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Sample records for childhood enteroviral aseptic

  1. Mesenteric Lymphadenopathy in Childhood Epidemic Aseptic Meningitis: Sonographic Features and Clinical Significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mun, Sung Hee; Park, Young Chan; Lee, Young Hwan

    2006-01-01

    To evaluate the sonographic features of mesenteric lymphadenopathy in childhood epidemic aseptic meningitis and to assess their clinical significance. Thirty-three patients (25 male, 8 female: mean age, 8.6 years) with a diagnosis of aseptic meningitis were prospectively evaluated with abdominal ultrasonography for the presence of enlarged mesenteric nodes. The size and number of enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes were analyzed in relationship with the patient's age, between the patients with abdominal pain or diarrhea (16 cases, 48%) and asymptomatic patients (17 cases, 52%). Mesenteric lymphadenopathy was seen in 31 patients (94%), all 16 symptomatic and 15 of the 17 asymptomatic patients. The number of enlarged nodes was most prevalent between 6-10, seen in 16 patients (52%) and the largest node ranged in size from 4 to 8 mm. Among the 31 patients with mesenteric lymphadenopathy, the mean size of the largest node was statistically different between the symptomatic (6.0 mm) and asymptomatic (5.0 mm) groups (p = 0.021). The number of enlarged nodes and the patient's age were not statistically different between the two groups. Mesenteric lymphadenopathy was seen in almost all cases of childhood epidemic aseptic meningitis, and may be related to the mesenteric lymphadenitis caused by enterovirus

  2. Mesenteric Lymphadenopathy in Childhood Epidemic Aseptic Meningitis: Sonographic Features and Clinical Significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mun, Sung Hee; Park, Young Chan; Lee, Young Hwan [Catholic University of Daegu, College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-09-15

    To evaluate the sonographic features of mesenteric lymphadenopathy in childhood epidemic aseptic meningitis and to assess their clinical significance. Thirty-three patients (25 male, 8 female: mean age, 8.6 years) with a diagnosis of aseptic meningitis were prospectively evaluated with abdominal ultrasonography for the presence of enlarged mesenteric nodes. The size and number of enlarged mesenteric lymph nodes were analyzed in relationship with the patient's age, between the patients with abdominal pain or diarrhea (16 cases, 48%) and asymptomatic patients (17 cases, 52%). Mesenteric lymphadenopathy was seen in 31 patients (94%), all 16 symptomatic and 15 of the 17 asymptomatic patients. The number of enlarged nodes was most prevalent between 6-10, seen in 16 patients (52%) and the largest node ranged in size from 4 to 8 mm. Among the 31 patients with mesenteric lymphadenopathy, the mean size of the largest node was statistically different between the symptomatic (6.0 mm) and asymptomatic (5.0 mm) groups (p = 0.021). The number of enlarged nodes and the patient's age were not statistically different between the two groups. Mesenteric lymphadenopathy was seen in almost all cases of childhood epidemic aseptic meningitis, and may be related to the mesenteric lymphadenitis caused by enterovirus

  3. An outbreak of aseptic meningitis in Podlaskie Voivodeship in 2014

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    Magda Orzechowska

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Enteroviruses cause common infections with various clinical course and forms, such as hand-foot-and-mouth disease (Boston exanthem disease, herpangina, myocarditis and pericarditis, widespread myositis (epidemic pleurodynia, Bornholm disease, or aseptic inflammation of the nervous system, among children and adolescents. An increase in aseptic meningitis cases of enteroviral aetiology, including the E30 virus, was occasionally observed in various European countries. In 2014, an outbreak of aseptic meningitis was reported in Podlaskie Voivodeship. A total of 640 cases were reported between June 1 and November 30, 2014, of which 228 had confirmed enteroviral aetiology. Summer and autumn seasons favour the incidence of viral infections of the central nervous system. Symptomatic infections are more common in males than females. Infections with enterovirus show the tendency to form endemic regions.

  4. Idiopathic Facial Aseptic Granuloma in a 13-Year-Old Boy Dramatically Improved with Oral Doxycycline and Topical Metronidazole: Evidence for a Link with Childhood Rosacea

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    Camille Orion

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic facial aseptic granuloma (IFAG is a rare, benign pediatric dermatological lesion that occurs in children between 8 months and 13 years of age. The pathogenesis of IFAG is still unclear but it is likely to be associated with granulomatous rosacea in childhood. Here we describe a case of IFAG in a 13-year-old boy who showed a dramatic response to oral doxycycline and topical metronidazole, which supports the hypothesis that IFAG may belong to the spectrum of rosacea.

  5. Immunoglobulin therapy for enteroviral meningitides in children

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    O. G. Kimirilova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors give the material of their own observations on the clinical and laboratory efficacy of the Russian intravenous immunoglobulin Gabriglobin for the treatment of enteroviral meningitides in children.The performed trials indicated that the use of Gabriglobin in the combination therapy of severe enteroviral meningitides in children reduced the duration of intoxication, global cerebral symptoms, meningeal syndrome, the time of cerebrospinal fluid sanitation by 1,5 times, and that of in-hospital treatment by 5,8±1,8 days as compared to those who received conventional basic therapy.

  6. Paediatric Investigators Collaborative Network on Infections in Canada (PICNIC study of aseptic meningitis

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    Robinson Joan L

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The seasonality, clinical and radiographic features and outcome of aseptic meningitis have been described for regional outbreaks but data from a wider geographic area is necessary to delineate the epidemiology of this condition. Methods A retrospective chart review was completed of children presenting with aseptic meningitis to eight Canadian pediatric hospitals over a two-year period. Results There were 233 cases of proven enteroviral (EV meningitis, 495 cases of clinical aseptic meningitis and 74 cases of possible aseptic meningitis with most cases occurring July to October. Headache, vomiting, meningismus and photophobia were more common in children ≥ 5 years of age, while rash, diarrhea and cough were more common in children Conclusion The clinical presentation of aseptic meningitis varies with the age of the child. Absence of CSF pleocytosis is common in infants

  7. MODERN CLINICAL AND LABORATORY FEATURES OF ENTEROVIRAL MENINGITIS

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    O. V. Usacheva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Among numerous viral meningitises from 80% to 90% of cases are accounted for meningitis of enteroviral etiology according to the international data. Despite the favorable disease course, there are forms which are characterized by severe damage of CNS. In order to improve diagnostics of enteroviral meningitis in this article we have made a comparative analysis of clinical and laboratory parameters in 23 patients with enteroviral meningitis and 18 patients with serous meningitis of non-enteroviral etiology. Anamnesis data and the major clinical manifestations of the disease dynamics were analyzed. Particular attention is paid to the comparison of diagnoses, by which patients were sent to infectious hospital, the symptoms that occurred during patients’ admission into hospitals and their severity. The presence and severity of meningeal symptoms and the indices of cerebrospinal fluid in the patients of the comparison group were analyzed in detail. It is shown that enteroviruses are the important factor in the development of meningitis in the children of younger age. The clinical picture of enteroviral meningitis often develops gradually for 2-3 days and includes the typical syndromes: intoxication and meningeal ones. Every third patient with enterovirus infection has diarrhea and catarrhal symptoms, that’s why it is difficult to diagnose meningitis in its early stages, but it allows to assume enteroviral etiology of the disease. The meningitis of enteroviral etiology is characterized by multiple meningeal signs, while the non-enteroviral meningitis is characterized by dissociation with the prevalence of the of Kernig’s and Brudzinski’s symptoms. The analysis of the laboratory data showed that the enteroviral meningitis is characterized by low (over 50-100 cells "mixed" pleocytosis (the ratio of lymphocytes and neutrophils is about 1:1. These data can be used for differential diagnosis between enteroviral meningitis and serous meningitis of

  8. Risk of Nephrotic Syndrome following Enteroviral Infection in Children: A Nationwide Retrospective Cohort Study.

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    Lin, Jiun-Nong; Lin, Cheng-Li; Yang, Chi-Hui; Lin, Ming-Chia; Lai, Chung-Hsu; Lin, Hsi-Hsun; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    Nephrotic syndrome is a common chronic illness encountered during childhood. Infections have been identified as a cause of nephrotic syndrome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between enteroviral infection and nephrotic syndrome. A nationwide retrospective cohort study was conducted by analyzing data from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. Children aged children were randomly selected as the comparison cohort. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of nephrotic syndrome. This study included 280,087 enterovirus-infected children and 280,085 non-enterovirus-infected children. The mean age of the enterovirus-infected children was 2.38 years, and 53.7% of these children were boys. The overall incidence densities of nephrotic syndrome for enterovirus- and non-enterovirus-infected children were 2.65 and 2.21 per 10,000 person-years, respectively. The enterovirus-infected cohort had a higher cumulative incidence of nephrotic syndrome than did the non-enterovirus-infected cohort (log-rank test, p = 0.01). Multivariable analyses revealed that children with enteroviral infection were significantly associated with an increased risk of nephrotic syndrome compared with those without enteroviral infection (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.20; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.39; p = 0.01), particularly in children infected with coxsackievirus. Subgroup analyses revealed that enterovirus-infected girls, children of blue-collar workers, and children without allergies had a higher risk of nephrotic syndrome than did children in the non-enterovirus-infected cohort. This study revealed a significant association between enteroviral infection and nephrotic syndrome. Additional studies elucidating the role and pathogenesis of enterovirus in nephrotic syndrome are warranted.

  9. Cetuximab induced aseptic meningitis

    OpenAIRE

    Ulrich, A; Weiler, S; Weller, M; Rordorf, T; Tarnutzer, A A

    2015-01-01

    We report a 67-year-old man with recurrent advanced oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma who developed aseptic meningitis, with first symptoms arising approximately 9hours after the first administration of cetuximab, and review the literature to identify key signs and symptoms of this condition. Cetuximab is a monoclonal antibody targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor which has been rarely associated with aseptic meningitis. Besides the case description, a MEDLINE search was performe...

  10. Drug induced aseptic meningitis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. EZECHUKWU

    2013-09-29

    Sep 29, 2013 ... Abstract. Drug-induced aseptic meningitis (DIAM) is a rare but important and often challenging diagnosis for the physician. Intake of antimicrobials, steroids, anal- gesics amongst others has been implicated. Signs and symptoms generally develop within 24-48 hours of drug ingestion. The pa- tient often ...

  11. Comparison of the genexpert enterovirus assay (GXEA) with real-time one step RT-PCR for the detection of enteroviral RNA in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with meningitis.

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    Hong, JiYoung; Kim, Ahyoun; Hwang, Seoyeon; Cheon, Doo-Sung; Kim, Jong-Hyen; Lee, June-Woo; Park, Jae-Hak; Kang, Byunghak

    2015-02-13

    Enteroviruses (EVs) are the leading cause of aseptic meningitis worldwide. Detection of enteroviral RNA in clinical specimens has been demonstrated to improve the management of patient care, especially that of neonates and young children. To establish a sensitive and reliable assay for routine laboratory diagnosis, we compared the sensitivity and specificity of the GeneXpert Enterovirus Assay (GXEA) with that of the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) based assay referred to as real-time one step RT-PCR (RTo-PCR). The sensitivity/specificity produced by GXEA and RTo-PCR were 100%/100% and 65%/100%, respectively. Both methods evaluated in this article can be used for detection of enterovirus in clinical specimens and these nucleic acid amplification methods are useful assays for the diagnosis of enteroviral infection.

  12. Comparative proteomics of cerebrospinal fluid reveals a predictive model for differential diagnosis of pneumococcal, meningococcal, and enteroviral meningitis, and novel putative therapeutic targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Background Meningitis is the inflammation of the meninges in response to infection or chemical agents. While aseptic meningitis, most frequently caused by enteroviruses, is usually benign with a self-limiting course, bacterial meningitis remains associated with high morbidity and mortality rates, despite advances in antimicrobial therapy and intensive care. Fast and accurate differential diagnosis is crucial for assertive choice of the appropriate therapeutic approach for each form of meningitis. Methods We used 2D-PAGE and mass spectrometry to identify the cerebrospinal fluid proteome specifically related to the host response to pneumococcal, meningococcal, and enteroviral meningitis. The disease-specific proteome signatures were inspected by pathway analysis. Results Unique cerebrospinal fluid proteome signatures were found to the three aetiological forms of meningitis investigated, and a qualitative predictive model with four protein markers was developed for the differential diagnosis of these diseases. Nevertheless, pathway analysis of the disease-specific proteomes unveiled that Kallikrein-kinin system may play a crucial role in the pathophysiological mechanisms leading to brain damage in bacterial meningitis. Proteins taking part in this cellular process are proposed as putative targets to novel adjunctive therapies. Conclusions Comparative proteomics of cerebrospinal fluid disclosed candidate biomarkers, which were combined in a qualitative and sequential predictive model with potential to improve the differential diagnosis of pneumococcal, meningococcal and enteroviral meningitis. Moreover, we present the first evidence of the possible implication of Kallikrein-kinin system in the pathophysiology of bacterial meningitis. PMID:26040285

  13. Enteroviral Meningitis: Peculiarities of the Course and Diagnosis at the Present Stage

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    L.R. Shostakovych-Koretskaya

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. Enteroviral infection is characterized by a variety of clinical forms: non-specific enterovirus fever, herpangina, hand-foot-and-mouth disease, pleurodynia, meningitis, gastroenteritis, nonspecific enteroviral rash. Enteroviral meningitis is the most urgent clinical form of enteroviral infection, usually with a favorable course and mild to moderate severity. Materials and methods. A retrospective analysis of case histories of 44 children diagnosed with confirmed enteroviral meningitis was performed in this work. Diagnosis of enteroviral meningitis was verified by detection of viral RNA in cerebro-spinal fluid in all patients with polymerase chain reaction method. Age of patients ranged from 3 to 17 years, males and females distribution was close to equal. In addition to routine examinations, in some patients electrocardiography (ECG was conducted. Results. One-third of patients (n = 10; 30.3 % showed some changes on ECG, characteristic of myocarditis, in the absence of clinical manifestations of heart disease. This fact points to the need for more careful attention to the diagnosis of mild clinically forms of myocarditis in patients with enteroviral infection that allows recommend the inclusion into the mandatory algorithm of examination of the cardiac pathology with the following activities: conducting ECG studies and research of biochemical cardiac markers (creatine phosphokinase-MB, troponin I, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine transaminase, lactic dehydrogenasefraction. In our study, ECG was performed in 13 patients (39.4 %. Of these, 10 patients (30.3 % had evidence of heart disease on the ECG with absence of any clinical manifestation suggestive of heart involvement. Conclusions. Epidemiology of enteroviral meningitis preserves its typical features of summer-autumn seasonal pattern, dominant position in the etiological structure of meningitis and most common involvement of pre-pubertate age children (7 to 12 years. In all

  14. Aseptic techniques(practical guide no.3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nappa, Andres; Souto Pais, Beatriz

    1994-01-01

    Definition of aseptic techniques in relation with the labor of Radiopharmacy.Control of environment and working areas.Control of materials entered into an aseptic area: water, nitrogen,vials,stoppers,needles and syringes. Personnel and manipulations control,choosing of materials,precautions in the aseptic manipulation and sterility preservation during usage life. Bacteriological membrane filtration in sterilized conditions. Work in a laminar flow unit. Protocol of Practical task 3. Bibliography

  15. Amoxicillin-induced aseptic meningoencephalitis

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    Radi Shahien

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Radi Shahien1, Vetaly Vieksler1, Abdalla Bowirrat11Department of Neurology and Neurophysiology, Ziv Medical Center, Safed, IsraelAbstract: Meningitis is usually produced by an infectious agent, but there are multiple noninfectious causes. Drug-induced aseptic meningitis (DIAM is an important entity and has been reported as an uncommon adverse reaction with numerous agents. Thus, DIAM constitutes a diagnostic and patient management challenge. We present a patient with three episodes of aseptic meningitis due to amoxicillin, and then review the literature on this rare idiosyncratic event which may occur after local or systemic drug administration. A 77-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with fever, headache, and neck stiffness. Seven days before admission he had a dental and gingival inflammation. He was treated with two oral doses of 500 mg daily of amoxicillin for one week. The seventh day he awoke with the complaints that prompted hospital admittance. Amoxicillin was stopped 1 day before his admission. From his history we knew of two similar episodes: The first episode was after a dental procedure 3 months before this incident. He had received a 1-week course of postprocedure amoxicillin of 500 mg daily and had similar headache, fever, and chills during the entire course of treatment. He wasn’t admitted to the hospital, because he stopped taking amoxicillin and he felt spontaneous pain relief after taking symptomatic pain treatment. The second episodes was 6 months after his first admission, he had been admitted to our hospital with the same symptoms. Amoxicillin was stopped and changed with intravenous (IV ceftriaxone (CTRX for 10 days due to suspected partial untreated meningitis. The patient improved rapidly within 2 days and was discharged from the hospital. On the basis of these three confirmed episodes of meningitis after recurrent exposure to amoxicillin, with repetitive negative testing for viral, bacterial, and mycobacterial

  16. The changing epidemiology of pediatric aseptic meningitis in Daejeon, Korea from 1987 to 2003

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    Lee Mi-Hee

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aseptic meningitis is a relatively frequent childhood disease and virologic data suggest that enteroviruses are the commonest etiologic agents. We evaluated the epidemiologic characteristics of aseptic meningitis in Daejeon, South Korea from 1987 to 2003. Methods 2201 medical records of children with aseptic meningitis admitted to The Catholic University of Korea, Daejeon St Mary's Hospital were retrospectively analyzed. Results Outbreaks of aseptic meningitis were observed in 1990, 1993, 1996, 1997, 2001 and 2002. The age distribution of cases was relatively uniform, with a higher incidence in those aged P = 0.001. Neurologic sequelae were observed in 0.7% of the patients. Conclusion Aseptic meningitis, rare before the 1980s in Korea, has since become a common clinical entity. Since 1990, outbreaks of aseptic meningitis have occurred every 1 to 3 years in Daejeon in keeping with Korea-wide epidemics. The frequency of disease affecting children less than one year of age may reflect herd immunity to the epidemic strain.

  17. THE SEASONAL INCREASE OF ENTEROVIRAL INFECTION INCIDENCE IN THE NOVGOROD OBLAST

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    M. A. Bichurina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The analysis of epidemic process and definition of the etiology of the seasonal increase of serosal meningitis incidence in the Novgorod oblast in September-November, 2008 has been carried out. It was shown that in the specified period 73 persons had enteroviral meningitis. The proportion of children under 17 years old in the group of patients was 89.9%. The etiological agents of disease (enteroviruses ECHO 6 и ECHO 30 were detected by the virological and molecular-biological methods. It was established that two genetic variants of ECHO 6 and one variant of ECHO 30 co-circulated in the Novgorod oblast. The last virus variant was closely related to the strain isolated from enteroviral meningitis patients in Nizhniy Novgorod in 2007. The obtained data support the idea about necessity of systematic epidemiological and virological surveillance on enteroviral infection to get new information about circulation of non-poliomyelitis enteroviruses in the population and to define peculiarities of epidemic process development.

  18. Aseptic Plant Culture System (APCS), Phase II

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    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aseptic plant culture plays a significant role in biotechnology and plant physiology research, and in vegetative propagation of many plant species. The development...

  19. Aseptic Plant Culture System (APCS), Phase I

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    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Aseptic plant culture plays a significant role in biotechnology and plant physiology research and in vegetative propagation of many plant species. The development of...

  20. CT scan of bacterial and aseptic meningitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takemoto, Kazumasa; Saiwai, Shigeo; Tamaoka, Koichi

    1983-01-01

    CT scans of the patients with aseptic and bacterial meningitis were reviewed and compared to previous reports. In aseptic meningitis, no abnormal CT findings were observed. In bacterial meningitis, CT findings were ventricular dilatation, subdural fluid collection, parenchymal low density, intracerebral hematoma and meningeal enhancement after contrast injection. Three patients among 48 suffered from status epileptics during the course of the illness. All of 3 patients developed parenchymal inhomogeneous low density and progressive ventricular dilatation which did not improve after ventricular peritoneal shunt surgery. We believe that these changes are most likely due to hypoxic hypoxemia during epileptic seizure and meningitis itself seems to play a little role. (author)

  1. Aseptic necrosis of femoral head complicating thalassemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orzincolo, C.; Castaldi, G.; Scutellary, P.N.; Bariani, L.; Pinca, A.

    1986-01-01

    Aseptic necrosis of the femoral head is described in 4 patients, selected from 280 patients with homozygous β-thalassemia (Cooley anemia). The incidence of the complication appears to be very high (14.5per mille) in thalassemia, compared to the general population. The possible mechanism are discussed. (orig.)

  2. An optimized method for elution of enteroviral RNA from a cellulose-based substrate.

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    Li, Yan; Yoshida, Hiromu; Wang, Lu; Tao, Zexin; Wang, Haiyan; Lin, Xiaojuan; Xu, Aiqiang

    2012-12-01

    The Flinders Technology Australia (FTA) Elute Card is a commercial product that facilitates the collection, transport, archiving and processing of nucleic acids from a wide variety of biological samples at room temperature. While the cards have been designed so that sterile/deionized water can elute DNA easily, they are not suitable for some less stable RNAs. This study was undertaken to determine the optimal conditions such as the buffer type, buffer pH and incubation temperature for the elution of enteroviral RNA from FTA Elute Cards prior to quantitative analysis using real-time PCR (qPCR) or consensus degenerate hybrid oligonucleotide primer VP1 RT-semi nested PCR (CODEHOP VP1 RT-snPCR). TE-1 (pH 8.0), rather than sterile water, was the best buffer for high efficiency elution of enteroviral RNA at 95°C. However, as the estimated recovery rate of viral RNA eluted from the cards averaged to be only 6.1%, enterovirus assays using FTA elution should be considered qualitative, especially at low virus titers, and therefore the results of the assay should be interpreted carefully. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Mumps vaccine virus strains and aseptic meningitis.

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    Bonnet, Marie-Claude; Dutta, Anil; Weinberger, Clement; Plotkin, Stanley A

    2006-11-30

    Mumps immunization can easily be included in national schedules, particularly if combined with measles or measles and rubella vaccines, but debate continues concerning the relative safety of various licensed mumps vaccine strains. The opportunities for control of mumps are also being affected by differences in the cost of the vaccines prepared with different strains of mumps virus. The present report evaluates available data on the association of the Urabe and other strains of mumps vaccine with the occurrence of aseptic meningitis. We also review the comparative immunogenicity and efficacies of the most widely used mumps vaccines in controlled clinical trials and field evaluations, and briefly examine relative cost as it relates to the implementation of national immunization programs. We conclude that extensive experience with the most widely used mumps vaccine strains in many countries has shown that the risk-benefit ratio of live mumps vaccines is highly favourable for vaccination, despite the occasional occurence of aseptic meningitis.

  4. Failure of aseptic revision total knee arthroplasties.

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    Leta, Tesfaye H; Lygre, Stein Håkon L; Skredderstuen, Arne; Hallan, Geir; Furnes, Ove

    2015-02-01

    In Norway, the proportion of revision knee arthroplasties increased from 6.9% in 1994 to 8.5% in 2011. However, there is limited information on the epidemiology and causes of subsequent failure of revision knee arthroplasty. We therefore studied survival rate and determined the modes of failure of aseptic revision total knee arthroplasties. This study was based on 1,016 aseptic revision total knee arthroplasties reported to the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register between 1994 and 2011. Revisions done for infections were not included. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were used to assess the survival rate and the relative risk of re-revision with all causes of re-revision as endpoint. 145 knees failed after revision total knee arthroplasty. Deep infection was the most frequent cause of re-revision (28%), followed by instability (26%), loose tibial component (17%), and pain (10%). The cumulative survival rate for revision total knee arthroplasties was 85% at 5 years, 78% at 10 years, and 71% at 15 years. Revision total knee arthroplasties with exchange of the femoral or tibial component exclusively had a higher risk of re-revision (RR = 1.7) than those with exchange of the whole prosthesis. The risk of re-revision was higher for men (RR = 2.0) and for patients aged less than 60 years (RR = 1.6). In terms of implant survival, revision of the whole implant was better than revision of 1 component only. Young age and male sex were risk factors for re-revision. Deep infection was the most frequent cause of failure of revision of aseptic total knee arthroplasties.

  5. Enteroviral Meningoencephalitis Complicated by Central Diabetes Insipidus in a Neonate: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

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    Jones, Garrett; Muriello, Michael; Patel, Aloka; Logan, Latania

    2015-06-01

    Enterovirus is a known cause of central nervous system infection in the neonatal population and typically has a benign course; however, neurologic complications have been reported. We describe what we believe to be the first documented case of enteroviral meningoencephalitis complicated by central diabetes insipidus in a neonate. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Acute hydrocephalus in a child with a third ventricle arachnoid cyst and coincidental enteroviral meningitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeltema, Hanne-Rinck; Kuijlen, Jos M. A.; Hoving, Eelco W.

    We present a 2.5-year-old child suffering from acute hydrocephalus. First, the child was diagnosed with aseptic viral meningitis. The PCR of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was positive for enterovirus. Subsequently, MRI revealed that the hydrocephalus was caused by a cyst in the third ventricle.

  7. Giant Leaking Colloid Cyst Presenting with Aseptic Meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakhtevari, Mehrdad Hosseinzadeh; Sharifi, Guive; Jabbari, Reza

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Colloid cysts are benign third ventricle lesions that need to be diagnosed correctly because of their association with sudden death. Chemical or aseptic meningitis is a rare presentation of a colloid cyst. METHODS: We present a case of a 69-year-old man with fever, alteration of mental...... status, and meningismus. Microbiological examination of the cerebrospinal fluid revealed aseptic meningitis. Brain imaging revealed a third ventricular colloid cyst with hydrocephalus. RESULTS: The tumor was resected via endoscopic intervention. There were no persistent operative complications related...... to the endoscopic procedure. CONCLUSIONS: Chemical or aseptic meningitis is an unusual clinical manifestation of a colloid cyst, complicating the differential diagnosis, especially in the elderly....

  8. Radiation sterilization of plastic packing materials and aseptic packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuoka, Keiko

    1986-01-01

    In the present day of 'satiation', quality, not quantity, is emphasized for foods, the consumers being oriented toward raw and healthy foodstuff. Aseptic Packaging is excellent means of conservation. While conventionally chemicals have been used for sterilization of packing materials for aseptic packaging, the sterilization by radiation is used in part recently. The following are described : history of aseptic packaging and its features, sterilization by radiation, γ-ray sterilization of large-sized containers, the development of an aseptic packaging system using electron rays, the occurrence of offensive odors from packing materials (comparison of odors from various materials, volatile substances occurring in irradiated polyethylene, influence of film grade upon the formation of carboxylic acid, influence of the irradiation conditions upon the occurrences of volatile substances, volatile substances occurring in the irradiation of bag-in-box packing materials), changes in properties of the packing materials. (Mori, K.)

  9. Epidemiology and clinical findings associated with enteroviral acute flaccid paralysis in Pakistan

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    Angez Mehar

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Enteroviruses are among the most common viruses infecting humans worldwide and they are associated with diverse clinical syndromes. Acute flaccid paralysis (AFP is a clinical manifestation of enteroviral neuropathy, transverse myelitis, Guillian-Barre Syndrome, Traumatic neuritis and many other nervous system disorders. The objective of this study was to understand the role of Non-Polio Enteroviruses (NPEV towards this crippling disorder. Methods Stool specimens of 1775 children, aged less than 15 years, suffering from acute flaccid paralysis were collected after informed consent within 14 days of onset of symptoms during January 2003 to September 2003. The specimens were inoculated on RD and L20B cells using conventional tube cell culture while micro-neutralization test was used to identify the non-polio enterovirus (NPEV serotypes. Detailed clinical information and 60-days follow-up reports were analyzed for NPEV-associated AFP cases. Results NPEV were isolated from 474 samples. The male to female ratio was 1.4:1. The isolation of NPEV decreased significantly with the increase in age. Cases associated with fever at the onset of NPEV-associated AFP were found to be 62%. The paralysis was found asymmetrical in 67% cases, the progression of paralysis to peak within 4 days was found in 72% cases and residual paralysis after 60 days of paralysis onset was observed in 39% cases associated with NPEV. A clinical diagnosis of Guillian-Barre syndrome was made in 32% cases. On Microneutralization assay, echo-6 (13% and coxsackievirus B (13% were the most commonly isolated serotypes of NPEV along with E-7, E-13, E-11, E-4 and E-30. The isolates (n = 181 found untypable by the antiserum pools were confirmed as NPEV by PCR using Pan-Enterovirus primers. Conclusion The present study suggests that NPEV are a dominant cause of AFP and different serotypes of NPEV are randomly distributed in Pakistan. The untypable isolates need further

  10. Molecular Identification of Bacteria from Aseptically Loose Implants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Naomi; Procop, Gary W.; Krebs, Viktor; Kobayashi, Hideo

    2008-01-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays have been used to detect bacteria adherent to failed orthopaedic implants, but some PCR assays have had problems with probable false-positive results. We used a combination of a Staphylococcus species-specific PCR and a universal PCR followed by DNA sequencing to identify bacteria on implants retrieved from 52 patients (92 implants) at revision arthroplasty. We addressed two questions in this study: (1) Is this method able to show the existence of bacterial DNA on presumed aseptic loosed implants?; and (2) What proportion of presumed aseptic or culture-negative implants was positive for bacterial DNA by PCR? Fourteen implants (15%) were believed infected, whereas 74 implants (85%) were believed aseptic. Each implant was sonicated and the resulting solution was submitted for dual real-time PCR assay and culture. All implants believed aseptically loose were culture-negative, but nine of the 74 (12%) had bacterial DNA by PCR; two (2.7%) were PCR-positive and also showed histologic findings suggestive of infection. Uniquely developed PCR and bacterial sequencing assays showed bacterial DNA on 12% of implants removed for presumed aseptic loosening. Additional studies are needed to determine the clinical importance of bacterial DNA detected by PCR but not by conventional culture. Level of Evidence: Level III, diagnostic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:18438724

  11. MR features in patients with residual paralysis following aseptic meningitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suh, Dae Chul; Park, Young Seo [College of Medicine, Asan Meidcal Center, University of Ulsan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-01-15

    MR studies were performed in three patients with paralysis in the lower extremities. Poliomyelitis-like paralysis can be caused by neurovirulent strains of nonpolioenteroviruses. Entervirus 71 (EV 71) is documented as one of the potentially neurovirulent strains and a causative agent of some epidemics (1-7). The clinical manifestations associated with the EV 71 infection include aseptic meningitis, hand-food-mouth disease (HFMD), acute respiratory illness and gastrointestinal disease(6). Although rarely fatal, flaccidparalysis can be followed by EV 71 induced aseptic meningitis. Anterior horn cell necrosis was suggested on MR in two patients with residual paralysis (7). MR features, however, have not yet been described in detail. In this report we present three cases of patients with clinical evidence of EV 71 induced aseptic meningitis whose MR studies showed residual changes in spinal cord.

  12. MR features in patients with residual paralysis following aseptic meningitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Dae Chul; Park, Young Seo

    1991-01-01

    MR studies were performed in three patients with paralysis in the lower extremities. Poliomyelitis-like paralysis can be caused by neurovirulent strains of nonpolioenteroviruses. Entervirus 71 (EV 71) is documented as one of the potentially neurovirulent strains and a causative agent of some epidemics (1-7). The clinical manifestations associated with the EV 71 infection include aseptic meningitis, hand-food-mouth disease (HFMD), acute respiratory illness and gastrointestinal disease(6). Although rarely fatal, flaccidparalysis can be followed by EV 71 induced aseptic meningitis. Anterior horn cell necrosis was suggested on MR in two patients with residual paralysis (7). MR features, however, have not yet been described in detail. In this report we present three cases of patients with clinical evidence of EV 71 induced aseptic meningitis whose MR studies showed residual changes in spinal cord

  13. Cat scratch disease complicated with aseptic meningitis and neuroretinitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Laerte Pinto Jr.

    Full Text Available Cat scratch disease (CSD is a self limited condition characterized by fever, lymph node enlargement and less often eye involvement. Central nervous system involvement by Bartonella henselae infection is possibly an important cause of morbidity; its role as an agent of aseptic meningitis is unknown. We report a case of a 40 years-old man with CSD accompanied by aseptic meningitis and neuroretinitis. Serum indirect immmunofluorescence (IFI assays for B. henselae were positive and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF analysis showed mononuclear pleocytosis and increased level of protein. Serological tests for other etiologies were negative. The patient responded well to antibiotic therapy with oral doxycicline plus rifampin and in the 12th day of hospitalization evolved to total regression of the headache and partial regression of the visual loss. Clinicians should consider CSD as a differential diagnosis when assessing previously healthy patients with aseptic meningitis associated with regional lymphadenopathy and epidemiological history of feline contact.

  14. Reducing surgical nurses' aseptic practice-related stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aholaakko, Teija-Kaisa

    2011-12-01

    This paper aims to explore aseptic practice-related stress in surgery. The objectives are to define stress-related factors and the means to reduce the stress. Occupational stress is related to personal characteristics: job satisfaction and physiological and psychological well-being. The stress symptoms are often classified as part of a negative mood. Nurses have expressed stress when deadening their conscience to external demands with co-workers or internal working role-related demands. Surgery nurses expect fair division of work and compliance with rules. The hospital management, technology and the medical profession, instead of the needs of the patient, are recognised as a danger in the development of surgery nurses' role. A qualitative stimulated recall interview was performed in the surgery of the university hospital. Thirty-one operations were videotaped, and 31 nurses interviewed during videotape stimulation. The 1306 text pages were transcripted and analysed by a qualitative membership categorisation device analysis. The analysis revealed aseptic practice-related stress which constructed a sixteen level category. The membership categorisation identified connections between qualitatively attributed personnel and seven stress factors: working experience; time; equipment; person; patient; working morals and power. Final analysis revealed nurses reducing aseptic practice-related stress by safe, peaceful, competent and relative means. The aseptic practice-related stress varied from positive motivating feelings to exhaustion. The stress was experienced by medical and nursing co-workers and reduced by means which varied according to expertise and co-workers. This study showed needs for both the shared multiprofessional documentation of aseptic practice and better adherence to recommendations. Constructive means are useful when solving conflicts and replacing person-related aseptic practice with evidence-based. They may support nurses' professional growth, reduce

  15. Aseptic meningitis in children: analysis of 506 cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios G Michos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Non-polio human enteroviruses are the leading cause of aseptic meningitis in children. The role of enterovirus PCR for diagnosis and management of aseptic meningitis has not been fully explored. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A retrospective study was conducted to determine the epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory characteristics of aseptic meningitis and to evaluate the role of enterovirus PCR for the diagnosis and management of this clinical entity. The medical records of children who had as discharge diagnosis aseptic or viral meningitis were reviewed. A total of 506 children, median age 5 years, were identified. The annual incidence rate was estimated to be 17/100,000 children less than 14 years of age. Most of the cases occurred during summer (38% and autumn (24%. The dominant clinical symptoms were fever (98%, headache (94% and vomiting (67%. Neck stiffness was noted in 60%, and irritation in 46% of the patients. The median number of CSF cell count was 201/mm(3 with polymorphonuclear predominance (>50% in 58.3% of the cases. Enterovirus RNA was detected in CSF in 47 of 96 (48.9% children tested. Children with positive enterovirus PCR had shorter hospitalization stay as compared to children who had negative PCR or to children who were not tested (P = 0.01. There were no serious complications or deaths. CONCLUSIONS: Enteroviruses accounted for approximately one half of cases of aseptic meningitis. PCR may reduce the length of hospitalization and plays important role in the diagnosis and management of children with aseptic meningitis.

  16. Effect of Storage on Quality and Acceptance of Aseptically ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ashgourd (Benincasa hispida) juice was formulated with the help of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and the storage stability of the juice was investigated. The juice was aseptically processed, sterilized at 137ıC for 4 seconds and packaged in 6 layer laminated packet under sterilized environment.

  17. [Aseptic cutaneous breast abscesses associated with ulcerative colitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallé de Chou, C; Ortonne, N; Hivelin, M; Wolkenstein, P; Chosidow, O; Valeyrie-Allanore, L

    2016-02-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases are associated with a broad range of cutaneous lesions. Herein we report the first case of aseptic skin abscesses associated with ulcerative colitis. Since March 2008, a 40-year-old woman presented with bilateral mammary abscesses, relapsing despite repeated antibiotic treatment. She was followed for ulcerative colitis diagnosed in 2011 by means of a rectal biopsy. Despite four surgical procedures, there was no improvement in her mammary abscesses and bilateral mastectomy was then proposed because of the persistent symptoms. Her general state of health remained stable. Clinically, there were bilateral inflammatory nodes with fistulae and pus. These lesions were extremely painful. Mild inflammatory syndrome was noted, but the immunological tests revealed nothing of note. Bacteriological, parasitological and mycological tests on biopsy specimens were negative. Histological examination of a surgical biopsy revealed lymphoplasmacytic infiltration of the dermis and subcutis with altered polymorphonuclear cells and epithelioid granuloma. The CT-scan showed no other remote lesions. The final diagnosis was cutaneous aseptic abscess syndrome associated with ulcerative colitis. Colchicine 1mg/day was initiated and resulted in regression of the skin lesions, with complete remission at one year of follow-up. Aseptic abscess syndrome must be considered in the event of recurrent aseptic cutaneous abscesses which may be associated with inflammatory bowel disease. Surgery should be avoided and treatment should be based on suitable drug therapy. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  18. Microbial Load in Septic and Aseptic Procedure Rooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harnoss, Julian-Camill; Assadian, Ojan; Diener, Markus Karl; Müller, Thomas; Baguhl, Romy; Dettenkofer, Markus; Scheerer, Lukas; Kohlmann, Thomas; Heidecke, Claus-Dieter; Gessner, Stephan; Büchler, Markus Wolfgang; Kramer, Axel

    2017-07-10

    Highly effective measures to prevent surgical wound infections have been established over the last two decades. We studied whether the strict separation of septic and aseptic procedure rooms is still necessary. In an exploratory, prospective observational study, the microbial concentration in an operating room without a room ventilating system (RVS) was analyzed during 16 septic and 14 aseptic operations with the aid of an air sampler (50 cm and 1 m from the operative field) and sedimentation plates (1 m from the operative field, and contact culture on the walls). The means and standard deviations of the microbial loads were compared with the aid of GEE models (generalized estimation equations). In the comparison of septic and aseptic operations, no relevant differences were found with respect to the overall microbial concentration in the room air (401.7 ± 176.3 versus 388.2 ± 178.3 CFU/m 3 ; p = 0.692 [CFU, colony-forming units]) or sedimentation 1 m from the operative field (45.3 ± 22.0 versus 48.7 ± 18.5 CFU/m 2 /min; p = 0.603) and on the walls (35.7 ± 43.7 versus 29.0 ± 49.4 CFU/m 2 /min; p = 0.685). The only relevant differences between the microbial spectra associated with the two types of procedure were a small amount of sedimentation of Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis in septic operations, and of staphylococcus aureus and pseudomonas stutzeri in aseptic operations, up to 30 minutes after the end of the procedure. These data do not suggest that septic and aseptic procedure rooms need to be separated. In interpreting the findings, one should recall that the study was not planned as an equivalence or non-inferiority study. Wherever patient safety is concerned, high-level safety concepts should only be demoted to lower levels if new and convincing evidence becomes available.

  19. Simultaneous presentation of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) after enteroviral infection: can ADEM present as the first manifestation of SLE?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J-M; Son, C-N; Chang, H W; Kim, S-H

    2015-05-01

    Central Nervous System (CNS) involvement of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) includes a broad range of neuropsychiatric syndromes. Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a demyelinating CNS disorder characterized by encephalopathy and multifocal lesions predominantly involving the white matter on brain magnetic resonance imaging. ADEM associated with SLE has been only rarely reported. We report an unusual case of a 17-year-old girl who developed ADEM after enteroviral infection as the first manifestation of SLE. The authors emphasize that the patient's illness was preceded by enteroviral infection and that ADEM occurred before any other symptoms of SLE, which makes this case unique. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  20. Severe aseptic meningitis with hydrocephalus following iotrolan myelography: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Hyoung; Ha, Choong Kun; Ahn, In Oak [Gyeongsang National University College of Medicine, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-05-15

    A case of severe aseptic meningitis with communicating hydrocephalus following iotrolan myelography is presented. The patient's condition improved very quickly after corticosteroid therapy. Rapid improvement and absence of pathogenic organisms in the CSF culture strongly favor an aseptic meningitis. This is the first reported case of aseptic meningitis with the secondary development of hydrocephalus caused by iotrolan myelography.

  1. Severe aseptic meningitis with hydrocephalus following iotrolan myelography: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Hyoung; Ha, Choong Kun; Ahn, In Oak

    1993-01-01

    A case of severe aseptic meningitis with communicating hydrocephalus following iotrolan myelography is presented. The patient's condition improved very quickly after corticosteroid therapy. Rapid improvement and absence of pathogenic organisms in the CSF culture strongly favor an aseptic meningitis. This is the first reported case of aseptic meningitis with the secondary development of hydrocephalus caused by iotrolan myelography

  2. [Value of polymerase chain reaction in serum for the diagnosis of enteroviral meningitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marque Juillet, S; Lion, M; Pilmis, B; Tomini, E; Dommergues, M-A; Laporte, S; Foucaud, P

    2013-06-01

    Enteroviruses (EV) are a common cause of aseptic meningitis in children. Virological diagnosis of EV meningitis is currently based on the detection of the viral genome in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This study attempted to determine the correlation and the temporality of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay in serum and CSF and to evaluate the possibility of diagnosing EV infection only on the serum PCR. The EV genome was sought by RT real-time PCR (Smart Cycler EV Primer and Probe Set(®), Cepheid) in CSF and serum, collected at the same time, for all children who underwent a lumbar puncture for suspected meningitis, between 1 June and 31 July 2010 at the Versailles Hospital. Forty-four patients were included in the study. EV infection was documented for 22 of them. In 10 patients, the EV genome was detected in CSF only; in 3 patients in serum only, and in 9 patients in both. Among patients with acute EV neurological infection, viremic children were significantly younger (1.6 months versus 5.8 years; Pvalue of EV PCR in serum. It suggests that in some children and under certain conditions (age >3 months, clinical and biological compatibility with a viral infection, no previous antibiotic therapy, time from symptom onset to blood sampling <30 h, PCR in serum analyzed within 3h), PCR in serum, when positive, is a possible alternative. Therefore, it may be possible to diagnose EV infection without performing a lumbar puncture in a limited number of young children (11.4% of our suspected cases). This study needs to be reinforced by a multicenter study with a broader panel of patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Extramedullary spinal teratoma presenting with recurrent aseptic meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpayo, Lucy L; Liu, Xiao-Hong; Xu, Man; Wang, Kai; Wang, Jiao; Yang, Li

    2014-06-01

    Spinal teratomas are extremely rare; they constitute meningitis. A 7-year-old boy presented with paroxysmal abdominal pain and a history of recurrent aseptic meningitis. Kernig and Brudzinski signs were present. Lumber puncture revealed pleocytosis with no evidence of bacteria growth. Imaging of the spine revealed a cystic lesion in spinal cord at thoracic level 9-11. Endoscopic excision of the cyst was successfully performed. Surgical and histopathological findings confirmed extramedullary matured teratoma. As the symptomatic attacks of spontaneous rupture of spinal teratoma resemble presentations of Mollaret meningitis, spinal teratoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of Mollaret meningitis. We describe a rare example of spinal teratoma causing recurrent meningitis. Spine imaging should be considered in individuals with recurrent aseptic meningitis as this promotes earlier diagnosis, more appropriate treatment, and improved neurological outcome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Risk factors for total hip arthroplasty aseptic revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatod, Monti; Cafri, Guy; Namba, Robert S; Inacio, Maria C S; Paxton, Elizabeth W

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate patient, operative, implant, surgeon, and hospital factors associated with aseptic revision after primary THA in patients registered in a large US Total Joint Replacement Registry. A total of 35,960 THAs registered from 4/2001-12/2010 were evaluated. The 8-year survival rate was 96.7% (95% CI 96.4%-97.0%). Females had a higher risk of aseptic revision than males. Hispanic and Asian patients had a lower risk of revision than white patients. Ceramic-on-ceramic, ceramic-on-conventional polyethylene, and metal-on-conventional polyethylene bearing surfaces had a higher risk of revision than metal-on-highly cross-linked polyethylene. Body mass index, health status, diabetes, diagnosis, fixation, approach, bilateral procedures, head size, surgeon fellowship training, surgeon and hospital volume were not revision risk factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Recurrent aseptic meningitis secondary to taking ibuprofen and ketorolac].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano Vargas-Machuca, E; Mondéjar-Marín, B; Navarro-Muñoz, S; Pérez-Molina, I; Garrido-Robres, J A; Alvarez-Tejerina, A

    Aseptic meningitis is a process that is characterised by an inflammatory reaction of the meninges that is not due to any infectious agent. Its aetiology is varied and is most frequently caused by rheumatologic and/or autoimmune processes, chemical or medication-induced meningitis, the most notable drugs involved being antibiotics and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAI). We report the case of a 70-year-old male, with no relevant history, who was admitted to hospital five times over a period of 16 months because of acute meningitis with polymorphonuclear pleocytosis, high protein levels in cerebrospinal fluid and normal glucose in cerebrospinal fluid. No evidence of an infectious causation, chemical meningitis, carcinomatosis or autoimmune disease was found and the patient was diagnosed with recurrent aseptic meningitis. It was found that the patient had taken ibuprofen or ketorolac on several occasions, a few hours before the appearance of symptoms. These episodes were quickly resolved after withdrawal of this medication. A number of NSAI have been reported as inducers of aseptic meningitis, one of the most notable being ibuprofen. We report the case of a patient who, as a consequence of taking ibuprofen and ketorolac, presented episodes of recurrent aseptic meningitis. To our knowledge this side effect of ketorolac has not been reported before. Its clinical features are impossible to differentiate from those of infectious meningitis. Diagnosis is reached by exclusion and a careful pharmacological study, including over-the-counter drugs like some of the NSAI, must be performed in patients with this condition, since it is a problem that can easily be solved by withdrawing the drug that causes it.

  6. Presence of herpesvirus DNA in cerebrospinal fluid of patients with tick-borne encephalitis and enteroviral meningoencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labská, Klára; Roubalová, Kateřina; Pícha, Dušan; Marešová, Vilma

    2015-07-01

    Reactivation of HHVs in the CNS due to inflammation has not been well described yet. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of HHV DNA detection in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of immunocompetent patients with meningoencephalitis of other than HHV origin. The secondary aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of herpesvirus co-infection on the clinical course and patient outcome. Ninety-six patients with clinically and laboratory proven tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) and 77 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of enteroviral meningitis (EVM), along with a control group of 107 patients without evidence of inflammation in the CSF were retrospectively tested by nested PCR for the presence of DNA of the neurotropic herpesviruses HSV1, HSV2, VZV, and HHV6 in the CSF. The clinical course, laboratory tests, antiviral treatment, and neurological complications in a 6-month follow-up were compared between the groups positive or negative for HHV DNA in the CSF. HHV DNA was found in the CSF of 12 (6.9%) patients (6.3% and 7.8% in the TBE and EVM groups, respectively) and in 1 (0.9%) control patient. None of the patients had recent blisters or rash. The clinical course was comparably mild in all patients. No permanent neurological sequelae were observed. Only the CSF total protein level was significantly higher in HHV DNA-positive than in HHV-negative patients. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Aseptic techniques(practical guide no.3); Practico no.3-Tecnicas asepticas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nappa, Andres; Souto Pais, Beatriz [Centro de Investigaciones Nucleares, Montevideo (Uruguay)

    1994-12-31

    Definition of aseptic techniques in relation with the labor of Radiopharmacy.Control of environment and working areas.Control of materials entered into an aseptic area: water, nitrogen,vials,stoppers,needles and syringes. Personnel and manipulations control,choosing of materials,precautions in the aseptic manipulation and sterility preservation during usage life. Bacteriological membrane filtration in sterilized conditions. Work in a laminar flow unit. Protocol of Practical task 3. Bibliography

  8. Aseptic meningitis in Germany associated with echovirus type 13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schreier Eckart

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Echoviruses are the commonest cause of aseptic meningitis. Echovirus type 13 which has not been isolated in Germany over a long period of time was the predominant enterovirus serotype associated with different local outbreaks of aseptic meningitis in Germany in 2000. Methods Virus isolation was performed from cerebrospinal fluid and stools. In order to study the genetic relationship of echovirus type 13 isolates, sequence analysis of a part of VP1 (~300 nt was carried out. Isolates from different geographic regions were compared to each other as well as to elder viruses (prototype strain from 1953, four isolates from 1965–1986. Results Overall, 55 isolates of echovirus type 13 were obtained from different parts of Germany. It was shown that the new isolated strains have a very high degree of homology on the nucleotide level (> 98% but differ significantly from the old strains (76–85%. Conclusions a Rare enterovirus serotypes can cause serious illness. b The molecular drift has also been shown for other enterovirus serotypes.

  9. Performance Analysis of Exam Gloves Used for Aseptic Rodent Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMoine, Dana M; Bergdall, Valerie K; Freed, Carrie

    2015-01-01

    Aseptic technique includes the use of sterile surgical gloves for survival surgeries in rodents to minimize the incidence of infections. Exam gloves are much less expensive than are surgical gloves and may represent a cost-effective, readily available option for use in rodent surgery. This study examined the effectiveness of surface disinfection of exam gloves with 70% isopropyl alcohol or a solution of hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid (HP–PA) in reducing bacterial contamination. Performance levels for asepsis were met when gloves were negative for bacterial contamination after surface disinfection and sham ‘exertion’ activity. According to these criteria, 94% of HP–PA-disinfected gloves passed, compared with 47% of alcohol-disinfected gloves. In addition, the effect of autoclaving on the integrity of exam gloves was examined, given that autoclaving is another readily available option for aseptic preparation. Performance criteria for glove integrity after autoclaving consisted of: the ability to don the gloves followed by successful simulation of wound closure and completion of stretch tests without tearing or observable defects. Using this criteria, 98% of autoclaved nitrile exam gloves and 76% of autoclaved latex exam gloves met performance expectations compared with the performance of standard surgical gloves (88% nitrile, 100% latex). The results of this study support the use of HP–PA-disinfected latex and nitrile exam gloves or autoclaved nitrile exam gloves as viable cost-effective alternatives to sterile surgical gloves for rodent surgeries. PMID:26045458

  10. Detection of periprosthetic joint infections in presumed aseptic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Yijuan; Lorenzen, Jan; Thomsen, Trine Rolighed

    2016-01-01

    Title: Detection of periprosthetic joint infections in presumed aseptic patients Yijuan Xu1, Jan Lorenzen1, Trine Rolighed Thomsen1,2, Kathrin Kluba3, Kathrin Chamaon3, Christoph Lohmann3 1. Danish Technological Institute, Aarhus, Denmark 2. Center for Microbial Communities, Department of Biotech......Title: Detection of periprosthetic joint infections in presumed aseptic patients Yijuan Xu1, Jan Lorenzen1, Trine Rolighed Thomsen1,2, Kathrin Kluba3, Kathrin Chamaon3, Christoph Lohmann3 1. Danish Technological Institute, Aarhus, Denmark 2. Center for Microbial Communities, Department...... of Biotechnology, Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Aalborg University, Denmark 3. Department of Orthopaedics, Otto-von-Guericke University of Magdeburg, Germany Aim: ”The HypOrth project (New approaches in the development of Hypoallergenic implant material in Orthopaedics: Steps to personalised medicine......) aims to investigate adverse immune reactions to implant materials. For this project, it is of utmost importance to exclude patients with periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs). The aim of this study was to rule out PJIs in included patients using prolonged culture and next generation sequencing (NGS...

  11. Performance analysis of exam gloves used for aseptic rodent surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeMoine, Dana M; Bergdall, Valerie K; Freed, Carrie

    2015-05-01

    Aseptic technique includes the use of sterile surgical gloves for survival surgeries in rodents to minimize the incidence of infections. Exam gloves are much less expensive than are surgical gloves and may represent a cost-effective, readily available option for use in rodent surgery. This study examined the effectiveness of surface disinfection of exam gloves with 70% isopropyl alcohol or a solution of hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid (HP-PA) in reducing bacterial contamination. Performance levels for asepsis were met when gloves were negative for bacterial contamination after surface disinfection and sham 'exertion' activity. According to these criteria, 94% of HP-PA-disinfected gloves passed, compared with 47% of alcohol-disinfected gloves. In addition, the effect of autoclaving on the integrity of exam gloves was examined, given that autoclaving is another readily available option for aseptic preparation. Performance criteria for glove integrity after autoclaving consisted of: the ability to don the gloves followed by successful simulation of wound closure and completion of stretch tests without tearing or observable defects. Using this criteria, 98% of autoclaved nitrile exam gloves and 76% of autoclaved latex exam gloves met performance expectations compared with the performance of standard surgical gloves (88% nitrile, 100% latex). The results of this study support the use of HP-PA-disinfected latex and nitrile exam gloves or autoclaved nitrile exam gloves as viable cost-effective alternatives to sterile surgical gloves for rodent surgeries.

