy W.

    1976-01-01

    Earlier project reports compared childhood social behavior of nonmigratory schizophrenics and normal classmates by analyzing teachers' comments in school records. This article expands the sample to include migratory schizophrenics and analyzes childhood intellectual functioning. Behavioral differences indicated emotional immaturity and social…

  1. Childhood Overweight and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Prevention and Wellness Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Childhood Overweight and Obesity Childhood Overweight and Obesity Family HealthFood and NutritionHealthy Food ChoicesKids and TeensPrevention and WellnessWeight Loss and Diet ...

  2. Undiagnosed asthma in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gent, R.

    2008-01-01

    Asthma is the most prevalent chronic disease in childhood. To study the actual prevalence and impact of undiagnosed childhood asthma in daily life (i.e. quality of life, participation in physical and school activities) we performed a survey in schoolchildren (aged 7-10 years) in the southern part of

  3. Interleukin-6 in serum and in synovial fluid enhances the differentiation between periprosthetic joint infection and aseptic loosening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas M Randau

    Full Text Available The preoperative differentiation between septic and aseptic loosening after total hip or knee arthroplasty is essential for successful therapy and relies in part on biomarkers. The objective of this study was to assess synovial and serum levels of inflammatory proteins as diagnostic tool for periprosthetic joint infection and compare their accuracy with standard tests. 120 patients presenting with a painful knee or hip endoprosthesis for surgical revision were included in this prospective trial. Blood samples and samples of intraoperatively acquired joint fluid aspirate were collected. White blood cell count, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin and interleukin-6 were determined. The joint aspirate was analyzed for total leukocyte count and IL-6. The definite diagnosis of PJI was determined on the basis of purulent synovial fluid, histopathology and microbiology. IL-6 in serum showed significantly higher values in the PJI group as compared to aseptic loosening and control, with specificity at 58.3% and a sensitivity of 79.5% at a cut-off value of 2.6 pg/ml. With a cut-off >6.6 pg/ml, the specificity increased to 88.3%. IL-6 in joint aspirate had, at a cut-off of >2100 pg/ml, a specificity of 85.7% and sensitivity of 59.4%. At levels >9000 pg/ml, specificity was almost at 100% with sensitivity just below 50%, so PJI could be considered proven with IL-6 levels above this threshold. Our data supports the published results on IL-6 as a biomarker in PJI. In our large prospective cohort of revision arthroplasty patients, the use of IL-6 in synovial fluid appears to be a more accurate marker than either the white blood cell count or the C-reactive protein level in serum for the detection of periprosthetic joint infection. On the basis of the results we recommend the use of the synovial fluid biomarker IL-6 for the diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection following total hip and knee arthroplasty.

  4. 人工关节假体植入后无菌性松动的发病机制%Pathogenesis of aseptic prosthesis loosening after artificial prosthesis implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马玉超; 田京

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are many clinical researches on aseptic loosening of artificial prosthesis, but the exact pathogenesis is still unclear.OBJECTIVE: To review the pathogenesis of prosthesis aseptic loosening after artificial prosthesis implantation.METHODS: A computer-based online search of PubMed and CNKI was performed to search related articles published between 2006 and 2011 with the key words of “artificial prosthesis, aseptic loosening” both in English and Chinese. A total of 77 articles were obtained, and finally 38 articles were included.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Aseptic loosening after long-term total hip replacement is one of the main failure reasons. In the recent years, analysis of revision total hip replacement for failed hip arthroplasty showed that aseptic loosening is the chief reason. The mechanism of aseptic loosening mainly includes mechanical mechanisms, biological and other mechanisms. With further research and the improvement of implantation method and prosthetic materials, aseptic loosening will eventually be minimized, so that the service life of prosthesis will be longer.%背景:对于人工关节无菌性松动的基础和临床研究很多,但其确切机制仍不甚明确.目的:综述人工关节假体植入后无菌性松动的发病机制.方法:由第一作者应用计算机检索PubMed和中国期刊全文数据库2006/2011相关文献.在标题、摘要、关键词中以"artificial prosthesis,aseptic loosening"或"人工关节、无菌性松动"为检索词进行检索.共检索到77篇文献,最终纳入符合标准的文献38篇.结果与结论:无菌性松动已成为人工关节置换后远期失败的主要原因之一.近年来对人工全髋关节置换后翻修病例回顾性分析的统计显示,无菌性松动位于翻修原因第1位.关于人工关节无菌性松动的机制主要分为机械机制、生物机制及其他机制,它们的共同结果是造成骨吸收、骨溶解,最终导致假体松动.随着研究

  5. Pyrolysis of aseptic packages (tetrapak) in a laboratory screw type reactor and secondary thermal/catalytic tar decomposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydary, J; Susa, D; Dudáš, J

    2013-05-01

    Pyrolysis of aseptic packages (tetrapak cartons) in a laboratory apparatus using a flow screw type reactor and a secondary catalytic reactor for tar cracking was studied. The pyrolysis experiments were realized at temperatures ranging from 650 °C to 850 °C aimed at maximizing of the amount of the gas product and reducing its tar content. Distribution of tetrapak into the product yields at different conditions was obtained. The presence of H2, CO, CH4, CO2 and light hydrocarbons, HCx, in the gas product was observed. The Aluminum foil was easily separated from the solid product. The rest part of char was characterized by proximate and elemental analysis and calorimetric measurements. The total organic carbon in the tar product was estimated by elemental analysis of tars. Two types of catalysts (dolomite and red clay marked AFRC) were used for catalytic thermal tar decomposition. Three series of experiments (without catalyst in a secondary cracking reactor, with dolomite and with AFRC) at temperatures of 650, 700, 750, 800 and 850 °C were carried out. Both types of catalysts have significantly affected the content of tars and other components in pyrolytic gases. The effect of catalyst on the tetrapack distribution into the product yield on the composition of gas and on the total organic carbon in the tar product is presented in this work.

  6. [Bacteriological control of blood preservation, production of infusion solutions and dry human plasma under conditions of aseptic work and possible sources of their contamination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosković, S; Lucić, N; Aganović, N; Grbić, E

    1975-01-01

    In premises for blood conservation, production of dry human plasma and infusion solutions "notwithstanding the permanent measures for desinfection, new bacterial contamination occurs from time to time and whose source are the casings and material originating from non-sterile environment. Bacteriological control, which has primarily a preventive character, enables a due forecast for measures to be undertaken by the appropriate desinfection of the working surfaces and air, satisfactory conditions of aseptic work can be maintained. General hygiene should be paid attention to as well as mechanical cleansing of premises, avoidance of groups for lunch-time etc., since the treatment by desinfectors would not be sufficient for maintenance of aseptic working conditions. In order to prevent the transmission of bacterial contamination, premises for blood conservation should be strictly separated from other operations and also prevent the unnecessary movements of personnel through corridors. The results of the bacteriological control of the personnel show that greater attention should be paid to their health care since the workers there work in closed aseptic systems and thus avoid them as a bacteria transmittors in respect to danger of blood and dry human plasma contamination. It is also necessary to efficiently educate the personnel for work in aseptic conditions and also increase their elementary knowledge from bacteriology and hygiene. The bacterial skin-flora on the spot of donor's venepuncture also presents a certain danger for blood contamination. Therefore, it is necessary to establish the most optimal manner of skin desinfecate together with the most appropriate means having a fast bactericidal and fungicidal action. It would also be useful, on the basis of further test, to suggest certain standard for an allowed number of conditionally pathogenic and saprophytic microorganisms which would be used by the instutions performing the blood transfusion and production of

  7. Strontium-doped calcium polyphosphate/ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene composites: A new class of artificial joint components with enhanced biological efficacy to aseptic loosening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Zhipeng; Huang, Bingxue; Li, Yiwen; Tian, Meng; Li, Li; Yu, Xixun

    2016-04-01

    To enhance implant stability and prolong the service life of artificial joint component, a new approach was proposed to improve the wear resistance of artificial joint component and endow artificial joint component with the biological efficacy of resistance to aseptic loosening. Strontium calcium polyphosphate (SCPP) were interfused in ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) by a combination of liquid nitrogen ball-milling and flat-panel curing process to prepare the SCPP/UHMWPE composites. The micro-structure, mechanical characterization, tribological characterization and bioactivities of various SCPP/UHMWPE composites were investigated. The results suggested that this method could statistically improve the wear resistance of UHMWPE resulting from a good SCPP particle dispersion. Moreover, it is also observed that the SCPP/UHMWPE composites-wear particles could promote the production of OPG by osteoblasts and decrease the production of RANKL by osteoblasts, and then increase the OPG/RANKL ratio. This indicated that the SCPP/UHMWPE composites had potential efficacy to prevent and treat aseptic loosening. Above all, the SCPP/UHMWPE composites with a suitable SCPP content would be the promising materials for fabricating artificial joint component with ability to resist aseptic loosening.

  8. Childhood vitiligo: Treatment paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrinder Jit Kanwar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood vitiligo differs from the adults by showing a higher incidence in females, segmental vitiligo being more common and less frequent association with other systemic autoimmune and endocrine disorders.Childhood vitiligo is often associated with a marked psychosocial and long lasting effect on the self-esteem of the affected children and their parents, hence an adequate treatment is very essential. Treatment of vitiligo is indeed a tough challenge for the dermatologists′ more so in the background of childhood vitiligo. Although multiple therapeutic modalities are available in the therapeutic armamentarium, not all can be used in children. This brief report updates regarding various therapies available in the treatment of childhood vitiligo.

  9. Childhood Obesity: Common Misconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of childhood obesity. Yes, hypothyroidism (a deficit in thyroid secretion) and other rarer and more severe genetic and metabolic disorders (eg, Prader-Willi syndrome, Turner syndrome, Cushing syndrome) ...

  10. Cardiovascular Conditions of Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diagnosed, treated and even cured in younger children. Kawasaki Disease This childhood illness can result in long-term ... complications. Learn the symptoms, diagnosis and treatment for Kawasaki disease. Cholesterol Raised cholesterol levels early in life may ...

  11. Stages of Childhood Craniopharyngioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... has any of the following: Headaches, including morning headache or headache that goes away after vomiting . Vision changes. Nausea ... Cancer Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Children with Cancer: ...

  12. Childhood Craniopharyngioma Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... has any of the following: Headaches, including morning headache or headache that goes away after vomiting . Vision changes. Nausea ... Cancer Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Children with Cancer: ...

  13. Stages of Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It may be painful. Bulging of the eye. Headache. Trouble urinating or having bowel movements. Blood in ... Cancer Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Children with Cancer: ...

  14. Childhood Astrocytomas Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your child has any of the following: Morning headache or headache that goes away after vomiting . Nausea and vomiting. ... Cancer Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Children with Cancer: ...

  15. Perinatal and Childhood Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology, risk factors, outcome and prognosis of perinatal and childhood stroke were reviewed at a workshop sponsored by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke in Bethesda, MD, on Sept 18 and 19, 2000.

  16. Early childhood aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Alink, Lenneke Rosalie Agnes

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis the development, stability, and correlates of early childhood aggression were investigated. The normative development was examined in a general population sample using questionnaires completed by the parents of 12-, 24-, and 36-month-old children and again one year later. Results showed an early childhood aggression curve, with increasing rates of aggression in the second year of life and decreasing rates in the fourth year. One-year stabilities were moderate for 12-month-olds ...

  17. Nutrition in childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Bartolo, Marie Claire

    2014-01-01

    Childhood is the stage in a human’s life associated with growth and development. Growth proceeds rapidly in early life, slows down in middle childhood and accelerates at puberty before linear growth ceases. With increasing age there is also physical and psychomotor maturation, which influences activity, body composition, feeding skills and food choices (Geissler, 2011). Adequate nutrition is essential for growth, health and development of children. Poor nutrition in...

  18. The role of Card9 overexpression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with aseptic acute pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhi-wen; Weng, Cheng-zhao; Wang, Jing; Xu, Ping

    2016-03-01

    Activated mononuclear cells are an early event in the course of severe acute pancreatitis (SAP). To date, the molecular mechanism triggering peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) is poorly understood. The aim of this paper was to determine the potential role of Card9 in SAP. We collected data from 72 subjects between January 2013 and June 2014. Subsequently, PBMCs were isolated on day 1, 3 and 5 of pancreatitis. Immunofluorescence staining, quantitative real-time PCR, Western blotting, immunoprecipitation and ELISA were used to determine the role of Card9 in SAP. Microbial culture showed that SAP patients at the early period did not develop any bacteria and fungi infection. Card9 expression in SAP patients was higher than that in mild acute pancreatitis and volunteer healthy controls, up to the peak on day 1. The monocyte-derived cytokines interleukin (IL)-17, IL-1β, IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor-α mediated by the induction of Card9 markedly increased in SAP patients compared with the control group. Furthermore, the inducible formation of Card9-Bcl10 complex was found in PBMCs, which may be involved in nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and p38 activation in SAP. Receiver operating characteristic curve indicated that Card9 levels had a high sensitivity of 87.5% and specificity of 67.7%, showing the close correlation with SAP patients. Card9 overexpression was firstly found in aseptic SAP, which may be played an important role in NF-κB and p38 activation in PBMCs. It also provided the new insights into therapeutic interventions by targeting monocytes activation in SAP patients.

  19. Progress of Aseptic Purification Technique of Cyanobacteria%蓝藻无菌化方法研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李天丽; 郑凌凌; 张琪; 宋立荣

    2015-01-01

    随着微藻产业的蓬勃发展,蓝藻作为具有重要经济价值的资源受到人们越来越多的关注,其多糖和蛋白的开发已被应用于多个领域。为了更深入清晰地挖掘蓝藻的特性和功能,研究者首先需获得无菌的纯种藻株,这是深入开展蓝藻生理生化、遗传和毒性等研究的基础。重点综述了如何根据蓝藻的结构及生理特性选择合适的无菌化方法,介绍了基于蓝藻与污染菌之间差异性的无菌化方法,以期为蓝藻的无菌化工作提供参考。%With the vigorous development of the microalgae industry, people are paying much more attention to cyanobacteria according to its important economic value, as its polysaccharide and protein are applied in many fields.In order to excavate the characteristics and function of cyanobacteria more in-depth and clearly, it is necessary to obtain axenic cultures of cyanobacteria, which is also regarded as the foundation for the further research on physiological, biochemical, genetic and taxonomic characteristics of cyanobacteria.This paper mainly reviewed the chosen of appropriate aseptic purification methods based on their structures and physiological characteristics.Furthermore, the methods based on the differences between cyanobacteria and contaminated bacteria were introduced.The paper was expected to provide useful information for the works on purification of cyanobacteria.

  20. Infecciones del sistema nervioso central por enterovirus en niños atendidos en un hospital de Lima, Perú Enteroviral central nervous system infections in children treated at a hospital in Lima, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván O Espinoza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Determinar la frecuencia y las características clínicas de las infecciones del sistema nervioso central por enterovirus en niños atendidos en el Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia de Lima, Perú. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un estudio prospectivo y descriptivo desde abril 2008 hasta marzo 2010. Se enrolaron pacientes de un mes a 14 años con diagnóstico clínico de encefalitis o meningitis asépticas. Se investigó la presencia de enterovirus, virus herpes simple 1 (VHS-1, virus herpes simple 2 (VHS-2 y virus varicela-zoster (VZV mediante reacción en cadena de polimerasa (PCR. Resultados. Se enrolaron 97 pacientes de los cuales 69 % presentaron encefalitis aguda y 31 % meningitis aguda. Se identificó enterovirus en 52,6 % del total de infecciones agudas no bacterianas del sistema nervioso central; encontrándose en 83,3 % de las meningitis y en 38,8 % de las encefalitis. No hubo casos de infección por VHS-1, VHS-2 ni VZV. Las infecciones por enterovirus alcanzaron el 82,9 % en los meses cálidos de noviembre a enero y el 28,6 % en los meses fríos de mayo a julio. Conclusiones. Los enterovirus fueron los principales agentes etiológicos en las encefalitis y meningitis asépticas agudas en pacientes pediátricos de Lima, Perú. Los enterovirus tienen un comportamiento epidemiológico estacional con un claro aumento del número de casos en los meses de verano. Resulta útil tener disponible un método de diagnóstico rápido, como una ayuda para el manejo de las infecciones agudas del sistema nervioso.Objectives. To determine the frequency and clinical features of central nervous system infections caused by enterovirus in children treated at the Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia in Lima, Peru. Materials and methods. A prospective, descriptive study was performed from April 2008 to March 2010. Patients aged 1 month - 14 years with clinical diagnosis of encephalitis or aseptic meningitis were included. We investigated the

  1. Childhood trauma in bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Stuart; Gallagher, Peter; Dougall, Dominic; Porter, Richard; Moncrieff, Joanna; Ferrier, I Nicol; Young, Allan H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: There has been little investigation of early trauma in bipolar disorder despite evidence that stress impacts on the course of this illness. We aimed to compare the rates of childhood trauma in adults with bipolar disorder to a healthy control group, and to investigate the impact of childhood trauma on the clinical course of bipolar disorder. Methods: Retrospective assessment of childhood trauma was conducted using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) in 60 outpatients with bipo...

  2. Childhood trauma in bipolar disorder.

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, S; Gallagher, P.; Dougall, D.; Porter, R.; Moncrieff, J; Ferrier, I N; Young, A.H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective:There has been little investigation of early trauma in bipolar disorder despite evidence that stress impacts on the course of this illness. We aimed to compare the rates of childhood trauma in adults with bipolar disorder to a healthy control group, and to investigate the impact of childhood trauma on the clinical course of bipolar disorder.Methods:Retrospective assessment of childhood trauma was conducted using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) in 60 outpatients with bipolar...

  3. Atopic endotype in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoos, Ann-Marie Malby; Chawes, Bo Lund Krogsgaard; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt

    2016-01-01

    against 28 inhalant and food allergens was assessed at ½, 1½, 4, 6, and 13 years of age in 399 children from the Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood2000 birth cohort by using both skin prick test responses and specific IgE levels. Asthma and eczema were diagnosed longitudinally by strictly...... with asthma through early childhood (0-6 years) when analyzed as any sensitization (odds ratio [OR] range, 0.78-1.29; P ≥ .48). However, at 13 years of age, any sensitization was associated with asthma (OR range, 4.02-5.94; all P ...%), eczema (26%), asthma (14%), or healthy status (24%). Conclusion: We found very little interdependency between asthma, eczema, and allergic sensitization through childhood. The associations between those entities were strongly dependent on age, type of allergens, and method of testing for sensitization...

  4. Discovering the Culture of Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plank, Emily

    2016-01-01

    We often filter our interactions with children through the lens of adulthood. View the culture of childhood through a whole new lens. Identify age-based bias and expand your outlook on and understanding of early childhood as a culture. Examine various elements of childhood culture: language, the power of believing, artistic expressions, and social…

  5. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 1 Molnar, B., Berkman, L., & Buka, S. (2001). Psychopathology, childhood sexual abuse, and other childhood adversities: Relative links ... 4 Shapiro, S. (1992). Suicidality and the sequelae of childhood victimization. In S. ... and psychopathology. NY: Lexington Books. 56 Goldsmith et al., (2000). ...

  6. Syphilitic aseptic meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meningitis - syphilitic; Neurosyphilis - syphilitic meningitis ... Syphilitic meningitis is a form of neurosyphilis . This condition is a life-threatening complication of syphilis infection. Syphilis is ...

  7. Childhood myelodysplastic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Tathagata; Choudhry, V P

    2013-09-01

    Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) comprises of a heterogeneous group of bone marrow disorders resulting from a clonal stem cell defect characterised by cytopenias despite a relatively hypercellular marrow, ineffective hematopoiesis, morphological dysplasia in the marrow elements, no response to hematinics such as iron, B12 or folic acid and risk of progression to leukemia. Myelodysplastic syndrome in childhood is extremely rare and accounts for less than 5% of all hematopoietic neoplasms in children below the age of 14 y. The primary MDS in children, also known as de novo MDS differs from secondary MDS which generally follows congenital or acquired bone marrow (BM) failure syndromes as well as from therapy related MDS, commonly resulting from cytotoxic therapy. MDS associated with Down syndrome which accounts for approximately one-fourth of cases of childhood MDS is now considered a unique biologic entity synonymous with Down syndrome-related myeloid leukemia and is biologically distinct from other cases of childhood MDS. Refractory cytopenia of childhood (RCC) is the commonest type of MDS. Genetic changes predisposing to MDS in childhood remain largely obscure. Monosomy 7 is by-far the commonest cytogenetic abnormality associated with childhood MDS; however most cases of RCC show a normal karyotype. Complex cytogenetic abnormalities and trisomy 8 and trisomy 21 are also occasionally observed. The most effective and curative treatment is Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and this is particularly effective in children with the monosomy 7 genetic defect as well as those displaying complex karyotype abnormalities provided it is instituted early in the course of the disease.

  8. Added value of experts' knowledge to improve a quantitative microbial exposure assessment model--Application to aseptic-UHT food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol, Laure; Johnson, Nicholas Brian; Magras, Catherine; Albert, Isabelle; Membré, Jeanne-Marie

    2015-10-15

    In a previous study, a quantitative microbial exposure assessment (QMEA) model applied to an aseptic-UHT food process was developed [Pujol, L., Albert, I., Magras, C., Johnson, N. B., Membré, J. M. Probabilistic exposure assessment model to estimate aseptic UHT product failure rate. 2015 International Journal of Food Microbiology. 192, 124-141]. It quantified Sterility Failure Rate (SFR) associated with Bacillus cereus and Geobacillus stearothermophilus per process module (nine modules in total from raw material reception to end-product storage). Previously, the probabilistic model inputs were set by experts (using knowledge and in-house data). However, only the variability dimension was taken into account. The model was then improved using expert elicitation knowledge in two ways. First, the model was refined by adding the uncertainty dimension to the probabilistic inputs, enabling to set a second order Monte Carlo analysis. The eight following inputs, and their impact on SFR, are presented in detail in this present study: D-value for each bacteria of interest (B. cereus and G. stearothermophilus) associated with the inactivation model for the UHT treatment step, i.e., two inputs; log reduction (decimal reduction) number associated with the inactivation model for the packaging sterilization step for each bacterium and each part of the packaging (product container and sealing component), i.e., four inputs; and bacterial spore air load of the aseptic tank and the filler cabinet rooms, i.e., two inputs. Second, the model was improved by leveraging expert knowledge to develop further the existing model. The proportion of bacteria in the product which settled on surface of pipes (between the UHT treatment and the aseptic tank on one hand, and between the aseptic tank and the filler cabinet on the other hand) leading to a possible biofilm formation for each bacterium, was better characterized. It was modeled as a function of the hygienic design level of the aseptic

  9. A Tewo Tibetan Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rdo rje tshe brtan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Rdo rje tshe brtan (b. 1986 describes his childhood in Dredze Village, Yiwa Township, Tewo County, Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu Province, China, as well as being a student in Xining City, Qinghai Province. Topics covered include his family, childhood injuries and illnesses, education, Terang (malicious household deities, mountain deities and associated rituals and sacrifices, death, conflict with other locals, collecting local plants, a birth in the village, stealing fruit, a wedding, plowing, a visit to a hot spring, a lost yak, slaughtering pigs, government confiscation of fields, and slaughtering pigs. Photos provide additional detail.

  10. BIOTECHNOLOGICAL APPROACHES FOR CONSERVATION OF THE ENDANGERED SPECIES Crambe koktebelica (JUNGE N. BUSCH AND EFFECT OF ASEPTIC IN VITRO CULTIVATION ON ITS BIOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushkarova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to establish efficient protocols of seed surface sterilization with further multiplication in vitro for threatened species Crambe koktebelica (Junge N. Busch and to show the effect of biotechnological approach (in vitro cultivation of biodiversity conservation on plants biochemical properties. Seed surface sterilization was carried out according to the original method with further microclonal multiplication of aseptic sprouts from lateral buds on the Murashige and Skoog (MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of growth regulators. Fatty acid content was determined using Gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry of fatty acid ethers. Antioxidant activity was determined using 2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method. Total soluble protein content was measured using Bradford method and polyfructan content determination was based upon ketosugars ability to color in the acidic environment with resorcinol. Plants that were grown under in vitro and in vivo conditions and seeds were used in this research. Efficient protocol of surface sterilization that resulted in 45% of aseptic seed material 50% of which has sprouted was elaborated for C. koktebelica as well as fast microclonal multiplication methods that provided with up to 5.25 ± 0.50 new formed plantlets from 1 lateral bud (on the MS medium that contained 1 mg/L of 6-benzylaminopurine. It was also shown that aseptic cultivation benefits to saturated fatty acid accumulation and increases protein content but on the other hand it reduces unsaturated fatty acid amount and polyfructan content as well as antioxidant activity of plant material. Obtained data confirms the prospect of biotechnology approach to biodiversity conservation and suggest the necessity of father in vitro cultivation effect on biochemical composition of plant study.

  11. An experimental animal model of aseptic loosening of hip prostheses in sheep to study early biochemical changes at the interface membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akens Margarete K

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aseptic loosening of hip prosthesis as it occurs in clinical cases in human patients was attributed to wear particles of the implants, the response of the tissue dominated by macrophages and the production of inflammatory mediators and matrix degrading enzymes; however, the cascade of events initiating the process and their interaction regarding the time course is still open and discussed controversially. Therefore, the goal of this study was to establish an experimental animal model in sheep allowing to follow the cascade of early mechanical and biochemical events within the interface membrane and study the sequence of how they contribute to the pathological bone resorption necessary for aseptic loosening of the implant. Methods A cemented modular system (Biomedtrix was used as a hip replacement in 24 adult Swiss Alpine sheep, with one group receiving a complete cement mantle as controls (n = 12, and the other group a cement mantle with a standardized, lateral, primary defect in the cement mantle (n = 12. Animals were followed over time for 2 and 8.5 months (n = 6 each. After sacrifice, samples from the interface membranes were harvested from five different regions of the femur and joint capsule. Explant cell cultures were performed and supernatant of cultures were tested and assayed for nitric oxide, prostaglandin E2, caseinolytic and collagenolytic activity. RNA extraction and quantification were performed for inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, interleukin 1, and interleukin 6. Overall differences between groups and time periods and interactions thereof were calculated using a factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results The development of an interface membrane was noticed in both groups at both time points. However, in the controls the interface membrane regressed in thickness and biological activity, while both variables increased in the experimental group with the primary cement mantle defect over time

  12. Conscientiousness: Origins in Childhood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Duckworth, Angela L.; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Valiente, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we evaluate developmental and personality research with the aim of determining whether the personality trait of conscientiousness can be identified in children and adolescents. After concluding that conscientiousness does emerge in childhood, we discuss the developmental origins of conscientiousness with a specific focus on…

  13. Peer Relations in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Dale F.; Payne, Alexandra; Chadwick, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    We present a developmental model that describes normal peer relations and highlights processes that underlie the emergence of problems with peers in childhood. We propose that children's relationships with peers begin in the first years of life, with stable individual differences and preferences for particular peers emerging by three years of age.…

  14. Dietary Patterns in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise Beltoft Borup

    childhood. These associations might contribute to the identification of families, who would benefit from guidance to help them establish healthy dietary patterns for their infants. Finding tracking for some infants and changes in adherence to dietary patterns for others as well as the association between...

  15. Childhood Vaccine Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Childhood Vaccine Schedule Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents ... as pneumonia, blood infections, and bacterial meningitis Rotavirus vaccine (three ... in babies and young children 4 Months DTaP, Hib, IPV, PCV, RV 6 ...

  16. Childhood Depressive Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wesselhöft, Rikke Thaarup

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes a female patient diagnosed with Barraquer-Simons syndrome, a rare form of acquired partial lipodystrophy characterised by symmetrical loss of adipose tissue from face, neck, upper extremities and the trunk with onset in early childhood. Initial symptoms were seen...

  17. Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pui, Ching-Hon; Yang, Jun J; Hunger, Stephen P;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To review the impact of collaborative studies on advances in the biology and treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children and adolescents. METHODS: A review of English literature on childhood ALL focusing on collaborative studies was performed. The resulting article was re...

  18. The Teening of Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymowitz, Kay S.

    2000-01-01

    The market and advertising media aimed at children has skyrocketed in recent years. Many new products targeting 8-12-year-olds appeal to their sense of teen fashion, image consciousness, and independence from adults. Describes the development of this market aimed at early adolescents and how it is changing childhood as Americans have known it. (SM)

  19. Childhood microbial keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah G Al Otaibi

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Children with suspected microbial keratitis require comprehensive evaluation and management. Early recognition, identifying the predisposing factors and etiological microbial organisms, and instituting appropriate treatment measures have a crucial role in outcome. Ocular trauma was the leading cause of childhood microbial keratitis in our study.

  20. Treating childhood trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terr, Lenore C

    2013-01-01

    This review begins with the question "What is childhood trauma?" Diagnosis is discussed next, and then the article focuses on treatment, using 3 basic principles-abreaction, context, and correction. Treatment modalities and complications are discussed, with case vignettes presented throughout to illustrate. Suggestions are provided for the psychiatrist to manage countertransference as trauma therapy proceeds.

  1. Early Childhood Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Early childhood trauma generally refers to the traumatic experiences that occur to children aged 0-6. Because infants' and young children's reactions may be different from older children's, and because they may not be able to verbalize their reactions to threatening or dangerous events, many people assume that young age protects children from the…

  2. Childhood disintegrative disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik

    2003-01-01

    are sometimes associated with this disorder, but contrary to earlier belief this is not typical. Interest in childhood disintegrative disorder has increased markedly in recent years and in this review attention is given to more recently published cases based on ICD-9, ICD-10 and DSM-IV diagnostic systems...

  3. Narrative Processes across Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvaney, Matthew Keefe

    2011-01-01

    According to the narrative perspective on personality development, personality is constructed largely by interpreting and representing experience in story format (scripts) over the course of the lifespan. The focus of this paper is to describe briefly the narrative perspective on personality development during childhood and adolescence, to discuss…

  4. Early childhood aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alink, Lenneke Rosalie Agnes

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis the development, stability, and correlates of early childhood aggression were investigated. The normative development was examined in a general population sample using questionnaires completed by the parents of 12-, 24-, and 36-month-old children and again one year later. Results show

  5. Childhood Obesity: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, John J.

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews recent research evidence, largely from systematic reviews, on a number of aspects of childhood obesity: its definition and prevalence; consequences; causes and prevention. The basis of the body mass index (BMI) as a means of defining obesity in children and adolescents is discussed: a high BMI for age constitutes obesity. In…

  6. Childhood Ependymoma Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... causes the tissue to light up under a microscope. This type of test may be used to tell the ... Treatment for Childhood Cancer for more information). Four types of standard ... the tissue under a microscope to check for cancer cells . If cancer cells ...

  7. Childhood environment and obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    US children are at risk for developing childhood obesity. Currently, 23% of children ages 2–5 are overweight or obese, i.e., at or above the 85th percentile. This prevalence becomes even higher as children age, with 34% of children ages 6–11 being overweight or obese. Ethnic minority children are at...

  8. Childhood Cancer: Osteosarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Osteosarcoma KidsHealth > For Parents > Osteosarcoma Print A A A What's in this article? Risk for Childhood Osteosarcoma Symptoms of Osteosarcoma Diagnosing Osteosarcoma Treating Osteosarcoma ...

  9. 无菌药品生产车间灭菌系统设计探讨%A Discussion of Sterilization Systems in Production Plants for Aseptic Pharmaceuticals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李颖

    2012-01-01

    灭菌是无菌药品生产的关键环节,根据《药品生产质量管理规范》(2010年修订)的要求,结合本人的设计实例,对无菌药品生产车间灭菌系统的设计做简单的探讨和归纳。阐述了干热灭菌、湿热灭菌、过滤除菌三种方法的工作原理及影响灭菌效果的主要因素,并对灭菌设备的选用情况作简要说明。%Sterilization was a critical unit operation in production of aseptic pharmaceuticals. Complying with the re- quirements by cGMP (2010 Version) and integrating design examples, a brief discussion and induction on the design of the sterilization systems in production plants for aseptic pharmaceuticals were presented. The operating principle and fac- tors reducing sterilization efficiency of 3 methods including dry -heat sterilization, moist -heat sterilization, and filtration sterilization were summed up, and the sterilization equipment selection was discribed briefly.

  10. The rehabilitation treatment of children after operation of aseptic necrosis of head of femur%小儿股骨头无菌性坏死术后康复治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@Background: Aseptic necrosis of head of femur of children is a kind of ischemic necrosis of the center of epiphysis of femoral head. Currently we treat it with synovectomy, transplantation of vessel tract, intertrochanteric osteotomy and every kinds of pelvic truncation to improve head-mortar relation, but the effect is not satisfying. After head of femur conversion and self-ilium transplantation operation, the follow-up effect is satisfying. Objective: Discussing the treatment effect of operation on children aseptic necrosis of head of femur. Unit:Second People's Hospital of Ningxia Municipality.

  11. Parasomnias in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotagal, Suresh

    2009-04-01

    Common childhood parasomnias, including those occurring at sleep onset and during rapid eye movement sleep or non-rapid eye movement sleep and their ontogeny are discussed. The events may be distressing to both the patient and family members. Stereotypic movements characteristic of some parasomnias most likely arise from disinhibition of subcortical central pattern generators. Genetic predisposition, an inherent instability of non-rapid eye movement sleep and underlying sleep disturbances such as obstructive sleep apnea may predispose to the activation of confusional arousals, sleep walking or sleep terrors. Many parasomnias can be recognized by history alone, but some require nocturnal polysomnography for appropriate diagnosis and management. A scheme to distinguish non-rapid eye movement sleep parasomnias from nocturnal seizures is provided. Behavioral therapy has a role in the management of many childhood parasomnias, but evidence based recommendations are as yet unavailable.

