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Sample records for childhood cerebellopontine angle

  1. Meningiomas of the cerebellopontine angle.

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    Matthies, C; Carvalho, G; Tatagiba, M; Lima, M; Samii, M

    1996-01-01

    Meningiomas of the cerebellopontine angle (CPA) represent a clinically and surgically interesting entity. The opportunity of complete surgical excision and the incidence of impairment of nerval structures largely depend on the tumour biology that either leads to displacement of surrounding structures by an expansive type of growth or to an enveloping of nerval and vascular structures by an en plaque type of growth. As the origin and the direction of growth are very variable, the exact tumour extension in relation to the nerval structures and the tumour origin can be identified sometimes only at the time of surgery. Out of a series of 230 meningiomas of the posterior skull base operated between 1978 and 1993, data of 134 meningiomas involving the cerebellopontine angle are presented. There were 20% male and 80% female patients, age at the time of surgery ranging from 18 to 76 years, on the average 51 years. The clinical presentation was characterized by a predominant disturbance of the cranial nerves V (19%), VII (11%), VIII (67%) and the caudal cranial nerves (6%) and signs of ataxia (28%). 80% of the meningiomas were larger than 30 mm in diameter, 53% led to evident brainstem compression or dislocation and 85% extended anteriorly to the internal auditory canal. Using the lateral suboccipital approach in the majority of cases and a combined presigmoidal or combined suboccipital and subtemporal approaches in either sequence in 5%, complete tumour removal (Simpson I and II) was accomplished in 95% and subtotal tumour removal in 5%. Histologically the meningiotheliomatous type was most common (49%) followed by the mixed type (19%), fibroblastic (16%), psammomatous (7%), hemangioblastic (7%) and anaplastic (2%) types. Major post-operative complications were CSF leakage (8%) requiring surgical revision in 2% and hemorrhage (3%) requiring revision in 2%. While the majority of neurological disturbances showed signs of recovery, facial nerve paresis or paralysis was

  2. [Cerebellopontine angle meningeal melanocytoma: a benign tumor?].

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    González-Tortosa, J; Ferri-Níguez, B; Ros de San Pedro, J

    2009-08-01

    We report a case of a rare meningeal melanocytoma in the cerebellopontine angle. One year after tumor gross total removal, the patient suffered a sudden and devastating meningeal melanomatosis. The relevant literature is reviewed looking for the keys to establish preoperative diagnosis and to obtain information about its treatment and postsurgical management.

  3. Rare lesions of the cerebellopontine angle.

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    Yilmaz, Cem; Altinors, Nur; Sonmez, Erkin; Gulsen, Salih; Caner, Hakan

    2010-07-01

    Vestibular schwannomas, meningiomas and epidermoids account for a vast majority of the lesions occurring in the cerebellopontine angle (CPA). Neoplastic and non-neoplastic pathologies other than these tumors constitute 1% of all lesions located in the CPA. The aim of this study was to reveal our experience in the treatment of the rare lesions of the CPA. We have retrospectively reviewed the medical files and radiological data of all patients who underwent surgery involving any kind of pathology in the CPA. We have excluded those patients with a histopathological diagnosis of meningioma, schwannoma and epidermoids. Our research revealed a case of craniopharyngioma, a case of chloroma, a case of solitary fibrous tumor, a case of pinealoblastoma, a case of atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor, a case of an aneurysm, a case of hemorrhage and a case of abscess.

  4. Primary cerebello-pontine angle malignant melanoma : a case report.

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    Desai K

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available A rare case of primary malignant melanoma in the cerebello-pontine angle, in a 17 year old girl is presented. The patient presented with one month history of headache, diplopia, facial asymmetry and ataxia. The computerised tomography (CT scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed a large cerebello-pontine angle mass with features suggestive of a melanoma. The typical black coloured, solid and vascular melanoma was excised completely. Cerebello-pontine angle melanoma are extremely rare tumours with dismal long term outcome in majority of these cases.

  5. Magnetic resonance imaging of cerebellopontine angle lesions

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    Pratiksha Yadav

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cerebellopontine angle (CPA tumors are usually benign, and they are divided into extra-axial, intra-axial, extradural, and petrous axis tumors. CPA pathologies can be asymptomatic or it may present with vertigo, tinnitus, or unilateral hearing loss depending upon the site of tumor origin and displacement of the neurovascular structure. Aim and Objectives: To evaluate the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI aided with contrast-enhanced MRI as an imaging modality for diagnosis of CPA lesions. Materials and Methods: Analysis of 36 patients of CPA lesions over a period of 2 years was done. MRI was performed on Siemens 1.5 Tesla MAGNETOM Avanto Machine. Conclusion: There are spectrums of pathologies, which can present with these symptoms, which includes tumors, vascular malformations, and vascular loop compressing vestibulocochlear nerve or mastoid pathology so it is important to investigate the patient by MRI. Contrast-enhanced MRI is the most sensitive investigation in the evaluation of the CPA lesions, its characteristic, and its extent.

  6. Study of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor in cerebellopontine angle.

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    Hong, WenMing; Cheng, HongWei; Wang, XiaoJie; Hu, XiaoPeng; Feng, ChunGuo

    2014-01-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are very rare soft tissue sarcomas, usually arising from somatic soft tissues or peripheral nerves. Primary MPNST of the cerebellopontine angle is extremely rare, with only a single case reported so far. Here, we report an unusual case of MPNST in cerebellopontine angle in a 25-year-old man presented with dizziness, left facial numbness, and tinnitus. After hospitalization, the tumor was treated with complete surgical excision followed by adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Histologically, the tumor showed malignant spindle cells, which were with focal S-100 positivity on immunohistochemistry, and a diagnosis of the MPNST was made. This case is being reported for its rarity and presence in cerebellopontine and illustrated the difficulties in the diagnosis and treatment of MPNST, which to the best of our knowledge, has not been described before in the soft tissue sarcomas.

  7. Intratentorial lipomas with Meckel's cave and cerebellopontine angle extension.

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    Ruocco, M J; Robles, H A; Rao, K C; Armonda, R A; Ondra, S L

    1995-08-01

    An unusual case of bilateral intratentorial lipomas with extension into Meckel's caves and the cerebellopontine angle is described. Surgical and histopathologic correlation demonstrate that the lipoma encased the trigeminal nerve in Meckel's caves. The origin of the lipoma from the anteromedial margins of the tentorium is discussed and correlated with a recently proposed theory for the development of intracranial lipomas.

  8. Tumors of the cerebellopontine angle; Tumoren des Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkels

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    Schulze, Maximilian [Universitaetsklinikum Tuebingen (Germany). Abt. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie; Reimann, Katrin [Universitaetsklinikum Tuebingen (Germany). HNO Klinik; Soares Tatagiba, Marcos [Universitaetsklinikum Tuebingen (Germany). Klinik fuer Neurochirurgie; Bisdas, Sotirios [The National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Neuroradiology

    2016-12-15

    The diagnostic imaging of lesions in the cerebellopontine angle is mainly challenged by the possible differential diagnoses and their therapeutic relevance. As classification of tumors in contrast-enhancing and non-enhancing allows for a primary differentiation, MRI holds pivotal role in diagnosis and therapy planning on the basis of its quantitative and qualitative methods as volumetry, diffusion weighted imaging, perfusion imaging and spectroscopy.

  9. Anatomy of the cerebellopontine angle; Anatomie des Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkels

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    Grunwald, I.Q.; Papanagiotou, P.; Politi, M.; Reith, W. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie; Nabhan, A. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Neurochirurgische Klinik

    2006-03-15

    The cerebellopontine angle (CPA) is an anatomically complex region of the brain. In this article we describe the anatomy of the CPA cisterns, of the internal auditory canal, the topography of the cerebellum and brainstem, and the neurovascular structures of this area. (orig.) [German] Der Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkel ist eine umschriebene anatomische Region. Im diesem Artikel werden die Subarachnoidalraeume im Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkel, die Anatomie der Felsenbeinflaeche, Anatomie und Topographie des Kleinhirns und des Hirnstamms, die arteriellen Beziehungen und venoese Drainage des Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkels besprochen. (orig.)

  10. Cerebellopontine angle facial schwannoma relapsing towards middle cranial fossa

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    Takafumi Nishizaki

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Facial nerve schwannomas involving posterior and middle fossas are quite rare. Here, we report an unusual case of cerebellopontine angle facial schwannoma that involved the middle cranial fossa, two years after the first operation. A 53-year-old woman presented with a 3-year history of a progressive left side hearing loss and 6-month history of a left facial spasm and palsy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI revealed 4.5 cm diameter of left cerebellopontine angle and small middle fossa tumor. The tumor was subtotally removed via a suboccipital retrosigmoid approach. The tumor relapsed towards middle cranial fossa within a two-year period. By subtemporal approach with zygomatic arch osteotomy, the tumor was subtotally removed except that in the petrous bone involving the facial nerve. In both surgical procedures, intraoperative monitoring identified the facial nerve, resulting in preserved facial function. The tumor in the present case arose from broad segment of facial nerve encompassing cerebellopontine angle, meatus, geniculate/labyrinthine and possibly great petrosal nerve, in view of variable symptoms. Preservation of anatomic continuity of the facial nerve should be attempted, and the staged operation via retrosigmoid and middle fossa approaches using intraoperative facial monitoring, may result in preservation of the facial nerve.

  11. Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Cerebello-Pontine Angle

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    Biggs, Nigel D.; Fagan, Paul A.; Turner, Jennifer J.; Doust, Bruce

    1999-01-01

    A case is presented of solitary fibrous tumor occurring in the cerebello-pontine angle. There have been only two other reported cases of a solitary fibrous tumors in this region. Imaging studies showed the tumor to be characteristic in shape and position of an acoustic tumor. However, at surgery the tumor was found to have a “rock hard” consistency. Solitary fibrous tumor differs from acoustic schwannoma and meningioma in its histopathological features and in this case, regrowth, after incomplete excision, was extremely rapid. ImagesFigure 2Figure 3Figure 4Figure 5Figure 6 PMID:17171119

  12. Malignant melanoma of the cerebello-pontine angle region

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    F. Menezes Braga

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available A case of malignant melanoma in the cerebello-pontine angle region is presented in a 72 years old female patient, who had neurological examination and CT scan suggestive of acoustic neuroma. The surgical finding and the histological examination provided the diagnosis. As a primary focus was not found on clinical examination and although autopsy was not carried out, there is a possibility of the diagnosis being a primary malignant melanoma in CNS. This specific location for this kind of tumor was found to be rare when literature is looked up.

  13. Disorders of the cerebellopontine angle; Klinik der Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkelerkrankungen

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    Block, F. [Helios-Kliniken Schwerin (Germany). Neurologische Klinik

    2006-03-15

    Disorders of the cerebellopontine angle may present by symptoms like vertigo, hearing problems, affection of the trigeminal or facial nerve. Ipsilateral ataxia and contralateral hemiparesis develop in case of a rather large tumor in this region and display an involvement of the cerebellum and/or brainstem. However, some of these typical symptoms are not recognized by the patient. Thus, in case of a suspicion of a disorder of the cerebellopontine angle the relevant functions have to be tested clinically. In addition, electrophysiology can confirm dysfunction of these cranial nerves. Mainstay of the therapy should be the treatment of the underlying cause. Nevertheless, not seldom it is necessary to treat symptoms like vertigo or facial pain. (orig.) [German] Schwindel, Hoerstoerungen, Affektionen des N. trigeminus oder des N. facialis stellen die wesentlichen und haeufigen Symptome bei Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkelerkrankungen dar. Ipsilaterale Gliedmassenataxie und kontralaterale Hemiparese sprechen fuer eine Mitbeteiligung von Kleinhirn und/oder Hirnstamm, die meist nur bei grossen Prozessen in dieser Region auftreten. Da einige Veraenderungen sich fuer den Patienten unbemerkt entwickeln, ist bei Verdacht eine gezielte klinische Untersuchung dieser Funktionen angezeigt, die durch elektrophysiologische Diagnostik wie z. B. akustisch evozierte Potenziale oder Blinkreflexe untermauert werden kann. Auch wenn natuerlich die kausale Therapie im Vordergrund steht, ist es gar nicht selten notwendig, eine symptomatische Behandlung durchzufuehren. Dies trifft besonders fuer Symptome wie Schwindel oder Gesichtsschmerzen zu. (orig.)

  14. Anatomic structural study of cerebellopontine angle via endoscope

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    XIA Yin; LI Xi-ping; HAN De-min; ZHENG Jun; LONG Hai-shan; SHI Jin-feng

    2007-01-01

    Background Minimally invasive surgery in skull base relying on searching for possible anatomic basis for endoscopic technology is controversial. The objective of this study was to observe the spatial relationships between main blood vessels and nerves in the cerebellopontine angle area and provide anatomic basis for lateral and posterior skull base minimally invasive surgery via endoscopic retrosigmoid keyhole approach.Methods This study was conducted on thirty dried adult skulls to measure the spatial relationships among the surface bony marks of posterior cranial fossa, and to locate the most appropriate drilling area for retrosigmoid keyhole approach.In addition, we used 10 formaldehyde-fixed adult cadaver specimens for simulating endoscopic retrosigmoid approach to determine the visible scope.Results The midpoint between the mastoid tip and the asterion was the best drilling point for retrosigmoid approach. A hole centered on this point with the 2.0 cm in diameter was suitable for exposing the related structures in the cerebellopontine angle. Retrosigmoid keyhole approach can decrease the pressure on the cerebellum and expose the related structures effectively which include facial nerve, vestibulocochlear nerve, trigeminal nerve, glossopharyngeal nerve, vagus nerve, accessory nerve, hypoglossal nerve, anterior inferior cerebellar artery, posterior inferior cerebellar artery and labyrinthine artery, etc.Conclusions Exact location on endoscope retrosigmoid approach can avoid dragging cerebellum during the minimally invasive surgery. The application of retrosigmoid keyhole approach will extend the application of endoscopic technology.

  15. Endolymphatic sac tumor : a rare cerebellopontine angle tumor.

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    Joseph B

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Endolymphatic sac tumors (ELST are rare papillary tumors of the temporal bone. Previously named as aggressive papillary middle ear tumors, they have recently been shown to arise from the endolymphatic sac. They are a rare in cerebello-pontine angle (CPA. We present a case of an ELST who presented as a CPA tumor with hydrocephalus. He underwent a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt initially. On exploration of the CP angle, the tumor was found to be extremely vascular. He was re-explored following embolization, and a subtotal excision of the tumor was done. Extensive petrous bone infiltration and vascularity of the tumor makes total excision almost impossible with high risk of cranial nerve deficits, excessive blood loss and CSF leak. This tumor should be considered in the differential diagnosis of vascular CPA tumors which erode the petrous temporal bone. The relevant literature is reviewed.