  12. [Early aseptic loosening of the CF 30 femoral stem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovanda, M; Havlícek, V; Hudec, J

    2007-02-01

    The CF 30 stem in combination with a cementless acetabulum was used at the First Department of Orthopedic Surgery in Brno in the years 1994 to 1995. From the second year following implantation, aseptic stem loosening was recorded. In order to find explanation of this early loosening, the authors, in cooperation with the Institute of Solid Mechanics, Mechatronics and Biomechanics, carried out the stress-strain analysis in a model system. Eighty patients (31 men and 49 women) received a cemented CF30 femoral component in 1994. Of them, 16 patients underwent revision arthroplasty, three died of causes unrelated to the surgery, and four were lost to follow-up. The final clinical and radiographic check-up was carried out in 2001. The results of a comprehensive examination were available in 57 patients with a CF30 stem. The patients were evaluated on the basis of the Harris hip score and anteroposterior radiographs of the hip. X-ray films obtained immediately after surgery and those taken at regular intervals during follow-up were compared. The following characteristics were noted: translucent lines in individual zones along the stem at the cement-bone interface; osteolysis, i. e., non-linear translucent areas, at least 5 mm long, at the cement-bone interface; and subsidence of the femoral component, i. e., migration of the stem distal to the tip of the greater trochanter. The CF 30 stem survival curve showed that aseptic stem loosening occurred from post-implantation year 2, and increased during the following years. At 6 years and 6 months, a total of 16 patients underwent revision surgery, involving reimplantation in 14 and implant removal in 2 patients. Potential causes of aseptic loosening: Polyethylene wear.However, no acetabular loosening was found in this group, although acetabular components are reported to become loose more often than femoral components. By comparison of the stem survival curves for Poldi and CF 30 stems it appeared that, at 6 years and 6 months

  13. 77 FR 21783 - Guidance on Media Fills for Validation of Aseptic Preparations for Positron Emission Tomography...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-11

    ...] Guidance on Media Fills for Validation of Aseptic Preparations for Positron Emission Tomography Drugs... Aseptic Preparations for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Drugs.'' This guidance is intended to help... Preparations for Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Drugs.'' Most PET drugs are designed for parenteral...

  14. Endotoxin as a cause of aseptic meningitis after radionuclide cisternography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, J.F.; Harbert, J.C.

    1975-01-01

    The role of pyrogens in aseptic meningitis after radionuclide cisternography was studied by means of the Limulus test, a sensitive detector of endotoxin. During a 15-month period, 39 reactions associated with cisternography were reported. Ten samples of specific lots of the radioactive drugs implicated in 20 of these reactions were tested and all reacted strongly positive to the Limulus test. The less sensitive rabbit pyrogen test was negative for these preparations when tested on a dose-per-weight basis. Our findings apparently provide clinical evidence for the observation made in animals that endotoxin is at least 1,000 times more toxic intrathecally than intravenously. The data implicate endotoxin contamination as a cause of adverse reactions to radionuclide cisternography. We conclude that the USP pyrogen test is insufficiently sensitive for intrathecal injectables and should be supplemented by the Limulus test. (auth)

  15. Biosurfactant production using mixed cultures under non-aseptic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vipulanandan, C.; Ghurye, G.L.; Willson, R.C.

    1994-01-01

    The use of surfactants is of increasing interest for remediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in groundwater and soil. Surfactants increase the accessibility of adsorbed hydrocarbons and mobilize immiscible petroleum hydrocarbons for treatment. Biosurfactants have the advantage of biodegradability and non-toxicity over their synthetic counterparts, and can be produced from renewable sources. In this study the production of biosurfactant from molasses was investigated in continuously stirred batch reactors. The effects of substrate concentration, yeast extract and peptone on biomass accumulation and biosurfactant production were investigated. Biosurfactant production was quantified by surface tension reduction and critical micelle dilution (CMD). Biosurfactant production was directly correlated with biomass production, and was improved with the addition of yeast extract. Centrifugation of the whole broth reduced surface tension. The performance of the biosurfactant produced from molasses under non-aseptic condition is comparable to other published results

  16. Cloning higher plants from aseptically cultured tissues and cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krikorian, A. D.

    1982-01-01

    A review of aseptic culture methods for higher plants is presented, which focuses on the existing problems that limit or prevent the full realization of cloning plants from free cells. It is shown that substantial progress in clonal multiplication has been made with explanted stem tips or lateral buds which can be stimulated to produce numerous precocious axillary branches. These branches can then be separated or subdivided and induced to root in order to yield populations of genetically and phenotypically uniorm plantlets. Similarly, undifferentiated calluses can sometimes be induced to form shoots and/or roots adventitiously. Although the cell culture techniques required to produce somatic embryos are presently rudimentary, steady advances are being made in learning how to stimulate formation of somatic or adventive embryos from totipotent cells grown in suspension cultures. It is concluded that many problems exist in the producing and growing of totipotent or morphogenetically competent cell suspensions, but the potential benefits are great.

  17. Aseptic minimum volume vitrification technique for porcine parthenogenetically activated blastocyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Yu, Yutao; Zhang, Xiuqing; Yang, Huanming; Bolund, Lars; Callesen, Henrik; Vajta, Gábor

    2011-01-01

    Minimum volume vitrification may provide extremely high cooling and warming rates if the sample and the surrounding medium contacts directly with the respective liquid nitrogen and warming medium. However, this direct contact may result in microbial contamination. In this work, an earlier aseptic technique was applied for minimum volume vitrification. After equilibration, samples were loaded on a plastic film, immersed rapidly into factory derived, filter-sterilized liquid nitrogen, and sealed into sterile, pre-cooled straws. At warming, the straw was cut, the filmstrip was immersed into a 39 degree C warming medium, and the sample was stepwise rehydrated. Cryosurvival rates of porcine blastocysts produced by parthenogenetical activation did not differ from control, vitrified blastocysts with Cryotop. This approach can be used for minimum volume vitrification methods and may be suitable to overcome the biological dangers and legal restrictions that hamper the application of open vitrification techniques.

  18. Analysis of hip perfusion at early and reversible stages of aseptic hip necrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Predic, P.; Dodig, D.; Karner, I.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: A proper early diagnosis of aseptic hip necrosis is very important for further therapy.Since there has always been a question of the amount of perfusion in hips at different stages of aseptic hip necrosis we tried to impartially examine the perfusion in hips at early and reversible stages of aseptic hip necrosis. Material and Methods:Study included 143 patients with aseptic hip necrosis.The 550-740 MBq of Tc-99m-DPD were on bolus injected.All patients were subjected to 3-phase scintigraphy of hips and quantitative calculation of relative perfusion in the artery phase (3T) at early and repeated at reversible stages of aseptic hip necrosis. Results: At the early stage of aseptic hip necrosis the obtained 3T was decreased from 0.94-0.69 (3T=0.80).Scintigrams showed a moderate increase or diffuse accumulation. At the reversible stages we obtained 3T decreased from 0.92-0.71 (3T=0.79) thus evidencing hypoperfusion.Scintigrams showed an diffuse increased accumulation. Conclusion: With the aseptic hip necrosis quantitative analysis of perfusion in the artery phase-3T indicates that the perfusion is decreased at all stages of the process which however shows a significantly falling trend with the progress of the disease

  19. Bone scintigraphy in idiopathic aseptic femoral head necrosis (IAFHN)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodig, D; Ugarkovic, B; Orlic, D

    1983-01-01

    Idiopathic aseptic femoral head necrosis (IAFHN) is a disease of unknown aetiology most commonly affecting adults, producing functional impairment of the hip joint and immobility. Characteristic macroscopic, microscopic and radiologic features include: (1) changes in joint cartilage, (2) subchondral necrotic area, (3) changes in fibrous tissue, and (4) osteosclerosis and vascular proliferation. The diagnosis is based on clinical and X-ray examinations. More recently scintigraphy has been used in diagnosing IAFHN. It is a very sensitive, but non-specific method. Nineteen patients aged 25-57 years were included in our study. Scintigrams were divided in four groups: (1) normal, (2) uniformly increased activity in the femoral head, (3) non-uniformly increased activity in the femoral head, and (4) a photon deficient area in the femoral head. A comparison of scintigraphy and radiological examination suggests that a photon deficient area corresponds with stage III of radiological classification, non-uniformly increased activity with stage II, and uniformly increased activity with stage I. These results indicate that scintigraphy can be used for staging of disease.

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of patients with aseptic meningoencephalitis and connective tissue disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appenzeller, Simone; Kobayashi, Eliane; Costallat, Lilian T.L.; Zanardi, Veronica de Araujo; Ribeiro Neto, Jose Menezes; Damasceno, Benito Pereira; Cendes, Fernando [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas

    2000-03-01

    To describe the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the evaluation of patients with chronic and recurrent aseptic meningitis. Method: A retrospective study of five patients with aseptic meningoencefalitis diagnosed by clinical and CSF findings. CT scans showed without no relevant findings. Results: MRI showed small multifocal lesions hyperintense on T2 weight images and FLAIR, with mild or no gadolinium enhancement, mainly in periventricular and subcortical regions. Meningoencephalitis preceded the diagnosis of the underlying disease in four patients (Behcet's disease or systemic lupus erythematosus). After the introduction of adequate treatment for the rheumatic disease, they did not present further symptoms of aseptic meningoencephalitis. Conclusion: Aseptic meningoencephalitis can be an early presentation of an autoimmune disease. It is important to emphasize the role of MRI in the diagnosis and follow-up of these patients. (author)

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of patients with aseptic meningoencephalitis and connective tissue disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appenzeller, Simone; Kobayashi, Eliane; Costallat, Lilian T.L.; Zanardi, Veronica de Araujo; Ribeiro Neto, Jose Menezes; Damasceno, Benito Pereira; Cendes, Fernando

    2000-01-01

    To describe the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the evaluation of patients with chronic and recurrent aseptic meningitis. Method: A retrospective study of five patients with aseptic meningoencefalitis diagnosed by clinical and CSF findings. CT scans showed without no relevant findings. Results: MRI showed small multifocal lesions hyperintense on T2 weight images and FLAIR, with mild or no gadolinium enhancement, mainly in periventricular and subcortical regions. Meningoencephalitis preceded the diagnosis of the underlying disease in four patients (Behcet's disease or systemic lupus erythematosus). After the introduction of adequate treatment for the rheumatic disease, they did not present further symptoms of aseptic meningoencephalitis. Conclusion: Aseptic meningoencephalitis can be an early presentation of an autoimmune disease. It is important to emphasize the role of MRI in the diagnosis and follow-up of these patients. (author)

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of patients with aseptic meningoencephalitis and connective tissue disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    APPENZELLER SIMONE

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To describe the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in the evaluation of patients with chronic and recurrent aseptic meningitis.METHOD: A retrospective study of five patients with aseptic meningoencefalitis diagnosed by clinical and CSF findings. CT scans showed without no relevant findings. RESULTS: MRI showed small multifocal lesions hyperintense on T2 weighted images and FLAIR, with mild or no gadolinium enhancement, mainly in periventricular and subcortical regions. Meningoencephalitis preceded the diagnosis of the underlying disease in four patients (Behçet´s disease or systemic lupus erythematosus. After the introduction of adequate treatment for the rheumatic disease, they did not present further symptoms of aseptic meningoencephalitis. CONCLUSION: Aseptic meningoencephalitis can be an early presentation of an autoimmune disease. It is important to emphasize the role of MRI in the diagnosis and follow-up of these patients.

  3. Comparative Analysis of Direct Hospital Care Costs between Aseptic and Two-Stage Septic Knee Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasch, Richard; Merk, Sebastian; Assmann, Grit; Lahm, Andreas; Napp, Matthias; Merk, Harry; Flessa, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    Background The most common intermediate and long-term complications of total knee arthroplasty (TKA) include aseptic and septic failure of prosthetic joints. These complications cause suffering, and their management is expensive. In the future the number of revision TKA will increase, which involves a greater financial burden. Little concrete data about direct costs for aseptic and two-stage septic knee revisions with an in depth-analysis of septic explantation and implantation is available. Questions/Purposes A retrospective consecutive analysis of the major partial costs involved in revision TKA for aseptic and septic failure was undertaken to compare 1) demographic and clinical characteristics, and 2) variable direct costs (from a hospital department’s perspective) between patients who underwent single-stage aseptic and two-stage septic revision of TKA in a hospital providing maximum care. We separately analyze the explantation and implantation procedures in septic revision cases and identify the major cost drivers of knee revision operations. Methods A total of 106 consecutive patients (71 aseptic and 35 septic) was included. All direct costs of diagnosis, surgery, and treatment from the hospital department’s perspective were calculated as real purchase prices. Personnel involvement was calculated in units of minutes. Results Aseptic versus septic revisions differed significantly in terms of length of hospital stay (15.2 vs. 39.9 days), number of reported secondary diagnoses (6.3 vs. 9.8) and incision-suture time (108.3 min vs. 193.2 min). The management of septic revision TKA was significantly more expensive than that of aseptic failure ($12,223.79 vs. $6,749.43) (p costs of explantation stage ($4,540.46) were lower than aseptic revision TKA ($6,749.43) which were again lower than those of the septic implantation stage ($7,683.33). All mean costs of stays were not comparable as they differ significantly (p cost drivers were the cost of the implant and

  4. Flexible walled container having membrane fitment for use with aseptic filling apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, J.C.; Reiss, R.J.; Rica, A.F.

    1984-01-01

    There is disclosed an aseptic flexible walled container having a rigid fitment member cooperative with an aseptic filling apparatus and including a neck, outer flanges surrounding the neck, a frangible membrane and an outer end rim receptive of an hermetically sealed lid. The neck is formed with an internal chamferred seating shoulder for fluid-tight engagement with a fill tube. One outer flange cooperates with clamping jaws of the aseptic filling apparatus for detachably sealing the fitment to a sterilizing chamber and placing it in position for insertion of the filling tube which ruptures the membrane and permits the aseptic introduction of product to the container's interior. The other outer flange is secured to an opening in a wall of the flexible container. The joined fitment and container are presterilized prior to filling. Selected materials for the multi-ply container walls and the fitment permit the container to withstand gamma ray and other sterilization treatment, heat and pressure while maintaining required strength. After the container is aseptically filled, such as with flowable food product, the fill tube is withdrawn and a lid is hermetically sealed onto the rim of the fitment. A heat shield adjacent a container wall surrounds the fitment to protect the container from excessive heat generated by the associated filling apparatus during filling

  5. Effect of age on the incidence of aseptic meningitis following immunization with monovalent mumps vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muta, Hiromi; Nagai, Takao; Ito, Yuhei; Ihara, Toshiaki; Nakayama, Tetsuo

    2015-11-09

    The purpose of this study was to determine the risk of aseptic meningitis after mumps vaccination in younger children compared with older children. This prospective cohort study included a total of 21,465 children under 18 years of age who had received the first dose of three of the Japanese mumps monovalent vaccine. We compared the cumulative incidence of aseptic meningitis for 30 days after vaccination among the following age groups: ≤ 1, 2, 3-4, and ≥ 5 years old. We also investigated the cumulative incidence of salivary gland swelling, a fever (≥ 38°C) lasting at least 3 days during the 10 to 25 days following immunization, vomiting of 3 times or more, headache, and seizure. A total of 10 aseptic meningitis, 551 salivary gland swelling, 844 fevers, 669 vomiting, 757 headaches, and 29 seizure cases were identified. The cumulative incidence of aseptic meningitis increased with age (0.016%, 0.021%, 0.066%, and 0.096%, respectively). Statistical significance was observed between children ≥ 3 years old and those mumps vaccine that is currently available for use in Japan may be administered in children less than 3 years of age in order to complicate a less aseptic meningitis after immunization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Recurrent aseptic meningitis in association with Kikuchi-Fujimoto disease: case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komagamine Tomoko

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kikuchi Fujimoto disease (KFD, or histiocytic necrotising lymphadenitis, is a benign and self-limiting condition characterised by primarily affecting the cervical lymph nodes. Recurrent aseptic meningitis in association with KFD is extremely rare and remains a diagnostic challenge. Case presentation We report a 28-year-old man who presented 7 episodes of aseptic meningitis associated with KFD over the course of 7 years. Histopathological findings of enlarged lymph nodes led to the diagnosis of KFD. The patient’s headache and lymphadenopathy spontaneously resolved without any sequelae. Conclusions A diagnosis of KFD should be considered when enlarged cervical lymph nodes are observed in patients with recurrent aseptic meningitis. A long-term prognosis remains uncertain, and careful follow-up is preferred.

  7. Quality comparison of continuous steam sterilization segmented-flow aseptic processing versus conventional canning of whole and sliced mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, N M; Walker, P N

    2011-08-01

    This study was carried out to investigate segmented-flow aseptic processing of particle foods. A pilot-scale continuous steam sterilization unit capable of producing shelf stable aseptically processed whole and sliced mushrooms was developed. The system utilized pressurized steam as the heating medium to achieve high temperature-short time processing conditions with high and uniform heat transfer that will enable static temperature penetration studies for process development. Segmented-flow technology produced a narrower residence time distribution than pipe-flow aseptic processing; thus, whole and sliced mushrooms were processed only as long as needed to achieve the target F₀  = 7.0 min and were not overcooked. Continuous steam sterilization segmented-flow aseptic processing produced shelf stable aseptically processed mushrooms of superior quality to conventionally canned mushrooms. When compared to conventionally canned mushrooms, aseptically processed yield (weight basis) increased 6.1% (SD = 2.9%) and 6.6% (SD = 2.2%), whiteness (L) improved 3.1% (SD = 1.9%) and 4.7% (SD = 0.7%), color difference (ΔE) improved 6.0% (SD = 1.3%) and 8.5% (SD = 1.5%), and texture improved 3.9% (SD = 1.7%) and 4.6% (SD = 4.2%), for whole and sliced mushrooms, respectively. Segmented-flow aseptic processing eliminated a separate blanching step, eliminated the unnecessary packaging of water and promoted the use of bag-in-box and other versatile aseptic packaging methods. Segmented-flow aseptic processing is capable of producing shelf stable aseptically processed particle foods of superior quality to a conventionally canned product. This unique continuous steam sterilization process eliminates the need for a separate blanching step, reduces or eliminates the need for a liquid carrier, and promotes the use of bag-in-box and other versatile aseptic packaging methods. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Diabetes Mellitus and Hyperglycemia and the Risk of Aseptic Loosening in Total Joint Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maradit Kremers, Hilal; Schleck, Cathy D; Lewallen, Eric A; Larson, Dirk R; Van Wijnen, Andre J; Lewallen, David G

    2017-09-01

    It is unknown to what extent diabetes mellitus modifies the long-term risk of aseptic loosening in total hip arthroplasty (THA) and total knee arthroplasty (TKA). We examined the association between diabetes mellitus, perioperative hyperglycemia, and the likelihood of revisions for aseptic loosening. We studied 16,085 primary THA and TKA procedures performed at a large tertiary care hospital between 2002 and 2009. All blood glucose values around the time of surgery (within 1 week) were retrieved. Subsequent revision surgeries and the reasons for revision were ascertained through the institutional joint registry. Multivariate Cox models were used to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for aseptic loosening associated with diabetes mellitus and hyperglycemia adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, and surgery type. A total of 2911 (18%) surgeries had a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus at the time of surgery. Glucose testing was performed at least once in 7055 (44%) procedures within ±1 week of surgery. Although diabetic patients did not experience a higher risk of revision for aseptic loosening (HR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.55-1.38), higher preoperative glucose values on the day before surgery were significantly associated with both the overall risk of revisions (HR, 2.80; 95% CI, 1.00-7.85) and revisions for aseptic loosening (HR, 4.95; 95% CI, 1.26-19.54). High preoperative hyperglycemia is a potential risk factor for aseptic loosening in THA and TKA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Dual infection with hepatitis A and E virus presenting with aseptic meningitis: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naha, Kushal; Karanth, Suman; Prabhu, Mukhyaprana; Sidhu, Manpreet Singh

    2012-07-01

    We report the case of a young male who presented with features of aseptic meningitis and elevated serum liver enzymes, but no symptoms or signs suggestive of an acute hepatitis. Subsequently, he was diagnosed with dual infection with hepatitis A and E viruses, and recovered completely with symptomatic therapy. Isolated aseptic meningitis, unaccompanied by hepatitic features is an unusual presentation of a hepatotrophic viral infection, and is yet to be reported with hepatitis A and E virus co-infection. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Aseptic necrosis in caisson workers: a new set of decompression tables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, G J; Kindwall, E P

    1986-06-01

    There is a high incidence of aseptic necrosis and decompression sickness among caisson workers due to inadequate decompression using the current OSHA decompression tables (1-7). Because of this, a new set of tables--Autodec III-O2--was developed which more effectively eliminates nitrogen from the body and, therefore, should decrease the incidence of both bends and aseptic necrosis. The Autodec III-O2 schedule's superiority was statistically significant at a level of 0.08 compared to the OSHA table. It is our conclusion that OSHA should adopt the Autodec III-O2 schedule as a replacement for the current decompression tables.

  11. Magnetic thermometry in the aseptic processing of foods containing particulates (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghiron, Kenneth; Litchfield, Bruce

    1997-04-01

    Aseptic processing of foods has many advantages over canning, including higher efficiency, lighter packaging, better taste, and higher nutritional value. Aseptic processing is different from canning where the food and container are sterilized together. Instead, a thin stream of food is heated and the packaging is independently sterilized before the food is placed in the package. However, no aseptic processes have been successfully filed with the FDA for foods containing sizable solid particles because of uncertainties in the thermal sterilization of the particles (e.g., soup). We have demonstrated that by inserting small paramagnetic particles in the interior of the simulated and real food particles, the local temperature can be measured. With this information, any questions about the adequate sterilization of the particles can be resolved. The measurements were done by directing the food stream through a magnetic field and sensing the voltages induced in a pickup coil by the motion of the magnetized particles. Details of the equipment design and data analysis will be discussed along with an introduction to the aseptic processing of foods.

  12. Aseptic necrosis of the femoral head after pregnancy: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Nassar, Kawtar; Rachidi, Wafae; Janani, Saadia; Mkinsi, Ouafa

    2016-01-01

    A documented case of beginning aseptic necrosis of the femoral head associated with pregnancy together with a review of the literature about this rare complication of pregnancy is presented. The known risk factors of osteonecrosis are; steroid use, alcoholism, organ transplantation, especially after kidney transplant or bone marrow transplantation bone, systemic lupus erythematosus, dyslipidemia especially hypertriglyceridemia, dysbaric decompression sickness, drepanocytosis and Gaucher's dis...

  13. Controlled Human Malaria Infection of Tanzanians by Intradermal Injection of Aseptic, Purified, Cryopreserved Plasmodium falciparum Sporozoites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shekalaghe, S.; Rutaihwa, M.; Billingsley, P.F.; Chemba, M.; Daubenberger, C.A.; James, E.R.; Mpina, M.; Juma, O. Ali; Schindler, T.; Huber, E.; Gunasekera, A.; Manoj, A.; Simon, B.; Saverino, E.; Church, L.W.; Hermsen, C.C.; Sauerwein, R.W.; Plowe, C.; Venkatesan, M.; Sasi, P.; Lweno, O.; Mutani, P.; Hamad, A.; Mohammed, A.; Urassa, A.; Mzee, T.; Padilla, D.; Ruben, A.; Sim, B.K.; Tanner, M.; Abdulla, S.; Hoffman, S.L.

    2014-01-01

    Controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) by mosquito bite has been used to assess anti-malaria interventions in > 1,500 volunteers since development of methods for infecting mosquitoes by feeding on Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) gametocyte cultures. Such CHMIs have never been used in Africa. Aseptic,

  14. Excacerbation of systemic lupus erythematodes, aseptic meningitis and acute mental symptoms, following metrizamide lumbar myelography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelmers, H J

    1984-01-01

    A clinical constellation of excacerbation of systemic lupus erythematodes (SLE), together with aseptic meningitis, and acutre mental symptoms occurred following lumbar myelography with metrizamide. Excacerbation of SLE has not been previously described following myelography with any contrast agent. Meningeal reactions and acute mental symptoms have been reported earlier, but this clinical constellation is new.

  15. EFFECT OF PASTEURIZATION TEMPERATURE AND ASEPTIC FILLING ON THE SHELF-LIFE OF MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Rodrigues PETRUS

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Aseptic filling process can contribute to extend the shelf-life of pasteurized milk. However, this technology is not still commercially practiced in Brazil for this product. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the pasteurization temperature and aseptic filling on the stability of milk packaged in high density polyethylene bottle (HDPE. Three batches of one hundred bottles each were processed at 72, 83, and 94ºC/15s, followed by aseptic packaging and storage at 9ºC, simulating a deficient cold chain scenario as found in the Brazilian market. Microbiological stability evaluation was based on mesophilic and psychrotrophic counts. Sensory shelf-life was estimated according to the ratings assigned to the attributes appearance, aroma, flavor and overall appreciation of milk samples. The pasteurization temperature, in the range investigated, did not affect the shelf-life of milk, which lasted up to 11 days for the three processed batches. The aseptic filling, associated to the employed thermal treatments, did not extend the shelf-life of milk stored under the abuse condition of 9°C, considering that the commercial product shelf-life in Brazil is of about 10 days.

  16. Excacerbation of systemic lupus erythematodes, aseptic meningitis and acute mental symptoms, following metrizamide lumbar myelography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelmers, H.J.

    1984-01-01

    A clinical constellation of excacerbation of systemic lupus erythematodes (SLE), together with aseptic meningitis, and acutre mental symptoms occurred following lumbar myelography with metrizamide. Excacerbation of SLE has not been previously described following myelography with any contrast agent. Meningeal reactions and acute mental symptoms have been reported earlier, but this clinical constellation is new. (orig.)

  17. Etiologies and Management of Aseptic Meningitis in Patients Admitted to an Internal Medicine Department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrin, Irène; Sellier, Pierre; Lopes, Amanda; Morgand, Marjolaine; Makovec, Tamara; Delcey, Veronique; Champion, Karine; Simoneau, Guy; Green, Andrew; Mouly, Stéphane; Bergmann, Jean-François; Lloret-Linares, Célia

    2016-01-01

    Several studies have focused on the clinical and biological characteristics of meningitis in order to distinguish between bacterial and viral meningitis in the emergency setting. However, little is known about the etiologies and outcomes of aseptic meningitis in patients admitted to Internal Medicine.The aim of the study is to describe the etiologies, characteristics, and outcomes of aseptic meningitis with or without encephalitis in adults admitted to an Internal Medicine Department.A retrospective cohort study was conducted in the Internal Medicine Department of the Lariboisière Hospital in Paris, France, from January 2009 to December 2011. Clinical and biological characteristics of aseptic meningitis were recorded. These included cerebrospinal fluid analysis, results of polymerase chain reaction testing, final diagnoses, and therapeutic management.The cohort included 180 patients fulfilling the criteria for aseptic meningitis with (n = 56) or without (n = 124) encephalitis. A definitive etiological diagnosis was established in 83 of the 180 cases. Of the cases with a definitive diagnosis, 73 were due to infectious agents, mainly enteroviruses, Herpes Simplex Virus 2, and Varicella Zoster Virus (43.4%, 16.8%, and 14.5% respectively). Inflammatory diseases were diagnosed in 7 cases. Among the 97 cases without definitive diagnoses, 26 (26.8%) remained free of treatment throughout their management whereas antiviral or antibiotic therapy was initiated in the emergency department for the remaining 71 patients. The treatment was discontinued in only 10 patients deemed to have viral meningitis upon admission to Internal Medicine.The prevalence of inflammatory diseases among patients admitted to internal medicine for aseptic meningitis is not rare (4% of overall aseptic meningitis). The PCR upon admission to the emergency department is obviously of major importance for the prompt optimization of therapy and management. However, meningitis due to viral agents or

  18. Irradiated or aseptically prepared frozen dairy desserts: acceptability to bone marrow transplant recipients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, F.M.; Hashisaka, A.E.; Rasco, B.A.; Einstein, M.A.; Mar, D.R.; Aker, S.N.

    1992-01-01

    Sterile ice cream and frozen yogurt were offered to immunosuppressed patients recovering from bone marrow transplantation. To obtain sterile products, two of the dairy desserts (prepackaged ice cream and frozen yogurt bars) were exposed to 40 kGy of cobalt 60 irradiation. Four different flavors of ice cream were aseptically prepared under a laminar airflow hood using commercially sterilized ingredients. A commercially sterile, frozen milk-based drink on the low-microbial menu served as the control. Ratings of the seven products by 17 patients indicated that a frozen vanilla milk-based drink and aseptically prepared chocolate ice cream were highly acceptable to recovering immunosuppressed patients who have difficulty eating most foods. However, the seven desserts received higher ratings from a sensory panel of healthy individuals than from the patient panel, confirming that new foods for the low-microbial diet should be ''market-tested'' by the targeted patient population before inclusion in the menu

  19. Irradiated or aseptically prepared frozen dairy desserts: acceptability to bone marrow transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, F M; Hashisaka, A E; Rasco, B A; Einstein, M A; Mar, D R; Aker, S N

    1992-06-01

    Sterile ice cream and frozen yogurt were offered to immunosuppressed patients recovering from bone marrow transplantation. To obtain sterile products, two of the dairy desserts (prepackaged ice cream and frozen yogurt bars) were exposed to 40 kGy of cobalt 60 irradiation. Four different flavors of ice cream were aseptically prepared under a laminar airflow hood using commercially sterilized ingredients. A commercially sterile, frozen milk-based drink on the low-microbial menu served as the control. Ratings of the seven products by 17 patients indicated that a frozen vanilla milk-based drink and aseptically prepared chocolate ice cream were highly acceptable to recovery immunosuppressed patients who have difficulty eating most foods. However, the seven desserts received higher ratings from a sensory panel of healthy individuals than from the patient panel, confirming that new foods for the low-microbial diet should be "market-tested" by the targeted patient population before inclusion in the menu.

  20. A case of aseptic vertebral necrosis in the context of metastatic lumbar disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panow, C.; Valavanis, A.

    2002-01-01

    Aseptic bone necrosis has many well recognized etiologies: caisson disease, corticosteroids, alcohol, Gaucher's disease and sickle cell anemia being a few of a long list. Little attention has been paid to metastatic disease as a possible cause and we were unable to find reference in the literature to this association. We present imaging features of metastatic Ewing's sarcoma involving the vertebral spine, which, in certain aspects, mimics other well-known entities of this region, such as Kuemmell's and Scheuermann's diseases. (orig.)

  1. Epidemiological and clinical studies on aseptic meningitis in 377 cases, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Masaaki; Kondo, Tomio; Takashima, Akira; Kono, Shinya; Yamashina, Manabu

    1984-01-01

    Brain CT scan performed in the acute phase of aseptic meningitis in 88 cases revealed abnormal findings in 5 consisting of 2 of cerebral edema, 2 of subdural hygroma and one of cerebral atrophy. Clinical findings showed no particular relation to the age, but cerebral edema was observed in the cases of possible cephalomeningitis diagnosed on the basis of accompanying convulsion and disturbance of consciousness. Abnormal findings were associated with 25% of symptoms diagnosed more than 4 days after onset. (Chiba, N.)

  2. Correlation of quantitative histopathological morphology and quantitative radiological analysis during aseptic loosening of hip endoprostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertz, S; Kriegsmann, J; Eckardt, A; Delank, K-S; Drees, P; Hansen, T; Otto, M

    2006-01-01

    Aseptic hip prosthesis loosening is the most important long-term complication in total hip arthroplasty. Polyethylene (PE) wear is the dominant etiologic factor in aseptic loosening, which together with other factors induces mechanisms resulting in bone loss, and finally in implant loosening. The single-shot radiograph analysis (EBRA, abbreviation for the German term "Einzel-Bild-Röntgenanalyse") is a computerized method for early radiological prediction of aseptic loosening. In this study, EBRA parameters were correlated with histomorphological parameters of the periprosthetic membrane. Periprosthetic membranes obtained from 19 patients during revision surgery of loosened ABG I-type total hip pros-theses were analyzed histologically and morphometrically. The pre-existing EBRA parameters, the thickness of the PE debris lay-er and the dimension of inclination and anteversion, were compared with the density of macrophages and giant cells. Addi-tionally, the semiquantitatively determined density of lymphocytes, plasma cells, giant cells and the size of the necrotic areas were correlated with the EBRA results. All periprosthetic membranes were classified as debris-induced type membranes. We found a positive correlation between the number of giant cells and the thickness of the PE debris layer. There was no significant correlation between the number of macrophages or all semiquantitative parameters and EBRA parameters. The number of giant cells decreased with implant duration. The morphometrically measured number of foreign body giant cells more closely reflects the results of the EBRA. The semiquantitative estimation of giant cell density could not substitute for the morphometrical analysis. The density of macrophages, lymphocytes, plasma cells and the size of necrotic areas did not correlate with the EBRA parameters, indicating that there is no correlation with aseptic loosening.

  3. Mitigated infection in so called aseptic loosening of the total endoprosthesis of the big joints

    OpenAIRE

    Koudela, Karel

    2008-01-01

    The theme of the work is infection in the aseptic loosening of total joint replacement of large joints. Thesis topic is very timely, since inflammatory complications accompanying large joint arthroplasty is one of the causes of failure of total joint replacement and subsequent revision surgery represents a major problem of health, social and economic. PhD thesis summarizes the known aspects of this issue.

  4. Design of equipment safety & reliability for an aseptic liquid food packaging line through maintenance engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Riccetti, Sauro

    2011-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. The organisation of maintenance, in the Aseptic Liquid Food (ALF) industry, represents an important management task that enables a company to pursue higher manufacturing effectiveness and improved market share. This research is concerned with the process to design and implement maintenance tasks. These two complementary processes (design and implementation) have been thought and designed to a...

  5. Validation of the aseptic filling at the Parenteral Products Plant 3 in BioCen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisol Álvarez-González

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available As part of the continuous improvement process, a new parenterals production plant (PPP3 was constructed at the National Center for Bioproducts. The validation of the aseptic filling process is a key element to carry out before manufacturing products. Therefore, the aim of this work was to obtain documented evidence that all the operations were carried out according the regulations of Good Manufacturing Practices for liquid and lyophilized sterile products during the aseptic filling at the Parenterals Product Plant 3. The study was designed for lyophilized products connected to the manifold of the peristaltic pump and to the four rotary piston pumps. Besides, during the filling operation four interventions were planned. The validation was carried out with three consecutive batches of media fill. In the first processed lot no vial was contaminated, but in the second and third lots there was one contaminated vial. For that reason, an investigation was performed in order to know the cause of the contamination. Finally, with this wok the validated condition was obtained, following the regulations of Good Manufacturing Practices for sterile liquids and lyophilizes products during the aseptic filling process at the Parenterals Products Plant 3.

  6. Survey to explore understanding of the principles of aseptic technique: Qualitative content analysis with descriptive analysis of confidence and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Dinah J; Chudleigh, Jane; Purssell, Edward; Hawker, Clare; Gaze, Sarah; James, Deborah; Lynch, Mary; Pope, Nicola; Drey, Nicholas

    2018-04-01

    In many countries, aseptic procedures are undertaken by nurses in the general ward setting, but variation in practice has been reported, and evidence indicates that the principles underpinning aseptic technique are not well understood. A survey was conducted, employing a brief, purpose-designed, self-reported questionnaire. The response rate was 72%. Of those responding, 65% of nurses described aseptic technique in terms of the procedure used to undertake it, and 46% understood the principles of asepsis. The related concepts of cleanliness and sterilization were frequently confused with one another. Additionally, 72% reported that they not had received training for at least 5 years; 92% were confident of their ability to apply aseptic technique; and 90% reported that they had not been reassessed since their initial training. Qualitative analysis confirmed a lack of clarity about the meaning of aseptic technique. Nurses' understanding of aseptic technique and the concepts of sterility and cleanliness is inadequate, a finding in line with results of previous studies. This knowledge gap potentially places patients at risk. Nurses' understanding of the principles of asepsis could be improved. Further studies should establish the generalizability of the study findings. Possible improvements include renewed emphasis during initial nurse education, greater opportunity for updating knowledge and skills post-qualification, and audit of practice. Copyright © 2018 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Legal, ethical, and procedural bases for the use of aseptic techniques to implant electronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahy, Daniel M.

    2013-01-01

    animals often mask the signs of infection to avoid attracting predators (Wobeser 2006). Guidance specific to sterilization of electronic devices for implantation is limited in the wildlife record (Burger et al. 1994; Mulcahy 2003). Few biologists have been formally trained in aseptic technique, but most biologists know that electronic devices should be treated in some way to reduce the chance for infection of the host animal by bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi. Most biologists (73%) who implant devices into fishes believe aseptic techniques are important (Wagner and Cooke 2005). However, I maintain that many biologists find it difficult to place the concept of asepsis into practice in their work because of confusion about what constitutes aseptic technique, a lack of surgical knowledge and training, the perception of increased costs, or the belief that aseptic surgeries are impractical or unnecessary for their application. Some have even argued that, while compromising surgical techniques in the field might result in complications or mortalities, the money saved would allow for a compensatory increase in sample size (Anderson and Talcott 2006). In this paper I define aseptic surgical techniques, document the legal and professional guidance for performing aseptic surgeries on wild animals, and present options for sterilizing electronic devices and surgical instruments for field use.

  8. Aseptic necrosis of the femoral head after pregnancy: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassar, Kawtar; Rachidi, Wafae; Janani, Saadia; Mkinsi, Ouafa

    2016-01-01

    A documented case of beginning aseptic necrosis of the femoral head associated with pregnancy together with a review of the literature about this rare complication of pregnancy is presented. The known risk factors of osteonecrosis are; steroid use, alcoholism, organ transplantation, especially after kidney transplant or bone marrow transplantation bone, systemic lupus erythematosus, dyslipidemia especially hypertriglyceridemia, dysbaric decompression sickness, drepanocytosis and Gaucher's disease. Among the less established factors, we mention procoagulations abnormalities, HIV infection, chemotherapy. We report a case of osteonecrosis of femoral head after pregnancy.

  9. Influence of recycling rate increase of aseptic carton for long-life milk on GWP reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mourad, Anna Lucia; Garcia, Eloisa E.C.; Vilela, Gustavo Braz; Von Zuben, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    Tetra Pak, through intensive cooperation with its supply chain, increased the post-consumer recycling rate of the aseptic packaging for long-life milk in the last 10 years. In continuation of a previous study that presented a superior overall performance in terms of reduction of the consumption of natural resources, air emissions and most of the water emissions, the objective of the present work was to apply life cycle assessment (LCA) to measure the global warming potential (GWP). The system was assessed using as functional unit 1000 liters of milk packaged in Tetra Pak Aseptic containers. The reduction of greenhouse gas emissions was calculated for recycling rates of 2%, 22%, 30%, 40% and 70% of the post-consumer residues in Scenarios I (only cardboard recycling) and II (total aseptic laminate recycling). Scenario I showed a 14% reduction in GWP, representing 26 kg of avoided CO 2 equiv. emitted due to the efforts of Tetra Pak to increase the recycling rate from 2% (2000) to 22% (2004). If it will be possible to increase the recycling rate to 70% of post-consumer packages in the future, a 48% reduction of GWP could be attained. Methane exhibited the greatest mass reduction among the greenhouse emissions, since it is emitted during the production of cardboard and also as a result of anaerobic degradation in landfills. The total reduction of the energy requirements of the system due to the increase of the recycling rate (from 2% to 22%) is 154 MJ/1000 liters, a saving of 7%. Scenario II (which considers additional polyethylene and aluminum recycling) has a smaller effect on GWP reduction than Scenario I, since PE/AL represent only 25% of the total mass of the container. The major benefit of the recycling of aseptic cartons is the reduction of the amounts of virgin materials required and the consequent reduction of air emissions. The results of this study can be used to encourage the collection of post-consumer milk cartons as part of environmental education

  10. A Fuzzy Expert System for Distinguishing between Bacterial and Aseptic Meningitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Langarizadeh

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Bacterial meningitis is a known infectious disease which occurs at early ages and should be promptly diagnosed and treated. Bacterial and aseptic meningitis are hard to be distinguished. Therefore, physicians should be highly informed and experienced in this area. The main aim of this study was to suggest a system for distinguishing between bacterial and aseptic meningitis, using fuzzy logic.    Materials and Methods In the first step, proper attributes were selected using Weka 3.6.7 software. Six attributes were selected using Attribute Evaluator, InfoGainAttributeEval, and Ranker search method items. Then, a fuzzy inference engine was designed using MATLAB software, based on Mamdani’s fuzzy logic method with max-min composition, prod-probor, and centroid defuzzification. The rule base consisted of eight rules, based on the experience of three specialists and information extracted from textbooks. Results Data were extracted from 106 records of patients with meningitis (42 cases with bacterial meningitis in order to evaluate the proposed system. The system accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity were 89%, 92 %, and 97%, respectively. The area under the ROC curve was 0.93, and Kappa test revealed a good level of agreement (k=0.84, P

  11. Irradiation as a means of sterilizing packaging materials for aseptic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blundell, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    Long shelf life of foodstuffs is essential in order to feed the nations of the world. For 'wet' products which quickly deteriorate in air, the use of refrigeration, retort processing and preservatives can be considered. For example, the metal can will continue to be a reliable means of keeping meat and vegetable products in good condition for long periods at ambient conditons. Today, people require food items to be free of preservatives and with a flavour and texture very close to the original, at all times of the year, at lowest cost. Minimal heat processing and immediate filling into a pre-sterilised container without any possibility of contact with the atmosphere, is the logical route to take to meet these requirements and constitutes an aseptic system. The filled product remains in prime condition for many months without the need for refrigeration and preservatives. Irradiation is a convenient and cheap means of pre-sterilising plastic bags for Bag-in-Box systems and the writer will describe how fruit juices and fruit purees are now being packaged aseptically in South Africa and overseas

  12. [Validation of a clinical prediction rule to distinguish bacterial from aseptic meningitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agüero, Gonzalo; Davenport, María C; Del Valle, María de la P; Gallegos, Paulina; Kannemann, Ana L; Bokser, Vivian; Ferrero, Fernando

    2010-02-01

    Despite most meningitis are not bacterial, antibiotics are usually administered on admission because bacterial meningitis is difficult to be rule-out. Distinguishing bacterial from aseptic meningitis on admission could avoid inappropriate antibiotic use and hospitalization. We aimed to validate a clinical prediction rule to distinguish bacterial from aseptic meningitis in children, on arriving to the emergency room. This prospective study included patients aged or = 1000 cells/mm(3), CSF protein > or = 80 mg/dl, peripheral blood absolute neutrophil count > or = 10.000/mm(3), seizure = 1 point each. Sensitivity (S), specificity (E), positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV), positive and negative likelihood ratios (PLR and NLR) of the BMS to predict bacterial meningitis were calculated. Seventy patients with meningitis were included (14 bacterial meningitis). When BMS was calculated, 25 patients showed a BMS= 0 points, 11 BMS= 1 point, and 34 BMS > or = 2 points. A BMS = 0 showed S: 100%, E: 44%, VPP: 31%, VPN: 100%, RVP: 1,81 RVN: 0. A BMS > or = 2 predicted bacterial meningitis with S: 100%, E: 64%, VPP: 41%, VPN: 100%, PLR: 2.8, NLR:0. Using BMS was simple, and allowed identifying children with very low risk of bacterial meningitis. It could be a useful tool to assist clinical decision making.

  13. Ionizing radiations in aseptic bottling: a comparison between technologies and safety requirements [beverages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottani, E.; Rizzo, R.; Vignali, G.

    2006-01-01

    Ionizing radiations, commonly adopted in the medical field, are recently experiencing a wide diffusion in industrials applications. One of the most widespread uses of ionizing radiations refers to foodstuffs and packaging sterilization. In the aseptic bottling area, the application of this technology on polymeric caps is quickly developing. In such application, sterilization could be obtained with beta-rays, generated by an electron beam, or with gamma-rays, emitted by a radioactive source. After a brief explanation of physical properties of ionizing radiations, the aim of this paper is to discuss the use of radiations in aseptic bottling. Based on results available in literature, radiations effects on treated materials are discussed, as well as safety requirements aiming at reducing risks related to radiation exposure. Finally, sterilization plants with gamma and beta radiation are compared, with the aim of examining functioning principles and management complexity. As a result of the comparison between the two technologies, the electron beam (beta-rays) adoption for caps sterilization process proves to be preferable [it

  14. Impact of donor arm cleaning with different aseptic solutions for prevention of contamination in blood bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Tanvi G; Shukla, Rinku V; Gupte, Snehalata C

    2013-03-01

    Transfusion associated sepsis cases are encountered occasionally and bacterial transmission remains the major cause. The goal of our study was to compare the efficacy of disinfectants in phlebotomy site preparation. After selection of donor the antecubital fossa area of the arm was disinfected with different types of disinfectants namely sprit (70% isopropyl alcohol), povidone iodine (0.5% w/v available iodine in distilled water), savlon (1.5% v/v chlorhexidine gluconate solution and 3.0% cetrimide solution) and combination of sprit and povidone iodine. Swabs were collected from 20 donors using a sterile forceps, after cleaning with different antiseptic solutions. Swab was streaked on blood agar plate aseptically and the plate was incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Colonies were counted and a single colony was re-cultured by growing on nutrient and Mac-Conkey agar. The biochemical characteristics were determined by performing Gram staining, Motility, Catalase and Oxidase tests. The mean values of colonies were significantly higher with savlon compared to other three solutions. The difference was statistically significant by "t" test (t values 1.7-3.0; P bag were aseptically inoculated in aerobic and anaerobic culture bottles to be tested on BacT/Alert system. The bag containing donor's blood did not show any contamination when three cleanings were carried out using sprit, povidone iodine and spirit respectively.

  15. Potential application of quantitative microbiological risk assessment techniques to an aseptic-UHT process in the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol, Laure; Albert, Isabelle; Johnson, Nicholas Brian; Membré, Jeanne-Marie

    2013-04-01

    Aseptic ultra-high-temperature (UHT)-type processed food products (e.g., milk or soup) are ready to eat products which are consumed extensively globally due to a combination of their comparative high quality and long shelf life, with no cold chain or other preservation requirements. Due to the inherent microbial vulnerability of aseptic-UHT product formulations, the safety and stability-related performance objectives (POs) required at the end of the manufacturing process are the most demanding found in the food industry. The key determinants to achieving sterility, and which also differentiates aseptic-UHT from in-pack sterilised products, are the challenges associated with the processes of aseptic filling and sealing. This is a complex process that has traditionally been run using deterministic or empirical process settings. Quantifying the risk of microbial contamination and recontamination along the aseptic-UHT process, using the scientifically based process quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA), offers the possibility to improve on the currently tolerable sterility failure rate (i.e., 1 defect per 10,000 units). In addition, benefits of applying QMRA are (i) to implement process settings in a transparent and scientific manner; (ii) to develop a uniform common structure whatever the production line, leading to a harmonisation of these process settings, and; (iii) to bring elements of a cost-benefit analysis of the management measures. The objective of this article is to explore how QMRA techniques and risk management metrics may be applied to aseptic-UHT-type processed food products. In particular, the aseptic-UHT process should benefit from a number of novel mathematical and statistical concepts that have been developed in the field of QMRA. Probabilistic techniques such as Monte Carlo simulation, Bayesian inference and sensitivity analysis, should help in assessing the compliance with safety and stability-related POs set at the end of the manufacturing

  16. A diagnostic dilemma: drug-induced aseptic meningitis in a 45-year-old HIV-positive man.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rowley, D

    2014-03-01

    We describe a case of aseptic meningitis following the administration of moxifloxacin in a 45-year-old man with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). At presentation he was receiving tuberculosis treatment on a modified regimen following severe hepatotoxicity; this included moxifloxacin, started 8 days previously. Initial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis was grossly abnormal. Anti-viral and -bacterial treatments were started. All microbiological tests proved negative and his moxifloxacin was withheld resulting in a complete normalisation of CSF. Drug-induced aseptic meningitis is a diagnosis of exclusion and presents a serious diagnostic dilemma. The decision to withhold medication cannot be taken lightly.

  17. Analysis of enterovirus types in patients with symptoms of aseptic meningitis in 2014 in Shandong, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Peng; Lin, Xiaojuan; Liu, Guifang; Wang, Suting; Song, Lizhi; Tao, Zexin; Xu, Aiqiang

    2018-03-01

    We reviewed the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 927 aseptic meningitis patients in Shandong in 2014, and the phylogeny of predominant enterovirus (EV) types causing this disease was analyzed. A total of 209 patients that were positive for EV were identified by both cell culture and a reverse transcription-seminested PCR in cerebrospinal fluid samples. The positive patients were most likely to be children within 15 years of age, had symptoms such as fever, vomiting and nausea (P< .05). The 209 EV sequences belonged to 11 types, and coxsackievirus B5, echovirus types 6 and 30 were predominant types. VP1 analysis exhibited multiple lineages were co-circulating. The significance of the study could come from the fact that surveillance is important to monitor the prevalence of EV types in population, which shows enterovirus meningitis maintains an important public health problem in China. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Laser welding of thin polymer films to container substrates for aseptic packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, N.; Kerr, D.; Jackson, M. R.; Parkin, R. M.

    2000-03-01

    Keyhole laser welding of polymers is a subject well covered and researched, but relatively little information exists regarding the welding of thin polymer films, particularly to a heavier substrate. This paper presents the design of a suitable test apparatus for laser welding thin film to a heavier substrate, and shows the results of an investigation into the feasibility of laser welding multi-layer polymer film lids to tubs for the manufacture of aseptic food containers. A consistent weld, free from defects, is the key to process success. Typical welding defects have been synthesised in order to investigate, and consequently remove, their cause. The result is a reliable welding method based on even film clamping. With careful attention to machine design, a seal of high mechanical strength and chemical integrity is possible.

  19. Current literature and imaging techniques of aseptic lymphocyte-dominated vasculitis-associated lesions (ALVAL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duggan, P.J.; Burke, C.J.; Saha, S.; Moonim, M.; George, M.; Desai, A.; Houghton, R.

    2013-01-01

    Aseptic lymphocyte-dominated vasculitis-associated lesions (ALVAL) are a recognized complication of metal-on-metal bearing hip prostheses. There is an impending concern regarding the future investigation and management of patients who have received such implants. The current literature is discussed, and the current guidelines for management of these patients in the UK are reviewed. The various imaging techniques available, such as computed tomography, metal artefact reduction magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasound are discussed and evaluated with respect to the assessment of patients with suspected ALVAL. The histopathological findings are discussed with images of the tissue changes provided. Images of the radiological findings are also provided for all general radiological methods. ALVAL and its radiological presentation is an important issue that unfortunately may become a significant clinical problem

  20. Innovative food processing technology using ohmic heating and aseptic packaging for meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Ruri; Fukuoka, Mika; Hamada-Sato, Naoko

    2014-02-01

    Since the Tohoku earthquake, there is much interest in processed foods, which can be stored for long periods at room temperature. Retort heating is one of the main technologies employed for producing it. We developed the innovative food processing technology, which supersede retort, using ohmic heating and aseptic packaging. Electrical heating involves the application of alternating voltage to food. Compared with retort heating, which uses a heat transfer medium, ohmic heating allows for high heating efficiency and rapid heating. In this paper we ohmically heated chicken breast samples and conducted various tests on the heated samples. The measurement results of water content, IMP, and glutamic acid suggest that the quality of the ohmically heated samples was similar or superior to that of the retort-heated samples. Furthermore, based on the monitoring of these samples, it was observed that sample quality did not deteriorate during storage. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of The American Meat Science Association. All rights reserved.

  1. Childhood Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Childhood Stress KidsHealth / For Parents / Childhood Stress What's in this ... and feel stress to some degree. Sources of Stress Stress is a function of the demands placed ...

  2. Childhood Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SUBSCRIBE Emergency 101 Share this! Home » Emergency 101 Childhood Emergencies Keeping children healthy and safe is every ... and tools to prevent, recognize and address a childhood emergency is the first step in keeping your ...

  3. Reamed intramedullary exchange nailing in the operative treatment of aseptic tibial shaft nonunion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hierholzer, Christian; Friederichs, Jan; Glowalla, Claudio; Woltmann, Alexander; Bühren, Volker; von Rüden, Christian

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a standardized treatment protocol regarding the rate of secondary bone union, complications, and functional outcome. This study was started as a prospective study in a single Level I Trauma Centre between 2003 and 2012. The study group consisted of 188 patients with the diagnosis of an aseptic tibial shaft nonunion. Exchange nailing was performed following a standardized surgical protocol. Long-term follow-up was analyzed for rate of bone healing and functional outcome. Osseous healing was achieved in 182 out of 188 patients (97 %). In 165 out of 188 patients (88 %), bone healing was observed timely and uneventfully after a single exchange nailing procedure. An open approach was necessary in 32 patients (17 %). Twenty-three patients (12 %) required additional therapy such as extracorporeal shock wave therapy. Post-operative complications were observed in seven patients (4 %). Almost all patients demonstrated osseous healing within 12 months, with the majority of osseous healing occurring within six months. A relevant shortening of the fractured tibia was observed in 20 out of 188 patients (11 %). After a median follow-up of 23 months (range 12-45 months), outcome was evaluated using the assessment system of Friedman/Wyman. In summary, 154 out of 188 patients (82 %) had a good functional long-term result. Reamed intramedullary exchange nailing including correction of axis alignment is a safe and effective treatment of aseptic tibial shaft nonunion with a high rate of bone healing and a good radiological and functional long-term outcome.