  12. Genetics of Childhood Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major health problem and an immense economic burden on the health care systems both in the United States and the rest of the world. The prevalence of obesity in children and adults in the United States has increased dramatically over the past decade. Besides environmental factors, genetic factors are known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of obesity. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have revealed strongly associated genomic variants associated with most common disorders; indeed there is general consensus on these findings from generally positive replication outcomes by independent groups. To date, there have been only a few GWAS-related reports for childhood obesity specifically, with studies primarily uncovering loci in the adult setting instead. It is clear that a number of loci previously reported from GWAS analyses of adult BMI and/or obesity also play a role in childhood obesity.

  13. Danish Childhood Cancer Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Henrik; Rechnitzer, Catherine; Wehner, Peder Skov

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The overall aim is to monitor the quality of childhood cancer care in Denmark; to register late effects of treatment; to analyze complications of permanent central venous catheters (CVCs); to study blood stream infections in children with cancer; and to study acute toxicity of high......-dose methotrexate infusions in children with leukemia. STUDY POPULATION: All children below 15 years of age at diagnosis living in Denmark diagnosed after January 1, 1985 according to the International Classification of Diseases 10, including diagnoses DC00-DD48. MAIN VARIABLES: Cancer type, extent of disease......, and outcome of antimicrobial chemotherapy. DESCRIPTIVE DATA: Since 1985, 4,944 children below 15 years of age have been registered in the database. There has been no significant change in the incidence of childhood cancer in Denmark since 1985. The 5-year survival has increased significantly since 1985...

  14. Childhood Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Dayal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is a common condition in childhood and can result insevere complications if left untreated. It is showing a rising trend in India. A significantassociation with obesity has been observed; however, some children with enlargedtonsils and/or adenoids may even be underweight. The patient usually presents withsnoring and other respiratory problems like mouth breathing, choking and gaspingepisodes in night. Poor school performance and neurocognitive deficits have beenreported. Pulmonary hypertension and cor pulmonale are seen in severe cases. Besidesthe history and clinical examination, for definitive diagnosis an overnightpolysomnographic evaluation is the gold standard. In all cases, the specific treatmentranges from simple lifestyle modifications and medications to surgeries likeadenotonsillectomy. Early diagnosis is vital.Key words: Childhood OSA, Obesity, adenotonsillar hypertrophy

  15. Early Childhood Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumiko Kawashita

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is one of the most common childhood diseases, and people continue to be susceptible to it throughout their lives. Although dental caries can be arrested and potentially even reversed in its early stages, it is often not self-limiting and progresses without proper care until the tooth is destroyed. Early childhood caries (ECC is often complicated by inappropriate feeding practices and heavy infection with mutans streptococci. Such children should be targeted with a professional preventive program that includes oral hygiene instructions for mothers or caregivers, along with fluoride and diet counseling. However, these strategies alone are not sufficient to prevent dental caries in high-risk children; prevention of ECC also requires addressing the socioeconomic factors that face many families in which ECC is endemic. The aim of this paper is to systematically review information about ECC and to describe why many children are suffering from dental caries.

  16. Tibetan Nomad Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karma Dondrub

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A Tibetan Nomad Childhood by Kar+ma don 'grub. Kar+ma's life begins on the boundless Tibetan grassland in 1983 in Yushu (Yul shul Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Mtsho sgnon (Qinghai Province. Living in a black yak hair tent, Kar+ma begins tending his family's yak calves as soon as he can walk, in a grassland so barren that he is startled upon first seeing a tree at the age of eight. Charlatan livestock-stealing monks, anthrax, death, birth, happiness, and encounters with modern education create a powerful, unparalleled account of Tibetan nomad childhood in the late twentieth century - a way of life that will soon be forever gone.

  17. Conscientiousness: Origins in Childhood?

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Duckworth, Angela L.; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Valiente, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    In this review, we evaluate developmental and personality research with the aim of determining if the personality trait of conscientiousness can be identified in children and adolescents. After concluding that conscientiousness does emerge in childhood, we discuss the developmental origins of conscientiousness with a specific focus on self-regulation, academic motivation, and internalized compliance/internalization of standards. Based on the accumulated body of evidence, we conclude that self...

  18. Thyroid cancer in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorlin, J.B.; Sallan, S.E. (Children' s Hospital, Boston, MA (USA))

    1990-09-01

    The incidence, clinical presentation, and types of thyroid cancers presenting in childhood are reviewed. The role of antecedent radiation in papillary and follicular thyroid cancers and genetics of medullary thyroid carcinoma are discussed. Unique aspects of therapy and prognosis for the pediatric patient with thyroid carcinoma are addressed as well as a diagnostic approach to the child who presents with a neck mass.59 references.

  19. Cultivating childhood obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Greene-Martin, DeCleasha

    2013-01-01

    In recent years the levels of obesity in the United States has risen greatly especially amongst children. Doctors, psychologists, and other scientists have been studying the growing problem for years. Implications for childhood obesity not only have enormous physical consequences but emotional repercussions which can affect the child’s academic and social development. A number of factors have been identified as having an effect on these children; family life reveals the grocery store habits o...

  20. Childhood Short Stature

    OpenAIRE

    Ray, J.

    2012-01-01

    Childhood short stature comprises Varity of endocrinal, systemic, Skeletal & genetic disorders of pediatrics and is not just confined for endocrinal disorder only. A systemic approach often reduces the need for test which is often expensive &unnecessary. Use growth chart & asses bone age during evaluation. Short & heavy child are generally due to Endocrine causes, Short & thin are due to systemic disease, Short with normal velocity are may be due to Constitutional delay in growth &puberty or ...

  1. Fatty liver in childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Ozturk,Yesim; Soylu, Ozlem Bekem

    2014-01-01

    Fatty liver is a growing health problem worldwide. It might evolve to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, cirrhosis and cause hepatocellular carcinoma. This disease, which has increased because of eating habits, changes in food content and lifestyle, affects people from childhood. The most important risk factors are obesity and insulin resistance. Besides these factors, gender, ethnicity, genetic predisposition and some medical problems are also important. Cirrhosis in children is rare but is repor...

  2. Childhood obesity and prevention approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Dilek Yildiz; Berna Eren Fidanci; Derya Suluhan

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity has increased dramatically during the past two decades. The growing incidence of childhood obesity is alarming, given the significant short and long term health problems associated with obesity. Being overweight or obese may increase the rate of non-communicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in adulthood. It may contribute to shortening life expectancy and adversely affects the quality of life. Therefore, it is important to prevent childhood obe...

  3. Peer Bullying During Early Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Uysal, Hatice; DİNÇER, Çağlayan

    2012-01-01

    Peer bullying during early childhood is discussed along with the literature reviewed in this article with the purpose of drawing attention to peer bullying during early childhood and its significance, and contributing to studies which are few in number in Turkey. Peer bullying during early childhood was considered with its definition and types, people who play key roles in peer bullying, factors (gender, age, parents, and friendship) that relate to peer bullying, and what should be done befor...

  4. General Information about Childhood Liver Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Liver Cancer Prevention Liver Cancer Screening Research Childhood Liver Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Childhood Liver Cancer Go to Health Professional Version Key Points Childhood ...

  5. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS): Childhood Adversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reports of childhood abuse and neglect were investigated. Childhood trauma, defined as abuse, neglect, or loss, is a ... the lifespan. In various animal and human studies childhood trauma has been associated with low resting cortisol levels, ...

  6. Genetics Home Reference: alternating hemiplegia of childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions alternating hemiplegia of childhood alternating hemiplegia of childhood Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... Download PDF Open All Close All Description Alternating hemiplegia of childhood is a neurological condition characterized by ...

  7. Treatment Options for Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Childhood AML Treatment Research Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Childhood Acute ... Myelogenous Leukemia Treatment Hairy Cell Leukemia Treatment Past treatment for cancer and certain genetic conditions affect the ...

  8. Treatment Options for Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment Childhood NHL Treatment Research Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Childhood Hodgkin ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  9. Optimization of Culture Conditions for Aseptic Sweet Pepper Seedling%甜椒无菌苗培养条件的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李妹芳; 苗纪忠; 卜祥勇; 刘学芳; 夏江华; 郭尚敬

    2014-01-01

    以茄门甜椒种子为试材,对无菌苗培养前的种子消毒剂种类及不同消毒时间、浓度等的消毒效果进行了比较研究;对影响无菌苗生长的培养基配方、pH值及生长时间等因素进行了探讨。结果表明,甜椒无菌苗的最佳消毒流程和生长条件为:55℃无菌水浸种15 min,室温静置4~5 h,用10%NaClO消毒30 min,无菌水冲洗3次,接种至1/2MS培养基+15 g/L蔗糖+7.5 g/L琼脂,pH值为5.8,(25±1)℃,子叶长出6~10 d左右,即可作为转基因用无菌苗。%Using Qiemen sweet pepper as materials , the disinfection effects of different disinfectant a-gents, disinfection times and contents on seeds before culture were compared , and the effects of medium for-mula, pH value and growth time on growth of aseptic seedling were investigated .The results showed that the optimum disinfection method and culture conditions for aseptic sweet pepper seedling were soaking seeds in a -septic water of 55℃for 15 minutes, then staying at room temperature for 4~5 hours, disinfecting with 10%NaClO for 30 minutes, washing 3 times with aseptic water and then culturing in medium of 1/2MS+15 g/L sugar+7.5 g/L agar with pH value of 5.8 under (25 ±1)℃.When the cotyledon sprouted for 6~10 days, the seedlings could be used for genetic transformation .

  10. Correlation between the findings of magnetic resonance imaging and prognosis of patients with predisposing factors of aseptic necrosis of the femoral head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takatori, Yoshio; Nakamura, Shigeru; Nakamura, Toshitaka; Ninomiya, Setsuo; Kokubo, Takashi (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Sugimoto, Hisayuki

    1991-08-01

    Eighteen patients with the predisposing factors for aseptic necrosis of the femoral head were followed up for more than two years after the initial magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. At the time of the initial examination, 24 femoral heads showed abnormal low-intensity areas on MR images without abnormal findings on plain radiographs. Among them, six femoral heads collapsed in the follow-up period. The initial mid-coronal T{sub 1}-weighted MR images of these femoral heads had shown characteristic findings, that is, band-shaped low-intensity areas with the lateral end not covered by the acetabulum. Subchondral fracture of the femoral head occurred in the vicinity of the lateral end of the band. The findings of initial MR imaging seem to predict subsequent collapse of the femoral head. (author).

  11. Teachers in Early Childhood Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilderry, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines teacher accountability and authority in early childhood policy. It reports on data from a study that investigated the influences affecting early childhood teacher decision-making at the preschool level in Victoria, Australia. Using a question raised by Ball "Where are the teachers in all this [policy]?" provided a…

  12. Early Childhood Inclusion in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giné, Climent; Balcells-Balcells, Anna; Cañadas, Margarita; Paniagua, Gema

    2016-01-01

    This article describes early childhood inclusion in educational settings in Spain. First, we address the legislative framework of preschool education in Spain and offer a brief analysis of some relevant issues, including the current situation of early childhood education and inclusion at this stage. Second, current policies and practices relating…

  13. Childhood Victimization and Lifetime Revictimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widom, Cathy Spatz; Czaja, Sally J.; Dutton, Mary Ann

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine the fundamental hypothesis that childhood victimization leads to increased vulnerability for subsequent (re)victimization in adolescence and adulthood and, if so, whether there are differences in rates of experiencing traumas and victimizations by gender, race/ethnicity, and type of childhood abuse and/or neglect. Methods:…

  14. Subclinical hypothyroidism in childhood.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Grady, M J

    2012-02-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) is defined as an elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in association with a normal total or free thyroxine (T4) or triiodothyronine (T3). It is frequently encountered in both neonatology and general paediatric practice; however, its clinical significance is widely debated. Currently there is no broad consensus on the investigation and treatment of these patients; specifically who to treat and what cut-off level of TSH should be used. This paper reviews the available evidence regarding investigation, treatments and outcomes reported for childhood SH.

  15. Increasing Childhood Influenza Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Lin, Chyongchiou J.; Hannibal, Kristin; Reis, Evelyn C.; Gallik, Gregory; Moehling, Krissy K.; Huang, Hsin-Hui; Allred, Norma J.; Wolfson, David H.; Zimmerman, Richard K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Since the 2008 inception of universal childhood influenza vaccination, national rates have risen more dramatically among younger children than older children and reported rates across racial/ethnic groups are inconsistent. Interventions may be needed to address age and racial disparities to achieve the recommended childhood influenza vaccination target of 70%. Purpose To evaluate an intervention to increase childhood influenza vaccination across age and racial groups. Methods In 2011–2012, 20 primary care practices treating children were randomly assigned to Intervention and Control arms of a cluster randomized controlled trial to increase childhood influenza vaccination uptake using a toolkit and other strategies including early delivery of donated vaccine, in-service staff meetings, and publicity. Results The average vaccination differences from pre-intervention to the intervention year were significantly larger in the Intervention arm (n=10 practices) than the Control arm (n=10 practices), for children aged 2–8 years (10.2 percentage points (pct pts) Intervention vs 3.6 pct pts Control) and 9–18 years (11.1 pct pts Intervention vs 4.3 pct pts Control, p<0.05), for non-white children (16.7 pct pts Intervention vs 4.6 pct pts Control, p<0.001), and overall (9.9 pct pts Intervention vs 4.2 pct pts Control, p<0.01). In multi-level modeling that accounted for person- and practice-level variables and the interactions among age, race and intervention, the likelihood of vaccination increased with younger age group (6–23 months), white race, commercial insurance, the practice’s pre-intervention vaccination rate, and being in the Intervention arm. Estimates of the interaction terms indicated that the intervention increased the likelihood of vaccination for non-white children in all age groups and white children aged 9–18 years. Conclusions A multi-strategy intervention that includes a practice improvement toolkit can significantly improve influenza

  16. Management of childhood stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onslow, Mark; O'Brian, Sue

    2013-02-01

    Stuttering is a speech disorder that begins during the first years of life and is among the most prevalent of developmental disorders. It appears to be a problem with neural processing of speech involving genetics. Onset typically occurs during the first years of life, shortly after language development begins. Clinical presentation during childhood is interrupted and effortful speech production, often with rapid onset. If not corrected during early childhood, it becomes intractable and can cause psychological, social, educational and occupational problems. There is evidence from replicated clinical trials to support early intervention during the pre-school years. Meta-analysis of studies indicates that children who receive early intervention during the pre-school years are 7.7 times more likely to have resolution of their stuttering. Early intervention is recommended with a speech pathologist. Some children who begin to stutter will recover without such intervention. However, the number of such recoveries is currently not known, and it is not possible to predict which children are likely to recover naturally. Consequently, the current best practice is for speech pathologists to monitor children for signs of natural recovery for up to 1 year before beginning treatment.

  17. Acute hemiplegia in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuno, Takehiko; Takao, Tatsuo; Itoh, Masatoshi; Konishi, Yukuo; Nakano, Shozo (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1983-04-01

    The results of CT in 100 patients with acute hemiplegia in childhood are reported here. The etiology was various: 2 patients had infratentorial brain tumors, 56 had cerebral vascular diseases, 3 had head injuries, 16 had intracranial infectious diseases, one had postinfectious encephalomyelitis, one had multiple sclerosis, 2 had epilepsy, and the diagnosis of 19 were unknown. Eleven patients had a normal CT and a good prognosis. As for the type of onset, there were patients of type 1 with fever and 42 with convulsions and unconsciousness; those of type 2 with convulsions and unconsciousness were 12, and those of type 3 without fever and convulsions were 46. This classification is assumed to be useful, as the type of onset is characteristic of the etiology. Six patients were diagnosed correctly by repeated examinations, although the first CT did not reveal any remarkable findings. Capsular infarction, occlusion of the posterior cerebral artery in acute hemiplegia in childhood, abnormal findings of the internal capsule, thalamus, and midbrain in a patient with postinfectious encephalomyelitis, and a diffuse low density in the CT of the unilateral hemisphere in the patients with acute encephalopathy and acute hemiplegia of an obscure origin have been found after the introduction of computerized tomography.

  18. Childhood depression: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima NNR

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Nádia Nara Rolim Lima,1 Vânia Barbosa do Nascimento,1 Sionara Melo Figueiredo de Carvalho,1 Luiz Carlos de Abreu,1,3 Modesto Leite Rolim Neto,2 Aline Quental Brasil,2 Francisco Telésforo Celestino Junior,2 Gislene Farias de Oliveira,2 Alberto Olavo Advíncula Reis3 1Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Saúde, Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo André, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Departamento de Medicina. Universidade Federal do Ceará, UFC, Barbalha, Ceará, Brazil; 3Departamento de Saúde Materno Infantil, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: As an important public health issue, childhood depression deserves special attention, considering the serious and lasting consequences of the disease to child development. Taking this into consideration, the present study was based on the following question: what practical contributions to clinicians and researchers does the current literature on childhood depression have to offer? The objective of the present study was to conduct a systematic review of articles regarding childhood depression. To accomplish this purpose, a systematic review of articles on childhood depression, published from January 1, 2010 to November 24, 2012, on MEDLINE and SciELO databases was carried out. Search terms were “depression” (medical subject headings [MeSH], “child” (MeSH, and "childhood depression" (keyword. Of the 180 retrieved studies, 25 met the eligibility criteria. Retrieved studies covered a wide range of aspects regarding childhood depression, such as diagnosis, treatment, prevention and prognosis. Recent scientific literature regarding childhood depression converge to, directly or indirectly, highlight the negative impacts of depressive disorders to the children's quality of life. Unfortunately, the retrieved studies show that childhood depression commonly grows in a background of vulnerability and poverty, where individual and familiar needs

  19. Childhood Sexual Abuse

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    Evrim Aktepe

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually towards male child. Thirty-fifty percent of abuse cases among child and adolescent are outside the family including strangers or familiar person. Some features of abusers are introvert personality, pedophilic and antisocial personality. Most of the abusers have a history of sexual abuse or aggression during childhood. Sexual intercourse between two people who are not allowed to marry by law is called as incest. Family pattern of incest is defined globally as disorganized and dysfunctional. The most commonly reported familial pattern is rigid and patriarchal family pattern with a harsh father using force quite frequently. The clinical features and impacts of the sexual abuse on the child varies according to the relation between abusers and the child, form of abuse, duration of abuse, presence of physical assault, developmental phase, child age and psychological development before the abuse. Sexual abuse history may result in psychiatric disorders including anxiety, depression, substance dependence, suicide act, borderline personality disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder. Abuse negatively affects interpersonal relationships and self esteem of abused individuals. Several studies reported close association between risky sexual behaviors in adulthood and a history of of sexual abuse during childhood. Four traumatic dynamics including traumatic sexuality with abuse, feeling of betrayal, weakness, and stigmatization exist in childhood abuse. Trauma can cause

  20. [Childhood periodic syndromes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuvellier, J-C; Lépine, A

    2010-01-01

    This review focuses on the so-called "periodic syndromes of childhood that are precursors to migraine", as included in the Second Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders. Three periodic syndromes of childhood are included in the Second Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders: abdominal migraine, cyclic vomiting syndrome and benign paroxysmal vertigo, and a fourth, benign paroxysmal torticollis is presented in the Appendix. The key clinical features of this group of disorders are the episodic pattern and intervals of complete health. Episodes of benign paroxysmal torticollis begin between 2 and 8 months of age. Attacks are characterized by an abnormal inclination and/or rotation of the head to one side, due to cervical dystonia. They usually resolve by 5 years. Benign paroxysmal vertigo presents as sudden attacks of vertigo, accompanied by inability to stand without support, and lasting seconds to minutes. Age at onset is between 2 and 4 years, and the symptoms disappear by the age of 5. Cyclic vomiting syndrome is characterized in young infants and children by repeated stereotyped episodes of pernicious vomiting, at times to the point of dehydration, and impacting quality of life. Mean age of onset is 5 years. Abdominal migraine remains a controversial issue and presents in childhood with repeated stereotyped episodes of unexplained abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting occurring in the absence of headache. Mean age of onset is 7 years. Both cyclic vomiting syndrome and abdominal migraine are noted for the absence of pathognomonic clinical features but also for the large number of other conditions to be considered in their differential diagnoses. Diagnostic criteria, such as those of the Second Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders and the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, have made diagnostic approach and management easier. Their diagnosis

  1. Peer Bullying During Early Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice UYSAL

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Peer bullying during early childhood is discussed along with the literature reviewed in this article with the purpose of drawing attention to peer bullying during early childhood and its significance, and contributing to studies which are few in number in Turkey. Peer bullying during early childhood was considered with its definition and types, people who play key roles in peer bullying, factors (gender, age, parents, and friendship that relate to peer bullying, and what should be done before and after peer bullying.

  2. Pyoderma gangrenosum in childhood

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    Khatri M

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available We have treated 4 cases of pyoderma gangrenosum in infancy and childhood in past 2 years. The ages at onset were 6 months, 8 months, 6 months and 11.5 years respectively. Initial lesions were papulopustular in 3 and nodular in 1 patients but later on all of them developed ulcerative lesions with erythematous, violaceous, infiltrated or undermined edges. The lesions were numerous in 3 patients but few in 1 patient. The first patient had very high leucocyte count. In the second patient skin lesions of PG followed measles vaccinations. We could not reveal any association in the other two patients. None of the patient responded to antibiotic therapy. Three patients were treated successfully with dapsone and one with a combination of dapsone and prednisolone. We conclude that pyoderma gangrenosum is not so rare in infancy and it is more likely to occur without associated systemic diseases.

  3. Childhood Short Stature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.Ray

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Childhood short stature comprises Varity of endocrinal, systemic, Skeletal & genetic disorders of pediatrics and is not just confined for endocrinal disorder only. A systemic approach often reduces the need for test which is often expensive &unnecessary. Use growth chart & asses bone age during evaluation. Short & heavy child are generally due to Endocrine causes, Short & thin are due to systemic disease, Short with normal velocity are may be due to Constitutional delay in growth &puberty or Familial short stature, differentiation can be done by Bone Age. In Girls Turner syndrome has to be kept in mind. Purpose of evaluation to find out the child who does not need treatment, who cannot be treated & the child who can be benefited from treatment.

  4. Fatty liver in childhood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yesim; Ozturk; Ozlem; Bekem; Soylu

    2014-01-01

    Fatty liver is a growing health problem worldwide. It might evolve to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, cirrhosis and cause hepatocellular carcinoma. This disease, which has increased because of eating habits, changes in food content and lifestyle, affects people from childhood. The most important risk factors are obesity and insulin resistance. Besides these factors, gender, ethnicity, genetic predisposition and some medical problems are also important. Cirrhosis in children is rare but is reported. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD) has no specific symptoms or signs but should be considered in obese children. NAFLD does not have a proven treatment. Weight loss with family based treatments is the most acceptable management. Exercise and an applicable diet with low glycemic index and appropriate calorie intake are preferred. Drugs are promising but not sufficient in children for today.

  5. [Food allergy in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Kirsten; Niggemann, Bodo

    2016-06-01

    IgE-mediated immediate type reactions are the most common form of food allergy in childhood. Primary (often in early childhood) and secondary (often pollen-associated) allergies can be distinguished by their level of severity. Hen's egg, cow's milk and peanut are the most common elicitors of primary food allergy. Tolerance development in hen's egg and cow's milk allergy happens frequently whereas peanut allergy tends toward a lifelong disease. For the diagnostic patient history, detection of sensitization and (in many cases) oral food challenges are necessary. Especially in peanut and hazelnut allergy component-resolves diagnostic (measurement of specific IgE to individual allergens, e. g. Ara h 2) seem to be helpful. In regard to therapy elimination diet is still the only approved approach. Patient education through dieticians is extremely helpful in this regard. Patients at risk for anaphylactic reactions need to carry emergency medications including an adrenaline auto-injector. Instruction on the usage of the adrenaline auto-injector should take place and a written management plan handed to the patient. Moreover, patients or caregivers should be encouraged to attending a structured educational intervention on knowledge and emergency management. In parallel, causal therapeutic options such as oral, sublingual or epicutaneous immunotherapies are currently under development. In regard to prevention of food allergy current guidelines no longer advise to avoid highly allergenic foods. Current intervention studies are investigating wether early introduction of highly allergic foods is effective and safe to prevent food allergy. It was recently shown that peanut introduction between 4 and 11  months of age in infants with severe atopic dermatitis and/or hen's egg allergy (if they are not already peanut allergic) prevents peanut allergy in a country with high prevalence.

  6. Trends in childhood disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallapies, Dirk

    2006-09-28

    Child mortality has declined remarkably during the last decades. While neonatal disorders, diarrhoea, pneumonia, and malaria as well as being underweight account for most of the child deaths worldwide, children's health discussions in Europe and the USA focus on other issues such as asthma, neurodevelopmental disorders, male genital malformations, and childhood cancer. There is clear evidence of increasing rates of asthma in various countries during the last decades, although rates in some countries may now have stabilised or even decline as recent UK data indicate. Although an increase in the frequency of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and attention deficit disorder has frequently been discussed, the limited data in this field does not justify such a conclusion. While geographic heterogeneity regarding reproductive outcomes is apparent, global trends have not been identified. Interpretation of the available information on asthma, neurodevelopmental disorders and reproductive outcomes is hampered by inconstant diagnostic criteria over place and time and the lack of good and comprehensive population-based surveillance data, which makes it impossible to ascertain trends in actual disease frequency. Data indicate that developed countries have a gradually increasing incidence in leukaemia with a corresponding drop in the incidence of lymphoma. Increases in brain tumour frequency may be related to the development and wide application of new diagnostic capabilities, rather than a true change in the incidence of malignant disease. With a better prognosis for childhood cancer survival, secondary cancers following chemotherapy appear to be increasing. A wide range of environmental factors is thought to have an impact on children's health. These factors include nutrition (protein, vitamins, antioxidants), lifestyle and behaviour choices such as tobacco and alcohol use, parental health, socio-economic status, choice of living environment (urban versus rural, etc

  7. Fiber Intake and Childhood Appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brender, Jean D.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Parents of 135 children with appendicitis and of 212 comparison children were interviewed about their children's diet. Results suggest that a liberal intake of whole-grain breads and cereals may decrease the risk of appendicitis during childhood. (KH)

  8. How Is Childhood Leukemia Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the organs. The echoes are converted by a computer into an image on a computer screen. This is a fairly easy test to ... material. For reprint requests, please see our Content Usage Policy . Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Types Can Childhood ...

  9. Childhood Deaths from Physical Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasim, Mohd. Sham; and Others

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes 30 cases of childhood deaths caused by physical abuse in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Data presented include ethnic origins, age, causes of death, identity of perpetrators, and marital situation of parents. (DB)

  10. Treatment Options for Childhood Craniopharyngioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... has any of the following: Headaches, including morning headache or headache that goes away after vomiting . Vision changes. Nausea ... Cancer Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Children with Cancer: ...

  11. General Information about Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It may be painful. Bulging of the eye. Headache. Trouble urinating or having bowel movements. Blood in ... Cancer Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Children with Cancer: ...

  12. Childhood Brain Stem Glioma Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and trouble walking. Vision and hearing problems. Morning headache or headache that goes away after vomiting . Nausea and vomiting. ... Cancer Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Children with Cancer: ...

  13. Treatment Option Overview (Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It may be painful. Bulging of the eye. Headache. Trouble urinating or having bowel movements. Blood in ... Cancer Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Children with Cancer: ...

  14. Treatment Options for Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It may be painful. Bulging of the eye. Headache. Trouble urinating or having bowel movements. Blood in ... Cancer Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Children with Cancer: ...

  15. The preparation of aseptic rabbit tissue cage infection model%兔组织笼无菌感染模型的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘树玲; 丁丽; 邢昆

    2015-01-01

    目的:制备兔组织笼无菌感染模型,为药物药动学-药效学结合模型(pharmacokinetic‐pharmaco‐dynamic modeling ,PK‐PD)研究提供在体动物实验载体。方法选取健康家兔28只,耳缘静脉注射盐酸赛拉嗪注射液0.15ml/kg麻醉,每只分别背部备皮、切开皮肤,然后在皮下植入长约5cm的无菌中空胸腔引流管1个,继而在无菌操作下手术缝合。术后应用青霉素肌肉注射3d以预防感染。结果5只家兔先后因不同原因死亡,23只家兔均获得清亮的无菌组织液,成功建立兔组织模型,成功率为82.14%。结论通过严格控制无菌操作,选择合适的麻醉剂,手术刀口选择在兔背部,术后及时预防感染,可以成功制备兔组织笼无菌感染模型,并获得清亮的无菌组织液。%Objective To prepare a rabbit tissue cage model so as to provide drug animal carrier in vivo for drug PK‐PD modeling study .Methods 28 healthy rabbits were selected and injected with the anesthesia xylazine iv respectively .The back hair was cut in each rabbit ,and then the skin was cut open .A 5cm of sterile hollow chest tube drainage was implanted subcutaneously .In the end the wound was sewed up with aseptic technique .After op‐eration penicillin im was injected for 3 days to prevent infection .Results Among the 28 rabbits ,5 rabbits were dead due to different causes .Clear and sterile tissue fluid were gotten from other 23 rabbits .A rabbit tissue model was established successfully ,and the success rate was 82 .14% .Conclusion By stricted controlling aseptic opera‐tion ,selecting the appropriate anesthesia and surgical incision in the back of the rabbit ,timely postoperative anti‐infection ,a rabbit tissue cage model can be successfully established ,so does clear tissue fluid .

  16. Aseptic meningitis by echovirus 30 in São Paulo state, Brazil Meningite asseptica por echovírus 30 no estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bráulio Caetano Machado

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify and characterize the immunological and molecular aspects of Human Enterovirus (HEV associated with aseptic meningitis cases in São Paulo State, Brazil. Clinical samples (cerebrospinal fluid CSF, stool and sera were analyzed from 21 viral meningitis suspected cases collected in the period from 1998 to 1999. The isolated virus were identified as belonging to Enterovirus genus and specifically to echovirus serotype 30 (EV-30, using immunological techniques as Indirect Immunofluorescense Assay (IFA and Neutralization (Nt and by molecular technique of Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR directed to the 5' NTR and VP1 regions of viral genome. The results obtained contributed with to the surveillance system of São Paulo State and they are important due to a shortage of epidemiological data about the circulation of EV-30 associated to aseptic meningitis in this region of the world.O objetivo deste estudo foi identificar e caracterizar quanto aos aspectos imunológicos e moleculares os Enterovirus humanos associados a casos de meningite asséptica. Amostras clínicas (líquido cefaloraquidiano, fezes e soro originárias de 21 casos suspeitos de meningite viral, provenientes do estado de São Paulo no período de 1998 a 1999 foram analisadas. Os vírus isolados foram identificados como pertencentes ao gênero Enterovirus e mais especificamente ao sorotipo echovírus 30 (EV-30, utilizando-se técnicas imunológicas como Imunofluorescência Indireta e Neutralização e técnica molecular da transcrição reversa - reação em cadeia da polimerase (RT-PCR direcionada para as regiões 5' não traduzida (5'NTR e Proteína Viral 1(VP1 do genoma viral. Os resultados obtidos contribuíram com o sistema de vigilância epidemiológica do estado de São Paulo na geração de informações sobre a circulação de EV-30 associado à meningite asséptica nessa região do mundo.

  17. [Childhood of the schizophrenic patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Fonseca, D

    2009-01-01

    We are able to identify the different risk factors involved in the development of the disorder from a study of the childhood of a schizophrenic patient. More specifically, we will define the perinatal risk factors: season and place of birth, viral exposure during pregnancy and obstetric complications. Developmental factors will also be discussed. Socialisation, language, psychomotor and cognitive development disorders are all developmental difficulties seen during the childhood of the schizophrenic patient. Finally we will finish by discussing a few psychosocial risk factors.