  16. Cerebellopontine angle lipomas: magnetic resonance imaging findings in two cases

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    Borges, Rafael S. [Clinica de Diagnostico por Imagem Multi-Imagem, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Radiologia; Brito, Cecilia Castelo Branco [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Fac. de Medicina; Carvalho, Gustavo A. [Clinica Bambina, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Neurocirurgia; Hospital Silvestre, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Domingues, Romeu C. [Clinicas CDPI e Multi-Imagem, Rio de Janeiro RJ (Brazil); Gasparetto, Emerson L. [Clinicas CDPI e Multi-Imagem, Rio de Janeiro RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Vestibular schwannomas and meningiomas are the most common lesions of the cerebellopontine angle (CPA), accounting for approximately 85-90% of the tumors seen in this location. Lipomas are rare at this topography, representing about 0.15% of the CPA lesions. These tumors are mal developmental masses that arise from abnormal differentiation of the meninx primitive. Clinically, CPA lipomas can cause slowly progressive neurological symptoms and signs affecting cranial nerves or brain stem. Because these lesions usually are strongly attached to the surrounding structures, any surgical attempts of complete resection can result in neural or vascular damage, reinforcing the importance of the pre-operative imaging diagnosis. Although the CT findings of CPA lipomas can be typical, the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, especially the fat suppression sequences, had improved the identification of these lesions. We aimed to report two patients with a CPA lipoma, emphasizing the MR imaging findings. (author)

  17. Vascular anomalies of the cerebellopontine angle; Vaskulaere Erkrankungen des Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkels

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    Papanagiotou, P.; Grunwald, I.Q.; Politi, M.; Struffert, T.; Ahlhelm, F.; Reith, W. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie

    2006-03-15

    Vascular anomalies of the cerebellopontine angle are rare compared to tumors in this area. Irritation of the trigeminal, facial, or vestibulocochlear nerve may cause trigeminal neuralgia, hemifacial spasm and vertigo, or tinnitus accordingly. Vessel loops in the cerebellopontine cisterns may cause compression at the root entry or exit zone of the cranial nerves V, VII, and VIII, a phenomenon which is called ''vascular loop syndrome.'' Megadolichobasilar artery and aneurysms of the vertebrobasilar system can also lead to dislocation and compression of the cranial nerves and brain stem. Three-dimensional CISS MR imaging and MR angiography are useful in the detection of neurovascular compression. Microvascular decompression is an effective surgical procedure in the management of compression syndromes of the cranial nerves V, VII, and VIII. (orig.) [German] Gegenueber den Raumforderungen stellen vaskulaere Veraenderungen des Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkels eher eine Ausnahme dar. Trigeminusneuralgie, hemifazialer Spasmus und Schwindel oder Tinnitus koennen bei Irritationen des Nervus trigeminus, facialis und vestibulocochlearis auftreten. Schlingenbildungen der Gefaesse in den Kleinhirnzisternen koennen eine Kompression der Eintritts- oder Austrittszonen der Hirnnerven V, VII und VIII am Hirnstamm hervorrufen, was als ''Vascular-loop-Syndrom'' bezeichnet wird. Zu Verlagerungen und Kompressionen von Hirnnerven und Hirnstamm koennen, wenn auch seltener, die Megadolichobasilaris und Aneurysmen des vertebrobasilaeren Systems fuehren. Bezueglich der Bildgebung ist die Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) die Methode der Wahl. Die 3D-CISS-Sequenz und die MR-Angiographie sind hilfreich zur Darstellung der neurovaskulaeren Kompression. Die Methode der mikrovaskulaeren Dekompression ist eine wirkungsvolle Methode zur Beseitigung gefaessbedingter Kompressionen der Hirnnerven V, VII und VIII. (orig.)

  18. Teflon granulomas mimicking cerebellopontine angle tumors following microvascular decompression.

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    Deep, Nicholas L; Graffeo, Christopher S; Copeland, William R; Link, Michael J; Atkinson, John L; Neff, Brian A; Raghunathan, Aditya; Carlson, Matthew L

    2017-03-01

    To report two patients with a history of microvascular decompression (MVD) for hemifacial spasm who presented with Teflon granulomas (TG) mimicking cerebellopontine angle (CPA) tumors and to perform a systematic review of the English-language literature. Case series at a single tertiary academic referral center and systematic review. Retrospective chart review with analysis of clinical, radiological, and histopathological findings. Systematic review using PubMed, Embase, MEDLINE, and Web of Science databases. Two patients with large skull base TGs mimicking CPA tumors clinically and radiographically were managed at the authors' institution. The first presented 4 years after MVD with asymmetrical sensorineural hearing loss, multiple progressive cranial neuropathies, and brainstem edema due to a growing TG. Reoperation with resection of the granuloma confirmed a foreign-body reaction consisting of multinucleated giant cells containing intracytoplasmic Teflon particles. The second patient presented 11 years after MVD with asymmetrical sensorineural hearing loss and recurrent hemifacial spasm. No growth was noted over 2 years, and the patient has been managed expectantly. Only one prior case of TG after MVD for hemifacial spasm has been reported in the English literature. TG is a rare complication of MVD for hemifacial spasm. The diagnosis should be suspected in patients presenting with a new-onset enhancing mass of the CPA after MVD, even when performed decades earlier. A thorough clinical and surgical history is critical toward establishing an accurate diagnosis to guide management and prevent unnecessary morbidity. Surgical intervention is not required unless progressive neurologic complications ensue. 4 Laryngoscope, 127:715-719, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  19. Malignant meningioma of the cerebellopontine angle in a 2-year-old girl: a case report and literature review.

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    Fan, Ming-Chao; Zhang, Xin; Wang, Qiao-Ling; Cheng, Lei; Dai, Cai-Yun; Yu, Dan; Sun, Peng

    2013-07-01

    Meningioma is a common intracranial tumor in adults. Pediatric cases account for approximately 1.5% of all intracranial meningiomas, and very few cases show malignant histological features. Primary pediatric malignant meningioma in the cerebellopontine angle is extremely uncommon. Herein, we report a 2-year-old girl with malignant meningioma in the cerebellopontine angle. The clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment protocol are discussed.

  20. Cerebellopontine angle epidermoid showing a positive enhancement upon metrizamide CT cisternography

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    Hasegawa, Takeshi; Wakamatsu, Koichi; Fujii, Toshiharu; Ito, Haruhide; Yamamoto, Shinjiro; Nagata, Izumi

    1985-04-01

    A case of epidermoid tumor in the left cerebellopontine angle cistern is reported in a 43-year-old woman with left trigeminal neuralgia. Plain CT scan revealed a low density area at the left cerebellopontine angle and left ambient cisterns, which could not be differentiated from their enlargement. Metrizamide CT cisternography showed an irregular, high density pattern in the low density filling defect which was extending into the suprasellar and interpeduncular cisterns. The developmental mechanism of this specific finding in the metrizamide CT cisternography was discussed on the basis of morphological characteristics of epidermoid tumor.

  1. Unusual magnetic resonance characteristics of a cerebellopontine angle epidermoid cyst with upper cervical spinal canal extension.

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    Teo, Beng-Tiong; Lin, Chao-chun; Chiou, Tsung-Lang; Chen, Shang-Chi; Yen, Pao-Sheng

    2006-08-01

    We present a 27-year-old woman with an epidermoid cyst at the cerebellopontine (CP) angle with caudal extension into the upper cervical spinal canal. The lesion showed unusual hyperintensity on T1-weighted images, and hypointensity on T2-weighted images. We used microneurosurgical techniques for tumour dissection and excision. To our knowledge, this is the fifth example in Index Medicus/MEDLINE of histopathologically proven CP angle epidermoid with cervical spine extension.

  2. Facial nerve neurinoma presenting as middle cranial fossa and cerebellopontine angle mass : a case report.

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    Devi B

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Facial nerve neurinomas are rare. The tumours arising from the geniculate ganglion may grow anteriorly and superiorly and present as a mass in the middle cranial fossa. Only a few cases of facial nerve neurinomas presenting as middle cranial fossa mass have so far been reported. These tumours present with either long standing or intermittent facial palsy along with cerebellopontine angle syndrome.

  3. Imaging diagnosis of various small lesions in the cerebellopontine angle by Suboccipital air CT cisternography

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    Tsukahara, Kaoru (Toho Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1989-11-01

    A modified air CT cisternography technique, characterized by suboccipital air infusion was carried out in a total of 180 patients over the past 5 years. The patients were divided into two groups according to their suspected lesions. The first group consisted of 151 patients who were diagnosed as having retrolabyrinthine lesions by neurootological examinations; 29 patients with facial twitching or trigeminal neuralgia were classified in the second group. In the first group, air CT cisternography revealed 21 cases of small acoustic tumors including intracanalicular tumors. Additionally, several unexpected small lesions were detected in the cerebellopontine angle. These included small meningiomas, osteoma, osteogenic tumor, nodulated acoustic nerve in neurofibromatosis, primary acoustic nerve atrophy, adhesive arachnoiditis, elongated basilar artery and patulous acoustic meatus. In the second group, the causative artery of neurovascular compression at the nerve exit zone failed to be confirmed in many cases, but satisfactory preoperative information concerning nerves and vessels in the cerebellopontine angle were provided by air CT cisternography. The advantages and disadvantages of air CT cisternography and MRI-CT for the diagnosis of small lesions in the cerebellopontine angle are also discussed. (author).

  4. A Case of Bell's Palsy with an Incidental Finding of a Cerebellopontine Angle Lipoma.

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    Lagman, Carlito; Choy, Winward; Lee, Seung J; Chung, Lawrance K; Bui, Timothy T; Yang, Isaac; Goldman, Howard W

    2016-08-24

    This case report illustrates the potential fallacy of attributing a patient's symptoms to an incidental finding. Serial imaging of small, asymptomatic cerebellopontine angle (CPA) lipomas is favored. It is imperative to accurately diagnose CPA lipoma on imaging and differentiate it from more common CPA lesions. We herein present a patient with symptoms consistent with Bell's palsy and an incidental finding of a CPA lipoma. Additionally, we performed a review of the literature for case reports of patients presenting with facial symptoms and diagnosed with a CPA lipoma.

  5. Cerebral salt wasting syndrome: postoperative complication in tumours of the cerebellopontine angle.

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    Ruiz-Juretschke, Fernando; Arístegui, Miguel; García-Leal, Roberto; Fernández-Carballal, Carlos; Lowy, Alejandro; Martin-Oviedo, Carlos; Panadero, Teresa

    2012-02-01

    Cerebral salt wasting (CSW) is a rare complication in posterior fossa tumour surgery. We present two patients with cerebellopontine angle (CPA) tumours who developed cerebral salt wasting postoperatively. Both patients deteriorated in spite of intensive fluid and salt replacement. On CT scan the patients presented mild to moderate ventricular dilation, which was treated with an external ventricular drainage. After the resolution of hydrocephalus, fluid balance rapidly returned to normal in both patients and the clinical status improved. Identification and treatment of secondary obstructive hydrocephalus may contribute to the management of CSW associated to posterior fossa tumour surgery.

  6. Coexistence of meningioma and schwannoma in the same cerebellopontine angle in a patients with NF2.

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    Matyja, Ewa; Kunert, Przemysław; Grajkowska, Wiesława; Marchel, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    The coexistence of schwannoma and meningioma in the same cerebellopontine angle (CPA) is uncommon. Especially, the presence of a single mixed tumour composed of demarcated or intermingled components of schwannoma and meningioma tissue is extremely rare. Such a phenomenon is mainly reported in a patient with NF2 or with history of previous irradiation. We present two cases of simultaneous occurrence of schwannoma and meningioma in the same cerebellopontine angle in young adult patients with clinical manifestation of NF2. The first patient was a 18-year-old young man who presented with bilateral CPA tumours, spinal mass lesion and multiple, small, schwannoma-like lesions of the cauda equina. Both CPA tumours was initially diagnosed as schwannomas based on preoperative MR imagings, however right CPA tumour appeared to be composed of a well-circumscribed transitional meningioma located inside schwannoma of Antoni A and B type. The second patient, a young 16-year-old boy, presented bilaterall CPA tumours as well as many meningeal tumours supratentorially and infratentorially. Two adjacent tumours in the left CPA proved to be schwannoma and meningioma. In both cases, the different neoplastic components were confirmed by histopathological and immunohistochemical studies. The possible mechanism underlying the occurrence of such coexisting tumors of different histogenesis remains unclear.

  7. Angiosarcoma arising in schwannoma of cerebellopontine angle and later associating with meningioma in a patient with neurofibromatosis type 2.

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    Sakai, Yasuhiro; Hirose, Takanori; Tomono, Ayako; Kawakami, Fumi; Nakai, Tokiko; Ohbayashi, Chiho; Mizowaki, Takashi; Tanaka, Kazuhiro; Kohmura, Eiji; Itoh, Tomoo

    2014-10-01

    Here, we describe an extremely rare case of angiosarcoma arising in schwannoma of the cerebellopontine angle and later associating with meningioma in a patient with neurofibromatosis type 2. A 33-year-old disabled Japanese man with right drop foot after surgery for an unspecified tumor demonstrated multiple tumors, suspected to be schwannoma, in the bilateral cerebellopontine angles, the cervical and lumbar spinal cord, and on the right nuchal skin. Also present were several tumors in the medulla and thoracic spinal cord suspected to be ependymoma or astrocytoma. The patient was diagnosed with neurofibromatosis type 2 according to the diagnostic criteria by the U.S. National Institutes of Health. The bilateral tumors in the cerebellopontine angle were resected to reduce symptoms and brain stem compression. Histopathological analysis revealed angiosarcoma arising in schwannoma of the bilateral tumors, and angiosarcoma was proportionally larger in the right tumor than in the left. At age 36, the patient underwent a second resection of the regrown tumor in the left cerebellopontine angle, and histopathology demonstrated mixed angiosarcoma and meningioma. That angiosarcoma arises in schwannoma is a pathogenesis within the realm of conjecture, especially that the phenomenon of mixed meningioma and angiosarcoma has not been reported to date.

  8. Imaging of sensorineural hearing loss: a pattern-based approach to diseases of the inner ear and cerebellopontine angle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbist, B.M.