  4. USE OF SCORE AND CEREBROSPINAL FLUID LACTATE DOSAGE IN DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS OF BACTERIAL AND ASEPTIC MENINGITIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Frederico Ribeiro; Franco, Andréia Christine Bonotto Farias; Gilio, Alfredo Elias; Troster, Eduardo Juan

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate Bacterial Meningitis Score (BMS) on its own and in association with Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) lactate dosage in order to distinguish bacterial from aseptic meningitis. Children diagnosed with meningitis at a tertiary hospital between January/2011 and December/2014 were selected. All data were obtained upon admission. BMS was applied and included: CSF Gram staining (2 points); CSF neutrophil count ≥1,000 cells/mm3 (1 point); CSF protein ≥80 mg/dL (1 point); peripheral blood neutrophil count ≥10,000 cells/mm3 (1 point) and seizures upon/before arrival (1 point). Cutoff value for CSF lactate was ≥30 mg/dL. Sensitivity, specificity and negative predictive value of several BMS cutoffs and BMS associated with high CSF lactate were evaluated for prediction of bacterial meningitis. Among 439 eligible patients, 94 did not have all data available to complete the score, and 345 patients were included: 7 in bacterial meningitis group and 338 in aseptic meningitis group. As predictive factors of bacterial meningitis, BMS ≥1 had 100% sensitivity (95%CI 47.3-100), 64.2% specificity (58.8-100) and 100% negative predictive value (97.5-100); BMS ≥2 or BMS ≥1 associated with high CSF lactate also showed 100% sensitivity (47.3-100); but 98.5% specificity (96.6-99.5) and 100% negative predictive value (98.3-100). 2 point BMS in association with CSF lactate dosage had the same sensitivity and negative predictive value, with increased specificity for diagnosis of bacterial meningitis when compared with 1-point BMS.

  5. Childhood Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Trandafir, Laura Mihaela; Ioniuc, Ileana; Miron, Ingrith

    2017-01-01

    Childhood obesity has important consequences for health and wellbeing both during childhood and also in later adult life. The rising prevalence of childhood obesity poses a major public health challenge in both developed and developing countries by increasing the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases. Despite the urgent need for effective preventative strategies, there remains disagreement over its definition due to a lack of evidence on the optimal cut-offs linking childhood BMI to dis...

  6. Iron Supplementation Effects on Redox Status following Aseptic Skeletal Muscle Trauma in Adults and Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chariklia K. Deli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exercise-induced skeletal muscle microtrauma is characterized by loss of muscle cell integrity, marked aseptic inflammatory response, and oxidative stress. We examined if iron supplementation would alter redox status after eccentric exercise. In a randomized, double blind crossover study, that was conducted in two cycles, healthy adults (n=14 and children (n=11 received daily either 37 mg of elemental iron or placebo for 3 weeks prior to and up to 72 h after an acute eccentric exercise bout. Blood was drawn at baseline, before exercise, and 72 h after exercise for the assessment of iron status, creatine kinase activity (CK, and redox status. Iron supplementation at rest increased iron concentration and transferrin saturation (p<0.01. In adults, CK activity increased at 72 h after exercise, while no changes occurred in children. Iron supplementation increased TBARS at 72 h after exercise in both adults and children; no changes occurred under placebo condition. Eccentric exercise decreased bilirubin concentration at 72 h in all groups. Iron supplementation can alter redox responses after muscle-damaging exercise in both adults and children. This could be of great importance not only for healthy exercising individuals, but also in clinical conditions which are characterized by skeletal muscle injury and inflammation, yet iron supplementation is crucial for maintaining iron homeostasis. This study was registered at Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02374619.

  7. Utilization of Aseptic Seedling Explants for In vitro Propagation of Indian Red Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishore Kumar CHIRUVELLA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Micropropagation has been advocated as one of the most viable biotechnological tool for ex situ conservation of rare, endangered endemic medicinal plants germplasm. Rapid clonal micropropagation protocol for large-scale multiplication of an endemic medicinal plant Soymida febrifuga (Meliaceae was established from 15-day aseptic seedling cotyledonary node and shoot tip explants. High frequency of sprouting and shoot differentiation was observed from cotyledonary node explants compared to shoot tip, on Murashige and Skoog (MS medium fortified with BA, KN, 2-iP and CM. Of the cytokinins used, BA (3.0 mgl-1 supported highest average number and maximum multiple shoot differentiation (16.6. In vitro proliferated shoots were multiplied rapidly by culturing nodal segments as microcuttings, further subcultured on the same media for elongation. Elongated shoots upon transfer to MS medium fortified with IBA showed rooting within two weeks of culture. Rooted plantlets were successfully hardened and 75% of rooted shoots successfully survived on establishment to the soil. Plants looked healthy with no visually detectable phenotypic variations. This protocol provides a successful and rapid technique that can be used for ex situ conservation minimizing the pressure on wild populations and contributes to the conservation of this endemic medicinally potent flora.

  8. Effect of pilot-scale aseptic processing on tomato soup quality parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colle, Ines J P; Andrys, Anna; Grundelius, Andrea; Lemmens, Lien; Löfgren, Anders; Buggenhout, Sandy Van; Loey, Ann; Hendrickx, Marc Van

    2011-01-01

    Tomatoes are often processed into shelf-stable products. However, the different processing steps might have an impact on the product quality. In this study, a model tomato soup was prepared and the impact of pilot-scale aseptic processing, including heat treatment and high-pressure homogenization, on some selected quality parameters was evaluated. The vitamin C content, the lycopene isomer content, and the lycopene bioaccessibility were considered as health-promoting attributes. As a structural characteristic, the viscosity of the tomato soup was investigated. A tomato soup without oil as well as a tomato soup containing 5% olive oil were evaluated. Thermal processing had a negative effect on the vitamin C content, while lycopene degradation was limited. For both compounds, high-pressure homogenization caused additional losses. High-pressure homogenization also resulted in a higher viscosity that was accompanied by a decrease in lycopene bioaccessibility. The presence of lipids clearly enhanced the lycopene isomerization susceptibility and improved the bioaccessibility. The results obtained in this study are of relevance for product formulation and process design of tomato-based food products. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. Iron Supplementation Effects on Redox Status following Aseptic Skeletal Muscle Trauma in Adults and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deli, Chariklia K; Fatouros, Ioannis G; Paschalis, Vassilis; Tsiokanos, Athanasios; Georgakouli, Kalliopi; Zalavras, Athanasios; Avloniti, Alexandra; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z

    2017-01-01

    Exercise-induced skeletal muscle microtrauma is characterized by loss of muscle cell integrity, marked aseptic inflammatory response, and oxidative stress. We examined if iron supplementation would alter redox status after eccentric exercise. In a randomized, double blind crossover study, that was conducted in two cycles, healthy adults ( n = 14) and children ( n = 11) received daily either 37 mg of elemental iron or placebo for 3 weeks prior to and up to 72 h after an acute eccentric exercise bout. Blood was drawn at baseline, before exercise, and 72 h after exercise for the assessment of iron status, creatine kinase activity (CK), and redox status. Iron supplementation at rest increased iron concentration and transferrin saturation ( p exercise, while no changes occurred in children. Iron supplementation increased TBARS at 72 h after exercise in both adults and children; no changes occurred under placebo condition. Eccentric exercise decreased bilirubin concentration at 72 h in all groups. Iron supplementation can alter redox responses after muscle-damaging exercise in both adults and children. This could be of great importance not only for healthy exercising individuals, but also in clinical conditions which are characterized by skeletal muscle injury and inflammation, yet iron supplementation is crucial for maintaining iron homeostasis. This study was registered at Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02374619.

  10. Aseptic Abscesses and Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Two Cases and Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Bollegala

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Aseptic abscesses (AA are sterile lesions that represent an extraintestinal manifestation (EIM of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Though Canada has the highest prevalence of IBD in the world, reports of IBD-associated AA are absent in Canada. This may represent a different IBD phenotype or underrecognition and underreporting. Purpose. To explore AA as a possible EIM of IBD and evaluate clinical and investigative findings among patients with IBD-associated AA. Methods. Retrospective chart and literature reviews were performed to find cases of IBD-associated AA at our institution and in the literature. Results. We identified 2 cases of IBD-associated AA in our institution. Both patients had ulcerative colitis and presented with fever, abdominal pain, and weight loss. Radiological workup and aspiration showed sterile splenic abscesses. The AA were unresponsive to antibiotics. One patient improved on corticosteroids and one underwent splenectomy. We retrieved 37 cases of IBD-associated AA from the literature. All patients showed no evidence of infection, failed to resolve with antibiotics, and, if attempted, improved on corticosteroids. Conclusions. Our cases are the first reported in Canada. They support literature which suggests AA as an EIM of IBD and may help increase recognition and reporting of this phenomenon.

  11. Aseptic necrosis at multiple localisations in a lupus patient with lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazso, A; Bazso, T; Szodoray, P; Poor, G; Kiss, E

    2014-04-01

    Avascular or aseptic necrosis is a well-defined entity leading to the degradation of cellular elements of the bone. The pathogenesis of osteonecrosis (ON) is still unknown. There are two main types of ON: traumatic or non-traumatic. Several clinical entities could associate with ON, systemic diseases, environmental factors, pregnancy, systemic autoimmune or rheumatic diseases, thrombophilia, corticosteroid therapy, cytotoxic dugs, infections, metabolic and hematologic diseases, etc. Corticosteroids (CS) are still the most frequently used therapeutic options in the early phase and during flares of these diseases. Inflammatory cytokines and antibodies have been described to participate in the pathogenesis of ON. The infiltrative disorders of the bone marrow could also contribute to the development of ON. Hereby, we describe a female patient with NHL followed by SLE in whom ON has developed at least in two localisations. Lupus flare, long-term CS therapy, lymphoma relapse or the presence of antiphospholipid antibodies were excluded. Although the bi-localised ON could be contributed to immunologic factors or trauma, the exact aetiology in this case could not be elucidated.

  12. Surgical treatment of isolated aseptic acetabular loosening of the hip joint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvereva К.Р.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aseptic acetabular loosening is one of the most common complications of primary hip arthroplasty Its treatment is possible in the volume of replacement of only the endoprosthesis cup with the preservation of a stable correctly oriented femoral component. The sequence of actions consists of provision of access to the acetabulum component and its replacement, after which the necessary offset is selected by changing the size of the head and installing a new pair of friction. Currently, the vast majority of the installed heads during the primary and revision hip replacement have a standard size forthe cone of the femoral component 12/14mm. According to the observations, in 3% of cases, there are femoral components with non-standard cone sizes 11/13 mm, usually established 7-8 years ago. The absence of heads forthe necessary cone leads to the need to replace the stable correctly oriented femoral component, which is accompanied by an increase in the time of intervention, the volume of intraoperative blood loss and the risk of intraopera-tive peri-prosthetic fracture. We represent the clinical case of a 75-year-old patient with a dislocation of the acetabular component and a stable correctly oriented femoral component, which during the audit intervention due to the lack of heads for an irregular cone size, total replacement of the components was made.

  13. Comparative experimental evaluation of the efficacy of Prostamol Uno and Samprost on rat model of chronic aseptic prostate inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahomova, A V; Borovskaja, T G; Fomina, T I; Ermolaeva, L A; Vychuzhanina, A V; Rumpel, O A; Granstrem, O K; Baranova, O V

    2011-11-01

    Comparative experimental evaluation of the efficiency of prostatotropic drugs Prostamol Uno and Samprost on the model of the chronic aseptic prostate inflammation in rats was performed. It was established that peptide drug Samprost decelerates sclerotic processes in the prostate gland to a greater extent than herbal preparation Prostamol Uno. Both products equally stimulate secretory activity of the gland. Prostamol Uno, unlike Samprost, prevents the development of reduced sexual motivation, one of the complications of chronic prostatitis.

  14. [Serotype distribution of enteroviruses isolated from paediatric cases prediagnosed as aseptic meningitis between 2001-2004 period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkaya, Etem; Uysal, Gülnar; Atak, Tunca; Alkan, Mehmet

    2005-01-01

    Enteroviruses have major clinical and public health importance and are one of the leading causes of aseptic meningitis. There are many diseases with similar clinical symptoms and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings of aseptic meningitis, thus virus isolation and identification is crucial for definitive diagnosis. Virological diagnosis is nonetheless important to distinguish between induced meningitis and other treatable causes of disease with a similar clinical picture. A total of 249 samples obtained from 246 cases (age range: 0-15 years), prediagnosed as aseptic meningitis, were sent to Virology Laboratory of Refik Saydam Hygiene Center. The patients were followed at Department of Pediatric Infectious Diseases in the Social Security Hospital, Ankara, Turkey, between 2001 and 2004. Stool (n: 180), CSF (n: 54) and throat swab (n: 15) samples have been inoculated to RD (rhabdomyosarcoma), Hep-2 (human epithelioma) and L20B (transgenic mice) cell lines, and followed up for the presence of cytopathic effects. A total of 95 enterovirus strains were isolated from 85 (34.6%) cases, and serotyped by using RIVM (National Institute of Public and the Environment, Nederlands) antisera with microneutralization method. As a result, the most frequently isolated types were found as echovirus type 30 (n: 24) and coxsackievirus type B (n: 19), which were most frequently isolated between July to October. This is the first report from Turkey for aseptic meningitis cases due to echovirus type 25 (n:3), 18 (n:2), 14 (n:1), 13 (n:4), 11 (n:6), 9 (n:1), 6 (n:9), 5 (n:1), 4 (n:1) and coxsackievirus type A9 (n:1).

  15. Association between Apoptotis and CD4+/CD8+ T-Lymphocyte Ratio in Aseptic Loosening after Total Hip Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgraeber, Stefan; von Knoch, Marius; Löer, Franz; Brankamp, Jochen; Tsokos, Michael; Grabellus, Florian; Schmid, Kurt Werner; Totsch, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Particle-induced osteolysis is a major cause of aseptic loosening after total joint replacement. While the osteolytic cascade initiated by cytokine release from macrophages has been studied extensively, the involvement of T-lymphocytes in this context is controversial and has been addressed by only a few authors. In a former study we detected that the quantity of T-lymphocytes may be influenced by apoptosis in patients with aseptic loosening. In this study we intended to find out more details about the apoptosis-induced shifting of the T-cell number. We focused our interest on the CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells and their relative ratio. Caspase-3 cleaved was evaluated immunohistochemically to detect apoptotic T-cells in capsules and interface membranes from patients with aseptic hip implant loosening and a varying degree of caspase-3 cleaved expression in CD4+ and CD8+ T-lymphocytes was detected. Moreover, a relationship between the intensity of the apoptotic reactions and the radiological extent of osteolysis was observed. The number of CD4+ cells was decreased in the presence of strong apoptotic reactions, respectively extensive osteolysis, while CD8+ cells were affected to a much lower degree. Thus, the CD4+/CD8+ ratio changed from 1.0 in cases with only small areas of periprosthetic osteolysis and minimally intense apoptosis to 0.33 in cases with large areas of osteolysis. This may suggest a causal relationship between the apoptosis-induced shift in the CD4+/CD8+ ratio and the osteolysis respectively aseptic loosening. It is possible that these findings may lead to a new understanding of particle-induced osteolysis. PMID:19214244

  16. Herpes simplex virus type 2-associated recurrent aseptic (Mollaret's meningitis in genitourinary medicine clinic: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abou-Foul AK

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ahmad K Abou-Foul, Thajunisha M Buhary, Sedki L Gayed Department of Genitourinary Medicine, Royal Blackburn Hospital, East Lancashire Hospitals NHS Trust, Blackburn, UK Introduction: Cases of idiopathic recurrent benign aseptic meningitis were first described by Mollaret. Today, herpes simplex virus (HSV is considered the cause of most cases of Mollaret's meningitis. Case report: A 40-year-old male was referred to our genitourinary medicine clinic with recurrent genital herpetic lesions. He had HSV-2-positive genital ulcers 8 years earlier. One year after the first infection, he developed severe recurrent attacks of headache associated with meningitis symptoms. The results of all radiological and biochemical tests were normal, but the patient reported a correlation between his attacks and genital herpes flare-ups. We diagnosed the patient with Mollaret's meningitis and started him on continuous suppressive acyclovir therapy, which resulted in marked clinical improvement. Discussion: Mollaret's meningitis is a rare form of idiopathic recurrent aseptic meningitis that has a sudden onset, short duration, and spontaneous remission with unpredictable recurrence. We believe that the presence of concurrent or recurrent mucocutaneous herpetic lesions can aid its diagnosis, prior to which, affected patients usually have many unnecessary investigations and treatments. Therefore, detailed sexual history should be sought in all patients with aseptic meningitis, and clinicians should also ask about history of recurrent headaches in all patients with recurrent herpetic anogenital lesions. Continuous suppressive acyclovir therapy may reduce the frequency and severity of attacks and can dramatically improve lifestyle. Keywords: HSV-2 virus, acyclovir, Mollaret's meningitis, recurrent aseptic meningitis, HSV-2 virus, viral meningitis, acyclovir

  17. Successful human infection with P. falciparum using three aseptic Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes: a new model for controlled human malaria infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew B Laurens

    Full Text Available Controlled human malaria infection (CHMI is a powerful method for assessing the efficacy of anti-malaria vaccines and drugs targeting pre-erythrocytic and erythrocytic stages of the parasite. CHMI has heretofore required the bites of 5 Plasmodium falciparum (Pf sporozoite (SPZ-infected mosquitoes to reliably induce Pf malaria. We reported that CHMI using the bites of 3 PfSPZ-infected mosquitoes reared aseptically in compliance with current good manufacturing practices (cGMP was successful in 6 participants. Here, we report results from a subsequent CHMI study using 3 PfSPZ-infected mosquitoes reared aseptically to validate the initial clinical trial. We also compare results of safety, tolerability, and transmission dynamics in participants undergoing CHMI using 3 PfSPZ-infected mosquitoes reared aseptically to published studies of CHMI using 5 mosquitoes. Nineteen adults aged 18-40 years were bitten by 3 Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes infected with the chloroquine-sensitive NF54 strain of Pf. All 19 participants developed malaria (100%; 12 of 19 (63% on Day 11. The mean pre-patent period was 258.3 hours (range 210.5-333.8. The geometric mean parasitemia at first diagnosis by microscopy was 9.5 parasites/µL (range 2-44. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR detected parasites an average of 79.8 hours (range 43.8-116.7 before microscopy. The mosquitoes had a geometric mean of 37,894 PfSPZ/mosquito (range 3,500-152,200. Exposure to the bites of 3 aseptically-raised, PfSPZ-infected mosquitoes is a safe, effective procedure for CHMI in malaria-naïve adults. The aseptic model should be considered as a new standard for CHMI trials in non-endemic areas. Microscopy is the gold standard used for the diagnosis of Pf malaria after CHMI, but qPCR identifies parasites earlier. If qPCR continues to be shown to be highly specific, and can be made to be practical, rapid, and standardized, it should be considered as an alternative for diagnosis

  18. Media-fill simulation tests in manual and robotic aseptic preparation of injection solutions in syringes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krämer, Irene; Federici, Matteo; Kaiser, Vanessa; Thiesen, Judith

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the contamination rate of media-fill products either prepared automated with a robotic system (APOTECAchemo™) or prepared manually at cytotoxic workbenches in the same cleanroom environment and by experienced operators. Media fills were completed by microbiological environmental control in the critical zones and used to validate the cleaning and disinfection procedures of the robotic system. The aseptic preparation of patient individual ready-to-use injection solutions was simulated by using double concentrated tryptic soy broth as growth medium, water for injection and plastic syringes as primary packaging materials. Media fills were either prepared automated (500 units) in the robot or manually (500 units) in cytotoxic workbenches in the same cleanroom over a period of 18 working days. The test solutions were incubated at room temperature (22℃) over 4 weeks. Products were visually inspected for turbidity after a 2-week and 4-week period. Following incubation, growth promotion tests were performed with Staphylococcus epidermidis. During the media-fill procedures, passive air monitoring was performed with settle plates and surface monitoring with contact plates on predefined locations as well as fingerprints. The plates got incubated for 5-7 days at room temperature, followed by 2-3 days at 30-35℃ and the colony forming units (cfu) counted after both periods. The robot was cleaned and disinfected according to the established standard operating procedure on two working days prior to the media-fill session, while on six other working days only six critical components were sanitized at the end of the media-fill sessions. Every day UV irradiation was operated for 4 h after finishing work. None of the 1000 media-fill products prepared in the two different settings showed turbidity after the incubation period thereby indicating no contamination with microorganisms. All products remained uniform, clear, and light

  19. INDIAN CHILDHOOD AND OTHER CHILDHOODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alceu Zoia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to show how children of the Indian community Terena, from North Mato Grosso, live, how they are educated, and what are the conceptions of childhood among the members of this community. Taking childhood in various contexts, we seek to analyze how this education process has been carried out.

  20. Childhood Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Watchdog Ratings Feedback Contact Select Page Childhood Cancer Statistics Home > Cancer Resources > Childhood Cancer Statistics Childhood Cancer Statistics – Graphs and Infographics Number of Diagnoses Incidence Rates ...

  1. Childhood Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... acute types. Symptoms include Infections Fever Loss of appetite Tiredness Easy bruising or bleeding Swollen lymph nodes Night sweats Shortness of breath Pain in the bones or joints Risk factors for childhood leukemia include having a brother ...

  2. Aseptic meningitis outbreak associated with echovirus 30 among high school football players--Los Angeles County, California, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croker, Curtis; Civen, Rachel; Keough, Kathleen; Ngo, Van; Marutani, Amy; Schwartz, Benjamin

    2015-01-02

    On August 4, 2014, the Acute Communicable Disease Control Program of the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health received a report of three aseptic meningitis cases among football players at a county high school. An investigation was conducted to determine the extent of the outbreak, identify potential exposures, and recommend control measures. An outbreak-associated aseptic meningitis case was defined as an illness of any team or family member with onset during July 28-August 11 with 1) cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis and negative bacterial culture or 2) an emergency department visit with headache, fever, and stiff neck. Ten cases were identified; nine in males, and one in a female; patient ages ranged from 13 to 17 years. All the patients sought care at an emergency department, and five were hospitalized, resulting in 12 total hospital days. All 10 patients have recovered. Eight patients were football players, and two were siblings of football players. The most affected subgroup was the junior varsity football team, with seven cases out of 57 players (attack rate = 12.3%); the relative risk for aseptic meningitis was higher among players who were linemen than among those who were not linemen (relative risk = 5.4 [p = 0.03]). Of the 10 patients, eight tested positive by polymerase chain reaction for enterovirus, and two were not tested. Echovirus testing was performed at the California Viral and Rickettsial Disease Laboratory. Of the eight specimens testing positive for enterovirus, seven tested positive for echovirus 30, and one specimen could not be typed because of insufficient quantity.

  3. Percutaneous bone cement refixation of aseptically loose hip prostheses: the effect of interface tissue removal on injected cement volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malan, Daniel F. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Orthopaedics, Leiden (Netherlands); Delft University of Technology, Department of Intelligent Systems, Delft (Netherlands); Valstar, Edward R. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Orthopaedics, Leiden (Netherlands); Delft University of Technology, Department of Biomechanical Engineering, Delft (Netherlands); Nelissen, Rob G.H.H. [Leiden University Medical Center, Department of Orthopaedics, Leiden (Netherlands)

    2014-11-15

    To quantify whether injected cement volumes differed between two groups of patients who underwent experimental minimally invasive percutaneous cement injection procedures to stabilize aseptically loose hip prostheses. One patient group was preoperatively treated using gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy to remove fibrous interface tissue, while the other group received no preoperative treatment. It was hypothesized that cement penetration may have been inhibited by the presence of fibrous interface tissue in periprosthetic lesions. We analyzed 17 patients (14 female, 3 male, ages 72-91, ASA categories 2-4) who were treated at our institution. Osteolytic lesions and injected cement were manually delineated using 3D CT image segmentation, and the deposition of injected cement was quantified. Patients who underwent preoperative gene-directed enzyme therapy to remove fibrous tissue exhibited larger injected cement volumes than those who did not. The observed median increase in injected cement volume was 6.8 ml. Higher cement leakage volumes were also observed for this group. We conclude that prior removal of periprosthetic fibrous interface tissue may enable better cement flow and penetration. This might lead to better refixation of aseptically loosened prostheses. (orig.)

  4. In vitro comparison of the biological activity of alumina ceramic and titanium particles associated with aseptic loosening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Yue; Qin Chuqiang; Xu Jie; Huang Dongsheng; Fu Yuru

    2012-01-01

    Prosthetic wear particles are thought to play a central role in the initiation and development of periprosthetic osteolysis, leading to aseptic loosening of prostheses. This study aimed to compare the biological activity of ceramic and titanium particles that are associated with particle-induced, aseptic joint loosening. Different sizes of alumina-ceramic particles and titanium particles were prepared to stimulate murine macrophage cells RAW 264.7, of which the expressions of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) were measured by qPCR and ELISA at various time points. In the presence of all particles, the expression of TNF-alpha increased in a time-dependent manner, whereas the expression of RANKL showed no regular expression patterns. Notably, particles of smaller sizes provoked significantly higher levels of TNF-alpha and RANKL than those of larger sizes. Compared to the titanium particles, the ceramic particles provoked a significantly lower production of TNF-alpha. Thus, the bioactivities of titanium and alumina ceramic particles were inversely proportional to the sizes of the particles, and the expression of RANKL was not parallel to that of TNF-alpha. The successful outcome of ceramic-on-ceramic artificial joint prostheses may be attributed to the low biological activity of ceramic particles, as evidenced here. (paper)

  5. Description of a widespread outbreak of aseptic meningitis due to echovirus 30 in Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Laerte Pinto Junior

    Full Text Available Echovirus 30 belongs to the genus Enterovirus and is widely associated with aseptic meningitis (AM outbreaks. In Brazil epidemics due to this serotype were reported in several states but in Rio de Janeiro, before this study, it was only involved in sporadic episodes. We retrospectively collected data from AM notifications charts and enterovirus isolation database from Rio de Janeiro State Health Department (RJSHD and Enterovirus Reference Laboratory in the year of 2005. An outbreak of AM was detected during March, April and May associated with a high cell culture isolation rate for echovirus 30 (17.4%. Male children with ages varying from 1 to 9 years were more affected. Of the 22 patients with confirmed echovirus 30 disease, clinical information was available in eight; fever, headache and vomiting were the most common manifestations. CSF analysis showed a typical pattern of viral infection with median of cellularity of 100 cells/mm³ and mononuclear cell predominance in 64.7% of the cases. The median of protein and glucose levels of 49 mg/dL and 56.5 mg/dL. The fatality rate was null. Despite its benign course and the lack of treatment options, aseptic meningitis surveillance is crucial for early identification of causative agents of outbreaks, which helps to avoid additional testing and inappropriate use of antimicrobials.

  6. Childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabin, M A; Shield, J P H

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood obesity continues to increase worldwide. Its presence is associated with significant adverse effects on health including an increased propensity to type II diabetes, cardiovascular, respiratory, and liver disease. In the vast majority of children, obesity is lifestyle-related, yet there is a dearth of evidence on how to best develop effective prevention and treatment strategies. This review outlines the importance of childhood and adolescent growth on long-term health, the definitions used to define obesity in children (along with up-to-date prevalence data), causes and consequences, and aspects of prevention and management.

  7. Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuca, Sevil Ari, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book aims to provide readers with a general as well as an advanced overview of the key trends in childhood obesity. Obesity is an illness that occurs due to a combination of genetic, environmental, psychosocial, metabolic and hormonal factors. The prevalence of obesity has shown a great rise both in adults and children in the last 30 years.…

  8. Mechanical instability and titanium particles induce similar transcriptomic changes in a rat model for periprosthetic osteolysis and aseptic loosening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Amirhosseini

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Wear debris particles released from prosthetic bearing surfaces and mechanical instability of implants are two main causes of periprosthetic osteolysis. While particle-induced loosening has been studied extensively, mechanisms through which mechanical factors lead to implant loosening have been less investigated. This study compares the transcriptional profiles associated with osteolysis in a rat model for aseptic loosening, induced by either mechanical instability or titanium particles. Rats were exposed to mechanical instability or titanium particles. After 15 min, 3, 48 or 120 h from start of the stimulation, gene expression changes in periprosthetic bone tissue was determined by microarray analysis. Microarray data were analyzed by PANTHER Gene List Analysis tool and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA. Both types of osteolytic stimulation led to gene regulation in comparison to unstimulated controls after 3, 48 or 120 h. However, when mechanical instability was compared to titanium particles, no gene showed a statistically significant difference (fold change ≥ ±1.5 and adjusted p-value ≤ 0.05 at any time point. There was a remarkable similarity in numbers and functional classification of regulated genes. Pathway analysis showed several inflammatory pathways activated by both stimuli, including Acute Phase Response signaling, IL-6 signaling and Oncostatin M signaling. Quantitative PCR confirmed the changes in expression of key genes involved in osteolysis observed by global transcriptomics. Inflammatory mediators including interleukin (IL-6, IL-1β, chemokine (C-C motif ligand (CCL2, prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase (Ptgs2 and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF showed strong upregulation, as assessed by both microarray and qPCR. By investigating genome-wide expression changes we show that, despite the different nature of mechanical implant instability and titanium particles, osteolysis seems to be induced through similar biological

  9. Intramedullary nailing for the treatment of aseptic femoral shaft non-unions after plating failure: effectiveness and timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megas, Panagiotis; Syggelos, Spyros A; Kontakis, Georgios; Giannakopoulos, Andreas; Skouteris, Georgios; Lambiris, Elias; Panagiotopoulos, Elias

    2009-07-01

    This retrospective, multicentre study aimed to evaluate reamed intramedullary nailing (IMN) for the treatment of 30 cases of aseptic femoral shaft non-union after plating failure. Following nailing, 29 non-unions had healed by a mean 7.93 months. In one case a hypertrophic non-union required renailing after 8 months, using a nail of greater diameter, and united within five further months. Healing times were not related to whether the fracture was open or closed, the type non-union or the type of fracture. The delay from the initial plating to intramedullary nailing had a statistically significant effect on healing time and final outcome. This treatment is cost effective and should be implemented as soon as the non-union is diagnosed.

  10. Metal is not inert: role of metal ions released by biocorrosion in aseptic loosening--current concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadosch, Dieter; Chan, Erwin; Gautschi, Oliver P; Filgueira, Luis

    2009-12-15

    Metal implants are essential therapeutic tools for the treatment of bone fractures and joint replacements. The metals and metal alloys used in contemporary orthopedic and trauma surgery are well tolerated by the majority of patients. However, complications resulting from inflammatory and immune reactions to metal implants have been well documented. This review briefly discusses the different mechanisms of metal implant corrosion in the human body, which lead to the release of significant levels of metal ions into the peri-implant tissues and the systemic blood circulation. Additionally, this article reviews the effects of the released ions on bone metabolism and the immune system and discusses their involvement in the pathophysiological mechanisms of aseptic loosening and metal hypersensitivity in patients with metal implants.

  11. Strontium-doped calcium polyphosphate/ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene composites: A new class of artificial joint components with enhanced biological efficacy to aseptic loosening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu, Zhipeng; Huang, Bingxue; Li, Yiwen; Tian, Meng; Li, Li; Yu, Xixun

    2016-01-01

    To enhance implant stability and prolong the service life of artificial joint component, a new approach was proposed to improve the wear resistance of artificial joint component and endow artificial joint component with the biological efficacy of resistance to aseptic loosening. Strontium calcium polyphosphate (SCPP) were interfused in ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) by a combination of liquid nitrogen ball-milling and flat-panel curing process to prepare the SCPP/UHMWPE composites. The micro-structure, mechanical characterization, tribological characterization and bioactivities of various SCPP/UHMWPE composites were investigated. The results suggested that this method could statistically improve the wear resistance of UHMWPE resulting from a good SCPP particle dispersion. Moreover, it is also observed that the SCPP/UHMWPE composites-wear particles could promote the production of OPG by osteoblasts and decrease the production of RANKL by osteoblasts, and then increase the OPG/RANKL ratio. This indicated that the SCPP/UHMWPE composites had potential efficacy to prevent and treat aseptic loosening. Above all, the SCPP/UHMWPE composites with a suitable SCPP content would be the promising materials for fabricating artificial joint component with ability to resist aseptic loosening. - Highlights: • SCPP/UHMWPE composites could enhance biological efficacy of resistance to aseptic loosening. • SCPP would improve biological efficacy with a few sacrifice of wear resistance. • The results might provide a promising wear-resistant material for fabricating acetabular cup.

  12. Strontium-doped calcium polyphosphate/ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene composites: A new class of artificial joint components with enhanced biological efficacy to aseptic loosening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Zhipeng [College of Polymer Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Department of Neurosurgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Huang, Bingxue; Li, Yiwen [College of Polymer Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China); Tian, Meng [Department of Neurosurgery, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610041 (China); Li, Li [Department of Oncology, the 452 Hospital of Chinese PLA, Chengdu 610021 (China); Yu, Xixun, E-mail: yuxixun@163.com [College of Polymer Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610065 (China)

    2016-04-01

    To enhance implant stability and prolong the service life of artificial joint component, a new approach was proposed to improve the wear resistance of artificial joint component and endow artificial joint component with the biological efficacy of resistance to aseptic loosening. Strontium calcium polyphosphate (SCPP) were interfused in ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) by a combination of liquid nitrogen ball-milling and flat-panel curing process to prepare the SCPP/UHMWPE composites. The micro-structure, mechanical characterization, tribological characterization and bioactivities of various SCPP/UHMWPE composites were investigated. The results suggested that this method could statistically improve the wear resistance of UHMWPE resulting from a good SCPP particle dispersion. Moreover, it is also observed that the SCPP/UHMWPE composites-wear particles could promote the production of OPG by osteoblasts and decrease the production of RANKL by osteoblasts, and then increase the OPG/RANKL ratio. This indicated that the SCPP/UHMWPE composites had potential efficacy to prevent and treat aseptic loosening. Above all, the SCPP/UHMWPE composites with a suitable SCPP content would be the promising materials for fabricating artificial joint component with ability to resist aseptic loosening. - Highlights: • SCPP/UHMWPE composites could enhance biological efficacy of resistance to aseptic loosening. • SCPP would improve biological efficacy with a few sacrifice of wear resistance. • The results might provide a promising wear-resistant material for fabricating acetabular cup.

  13. Why does it take so long? ‘Lean processing’ in the aseptic compounding unit at the Midland Regional Hospital Tullamore

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Greene, C

    2011-06-01

    Increasing numbers of oncology\\/haematology patients attending Midland Regional Hospital Tullamore (MRHT) has increased the workload of the Regional Oncology Haematology Pharmacy (ROHP) compounding unit. Staff restrictions require optimisation of current workflow practices. This audit (November 2010 and June 2011) focused on workflow in the aseptic compounding unit.\\r\

  14. Plasmodium falciparum malaria challenge by the bite of aseptic Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes: results of a randomized infectivity trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten E Lyke

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Experimental infection of malaria-naïve volunteers by the bite of Plasmodium falciparum-infected mosquitoes is a preferred means to test the protective effect of malaria vaccines and drugs. The standard model relies on the bite of five infected mosquitoes to induce malaria. We examined the efficacy of malaria transmission using mosquitoes raised aseptically in compliance with current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMPs.Eighteen adults aged 18-40 years were randomized to receive 1, 3 or 5 bites of Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes infected with the chloroquine-sensitive NF54 strain of P. falciparum. Seventeen participants developed malaria; fourteen occurring on Day 11. The mean prepatent period was 10.9 days (9-12 days. The geometric mean parasitemia was 15.7 parasites/µL (range: 4-70 by microscopy. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR detected parasites 3.1 (range: 0-4 days prior to microscopy. The geometric mean sporozoite load was 16,753 sporozoites per infected mosquito (range: 1,000-57,500. A 1-bite participant withdrew from the study on Day 13 post-challenge and was PCR and smear negative.The use of aseptic, cGMP-compliant P. falciparum-infected mosquitoes is safe, is associated with a precise prepatent period compared to the standard model and appears more efficient than the standard approach, as it led to infection in 100% (6/6 of volunteers exposed to three mosquito bites and 83% (5/6 of volunteers exposed to one mosquito bite.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00744133.

  15. Pyrolysis of aseptic packages (tetrapak) in a laboratory screw type reactor and secondary thermal/catalytic tar decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haydary, J., E-mail: juma.haydary@stuba.sk [Institute of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Radlinského 9, 812 37 Bratislava (Slovakia); Susa, D.; Dudáš, J. [Institute of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Chemical and Food Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Radlinského 9, 812 37 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Pyrolysis of aseptic packages was carried out in a laboratory flow reactor. ► Distribution of tetrapak into the product yields was obtained. ► Composition of the pyrolysis products was estimated. ► Secondary thermal and catalytic decomposition of tars was studied. ► Two types of catalysts (dolomite and red clay marked AFRC) were used. - Abstract: Pyrolysis of aseptic packages (tetrapak cartons) in a laboratory apparatus using a flow screw type reactor and a secondary catalytic reactor for tar cracking was studied. The pyrolysis experiments were realized at temperatures ranging from 650 °C to 850 °C aimed at maximizing of the amount of the gas product and reducing its tar content. Distribution of tetrapak into the product yields at different conditions was obtained. The presence of H{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2} and light hydrocarbons, HCx, in the gas product was observed. The Aluminum foil was easily separated from the solid product. The rest part of char was characterized by proximate and elemental analysis and calorimetric measurements. The total organic carbon in the tar product was estimated by elemental analysis of tars. Two types of catalysts (dolomite and red clay marked AFRC) were used for catalytic thermal tar decomposition. Three series of experiments (without catalyst in a secondary cracking reactor, with dolomite and with AFRC) at temperatures of 650, 700, 750, 800 and 850 °C were carried out. Both types of catalysts have significantly affected the content of tars and other components in pyrolytic gases. The effect of catalyst on the tetrapack distribution into the product yield on the composition of gas and on the total organic carbon in the tar product is presented in this work.

  16. Differentiation between peri-prosthetic infection and aseptic loosening using quantitative analysis of triphasic 99Tcm-MDP bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xinxin; Zhang Yanyan; Zhang Weifang; Mao Yuan; Zhao Meixin

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To differentiate between peri-prosthetic infection and aseptic loosening using quantitative analysis of triphasic bone scintigraphy. Methods: Twenty-eight patients (9 males, 19 females; mean age 67.5 years, range 49-80 years) with recurrent joint pain after arthroplasty were retrospectively assessed. All patients underwent triphasic bone scintigraphy. ROI of each joint was drawn and the ratios of affected to unaffected side were calculated. The ratios of blood flow phase, blood pool phase, static phase, C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation (ESR) were quantitatively analyzed by ROC curve. The final diagnosis was based on microbiological and histological examinations. The optimal cut-off value was chosen based on the ideal sensitivity and specificity. Results: Nine patients were diagnosed as septic loosening, 17 patients aseptic loosening, 1 patient bursitis of hip joint and 1 patient suture reaction. Taking the positive results of blood flow phase or blood pool phase as standard for diagnosing septic loosening, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of bone scintigraphy were 7/9, 78.9% (15/19) and 78.6% (22/28), respectively. The AUC of blood pool phase was 0.942, and the sensitivity and specificity were 8/9 and 78.9% (15/19), respectively, with the optimal cut-off value of 1.40. The AUCs of blood flow ratio and CRP were 0.816 and 0.795, with cut-off values of 1.53 and 1.20, respectively. The AUCs of static phase ratio and ESR were 0.474 and 0.722, respectively, both P>0.05. Conclusions: For the diagnosis of septic loosening, quantitative analysis of triphasic 99 Tc m -MDP bone scintigraphy, particularly with the ratio of blood pool phase, is more accurate than qualitative analysis. (authors)

  17. Childhood vitiligo

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    Aparna Palit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood vitiligo is often encountered in dermatological practice. When present in infancy or early childhood, various nevoid and hereditary disorders are to be differentiated. In many cases, familial aggregation of the disease is seen and other autoimmune disorders may be associated. Segmental presentation is more common, and limited body surface area involvement is usual in this age group. Children with vitiligo often suffer from anxiety and depression because of their unusual appearance. Management of vitiligo in children is difficult as therapeutic options are restricted when compared to that in adult patients. Selection of treatment should be careful in these patients with the aim to achieve best results with minimal side effects as well as relieving patients′ and parents′ anxiety.

  18. [Childhood obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chueca, M; Azcona, C; Oyárzabal, M

    2002-01-01

    Obesity during childhood and adolescence is an increasingly frequent cause for medical consultation. The increase in the prevalence of this disease, which has been considered as an epidemic by the World Health Organisation, is worrying. Obesity is a complex disease, whose aetiology still remains to be clarified due to the numerous factors involved: environmental, genetic, life style and behavioural, neuroendocrinological and metabolic. The persistence of childhood obesity until adulthood significantly increases the risk of suffering from diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, cholecystitis and cholelithiasis. Treatment of obesity is complicated and few patients regularly attend follow up examinations. A multidisciplinary team is required to carry out a suitable treatment, composed of paediatricians, dieticians, nurses, psychologists and psychiatrists. Successful treatment of obesity resides in reducing the calorie intake in relation to energy expenditure, and at the time providing instruction in appropriate eating habits and life styles that in the long term will promote the maintenance of the ideal weight.

  19. Developmental dysplasia of the hip, age, BMI, place of residence and tobacco abuse increase the odds of aseptic loosening in Chinese patients.

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    Chuanlong Wu

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The purpose of this hospital-based case-control study was to evaluate the patient-related risk factors for aseptic loosening after total hip arthroplasty (THA and total knee arthroplasty (TKA in Chinese patients. METHODS: From January 2000 to December 2012, 67 patients undergoing THA and TKA who developed aseptic loosening were detected as case subjects and 336 patients without aseptic loosening, matched by the year of index surgery and type of surgery, were selected as controls. Conditional logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs. RESULTS: The demographic factors and comorbid conditions associated with a risk-adjusted increase in aseptic loosening (in decreasing order of significance were a rural place of residence (OR = 2.28; 95% CI: 1.21-4.30; p = 0.011, body mass index (BMI ≥ 28 kg/m(2 (vs. 18.5-28 kg/m(2 (OR = 2.29; 95% CI: 1.19-4.41; p = 0.013, developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH (OR = 2.91; 95% CI: 1.11-7.66; p = 0.030, tobacco abuse (OR = 2.88; 95% CI: 1.05-7.89; p = 0.039, and age <45 years (vs. 45-65 years (OR = 2.63; 95% CI: 1.01-6.80; p = 0.047. CONCLUSIONS: Patients aged <45 years and those with a BMI of ≥ 28 kg/m(2, a preoperative diagnosis of DDH, history of tobacco abuse, or living in rural areas are at increased risk for aseptic loosening after THA and TKA in Chinese population. Additional systematic large-scale studies are needed to verify these results.

  20. Childhood Obesity Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Local Programs Related Topics Diabetes Nutrition Childhood Obesity Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Children (WIC) Program, 2000-2014 Prevalence of Childhood Obesity in the United States Childhood obesity is a ...

  1. Childhood Overweight and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Childhood Overweight and Obesity: Helping Your Child Achieve a Healthy Weight Childhood Overweight and Obesity: Helping Your Child Achieve a Healthy Weight Share ...

  2. Childhood psoriasis

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    Dogra Sunil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a common dermatosis in children with about one third of all patients having onset of disease in the first or second decade of life. A chronic disfiguring skin disease, such as psoriasis, in childhood is likely to have profound emotional and psychological effects, and hence requires special attention. Psoriasis in children has been reported to differ from that among adults being more frequently pruritic; plaque lesions are relatively thinner, softer, and less scaly; face and flexural involvement is common and guttate type is the characteristic presentation. Whether onset in childhood predicts a more severe form of psoriasis is a matter of controversy, it may cause significant morbidity particularly if it keeps relapsing. Most children have mild form of psoriasis which can be generally treated effectively with topical agents such as emollients, coal tar, corticosteroids, dithranol, calcipotriol etc. according to age and the sites affected. Narrow band UVB is the preferred form of phototherapy in children for moderate to severe disease or in patients not responding to topical therapy alone. Systemic therapies are reserved for more severe and extensive cases that cannot be controlled with topical treatment and/or phototherapy such as severe plaque type, unstable forms like erythrodermic and generalized pustular psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. There are no controlled trials of systemic therapies in this age group, most experience being with retinoids and methotrexate with favorable results. Cyclosporine can be used as a short-term intermittent crisis management drug. There is an early promising experience with the use of biologics (etanercept and infliximab in childhood psoriasis. Systemic treatments as well as phototherapy have limited use in children due to cumulative dose effects of drugs, low acceptance, and risk of gonadal toxicity. More evidence-based data is needed about the effectiveness and long-term safety of topical

  3. Childhood rhabdomyosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba Rovira, S M; Inarejos Clemente, E J

    Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common soft-tissue sarcoma in children; it can appear in any part of the body. Its biological behavior varies widely, and despite the absence of specific clinical or radiological characteristics, rhabdomyosarcoma should be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of solid tumors in children. This review focuses primarily on the imaging findings and anatomical distribution of the histological subtypes of childhood rhabdomyosarcoma and secondarily on the differential findings in histological studies. Copyright © 2016 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Teaching aseptic technique for central venous access under ultrasound guidance: a randomized trial comparing didactic training alone to didactic plus simulation-based training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Rana K; Bautista, Alexander F; Memon, Saima B; Smith, Elizabeth A; Wang, Chenxi; Wadhwa, Anupama; Carter, Mary B; Akca, Ozan

    2012-03-01

    Our goal was to determine whether simulation combined with didactic training improves sterile technique during ultrasound (US)-guided central venous catheter (CVC) insertion compared with didactic training alone among novices. We hypothesized that novices who receive combined didactic and simulation-based training would perform similarly to experienced residents in aseptic technique, knowledge, and perception of comfort during US-guided CVC insertion on a simulator. Seventy-two subjects were enrolled in a randomized, controlled trial of an educational intervention. Fifty-four novices were randomized into either the didactic group or the simulation combined with didactic group. Both groups received didactic training but the simulation combined with didactic group also received simulation-based CVC insertion training. Both groups were tested by demonstrating US-guided CVC insertion on a simulator. Aseptic technique was scored on 8 steps as "yes/no" and also using a 7-point Likert scale with 7 being "excellent technique" by a rater blinded to subject randomization. After initial testing, the didactic group was offered simulation-based training and retesting. Both groups also took a pre- and posttraining test of knowledge and rated their comfort with US and CVC insertion pre- and posttraining on a 5-point Likert scale. Subsequently, 18 experienced residents also took the test of knowledge, rated their comfort level, and were scored while performing aseptic US-guided CVC insertion using a simulator. The simulation combined with didactic group achieved a 167% (95% confidence interval [CI] 133%-167%) incremental increase in yes/no scores and 115% (CI 112%-127%) incremental increase in Likert scale ratings on aseptic technique compared with novices in the didactic group. Compared with experienced residents, simulation combined with didactic trained novices achieved an increase in aseptic scores with a 33.3% (CI 16.7%-50%) increase in yes/no ratings and a 20% (CI 13

  5. Childhood immunization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romain, Sandra; Schillaci, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To examine childhood immunization levels relative to the number of family physicians, pediatricians, and public health nurses in Ontario. DESIGN Retrospective comparative analysis of publicly available data on immunization coverage levels and the relative number of family physicians, pediatricians, and public health nurses. SETTING Ontario. PARTICIPANTS Seven-year-old children, family physicians, pediatricians, and public health nurses in Ontario. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The association between immunization coverage levels and the relative number of family physicians, pediatricians, and public health nurses. RESULTS We found correlations between immunization coverage levels and the relative number (ie, per 1000 Ontario residents) of family physicians (ρ = 0.60) and pediatricians (ρ = 0.70) and a lower correlation with the relative number of public health nurses (ρ = 0.40), although none of these correlations was significant. A comparison of temporal trends illustrated that variation in the relative number of family physicians and pediatricians in Ontario was associated with similar variation in immunization coverage levels. CONCLUSION Increasing the number of family physicians and pediatricians might help to boost access to immunizations and perhaps other components of cost-saving childhood preventive care. PMID:19910599

  6. Interleukin-6 in serum and in synovial fluid enhances the differentiation between periprosthetic joint infection and aseptic loosening.

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    Thomas M Randau

    Full Text Available The preoperative differentiation between septic and aseptic loosening after total hip or knee arthroplasty is essential for successful therapy and relies in part on biomarkers. The objective of this study was to assess synovial and serum levels of inflammatory proteins as diagnostic tool for periprosthetic joint infection and compare their accuracy with standard tests. 120 patients presenting with a painful knee or hip endoprosthesis for surgical revision were included in this prospective trial. Blood samples and samples of intraoperatively acquired joint fluid aspirate were collected. White blood cell count, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin and interleukin-6 were determined. The joint aspirate was analyzed for total leukocyte count and IL-6. The definite diagnosis of PJI was determined on the basis of purulent synovial fluid, histopathology and microbiology. IL-6 in serum showed significantly higher values in the PJI group as compared to aseptic loosening and control, with specificity at 58.3% and a sensitivity of 79.5% at a cut-off value of 2.6 pg/ml. With a cut-off >6.6 pg/ml, the specificity increased to 88.3%. IL-6 in joint aspirate had, at a cut-off of >2100 pg/ml, a specificity of 85.7% and sensitivity of 59.4%. At levels >9000 pg/ml, specificity was almost at 100% with sensitivity just below 50%, so PJI could be considered proven with IL-6 levels above this threshold. Our data supports the published results on IL-6 as a biomarker in PJI. In our large prospective cohort of revision arthroplasty patients, the use of IL-6 in synovial fluid appears to be a more accurate marker than either the white blood cell count or the C-reactive protein level in serum for the detection of periprosthetic joint infection. On the basis of the results we recommend the use of the synovial fluid biomarker IL-6 for the diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection following total hip and knee arthroplasty.

  7. Interleukin-6 in serum and in synovial fluid enhances the differentiation between periprosthetic joint infection and aseptic loosening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randau, Thomas M; Friedrich, Max J; Wimmer, Matthias D; Reichert, Ben; Kuberra, Dominik; Stoffel-Wagner, Birgit; Limmer, Andreas; Wirtz, Dieter C; Gravius, Sascha

    2014-01-01

    The preoperative differentiation between septic and aseptic loosening after total hip or knee arthroplasty is essential for successful therapy and relies in part on biomarkers. The objective of this study was to assess synovial and serum levels of inflammatory proteins as diagnostic tool for periprosthetic joint infection and compare their accuracy with standard tests. 120 patients presenting with a painful knee or hip endoprosthesis for surgical revision were included in this prospective trial. Blood samples and samples of intraoperatively acquired joint fluid aspirate were collected. White blood cell count, C-reactive protein, procalcitonin and interleukin-6 were determined. The joint aspirate was analyzed for total leukocyte count and IL-6. The definite diagnosis of PJI was determined on the basis of purulent synovial fluid, histopathology and microbiology. IL-6 in serum showed significantly higher values in the PJI group as compared to aseptic loosening and control, with specificity at 58.3% and a sensitivity of 79.5% at a cut-off value of 2.6 pg/ml. With a cut-off >6.6 pg/ml, the specificity increased to 88.3%. IL-6 in joint aspirate had, at a cut-off of >2100 pg/ml, a specificity of 85.7% and sensitivity of 59.4%. At levels >9000 pg/ml, specificity was almost at 100% with sensitivity just below 50%, so PJI could be considered proven with IL-6 levels above this threshold. Our data supports the published results on IL-6 as a biomarker in PJI. In our large prospective cohort of revision arthroplasty patients, the use of IL-6 in synovial fluid appears to be a more accurate marker than either the white blood cell count or the C-reactive protein level in serum for the detection of periprosthetic joint infection. On the basis of the results we recommend the use of the synovial fluid biomarker IL-6 for the diagnosis of periprosthetic joint infection following total hip and knee arthroplasty.

  8. Utilization of Aseptic Seedling Explants for In vitro Propagation of Indian Red Wood

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    Kishore Kumar CHIRUVELLA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Micropropagation has been advocated as one of the most viable biotechnological tool for ex situ conservation of rare, endangered endemic medicinal plants germplasm. Rapid clonal micropropagation protocol for large-scale multiplication of an endemic medicinal plant Soymida febrifuga (Meliaceae was established from 15-day aseptic seedling cotyledonary node and shoot tip explants. High frequency of sprouting and shoot differentiation was observed from cotyledonary node explants compared to shoot tip, on Murashige and Skoog (MS medium fortified with BA, KN, 2-iP and CM. Of the cytokinins used, BA (3.0 mgl-1 supported highest average number and maximum multiple shoot differentiation (16.6. In vitro proliferated shoots were multiplied rapidly by culturing nodal segments as microcuttings, further subcultured on the same media for elongation. Elongated shoots upon transfer to MS medium fortified with IBA showed rooting within two weeks of culture. Rooted plantlets were successfully hardened and 75% of rooted shoots successfully survived on establishment to the soil. Plants looked healthy with no visually detectable phenotypic variations. This protocol provides a successful and rapid technique that can be used for ex situ conservation minimizing the pressure on wild populations and contributes to the conservation of this endemic medicinally potent flora.