  18. The clinical features of 101 cases of children with aseptic encephalitis%101例儿童无菌性脑炎的临床特点分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王贤柱; 李玖军

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨无菌性脑炎的临床特点及转归情况。方法收集2009年12月至2012年12月中国医科大学附属盛京医院PICU收治的诊断为无菌性脑炎的患儿101例,对其临床表现、体征、辅助检查及转归情况进行回顾性分析。结果101例患儿中,男54例,女47例,年龄1~6个月12例,~1岁12例,~3岁36例,~6岁12例,~14岁19例。发热为最常见的临床表现,共有92例(91.1%),其次为抽搐79例(78.2%),脑膜刺激征或病理征阳性63例(62.4%)。辅助检查中敏感性最高的为脑电图,共89例患儿行脑电图检查,异常75例(84.3%),其次为MRI平扫,共97例行头部MRI平扫,异常54例(55.7%),101例患儿均行脑脊液检查,白细胞增高或(和)蛋白增高50例(49.5%),敏感性最低的为CT平扫,63例行头部CT平扫,异常11例(17.5%)。所有患儿入院后均给予止惊、退热、降低颅压及营养脑细胞等综合治疗,治愈70例,留有神经系统后遗症20例,放弃治疗7例,死亡4例。结论儿童无菌性脑炎好发于婴幼儿,男女发病率相当,临床表现呈多样化,以发热及抽搐最为常见,脑电图及头部MRI检查敏感性较高,给予及时对症治疗,大部分患儿转归良好,少数病例留有意识障碍及运动障碍等不同程度的神经系统后遗症,个别病例脑干受累,出现呼吸衰竭、神经源性休克等,最终导致患儿死亡。%Objective To observe and discus the clinical features and outcome of aseptic encephali-tis in children. Methods One hundred and one cases treated in PICU of Shengjing Hospital of China Medi-cal University and diagnosed with aseptic encephalitis from December 2009 to December 2012 were enrolled. Results The clinical manifestations, signs, laboratory examinations and outcome were analyzed retrospec-tively. Among them, 54 cases were male,47 cases were female,12 cases aged from 1 month old to 6 months old,12 cases aged from 7 months old to 1 year old,36 cases aged from 2 years old to

  19. Elucidation of echovirus 30's origin and transmission during the 2012 aseptic meningitis outbreak in Guangdong, China, through continuing environmental surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jing; Zheng, Huanying; Guo, Xue; Zhang, Yong; Li, Hui; Liu, Leng; Zeng, Hanri; Fang, Ling; Mo, Yanling; Yoshida, Hiromu; Yi, Lina; Liu, Tao; Rutherford, Shannon; Xu, Wenbo; Ke, Changwen

    2015-04-01

    An aseptic meningitis outbreak occurred in Luoding City of Guangdong, China, in 2012, and echovirus type 30 (ECHO30) was identified as the major causative pathogen. Environmental surveillance indicated that ECHO30 was detected in the sewage of a neighboring city, Guangzhou, from 2010 to 2012 and also in Luoding City sewage samples (6/43, 14%) collected after the outbreak. In order to track the potential origin of the outbreak viral strains, we sequenced the VP1 genes of 29 viral strains from clinical patients and environmental samples. Sequence alignments and phylogenetic analyses based on VP1 gene sequences revealed that virus strains isolated from the sewage of Guangzhou and Luoding cities matched well the clinical strains from the outbreak, with high nucleotide sequence similarity (98.5% to 100%) and similar cluster distribution. Five ECHO30 clinical strains were clustered with the Guangdong environmental strains but diverged from strains from other regions, suggesting that this subcluster of viruses most likely originated from the circulating virus in Guangdong rather than having been more recently imported from other regions. These findings underscore the importance of long-term, continuous environmental surveillance and genetic analysis to monitor circulating enteroviruses.

  20. Genomic characterization of echovirus 6 causing aseptic meningitis in Hokkaido, Japan: a novel cluster in the nonstructural protein coding region of human enterovirus B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Masahiro; Komagome, Rika; Ishida, Setsuko; Nagano, Hideki; Takahashi, Kenichi; Okano, Motohiko

    2013-04-01

    We determined four complete nucleotide sequences of echovirus 6 (E6) isolated from an epidemic of aseptic meningitis (AM) in Hokkaido, Japan, in 2011. Phylogenetic analysis of the genes encoding viral capsid protein 1 revealed that the strains were closely related to E6 strains isolated in China in recent years, but they were distantly related to E6 strains isolated from patients with AM in Osaka Prefecture, Japan, in 2011. The genes encoding the viral protease and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (3CD) were closely related to those of several non-E6 strains of the species Human enterovirus B isolated in China, South Korea, and Australia from 1999 to 2010, resulting in a novel cluster in the phylogenetic tree. These results suggest that the incidence of AM in Japan in 2011 was caused by at least two lineages of E6 strains, and a lineage of the 3CD gene was interspersed among different serotypic strains isolated in Western Pacific countries.

  1. Storage stability of cashew apple juice preserved by hot fill and aseptic processes Estabilidade do suco de caju preservado pelo método ''hot fill'' e processo asséptico

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Cecília Oliveira Costa; Geraldo Arraes Maia; Raimundo Wilane de Figueiredo; Men de Sá Moreira de Souza Filho; Isabella Montenegro Brasil

    2003-01-01

    Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) apples from Pacajus, Ceará State, Brazil, were processed into high pulp content juice. The juice was packed either by hot fill or an aseptic process and evaluated for physical, physical-chemical, and sensorial changes during a 12-month storage period at room temperature. The results indicated that pH, soluble solids, total acidity, total sugar content and color did not change significantly during storage nor were affected by the type of filling. The sensoria...

  2. [Chronic ataxia in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erazo Torricelli, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Chronic ataxias are an heterogeneous group of disorders that affect the child at different ages. Thus, the congenital forms, generally non progressive are observed from first months of life and are expressed by hypotonia and motor delay long before the ataxia became evident. The cerebral magnetic resonance images (MRI) may be diagnostic in some pictures like Joubert syndrome. The group of progressive hereditary ataxias, usually begin after the infant period. The clinical signs are gait instability and ocular apraxia that can be associated with oculocutaneous telangiectasias (ataxia-telangiesctasia) or with sensory neuropathy (Friedreich ataxia). In this review are briefly described congenital ataxias and in more detailed form the progressive hereditary ataxias autosomal recessive, autosomal dominants and mitochondrials. The importance of genetic study is emphasized, because it is the key to obtain the diagnosis in the majority of these diseases. Although now there are no treatments for the majority of progressive hereditary ataxias, some they have like Refsum disease, vitamine E deficiency, Coenzyme Q10 deficiency and others, thus the diagnosis in these cases is even more important. At present the diagnosis of childhood hereditary ataxia not yet treatable is fundamental to obtain suitable handling, determine a precise outcome and to give to the family an opportune genetic counseling.

  3. [Epidemiology of childhood cancers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavel, Jacqueline

    2007-05-31

    In industrial countries, 1 child out of 500 develops a cancer before the age of 15 years, and before the age of 6 years for almost half of them. In France, incidence rates were stable over the 15 last years with around 1500 cases each year. A very small fraction of cases is attributable to known risk factors, including heritable cancers or cancers in children with heritable predisposing diseases, cancers induced by high doses of ionizing radiation of medical or accidental origin, by chemotherapeutic or immunosuppressive drugs. Responsibility of Epstein Barr virus in a fraction of Hodgkin's and Burkitt's lymphomas is also established, even though little is still known on the cofactors involved in industrial countries. Other virus could cause leukaemia, as suggested by localized increases in incidence in various conditions of population mixing. Conversely, there is some evidence that early common infections could be protective toward leukaemia risk, probably through their contribution to the maturation of the immune system. Several agents are suspected to induce chemical cancers, particularly pesticides, which are consistently reported in childhood leukaemia and brain tumours. It is more and more likely that genetic factors may modulate risk induced of environmental factors.

  4. Childhood sledding injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorter, N A; Mooney, D P; Harmon, B J

    1999-01-01

    Sledding is only rarely thought of as a potentially dangerous childhood activity. However, serious injuries and occasional deaths do occur. A review of patients 18 years old and younger admitted to a pediatric trauma center following a sledding accident from 1991 to 1997 was conducted. By design this study was expected to identify the most seriously injured patients. Twenty-five patients were identified, all but four younger than 13. Seventeen were boys. The mechanisms of injury were: collision with stationary object, 15; sled-sled collision, 1; struck by sled, 2; going off jump, 3; foot caught under sled or on ground, 3; fall off sled being towed by snowmobile, 1. The average pediatric trauma score was 10.5, and the average injury severity score 10.6. There were no deaths. The injuries were: head, 11; long bone/extremity, all lower, 10; abdomen, 5; chest, 1; facial, 2; spinal, 1. Five patients sustained multiple injuries. A surprisingly high number, 5, had pre-existing neurological conditions that could have played a contributory role in the accident. Sledding is predominantly an activity of children, and occasional serious injuries occur. Most are preventable. Obeying the simple caveat that sledding should only be done in clear areas away from stationary objects would eliminate the great majority of serious injuries.

  5. Completed suicide in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervic, Kanita; Brent, David A; Oquendo, Maria A

    2008-06-01

    Suicide in children and young adolescents up to 14 years of age has increased in many countries, warranting research and clinical awareness. International reported suicide rates per 100,000 in this young population vary between 3.1 and 0 (mean rate worldwide, approximately 0.6/100.000; male-female ratio, 2:1). Suicide occurs only in vulnerable children; this vulnerability begins with parental mood disorder and impulsive aggression, and family history of suicide. Childhood affective and disruptive disorders and abuse are the most often reported psychiatric risk factors. Suicide becomes increasingly common after puberty, most probably because of pubertal onset of depression and substance abuse, which substantially aggravate suicide risk. Biologic findings are scarce; however, serotonergic dysfunction is assumed. The most common precipitants are school and family problems and may include actual/anticipated transitions in these environments. Suicides in children and young adolescents up to 14 years of age often follow a brief period of stress. Cognitive immaturity/misjudgment, age-related impulsivity, and availability of suicide methods play an important role. Psychologic autopsy studies that focus on suicides in this age group are needed.

  6. Alternating hemiplegia of childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansagra, Sujay; Mikati, Mohamad A; Vigevano, Federico

    2013-01-01

    Alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC) is a very rare disease characterized by recurrent attacks of loss of muscular tone resulting in hypomobility of one side of the body. The etiology of the disease due to ATP1A3 gene mutations in the majority of patients. Few familial cases have been described. AHC has an onset in the first few months of life. Hemiplegic episodes are often accompanied by other paroxysmal manifestations, such as lateral eyes and head deviation toward the hemiplegic side and a very peculiar monocular nystagmus. As the attack progresses, hemiplegia can shift to the other side of the body. Sometimes the attack can provoke bilateral paralysis, and these patients may have severe clinical impairment, with difficulty in swallowing and breathing. Hemiplegic attacks may be triggered by different stimuli, like bath in warm water, motor activity, or emotion. The frequency of attacks is high, usually several in a month or in a week. The duration is variable from a few minutes to several hours or even days. Sleep can stop the attack. Movement disorders such as dystonia and abnormal movements are frequent. Cognitive delay of variable degree is a common feature. Epilepsy has been reported in 50% of the cases, but seizure onset is usually during the third or fourth year of life. Many drugs have been used in AHC with very few results. Flunarizine has the most supportive anecdotal evidence regarding efficacy.

  7. Update on childhood brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roushan, Mohammad R H; Amiri, Mohammad J S

    2013-04-01

    In endemic regions of brucellosis, childhood brucellosis includes up to one-third of all cases of human brucellosis. The main source of infection in children is consumption of unpasteurized dairy products and traditional local foods containing dairy products. The older boys are more involved in animal care. Boys are more commonly infected than girls. Common symptoms and signs include fever, arthralgia, sweating, peripheral arthritis and splenomegaly. Peripheral arthritis especially monoarthritis is more common and the most commonly affected joints are hip and knee. All organs may involve during the course of the disease. Isolation of Brucella spp. from the blood, bone marrow or other tissue fluids is the hallmark of diagnosis. Serologic tests are the main tools of diagnosis of brucellosis in endemic regions. Standard agglutination test (SAT) with titers > 1:160 and the 2-mercaptoethanol (2ME) test ≥ 1:80 are suggestive of active infection. Children older than 8 years should be treated with doxycycline for 45 days or 8 weeks plus gentamicin for 7 or 5 days respectively or doxycycline for 45 days and streptomycin for 14 days. Also doxycycline plus rifampin or cotrimoxazole plus rifampin for 45 days may be alternative regimens. Cotrimoxazole plus rifampin for six weeks is the regimen of choice for the treatment of patients younger than 8 years old. Gentamicin for 5 days plus cotrimoxazole for six weeks may be a suitable alternative regimen. The article presented few of the patents associated with Brucellosis.

  8. Asthma in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Benedictis, Fernando Maria; Attanasi, Marina

    2016-03-01

    Several topics on childhood asthma were addressed in the Paediatric Clinical Year in Review session at the 2015 European Respiratory Society International Congress. With regard to the relationship between lower respiratory tract infections and asthma, it emerges that is the number of respiratory episodes in the first years of life, but not the particular viral trigger, to be associated with later asthma development. Understanding which characteristics of individual patients are associated with an increased risk for asthma exacerbation is a critical step to implement strategies preventing these seasonal events. Recent data suggest the possibility that exhaled volatile organic compounds may qualify as biomarkers in detecting early signs of asthma. Adding information of exhaled volatile organic compounds and expression of inflammation genes to a clinical tool significantly improves asthma prediction in preschool wheezy children. Personal communication with children and adolescents is likely more important than the tools actually used for monitoring asthma. Systemic corticosteroids do not affect the long-term prognosis in children with first viral-induced wheezing episode and should be used cautiously during acute episodes. Finally, stress and a polymorphism upstream of a specific gene are both associated with reduced bronchodilator response in children with asthma.

  9. Asthma in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Maria de Benedictis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Several topics on childhood asthma were addressed in the Paediatric Clinical Year in Review session at the 2015 European Respiratory Society International Congress. With regard to the relationship between lower respiratory tract infections and asthma, it emerges that is the number of respiratory episodes in the first years of life, but not the particular viral trigger, to be associated with later asthma development. Understanding which characteristics of individual patients are associated with an increased risk for asthma exacerbation is a critical step to implement strategies preventing these seasonal events. Recent data suggest the possibility that exhaled volatile organic compounds may qualify as biomarkers in detecting early signs of asthma. Adding information of exhaled volatile organic compounds and expression of inflammation genes to a clinical tool significantly improves asthma prediction in preschool wheezy children. Personal communication with children and adolescents is likely more important than the tools actually used for monitoring asthma. Systemic corticosteroids do not affect the long-term prognosis in children with first viral-induced wheezing episode and should be used cautiously during acute episodes. Finally, stress and a polymorphism upstream of a specific gene are both associated with reduced bronchodilator response in children with asthma.

  10. Recent Coverage of Early Childhood Education Approaches in Open Access Early Childhood Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Burhanettin

    2016-01-01

    A content analysis of the coverage of the major approaches to early childhood education in the early childhood research journals, published between 2010 and 2014, that are early childhood research oriented and have free online access were investigated. Among 21 journals in early childhood education, two journals were selected for the content…

  11. Epidemiology of childhood food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Ashley A; Gupta, Ruchi

    2013-06-01

    Food allergy is a public health problem that affects nearly 6 million children in the United States. The extent to which children, families, and communities live with food allergies varies as much as the range of clinical symptoms associated with the disease itself. Food allergy is defined as the reproducible adverse event that elicits a pathologic immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated or non-IgE-mediated reaction. Once an allergic child ingests a specific food allergen, the reaction can result in clinical symptoms ranging from mild hives to life-threatening anaphylaxis.Not surprisingly, food allergies have been shown to limit social interactions and impair children's quality of life due to the ubiquity of food where children live, learn, and play. To ensure the safety of our children, the development of sound policy, clinical practice, and health programs must be informed by current research characterizing childhood food allergy at the population level. To set the stage for understanding the current evidence base, this article reviews: 1) epidemiology of childhood food allergy; 2) severity of symptoms; 3) geographic distribution of childhood food allergy; 4) tolerance; 5) economic impact of childhood food allergy; and 6) future directions in childhood food allergy epidemiological research.

  12. Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumors Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cord Tumors Treatment Childhood Astrocytomas Treatment Childhood Brain Stem Glioma ... Central nervous system (CNS) embryonal tumors may begin in embryonic (fetal) cells that remain in the brain after birth. ...

  13. Maternal postpartum distress and childhood overweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ajslev, Teresa A; Andersen, Camilla S; Ingstrup, Katja G;

    2010-01-01

    We investigated associations between maternal postpartum distress covering anxiety, depression and stress and childhood overweight.......We investigated associations between maternal postpartum distress covering anxiety, depression and stress and childhood overweight....

  14. Brucellosis in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, L; Grant, W W; Alva, J D

    1975-03-01

    Brucellosis has always been an unusual disease in children and, concomitant with the control of the disease in domestic animals, reports have become sparse. The pediatrician, therefore, may not be aware of the protean clinical manifestations of childhood brucellosis. In 1973, nine cases occurred during a three-month period in El Paso, Texas. All cases were marked by spiking fevers and lethargy of four days to four weeks in duration. Tender hepatomegaly or splenomegaly was striking in seven patients. Other characteristics included epistaxis, arthralgia, myalgia, and weight loss. Leukopenia and leukemoid reaction were found in five patients. All of the patients tested had elevated liver enzymes. Febrile agglutinins were invaluable in screening for an early clue to diagnosis. When Brucella abortus antigen agglutinated serum from patients with a positive screen in dilutions greater than 1:320, a presumptive diagnosis of brucellosis was made. Brucella was isolated from the blood or bone marrow in seven patients and the time of incubation proved crucial for successful recovery. Bacterial blood cultures are usually discarded at ten days of age, as were cultures from the only two patients from whom the organism was not recovered. All of the cultures incubated for 12 to 15 days grew B. melitensis, an unusual causative species in the United States. However, several patients admitted eating cheese from the State of Chihuahua, Mexico, made from unpasteurized goat's milk, the presumed source of the infection. Within one to three days, all patients responded dramatically to antibiotics; tetracycline was given orally for 21 days and streptomycin intramuscularly for 14 days. Pediatricians caring for patients in areas where consumption of unpasteurized milk products is likely would do well to consider brucellosis in a child with obscure fever or toxic hepatosplenomegaly.

  15. Advances in diagnosis and treatment of aseptic meningitis after neurosurgical operation%神经外科术后无菌性脑膜炎的诊断及治疗进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付东翔; 付强; 刘波

    2014-01-01

    Aseptic meningitis and bacterial meningitis after neurosurgical operation are the postoperative complications which are difficult to identify clinically. They have great differences in treatment and prognosis. The pathogenesis of the postoperative aseptic meningitis is not clear. Its clinical manifestations are similar to bacterial meningitis, but the prognosis is better. The traditional diagnostic methods for postoperative aseptic meningitis has a certain degree of the rate of missed diagnosis and misdiagnosis. In recent years, scholars of the world have conducted many studies on the diagnosis and treatment of postoperative aseptic meningitis, and made some progress, which has improved the diagnostic accuracy of postoperative aseptic meningitis to a certain degree, guided the treatment correctly and reduced patients unnecessary expenses and hospital stays.%神经外科术后无菌性脑膜炎与细菌脑膜炎一直是临床上较难鉴别的术后并发症,二者在治疗过程和预后方面有较大差异。术后无菌性脑膜炎的发病机制尚不明确,临床表现与细菌性脑膜炎相似,易被误诊为细菌性脑膜炎,但预后较好。传统的检查诊断方法对于术后无菌性脑膜炎存在一定程度的漏诊率和误诊率,近年来国内外学者对术后无菌性脑膜炎的诊断及治疗方法进行了多方面的研究,并取得了一些成果,在一定程度上提高了此类术后并发症诊断的准确率,正确指导此类术后并发症的治疗,减少患者不必要的花费及患者的住院时间。

  16. 系统性红斑狼疮并发无菌性股骨头坏死的相关因素研究%Risk factors of systemic lupus erythematosus patients with aseptic necrosis of the femoral head

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石颜军

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨系统性红斑狼疮并发无菌性股骨头坏死的相关因素.方法 选择本院收治的系统性红斑狼疮患者84例,分为并发无菌性股骨头坏死42例(观察组)和无并发无菌性股骨头坏死42例(对照组),分析系统性红斑狼疮并发无菌性股骨头坏死的相关因素.结果 观察组血管炎、雷诺现象以及Acl阳性的发生率均明显高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);观察组中19例患者使用激素冲击治疗,而对照组仅有8例,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 以血管炎、雷诺现象为主要临床表现的系统性红斑狼疮患者,其脉管系统对激素敏感性增加,大剂量激素冲击治疗容易并发无菌性股骨头坏死.%Objective To study the risk factors of systemic lupus erythematosus with aseptic necrosis of the femoral head.Methods Eighty-four patients with systemic lupus erythematosus in our hospital were divided into two groups,including 42 patients with aseptic femoral head necrosis (observation group) and 42 cases of without aseptic femoral head necrosis in patients (control group).Related factors concerning systemic lupus erythematosus with aseptic necrosis of the femoral head were analyzed.Results Occurrences of vasculitis,Raynaud's phenomenon,and the ACLpositive of the observation group were higher than those of the control group,the difference being statistically significant (P< 0.05).In the observation group,19 patients were applied with steroid pulse therapy,while in the control group,only eight cases,the difference between the two groups being statistically significant (P < 0.05).Conclusion For patients with systemic lupus erythematosus vasculitis,Raynaud's phenomenon as the main clinical manifestations,its vascular system is more sensitive to the hormone.Large-dose hormone therapy can easily lead to aseptic necrosis of the femoral head.

  17. Health lifestyles in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie; James-Hawkins, Laurie; Lawrence, Elizabeth; Fomby, Paula

    2014-12-01

    This study integrates two important developments, the concept of health lifestyles (which has focused on adults and adolescents) and the increased attention to early childhood. We introduce the concept of children's health lifestyles, identifying differences from adult health lifestyles and articulating intergenerational transmission and socialization processes shaping children's health lifestyles. Using the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (2001-2007; N ≈ 6,150), latent class analyses identify predominant health lifestyles among U.S. preschoolers. Five distinct empirical patterns representing health lifestyles emerge, two capturing low and medium levels of overall risk across domains and three capturing domain-specific risks. Social background predicts children's health lifestyles, but lower household resources often explain these relationships. Across kindergarten measures of cognition, behavior, and health, preschool health lifestyles predict children's development even after controlling for social disadvantage and concurrent household resources. Further research on health lifestyles throughout childhood is warranted.

  18. 新疆阿魏种子无菌苗制备研究%Research on Aseptic Seedling Preparation of Feralu sinkiangensis Seed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱军; 李晓瑾; 王月娥; 肖琼

    2011-01-01

    In order to obtain methods of aseptic seedling preparation by tissue culture for Feralu sinkiangensis.Differents plans of sterilization, hormone, temperature of chill and relative humidity were setted to study the effects on germination of Ferula sinkiangensis seed. The results showed that the best sterilization of Ferula sinkiangensis seed was 70% ethanol 30 s + 12% H2O2 15 min. The effect at 4 ℃ chilling temperature and in 50% relvtive humidity was better than others treatment, and seed germination rate declined with temperature hoisted. Seed didn't germinate when chill temperature preponderate over 20 ℃. Although GA3 could break dormancy of Ferula sinkiangensis seed, germination rate was lower.%为获得供新疆阿魏组织培养无菌苗制备的方法.研究了不同的消毒方法、激素、层积温度和相对湿度等条件下,对新疆阿魏无菌苗制作的影响.结果表明:新疆阿魏种子最佳消毒方法为70%酒精30 s+12%H2O2 15 min;层积温度4℃,相对湿度50%,新疆阿魏种子萌发最好;新疆阿魏种子经GA3处理可打破休眠,但发芽率低于低温层积处理.

  19. Incidence and clinical features of herpes simplex viruses (1 and 2) and varicella-zoster virus infections in an adult Korean population with aseptic meningitis or encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Rihwa; Kim, Gyeong-Moon; Jo, Ik Joon; Sim, Min Seob; Song, Keun Jeong; Kim, Byoung Joon; Na, Duk L; Huh, Hee Jae; Kim, Jong-Won; Ki, Chang-Seok; Lee, Nam Yong

    2014-06-01

    Since there are limited data on the incidence and clinical findings of central nervous system (CNS) infection by three α-herpesviruses including human herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), HSV-2 and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) in Korea, a retrospective analysis of clinical data and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results was performed in patients who presented with suspicion of acute viral meningitis and/or encephalitis at the emergency department of a tertiary referral hospital in Seoul, Korea. During the 3-year study period, a total of 224 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from 224 patients were examined. Among the 224 patients, 135 (60.3%) patients were identified as having aseptic meningitis (n = 70, 51.9%), encephalitis (n = 41, 30.4%) or meningoencephalitis (n = 24, 17.8%) at discharge. Twenty-four (17.8%) patients were identified as having VZV meningitis (n = 16, 11.9%), VZV meningoencephalitis (n = 2, 1.5%), HSV-2 meningitis (n = 4, 3.0%), or HSV-1 encephalitis (n = 2, 1.5%). Of the 24 patients infected with the three herpesviruses, immunocompromised patients accounted for 33.3% (n = 8). Skin rashes were observed in half (n = 9) of the patients with VZV, and none with HSV-1 or HSV-2. One patient with VZV meningitis and four patients with brain parenchymal involvement had neurologic sequelae. In conclusion, three herpesviruses are important causative agents of CNS infectious disease with significant morbidity in adults, regardless of the immunologic status. Therefore, CSF should be examined for HSV-1, HSV-2, and VZV using sensitive diagnostic methods in all cases of adult patients with clinical manifestations of CNS disease in order to identify the correct etiology and to determine appropriate therapy.

  20. 肿瘤型假体无菌性松动的治疗现状%Current status of the treatment of aseptic loosening in tumor prostheses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高明; 张清; 牛晓辉

    2014-01-01

    Aseptic loosening ( AL ) is one of the most common complications in tumor prostheses. Loss of bone quantity and decline of bone quality are the main challenges that orthopedists encounter when they deal with AL. Based on the latest reports, prosthesis revision is the primary choice in the treatment of AL, and it can provide relatively satisfactory outcomes when compared with other methods. While it needs enough bone quantity and good bone quality for prosthetic stability. In some reports, it can get a median Musculoskeletal Tumor Society ( MSTS ) functional score of 96% ( range: 50%-100% ) after an average follow-up of 101 months ( range: 47-155 months ) after the surgery. Besides this, allograft-prosthesis composites ( APCs ) are another choice. Allograft segments are used to construct a certain ifxation arm to get a more stable ifxation. However, its outcomes are not as satisfactory as that of prosthesis revision. According to some reports, after an average follow-up of 59 months after the surgery, it can provide an average MSTS functional score of 62% ( range: 57%-67% ). While we must take account that these patients receiving APCs always have less bone quantity and worse bone quality, when compared with those only receiving prosthetic treatment. In recent years, a new type of prosthesis based on extra-cortical plate ifxation has been used in the revision, which is superior to the conventional intramedullary stem prosthesis. The current results illustrate that it has certain application prospects, but high-quality studies are needed to further demonstrate it. When the loss of bone quantity and decline of bone quality are too serious to perform limb salvage treatment, rotationplasty and amputation may be a choice. However, great attention must be paid to their indications.

  1. Childhood sarcoidosis: Louisiana experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedalia, Abraham; Khan, Tahir A; Shetty, Avinash K; Dimitriades, Victoria R; Espinoza, Luis R

    2016-07-01

    A retrospective chart review was conducted to detect patients with sarcoidosis seen by pediatric rheumatology service from the period of 1992 to 2013 at Children's hospital of New Orleans. Twenty-seven patients were identified. The average duration of symptoms before diagnosis was 5 (range 1-120) months. Five patients had onset before the age of 5 years and were diagnosed with early-onset sarcoidosis. The most common manifestations at presentation were constitutional symptoms (62 %) followed by ocular (38 %). During the course of illness, 19/27 (70 %) had multiorgan involvement. Common manifestations included uveitis/iritis (77 %), fever (50 %), hilar adenopathy (42 %), arthritis (31 %), peripheral lympadenopathy (31 %), hepatosplenomegaly (31 %), parenchymal lung disease (27 %), and skin rash (19 %). Unusual manifestations included granulomatous bone marrow disease (3 cases), hypertension (2), abdominal aortic aneurysm (large vessel vasculitis; 1), granulomatous hepatitis (1), nephrocalcinosis (1), membranous nephropathy (1), refractory granulomatous interstitial nephritis with recurrence in transplanted kidney (1), CNS involvement (2), parotid gland enlargement (1), and sensorineural hearing loss (1). Biopsy specimen was obtained in 21/27 (77 %) patients, and demonstration of noncaseating granuloma associated with negative stains for mycobacteria and fungi was seen in 18 patients. Elevated angiotensin-converting enzyme level was seen in 74 % of patients. Treatment with oral prednisone was initiated in symptomatic patients with significant clinical improvement. Low-dose methotrexate (MTX) 10-15 mg/m(2)/week orally, as steroid-sparing agent, was administered in 14 patients. Other immunomodulators included cyclophosphamide (2 patients), etanercept (2), infliximab (2), mycophenolate mofetil (1), and tacrolimus (1). Childhood sarcoidosis is prevalent in Louisiana. Most of the affected children present with a multisystem disease associated with

  2. THE CONCEPT OF CHILDHOOD IN LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Igorevna KRUPENINA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the nature, types, characteristics of the phenomenon of childhood as a social phenomenon of our time. The author notes the complexity of the definition of “childhood” and its different interpretations. The author also notes that social “construction” considers not childhood itself in its entirety but childhood through the "prism of adulthood". Childhood is often seen as something natural through which goes everyone and something that everybody must have as a result of education and development. At the same time, is lost the understanding of childhood as a valuable phenomenon in itself. The author draws attention to different ways of studying childhood in psychology, literature and history and correlates concepts of childhood in psychology, history and culturology. The author considers the childhood concept by Philippe Aries in correlation with the image of childhood in the novels by Charles Dickens. This choice is determined by specific periodizations of childhood in history and culture what makes the specific development of the world of childhood dependent on the evolution of the world of grown-ups and its culture. 

  3. Predicting adult asthma in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, JM; Boezen, HM

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There still is no cure for asthma. Early identification of patients at risk for disease progression may lead to better treatment opportunities and hopefully better disease outcomes in adulthood. Recent literature on childhood risk factors associated with the outcome of asthma in a

  4. Early Childhood Intervention in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuzhu; Maude, Susan P.; Brotherson, Mary Jane

    2015-01-01

    With rapid economic development and increasing awareness of the importance of early childhood intervention (ECI), China is re-examining its social and educational practices for young children with disabilities. This re-examination may have a significant impact on young children with disabilities in China. It may also set an example for other…

  5. Early Childhood Inclusion in Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljubešic, Marta; Šimleša, Sanja

    2016-01-01

    This article explains early childhood inclusion in Croatia from its beginnings up to challenges in current policy and practice. The first preschool education for children with disabilities dates back to the 1980s and was provided in special institutions. In the last 10 years, mainstream kindergartens have been enrolling children with disabilities…

  6. Antecedents to Prostitution: Childhood Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadon, Susan M.; Koverola, Catherine; Schludermann, Eduard H.

    1998-01-01

    Adolescent prostitutes (n=45) and adolescent nonprostitutes (n=37) were interviewed regarding their experiences related to childhood physical and sexual abuse, leaving home, family functioning, parental alcohol and drug use, and level of self-esteem. Although results replicated previous findings, when a comparison group was considered the same…

  7. Expertise of Early Childhood Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happo, Iiris; Määttä, Kaarina

    2011-01-01

    Every preschool age child in Finland has the right to day care and the expertise of educators is multidimensional. The aim of this article is to clarify the expertise of those early childhood educators, who have the competence of kindergarten teachers (n = 80). The data consisted of the early educators' stories of their growth towards expertise.…

  8. Childhood asthma and physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lochte, Lene; Nielsen, Kim G; Petersen, Poul Erik

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Childhood asthma is a global problem affecting the respiratory health of children. Physical activity (PA) plays a role in the relationship between asthma and respiratory health. We hypothesized that a low level of PA would be associated with asthma in children and adolescents...

  9. Imaging intracranial tuberculosis in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamieson, D.H. [Dept. of Radiology, Red Cross War Memorial Children`s Hospital, Rondebosch (South Africa)

    1995-05-01

    A morphologically based imaging review of intracranial tuberculosis in childhood is presented. The computed tomography and magnetic resonance features of parenchymal tuberculoma, tuberculous meningitis and meningeal/meniningocerebral tuberculoma are illustrated. Recent insight into the nature of tuberculoma necrosis and its magnetic resonance correlation is reviewed. Pathogenesis, relevant clinical background and the role of modern imaging is discussed. (orig.)

  10. Childhood Obesity: Prediction and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael D.

    Obesity in children is a problem both insidious and acute. Childhood obesity has been indicated as a forerunner of adult obesity; it is also an immediate problem for the child. Given the lack of evidence for long term maintenance of any weight loss, this paper investigates the etiology of the disorder as a prelude to prevention. Upon review of the…

  11. Childhood Obesity. Special Reference Briefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winick, Myron

    This reference brief deals with the problem of childhood obesity and how it can lead to obesity in the adult. Eighty-four abstracts are presented of studies on the identification, prevention, and treatment of obesity in children, focusing on diet and psychological attitudes. Subjects of the studies were children ranging in age from infancy through…

  12. Sociological Factors Affecting Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster-Scott, Latisha

    2007-01-01

    According to data from the National Center for Health Statistics, childhood obesity rates are highest among ethnic minorities. It is very helpful to consider the role of culture when attempting to analyze and explain obesity rates in ethnic minority populations. Culture influences the attitudes and beliefs toward exercise, food and nutrition, and…

  13. Signs of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... physical and emotional pain. It has long-term effects on the child. And it is a crime. Recognizing childhood sexual ... living with stepparents.Lives in a rural or low-income area.Has been a ... and children with intellectual disabilities face a higher risk. Remember, ...