    2012-01-01

    An overview is presented of the common and uncommon diseases of the inner ear and of the cochleovestibular nerve within the internal acoustic meatus and cerebellopontine angle cistern causing sensorineural deafness.An imaging-pattern-based approach is used to help detect disease and narrow the

  9. Lipoma do ângulo pontocerebelar: relato de caso Lipoma of the cerebellopontine angle: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WALTER JOSÉ FAGUNDES-PEREYRA

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Os lipomas do ângulo pontocerebelar são tumores muito raros. Em geral são assintomáticos, achados fortuitos em autópsia, tomografia computadorizada (TC de crânio ou ressonância nuclear magnética do encéfalo. Os autores apresentam o caso de paciente, feminina, branca, 14 anos, há três anos com diminuição da audição à esquerda e há um ano com cefaléia, tipo hemicrânia à esquerda. A TC de crânio evidenciou lesão hipodensa, sem captação de contraste, no ângulo pontocerebelar esquerdo. A paciente foi submetida a cirurgia por via retrossigmóidea para abordagem da lesão, que se apresentou de coloração amarelada, característica de tecido adiposo. Tendo em vista o envolvimento de estruturas nervosas (VII e VIII nervos cranianos, optou-se pela exérese parcial da lesão. A paciente evoluiu com melhora da cefaléia, sem piora do déficit auditivo. Após três anos de seguimento, mantém o quadro estável. Conclui-se que os lipomas do ângulo pontocerebelar, quando assintomáticos, podem ser tratados conservadoramente. Entretanto aqueles associados a sintomatologia persistente e progressiva devem ser operados. A exérese total ou parcial vai depender do envolvimento ou não das estruturas neurovasculares adjacentes.Lipoma of the cerebellopontine angle is a very rare tumor. We report the case of a 14-years-old female, with left side deafness during three years, associated with headache. CT scan showed an hypodense mass, without enhancement at the cerebellopontine angle. The patient was treated surgically by left retrosigmoid approach. The lesion involved the eighth and seventh cranial nerves and only a partial removal was performed. The postoperative course was uneventful. She had no more headache; the deafness of the left side remained unchanged. Asymptomatic lipoma of the cerebellopontine angle can be treated conservatively, although those with progressive symptoms should be treated surgically, with total or partial remove

  10. Chronic Lyme disease with an expansive granulomatous lesion in the cerebellopontine angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokry, M; Flaschka, G; Kleinert, G; Kleinert, R; Fazekas, F; Kopp, W

    1990-09-01

    Expansive granulomatous lesions in the posterior cranial fossa are rare and have not been reported in conjunction with Lyme disease. We report a patient with verified Borrelia burgdorferi infection who developed a tumor in the cerebellopontine angle. Rapid growth of the tumor led to signs of cerebral compression and to hydrocephalus. Surgical intervention was required despite florid meningitis. The histological examination showed inflammatory, nonspecific granulation tissue. The origin of this tissue is almost certainly causally related to the B. burgdorferi infection. Signs of inflammation resolved rapidly after subtotal resection. The clinical, radiological, and biochemical course is documented. This is the first report of an expansive cerebral lesion in the chronic phase of Lyme disease.

  11. Clear-cell meningioma; CT and MR imaging findings in two cases involving the spinal canal and cerebellopontine angle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Ki Bong; Lim, Myung Kwan; Kim, Hyung Jin; Suh, Chang Hae; Park, Hyung Chun; Kim, Eun Young; Han, Hye Seung [Inha University Hospital College of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-06-01

    Clear-cell meningioma is a rare subtype of meningioma which occurs at a younger age and has a higher recurrence rate than other subtypes. We report two cases of clear-cell meningioma, one in the thoracolumbar spinal canal and the other in the cerebellopontine angle. Though the CT and MR imaging findings were not different from those of ordinary meningioma, after surgical removal the condition recurred repeatedly in the patient with spinal canal involvement.

  12. Clear-Cell Meningioma: CT and MR Imaging Findings in Two Cases Involving the Spinal Canal and Cerebellopontine Angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ki Bong; Kim, Hyung Jin; Suh, Chang Hae; Park, Hyung Chun; Kim, Eun Young; Han, Hye Seung

    2002-01-01

    Clear-cell meningioma is a rare subtype of meningioma which occurs at a younger age and has a higher recurrence rate than other subtypes. We report two cases of clear-cell meningioma, one in the thoracolumbar spinal canal and the other in the cerebellopontine angle. Though the CT and MR imaging findings were not different from those of ordinary meningioma, after surgical removal the condition recurred repeatedly in the patient with spinal canal involvement. PMID:12087202

  13. Dural Arteriovenous Fistula Following Translabyrinthine Resection of Cerebellopontine Angle Tumors: Report of Two Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peter M.M.C.; Fischbein, Nancy J.; Do, Huy M.; Blevins, Nikolas H.

    2011-01-01

    We describe two cases of dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) developing in a delayed fashion after translabyrinthine resection of cerebellopontine angle tumors. Two patients in an academic tertiary referral center, a 46-year-old woman and a 67-year-old man, underwent translabyrinthine resection of a 2-cm left vestibular schwannoma and a 4-cm left petrous meningioma, respectively. Both patients subsequently developed DAVF, and in each case the diagnosis was delayed despite serial imaging follow-up. In one patient, cerebrospinal fluid diversion before DAVF was identified as the cause of her intracranial hypertension; the other patient was essentially asymptomatic but with a high risk of hemorrhage due to progression of cortical venous drainage. Endovascular treatment was effective but required multiple sessions due to residual or recurrent fistulas. Dural arteriovenous fistula is a rare complication of translabyrinthine skull base surgery. Diagnosis requires a high index of clinical suspicion and an understanding of subtle imaging findings that may be present on follow-up studies performed for tumor surveillance. Failure to recognize this complication may lead to misguided interventions for treatment of hydrocephalus and other complications, as well as ongoing risks related to venous hypertension and intracranial hemorrhage. As this condition is generally curable with neurointerventional and/or surgical methods, timely diagnosis and treatment are essential. PMID:23984203

  14. Epidermoid cyst causing hemifacial spasm epidermoid cyst in cerebellopontine angle presenting with hemifacial spasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Alemdar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemifacial Spasm (HS occurs idiopathically or secondary to the lesions compressing the root exit zone of the facial nerve symptomatically. Symptomatic HS is generally due to vascular compression. We report on a 23-year-old male with right sided HS for a month. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the brain revealed a well-demarcated epidermoid cyst in the right cerebellopontine cistern. It was hypointense on T1-weighted imaging, hyperintense on T2-weighted imaging without contrast enhancement, hyperintense on DWI, and slightly hypointense on ADC relative to the brain. Although it caused shifting of the pons and medulla to the left side and compression of the right cerebellar peduncles and fourth ventricle, the sole symptom of the patient was HS. Clinicians are advised to request MRI/scan for brainstem lesions from the patients with HS. Epidermoid cysts in cerebellopontine cistern may present with HS as the sole symptom.

  15. Trauma-induced auditory nerve degeneration due to cerebellopontine(CP) angle manipulations:clinical and experimental experience

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tetsuji Sekiya

    2004-01-01

    In order to investigate the pathophysiologic mechanisms responsible for trauma-induced hearing disturbances due to auditory nerve degeneration, we established for the first time a rat experimental model in which auditory nerve degeneration due to compression injury of the cerebellopontine (CP) angle portion of the auditory nerve can be quantitatively evaluated. In this paper, Ⅰ demonstrate our clinical experience in CP angle surgery and some of the results of our experiments performed onthis rat experimental model. Trauma-induced hearing loss in CP angle operations has long been regarded as a sort of unavoidable "natural course"and therefore hopeless.I believe that this pessimistic view should be challenged and changed through new approaches in scientific research.

  16. Symptomatic ependymal cysts of the perimesencephalic and cerebello-pontine angle cisterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, R R; Pawar, S J; Kharangate, P P; Delmendo, A

    2000-11-01

    Primary intracranial ependymal cysts are extremely rare. These are congenital, benign ependyma lined, commonly intraparenchymal and uncommonly extraparenchymal cysts in leptomeningeal location of variable size seen in the adult life. The authors report two cases of symptomatic ependymal cysts: one in the perimesencephalic cistern in a 10-month-old infant presenting with delayed mile stones and another in the cerebello-pontine cistern in a morbidly obese 35-year-old woman with known benign intracranial hypertension now presenting with hemifacial spasm. Neurosurgical intervention was curative in both cases. Interesting clinical, radiological and histological features are presented and discussed.

  17. Sensorineural hearing loss among cerebellopontine-angle tumor patients examined with pure tone audiometry and brainstem-evoked response audiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinindra, A. M.; Zizlavsky, S.; Bashiruddin, J.; Aman, R. A.; Wulani, V.; Bardosono, S.

    2017-08-01

    Tumor in the cerebellopontine angle (CPA) accurs for approximately 5-10% of all intracranial tumors, where unilateral hearing loss and tinnitus are the most frequent symptoms. This study aimed to collect data on sensorineural hearing loss in CPA tumor patients in Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital (CMH) using pure tone audiometry and brainstem-evoked response audiometry (BERA). It also aimed to obtaine data on CPA-tumor imaging through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This was a descriptive, analytic, and cross-sectional study. The subjects of this study were gathered using a total sampling method from secondary data between July 2012 and November 2016. From 104 patients, 30 matched the inclusion criteria. The CPA-tumor patients in the ENT CMH outpatient clinic were mostly female, middle-aged patients (41-60 years) whose clinical presentation was mostly tinnitus and severe, asymmetric sensorineural hearing loss in 10 subjects. From 30 subjects, 29 showed ipsilaterally impaired BERA results, and 17 subjects showed contralaterally impaired BERA results. There were 24 subjects who with large-sized tumors and 19 subjects who had intracanal tumors that had spread until they were extracanal in 19 subjects.

  18. Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma of the Cerebellopontine Angle in a Patient with Sudden Hearing Loss and Facial Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Ting Wang

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Primary lymphoma of the cerebellopontine angle (CPA is rare in the central nervous system. To our knowledge, there have only been 14 cases reported worldwide so far. Here, we report our findings in a 57-year-old man, who presented with bilateral sudden hearing loss followed by left facial palsy within 1 month. Radiologic study and magnetic resonance imaging showed a homogeneous enhancing mass, 1.6 × 0.5 × 1.1 cm in size, in the left CPA cistern region with mild extension to the left internal auditory canal. The tumor was removed through left retromastoid craniectomy, and the histopathologic diagnosis of the tumor was confirmed as diffuse large B-cell type malignant lymphoma. After a series of tumor surveys, there was no evidence of other original lymphoma. The patient was treated with chemotherapy (including intra-Ommaya injection with methotrexate and Ara-C and systemic injection with vincristine, methotrexate and ifosfamide for the primary CPA lymphoma. He was still alive 19 months after the initial treatment.

  19. Metastatic Extrapulmonary Small Cell Carcinoma to the Cerebellopontine Angle: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debebe Theodros

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Extrapulmonary small cell carcinomas (EPSCC are rare malignancies with poor patient prognoses. We present the case of a 63-year-old male who underwent surgical resection of a poorly differentiated small cell carcinoma, likely from a small intestinal primary tumor that metastasized to the cerebellopontine angle (CPA. A 63-year-old male presented with mild left facial paralysis, hearing loss, and balance instability. MRI revealed a 15 mm mass in the left CPA involving the internal auditory canal consistent with a vestibular schwannoma. Preoperative MRI eight weeks later demonstrated marked enlargement to 35 mm. The patient underwent a suboccipital craniectomy and the mass was grossly different visually and in consistency from a standard vestibular schwannoma. The final pathology revealed a poorly differentiated small cell carcinoma. Postoperative PET scan identified avid uptake in the small intestine suggestive of either a small intestinal primary tumor or additional metastatic disease. The patient underwent whole brain radiation therapy and chemotherapy and at last follow-up demonstrated improvement in his symptoms. Surgical resection and radiotherapy are potential treatment options to improve survival in patients diagnosed with NET brain metastases. We present the first documented case of skull base metastasis of a poorly differentiated small cell carcinoma involving the CPA.

  20. Does the location of a vascular loop in the cerebellopontine angle explain pulsatile and non-pulsatile tinnitus?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowe, V.; Wang, X.L.; Gielen, J.; Goethem, J.Van; Oezsarlak, Oe.; De Schepper, A.M.; Parizel, P.M. [University of Antwerp, Department of Radiology, Edegem (Belgium); Ridder, D. De [University of Antwerp, Department of Neurosurgery, Edegem (Belgium); Heyning, P.H.Van de [University of Antwerp, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Edegem (Belgium)

    2004-12-01

    The purpose was to investigate patients with unexplained pulsatile and non-pulsatile tinnitus by means of MR imaging of the cerebellopontine angle (CPA) and to correlate the clinical subtype of tinnitus with the location of a blood vessel (in the internal auditory canal or at the cisternal part of the VIIIth cranial nerve). Clinical presentation of tinnitus and perceptive hearing loss were correlated. In 47 patients with unexplained tinnitus, an MR examination of the CPA was performed. Virtual endoscopy reconstructions were obtained using a 3D axial thin-section high-resolution heavily T2-weighted gradient echo constructive interference in steady state (CISS) data-set. High-resolution T2-weighted CISS images showed a significantly higher number of vascular loops in the internal auditory canal in patients with arterial pulsatile tinnitus compared to patients with non-pulsatile tinnitus (P<0.00001). Virtual endoscopy images were used to investigate vascular contacts at the cisternal part of the VIIIth cranial nerve in patients with low pitch and high pitch non-pulsatile tinnitus. A significantly different distribution of the vascular contacts (P=0.0320) was found. Furthermore, a correlation between the clinical presentation of non-pulsatile tinnitus (high pitch and low pitch) and the perceptive hearing loss was found (P=0.0235). High-resolution heavily T2-weighted CISS images and virtual endoscopy of the CPA can be used to evaluate whether a vascular contact is present in the internal auditory canal or at the cisternal part of the VIIIth cranial nerve and whether the location of the vascular contact correlates with the clinical subtype of tinnitus. Our findings suggest that there is a tonotopical structure of the cisternal part of the VIIIth cranial nerve. A correlation between the clinical presentation of tinnitus and hearing loss was found. (orig.)

  1. MRI of the cerebellopontine angle in patients with cleido-cranial dysostosis; MRT der Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkelregion bei Patienten mit Dysostosis cleido-cranialis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherer, A.; Engelbrecht, V.; Nawatny, J.; Moedder, U. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische Radiologie; Messing-Juenger, M. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Neurochirurgische Klinik; Reifenberger, G. [Duesseldorf Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Neuropathologie

    2001-04-01

    Purpose: Cleidocranial dysostosis (CCD) is an autosomal dominant bone disorder in which deafness is common secondary to malformation of the middle ear structures. The study aimed at MRI evaluation of the cerebellopontine angle in 7 patients with a history of CCD - two generation spanned relatives. Material and methods: Cranial MRI in 7 patients with CCD (4 women/3 men aged between 8 and 46 years) was performed. In two patients hearing disorders were present. The examinations encompassed multi-planar spinecho sequences of the cerebellopontine angle in 3-mm slice thickness before and after administration of contrast medium. Results: The clinically most conspicuous female patient (hearing loss, ataxia, headache) showed a strongly contrast-enhancing tumor in MRI that was histologically proved to be an acoustic schwannoma. Concerning the other family members, no pathological findings were noted except for non-pneumatized mastoids. Conclusion: The first report of a patient with CCD and an acoustic schwannoma shows that in case of hearing loss in these patients also a retrocochlear cause must be considered. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Die Dysostosis cleido-cranialis (DCC) ist eine autosomal-dominant erbliche Knochenerkrankung, bei der aufgrund von Mittelohrmissbildungen gehaeuft Hoerstoerungen beobachtet werden. Wir ueberpruefen bei 7 von diesem Syndrom betroffenen Verwandten 1. und 2. Grades, ob sich kernspintomographisch Auffaelligkeiten der Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkelregion nachweisen lassen. Material und Methoden: MRT-Untersuchungen des Schaedels bei 7 Patienten mit DCC (4 Frauen, 3 Maenner im Alter zwischen 8 und 46 Jahren). Bei zwei Patienten lagen klinisch Hoerstoerungen vor. Die Bildgebung umfasste multiplanare Spin-Echo-Sequenzen und wurde im Bereich des Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkels in 3 mm Schichtdicke vor und nach Gadoliniumgabe durchgefuehrt. Ergebnisse: Die klinisch auffaelligste Patientin (progredienter Hoerverlust, Ataxie, Cephalgien) zeigte in der MRT einen kraeftig

  2. Epidermoid cyst in the cerebellopontine angle cistern presenting as trigeminal neuralgia. Diagnostic values of the orbicularis oculi reflex and metrizamide CT cisternography - case report -

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, Takashi; Goya, Tomokazu; Kinoshita, Kazuo (Miyazaki Medical College, Miyazaki (Japan)); Fukui, Masashi

    1983-05-01

    This 29-year-old male had been suffering from left trigeminal neuralgia one year prior to admission. Admission was prompted by the development of pain in the third division of the left trigeminal nerve. Physical and neurological examinations were not remarkable except for the facial pain. The orbicularis oculi reflex showed delayed latency of R/sub 1/ on the affected side. CT scans performed pre- and post-contrast enhancement revealed a low density area in the left cerebellopontine angle cistern. Metrizamide CT cisternography clearly revealed the margin of the lesion as the contrast media did not enter into the low density area. A left suboccipital craniectomy was performed. The trigeminal nerve was surrounded by a thin-capsulated mass and cholesteatoma materials. Histological diagnosis was epidermoid cyst. Since this surgical procedure, the trigeminal neuralgia has not recurred for one year. Without objective neurological deficits, it is difficult to distinguish symptomatic trigeminal from idiopathic neuralgia. Therefore, minor change of the orbicularis oculi reflex should help in objectively detecting dysfunction of the trigeminal nerve. Metrizamide CT cisternography is also useful in diagnosis of cystic lesions.