  9. Canine serum C-reactive protein as a quantitative marker of the inflammatory stimulus of aseptic elective soft tissue surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads; Strom, Henriette; Mikkelsen, Lars F; Eriksen, Thomas; Jensen, Asger L; Luntang-Jensen, Michael

    2013-09-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is an established serum marker for the presence of systemic inflammation in dogs. Results from previous experimental and clinical studies suggest that CRP concentrations also quantitatively reflect the degree and progress of an inflammatory process, suggesting its use for inflammation monitoring. The objective was to investigate whether the canine CRP response in serum correlates with the amount of trauma and the consequent inflammatory response after 3 standard aseptic soft-tissue surgical procedures in 3 groups of dogs. A total of 24 client-owned intact female dogs of various breeds were enrolled in a clinical study with random allocation into 2 surgical groups, for either conventional, open-approach ovariohysterectomy (OVH; n = 14) or laparoscopic assisted OVH (n = 10). In addition, a group of 8 male Beagles from a laboratory animal facility underwent vasectomy, serving as the third and mildest surgical trauma group. Serum CRP was measured pre- and at 4, 8, 12, 23, and 27 hours postsurgery. Cumulative concentration over time and point concentrations of CRP were correlated with the surgical trauma impact level. There was a significant surgery trauma-related difference in cumulative CRP concentrations among the 3 groups, and also in the 12 hours postsurgery concentration. The CRP response varied according to the degree of surgical trauma on 3 standardized levels, thus supporting the use of canine serum concentrations of CRP as an inflammatory activity indicator and monitoring marker. © 2013 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  10. Peculiarities of X-ray appearances of aseptic necrosis of head of the femur in adults and children and their connection with bio mechanical factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suslova, O.Ya.; Shargorodskij, C.S.; Antipova, A.A.; Naumenko, N.A.; Kresnyj, D.I.

    1987-01-01

    260 patients aged from 3 to 56 with aseptic necrosis of head of the femur are examined. Experimental biomechanical simulation of load conditions on femur head and cotyloid cavity was carried out at phantom devices using tensiometry, ichnographic and polarization-optical methods. Peculiarities of X-ray appearances of asceptic necrosis with respect to age are studied. A definite connection between asceptic necrosis and biomechanical factors is established

  11. An unusual case of primary human immunodeficiency virus infection presenting as mononucleosis-like syndrome and acute aseptic meningoencephalitis. Report of a case and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Corti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical presentation of primary human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection includes a wide spectrum of manifestations from asymptomatic infection to a symptomatic and severe illness. Central nervous system involvement should be always considered as a severe clinical form of primary HIV infection. Physicians should be aware to the broad clinical spectrum of primary HIV infection. We report a case of a female with diagnosis of mononucleosis-like syndrome and acute aseptic meningoencephalitis during primary HIV infection.

  12. The unsuspected prosthetic joint infection : incidence and consequences of positive intra-operative cultures in presumed aseptic knee and hip revisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, A M E; Bénard, M; Meis, J F; van Hellemondt, G; Goosen, J H M

    2017-11-01

    Positive cultures are not uncommon in cases of revision total knee and hip arthroplasty (TKA and THA) for presumed aseptic causes. The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence of positive intra-operative cultures in presumed aseptic revision of TKA and THA, and to determine whether the presence of intra-operative positive cultures results in inferior survival in such cases. A retrospective cohort study was assembled with 679 patients undergoing revision knee (340 cases) or hip arthroplasty (339 cases) for presumed aseptic causes. For all patients three or more separate intra-operative cultures were obtained. Patients were diagnosed with a previously unsuspected prosthetic joint infection (PJI) if two or more cultures were positive with the same organism. Records were reviewed for demographic details, pre-operative laboratory results and culture results. The primary outcome measure was infection-free implant survival at two years. The incidence of unsuspected PJI was 27 out of 340 (7.9%) in TKA and 41 out of 339 (12.1%) in THA. Following revision TKA, the rate of infection-free implant survival in patients with an unsuspected PJI was 88% (95% confidence intervals (CI) 60 to 97) at two years compared with 98% (95% CI 94 to 99) in patients without PJI (p = 0.001). After THA, the rate of survival was similar in those with unsuspected PJI (92% (95% CI 73 to 98) at two years) and those without (94% (95% CI 89 to 97), p = 0.31). Following revision of TKA and THA for aseptic diagnoses, around 10% of cases were found to have positive cultures. In the knee, such cases had inferior infection-free survival at two years compared with those with negative cultures; there was no difference between the groups following THA. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:1482-9. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  13. No demonstrable association between the Leningrad-Zagreb mumps vaccine strain and aseptic meningitis in a large clinical trial in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, H J; Oun, S Aly; Bakr, S S Abou; Kapre, S V; Jadhav, S S; Dhere, R M; Bhardwaj, S

    2010-04-01

    To address the claim that the Leningrad-Zagreb (L-Z) mumps vaccine strain is causally associated with aseptic meningitis, a prospective, post-marketing safety study was conducted with a measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (MMR) (TRESIVAC(R); Serum Institute of India Ltd., Pune, India), which uses the L-Z strain as its mumps component in Egypt. In all, 453 119 children (65 423 children aged 16-24 months and 329 211 children aged 5-7 years) received MMR. The control groups which, as a result of local health regulations, were slightly younger than vaccinees, comprised 12 253 and 46 232 children, respectively. Using questionnaires, the parents recorded solicited local, systemic and neurological adverse events for up to 42 days post-vaccination. All data were analysed externally on an intention-to-treat basis by individuals not participating in the study. Local and/or systemic reactions were reported in a small percentage of participants, with pain, fever and parotitis being the most common signs among vaccinees in both age groups. No case of aseptic meningitis, encephalitis, anaphylaxis or convulsions was observed in any participant. Thus, in this series of more than 450 000 Egyptian children, the L-Z mumps vaccine strain in this vaccine did not cause aseptic meningitis. The vaccine is considerably cheaper than Western competitors and a valid alternative to other MMR vaccines.

  14. A comparative study of the incidence of aseptic meningitis in symptomatic natural mumps patients and monovalent mumps vaccine recipients in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Takao; Okafuji, Teruo; Miyazaki, Chiaki; Ito, Yuhei; Kamada, Makoto; Kumagai, Takuji; Yuri, Kenji; Sakiyama, Hiroshi; Miyata, Akiko; Ihara, Toshiaki; Ochiai, Hitoshi; Shimomura, Kunihisa; Suzuki, Eitaro; Torigoe, Sadayoshi; Igarashi, Masahiro; Kase, Tetsuo; Okuno, Yoshinobu; Nakayama, Tetsuo

    2007-03-30

    To compare the incidence of aseptic meningitis associated with symptomatic natural mumps infection and in mumps vaccine recipients, we conducted a prospective comparative study. Consecutive samples of 1051 children with mumps were enrolled by 10 pediatricians and 21,465 vaccine recipients by 143 pediatric primary care practitioners, from January 1, 2000 to January 1, 2003. Parents used a daily diary to record symptoms during the period of illness (15 days) or 30-day period following immunization. Mumps infection was confirmed by virus isolation and/or detection of mumps virus genome in salivary and CSF samples. The incidence of aseptic meningitis was 13/1051 (1.24%) in patients with symptomatic natural mumps infection and was estimated to be 0.7-1.1% of overall infection in considering asymptomatic infection, and 10/21,465 (0.05%) in vaccine recipients. Although aseptic meningitis is a clear side effect of the mumps vaccine, the incidence is considerably lower than among those with symptomatic natural infection. Our results provide an informative data for consideration to resume mumps vaccine as a part of routine immunization schedule for Japanese children.

  15. Aseptic loosening of the femoral implant after cemented total hip arthroplasty in dogs: 11 cases in 10 dogs (1991-1995)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, M.R.; Egger, E.L.; Schwarz, P.D.

    1997-01-01

    Objective-To determine clinical signs, radiographic findings, results of surgical management, and potential causes of aseptic loosening of the femoral implant (ALFI) in dogs that have undergone cemented total hip arthroplasty (THA). Design-Retrospective study. Animals-11 cases of ALFI in 10 dogs. Procedure-Medical records of all dogs undergoing THA revision surgery were reviewed. Only dogs with ALFI were included. The prosthesis and cement were removed by creating a longitudinal osteotomy of the cranial femoral cortex. Postoperative radiographs of all dogs that underwent THA during the study period were reviewed. Results-The most common clinical sign was intermittent, subtle. or non-weight-bearing lameness. On radiographs obtained after THA, contact of the distal stem tip with cortical endosteum was evident in all dogs. Radiographic changes at the time of diagnosis of ALFI included asymmetric periosteal reaction along the femoral diaphysis, radiolucent lines between the prosthesis and cement, altered implant position, and femoral fracture. Surgical revision yielded good or excellent results in 9 cases. In 1 dog. the implant became infected; in another, aseptic loosening recurred. Aseptic loosening was significantly more common in dogs in which there was contact between the distal stem tip and cortical endosteum than in dogs in which there was no contact. Clinical Implications-ALFI is an uncommon, but important, complication of THA, and radiography is warranted in dogs with clinical signs of ALFI. Initial centering of the prosthetic stem within the femoral shaft may reduce the incidence of ALFI

  16. [Clinical, epidemiological, and etiological studies of adult aseptic meningitis: a report of 12 cases of herpes simplex meningitis, and a comparison with cases of herpes simplex encephalitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himeno, Takahiro; Shiga, Yuji; Takeshima, Shinichi; Tachiyama, Keisuke; Kamimura, Teppei; Kono, Ryuhei; Takemaru, Makoto; Takeshita, Jun; Shimoe, Yutaka; Kuriyama, Masaru

    2018-01-26

    We treated 437 cases of adult aseptic meningitis and 12 cases (including 2 recurrent patients; age, 31.8 ± 8.9 years; 7 females) of herpes simplex meningitis from 2004 to 2016. The incidence rate of adult herpes simplex meningitis in the cases with aseptic meningitis was 2.7%. One patient was admitted during treatment of genital herpes, but no association was observed between genital herpes and herpes simplex meningitis in the other cases. The diagnoses were confirmed in all cases as the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was positive for herpes simplex virus (HSV)-DNA. For diagnosis confirmation, the DNA test was useful after 2-7 days following initial disease onset. Among other types of aseptic meningitis, the patients with herpes simplex meningitis showed relatively high white blood cell counts and relatively high CSF protein and high CSF cell counts. CSF cells showed mononuclear cell dominance from the initial stage of the disease. During same period, we also experienced 12 cases of herpes simplex encephalitis and 21 cases of non-hepatic acute limbic encephalitis. Notably, the patients with herpes simplex meningitis were younger and their CSF protein and cells counts were higher than those of the patients with herpes simplex encephalitis.

  17. Infecciones del sistema nervioso central por enterovirus en niños atendidos en un hospital de Lima, Perú Enteroviral central nervous system infections in children treated at a hospital in Lima, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iván O Espinoza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Determinar la frecuencia y las características clínicas de las infecciones del sistema nervioso central por enterovirus en niños atendidos en el Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia de Lima, Perú. Materiales y métodos. Se realizó un estudio prospectivo y descriptivo desde abril 2008 hasta marzo 2010. Se enrolaron pacientes de un mes a 14 años con diagnóstico clínico de encefalitis o meningitis asépticas. Se investigó la presencia de enterovirus, virus herpes simple 1 (VHS-1, virus herpes simple 2 (VHS-2 y virus varicela-zoster (VZV mediante reacción en cadena de polimerasa (PCR. Resultados. Se enrolaron 97 pacientes de los cuales 69 % presentaron encefalitis aguda y 31 % meningitis aguda. Se identificó enterovirus en 52,6 % del total de infecciones agudas no bacterianas del sistema nervioso central; encontrándose en 83,3 % de las meningitis y en 38,8 % de las encefalitis. No hubo casos de infección por VHS-1, VHS-2 ni VZV. Las infecciones por enterovirus alcanzaron el 82,9 % en los meses cálidos de noviembre a enero y el 28,6 % en los meses fríos de mayo a julio. Conclusiones. Los enterovirus fueron los principales agentes etiológicos en las encefalitis y meningitis asépticas agudas en pacientes pediátricos de Lima, Perú. Los enterovirus tienen un comportamiento epidemiológico estacional con un claro aumento del número de casos en los meses de verano. Resulta útil tener disponible un método de diagnóstico rápido, como una ayuda para el manejo de las infecciones agudas del sistema nervioso.Objectives. To determine the frequency and clinical features of central nervous system infections caused by enterovirus in children treated at the Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia in Lima, Peru. Materials and methods. A prospective, descriptive study was performed from April 2008 to March 2010. Patients aged 1 month - 14 years with clinical diagnosis of encephalitis or aseptic meningitis were included. We investigated the

  18. Childhood Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain tumors are abnormal growths inside the skull. They are among the most common types of childhood ... still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches and ...

  19. Childhood Obesity Causes & Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Local Programs Related Topics Diabetes Nutrition Childhood Obesity Causes & Consequences Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... determine how a community is designed. Consequences of Obesity More Immediate Health Risks Obesity during childhood can ...

  20. Childhood Obesity: Common Misconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Issues Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Childhood Obesity: Common Misconceptions Page Content Article Body Everyone, it ... for less than 1% of the cases of childhood obesity. Yes, hypothyroidism (a deficit in thyroid secretion) and ...

  1. Added value of experts' knowledge to improve a quantitative microbial exposure assessment model--Application to aseptic-UHT food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujol, Laure; Johnson, Nicholas Brian; Magras, Catherine; Albert, Isabelle; Membré, Jeanne-Marie

    2015-10-15

    In a previous study, a quantitative microbial exposure assessment (QMEA) model applied to an aseptic-UHT food process was developed [Pujol, L., Albert, I., Magras, C., Johnson, N. B., Membré, J. M. Probabilistic exposure assessment model to estimate aseptic UHT product failure rate. 2015 International Journal of Food Microbiology. 192, 124-141]. It quantified Sterility Failure Rate (SFR) associated with Bacillus cereus and Geobacillus stearothermophilus per process module (nine modules in total from raw material reception to end-product storage). Previously, the probabilistic model inputs were set by experts (using knowledge and in-house data). However, only the variability dimension was taken into account. The model was then improved using expert elicitation knowledge in two ways. First, the model was refined by adding the uncertainty dimension to the probabilistic inputs, enabling to set a second order Monte Carlo analysis. The eight following inputs, and their impact on SFR, are presented in detail in this present study: D-value for each bacteria of interest (B. cereus and G. stearothermophilus) associated with the inactivation model for the UHT treatment step, i.e., two inputs; log reduction (decimal reduction) number associated with the inactivation model for the packaging sterilization step for each bacterium and each part of the packaging (product container and sealing component), i.e., four inputs; and bacterial spore air load of the aseptic tank and the filler cabinet rooms, i.e., two inputs. Second, the model was improved by leveraging expert knowledge to develop further the existing model. The proportion of bacteria in the product which settled on surface of pipes (between the UHT treatment and the aseptic tank on one hand, and between the aseptic tank and the filler cabinet on the other hand) leading to a possible biofilm formation for each bacterium, was better characterized. It was modeled as a function of the hygienic design level of the aseptic

  2. Syphilitic aseptic meningitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meningitis - syphilitic; Neurosyphilis - syphilitic meningitis ... Syphilitic meningitis is a form of neurosyphilis . This condition is a life-threatening complication of syphilis infection. Syphilis is ...

  3. The inhibitory effect of strontium-doped calcium polyphosphate particles on cytokines from macrophages and osteoblasts leading to aseptic loosening in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Chengcheng; Yu, Xixun; Gu, Zhipeng; Li, Li; Zhang, Xu

    2014-01-01

    Aseptic loosening is a common cause of joint implant failure in humans. In order to enhance implant stability, we need to develop a new material that not only promotes the wear resistance of components of an artificial joint, but also possesses the pharmaceutical efficacy of protecting patients against aseptic loosening. Strontium-doped calcium polyphosphate (SCPP) has been found to have this potential ability. The goal of this study is to respectively quantify the levels of TNF-α (for macrophages), receptor activator of NF- k B ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) (for osteoblasts) when osteoblasts and macrophages are challenged with various particles (including SCPP). In this study, the osteoblasts ROS 17/2.8 and macrophages RAW 264.7 were challenged with various wear particles (8% SCPP, the molar percentage of Sr in SCPP is 8%, UHMWPE, hydroxyapatite (HA) and CPP). The secretion of TNF-α (from RAW 264.7), OPG and RANKL protein (from ROS 17/2.8) was analyzed by ELISA. The OPG and RANKL mRNA from ROS 17/2.8 was detected by RT-PCR. The data of ELISA indicated that the amount of TNF-α challenged with 8% SCPP particles was more than three-fold lower than that of all other test groups. The ratio of OPG/RANKL in the 8% SCPP group was significantly increased compared to that of all other test groups. The results of OPG and RANKL mRNA expression showed the same tendency as the ELISA results. In general, this study showed that 8% SCPP particles can inhibit the expression of TNF-α and RANKL, promote the expression of OPG so that SCPP can inhibit bone resorption and promote bone formation, and then inhibit aseptic loosening. Thus SCPP could be a promising material for the construction of artificial joints. (paper)

  4. BIOTECHNOLOGICAL APPROACHES FOR CONSERVATION OF THE ENDANGERED SPECIES Crambe koktebelica (JUNGE N. BUSCH AND EFFECT OF ASEPTIC IN VITRO CULTIVATION ON ITS BIOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushkarova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to establish efficient protocols of seed surface sterilization with further multiplication in vitro for threatened species Crambe koktebelica (Junge N. Busch and to show the effect of biotechnological approach (in vitro cultivation of biodiversity conservation on plants biochemical properties. Seed surface sterilization was carried out according to the original method with further microclonal multiplication of aseptic sprouts from lateral buds on the Murashige and Skoog (MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of growth regulators. Fatty acid content was determined using Gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry of fatty acid ethers. Antioxidant activity was determined using 2.2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging method. Total soluble protein content was measured using Bradford method and polyfructan content determination was based upon ketosugars ability to color in the acidic environment with resorcinol. Plants that were grown under in vitro and in vivo conditions and seeds were used in this research. Efficient protocol of surface sterilization that resulted in 45% of aseptic seed material 50% of which has sprouted was elaborated for C. koktebelica as well as fast microclonal multiplication methods that provided with up to 5.25 ± 0.50 new formed plantlets from 1 lateral bud (on the MS medium that contained 1 mg/L of 6-benzylaminopurine. It was also shown that aseptic cultivation benefits to saturated fatty acid accumulation and increases protein content but on the other hand it reduces unsaturated fatty acid amount and polyfructan content as well as antioxidant activity of plant material. Obtained data confirms the prospect of biotechnology approach to biodiversity conservation and suggest the necessity of father in vitro cultivation effect on biochemical composition of plant study.

  5. Experiences of Indian Health Workers Using WhatsApp for Improving Aseptic Practices With Newborns: Exploratory Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livesley, Nigel

    2018-01-01

    Background Quality improvement (QI) involves the following 4 steps: (1) forming a team to work on a specific aim, (2) analyzing the reasons for current underperformance, (3) developing changes that could improve care and testing these changes using plan-do-study-act cycles (PDSA), and (4) implementing successful interventions to sustain improvements. Teamwork and group discussion are key for effective QI, but convening in-person meetings with all staff can be challenging due to workload and shift changes. Mobile technologies can support communication within a team when face-to-face meetings are not possible. WhatsApp, a mobile messaging platform, was implemented as a communication tool by a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) team in an Indian tertiary hospital seeking to reduce nosocomial infections in newborns. Objective This exploratory qualitative study aimed to examine experiences with WhatsApp as a communication tool among improvement team members and an external coach to improve adherence to aseptic protocols. Methods Ten QI team members and the external coach were interviewed on communication processes and approaches and thematically analyzed. The WhatsApp transcript for the implementation period was also included in the analysis. Results WhatsApp was effective for disseminating information, including guidance on QI and clinical practice, and data on performance indicators. It was not effective as a platform for group discussion to generate change ideas or analyze the performance indicator data. The decision of who to include in the WhatsApp group and how members engaged in the group may have reinforced existing hierarchies. Using WhatsApp created a work environment in which members were accessible all the time, breaking down barriers between personal and professional time. The continual influx of messages was distracting to some respondents, and how respondents managed these messages (eg, using the silent function) may have influenced their perceptions of

  6. [PVD-silicoating before cementation of zirconia-based knee prostheses effects better cement adhesion and lower aseptic loosening rates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marx, R; Faramarzi, R; Oberbach, T; Begand, S; Grätz, N; Wirtz, D C

    2012-02-01

    CoCrMo alloys are contraindicated for allergy patients. For these patients, cemented or uncemented prostheses made of titanium alloy are indicated. Uncemented prostheses, however, have low primary retention, particularly the tibial components of knee joint prostheses because of the lack of a positive locking. Therefore, for knee replacement cemented CoCrMo prostheses may be suitable also for allergy sufferers if these are masked by ZrN or TiNbN layers. Alternatively the CoCrMo alloy may be replaced by high-strength oxide ceramics. For adhesion of bone cement to the ceramic surface, however, only inefficient mechanical retention spots are exposed as compared with a metal surface. Undercuts generated by corundum blasting, although highly efficient on a CoCrMo surface, are not such efficient centres on a ceramic surface due to its brittleness. Therefore, the mechanical component of retention is significantly reduced. When specific adhesion between bone cement and surface does not exist due to physical and chemical forces, the hydrolytic stability will be insufficient. Micromotions are promoted and early aseptic loosening is predictable. Silicoating of the ceramic surface will allow specific adhesion and can result in better hydrolytic stability of bonding. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of silicoating the bond strengths of blasted (mean size of corundum grains 50 µm) and silicate layered alumina-toughened zirconia (ATZ) surfaces were compared with "as fired" surfaces by utilising TiAlV probes (diameter 6 mm) for traction-adhesive strength testing. Samples machined out of CoCrMo alloy were utilised for reference. After preparing the samples for traction-adhesive strength testing (sequence: substrate, silicate and silane, protective lacquer [PolyMA], bone cement, TiAlV probe) they were aged up to 360 days at 37 °C in Ringer's solution. The bond strengths observed for all ageing intervals were well above 20 MPa and much higher and more hydrolytically

  7. Experiences of Indian Health Workers Using WhatsApp for Improving Aseptic Practices With Newborns: Exploratory Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahwa, Parika; Lunsford, Sarah; Livesley, Nigel

    2018-03-01

    Quality improvement (QI) involves the following 4 steps: (1) forming a team to work on a specific aim, (2) analyzing the reasons for current underperformance, (3) developing changes that could improve care and testing these changes using plan-do-study-act cycles (PDSA), and (4) implementing successful interventions to sustain improvements. Teamwork and group discussion are key for effective QI, but convening in-person meetings with all staff can be challenging due to workload and shift changes. Mobile technologies can support communication within a team when face-to-face meetings are not possible. WhatsApp, a mobile messaging platform, was implemented as a communication tool by a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) team in an Indian tertiary hospital seeking to reduce nosocomial infections in newborns. This exploratory qualitative study aimed to examine experiences with WhatsApp as a communication tool among improvement team members and an external coach to improve adherence to aseptic protocols. Ten QI team members and the external coach were interviewed on communication processes and approaches and thematically analyzed. The WhatsApp transcript for the implementation period was also included in the analysis. WhatsApp was effective for disseminating information, including guidance on QI and clinical practice, and data on performance indicators. It was not effective as a platform for group discussion to generate change ideas or analyze the performance indicator data. The decision of who to include in the WhatsApp group and how members engaged in the group may have reinforced existing hierarchies. Using WhatsApp created a work environment in which members were accessible all the time, breaking down barriers between personal and professional time. The continual influx of messages was distracting to some respondents, and how respondents managed these messages (eg, using the silent function) may have influenced their perceptions of WhatsApp. The coach used WhatsApp to

  8. Childhood trauma and childhood urbanicity in relation to psychotic disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frissen, Aleida; Lieverse, Ritsaert; Drukker, Marjan; van Winkel, Ruud; Delespaul, Philippe; Bruggeman, Richard; Cahn, Wiepke; de Haan, Lieuwe; Kahn, René; Meije, Carin; Myin-Germeys, Inez; van Os, Jim; Wiersma, Durk

    2015-01-01

    Urban upbringing and childhood trauma are both associated with psychotic disorders. However, the association between childhood urbanicity and childhood trauma in psychosis is poorly understood. The urban environment could occasion a background of social adversity against which any effect of

  9. Childhood trauma and childhood urbanicity in relation to psychotic disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frissen, Aleida; Lieverse, Ritsaert; Drukker, Marjan; van Winkel, Ruud; Delespaul, Philippe; Cahn, W

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urban upbringing and childhood trauma are both associated with psychotic disorders. However, the association between childhood urbanicity and childhood trauma in psychosis is poorly understood. The urban environment could occasion a background of social adversity against which any effect

  10. The risk of aseptic meningitis associated with the Leningrad-Zagreb mumps vaccine strain following mass vaccination with measles-mumps-rubella vaccine, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silveira, Claudio Marcos; Kmetzsch, Claudete Iris; Mohrdieck, Renate; Sperb, Alethea Fagundes; Prevots, D Rebecca

    2002-10-01

    Few data are available on the risk of aseptic meningitis following vaccination with the Leningrad-Zagreb (L-Z) strain of mumps vaccine. In 1997 the mumps vaccine was introduced into the state of Rio Grande do Sul in Brazil through mass vaccination with mumps-measles-rubella (MMR), targeting children aged 1-11 years. Five municipalities used exclusively MMR vaccine containing the L-Z strain of mumps. An outbreak of aseptic meningitis was observed shortly after the mass campaign. To estimate the risk of aseptic meningitis associated with this strain, we analysed vaccination and meningitis case surveillance data from the selected municipalities. A case of vaccine-associated aseptic meningitis was defined as one with a pleocytosis of 10-1,500 leukocytes/ml and occurring within 15-35 days after vaccine receipt. We estimated a risk of 2.9 cases per 10,000 doses of L-Z administered, equivalent to 1 case per 3,390 doses administered. The overall risk of aseptic meningitis following the campaign was increased 12.2-fold (95% CI: 6.0-24.7) compared with the same period in 1995-1996. Following the mass campaign, the incidence of mumps declined 93% during 1998-2000. Vaccination with the L-Z strain of mumps vaccine as part of a mass campaign was associated with a significantly increased risk of aseptic meningitis. Decisions about type of mumps vaccine and mumps vaccination strategies must consider vaccine safety issues in addition to other criteria.

  11. Stages of Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Version Key Points Childhood Hodgkin lymphoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the lymph system. There are two types of childhood Hodgkin lymphoma. Epstein-Barr virus infection increases the risk of childhood Hodgkin ...

  12. Childhood obesity case statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Paul W; Caskey, Paul; Heaton, Lisa E; Otsuka, Norman

    2013-04-01

    The goal of this publication is to raise awareness of the impact of childhood obesity on the musculoskeletal health of children and its potential long-term implications. Relevant articles dealing with musculoskeletal disorders either caused by or worsened by childhood obesity were reviewed through a Pub Med search. Efforts to recognize and combat the childhood obesity epidemic were also identified through Internet search engines. This case statement was then reviewed by the members of the pediatric specialty group of the US Bone and Joint Initiative, which represents an extensive number of organizations dealing with musculoskeletal health. Multiple musculoskeletal disorders are clearly caused by or worsened by childhood obesity. The review of the literature clearly demonstrates the increased frequency and severity of many childhood musculoskeletal disorders. Concerns about the long-term implications of these childhood onset disorders such as pain and degenerative changes into adulthood are clearly recognized by all the member organizations of the US Bone and Joint Initiative. It is imperative to recognize the long-term implications of musculoskeletal disorders caused by or worsened by childhood obesity. It is also important to recognize that the ability to exercise comfortably is a key factor to developing a healthy lifestyle and maintaining a healthy body weight. Efforts to develop reasonable and acceptable programs to increase physical activity by all facets of society should be supported. Further research into the long-term implications of childhood musculoskeletal disorders related to childhood obesity is necessary. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Malignent diseases in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havers, W.

    1980-01-01

    As malignant diseases in childhood are rare, and only a small group of radiotherapists have been able to gain experience in this field, this chapter treats the particularities of childhood from this aspect. The side effects of radiotherapy are particularly important here for the growing and developing organism of the child. The most frequently occuring malignant diseases are treated individually. (MG) [de

  14. Asthma phenotypes in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Monica B; Covar, Ronina A

    2016-04-01

    This review describes the literature over the past 18 months that evaluated childhood asthma phenotypes, highlighting the key aspects of these studies, and comparing these studies to previous ones in this area. Recent studies on asthma phenotypes have identified new phenotypes on the basis of statistical analyses (using cluster analysis and latent class analysis methodology) and have evaluated the outcomes and associated risk factors of previously established early childhood asthma phenotypes that are based on asthma onset and patterns of wheezing illness. There have also been investigations focusing on immunologic, physiologic, and genetic correlates of various phenotypes, as well as identification of subphenotypes of severe childhood asthma. Childhood asthma remains a heterogeneous condition, and investigations into these various presentations, risk factors, and outcomes are important since they can offer therapeutic and prognostic relevance. Further investigation into the immunopathology and genetic basis underlying childhood phenotypes is important so therapy can be tailored accordingly.

  15. Iterative co-creation for improved hand hygiene and aseptic techniques in the operating room: experiences from the safe hands study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erichsen Andersson, Annette; Frödin, Maria; Dellenborg, Lisen; Wallin, Lars; Hök, Jesper; Gillespie, Brigid M; Wikström, Ewa

    2018-01-04

    Hand hygiene and aseptic techniques are essential preventives in combating hospital-acquired infections. However, implementation of these strategies in the operating room remains suboptimal. There is a paucity of intervention studies providing detailed information on effective methods for change. This study aimed to evaluate the process of implementing a theory-driven knowledge translation program for improved use of hand hygiene and aseptic techniques in the operating room. The study was set in an operating department of a university hospital. The intervention was underpinned by theories on organizational learning, culture and person centeredness. Qualitative process data were collected via participant observations and analyzed using a thematic approach. Doubts that hand-hygiene practices are effective in preventing hospital acquired infections, strong boundaries and distrust between professional groups and a lack of psychological safety were identified as barriers towards change. Facilitated interprofessional dialogue and learning in "safe spaces" worked as mechanisms for motivation and engagement. Allowing for the free expression of different opinions, doubts and viewing resistance as a natural part of any change was effective in engaging all professional categories in co-creation of clinical relevant solutions to improve hand hygiene. Enabling nurses and physicians to think and talk differently about hospital acquired infections and hand hygiene requires a shift from the concept of one-way directed compliance towards change and learning as the result of a participatory and meaning-making process. The present study is a part of the Safe Hands project, and is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (ID: NCT02983136 ). Date of registration 2016/11/28, retrospectively registered.

  16. Extrapyramidal disorders in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angelini, L.; Nardocci, N.; Balottin, U.; Lanzi, G.

    1987-01-01

    Movement disorders have become significantly interesting as a subject in the Neurosciences. The majority of the data, however, relate to the more specific problems of extrapyramidal disorders in adults. As a disease in childhood it still remains poorly systemized. This book is a collection of certain studies with reference to the most recent advances regarding the morphofunctional organization of the basal ganglia in relation to development. Moreover, the book attempts to systemize the extrapyramidal diseases typical of childhood or at the onset in childhood, focusing on diagnostic and therapeutic criteria. refs.; figs.; tabs

  17. Prevention of childhood injuries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    road traffic crashes, drowning, burns, poisoning or falls), has become a major ... hugely on childhood health in terms of disability and, depending on their cause ... SA, children continue to be threatened by injuries of various kinds, although this ...

  18. Adrenarche and middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Benjamin C

    2011-09-01

    Middle childhood, the period from 6 to 12 years of age, is defined socially by increasing autonomy and emotional regulation, somatically by the development of anatomical structures for subsistence, and endocrinologically by adrenarche, the adrenal production of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Here I suggest that DHEA plays a key role in the coordinated development of the brain and body beginning with middle childhood, via energetic allocation. I argue that with adrenarche, increasing levels of circulating DHEA act to down-regulate the release of glucose into circulation and hence limit the supply of glucose which is needed by the brain for synaptogenesis. Furthermore, I suggest the antioxidant properties of DHEA may be important in maintaining synaptic plasticity throughout middle childhood within slow-developing areas of the cortex, including the insula, thamalus, and anterior cingulate cortex. In addition, DHEA may play a role in the development of body odor as a reliable social signal of behavioral changes associated with middle childhood.

  19. Childhood Traumatic Grief

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Practices Treatments That Work Screening and Assessment Psychological First Aid and SPR Core Curriculum on Childhood Trauma Trauma- ... Measure Reviews All Measure Reviews Usage and Glossary Psychological First Aid and SPR About PFA About SPR NCTSN Resources ...

  20. Reducing Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Reducing Childhood Obesity Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents For ... Ga. were the first three We Can! cities. Obesity Research: A New Approach The percentage of children ...

  1. Childhood vitiligo: Treatment paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrinder Jit Kanwar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood vitiligo differs from the adults by showing a higher incidence in females, segmental vitiligo being more common and less frequent association with other systemic autoimmune and endocrine disorders.Childhood vitiligo is often associated with a marked psychosocial and long lasting effect on the self-esteem of the affected children and their parents, hence an adequate treatment is very essential. Treatment of vitiligo is indeed a tough challenge for the dermatologists′ more so in the background of childhood vitiligo. Although multiple therapeutic modalities are available in the therapeutic armamentarium, not all can be used in children. This brief report updates regarding various therapies available in the treatment of childhood vitiligo.

  2. Instant Childhood Immunization Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Recommendations Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Instant Childhood Immunization Schedule Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Get ... date. See Disclaimer for additional details. Based on Immunization Schedule for Children 0 through 6 Years of ...

  3. Childhood Autism In Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotter, Victor

    1978-01-01

    Mentally handicapped children were screened in 5 countries in Africa in order to explore the usefulness of Western criteria for the recognition of childhood autism in children from developing countries. (CM)

  4. Prevention of Cardiac Implantable Electronic Device Infections: Single Operator Technique with Use of Povidone-Iodine, Double Gloving, Meticulous Aseptic/Antiseptic Measures and Antibiotic Prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolis, Antonis S; Melita, Helen

    2017-01-01

    Cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) implantation is complicated by infection still at a worrisome rate of 2-5%. Since early on during device implantation procedures, we have adopted an infection-preventive technique which has hitherto resulted in effective prevention of infections. Herein we present our results of applying this technique by a single operator in a prospective series of 762 consecutive patients undergoing device implantation. A meticulous search for and treatment of active, occult, or smoldering infection was undertaken preoperatively. An aseptic/antiseptic technique was used for implantation of each device. Skin preparation is thorough with initial cleansing performed with alcohol followed by povidone-iodine 10% solution, which is also used in the wound and inside the pocket. In addition, we routinely use double gloving, and IV antibiotic prophylaxis 1 hour before and for 48 hours afterwards followed by oral antibiotic for 2-3 days after discharge. The skin is closed with absorbable sutures. The study includes 382 patients having a new pacemaker (n = 333) or battery change, system upgrade or lead revision (n = 49), and 380 patients having a new implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) (n = 296) or device replacement/upgrade/lead revision (n = 84). The pacemaker group, aged 70.2 ± 16.5 years, includes 18% VVI, 49% DDD, 29% VDD, and 4% cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) devices. The ICD group, aged 61.3 ± 13.0 years, with a mean ejection fraction of 36 ± 13%, includes 325 ICD and 55 CRT implants. Over 26.6 ± 33.4 months for the pacemaker group and 36.6 ± 38.3 months for the ICD group, infection occurred in one patient in each group (0.26%) having a device replacement. A consistent and strict approach of aseptic/antiseptic technique with the use of double gloving and povidone-iodine solution within the pocket plus a 4-day regimen of antibiotic prophylaxis minimizes infections in CIED implants. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Atopic endotype in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoos, Ann-Marie Malby; Chawes, Bo Lund Krogsgaard; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt

    2016-01-01

    against 28 inhalant and food allergens was assessed at ½, 1½, 4, 6, and 13 years of age in 399 children from the Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood2000 birth cohort by using both skin prick test responses and specific IgE levels. Asthma and eczema were diagnosed longitudinally by strictly...... with asthma through early childhood (0-6 years) when analyzed as any sensitization (odds ratio [OR] range, 0.78-1.29; P ≥ .48). However, at 13 years of age, any sensitization was associated with asthma (OR range, 4.02-5.94; all P ...%), eczema (26%), asthma (14%), or healthy status (24%). Conclusion: We found very little interdependency between asthma, eczema, and allergic sensitization through childhood. The associations between those entities were strongly dependent on age, type of allergens, and method of testing for sensitization...

  6. Discovering the Culture of Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plank, Emily

    2016-01-01

    We often filter our interactions with children through the lens of adulthood. View the culture of childhood through a whole new lens. Identify age-based bias and expand your outlook on and understanding of early childhood as a culture. Examine various elements of childhood culture: language, the power of believing, artistic expressions, and social…

  7. Severe childhood malnutrition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Berkley, James A; Bandsma, Robert H J

    2017-01-01

    The main forms of childhood malnutrition occur predominantly in children malnutrition. Here, we use...... the term 'severe malnutrition' to describe these conditions to better reflect the contributions of chronic poverty, poor living conditions with pervasive deficits in sanitation and hygiene, a high prevalence of infectious diseases and environmental insults, food insecurity, poor maternal and fetal...... nutritional status and suboptimal nutritional intake in infancy and early childhood. Children with severe malnutrition have an increased risk of serious illness and death, primarily from acute infectious diseases. International growth standards are used for the diagnosis of severe malnutrition and provide...

  8. Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pui, Ching-Hon; Yang, Jun J; Hunger, Stephen P

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To review the impact of collaborative studies on advances in the biology and treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children and adolescents. METHODS: A review of English literature on childhood ALL focusing on collaborative studies was performed. The resulting article...

  9. Childhood Obesity: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, John J.

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews recent research evidence, largely from systematic reviews, on a number of aspects of childhood obesity: its definition and prevalence; consequences; causes and prevention. The basis of the body mass index (BMI) as a means of defining obesity in children and adolescents is discussed: a high BMI for age constitutes obesity. In…

  10. Diet quality in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velde, van der Laura A.; Nguyen, Anh N.; Schoufour, Josje D.; Geelen, Anouk; Jaddoe, Vincent W.V.; Franco, Oscar H.; Voortman, Trudy

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: We aimed to evaluate diet quality of 8-year-old children in the Netherlands, to identify sociodemographic and lifestyle correlates of child diet quality, and to examine tracking of diet quality from early to mid-childhood. Methods: For 4733 children participating in a population-based

  11. The Teening of Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymowitz, Kay S.

    2000-01-01

    The market and advertising media aimed at children has skyrocketed in recent years. Many new products targeting 8-12-year-olds appeal to their sense of teen fashion, image consciousness, and independence from adults. Describes the development of this market aimed at early adolescents and how it is changing childhood as Americans have known it. (SM)

  12. Narrative Processes across Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvaney, Matthew Keefe

    2011-01-01

    According to the narrative perspective on personality development, personality is constructed largely by interpreting and representing experience in story format (scripts) over the course of the lifespan. The focus of this paper is to describe briefly the narrative perspective on personality development during childhood and adolescence, to discuss…

  13. Conscientiousness: Origins in Childhood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Duckworth, Angela L.; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Valiente, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we evaluate developmental and personality research with the aim of determining whether the personality trait of conscientiousness can be identified in children and adolescents. After concluding that conscientiousness does emerge in childhood, we discuss the developmental origins of conscientiousness with a specific focus on…

  14. Early childhood aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alink, Lenneke Rosalie Agnes

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis the development, stability, and correlates of early childhood aggression were investigated. The normative development was examined in a general population sample using questionnaires completed by the parents of 12-, 24-, and 36-month-old children and again one year later. Results

  15. Childhood environment and obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    US children are at risk for developing childhood obesity. Currently, 23% of children ages 2–5 are overweight or obese, i.e., at or above the 85th percentile. This prevalence becomes even higher as children age, with 34% of children ages 6–11 being overweight or obese. Ethnic minority children are at...

  16. Stress and childhood epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campen, J.S. van

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic diseases in childhood, characterized by the enduring predisposition to generate epileptic seizures. Children with epilepsy and their parents often report seizures precipitated by stress. In order to increase our understanding of the pathophysiological

  17. Childhood in Victorian Literature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moore, B.

    2017-01-01

    As the Victorian period began, literary depictions of childhood were influenced from two main directions. On the one hand, there was the figure of the idealized Romantic child, typically conceived as naturally innocent and close to God, most famously in Wordsworth’s poem “Ode: Intimations of

  18. Childhood microbial keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah G Al Otaibi

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Children with suspected microbial keratitis require comprehensive evaluation and management. Early recognition, identifying the predisposing factors and etiological microbial organisms, and instituting appropriate treatment measures have a crucial role in outcome. Ocular trauma was the leading cause of childhood microbial keratitis in our study.

  19. Early Childhood Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Early childhood trauma generally refers to the traumatic experiences that occur to children aged 0-6. Because infants' and young children's reactions may be different from older children's, and because they may not be able to verbalize their reactions to threatening or dangerous events, many people assume that young age protects children from the…

  20. Rapid detection of enterovirus in cerebrospinal fluid by a fully-automated PCR assay is associated with improved management of aseptic meningitis in adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giulieri, Stefano G; Chapuis-Taillard, Caroline; Manuel, Oriol; Hugli, Olivier; Pinget, Christophe; Wasserfallen, Jean-Blaise; Sahli, Roland; Jaton, Katia; Marchetti, Oscar; Meylan, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Enterovirus (EV) is the most frequent cause of aseptic meningitis (AM). Lack of microbiological documentation results in unnecessary antimicrobial therapy and hospitalization. To assess the impact of rapid EV detection in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by a fully-automated PCR (GeneXpert EV assay, GXEA) on the management of AM. Observational study in adult patients with AM. Three groups were analyzed according to EV documentation in CSF: group A = no PCR or negative PCR (n=17), group B = positive real-time PCR (n = 20), and group C = positive GXEA (n = 22). Clinical, laboratory and health-care costs data were compared. Clinical characteristics were similar in the 3 groups. Median turn-around time of EV PCR decreased from 60 h (IQR (interquartile range) 44-87) in group B to 5h (IQR 4-11) in group C (p<0.0001). Median duration of antibiotics was 1 (IQR 0-6), 1 (0-1.9), and 0.5 days (single dose) in groups A, B, and C, respectively (p < 0.001). Median length of hospitalization was 4 days (2.5-7.5), 2 (1-3.7), and 0.5 (0.3-0.7), respectively (p < 0.001). Median hospitalization costs were $5458 (2676-6274) in group A, $2796 (2062-5726) in group B, and $921 (765-1230) in group C (p < 0.0001). Rapid EV detection in CSF by a fully-automated PCR improves management of AM by significantly reducing antibiotic use, hospitalization length and costs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Cell-based Assay System for Predicting Bone Regeneration in Patient Affected by Aseptic Nonunion and Treated with Platelet Rich Fibrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perut, Francesca; Dallari, Dante; Rani, Nicola; Baldini, Nicola; Granchi, Donatella

    Regenerative strategies based on the use of platelet concentrates as an autologous source of growth factors (GF) has been proposed to promote the healing of long bone nonunions. However, the relatively high failure rate stimulates interest in growing knowledge and developing solutions to obtain the best results from the regenerative approach. In this study we evaluated whether a cell-based assay system could be able to recognize patients who will benefit or not from the use of autologous platelet preparations. The autologous serum was used in culture medium to promote the osteogenic differentiation of normal bone-marrow stromal cells (BMSC). Blood samples were collected from 16 patients affected by aseptic long bone nonunion who were candidates to the treatment with autologous platelet-rich fibrin. The osteoinductive effect was detected by measuring the BMSC proliferation, the mineralization activity, and the expression of bone-related genes. Serum level of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) was considered as a representative marker of the delivery of osteogenic GFs from platelets. Laboratory results were related to the characteristics of the disease before the treatment and to the outcome at 12 months. Serum samples from "good responders" showed significantly higher levels of bFGF and were able to induce a significantly higher proliferation of BMSC, while no significant differences were observed in terms of osteoblast differentiation. BMSC-based assay could be a useful tool to recognize patients who have a low probability to benefit from the use of autologous platelet concentrate to promote the healing of long bone nonunion.

  2. CoCrMo alloy vs. UHMWPE Particulate Implant Debris Induces Sex Dependent Aseptic Osteolysis Responses In Vivo using a Murine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgraeber, Stefan; Samelko, Lauryn; McAllister, Kyron; Putz, Sebastian; Jacobs, Joshua.J.; Hallab, Nadim James

    2018-01-01

    Background: The rate of revision for some designs of total hip replacements due to idiopathic aseptic loosening has been reported as higher for women. However, whether this is environmental or inherently sex-related is not clear. Objective: Can particle induced osteolysis be sex dependent? And if so, is this dependent on the type of implant debris (e.g. metal vs polymer)? The objective of this study was to test for material dependent inflammatory osteolysis that may be linked to sex using CoCrMo and implant grade conventional polyethylene (UHMWPE), using an in vivo murine calvaria model. Methods: Healthy 12 week old female and male C57BL/6J mice were treated with UHMWPE (1.0um ECD) or CoCrMo particles (0.9um ECD) or received sham surgery. Bone resorption was assessed by micro-computed tomography, histology and histomorphometry on day 12 post challenge. Results: Female mice that received CoCrMo particles showed significantly more inflammatory osteolysis and bone destruction compared to the females who received UHMWPE implant debris. Moreover, females challenged with CoCrMo particles exhibited 120% more inflammatory bone loss compared to males (p<0.01) challenged with CoCrMo implant debris (but this was not the case for UHMWPE particles). Conclusion: We demonstrated sex-specific differences in the amount of osteolysis resulting from CoCrMo particle challenge. This suggests osteo-immune responses to metal debris are preferentially higher in female compared to male mice, and supports the contention that there may be inherent sex related susceptibility to some types of implant debris. PMID:29785221

  3. Analysis of 18 F-FDG uptake patterns in PET for diagnosis of septic and aseptic loosening after total hip arthroplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cremerius, U.; Niethard, F.U.; Mumme, T.; Reinartz, P.; Wirtz, D.; Buell, U.

    2003-01-01

    Aim: Identification of typical patterns for fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in positron emission tomography (PET) to detect aseptic loosening of hip prosthesis (acetabular and/or femoral component) and prosthetic infection. Methods: 18 patients with painful hip prosthesis underwent PET using a dedicated full ring scanner after application of 200-300 MBq FDG. The interface between bone and surrounding soft tissue or bone as displayed on coronal slices was divided into 12 segments in accordance with the classifications of Delee and Gruen. FDG uptake in each of the segments was scored (0-3) by two independent observers. Intraoperative findings were regarded as the gold standard. Results: After surgical revision 14 acetabular components and 9 femoral components were found to be loose and prosthetic infection was present in 7 prostheses. Loosening of the acetabular component was correlated to enhanced uptake in the middle of the acetabular interface, while loosening of the femoral component was correlated to enhanced uptake in the proximal and middle segment of the lateral femoral interface and the proximal segment of the medial femoral interface. A similar pattern was found in prosthetic infection with high uptake along the middle portion of the lateral femoral interface. In 6 of 7 infected prostheses loosening of the acetabular and of the femoral component was present. Taking the typical uptake patterns as criteria for loosening and grade 3 uptake as an additional criterion for septic loosening the accuracy of PET imaging in the detection of loosening of the acetabular or the femoral component and of prosthetic infection was 72, 78 and 89%, respectively. Conclusion: This pilot study presents FDG-PET as a promising diagnostic tool for patients with painful hip prostheses. Its clinical value should be evaluated in a larger patient population. (orig.) [de

  4. Genetics of Childhood Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major health problem and an immense economic burden on the health care systems both in the United States and the rest of the world. The prevalence of obesity in children and adults in the United States has increased dramatically over the past decade. Besides environmental factors, genetic factors are known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of obesity. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have revealed strongly associated genomic variants associated with most common disorders; indeed there is general consensus on these findings from generally positive replication outcomes by independent groups. To date, there have been only a few GWAS-related reports for childhood obesity specifically, with studies primarily uncovering loci in the adult setting instead. It is clear that a number of loci previously reported from GWAS analyses of adult BMI and/or obesity also play a role in childhood obesity.

  5. Early Childhood Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumiko Kawashita

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is one of the most common childhood diseases, and people continue to be susceptible to it throughout their lives. Although dental caries can be arrested and potentially even reversed in its early stages, it is often not self-limiting and progresses without proper care until the tooth is destroyed. Early childhood caries (ECC is often complicated by inappropriate feeding practices and heavy infection with mutans streptococci. Such children should be targeted with a professional preventive program that includes oral hygiene instructions for mothers or caregivers, along with fluoride and diet counseling. However, these strategies alone are not sufficient to prevent dental caries in high-risk children; prevention of ECC also requires addressing the socioeconomic factors that face many families in which ECC is endemic. The aim of this paper is to systematically review information about ECC and to describe why many children are suffering from dental caries.

  6. Dietary Patterns in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise Beltoft Borup

    A healthy diet is essential for healthy growth and development during childhood and may prevent obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases throughout life. Traditionally, diet has been investigated as single nutrients. However, people do not eat one single nutrient and they do not even eat one...... single food. People consume meals and these meals vary during a day, over a year and during a life time. To comprehend some of this complexity it could be advantageous to investigate dietary patterns representing the whole diet as patterns might be better markers of growth and health than single...... childhood. These associations might contribute to the identification of families, who would benefit from guidance to help them establish healthy dietary patterns for their infants. Finding tracking for some infants and changes in adherence to dietary patterns for others as well as the association between...

  7. Danish Childhood Cancer Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Henrik; Rechnitzer, Catherine; Wehner, Peder Skov

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The overall aim is to monitor the quality of childhood cancer care in Denmark; to register late effects of treatment; to analyze complications of permanent central venous catheters (CVCs); to study blood stream infections in children with cancer; and to study acute toxicity of high......-dose methotrexate infusions in children with leukemia. STUDY POPULATION: All children below 15 years of age at diagnosis living in Denmark diagnosed after January 1, 1985 according to the International Classification of Diseases 10, including diagnoses DC00-DD48. MAIN VARIABLES: Cancer type, extent of disease......, and outcome of antimicrobial chemotherapy. DESCRIPTIVE DATA: Since 1985, 4,944 children below 15 years of age have been registered in the database. There has been no significant change in the incidence of childhood cancer in Denmark since 1985. The 5-year survival has increased significantly since 1985...

  8. Cultivating childhood obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Greene-Martin, DeCleasha

    2013-01-01

    In recent years the levels of obesity in the United States has risen greatly especially amongst children. Doctors, psychologists, and other scientists have been studying the growing problem for years. Implications for childhood obesity not only have enormous physical consequences but emotional repercussions which can affect the child’s academic and social development. A number of factors have been identified as having an effect on these children; family life reveals the grocery store habits o...

  9. Stress and Obesity in Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Felix-Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a serious health problem and prevalence increases dramatically around the world, including Sweden. The aim of the current thesis was to examine parents’ and children’s stress in relation to childhood obesity. Parenting stress, social support, parental worries, and serious life events, as well as children’s temperament, self-esteem, body dissatisfaction, saliva cortisol, weight and height were measured to estimate stress and the relation between stress and childhood obesit...

  10. Psychiatric Aspects of Childhood Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Raman Deep PATTANAYAK; Rajesh SAGAR

    2012-01-01

    How to Cite this Article: Pattanayak RD, Sagar R. Psychiatric Aspects of Childhood Epilepsy. Iran J Child Neurol 2012;6(2):9-18.Childhood epilepsy is a chronic, recurrent disorder of unprovoked seizures. Theonset of epilepsy in childhood has significant implications for brain growth anddevelopment. Seizures may impair the ongoing neurodevelopmental processes and compromise the child’s intellectual and cognitive functioning, leading totremendous cognitive, behavioral and psychosocial consequen...

  11. Childhood cataract: home to hospital.

    OpenAIRE

    Muhit, MA

    2004-01-01

    Globally, there are 190,000 children who are blind from cataract.1 Cataract in children may be present at birth (congenital cataract) or may appear anytime during the first few years of life (developmental cataract). Childhood cataract is the most common treatable cause of childhood blindness, being responsible for 10-30% of all childhood blindness. A recent national study in Bangladesh showed that 1 in every 3 blind children is unnecessarily blind from congenital/developmental cataract.

  12. Personalizing the Approach to Childhood Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Childhood Asthma Share | Personalizing the approach to childhood asthma Published Online: March 24, 2104 Clinicians treating asthmatic ... classifying 1,041 asthmatics who participated in the Childhood Asthma Management Program (CAMP) clinical trial that assessed long- ...