  14. Boys' Bodies in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Murray

    2012-01-01

    This paper is based on qualitative research data from a project investigating early childhood boys' constructions of masculinities in relation to sport, health and the body. The focus group data, with 33 boys, has been collected in each of the boys' first three years at school. It is part of the data that will be collected over eight years with…

  15. Early Childhood Special Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrow, Alice-Ann

    2011-01-01

    The process of early intervention is a critical component of Early Childhood Special Music Education. Early intervention is the process of providing services, education, and support to young children who have disabilities or to children who are at-risk of developing needs that may affect their physical, cognitive, or emotional development. The…

  16. The Notebook of My Childhood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王潇涵

    2011-01-01

    About three years ago, I wrote this small poem in a beautiful notebook in memory of my happy childhood. It was missing for a long time. But luckily, in my winter holiday when I was cleaning my room I found it on the bottom of a pile of books. I was so exc

  17. Childhood Obesity: The Caregiver's Role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haschke, Bernadette

    2003-01-01

    Describes the role caregivers play in helping young children dealing with obesity. Examines: (1) causes of childhood obesity; (2) caregiver's position; (3) learning nutrition concepts; (4) preparing and serving healthy foods; (5) encouraging physical activity; (6) working with parents; and (7) assisting an obese child. (SD)

  18. Early Childhood Educator's Nutrition Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Christine; And Others

    This nutrition handbook is designed to provide enough information on nutrition and food habits to enable early childhood educators to add a nutrition dimension to children's learning activities. Topics covered are the role of nutrition in growth during the preschool years; nutrients and their functions; selecting a healthy diet; common nutritional…

  19. [Psychopathy in childhood and adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petermann, F; Remschmidt, H

    2013-12-01

    Personality disorders manifest themselves in stable deviations of personality traits that especially arise in negative interactions with others. Those typical dysfunctional interactions can be observed particularly in dissocial and antisocial personality disorders: adults with severe forms of personality disorders often showed specific symptoms in childhood and adolescence. Clinical researchers therefore demand a respective diagnosis of childhood and adolescent psychopathy. There is an extensive body of research on dissocial and borderline personality disorders in children and adolescents. To date the severe form of dissocial personality disorders, psychopathy, cannot be specifically classified. The transfer of this diagnosis to childhood and adolescence is crucial: based on the assumption of persistence and the risk of stigmatisation many clinicians refuse to diagnose psychopathy at a young age. On the other hand there are positive treatment outcomes that aim at symptom reduction from a very early age. The specification of dissocial personality disorders in childhood and adolescence may encourage the development of new treatments and the de-stigmatisation as well as qualify the dogged assumption of persistence of personality disorders.

  20. Global characteristics of childhood acute promyelocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Samad, A; Pombo-de-Oliveira, M S; Scelo, G; Smith, M T; Feusner, J; Wiemels, J L; Metayer, C

    2015-03-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) comprises approximately 5-10% of childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cases in the US. While variation in this percentage among other populations was noted previously, global patterns of childhood APL have not been thoroughly characterized. In this comprehensive review of childhood APL, we examined its geographic pattern and the potential contribution of environmental factors to observed variation. In 142 studies (spanning >60 countries) identified, variation was apparent-de novo APL represented from 2% (Switzerland) to >50% (Nicaragua) of childhood AML in different geographic regions. Because a limited number of previous studies addressed specific environmental exposures that potentially underlie childhood APL development, we gathered 28 childhood cases of therapy-related APL, which exemplified associations between prior exposures to chemotherapeutic drugs/radiation and APL diagnosis. Future population-based studies examining childhood APL patterns and the potential association with specific environmental exposures and other risk factors are needed.

  1. Childhood Maltreatment and Educational Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Elisa; Babchishin, Lyzon; Marquis, Robyn; Fréchette, Sabrina

    2015-10-01

    Children (0-18 years) with maltreatment histories are vulnerable to experiencing difficulties across multiple domains of functioning, including educational outcomes that encompass not only academic achievement but also mental well-being. The current literature review adopted Slade and Wissow's model to examine (1) the link between childhood maltreatment and academic achievement, (2) the link between childhood maltreatment and mental health outcomes (i.e., emotional and behavioral difficulties), and (3) the bidirectional relationship between childhood academic achievement and mental health. In addition, we reviewed variables that might influence or help explain the link between childhood maltreatment and educational outcomes, drawing on developmental perspectives and Bronfenbrenner's ecological model. Finally, whenever possible, we presented findings specific to maltreated children in out-of-home care to highlight the unique challenges experienced by this population. Results indicated that children with maltreatment histories often experience impairments in both their academic performance (e.g., special education, grade retention, lower grades) and mental well-being (e.g., anxiety, low mood, aggression, social skills deficits, poor interpersonal relationships). These impairments appeared to be particularly pronounced among maltreated children in out-of-home care. Findings, albeit sparse, also indicated that mental health difficulties are negatively associated with children's academic achievement and, similarly, that academic achievement deficits are linked with mental health problems. The link between childhood maltreatment and educational outcomes may be partly explained through the disruption of key developmental processes in children, such as attachment, emotion regulation, and sense of agency. As well, maltreatment characteristics and the functioning of various systems in which children are embedded (e.g., family, school, child welfare) can serve to positively

  2. 3种野生国兰无菌播种研究%Aseptic Seeding of Three Varieties of Native Orchids of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卜朝阳; 何荆洲; 严华兵; 卢家仕; 闭志强; 董伟清

    2011-01-01

    选择广西野生春兰、豆瓣兰、独占春3个国兰品种进行种子预处理及培养基成分筛选等无菌播种技术研究.研究结果表明:种子预处理、培养基基本成分、培养基激素、培养基水果附加物对种子萌发都有一定的影响,其中,植物激素和添加椰子汁等对种子萌发有显著促进作用,氢氧化钠或次氯酸钠浸泡种子和低盐培养基可使兰花种子提早萌发并提高萌发数.较优试验处理为:种子在播种前用0.1 mol/L`氧化钠或1%次氯酸钠浸泡20 min,播种培养基采用改良Kyoto+ 6-BA2 mg/L+ NAA1 mg/L+椰子汁10%.%Aseptic seeding of three Guangxi native orchid species, namely, C. Goeringii, C. Serratumr and C. Ebumeum were studied. The results showed that, the seed pre-treatment, the basic media, the hormone combination and the fruit supplements of media had effects on seed germination. The hormone and coconut milk supplemented had significant effects on seed germination; Seeds pre-treatment with NaClO or NaOH and low salt medium made the seed germinate earlier and unproved the germination rate. The preferred pre-treatment method was that the seeds were soaked in the solution of 0.1 mol/L NaOH or 1 % NaClO for 20 min before sowing in the medium. The optimum media for seeding was modified Kyoto supplemented with 2 mg/L 6-BA, 1 mg/L NAA and 10 % coconut milk.

  3. Neuropsychological findings in childhood narcolepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posar, Annio; Pizza, Fabio; Parmeggiani, Antonia; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2014-10-01

    Narcolepsy with cataplexy is a severely disabling disorder very often arising in childhood. Data on neuropsychological impairment in children are scant. We administered standardized neuropsychological tests to 13 children with narcolepsy with cataplexy. Overall, our patients displayed multiple patterns of cognitive and behavioral dysfunction, and often academic failure (7 cases out of 13). All children had a normal full intelligence quotient (IQ), but 3 patients presented a significantly higher and 2 a significantly lower Verbal IQ compared to Performance IQ, respectively. Mean sleep latency was significantly correlated (P emotional symptoms and conduct problems prevailed. Childhood narcolepsy with cataplexy represents a risk factor for subtle and heterogeneous cognitive impairments potentially resulting in academic failure, despite the normal IQ. These children also have a certain psychopathological risk. All this seems to be at least partially detached from the direct effects of daytime sleepiness.

  4. Bipolar Disorder and Childhood Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Erten

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar disorder is a chronic disorder in which irregular course of depressive, mania or mixed episodes or a complete recovery between episodes can be observed. The studies about the effects of traumatic events on bipolar disorder showed that they had significant and long-term effects on the symptoms of the disorder. Psychosocial stress might change the neurobiology of bipolar disorder over time. The studies revealed that the traumatic events could influence not only the onset of the disorder but also the course of the disorder and in these patients the rate of suicide attempt and comorbid substance abuse might increase. Bipolar patients who had childhood trauma had an earlier onset, higher number of episodes and comorbid disorders. In this review, the relationship between childhood trauma and bipolar disorder is reviewed. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(2: 157-165

  5. Protection of Childhood in Greece

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deligeoroglou E; Christopoulos P; Salakos N; Roupa Z; Sotiropoulou P; Papadimitriou P

    2005-01-01

    The early childhood care is important not only for individual Greek children and families but also for Greek society at large. Furthermore, it needs to be secured that the burden of labour and the raising of child is not only a woman's duty. There is a broad recognition that a strategy for developing early childhood services and childcare to support mother's labour force participation is in the public interest and should be the primary scope of the national health and social care policy. The inadequate organization of the child welfare system has adverse effects on the well-being, and function of the family. Only the improvement of the expected protection can lead to social politics that will give a chance to mother and child to live in conditions fitting human value and dignity. Herein, we presented the regulations and services along with health care professionals that refer to the protection of child in Greece.

  6. Psychological factors in childhood headaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Kathleen; Dunn, David; Scott, Eric

    2010-06-01

    Recurrent headaches in children are most often migraines and are based in a genetic predisposition with a low headache threshold. As with any pain experience, there is a large emotional component associated with an attack of migraines that grows in amplitude as the headaches become more frequent and resistant to medicine, sleep, or other agents that used to work. Childhood headaches are especially complicated for 3 reasons: (1) the parents' fear (communicated to the child that serious medical pathology underlies the head pain), (2) the lack of evidence-based pharmacologic treatment, and (3) the belief that these headaches are largely psychological. This article addresses the mystery surrounding childhood headaches by delving into the influence of school, friends, and family; the impact of divorce; the coping skills required for a child to manage a migrainous nervous system; the potential secondary gain from headaches; psychiatric comorbidities and how to treat them; and the role of psychological intervention.

  7. Childhood pneumonia and vitamin A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Heidarian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the major causes of mortality in children younger than 5 years old is acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRI. ALRI clinical features are cough, tachypnea, fever, coryza, chest retraction, crackles and wheeze. Increased white blood cell count with left shift might happen in pneumonia. C-reactive protein (CRP and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR might rise in children with respiratory tract infections. Vitamin A deficiency is associated with severe childhood infections. The effect of vitamin A supplementation in childhood pneumonia depends on the prevalence and the level of vitamin A deficiency in the population. Some studies confirmed that retinol levels were significantly higher after recovery from acute pneumonia compared to acute phase. But there were no significant association between serum retinol level and the clinical manifestation.

  8. Allergic Rhinitis in Childhood - Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Babayiğit

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Allergic rhinitis, an immunoglobulin E mediated disease, is the most common chronic allergic childhood disease. The disease is characterized by nasal sneezing, rhinorrhea, palate and eye itchiness, and congestion and it can significantly impact children’s health. It causes uncomfortable symptoms, impairs quality of life and can predispose to the development of comorbidities such as asthma. Etiological diagnosis is based on cutaneous prick tests, which have a high sensitivity and specificity rate and which can be easily applied to young children. Treatment initially involves avoidance measures and, when necessary, pharmacotherapy or immunotherapy. Pharmacotherapy generally involves antihistamines and/or nasal corticosteroids, but leukotriene antagonists have also demonstrated effectiveness in treating allergic rhinitis symptoms. In this article, the symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of allergic rhinitis in childhood are discussed. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2010; 8: 105-12

  9. Childhood Leukemia and Electromagnetic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpaslan Türkkan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this review, the relationship between very low frequency electromagnetic fields, originating from high voltage powerlines, and childhood leukemia was evaluated. Electromagnetic fields have biological effects. Whole populations are effected by different levels of electromagnetic fields but children are more sensible. In urban areas high voltage powerlines are the main sources of electromagnetic fields. The relation of electromagnetic fields due to high voltage powerlines and leukemia with consideration of dose-response and distance is investigated in several studies. There are different opinions on the effects of electromagnetic fields on general health. The relation between electromagnetic fields and childhood leukemia must be considered separately. Although there is no limit value, it is generally accepted that exposure to 0.4 µT and over doubles the risk of leukemia in children 15 years and younger. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2009; 7: 137-41

  10. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... objective reports of various anthropometric and other measures of fatness from the IDEFICS study of children aged 2-9 in 16 regions of eight European countries. Based on such data as accelerometer measures and information from nutritional diaries, we also investigate the effects of maternal employment...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  11. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... objective reports of various anthropometric and other measures of fatness from the IDEFICS study of children aged 2-9 in 16 regions of eight European countries. Based on such data as accelerometer measures and information from nutritional diaries, we also investigate the effects of maternal employment...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  12. Chronic avulsive injuries of childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, L.F.; Helms, C.A. [Dept. of Radiology, Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Bisset, G.S. III [Dept. of Radiology, Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)]|[Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Squire, D.L. [Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    1999-03-01

    Children and adolescents are prone to avulsive injuries related to a combination of their propensity for great strength, ability to sustain extreme levels of activity, and immature growing apophyses. Appropriate interpretation of imaging studies showing chronic avulsive injuries is essential so that the irregularity and periostitis that can be associated with chronic avulsions is not misinterpreted as probable malignancy. This article reviews the chronic avulsive injuries of childhood. (orig.) With 12 figs., 8 refs.

  13. General Overview on Childhood Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevil İnal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, it has not been put much emphasis on obesity in children and the view of “obese child is healthy” is widely accepted by families. However, understanding that a close relation exists between obesity prevalence and childhood obesity, which increased in recent years both across the world and in our country, and many diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases changed the opinion of both of health care professionals and the society about childhood obesity in Turkey, like it changed the opinion in all around the world. Although there are no studies in our country, which have been conducted to investigate obesity prevalence and affecting factors in children nationwide, it is reported in studies carried out in various cities that rate of overweight children in preschool children is between 4-13%, whereas rate of obese children is between 9-27%. In the literature, a positive correlation was found between the frequency of taking the children to fast-food restaurants, compelling children to eat foods on their dishes, one or two of the parents being obese and obesity of children in Turkey. In this review will focus on the risk factors of childhood obesity in Turkey. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2013; 11: 27-30

  14. The dynamics of childhood poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, M E; Chaudry, A

    1997-01-01

    Child poverty rates have remained high since the middle of the 1970s. While several trends, including declines in the number of children per family and increases in parental years of schooling, worked to reduce child poverty rates, several others, including show economic growth, widening economic inequality, and increases in the proportion of children living in mother-only families, had the opposite effect, pushing more children into poverty. Poverty is a common risk: One-third of all children will be poor for at least one year. For many, poverty lasts only a short while, but for a small percentage, poverty persists both throughout childhood and into the adult years. Poverty is not shared equally across different demographic groups. African-American children. Latino children, and children in mother-only families are disproportionately poor. Long-term poverty is even more concentrated than single-year poverty. In 1992, almost 90% of long-term poor children were African-American as compared to all poor children (single-year and long-term poor), of whom 60% were white. Both family structure and the labor market are implicated in long-term childhood poverty. Changes in employment of family members and changes in family composition are each strongly associated with transitions into and out of childhood poverty. Of these, changes in employment are the most important.

  15. Combating Childhood Obesity: Changing Our Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Anna,

    2007-01-01

    A review of literature was conducted to identify risk factors and prevention strategies for childhood obesity. Factors contributing to childhood obesity include poor food choices, physical inactivity, and genetics. Complications of obesity include respiratory, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, and endocrine diseases, cancer, gallbladder disease, poor health status, depression, low self-esteem, and social withdrawal. Since childhood obesity, largely due to the environment that children live in ...

  16. Fertility in female childhood cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Bruin, Marie L; Van Dulmen-den Broeder, Eline; Van den Berg, Marleen H;

    2009-01-01

    Advances in childhood cancer treatment over the past decades have significantly improved survival, resulting in a rapidly enlarging group of childhood cancer survivors. There is much concern, however, about the effects of treatment on reproductive potential. In women there is evidence that both...... fertility. Hence we will focus on direct effects as well as late fertility-related adverse effects caused by chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and we will conclude with a summary of current options for fertility preservation in female childhood cancer survivors....

  17. The Life Time Prevalence of Childhood Seizure

    OpenAIRE

    P AlizadehTaheri; Naseri, M; M Lahooti; Sadeghi, M

    2009-01-01

    "nBackground: Seizure is the most common pediatric neurologic disorder. Epidemiological studies of childhood epilepsy are of importance to compare incidence and prevalence rates, age distribution, inheritance, seizure types, epilepsy syn­dromes and treatment strategies. Since there is little information about prevalence of childhood seizure in Iran, this study was aimed to determine the life time prevalence of childhood seizure and some of its determining factors in Tehran, Iran....

  18. 77 FR 64997 - Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning... poisoning prevention efforts. The committee also reviews and reports regularly on childhood lead poisoning prevention practices and recommends improvements in national childhood lead poisoning prevention...

  19. Treatment Options for Childhood Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Childhood NHL Treatment Research Childhood Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Childhood Non- ... fungoides rarely occurs in children and adolescents. Past treatment for cancer and having a weakened immune system ...

  20. The long reach of childhood: childhood experiences influence close relationships and loneliness across life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merz, E.-M.; Jak, S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper intends to gain insight into the role of childhood relationships and experiences within the parental home for the formation and meaning of later family relationships and loneliness. Particularly, childhood attachment to mother and father and stressful childhood experiences were studied in

  1. The long reach of childhood. Childhood experiences influence close relationships and loneliness across life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Merz; S. Jak

    2013-01-01

    This paper intends to gain insight into the role of childhood relationships and experiences within the parental home for the formation and meaning of later family relationships and loneliness. Particularly, childhood attachment to mother and father and stressful childhood experiences were studied in

  2. Early Childhood Service Delivery for Families Living with Childhood Disability: Disabling Families through Problematic Implicit Ideology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Lauren J.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to unpack the implicit ideology underpinning early childhood service delivery for families living with childhood disability. The family as the unit of care is central to the philosophy and practice of early childhood services. However, the practice of family-centred care can be problematic; it is based upon neo-liberal…

  3. 川崎病并发无菌性脑膜炎31例临床治疗分析%Kawasaki disease complicated with aseptic meningitis clinical treatment of 31 cases were analyzed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗云娇; 杜曾庆; 杨小涛

    2014-01-01

    objective the article is to review the 112 cases of Kawasaki disease (Kd) treaded in our department from January to december 2013 with the emphasis of their characteristics,diagnosis,treatment of patients with aseptic meningitis in 31 cases which were retrospectively analyzed. Methods according to Kawasaki disease and aseptic meningitis treatment, the patients were treated with aspirin 50mg/d/ kg,divided into 2 - 3 oral,and given mannitol intracranial pressure lowering treatment. all patients were given intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. Before discharging,cases in the group were given two dimensional echocardiogram Beckoning graph (2de) examination. results the clinical symptoms of all patients were disappeared,their condition improved and discharged. normal cardiac 2de examination of 5 cases of abnormal coronary artery:26 (83.87%) cases had different degrees of coronary artery lesions. conclusion the present (Kd) has replaced the wind damp heat and has become the most important cause of acquired heart disease for children. in recent years Kd with aseptic meningitis cases is increasing,Kd concurrent aseptic meningitis is Kawasaki disease in severe cases,in this group of cases were complicated with multiple organ injury. clinical attention should be paid. Pediatricians should raise awareness of Kd, especially Kd with aseptic meningitis cases. early diagnosis,early treatment is the key to reduce coronary artery disease complicated by Kd.%目的:对我科2013年1月至12月收治的112例川崎病(Kd)中并发无菌性脑膜炎31例病例的临床特征、诊断、治疗进行回顾性分析。方法本组病例入院后按川崎病并无菌性脑膜炎治疗,本组病例均给予阿司匹林50mg/d/㎏,分2~3次口服,并给予甘露醇脱水降颅压等治疗。全部病例均给予静脉丙种球蛋白治疗。出院前本组病例均做了心脏二维超声心动图(2de)检查。结果全部病例出院时临床症状消失

  4. Analysis of {sup 18} F-FDG uptake patterns in PET for diagnosis of septic and aseptic loosening after total hip arthroplasty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremerius, U.; Niethard, F.U. [Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Mumme, T.; Reinartz, P.; Wirtz, D. [Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Orthopaedische Klinik; Buell, U.

    2003-12-01

    Aim: Identification of typical patterns for fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in positron emission tomography (PET) to detect aseptic loosening of hip prosthesis (acetabular and/or femoral component) and prosthetic infection. Methods: 18 patients with painful hip prosthesis underwent PET using a dedicated full ring scanner after application of 200-300 MBq FDG. The interface between bone and surrounding soft tissue or bone as displayed on coronal slices was divided into 12 segments in accordance with the classifications of Delee and Gruen. FDG uptake in each of the segments was scored (0-3) by two independent observers. Intraoperative findings were regarded as the gold standard. Results: After surgical revision 14 acetabular components and 9 femoral components were found to be loose and prosthetic infection was present in 7 prostheses. Loosening of the acetabular component was correlated to enhanced uptake in the middle of the acetabular interface, while loosening of the femoral component was correlated to enhanced uptake in the proximal and middle segment of the lateral femoral interface and the proximal segment of the medial femoral interface. A similar pattern was found in prosthetic infection with high uptake along the middle portion of the lateral femoral interface. In 6 of 7 infected prostheses loosening of the acetabular and of the femoral component was present. Taking the typical uptake patterns as criteria for loosening and grade 3 uptake as an additional criterion for septic loosening the accuracy of PET imaging in the detection of loosening of the acetabular or the femoral component and of prosthetic infection was 72, 78 and 89%, respectively. Conclusion: This pilot study presents FDG-PET as a promising diagnostic tool for patients with painful hip prostheses. Its clinical value should be evaluated in a larger patient population. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Identifikation von Befundmustern in der Positronenemissionstomographie (PET) mit {sup 18}F

  5. Personality and Adult Perceptions of Childhood Dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacka, Brian

    This study used adult recall of childhood dreams to test Cann and Donderi's (1986) findings that Jungian intuitives recall more archetypal dreams than do sensate subjects, and that introverts recall more everyday dreams than extraverts. It was hypothesized that since dreams recalled from childhood are relatively high in archetypal content, there…

  6. Early Childhood Inclusion in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    A policy-to-practice paper is presented of early childhood inclusion in England. The article aims to report the benefits of early intervention services and early childhood inclusion for children with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND), document the chronology of policy development, and discuss research evidence about…

  7. Striving for Quality in Early Childhood Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brancato, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    An essential component of best practice in the field of early childhood special education is the inclusion of children with disabilities in typical early childhood settings. As the practice of inclusion has increased in recent years it has become imperative to ensure that children with disabilities attend quality programs. The main purpose of this…

  8. Childhood Maltreatment in South Korea: Retrospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yanghee; Kim, Sangwon

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study explored the prevalence of childhood maltreatment in South Korea using the retrospective version of ICAST and the associations between perceptions of abuse experienced during childhood and recent interpersonal problems and depression. Methods: 539 young persons, aged 18-24 years, from various universities, work places, and…

  9. Male reproductive health after childhood cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lähteenmäki, P M; Arola, M; Suominen, J

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-five male patients were investigated to elucidate the correlation of semen parameters and other related parameters in the assessment of spermatogenesis after childhood cancer treatment.......Twenty-five male patients were investigated to elucidate the correlation of semen parameters and other related parameters in the assessment of spermatogenesis after childhood cancer treatment....

  10. The Lay Concept of Childhood Mental Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giummarra, Melita J.; Haslam, Nick

    2005-01-01

    The structure of lay people's concepts of childhood mental disorder was investigated in a questionnaire study and examined for convergence with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV). Eighty-four undergraduates who had no formal education in abnormal psychology rated 54 conditions--36 DSM-IV childhood disorders and 18 non-disorders--on…

  11. Good practices in early childhood education:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanders, Lise; Gregoriadis, Athanasis; Zachopoulou, Evridiki;

    Good practices in early childhood education er en undersøgelse fortaget efter Early Childhood Environmental Rating Scale - R (ECERS-R). I undersøgelsen deltog Akademikere, pædagoger og kommunalt personale fra de 6 partnerlande bestående af Grækenland, Portugal, Finland, Danmark, Rumænien og Cyper...

  12. Childhood Abuse and the Content of Delusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Oliver J.; Brett, Emma; Collinge, Miriam; Curr, Helen; Rhodes, John

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: We aimed to investigate possible associations between histories of childhood abuse and the content of delusions for individuals with psychotic disorders. Methods: 39 participants with a psychotic disorder including one or more delusional beliefs successfully completed structured interviews about childhood trauma, delusional beliefs and…

  13. Moving beyond Colorblindness in Early Childhood Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutte, Gloria Swindler; Lopez-Robertson, Julia; Powers-Costello, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Countering the position that colorblindness is desirable for teachers and children, this article encourages early childhood education teachers to engage in conversations about race and racism with young children. We discuss why the early childhood years are important for interrupting racism and make suggestions for helping children develop tools…

  14. Fertility in Female Childhood Cancer Survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, de M.; Broeder, den E.; Berg, van den M.H.; Lambalk, C.B.

    2009-01-01

    Advances in childhood cancer treatment over the past decades have significantly improved survival, resulting in a rapidly enlarging group of childhood cancer survivors. There is much concern, however, about the effects of treatment on reproductive potential. In women there is evidence that both chem

  15. Marriage and divorce among childhood cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Susanne Vinkel; Kejs, Anne Mette Tranberg; Engholm, Gerda

    2011-01-01

    Many childhood cancer survivors have psychosocial late effects. We studied the risks for cohabitation and subsequent separation. Through the Danish Cancer Register, we identified a nationwide, population-based cohort of all 1877 childhood cancer survivors born from 1965 to 1980, and in whom cance...

  16. Childhood Abuse and Attachment Styles of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakus, Ozlem

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The fact that emotional and social experiences in early childhood period within the family influence the experiences in adolescence and adulthood (communication skills, interpersonal relations) is not a new case. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine the relationship between childhood abuse and attachment styles. Method: The…

  17. Childhood Participation Experiences in the Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, M.; Morata, T.; Trilla, J.

    2016-01-01

    This article is based on the findings of a broader research project entitled "Childhood Participation and Citizenship Building," which examined the medium-term effects of intense experiences of participation in childhood within both the school environment and those of leisure-time and community education. The results presented in this…

  18. Mourning a Lost Childhood: A Therapeutic Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulish, Nancy Mann

    J. M. Barrie's popular story of Peter Pan depicts the never-neverland of an endless happy childhood. Analysis of the story and of J. M. Barrie's personal background, however, reveals that the tale is a conflicted solution to and separation from early childhood losses and disappointments. Themes of separation and reunion, redesertion and revenge…

  19. Childhood abuse in late-life depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Comijs, Hannie C; van Exel, Eric; van der Mast, Roos C; Paauw, Anna; Oude Voshaar, Richard; Stek, Max L

    2013-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the role of childhood abuse in late-life depression. The aim of the study is therefore to study whether childhood abuse is associated with late-life depression according to its onset, and which clinical characteristics play a role in this association. Methods: Data

  20. Childhood abuse in late-life depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Comijs, H.C.; Exel, E. van; Mast, R.C. van der; Paauw, A.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Stek, M.L.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the role of childhood abuse in late-life depression. The aim of the study is therefore to study whether childhood abuse is associated with late-life depression according to its onset, and which clinical characteristics play a role in this association. METHODS: Data

  1. Quality Measurement in Early Childhood Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaslow, Martha, Ed.; Martinez-Beck, Ivelisse, Ed.; Tout, Kathryn, Ed.; Halle, Tamara, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    What constitutes quality in early childhood settings, and how can it best be measured with today's widely used tools and promising new approaches? Find authoritative answers in this book, a must-have for high-level administrators and policymakers as more and more states adopt early childhood Quality Rating and Improvement Systems. The most…

  2. Managing Asthma in the Early Childhood Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graville, Iris

    2011-01-01

    Asthma, one of the most common chronic disorders in childhood, affects more than seven million children in the United States, and is the third leading cause of hospitalization for children. Statistics like these make planning and preparing for asthma in the early childhood setting a high priority. With the high rates of asthma in the U.S. today,…

  3. Changing Images of Childhood. Issues in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goellner, Lydia A.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the changing images of childhood throughout history, focusing on how changes are reflected in beliefs and educational and social practices toward children with special needs. Describes impact of a painful childhood on Friedrich Froebel and actor Cary Grant. Suggests ways to enhance children's lives, including government subsidized…

  4. Orthostatic intolerance in survivors of childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terlou, Annelinde; Ruble, Kathy; Stapert, Anne F.; Chang, Ho-Choong; Rowe, Peter C.; Schwartz, Cindy L.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the prevalence and severity of orthostatic intolerance in survivors of childhood cancer and in healthy controls, and to correlate results of self-reported measures of health status with orthostatic testing in survivors of childhood cancer. Patient and methods: Thirty-nine survivo

  5. Pulmonary Complications of Childhood Cancer Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versluijs, AB; Bresters, Dorine

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary complications of childhood cancer treatment are frequently seen. These can lead to adverse sequelae many years after treatment, with important impact on morbidity, quality of life and mortality in childhood cancer survivors. This review addresses the effects of chemotherapy, radiotherapy,

  6. Linking Families and Early Childhood Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Verna

    1985-01-01

    Discusses and uses a global human ecological system framework to analyze family needs in relation to early childhood education. Topics emphasized include family support systems, population trends, health care, employment patterns, and political systems. Suggestions for meeting these needs are addressed to early childhood educators. (DST)

  7. Formative Assessment: Guidance for Early Childhood Policymakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley-Ayers, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    This policy report provides a guide and framework to early childhood policymakers considering formative assessment. The report defines formative assessment and outlines its process and application in the context of early childhood. The substance of this document is the issues for consideration in the implementation of the formative assessment…

  8. Familial Aggregation and Childhood Blood Pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Xiaoling; Xu, Xiaojing; Su, Shaoyong; Snieder, Harold

    2015-01-01

    There is growing concern about elevated blood pressure (BP) in children. The evidence for familial aggregation of childhood BP is substantial. Twin studies have shown that a large part of the familial aggregation of childhood BP is due to genes. The first part of this review provides the latest prog

  9. Genetic Causes of Cerebrovascular Disorders in Childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E.C. Meuwissen (Marije)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Cerebrovascular disorders in childhood comprise ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke. This thesis comprises a escription of genetic causes of childhood cerebrovascular disorders. Two examples of genetic causes of ischemic stroke, comprising a case of ACTA2 mutation an

  10. Obstruction of cerebral arteries in childhood stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velkey, I.; Lombay, B. (County Teaching Hospital, Miskolc (Hungary). Child Health Center); Panczel, G. (Semmelweis Medical Univ., Budapest (Hungary). Dept. of Psychiatry)

    1992-09-01

    Middle cerebral artery obstruction in children is reviewed by our two cases. Ischemic childhood stroke was caused by moyamoya disease in the first, and by fibromuscular dysplasia in the second patient. In both cases transcranial Doppler sonography and cranial CT were performed, but the final diagnosis was made by angiography. The importance of angiography in childhood stroke is emphasized. (orig.).

  11. Attachment and Socioemotional Problems in Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Ellen; Lecompte, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we will evaluate the evidence concerning links between attachment and behavior problems in the middle childhood period. We will first provide a general introduction to the question of attachment and maladaptation in the middle childhood period, and then examine the recent empirical evidence with respect to both externalizing and…

  12. Attachment in Middle Childhood: Progress and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosmans, Guy; Kerns, Kathryn A.

    2015-01-01

    Contrary to the substantial amount of research on infant, preschool, adolescent, and adult attachment, middle childhood has long been neglected by the international attachment research community. In the past two decades, however, there has been a steep increase in research focusing on middle childhood attachment. This article provides an overview…

  13. Disorders of childhood growth and development: childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Robert; Grissom, Maureen

    2013-07-01

    The incidence of childhood obesity in the United States is estimated at 17%, or 12 million children ages 2 to 19 years. Obesity is a multifactorial condition with syndromic and nonsyndromic variants. Genetic, social, ethnic, endocrinologic, and behavioral issues are all potential etiologic factors. Preventive efforts should begin with monitoring from birth and include breastfeeding until age 6 months, avoiding juices, and promoting fruit and vegetable consumption and adequate exercise. Childhood obesity is diagnosed based on body mass index; a child is considered overweight at the 85th to 95th percentiles and obese at or above the 95th percentile. After obesity is diagnosed, testing should include blood pressure levels, fasting lipid profile, diabetes screening, and liver function tests. The physician should obtain a detailed history of the physical activity level and food intake and assess possible complications of obesity, including depression and hypertension, annually. Lifestyle interventions with family involvement are the mainstay of management, with pharmacotherapy or bariatric surgery considered for adolescents only if intensive lifestyle modifications have failed and in the presence of comorbidities. Intervention by multiple disciplines (ie, medicine, nutrition, psychology) is recommended, and family physicians are encouraged to become more involved in encouraging physical activity and improved nutrition for children.

  14. Japanese Guideline for Childhood Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Nishimuta

    2011-01-01

    JAGL differs from the Global Initiative for Asthma Guideline (GINA in that the former emphasizes long-term management of childhood asthma based on asthma severity and early diagnosis and intervention at <2 years and 2–5 years of age. However, a management method, including step-up or step-down of long-term management agents based on the status of asthma symptoms, is easy to understand and thus JAGL is suitable for routine medical treatment. JAGL also introduced treatment and management using a control test for children, recommending treatment and management aimed at complete control through avoiding exacerbation factors and appropriate use of antiinflammatory agents.