  3. MRI对桥小脑角池占位病变的诊断价值分析%Analysis of Diagnostic Value of MRI for Occupied Lesions in Cerebellopontine Angle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋君军; 罗庆华

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the radiological appearances and diagnostic value of MRI of occupied lesions in cerebellopon-tine angle, and to provide effective diagnostic basis for clinic. Methods 35 cases of patients with cerebellopontine angle proved surgically and pathologically in our hospital from January 2010 to May 2014 were selected, the preoperative MRI of these patients were retrospectively investigated. Results 15 cases were meningeoma, accounting for 43%;10 cases were acoustic neuroma, accounting for 29%;5 cases were epidermoid cyst, accounting for 14%;2 cases were arachroid cyst, 2 cases were dermoid cyst and 1 case was lipoma, which totally accounted for 14%. Conclusions As MRI can clearly reflect the shape, size and scope of the occupied lesions in cerebellopontine angle, we can make a qualitative diagnosis combining with MRI, thus to provide effective basis for clinical surgery.%目的:探讨桥小脑角池内占位病变的M砸陨影像学表现及诊断价值,为临床提供有效的诊断依据。方法收集我院2010年1月至2014年5月共35例经手术及病理证实桥小脑角池内占位病变,回顾分析患者术前的M砸陨检查图像。结果15例为脑膜瘤,占43豫;10例为听神经瘤,占29豫;5例为表皮样囊肿,占14豫;2例为蛛网膜囊肿,2例为皮样囊肿,1例为脂肪瘤,共占14豫。结论M砸陨影像可清楚地反映桥小脑角池占位病灶的形态、大小、范围等。结合M砸陨影像学表现可以做出定性诊断,为临床手术治疗提供有效的依据。

  4. pc-ASL 技术在桥小脑角区肿瘤术后复发评估%The diagnostic value of PCASL MRI technique in evaluating post-operative recurrence of cerebellopontine angle tumor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石凤祥; 王玉凤; 王海辉; 徐田勇; 荣凡令

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨3D FSE 的 pc-ASL 技术对桥小脑角区肿瘤术后复发的诊断价值。方法:选取21例桥小脑角区占位性病变术后患者,行常规平扫及增强序列,在增强前扫描 pc-ASL 序列。将 pc-ASL 功能图像与增强后 Ax 3D T1 WI 融合,测量异常强化区域及对侧正常脑组织的 CBF 值,评价是否存在肿瘤复发。结果:全部21例手术区出现异常强化区患者,13例为复发。17例患者行 DSC-PWI 失败,图像无法满足诊断需求。全部21例 pc-ASL 检查成功。肿瘤复发区域的CBF 值为(64.2±3.03)mL/100g/min,对侧正常脑实质的 CBF 值为(52.5±1.89)mL/100g/min。肿瘤复发区域的 CBF值明显高于对照侧脑组织,两者之间差异有统计学意义(t=12.498,P <0.05)。结论:基于3D FSE 的 pc-ASL 序列安全无创,无需注射对比剂,磁敏感效应影响小,可以用于评估桥小脑角区肿瘤有无术后复发。%Objective:The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of 3D FSE pseudo-continuous arte-rial spin labeling (pCASL)technique in evaluating post-operative recurrence of cerebellopontine angle tumor.Methods:21 post-operative patients with cerebellopontine angle tumor underwent pre-and post-contrast MRI scans.Perfusion-weighted MR imaging (PWI)with pCASL technique was performed before contrast injection.The CBF maps generated from pCASL were fused with post-contrast 3D T1 WI.The CBF values of abnormal enhanced area and contralateral normal brain tissue were measured and statistically analyzed to assess whether there was a recurrence of the neoplasm.Results:The neoplasm recurrence was found in 13/21 cases.DSC-PWI failed to generate functional maps in 17/21 cases due to the susceptibility ar-tifact;however,all 21 cases successfully underwent pCASL scan using 3D-FSE sequence.The mean CBF values were (64.2 ±3.03)mL/100g/min for the recurrent neoplasm and (52.5 ±1.89)mL/100g/min for

  5. High-resolution MR cisternography of the cerebellopontine angle, obtained with a three-dimensional fast asymmetric spin-echo sequence in a 0.35-T open MR imaging unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naganawa, S; Ito, T; Iwayama, E; Fukatsu, H; Ishigaki, T

    1999-01-01

    High-resolution MR cisternography performed with 3D fast asymmetric spin-echo imaging (3D fast spin-echo with an ultra-long echo train length and asymmetric Fourier imaging) was optimized in a 0.35-T open MR imaging unit. The 0.35- and 1.5-T images of the two volunteers and three patients with acoustic schwannomas were then compared. The optimal parameters for images obtained by 3D fast asymmetric spin-echo imaging at 0.35 T were as follows: field of view, 15 cm; matrix, 256 x 256 x 40; section thickness, 1 mm; echo train length, 76; and imaging time, 10 minutes 44 seconds. Scans obtained from both normal volunteers showed the facial, cochlear, and superior and inferior vestibular nerves separately in the internal auditory canal on both 0.35- and 1.5-T images. All three acoustic schwannomas were depicted on both 0.35- and 1.5-T images. Screening for disease at the cerebellopontine angle and in the internal auditory canal, without the administration of contrast material on a low-field open MR imaging unit and within a clinically acceptable imaging time, may be possible. Further controlled prospective studies are required, however, before implementation on a wide basis. If proved effective, this may be of particular value for reducing healthcare costs and for imaging claustrophobic and pediatric patients in an open system.

  6. 桥小脑角区小型占位致继发性三叉神经痛的手术疗效分析%Surgical outcome after resection of small cerebellopontine angle lesions resulted in secondary trigeminal neuralgia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶传元; 魏攀; 庄进学; 陈登奎; 程宏炜; 宋朝理; 李海龙; 薛峰; 张炜; 郑小强

    2011-01-01

    目的 评估桥小脑角区(CPA)小型占位致继发性三叉神经痛的手术疗效.方法 回顾分析我科自2005年1月~2010年12月期间该类患者的临床资料,包括年龄、症状及体征、影像学表现、手术方式、疗效及并发症.结果 6年期间手术治疗三叉神经痛372例,其中CPA区小型病变(最大直径<3cm)致继发性三叉神经痛23例,约占6.2%;病种包括胆脂瘤12例、神经鞘瘤6例、脑膜瘤3例、蛛网膜囊肿2例;所有患者行乙状窦后入路显微镜下切除病变,3例另行三叉神经感觉根部分切断术;术后疼痛消失20例,面部麻木3例;术后并发症包括无菌性脑膜炎、脑脊液漏、颅内感染、短暂耳鸣及面瘫,均恢复,无死亡.随访1~5年,无疼痛复发.结论 CPA区小型占位所致继发性三叉神经痛患者由于病变小、易于全切,加之镜下暴露充分,手术疗效满意;术中若发现病变与三叉神经无确切关系,则需行微血管减压或三叉神经部分感觉根切断术.%Objective To evaluate the surgical outcome after resection of small cerebel-lopontine angle lesions resulted in secondary trigeminal neuralgia (TN). Methods Clinical data including age, symptom and sign, image manifestation, surgical modality, surgical outcome and complications in patients diagnosed secondary TN resulted from small cerebellopontine angle lesions are analyzed retrospectively between 2005. 1 and 2010. 12. Results Of 6 years duration, 372 cases of TN underwent operations. There were 23 cases of such kind (the largest diameter less than 3cm) accounting for 6. 2% among them which involved 12 cholesteatomas, 6 schwanno-mas, 3 meningiomas and 2 arachnoid cysts. All lesions were resected under microscope through retrosigmoid approach and additional partial sensory rhizotomy was performed in 3 cases. After operation, 20 cases got complete pain relief and the rest had facial numbness. Postoperative complications included aseptic

  7. Late metastasis of breast adenocarcinoma into internal auditory canal and cerebellopontine angle: case report Metástase tardia de adenocarcinoma de mama para o canal auditivo interno e ângulo ponto-cerebelar: relato de caso

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    Edilson Marques

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available A case of metastasis of breast adenocarcinoma into the internal auditory canal (IAC and cerebellopontine angle (CPA is presented, which appeared 16 years after primary tumor had been treated by surgery and radiation therapy. The 66-year old patient was considered cured from the primary disease, when she started with a rapidly developing hearing loss and intermittent facial palsy. Magnetic resonance image (MRI displayed an intra- and extracanalicular tumor mass, which radiologically resembled a vestibular schwannoma. Surgery was performed and histopathological studies showed an adenocarcinoma compatible with breast origin. Metastasis is a rare occurrence within the IAC and CPA. Clinical history of severe facial palsy will rise suspicion of malignant tumor in spite of the radiological findings.Um caso de metástase de adenocarcinoma de mama para o canal auditivo interno e ângulo ponto-cerebelar é apresentado. A metástase ocorreu após 16 anos do tumor primário ter sido tratado com cirurgia e radioterapia. A paciente de 66 anos foi considerada curada de sua doença primária, quando apresentou perda auditiva de progressão rápida associada a paralisia facial intermitente. Ressonância magnética demonstrou uma lesão expansiva intra e extracanalicular, cujo aspecto radiológico lembrava schwannoma do vestibular. A paciente foi submetida a cirurgia e investigação histopatológica confirmou tratar-se de metástase. Metástase é uma rara ocorrência dentro do canal auditivo interno e ângulo ponto-cerebelar. História clínica de paralisia facial severa aumentará a suspeita de lesão maligna apesar dos achados radiológicos.

  8. Clinicopathologic features of endolymphatic sac tumor at cerebellopontine angle%桥脑小脑角区内淋巴囊肿瘤五例临床病理分析及鉴别诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜江; 王军梅; 崔云; 李桂林

    2011-01-01

    ObjectiveTo study the clinicopathologic features and immunophenotype of endolymphatic sac tumor (ELST) and normal endolymphatic sac. Methods The clinical and histologic features were evaluated in 5 cases of ELST. Eight cases of choroid plexus papilloma at cerebellopontine angle and 2 cases of normal endolymphatic sac were used as controls. Immunohistochemical study for vimentin,AE1/AE3, CK8/18, CK5/6, EMA, GFAP, synaptophysin, S-100 protein, CEA, TTF-1, VEGF, D2-40,calponin, calretinin and Ki-67 was carried out. Results The age of onset of ELST ranged from 23 to 35years ( median =24 years ). The male-to-female ratio was 2 ∶ 3. The clinical presentation was tinnitus,otalgia, hearing loss, otorrhagia with effusion and headache. The duration of symptoms ranged from 6 months to 10 years. Local recurrences were noted in 3 cases. Radiologically, the tumors were located at cerebellopontine angle and demonstrated petrous bone destruction. Histologic examination showed that the tumors had a papillary-glandular pattern. The papillae were covered by a single layer of low cuboidal cells. The tumor cells had distinct cell borders and contained eosinophilic to clear cytoplasm. The nuclei were slightly atypical and sometimes apically located. Focal dilated glandular structures with colloid-like material were also identified. The surrounding stroma was vascularized. All of the 5 cases had dural or petrous bone infiltration. Immunohistochemical study showed that all of the 5 cases were positive for AE1/AE3, CK8/18,CK5/6 and VEGF, 4 cases for EMA, 3 cases for calponin (focal) , 2 cases for vimentin, 2 cases for S-100protein, 1 case for GFAP and 1 case for synaptophysin (focal and weak). The Ki-67 index measured less than 1%. The staining for D2-40, calretinin, CEA and TTF-1 was negative. The 2 cases of the normal endolymphatic sac were positive for AE1/AE3 and CK8/18, and negative for CK5/6, EMA, S-100 protein,GFAP and synaptophysin. The 8 cases of choroid plexus papilloma were

  9. Neuralgia do trigêmeo bilateral por cisticerco racemoso unilateral no ângulo-ponto cerebelar: relato de caso Unusual cause for bilateral trigeminal neuralgia: unilateral racemous cysticercus of cerebellopontine angle. Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAULO HENRIQUE AGUIAR

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Descrevemos o caso de uma paciente de 42 anos portadora de cisticerco racemoso na região do ângulo ponto-cerebelar (APC direito com trigeminalgia bilateral mais intensa no lado ipsilateral à localização do parasita. O cisticerco foi totalmente removido por meio de craniotomia suboccipital. No primeiro dia pós-operatório houve desaparecimento bilateral da dor. Duas hipóteses fisiopatológicas foram aventadas para explicar a sintomatologia: lesões que ultrapassam os limites da cisterna do APC poderão através da cisterna pré-pontina alcançar a cisterna do APC atingindo o trigêmeo contralateral; lesões com grande efeito de massa poderão provocar rotação do tronco cerebral e deslocamento e tração de estruturas ipsi e contralaterais, provocando compressão arteriovenosa sobre o trigêmeo contralateral na porção superior da cisterna do APC. Salientamos a necessidade de exames de imagem ante qualquer algia craniofacial e observamos que, em lesões na região do APC, a cisticercose não pode ser esquecida.We report the case of a 42-year-old woman with a racemous cystecercus in the right cerebellopontine angle (CPA, who presented with bilateral trigeminal neuralgia. The parasite was completly removed via a right suboccipital craniotomy. On the first postoperative day, the patient indicated that the pain disappeared. The neuralgia was caused by two probable mechanisms: a distortion of the brain stem and compression of the nerve against an arterial loop at the entry zone or arachnoiditis caused by the parasite in the both CPA cisternae. This case demonstrates the advisability of obtaining imaging studies in all patients with trigeminal neuralgia before starting any management. We must always remind that the cysticercus may be a differential diagnosis of CPA lesions.