  13. Vapor Phase Hydrogen Peroxide Sanitization of an Isolator for Aseptic Filling of Monoclonal Antibody Drug Product - Hydrogen Peroxide Uptake and Impact on Protein Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Aaron; Reodl, Thomas; Hui, Ada; Knueppel, Stephanie; Eppler, Kirk; Lehnert, Siegfried; Maa, Yuh-Fun

    2018-03-15

    A monoclonal antibody drug product (DP) manufacturing process was transferred to a different production site, where aseptic filling took place within an isolator that was sanitized using vapor phase hydrogen peroxide (VPHP). A quality-by-design approach was applied for study design to understand the impact of VPHP uptake in the isolator on DP quality. A combination of small-scale and manufacturing-scale studies was performed to evaluate the sensitivity of the monoclonal antibody to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as well as VPHP uptake mechanisms during the filling process. The acceptable H2O2 level was determined to be 100 ng/mL for the antibody in the H2O2 spiking study; protein oxidation was observed above this threshold. The most prominent sources of VPHP uptake were identified to be via the silicone tubing assembly (associated with the peristaltic pumps) and open, filled vials. Silicone tubing, an effective depot to H2O2, could absorb VPHP during different stages of the filling process and discharge H2O2 into the DP solution during filling interruptions. A small-scale isolator model, established to simulate manufacturing-scale conditions, was a useful tool in understanding H2O2 uptake in relation to tubing dimensions and VPHP concentration in the isolator air (or atmosphere). Although the tubing assembly had absorbed a substantial amount of VPHP during the decontamination phase, the majority of H2O2 could be removed during tubing cleaning and sterilization in the subsequent isolator aeration phase, demonstrating that H2O2 in the DP solution is taken up primarily via atmospheric VPHP residues in the isolator during filling. Picarro sensor monitoring suggested that the validated VPHP aeration process generates reproducible residual VPHP profiles in isolator air, thus allowing small-scale studies to provide more relevant recommendations on tubing size and interruption time limits for commercial manufacturing. The recommended process parameters were demonstrated to be

  14. Combined bone scintigraphy with 99mTc-MDP and 99mTc-ciprofloxacin in differentiation of hip and knee prosthesis aseptic loosening and infection: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pucar Dragan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Although the number of new primary implantation of hip and knee prostheses every year increases, the rate of failed arthroplasty is nearly the same. The main question is whether it is an aseptic instability or instability caused by infection. The aim of this preliminary study was an attempt with combined 99mTc-ciprofloxacin and 99mTc-methylene diphosphonate (MDP bone scintigraphy to improve diagnostic accuracy in the differentiation of hip and knee prosthesis aseptic loosening and periprosthetic joint infection. Methods. Inclusion criteria of patients for this study were based on suspected periprosthetic joint infection: painful prosthetic joint, restricted joint movements and increased value of erythrocyte sedimentation rate or levels of C-reactive protein. We examined 20 patients with implanted 14 hip and 6 knee prosthesis. All patients also underwent plain radiography of suspected joint. In all patients, three-phase 99mTc-MDP bone scintigraphy was performed. Three to five days after the bone scan, we performed scintigraphy using 99mTc-ciprofloxacin with the calculation of accumulation index. Periprosthetic joint infection was confirmed on the basis of microbiological findings. Results. Periprosthetic joint infection was confirmed in fourteen of twenty observed joints, in five of them the aseptic loosening was present and in one patient’s symptoms were not related to the prosthesis (poor biomechanics of prosthetic joints caused by weaknesses of muscle. Estimated sensitivity/specificity for 99mTc-MDP bone scintigraphy alone were 100/17%; for 99mTc-ciprofloxacin scintigraphy were 85,7/100%. Sensitivity and specificity were 92,3% and 83,3%, respectively for results obtained with combined assessment by both methods. Our study confirmed the high negative predictive value of 99mTc-MDP bone scan. The negative result of bone scan virtually excludes the possibility of periprosthetic infection. On the other hand, positive findings of

  15. Combined dyslipidemia in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavey, Rae-Ellen W

    2015-01-01

    Combined dyslipidemia (CD) is now the predominant dyslipidemic pattern in childhood, characterized by moderate-to-severe elevation in triglycerides and non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), minimal elevation in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and reduced HDL-C. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy shows that the CD pattern is represented at the lipid subpopulation level as an increase in small, dense LDL and in overall LDL particle number plus a reduction in total HDL-C and large HDL particles, a highly atherogenic pattern. In youth, CD occurs almost exclusively with obesity and is highly prevalent, seen in more than 40% of obese adolescents. CD in childhood predicts pathologic evidence of atherosclerosis and vascular dysfunction in adolescence and young adulthood, and early clinical cardiovascular events in adult life. There is a tight connection between CD, visceral adiposity, insulin resistance, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and the metabolic syndrome, suggesting an integrated pathophysiological response to excessive weight gain. Weight loss, changes in dietary composition, and increases in physical activity have all been shown to improve CD significantly in children and adolescents in short-term studies. Most importantly, even small amounts of weight loss are associated with significant decreases in triglyceride levels and increases in HDL-C levels with improvement in lipid subpopulations. Diet change focused on limitation of simple carbohydrate intake with specific elimination of all sugar-sweetened beverages is very effective. Evidence-based recommendations for initiating diet and activity change are provided. Rarely, drug therapy is needed, and the evidence for drug treatment of CD in childhood is reviewed. Copyright © 2015 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Early Childhood Workforce Index, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitebook, Marcy; McLean, Caitlin; Austin, Lea J. E.

    2016-01-01

    The State of the Early Childhood Workforce (SECW) Initiative is a groundbreaking multi-year project to shine a steady spotlight on the nation's early childhood workforce. The SECW Initiative is designed to challenge entrenched ideas and policies that maintain an inequitable and inadequate status quo for early educators and for the children and…

  17. Early Childhood Education in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, Lisa K.

    1989-01-01

    Describes early childhood education in Taiwan, focusing on living patterns and child care arrangements, the position of the individual within the family and community, and the application of cultural norms to early childhood education. Compares the behavior of Chinese preschool children to that of American preschool children. (RJC)

  18. Early Childhood Inclusion in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giné, Climent; Balcells-Balcells, Anna; Cañadas, Margarita; Paniagua, Gema

    2016-01-01

    This article describes early childhood inclusion in educational settings in Spain. First, we address the legislative framework of preschool education in Spain and offer a brief analysis of some relevant issues, including the current situation of early childhood education and inclusion at this stage. Second, current policies and practices relating…

  19. Childhood cancer: Early warning signs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    World-wide there are more than 200 000 new cases of childhood cancer per year and more than 70% of these occur in the developing world. In the First World more than 70% of these children will become long-term survivors. For some childhood cancers 5-year survival rates approach 95% . In England only 0.5% of all ...

  20. Childhood disintegrative disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik

    2003-01-01

    In 1908 a Viennese remedial educator Theodor Heller described six children under the name of dementia infantilis who had insidiously developed a severe mental regression between the 3rd and 4th years of life after normal mental development. Neuropathological and other medical conditions...... are sometimes associated with this disorder, but contrary to earlier belief this is not typical. Interest in childhood disintegrative disorder has increased markedly in recent years and in this review attention is given to more recently published cases based on ICD-9, ICD-10 and DSM-IV diagnostic systems...

  1. Subclinical hypothyroidism in childhood.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Grady, M J

    2012-02-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) is defined as an elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in association with a normal total or free thyroxine (T4) or triiodothyronine (T3). It is frequently encountered in both neonatology and general paediatric practice; however, its clinical significance is widely debated. Currently there is no broad consensus on the investigation and treatment of these patients; specifically who to treat and what cut-off level of TSH should be used. This paper reviews the available evidence regarding investigation, treatments and outcomes reported for childhood SH.

  2. Childhood trauma and compulsive buying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Randy A; Chang, Joy; Jewell, Bryan; Rock, Rachel

    2013-02-01

    Childhood trauma has been empirically associated with various types of self-regulatory difficulties in adulthood. However, according to the extant literature, no study has examined relationships between various types of childhood trauma and compulsive buying behavior in adulthood. Using a self-report survey methodology in a cross-sectional consecutive sample of 370 obstetrics/gynecology patients, we examined five types of childhood trauma before the age of 12 years (i.e. witnessing violence, physical neglect, emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse) in relationship to compulsive buying as assessed by the Compulsive Buying Scale (CBS). All forms of trauma demonstrated statistically significant correlations with the CBS. Using a linear regression analysis, both witnessing violence and emotional abuse significantly contributed to CBS scores. Further analyses indicated that race did not moderate the relationship between childhood trauma and compulsive buying. Findings indicate that various forms of childhood trauma are correlated with compulsive buying behavior, particularly witnessing violence and emotional abuse.

  3. Childhood cancer, Dounreay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kynoch, G.A.B.; Stewart, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Details of the findings of the Committee of the Medical Aspects of Radiation in the Environment (COMARE) on the incidence of childhood cancer in the Dounreay area in the United Kingdom are given in a written response to a parliamentary question. In the period 1985-91, four cases of leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were observed in the 1 to 24 age group living within 25 km of the Dounreay Nuclear Establishment, compared to 1.4 expected cases. In the light of these results, which reinforce previous findings, the Committee concluded that the raised incidence of childhood leukemia in the area is a real phenomenon and is less likely to have risen by chance. COMARE also concluded that further epidemiological research in the area to try to determine causal mechanics was not a practicable way forward at present because of the small number of cases involved. This advice has been accepted by the UK Government, but further nationally based studies are being carried out. (UK)

  4. Severe childhood malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Berkley, James A; Bandsma, Robert H J; Kerac, Marko; Trehan, Indi; Briend, André

    2017-09-21

    The main forms of childhood malnutrition occur predominantly in children malnutrition. Here, we use the term 'severe malnutrition' to describe these conditions to better reflect the contributions of chronic poverty, poor living conditions with pervasive deficits in sanitation and hygiene, a high prevalence of infectious diseases and environmental insults, food insecurity, poor maternal and fetal nutritional status and suboptimal nutritional intake in infancy and early childhood. Children with severe malnutrition have an increased risk of serious illness and death, primarily from acute infectious diseases. International growth standards are used for the diagnosis of severe malnutrition and provide therapeutic end points. The early detection of severe wasting and kwashiorkor and outpatient therapy for these conditions using ready-to-use therapeutic foods form the cornerstone of modern therapy, and only a small percentage of children require inpatient care. However, the normalization of physiological and metabolic functions in children with malnutrition is challenging, and children remain at high risk of relapse and death. Further research is urgently needed to improve our understanding of the pathophysiology of severe malnutrition, especially the mechanisms causing kwashiorkor, and to develop new interventions for prevention and treatment.

  5. Acute hemiplegia in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuno, Takehiko; Takao, Tatsuo; Itoh, Masatoshi; Konishi, Yukuo; Nakano, Shozo

    1983-01-01

    The results of CT in 100 patients with acute hemiplegia in childhood are reported here. The etiology was various: 2 patients had infratentorial brain tumors, 56 had cerebral vascular diseases, 3 had head injuries, 16 had intracranial infectious diseases, one had postinfectious encephalomyelitis, one had multiple sclerosis, 2 had epilepsy, and the diagnosis of 19 were unknown. Eleven patients had a normal CT and a good prognosis. As for the type of onset, there were patients of type 1 with fever and 42 with convulsions and unconsciousness; those of type 2 with convulsions and unconsciousness were 12, and those of type 3 without fever and convulsions were 46. This classification is assumed to be useful, as the type of onset is characteristic of the etiology. Six patients were diagnosed correctly by repeated examinations, although the first CT did not reveal any remarkable findings. Capsular infarction, occlusion of the posterior cerebral artery in acute hemiplegia in childhood, abnormal findings of the internal capsule, thalamus, and midbrain in a patient with postinfectious encephalomyelitis, and a diffuse low density in the CT of the unilateral hemisphere in the patients with acute encephalopathy and acute hemiplegia of an obscure origin have been found after the introduction of computerized tomography. (author)

  6. Precisely Tracking Childhood Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Tamer H; Koplan, Jeffrey P; Breiman, Robert F; Madhi, Shabir A; Heaton, Penny M; Mundel, Trevor; Ordi, Jaume; Bassat, Quique; Menendez, Clara; Dowell, Scott F

    2017-07-01

    Little is known about the specific causes of neonatal and under-five childhood death in high-mortality geographic regions due to a lack of primary data and dependence on inaccurate tools, such as verbal autopsy. To meet the ambitious new Sustainable Development Goal 3.2 to eliminate preventable child mortality in every country, better approaches are needed to precisely determine specific causes of death so that prevention and treatment interventions can be strengthened and focused. Minimally invasive tissue sampling (MITS) is a technique that uses needle-based postmortem sampling, followed by advanced histopathology and microbiology to definitely determine cause of death. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation is supporting a new surveillance system called the Child Health and Mortality Prevention Surveillance network, which will determine cause of death using MITS in combination with other information, and yield cause-specific population-based mortality rates, eventually in up to 12-15 sites in sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia. However, the Gates Foundation funding alone is not enough. We call on governments, other funders, and international stakeholders to expand the use of pathology-based cause of death determination to provide the information needed to end preventable childhood mortality.

  7. Childhood depression: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima NNR

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Nádia Nara Rolim Lima,1 Vânia Barbosa do Nascimento,1 Sionara Melo Figueiredo de Carvalho,1 Luiz Carlos de Abreu,1,3 Modesto Leite Rolim Neto,2 Aline Quental Brasil,2 Francisco Telésforo Celestino Junior,2 Gislene Farias de Oliveira,2 Alberto Olavo Advíncula Reis3 1Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Saúde, Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo André, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Departamento de Medicina. Universidade Federal do Ceará, UFC, Barbalha, Ceará, Brazil; 3Departamento de Saúde Materno Infantil, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: As an important public health issue, childhood depression deserves special attention, considering the serious and lasting consequences of the disease to child development. Taking this into consideration, the present study was based on the following question: what practical contributions to clinicians and researchers does the current literature on childhood depression have to offer? The objective of the present study was to conduct a systematic review of articles regarding childhood depression. To accomplish this purpose, a systematic review of articles on childhood depression, published from January 1, 2010 to November 24, 2012, on MEDLINE and SciELO databases was carried out. Search terms were “depression” (medical subject headings [MeSH], “child” (MeSH, and "childhood depression" (keyword. Of the 180 retrieved studies, 25 met the eligibility criteria. Retrieved studies covered a wide range of aspects regarding childhood depression, such as diagnosis, treatment, prevention and prognosis. Recent scientific literature regarding childhood depression converge to, directly or indirectly, highlight the negative impacts of depressive disorders to the children's quality of life. Unfortunately, the retrieved studies show that childhood depression commonly grows in a background of vulnerability and poverty, where individual and familiar needs

  8. Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Aktepe

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually towards male child. Thirty-fifty percent of abuse cases among child and adolescent are outside the family including strangers or familiar person. Some features of abusers are introvert personality, pedophilic and antisocial personality. Most of the abusers have a history of sexual abuse or aggression during childhood. Sexual intercourse between two people who are not allowed to marry by law is called as incest. Family pattern of incest is defined globally as disorganized and dysfunctional. The most commonly reported familial pattern is rigid and patriarchal family pattern with a harsh father using force quite frequently. The clinical features and impacts of the sexual abuse on the child varies according to the relation between abusers and the child, form of abuse, duration of abuse, presence of physical assault, developmental phase, child age and psychological development before the abuse. Sexual abuse history may result in psychiatric disorders including anxiety, depression, substance dependence, suicide act, borderline personality disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder. Abuse negatively affects interpersonal relationships and self esteem of abused individuals. Several studies reported close association between risky sexual behaviors in adulthood and a history of of sexual abuse during childhood. Four traumatic dynamics including traumatic sexuality with abuse, feeling of betrayal, weakness, and stigmatization exist in childhood abuse. Trauma can cause

  9. [Childhood periodic syndromes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuvellier, J-C; Lépine, A

    2010-01-01

    This review focuses on the so-called "periodic syndromes of childhood that are precursors to migraine", as included in the Second Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders. Three periodic syndromes of childhood are included in the Second Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders: abdominal migraine, cyclic vomiting syndrome and benign paroxysmal vertigo, and a fourth, benign paroxysmal torticollis is presented in the Appendix. The key clinical features of this group of disorders are the episodic pattern and intervals of complete health. Episodes of benign paroxysmal torticollis begin between 2 and 8 months of age. Attacks are characterized by an abnormal inclination and/or rotation of the head to one side, due to cervical dystonia. They usually resolve by 5 years. Benign paroxysmal vertigo presents as sudden attacks of vertigo, accompanied by inability to stand without support, and lasting seconds to minutes. Age at onset is between 2 and 4 years, and the symptoms disappear by the age of 5. Cyclic vomiting syndrome is characterized in young infants and children by repeated stereotyped episodes of pernicious vomiting, at times to the point of dehydration, and impacting quality of life. Mean age of onset is 5 years. Abdominal migraine remains a controversial issue and presents in childhood with repeated stereotyped episodes of unexplained abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting occurring in the absence of headache. Mean age of onset is 7 years. Both cyclic vomiting syndrome and abdominal migraine are noted for the absence of pathognomonic clinical features but also for the large number of other conditions to be considered in their differential diagnoses. Diagnostic criteria, such as those of the Second Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders and the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, have made diagnostic approach and management easier. Their diagnosis

  10. MRI of aseptic osteonecrosis in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia; Kernspintomographie von aseptischen Osteonekrosen bei Kindern und Jugendlichen mit einer akuten lymphoblastischen Leukaemie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelbrecht, V.; Scherer, A.; Moedder, U. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische Radiologie; Bruder, M. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Kinderklinik; Koerholz, D. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Kinderonkologie

    2000-04-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the incidence, localisation, and course of symptomatic aseptic osteonecrosis (AON) in children undergoing treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Methods: 72 MRI examinations obtained from 26 children with bone pain selected from a group of 121 children with ALL were evaluated retrospectively. The area of the AON was determined by computer assisted planimetry. Follow-up examinations after 2-5 years were considered. Results: 10/121 (8.3%) of the children had symptomatic AON, the number of lesions varied between 1 and 24 per child. 62/66 lesions were localized within the lower extremities. 58% of the AON were positioned in the epiphysis and 42% in the meta- and diaphysis. The mean area of AON was 7.6 cm{sup 2} with a range of 0.5 to 50 cm{sup 2}. Follow-up examinations revealed a regression in 19 AON, no change in 43 and a progression in 4 lesions. AON within the epiphysis with joint involvement or lesions greater than 9 cm{sup 2} more frequently showed a progression of AON with final joint destruction. An elevated risk for AON was seen in children older than 10 years and in children with intensified chemotherapy due to high-risk ALL. Conclusion: AON is a common complication in ALL-children under chemotherapy. Most frequently, the course is benign but large AON with joint involvement have an elevated risk for progression of AON with final joint destruction. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Erfassung von Haeufigkeit, Lokalisation und Verlauf von symptomatischen aseptischen Osteonekrosen (AON) bei Kindern und Jugendlichen unter der Therapie einer akuten lymphoblastischen Leukaemie (ALL). Methoden: In einer Gruppe von 121 Kindern mit ALL (Alter 1-17 Jahre) wurden retrospektiv 72 MRT der Extremitaeten bei 26 Kindern mit Knochenschmerzen bezueglich der Zahl, Groesse und Lokalisation von AON ausgewertet. Die Flaeche von AON wurde planimetrisch bestimmt. Verlaufskontrollen erstreckten sich ueber 2-5 Jahre. Ergebnisse: 10/121 (8,3%) der Kinder wiesen

  11. Analysis of {sup 18} F-FDG uptake patterns in PET for diagnosis of septic and aseptic loosening after total hip arthroplasty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremerius, U.; Niethard, F.U. [Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Mumme, T.; Reinartz, P.; Wirtz, D. [Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule Aachen (Germany). Orthopaedische Klinik; Buell, U.

    2003-12-01

    Aim: Identification of typical patterns for fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in positron emission tomography (PET) to detect aseptic loosening of hip prosthesis (acetabular and/or femoral component) and prosthetic infection. Methods: 18 patients with painful hip prosthesis underwent PET using a dedicated full ring scanner after application of 200-300 MBq FDG. The interface between bone and surrounding soft tissue or bone as displayed on coronal slices was divided into 12 segments in accordance with the classifications of Delee and Gruen. FDG uptake in each of the segments was scored (0-3) by two independent observers. Intraoperative findings were regarded as the gold standard. Results: After surgical revision 14 acetabular components and 9 femoral components were found to be loose and prosthetic infection was present in 7 prostheses. Loosening of the acetabular component was correlated to enhanced uptake in the middle of the acetabular interface, while loosening of the femoral component was correlated to enhanced uptake in the proximal and middle segment of the lateral femoral interface and the proximal segment of the medial femoral interface. A similar pattern was found in prosthetic infection with high uptake along the middle portion of the lateral femoral interface. In 6 of 7 infected prostheses loosening of the acetabular and of the femoral component was present. Taking the typical uptake patterns as criteria for loosening and grade 3 uptake as an additional criterion for septic loosening the accuracy of PET imaging in the detection of loosening of the acetabular or the femoral component and of prosthetic infection was 72, 78 and 89%, respectively. Conclusion: This pilot study presents FDG-PET as a promising diagnostic tool for patients with painful hip prostheses. Its clinical value should be evaluated in a larger patient population. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Identifikation von Befundmustern in der Positronenemissionstomographie (PET) mit {sup 18}F

  12. Childhood in National Consciousness and National Consciousness in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koester, David

    1997-01-01

    Examines the place of national imagery and the experience of the nation in childhood. Draws a comparison between such experiences in Iceland and Kamchatka, Russia. Describes ways in which these experiences become resources for expressing a distinct national identity. (EV)

  13. Transforming childhood and youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    social and geographic scales - the individual life world and face-to-face interaction, local city life including the station as venue of migration, the football ground as well as larger institutional, transnational, and state contexts - and ideally include the interplay between different scales....... Differently emerging conceptualizations of childhood and youth are made explicit as the papers cover various settings, disciplines and theoretical and methodological approaches. However, all the papers foreground children and youth primarily representing the future of the societies they are involved in....../SIFO, Norway), 'Minority boys in Lillehammer: the importance of participation in football' " "Emma Stinne Engstrøm and Weibke Sandermann (Roskilde University, Denmark), 'International students’ experiences and challenges in Denmark'...

  14. Childhood tuberculosis and malnutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaganath, Devan; Mupere, Ezekiel

    2012-12-15

    Despite the burden of both malnutrition and tuberculosis in children worldwide, there are few studies on the mechanisms that underlie this relationship. From available research, it appears that malnutrition is a predictor of tuberculosis disease and is associated with worse outcomes. This is supported through several lines of evidence, including the role of vitamin D receptor genotypes, malnutrition's effects on immune development, respiratory infections among malnourished children, and limited work specifically on pediatric tuberculosis and malnutrition. Nutritional supplementation has yet to suggest significant benefits on the course of tuberculosis in children. There is a critical need for research on childhood tuberculosis, specifically on how nutritional status affects the risk and progression of tuberculosis and whether nutritional supplementation improves clinical outcomes or prevents disease.

  15. Childhood depressive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesselhöft, Rikke Thaarup

    2016-10-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a frequent and painful mental disorder considered among the five leading causes of disability in Western countries by the World Health Organization. MDD occurs at all ages, but childhood onset MDD has a more severe course with longer depressive episodes, more suicidality, and more frequent hospitalization, than later onset MDD. Childhood seems to be a window of opportunity for prevention of mental disorders, and subsequently prevention of MDD onset in childhood is recommended. Feasible prevention targets either individuals who present early signs of a given disorder but have not reached diagnostic threshold (indicated prevention) or individuals who are at increased risk for a disorder due to risk factor exposure (selective prevention). Indicated prevention is rational also for depressive disorders, because subthreshold depression (SD) in adults is found to be a precursor to MDD. The purpose of this thesis was to provide information necessary for the prevention of MDD onset in childhood. First, we examined whether the literature supports that SD is a MDD precursor also in children (systematic review). Second, we explored the risk that gender might constitute for pre-pubertal and post-pubertal onset MDD (register study). Third, we estimated the prevalence of SD and MDD in a large-scale pre-pubertal sample, and compared the clinical features of SD and MDD and potential risk factors (population-based study). The systematic review of the literature showed that SD in children and adolescents presents analogous comorbidity and symptom patterns (including self-harm symptoms). It also supports that SD is a precursor to MDD in children and adolescents causing poor outcomes like psychopathology, functional impairment and high use of health service. In the register study of Danish children and adolescents, we found a higher incidence of clinical MDD for girls after puberty compared to boys. Before puberty however, we demonstrated that boys

  16. Multilevel Determinants of Childhood Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, Yen-Jung

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity among US children and adolescents has rapidly increased in the past several decades, and the epidemic of childhood obesity is currently a serious public health concern in the United States. This dissertation consists of three studies examining individual- and neighborhood-level determinants of childhood obesity. The study area was Los Angeles County in California. Our first study examined the effects of maternal employment, individual socioeconomic status (SES), and ...

  17. Childhood obesity: causes and consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Sahoo, Krushnapriya; Sahoo, Bishnupriya; Choudhury, Ashok Kumar; Sofi, Nighat Yasin; Kumar, Raman; Bhadoria, Ajeet Singh

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed as well as in developing countries. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. Overweight and obese children are likely to stay obese into adulthood and more likely to develop non-communicable diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with m...

  18. General Overview on Childhood Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Sevil İnal; Nejla Canbulat

    2013-01-01

    Until recently, it has not been put much emphasis on obesity in children and the view of “obese child is healthy” is widely accepted by families. However, understanding that a close relation exists between obesity prevalence and childhood obesity, which increased in recent years both across the world and in our country, and many diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases changed the opinion of both of health care professionals and the society about childhood obesity in T...

  19. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  20. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  1. Adverse childhood experiences and behavioral problems in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Tenah K A; Slack, Kristen S; Berger, Lawrence M

    2017-05-01

    Children who have been exposed to maltreatment and other adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are at increased risk for various negative adult health outcomes, including cancer, liver disease, substance abuse, and depression. However, the proximal associations between ACEs and behavioral outcomes during the middle childhood years have been understudied. In addition, many of the ACE studies contain methodological limitations such as reliance on retrospective reports and limited generalizability to populations of lower socioeconomic advantage. The current study uses data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a national urban birth cohort, to prospectively assess the adverse experiences and subsequent behavior problems of over 3000 children. Eight ACE categories to which a child was exposed by age 5 were investigated: childhood abuse (emotional and physical), neglect (emotional and physical), and parental domestic violence, anxiety or depression, substance abuse, or incarceration. Results from bivariate analyses indicated that Black children and children with mothers of low education were particularly likely to have been exposed to multiple ACE categories. Regression analyses showed that exposure to ACEs is strongly associated with externalizing and internalizing behaviors and likelihood of ADHD diagnosis in middle childhood. Variation in these associations by racial/ethnic, gender, and maternal education subgroups are examined. This study provides evidence that children as young as 9 begin to show behavioral problems after exposure to early childhood adversities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Childhood drowning in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hss, Amar-Singh; Tan, Pui San; Hashim, Lina

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to collate data on childhood drowning in Malaysia and review existing drowning prevention measures. This study used secondary data from governmental and non-governmental agencies. All reported fatal drownings from 2000 to 2007 and all reported non-fatal drownings from 2000 to 2008 were included. Data were analysed to provide understanding of the epidemiology of drowning incidents, risk factors and available preventive efforts. On average 286 (range 248-344) children died yearly due to drowning with a death rate of 3.05 per 100,000 annually. An additional average of 207 children drowned but survived annually (1.99 per 100,000). The estimated burden of drowning in children (death and non-death) is 5 per 100,000. There was no reduction in annual drowning fatalities over time. Most drowning took place in east coast regions during the annual monsoon season. It was 3.52 (2.80-4.41) times more common in boys and most prevalent among 10-14 years. Most prevalent sites of all-age drowning were seas and rivers. Limited water safety regulations are currently available in the country. This is the first comprehensive national study in Malaysia on paediatric drowning and highlights the magnitude of the problem. It calls for concerted effort to devise effective national drowning prevention measures.

  3. Childhood optic atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, A V; Repka, M X

    2000-02-01

    To determine the causes, and relative incidence of the common causes, of optic nerve atrophy in children under 10 years old and to compare prevalent aetiologies with those given in previous studies. The Wilmer Information System database was searched to identify all children, diagnosed between 1987 and 1997 with optic atrophy, who were under 10 years old at diagnosis. The medical records of these children were reviewed retrospectively A total of 272 children were identified, Complications from premature birth were the most frequent aetiology of optic atrophy (n = 44, 16%); 68% of these premature infants having a history of intraventricular haemorrhage. Tumour was the second most common aetiology (n = 40, 15%). The most frequent tumour was pilocytic astrocytoma (50%), followed by craniopharyngioma (17%). Hydrocephalus, unrelated to tumour, was the third most common aetiology (n = 26, 10%). In 114 cases (42%), the cause of optic atrophy became manifest in the perinatal period and/or could be attributed to adverse events in utero. A cause was not determined in 4% of cases. In the last decade, prematurity and hydrocephalus appear to have become important causes of optic atrophy in childhood. This trend is probably the result of improved survival of infants with extremely low birth weight.

  4. Introduction: Childhood and Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Erica K

    2017-09-01

    From growth attenuation therapy for severely developmentally disabled children to the post-natal management of infants with trisomy 13 and 18, pediatric treatment decisions regularly involve assessments of the probability and severity of a child's disability. Because these decisions are almost always made by surrogate decision-makers (parents and caregivers) and because these decision-makers must often make decisions based on both prognostic guesses and potentially biased quality of life judgments, they are among the most ethically complex in pediatric care. As the introduction to HEC Forum's special thematic issue on Childhood and Disability, this article orients the reader to the history of bioethics' relationship to both pediatric ethics and disability studies and introduces the issue's five manuscripts. As clinicians, disability scholars, philosophers and clinical ethicists writing on various aspects of pediatric disability, the articles' authors all invite readers to dig beneath an overly-simplified version of what disability might mean to children and families and instead embrace a posture of genuine humility, recognizing both the limits and harms of traditional medical and bioethical responses (or indifferences) to the disabled child.

  5. Brain SPECT in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tranquart, F.; Saliba, E.; Prunier, C.; Baulieu, F.; Besnard, J.C.; Guilloteau, D.; Baulieu, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    The modalities and the indications of perfusion and neurotransmission SPECT in childhood are presented. The perfusion as well as neurotransmission tracers have not yet authorization for use in children; they have to be used by prescription of magistral preparation or in research protocols. The radioprotection rules have to be strictly respected. The most frequent indication of perfusion SPECT is pharmacologically resistant epilepsy; the ictal SPECT before surgery allows the localization of the epileptogenic focus. Other indications are relevant in the prognosis of neonatal anoxia and encephalitis. In psychiatric disorders, especially in autism, the interest is the physiopathological approach of the brain dysfunctions. The neurotransmission SPECT is emerging as a consequence of the development of new radiotracer, as the dopaminergic system ligands. The decrease of the dopamine D2 receptors in the striatum can be imaged and quantified in the neonate. The lesions of dopamine system seem to be a consequence of the neonatal hypoxia-ischemia and it is predictive of motor sequelae. Brain SPECT should become a routine examination in child neurologic and psychiatric disorders. (authors)

  6. Benign acute childhood myositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajajee, Sarala; Ezhilarasi, S; Rajarajan, K

    2005-05-01

    To describe the clinical and laboratory features of benign acute childhood myositis. 40 children of BACM were seen during October 2001 to February 2002, 22 (52%) were male with mean age of 5.3 years. Duration of illness was 3.97 days. Preceding symptoms included fever, leg pain, vomiting and inability to walk. A provisional diagnosis of viral myositis was made in 26 (66%). Guillian Barre Syndrome was the most common referral diagnosis. 11 (27.5%) children had leucopenia with lymphocytic response and 16 (40%) had thrombocytopenia. CRP was negative in 32 (80%). CPK was markedly elevated (more than 1000 IU/l) in 18 (45%) and more than 500 IU/l in 11 (27.5%) remaining between 200 to 500 IU/l. Associated features were hepatitis (elevated SGOT & SGPT) in 28 (70%) and shock in 5 (12.5%). Serological test were indicative of dengue virus (Elisa PAN BIO) in 20 (50%) of which 8 (25%) were primary dengue and 12 (30%) were secondary dengue. The outcome of therapy mainly supportive were excellent. Benign acute myositis occurs often in association with viral infection. In the present study, Dengue virus was positive in 20 (50%) children. Benign acute myositis can be differentiated from more serious causes of walking difficulty by presence of calf and thigh muscle tenderness on stretching, normal power and deep tendon reflex and elevated CPK.

  7. Identificação da microbiota fúngica de ambientes considerados assépticos Identification of the fungic microbiota isolated in areas considered aseptic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elisabete Sbrogio de Almeida

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se isolar e identificar a microbiota fúngica em ambientes considerados assépticos, através de exposições com meios de cultivo adequados, em três épocas distintas do ano, antes e imediatamente após as manobras técnicas realizadas em três áreas de trabalho: ambiente aberto, ambiente fechado sem filtração de ar e ambiente fechado com filtração de ar, utilizadas em produção de imunobiológicos. Os meios ágar-Sabouraud e ágar-soja, enriquecidos com 0,2% de extrato de levedura e sem cloranfenicol, foram estudados quanto à sua eficácia no isolamento de bolores e leveduras, considerando-se o número de colônias desenvolvidas e a freqüência dos diversos fungos isolados. Isolaram-se 67 espécimens, sendo 64 fungos filamentosos (bolores e três leveduras. Dos bolores, 54 pertenciam a 22 gêneros da divisão Deuteromycota, famílias Moniliaceae e Dematiaceae, cinco amostras filamentosas foram incluídas na ordem Agonomycetales (Mycelia Sterilia, e uma amostra foi classificada na divisão Deuteromycota, ordem Sphaeropsidales, classe Coelomycetes. Da divisão Zygomycota, ordem Mucorales, família Mucoraceae, um único mucoráceo foi identificado até gênero. As três leveduras pertenciam também à divisão Deuteromycota (Fungi Imperfecti, família Cryptococcaceae, e foram identificadas como sendo duas Rhodotorula rubra e uma Torulopsis candida. Comprovou-se que o número de colônias isoladas aumentou após a realização das monobras técnicas e que a filtração de ar através de filtros tipo HEPA, reduzindo o número de colônias isoladas nos ambientes fechados, aumenta a segurança do trabalho; comumente é recomendada para áreas de atividade técnica cujos resultados satisfatórios estão diretamente relacionados com uma baixa incidência de contaminantes.The isolation and identification of the fungic microbiota present in areas considered aseptic (open and/or restricted, with or without air filtration (HEPA filters

  8. Childhood Leukemia and Primary Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Todd P.; Metayer, Catherine; Wiemels, Joseph L.; Singer, Amanda W.; Miller, Mark D.

    2016-01-01

    Leukemia is the most common pediatric cancer, affecting 3,800 children per year in the United States. Its annual incidence has increased over the last decades, especially among Latinos. Although most children diagnosed with leukemia are now cured, many suffer long-term complications, and primary prevention efforts are urgently needed. The early onset of leukemia – usually before age five – and the presence at birth of “pre-leukemic” genetic signatures indicate that pre- and postnatal events are critical to the development of the disease. In contrast to most pediatric cancers, there is a growing body of literature – in the United States and internationally – that has implicated several environmental, infectious, and dietary risk factors in the etiology of childhood leukemia, mainly for acute lymphoblastic leukemia, the most common subtype. For example, exposures to pesticides, tobacco smoke, solvents, and traffic emissions have consistently demonstrated positive associations with the risk of developing childhood leukemia. In contrast, intake of vitamins and folate supplementation during the pre-conception period or pregnancy, breastfeeding, and exposure to routine childhood infections have been shown to reduce the risk of childhood leukemia. Some children may be especially vulnerable to these risk factors, as demonstrated by a disproportionate burden of childhood leukemia in the Latino population of California. The evidence supporting the associations between childhood leukemia and its risk factors – including pooled analyses from around the world and systematic reviews – is strong; however, the dissemination of this knowledge to clinicians has been limited. To protect children’s health, it is prudent to initiate programs designed to alter exposure to well-established leukemia risk factors rather than to suspend judgement until no uncertainty remains. Primary prevention programs for childhood leukemia would also result in the significant co

  9. Childhood cancer in Aden, Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba-Saddik, Iman Ali

    2013-12-01

    Cancer in children is increasingly recognized as a major and growing health problem in different developed and developing countries. In Yemen, it is still difficult to know the extent of cancer and its determinants among children. This study was conducted to determine the magnitude of childhood cancer in Aden and provide the preliminary baseline data by age and sex. Basic epidemiologic data was retrieved from all paediatric cancer Yemen, from 1997 to 2006. The results showed a total of 483 childhood cancers 5 years. An interesting comparison was the preponderance of non-Hodgkins's lymphoma over Hodgkin's disease (1.6:1) stronger in female (3:1) than male (1.25:1). Medulloblastoma was the most common CNS tumour followed by astrocytoma, an infrequent finding in childhood cancer. Osteosarcoma was the most frequent bone tumour (male:female ratio of 1.8:1). A female preponderance was noticed in chondrosarcoma that was not yet documented. The blastoma group was common in younger age group. Retinoblastoma and nephroblastoma predominated in female while neuroblastoma, hepatoblastoma and soft tissue sarcomas in male. It is concluded that there is a lower frequency of childhood cancer in Aden when compared with developed countries. It may explained by the fact that a large number of childhood cancers remain undiagnosed due to limitations of diagnostic facilities or under registration. Central paediatric hospitals should be provided with essential diagnostic and therapeutic services that should be freely available to all children with cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Recent Coverage of Early Childhood Education Approaches in Open Access Early Childhood Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Burhanettin

    2016-01-01

    A content analysis of the coverage of the major approaches to early childhood education in the early childhood research journals, published between 2010 and 2014, that are early childhood research oriented and have free online access were investigated. Among 21 journals in early childhood education, two journals were selected for the content…

  11. Brain visual impairment in childhood: mini review

    OpenAIRE

    Kozeis, N

    2010-01-01

    Cerebral visual impairment (CVI) is one of the leading causes of severe visual impairment in childhood. This article was written to highlight any new knowledge related to cerebral visual impairment in childhood.

  12. Childhood Cancer Survivors Are Living Longer

    Science.gov (United States)

    New data from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study suggest that refinements in pediatric cancer treatment over the last few decades have helped to extend the lifespans of many survivors of childhood cancer.

  13. Maternal postpartum distress and childhood overweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adeltoft, Teresa Ajslev; Andersen, Camilla S; Ingstrup, Katja Glejsted

    2010-01-01

    We investigated associations between maternal postpartum distress covering anxiety, depression and stress and childhood overweight.......We investigated associations between maternal postpartum distress covering anxiety, depression and stress and childhood overweight....

  14. Childhood nutrition and poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M

    2000-05-01

    One in three children in Britain lives in poverty (households whose income was less than 50% average earnings). Low income is associated with poor nutrition at all stages of life, from lower rates of breast-feeding to higher intakes of saturated fatty acids and lower intakes of antioxidant nutrients. Moreover, there is increasing evidence that poor nutrition in childhood is associated with both short-term and long-term adverse consequences such as poorer immune status, higher caries rates and poorer cognitive function and learning ability. These problems arise primarily because parents do not have enough money to spend on food, not because money is being spent unwisely. Policy options to improve the dietary health of poor children include: giving more money to the parents by increasing Income Support (social security) payments, providing food stamps or vouchers, and using food budget standards to inform the levels of income needed to purchase an adequate diet; feeding children directly at school (not only at lunchtime but also at breakfast or homework clubs), by providing free fruit at school, and by increasing entitlement to free food amongst children living in households with low incomes; improving access to a healthy and affordable diet by first identifying 'food deserts' and then considering with retailers and local planners how best to provide food in an economical and sustainable way. The value of using food budget standards is illustrated with data relating expenditure on food to growth in children from 'at-risk' families (on low income, overcrowded, headed by a lone parent or with four or more children under 16 years of age) living in a poor area in London. Lower levels of expenditure are strongly associated with poorer growth and health, independent of factors such as birth weight, mother's height, or risk score. The present paper provides evidence that supports the need to review Government legislation in light of nutrition-related inequalities in the

  15. Stereotactic Neurosurgical Treatment Options for Childhood Craniopharyngioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eTrippel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Craniopharyngioma are the most common non glial tumors in childhood. The results of different studies indicate that radical excision surgery is not an appropriate treatment strategy for childhood craniopharyngioma with hypothalamic involvement. Stereotactic neurosurgery provides save, minimal invasive and cost efficient options in the treatment of childhood craniopharyngioma. In this review a summary of the contribution of the stereotactic neurosurgery in the interdisciplinary treatment regime of childhood craniopharyngioma will be given and discussed in detail.

  16. Childhood leukemia around nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This Information Bulletin highlights the conclusion made from an Atomic Energy Control Board of Canada (AECB) study on the incidence of childhood leukemia near nuclear facilities. All of the locations with the nuclear facilities are located in Ontario, the nuclear generating stations at Pickering and Bruce; the uranium mines and mills in Elliot Lake; the uranium refining facility in Port Hope; and nuclear research facilities located at Chalk River plus the small nuclear power plant in Rolphton. Two conclusions are drawn from the study: 1) while the rate of childhood leukemias made be higher or lower than the provincial average, there is no statistical evidence that the difference is due to anything but the natural variation in the occurrence of the disease; and 2) the rate of occurrence of childhood leukemia around the Pickering nuclear power station was slightly greater than the Ontario average both before and after the plant opened, but this, too , could be due to the natural variation

  17. Childhood adversity and adult personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenman, Stephen; Rodgers, Bryan

    2006-05-01

    To explore how recalled childhood adversity affects trait measures of personality in three age cohorts of an Australian adult population and to examine the effects of particular adversities on adult personality traits. A total of 7485 randomly selected subjects in the age bands of 20-24, 40-44 and 60-64 years were interviewed at the outset of a longitudinal community study of psychological health in the Canberra region of Australia. In the initial interview, subjects answered 17 questions about domestic adversity and three questions on positive aspects of upbringing to age 16 years. Personality traits were measured by Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, Behavioural Activation and Inhibition Scales, Positive and Negative Affect Scales and a measure of dissocial behaviours. Higher levels of childhood adversity substantially increase the risk of high neuroticism (OR = 2.6) and negative affect (OR = 2.6), less for behavioural inhibition (OR = 1.7) and for dissocial behaviour (OR = 1.7). No significant effect is seen for extraversion, psychoticism or behavioural activation. Age and gender had little effect on the pattern of risk. Maternal depression has significant and substantial independent effects on measures of neuroticism and negative affect as well as most other measures of personality. Childhood domestic adversity has substantial associations with clinically important aspects of personality: neuroticism and negative affect. Only small effects are seen on behavioural inhibition and dissocial behaviour, and no significant effect on extraversion and behavioural activation. These unexpected findings contradict clinical belief. Maternal psychological ill-health is pre-eminent among adversities predicting later disadvantageous traits, even for those traits that had only the slightest association with childhood adversity. Consequences of childhood adversity prevail throughout the lifespan in men and women equally. The study underlines the importance of childhood domestic

  18. Prenatal irradiation and childhood cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muirhead, C R [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (UK); Kneale, G W [Birmingham Univ. (UK). Dept. of Social Medicine

    1989-09-01

    This letter addresses a technical question in connection with the recent paper by Knox et al. In particular, it concerns a correction to the estimate of childhood cancer risk following obstetric radiography, based on the Oxford Survey of Childhood Cancers (OSCC). One of us (CRM) enquired about the centring values for variables used in the analysis and particularly about the formulae used to calculate the higher order interactions of the radiation risk with birth year and age at diagnosis. These centring values and formulae are given in Table 1. This letter arises from that enquiry. (author).

  19. Childhood disintegrative disorder misdiagnosed as childhood-onset ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD) is a rare pervasive developmental disorder, which is often misdiagnosed as schizophrenia, probably due to the resultant severe social impairment and withdrawn behaviour with stereotypys that could be mistaken for psychosis. We report a case of CDD that was misdiagnosed by a ...

  20. Residential mobility and childhood leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoon, A T; Oksuzyan, S; Crespi, C M; Arah, O A; Cockburn, M; Vergara, X; Kheifets, L

    2018-07-01

    Studies of environmental exposures and childhood leukemia studies do not usually account for residential mobility. Yet, in addition to being a potential risk factor, mobility can induce selection bias, confounding, or measurement error in such studies. Using data collected for California Powerline Study (CAPS), we attempt to disentangle the effect of mobility. We analyzed data from a population-based case-control study of childhood leukemia using cases who were born in California and diagnosed between 1988 and 2008 and birth certificate controls. We used stratified logistic regression, case-only analysis, and propensity-score adjustments to assess predictors of residential mobility between birth and diagnosis, and account for potential confounding due to residential mobility. Children who moved tended to be older, lived in housing other than single-family homes, had younger mothers and fewer siblings, and were of lower socioeconomic status. Odds ratios for leukemia among non-movers living mobility, including dwelling type, increased odds ratios for leukemia to 2.61 (95% CI: 1.76-3.86) for living mobility of childhood leukemia cases varied by several sociodemographic characteristics, but not by the distance to the nearest power line or calculated magnetic fields. Mobility appears to be an unlikely explanation for the associations observed between power lines exposure and childhood leukemia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Childhood Tuberculosis, Still with Us...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaulet, Pierre; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The first section of this report on childhood tuberculosis in developed and developing countries discusses the epidemiology of tuberculosis in children. Information is presented on: (1) sources and prevalence of infection; (2) risks, frequency, and types of tuberculosis; (3) mortality rates; and (4) the relation of poverty and AIDS to…

  2. Early Childhood Intervention in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuzhu; Maude, Susan P.; Brotherson, Mary Jane

    2015-01-01

    With rapid economic development and increasing awareness of the importance of early childhood intervention (ECI), China is re-examining its social and educational practices for young children with disabilities. This re-examination may have a significant impact on young children with disabilities in China. It may also set an example for other…

  3. Childhood obesity: causes and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Krushnapriya; Sahoo, Bishnupriya; Choudhury, Ashok Kumar; Sofi, Nighat Yasin; Kumar, Raman; Bhadoria, Ajeet Singh

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed as well as in developing countries. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. Overweight and obese children are likely to stay obese into adulthood and more likely to develop non-communicable diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising prevalence of obesity worldwide. In general, overweight and obesity are assumed to be the results of an increase in caloric and fat intake. On the other hand, there are supporting evidence that excessive sugar intake by soft drink, increased portion size, and steady decline in physical activity have been playing major roles in the rising rates of obesity all around the world. Childhood obesity can profoundly affect children's physical health, social, and emotional well-being, and self esteem. It is also associated with poor academic performance and a lower quality of life experienced by the child. Many co-morbid conditions like metabolic, cardiovascular, orthopedic, neurological, hepatic, pulmonary, and renal disorders are also seen in association with childhood obesity.

  4. Boys' Bodies in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Murray

    2012-01-01

    This paper is based on qualitative research data from a project investigating early childhood boys' constructions of masculinities in relation to sport, health and the body. The focus group data, with 33 boys, has been collected in each of the boys' first three years at school. It is part of the data that will be collected over eight years with…

  5. Early Childhood Inclusion in Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljubešic, Marta; Šimleša, Sanja

    2016-01-01

    This article explains early childhood inclusion in Croatia from its beginnings up to challenges in current policy and practice. The first preschool education for children with disabilities dates back to the 1980s and was provided in special institutions. In the last 10 years, mainstream kindergartens have been enrolling children with disabilities…

  6. Early Childhood Education in Scandinavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Gilbert R.; Dittman, Laura

    This article discusses the move toward greater equality of educational opportunity in Scandinavia with particular emphasis on early childhood education. The increasing demand for preschool education in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden is related to low birth rates together with increased employment of women and the general demand for equality…

  7. Green Space and Childhood Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autism, a group of complex neurodevelopmental disorders typically identified in early childhood, affects more than 3 million people in the U.S. To date, the cause of autism is unclear. It is believed that autism results from a combination of genetic and environmental factors incl...

  8. Indoor radon and childhood leukaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, O.

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarises the epidemiological literature on domestic exposure to radon and risk for childhood leukaemia. The results of 12 ecological studies show a consistent pattern of higher incidence and mortality rates for childhood leukaemia in areas with higher average indoor radon concentrations. Although the results of such studies are useful to generate hypotheses, they must be interpreted with caution, as the data were aggregated and analysed for geographical areas and not for individuals. The seven available case - control studies of childhood leukaemia with measurement of radon concentrations in the residences of cases and controls gave mixed results, however, with some indication of a weak (relative risk < 2) association with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. The epidemiological evidence to date suggests that an association between indoor exposure to radon and childhood leukaemia might exist, but is weak. More case - control studies are needed, with sufficient statistical power to detect weak associations and based on designs and methods that minimise misclassification of exposure and provide a high participation rate and low potential selection bias. (authors)

  9. Friendships in Childhood and Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagwell, Catherine L.; Schmidt, Michelle E.

    2011-01-01

    Highly readable and comprehensive, this volume explores the significance of friendship for social, emotional, and cognitive development from early childhood through adolescence. The authors trace how friendships change as children age and what specific functions these relationships play in promoting adjustment and well-being. Compelling topics…

  10. Childhood obesity: causes and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krushnapriya Sahoo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed as well as in developing countries. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. Overweight and obese children are likely to stay obese into adulthood and more likely to develop non-communicable diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising prevalence of obesity worldwide. In general, overweight and obesity are assumed to be the results of an increase in caloric and fat intake. On the other hand, there are supporting evidence that excessive sugar intake by soft drink, increased portion size, and steady decline in physical activity have been playing major roles in the rising rates of obesity all around the world. Childhood obesity can profoundly affect children′s physical health, social, and emotional well-being, and self esteem. It is also associated with poor academic performance and a lower quality of life experienced by the child. Many co-morbid conditions like metabolic, cardiovascular, orthopedic, neurological, hepatic, pulmonary, and renal disorders are also seen in association with childhood obesity.

  11. Antecedents to Prostitution: Childhood Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadon, Susan M.; Koverola, Catherine; Schludermann, Eduard H.

    1998-01-01

    Adolescent prostitutes (n=45) and adolescent nonprostitutes (n=37) were interviewed regarding their experiences related to childhood physical and sexual abuse, leaving home, family functioning, parental alcohol and drug use, and level of self-esteem. Although results replicated previous findings, when a comparison group was considered the same…

  12. Predicting adult asthma in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, JM; Boezen, HM

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There still is no cure for asthma. Early identification of patients at risk for disease progression may lead to better treatment opportunities and hopefully better disease outcomes in adulthood. Recent literature on childhood risk factors associated with the outcome of asthma in

  13. Origins of asthma in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savenije, Olga Elisabeth Maria

    2014-01-01

    Classifications and prediction rules that aim to identify preschool children that will develop asthma are not useful in clinical practice. Our research of longitudinal patterns of wheeze in childhood showed that these patterns (longitudinal wheezing phenotypes) are similar between English and Dutch

  14. FUNdamental Movement in Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Linley

    2001-01-01

    Noting that the development of fundamental movement skills is basic to children's motor development, this booklet provides a guide for early childhood educators in planning movement experiences for children between 4 and 8 years. The booklet introduces a wide variety of appropriate practices to promote movement skill acquisition and increased…

  15. IDEA and Early Childhood Inclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Barbara J.; Rapport, Mary Jane K.

    This paper discusses 1997 amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) that promote the inclusion of children with disabilities in general early childhood education settings. The evolution of inclusion policy is explored and changes in disability terminology are described. Amended provisions are then explained and include:…

  16. Early Childhood Inclusion in Israel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Yagon, Michal; Aram, Dorit; Margalit, Malka

    2016-01-01

    This article describes conceptual aspects, current policies and practices, and research representing the Israeli perspective regarding early childhood inclusion (ECI) at preschool ages (3-6 years). We review legislative, historical, attitudinal, philosophical, practical, empirical, and cultural issues regarding ECI in Israel. Finally, we focus on…

  17. Malay Childhood, Temperament and Individuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Ellen

    This study of children in a Malay community assesses the cross-cultural validity of one conceptualization of temperament, identifies cultural differences in child rearing practices and beliefs, and explores parents' recognition of individual differences emerging in early childhood. The community studied consisted of three villages located about 20…

  18. Longitudinal heritability of childhood aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Porsch, R.M.P.; Middeldorp, C.M.; Cherny, S.S.; Krapohl, E.; van Beijsterveldt, C.E.M.; Loukola, A.; Korhonen, T.; Pulkkinen, L.; Corley, R.P.; Rhee, S.; Kaprio, J.; Rose, R.; Hewitt, J.K.; Sham, P.; Plomin, R.; Boomsma, D.I.; Bartels, M.

    2016-01-01

    The genetic and environmental contributions to the variation and longitudinal stability in childhood aggressive behavior were assessed in two large twin cohorts, the Netherlands Twin Register (NTR), and the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS; United Kingdom). In NTR, maternal ratings on aggression

  19. Childhood heart failure in Ibadan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Childhood heart failure in Ibadan. I. A. Lagunju and S. I. Omokhodion*. Department of Paediatrics. University College Hospital, Ibadan. Summary. One hundred consecutive admissions of children with a diagnosis of congestive cardiac failure to the paediatric department of the University College Hospital, Ibadan were.