  15. Factors associated with childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, W

    1991-01-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with host factors that enhance susceptibility and environmental factors that increase food intake and decrease energy expenditure. Obese children underreport food intake and probably consume more food to maintain their weight at increased levels. Prevalence of obesity is related to family variables, including parental obesity, family size and age, and socioeconomic status. Television viewing is strongly associated with the prevalence of obesity through its impact on food intake and activity. How these environmental variables are behaviorally interrelated to the genesis of obesity is unclear.

  16. Familial aggregation and childhood blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoling; Xu, Xiaojing; Su, Shaoyong; Snieder, Harold

    2015-01-01

    There is growing concern about elevated blood pressure (BP) in children. The evidence for familial aggregation of childhood BP is substantial. Twin studies have shown that a large part of the familial aggregation of childhood BP is due to genes. The first part of this review provides the latest progress in gene finding for childhood BP, focusing on the combined effects of multiple loci identified from the genome-wide association studies on adult BP. We further review the evidence on the contribution of the genetic components of other family risk factors to the familial aggregation of childhood BP including obesity, birth weight, sleep quality, sodium intake, parental smoking, and socioeconomic status. At the end, we emphasize the promise of using genomic-relatedness-matrix restricted maximum likelihood (GREML) analysis, a method that uses genome-wide data from unrelated individuals, in answering a number of unsolved questions in the familial aggregation of childhood BP.

  17. Childhood Pneumonia Screener: a concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka Räsänen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Childhood pneumonia continues to be the number one cause of death in children under five years of age in developing countries. In addition to mortality, pneumonia constitutes an enormous economic and social burden because late diagnosis is associated with high cost of treatment and often leads to chronic health problems. There are several bottlenecks in developing countries in the case flow of a child with lung infection: 1 recognising the symptoms as a reason to seek care, 2 getting the patient to a first-tier health facility, 3 scarcity of trained healthcare personnel who can diagnose the condition and its severity, 4 access to a second-tier facility in severe cases. These factors are commonly present in rural areas but even in more urban settings, access to a physician is often delayed. The Childhood Pneumonia Screener project aims at bridging the diagnostic gap using emerging technology. Mobile “smart” phone communication with several inexpensive dedicated sensors is proposed as a rapid data-collection and transmission unit that is connected to a central location where trained personnel assisted by sophisticated signal processing algorithms, evaluate the data and determine if the child is likely to have pneumonia and what the level and urgency of care should be.

  18. Depersonalization, mindfulness, and childhood trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michal, Matthias; Beutel, Manfred E; Jordan, Jochen; Zimmermann, Michael; Wolters, Susanne; Heidenreich, Thomas

    2007-08-01

    Depersonalization (DP), i.e., feelings of being detached from one's own mental processes or body, can be considered as a form of mental escape from the full experience of reality. This mental escape is thought to be etiologically linked with maltreatment during childhood. The detached state of consciousness in DP contrasts with certain aspects of mindfulness, a state of consciousness characterized by being in touch with the present moment. Against this background, the present article investigates potential connections between DP severity, mindfulness, and childhood trauma in a mixed sample of nonpatients and chronic nonmalignant pain patients. We found a strong inverse correlation between DP severity and mindfulness in both samples, which persisted after partialing out general psychological distress. In the nonpatient sample, we additionally found significant correlations between emotional maltreatment on the one hand and DP severity (positive) and mindfulness (negative) on the other. We conclude that the results first argue for an antithetical relationship between DP and certain aspects of mindfulness and thus encourage future studies on mindfulness-based interventions for DP and second throw light on potential developmental factors contributing to mindfulness.

  19. Catatonia in childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaoka, Ken; Takata, Tomoji

    2003-04-01

    Child and adolescent catatonia has been poorly investigated. A literature review was undertaken to clarify phenomenology, diagnosis, etiology, and treatment as well as ethical problems of catatonia in childhood and adolescence. Although there are no accepted standardized criteria for catatonia in childhood and adolescence, catatonic features described by child psychiatrists are similar to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edn; DSM-IV) criteria for catatonia. With respect to etiology, the motor and behavioral symptoms that are part of catatonia bear some similarities with those seen in autism. Several case reports suggest an association between catatonia and general medical conditions. Certain drugs abused by youngsters as well as prescribed medicine can induce catatonia. Regarding catatonic cases originally diagnosed as schizophrenia, it is unclear whether all of these cases should be identified as schizophrenia or whether some of them are pervasive developmental disorders that develop psychic features in adolescence. Environmental changes preceding the onset of catatonia in patients with mood disorder play a possibly important role. Examples that suggest stress-induced catatonia, although rare, also exist. A few patients exhibit features of malignant catatonia, some without taking neuroleptics and others having taken them. Benzodiazepines and electroconvulsive therapy are considered to be effective treatments for catatonic youngsters.

  20. Childhood asthma and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljuština-Pribić Radmila

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This article summarizes the contribution of epidemiology to the understanding of childhood asthma. The first task in epidemiology is to determine prevalence and incidence of any disease. Prevalence. Epidemiological investigations are aimed at evaluating hypotheses about causes of disease by defining demographic characteristics of a certain population as well as by determining possible effects of environmental factors. In spite of some limitations, data obtained by epidemiological investigations have been valuable in confirming both the increasing incidence of asthma and the differences in prevalence in certain population groups. The observance of this phenomenon has led to much speculation and a lot of attempts to identify the reasons behind the rising prevalence. Risk factors. Epidemiological studies have identified risk factors for the development of childhood asthma and provided insight into natural history of disease and prognosis. Factors ranging from increased numbers of immunizations to increased air pollution have been suggested, but subsequent analysis has failed to provide the supporting evidence to implicate most of these possibilities. The concept known as the hygiene hypothesis has gained some support from epidemiological studies. Conclusion. The development of asthma as well as its severity are affected by numerous factors and their interactions can be explained by the heterogeneous nature of this disease.

  1. Childhood asthma and physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lochte, Lene; Nielsen, Kim G; Petersen, Poul Erik;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Childhood asthma is a global problem affecting the respiratory health of children. Physical activity (PA) plays a role in the relationship between asthma and respiratory health. We hypothesized that a low level of PA would be associated with asthma in children and adolescents. The obj......BACKGROUND: Childhood asthma is a global problem affecting the respiratory health of children. Physical activity (PA) plays a role in the relationship between asthma and respiratory health. We hypothesized that a low level of PA would be associated with asthma in children and adolescents...... and extracted data from original articles that met the inclusion criteria. Summary odds ratios (ORs) and confidence intervals (CIs) were used to express the results of the meta-analysis (forest plot). We explored heterogeneity using funnel plots and the Graphic Appraisal Tool for Epidemiology (GATE). RESULTS......: We retrieved 1,571 titles and selected 11 articles describing three cohort and eight cross-sectional studies for inclusion. A meta-analysis of the cohort studies revealed a risk of new-onset asthma in children with low PA (OR [95 % CI] 1.32 [0.95; 1.84] [random effects] and 1.35 [1.13; 1.62] [fixed...

  2. Urinary tract infection and aseptic meningitis:a case report with literature review%尿路感染合并无菌性脑膜炎1例报告及文献复习

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡笑月; 徐晓华; 华颖

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze and investigate clinical characteristics, pathogenesis and treatment of urinary tract infection and aseptic meningitis. Methods Clinical features and laboratory tests of a two-month-old baby girl with urinary tract infection and aseptic meningitis were reported. Results The patient complained of fever, neck stiffness and a bulging fontanel, accompanied by congestion and abnormal secretion of urethra. The cerebrospinal lfuid (CSF) white blood cell count was 30×106/L. The blood culture and the CSF culture were both negative. And the urine culture was positive for Enterococcus faecium. The patient received a 10-day course of intravenous antibiotic therapy. The prognosis is good with no recurrence of the disease. Conclusions Aseptic meningitis can be concomitant with urinary tract infection, The probable hypothesis may be that sterile CSF pleocytosis is mediated by urinary tract infection. Knowledge of this may prevent unnecessary antibiotics therapy for presumed bacterial meningitis.%目的:探讨尿路感染合并无菌性脑膜炎的临床特点、发病机制及诊治,以提高对此疾病的认识。方法分析1例尿路感染合并无菌性脑膜炎患儿的临床特点和实验室检查结果,并复习相关文献。结果患儿2月龄,临床表现为发热、颈抵抗及前囟隆起,伴有尿道口充血及异常分泌物。脑脊液白细胞计数30×106/L。患儿血培养、脑脊液培养均阴性。尿培养为屎肠球菌生长。经静脉抗感染治疗10 d,病情好转,随访病情无复发。结论尿路感染患儿可合并无菌性脑膜炎,其机制可能与细菌感染引起脑膜炎症反应有关,临床上需与细菌性脑膜炎进行鉴别,如明确为前者可适当缩短抗感染疗程。

  3. Psychiatric Aspects of Childhood Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman Deep PATTANAYAK

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite this Article: Pattanayak RD, Sagar R. Psychiatric Aspects of Childhood Epilepsy. Iran J Child Neurol 2012;6(2:9-18.Childhood epilepsy is a chronic, recurrent disorder of unprovoked seizures. Theonset of epilepsy in childhood has significant implications for brain growth anddevelopment. Seizures may impair the ongoing neurodevelopmental processes and compromise the child’s intellectual and cognitive functioning, leading totremendous cognitive, behavioral and psychosocial consequences. Children with epilepsy are at increased risk for emotional and behavioral problems. In addition to the direct effects of epilepsy, there are multiple contributory factors including the underlying neurological abnormalities and adverse effects of medication. This review discusses the current understanding of various psychiatric aspects of childhood epilepsy, including the neuropsychological, behavioral and psychosocial concomitants of childhood epilepsy.References1. Shinnar S, Pellock JM. Update on the epidemiology and prognosis of pediatric epilepsy. J Child Neurol 2002;7 suppl 1:4-17.2. Murphy CC, Trevathan E, Yeargin-Allsopp M. Prevalence of epilepsy and epileptic seizures in 10-year-old children: results from the Metropolitan Atlanta Developmental Disabilities Study. Epilepsia 1995;36(9:866-72.3. Placencia M, Shorvon SD, Paredes V, Bimos C, Sander JW, Suarez J, et al. Epileptic seizures in an Andean region of Ecuador ncidence and prevalence and regional variation. Brain 1992;115:771-82.4. Henkin Y, Sadeh M, Kivity S, Shabtai E, KishonRabin L, Gadoth N. Cognitive function in idiopathic generalized epilepsy of childhood. Dev Med Child Neurol 2005;47:126-32.5. Rodenburg R, Stams GJ, Meijer AM, Aldenkamp AP, Dekovic M. Psychopathology in children with epilepsy: a meta-analysis. J Pediatr Psychol 2005;30(6:453-68.6. Caplan R, Siddarth P, Gurbani S, Ott D, Sankar R, Shields WD. Psychopathology and pediatric complex partial seizures: seizure

  4. Synergistic childhood adversities and complex adult psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Karen T; Harris, William W; Putnam, Frank W

    2013-08-01

    Numerous studies find a cumulative effect of different types of childhood adversities on increasing risk for serious adult mental and medical outcomes. This study uses the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication sample to investigate the cumulative impact of 8 childhood adversities on complex adult psychopathology as indexed by (a) number of lifetime diagnoses according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994); (b) number of 4 DSM-IV disorder categories (mood, anxiety, impulse control, and substance abuse disorders); and (c) coexistence of internalizing and externalizing disorders. Seven of the 8 childhood adversities were significantly associated with complex adult psychopathology. Individuals with 4 or more childhood adversities had an odds ratio of 7.3, 95% confidence interval [4.7, 11.7] for 4 disorder categories. Additive and multiplicative synergistic effects increasing adult psychopathology were found for specific pairwise combinations of childhood adversities. Synergistic patterns differed by gender suggesting that women are more impacted by sexual abuse and men by economic hardship. The absence of childhood adversities was protective, in that it significantly decreased an individual's risk for subsequent adult mental illness. The results support the clinical impression that increased childhood adversity is associated with more complex adult psychopathology.

  5. Suicide among childhood cancer survivors in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Čižek Sajko

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Suicide is one of the causes of late mortality among childhood cancer survivors. The aim of our study was to analyse the risk of suicide among childhood cancer survivors compared with that ofthe general population of Slovenia. Patients and methods. This retrospective study included patients with childhood cancer registeredat the Cancer Registry of Slovenia between 1978-2008, with an observation period of 1978-2010. Childhood cancer patients and controlsubjects from the general population of Slovenia were matched by sex,year and age at the beginning of follow-up and time of follow-up inyears. Data on the general population of Slovenia were obtained fromthe Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia. Results. A total of 1647 patients were recorded in the Cancer Registry as having cancerduring childhood, with 3 patients committing suicide. All three weremale. Their age at diagnosis of cancer was 12, 13 and 2 years old; their age at suicide was 19, 32 and 28 years old. The mechanism of death was asphyxiation in all three deaths. The calculation of the expected number of suicides in the group of individuals with childhood cancer from the general Slovene population revealed the number of 3.16persons. Conclusion. The comparison of the observed and expectedprobability showed that there was no statistically significant difference in the suicide rate between childhood cancer survivors and the general population of Slovenia.

  6. Asthma in childhood: a complex, heterogeneous disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Lee Chung

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma in childhood is a heterogeneous disease with different phenotypes and variable clinical manifestations, which depend on the age, gender, genetic background, and environmental influences of the patients. Several longitudinal studies have been conducted to classify the phenotypes of childhood asthma, on the basis of the symptoms, triggers of wheezing illness, or pathophysiological features of the disease. These studies have provided us with important information about the different wheezing phenotypes in young children and about potential mechanisms and risk factors for the development of chronic asthma. The goal of these studies was to provide a better insight into the causes and natural course of childhood asthma. It is well-known that complicated interactions between genes and environmental factors contribute to the development of asthma. Because childhood is a period of rapid growth in both the lungs and the immune system, developmental factors should be considered in the pathogenesis of childhood asthma. The pulmonary system continues to grow and develop until linear growth is completed. Longitudinal studies have reported significant age-related immune development during postnatal early life. These observations suggest that the phenotypes of childhood asthma vary among children and also in an individual child over time. Improved classification of heterogeneous conditions of the disease will help determine novel strategies for primary and secondary prevention and for the development of individualized treatment for childhood asthma.

  7. Identificação da microbiota fúngica de ambientes considerados assépticos Identification of the fungic microbiota isolated in areas considered aseptic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elisabete Sbrogio de Almeida

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se isolar e identificar a microbiota fúngica em ambientes considerados assépticos, através de exposições com meios de cultivo adequados, em três épocas distintas do ano, antes e imediatamente após as manobras técnicas realizadas em três áreas de trabalho: ambiente aberto, ambiente fechado sem filtração de ar e ambiente fechado com filtração de ar, utilizadas em produção de imunobiológicos. Os meios ágar-Sabouraud e ágar-soja, enriquecidos com 0,2% de extrato de levedura e sem cloranfenicol, foram estudados quanto à sua eficácia no isolamento de bolores e leveduras, considerando-se o número de colônias desenvolvidas e a freqüência dos diversos fungos isolados. Isolaram-se 67 espécimens, sendo 64 fungos filamentosos (bolores e três leveduras. Dos bolores, 54 pertenciam a 22 gêneros da divisão Deuteromycota, famílias Moniliaceae e Dematiaceae, cinco amostras filamentosas foram incluídas na ordem Agonomycetales (Mycelia Sterilia, e uma amostra foi classificada na divisão Deuteromycota, ordem Sphaeropsidales, classe Coelomycetes. Da divisão Zygomycota, ordem Mucorales, família Mucoraceae, um único mucoráceo foi identificado até gênero. As três leveduras pertenciam também à divisão Deuteromycota (Fungi Imperfecti, família Cryptococcaceae, e foram identificadas como sendo duas Rhodotorula rubra e uma Torulopsis candida. Comprovou-se que o número de colônias isoladas aumentou após a realização das monobras técnicas e que a filtração de ar através de filtros tipo HEPA, reduzindo o número de colônias isoladas nos ambientes fechados, aumenta a segurança do trabalho; comumente é recomendada para áreas de atividade técnica cujos resultados satisfatórios estão diretamente relacionados com uma baixa incidência de contaminantes.The isolation and identification of the fungic microbiota present in areas considered aseptic (open and/or restricted, with or without air filtration (HEPA filters

  8. Childhood adversities and laboratory pain perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieritz K

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Karoline Pieritz, Winfried Rief, Frank EuteneuerDivision of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Philipps University Marburg, Marburg, GermanyAbstract: Childhood adversity has frequently been related to a wide range of psychosomatic complaints in adulthood. The present study examined the relationship between different forms of childhood adversity and laboratory measures of pain. Heat pain tolerance and perceived heat pain intensity were measured in a community-based sample of 62 women (aged 20–64 years. Participants completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ, which assesses five forms of childhood adversity: physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect. Somatic symptoms, depressive symptoms, and pain catastrophizing were assessed as potential mediators. Bivariate analyses indicated that emotional abuse but no other forms of childhood adversity were significantly related to decreased heat pain tolerance (r=-0.27; P<0.05. Accordingly, multiple regression analyses revealed that only emotional abuse was a significant predictor of heat pain tolerance (β=-0.62; P=0.034 when entering all CTQ subscales simultaneously. Although emotional abuse was also related to somatic symptoms, depressive symptoms, and pain catastrophizing, none of these variables mediated the relationship between childhood adversity and laboratory pain (P>0.1. No significant associations were found between any forms of childhood adversity and heat pain intensity. Our findings indicate that the severity of emotional childhood abuse is associated with decreased pain tolerance, an affective component of pain, but not with heat pain intensity, which has been described as a sensory component of pain.Keywords: childhood adversity, emotional abuse, pain tolerance, pain intensity, somatic symptoms

  9. Childhood obesity, prevalence and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merchant Anwar T

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed countries. Twenty five percent of children in the US are overweight and 11% are obese. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising prevalence of obesity worldwide. In general, overweight and obesity are assumed to be the results of an increase in caloric and fat intake. On the other hand, there are supporting evidence that excessive sugar intake by soft drink, increased portion size, and steady decline in physical activity have been playing major roles in the rising rates of obesity all around the world. Consequently, both over-consumption of calories and reduced physical activity are involved in childhood obesity. Almost all researchers agree that prevention could be the key strategy for controlling the current epidemic of obesity. Prevention may include primary prevention of overweight or obesity, secondary prevention or prevention of weight regains following weight loss, and avoidance of more weight increase in obese persons unable to lose weight. Until now, most approaches have focused on changing the behaviour of individuals in diet and exercise. It seems, however, that these strategies have had little impact on the growing increase of the obesity epidemic. While about 50% of the adults are overweight and obese in many countries, it is difficult to reduce excessive weight once it becomes established. Children should therefore be considered the priority population for intervention strategies. Prevention may be achieved through a variety of interventions targeting built environment, physical activity, and diet. Some of these potential strategies for intervention in children can be

  10. Childhood Poverty, Early Motherhood and Adult Social Exclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Hobcraft, John; Kiernan, Kathleen

    1999-01-01

    Childhood poverty and early parenthood are both high on the political agenda. The key new issue addressed in this research is the relative importance of childhood poverty and of early motherhood as correlates of outcomes later in life. How far are the 'effects' of early motherhood on later outcomes due to childhood precursors, especially experience of childhood poverty? If there are powerful associations of both childhood poverty and early parenthood with later adult outcomes, there are a num...

  11. 品管圈活动在“降低无菌包不合格件数”中的应用%Application of QCC in"Reduce Aseptic Package Failed in the Number"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈翠英; 李黎

    2015-01-01

    Objective To apply the qc circle management methods to reduce the unqualified aseptic package number. Methods Using quality management circle activity 1 ~ 28 July 2013 were retrospectively analyzed Japan hospital disinfection disinfection sterilization supply center 2500 sterile packet loss situation, put forward the cor esponding countermeasures for the cause of loss occur ed, and in 2013 October 1 ~ 28 strictly implemented. Comparing the circle of qc activity aseptic package unqualified number before and after intervention. Results October 2013 to 1 ~ 28 disinfection sterilization, 2500 aseptic package to intervene after the sterile package unqualified number by activity fel to 15.75 /weeks before 5.25 /weeks, compared with the same year 7 phases of the moon has dropped significantly, the dif erence statistical y significant ( < 0.01). Conclusion The quality control circle activities in reducing the aseptic package quantity of unqualified, the satisfactory ef ect, worthy of promotion. Al the members of the ability to solve the problem, the sense of responsibility, cohesion, motivation, communication, cooperation, pleasure, quality management technique, harmonious degree has been improved.%目的运用品管圈管理方法来降低无菌包不合格件数。方法利用品管圈活动回顾性分析2013年7月1日~28日本院消毒供应中心消毒灭菌的2500个无菌物品包缺失情况,针对缺失发生的原因提出相应的对策措施,并于2013年10月1日~28日严格执行。比较品管圈活动干预前后无菌包不合格件数。结果对2013年10月1日~28日消毒灭菌的2500个无菌包进行干预后无菌包不合格件数由活动前15.75件/w降至活动后的5.25件/w,与同年7月相比较有显著下降,差异具有统计学意义(<0.01)。结论品管圈活动在降低无菌包不合格件数中,取得满意效果,值得推广。全体圈成员对解决问题的能力、责任感、凝聚力、积极性、沟通配合、

  12. Accounting and management of aseptic materials at the central sterile supply department of hospital%医院消毒供应中心无菌物品的核算与管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周彬; 王亚娟

    2015-01-01

    文章结合原国家卫生部2009年颁布的《消毒供应中心三项标准》和2012年颁布的《医院财务制度》和《医院会计制度》中的相关条款,探讨医院消毒供应中心无菌物品的核算与管理工作。%In the paper, the accounting and management of aseptic materials at the Center Sterile Supply Department of hospital is discussed in accordance with relevant provisions in the Three Standards for Central Sterile Supply Departments promulgated by the former Ministry of Health of China in 2009, as well as the Hospital Financial System and Hospital Accounting System issued in 2012.

  13. 3种植物无菌苗增殖与生根一体化技术研究%Studies on the Technology of Proliferation and Rooting Integration with Aseptic Seedlings in Three Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁称福

    2011-01-01

    Under conventional culture conditions ((25 ±3)℃, relative humidity 60%-70%, 1500-2000 lx for 10-12 h/d), aseptic buds or leaves from the plants of Aloe vera var.chinensis, Pelargonium citrosum vanleenii and triploid Populus tomentosa were respectively used to research the technology of proliferation and rooting integration.The results showed that: after 50 days when aseptic buds of Aloe vera var.chinensis were transferred in MS + 6-BA 2.0 mg/L+ NAA 0.1 mg/L+ AC 0.1%, the average number of differentiated buds reached 3.4 and the rooting rate reached 100% with 6.1 roots which were sturdy, long and yellow-white and 52.0 cm length of all roots per plant.After 45 days transferred in MS + 6-BA 3.0 mg/L + NAA 0.2 mg/L + AC 0.05%, aseptic buds of Pelargonium citrosum vanleenii proliferated most fastest with the average number of differentiated buds reaching 10.2, and the rooting rate amounted to 100% with dark-green leaves.After 55 days when aseptic leaves of triploid Populus tomentosa were transferred in MS + 6-BA 0.5 mg/L + KT 0.4 mg/L + NAA 0.2 mg/L + Ad 25.0 mg/L + AC 0.05%, differentiated buds arrived at an average of 8.6 and the rooting rate achieved 92% with more and longer, light-white roots.%在常规培养环境条件(温度(25士3)℃、湿度60%~70%、光强1500~2000lx,10-12h/天),以中华芦荟、驱蚊香草、三倍体毛杨无菌芽或叶片为材料,研究不同培养基对其无菌苗增殖、生根的影响,探讨其一体化成苗技术.结果表明:中华芦荟无菌芽转接在MS+6-BA2.0 mg/L+NAA 0.1 mg/L+AC 0.1%培养基中50天,分化芽数平均达3.4个;生根率达100%,单株根数达6.1条,单株总根长达52.0 cm,且根系粗长、黄白色.驱蚊香草无菌芽在MS+6-BA 3.0 mg/L+NAA 0.2 mg/L+AC 0.05%培养基中增殖速度最快,转接后45天分化芽数平均为10.2个;生根率为100%,生根苗叶片呈深绿色,生根质量好.三倍体毛白杨无菌叶片接种在MS+6-BA 0.5 mg/L+KT 0.4 mg/L+NAA 0.2 mg/L+Ad 25

  14. Rural childhoods in Egypt's desert lands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine

    Based on fieldwork in Egypt’s desert lands, this paper discusses rural childhoods in an area experiencing rapid social and cultural change. Since 1987, the Egyptian Government has made new villages in the desert as a means to increase agricultural production and solving problems of unemployment......’s new roles impact upon the children’s lives. The social contexts shaping the desert childhoods are in some ways more similar to contexts in ‘developed’ countries than in other parts of rural Egypt. The paper ends up by contrasting ideas of rural childhoods in Egypt with those found in ‘developed...

  15. [Economical costs and consequences of childhood obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Cortés, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    There is some concern because the generations born in the last decades of the 20th century could have lower longevity than the previous ones as a result of the diseases caused by obesity. Mexico has the highest index of prevalence of childhood obesity, and it has increased very fast. It is fundamental to generate healthcare models focused on obese patients, and oriented to the prevention of complications. Implementing preventive actions since childhood must be the priority. Health education in childhood obesity will be the only realistic way to solve the problem.

  16. Imaginary companions in childhood and adult creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, W A

    1979-01-01

    Case material is presented to illustrate the thesis that the ability to create an imaginary companion during childhood is an early expression of the special ego aptitudes found in creative individuals in adult life. Such "companions" allow these children to attempt to master creatively a variety of narcissistic mortifications suffered in reality and to displace unacceptable affects. In creative adults who had imaginary companions in childhood, the early fantasies serve as an organizing schema in memory for the childhood traumata. Stimuli in adult life which evoke the earlier traumata may revive the original imaginary companion fantasies. These then serve as nodal bases for the creation of specific adult works of art.

  17. Childhood Obesity and the Right to Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ó Cathaoir, Katharina Eva

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is now a global health epidemic, yet the obligations of states to prevent obesity through fulfillment of the right to health have received limited consideration. This article examines the childhood obesity recommendations of the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child (the...... on the CRC with a more systematic basis for advising and assessing preventive measures taken by states. Moreover, while the interim report envisages a central role for states in childhood obesity prevention, it pays inadequate attention to their obligations under international human rights law. It is hoped...

  18. [Epidemiological aspects of childhood cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacour, Brigitte; Clavel, Jacqueline

    2014-11-01

    In France, cancer hits around 1700 children (0-14 years) each year. The age-standardized incidence rate for all cancers combined is 152 cases per million children per year, with a sex ratio of 1.2. In other terms, one child out of 440 develops a cancer before the age of 15 in industrial countries. The most frequent cancers were leukaemia (29%), embryonal tumours apart central nervous system (25%), central nervous system tumour (23%) and lymphoma (12%). The incidence varies between countries with higher overall rates in industrialized countries. These variations may reflect differences in diagnostic techniques or registration or in the distribution of possible risk factors. Five-year survival after childhood cancer has dramatically improved in the last 30 years, reaching yet 80%.

  19. Cerebral venous thrombosis in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huisman, T.A.G.M.; Martin, E.; Willi, U.V. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology, University Children' s Hospital Zurich (Switzerland); Holzmann, D. [Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology, University Children' s Hospital Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2001-09-01

    This was a retrospective study to determine different etiologies of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) in childhood and to correlate extent and location of thrombosis with the etiology and the age of the child as well as the final outcome. In addition, the radiologic approach is discussed. This was a retrospective analysis of 19 children with CVT. The children were examined by contrast-enhanced dynamic CT. Radiologic findings were correlated with the etiology of CVT. Cerebral venous thrombosis is not as infrequent in children as has been thought. Cerebral venous thrombosis in children can occur due to trauma (n=9), infections (n=7), or coagulation disorders (n=3). Extent and location of thrombosis, as well as complications, final outcome, and therapy, depend on the etiology. Computed tomography remains a valuable primary imaging modality in the diagnosis of CVT in the acutely injured or diseased child. (orig.)

  20. [Acute benign ataxia in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grippo, J; Arroyo, H A; Rocco, R D; Iraola, J

    1979-01-01

    The patogenesis and etiology of acute ataxia in childhood is not well known. It may occur without previous symptoms or may be the expression of specific infectious diseases. Forty patients hospitalized at the Hospital de Niños de Buenos Aires en 1972-1978, were studied. The neurological manifestations showed an acute onset, being ataxia the main sign, associate to tremor, nystagmus, dysartria, oculo-motor paresia, muscular weakness, and hyporeflexia. Most of the patients (82%) became cured within the first four weeks. It is advisable to establish a follow-up with periodic controls, mainly in those patients in whom an association with previous infectious diseases did not exist to be able to detect an association with degenerative or desmyelinizing diseases.

  1. Childhood Obesity for Pediatric Gastroenterologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jeannie S.; Barlow, Sarah E.; Quiros-Tejeira, Ruben E.; Scheimann, Ann; Skelton, Joseph; Suskind, David; Tsai, Patrika; Uko, Victor; Warolin, Joshua P.; Xanthakos, Stavra A.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity in childhood is one of the major health issues in pediatric health care today. As expected, the prevalence of obesity-related comorbidities has risen in parallel with that of obesity. Consultation regarding these concomitant diseases and subsequent management by subspecialists, including pediatric gastroenterologists, is now common and has resulted in obesity being recognized as a chronic disease requiring coordination of care. Although medications and even surgery may provide effective, though often temporary, treatments for obesity and its comorbidities, behavioral interventions addressing healthy dietary and physical activity habits remain a mainstay in the obesity treatment paradigm. Therefore, the issue of weight management must be addressed by both general practitioner and subspecialist alike. In this report, we review select aspects of pediatric obesity and obesity-related management issues because it relates in particular to the field of pediatric gastroenterology and hepatology. PMID:23282941

  2. Dermatomyositis and polymyositis in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamstorp, I

    1990-01-01

    Personal experience of 30 years work with 40-50 cases of dermatomyositis and polymyositis in childhood is reviewed, stressing the clinical findings of skin eruptions on the knuckles, elbows and knees (except in the 10 per cent of patients without any skin involvement), weakness of particularly proximal muscles and tightness of tendons. Special diagnostic procedures are reviewed as well as treatment. The basic treatment is corticosteroids, which must be started at a high dose and as soon as possible be given at intervals of 48 hours to diminish the side-effects. In many, though not all, patients the treatment must be continued for years. The parents should always know that extended treatment may be necessary. Physiotherapy should be started cautiously and be slowly increased, close co-operation between the physician and the physiotherapist being necessary. If the patient does not respond to corticosteroids, antimetabolites may be added. Most patients survive with no or only minor sequelae.

  3. Bejel: acquirable only in childhood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Bruce M; Rothschild, Christine; Naples, Virginia; Billard, Michel; Panero, Barbara

    2006-10-01

    Bejel clearly has a long history in the Middle East and the Sudan, but was it transmitted to Europe? As the major manifestation of bejel is presence of periosteal reaction in 20-40% of afflicted populations, absence of significant population frequency of periosteal reaction in Europe would exclude that diagnosis. Examination of skeletal populations from continental Europe revealed no significant periosteal reaction at the time of and immediately subsequent to the Crusades. Thus, there is no evidence for bejel in Europe, in spite of clear contact (the mechanism of bejel transmission in children) between warring groups, at least during the Crusades. This supports the hypothesis that bejel is a childhood-acquired disease and apparently cannot be contracted in adulthood.

  4. Norwegian Childhood Diabetes Registry: Childhood onset diabetes in Norway 1973-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torild Skrivarhaug

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Norwegian Childhood Diabetes Registry (NCDR is a prospective, population-based, nationwide registry which systematically register all incident cases of childhood diabetes, and systematically monitors the outcome of diabetes care in children and adolescents. NCDR includes data on childhood onset diabetes since 1973, and diabetes care outcome since 2001. NCDR was founded with the following objectives: To improve the diagnostics, classifications and treatment of childhood-onset diabetes, surveillance of incidence of diabetes in children and adolescents, surveillance of quality of diabetes care in Norwegian paediatric departments, and to stimulate to research in diabetes.

  5. Acute leukemia in early childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Emerenciano

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Acute leukemia in early childhood is biologically and clinically distinct. The particular characteristics of this malignancy diagnosed during the first months of life have provided remarkable insights into the etiology of the disease. The pro-B, CD10 negative immunophenotype is typically found in infant acute leukemia, and the most common genetic alterations are the rearrangements of the MLL gene. In addition, the TEL/AML1 fusion gene is most frequently found in children older than 24 months. A molecular study on a Brazilian cohort (age range 0-23 months has detected TEL/AML1+ve (N = 9, E2A/PBX1+ve (N = 4, PML/RARA+ve (N = 4, and AML1/ETO+ve (N = 2 cases. Undoubtedly, the great majority of genetic events occurring in these patients arise prenatally. The environmental exposure to damaging agents that give rise to genetic changes prenatally may be accurately determined in infants since the window of exposure is limited and known. Several studies have shown maternal exposures that may give rise to leukemogenic changes. The Brazilian Collaborative Study Group of Infant Acute Leukemia has found that mothers exposed to dipyrone, pesticides and hormones had an increased chance to give birth to babies with infant acute leukemia [OR = 1.48 (95%CI = 1.05-2.07, OR = 2.27 (95%CI = 1.56-3.31 and OR = 9.08 (95%CI = 2.95-27.96], respectively. This review aims to summarize recent clues that have facilitated the elucidation of the biology of early childhood leukemias, with emphasis on infant acute leukemia in the Brazilian population.