  10. 小脑脑桥角海绵状血管畸形三例并文献复习%Cystic cavernous malformations in the cerebellopontine angle: report of three cases and literature review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于金录; 曲丽梅; 李叶; 王柏; 王宏磊

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical presentation,imaging features and treatment experience of cystic cavernous malformations (CMs) in the cerebellopontine angle (CPA).Methods Three patients with the CMs of the CPA between 2005 and 2010 in our institute were summarised.Five patients from MEDLINE search of the English literature from 1985 to 2010 for CMs of the CPA were identified.We reviewed the characteristics of these 5 cases and our cases.Results Their presenting symptoms of 5 cases in the literature included headache,injury of cranial nerves in the CPA and cerebellar symptoms.But they did not show signs of brain stem compression.MRI and/or CT scans showed that the lesions in the eight cases of CMs all had solid and cystic components,and no adhesion with internal auditory canal and skull base dura mater was present in the CPA.Despite the fact that cystic CMs also involved cranial nerves,cerebellum,brainstem and arteries,they could be separated from these surrounding structures thanked to the presence of well - margined adhesion,which was contrary to solid CMs.We reported three cystic CMs of the CPA in our institute that was the same as the above.Conclusion Although cystic CMs of the CPA had no established imaging features,a diagnosis of CMs may be suspected when a cystic lesion is present in the CPA and does not involve internal acoustic meatus or dura matter of the skull base.Skillful microsurgical techniques will secure good outcomes for patients with cystic CMs in the CPA.%目的 总结小脑脑桥角(CPA)区海绵状血管畸形(CMs)的临床表现、影像学特征及治疗特点.方法 2005年6月至2010年6月我科共收治CPA区CMs病例3例,进行报告.搜索MEDLINE上自1985年至2010年文献查到此类病例5例,进行文献复习.结果 文献复习的5例CMs临床表现为脑神经及小脑受累症状,但无脑干受压症状;影像见CMs均呈囊实性,与内听道及颅底硬膜无粘连;术中见CMs与周边结构有粘连,但可进行分

  11. 神经内镜下桥小脑角区手术入路的解剖学研究%Anatomical study of surgical approach to cerebellopontine angle under neuroendoscope

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋英; 师蔚; 马向科

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the application of three kinds of approach to the cerebellopontine angle under neuroendoscope. Methods Suboccipital retrosigmoid extracerebellar keyhole approach, suboccipital retrosigmoid infratentorial-supracerebellar keyhole approach and suboccipital retrosigmoid inferior floccular process keyhole approach were simulated under neuroendoscope respectively, and the surgical routes and anatomical landmarks to the root exit/entry zoon (REZ) of the V , Ⅳ, K cranial nerves were defined. Results The REZ of the cranial nerves V, VII and IX were observed through the suboccipital retrosigmoid extracerebellar keyhole approach, and the landmarks covered Meckel cave, internal auditory foramen, jugular foramen and cranial nerves V, Ⅳ, Ⅷ, K. The structure from the REZ of cranial nerve V to Meckel cave were explored through suboccipital retrosigmoid infratentorial-supracerebellar keyhole approach, and the landmarks covered the petrosal vein, cranial nerve V and Meckel cave. The REZ of the cranial nerves K and VD were explored via suboccipital retrosigmoid infrafloccular process keyhole approach, and the landmarks covered the choroid plexus of the fourth ventricle and floccular process. Conclusions Infratentorial-supracerebellar keyhole approach is superior to extracerebellar keyhole approach for microvascular decompression of the cranial nerve V, while infrafloccular process keyhole approach is superior to extracerebellar keyhole approach for microvascular decompression of the cranial nerve VD or IX.%目的 探讨神经内镜下桥小脑角区3种手术入路的应用价值.方法 在神经内镜下分别模拟枕下乙状窦后小脑外侧锁孔入路、枕下乙状窦后幕下小脑上锁孔入路、枕下乙状窦后绒球下锁孔入路,确定到三叉神经出入脑干区(REZ)、面神经REZ及舌咽神经REZ的手术路径及解剖定位标志.结果 枕下乙状窦后小脑外侧锁孔入路可探查三叉神经REZ、面神经REZ、舌咽神

  12. Malformação da transição crânio-vertebral como causa de síndrome do ângulo ponto-cerebelar: relato de dois casos Cerebello-pontine angle syndrome associated with cranio-vertebral malformation: report of two cases

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    Amauri Batista da Silva

    1972-03-01

    Full Text Available Os autores relatam dois casos de síndrome do ângulo ponto-cerebelar nos quais não havia neoplasia nessa região. Ambos os pacientes apresentavam uma associação de impressão basilar com síndrome de Arnold-Chiari. Após cirurgia descompressiva de fossa posterior os casos evoluiram favoravelmente com a diminuição progressiva dos sintomas neurológicos, restando apenas, no segundo paciente, certo grau de paralisia e de espasmo facial, à direita. São feitas considerações em tôrno das causas mais freqüentes da síndrome do ângulo ponto-cerebelar, bem como acêrca dos quadros clínicos mais usualmente encontrados em doentes que apresentam malformações da transição crânio-vertebral. Finalmente, os autores tecem breves considerações a respeito do possível mecanismo lesionai do VIII, do V e do VII nervos cranianos nos dois casos relatados.Two cases of cerebelo-pontine angle syndrome associated with basilar impression and Arnold-Chiari malformation are reported. In both cases neuroradiological studies and surgical exploration failled to demonstrate any space occupying lesion. After surgery the patients progressively recovered disapearing the neurological symptoms except for a slaight hemifacial spasm that remained in case 2. Clinical signs present in cerebello-pontine angle lesions and the occipito-cervical malformations are discussed. A possible mechanism to explain the association of both conditions is discussed.

  13. Imaging findings of cerebellopontine angle cistern melanocytoma : a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Mi; Choi, Jin Ok; Joo, Myung Jin [Presbyterian Medical Center, Chunju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-03-01

    Because melanocytes are found throughout the leptomeninges, primary melanotic pigmented tumors such as pigmented meningioma, malignant melanoma, melanoblastosis, and melanocytoma can arise from this region. Melanocytomas have been described in the literature as isodense or hyperdense compared with brain parenchyme, as seen on noncontrast-enhanced CT, and as showing relatively homogeneous enhancement MR imaging demonstrates a high signal on T1-weighted images, and an iso to hypointense signal on T2-weighted images. We report the imaging findings of a melanocytoma that showed hyperdense attenuation on precontrast CT with homogeneous enhancement and hyperintense signal intensity on T1-weighted images and dark signal intensity enhancement on T2-weighted images, and also review the literature. (author)

  14. Cystic angiomatous meningioma in the cerebellopontine angle mimicking hemangioblastoma

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    Deb Prabal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We hereby report an extremely unusual case of cystic angiomatous meningioma in the CPA region in a 58-year-old male patient. He presented with complaints of headache, repeated episodes of vomiting and increasing unsteadiness of gait. Neuroimaging showed a large multicystic left-sided tentorial tumor projecting into the cerebellum and CPA with contrast-enhancing peripheral solid rim. He underwent a left retromastoid craniectomy and total excision of the tumor. Histopathology revealed an angiomatous meningioma with predominant microvascular component and extensive cystic changes. Immunopositivity for epithelial membrane antigen (EMA, vimentin and S-100 protein proved vital in excluding a hemangioblastoma.

  15. Renal cell carcinoma metastasis to the cerebellopontine cistern: intraoperative Onyx embolization via direct needle puncture

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Jeremiah; Morcos, Jacques; Elhammady, Mohamed; Pao, Christine L; Aziz-Sultan, Mohammad Ali

    2013-01-01

    We report a rare case of a renal cell carcinoma (RCC) metastasis occupying the cerebellopontine and cerebellomedullary cisterns, and describe an alternative strategy for embolizing hypervascular intracranial tumors...

  16. High resolution magic angle spinning 1H NMR of childhood brain and nervous system tumours

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    Davies Nigel P

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Brain and nervous system tumours are the most common solid cancers in children. Molecular characterisation of these tumours is important for providing novel biomarkers of disease and identifying molecular pathways which may provide putative targets for new therapies. 1H magic angle spinning NMR spectroscopy (1H HR-MAS is a powerful tool for determining metabolite profiles from small pieces of intact tissue and could potentially provide important molecular information. Methods Forty tissue samples from 29 children with glial and primitive neuro-ectodermal tumours were analysed using HR-MAS (600 MHz Varian gHX nanoprobe. Tumour spectra were fitted to a library of individual metabolite spectra to provide metabolite values. These values were then used in a two tailed t-test and multi-variate analysis employing a principal component analysis and a linear discriminant analysis. Classification accuracy was estimated using a leave-one-out analysis and B632+ bootstrapping. Results Glial tumours had significantly (two tailed t-test p Conclusion HR-MAS identified key differences in the metabolite profiles of childhood brain and nervous system improving the molecular characterisation of these tumours. Further investigation of the underlying molecular pathways is required to assess their potential as targets for new agents.

  17. Trigeminal Neuralgia Caused by Cerebellopontine Angle Arteriovenous Malformation Treated With Gamma Knife Radiosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Işik, Semra; Ekşi, Murat Şakir; Yilmaz, Baran; Toktaş, Zafer Orkun; Akakin, Akin; Kiliç, Türker

    2016-01-01

    Trigeminal neuralgia is a facial pain syndrome characterized as sudden onset and lightening-like sensation over somatosensorial branch(es) of fifth cranial nerve. Rarely, some underlying diseases or disorders could be diagnosed, such as multiple sclerosis, brain tumors, and vascular malformations. The authors present a 47-year-old man with trigeminal neuralgia over left V2 and V3 dermatomes. He had a previous transarterial embolization and long use of carbamazepine with partial response to treatment. Gamma knife radiosurgery (GKR) was planned. A marginal dose of 15 Gy was given to 50% isodose line. His pain was relieved by GKR in 1.5 years. Treatment of posterior fossa arteriovenous malformations causing trigeminal neuralgia, with GKR has a very limited use in the literature. It, however, is obvious that success rate as pain relief, in a very challenging field of functional neurosurgery, is satisfactory. Large series, however, are in need to make a more comprehensive statement about efficacy and safety of the procedure in these pathologies.

  18. Air cisternography of the cerebellopontine angle using high-resolution computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.W.

    1984-05-01

    While high-resolution CT/air cisternography is considered the preferred method of investigating non-enhancing or small acoustic neuromas, it is not without pitfalls. Eight such studies were reviewed, emphasizing procedural problems and sources of interpretive error. Two patients presented difficulty in transporting the air bolus due to a spinal cord tumor coexisting with bilaterial acoustic neuromas; spinal cord decompression was required in one case. Three potential false positives were avoided by persistent efforts to fill the internal auditory canal. Of 4 patients thought to have a tiny acoustic neuroma, elective vestibular nerve section in 2 revealed no evidence of tumor.

  19. Enterococcal cerebellopontine angle abscess in a 12-year-old female

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonavane Alka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite advances in imaging and antibiotic treatment, brain abscess is still encountered occasionally. Various aerobic and anaerobic bacteria have been reported as causative agents of brain abscess but only a few cases of enterococcal brain abscesses have been reported. Here we report a case of brain abscess in a 12-year-old female patient, who presented with a history of fever, chills, headache, convulsions since seven days and history of altered sensorium and aphasia since the last two days . The patient had chronic suppurative otitis media of both ears following trauma and presented with ear discharge. The diagnosis of brain abscess was done by computerized tomography scan and the pus was aspirated by left suboccipital burr hole operation. Enterococcus species was cultured from the aspirated pus sample. The patient responded to surgical drainage and antibiotic treatment.

  20. A STUDY OF THE INCID ENCE OF CEREBELLOPON TINE ANGLE TUMORS AND THEIR MAN AGEMENT IN A TERTIAR Y CARE HOSPITAL

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    Raja Sekhar Kennedy

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTI ON : Cerebellopontine angle tumors are a surgical challenge to many neurosurgeons who want to operate in this space. Although most of these tumors are benign, they are a challenge because of the complex anatomy and important neurovascular structures that traver se this space. Most common cerebellopontine angle tumor is vestibular schwannoma. The management of these cases is essentially surgical. There has been a change in the surgical strategy over the years from simple intratumoral decompression to complete micr osurgical excision, to facial nerve preservation and hearing preservation. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To study the clinical and radiological characteristics, know the pathological types and determine the surgical resectability and outcome of cerebellopontine ang le tumor. MATERIALS AND METHOD : It is a prospective study done in the department of Neurosurgery, King George Hospital, Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh. It is a Tertiary Care Hospital. 50 patients diagnosed with cerebellopontine angle tumor were recruited in to the study and were managed. RESULTS : 50 cases of cerebellopontine angle tumors accounting for 11% of all intracranial space occupying lesions, of which vestibular schwannoma alone constituted 10%. Most of the tumors were large or giant tumors. Total resection was done in 74% of vestibular sch wannoma and 50% of meningiomas. Anatomical preservation of facial nerve was achieved in 67% of patients. CONCLUSION : C erebellopontine angle tumors show high incidence from 3 rd to 5 th decade with common symptoms being hearing loss and ataxia. Most of the pa tients presented at a delayed stage with large to giant tumors with no useful hearing. Complete excision of tumor preserving facial and lower cranial nerve function is the goal. Postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leak can be managed effectively with conserv ative therapy

  1. Massive primary cerebellopontine angle melanocytoma in an 11 year old child: A case report and review of literature

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    Amresh Bhaganagare

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A rare case of meningeal melanocytoma in an 11 year-old girl is reported. The tumor was sub-totally resected. She received no adjuvant treatment and is symptom-free at the follow-up of 8 months.

  2. Real-time ultrasound Doppler enhances precision in image-guided approaches to the cerebello-pontine angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghdasaryan, Davit; Albrecht, Marcel; Shahnazaryan, Mihr; Rosahl, Steffen

    2017-08-10

    To evaluate efficacy and reliability of intraoperative Doppler sonography in localizing the transverse and sigmoid sinuses during lateral suboccipital craniotomy. A 16-Mhz intraoperative micro-Doppler ultrasound (16Mhz, Multi-Dop pro®, Compumedics, Germany) was applied to detect the medial border of the sigmoid sinus and the inferior border of the transverse sinus in 25 patients. Micro-Doppler measurements were compared to MR- and CT-based image-guidance (Kolibri®, Brainlab, Germany). Visual detectability of the sinuses under the operating microscope was also documented. Inadvertent incision of the transverse or sigmoid sinuses did not occur in any case when the two localizing methods have been used in combination. The mean mismatch of image-guided system and micro-Doppler was 2.64mm (range 0-6mm, SD 1.55 mm). Under the microscope the transverse sinus was invisible in seven cases, the sigmoid sinus was visually undetectable in one case. The micro-Doppler indicated blood flow outside the visible borders of the sinuses in five cases. A combination of image-guidance and micro-Doppler enhances the accuracy in localizing the margins of the transverse and sigmoid sinuses in the retrosigmoid approach, thus preventing inadvertent injury. The method could potentially be applied during other craniotomies involving the exposure of a venous sinus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A connection between neurovascular conflicts within the cerebellopontine angle and vestibular neuritis, a case controlled cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Loader, B.; Linauer, I.; Korkesch, S.; Krammer-Effenberger, I.; Zielinski, V.; Schibany, N.; Kaider, A.; Vyskocil, E.; Tscholakoff, D.; Franz, P.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY This retrospective, observer blinded case-control study aims to compare the prevalence of neurovascular conflicts (NVCs) of the vestibulocochlear nerve and the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) in patients presenting with clinical signs of acute vestibular neuritis with and without subsequent objective vestibular function loss (VFL). 58 acute cases of clinically suspected acute vestibular neuritis were investigated with same day cranial MRI at a tertiary referral centre and c...