  20. Seeing Childhood in Art Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncum, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Examines television advertisements aimed at children outlining the implications for the classroom as well as art education as a field of study. Argues that the images presented in mass media offer a challenge to adults related to their childhood conceptions resulting from certain roles, such as teachers. (CMK)

  1. The Integrated Early Childhood Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh, Suzanne

    This textbook provides an outline of an integrated curriculum for early childhood education. Part 1 discusses the human element in school: the child and the teacher and child development. Part 2 contains the curriculum itself and covers the subjects of language, mathematics, science, social studies, art, music, and movement. Guidelines provide…

  2. 洁净手术室无菌台质量动态调查及预防措施探讨%Dynamic investigation and preventive measures of aseptic table in clean operating rooms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶晓燕; 冯惠娟; 沈郁; 钱小毛

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the dynamic change of quality of aseptic table in clean operating room and discuss the prevention measures.METHODS We investigated 5 surgeries in each one clean operating room of hundred level,two clean operating room of thousand level and two clean operating room of ten thousand level.Drape and scissors were smeared to take culture and tampon were taken into 10ml sterilized saline water to take culture.The sampling was performed respectively at 1 hour,2 hour,3 hour,4 hour after the start of the surgery.It was judged as qualified that there was no strains of bacteria isolated.The qualified rates of the various samples at various segments were taken for statistical analysis.RESULTS Bacteria was not detected in 2 hours on the drape surface but then was positive culture after three hours as compared with that after four hours on surface of scissors and tampon bacteria were detected,the difference in the qualified rate was not statistically significant.Six monitoring points in 3 surgery were tested unqualified among the 25 surgeries,all the results were 1 CFU/plate.One point was in thousand level operating room and bacteria were detected on tampon after four hours.Five positive monitoring points were in ten thousand level operating room and bacteria were detected once on surface of drapes after one hour in NO.1 room and after four hours in NO.2,on surface of scissor and in tampon after four hours,the difference in the qualified rate was not statistically significant.The unqualified aseptic tables may related to the extended operation duration,the frequent flow of people and materials,and poor consciousness of aseptic operation and substandard action of the medical staff.CONCLUSION It is effective to ensure the quality of aseptic tables to intensify the consciousness of aseptic operation and make the environment management and people and logistic management strict.%目的 调查洁净手术室无菌台质量动态

  3. Global Characteristics of Childhood Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Samad, A; Pombo-de-Oliveira, MS; Scelo, G; Smith, MT; Feusner, J; Wiemels, JL; Metayer, C

    2014-01-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) comprises approximately 5–10% of childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cases in the US. While variation in this percentage among other populations was noted previously, global patterns of childhood APL have not been thoroughly characterized. In this comprehensive review of childhood APL, we examined its geographic pattern and the potential contribution of environmental factors to observed variation. In 142 studies (spanning >60 countries) identified, variation was apparent—de novo APL represented from 2% (Switzerland) to >50% (Nicaragua) of childhood AML in different geographic regions. Because a limited number of previous studies addressed specific environmental exposures that potentially underlie childhood APL development, we gathered 28 childhood cases of therapy-related APL, which exemplified associations between prior exposures to chemotherapeutic drugs/radiation and APL diagnosis. Future population-based studies examining childhood APL patterns and the potential association with specific environmental exposures and other risk factors are needed. PMID:25445717

  4. Childhood Adversity and Pain Sensitization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Dokyoung Sophia; Meagher, Mary W

    Childhood adversity is a vulnerability factor for chronic pain. However, the underlying pain mechanisms influenced by childhood adversity remain unknown. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the impact of childhood adversity on dynamic pain sensitivity in young adults. After screening for childhood adverse events and health status, healthy individuals reporting low (below median; n = 75) or high levels of adversity (the top 5%; n = 51) were invited for pain testing. Both groups underwent heat pain threshold and temporal summation of second pain (TSSP) testing after reporting depressive symptoms. TSSP refers to a progressive increase in pain intensity with repetition of identical noxious stimuli and is attributed to central sensitization. Changes in pain ratings over time (slope) were computed for TSSP sensitization and decay of subsequent aftersensations. The high-adversity group showed greater TSSP sensitization (meanslope, 0.75; SDpositive slope, 1.78), and a trend toward a slower decay (meanslope, -11.9; SD, 3.4), whereas the low-adversity group showed minimal sensitization (meanslope, 0.07; SDnear-zero slope, 1.77), F(1,123) = 5.84, p = .017 and faster decay (meanslope, -13.1; SD, 3.4), F(1,123) = 3.79, p = .054. This group difference remained significant even after adjusting for adult depressive symptoms (p = .033). No group difference was found in heat pain threshold (p = .85). Lastly, the high-adversity group showed blunted cardiac and skin conductance responses. These findings suggest that enhancement of central sensitization may provide a mechanism underlying the pain hypersensitivity and chronicity linked to childhood adversity.

  5. Breastfeeding Reduces Childhood Obesity Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liang; Collins, Candice; Ratliff, Melanie; Xie, Bin; Wang, Youfa

    2017-06-01

    The present study examined the effects of breastfeeding and its duration on the development of childhood obesity from 24 months through grade 6. U.S. longitudinal data collected from 1234 children were analyzed using logistic regression models and generalized estimating equation (GEE). Child height and weight were measured six times at ages of 24 months, 36 months, 54 months, grade 1, grade 3, and grade 6. During the early 1990s, prevalence of breastfeeding was low in the United States, 60% and 48% at 1 and 6 months, respectively. Nonsmoking, white, married mothers with both parents in the household, and with income above the poverty line, were more likely to breastfeed at 1 month of age of their babies. Obesity rate of the children increased with age from 24 months to grade 6. Logistic regression showed that breastfeeding at month 1 was associated with 53% (odds ratio [OR]: 0.47, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.30-0.73) and 47% (OR: 0.53, 95% CI: 0.36-0.78) decreased risks for childhood obesity at grades 1 and 6, respectively. GEE analysis showed that breastfeeding at 1 month reduced risk for childhood obesity by 36% (95% CI: 0.47-0.88) from ages 24 months through grade 6. Regarding breastfeeding duration, more than 6 months (vs. never) was associated with a decreased risk for childhood obesity by 42% (OR: 0.58, 95% CI: 0.36-0.94). Breastfeeding at 1 month and more than 6 months reduced the risk of childhood obesity. Rate of breastfeeding was low in the United States in the 1990s, which may have had long-term implications on children.

  6. Childhood Maltreatment and Educational Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Elisa; Babchishin, Lyzon; Marquis, Robyn; Fréchette, Sabrina

    2015-10-01

    Children (0-18 years) with maltreatment histories are vulnerable to experiencing difficulties across multiple domains of functioning, including educational outcomes that encompass not only academic achievement but also mental well-being. The current literature review adopted Slade and Wissow's model to examine (1) the link between childhood maltreatment and academic achievement, (2) the link between childhood maltreatment and mental health outcomes (i.e., emotional and behavioral difficulties), and (3) the bidirectional relationship between childhood academic achievement and mental health. In addition, we reviewed variables that might influence or help explain the link between childhood maltreatment and educational outcomes, drawing on developmental perspectives and Bronfenbrenner's ecological model. Finally, whenever possible, we presented findings specific to maltreated children in out-of-home care to highlight the unique challenges experienced by this population. Results indicated that children with maltreatment histories often experience impairments in both their academic performance (e.g., special education, grade retention, lower grades) and mental well-being (e.g., anxiety, low mood, aggression, social skills deficits, poor interpersonal relationships). These impairments appeared to be particularly pronounced among maltreated children in out-of-home care. Findings, albeit sparse, also indicated that mental health difficulties are negatively associated with children's academic achievement and, similarly, that academic achievement deficits are linked with mental health problems. The link between childhood maltreatment and educational outcomes may be partly explained through the disruption of key developmental processes in children, such as attachment, emotion regulation, and sense of agency. As well, maltreatment characteristics and the functioning of various systems in which children are embedded (e.g., family, school, child welfare) can serve to positively

  7. CHILDHOODS AND INTERPRETATIONS: RESEARCH ON ATTITUDES TOWARDS CONTEMPORARY DISCOURSES ON CHILDHOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czető, Krisztina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the theoretical interpretations of childhoods in the twenty-first century, and presents the results of an exploratory research on students’ attitudes towards contemporary childhood discourses conducted in Hungarian secondary schools. In a narrative literature review, the developmental and the new social paradigms of childhood are discussed. In the quantitative part of the research, the participants’ (N=806 attitudes were measures by a four-dimension questionnaire. The results of the exploratory research show that there are three dominant themes in childhood discourses highly accepted by the research participants: childhood as a development, the motif of initiation and the social and cultural relativity of childhoods.

  8. A Study to Assess the Association of Aseptic Practices Being Followed and its Effect on the Overall Outcome of Selected Special Care Newborn Units (SCNUs of Madhya Pradesh at Different Levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahore RK

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The neonatal mortality rate in India is high and stagnant. Special Care Newborn Units (SCNUs have been set up at different levels of Health Care Delivery System to provide quality newborn-care services in several hospitals to meet this challenge. Many units are located in the districts where the burden of neonatal deaths is high, and access to special newborn care is poor. The study was conducted to assess the functioning of SCNUs in six centers of India. The evaluation was based on an analysis of secondary data from the six units that had been functioning for at least three year. A cross-sectional survey was also conducted to assess the availability of Quality care and Aseptic practices implemented at different levels of SNCUs. Descriptive statistics were used for analyzing the inputs (Quality care and aseptic practices and outcomes (morbidity and mortality. The rate of mortality among admitted neonates was taken as the key outcome variable to assess the performance of the units. Chi-square test was used for analyzing the trend of case-fatality rate over a period of 3 years considering the first year of operationalization as the base. Correlation coefficients were estimated to understand the possible association of case-fatality rate with factors, such as bed:doctor ratio, bed:nurse ratio, average duration of stay, and bed occupancy rate, and the asepsis score was determined. The rates of admission increased from a median of 16.7 per 100 deliveries in 2012 to 19.5 per 100 deliveries in 2014. The case-fatality rate shows progressive decline in all the units in Last 3 years. Proportional mortality due to sepsis and low birthweight (LBW declined significantly over two years (LBW <2.5 kg. The major reasons for admission and the major causes of deaths were birth asphyxia, sepsis, and LBW/prematurity. The units had a varying nurse:bed ratio (1:1-1:2.14. The bed occupancy rate ranged from 83% to 121% (median 115%, and the average duration of stay

  9. Childhood asthma and physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lochte, Lene; Nielsen, Kim G; Petersen, Poul Erik

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Childhood asthma is a global problem affecting the respiratory health of children. Physical activity (PA) plays a role in the relationship between asthma and respiratory health. We hypothesized that a low level of PA would be associated with asthma in children and adolescents. The obj......BACKGROUND: Childhood asthma is a global problem affecting the respiratory health of children. Physical activity (PA) plays a role in the relationship between asthma and respiratory health. We hypothesized that a low level of PA would be associated with asthma in children and adolescents......; however, there was some heterogeneity among the studies. This review reveals a critical need for future longitudinal assessments of low PA, its mechanisms, and its implications for incident asthma in children. The systematic review was prospectively registered at PROSPERO (registration number: CRD...

  10. Childhood leukaemia around nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wojcik, Andrzej (Centre for Radiation Protection Research, GMT Dept., Stockholm Univ., Stockholm (Sweden)); Feychting, Maria (Inst. of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Inst., Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-06-15

    In December 2007 the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) published a report on the incidence of childhood cancers among children living in the vicinity of 16 German nuclear power plants. The results show a significantly enhanced risk of leukaemia in children aged below 5 years, who live within 5 km from a nuclear power plant. The study is known as KiKK (Epidemiologische Studie zu Kinderkrebs in der Umgebung von Kernkraftwerken) and stirred considerable concern about the safety of nuclear installations. In this review we summarise the present state-of-the art regarding childhood leukaemia in the vicinity of nuclear installations and present the main results of the KiKK study with a critical evaluation

  11. Morphea in Childhood: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranegui, B; Jiménez-Reyes, J

    2018-05-01

    Morphea is an inflammatory, fibrosing skin disorder. When it occurs in childhood, it is also known as localized juvenile scleroderma. It is more common in girls and typically appears around the age of 5 to 7 years. According to a recent classification system, morphea is divided into 5 types: circumscribed (plaque), linear, generalized, pansclerotic, and mixed. Approximately 40% of patients present extracutaneous manifestations. Childhood morphea is treated with phototherapy, oral or topical calcitriol, topical tacrolimus 0.1%, methotrexate, topical or systemic corticosteroids, mycophenolate mofetil, bosentán, and topical imiquimod 5%. A variety of measuring tools are used to monitor response to treatment. Few prognostic studies have been conducted, but findings to date suggest that the disease tends to run a chronic or intermittent-recurrent course and frequently causes sequelae. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Childhood leukaemia around nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojcik, Andrzej; Feychting, Maria

    2010-06-01

    In December 2007 the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) published a report on the incidence of childhood cancers among children living in the vicinity of 16 German nuclear power plants. The results show a significantly enhanced risk of leukaemia in children aged below 5 years, who live within 5 km from a nuclear power plant. The study is known as KiKK (Epidemiologische Studie zu Kinderkrebs in der Umgebung von Kernkraftwerken) and stirred considerable concern about the safety of nuclear installations. In this review we summarise the present state-of-the art regarding childhood leukaemia in the vicinity of nuclear installations and present the main results of the KiKK study with a critical evaluation

  13. Psychological factors in childhood headaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Kathleen; Dunn, David; Scott, Eric

    2010-06-01

    Recurrent headaches in children are most often migraines and are based in a genetic predisposition with a low headache threshold. As with any pain experience, there is a large emotional component associated with an attack of migraines that grows in amplitude as the headaches become more frequent and resistant to medicine, sleep, or other agents that used to work. Childhood headaches are especially complicated for 3 reasons: (1) the parents' fear (communicated to the child that serious medical pathology underlies the head pain), (2) the lack of evidence-based pharmacologic treatment, and (3) the belief that these headaches are largely psychological. This article addresses the mystery surrounding childhood headaches by delving into the influence of school, friends, and family; the impact of divorce; the coping skills required for a child to manage a migrainous nervous system; the potential secondary gain from headaches; psychiatric comorbidities and how to treat them; and the role of psychological intervention. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Ganglioneuroma: an 'incidentaloma' of childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulman, H.; Laufer, L.; Barki, Y.; Hertzanu, Y.; Philip, M.; Mares, A.J.; Maor, E.

    1998-01-01

    In adults clinically silent adrenal masses can be discovered incidentally in imaging studies. Most of these 'incidentalomas' are benign, non-functioning adenomas. In contradistinction, in infancy and childhood the most common adrenal mass is the neuroblastoma, a malignant neural crest tumour. Four children are described, each with a benign neural crest tumour - ganglioneuroma -incidentally discovered by conventional radiography or sonographic examination. Complete surgical excision resulted in total recovery of all the children. (orig.)

  15. Childhood roots of financial literacy

    OpenAIRE

    Grohmann, Antonia; Kouwenberg, Roy; Menkhoff, Lukas

    2015-01-01

    Financial literacy predicts informed financial decisions, but what explains financial literacy? We use the concept of financial socialization and aim to represent three major agents of financial socialization: family, school and work. Thus we compile twelve relevant childhood characteristics in a new survey study and examine their relation to financial literacy, while controlling for established socio-demographic characteristics. We find in a mediation analysis that both family and school pos...

  16. Prenatal irradiation and childhood cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, E.G.; Stewart, A.M.; Kneale, G.W.; Gilman, E.A.

    1987-01-01

    Estimates of the relative risk of childhood cancer, following irradiation during fetal life, are reported. They are based upon extended case-control investigations of childhood cancer deaths in England, Wales and Scotland between 1953 and 1979 comprising 14,759 geographically-matched and birth-date-matched case-control pairs. The estimates were calculated using Conditional Logistic Regression (Miettinen-Breslow) techniques. This method of risk-estimation limits the distortions caused by confounding factors or by biased selection of controls. Through analysing a range of reported exposures other than radiation, levels of general reporting and recording biases between cases and controls were also assessed. There was no evidence among cases or controls of any systematic reduction in the frequency of pregnancy x-rays between 1950 and 1979. During this period of time, about 7% of all childhood cancers, and 8% of those with onset between the ages of 4 and 7 years, were caused by x-ray examinations. The dose-response relationship was one death per 990 obstetric x-ray examinations; or 2,000 deaths per 10 4 man-Gy. (author)

  17. Childhood leukaemia and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, R.J.; Wakeford, R.

    1992-01-01

    There has been considerable scientific and media interest in the question of whether the risk of childhood leukemia is raised near nuclear facilities, and, if so, the reasons why. Serious consideration of this issue was initiated by a media report of an unusually large number of cases around the Sellafield installation in England, and reports of excess cases in the vicinity of other facilities in Britain have followed. Detailed radiological assessments have demonstrated that radioactive discharges are most unlikely to have been the cause of these reported excess cases, seemingly contradicting the epidemiological evidence. However, epidemiology is an observational (non-experimental) science, and the results of such studies must be interpreted with considerable care. The influence of prior knowledge of data upon the structure of a study has been a particular inferential problem. Furthermore, there are indications that non-radiological factors may be important in communities near nuclear facilities. Recently, a study has shown an association between childhood leukaemia cases near Sellafield and the recorded occupational radiation doses received by fathers before the conception of these children; but this novel finding has received little independent scientific support. At present, the British childhood leukaemia findings have not been replicated in studies based in other countries, and the reasons for the reported case excesses around British nuclear facilities remain unclear

  18. Childhood asthma-predictive phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilbert, Theresa W; Mauger, David T; Lemanske, Robert F

    2014-01-01

    Wheezing is a fairly common symptom in early childhood, but only some of these toddlers will experience continued wheezing symptoms in later childhood. The definition of the asthma-predictive phenotype is in children with frequent, recurrent wheezing in early life who have risk factors associated with the continuation of asthma symptoms in later life. Several asthma-predictive phenotypes were developed retrospectively based on large, longitudinal cohort studies; however, it can be difficult to differentiate these phenotypes clinically as the expression of symptoms, and risk factors can change with time. Genetic, environmental, developmental, and host factors and their interactions may contribute to the development, severity, and persistence of the asthma phenotype over time. Key characteristics that distinguish the childhood asthma-predictive phenotype include the following: male sex; a history of wheezing, with lower respiratory tract infections; history of parental asthma; history of atopic dermatitis; eosinophilia; early sensitization to food or aeroallergens; or lower lung function in early life. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Diagnostic challenges of childhood asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakirtas, Arzu

    2017-01-01

    Diagnosis of asthma in childhood is challenging. Both underdiagnosis and overdiagnosis of asthma are important issues. The present review gives information about challenging factors for an accurate diagnosis of childhood asthma. Although underdiagnosis of asthma in childhood has always been the most important diagnostic problem, overdiagnosis of asthma has also been increasingly recognized. This is probably due to diagnosis of asthma based on symptoms and signs alone. Demonstration of variable airflow obstruction by lung function tests is the most common asthma diagnostic tests used in practice and is therefore strongly recommended in children who can cooperate. Recently, an asthma guideline combining the clinical and economic evidences with sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic procedures was developed to improve accuracy of diagnosis and to avoid overdiagnosis. This guideline provided an algorithmic clinical and cost-effective approach and included fractional exhaled nitric oxide measurement as one of the diagnostic tests in addition to lung function. Diagnosis of asthma in children should be made by combining relevant history with at least two confirmatory diagnostic tests whenever possible. Diagnosis based on short-period treatment trials should be limited to young children who are unable to cooperate with these tests.

  20. Birth characteristics and childhood carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, K J; Carozza, S E; Chow, E J; Fox, E E; Horel, S; McLaughlin, C C; Mueller, B A; Puumala, S E; Reynolds, P; Von Behren, J; Spector, L G

    2011-10-25

    Carcinomas in children are rare and have not been well studied. We conducted a population-based case-control study and examined associations between birth characteristics and childhood carcinomas diagnosed from 28 days to 14 years during 1980-2004 using pooled data from five states (NY, WA, MN, TX, and CA) that linked their birth and cancer registries. The pooled data set contained 57,966 controls and 475 carcinoma cases, including 159 thyroid and 126 malignant melanoma cases. We used unconditional logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). White compared with 'other' race was positively associated with melanoma (OR=3.22, 95% CI 1.33-8.33). Older maternal age increased the risk for melanoma (OR(per 5-year age increase)=1.20, 95% CI 1.00-1.44), whereas paternal age increased the risk for any carcinoma (OR=1.10(per 5-year age increase), 95% CI 1.01-1.20) and thyroid carcinoma (OR(per 5-year age increase)=1.16, 95% CI 1.01-1.33). Gestational age birth weight, and birth order were not significantly associated with childhood carcinomas. This exploratory study indicates that some birth characteristics including older parental age and low gestational age may be related to childhood carcinoma aetiology.

  1. Childhood and Exile in Chilean Cinema

    OpenAIRE

    José Miguel Palacios; Catalina Donoso Pinto

    2017-01-01

    This article approaches the trauma of the Chilean dictatorship through the intersection between childhood and exile. It analyzes the role of childhood in Chilean exile cinema, focusing on documentaries produced throughout the 1970s and 80s. We will study the presence of childhood as a symbol in the political imaginary of exile, discuss the ways in which cinema recognizes and authorizes children’s testimony, and cover the dilemmas of desexilio and counter-nostalgia in films devoted to the them...

  2. Adulthood personality correlates of childhood adversity

    OpenAIRE

    Carver, Charles S.; Johnson, Sheri L.; McCullough, Michael E.; Forster, Daniel E.; Joormann, Jutta

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Childhood adversity has been linked to internalizing and externalizing disorders and personality disorders in adulthood. This study extends that research by examining several personality measures as correlates of childhood adversity. Method: In a college sample self-reports were collected of childhood adversity, several scales relating to personality, and current depression symptoms as a control variable. The personality-related scales were reduced to four latent variables, whic...

  3. Adulthood Personality Correlates of Childhood Adversity

    OpenAIRE

    Charles S. Carver; Charles S. Carver; Sheri L Johnson; Sheri L Johnson; Michael E McCullough; Daniel E Forster; Jutta eJoormann

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Childhood adversity has been linked to internalizing and externalizing disorders and personality disorders in adulthood. This study extends that research by examining several personality measures as correlates of childhood adversity. Method: In a college sample self-reports were collected of childhood adversity, several scales relating to personality, and current depression symptoms as a control variable. The personality-related scales were reduced to four latent variables, which w...

  4. The long reach of childhood. Childhood experiences influence close relationships and loneliness across life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merz, E.M.; Jak, S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper intends to gain insight into the role of childhood relationships and experiences within the parental home for the formation and meaning of later family relationships and loneliness. Particularly, childhood attachment to mother and father and stressful childhood experiences were studied in

  5. The long reach of childhood: childhood experiences influence close relationships and loneliness across life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merz, E.-M.; Jak, S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper intends to gain insight into the role of childhood relationships and experiences within the parental home for the formation and meaning of later family relationships and loneliness. Particularly, childhood attachment to mother and father and stressful childhood experiences were studied in

  6. Consequenses of childhood adversity on health concerns in adulthood

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Consequenses of childhood adversity on health concerns in adulthood. ... childhood adversity have similar levels of depression, acute and chronic health. ... to explain the pathways linking childhood adversity to physical health in adulthood.

  7. The implementation of intersectoral community approaches targeting childhood obesity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleij, van der M.J.J.

    2017-01-01

    Childhood obesity remains a major public health concern. To successfully address the childhood obesity epidemic, intersectoral community interventions that take into account the multifactorial aetiology of childhood obesity are needed. However, the implementation of such interventions has proved to

  8. Childhood antecedents of adolescent personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, D P; Cohen, P; Skodol, A; Bezirganian, S; Brook, J S

    1996-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the childhood antecedents of personality disorders that are diagnosed in adolescence. A randomly selected community sample of 641 youths was assessed initially in childhood and followed longitudinally over 10 years. Childhood behavior ratings were based on maternal report; diagnoses of adolescent personality disorders were based on data obtained from both maternal and youth informants. Four composite measures of childhood behavior problems were used: conduct problems, depressive symptoms, anxiety/fear, and immaturity. Adolescent personality disorders were considered present only if the disorders persisted over a 2-year period. For all analyses, personality disorders were grouped into the three clusters (A, B, and C) of DSM-III-R. Logistic regression analyses indicated that all four of the putative childhood antecedents were associated with greater odds of an adolescent personality disorder 10 years later. Childhood conduct problems remained an independent predictor of personality disorders in all three clusters, even when other childhood problems were included in the same regression model. Additionally, depressive symptoms emerged as an independent predictor of cluster A personality disorders in boys, while immaturity was an independent predictor of cluster B personality disorders in girls. No moderating effects of age at time of childhood assessment were found. These results support the view that personality disorders can be traced to childhood emotional and behavioral disturbances and suggest that these problems have both general and specific relationships to adolescent personality functioning.

  9. Childhood adversity, mental health, and violent crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer-Smyth, Kathleen; Cornelius, Monica E; Pickelsimer, E Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    Little is understood about childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) and lifetime violent crime perpetration. The purpose was to evaluate TBI before the age of 15 years and other childhood environmental factors, mental health, and lifetime history of committing a violent crime. A cross-sectional study of 636 male and female offenders from a southeastern state prison population was conducted using Chi-squared tests, t tests, and logistic regression to determine factors associated with ever committing a violent crime. Committing a violent crime was associated with male gender, younger age, greater childhood sexual abuse (CSA), greater childhood emotional abuse, no TBI by the age of 15 years, and greater neighborhood adversity during childhood. Although TBI has been related to violent and nonviolent crime, this study showed that absence of TBI by the age of 15 years was associated with lifetime violent crime when adjusting for CSA, childhood emotional abuse, and neighborhood adversity during childhood. This builds upon neurobehavioral development literature suggesting that CSA and the stress of violence exposure without direct physical victimization may play a more critical role in lifetime violent criminal behavior than childhood TBI. Violence risk reduction must occur during childhood focusing on decreasing adversity, especially violence exposure as a witness as well as a direct victim.

  10. Women with Childhood ADHD: Comparisons by Diagnostic Group and Gender

    OpenAIRE

    Babinski, Dara E.; Pelham, William E.; Molina, Brooke S. G.; Waschbusch, Daniel A.; Gnagy, Elizabeth M.; Yu, Jihnhee; Sibley, Margaret H.; Biswas, Aparajita

    2011-01-01

    This study compared adult women with childhood ADHD to adult women without childhood ADHD and to adult men with childhood ADHD. The participants, all from a larger longitudinal study, included 30 women and 30 men (approximately age 23 to 24) with childhood ADHD, and 27 women without ADHD. Women with childhood ADHD were matched to comparison women on age, ethnicity, and parental education, and to men with childhood ADHD on age, ethnicity, and IQ. Self- and parent-reports of internalizing, inte...

  11. Predictors of intractable childhood epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, M.A.; Ahmed, T.M.

    2008-01-01

    To determine the prognosis of seizures in epileptic children and identify early predictors of intractable childhood epilepsy. All children (aged 1 month to 16 years) with idiopathic or cryptogenic epilepsy who were treated and followed at the centre during the study period were included. The patients who had marked seizures even after two years of adequate treatment were labeled as intractable epileptics (cases). Children who had no seizure for more than one year at last follow-up visit were the controls. Adequate treatment was described as using at least three anti-epileptic agents either alone or in combination with proper compliance and dosage. Records of these patients were reviewed to identify the variables that may be associated with seizure intractability. Of 442 epileptic children, 325 (74%) intractable and 117 (26%) control epileptics were included in the study. Male gender (OR=3.92), seizures onset in infancy >10 seizures before starting treatment (OR=3.76), myoclonic seizures (OR=1.37), neonatal seizures (OR=3.69), abnormal EEG (OR=7.28) and cryptogenic epilepsy (OR=9.69) and head trauma (OR=4.07) were the factors associated with intractable epilepsy. Seizure onset between 5-7 years of age, idiopathic epilepsy, and absence seizures were associated with favourable prognosis in childhood epilepsy. Intractable childhood epilepsy is expected if certain risk factors such as type, age of onset, gender and cause of epilepsy are found. Early referral of such patients to the specialized centres is recommended for prompt and optimal management. (author)

  12. Personality and Adult Perceptions of Childhood Dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacka, Brian

    This study used adult recall of childhood dreams to test Cann and Donderi's (1986) findings that Jungian intuitives recall more archetypal dreams than do sensate subjects, and that introverts recall more everyday dreams than extraverts. It was hypothesized that since dreams recalled from childhood are relatively high in archetypal content, there…

  13. Mourning a Lost Childhood: A Therapeutic Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulish, Nancy Mann

    J. M. Barrie's popular story of Peter Pan depicts the never-neverland of an endless happy childhood. Analysis of the story and of J. M. Barrie's personal background, however, reveals that the tale is a conflicted solution to and separation from early childhood losses and disappointments. Themes of separation and reunion, redesertion and revenge…

  14. Prohibitions against Mourning in Childhood Sibling Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Helen

    1985-01-01

    Presents findings from a research study on sibling loss in childhood which support the idea that the loss of a sibling in childhood may be an especially significant loss for a child, in that both internal, family, and societal influences prohibit the opportunity to mourn the loss. (Author/NRB)

  15. Attachment and Socioemotional Problems in Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Ellen; Lecompte, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we will evaluate the evidence concerning links between attachment and behavior problems in the middle childhood period. We will first provide a general introduction to the question of attachment and maladaptation in the middle childhood period, and then examine the recent empirical evidence with respect to both externalizing and…

  16. Play and Social Interaction in Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, Doris; Fromberg, Doris Pronin

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses traditional and contemporary definitions of middle childhood play, the value of such play for children's development and learning, the implications of home, school, and societal practices that have resulted in changing the play scenario of middle childhood, and suggestions for assuring that play's value will be maintained…

  17. Childhood abuse in late-life depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Comijs, Hannie C; van Exel, Eric; van der Mast, Roos C; Paauw, Anna; Oude Voshaar, Richard; Stek, Max L

    Background: Little is known about the role of childhood abuse in late-life depression. The aim of the study is therefore to study whether childhood abuse is associated with late-life depression according to its onset, and which clinical characteristics play a role in this association. Methods: Data

  18. Attachment in Middle Childhood: Progress and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosmans, Guy; Kerns, Kathryn A.

    2015-01-01

    Contrary to the substantial amount of research on infant, preschool, adolescent, and adult attachment, middle childhood has long been neglected by the international attachment research community. In the past two decades, however, there has been a steep increase in research focusing on middle childhood attachment. This article provides an overview…

  19. Early Childhood Systems: Transforming Early Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Sharon Lynn, Ed.; Kauertz, Kristie, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    In this seminal volume, leading authorities strategize about how to create early childhood systems that transcend politics and economics to serve the needs of all young children. The authors offer different interpretations of the nature of early childhood systems, discuss the elements necessary to support their development, and examine how…

  20. Gender and Boys' Singing in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Clare

    2005-01-01

    This article derives from a research project investigating the singing behaviour of a group of Australian boys in their first year of school. The project showed that the genesis of the "missing male" trend in singing at school may be occurring in early childhood. The impact of hegemonic masculinity in early childhood is explored here by…

  1. Preventing Childhood obesity. EPODE European Network Recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borys, J.M.; Le Bodo, Y.; De Henauw, S.; Moreno, L.A.; Romon, M.; Seidell, J.C.; Visscher, T.L.S.

    2011-01-01

    Childhood obesity is a complex issue and needs multistakeholder involvement at all levels to foster healthier lifestyles in a sustainable way. 'Ensemble Prévenons l'ObésitéDes Enfants' (EPODE, Together Let's Prevent Childhood Obesity) is a large-scale, coordinated, capacity-building approach for

  2. Pretend Play in the Early Childhood Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEntire, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    This article presents and summarizes recent resources related to pretend play in the early childhood classroom. These include "Contemporary Perspectives on Play in Early Childhood Education" by Olivia N. Sarachoe and Bernard Spodek; "Dramatic Play: Bring It Back" by Tammy Benson; and "The Importance of Being Playful" by Elena Bodrova and Deborah…

  3. Transforming early childhood education for sustainable development

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examined the ways in which early childhood education needs to be transformed for sustainable development. These ways include teaching children environmental security through play, personal hygiene, appropriate waste use and disposal, and nature awareness. It was recommended that early childhood ...

  4. The Lay Concept of Childhood Mental Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giummarra, Melita J.; Haslam, Nick

    2005-01-01

    The structure of lay people's concepts of childhood mental disorder was investigated in a questionnaire study and examined for convergence with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV). Eighty-four undergraduates who had no formal education in abnormal psychology rated 54 conditions--36 DSM-IV childhood disorders and 18 non-disorders--on…

  5. Endocrinopathies in Survivors of Childhood Neoplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLE S BARNES

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Advancements in cancer treatments have increased the number of childhood cancer survivors. Endocrinopathies are common complications following cancer therapy and may occur decades later. The objective of the review is to address the main endocrine abnormalities detected in childhood cancer survivors including disorders of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, thyroid, puberty, gonads, bone, body composition, and glucose metabolism.

  6. Treatment of Childhood Obesity: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staniford, Leanne J.; Breckon, Jeff D.; Copeland, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Childhood obesity trends have increased dramatically over the past three decade's. The purpose of this quantitative systematic review is to provide an update of the evidence, illustrating the efficacy of childhood obesity treatment, considering whether treatment fidelity has been measured and/or reported and whether this related to the treatment…

  7. Managing Asthma in the Early Childhood Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graville, Iris

    2011-01-01

    Asthma, one of the most common chronic disorders in childhood, affects more than seven million children in the United States, and is the third leading cause of hospitalization for children. Statistics like these make planning and preparing for asthma in the early childhood setting a high priority. With the high rates of asthma in the U.S. today,…

  8. Fertility in Female Childhood Cancer Survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, de M.; Broeder, den E.; Berg, van den M.H.; Lambalk, C.B.

    2009-01-01

    Advances in childhood cancer treatment over the past decades have significantly improved survival, resulting in a rapidly enlarging group of childhood cancer survivors. There is much concern, however, about the effects of treatment on reproductive potential. In women there is evidence that both

  9. Interactive media for childhood obesity prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood obesity is a worldwide pandemic that increases the risk of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and multiple cancers, and reduces quality of life and functional ability. Fruit, 100% juice, and vegetable (FJV) intake, and physical activity (PA) are behaviors related to childhood obesit...

  10. Early Childhood Inclusion in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    A policy-to-practice paper is presented of early childhood inclusion in England. The article aims to report the benefits of early intervention services and early childhood inclusion for children with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND), document the chronology of policy development, and discuss research evidence about…

  11. Understanding and Theorizing Modern Childhood in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampmann, Jan

    2005-01-01

    The chapter explores the concept of the competent child and how theorizing and conceptualizing children and childhood has shifted during the last 15 years. Recent research has focused mainly on three perspectives: 1) how children seem to have changed, 2) how the conditions of modern childhood have...

  12. Male reproductive health after childhood cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lähteenmäki, P M; Arola, M; Suominen, J

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-five male patients were investigated to elucidate the correlation of semen parameters and other related parameters in the assessment of spermatogenesis after childhood cancer treatment.......Twenty-five male patients were investigated to elucidate the correlation of semen parameters and other related parameters in the assessment of spermatogenesis after childhood cancer treatment....

  13. Characterisation of childhood and adolescence accidental fatalities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Accidental death in childhood and adolescence is posing a public health problem in Nigeria, as most of these deaths were not caused by the victims. There is need to research into the pattern and circumstances surrounding the death. Aim: To characterise and study accidental deaths in childhood and ...

  14. Early Childhood Education: History, Theory, and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Harry

    2006-01-01

    In this book, the author covers the history, theory, and practices that influence early childhood education along with an emphasis on infant and toddler care and education. He also presents a comparison of the conflict between education planners who support early childhood studies and state school systems whose cost-saving measures are dismantling…

  15. Sensory modulation disorders in childhood epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Campen, Jolien S; Jansen, Floor E; Kleinrensink, Nienke J; Joëls, Marian; Braun, Kees Pj; Bruining, Hilgo

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Altered sensory sensitivity is generally linked to seizure-susceptibility in childhood epilepsy but may also be associated to the highly prevalent problems in behavioral adaptation. This association is further suggested by the frequent overlap of childhood epilepsy with autism spectrum

  16. CDC Vital Signs: Progress on Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... VitalSigns – Childhood Obesity [PSA – 0:60 seconds] VitalSigns – Obesidad en niños: [PODCAST – 1:15 minutes] Childhood Overweight ... Prevention and Control MedlinePlus – Obesity in Children MedlinePlus – Obesidad en niños Top of Page Get Email Updates ...

  17. Obstruction of cerebral arteries in childhood stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velkey, I.; Lombay, B.; Panczel, G.

    1992-01-01

    Middle cerebral artery obstruction in children is reviewed by our two cases. Ischemic childhood stroke was caused by moyamoya disease in the first, and by fibromuscular dysplasia in the second patient. In both cases transcranial Doppler sonography and cranial CT were performed, but the final diagnosis was made by angiography. The importance of angiography in childhood stroke is emphasized. (orig.)

  18. The Changing World of Childhood Immunizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graville, Iris

    2010-01-01

    Theories and practices in early childhood education continually evolve, and the same is true in the health field. Such change is especially apparent in the area of childhood immunizations. Since vaccination to prevent smallpox was first started in the late 1700s, recommendations for which immunizations to give and when to give them have been…

  19. Marriage and divorce among childhood cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Susanne Vinkel; Kejs, Anne Mette Tranberg; Engholm, Gerda

    2011-01-01

    Many childhood cancer survivors have psychosocial late effects. We studied the risks for cohabitation and subsequent separation. Through the Danish Cancer Register, we identified a nationwide, population-based cohort of all 1877 childhood cancer survivors born from 1965 to 1980, and in whom cance...

  20. Childhood Abuse and Attachment Styles of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakus, Ozlem

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The fact that emotional and social experiences in early childhood period within the family influence the experiences in adolescence and adulthood (communication skills, interpersonal relations) is not a new case. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine the relationship between childhood abuse and attachment styles. Method: The…

  1. Japanese Guideline for Childhood Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Nishimuta

    2011-01-01

    JAGL differs from the Global Initiative for Asthma Guideline (GINA in that the former emphasizes long-term management of childhood asthma based on asthma severity and early diagnosis and intervention at <2 years and 2–5 years of age. However, a management method, including step-up or step-down of long-term management agents based on the status of asthma symptoms, is easy to understand and thus JAGL is suitable for routine medical treatment. JAGL also introduced treatment and management using a control test for children, recommending treatment and management aimed at complete control through avoiding exacerbation factors and appropriate use of antiinflammatory agents.

  2. Extrahepatic portal hypertension in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takehara, Hiroo; Komi, Nobuhiko; Goh, Masahiro; Yoshida, Sadahiro; Kameoka, Kazuhiro; Hino, Masao; Sui, Osamu

    1986-01-01

    Four pediatric patients with extrahepatic portal hypertension had undergone portography and computerized radionuclide angiography in order to examine shape of portal system and to evaluate hepatic blood flow before and aftersurgical treatment. In all patients, cavernous transformation of portal system was demonstrated by portography, and in one of them spontaneous splenorenal shunt occurred. In 3 of them, who underwent esophageal transsection combined with paraesophagogastric devascularization and splenectomy, so-called direct operation, increase of portal blood flow was revealed by computerized radionuclide angiography. It is suggested that direct operation increasing portal blood flow after surgery is effective in treating extrahepatic portal hypertension in childhood. (author)

  3. Overweight in childhood and adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toennesen, L L; Bjerregaard, A; Porsbjerg, C

    2018-01-01

    overweight in childhood and adolescence is associated with an increased risk of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), a hallmark of asthma, in early adulthood. METHODS: Of 527 subjects from a random population sample of children and adolescents (7-17 years) examined at baseline, a total of 184 subjects completed......BACKGROUND: Obesity is increasing worldwide among children and adolescents, and has been associated with an increased incidence of asthma. However, the mechanisms underlying this association are incompletely understood. OBJECTIVE: In this cohort study we aimed to investigate whether being...

  4. [Amblyopia and uveitis in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckstein, A; Robering, A; Rudolph, G; Esser, J

    2007-06-01

    Manifestations of uveitis in the sensitive period of childhood can cause amblyopia. In most of the cases band keratopathy, dense cataracts and cyclitic membranes cause deprivation amblyopia. Asymmetrical damage can result in relative amblyopia. Secondary squint can lead to suppression amblyopia. For these reasons every visit during uveitis treatment should be accompanied by a search for amblyogenic factors and visual acuity measurements. In the case of a side difference in the visual acuity, occlusion therapy should be started. The follow-up should not only contain visual acuity measurements but also cycloplegic refraction. Especially when pupil-dilating drugs are necessary for a longer period, bifocals should be prescribed.

  5. Childhood Precursors of the Narcissistic Personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Phebe

    2017-09-01

    This research identifies the childhood personality characteristics that predict the presence of narcissism in adulthood. Using data from the longitudinal study of Block and Block (The California Child Q-set. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press, 1980), childhood personality characteristics were assessed at age 11 (N = 100) using the California Child Q-set. A number of these were shown to differentially predict the presence of grandiose or vulnerable narcissism at age 23. Factor analyses of the Child Q-set items showed that the presence of Grandiose Narcissism was positively related to childhood factors representing social presence and negatively related to planfulness. In contrast, vulnerable narcissism was positively related to childhood impulsivity and negatively related to stable self-esteem. Both types of narcissism were positively related to childhood factors representing need for control.

  6. Childhood Origins of Young Adult Environmental Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gary W; Otto, Siegmar; Kaiser, Florian G

    2018-05-01

    Prospective, longitudinal analyses revealed that over a 12-year period from ages 6 to 18, individuals who grew up with mothers with more proenvironmental attitudes engaged in more proenvironmental behavior as young adults. A similar marginal association was uncovered between mothers' proenvironmental behaviors and the proenvironmental behavior of their young adult offspring. Maternal educational attainment, but not political ideology, was also associated with more proenvironmental behavior as children matured. Moreover, childhood time spent outdoors was positively associated with increased environmentally responsible behavior in young adulthood. Interestingly, one's own childhood proenvironmental behavior and attitude, at least as assessed at age 6, bear little on one's eventual proenvironmental behavior as a young adult. Finally, among this set of childhood factors, maternal education and childhood time spent outdoors were independent predictors of positive changes in environmental behavior from early childhood to young adulthood.

  7. [Eating behavior and childhood obesity: family influences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Vásquez, P; Olivares, S; Santos, J L

    2008-09-01

    Eating behavior involves all actions that define the relation between human beings and food. It is accepted that feeding habits are acquired through eating experiences and practices learned from the familiar and social context in early childhood. Besides the role of the social context, it is also assumed that familiar factors, both common family environment and genetic inheritance, have an important influence on food intake and eating behavior linked with childhood obesity. Research on food intake and childhood obesity has been traditionally focused on the amount and type of foods in the usual diet. However, it is an increasing interest to understand the link between eating behavior and obesity using questionnaires. There are several psychometric tools that have been developed specifically to deal with human eating behavior. This review summarizes the family influences, both genetic and non-genetic, on childhood feeding behavior and their relation to childhood obesity.

  8. Colagenopatía y meningitis aséptica recurrente en una paciente de 88 años Colagenopathy and recurrent aseptic meningitis in an 88 year old patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando J. VAzquez

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available La meningitis aséptica recurrente (MAR en ancianos es rara y generalmente es secundaria a drogas. Su asociación a colagenopatías en ancianos ha sido raramente informada. El Síndrome de Sjögren (SS en ocasiones afecta el sistema nervioso central, pero la MAR asociada a SS es rara en este grupo etario. Se presenta una paciente de 88 años, autoválida, con antecedentes de xerostomía, xeroftalmos, Raynaud, disfagia y agrandamiento parotídeo recurrente autolimitado. En el año 2001 cursó una meningitis linfocítica y evolucionó con recuperación completa. Un año después volvió a presentar una meningitis linfocítica aséptica. Se descartaron causas infecciosas. Se demostró FAN 1/160 con patrón nucleolar moteado, Ac anti Ro y anti RNP positivos y anticoagulante lúpico positivo. Se confirmó sequedad ocular y la biopsia de labio fue compatible con SS. Evolucionó con resolución completa en 10 días sin tratamiento. Se interpretó como una enfermedad mixta del tejido conectivo (EMTC con síntomas predominantemente de SS, que cursó una MAR en su forma pura. La EMTC y el SS deberían ser considerados entre los diagnósticos diferenciales de la MAR, inclusive en ancianos.Recurrent aseptic meningitis (RAM infrequent in elderly patients and generally secondary to drugs. Its association with rheumatologic diseases is also seldom reported in the elderly. Sjögren Syndrome (SS sometimes affects the central nevous system, but the association between recurrent meningitis and SS is rare, specially in this age-group. We present an 88 year-old autovalid patient, with a history of xerostomia, xerophthalmia, Raynaud, dysphagia, and recurrent parotid enlargement. In 2001 she developed a lymphocytic meningitis with a complete remission. A year later, she developed again an aseptic lymphocytic meningitis. We ruled out infeccious causes. We found a FAN titer 1/160 with a nucleolar-mottled pattern, positive anti Ro and anti RNP antibodies and a positive

  9. Storage stability of cashew apple juice preserved by hot fill and aseptic processes Estabilidade do suco de caju preservado pelo método ''hot fill'' e processo asséptico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecília Oliveira Costa

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L. apples from Pacajus, Ceará State, Brazil, were processed into high pulp content juice. The juice was packed either by hot fill or an aseptic process and evaluated for physical, physical-chemical, and sensorial changes during a 12-month storage period at room temperature. The results indicated that pH, soluble solids, total acidity, total sugar content and color did not change significantly during storage nor were affected by the type of filling. The sensorial analysis showed that juice acceptance remained high throughout the storage period regardless of the filling system. Differences in juice viscosity persisted between both processes.Pedúnculos de caju (Anacardium occidentale L. de Pacajus, Estado do Ceará, Brasil, foram processados na forma de suco com alto teor de polpa. O suco foi acondicionado através do processo hot fill ou asséptico e verificada as alterações físicas, físico-químicas e sensoriais durante armazenagem por doze meses à temperatura ambiente. Os resultados indicaram que pH, sólidos solúveis, acidez total, conteúdo de açúcar e cor não mudaram de modo significativo durante a armazenagem nem foram afetadas pelo modo de acondicionamento. Análise sensorial mostrou que a aceitação do suco foi mantida alta durante o período de armazenagem a despeito do sistema de enchimento. Diferenças na viscosidade dos sucos persistiram entre ambos processos.

  10. Health consequences of childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Anindya Kumar; Sarkar, Neille; Chatterjee, Tapabrata

    2011-11-01

    To evaluate the cardiovascular and endocrine effects of childhood obesity as well as prevalence of metabolic syndrome associated with it. 49 obese and overweight children aged between 6 and 11 years as study group and 45 healthy non-obese controls of same age were selected for the study. Both the groups were evaluated for height, weight, BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting serum lipid fractions, insulin level, fasting and post-prandial blood glucose and C-reactive protein. Screening for metabolic syndrome was performed following most acceptable criteria. The study group children had significantly higher blood pressure, altered lipid fractions and high C-reactive Protein. Criteria-wise insulin resistance, hypertriglyceridemia and low high density lipoprotein also were found at significantly higher rate among obese children. The metabolic syndrome existed at a high prevalence of 14.1% in the study group. Obesity in childhood causes cardiovascular and endocrine dysregulation with onset of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome even in absence of significant evidence of hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus in this age group.

  11. MR imaging of childhood adrenoleukodystrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Kyoung; Kim, In One; Kim, Woo Sun; Yeon, Kyung Mo

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the MR findings of childhood adrenoleukodystrophy regarding the extent of which matter degeneration and the pattern of enhancement, and to correlate these findings with clinical manifestations. Six male patients (5-13 years old: mean age , 8.7 years) of biochemically confirmed adrenoleukodystrophy were included in this study. We evaluated the extent of which matter degeneration which was shown as high signal intensity on T2- weighted image, and the pattern of enhancement. Also we correlated the MR findings with clinical manifestations of symptoms and the results of evoked potential studies. The most common sites of predominant involvement were occipital deep white matter, optic radiation, and splenium of corpus callosum (n=4, 66.7%). The other sites of predominant involvement were frontal deep white matter (n=1, 16.7%) and pyramidal tract with cerebellum (n=1, 16.7%). After contrast enhancement, there was peripheral rim enhancement surrounding the most severely affected areas in five cases (83.3%). These findings were consistent with clinical symptoms in five cases (83.3%), but the result of evoked potential studies were consistent with clinical symptoms in only two cases (33.3%). In childhood adrenoleukodystrophy, MRI can clearly demonstrate specific tracts of involvement and these findings were well correlated with clinical manifestations

  12. Childhood Pneumonia Screener: a concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka Räsänen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Childhood pneumonia continues to be the number one cause of death in children under five years of age in developing countries. In addition to mortality, pneumonia constitutes an enormous economic and social burden because late diagnosis is associated with high cost of treatment and often leads to chronic health problems. There are several bottlenecks in developing countries in the case flow of a child with lung infection: 1 recognising the symptoms as a reason to seek care, 2 getting the patient to a first-tier health facility, 3 scarcity of trained healthcare personnel who can diagnose the condition and its severity, 4 access to a second-tier facility in severe cases. These factors are commonly present in rural areas but even in more urban settings, access to a physician is often delayed. The Childhood Pneumonia Screener project aims at bridging the diagnostic gap using emerging technology. Mobile “smart” phone communication with several inexpensive dedicated sensors is proposed as a rapid data-collection and transmission unit that is connected to a central location where trained personnel assisted by sophisticated signal processing algorithms, evaluate the data and determine if the child is likely to have pneumonia and what the level and urgency of care should be.

  13. The difference in pediatric blood pressure between middle childhood and late childhood prior to dental treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitri Anissa Syaimima bt. Syaiful Azim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Every child will go through several stages in his or her life. They are different from each other as they are in the process of development of cognition, physics, emotion, and personality. For many children, a visit to the dentist can raise their anxiety. This anxiousness will lead to stress that influences the cardiovascular function in the body. The purpose of this research was to determine the difference in pediatric blood pressure between middle childhood and late childhood prior to dental treatment. This research was a clinical trial, pure experimental study. The sample consisted of 30 children within the range of 4-12 years old where they were divided into two groups of age; middle childhood (4-7 years old and late childhood (8-12 years old. The blood pressures were measured before any dental treatment began and the values were recorded. The data were then analyzed using the One-Sample T-Test analysis. The results of blood pressure in middle childhood and late childhood were compared to the average mean values for each age group. It showed that there was a significant difference in the systolic pressure, which was found higher in the middle childhood group compared to the late childhood. From the result can be concluded that there was a difference in the pediatric blood pressure between middle childhood and late childhood prior to dental treatment.

  14. Suicide among childhood cancer survivors in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cižek Sajko, Mojca; Cižek, Niko; Jareb, Berta

    2012-01-01

    Suicide is one of the causes of late mortality among childhood cancer survivors. The aim of our study was to analyse the risk of suicide among childhood cancer survivors compared with that of the general population of Slovenia. This retrospective study included patients with childhood cancer registered at the Cancer Registry of Slovenia between 1978-2008, with an observation period of 1978-2010. Childhood cancer patients and control subjects from the general population of Slovenia were matched by sex, year and age at the beginning of follow-up and time of follow-up in years. Data on the general population of Slovenia were obtained from the Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia. A total of 1647 patients were recorded in the Cancer Registry as having cancer during childhood, with 3 patients committing suicide. All three were male. Their age at diagnosis of cancer was 12, 13 and 2 years old; their age at suicide was 19, 32 and 28 years old. The mechanism of death was asphyxiation in all three deaths. The calculation of the expected number of suicides in the group of individuals with childhood cancer from the general Slovene population revealed the number of 3.16 persons. The comparison of the observed and expected probability showed that there was no statistically significant difference in the suicide rate between childhood cancer survivors and the general population of Slovenia. Copyright © 2012 by Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  15. Asthma in childhood: a complex, heterogeneous disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Lee Chung

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma in childhood is a heterogeneous disease with different phenotypes and variable clinical manifestations, which depend on the age, gender, genetic background, and environmental influences of the patients. Several longitudinal studies have been conducted to classify the phenotypes of childhood asthma, on the basis of the symptoms, triggers of wheezing illness, or pathophysiological features of the disease. These studies have provided us with important information about the different wheezing phenotypes in young children and about potential mechanisms and risk factors for the development of chronic asthma. The goal of these studies was to provide a better insight into the causes and natural course of childhood asthma. It is well-known that complicated interactions between genes and environmental factors contribute to the development of asthma. Because childhood is a period of rapid growth in both the lungs and the immune system, developmental factors should be considered in the pathogenesis of childhood asthma. The pulmonary system continues to grow and develop until linear growth is completed. Longitudinal studies have reported significant age-related immune development during postnatal early life. These observations suggest that the phenotypes of childhood asthma vary among children and also in an individual child over time. Improved classification of heterogeneous conditions of the disease will help determine novel strategies for primary and secondary prevention and for the development of individualized treatment for childhood asthma.