  6. Pneumatic dilatation for childhood achalasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, R; Grier, D; Cusick, E; Spicer, R D

    2001-09-01

    Treatment of achalasia by pneumatic balloon dilatation (PBD) is well established in adults. Due to limited experience and the rarity of the condition in children, there are relatively few reports in the paediatric literature. Although PBD has been reported as a primary method of treatment, there are no reports of secondary PBD for childhood achalasia. Between 1995 and 1999, five patients underwent treatment for achalasia (age: 9-14 years, M:F = 4:1). The presenting symptoms were dysphagia (5). vomiting episodes (2), aspiration (1), food-bolus obstruction (1), and failure to thrive (1). In all patients a barium swallow and manometry were used to confirm the diagnosis. Three underwent primary PBD. Two who had previously undergone surgical myotomy underwent secondary PBD for recurrence of symptoms. Dilatation was performed using a 35-mm balloon with the child under general anaesthesia. Technical success was defined as demonstration of a waist under screening at lower pressures followed by abolition of the waist at higher pressures. In addition to reviewing our results, a systematic review of the literature was performed (Medline, Cochrane Library, Pubmed, Embase). Three patients (primary dilatation) showed excellent improvement after a single dilatation. In two cases (secondary dilatation) three and five attempts were required. No complications were encountered. The mean follow-up period was 2 years (1-3.5 years) and four patients remained asymptomatic, an overall success rate of 80%. The literature review revealed similar good results in most of the recent reports. Thus, PBD as a primary treatment for childhood achalasia has a success rate of 70%-90% with minimal side effects, short hospital stay, and good patient acceptability over an operation. We have also established the usefulness of this method as a secondary treatment when symptoms recur after surgery.

  7. Childhood obesity: pathophysiology and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klish, W J

    1995-02-01

    Childhood obesity is among the most difficult problems which pediatricians treat. It is frequently ignored by the pediatrician or viewed as a form of social deviancy, and blame for treatment failure placed on the patients or their families. The definition of obesity is difficult. Using total body electrical conductivity (TOBEC) technology, total body fat ranges between 12% and 30% of total body weight in normal children and adolescents. This is influenced not only by age, but also by physical fitness. Anthropometry is the easiest way to define obesity. Children whose weight exceeds 120% of that expected for their height are considered overweight. Skinfold thickness and body mass index are indices of obesity that are more difficult to apply to the child. Childhood obesity is associated with obese parents, a higher socioeconomic status, increased parental education, small family size and a sedentary lifestyle. Genetics also clearly plays a role. Studies have demonstrated that obese and non-obese individuals have similar energy intakes implying that obesity results from very small imbalances of energy intake and expenditure. An excess intake of only 418 kJ per day can result in about 4.5 kg of excess weight gain per year. Small differences in basal metabolic rate or the thermic effects of food may also account for the difference in energy balance between the obese and non-obese. In the Prader Willi Syndrome, there appears to be a link between appetite and body fatness. When placed on growth hormone, lean body mass increases, body fat decreases, sometimes to normal, and appetite becomes more normal.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Vulvovaginitis and other common childhood gynaecological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garden, Anne S

    2011-04-01

    Paediatric gynaecological problems, especially those involving the vulvar area, are common in childhood. The conditions frequently seen include recurrent bacterial vulvovaginitis, vulvar irritation, labial adhesions and dermatological conditions. The presentation and management of these conditions will be reviewed.

  9. Current Cognitive Approaches to Childhood Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garfield, Sol L., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Presents six developmentally oriented articles on childhood psychopathology. Reviews research dealing with autism, social isolation, interpersonal understanding, sociomoral reasoning, cognitive controls, and aggression and includes an overview of progress and problems in the cognitive approach to clinical child psychology. (JAC)

  10. Trampoline Safety in Childhood and Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Children POLICY STATEMENT Trampoline Safety in Childhood and Adolescence abstract Despite previous recommendations from the American Academy ... to be a popular activity among children and adolescents. This policy statement is an update to previous ...

  11. Childhood Asthma: A Chance to HEAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Childhood Asthma: A Chance to HEAL Past Issues / Fall 2007 ... a peak flow meter. Photo courtesy of MCAN Asthma, a reality of daily life for more than ...

  12. CDC Vital Signs: Progress on Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Read the MMWR Science Clips Progress on Childhood Obesity Many States Show Declines Language: English Español (Spanish) ... 8 preschoolers is obese in the US. 19 Obesity among low-income preschoolers declined, from 2008 through ...

  13. Childhood Obesity and the Right to Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ó Cathaoir, Katharina Eva

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is now a global health epidemic, yet the obligations of states to prevent obesity through fulfillment of the right to health have received limited consideration. This article examines the childhood obesity recommendations of the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child (the...... committee on the CRC), the Special Rapporteur on the right to health, and the UN High Commissioner on Human Rights. It suggests how their engagement might be strengthened. It concludes that the final report of the World Health Organization’s Commission on Ending Childhood Obesity could provide the committee...... on the CRC with a more systematic basis for advising and assessing preventive measures taken by states. Moreover, while the interim report envisages a central role for states in childhood obesity prevention, it pays inadequate attention to their obligations under international human rights law. It is hoped...

  14. Food Away from Home and Childhood Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancino, Lisa; Todd, Jessica E; Guthrie, Joanne; Lin, Biing-Hwan

    2014-12-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with a number of serious health risks that can persist into adulthood. While trends in food away from home and fast-food consumption have paralleled trends in childhood obesity, it is important to identify whether this is a causal relationship. This paper reviews recent literature in this area to summarize if there is a consensus in research findings. We group the literature into two areas - consumption of and access to food away from home (FAFH). While no consensus findings have been reached in either area, the evidence of an association between FAFH consumption and childhood obesity has gained strength. Further, there is evidence that FAFH meals add calories to children's diets. The literature on the role of FAFH access and childhood obesity has continued producing mixed results.

  15. Childhood, experience and performance: first approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Vinicius Sales dos Santos

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and discusses some preliminary results of a Master thesis aimed to examine the experiences of children of four years within a public institution of early childhood education. The study of interpretative character seeks its theoretical basis in the sociology of childhood and childhood pedagogy and child education. From the methodological point of view, the research is based on a case study (ANDREW, 1991; SARMENTO, 2003 assuming a logic of ethnographic research (NUT, 2004; GREEN, DIXON, ZAHALIRICK, 2005, the main data collection instruments data, participant observation, photographs and drawings articulated with orality; Interviews with children, among others. It also discusses the notion of childhood experience as the possibility of analysis of the forms of sociability of children

  16. Troubled Childhood May Boost Bipolar Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of childhood adversity in the development of the mental illness. Although the study doesn't establish a cause- ... published in the October issue of the British Journal of Psychiatry . SOURCE: University of Manchester, news release, ...

  17. Oromotor Dyspraxia in Benign Childhood Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1989-01-01

    A six year old right handed boy with prolonged intermittent drooling, oromotor dyspraxia, and benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes is reported from the Departments of Pediatrics and Neurology, Centre Hospitalier, Universitaire Vaudois, Lausanne, Switzerland.

  18. Temperament and the psychobiology of childhood stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, W T; Barr, R G; Zeltzer, L K

    1992-09-01

    This paper provides a conceptual overview of recent research on the developmental psychobiology of childhood stress. We propose that the construct of temperament can be regarded as an organizing principle in children's responses to environmental adversity, and we review three physiologic "windows" through which such responses can be usefully examined. It is concluded that individual differences between children in their psychobiologic reactivity to stressors may constitute an important and novel point of departure for future studies of stress and childhood morbidity.

  19. Adult mood disorders and childhood psychological trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Zavaschi Maria Lucrécia Scherer; Graeff Maria Elisa; Menegassi Marcos Tatit; Mardini Victor; Pires Denise Winkler Simões; Carvalho Rafael Homem de; Rohde Luis Augusto; Eizirik Cláudio Laks

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between adult mood disorders and childhood psychological trauma in a developing country. METHOD: Adults with and without mood disorders were assessed in a case-control study using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Assessment of childhood trauma included physical and sexual abuse, frequent exposure to violence, and parental loss. RESULTS: In two independent multivariate analyses, after adjusting for potential confounding factors, we found...

  20. Asthma in childhood: a complex, heterogeneous disease

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Asthma in childhood is a heterogeneous disease with different phenotypes and variable clinical manifestations, which depend on the age, gender, genetic background, and environmental influences of the patients. Several longitudinal studies have been conducted to classify the phenotypes of childhood asthma, on the basis of the symptoms, triggers of wheezing illness, or pathophysiological features of the disease. These studies have provided us with important information about the different wheez...

  1. Progress in the management of childhood asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Vichyanond, Pakit; Pensrichon, Rattana; Kurasirikul, Suruthai

    2012-01-01

    Asthma has become the most common chronic disease in childhood. Significant advances in epidemiological research as well as in therapy of pediatric asthma have been made over the past 2 decades. In this review, we look at certain aspects therapy of childhood asthma, both in the past and present. Literature review on allergen avoidance (including mites, cockroach and cat), intensive therapy with β2-agonists in acute asthma (administering via continuous nebulization and intravenous routes), a r...

  2. Long-term outcome of childhood absence epilepsy : Dutch Study of Epilepsy in Childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Callenbach, Petra M. C.; Bouma, Paul A. D.; Geerts, Ada T.; Arts, Willem Frans M.; Stroink, Hans; Peeters, Els A. J.; van Donselaar, Cees A.; Peters, A. C. Boudewijn; Brouwer, Oebele F.

    2009-01-01

    We determined long-term outcome and the predictive value of baseline and EEG characteristics on seizure activity evolution in 47 children with newly diagnosed childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) included in the Dutch Study of Epilepsy in Childhood. All children were followed for 12-17 years. The childr

  3. Implementation of the Integrated Early Childhood Policy in Senegal. Early Childhood and Family Policy Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayna, Sylvie

    As part of a UNESCO-sponsored series of studies examining how integrated and coordinated early childhood policies are implemented, this case study focuses on Senegal's integrated early childhood policy. The case study examines the context for policy development and analyzes the structure and resources of the Ministry for the Family and Early…

  4. The Importance of Childhood Trauma and Childhood Life Events for Chronicity of Depression in Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, Jenneke E.; Hovens, Jacqueline G. F. M.; van Oppen, Patricia; Giltay, Erik J.; van Schaik, Digna J. F.; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Childhood trauma is linked to adult depression and might be a risk factor for a more chronic course of depression. However, the link between childhood trauma and chronicity of depression has not been investigated using a large and representative sample in which other depression character

  5. Musings: Childhood buddy hangs up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajai R. Singh

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available 'R' really was special. Shouldered the responsibility of a business family at a tender age. Worked over inefficient estate management by elders, saw to it younger siblings were settled, sacrificed youth to bring up business and family. Enjoyed friends, drinks, driving. We were childhood buddies from the same town. I had met him a couple of months before the incident. It was after nearly a decade. At a chemist's shop. He was buying medicines. Antidepressants. I asked him what happened. He had tears in his eyes. There was no flicker of the customary light on his face I had known so well. The smile that usually sparkled in his eye as he met an old childhood buddy had vanished. I could read the distress. I shook hands and told him to meet me in the clinic and we would sort it out. Depression is perfectly treatable, I said. Did you undergo psychotherapy? No, he said. Only drugs, but felt better. Some thoughts bothering you, I asked. Yes. Why not talk to your psychiatrist, I said. He thought for a moment, a long moment. I had never known 'R' to take that long to decide. Finally he said he would come and meet me in my clinic. Suddenly 'R' was dead. Died by hanging. I wondered what went wrong. Would I have saved him if I had got over my professional reserve and insisted he come for treatment? Was he really taking treatment with someone, or just self-medicating himself? I know he listened to me. If I had phoned him up, or his parents, and told them: nothing doing, I want to see 'R' well. Let him come to my clinic. Would that not have given him a chance to survive? Or even if he did commit the act, it would not be for want of trying. Some days later. As I neared his house while I was going to a neighbour's, I looked up at the forlorn structure. A grim board outside said, "Trespassers will be prosecuted". What about the late owner, who prosecuted me since I could not trespass a professional limitation: don't solicit patients.

  6. Spirituality in childhood cancer care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima NN

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nádia Nara Rolim Lima,1 Vânia Barbosa do Nascimento,1 Sionara Melo Figueiredo de Carvalho,1 Modesto Leite Rolim Neto,2 Marcial Moreno Moreira,2 Aline Quental Brasil,2 Francisco Telésforo Celestino Junior,2 Gislene Farias de Oliveira,2 Alberto Olavo Advíncula Reis3 1Health Sciences Postgraduate Program, ABC Region Medical School, Santo André, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Department of Medicine, Federal University of Ceará, Barbalha, Ceará, Brazil; 3Public Health Postgraduate Program, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: To deal with the suffering caused by childhood cancer, patients and their families use different coping strategies, among which, spirituality appears a way of minimizing possible damage. In this context, the purpose of the present study was to analyze the influence of spirituality in childhood cancer care, involving biopsychosocial aspects of the child, the family, and the health care team facing the disease. To accomplish this purpose, a nonsystematic review of literature of articles on national and international electronic databases (Scientific Electronic Library Online [SciELO], PubMed, and Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature [LILACS] was conducted using the search terms “spirituality,” “child psychology,” “child,” and “cancer,” as well as on other available resources. After the search, 20 articles met the eligibility criteria and were included in the final sample. Our review showed that the relation between spirituality and health has lately become a subject of growing interest among researchers, as a positive influence of spirituality in the people's welfare was noted. Studies that were retrieved using the mentioned search strategy in electronic databases, independently assessed by the authors according to the systematic review, showed that spirituality emerges as a driving force that helps pediatric patients and their families in coping with cancer. Health care workers

  7. Functional neuroimaging and childhood autism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boddaert, Nathalie [Service de Radiologie Pediatrique, Necker-Enfants Malades Hospital, Paris (France); Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, DRM, DSV, CEA, Orsay (France); Zilbovicius, Monica [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, DRM, DSV, CEA, Orsay (France); INSERM, Tours (France)

    2002-01-01

    Childhood autism is now widely viewed as being of developmental neurobiological origin. Yet, localised structural and functional brain correlates of autism have to be established. Structural brain-imaging studies performed in autistic patients have reported abnormalities such as increased total brain volume and cerebellar abnormalities. However, none of these abnormalities fully account for the full range of autistic symptoms. Functional brain imaging, such as positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and functional MRI (fMRI) have added a new perspective to the study of normal and pathological brain functions. In autism, functional studies have been performed at rest or during activation. However, first-generation functional imaging devices were not sensitive enough to detect any consistent dysfunction. Recently, with improved technology, two independent groups have reported bilateral hypoperfusion of the temporal lobes in autistic children. In addition, activation studies, using perceptive and cognitive paradigms, have shown an abnormal pattern of cortical activation in autistic patients. These results suggest that different connections between particular cortical regions could exist in autism. The purpose of this review is to present the main results of rest and activation studies performed in autism. (orig.)

  8. Prevalence of Dermatosis During Childhood

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    Handan Saçar

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Design: The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of skin diseases during childhood.Material and Method: A retrospective descriptive study was planned. Among 18318 patients referred to our dermatology outpatient clinic between September 2004 and November 2009, 1756 child patients between 0-12 years of age were retrospectively analyzed from automation record system. Results: A total of 1756 child patients who referred during the study period were included in the study; 791 patients were male (45.05% and 965 were female (54.95%. The most frequently seen disease group was eczema (26.0%, followed by infectious dermatosis (20.6% and eritematous squamous dermatosis (9.9%. Atopic dermatitis (8.0%, viral dermatosis (11.7% and seborrheic dermatitis (7.1% were the most frequently encountered diseases in eczema, infectious dermatosis and eritematous squamous dermatosis groups, respectively. Conclusion: We found that 56.5% of the diseases determined were composed of eczemas, infectious dermatosis and eritematous squamous dermatosis.

  9. Surdez infantil Childhood hearing impairment

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    Pedro Oliveira

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available A Surdez Infantil é considerada actualmente um verdadeiro problema de Saúde Pública devido não só à sua elevada prevalência, mas sobretudo às múltiplas conseqüências que acarreta sob os mais variados prismas. Trata-se de um tema em constante evolução, sendo necessárias freqüentes actualizações por forma a acompanhar os avanços da técnica e do conhecimento. Este trabalho visa abordar de uma forma global mas sucinta o problema Surdez Infantil, dando particular ênfase aos Modelos de Rastreio e aos Métodos utilizados com esse fim.Childhood Hearing Impairment is nowadays considered as a Health Care matter due to its high prevalence and to its multiple consequences. As a developing subject, frequent updates are justified to keep up with the evolution of techniques and knowledge. This paper aims to discuss the matter from a global point of view, paying particular attention to the Screening Models and Instruments available.

  10. [Localized scleroderma (morphea) in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weibel, L

    2012-02-01

    Localized scleroderma or morphea is a sclerosing connective tissue disease of the skin, which may affect underlying tissues such as subcutis, muscle and bone. Many patients show extracutaneous symptoms and antinuclear antibodies, however, secondary transformation into systemic sclerosis does not occur. Localized scleroderma usually begins in childhood with a wide variation in its clinical spectrum. The linear variant is the most common subtype in children, associated with a progressive course and increased risk of complications. The disease may progress over years and result in severe functional and cosmetic disability. The etiology of localized scleroderma remains unknown. A genetic background is suspected, while triggers such as trauma, vaccinations and infections may lead to secondary immunologic phenomena. Localized scleroderma often remains unrecognized for a long time, resulting in substantial delay in treatment. The combination of systemic corticosteroids and methotrexate has been established as first-line therapy for progressive (usually linear) disease, whereas phototherapy (UVA-1 or UVB-narrow band) is suitable for adolescents with superficial circumscribed subtypes.

  11. Early onset (childhood) monogenic neuropathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrieu, Pierre; Baets, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary neuropathies (HN) with onset in childhood are categorized according to clinical presentation, pathogenic mechanism based on electrophysiology, genetic transmission and, in selected cases, pathological findings. Especially relevant to pediatrics are the items "secondary" versus "primary" neuropathy, "syndromic versus nonsyndromic," and "period of life." Different combinations of these parameters frequently point toward specific monogenic disorders. Ruling out a neuropathy secondary to a generalized metabolic disorder remains the first concern in pediatrics. As a rule, metabolic diseases include additional, orienting symptoms or signs, and their biochemical diagnosis is based on logical algorithms. Primary, motor sensory are the most frequent HN and are dominated by demyelinating autosomal dominant (AD) forms (CMT1). Other forms include demyelinating autosomal recessive (AR) forms, axonal AD/AR forms, and forms with "intermediate" electrophysiological phenotype. Peripheral motor neuron disorders are dominated by AR SMN-linked spinal muscular atrophies. (Distal) hereditary motor neuropathies represent 40 genes with various biological functions have been found to be responsible for primary HN. Many are responsible for various phenotypes, including some without the polyneuropathic trait, and some for various types of transmission.

  12. Childhood moyamoya disease: hemodynamic MRI

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    Tzika, A.A. [Department of Radiology, Children`s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Robertson, R.L. [Department of Radiology, Children`s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Barnes, P.D. [Department of Radiology, Children`s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Vajapeyam, S. [Department of Radiology, Children`s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Burrows, P.E. [Department of Radiology, Children`s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Treves, S.T. [Department of Radiology, Children`s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Scott, R.M. l [Department of Radiology, Children`s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    1997-09-01

    Background. Childhood moyamoya disease is a rare progressive cerebrovascular disease. Objective. To evaluate cerebral hemodynamics using dynamic Gd-DTPA-enhanced imaging in children with moyamoya disease. Materials and methods. Eight children (2-11 years of age) with the clinical and angiographic findings typical of moyamoya disease, before and/or after surgical intervention (pial synangiosis), underwent conventional MR imaging (MRI) and hemodynamic MR imaging (HMRI). HMRI used a spoiled gradient-echo with low flip angle (10 deg) and long TE (TR/TE = 24/15 ms) to minimize T 1 effects and emphasize T 2{sup *} weighting. Raw and calculated hemodynamic images were reviewed. Three-dimensional time-of-flight MR angiography (MRA) and perfusion brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) were also performed. Results. Abnormal hemodynamic maps resulting from vascular stenosis or occlusion and basal collaterals were observed in six patient studies. HMRI depicted perfusion dynamics of affected cerebrovascular territories, detected cortical perfusion deficits, and complemented conventional MRI and MRA. HMRI findings were consistent with those of catheter angiography and perfusion SPECT. Conclusion. Our preliminary experience suggests that HMRI may be of value in the preoperative and postoperative evaluation of surgical interventions in moyamoya disease. (orig.). With 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. [The Hypereosinophilic Syndromes in Childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leu, T; Simon, H-U; Hebestreit, H; Kunzmann, S

    2015-11-01

    The hypereosinophilic syndromes are rare disorders in childhood and require extensive differential diagnostic considerations. In the last years the earlier "idiopathic HES" called syndromes could be differentiated into molecular biologically, immunophenotypically and clinically more characterized heterogeneous diseases with high therapeutic and prognostic relevance. Nowadays the term HES summarizes diseases, which go hand in hand with a local or systemic hypereosinophilia (HE) connected with an organ damage. Depending on the cause of the HE one differentiates primary/neoplastic HES (HESN) from secondary/reactive HES (HESR). The latter develops reactively in connection with allergies, parasitosis, medications, neoplasia or a clonal increase of T-lymphocytes among others. With HESN the HE results from a clonal increase of eosinophilic granulocytes. While for some subgroups of the HESN (among others FIP1L1-PDGFRA fusion gene) the administration of a tyrosine kinase inhibitor is a new and effective therapy option, glucocorticoids still represent the medication of first choice for many not PDGFRA associated variants. Different immunomodulatory drugs or cytostatic agents are necessary to allow dose reduction of glucocorticoids. The promising therapy with anti-IL-5 antibodies is still not approved in infancy, could however become a treatment option in the future. Due to the present lack of knowledge about the HES in infancy the establishment of a register should be aimed for the treatment of HES in infancy.

  14. Metal on Metal Surface Replacement of Hip in Young Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis of Aseptic Necrosis of Femoral Head%金属对金属人工全髋表面置换术的临床应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏庆; 陈统一; 姜晓幸; 姚振钧

    2001-01-01

    Purpose Present study investigated the role of metal on metal surface replacement of the hip in treating the young patients suffering rheumatoid arthritis or aseptic necrosis of femoral head. Methods Between Jan. 1995 and Dec. 1996.16 patients with 17 hips( rheumatoid arthritis 14, aseptic necrosis of femoral head 3) were resurfaced with hybrid metal on metal surface replacement prothesis. Patients were evaluated by self assessment form,hip function examination. Radiographs and Harris hip score. The average follow up time was 58.2 months. Results No patient received revision. Radiographs showed that all implants were in position satisfyingly. No loosening were revealed. The result of self assessment showed that patients were satisfied with 16 hips. The Harris score rose from preoperative 44(31 - 52) to postoperative 91 (79- 96). Conclusions The metal on metal surface replacement of hip is a useful treatment to release pain and keep the hip function of young patients suffering rheumatoid arthritis or aseptic necrosis of femoral head.%目的探讨金属对金属人工全髋表面置换术治疗类风湿性关节炎和股骨头无菌性坏死的临床价值。 方法从1995年1月至1996年12月,对16例患者17个髋关节(其中类风湿性关节炎14个,股骨头无菌性坏 死3个)行混合型金属对金属人工全髋表面置换术,术后行问卷调查、髋关节功能检查、X线和Harris评分分析, 平均随访58.2月。结果所有患者没有一例行翻修手术,X线显示所有表面置换假体植入位置满意,没有假体 松动、移位现象出现。问卷调查显示患者对16个髋关节的术后情况表示非常满意。Harris评分平均指数从术前 的44(31~52)分提高到术后的91(79~96)分。结论金属对金属人工全髋表面置换术不失为患类风湿性关节 炎和股骨头无菌性坏死的年青患者为保存关节功能,改善疼痛的一种有价值的治疗方法。

  15. Survey and analysis on the preventive use of antibiotics during perioperative period in aseptic operation%清洁手术围术期抗菌药物应用调查分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙丽; 王宾; 魏旭

    2013-01-01

    目的 了解广州医学院附属深圳沙井医院(以下简称“我院”)清洁手术围术期抗菌药物预防使用情况,评估其用药的合理性.方法 采用回顾性调查方法,对我院2011年1~12月出院的672例乳腺手术、甲状腺手术、骨折内固定取出术、精索静脉曲张高位结扎术、疝修补术手术患者病历资料进行统计分析,评价其抗菌药物应用的合理性.结果 我院清洁切口手术围术期抗菌药物预防应用率达90.33%,存在无指征用药、疗程过长、用药时机不当、药物选择不当、联合用药不规范等不合理用药情况.结论 我院清洁手术围术期预防性应用抗菌药物存在较严重的不合理现象,需引起重视,加强抗菌药物围术期使用管理,提高抗菌药物应用合理性.%Objective To investigate the preventive use of antibiotics during perioperative period in aseptic operation in Shenzhen Shajing Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University ("our hospital" for short),in order to evaluate the rationalization of antibiotics use.Methods Retrospectively study was adopted.The case records of 672 patients underwent breast operation,thyroid operation,internal fixation of fracture removal,ligation of varicocele and hernia repair in our hospital from January to December 2011 were analyzed statistically,then the rationality of antibiotics use was evaluated.Results 90.33% of the patients with aseptic operation received antimicrobial prophylactically.The antibiotics use without indication,prolonged use of antibiotics,improper therapy timing and antibiotics chosen,nonstandard use in drug combination were included in the patterns of irrational preventive use of antibiotics.Conclusion The phenomenon of irrational prophylactic antimicrobials use in aseptic operation in our hospital is severe.Great importance should be attached by strengthening control on the management of antibiotics use,in order to improve rational use of antibiotics.

  16. Comparação funcional entre revisão de artroplastia de joelho séptica e asséptica Functional comparison between septic and aseptic knee arthroplasty review

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    Olavo Biraghi Letaif

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A artroplastia total de joelho (ATJ não é um procedimento isento de riscos. A infecção na ATJ não é a complicação mais comum, porém é uma das mais graves. A revisão em 2 tempos é a escolha nos casos de infecção profunda da prótese de joelho. Por outro lado, a soltura asséptica chega a quase metade das indicações de revisão de artroplastias primárias. A queda do nível de satisfação do paciente pode cair nas revisões. OBJETIVO: O objetivo do presente estudo foi comparar através dos resultados obtidos nos escores funcionais e de qualidade de vida entre cirurgia de revisão de ATJ por soltura séptica e asséptica. MÉTODO: Realizamos escores HSS e SF-36 para avaliar a qualidade de vida e o resultado funcional entre pacientes submetidos à cirurgia de revisão da ATJ entre dois grupos, um que realizou a substituição da prótese em dois tempos (séptica e outro no qual a substituição ocorreu em tempo único (asséptica. RESULTADOS: A análise dos dados obtidos mostra melhor desempenho do segundo grupo na pontuação do HSS e em 06 dos 08 domínios do SF-36. Conclusão: A revisão de ATJ em tempo único apresenta melhores resultados funcionais.INTRODUCTION: Total knee arthroplasty (TKA imposes many risks. TKA infection is not the most frequent complication, but is probably the most serious one. Two-step review is the procedure of choice in deep knee prosthesis infection. On the other hand, aseptic prosthesis detachment represents almost half of the primary arthroplasty review indications. Patient's satisfaction level might diminish after reviews. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare the quality of life and final result of TKA review for septic and aseptic failures. METHODS: The patients were assessed using the HSS and SF-36 scores. The patients were divided in two groups: one group submitted to two-step review (septic and the other to one-step review (aseptic. The analysis of the data

  17. Childhood epileptic seizures imitating migraine and encephalitis

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    Kravljanac Ružica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Paroxismal events can resemble epileptic seizures, however, some epileptic seizures, especially benign occipital childhood epilepsies can imitate migraine, cycling vomiting or encephalitis. Objective. The aim of this study was evaluation of clinical and electroencephalographic (EEG features and outcome in children with benign occipital childhood epilepsies. Methods. Investigation included 18 patients with benign occipital childhood epilepsies hospitalized in the period from 2007 to 2010. The diagnosis was based on clinical and EEG characteristics of seizures, while treatment included acute therapy for seizures and chronic antiepileptic drugs. Prognosis was analyzed in terms of neurological outcome and seizure recurrence rate. Results. Benign occipital childhood epilepsy with early onset was diagnosed in 15 children. Vegetative symptoms, mostly ictal vomiting (13, eye deviation and loss of consciousness (13 dominated in the clinical presentation. The most frequent EEG findings showed occipital epileptic discharges. Benign occipital childhood epilepsy with late onset was diagnosed in three cases. Seizures were manifested by visual hallucinations, headache and secondary generalized convulsions. All three patients were administered chronic antiepileptic drugs and had good outcome. Conclusion. In our patients, clinical manifestations of benign occipital epilepsies had some similarities with clinical features of migraine and encephalitis. It could explain misdiagnosis in some of them. Knowledge about main features and differences between each of these disorders is crucial for making appropriate diagnosis.

  18. Maternal postpartum distress and childhood overweight.

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    Teresa A Ajslev

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We investigated associations between maternal postpartum distress covering anxiety, depression and stress and childhood overweight. METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study, including 21,121 mother-child-dyads from the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC. Maternal distress was measured 6 months postpartum by 9 items covering anxiety, depression and stress. Outcome was childhood overweight at 7-years-of age. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed and information on maternal age, socioeconomic status, pre-pregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain, parity, smoking during pregnancy, paternal BMI, birth weight, gestational age at birth, sex, breastfeeding and finally infant weight at 5 and 12 month were included in the analyses. RESULTS: We found, that postpartum distress was not associated with childhood risk of overweight, OR 1.00, 95%CI [0.98-1.02]. Neither was anxiety, depression, or stress exposure, separately. There were no significant differences between the genders. Adjustment for potential confounders did not alter the results. CONCLUSION: Maternal postpartum distress is apparently not an independent risk factor for childhood overweight at 7-years-of-age. However, we can confirm previous findings of perinatal determinants as high maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, and smoking during pregnancy being risk factors for childhood overweight.

  19. Infection and childhood leukemia: review of evidence

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    Raquel da Rocha Paiva Maia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE : To analyze studies that evaluated the role of infections as well as indirect measures of exposure to infection in the risk of childhood leukemia, particularly acute lymphoblastic leukemia. METHODS : A search in Medline, Lilacs, and SciELO scientific publication databases initially using the descriptors “childhood leukemia” and “infection” and later searching for the words “childhood leukemia” and “maternal infection or disease” or “breastfeeding” or “daycare attendance” or “vaccination” resulted in 62 publications that met the following inclusion criteria: subject aged ≤ 15 years; specific analysis of cases diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia or total leukemia; exposure assessment of mothers’ or infants’ to infections (or proxy of infection, and risk of leukemia. RESULTS : Overall, 23 studies that assessed infections in children support the hypothesis that occurrence of infection during early childhood reduces the risk of leukemia, but there are disagreements within and between studies. The evaluation of exposure to infection by indirect measures showed evidence of reduced risk of leukemia associated mainly with daycare attendance. More than 50.0% of the 16 studies that assessed maternal exposure to infection observed increased risk of leukemia associated with episodes of influenza, pneumonia, chickenpox, herpes zoster, lower genital tract infection, skin disease, sexually transmitted diseases, Epstein-Barr virus, and Helicobacter pylori . CONCLUSIONS : Although no specific infectious agent has been identified, scientific evidence suggests that exposure to infections has some effect on childhood leukemia etiology.

  20. Childhood Cataract: Magnitude, Management, Economics and Impact

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    BR Shamanna

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of blindness among children in different regions varies from 0.2/1000 children to over 1.5/1000 children with a global figure estimated at 0.7/1000. This means that there are an estimated 1.4 million blind children worldwide.1 The proportion of blindness in children due to cataract varies considerably between regions from 10%-30% with a global average estimated at 14%, giving 190,000 children blind from cataract. 2 While the magnitude of childhood cataracts varies from place to place, it is a priority within all blindness control programmes for children. Children who are blind have to overcome a lifetime of emotional, social and economic difficulties which affect the child, the family and society.3 Loss of vision in children influences their education, employment and social life. The numbers blind with cataract do not reflect the years of disability and lost quality of life. Childhood blindness is second only to adult cataract as a cause of blind-person years. Approximately 70 million blind-person years are caused by childhood blindness of which about 10 million blind-person years (14% is due to childhood cataract. Timely recognition and intervention can eliminate blind-years due to childhood cataract, as the condition is treatable.