  4. The head-shaft angle of the hip in early childhood: a comparison of reference values for children with cerebral palsy and normally developing hips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der List, J P; Witbreuk, M M; Buizer, A I; van der Sluijs, J A

    2015-09-01

    The recognition of hips at risk of displacement in children with cerebral palsy (CP) is a difficult problem for the orthopaedic surgeon. The Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) and head-shaft angle (HSA) are prognostic factors for hip displacement. However, reference values for HSA are lacking. This study describes and compares the development of HSA in normal hips and children with CP. We selected 33 children from a retrospective cohort with unilateral developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH) (five boys, 28 girls) and 50 children (35 boys, 15 girls) with CP with GMFCS levels II to V. HSA of normal developing hips was measured at the contralateral hip of unilateral DDH children (33 hips) and HSA of CP children was measured in both hips (100 hips). Measurements were taken from the radiographs of the children at age two, four and seven years. The normal hip HSA decreased by 2° per year (p GMFCS levels II and III HSA decreased by 0.6° (p = 0.046) and 0.9° (p = 0.049) per year, respectively. The HSA did not alter significantly in GMFCS levels IV and V. Between the ages of two and eight years, the HSA decreases in normal hips and CP children with GMFCS level, II to III but does not change in GMFCS levels IV to V. As HSA has a prognostic value for hip displacement, these reference values may help the orthopaedic surgeon to predict future hip displacement in children with CP.

  5. Accuracy of single-sequence MRI for investigation of the fluid-filled spaces in the inner ear and cerebellopontine angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmerling, M; De Praeter, G; Caemaert, J; Van Cauwemberge, P; De Reuck, J; Vermeersch, H; Kunnen, M

    1999-04-01

    We prospectively studied 163 patients referred for MRI of the temporal bone. A presumed diagnosis was made using only one of three sequences: a single thick (12 mm) slice fast T2-sequence, 3D fourier transform constructive interference in steady state (3DFT-CISS) sequence and a gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted sequence. The visibility of the cochlea, vestibule and superior, lateral and posterior semicircular canals of normal temporal bones was assessed on the T2-weighted images: they were almost always visible (98-100%), with exception of the superior semicircular canal, seen in only 35% of cases. The images were interpreted as abnormal in 34 patients (21%). Using only the fast T2-weighted, 3DFT-CISS and gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted sequences a presumed false positive diagnosis was made in 5, 1 and 0 cases and a false negative diagnosis in 2, 2 and 4 cases respectively. The overall reliability of the thick-section fast T2-weighted images is limited. This study suggests that a combination of gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted and 3DFT-CISS images can be considered the gold standard for temporal bone MRI and neither sequence performed separately is as accurate as both together.

  6. [Bilateral cerebellopontine arachnoid cyst].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelabert-Gonzalez, M; Aran-Echabe, E; Pita-Buezas, L

    2016-06-16

    Introduccion. Los quistes aracnoideos bilaterales del angulo pontocerebeloso son excepcionales, y unicamente existen tres casos publicados en la bibliografia. Caso clinico. Niña de 14 años, previamente sana, que acude a consultas por presentar cefalea bifrontal de seis semanas de evolucion. La exploracion clinica era normal y la resonancia magnetica craneal mostraba dos lesiones extraaxiales localizadas en ambos angulos pontocerebelosos, siendo ligeramente mayor la izquierda. Las lesiones se comportaban como homogeneamente intensas en T1 e hiperintensas en T2, no captaban contraste y no existia restriccion en las secuencias de difusion. No se indico tratamiento quirurgico. Conclusiones. Los quistes aracnoideos bilaterales situados en el angulo pontocerebeloso son excepcionales. La principal indicacion para el tratamiento quirurgico es la presencia de sintomas o signos neurologicos coincidentes con la localizacion de los quistes.

  7. Childhood Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids to Be Smart About Social Media Childhood Stress KidsHealth > For Parents > Childhood Stress Print A A ... and feel stress to some degree. Sources of Stress Stress is a function of the demands placed ...

  8. Childhood Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood schizophrenia Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Childhood schizophrenia is an uncommon but severe mental disorder in which children interpret reality abnormally. Schizophrenia involves a range of problems with thinking (cognitive), ...

  9. Childhood obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, Justine; Howard, Simon

    2006-01-01

    Childhood obesity has important consequences for health and wellbeing both during childhood and also in later adult life. The rising prevalence of childhood obesity poses a major public health challenge in both developed and developing countries by increasing the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases. Despite the urgent need for effective preventative strategies, there remains disagreement over its definition due to a lack of evidence on the optimal cut-offs linking childhood BMI to dis...

  10. A new angle on the Euler angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markley, F. Landis; Shuster, Malcolm D.

    1995-01-01

    We present a generalization of the Euler angles to axes beyond the twelve conventional sets. The generalized Euler axes must satisfy the constraint that the first and the third are orthogonal to the second; but the angle between the first and third is arbitrary, rather than being restricted to the values 0 and pi/2, as in the conventional sets. This is the broadest generalization of the Euler angles that provides a representation of an arbitrary rotation matrix. The kinematics of the generalized Euler angles and their relation to the attitude matrix are presented. As a side benefit, the equations for the generalized Euler angles are universal in that they incorporate the equations for the twelve conventional sets of Euler angles in a natural way.

  11. Glaucoma, Open-Angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Programs Home > Statistics and Data > Glaucoma, Open-angle Glaucoma, Open-angle Open-angle Glaucoma Defined In open-angle glaucoma, the fluid passes ... 2010 2010 U.S. Age-Specific Prevalence Rates for Glaucoma by Age and Race/Ethnicity The prevalence of ...

  12. Childhood Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... emergency physicians. They receive comprehensive training in treating childhood emergencies and have more training in pediatric emergencies than other physicians, including pediatricians. Does Your Child's School Know About Food Allergies? - 8/10/2015 The nation's emergency physician ...

  13. Contact Angle Goniometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:The FTA32 goniometer provides video-based contact angle and surface tension measurement. Contact angles are measured by fitting a mathematical expression...

  14. Childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Anju; Sharma, Rajni

    2013-04-01

    Childhood obesity is an issue of serious medical and social concern. In developing countries including India, it is a phenomenon seen in higher socioeconomic strata due to the adoption of a western lifestyle. Consumption of high calorie food, lack of physical activity and increased screen time are major risk factors for childhood obesity apart from other genetic, prenatal factors and socio-cultural practices. Obese children and adolescents are at increased risk of medical and psychological complications. Insulin resistance is commonly present especially in those with central obesity and manifests as dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance, hypertension, polycystic ovarian syndrome and metabolic syndrome. Obese children and adolescents often present to general physicians for management. The latter play a key role in prevention and treatment of obesity as it involves lifestyle modification of the entire family. This article aims at discussing the approach to diagnosis and work-up, treatment and preventive strategies for childhood obesity from a general physician's perspective.

  15. Childhood obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitmann, Berit L; Koplan, Jeffrey; Lissner, Lauren

    2009-01-01

    Despite progress toward assuring the health of today's young population, the 21(st) century began with an epidemic of childhood obesity. There is general agreement that the situation must be addressed by means of primary prevention, but relatively little is known about how to intervene effectively....... The evidence behind the assumption that childhood obesity can be prevented was discussed critically in this roundtable symposium. Overall, there was general agreement that action is needed and that the worldwide epidemic itself is sufficient evidence for action. As the poet, writer, and scholar Wittner Bynner...

  16. Retromastoid-sub occipital: A novel approach to cerebello pontine angle in acoustic neuroma surgery-our experience in 21 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P K Nayak

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Acoustic neuroma surgery poses significant challenges regarding definite management and preservation of hearing and the facial nerve are of great concern. Aim: To analyze the efficacy of the retromastoid approach in acoustic neuroma surgery. Materials and Methods: Tumors operated between January 2002 and December 2008, by the authors, using the retromastoid approach, were analyzed. Twenty-one patients who presented with acoustic tumor were considered for this study. Discussion: Precise knowledge of the neuroanatomy in the cerebellopontine angle is the key to success and microsurgical technique is the sole factor for good outcome. Conclusion: Retromastoid, in fact is the approach to the skull base with minimal or no damage to neurovascular structures, in contrast to the translabyrinthine or presigmoid approach.

  17. Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuca, Sevil Ari, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book aims to provide readers with a general as well as an advanced overview of the key trends in childhood obesity. Obesity is an illness that occurs due to a combination of genetic, environmental, psychosocial, metabolic and hormonal factors. The prevalence of obesity has shown a great rise both in adults and children in the last 30 years.…

  18. Childhood Obesity

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-06

    In this podcast, Dr. Tom Frieden, CDC Director, discusses the decrease in childhood obesity rates and what strategies have been proven to work to help our children grow up and thrive.  Created: 8/6/2013 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control.   Date Released: 3/6/2014.

  19. Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuca, Sevil Ari, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book aims to provide readers with a general as well as an advanced overview of the key trends in childhood obesity. Obesity is an illness that occurs due to a combination of genetic, environmental, psychosocial, metabolic and hormonal factors. The prevalence of obesity has shown a great rise both in adults and children in the last 30 years.…

  20. Childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, R

    1999-01-01

    Approximately 10% of children are obese. Twin and adoption studies demonstrate a large genetic component to obesity, especially in adults. However, the increasing prevalence of obesity over the last 20 years can only be explained by environmental factors. In most obese individuals, no measurable differences in metabolism can be detected. Few children engage in regular physical activity. Obese children and adults uniformly underreport the amount of food they eat. Obesity is particularly related to increased consumption of high-fat foods. BMI is a quick and easy way to screen for childhood obesity. Treating childhood obesity relies on positive family support and lifestyle changes involving the whole family. Food preferences are influenced early by parental eating habits, and when developed in childhood, they tend to remain fairly constant into adulthood. Children learn to be active or inactive from their parents. In addition, physical activity (or more commonly, physical inactivity) habits that are established in childhood tend to persist into adulthood. Weight loss is usually followed by changes in appetite and metabolism, predisposing individuals to regain their weight. However, when the right family dynamics exist--a motivated child with supportive parents--long-term success is possible.

  1. Childhood vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Palit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood vitiligo is often encountered in dermatological practice. When present in infancy or early childhood, various nevoid and hereditary disorders are to be differentiated. In many cases, familial aggregation of the disease is seen and other autoimmune disorders may be associated. Segmental presentation is more common, and limited body surface area involvement is usual in this age group. Children with vitiligo often suffer from anxiety and depression because of their unusual appearance. Management of vitiligo in children is difficult as therapeutic options are restricted when compared to that in adult patients. Selection of treatment should be careful in these patients with the aim to achieve best results with minimal side effects as well as relieving patients′ and parents′ anxiety.

  2. Childhood rhabdomyosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba Rovira, S M; Inarejos Clemente, E J

    Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common soft-tissue sarcoma in children; it can appear in any part of the body. Its biological behavior varies widely, and despite the absence of specific clinical or radiological characteristics, rhabdomyosarcoma should be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of solid tumors in children. This review focuses primarily on the imaging findings and anatomical distribution of the histological subtypes of childhood rhabdomyosarcoma and secondarily on the differential findings in histological studies.

  3. Childhood pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uretsky, G; Goldschmiedt, M; James, K

    1999-05-01

    Acute pancreatitis is a rare finding in childhood but probably more common than is generally realized. This condition should be considered in the evaluation of children with vomiting and abdominal pain, because it can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Clinical suspicion is required to make the diagnosis, especially when the serum amylase concentration is normal. Recurrent pancreatitis may be familial as a result of inherited biochemical or anatomic abnormalities. Patients with hereditary pancreatitis are at high risk for pancreatic cancer.

  4. Childhood Obesity Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Childhood Obesity Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Children (WIC) Program, 2000–2014 Prevalence of Childhood Obesity in the United States, 2011-2014 Childhood obesity ...

  5. Reading Angles in Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izard, Véronique; O'Donnell, Evan; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2014-01-01

    Preschool children can navigate by simple geometric maps of the environment, but the nature of the geometric relations they use in map reading remains unclear. Here, children were tested specifically on their sensitivity to angle. Forty-eight children (age 47:15-53:30 months) were presented with fragments of geometric maps, in which angle sections…

  6. Photoelectric angle converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podzharenko, Volodymyr A.; Kulakov, Pavlo I.

    2001-06-01

    The photo-electric angle transmitter of rotation is offered, at which the output voltage is linear function of entering magnitude. In a transmitter the linear phototransducer is used on the basis of pair photo diode -- operating amplifier, which output voltage is linear function of the area of an illuminated photosensitive stratum, and modulator of a light stream of the special shape, which ensures a linear dependence of this area from an angle of rotation. The transmitter has good frequent properties and can be used for dynamic measurements of an angular velocity and angle of rotation, in systems of exact drives and systems of autocontrol.

  7. Childhood psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahé, Emmanuel

    2016-12-01

    Psoriasis is a common chronic inflammatory skin disease. Recently, few data have been published on epidemiology, comorbidity, or therapy in children with psoriasis. Psoriasis affects up to 2% of children in Europe, even during the first months of life. The link between psoriasis and metabolic comorbidities has been highlighted, notably in relation to excessive weight and obesity. The clinical picture of psoriasis in childhood resembles adult disease, however, some clinical features are noteworthy: neonatal diaper rash is relatively specific, face involvement and guttate psoriasis are more common, plaques are often smaller, and scales are finer and softer than in adults. Napkin, guttate and palmoplantar psoriasis appear to have specific features in childhood and prevalence depends on the age of the child. Although benign, the effect of psoriasis on social interaction can be major, especially in children. Topical therapies are the first line of treatment for skin-limited disease. For chronic cases and more severe cases, phototherapy or traditional biologic systemic treatments must be discussed. The great challenge will be to propose international guidelines to manage these children.

  8. Angle-Ply Weaving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Gary L.

    1990-01-01

    Bias-direction or angle-ply weaving is proposed new process for weaving fibers along bias in conventional planar fabric or in complicated three-dimensional multilayer fabric preform of fiber-reinforced composite structure. Based upon movement of racks of needles and corresponding angle yarns across fabric as fabric being formed. Fibers woven along bias increases shear stiffness and shear strength of preform, increasing value of preform as structural member.