  16. [Overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitzko, Sina

    2010-01-01

    Firstly, essential developmental aspects of the focused periods of life, namely childhood and adolescence, are discussed. Furthermore, different issues of overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence are highlighted. Besides the definition and the assessment, possibilities of classification and epidemiological aspects are of interest. Physical and psychiatric consequences, which can be associated with obesity are also presented. In the context of a model of multifactorial genesis of obesity, different causing and maintaining factors are described. In addition to genetic and biological risk factors, the significance of several psychosocial factors is illustrated. Finally, the focus is on the therapy of obesity in childhood and adolescence.

  17. Adult female urinary incontinence and childhood bedwetting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foldspang, Anders; Mommsen, S.

    1994-01-01

    A cross-sectional random population sample of women 30 to 59 years old was sent a questionnaire on urinary incontinence and, among other things, childhood bedwetting. Among 2,613 responders 17.0% reported prevalent urinary incontinence (14.7% stress provoked, 8.3% associated with urge, 6.8% stress...... and urge overlap, 2.2% occurring especially during sleep and 3.9% occurring especially when anxious), and 6.5% reported childhood bedwetting after age 5 years and 3.3% after age 10 years. Childhood bedwetting was associated with prevalent urge urinary incontinence (p ... during sleep (p anxiety (p

  18. The global childhood obesity epidemic and the association between socio-economic status and childhood obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Youfa; Lim, Hyunjung

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the current prevalence and time trends of childhood obesity worldwide, and the association between childhood obesity and socio-economic status (SES). Childhood obesity has become a global public health crisis. The prevalence is highest in western and industrialized countries, but still low in some developing countries. The prevalence also varies by age and gender. The WHO Americas and eastern Mediterranean regions had higher prevalence of overweight and obesity (30–40%) t...

  19. [Social participation after childhood craniopharyngioma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivari-Philiponnet, C; Roumenoff, F; Schneider, M; Chantran, C; Picot, M; Berlier, P; Mottolese, C; Bernard, J-C; Vuillerot, C

    2016-12-01

    Craniopharyngioma is a rare, benign central nervous system tumor, which may be a source of multiple complications, from endocrinology to vision, neurology and neurocognitive functions. This morbidity can lead to reduced participation in life activities, as described in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health. The primary objective of this study was to measure participation in life activities in a population of children and young adults affected by childhood craniopharyngioma, using the LIFE-H questionnaire (Assessment of Life Habits), validated as a social participation measurement tool in various pediatric disabilities. We also describe complications in our population and examined the potential links between tumor characteristics, complications, and participation in life activities. This was a descriptive study, including all patients having presented childhood craniopharyngioma (before 18 years of age), followed in the Lyon region between 2007 and 2013. The main criterion was the LIFE-H results, completed by the patient or the carer. Of 21 patients included in the study, 14 completed the questionnaire, a mean 6.7 years after the diagnosis (SD: 3.9 years). The mean total LIFE-H score was 8.4 (SD: 1.03) for a normal score estimated at 10 in the general population. The lowest scores affected the nutrition, community life, and recreation dimensions. No patient had a normal score on all dimensions; 57% of the patients had more than three dimensions affected. The variability of the results between patients was lower for some dimensions with high means (fitness, personal care, communication, housing, mobility, responsibilities, and education) than in others (nutrition, interpersonal relationships, community life, employment, and recreation) with rather low means. All patients had an endocrinological deficit, 19% hypothalamic syndrome, 52% an impaired fulfillment feeling, 76% visual impairment, 14% neurologic impairment, and 91

  20. Childhood obesity for pediatric gastroenterologists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jeannie S; Barlow, Sarah E; Quiros-Tejeira, Ruben E; Scheimann, Ann; Skelton, Joseph; Suskind, David; Tsai, Patrika; Uko, Victor; Warolin, Joshua P; Xanthakos, Stavra A

    2013-01-01

    Obesity in childhood is one of the major health issues in pediatric health care today. As expected, the prevalence of obesity-related comorbidities has risen in parallel with that of obesity. Consultation regarding these concomitant diseases and subsequent management by subspecialists, including pediatric gastroenterologists, is now common and has resulted in obesity being recognized as a chronic disease requiring coordination of care. Although medications and even surgery may provide effective, though often temporary, treatments for obesity and its comorbidities, behavioral interventions addressing healthy dietary and physical activity habits remain a mainstay in the obesity treatment paradigm. Therefore, the issue of weight management must be addressed by both general practitioner and subspecialist alike. In this report, we review select aspects of pediatric obesity and obesity-related management issues because it relates in particular to the field of pediatric gastroenterology and hepatology.

  1. Childhood leukemia around nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatch, M.

    1992-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies on health effects of living near nuclear facilities have been rare and, indeed, radiobiological models would not predict any detectable increase in cancer risk to the general public from very low levels of radioactivity emitted by nuclear installations. Thus recent evidence suggesting an excess of childhood leukemias in the vicinity of certain nuclear sites in the United Kingdom has generated considerable controversy. To help resolve the uncertainty and enhance interpretability of results, future epidemiologic studies will need to be designed with great care (and within realistic cost limits). This commentary suggests three areas for methodologic consideration: 1. definition and modelling of radiation exposure; 2. selection of cancer sites and sensitive subgroups, and 3. use of incidence of mortality data. Specific suggestions for further epidemiologic research are offered as well. (author). 8 refs

  2. Infective basis in childhood leukaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinlen, Leo

    1995-01-01

    Leukaemia in children has often been suspected of having an infective basis (as specifically identified in certain animal species) but, until recently, formal studies had gone no further than to show that it does not markedly cluster in time and space. Many infective illnesses, however, are uncommon responses to infections that are mainly spread by the majority of infected individuals who are not ill. These include, for example, glandular fever and certain types of meningitis. Such illnesses are not contagious and do not normally cluster. The possibilities that childhood leukamia might belong to this class of infective illnesses and be subject to increases in incidence as a result of epidemics of an underlying infection were suggested by the well-known excesses near Sellafield and Dounreay. (author)

  3. Acute leukemia in early childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Emerenciano

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Acute leukemia in early childhood is biologically and clinically distinct. The particular characteristics of this malignancy diagnosed during the first months of life have provided remarkable insights into the etiology of the disease. The pro-B, CD10 negative immunophenotype is typically found in infant acute leukemia, and the most common genetic alterations are the rearrangements of the MLL gene. In addition, the TEL/AML1 fusion gene is most frequently found in children older than 24 months. A molecular study on a Brazilian cohort (age range 0-23 months has detected TEL/AML1+ve (N = 9, E2A/PBX1+ve (N = 4, PML/RARA+ve (N = 4, and AML1/ETO+ve (N = 2 cases. Undoubtedly, the great majority of genetic events occurring in these patients arise prenatally. The environmental exposure to damaging agents that give rise to genetic changes prenatally may be accurately determined in infants since the window of exposure is limited and known. Several studies have shown maternal exposures that may give rise to leukemogenic changes. The Brazilian Collaborative Study Group of Infant Acute Leukemia has found that mothers exposed to dipyrone, pesticides and hormones had an increased chance to give birth to babies with infant acute leukemia [OR = 1.48 (95%CI = 1.05-2.07, OR = 2.27 (95%CI = 1.56-3.31 and OR = 9.08 (95%CI = 2.95-27.96], respectively. This review aims to summarize recent clues that have facilitated the elucidation of the biology of early childhood leukemias, with emphasis on infant acute leukemia in the Brazilian population.

  4. Recent advances in childhood vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozen, Seza; Acar-Ozen, Nazire Pinar

    2017-09-01

    The review aims to summarize the recent findings in vasculitis that may have an impact in our understanding or management of these diseases. We are learning more about monogenic diseases that closely mimic the pediatric vasculitides. Deficiency of adenosine deaminase 2 can present with a polyarteritis nodosa (PAN)-like picture and should be included in the differential of all pediatric cases of PAN with a family history or in cases with early stroke, or in cases resistant to conventional therapy. Mutations in tumor necrosis factor α-induced protein 3 results in a disease that can present as Behçet disease called haploinsufficiency of A20. In fact, these patients would also fulfill the existing criteria for PAN and Behçet disease, respectively. Additional advances in Behçet disease pathogenesis come from a large genetic study of Turkish Behçet disease using data obtained from genotyping using the Immunochip. This confirmed the HLA-B-51 locus as the most significant association and identified new risk loci. Large Iranian and Japanese cohorts were used as replication cohorts. Best treatment of pediatric vasculitis remains a challenge as we continue to lack controlled studies. There are new reports in treatment on Henoch-Schönlein purpura/Immunoglobulin A vasculitis which is one of our most frequent childhood vasculitides. Small series of new treatments for central nervous system vasculitis and Takayasu disease will also be summarized. Diagnostic criteria have been reassessed in pediatric Behçet disease as well as adult and childhood forms of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies-positive vasculitis. The new pathways defined in monogenic diseases may help us better understand the pathogenesis and may help us design more targeted therapy. Although pediatric cases are being increasingly recognized, the relative rarity of the diseases presents an obstacle for studies. Thus, we can reach conclusive results for their management through multicenter studies only.

  5. Prevention of unintentional childhood injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theurer, Wesley M; Bhavsar, Amit K

    2013-04-01

    Unintentional injury accounts for 40 percent of childhood deaths annually, most commonly from motor vehicle crashes. The proper use of child restraints is the most effective strategy to prevent injury or death. Motor vehicle restraint guidelines have recently been revised to an age-based system that delays the progression in type of restraint for most children. Strategies to prevent suffocation in children include using appropriate bedding, positioning babies on their backs to sleep, and removing items from the sleep and play environment that could potentially entrap or entangle the child. Fencing that isolates a swimming pool from the yard and surrounding area and "touch" adult supervision (i.e., an adult is in the water and able to reach and grab a child) have been shown to be most effective in preventing drownings. Swimming lessons are recommended for children older than four years. Poison prevention programs have been shown to improve prevention behavior among caregivers, but may not decrease poisoning incidence. Syrup of ipecac is not recommended. Smoke detector maintenance, a home escape plan, and educating children about how to respond during a fire emergency are effective strategies for preventing fire injuries or death. Fall injuries may be reduced by not using walkers for infants and toddlers or bunk beds for children six years and younger. Consistent helmet use while bicycling reduces head and brain injuries. Although direct counseling by physicians appears to improve some parental safety behaviors, its effect on reducing childhood injuries is uncertain. Community-based interventions can be effective in high-risk populations.

  6. Meal frequency and childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toschke, André M; Küchenhoff, Helmut; Koletzko, Berthold; von Kries, Rüdiger

    2005-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated an inverse association between meal frequency and the prevalence of obesity in adulthood. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between meal frequency and childhood obesity. Stature and weight of 4,370 German children ages 5 to 6 years were determined in six Bavarian (Germany) public health offices during the obligatory school entry health examination in 2001/2002. An extensive questionnaire on risk factors for obesity was answered by their parents. Obesity was defined according to sex- and age-specific BMI cut-off points proposed by the International Obesity Task Force. The main exposure was daily meal frequency. The prevalence of obesity decreased by number of daily meals: three or fewer meals, 4.2% [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.8 to 6.1]; four meals, 2.8% (95% CI, 2.1 to 3.7); and 5 or more meals, 1.7% (95% CI, 1.2 to 2.4). These effects could not be explained by confounding due to a wide range of constitutional, sociodemographic, and lifestyle factors. The adjusted odds ratios for obesity were 0.73 (95% CI, 0.44 to 1.21) for four meals and 0.51 (95% CI, 0.29 to 0.89) for five or more meals. Additional analyses pointed to a higher energy intake in nibblers compared with gorgers. A protective effect of an increased daily meal frequency on obesity in children was observed and appeared to be independent of other risk factors for childhood obesity. A modulation of the response of hormones such as insulin might be instrumental.

  7. Childhood Adrenocortical Tumours: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marques-Pereira Rosana

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Childhood adrenocortical tumour (ACT is not a common disease, but in southern Brazil the prevalence is 15 times higher than in other parts of the world. One hundred and thirty-seven patients have been identified and followed by our group over the past four decades. Affected children are predominantly girls, with a female-to-male ratio of 3.5:1 in patients below 4 years of age. Virilization alone (51.6% or mixed with Cushing's syndrome (42.0% was the predominant clinical picture observed in these patients. Tumours are unilateral, affecting both glands equally. TP53 R337H germline mutations underlie most childhood ACTs in southern Brazil. Epidemiological data from our casuistic studies revealed that this mutation has ~10% penetrance for ACT. Surgery is the definitive treatment, and a complete resection should always be attempted. Although adjuvant chemotherapy has shown some encouraging results, its influence on overall outcome is small. The survival rate is directly correlated to tumour size; patients with small, completely excised tumours have survival rates close to 90%, whereas in those patients with inoperable tumours and/or metastatic disease it is less than 10%. In the group of patients with large, excisable tumours, half of them have an intermediate outcome. Recent molecular biology techniques and genomic approaches may help us to better understand the pathogenesis of ACT, the risk of developing a tumour when TP53 R337H is present, and to predict its outcome. An ongoing pilot study consisting of close monitoring of healthy carriers of the TP53 R337H mutation - siblings and first-degree relatives of known affected cases - aims at the early detection of ACTs and an improvement of the cure rate.

  8. Childhood malaria: mothers' perception and treatment- seeking ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    major strategies for reducing the burden of malaria, therefore ... children. The incidence of history of fever, indicative of malaria in children of the respondents within one ... interventions for the control of childhood malaria. ..... Yellow eyes. 20.

  9. Demographics and presenting clinical features of childhood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    annaline

    predominance in adolescence and adulthood. The true incidence of ... Conclusion. There is a diverse array of presenting features in childhood SLE. There has .... difficult by the psychological problems associated with coping with a chronic ...

  10. The paediatrician and middle childhood parenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Peter D; Wong, Jonathan P; van den Heuvel, Meta; Feller, Andrea E; Silver-Cohen, Justine; Talarico, Susanna; Humphreys, Joanna; Ford-Jones, Lee

    2017-03-01

    The 'forgotten years' of middle childhood, from age 6 to 12, represent a critical period in child development. Emotional, social and physical development during this time have a lifelong impact on health and adult contributions to society. Mental health conditions have displaced physical illness as the leading childhood disability. Positive parenting can improve child behaviour, prevent early-onset conduct problems and provide a buffer from adverse childhood events resulting in decreased toxic stress and improved health. Medical homes can play a key role in supporting parents with positive parenting skills that are practical, evidence-based and useful in everyday life. Paediatricians need to explore the domains that promote healthy development, including caring environments, fundamental needs and nurturing relationships. Our objective is to promote high-quality positive parenting through middle childhood by identifying opportunities for paediatricians to frame parenting discussions in the context of development, behaviour and safety and to provide access to valuable parenting resources.

  11. Childhood Origins of Tolerance for Dissent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellman, Gail L.; Sears, David O.

    1971-01-01

    Reports questionnaire data from 1384 children in grades five through nine. Reveals that political socialization of attitudes toward free speech apparently does occur during late childhood and early adolescence. (JM)

  12. Nonpharmacologic Treatments for Childhood Constipation : Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabbers, Merit M.; Boluyt, Nicole; Berger, Marjolein Y.; Benninga, Marc A.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To summarize the evidence and assess the reported quality of studies concerning nonpharmacologic treatments for childhood constipation, including fiber, fluid, physical movement, prebiotics, probiotics, behavioral therapy, multidisciplinary treatment, and forms of alternative medicine.

  13. Nonpharmacologic treatments for childhood constipation: systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabbers, Merit M.; Boluyt, Nicole; Berger, Marjolein Y.; Benninga, Marc A.

    2011-01-01

    To summarize the evidence and assess the reported quality of studies concerning nonpharmacologic treatments for childhood constipation, including fiber, fluid, physical movement, prebiotics, probiotics, behavioral therapy, multidisciplinary treatment, and forms of alternative medicine. We

  14. Childhood abuse in patients with conversion disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, K.; Keijsers, G.P.J.; Hoogduin, C.A.L.; Näring, G.W.B.; Moene, F.C.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Despite the fact that the assumption of a relationship between conversion disorder and childhood traumatization has a long history, there is little empirical evidence to support this premise. The present study examined this relation and investigated whether hypnotic susceptibility

  15. Childhood cancer and nuclear installations: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muirhead, C.R.

    1998-01-01

    Many epidemiological studies of childhood cancer around nuclear installations have been conducted in recent years. This article reviews results from Great Britain and elsewhere. Geographical studies have indicated raised risks of childhood leukaemia around some British nuclear installations. However, environmental assessments suggest that the findings are unlikely to be due to radioactive releases from the sites. Case-control studies have allowed more detailed investigation of putative risk factors than is possible from geographical studies. In particular, a recent national study in Britain does not support the hypothesis raised by an earlier study in West Cumbria that paternal radiation exposure prior to conception may increase the risk of leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in offspring. Other studies suggest that childhood leukaemia may have an infective basis, although there is still uncertainty about whether this would explain the findings around nuclear installations. The UK Childhood Cancer Study may provide more information on the causes of these diseases. (author)

  16. Trampoline Safety in Childhood and Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and De fi ne the Child Health Care System and/or Improve the Health of all Children POLICY STATEMENT Trampoline Safety in Childhood and Adolescence abstract Despite previous recommendations from the American Academy of Pe- diatrics discouraging ...

  17. Differentiating Instruction in Early Childhood Care Education ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    Alvan Ikoku Federal College of Education, Owerri,. E-mail: ... Key words: childhood education, Differentiated instruction, teachers/ caregivers' practice ... differences in their readiness level, interests and learning profiles/styles (p. 940). Today's ...

  18. Childhood and Exile in Chilean Cinema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Miguel Palacios

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This article approaches the trauma of the Chilean dictatorship through the intersection between childhood and exile. It analyzes the role of childhood in Chilean exile cinema, focusing on documentaries produced throughout the 1970s and 80s. We will study the presence of childhood as a symbol in the political imaginary of exile, discuss the ways in which cinema recognizes and authorizes children’s testimony, and cover the dilemmas of desexilio and counter-nostalgia in films devoted to the theme of return. The article argues that Chilean exile cinema turns to childhood as a key experience to understand the cultural phenomenon of uprootment, its psychological and social repercussions, and its role in the formation of an exilic subjectivity.

  19. Adulthood Personality Correlates of Childhood Adversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles S. Carver

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Childhood adversity has been linked to internalizing and externalizing disorders and personality disorders in adulthood. This study extends that research by examining several personality measures as correlates of childhood adversity. Method: In a college sample self-reports were collected of childhood adversity, several scales relating to personality, and current depression symptoms as a control variable. The personality-related scales were reduced to four latent variables, which we termed Anger/Aggression, Extrinsic focus, Agreeableness, and Engagement. Results: Controlling for concurrent depressive symptoms and gender, higher levels of reported childhood adversity related to lower Agreeableness and to higher Anger/Aggression and Extrinsic focus. Conclusions: Findings suggest that early adversity is linked to personality variables relevant to the building of social connection.

  20. Business Case for Early Childhood Investments

    Science.gov (United States)

    America's Promise Alliance (NJ1), 2011

    2011-01-01

    America's Promise's ReadyNation initiative has released this brief, which "makes the case" to business leaders on why investing in early childhood should be important to them. The brief includes "how-to" tips, helpful statistics and more.

  1. Childhood Obesity and the Right to Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ó Cathaoir, Katharina Eva

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is now a global health epidemic, yet the obligations of states to prevent obesity through fulfillment of the right to health have received limited consideration. This article examines the childhood obesity recommendations of the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child (the...... committee on the CRC), the Special Rapporteur on the right to health, and the UN High Commissioner on Human Rights. It suggests how their engagement might be strengthened. It concludes that the final report of the World Health Organization’s Commission on Ending Childhood Obesity could provide the committee...... on the CRC with a more systematic basis for advising and assessing preventive measures taken by states. Moreover, while the interim report envisages a central role for states in childhood obesity prevention, it pays inadequate attention to their obligations under international human rights law. It is hoped...

  2. Decomposition of childhood malnutrition in Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunil, Thankam S; Sagna, Marguerite

    2015-10-01

    Childhood malnutrition is a major problem in developing countries, and in Cambodia, it is estimated that approximately 42% of the children are stunted, which is considered to be very high. In the present study, we examined the effects of proximate and socio-economic determinants on childhood malnutrition in Cambodia. In addition, we examined the effects of the changes in these proximate determinants on childhood malnutrition between 2000 and 2005. Our analytical approach included descriptive, logistic regression and decomposition analyses. Separate analyses are estimated for 2000 and 2005 survey. The primary component of the difference in stunting is attributable to the rates component, indicating that the decrease of stunting is due mainly to the decrease in stunting rates between 2000 and 2005. While majority of the differences in childhood malnutrition between 2000 and 2005 can be attributed to differences in the distribution of malnutrition determinants between 2000 and 2005, differences in their effects also showed some significance. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Food Away from Home and Childhood Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancino, Lisa; Todd, Jessica E; Guthrie, Joanne; Lin, Biing-Hwan

    2014-12-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with a number of serious health risks that can persist into adulthood. While trends in food away from home and fast-food consumption have paralleled trends in childhood obesity, it is important to identify whether this is a causal relationship. This paper reviews recent literature in this area to summarize if there is a consensus in research findings. We group the literature into two areas - consumption of and access to food away from home (FAFH). While no consensus findings have been reached in either area, the evidence of an association between FAFH consumption and childhood obesity has gained strength. Further, there is evidence that FAFH meals add calories to children's diets. The literature on the role of FAFH access and childhood obesity has continued producing mixed results.

  4. Early Childhood Physical Education. The Essential Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabbard, Carl

    1988-01-01

    Details are presented regarding the essential elements of an effective early childhood physical education curriculum. Components include movement awareness, fundamental locomotor skills, fundamental nonlocomotor skills, fundamental manipulative skills, and health-related fitness. (CB)

  5. Vulvovaginitis and other common childhood gynaecological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garden, Anne S

    2011-04-01

    Paediatric gynaecological problems, especially those involving the vulvar area, are common in childhood. The conditions frequently seen include recurrent bacterial vulvovaginitis, vulvar irritation, labial adhesions and dermatological conditions. The presentation and management of these conditions will be reviewed.

  6. Childhood Asthma: A Chance to HEAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Childhood Asthma: A Chance to HEAL Past Issues / Fall 2007 ... a peak flow meter. Photo courtesy of MCAN Asthma, a reality of daily life for more than ...

  7. Childhood Cancer Survivor Study: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To address this issue, the Children’s Oncology Group ( COG ) has prepared a resource for physicians called “ Long- ... of American Medical Association; see the journal article ) Breast cancer risk in childhood cancer survivors without a history ...

  8. Marriage and divorce among childhood cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Susanne Vinkel; Kejs, Anne Mette Tranberg; Engholm, Gerda

    2011-01-01

    was diagnosed between 1965 and 1996 before they were 20 years of age. A sex-matched and age-matched population-based control cohort was used for comparison (n=45,449). Demographic and socioeconomic data were obtained from national registers and explored by discrete-time Cox regression analyses. Childhood cancer......Many childhood cancer survivors have psychosocial late effects. We studied the risks for cohabitation and subsequent separation. Through the Danish Cancer Register, we identified a nationwide, population-based cohort of all 1877 childhood cancer survivors born from 1965 to 1980, and in whom cancer...... a nonsignificantly lower rate (RR 0.47; 95% CI: 0.38-0.58) than females (RR 0.56; 95% CI: 0.47-0.68). The rates of separation were almost identical to those of controls. In conclusion, the rate of cohabitation was lower for all childhood cancer survivors than for the population-based controls, with the most...

  9. Meningitis aséptica concurrente con infección del tracto urinario en recién nacidos Aseptic meningitis concomitant with urinary tract infection in newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Díaz Álvarez

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCCIÓN. Trabajos publicados recientemente han destacado el hallazgo de meningitis aséptica (MA en lactantes pequeños, concomitante con infección del tracto urinario (ITU. El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar la frecuencia de tal presentación. MÉTODOS. Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo que incluyó a 626 recién nacidos con ITU, ingresados en el Hospital Pediátrico Universitario «Juan Manuel Márquez» entre febrero de 1992 y diciembre de 2008, y a quienes se les realizó una punción lumbar. Se comparó la frecuencia de MA e ITU con los informes documentados en la literatura médica. RESULTADOS. La frecuencia de MA concomitante con ITU fue del 7,0 % (IC 95 %: 4,9-9,1 %. Los resultados promedio del examen citoquímico del líquido cefalorraquídeo mostraron que la pleocitosis fue el indicador más notable entre los que comúnmente se miden. La frecuencia encontrada fue similar a la de los informes internacionales. CONCLUSIONES. Es llamativa la incidencia de MA concomitante con ITU en los recién nacidos y en concordancia con lo reportado internacionalmente. La concomitancia de MA e ITU puede ser multifactorial, y es posible que se presenten factores causales en algunos pacientes, o casuales en otros casos.INTRODUCTION. Papers recently published have emphasized the finding of the aseptic meningitis (AM in small infants, concomitant with a urinary tract infection (UTI. The aim of present research was to determine the frequency of this type of presentation. METHODS. A retrospective and descriptive study was conducted including 626 newborns presenting with UTI, admitted in the "Juan Manuel Márquez" University Children Hospital between February, 1992 and December, 2008 who underwent a lumbar puncture. The AM and UTI frequency was compared with informed reports in medical literature. RESULTS. The frequency of AM concomitant with UTI was of 7.0% (95% CI. 4,9-9,1%. The mean results of cytochemical examination

  10. Childhood Obesity: Epidemiological and Clinical aspects

    OpenAIRE

    ELAMIN, Abdelaziz

    2010-01-01

    Primary childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in industrialized countries particularly in North America. Twenty five percent of children and adolescents in the United States are overweight and 14% are obese. However, the prevalence of obesity is alarmingly rising in other less developed parts of the world, like Asia, the Middle East and some parts of Africa. Overweight and obesity in childhood extend to adulthood and the majority of obese children grew as obese adults. Obesity has sig...

  11. Rethinking childhood adversity in chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, James E; Davidson, Sean L; Maclachlan, Laura; Newton, Julia L; Watson, Stuart

    2018-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have consistently shown increased rates of childhood adversity in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). However, such aetiopathogenic studies of CFS are potentially confounded by co-morbidity and misdiagnosis particularly with depression. Purpose: We examined the relationship between rates of childhood adversity using two complimentary approaches (1) a sample of CFS patients who had no lifetime history of depression and (2) a modelling approach. Methods: Childhood trauma questionnaire (CTQ) administered to a sample of 52 participants with chronic fatigue syndrome and 19 controls who did not meet criteria for a psychiatric disorder (confirmed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV). Subsequently, Mediation Analysis (Baye's Rules) was used to establish the risk childhood adversity poses for CFS with and without depression. Results: In a cohort of CFS patients with depression comprehensively excluded, CTQ scores were markedly lower than in all previous studies and, in contrast to these previous studies, not increased compared with healthy controls. Post-hoc analysis showed that CTQ scores correlated with the number of depressive symptoms during the lifetime worst period of low mood. The probability of developing CFS given a history of childhood trauma is 4%, a two-fold increased risk compared to the general population. However, much of this risk is mediated by the concomitant development of major depression. Conclusions: The data suggests that previous studies showing a relationship between childhood adversity and CFS may be attributable to the confounding effects of co-morbid or misdiagnosed depressive disorder. Abbreviations: CFS: Chronic fatigue syndrome; CTQ: Childhood trauma questionnaire; MDD: Major depressive disorder; CA: Childhood adversity; P : Probability.

  12. Imaging findings in craniofacial childhood rhabdomyosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freling, Nicole J.M.; Rijn, Rick R. van; Merks, Johannes H.M.; Saeed, Peerooz; Balm, Alfons J.M.; Bras, Johannes; Pieters, Bradley R.; Adam, Judit A.

    2010-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the commonest paediatric soft-tissue sarcoma constituting 3-5% of all malignancies in childhood. RMS has a predilection for the head and neck area and tumours in this location account for 40% of all childhood RMS cases. In this review we address the clinical and imaging presentations of craniofacial RMS, discuss the most appropriate imaging techniques, present characteristic imaging features and offer an overview of differential diagnostic considerations. Post-treatment changes will be briefly addressed. (orig.)

  13. Can Childhood Factors Predict Workplace Deviance?

    OpenAIRE

    Piquero, Nicole Leeper; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2012-01-01

    Compared to the more common focus on street crime, empirical research on workplace deviance has been hampered by highly select samples, cross-sectional research designs, and limited inclusion of relevant predictor variables that bear on important theoretical debates. A key debate concerns the extent to which childhood conduct-problem trajectories influence crime over the life-course, including adults’ workplace crime, whether childhood low self-control is a more important determinant than tra...

  14. Estabilidade dos carotenoides,antocianinas e vitamina C presentes no suco tropical de acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC. adoçado envasado pelos processos Hot-Fill e asséptico Stability of carotenoids, anthocyanins and vitamin C presents in acerola sweetened tropical juice preserved by hot fill and aseptic processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claisa Andréa Silva de Freitas

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available As frutas tropicais são muito aceitas pelos consumidores, e são importantes fontes de componentes antioxidantes. A acerola, conhecida por conter grandes quantidades de vitamina C, é também rica em antocianinas e carotenóides. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a estabilidade dos carotenóides totais, antocianinas totais e vitamina C do suco tropical de acerola adoçado, elaborado pelos processos Hot Fill (garrafas de vidro e asséptico (embalagens cartonadas, durante 350 dias de armazenamento em condições similares às de comercialização (28ºC ± 2ºC. Ao final do experimento observou-se que não houve perdas de antocianinas totais para o processo Hot Fill, no entanto, para o processo asséptico constatou-se uma redução de 86,89% dos teores iniciais. Os valores de carotenóides totais permaneceram inalterados nas amostras do processo asséptico, enquanto nas do Hot Fill houve uma redução de 12,5%. Constatou-se redução nos teores de vitamina C da ordem de 23,61% para o processo Hot Fill e de 35,95% para o processo asséptico.Tropical fruits are widely accepted by consumers, and important sources of antioxidant compounds. Acerola, known to have high vitamin C levels, is also rich in anthocyanins and carotenoids. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the stability of the total carotenoids, total anthocyanins and ascorbic acid of the acerola sweetened tropical juice produced by the Hot Fill (glass bottles and aseptic (packings carton process during 350 days of storage in similar conditions of trade (28ºC ± 2ºC. It was observed that there were not losses of total anthocyanins for the process Hot Fill, however for the aseptic process a reduction of 86.89% of the initial values was observed. The values of total corotenoids stayed unaffected in the samples of the aseptic process, while in the one of the Hot Fill there was a reduction of 12.5%. A reduction in the values of ascorbic acid of 23.61% was observed for the Hot

  15. Spirituality in childhood cancer care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima NN

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nádia Nara Rolim Lima,1 Vânia Barbosa do Nascimento,1 Sionara Melo Figueiredo de Carvalho,1 Modesto Leite Rolim Neto,2 Marcial Moreno Moreira,2 Aline Quental Brasil,2 Francisco Telésforo Celestino Junior,2 Gislene Farias de Oliveira,2 Alberto Olavo Advíncula Reis3 1Health Sciences Postgraduate Program, ABC Region Medical School, Santo André, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Department of Medicine, Federal University of Ceará, Barbalha, Ceará, Brazil; 3Public Health Postgraduate Program, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: To deal with the suffering caused by childhood cancer, patients and their families use different coping strategies, among which, spirituality appears a way of minimizing possible damage. In this context, the purpose of the present study was to analyze the influence of spirituality in childhood cancer care, involving biopsychosocial aspects of the child, the family, and the health care team facing the disease. To accomplish this purpose, a nonsystematic review of literature of articles on national and international electronic databases (Scientific Electronic Library Online [SciELO], PubMed, and Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature [LILACS] was conducted using the search terms “spirituality,” “child psychology,” “child,” and “cancer,” as well as on other available resources. After the search, 20 articles met the eligibility criteria and were included in the final sample. Our review showed that the relation between spirituality and health has lately become a subject of growing interest among researchers, as a positive influence of spirituality in the people's welfare was noted. Studies that were retrieved using the mentioned search strategy in electronic databases, independently assessed by the authors according to the systematic review, showed that spirituality emerges as a driving force that helps pediatric patients and their families in coping with cancer. Health care workers

  16. Early Childhood Development and E-Learning in Africa: The Early Childhood Development Virtual University Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, Alan

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the development and evaluation of the graduate-level Early Childhood Development Virtual University (ECDVU) programme in Sub-Saharan Africa from 2001 through to 2004. It outlines the history of the ECDVU and the establishing of a Sub-Saharan programme for future leaders in the early childhood field guided by the key principle…

  17. Childhood obesity and parental smoking as risk factors for childhood ADHD in Liverpool children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koshy, Gibby; Delpisheh, Ali; Brabin, Bernard J.

    2011-01-01

    ADHD prevalence has risen in parallel with rising prevalence of pregnancy smoking and childhood obesity. The objective was to determine the epidemiological association of pregnancy smoking and childhood obesity with ADHD. A cross-sectional community study was conducted in 2006 using a parental

  18. The Importance of Childhood Trauma and Childhood Life Events for Chronicity of Depression in Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersma, Jenneke E.; Hovens, Jacqueline G. F. M.; van Oppen, Patricia; Giltay, Erik J.; van Schaik, Digna J. F.; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.

    Background: Childhood trauma is linked to adult depression and might be a risk factor for a more chronic course of depression. However, the link between childhood trauma and chronicity of depression has not been investigated using a large and representative sample in which other depression

  19. Clarifying Parent-Child Reciprocities during Early Childhood: The Early Childhood Coercion Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaramella, Laura V.; Leve, Leslie D.

    2004-01-01

    Consistent with existing theory, the quality of parent-child interactions during early childhood affects children's social relationships and behavioral adjustment during middle childhood and adolescence. Harsh parenting and a propensity toward emotional overarousal interact very early in life to affect risk for later conduct problems. Less…

  20. Scientific spirit in early childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Samacá Bohórquez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Play and fun are key elements in the pedagogical work with five-year school children, since the teacher is required to carry out a hermeneutical and phenomenological exercise coming from the interaction among the different languages used by children to communicate their thoughts, emotions and ideas. In order to reflect about the scientific spirit in early childhood, it is necessary firstly to think about how its logic develops and operates and about the need to recognize in the sociocultural environment the possibilities to stimulate talents or the limitations demarcating their development, secondly, teaching practice must be thought in order to establish dialogue forums with students to know their needs and interests and guide their searches. To meet other is possible for children to the extent that the dialogical principle of knowledge interaction is recognized and the discovery of tensions and meeting points around the educational praxis, as an approach to infant’s rationality and his/her ways of learning, towards the social construction of boy and girl gender identity in our society.

  1. Socioeconomic Inequality in Childhood Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Ghobad; Mostafavi, Farideh; Azadi, Namamali; Esmaeilnasab, Nader; Ghaderi, Ebrahim

    2017-08-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the socioeconomic inequalities in obesity and overweight in children aged 10 to 12 yr old. A cross-sectional study. This study was conducted on 2506 children aged 10 to 12 yr old in the city of Sanandaj, western Iran in 2015. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Considering household situation and assets, socioeconomic status (SES) of the subjects was determined using Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Concentration Index was used to measure inequality and Oaxaca decomposition was used to determine the share of different determinants of inequality. The prevalence of overweight was 24.1% (95% CI: 22.4, 25.7). 11.5% (95% CI: 10.0, 12.0) were obese. The concentration index for overweight and obesity, respectively, was 0.10 (95% CI: 0.05, 0.15), and 0.07 (95% CI:0.00, 0.14) which indicated inequality and a higher prevalence of obesity and overweight in higher SES. The results of Oaxaca decomposition suggested that socioeconomic factors accounted for 75.8% of existing inequalities. Residential area and mother education were the most important causes of inequality. To reduce inequalities in childhood obesity, mother education must be promoted and special attention must be paid to residential areas and children gender.

  2. Integrated management of childhood illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Millones de defunciones en niños menores de 5 años se podrían prevenir en países en desarrollo si se aplicaran las medidas de control y los tratamientos eficaces que se usan normalmente en países desarrollados. Conscientes de la necesidad de hacer frente a las principales causas de enfermedad y muerte en la infancia (infecciones respiratorias agudas, enfermedades diarreicas, desnutrición, malaria y enfermedades prevenibles por medio de la vacunación mediante una iniciativa global, la OMS y el UNICEF han desarrollado una estrategia conocida por Atención Integrada de las Enfermedades Prevalentes de la Infancia (Integrated Management of Childhood Illness, IMCI. Sus oficinas regionales para las Américas, que son la OPS y el UNICEF-TACRO, han aceptado los objetivos y actividades descritos en el presente informe a fin de reorientar su labor y dirigirla hacia el mejoramiento del estado de salud infantil en este hemisferio.

  3. Childhood moyamoya disease: hemodynamic MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzika, A.A. [Department of Radiology, Children`s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Robertson, R.L. [Department of Radiology, Children`s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Barnes, P.D. [Department of Radiology, Children`s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Vajapeyam, S. [Department of Radiology, Children`s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Burrows, P.E. [Department of Radiology, Children`s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Treves, S.T. [Department of Radiology, Children`s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Scott, R.M. l [Department of Radiology, Children`s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    1997-09-01

    Background. Childhood moyamoya disease is a rare progressive cerebrovascular disease. Objective. To evaluate cerebral hemodynamics using dynamic Gd-DTPA-enhanced imaging in children with moyamoya disease. Materials and methods. Eight children (2-11 years of age) with the clinical and angiographic findings typical of moyamoya disease, before and/or after surgical intervention (pial synangiosis), underwent conventional MR imaging (MRI) and hemodynamic MR imaging (HMRI). HMRI used a spoiled gradient-echo with low flip angle (10 deg) and long TE (TR/TE = 24/15 ms) to minimize T 1 effects and emphasize T 2{sup *} weighting. Raw and calculated hemodynamic images were reviewed. Three-dimensional time-of-flight MR angiography (MRA) and perfusion brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) were also performed. Results. Abnormal hemodynamic maps resulting from vascular stenosis or occlusion and basal collaterals were observed in six patient studies. HMRI depicted perfusion dynamics of affected cerebrovascular territories, detected cortical perfusion deficits, and complemented conventional MRI and MRA. HMRI findings were consistent with those of catheter angiography and perfusion SPECT. Conclusion. Our preliminary experience suggests that HMRI may be of value in the preoperative and postoperative evaluation of surgical interventions in moyamoya disease. (orig.). With 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Childhood moyamoya disease: hemodynamic MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzika, A.A.; Robertson, R.L.; Barnes, P.D.; Vajapeyam, S.; Burrows, P.E.; Treves, S.T.; Scott, R.M. I

    1997-01-01

    Background. Childhood moyamoya disease is a rare progressive cerebrovascular disease. Objective. To evaluate cerebral hemodynamics using dynamic Gd-DTPA-enhanced imaging in children with moyamoya disease. Materials and methods. Eight children (2-11 years of age) with the clinical and angiographic findings typical of moyamoya disease, before and/or after surgical intervention (pial synangiosis), underwent conventional MR imaging (MRI) and hemodynamic MR imaging (HMRI). HMRI used a spoiled gradient-echo with low flip angle (10 deg) and long TE (TR/TE = 24/15 ms) to minimize T 1 effects and emphasize T 2 * weighting. Raw and calculated hemodynamic images were reviewed. Three-dimensional time-of-flight MR angiography (MRA) and perfusion brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) were also performed. Results. Abnormal hemodynamic maps resulting from vascular stenosis or occlusion and basal collaterals were observed in six patient studies. HMRI depicted perfusion dynamics of affected cerebrovascular territories, detected cortical perfusion deficits, and complemented conventional MRI and MRA. HMRI findings were consistent with those of catheter angiography and perfusion SPECT. Conclusion. Our preliminary experience suggests that HMRI may be of value in the preoperative and postoperative evaluation of surgical interventions in moyamoya disease. (orig.). With 4 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Childhood Bullying: Implications for Physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Mary M; Cook-Fasano, Hazel T; Sibbaluca, Katherine

    2018-02-01

    Childhood bullying is common and can lead to serious adverse physical and mental health effects for both the victim and the bully. In teenagers, risk factors for becoming a victim of bullying include being lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender; having a disability or medical condition such as asthma, diabetes mellitus, a skin condition, or food allergy; or being an outlier in weight and stature. An estimated 20% of youth have been bullied on school property, and 16% have been bullied electronically in the past year. Bullying can result in emotional distress, depression, anxiety, social isolation, low self-esteem, school avoidance/refusal, and substance abuse for the victim and the bully. Preventive measures include encouraging patients to find enjoyable activities that promote confidence and self-esteem, modeling how to treat others with kindness and respect, and encouraging patients to seek positive friendships. For those who feel concern or guilt about sharing their experiences, it may be useful to explain that revealing the bullying may not only help end the cycle for them but for others as well. Once bullying has been identified, family physicians have an important role in screening for its harmful effects, such as depression and anxiety. A comprehensive, multitiered approach involving families, schools, and community resources can help combat bullying. Family physicians are integral in recognizing children and adolescents who are affected by bullying-as victims, bullies, or bully- victims-so they can benefit from the intervention process.

  6. Failure to thrive in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nützenadel, Walter

    2011-09-01

    Failure to thrive impairs children's weight gain and growth, their defenses against infection, and their psychomotor and intellectual development. This paper is a review of pertinent articles that were published from 1995 to October 2010 and contained the terms "failure to thrive", "underweight", "malnutrition", "malabsorption", "maldigestion" and "refeeding syndrome". The articles were retrieved by a search in the PubMed and Cochrane Library databases. In developed countries, failure to thrive is usually due to an underlying disease. The degree of malnutrition is assessed with anthropometric techniques. For each patient, the underlying disease must be identified and the mechanism of failure to thrive understood, so that proper medical and nutritional treatment can be provided. Nutritional treatment involves either giving more food, or else raising the caloric density of the patient's food. Liquid formulas can be given as a supplement to normal meals or as balanced or unbalanced tube feeds; they can be given orally, through a nasogastric tube, or through a gastrostomy tube. Severely malnourished children with poor oral intake should be treated with parenteral nutrition. To avoid refeeding syndrome in severely malnourished children, food intake should be increased slowly at first, and phosphate, magnesium, and potassium supplements should be given. The proper treatment of failure to thrive in childhood consists of treatment of the underlying illness, combined with nutritional treatment that addresses the mechanism of the accompanying failure to thrive.

  7. Functional neuroimaging and childhood autism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boddaert, Nathalie [Service de Radiologie Pediatrique, Necker-Enfants Malades Hospital, Paris (France); Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, DRM, DSV, CEA, Orsay (France); Zilbovicius, Monica [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, DRM, DSV, CEA, Orsay (France); INSERM, Tours [France

    2002-01-01

    Childhood autism is now widely viewed as being of developmental neurobiological origin. Yet, localised structural and functional brain correlates of autism have to be established. Structural brain-imaging studies performed in autistic patients have reported abnormalities such as increased total brain volume and cerebellar abnormalities. However, none of these abnormalities fully account for the full range of autistic symptoms. Functional brain imaging, such as positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and functional MRI (fMRI) have added a new perspective to the study of normal and pathological brain functions. In autism, functional studies have been performed at rest or during activation. However, first-generation functional imaging devices were not sensitive enough to detect any consistent dysfunction. Recently, with improved technology, two independent groups have reported bilateral hypoperfusion of the temporal lobes in autistic children. In addition, activation studies, using perceptive and cognitive paradigms, have shown an abnormal pattern of cortical activation in autistic patients. These results suggest that different connections between particular cortical regions could exist in autism. The purpose of this review is to present the main results of rest and activation studies performed in autism. (orig.)

  8. Surgical strategies in childhood craniopharyngioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg eFlitsch

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Craniopharyngiomas are biologically benign lesions (WHO Grade 1 of the sellar and suprasellar region, associated with a serious morbidity. About 50% of these tumors become clinically apparent during childhood. Clinical symptoms include headaches, chiasm syndrome, hydrocephalus, pituitary insufficiencies, and obesity. Growth arrest is a typical symptom in children. The treatment of craniopharyngiomas includes surgery as well as radiotherapy. The goal of surgery varies according to the tumor location and extension and may range from complete resection to biopsy. Surgical complications are well known and cause constant evaluation of surgical strategies. Diencephalic obesity is related to surgical manipulation of hypothalamic tissue. Therefore, a classification system for craniopharyngiomas based on preoperative MRI is suggested by the authors, which may help assess the surgical risk. Recurrences are frequent in craniopharyngiomas, even after complete or gross-total resection. Radiotherapy is therefore recommended to patients with incomplete resections. However, the ideal time for radiotherapy after surgery is under discussion.The treatment of craniopharyngiomas requires an interdisciplinary and multimodal approach. Each patient should receive an individually tailored treatment. Surgically, different approaches as well as different degrees of resection can be considered, depending on tumor location and tumor extension.

  9. Serum gonadotropins levels in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hertogh, R. De; Vankrieken, L.; Wolter, R.; Vliet, G. Van

    1989-01-01

    The complex changes in serum LH and FSH levels from infancy to adulthood are diversely evaluated by radioimmunoassays or bioassays. The relative lack of sensitivity and specificity of radioimmunoassay, using polyclonal antibodies, could possibly be overcome by new immunoradiometric assays, using specific antibodies to LH and FSH. Significant differences were indeed observed between radioimmunoassays and immunoradiometric assays. During the prepubertal period, LH levels, measured by the immunoradiometric assays, were below the sensitivity of the method in the majority of the samples. LH levels were, however, well detectable when measured with radioimmunoassay, showing the heterogeneity of circulating LH structures. At the onset of puberty, LH levels increased at least 3 to 4 times in both sexes, when measured with immunoradiometric assays, whereas their increase was only 20 to 60% with the radioimmunoassays. FSH levels remained well detectable in the prepubertal period whether measured by immunoradiometric or radioimmunoassays. At pubertal onset, FSH increase in both sexes was more important in the immunoradiometric assays. The results obtained with immunoradiometric assays give a better insight into the quantitative and qualitative function of the gonadotropes during childhood. The almost complete absence of LH during the prepubertal period and the steep increase at the onset of puberty better reflects the reported data obtained with bioassays. The persistance of significant levels of FSH in the prepubertal ages, and the lesser increase at the onset of puberty, when compared with LH, illustrates that the individual regulation of LH and FSH secretion vary over time and is influenced by developmental factors. (author)

  10. [Localized scleroderma (morphea) in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weibel, L

    2012-02-01

    Localized scleroderma or morphea is a sclerosing connective tissue disease of the skin, which may affect underlying tissues such as subcutis, muscle and bone. Many patients show extracutaneous symptoms and antinuclear antibodies, however, secondary transformation into systemic sclerosis does not occur. Localized scleroderma usually begins in childhood with a wide variation in its clinical spectrum. The linear variant is the most common subtype in children, associated with a progressive course and increased risk of complications. The disease may progress over years and result in severe functional and cosmetic disability. The etiology of localized scleroderma remains unknown. A genetic background is suspected, while triggers such as trauma, vaccinations and infections may lead to secondary immunologic phenomena. Localized scleroderma often remains unrecognized for a long time, resulting in substantial delay in treatment. The combination of systemic corticosteroids and methotrexate has been established as first-line therapy for progressive (usually linear) disease, whereas phototherapy (UVA-1 or UVB-narrow band) is suitable for adolescents with superficial circumscribed subtypes.

  11. Acute childhood leukemia: Nursing care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zietz, Hallie A

    1997-01-01

    Modern therapy for childhood acute leukemia has provided a dramatically improved prognosis over that of just 30 years ago. In the early 1960's survival rates for acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) were 4% and 3%, respectively. By the 1980's survival rates had risen to 72% for all and 25% to 40% for AML. Today, a diagnosis of all carries an 80% survival rate and as high as a 90% survival rate for some low-risk subtypes. Such high cure rates depend on intense and complex, multimodal therapeutic protocols. Therefore, nursing care of the child with acute leukemia must meet the demands of complicated medical therapies and balance those with the needs of a sick child and their concerned family. An understanding of disease process and principles of medical management guide appropriate and effective nursing interventions. Leukemia is a malignant disorder of the blood and blood- forming organs (bone marrow, lymph nodes and spleen). Most believe that acute leukemia results from a malignant transformation of a single early haematopoietic stem cell that is capable of indefinite self-renewal. These immature cells of blasts do not respond to normal physiologic stimuli for differentiation and gradually become the predominant cell in the bone marrow

  12. Childhood vitiligo: Clinical epidemiological profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmae Lahlou

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the clinical and the epidemiologic profiles of childhood vitiligo. Patients and Methods: We prospectively analyzed the clinical data of children with vitiligo presented to the dermatology derpartement at University Hospital – Fès for 5 years from May 2011 to May 2016. This study included 31 patients. All patients were assessed for the natural history, clinical characteristics, family history, and associated abnormalities of vitiligo. Results: Of the 31 children with vitiligo 9 (29,03% were boys and 21 (67.74% were girls. The mean age of onset of the vitiligo was 10 years. The mean duration of the disease was 38,9 weeks. The most common type of vitiligo was vitiligo vulgaris (49.5% followed by focal vitiligo (39%, acrofacial vitiligo (32%, and segmental vitiligo (16% The most frequent site of onset was the extremities followed by the head and the neck, then the trunk and the genitalia. Of the 31 children with vitiligo, 39% had a family history and 4 % had an antecedent of autoimmune diesease like le diabète, une thyroïdite, l’anémie et le psoriasis, retrouvé. Conclusion: Our children have a strong family history of vitiligo and they are developing the disease at a slightly older age compared with those of other studies; however, other epidemiologic features appear to be similar to those reported in the previously published studies.

  13. Brachytherapy in childhood rhabdomyosarcoma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novaes, Paulo Eduardo Ribeiro dos Santos

    1995-01-01

    A retrospective study of 21 children with rhabdomyosarcoma treated by brachytherapy to the primary site of the tumor at the Radiotherapy Department of the A.C.Camargo Hospital between january/1980 to june/1993 was undertaken. The main objectives were to comprove the utility of brachytherapy in childhood rhabdomyosarcoma, to evaluate the local control and survival, in association with chemotherapy, to analyze the late effects of the treatment and to determinate the preferential technique to each clinical situation. All patients received brachytherapy to the tumor site. The radioactive isotopes employed were Gold 198 , Cesium 137 and Iridium 192 . The brachytherapy techniques depended on the tumor site, period of treatment, availability of the radioactive material and stage of the disease. Patients treated exclusively by brachytherapy received 40 Gy to 60 Gy. When brachytherapy was associated with external radiotherapy the dose ranged from 20 Gy to 40 Gy. Local control was achieved in 18 of 20 patients (90%). The global survival and local control survival rates were 61.9% (13/21 patients) and 72,2% (13/18 patients) respectively. (author)

  14. Prenatal programming of childhood overweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jennifer S; Lee, Tiffany A; Lu, Michael C

    2007-09-01

    To review the scientific evidence for prenatal programming of childhood overweight and obesity, and discuss its implications for MCH research, practice, and policy. A systematic review of observational studies examining the relationship between prenatal exposures and childhood overweight and obesity was conducted using MOOSE guidelines. The review included literature posted on PubMed and MDConsult and published between January 1975 and December 2005. Prenatal exposures to maternal diabetes, malnutrition, and cigarette smoking were examined, and primary study outcome was childhood overweight or obesity as measured by body mass index (BMI) for children ages 5 to 21. Four of six included studies of prenatal exposure to maternal diabetes found higher prevalence of childhood overweight or obesity among offspring of diabetic mothers, with the highest quality study reporting an odds ratio of adolescent overweight of 1.4 (95% CI 1.0-1.9). The Dutch famine study found that exposure to maternal malnutrition in early, but not late, gestation was associated with increased odds of childhood obesity (OR 1.9, 95% CI 1.5-2.4). All eight included studies of prenatal exposure to maternal smoking showed significantly increased odds of childhood overweight and obesity, with most odds ratios clustering around 1.5 to 2.0. The biological mechanisms mediating these relationships are unknown but may be partially related to programming of insulin, leptin, and glucocorticoid resistance in utero. Our review supports prenatal programming of childhood overweight and obesity. MCH research, practice, and policy need to consider the prenatal period a window of opportunity for obesity prevention.

  15. Design Application Early Childhood Education Based Mobile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annah

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to make learning media for Early Childhood Education in the form especially its mobile applications for Android-based smartphones. In the process of teaching and learning for Early Childhood Education is still often found constraints experienced teaching force is limited props so that learners are less eager to learn. In addition, parents also have difficulty returning to guide or teach the learning materials at home because it has no alternative instructional media. In compiling this research report author uses the Android-based Mobile Devices Applications created using the Java programming language through the Eclipse editor. Based on the results of the research, concluded that these applications can be applied in the latest version of the Android platform to its current platform version of Jellybean. Application of Learning can be used as an alternative way of learning for Early Childhood Education so as to overcome the lack of props in institutions of Early Childhood Education, can be used to be taught at home, and provide new teaching methods to early childhood so that a form of learning that is obtained is not the monotony of one form of learning how.