  1. Can Childhood Factors Predict Workplace Deviance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piquero, Nicole Leeper; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2013-01-01

    Compared to the more common focus on street crime, empirical research on workplace deviance has been hampered by highly select samples, cross-sectional research designs, and limited inclusion of relevant predictor variables that bear on important theoretical debates. A key debate concerns the extent to which childhood conduct-problem trajectories influence crime over the life-course, including adults’ workplace crime, whether childhood low self-control is a more important determinant than trajectories, and/or whether each or both of these childhood factors relate to later criminal activity. This paper provides evidence on this debate by examining two types of workplace deviance: production and property deviance separately for males and females. We use data from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, a birth cohort followed into adulthood, to examine how childhood factors (conduct-problem trajectories and low self-control) and then adult job characteristics predict workplace deviance at age 32. Analyses revealed that none of the childhood factors matter for predicting female deviance in the workplace but that conduct-problem trajectories did account for male workplace deviance. PMID:24882937

  2. Epidemiology of childhood stroke in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laugesaar, Rael; Kolk, Anneli; Uustalu, Ulle; Ilves, Pilvi; Tomberg, Tiiu; Talvik, Inga; Köbas, Kristel; Sander, Valentin; Talvik, Tiina

    2010-02-01

    We investigated the incidence and 30-day case-fatality of childhood stroke in Estonia, and clinical signs and risk factors of childhood stroke. A retrospective (1995-2003) and prospective study (2004-2006) of childhood stroke (arterial ischemic, hemorrhagic, and sinovenous thrombosis) and transient ischemic attack was conducted. Stroke-incidence calculation was based on the prospective study. Clinical diagnoses of stroke were confirmed by neuroradiology. The incidence rate of childhood stroke in Estonia was 2.73/100,000 person-years for children aged 30 days to 18 years: 1.61/100,000 for arterial ischemic stroke, 0.87/100,000 for hemorrhagic stroke, 0.25/100,000 for sinovenous thrombosis, and 0.37/100,000 for transient ischemic attack. No arterial ischemic stroke patients died within 30 days, but case-fatality for intracerebral hemorrhage was 46%. Focal signs occurred in 100% of arterial ischemic strokes and 64% of intracerebral hemorrhage cases. Risk factors were identified in 35/48 (73%) children with cerebrovascular attacks. Six children with arterial ischemic stroke (6/24, 25%) manifested more than one risk factor. The incidence rate of childhood stroke in Estonia is similar to that in earlier data.

  3. Design Application Early Childhood Education Based Mobile

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    Annah

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to make learning media for Early Childhood Education in the form especially its mobile applications for Android-based smartphones. In the process of teaching and learning for Early Childhood Education is still often found constraints experienced teaching force is limited props so that learners are less eager to learn. In addition, parents also have difficulty returning to guide or teach the learning materials at home because it has no alternative instructional media. In compiling this research report author uses the Android-based Mobile Devices Applications created using the Java programming language through the Eclipse editor. Based on the results of the research, concluded that these applications can be applied in the latest version of the Android platform to its current platform version of Jellybean. Application of Learning can be used as an alternative way of learning for Early Childhood Education so as to overcome the lack of props in institutions of Early Childhood Education, can be used to be taught at home, and provide new teaching methods to early childhood so that a form of learning that is obtained is not the monotony of one form of learning how.

  4. ATLIS. Early Childhood Development and the Electronic Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Nancy P.

    1994-01-01

    Describes the America Tomorrow Leadership Information Service (ATLIS) and how this information can benefit early childhood professionals. Discusses the future of telecommunications in the early childhood profession and includes a glossary of telecommunications terms. (HTH)

  5. Childhood Cancer Genomics Gaps and Opportunities - Workshop Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI convened a workshop of representative research teams that have been leaders in defining the genomic landscape of childhood cancers to discuss the influence of genomic discoveries on the future of childhood cancer research.

  6. Avaliação da qualidade de caldo de cana envasado a quente e por sistema asséptico Quality of sugarcane (Sacharum ssp. juice packed by hot fill and aseptic processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Samorano da Silva

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Dois processos térmicos foram aplicados ao caldo de cana com o objetivo de se obter um produto estável à temperatura ambiente. A variedade de cana de açúcar (Sacharum ssp. utilizada foi a RB72 - 454. A metodologia de planejamento fatorial foi aplicada a fim de se verificar a melhor combinação entre acidez (pH e doçura (°Brix. Houve uma tendência para melhor aceitação sensorial quando o pH foi maior que 4,0 e °Brix maior que 15. Primeiramente, o caldo foi submetido a 141 °C /10 s e envasado assepticamente em garrafas de vidro previamente esterilizadas. No segundo processo, o caldo foi submetido ao tratamento térmico a 110 °C /10 s e envasado a quente (90 ± 5 °C em garrafas de vidro. Análises físico-químicas, microbiológicas e sensoriais foram realizadas durante a estocagem dos lotes à temperatura ambiente. O lote processado assepticamente apresentou vida útil de 30 dias e o envasado a quente, 60 dias, não apresentando diferença estatística (p The objective of this work is to evaluate two thermal processes in order to obtain sugarcane (Sacharum ssp. juice stable at room temperature in glass bottles. An experimental methodology was applied to obtain the best combination between pH and °Brix based on the sensory results. There was a tendency for a better sensory acceptance for pH > 4.0 and °Brix > 15. Two thermal processes were applied to sterilize the juice. Firstly, the juice was submitted to 141 °C /10 s, and then aseptically filled in glass bottles previously sterilized. In the second process, the juice was submitted to 110 °C /10 s and filled into glass bottles at 90 ± 5 °C. Physical-chemical changes, microbiological counts and sensory acceptance were evaluated during the storage at room temperature. The shelf life of aseptically processed juice was 30 days and 60 days for the hot filled juice based on the sensory evaluation. These results indicated that the hot fill process was more efficient for sugarcane

  7. A Study to Assess the Association of Aseptic Practices Being Followed and its Effect on the Overall Outcome of Selected Special Care Newborn Units (SCNUs of Madhya Pradesh at Different Levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahore RK

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The neonatal mortality rate in India is high and stagnant. Special Care Newborn Units (SCNUs have been set up at different levels of Health Care Delivery System to provide quality newborn-care services in several hospitals to meet this challenge. Many units are located in the districts where the burden of neonatal deaths is high, and access to special newborn care is poor. The study was conducted to assess the functioning of SCNUs in six centers of India. The evaluation was based on an analysis of secondary data from the six units that had been functioning for at least three year. A cross-sectional survey was also conducted to assess the availability of Quality care and Aseptic practices implemented at different levels of SNCUs. Descriptive statistics were used for analyzing the inputs (Quality care and aseptic practices and outcomes (morbidity and mortality. The rate of mortality among admitted neonates was taken as the key outcome variable to assess the performance of the units. Chi-square test was used for analyzing the trend of case-fatality rate over a period of 3 years considering the first year of operationalization as the base. Correlation coefficients were estimated to understand the possible association of case-fatality rate with factors, such as bed:doctor ratio, bed:nurse ratio, average duration of stay, and bed occupancy rate, and the asepsis score was determined. The rates of admission increased from a median of 16.7 per 100 deliveries in 2012 to 19.5 per 100 deliveries in 2014. The case-fatality rate shows progressive decline in all the units in Last 3 years. Proportional mortality due to sepsis and low birthweight (LBW declined significantly over two years (LBW <2.5 kg. The major reasons for admission and the major causes of deaths were birth asphyxia, sepsis, and LBW/prematurity. The units had a varying nurse:bed ratio (1:1-1:2.14. The bed occupancy rate ranged from 83% to 121% (median 115%, and the average duration of stay

  8. Childhood attachment, childhood sexual abuse, and onset of masturbation among adult sexual offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallbone, Stephen W; McCabe, Billee-Anne

    2003-01-01

    Written autobiographies of 48 incarcerated adult male sexual offenders (22 rapists, 13 intrafamilial child molesters, and 13 extrafamilial child molesters) were used to generate retrospective self-report measures of their childhood maternal and paternal attachment, childhood sexual abuse experiences, and onset of masturbation. Contrary to expectation, the offenders as a combined group more often reported secure than they did insecure childhood maternal and paternal attachment. There were no differences between the three offender subgroups with respect to maternal attachment; however the rapists and the intrafamilial child molesters were more likely to report insecure paternal attachment than were the extrafamilial child molesters. There were no differences between these offender subgroups in the frequency with which childhood sexual abuse was reported. However, offenders with insecure paternal attachment were more likely to report having been sexually abused than were those with secure paternal attachment. Sexually abused offenders in turn reported earlier onset of masturbation than did those who were not sexually abused. These results are consistent with contemporary attachment models linking insecure childhood attachment to childhood sexual abuse, and with traditional conditioning models linking childhood sexual abuse, early masturbation, and sexual offending.

  9. [Orbital tumor emergencies in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morax, S; Desjardins, L

    2009-05-01

    Emergencies in childhood orbital tumorals are rare. The absolute emergency involves malignant primary orbital tumors, such as rhabdomyosarcoma or secondary malignant tumors (metastatic neuroblastoma, leukemia), involving a vital prognosis requiring prompt diagnosis. Delayed emergencies are usually vascular lesions. Among these lesions, immature orbital hemangioma, with a good prognosis, must be distinguished from orbital adnexal lymphangiomas, which are less frequent but can lead to dramatic cosmetic and functional disorders. In rare cases, they can be responsible for sudden, painful proptosis, due to orbital hemorrhage, with a risk of optic nerve compression, requiring emergency surgical treatment. Neurogenous lesions, either isolated, such as in gliomas, or associated with a systemic disease, such as Recklinghausen neurofibromatosis, threaten the functional prognosis. Diagnosis of pediatric orbital tumors is based on a good clinical examination, precise imaging investigations, and evaluation of the locoregional extension of the tumor. Biopsy is required in emergency situations, when rhabdomyosarcoma is suspected, in order to start the chemotherapy. However, the biopsy can be superfluous, and even useless or dangerous, when clinical and imaging investigations are sufficient to provide a diagnosis of capillary hemangioma, lymphangioma, or metastatic tumor from an abdominal malignancy. Treatment is closely related to the etiopathogenesis of the tumor. The outcomes are vital, functional and cosmetic. They may require orbital surgery (biopsy, tumoral resection, orbital decompression in case of a compressive hemorrhage), systemic corticotherapy (as in immature adnexal hemangioma), radiation, and chemotherapy (rhabdomyosarcoma, secondary malignant tumor). These diseases require a pediatric ophthalmological medical center specializing in orbital surgery, with close collaboration of multiple specialists such as onco-pediatricians and neurosurgeons.

  10. Childhood trauma, country report (Thailand).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junnanond, C; Ruangkanchanasetr, S; Chunharas, A

    1993-10-01

    In Thailand, each year approximately 15,000 people die from accidents, a figure exceeded only by cardiovascular diseases. Motor vehicle accidents (MVA) is the principal cause of death and injuries in children of all ages except preschool group. In 1988 there were 554,452 cases of injuries out of which 10,031 died from MVA. In Bangkok alone MVA accounts for an average of 300 childhood and teenage death and 1,900 cases of injuries each year. Falls, burns and poisonings are relatively high in children less than 4 years old while MVA and injuries from sharp and blunt objects of both accidental and non-accidental cases increase with age and become the two leading causes of injury in older children. The sex ratio (F:M) in preschool ages are 1:1.4 and 1:2 in preteen. Poisonings, though less common, are considered to be very important because of their severity. Drugs, hydrocarbon, insecticides, lead and corrosive substances are leading agents. As for injuries caused by animals, 150 cases of rabies were reported each year while around 5,000 cases of snake bites were found in 1987 and 20 per cent of the victims were children. The study from Ramathibodi Hospital revealed that the majority of accidents (65-72%) occur at home and 20 per cent in the street in children younger than 12 years. Peak incidence were found between 5-9 pm. During weekend and holidays the incidence is higher. Ninety-five per cent of the accidents reported were mild cases, 15 per cent moderate, 3 per cent severe and less than 1 per cent caused death.

  11. Chronic pain after childhood groin hernia repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasvang, Eske Kvanner; Kehlet, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In contrast to the well-described 10% risk of chronic pain affecting daily activities after adult groin hernia repair, chronic pain after childhood groin hernia repair has never been investigated. Studies of other childhood surgery before the age of 3 months suggest a risk of increased...... pain responsiveness later in life, but its potential relationship to chronic pain in adult life is unknown. METHODS: This was a nationwide detailed questionnaire study of chronic groin pain in adults having surgery for a groin hernia repair before the age of 5 years (n = 1075). RESULTS: The response...... the age of 3 months (n = 122) did not report groin pain more often or with higher intensity than other patients did. CONCLUSIONS: Groin pain in adult patients operated on for a groin hernia in childhood is uncommon and usually mild and occurs in relation to physical activity. Operation before the age of 3...

  12. Adult female urinary incontinence and childhood bedwetting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foldspang, Anders; Mommsen, S.

    1994-01-01

    A cross-sectional random population sample of women 30 to 59 years old was sent a questionnaire on urinary incontinence and, among other things, childhood bedwetting. Among 2,613 responders 17.0% reported prevalent urinary incontinence (14.7% stress provoked, 8.3% associated with urge, 6.8% stress...... and urge overlap, 2.2% occurring especially during sleep and 3.9% occurring especially when anxious), and 6.5% reported childhood bedwetting after age 5 years and 3.3% after age 10 years. Childhood bedwetting was associated with prevalent urge urinary incontinence (p incontinence occurring...... during sleep (p urinary incontinence occurring in situations of anxiety (p

  13. Early childhood caries: a New Zealand perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bach K

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries, primarily a preventable disease, remains the most common chronic disease of childhood and one of the most common reasons for hospital admissions for children in New Zealand. The most vulnerable children are shouldering the burden of the disease, with Maori and Pacific children having greater experience and severity of dental caries. Early childhood caries has deleterious effects on a child’s oral and general health and significant numbers of preschool-aged children experience pain and infection. Early identification by primary health care providers of children at high risk of developing early childhood caries can ensure these children are referred to the appropriate oral health services to receive appropriate and timely management.

  14. Socioeconomic Factors and Childhood Overweight in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bammann, K.; Gwozdz, Wencke; Lanfer, A.

    2013-01-01

    What is already known about this subject. Overweight and obesity can be linked to different parental socioeconomic factors already in very young children. In Western developed countries, the association of childhood overweight and obesity and parental socioeconomic status shows a negative gradient....... Ambiguous results have been obtained regarding the association between socioeconomic factors and childhood overweight and obesity in different countries and over time. What this study adds. European regions show heterogeneous associations between socioeconomic factors and overweight and obesity in a multi...... not only of the family but also of region and country on the overweight and obesity prevalence. Objective To assess the association between different macro- and micro-level socioeconomic factors and childhood overweight. Methods Data from the IDEFICS baseline survey is used to investigate the cross...

  15. Neurocognitive Phenotypes in Severe Childhood Psychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanaugh, Brian C; Dupont-Frechette, Jennifer A; Tellock, Perrin P; Maher, Isolde D; Haisley, Lauren D; Holler, Karen A

    2016-10-01

    This study investigated the presence of potential neurocognitive phenotypes within a severe childhood psychiatric sample. A medical chart review was conducted for 106 children who received a neuropsychological evaluation during children's psychiatric inpatient program hospitalization. A hierarchical cluster analysis was conducted to identify distinct clinical clusters based on neurocognitive measures. Cluster analysis identified four distinct clusters, subsequently labeled neurocognitive phenotypes: "intact cognition" (27%), "global dysfunction" (20%), "organization/planning" (21%), and "inhibition-memory" (32%). Significant differences were identified in history of legal involvement and antipsychotic medications at hospital admission. Differences between none-minimal and moderate-high neurocognitive dysfunction were identified in age, amount of diagnoses and antipsychotic medications at admission, and hospital length of stay. Current findings provide preliminary evidence of underlying neurocognitive phenotypes within severe childhood psychiatric disorders. Findings highlight the importance of neuropsychological evaluation in the treatment of childhood psychiatric disorders.

  16. Diseases of the middle ear in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minovi, Amir

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available [english] Middle ear diseases in childhood play an important role in daily ENT practice due to their high incidence. Some of these like acute otitis media or otitis media with effusion have been studied extensively within the last decades. In this article, we present a selection of important childhood middle ear diseases and discuss the actual literature concerning their treatment, management of complications and outcome. Another main topic of this paper deals with the possibilities of surgical hearing rehabilitation in childhood. The bone-anchored hearing aid BAHA and the active partially implantable device Vibrant Soundbridge could successfully be applied for children. In this manuscript, we discuss the actual literature concerning clinical outcomes of these implantable hearing aids.

  17. Follow-up in Childhood Functional Constipation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modin, Line; Walsted, Anne-Mette; Rittig, Charlotte Siggaard;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Guidelines recommend close follow-up during treatment of childhood functional constipation. Only sparse evidence exists on how follow-up is best implemented. Our aim was to evaluate if follow-up by phone or self-management through web-based information improved treatment outcomes....... METHODS: In this randomized, controlled trial, conducted in secondary care, 235 children, aged 2-16 years, who fulfilled the Rome III criteria of childhood constipation, were assigned to one of three follow-up regimens: (I) control group (no scheduled contact), (II) phone group (2 scheduled phone contacts......: Improved self-management behavior caused by access to self-motivated web-based information induced faster short-term recovery during treatment of functional constipation. Patient empowerment rather than health care promoted follow-up might be a step towards more effective treatment for childhood...

  18. Domestic Radon and Childhood Cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Claus Erik; Andersen, Helle P.;

    2008-01-01

    Background: Higher incidence rates of childhood cancer and particularly leukemia have been observed in regions with higher radon levels, but case-control studies have given inconsistent results. We tested the hypothesis that domestic radon exposure increases the risk for childhood cancer. Methods......: We identified 2400 incident cases of leukemia, central nervous system tumor, and malignant lymphoma diagnosed in children between 1968 and 1994 in the Danish Cancer Registry. Control children (n = 6697) were selected from the Danish Central Population Registry. Radon levels in residences of children...... and the cumulated exposure of each child were calculated as the product of exposure level and time, for each address occupied during childhood. Results: Cumulative radon exposure was associated with risk for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), with rate ratios of 1.21 (95% confidence interval = 0...

  19. 76 FR 55205 - National Childhood Obesity Awareness Month, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... childhood obesity within a generation. Let's Move! aims to help ensure we can make healthy choices about the... communities where nutritious food is limited or unavailable. Childhood obesity cuts across all cultural and... September 6, 2011 Part III The President Proclamation 8702--National Childhood Obesity Awareness Month,...

  20. Drugs Approved for Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Quiz Cancers by Body Location/System Childhood Cancers Late Effects of Childhood Cancer Treatment Pediatric Supportive Care Unusual Cancers of ... Research Drugs Approved for Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Cancers ... This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for Wilms tumor and ...

  1. Actionable Intelligence about Early Childhood Risks in Philadelphia

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBoeuf, Whitney A.; Barghaus, Katherine; Fantuzzo, John; Coe, Kristen; Brumley, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    "Early childhood risks" are markers of early childhood experiences that extensive research has shown to be detrimental to later academic and behavioral outcomes. In Philadelphia, evidence indicates that seven early childhood risks tracked by public agencies have negative effects on early school outcomes. These risks include low…

  2. Autistic symptoms in childhood arrestees : longitudinal association with delinquent behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geluk, Charlotte A. M. L.; Jansen, Lucres M. C.; Vermeiren, Robert; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.; van Domburgh, Lieke; de Bildt, Annelies; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Hartman, Catharina A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To compare childhood arrestees with matched comparison groups on levels of autistic symptoms and to assess the unique predictive value of autistic symptoms for future delinquent behavior in childhood arrestees. Methods: Childhood first-time arrestees (n = 308, baseline age 10.7 +/- 1.5 y

  3. Speculating on Childhood and Time, with Michael Ende's "Momo" (1973)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhn, Iris

    2016-01-01

    Childhood and time are closely linked concepts in education. Childhood as a modern domain is a cornerstone of the human narrative of being in time, with birth as the beginning and death as the end. A newborn child marks new beginnings and hope for the future, and geopolitically early childhood education is now seen as a cornerstone for building…

  4. Healing from Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Theoretical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draucker, Claire Burke; Martsolf, Donna S.; Roller, Cynthia; Knapik, Gregory; Ross, Ratchneewan; Stidham, Andrea Warner

    2011-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse is a prevalent social and health care problem. The processes by which individuals heal from childhood sexual abuse are not clearly understood. The purpose of this study was to develop a theoretical model to describe how adults heal from childhood sexual abuse. Community recruitment for an ongoing broader project on sexual…

  5. Childhood obesity treatment and prevention. Psychological perspectives of clinical approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Catena Quattropani; Teresa Buccheri

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This work focuses on clinical psychologist’ presence within childhood obesity prevention programmes in several countries. Method: The Authors collected articles considering psychological, biological and social aspects linked to childhood obesity. Results: Studies reveal that childhood obesity prevention programmes are based on biological, medical and educational aspects; clinical psychologists up until now have been engaged almost exclusively in the treatment of obesity. Conclusion...

  6. Family Counseling and Childhood Obesity: A Review of Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissette, Patrick J.; Taylor, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    Childhood obesity continues to be one of the most refractory and resistant problems encountered by children. This article provides a comprehensive review of the literature and addresses the presumed influence of family members in relation to childhood obesity. Directions for future family counseling research into childhood obesity are also…

  7. Brief Information on Childhood Traumatic Grief for School Personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This information sheet summarizes material found in the "In-Depth General Information Guide to Childhood Traumatic Grief" and "In-Depth Information on Childhood Traumatic Grief for School Personnel." Childhood traumatic grief is a condition that some children develop after the death of a close friend or family member. Children who develop…

  8. Childhood Play and Environmental Interests: Panacea or Snake Oil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadala, Carin E.; Bixler, Robert D.; James, J. Joy

    2007-01-01

    Both wildland recreationists and conservationists report that wildland childhood play is an important socialization experience. However, researchers know little about the details of play experiences during the formative childhood years. In this article, the authors describe the content and physical and social components of childhood play as…

  9. Childhood poverty and young adults' allostatic load: the mediating role of childhood cumulative risk exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gary W; Kim, Pilyoung

    2012-09-01

    Childhood poverty is linked to a host of physical and psychological disorders during childhood and later in life. In the study reported here, we showed that the proportion of childhood spent in poverty from birth to age 9 was linked to elevated allostatic load, a marker of chronic physiological stress, in 17-year-olds. Furthermore, this prospective longitudinal relationship was mediated by cumulative risk exposure at age 13. The greater the duration of early life spent in poverty, the greater the exposure to cumulative risk. This, in turn, leads to elevated allostatic load. Multiple psychological, biological, and neurological pathways likely account for the social patterning of psychological and physical disease.

  10. Obesity and growth during childhood and puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcovecchio, M Loredana; Chiarelli, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    Growth during childhood and adolescence occurs at different rates and is influenced by the interaction between genetic and environmental factors. Nutritional status plays an important role in regulating growth, and excess body weight early in life can influence growth patterns. Childhood obesity is a growing and alarming problem, associated with several short-term and long-term metabolic and cardiovascular complications. In addition, there is evidence suggesting that excess adiposity during childhood influences growth patterns and pubertal development. Several studies have shown that during prepubertal years obese children have higher height velocity and accelerated bone age compared to lean subjects. However, this prepubertal advantage in growth tends to gradually decrease during puberty, when obese children show a reduced growth spurt compared with lean subjects. Growth hormone (GH) secretion in obese children is reduced, therefore suggesting that increased growth is GH independent. Factors which have been implicated in the accelerated growth in obese children include increased leptin and insulin levels, adrenal androgens, insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1, IGF-binding protein-1 and GH-binding proteins. Excess body weight during childhood can also influence pubertal development, through an effect on timing of pubertal onset and levels of pubertal hormonal levels. There is clear evidence indicating that obesity leads to early appearance of pubertal signs in girls. In addition, obese girls are also at increased risk of hyperandrogenism. In boys, excess adiposity has been associated with advanced puberty in some studies, whereas others have reported a delay in pubertal onset. The existing evidence on the association between childhood and adolescence obesity underlines a further reason for fighting the epidemics of childhood obesity; that is preventing abnormal growth and pubertal patterns.

  11. Childhood experiences and repeated suicidal behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Gertrud; Nielsen, Bent; Rask, P

    1991-01-01

    . It is commonly agreed that the experience in childhood of suicidal behavior among family members or other persons in the close environment is of importance in future suicidal risk. The results of this study indicate that the predictive value of this factor mainly applies to attempts with no fatal outcome...... that the psychological climate of the home may be more important than the rupture of early home life. It is noteworthy that the group of repeaters, as against the first-evers, could be characterized by personality disorders and abuse, especially of alcohol: disorders known to be precipitated by a discordant childhood...

  12. Childhood Cumulative Risk and Later Allostatic Load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doan, Stacey N; Dich, Nadya; Evans, Gary W

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study investigated the long-term impact of exposure to poverty-related stressors during childhood on allostatic load, an index of physiological dysregulation, and the potential mediating role of substance use. Method: Participants (n = 162) were rural children from New York...... in health across the life span and of the mechanisms by which adverse childhood environments impact health as children emerge into early adulthood. This knowledge will have implications for early intervention efforts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved)....

  13. The Progression of Chinese and Western Medicine Treatment of Aseptic Meningitis after Craniotomy Operation%开颅术后无菌性脑膜炎的中西医治疗进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐波; 袁俊

    2015-01-01

    无菌性脑膜炎(AM)为目前开颅术后常见的并发症,同时也是一个比较难解决的疾病。临床表现为发热、头痛、脑膜刺激征等。学者们经过多年的临床探索,在治疗方面已取得宝贵经验,现就对 AM的中医和西医治疗状况及其进展做一简要综述。%AbstractAseptic meningitis (AM)is a common complication after surgical operation,but thedisease is also more difficult to resolve.The clinical manifestations were fever,headache and meningeal irritation sign,etc.Scholars through the years of clinical exploration.In the treatment aspect has made valuable experience. We make a brief review of Chinese medicin -eand Western medicine in treatment of AMand its development status.

  14. Childhood obesity treatment and prevention. Psychological perspectives of clinical approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Catena Quattropani

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This work focuses on clinical psychologist’ presence within childhood obesity prevention programmes in several countries. Method: The Authors collected articles considering psychological, biological and social aspects linked to childhood obesity. Results: Studies reveal that childhood obesity prevention programmes are based on biological, medical and educational aspects; clinical psychologists up until now have been engaged almost exclusively in the treatment of obesity. Conclusions: There is a clear need to consider psychological aspects (emotional, cognitive and relational related to the childhood obesity’s causes and involve psychologists in its prevention projects. Keywords: childhood obesity, overweight, multidisciplinary approach, clinical psychology, prevention, treatment

  15. The long reach of childhood. Childhood experiences influence close relationships and loneliness across life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merz, Eva-Maria; Jak, Suzanne

    2013-09-01

    This paper intends to gain insight into the role of childhood relationships and experiences within the parental home for the formation and meaning of later family relationships and loneliness. Particularly, childhood attachment to mother and father and stressful childhood experiences were studied in their association with satisfaction in the romantic relationship, the quality of adult family ties and the perceived quality of the social network, i.e. loneliness in adulthood. Based on data from the Netherlands Kinship Panel Study (N=3980) structural equation models were estimated to predict adult relationships and loneliness with childhood experiences. Positive attachment experiences with parents, such as reliability, closeness and supportiveness during childhood were associated with greater satisfaction in the romantic relationship, stronger family ties and less loneliness, whereas stressful childhood experiences, such as conflicts and violence negatively predicted the quality of adult relationships. Life span theoretical perspectives, such as attachment theory are discussed as useful unifying framework to study social relationships, their interconnectedness and association with outcome during all phases of life.

  16. Salmeterol in the treatment of childhood asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A.P.H. Vaessen-Verberne (Anja)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractAsthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood. Although mortality rates in the Netherlands and other Western European countries are low, astlmm causes a great deal of morbidity and school absence. Incidence rates in our country are about 10% and recent epidemiologic studies show

  17. Sensorimotor Analysis of Early Onset Childhood Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertel, David; Voyat, Gilbert

    1982-01-01

    Jean Piaget's theories about children's cognitive development are applied to the evaluation of childhood psychosis. Problems with the testing of such children are described, and results of a research project that used the Piaget-inspired Uzgiris and Hunt Ordinal Scales of Psychological Development to assess autistic children's cognitive processes…

  18. Privatization of Early Childhood Education in Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dýrfjörð, Kristín; Magnúsdóttir, Berglind Rós

    2016-01-01

    The overall aim of this paper is to give a comprehensive picture of the marketization of early childhood education in Iceland. Our theoretical framework is based on Hursh's (2007) analysis of how the governance of schools is reshaped to serve a neoliberal agenda with the help of internal and external privatization (Ball and Youdell, 2007). In this…

  19. Inclusive discourses in early childhood education?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the discursive formation of inclusion in early childhood education and after-school (recreation) centres in a Danish municipality. While inclusion has been a central educational issue in research and practice for well over quarter of a century, with continuing emphasis...

  20. Early Childhood Inclusion in Aotearoa New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster-Cohen, Susan H.; van Bysterveldt, Anne K.

    2016-01-01

    Early childhood education is encouraged for all 3- to 5-year-old children in New Zealand (known in the Maori language as Aotearoa) and is supported by a well-constructed bicultural curriculum (Te Whariki) and reasonably generous government funding. However, a number of factors mitigate against inclusion of children with developmental delays and…

  1. The Importance of Early Childhood Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Greg J.; Magnuson, Katherine; Kalil, Ariel; Ziol-Guest, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    Most poor children achieve less, exhibit more problem behaviors and are less healthy than children reared in more affluent families. We look beyond correlations such as these to a recent set of studies that attempt to assess the causal impact of childhood poverty on adult well-being. We pay particular attention to the potentially harmful effects…

  2. Childhood Stress : Stressors, Coping, and Factors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Burnout is a matter of imbalance in life very often (Nijboer, 2006). In order to know more about imbalance and exhaustion in children, stress and coping in children will be investigated in this literature study. The goal is to identify common childhood stressors, the ways children cope with stress,

  3. Childhood Wellbeing: What Role for Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spratt, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    The word wellbeing is ubiquitous in political discourse, and concerns about childhood wellbeing are particularly rife. This paper identifies, in the context of Scottish policy, how different professional discourses of wellbeing have migrated into education policy and it examines how this relates to learning. Taking a view of policy enactment as…

  4. Untangling pathways between childhood trauma and psychosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, D.S.

    2017-01-01

    The studies presented in this thesis aim to enhance our knowledge with regard to specific associations between types of trauma and the course of symptomatology and psychosocial functioning and to examine possible underlying mechanisms, by which childhood trauma influences the development of psychosi

  5. Childhood and Citizenship: A Conversation across Modernity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses the problematic nature of citizenship as a modern achievement faced with the challenge of vindicating ancient ideals in what is increasingly considered to be a "postmodern" world. It offers a parallel analysis of childhood as a characteristically modern construct whose reality in children's life-worlds is threatened by social…

  6. Uveitis in childhood : clinical and fundamental developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalinina Ayuso, V.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis aimed to gain new insights regarding the course and prognosis of uveitis in childhood, the pathogenesis of JIA-uveitis and the treatment of uveitis in children. The role of baseline prognostic factors in JIA-uveitis was studied by a retrospective analysis of 117 affected eyes of 65 patie

  7. Aristotle's Conception of Childhood and the Poliscraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambliss, J. J.

    1982-01-01

    Examines Aristotle's conception of childhood in relation to the creation of the ideal community. According to Aristotle, children are incompletely developed, so the goal of education should be to help children outgrow their original, animal-like natures so that they will find happiness as adults in rational behavior. (AM)

  8. Traumatic Childhood Events and Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, Connor Morrow; Newschaffer, Craig J.; Berkowitz, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic childhood events are associated with a wide range of negative physical, psychological and adaptive outcomes over the life course and are one of the few identifiable causes of psychiatric illness. Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may be at increased risk for both encountering traumatic events and developing traumatic sequelae;…

  9. Friend Influence on Achievement during Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLay, Dawn

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate friend influence on academic achievement and task avoidance during middle childhood in a sample of 794 participants in 397 stable same-sex friendship dyads (205 girl dyads and 192 boy dyads) from four municipalities in Finland: two in Central Finland, one in Western Finland, and one in Eastern Finland.…

  10. Experimentally Evoking Nonbelieved Memories for Childhood Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otgaar, Henry; Scoboria, Alan; Smeets, Tom

    2013-01-01

    We report on the 1st experimental elicitation of nonbelieved memories for childhood events in adults (Study 1) and children (Study 2) using a modified false memory implantation paradigm. Participants received true (trip to a theme park) and false (hot air balloon ride) narratives and recalled these events during 2 interviews. After debriefing, 13%…

  11. Childhood hypertension: what does the radiologist contribute?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roebuck, Derek [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, Radiology Department, London (United Kingdom)

    2008-06-15

    Hypertension may be essential (primary) or secondary to a variety of causes. The most important risk factors for essential hypertension are obesity and a family history of high BP, but there are also associations with sleep apnoea, low birth weight and prematurity. The most important cause of secondary hypertension in childhood is chronic renal disease. (orig.)