  9. Childhood: 1892-1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wortham, Sue C.

    Written to celebrate a century of childhood and to mark the centennial year of the Association for Childhood Education International (ACEI), this book describes childhood and childhood education during the past century in the context of the conditions during different periods. The book contains the following chapters: (1) "The American…

  10. Morphometric analysis of posterior fossa in Indian CP angle acoustic schwannoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patibandla, Mohana Rao; Panigrahi, Manas K; Gurram, Paniraj L; Thotakura, Amit Kumar; Kulkarni, Dilip

    2016-01-01

    To study the morphometry of posterior fossa in Indian CP angle schwannoma patients in order to know its influence on the extent of excision of the CP angle acoustic schwannomas. One hundred cases of cerebellopontine angle schwannomas treated surgically by the senior author and 20 controls between January 2006 and June 2011 were consecutively investigated with computed tomography (CT) using the high-resolution CT bone windows before surgery. Evaluation of anatomic parameters of the petrous bone and posterior fossa cavity were done in all patients and controls. Data were entered in Excel software and were analyzed using NCSS software. All possible regression analysis was done to select the important variables to be included in the model to predict the excision of tumor with these variables. A prediction model was developed defining the binary outcome as total excision or subtotal excision as dependent variable and the morphometric data and grading of tumor as independent variables. Interpetrous distance (IP) is the distance between the two petrous apices. Sigmoid distance (IS) distance is the distance between the two sigmoid points. Sigmoid point is the point at which the scalloped impression of the sigmoid sinus straightens to join the occipital bone posteriorly. SAG is the distance between the mid IP point and the mid-point on the inner wall of the occipital bone. The PM angle was 47.8±4.14 degrees (38-58), the PA angle was 42.68±4.47 degrees (34-53), the IP distance was 2.07±0.13 cm (1.5-2.8), the sagittal diameter of posterior fossa was 6.22±0.73 cm (5.1-9.8) and the intersigmoid distance was 9.45±0.73 cm (7.4-11). There was no significant gender difference in the posterior fossa morphometry between patients and controls. Inter-sigmoid distance and the petrous-apex angle were more in the Indians when compared to the European population mentioned in the Mathies and Samii study. The posterior fossa morphological parameters of the Indian and European population

  11. Limited Angle Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ho Kyung; Cho, Min Kook; Kim, Seong Sik [Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    In computed tomography (CT), many situations are restricted to obtain enough number of projections or views to avoid artifacts such as streaking and geometrical distortion in the reconstructed images. Speed of motion of an object to be imaged can limit the number of views. Cardiovascular imaging is a representative example. Size of an object can also limit the complete traverse motion or geometrical complexity can obscure to be imaged at certain range of angles. These situations are frequently met in industrial nondestructive testing and evaluation. Dental CT also suffers from similar situation because cervical spine causes less x-ray penetration from some directions such that the available information is not sufficient for standard reconstruction algorithms. The limited angle tomography is now greatly paid attention as a new genre in medical and industrial imaging, popularly known as digital tomosynthesis. In this study, we introduce a modified filtered backprojection method in limited angle tomography and demonstrate its application for the dental imaging.

  12. Dynamical angled brane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Kei-ichi; Uzawa, Kunihito

    2016-12-01

    We discuss the dynamical D p -brane solutions describing any number of D p branes whose relative orientations are given by certain SU(2) rotations. These are the generalization of the static angled D p -brane solutions. We study the collision of the dynamical D3 brane with angles in type-II string theory, and show that the particular orientation of the smeared D3-brane configuration can provide an example of colliding branes if they have the same charges. Otherwise a singularity appears before D3 branes collide.

  13. The quadriceps angle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miles, James Edward; Frederiksen, Jane V.; Jensen, Bente Rona

    2012-01-01

    : Pelvic limbs from red foxes (Vulpes vulpes). METHODS: Q angles were measured on hip dysplasia (HD) and whole limb (WL) view radiographs of each limb between the acetabular rim, mid-point (Q1: patellar center, Q2: femoral trochlea), and tibial tuberosity. Errors of 0.5-2.0 mm at measurement landmarks...

  14. Childhood fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, C Y; Allen, D M

    1996-02-01

    Childhood fever is a common symptom, reflective of multiple causes. As the child is often unable to express himself, the physician must rely on parents' observations and the physical examination. The majority of febrile children have non-bacterial upper respiratory tract infection and indiscriminate use of antibiotics is inappropriate, ineffective and leads to drug-resistance such as the emergence of Penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. In this article, we attempt to identify the possible causes of fever by a simple approach using the presence or absence of associated or localising symptoms. Infants less than 3 months constitute a unique group as the fever may be related to perinatal events and as serious bacterial infections can still occur despite unremarkable physical findings. Management of fever needs to take into account the toxicity, immune status and age of the patients as well as the source of the infection. Zealous overprescription of antipyretics needs to be avoided with attention directed to the cause of the fever, the child's capacity to cope with the illness and parental education.

  15. Childhood Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain tumors are abnormal growths inside the skull. They are among the most common types of childhood ... still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches and ...

  16. Contact angle hysteresis explained.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lichao; McCarthy, Thomas J

    2006-07-04

    A view of contact angle hysteresis from the perspectives of the three-phase contact line and of the kinetics of contact line motion is given. Arguments are made that advancing and receding are discrete events that have different activation energies. That hysteresis can be quantified as an activation energy by the changes in interfacial area is argued. That this is an appropriate way of viewing hysteresis is demonstrated with examples.

  17. The lateral angle revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgan, Jeannie; Lynnerup, Niels; Hoppa, R.D.

    2013-01-01

    measurements taken from computed tomography (CT) scans. Previous reports have observed that the lateral angle size in females is significantly larger than in males. The method was applied to an independent series of 77 postmortem CT scans (42 males, 35 females) to validate its accuracy and reliability...... method appears to be of minimal practical use in forensic anthropology and archeology. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences....

  18. Relationship between the Angle of Repose and Angle of Internal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Angle of repose, angle of internal friction, granular materials, triaxial compression ... such a granular material is sharp, making a steep .... study. Therefore, grains had to be condi- tioned to the respective moisture contents by adding ...

  19. Variable angle correlation spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y K [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1994-05-01

    In this dissertation, a novel nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique, variable angle correlation spectroscopy (VACSY) is described and demonstrated with {sup 13}C nuclei in rapidly rotating samples. These experiments focus on one of the basic problems in solid state NMR: how to extract the wealth of information contained in the anisotropic component of the NMR signal while still maintaining spectral resolution. Analysis of the anisotropic spectral patterns from poly-crystalline systems reveal information concerning molecular structure and dynamics, yet in all but the simplest of systems, the overlap of spectral patterns from chemically distinct sites renders the spectral analysis difficult if not impossible. One solution to this problem is to perform multi-dimensional experiments where the high-resolution, isotropic spectrum in one dimension is correlated with the anisotropic spectral patterns in the other dimensions. The VACSY technique incorporates the angle between the spinner axis and the static magnetic field as an experimental parameter that may be incremented during the course of the experiment to help correlate the isotropic and anisotropic components of the spectrum. The two-dimensional version of the VACSY experiments is used to extract the chemical shift anisotropy tensor values from multi-site organic molecules, study molecular dynamics in the intermediate time regime, and to examine the ordering properties of partially oriented samples. The VACSY technique is then extended to three-dimensional experiments to study slow molecular reorientations in a multi-site polymer system.

  20. Angle-deviation optical profilometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen-Tai Tan; Yuan-Sheng Chan; Zhen-Chin Lin; Ming-Hung Chiu

    2011-01-01

    @@ We propose a new optical profilometer for three-dimensional (3D) surface profile measurement in real time.The deviation angle is based on geometrical optics and is proportional to the apex angle of a test plate.Measuring the reflectivity of a parallelogram prism allows detection of the deviation angle when the beam is incident at the nearby critical angle. The reflectivity is inversely proportional to the deviation angle and proportional to the apex angle and surface height. We use a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera at the image plane to capture the reflectivity profile and obtain the 3D surface profile directly.%We propose a new optical profilometer for three-dimensional (3D) surface profile measurement in real time.The deviation angle is based on geometrical optics and is proportional to the apex angle of a test plate.Measuring the refiectivity of a parallelogram prism allows detection of the deviation angle when the beam is incident at the nearby critical angle. The refiectivity is inversely proportional to the deviation angle and proportional to the apex angle and surface height. We use a charge-coupled device (CCD) camera at the image plane to capture the refiectivity profile and obtain the 3D surface profile directly.

  1. Heterodyne Interferometer Angle Metrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Inseob; Weilert, Mark A.; Wang, Xu; Goullioud, Renaud

    2010-01-01

    A compact, high-resolution angle measurement instrument has been developed that is based on a heterodyne interferometer. The common-path heterodyne interferometer metrology is used to measure displacements of a reflective target surface. In the interferometer setup, an optical mask is used to sample the measurement laser beam reflecting back from a target surface. Angular rotations, around two orthogonal axes in a plane perpendicular to the measurement- beam propagation direction, are determined simultaneously from the relative displacement measurement of the target surface. The device is used in a tracking telescope system where pitch and yaw measurements of a flat mirror were simultaneously performed with a sensitivity of 0.1 nrad, per second, and a measuring range of 0.15 mrad at a working distance of an order of a meter. The nonlinearity of the device is also measured less than one percent over the measurement range.

  2. Childhood trauma and childhood urbanicity in relation to psychotic disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frissen, Aleida; Lieverse, Ritsaert; Drukker, Marjan; van Winkel, Ruud; Delespaul, Philippe; Cahn, W

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Urban upbringing and childhood trauma are both associated with psychotic disorders. However, the association between childhood urbanicity and childhood trauma in psychosis is poorly understood. The urban environment could occasion a background of social adversity against which any effect

  3. Equilibrium contact angle or the most-stable contact angle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes Ruiz-Cabello, F J; Rodríguez-Valverde, M A; Cabrerizo-Vílchez, M A

    2014-04-01

    It is well-established that the equilibrium contact angle in a thermodynamic framework is an "unattainable" contact angle. Instead, the most-stable contact angle obtained from mechanical stimuli of the system is indeed experimentally accessible. Monitoring the susceptibility of a sessile drop to a mechanical stimulus enables to identify the most stable drop configuration within the practical range of contact angle hysteresis. Two different stimuli may be used with sessile drops: mechanical vibration and tilting. The most stable drop against vibration should reveal the changeless contact angle but against the gravity force, it should reveal the highest resistance to slide down. After the corresponding mechanical stimulus, once the excited drop configuration is examined, the focus will be on the contact angle of the initial drop configuration. This methodology needs to map significantly the static drop configurations with different stable contact angles. The most-stable contact angle, together with the advancing and receding contact angles, completes the description of physically realizable configurations of a solid-liquid system. Since the most-stable contact angle is energetically significant, it may be used in the Wenzel, Cassie or Cassie-Baxter equations accordingly or for the surface energy evaluation.

  4. Generalization of the Euler Angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor); Shuster, Malcolm D.; Markley, F. Landis

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that the Euler angles can be generalized to axes other than members of an orthonormal triad. As first shown by Davenport, the three generalized Euler axes, hereafter: Davenport axes, must still satisfy the constraint that the first two and the last two axes be mutually perpendicular if these axes are to define a universal set of attitude parameters. Expressions are given which relate the generalized Euler angles, hereafter: Davenport angles, to the 3-1-3 Euler angles of an associated direction-cosine matrix. The computation of the Davenport angles from the attitude matrix and their kinematic equation are presented. The present work offers a more direct development of the Davenport angles than Davenport's original publication and offers additional results.

  5. Small angle neutron scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cousin Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS is a technique that enables to probe the 3-D structure of materials on a typical size range lying from ∼ 1 nm up to ∼ a few 100 nm, the obtained information being statistically averaged on a sample whose volume is ∼ 1 cm3. This very rich technique enables to make a full structural characterization of a given object of nanometric dimensions (radius of gyration, shape, volume or mass, fractal dimension, specific area… through the determination of the form factor as well as the determination of the way objects are organized within in a continuous media, and therefore to describe interactions between them, through the determination of the structure factor. The specific properties of neutrons (possibility of tuning the scattering intensity by using the isotopic substitution, sensitivity to magnetism, negligible absorption, low energy of the incident neutrons make it particularly interesting in the fields of soft matter, biophysics, magnetic materials and metallurgy. In particular, the contrast variation methods allow to extract some informations that cannot be obtained by any other experimental techniques. This course is divided in two parts. The first one is devoted to the description of the principle of SANS: basics (formalism, coherent scattering/incoherent scattering, notion of elementary scatterer, form factor analysis (I(q→0, Guinier regime, intermediate regime, Porod regime, polydisperse system, structure factor analysis (2nd Virial coefficient, integral equations, characterization of aggregates, and contrast variation methods (how to create contrast in an homogeneous system, matching in ternary systems, extrapolation to zero concentration, Zero Averaged Contrast. It is illustrated by some representative examples. The second one describes the experimental aspects of SANS to guide user in its future experiments: description of SANS spectrometer, resolution of the spectrometer, optimization of

  6. Undiagnosed asthma in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gent, R.

    2008-01-01

    Asthma is the most prevalent chronic disease in childhood. To study the actual prevalence and impact of undiagnosed childhood asthma in daily life (i.e. quality of life, participation in physical and school activities) we performed a survey in schoolchildren (aged 7-10 years) in the southern part of

  7. Childhood Roots of Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Norman F.; Lubensky, Amy W.

    1976-01-01

    Earlier project reports compared childhood social behavior of nonmigratory schizophrenics and normal classmates by analyzing teachers' comments in school records. This article expands the sample to include migratory schizophrenics and analyzes childhood intellectual functioning. Behavioral differences indicated emotional immaturity and social…

  8. Hysteresis during contact angles measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, M Elena; Fuentes, Javier; Cerro, Ramon L; Savage, Michael D

    2010-03-15

    A theory, based on the presence of an adsorbed film in the vicinity of the triple contact line, provides a molecular interpretation of intrinsic hysteresis during the measurement of static contact angles. Static contact angles are measured by placing a sessile drop on top of a flat solid surface. If the solid surface has not been previously in contact with a vapor phase saturated with the molecules of the liquid phase, the solid surface is free of adsorbed liquid molecules. In the absence of an adsorbed film, molecular forces configure an advancing contact angle larger than the static contact angle. After some time, due to an evaporation/adsorption process, the interface of the drop coexists with an adsorbed film of liquid molecules as part of the equilibrium configuration, denoted as the static contact angle. This equilibrium configuration is metastable because the droplet has a larger vapor pressure than the surrounding flat film. As the drop evaporates, the vapor/liquid interface contracts and the apparent contact line moves towards the center of the drop. During this process, the film left behind is thicker than the adsorbed film and molecular attraction results in a receding contact angle, smaller than the equilibrium contact angle.

  9. Cardiovascular Conditions of Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... diagnosed, treated and even cured in younger children. Kawasaki Disease This childhood illness can result in long-term ... complications. Learn the symptoms, diagnosis and treatment for Kawasaki disease. Cholesterol Raised cholesterol levels early in life may ...