  16. Hyperparathyroidism After Irradiation for Childhood Malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McMullen, Todd; Bodie, Greg; Gill, Anthony; Ihre-Lundgren, Catharina; Shun, Albert; Bergin, Mary; Stevens, Graham; Delbridge, Leigh

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the occurrence of hyperparathyroidism in a cohort of patients undergoing combined parathyroid and thyroid surgery after previous head-and-neck irradiation for childhood malignancy. Methods and Materials: This is a retrospective cohort study for the years 1996 to 2007. The study group comprised patients undergoing surgery in University of Sydney Endocrine Surgical Unit who had received previous head-and-neck irradiation in childhood and who were identified as having pathologic thyroid and parathyroid characteristics. Results: A total of 53 patients were identified in whom head-and-neck irradiation for the treatment of childhood malignancy had been documented. In each of the cases, thyroid disease was the primary reason for referral for surgery. Five of these patients (10%) were found to exhibit coexisting hyperparathyroidism. The latency period for hyperparathyroidism was less than 20 years in 4 of the 5 cases. There were four conventional parathyroid adenomas and one parathyroid lipoadenoma. All patients exhibited a significant decrease in postoperative calcium levels after surgery. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first study to document the significant risk of hyperparathyroidism after radiation exposure for childhood malignancy. The timeframe for development of disease is much shorter than that published for individuals who have undergone irradiation for benign diseases. High doses of therapeutic radiation at a young age make childhood survivors of malignancy at especially high risk for developing hyperparathyroidism

  17. Hyperparathyroidism after irradiation for childhood malignancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullen, Todd; Bodie, Greg; Gill, Anthony; Ihre-Lundgren, Catharina; Shun, Albert; Bergin, Mary; Stevens, Graham; Delbridge, Leigh

    2009-03-15

    To examine the occurrence of hyperparathyroidism in a cohort of patients undergoing combined parathyroid and thyroid surgery after previous head-and-neck irradiation for childhood malignancy. This is a retrospective cohort study for the years 1996 to 2007. The study group comprised patients undergoing surgery in the University of Sydney Endocrine Surgical Unit who had received previous head-and-neck irradiation in childhood and who were identified as having pathologic thyroid and parathyroid characteristics. A total of 53 patients were identified in whom head-and-neck irradiation for the treatment of childhood malignancy had been documented. In each of the cases, thyroid disease was the primary reason for referral for surgery. Five of these patients (10%) were found to exhibit coexisting hyperparathyroidism. The latency period for hyperparathyroidism was less than 20 years in 4 of the 5 cases. There were four conventional parathyroid adenomas and one parathyroid lipoadenoma. All patients exhibited a significant decrease in postoperative calcium levels after surgery. To our knowledge, this is the first study to document the significant risk of hyperparathyroidism after radiation exposure for childhood malignancy. The timeframe for development of disease is much shorter than that published for individuals who have undergone irradiation for benign diseases. High doses of therapeutic radiation at a young age make childhood survivors of malignancy at especially high risk for developing hyperparathyroidism.

  18. Childhood Cataract: Magnitude, Management, Economics and Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BR Shamanna

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of blindness among children in different regions varies from 0.2/1000 children to over 1.5/1000 children with a global figure estimated at 0.7/1000. This means that there are an estimated 1.4 million blind children worldwide.1 The proportion of blindness in children due to cataract varies considerably between regions from 10%-30% with a global average estimated at 14%, giving 190,000 children blind from cataract. 2 While the magnitude of childhood cataracts varies from place to place, it is a priority within all blindness control programmes for children. Children who are blind have to overcome a lifetime of emotional, social and economic difficulties which affect the child, the family and society.3 Loss of vision in children influences their education, employment and social life. The numbers blind with cataract do not reflect the years of disability and lost quality of life. Childhood blindness is second only to adult cataract as a cause of blind-person years. Approximately 70 million blind-person years are caused by childhood blindness of which about 10 million blind-person years (14% is due to childhood cataract. Timely recognition and intervention can eliminate blind-years due to childhood cataract, as the condition is treatable.

  19. Maternal postpartum distress and childhood overweight.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa A Ajslev

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We investigated associations between maternal postpartum distress covering anxiety, depression and stress and childhood overweight. METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study, including 21,121 mother-child-dyads from the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC. Maternal distress was measured 6 months postpartum by 9 items covering anxiety, depression and stress. Outcome was childhood overweight at 7-years-of age. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed and information on maternal age, socioeconomic status, pre-pregnancy BMI, gestational weight gain, parity, smoking during pregnancy, paternal BMI, birth weight, gestational age at birth, sex, breastfeeding and finally infant weight at 5 and 12 month were included in the analyses. RESULTS: We found, that postpartum distress was not associated with childhood risk of overweight, OR 1.00, 95%CI [0.98-1.02]. Neither was anxiety, depression, or stress exposure, separately. There were no significant differences between the genders. Adjustment for potential confounders did not alter the results. CONCLUSION: Maternal postpartum distress is apparently not an independent risk factor for childhood overweight at 7-years-of-age. However, we can confirm previous findings of perinatal determinants as high maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, and smoking during pregnancy being risk factors for childhood overweight.

  20. Recent findings concerning childhood food insecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kursmark, Meredith; Weitzman, Michael

    2009-05-01

    Food insecurity is a relatively new measure of household and child malnutrition. This paper reviews recent studies that have examined aspects of its etiology and adverse child health and development. Smoking by adults in children's homes has recently been found to be highly associated with childhood food insecurity. Much recent research has also examined the relationship between food insecurity and childhood obesity, and thus far, whereas suggestive, results are conflicting. Some studies have found that parenting practices and parental depression are factors that link household food insecurity with childhood obesity. Other health outcomes recently shown to be associated with food insecurity include undernutrition, decreased mental proficiency, increased developmental risk, adverse pregnancy outcomes, and poor health status. Most of the studies of food insecurity to date have come from the USA. There is, however, absolutely no reason to believe that this measure, and the negative child health outcomes associated with it, does not apply to other developed nations. Similarly, it is likely that children and families living in developing countries suffer a greater prevalence and severity of food insecurity and its negative consequences. Childhood food insecurity has numerous significant negative effects on childhood health and development, may be associated with obesity, and occurs much more often in impoverished homes with adult smokers.

  1. Infection and childhood leukemia: review of evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel da Rocha Paiva Maia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE : To analyze studies that evaluated the role of infections as well as indirect measures of exposure to infection in the risk of childhood leukemia, particularly acute lymphoblastic leukemia. METHODS : A search in Medline, Lilacs, and SciELO scientific publication databases initially using the descriptors “childhood leukemia” and “infection” and later searching for the words “childhood leukemia” and “maternal infection or disease” or “breastfeeding” or “daycare attendance” or “vaccination” resulted in 62 publications that met the following inclusion criteria: subject aged ≤ 15 years; specific analysis of cases diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia or total leukemia; exposure assessment of mothers’ or infants’ to infections (or proxy of infection, and risk of leukemia. RESULTS : Overall, 23 studies that assessed infections in children support the hypothesis that occurrence of infection during early childhood reduces the risk of leukemia, but there are disagreements within and between studies. The evaluation of exposure to infection by indirect measures showed evidence of reduced risk of leukemia associated mainly with daycare attendance. More than 50.0% of the 16 studies that assessed maternal exposure to infection observed increased risk of leukemia associated with episodes of influenza, pneumonia, chickenpox, herpes zoster, lower genital tract infection, skin disease, sexually transmitted diseases, Epstein-Barr virus, and Helicobacter pylori . CONCLUSIONS : Although no specific infectious agent has been identified, scientific evidence suggests that exposure to infections has some effect on childhood leukemia etiology.

  2. Can Childhood Factors Predict Workplace Deviance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piquero, Nicole Leeper; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2014-07-01

    Compared to the more common focus on street crime, empirical research on workplace deviance has been hampered by highly select samples, cross-sectional research designs, and limited inclusion of relevant predictor variables that bear on important theoretical debates. A key debate concerns the extent to which childhood conduct-problem trajectories influence crime over the life-course, including adults' workplace crime, whether childhood low self-control is a more important determinant than trajectories, and/or whether each or both of these childhood factors relate to later criminal activity. This paper provides evidence on this debate by examining two types of workplace deviance: production and property deviance separately for males and females. We use data from the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, a birth cohort followed into adulthood, to examine how childhood factors (conduct-problem trajectories and low self-control) and then adult job characteristics predict workplace deviance at age 32. Analyses revealed that none of the childhood factors matter for predicting female deviance in the workplace but that conduct-problem trajectories did account for male workplace deviance.

  3. The role of family functioning in childhood dental caries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijster, D.; Verrips, G.H.W.; Loveren, C. van

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the relationship between family functioning and childhood dental caries. Further objectives were (i) to explore whether oral hygiene behaviours could account for a possible association between family functioning dimensions and childhood dental caries and (ii) to

  4. Childhood Nasopharyngeal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood nasopharyngeal cancer treatment options include chemotherapy, external and internal radiation therapy, surgery, and immunotherapy (interferon). Learn more about the risk factors, symptoms, tests to diagnose, and treatment of childhood nasopharyngeal cancer in this expert-reviewed summary.

  5. Childhood Liver Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood liver cancer treatment options include surgery, watchful waiting, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, ablation therapy, and antiviral therapy. Learn more about newly diagnosed and recurrent childhood liver cancer in this expert-reviewed summary.

  6. Childhood Thyroid Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood thyroid cancer treatment usually includes surgery and may include radioactive iodine therapy, targeted therapy, and hormone replacement therapy. Learn more about the diagnosis and treatment of childhood thyroid cancer in this expert-reviewed summary.

  7. Childhood Ependymoma Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood ependymoma is often treated with surgery, radiation therapy, and/or chemotherapy. Get information about the types of ependymoma, symptoms, diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of newly diagnosed and recurrent childhood ependymomas in this expert-reviewed summary.

  8. The Challenge of Childhood Cancer in Developing Countries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2016-05-12

    May 12, 2016 ... Abraham Haileamlak, MD, Professor of Pediatrics and Child Health ... children under the age of 15 years due to cancer. Childhood cancer is the second leading .... collaboration on childhood leukaemia. Int J. Hematol 2003 ...

  9. The role of family functioning in childhood dental caries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijster, D.; Verrips, G.H.W.; van Loveren, C.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study investigated the relationship between family functioning and childhood dental caries. Further objectives were (i) to explore whether oral hygiene behaviours could account for a possible association between family functioning dimensions and childhood dental caries and (ii) to

  10. Childhood Cancer Genomics Gaps and Opportunities - Workshop Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI convened a workshop of representative research teams that have been leaders in defining the genomic landscape of childhood cancers to discuss the influence of genomic discoveries on the future of childhood cancer research.

  11. Childhood attachment, childhood sexual abuse, and onset of masturbation among adult sexual offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallbone, Stephen W; McCabe, Billee-Anne

    2003-01-01

    Written autobiographies of 48 incarcerated adult male sexual offenders (22 rapists, 13 intrafamilial child molesters, and 13 extrafamilial child molesters) were used to generate retrospective self-report measures of their childhood maternal and paternal attachment, childhood sexual abuse experiences, and onset of masturbation. Contrary to expectation, the offenders as a combined group more often reported secure than they did insecure childhood maternal and paternal attachment. There were no differences between the three offender subgroups with respect to maternal attachment; however the rapists and the intrafamilial child molesters were more likely to report insecure paternal attachment than were the extrafamilial child molesters. There were no differences between these offender subgroups in the frequency with which childhood sexual abuse was reported. However, offenders with insecure paternal attachment were more likely to report having been sexually abused than were those with secure paternal attachment. Sexually abused offenders in turn reported earlier onset of masturbation than did those who were not sexually abused. These results are consistent with contemporary attachment models linking insecure childhood attachment to childhood sexual abuse, and with traditional conditioning models linking childhood sexual abuse, early masturbation, and sexual offending.

  12. Metodología para la validación del llenado aséptico en un proceso de liofilización Methodology for the validation of the aseptic filling in a lyophilization process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy Marlene Fernández López

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Se presentó la metodología propuesta para la validación de un llenado aséptico en un proceso de liofilización. Para esto se realizaron 3 pruebas en las cuales se envasaron 3 lotes de 15 000 viales cada uno, con caldo casoy que se incubaron a 22,5 ± 2,5 ºC y 32,5 ± 2,5 ºC por 14 días respectivamente, con el fin de detectar la posibilidad de contaminación microbiana en la realización del proceso. Durante las 3 pruebas se realizó el monitoreo microbiológico de ambientes, superficies y operarios; en el muestreo se utilizó Petrifilm para detección de mesófilos aerobios y levaduras, procedimiento ejecutado en condiciones de reposo y operación. Así mismo, se efectuó el conteo de partículas en el área y pruebas de esterilidad para los materiales de envase (tapones y viales; finalmente, se diseñó la metodología de validación para la esterilización del liofilizador y se empleó como microorganismo indicador a Bacillus stearothermophilus. El diseño de la prueba se realizó teniendo en cuenta las recomendaciones de la Food Drug Administration (FDA y la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS para productos de administración parenteral. Estas son las organizaciones de referencia para la producción y control de calidad que utiliza la empresa de productos veterinarios en las que se hizo la prueba. Los viales envasados se leyeron por turbidez (presencia de contaminación y los criterios de aceptación se establecieron por las 2 entidades nombradas anteriormente. Finalmente, se indicó un plan de monitoreo microbiológico para el área evaluada en el cual se incluyeron puntos de muestreo estratégicos; así como la realización de procedimientos operativos estándar específicos para esta área.The methodology proposed for the validation of an aseptic filling in a lyophilization process was presented. To this end, 3 tests were made in which 3 batches of 15 000 vials each one were filled with casoy broth. They were incubated at 22.5

  13. Rural childhoods in Egypt's desert lands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine

    Based on fieldwork in Egypt’s desert lands, this paper discusses rural childhoods in an area experiencing rapid social and cultural change. Since 1987, the Egyptian Government has made new villages in the desert as a means to increase agricultural production and solving problems of unemployment....... Many settlers move to the Mubarak villages in order to give their children a good start in life. The desert villages are associated with a type of ‘rural idyll’. The process of settling in the desert impacts upon the children’s possible pathways to adulthood and their identities and social......’s new roles impact upon the children’s lives. The social contexts shaping the desert childhoods are in some ways more similar to contexts in ‘developed’ countries than in other parts of rural Egypt. The paper ends up by contrasting ideas of rural childhoods in Egypt with those found in ‘developed...

  14. Predisposing factors in childhood masturbation in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, F

    2000-05-01

    The aim of this prospective, referral-based study was to assess demographical and developmental features associated with childhood masturbation in Turkey. A total of 61 children with childhood masturbation who were referred for the first time to the Department of Child Psychiatry were examined from demographical, psychosocial and medical aspects and compared with two control groups consisting of 61 age and gender matched children who were brought to the paediatric outpatient clinics and 43 children and adolescents who were the biological siblings of the study group. In children with masturbation, sleep difficulties were more frequent (P masturbation was often associated with a genito-urinary disorder or a stressful life event like weaning, the birth of a sibling, or separation from the parents. This is the first controlled study investigating the clinical and the developmental features of childhood masturbation. These findings may help identify children who could be at risk for this condition.

  15. Pregnancy and Cardiomyopathy After Anthracyclines in Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara Annette Thompson

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available With advances in cancer therapy, there has been a remarkable increase in survival in children diagnosed with malignancies. Many of these children are treated with anthracyclines which are well known to cause cardiotoxicity. As more childhood cancer survivors reach childbearing age, many will choose to become pregnant. At this time, the factors associated with development of cardiomyopathy after anthracycline treatment are not clearly identified. It is possible that cardiac stress could predispose to cardiac deterioration in a patient with reduced functional reserve from prior anthracycline exposure. Pregnancy is one form of cardiovascular stress. The cardiac outcomes of pregnancy in childhood cancer survivors must be considered. In view of limited data, guidelines for pregnancy planning, management, and monitoring after cardiotoxic cancer therapy have not been established. This review summarizes the limited data available on the topic of pregnancy after anthracyclines in childhood.

  16. Parental rheumatoid arthritis and childhood epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rom, Ane Lilleøre; Wu, Chunsen; Olsen, Jørn

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of parental rheumatoid arthritis (RA) on risk of epilepsy. METHODS: We performed a nationwide cohort study including all singletons born in Denmark from 1977 to 2008 (n = 1,917,723) through individual linkage to nationwide Danish registries. The children were...... followed for an average of 16 years. Main outcome measures were adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for epilepsy with onset in early childhood (29 days-4 years), late childhood (5-15 years), adolescence/adulthood (≥15 years), and at any age until the end of follow-up (December 31, 2010). RESULTS: Compared...... to unexposed children, children exposed to maternal RA had an increased risk of early and late childhood epilepsy (adjusted HRs 1.34 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13-1.60] and 1.26 [95% CI 1.13-1.41]), while children exposed to maternal RA had no increased risk of epilepsy in adolescence/adulthood (HR 1...

  17. Space-time interactions in childhood cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, V.

    1990-01-01

    During the last twenty five years, there have been sporadic published reports of cases of childhood leukaemia occurring in clusters. Renewed interest in the topic, following suggests that clusters may occur in the vicinity of nuclear establishments, has prompted this report of an investigation into 418 childhood cancer cases which occurred in the Midlands between 1953 and 1960. There was evidence among some age groups and diagnoses of an unexpectedly high number of close pairs of onsets, and some indication of similar patterns among births of children who later developed cancer. Measles appeared to occur more often in the 2-3 years before the onset of leukaemia in children who were later involved in close pairs than in their matched controls. It is concluded that common infectious diseases of childhood may play a minor role in the development of some cancers. Epidemics of these diseases may then be reflected on a greatly reduced scale in the subsequent distribution of cancer cases. (author)

  18. Follow-up in Childhood Functional Constipation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modin, Line; Walsted, Anne-Mette; Rittig, Charlotte Siggaard

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Guidelines recommend close follow-up during treatment of childhood functional constipation. Only sparse evidence exists on how follow-up is best implemented. Our aim was to evaluate if follow-up by phone or self-management through web-based information improved treatment outcomes....... METHODS: In this randomized, controlled trial, conducted in secondary care, 235 children, aged 2-16 years, who fulfilled the Rome III criteria of childhood constipation, were assigned to one of three follow-up regimens: (I) control group (no scheduled contact), (II) phone group (2 scheduled phone contacts......: Improved self-management behavior caused by access to self-motivated web-based information induced faster short-term recovery during treatment of functional constipation. Patient empowerment rather than health care promoted follow-up might be a step towards more effective treatment for childhood...

  19. IER3 Expression in Childhood Myelodysplastic Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Vries, Andrica; Zwaan, Christian M.; Danen van Ooschot, Astrid

    Background: Childhood myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a rare disease accounting for less than 5% of all hematological malignancies. In about 50% of the MDS cases an abnormal karyotype is found by conventional karyotyping, of which chromosome 6 is involved in 10%. The immediate-early-response 3...... (IER3) gene, which is located on chromosome 6p21, encodes for a glycoprotein that plays a role in the regulation of apoptosis and cell cycle progression. Recently, it was shown that IER3 gene aberrations frequently occur in adult MDS patients, which are not restricted to patients with chromosome 6...... aberrations and that low IER3 expression was associated with a worse outcome. Therefore, we investigated the frequency and prognostic impact of IER3 expression in childhood MDS. Methods: IER3 mRNA expression was determined by quantitative real-time PCR in 58 childhood MDS patients of which 17 carried...

  20. Affective disorders in childhood and adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Burgić-Radmanović

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Affective disorders in childhood have been more intensively studied in the last three decades. They can be recognized among the children of all ages, but are more frequent among the older children. The main characteristics of mood disorders are similar among children, adolescents and adults, although development factors affect their clinical features. Development factors affect the manifestation of all symptoms. Two main criteria for these disorders in childhood are mood disorders, such as reduced or elevated mood and irritability. These symptoms may result in social or academic damage. Depression among children is a wide-spread, family and recurrent condition, which continues episodically in adulthood. Depression is frequently associated with other psychiatric disorders, increasing the risk of suicidal behaviour, misuse of psychoactive substances and behavioural disorders. Depression in childhood brings about worse psychosocial, academic and family functioning. Family, social and environmental factors have a significant role in affective disorders of children and young people.

  1. Socioeconomic Factors and Childhood Overweight in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bammann, K.; Gwozdz, Wencke; Lanfer, A.

    2013-01-01

    What is already known about this subject. Overweight and obesity can be linked to different parental socioeconomic factors already in very young children. In Western developed countries, the association of childhood overweight and obesity and parental socioeconomic status shows a negative gradient......-sectional association between socioeconomic factors, like socioeconomic status (SES), and the prevalence of childhood overweight. Differences and similarities regarding this relationship in eight European regions (located in Belgium, Cyprus, Estonia, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Spain and Sweden) are explored. 11 994....... Ambiguous results have been obtained regarding the association between socioeconomic factors and childhood overweight and obesity in different countries and over time. What this study adds. European regions show heterogeneous associations between socioeconomic factors and overweight and obesity in a multi...

  2. Late effects of childhood leukemia therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulbright, Joy M; Raman, Sripriya; McClellan, Wendy S; August, Keith J

    2011-09-01

    As survival rates for children treated for childhood cancers become significantly better, the focus is increasingly on determining the late effects of treatments and the best ways to monitor for them and prevent their occurrence. This review focuses on recent literature discussing the late effects of treatment in patients treated for acute myeloid leukemia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia during childhood. The late effects of therapy for childhood leukemia include secondary malignancy, cardiotoxicity, obesity, endocrine abnormalities, reproductive changes, neurocognitive deficits, and psychosocial effects. As clinicians have become more aware of the late effects of therapy, treatment regimens have been changed to decrease late effects, but patients still require long-term follow-up for their prevention and treatment.

  3. Fertility in female childhood cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Bruin, Marie L; Van Dulmen-den Broeder, Eline; Van den Berg, Marleen H

    2009-01-01

    chemotherapy and radiotherapy may have an adverse effect on ovarian function, ovarian reserve and uterine function, clinically leading to sub-fertility, infertility, premature menopause and/or adverse pregnancy outcomes. Here we will first address normal female fertility and methods to detect decreased...... fertility. Hence we will focus on direct effects as well as late fertility-related adverse effects caused by chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and we will conclude with a summary of current options for fertility preservation in female childhood cancer survivors.......Advances in childhood cancer treatment over the past decades have significantly improved survival, resulting in a rapidly enlarging group of childhood cancer survivors. There is much concern, however, about the effects of treatment on reproductive potential. In women there is evidence that both...

  4. Childhood obesity policies - mighty concerns, meek reactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Signild

    2018-01-01

    Background: The increasing number of children defined as overweight or obeseis causing concern among politicians and health advocates; several countries havelaunched policies addressing the issue.Method: The paper presents an analysis of how the childhood obesity is defined,explained and suggested...... policies to address the problem from the WHO, the EU,Canada, England and New Zealand.Results: Considering the dramatic language used when describing childhood obe-sity, the proposed interventions are modest. Either the politicians do not considerthe problem that great after all, or other concerns...... by evidence, and the evidence cited is sometimesmisinterpreted or disregarded.Conclusion: There is a discrepancy between how the problem of childhood obe-sity is presented as alarming and the modest measures suggested....

  5. Childhood experiences and repeated suicidal behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Gertrud; Nielsen, Bent; Rask, P

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the influence of various events in childhood on suicidal behavior in adult age. For this purpose, 99 patients admitted to the Department of Psychiatry of Odense University Hospital after making a suicide attempt were followed for 5 years, to register repeated...... that the psychological climate of the home may be more important than the rupture of early home life. It is noteworthy that the group of repeaters, as against the first-evers, could be characterized by personality disorders and abuse, especially of alcohol: disorders known to be precipitated by a discordant childhood....... It is commonly agreed that the experience in childhood of suicidal behavior among family members or other persons in the close environment is of importance in future suicidal risk. The results of this study indicate that the predictive value of this factor mainly applies to attempts with no fatal outcome...

  6. ENTEROVIRUS INFECTION: VARIETY OF ETIOLOGICAL FACTORS AND CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Kanaeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Enteroviruses are widely distributed human infectious pathogens. In spite of infection a disease does not manifest in majority number of cases. However, in some infected persons the different kind of symptoms can be observed; from common cold signs up to  aseptic (serous meningitis and myocarditis. Severe enteroviral cases with lethal outcomes are rarely reported. Ability of enteroviruses to cause large outbreaks and even epidemic distribution is very significant for health care systems. Taking in account a high genetic diversity of enteroviruses it is possible appearance of new highly pathogenic strains in the future. In some countries including the Russian Federation the permanent surveillance for enteroviral infections is provided besides of WHO polio elimination program. The laboratory diagnostics of enterovirus infections is complicated by numerous of pathogen serotypes. Thus, classical virological methods should be supported by molecular-biological tools to sequence pathogen genome and to define phylogenetic relations between different enterovirus strains.

  7. Causes of childhood leukaemia and lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lightfoot, Tracy J.; Roman, Eve

    2004-01-01

    Childhood cancer is rare comprising less than 1% of all malignancies diagnosed each year in developed countries. Leukaemia is the commonest form of cancer in children accounting for around a third of all childhood cancer, with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) being the most prevalent. Biologically specific subtypes of ALL and acute myeloblastic leukaemia (AML), the other major morphological type of childhood leukaemia, are characterised by chromosomal changes. Whilst over 200 genes have been associated with chromosomal translocations, to date, only MLL, TEL, and AML1 have been linked with childhood leukaemia. Interestingly, there is increasing evidence to support the theory that gene rearrangements such as these may originate in utero. As with many other human diseases, both genetic and environmental factors have been implicated in the aetiology of the disease. Although much has been documented with regard to diet, smoking, alcohol consumption and recreational and prescription drug use during pregnancy, there is no consistent evidence to support a link with any of these factors and childhood leukaemia. However, findings from studies investigating prenatal and early life exposures are often based on small numbers of cases as both the type of cancer and exposure are rare. Furthermore, accurate information relating to past exposures can be difficult to obtain and is often reliant on self-reporting. To further our understanding of the aetiology of childhood leukaemia and lymphoma, there are areas which clearly warrant investigation. These include collection of parental dietary folate data combined with genetic analysis of the folate related genes, in utero exposure to DNA topoisomerase II inhibitors, and the possible effects of assisted reproduction technology on disease susceptibility

  8. Childhood Sports Participation and Adolescent Sport Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallant, François; O'Loughlin, Jennifer L; Brunet, Jennifer; Sabiston, Catherine M; Bélanger, Mathieu

    2017-12-01

    We aimed to increase understanding of the link between sport specialization during childhood and adolescent physical activity (PA). The objectives were as follows: (1) describe the natural course of sport participation over 5 years among children who are early sport samplers or early sport specializers and (2) determine if a sport participation profile in childhood predicts the sport profile in adolescence. Participants ( n = 756, ages 10-11 years at study inception) reported their participation in organized and unorganized PA during in-class questionnaires administered every 4 months over 5 years. They were categorized as early sport samplers, early sport specializers, or nonparticipants in year 1 and as recreational sport participants, performance sport participants, or nonparticipants in years 2 to 5. The likelihood that a childhood sport profile would predict the adolescent profile was computed as relative risks. Polynomial logistic regression was used to identify predictors of an adolescent sport profile. Compared with early sport specialization and nonparticipation, early sport sampling in childhood was associated with a higher likelihood of recreational participation (relative risk, 95% confidence interval: 1.55, 1.18-2.03) and a lower likelihood of nonparticipation (0.69, 0.51-0.93) in adolescence. Early sport specialization was associated with a higher likelihood of performance participation (1.65, 1.19-2.28) but not of nonparticipation (1.01, 0.70-1.47) in adolescence. Nonparticipation in childhood was associated with nearly doubling the likelihood of nonparticipation in adolescence (1.88, 1.36-2.62). Sport sampling should be promoted in childhood because it may be linked to higher PA levels during adolescence. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. Synthetic bedding and wheeze in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Dwyer, Terence; Kemp, Andrew; Cochrane, Jennifer; Couper, David; Carmichael, Allan

    2003-01-01

    The reasons for the increase in childhood asthma over time are unclear. The indoor environment is of particular concern. An adverse role for synthetic bedding on asthma development in childhood has been suggested by cross-sectional studies that have found an association between synthetic pillow use and childhood wheeze. Prospective data on infant bedding have not been available. Bedding data at 1 month of age were available from an infant survey for children who were participating in a 1995 follow-up study (N = 863; 78% traced). The 1995 follow-up was embedded in a larger cross-sectional survey involving 6,378 seven year olds in Tasmania (N = 92% of eligible). Outcome measures included respiratory symptoms as defined in the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood protocol. Frequent wheeze was defined as more than 12 wheeze episodes over the past year compared with no wheeze. Synthetic pillow use at 1 month of age was associated with frequent wheeze at age 7 (adjusted relative risk [aRR] = 2.5; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2-5.5) independent of childhood exposure. Current synthetic pillow and quilt use was strongly associated with frequent wheeze (aRR = 5.2; CI = 1.3-20.6). Substantial trends were evident for an association of increasing number of synthetic bedding items with frequent wheeze and with increasing wheeze frequency. Among children with asthma, the age of onset of asthma occurred earlier if synthetic bedding was used in infancy. In this cohort, synthetic bedding was strongly and consistently associated with frequent childhood wheeze. The association did not appear to be attributable to bedding choice as part of an asthma management strategy.

  10. Childhood adversity and midlife suicidal ideation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfeld, S A; Clark, C; Smuk, M; Power, C; Davidson, T; Rodgers, B

    2017-01-01

    Childhood adversity predicts adolescent suicidal ideation but there are few studies examining whether the risk of childhood adversity extends to suicidal ideation in midlife. We hypothesized that childhood adversity predicts midlife suicidal ideation and this is partially mediated by adolescent internalizing disorders, externalizing disorders and adult exposure to life events and interpersonal difficulties. At 45 years, 9377 women and men from the UK 1958 British Birth Cohort Study participated in a clinical survey. Childhood adversity was prospectively assessed at the ages of 7, 11 and 16 years. Suicidal ideation at midlife was assessed by the depressive ideas subscale of the Revised Clinical Interview Schedule. Internalizing and externalizing disorders were measured by the Rutter scales at 16 years. Life events, periods of unemployment, partnership separations and alcohol dependence were measured through adulthood. Illness in the household, paternal absence, institutional care, parental divorce and retrospective reports of parental physical and sexual abuse predicted suicidal ideation at 45 years. Three or more childhood adversities were associated with suicidal ideation at 45 years [odds ratio (OR) 4.31, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.67-6.94]. Psychological distress at 16 years partially mediated the associations of physical abuse (OR 3.41, 95% CI 2.29-5.75), sexual abuse (OR 4.99, 95% CI 2.90-11.16) with suicidal ideation. Adult life events partially mediated the association of parental divorce (OR 6.34, 95% CI -7.16 to 36.75) and physical (OR 9.59, 95% CI 4.97-27.88) and sexual abuse (OR 6.59, 95% CI 2.40-38.36) with suicidal ideation at 45 years. Adversity in childhood predicts suicidal ideation in midlife, partially mediated by adolescent internalizing and externalizing disorders, adult life events and interpersonal difficulties. Understanding the pathways from adversity to suicidal ideation can inform suicide prevention and the targeting of preventive

  11. Childhood Disintegrative Disorder as a Complication of Chicken Pox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Jitendra Kumar; Mohapatra, Satyakam

    2016-01-01

    Childhood disintegrative disorder (CDD) is characterized by late onset (>3 years of age) of developmental delays in language, social function and motor skills. Commonly there is no antecedent physical disorder leading to childhood disintegrative disorder. The present case report describes a child who developed childhood disintegrative disorder at the age of 6 years after an episode of chicken pox.

  12. Learning History in Early Childhood: Teaching Methods and Children's Understanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjaeveland, Yngve

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the teaching of history in early childhood education and care centres and children's understanding of history. Based on interviews with eight Norwegian early childhood education and care teachers and on interpretative phenomenological analysis, the article shows how the early childhood education and care centres teach…

  13. Know Violence in Childhood – India: Advocacy, communication and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Know Violence in Childhood – India: Advocacy, communication and media engagement ... the scale and nature of violence in childhood; support state governments with actionable inputs that can be integrated in strategies to prevent violence in childhood; and advocate findings from the programmatic work more widely.

  14. Childhood obesity treatment and prevention. Psychological perspectives of clinical approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Catena Quattropani; Teresa Buccheri

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This work focuses on clinical psychologist’ presence within childhood obesity prevention programmes in several countries. Method: The Authors collected articles considering psychological, biological and social aspects linked to childhood obesity. Results: Studies reveal that childhood obesity prevention programmes are based on biological, medical and educational aspects; clinical psychologists up until now have been engaged almost exclusively in the treatment of obesity. Conclusion...

  15. Emotional Aspects of Childhood Career Development: Importance and Future Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Íris M.; Taveira, Maria do Céu; Porfeli, Erik J.

    2015-01-01

    Childhood is a central period for career and social-emotional development. However, the literature covering childhood career development and the role of emotions in careers is scarce. In this article, we advocate for the consideration of emotions in childhood career development. Emotional aspects of children's career exploration, key-figures and…

  16. Autistic Symptoms in Childhood Arrestees: Longitudinal Association with Delinquent Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geluk, Charlotte A. M. L.; Jansen, Lucres M. C.; Vermeiren, Robert; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.; van Domburgh, Lieke; de Bildt, Annelies; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Hartman, Catharina A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To compare childhood arrestees with matched comparison groups on levels of autistic symptoms and to assess the unique predictive value of autistic symptoms for future delinquent behavior in childhood arrestees. Methods: Childhood first-time arrestees (n = 308, baseline age 10.7 plus or minus 1.5 years) were followed up for 2 years.…

  17. Autistic symptoms in childhood arrestees : longitudinal association with delinquent behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geluk, Charlotte A. M. L.; Jansen, Lucres M. C.; Vermeiren, Robert; Doreleijers, Theo A. H.; van Domburgh, Lieke; de Bildt, Annelies; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Hartman, Catharina A.

    Background: To compare childhood arrestees with matched comparison groups on levels of autistic symptoms and to assess the unique predictive value of autistic symptoms for future delinquent behavior in childhood arrestees. Methods: Childhood first-time arrestees (n = 308, baseline age 10.7 +/- 1.5

  18. Autistic symptoms in childhood arrestees: longitudinal association with delinquent behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geluk, C.A.M.L.; Jansen, L.M.C.; Vermeiren, R.R.J.M.; Doreleijers, T.A.; van Domburgh, L.; de Bildt, A.; Twisk, J.W.; Hartman, C.A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: To compare childhood arrestees with matched comparison groups on levels of autistic symptoms and to assess the unique predictive value of autistic symptoms for future delinquent behavior in childhood arrestees. Methods: Childhood first-time arrestees (n = 308, baseline age 10.7 ± 1.5

  19. Healing from Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Theoretical Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draucker, Claire Burke; Martsolf, Donna S.; Roller, Cynthia; Knapik, Gregory; Ross, Ratchneewan; Stidham, Andrea Warner

    2011-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse is a prevalent social and health care problem. The processes by which individuals heal from childhood sexual abuse are not clearly understood. The purpose of this study was to develop a theoretical model to describe how adults heal from childhood sexual abuse. Community recruitment for an ongoing broader project on sexual…

  20. The Special Goods of Childhood: Lessons from Social Constructionism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesinger, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    To what extent does the common claim that childhood is "socially constructed" affect the ethical debate on the "intrinsic" and "special" goods of childhood? Philosophers have referred to this kind of goods in their critique of overly adult-centred and future-oriented conceptions of childhood. The view that some goods…

  1. 75 FR 56455 - National Childhood Cancer Awareness Month, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ... Part V The President Proclamation 8556--National Childhood Cancer Awareness Month, 2010... Childhood Cancer Awareness Month, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Each... children. During National Childhood Cancer Awareness Month, we honor the young lives taken too soon and the...

  2. 75 FR 7197 - Establishing a Task Force on Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-18

    ... of February 9, 2010 Establishing a Task Force on Childhood Obesity Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies Across our country, childhood obesity has reached epidemic rates and, as... is committed to redoubling our efforts to solve the problem of childhood obesity within a generation...

  3. Differences in the association between childhood trauma and BMI in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    between childhood trauma and BMI in black and white South African women ... finding, including measures of body image and body size satisfaction that may explain these findings. Keywords: Childhood trauma questionnaire; Body fat; Body image; Sexual abuse; Ethnicity, ... Self-reported exposure to childhood trauma was.

  4. Improving early childhood development and well-being in refugee ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Improving early childhood development and well-being in refugee and other marginalized countries. Early childhood development research has traditionally focused on single-intervention initiatives and non-refugee populations. This project will generate evidence to support effective, integrated and scalable early childhood ...

  5. Uniminuto and his social commitment to childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Esperanza Bustos Sierra

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This article briefly describes some of the conceptualizations of childhood education that have been evolving along time and that have contributed to an understanding of children as rights holders, leading to the emergence of different social, political, and academic movements, which make their determination evident in the creation of national and international organizations to guarantee the children’s well-being. UNIMINUTO responds to its social commitment with the creation of the undergraduate program in childhood pedagogy as an alternative of vocational training that will make the existence of society possible.

  6. The Relationship of Exposure to Childhood Sexual Abuse to Other Forms of Abuse, Neglect, and Household Dysfunction during Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Maxia; Anda, Robert F.; Dube, Shanta R.; Giles, Wayne H.; Felitti, Vincent J.

    2003-01-01

    This retrospective cohort study assessed the relationship of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) to other categories of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), such as childhood abuse, neglect, and parental separation/divorce. Adults reporting CSA experienced a 1.6- to 3.4-fold greater likelihood of experience each category of ACE. The ACE score was also…

  7. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Blood Pressure Trajectories From Childhood to Young Adulthood The Georgia Stress and Heart Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Su, Shaoyong; Wang, Xiaoling; Pollock, Jennifer S.; Treiber, Frank A.; Xu, Xiaojing; Snieder, Harold; McCall, W. Vaughn; Stefanek, Michael; Harshfield, Gregory A.

    2015-01-01

    Background-The purposes of this study were to assess the long-term effect of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) on blood pressure (BP) trajectories from childhood to young adulthood and to examine whether this relation is explained by childhood socioeconomic status (SES) or risk behaviors that are

  8. Childhood fitness reduces the long-term cardiometabolic risks associated with childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, M D; Magnussen, C G; Rees, E; Dwyer, T; Venn, A J

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine whether childhood cardiorespiratory fitness attenuates or modifies the long-term cardiometabolic risks associated with childhood obesity. The study consisted of a 20-year follow-up of 1792 adults who participated in the 1985 Australian Schools Health and Fitness Survey when they were 7-15 years of age. Baseline measures included a 1.6-km run to assess cardiorespiratory fitness and waist circumference to assess abdominal adiposity. At follow-up, participants attended study clinics where indicators of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) (waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose and lipids) were measured and cardiorespiratory fitness was reassessed using a submaximal graded exercise test. Both high waist circumference and low cardiorespiratory fitness in childhood were significant independent predictors of MetS in early adulthood. The mutually adjusted relative risk of adult MetS was 3.00 (95% confidence interval: 1.85-4.89) for children in the highest (vs lowest) third of waist circumference and 0.64 (95% confidence interval: 0.43-0.96) for children with high (vs low) cardiorespiratory fitness. No significant interaction between waist circumference and fitness was observed, with higher levels of childhood fitness associated with lower risks of adult MetS among those with either low or high childhood waist circumference values. Participants who had both high waist circumference and low cardiorespiratory fitness in childhood were 8.5 times more likely to have MetS in adulthood than those who had low waist circumference and high cardiorespiratory fitness in childhood. Regardless of childhood obesity status, participants with low childhood fitness who increased their relative fitness by adulthood had a substantially lower prevalence of MetS than those who remained low fit. Childhood waist circumference and cardiorespiratory fitness are both strongly associated with cardiometabolic health in later life. Higher levels of

  9. Family Structure and Childhood Obesity, Early Childhood Longitudinal Study ? Kindergarten Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Alex Y.; Escarce, Jos? J.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Little is known about the effect of family structure on childhood obesity among US children. This study examines the effect of number of parents and number of siblings on children's body mass index and risk of obesity. Methods We conducted a secondary data analysis of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study ? Kindergarten Cohort (ECLS-K), which consists of a nationally representative cohort of children who entered kindergarten during 1998-1999. Our analyses included 2 cross-sectio...

  10. Dimensions of Childhood Play and Toys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Anette; Vuorinen, Tuula

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe and analyse play through a contemporary historical perspective, based upon pre-school teachers', students majoring in education, and teacher education students' descriptions of memories from their childhood regarding play and toys. The overall method is retrospective. The data consists of 111 interviews…

  11. Preventing Childhood Obesity : Evidence Policy and Practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waters, Elizabeth; Swinburn, Boyd A.; Seidell, Jacob C.; Uauy, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is one of the biggest public health challenges in the 21st century. Devising effective policy and practice to combat childhood obesity is a high priority for many governments and health professionals internationally. This book brings together contributors from around the world and showcases

  12. Toward a definition of 'childhood mourning'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekaer, C

    1987-04-01

    Though a young child cannot mourn like an adult, optimal responses may be distinguished from pathological ones and used to define "childhood mourning." Aspects of mourning such as identification and decathexis must be related to the child's developmental level. Creative use of an "imaginary parent" may help master a parent loss.

  13. Marriage and divorce among childhood cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Susanne Vinkel; Kejs, Anne Mette Tranberg; Engholm, Gerda; Møller, Henrik; Johansen, Christoffer; Schmiegelow, Kjeld

    2011-10-01

    Many childhood cancer survivors have psychosocial late effects. We studied the risks for cohabitation and subsequent separation. Through the Danish Cancer Register, we identified a nationwide, population-based cohort of all 1877 childhood cancer survivors born from 1965 to 1980, and in whom cancer was diagnosed between 1965 and 1996 before they were 20 years of age. A sex-matched and age-matched population-based control cohort was used for comparison (n=45,449). Demographic and socioeconomic data were obtained from national registers and explored by discrete-time Cox regression analyses. Childhood cancer survivors had a reduced rate of cohabitation [rate ratio (RR) 0.78; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.73-0.83], owing to lower rates among survivors of both noncentral nervous system (CNS) tumors (RR 0.88; 95% CI: 0.83-0.95) and CNS tumors (RR 0.52; 95% CI: 0.45-0.59). Male CNS tumor survivors had a nonsignificantly lower rate (RR 0.47; 95% CI: 0.38-0.58) than females (RR 0.56; 95% CI: 0.47-0.68). The rates of separation were almost identical to those of controls. In conclusion, the rate of cohabitation was lower for all childhood cancer survivors than for the population-based controls, with the most pronounced reduction among survivors of CNS tumors. Mental deficits after cranial irradiation are likely to be the major risk factor.

  14. Infant Attention and Early Childhood Executive Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Kimberly; Bell, Martha Ann

    2014-01-01

    Individual differences in infant attention are theorized to reflect the speed of information processing and are related to later cognitive abilities (i.e., memory, language, and intelligence). This study provides the first systematic longitudinal analysis of infant attention and early childhood executive function (EF; e.g., working memory,…

  15. Morality from infancy to middle childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pannebakker, Fieke Dineke

    2007-01-01

    In the present thesis, a homogeneous upper middle class sample of firstborn girls and their mothers were followed from infancy (18 and 24 months) to middle childhood (89 months) using questionnaires and observations. The focus of the study was on three components of moral behavior, i.e. empathy,

  16. Childhood Stress : Stressors, Coping, and Factors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijboer, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Burnout is a matter of imbalance in life very often (Nijboer, 2006). In order to know more about imbalance and exhaustion in children, stress and coping in children will be investigated in this literature study. The goal is to identify common childhood stressors, the ways children cope with stress,

  17. Childhood hypertension: what does the radiologist contribute?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roebuck, Derek [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, Radiology Department, London (United Kingdom)

    2008-06-15

    Hypertension may be essential (primary) or secondary to a variety of causes. The most important risk factors for essential hypertension are obesity and a family history of high BP, but there are also associations with sleep apnoea, low birth weight and prematurity. The most important cause of secondary hypertension in childhood is chronic renal disease. (orig.)

  18. Cognition in Childhood Dystonia : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, Maraike A; Eggink, Hendriekje; Tijssen, M.A.; Spikman, Jacoba

    Background and aim: Cognitive impairments have been established as part of the non-motor phenomenology of adult dystonia. In childhood dystonia, the extent of cognitive impairments is less clear. This systematic review aims at presenting an overview over the existing literature to elucidate the

  19. Treatment Intensity and Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namasivayam, Aravind K.; Pukonen, Margit; Goshulak, Debra; Hard, Jennifer; Rudzicz, Frank; Rietveld, Toni; Maassen, Ben; Kroll, Robert; van Lieshout, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intensive treatment has been repeatedly recommended for the treatment of speech deficits in childhood apraxia of speech (CAS). However, differences in treatment outcomes as a function of treatment intensity have not been systematically studied in this population. Aim: To investigate the effects of treatment intensity on outcome…

  20. Uveitis in childhood : clinical and fundamental developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalinina Ayuso, V.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis aimed to gain new insights regarding the course and prognosis of uveitis in childhood, the pathogenesis of JIA-uveitis and the treatment of uveitis in children. The role of baseline prognostic factors in JIA-uveitis was studied by a retrospective analysis of 117 affected eyes of 65

  1. Cognitive Functions in Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijland, Lian; Terband, Hayo; Maassen, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is diagnosed on the basis of specific speech characteristics, in the absence of problems in hearing, intelligence, and language comprehension. This does not preclude the possibility that children with this speech disorder might demonstrate additional problems. Method: Cognitive functions were investigated…

  2. School Uniforms and Discourses on Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodine, Ann

    2003-01-01

    This ethnographic study examined the introduction of school uniforms in the public schools of one California city. Findings indicated that the uniform issue intersected with issues such as student safety and violence, family stress, egalitarianism, competitive dressing, and a power struggle over shaping the childhood environment. It was concluded…

  3. Continuing Bonds after Suicide Bereavement in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Lindsey; Byram, Victoria; Gosling, A. Sophie; Stokes, Julie

    2012-01-01

    It has been argued that the grieving process after suicide bereavement has unique properties (e.g., J. R. Jordan, 2001). A qualitative study was conducted to explore one aspect of the grieving process--continuing bonds--after suicide bereavement in childhood. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 10 suicide-bereaved children…

  4. Childhood hypertension: what does the radiologist contribute?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roebuck, Derek

    Hypertension may be essential (primary) or secondary to a variety of causes. The most important risk factors for essential hypertension are obesity and a family history of high BP, but there are also associations with sleep apnoea, low birth weight and prematurity. The most important cause of secondary hypertension in childhood is chronic renal disease. (orig.)

  5. Is Maternal Employment Related to Childhood Obesity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity has been rising steadily in most parts of the world. Popular speculation attributes some of that increase to rising maternal employment. Employed mothers spend less time at home and thus less time with their children, whose diets and physical activity may suffer. Also, children...

  6. Early Childhood Education in Saudi Arabia: Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabaah, Alqassem; Doaa, Dashash; Asma, Alzahrani

    2016-01-01

    This paper reviewed the development of early childhood education (ECE) in Saudi Arabia and its strengths and weaknesses. The paper discusses the contextual background of Saudi Arabia, including its geography, demographics, social system, economy, political system and religion. In addition, the paper investigated the education system at large in…

  7. "Queerying" Gender: Heteronormativity in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Kerry H.

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores heteronormativity and argues for the "queerying" of gender in early childhood education. The author argues, utilising Butler's theory of performativity and heterosexual matrix, that the construction of gender in young children's lives requires an analysis of the normalising practices in which gendered identities are…

  8. Alternating hemiplegia of childhood in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høi-Hansen, Christina; Dali, Christine I.; Lyngbye, Troels Johan Brünnich

    2014-01-01

    Alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by early-onset recurrent distinctive hemiplegic episodes commonly accompanied by other paroxysmal features and developmental impairment. De novo mutations in ATP1A3 were recently identified as a genetic...

  9. Untangling pathways between childhood trauma and psychosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, D.S.

    2017-01-01

    The studies presented in this thesis aim to enhance our knowledge with regard to specific associations between types of trauma and the course of symptomatology and psychosocial functioning and to examine possible underlying mechanisms, by which childhood trauma influences the development of

  10. Following Watery Relations in Early Childhood Pedagogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacini-Ketchabaw, Veronica; Clark, Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Working methodologically and theoretically with the hydro-logics of bodies of water, this article addresses the limitations of humanistic perspectives on water play in early childhood classrooms, and proposes pedagogies of watery relations. The article traces the fluid, murky, surging, creative, unpredictable specificities of bodies of water that…

  11. Agentive and Communitarian Play in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmytro, Dana; Kubiliene, Neringa; Cameron, Catherine Ann

    2014-01-01

    Play has long been recognised as a vehicle by which significant developmental advances occur during early childhood. Children use play to explore their relationships, their psychosocial skills, and their environment, and through their experiences, they begin to adopt specific capacities and values that have an impact on future socio-emotional and…

  12. Childhood obesity : medical, cultural and psychological factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radhakishun, N.N.E.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to examine medical, cultural and psychological factors of childhood obesity in a multi-ethnic cohort. Medical factors Several associations between weight measured and hormones were determined in obese children between 6 and 18 years. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was

  13. Childhood obesity: medical, cultural and psychological factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radhakishun, N.N.E.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to examine medical, cultural and psychological factors of childhood obesity in a multi-ethnic cohort. Medical factors Several associations between weight measured and hormones were determined in obese children between 6 and 18 years. Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)

  14. THE CHILDHOOD ROMANCE THEORY OF TEACHER DEVELOPMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    TUSKA, SHIRLEY A.; WRIGHT, BENJAMIN D.

    EXPLORATION OF PERSONALITY ORIENTATIONS ASSOCIATED WITH THE GRADE LEVEL AT WHICH THE PROSPECTIVE TEACHER INTENDS TO TEACH INQUIRED INTO CHILDHOOD RECOLLECTIONS. 508 WOMEN ENROLLED IN 12 TEACHER TRAINING PROGRAMS COMPLETED A LOCALLY DEVELOPED SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIAL QUESTIONNAIRE. THOSE INTENDING TO TEACH AT LOWER SCHOOL LEVELS IDENTIFIED WITH THEIR…

  15. Childhood cancer survivor cohorts in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winther, Jeanette F.; Kenborg, Line; Byrne, Julianne; Hjorth, Lars; Kaatsch, Peter; Kremer, Leontien C. M.; Kuehni, Claudia E.; Auquier, Pascal; Michel, Gérard; de Vathaire, Florent; Haupt, Riccardo; Skinner, Roderick; Madanat-Harjuoja, Laura M.; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Wesenberg, Finn; Reulen, Raoul C.; Grabow, Desiree; Ronckers, Cecile M.; van Dulmen-den Broeder, Eline; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M.; Schindler, Matthias; Berbis, Julie; Holmqvist, Anna S.; Gudmundsdottir, Thorgerdur; de Fine Licht, Sofie; Bonnesen, Trine G.; Asdahl, Peter H.; Bautz, Andrea; Kristoffersen, Anja K.; Himmerslev, Liselotte; Hasle, Henrik; Olsen, Jørgen H.; Hawkins, Mike M.

    2015-01-01

    With the advent of multimodality therapy, the overall five-year survival rate from childhood cancer has improved considerably now exceeding 80% in developed European countries. This growing cohort of survivors, with many years of life ahead of them, has raised the necessity for knowledge concerning

  16. Creativity in Music and Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Carolyn

    1998-01-01

    Discusses ways for early childhood educators to encourage young children's creativity in music. Argues that teachers often present music as a teacher-guided activity used to control children, and that musical education can be facilitated by allowing children to guide their own musical explorations. (JPB)

  17. Physical Punishment, Childhood Abuse and Psychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Tracie O.; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Cox, Brian J.; Sareen, Jitender

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: Physical punishment, as a means of disciplining children, may be considered a mild form of childhood adversity. Although many outcomes of physical punishment have been investigated, little attention has been given to the impact of physical punishment on later adult psychopathology. Also, it has been stated that physical punishment by a…

  18. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Childhood tuberculosis infection and disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-10-01

    Oct 1, 2009 ... Infection and disease in young children are therefore a measure ... While adult TB results from both recent and past infection, childhood TB results from recent infection and reflects ongoing transmission despite current TB control strategies. ... spatially and temporally define the relationships between TB.

  19. Environmental Quality Index and Childhood Mental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood mental disorders affect between 13%-20% of children in the United States (US) annually and impact the child, family, and community. Literature suggests associations exist between environmental and children’s mental health such as air pollution with autism and ADHD...

  20. Kindheit - Gluck - Kommerz (Childhood - Happiness - Commerce).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelkers, Jurgen

    2002-01-01

    Discusses changes in the history of childhood. Argues that the change was not caused by reform pedagogics, but by a movement to popular culture. Describes the functioning of a commercialized children's culture and its definition of happiness. Analyzes possible concepts of education within the framework of such learning environments. (CAJ)