  12. Honoring Diversity in Early Childhood Education Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corso, Robert M.; Santos, Rosa Milagros; Roof, Virginia

    2002-01-01

    This article summarizes guidelines developed by the Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services Early Childhood Research Institute for selecting and adapting materials for young children and their families. Recommendations are provided that community teams should consider in collecting, selecting, and reflecting on materials. Tips are also…

  13. The Neuropsychological Basis of Childhood Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Andrew S.

    2006-01-01

    A clear link exists between neurological dysfunction and psychopathology in children, as evidenced by research on the sequelae of developmental childhood brain impairment, the neuropsychological investigation of children with psychiatric disorders, and neuroimaging research. Understanding the neuropsychological basis of a disorder helps teachers,…

  14. Emotion Regulation and Childhood Aggression: Longitudinal Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roll, Judith; Koglin, Ute; Petermann, Franz

    2012-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that emotion dysregulation is associated with psychopathology. This paper provides a review of recent longitudinal studies that investigate the relationship between emotion regulation and aggressive behavior in childhood age. While there is substantial evidence for assuming a close relation of emotion regulation and…

  15. Imminent ovarian failure in childhood cancer survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lantinga, G. M.; Simons, A. H. M.; Kamps, W. A.; Postma, A.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate reproductive history and the prevalence of imminent ovarian failure (IOF) in female childhood cancer survivors. Reproductive history and ovarian function were evaluated by questionnaires (n = 124) and by measurement of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and o

  16. Protein metabolism in severe childhood malnutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    The major clinical syndromes of severe childhood malnutrition (SCM) are marasmus (non-oedematous SCM), kwashiorkor and marasmic-kwashiorkor (oedematous SCM). Whereas treatment of marasmus is straightforward and the associated mortality is low, kwashiorkor and marasmic-kwashiorkor are difficult to tr...

  17. Homework as the Job of Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corno, Lyn; Xu, Jianzhong

    2004-01-01

    The authors undertook a series of empirical studies to examine how students experience homework at various grade levels. The research casts a different light on the century-old practice of doing homework, suggesting it is the quintessential job of childhood. Homework creates a situation where the child must complete assigned tasks under minimal…

  18. Cognitive Functions in Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijland, Lian; Terband, Hayo; Maassen, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is diagnosed on the basis of specific speech characteristics, in the absence of problems in hearing, intelligence, and language comprehension. This does not preclude the possibility that children with this speech disorder might demonstrate additional problems. Method: Cognitive functions were investigated…

  19. Cerebral infarction in childhood bacterial meningitis

    OpenAIRE

    Snyder, R.D.; Stovring, J; Cushing, A H; Davis, L. E.; Hardy, T. L.

    1981-01-01

    Forty-nine children with complicated bacterial meningitis were studied. Thirteen had abnormalities on computed tomography compatible with the diagnosis of brain infarction; one had a brain biopsy with the histological appearance of infarction. Factors exist in childhood bacterial meningitis which are associated with the development of brain infraction.

  20. Is Childhood Obesity Related to TV Addiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groves, David

    1988-01-01

    Excessive television viewing is associated with obesity in children because it decreases time spent on physical activity, and promotes overeating of snacks and high calorie foods. Childhood obesity demands physicians' concern because of the physical and psychological damage which follows its victims into adulthood. (IAH)

  1. Alienation and the Four Worlds of Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronfenbrenner, Urie

    1986-01-01

    Outlines the four worlds of childhood and the ways that alienation in adolescents can be counteracted through the creation of interconnecting links. The risks of losing youths to alienating factors caused by institutions, the social structure, and the pressures under which schools and families function is the highest it has ever been. (MD)

  2. IER3 Expression in Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Vries, Andrica; Zwaan, Christian M.; Danen van Ooschot, Astrid

    Background: Childhood myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a rare disease accounting for less than 5% of all hematological malignancies. In about 50% of the MDS cases an abnormal karyotype is found by conventional karyotyping, of which chromosome 6 is involved in 10%. The immediate-early-response 3 ...

  3. Cognitive functions in Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijland, L.; Terband, H.; Maassen, B.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS) is diagnosed on the basis of specific speech characteristics, in the absence of problems in hearing, intelligence, and language comprehension. This does not preclude the possibility that children with this speech disorder might demonstrate additional proble

  4. Turkish Early Childhood Educators on Parental Involvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakyemez, Sevcan

    2015-01-01

    Research conducted over recent decades show that parental involvement plays a significant role in children's academic achievement as well as their cognitive, social and emotional development. For effective parental involvement, understanding the conceptualization of early childhood educators should be significant. This research investigated the…

  5. The Structure of Childhood Disruptive Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martel, Michelle M.; Gremillion, Monica; Roberts, Bethan; von Eye, Alexander; Nigg, Joel T.

    2010-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) frequently co-occur. Comorbidity of these 2 childhood disruptive behavior domains has not been satisfactorily explained at either a structural or etiological level. The current study evaluated a bifactor model, which allows for a "g" factor in addition to…

  6. Junk Food in Schools and Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datar, Ashlesha; Nicosia, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Despite limited empirical evidence, there is growing concern that junk food availability in schools has contributed to the childhood obesity epidemic. In this paper, we estimate the effects of junk food availability on body mass index (BMI), obesity, and related outcomes among a national sample of fifth graders. Unlike previous studies, we address…

  7. Treatment Intensity and Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namasivayam, Aravind K.; Pukonen, Margit; Goshulak, Debra; Hard, Jennifer; Rudzicz, Frank; Rietveld, Toni; Maassen, Ben; Kroll, Robert; van Lieshout, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intensive treatment has been repeatedly recommended for the treatment of speech deficits in childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). However, differences in treatment outcomes as a function of treatment intensity have not been systematically studied in this population. Aim: To investigate the effects of treatment intensity on outcome…

  8. Osteogenic toxicity in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.L. te Winkel (Mariël Lizet)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBone mineral density (BMD) Our multi-center study in children treated according to the Dutch Childhood Oncology Group (DCOG)-ALL9 protocol showed a three-years cumulative incidence of fractures of 18%. BMD of ALL patients was lower than of healthy peers. The year after treatment disconti

  9. An Early Childhood Movement Laboratory Model: Kindergym

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marston, Rip

    2004-01-01

    Early childhood motor activity programs at institutions of higher learning can operate within the tripartite mission of the university while serving a vital function in providing leadership and guidance to educators. This article describes the University of Northern Iowa's Kindergym model. Within this model, curricular areas of games/sports,…

  10. Do School Lunches Contribute to Childhood Obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schanzenbach, Diane Whitmore

    2009-01-01

    This paper assesses whether school lunches contribute to childhood obesity. I employ two methods to isolate the causal impact of school lunches on obesity. First, using panel data, I ?nd that children who consume school lunches are more likely to be obese than those who brown bag their lunches even though they enter kindergarten with the same…

  11. Environmental Quality Index and Childhood Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood mental disorders affect between 13%-20% of children in the United States (US) annually and impact the child, family, and community. Literature suggests associations exist between environmental and children’s mental health such as air pollution with autism and ADHD...

  12. Understanding Childhood Cancer. [CD-ROM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001

    This interactive multimedia CD-ROM presentation is intended for the parents and families of children who have recently been diagnosed with cancer. It begins with an introduction by a pediatric oncologist. It features menus that include over 200 questions commonly asked about childhood cancer, with answers in a slide presentation format. Menus…

  13. Inclusive Discourses in Early Childhood Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warming, Hanne

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the discursive formation of inclusion in early childhood education and after-school (recreation) centres in a Danish municipality. While inclusion has been a central educational issue in research and practice for well over quarter of a century, with continuing emphasis worldwide on "initiatives by governments", this…

  14. Agentive and Communitarian Play in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmytro, Dana; Kubiliene, Neringa; Cameron, Catherine Ann

    2014-01-01

    Play has long been recognised as a vehicle by which significant developmental advances occur during early childhood. Children use play to explore their relationships, their psychosocial skills, and their environment, and through their experiences, they begin to adopt specific capacities and values that have an impact on future socio-emotional and…

  15. Competency-Based Early Childhood Teacher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosberg, Merilee

    This paper describes the competency-based early childhood preservice program at Iowa's Mount Mercy College, which is for people working with children from birth through age 8, including children with special needs. Program content encompasses five competency areas: child growth and development; developmentally appropriate learning; health, safety,…

  16. Marriage and divorce among childhood cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Susanne Vinkel; Kejs, Anne Mette Tranberg; Engholm, Gerda; Møller, Henrik; Johansen, Christoffer; Schmiegelow, Kjeld

    2011-10-01

    Many childhood cancer survivors have psychosocial late effects. We studied the risks for cohabitation and subsequent separation. Through the Danish Cancer Register, we identified a nationwide, population-based cohort of all 1877 childhood cancer survivors born from 1965 to 1980, and in whom cancer was diagnosed between 1965 and 1996 before they were 20 years of age. A sex-matched and age-matched population-based control cohort was used for comparison (n=45,449). Demographic and socioeconomic data were obtained from national registers and explored by discrete-time Cox regression analyses. Childhood cancer survivors had a reduced rate of cohabitation [rate ratio (RR) 0.78; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.73-0.83], owing to lower rates among survivors of both noncentral nervous system (CNS) tumors (RR 0.88; 95% CI: 0.83-0.95) and CNS tumors (RR 0.52; 95% CI: 0.45-0.59). Male CNS tumor survivors had a nonsignificantly lower rate (RR 0.47; 95% CI: 0.38-0.58) than females (RR 0.56; 95% CI: 0.47-0.68). The rates of separation were almost identical to those of controls. In conclusion, the rate of cohabitation was lower for all childhood cancer survivors than for the population-based controls, with the most pronounced reduction among survivors of CNS tumors. Mental deficits after cranial irradiation are likely to be the major risk factor.

  17. Optimizing inhalation therapy in childhood asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Reina

    2016-01-01

    Childhood asthma is a common chronic disease, featured by inflammation of the airways and episodic bronchoconstriction. Exercise is an important trigger for bronchoconstriction in asthmatic children. They experience this symptom, limiting participation in play and sports, as the most bothersome aspe

  18. School Uniforms and Discourses on Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodine, Ann

    2003-01-01

    This ethnographic study examined the introduction of school uniforms in the public schools of one California city. Findings indicated that the uniform issue intersected with issues such as student safety and violence, family stress, egalitarianism, competitive dressing, and a power struggle over shaping the childhood environment. It was concluded…

  19. Treatment intensity and childhood apraxia of speech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Namasivayam, Aravind K.; Pukonen, Margit; Goshulak, Debra; Hard, Jennifer; Rudzicz, Frank; Rietveld, Toni; Maassen, Ben; Kroll, Robert; van Lieshout, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    BackgroundIntensive treatment has been repeatedly recommended for the treatment of speech deficits in childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). However, differences in treatment outcomes as a function of treatment intensity have not been systematically studied in this population. AimTo investigate the effe

  20. Childhood obesity : medical, cultural and psychological factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radhakishun, N.N.E.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to examine medical, cultural and psychological factors of childhood obesity in a multi-ethnic cohort. Medical factors Several associations between weight measured and hormones were determined in obese children between 6 and 18 years. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was a

  1. Childhood obesity: medical, cultural and psychological factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radhakishun, N.N.E.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to examine medical, cultural and psychological factors of childhood obesity in a multi-ethnic cohort. Medical factors Several associations between weight measured and hormones were determined in obese children between 6 and 18 years. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was

  2. Navigating the Bio-Politics of Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nick; Motzkau, Johanna

    2011-01-01

    Childhood research has long shared a bio-political terrain with state agencies in which children figure primarily as "human futures". In the 20th century bio-social dualism helped to make that terrain navigable by researchers, but, as life processes increasingly become key sites of bio-political action, bio-social dualism is becoming…

  3. "Let's Move!" to End Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obama, Michelle

    2011-01-01

    Childhood obesity rates in America have tripled in the last three decades. Almost one in three children are considered overweight or obese. Pediatricians are now treating children for adult diseases like type II diabetes and hypertension. All parents want the best for their children. They want children to succeed in school, fulfill their dreams,…

  4. Early Childhood Poverty: A Statistical Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Younghwan; Lu, Hsien-Hen

    Noting that young children in poverty face a greater likelihood of impaired development because of their increased exposure to a number of risk factors associated with poverty, this report presents statistical information on the incidence of poverty during early childhood. The report notes that the poverty rate for U.S. children under age 3…

  5. Women with Childhood ADHD: Comparisons by Diagnostic Group and Gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babinski, Dara E; Pelham, William E; Molina, Brooke S G; Waschbusch, Daniel A; Gnagy, Elizabeth M; Yu, Jihnhee; Sibley, Margaret H; Biswas, Aparajita

    2011-12-01

    This study compared adult women with childhood ADHD to adult women without childhood ADHD and to adult men with childhood ADHD. The participants, all from a larger longitudinal study, included 30 women and 30 men (approximately age 23 to 24) with childhood ADHD, and 27 women without ADHD. Women with childhood ADHD were matched to comparison women on age, ethnicity, and parental education, and to men with childhood ADHD on age, ethnicity, and IQ. Self- and parent-reports of internalizing, interpersonal, academic, and job impairment, as well as substance use and delinquency indicated group differences on measures of self-esteem, interpersonal and vocational functioning, as well as substance use. Follow-up planned comparison tests revealed that almost all of these differences emerged by diagnostic status, and not by gender. This study adds to research on the negative adult outcomes of ADHD and demonstrates that the outcomes of men and women with childhood ADHD are relatively similar.

  6. Do Maternal Knowledge and Attitudes towards Childhood Immunizations in Rural Uganda Correlate with Complete Childhood Vaccination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonasek, Bryan J; Bajunirwe, Francis; Jacobson, Laura E; Twesigye, Leonidas; Dahm, James; Grant, Monica J; Sethi, Ajay K; Conway, James H

    2016-01-01

    Improving childhood vaccination coverage and timeliness is a key health policy objective in many developing countries such as Uganda. Of the many factors known to influence uptake of childhood immunizations in under resourced settings, parents' understanding and perception of childhood immunizations has largely been overlooked. The aims of this study were to survey mothers' knowledge and attitudes towards childhood immunizations and then determine if these variables correlate with the timely vaccination coverage of their children. From September to December 2013, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of 1,000 parous women in rural Sheema district in southwest Uganda. The survey collected socio-demographic data and knowledge and attitudes towards childhood immunizations. For the women with at least one child between the age of one month and five years who also had a vaccination card available for the child (N = 302), the vaccination status of this child was assessed. 88% of these children received age-appropriate, on-time immunizations. 93.5% of the women were able to state that childhood immunizations protect children from diseases. The women not able to point this out were significantly more likely to have an under-vaccinated child (PR 1.354: 95% CI 1.018-1.802). When asked why vaccination rates may be low in their community, the two most common responses were "fearful of side effects" and "ignorance/disinterest/laziness" (44% each). The factors influencing caregivers' demand for childhood immunizations vary widely between, and also within, developing countries. Research that elucidates local knowledge and attitudes, like this study, allows for decisions and policy pertaining to vaccination programs to be more effective at improving child vaccination rates.

  7. 不同材料人工髋关节关节面磨损对无菌性松动的影响%Effect of articular surface wear of different-material artificial hip joints on aseptic loosening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖瑾瑛; 肖小燕; 唐方根; 刘建庭

    2011-01-01

    目的:分析各种人工髋关节假体材料在实际应用中的优势和存在的问题,对不同材料人工髋关节关节面的磨损对无菌性松动的影响进行评价.方法:以"生物材料,人工髋关节,假体,髋关节表面置换"为中文关键词,"biological materials,hip,prosthesis,hip resurfacing"为英文关键词,采用计算机检索1990-01/2009-12相关文章.纳入与不同材料人工髋关节关节面的磨损对无菌性松动的影响相关的文章;排除重复研究或Meta分析类文章.结果:人工髋关节的寿命和关节面的磨损密切相关,人工髋关节置换在临床应用研究过程中,出现无菌性松动等问题,这些问题的产生不但与假体的设计有关,而且与假体所用材料有着密切的关系,比较了不同人工髋关节假体材料的性能,为临床选择一种具耐磨损、生物相容性好的理想人工髋关节假体材料提供依据.结论:髋关节假体材料的表面改性和人体髋关节生物摩擦行为是未来研究的热点,髋关节假体材料性能评价体系的完善是亟待解决的问题.%OBJECTIVE: To analyze the advantage and problems of artificial hip joints made of different materials in clinical applications, andto evaluate the effects of articular surface wear on aseptic loosening.METHODS: A computer search of relevant articles published from January 1990 to December 2009 was performed by using thekeywords of “biological materials, hip, prosthesis, hip resurfacing” in Chinese and English. Repetitive studies or Meta analysis wereexcluded.RESULTS: The life of artificial hip joints is closely related to the articular surface wear. The appearance of aseptic loosening is notonly related to the design of prostheses, but also associated with prosthetic materials. Based on the comparison of different hipprosthesis material properties, we provide the basis for the selection of an ideal hip prosthesis material with good wear resistanceand biocompatibility

  8. Effects of low dosage Co-60 irradiation in the course of aseptic arthritis of the knee joint of rabbits; Effekte einer niedrig dosierten Co-60-Bestrahlung auf den Verlauf einer aseptischen Arthritis am Kniegelenk des Kaninchens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, U.; Koch, F.; Ludewig, E. [Univ. Leipzig (Germany). Veterinaermedizinische Fakultaet; Kamprad, F.; Melzer, R.; Hildebrandt, G. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie

    1998-12-01

    Purpose: Numerous clinical observations demonstrate the efficacy of low radiation doses in the treatment of painful osteoarthritis. Experimental investigations remain scarce. We investigated the effects of locally daily 5 times 1.0 Gy 60-Co irradiation on an artificially induced aseptic gonarthritis in rabbits. Material and methods: Three separate experiments (EV) were performed (10 rabbits per experiment, 5 treated/5 controls; duration: EV1: 18 days; EV2: 6 days; EV3: 29 days). An aseptic arthritis in the right knee joint of rabbits was induced by intraarticular injection of 0.5 ml papain solution (3%, 30,000 USP/mg) on day 0. The arthritic knee joint of the anesthesized animals was irradiated daily from day 1 to 5 with 5 times 1.0 Gy. The controls were sham-irradiated under the same conditions. The time course of arthritis in treated animals and sham-treated controls was evaluated by clinical, laboratory-chemical and histological criteria. The clinical investigation was performed daily, the puncture of the knee-joints was carried out several times in EV1, and at the end of experiments in EV2 and EV3. At the end of the observation period, animals were killed and the knee joints excised for histological analysis. Results: The intraarticular injection of papain caused a peracute inflammatory response in all animals. After 1 week the chronical stage was reached, and the experimental arthritis resolved slowly within several weeks. Local irradiation accelerated the decrease of inflammatory joint swelling, being significant by day 4. On day 6 the volume of synovial fluid in irradiated knee-joints was significantly smaller. The morphometric data indicated a reduction in thickness of synovial membrane, a decrease in number of synovial cell layers, and a decrease in distance between capillaries and the synovial membrane surface following irradiation of arthritic joints. Due to considerable individual variability, the morphometric data partially did not reach statistically

  9. Colagenopatía y meningitis aséptica recurrente en una paciente de 88 años Colagenopathy and recurrent aseptic meningitis in an 88 year old patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando J. VAzquez

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available La meningitis aséptica recurrente (MAR en ancianos es rara y generalmente es secundaria a drogas. Su asociación a colagenopatías en ancianos ha sido raramente informada. El Síndrome de Sjögren (SS en ocasiones afecta el sistema nervioso central, pero la MAR asociada a SS es rara en este grupo etario. Se presenta una paciente de 88 años, autoválida, con antecedentes de xerostomía, xeroftalmos, Raynaud, disfagia y agrandamiento parotídeo recurrente autolimitado. En el año 2001 cursó una meningitis linfocítica y evolucionó con recuperación completa. Un año después volvió a presentar una meningitis linfocítica aséptica. Se descartaron causas infecciosas. Se demostró FAN 1/160 con patrón nucleolar moteado, Ac anti Ro y anti RNP positivos y anticoagulante lúpico positivo. Se confirmó sequedad ocular y la biopsia de labio fue compatible con SS. Evolucionó con resolución completa en 10 días sin tratamiento. Se interpretó como una enfermedad mixta del tejido conectivo (EMTC con síntomas predominantemente de SS, que cursó una MAR en su forma pura. La EMTC y el SS deberían ser considerados entre los diagnósticos diferenciales de la MAR, inclusive en ancianos.Recurrent aseptic meningitis (RAM infrequent in elderly patients and generally secondary to drugs. Its association with rheumatologic diseases is also seldom reported in the elderly. Sjögren Syndrome (SS sometimes affects the central nevous system, but the association between recurrent meningitis and SS is rare, specially in this age-group. We present an 88 year-old autovalid patient, with a history of xerostomia, xerophthalmia, Raynaud, dysphagia, and recurrent parotid enlargement. In 2001 she developed a lymphocytic meningitis with a complete remission. A year later, she developed again an aseptic lymphocytic meningitis. We ruled out infeccious causes. We found a FAN titer 1/160 with a nucleolar-mottled pattern, positive anti Ro and anti RNP antibodies and a positive

  10. Study on effect factors for multiplication and growth of aseptic buds of Vietnam Mesona blumes%越南凉粉草无菌芽增殖生长的影响因子

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦鹏霄; 谭木秀; 岑秀芬; 覃柳兰; 刘洁云; 周芳芳

    2013-01-01

    [Objective]The effect factors on multiplication and growth of the aseptic buds were studied in order to provide technical references for rapid propagation system in vitro of Vietnam Mesona blumes.[Method]The experiments were carried out from two aspects of media directions (different basic media,sucrose concentration and cytokinins) and explant materials (different inoculation positions).[Result]Comparison of the basic media of MS,Miller and modified White displayed that MS medium showed the best effect on bud multiplication and growth of the aseptic buds,in which bud proliferation multiple was 8.53 times.While sucrose concentration was 20.0 g/L,bud proliferation multiple peaked at 8.34 times.When sucrose concentration reached 25.0 g/L,bud proliferation multiple showed 7.05 times and bud growth was the best.The bud multiplication effect of CPPU was better than that of 6-BA and KT,in which bud proliferation multiple reached 9.80 times.Comparing the inoculated materials from stem upper position,the middle part of the stem and the stem base position,the bud multiplication effect of stem upper position was the best,in which the bud proliferation multiple was 9.35 times and the bud growth exhibited the best status.[Conclusion]It was suitable to the bud multiplication and growth of Vietnam Mesona blumes that the basic medium was MS medium,20.0-25.0 g/L sucrose concentration and 0.5 mg/L CPPU.The proper inoculated material was the stem upper position.%[目的]探讨越南凉粉草无菌芽增殖生长的影响因子,为越南凉粉草离体快繁体系的建立提供技术参考.[方法]从培养基配方(不同基本培养基、不同蔗糖浓度及不同细胞分裂素CPPU)和外植体材料(不同接种部位)两方面研究其对越南凉粉草无菌芽增殖的影响.[结果]在MS、Miller与改良White 3种基本培养基中,以MS对凉粉草芽增殖效果最好,芽增殖倍数达8.53倍;当蔗糖浓度为20.0 g/L时芽增殖倍数最高,为8.34

  11. Storage stability of cashew apple juice preserved by hot fill and aseptic processes Estabilidade do suco de caju preservado pelo método ''hot fill'' e processo asséptico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecília Oliveira Costa

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L. apples from Pacajus, Ceará State, Brazil, were processed into high pulp content juice. The juice was packed either by hot fill or an aseptic process and evaluated for physical, physical-chemical, and sensorial changes during a 12-month storage period at room temperature. The results indicated that pH, soluble solids, total acidity, total sugar content and color did not change significantly during storage nor were affected by the type of filling. The sensorial analysis showed that juice acceptance remained high throughout the storage period regardless of the filling system. Differences in juice viscosity persisted between both processes.Pedúnculos de caju (Anacardium occidentale L. de Pacajus, Estado do Ceará, Brasil, foram processados na forma de suco com alto teor de polpa. O suco foi acondicionado através do processo hot fill ou asséptico e verificada as alterações físicas, físico-químicas e sensoriais durante armazenagem por doze meses à temperatura ambiente. Os resultados indicaram que pH, sólidos solúveis, acidez total, conteúdo de açúcar e cor não mudaram de modo significativo durante a armazenagem nem foram afetadas pelo modo de acondicionamento. Análise sensorial mostrou que a aceitação do suco foi mantida alta durante o período de armazenagem a despeito do sistema de enchimento. Diferenças na viscosidade dos sucos persistiram entre ambos processos.

  12. Effect of different cork puncture methods on aseptic storage period of normal saline%不同方法穿刺瓶塞生理盐水无菌存放时间研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程翠年; 张卉; 吴胜林; 王懿睿; 王霞; 谢敏; 李绍婷; 李林; 易旭慧

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of different materials of cork, puncture methods and frequencies on the aseptic storage period of normal saline injection kept in PIVAS. Methods We grouped normal saline injection bottles according to the materials of the cork (butyl or polyisoprene ), puncture methods(stochastic puncture or repeated puncture of a single site of the cork) and puncture frequencies(three or five times). Sterility test were taken immediately after the puncture, and at 1 h, 2 h,3 h,4 h,5 h,6 h,8 h, 10h and 12 h within storage. Results The normal saline injection with polyisoprene cork stayed aseptic within 10 h after the corks were punctured 3 or 5 times randomly. The injection stayed sterile within 6 h after 3 times of, or within 5 h after 5 times of puncture through a single site of the cork. The normal saline injection with butyl cork stayed aseptic within 8 h after 3 times of, or within 6 h after 5 times of stochastic puncture. The injection with butyl cork stayed sterile within 5 h after 3 times of, or within 4 h after 5 times of puncture through a single site of the cork. Conclusion Normal saline injection with two different materials of the cork is able to stay sterile within 4 h regardless of the puncture methods or frequencies. The storage period of normal saline injection whose corks are repeatedly punctured at a single site is shortened with increasing puncture frequency. Normal saline injection with butyl cork shows shorter storage period compared with those with polyisoprene cork. The results indicate that we should strictly obeythe misalign rules during intravenous drug preparation. Meanwhile, the procedure calls for advisable arrangement of drug preparation time according to the drug properties and usage requirements.%目的 研究静脉药物配置中心环境下瓶塞材质、穿刺方法及穿刺次数对生理盐水无菌存放时间的影响.方法 将静脉输液用生理盐水按胶塞的材质(丁基胶塞和聚异戊二烯胶塞)

  13. The role of childhood neglect and childhood poverty in predicting mental health, academic achievement and crime in adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikulina, Valentina; Widom, Cathy Spatz; Czaja, Sally

    2011-12-01

    This study examines the roles of childhood neglect and childhood poverty (family and neighborhood) in predicting Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), academic achievement, and crime in young adulthood. Using existing data from a prospective cohort design study, 1,005 children with documented histories of neglect (N = 507) and matched controls (N = 497) were interviewed in young adulthood (mean age 29). Official criminal histories were also used to assess outcomes. Data were analyzed using logistic and ordinary least squares regressions and hierarchical linear modeling (HLM) to control for neighborhood clustering. Results from HLM revealed that childhood neglect and childhood family poverty uniquely predicted PTSD and adult arrest, MDD was predicted only by childhood family poverty, and a significant interaction between childhood family poverty and childhood neighborhood poverty predicted academic achievement for the control group only. Childhood neglect, childhood family poverty, and childhood neighborhood poverty each contribute to poor outcomes later in life. While interventions should be developed for neglected children to prevent negative outcomes, the current findings suggest that it is also important to consider the ecological context in which these children are growing up.

  14. Frequency of cow's milk allergy in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Arne

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of this review is to discuss the clinical features, diagnosis, natural history, and prognosis of cow's milk allergy in early childhood and its relationship to development of inhalant allergies. DATA SOURCES: A review of 229 PubMed (National Library of Medicine......) articles on cow's milk allergy (CMPA) for the years 1967 through 2001 was performed. In addition, references from other review articles have been included. This review represents a synthesis of these sources and the expert opinion of the author. STUDY SELECTION: The expert opinion of the author was used...... in up to 50% and allergy against inhalants in 50 to 80% before puberty. CONCLUSIONS: CMPA is the most common food allergy in early childhood with an incidence of 2 to 3% in the first year of life. The overall prognosis of CMPA in infancy is good with a remission rate of approximately 85 to 90...

  15. Childhood tuberculosis: epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Kuo-Sheng; Chang, Hsiao-Ling; Chien, Shun-Tien; Chen, Kwo-Liang; Chen, Kou-Huang; Mai, Ming-Hsin; Chen, Kow-Tong

    2013-10-01

    Despite the existence of a government-run tuberculosis (TB) control program, the current nationwide burden of TB continues to be a public health problem in Taiwan. Intense current and previous efforts into diagnostic, therapeutic, and preventive interventions have focused on TB in adults, but childhood TB has been relatively neglected. Children are particularly vulnerable to severe disease and death following infection, and children with latent infections become reservoirs for future transmission following disease reactivation in adulthood, thus fueling future epidemics. Additional research, understanding, and prevention of childhood TB are urgently needed. This review assesses the epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and relevant principles of TB vaccine development and presents efficacy data for the currently licensed vaccines.

  16. Childhood maltreatment and threats with weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casiano, Hygiea; Mota, Natalie; Afifi, Tracie O; Enns, Murray W; Sareen, Jitender

    2009-11-01

    The relationship between childhood maltreatment and future threats with weapons is unknown. We examined data from the nationally representative National Comorbidity Survey Replication (n = 5692) and conducted multiple logistic regression analyses to determine the association between childhood maltreatment and lifetime behavior of threatening others with a gun or other weapon. After adjusting for sociodemographic variables, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and witnessing domestic violence were significantly associated with threats made with a gun (adjusted odds ratios [AOR] ranging between 3.38 and 4.07) and other weapons (AOR ranging between 2.16 and 2.83). The greater the number of types of maltreatment experienced, the stronger the association with lifetime threats made to others with guns and any weapons. Over 94% of respondents who experienced maltreatment and made threats reported that the maltreatment occurred prior to threatening others with weapons. Prevention efforts that reduce exposure to maltreatment may reduce violent behavior in later life.

  17. EARLY CHILDHOOD CARE & EDUCATION: AN ICT PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Kumar Mishra

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the 21st century, technology serves to reinforce the educational bedrock of any country. Technology has revolutionized the teaching learning process by integrating different source of knowledge - clearly visible from primary to post-tertiary level. This paper examines the introduction of ICT in early childhood years centred on the relationship of ICT with the cognitive, emotional and social development of children. The paper discusses various aspects of the ongoing debate around ICT usage in the early years and tries to answer some of the relevant issues namely, the rationale for early introduction of ICT, the perceived risks and benefits involved in its usage, the role of the parents, and fostering appropriate application of ICT in the early childhood classrooms.

  18. [Hypertensive crisis in infancy and childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirbelauer, J; Strotmann, J; Kirchhoff, A; Darge, K; Thomas, W

    2008-01-01

    The extended physical examination of a patient includes measurement of blood pressure. In infancy and childhood the blood pressure measurement may be difficult due to an uncooperative and restless patient. In a 16-month-old girl apparently unmeasurable blood pressure was a hypertensive crisis with systolic blood pressure of more than 200 mmHg. The cause of the hypertension was found to be a nephroblastoma. In the case of rapidly progressive arterial hypertension in another 16-month-old girl with left ventricular dilatation and reduced function was a consequence of kidney dysplasia. Headache attacks lead to diagnosis of a subtotal coarctation of the aortic isthmus in a 17-year-old boy. Hypertensive crisis in infancy, childhood and adolescence is discussed based on these case reports. Special features of blood pressure measurement in the pediatric age group, pathogenesis of hypertensive crisis and the potential therapies are discussed incorporating a brief review of the literature.

  19. Obesity in childhood and adolescence, genetic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memedi, Rexhep; Tasic, Velibor; Nikolic, Erieta; Jancevska, Aleksandra; Gucev, Zoran

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and overweight are a pandemic phenomenon in the modern world. Childhood and adolescent obesity often ends up in obesity in adults. The costs of obesity and its consequences are staggering for any society, crippling for countries in development. The etiology is complex, but most often idiopathic. Hormonal, syndromic and medication-induced obesity are well investigated. Genetic causes are increasingly described. Novel technologies such as whole exome sequencing identify ever more candidate genes influencing or causing obesity. All insights into the complex problem of obesity in a team approach to treatment: diet, psychology, medications and surgery. We briefly review epidemiology, etiology, consequences and treatment approaches in childhood and adolescent obesity, with special emphasis on emerging knowledge of its genetics.

  20. The microbiome and probiotics in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Michael Harrison

    2014-01-01

    Infants, from the moment of birth, are colonized by large numbers of microbes. This colonization continues throughout childhood and from preliminary studies seems to be a highly dynamic process, even during the usual physiologic state we refer to as health. In this context, the persistence of bacterial and fungal species in and on the human body likely confers various benefits to the host. One specific approach to modulate such beneficial effects is the administration of probiotics, also known as beneficial microbes. Herein, we outline the highest level evidence in regard to the evolution of the microbiome during childhood and its manipulation by probiotics for genitourinary, enteric, and allergic and atopic disorders. Thus, probiotic approaches are promising alternatives and adjuvants to traditional vaccines and antibiotics. This may usher in a new age in which vaccine and antibiotic side effects and antibiotic resistance are minimal issues in the setting of maintaining children's health and prevention of disease.