  10. Childhood Traumatic Grief

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Violence Early Childhood Trauma Medical Trauma Natural Disasters Earthquakes Epidemics Pandemic Flu SARS Fires Residential Fires Wildfires ... Links NCTSN Newsletter NCTSN eBulletin Public Awareness Suicide Prevention Month/World Suicide Day Sept. 11th National Day ...

  11. Childhood Obesity: Common Misconceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... less than 1% of the cases of childhood obesity. Yes, hypothyroidism (a deficit in thyroid secretion) and other rarer and more severe genetic and metabolic disorders (eg, Prader-Willi syndrome, Turner syndrome, Cushing syndrome) can cause weight gain ( ...

  12. Childhood Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Non-Hodgkin) Lymphoma (Hodgkin) Neuroblastoma Osteosarcoma Retinoblastoma Rhabdomyosarcoma Skin Cancer Soft Tissue Sarcoma Thyroid Cancer Cancer Resources Childhood Cancer Statistics Coping With Cancer CureSearch CancerCare App Late Effects ...

  13. (Reconceptualizing Early Childhood Education)?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    Second, I must stress the immensely precious and ..... 'useless' subjects such as emotions, sensitivity, .... a range of different sociological fields including early childhood, gender, .... The origins of intelligence in children (M. Cook, Trans.).

  14. Reducing Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Reducing Childhood Obesity Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents For ... Ga. were the first three We Can! cities. Obesity Research: A New Approach The percentage of children ...

  15. Childhood vitiligo: Treatment paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrinder Jit Kanwar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood vitiligo differs from the adults by showing a higher incidence in females, segmental vitiligo being more common and less frequent association with other systemic autoimmune and endocrine disorders.Childhood vitiligo is often associated with a marked psychosocial and long lasting effect on the self-esteem of the affected children and their parents, hence an adequate treatment is very essential. Treatment of vitiligo is indeed a tough challenge for the dermatologists′ more so in the background of childhood vitiligo. Although multiple therapeutic modalities are available in the therapeutic armamentarium, not all can be used in children. This brief report updates regarding various therapies available in the treatment of childhood vitiligo.

  16. Perinatal and Childhood Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology, risk factors, outcome and prognosis of perinatal and childhood stroke were reviewed at a workshop sponsored by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke in Bethesda, MD, on Sept 18 and 19, 2000.

  17. Nutrition in childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Bartolo, Marie Claire

    2014-01-01

    Childhood is the stage in a human’s life associated with growth and development. Growth proceeds rapidly in early life, slows down in middle childhood and accelerates at puberty before linear growth ceases. With increasing age there is also physical and psychomotor maturation, which influences activity, body composition, feeding skills and food choices (Geissler, 2011). Adequate nutrition is essential for growth, health and development of children. Poor nutrition in...

  18. Early childhood aggression

    OpenAIRE

    Alink, Lenneke Rosalie Agnes

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis the development, stability, and correlates of early childhood aggression were investigated. The normative development was examined in a general population sample using questionnaires completed by the parents of 12-, 24-, and 36-month-old children and again one year later. Results showed an early childhood aggression curve, with increasing rates of aggression in the second year of life and decreasing rates in the fourth year. One-year stabilities were moderate for 12-month-olds ...

  19. Two Comments on Bond Angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaister, P.

    1997-09-01

    Tetrahedral Bond Angle from Elementary Trigonometry The alternative approach of using the scalar (or dot) product of vectors enables the determination of the bond angle in a tetrahedral molecule in a simple way. There is, of course, an even more straightforward derivation suitable for students who are unfamiliar with vectors, or products thereof, but who do know some elementary trigonometry. The starting point is the figure showing triangle OAB. The point O is the center of a cube, and A and B are at opposite corners of a face of that cube in which fits a regular tetrahedron. The required bond angle alpha = AÔB; and using Pythagoras' theorem, AB = 2(square root 2) is the diagonal of a face of the cube. Hence from right-angled triangle OEB, tan(alpha/2) = (square root 2) and therefore alpha = 2tan-1(square root 2) is approx. 109° 28' (see Fig. 1).

  20. Oriented angles in affine space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodzimierz Waliszewski

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of a smooth oriented angle in an arbitrary affine space is introduced. This concept is based on a kinematics concept of a run. Also, a concept of an oriented angle in such a space is considered. Next, it is shown that the adequacy of these concepts holds if and only if the affine space, in question, is of dimension 2 or 1.

  1. Peripapillary choroidal thickness in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Scott A; Alonso-Caneiro, David; Vincent, Stephen J; Collins, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    Changes in the thickness of the invivo peripapillary choroid have been documented in a range of ocular conditions in adults; however, choroidal thickness in the peripapillary region of children has not been examined in detail. This study therefore aimed to investigate the thickness of the peripapillary choroid and the overlying retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) in a population of normal children with a range of refractive errors. Ninety-three children (37 myopes and 56 non-myopes) aged between 11 and 16 years, had measurements of peripapillary choroidal and RNFL thickness derived from enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography images (EDI-OCT, Heidelberg Spectralis). The average thickness was determined in a series of five 0.25 mm width concentric annuli (each divided into 8 equal sized 45° sectors) centred on the optic nerve head boundary, accounting for individual ocular magnification factors and the disc-fovea angle. Significant variations in peripapillary choroidal thickness were found to occur with both annulus location (p choroid (mean 77 ± 16 μm) and the outermost annulus, the thickest choroid (191 ± 52 μm). The choroid was thinnest inferior to the optic nerve head (139 ± 38 μm) and was thickest in the superior temporal sector (157 ± 40 μm). Significant differences in the distribution of choroidal thickness were also associated with myopia, with myopic children having significantly thinner choroids in the inner and outer annuli of the nasal and temporal sectors respectively (p thickness also varied significantly with annulus location and sector (p thickness distribution associated with refractive error. This study establishes the normal variations in the thickness of the peripapillary choroid with radial distance and azimuthal angle from the optic nerve head boundary. A significant thinning of the peripapillary choroid associated with myopia in childhood was also observed in both nasal and temporal regions. The changes in peripapillary RNFL

  2. The Semiotic and Conceptual Genesis of Angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanguay, Denis; Venant, Fabienne

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we try to understand how students at the end of primary school conceive of angle: Is an angle a magnitude for them or a geometric figure, and how do they manage to coordinate the two aspects in their understanding of the concepts of angle and of angle measurement? With the aim of better grasping the way "angle" is…

  3. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    AAS Childhood Sexual Abuse and Suicide 2014 One third of sexual assault victims were under the age of 12. 1 1 Lifetime prevalence of childhood sexual abuse in the U.S. is approximately 10% and also ...

  4. Frequency scaling for angle gathers

    KAUST Repository

    Zuberi, M. A H

    2014-01-01

    Angle gathers provide an extra dimension to analyze the velocity after migration. Space-shift and time shift-imaging conditions are two methods used to obtain angle gathers, but both are reasonably expensive. By scaling the time-lag axis of the time-shifted images, the computational cost of the time shift imaging condition can be considerably reduced. In imaging and more so Full waveform inversion, frequencydomain Helmholtz solvers are used more often to solve for the wavefields than conventional time domain extrapolators. In such cases, we do not need to extend the image, instead we scale the frequency axis of the frequency domain image to obtain the angle gathers more efficiently. Application on synthetic data demonstrate such features.

  5. Childhood trauma in bipolar disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Stuart; Gallagher, Peter; Dougall, Dominic; Porter, Richard; Moncrieff, Joanna; Ferrier, I Nicol; Young, Allan H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: There has been little investigation of early trauma in bipolar disorder despite evidence that stress impacts on the course of this illness. We aimed to compare the rates of childhood trauma in adults with bipolar disorder to a healthy control group, and to investigate the impact of childhood trauma on the clinical course of bipolar disorder. Methods: Retrospective assessment of childhood trauma was conducted using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) in 60 outpatients with bipo...

  6. Childhood trauma in bipolar disorder.

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, S; Gallagher, P.; Dougall, D.; Porter, R.; Moncrieff, J; Ferrier, I N; Young, A.H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective:There has been little investigation of early trauma in bipolar disorder despite evidence that stress impacts on the course of this illness. We aimed to compare the rates of childhood trauma in adults with bipolar disorder to a healthy control group, and to investigate the impact of childhood trauma on the clinical course of bipolar disorder.Methods:Retrospective assessment of childhood trauma was conducted using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) in 60 outpatients with bipolar...

  7. Angle independent velocity spectrum determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    An ultrasound imaging system (100) includes a transducer array (102) that emits an ultrasound beam and produces at least one transverse pulse-echo field that oscillates in a direction transverse to the emitted ultrasound beam and that receive echoes produced in response thereto and a spectral vel...... velocity estimator (110) that determines a velocity spectrum for flowing structure, which flows at an angle of 90 degrees and flows at angles less than 90 degrees with respect to the emitted ultrasound beam, based on the received echoes....

  8. Scaling of misorientation angle distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, D.A.; Chrzan, D.C.; Liu, Q.

    1998-01-01

    The measurement of misorientation angle distributions following different amounts of deformation in cold-rolled aluminum and nickel and compressed stainless steel is reported. The sealing of the dislocation cell boundary misorientation angle distributions is studied. Surprisingly, the distributions...... for the small to large strain regimes for aluminum, 304L stainless steel, nickel, and copper (taken from the literature )appear to be identical. Hence the distributions may be "universal." These results have significant implications for the development of dislocation based deformation models. [S0031...

  9. Systematic variations in divergence angle

    CERN Document Server

    Okabe, Takuya

    2012-01-01

    Practical methods for quantitative analysis of radial and angular coordinates of leafy organs of vascular plants are presented and applied to published phyllotactic patterns of various real systems from young leaves on a shoot tip to florets on a flower head. The constancy of divergence angle is borne out with accuracy of less than a degree. It is shown that apparent fluctuations in divergence angle are in large part systematic variations caused by the invalid assumption of a fixed center and/or by secondary deformations, while random fluctuations are of minor importance.

  10. Childhood moyamoya disease: hemodynamic MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzika, A.A. [Department of Radiology, Children`s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Robertson, R.L. [Department of Radiology, Children`s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Barnes, P.D. [Department of Radiology, Children`s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Vajapeyam, S. [Department of Radiology, Children`s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Burrows, P.E. [Department of Radiology, Children`s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Treves, S.T. [Department of Radiology, Children`s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Scott, R.M. l [Department of Radiology, Children`s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, 300 Longwood Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    1997-09-01

    Background. Childhood moyamoya disease is a rare progressive cerebrovascular disease. Objective. To evaluate cerebral hemodynamics using dynamic Gd-DTPA-enhanced imaging in children with moyamoya disease. Materials and methods. Eight children (2-11 years of age) with the clinical and angiographic findings typical of moyamoya disease, before and/or after surgical intervention (pial synangiosis), underwent conventional MR imaging (MRI) and hemodynamic MR imaging (HMRI). HMRI used a spoiled gradient-echo with low flip angle (10 deg) and long TE (TR/TE = 24/15 ms) to minimize T 1 effects and emphasize T 2{sup *} weighting. Raw and calculated hemodynamic images were reviewed. Three-dimensional time-of-flight MR angiography (MRA) and perfusion brain single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) were also performed. Results. Abnormal hemodynamic maps resulting from vascular stenosis or occlusion and basal collaterals were observed in six patient studies. HMRI depicted perfusion dynamics of affected cerebrovascular territories, detected cortical perfusion deficits, and complemented conventional MRI and MRA. HMRI findings were consistent with those of catheter angiography and perfusion SPECT. Conclusion. Our preliminary experience suggests that HMRI may be of value in the preoperative and postoperative evaluation of surgical interventions in moyamoya disease. (orig.). With 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Dietary Patterns in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise Beltoft Borup

    A healthy diet is essential for healthy growth and development during childhood and may prevent obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases throughout life. Traditionally, diet has been investigated as single nutrients. However, people do not eat one single nutrient and they do not even eat one...... nutrients. However, little is known about the development of dietary patterns in childhood both in relation to possible indicators and to obesity related outcomes. Therefore, the aim of this PhD thesis was to make exploratory analyses of dietary patterns in childhood using the method principal component...... analysis (PCA) and to investigate associations to possible indicators and outcomes related to growth and obesity. This was based on two observational cohort studies (SKOT I, SKOT II) and one intervention study (MoMS). The research showed that PCA is a suitable method for understanding some...

  12. Atopic endotype in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoos, Ann-Marie Malby; Chawes, Bo Lund Krogsgaard; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt

    2016-01-01

    against 28 inhalant and food allergens was assessed at ½, 1½, 4, 6, and 13 years of age in 399 children from the Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood2000 birth cohort by using both skin prick test responses and specific IgE levels. Asthma and eczema were diagnosed longitudinally by strictly...... with asthma through early childhood (0-6 years) when analyzed as any sensitization (odds ratio [OR] range, 0.78-1.29; P ≥ .48). However, at 13 years of age, any sensitization was associated with asthma (OR range, 4.02-5.94; all P ...%), eczema (26%), asthma (14%), or healthy status (24%). Conclusion: We found very little interdependency between asthma, eczema, and allergic sensitization through childhood. The associations between those entities were strongly dependent on age, type of allergens, and method of testing for sensitization...

  13. Discovering the Culture of Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plank, Emily

    2016-01-01

    We often filter our interactions with children through the lens of adulthood. View the culture of childhood through a whole new lens. Identify age-based bias and expand your outlook on and understanding of early childhood as a culture. Examine various elements of childhood culture: language, the power of believing, artistic expressions, and social…

  14. Reconceptualizing the "Nature" of Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Affrica

    2011-01-01

    This interdisciplinary article draws upon human geography to bring fresh new perspectives to the relationship between two commonly conflated concepts: "childhood" and "nature". Childhood studies scholars have gone a long way towards retheorizing childhood beyond the "natural" and the "universal" by pointing to its historical and cultural…

  15. Childhood myelodysplastic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Tathagata; Choudhry, V P

    2013-09-01

    Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) comprises of a heterogeneous group of bone marrow disorders resulting from a clonal stem cell defect characterised by cytopenias despite a relatively hypercellular marrow, ineffective hematopoiesis, morphological dysplasia in the marrow elements, no response to hematinics such as iron, B12 or folic acid and risk of progression to leukemia. Myelodysplastic syndrome in childhood is extremely rare and accounts for less than 5% of all hematopoietic neoplasms in children below the age of 14 y. The primary MDS in children, also known as de novo MDS differs from secondary MDS which generally follows congenital or acquired bone marrow (BM) failure syndromes as well as from therapy related MDS, commonly resulting from cytotoxic therapy. MDS associated with Down syndrome which accounts for approximately one-fourth of cases of childhood MDS is now considered a unique biologic entity synonymous with Down syndrome-related myeloid leukemia and is biologically distinct from other cases of childhood MDS. Refractory cytopenia of childhood (RCC) is the commonest type of MDS. Genetic changes predisposing to MDS in childhood remain largely obscure. Monosomy 7 is by-far the commonest cytogenetic abnormality associated with childhood MDS; however most cases of RCC show a normal karyotype. Complex cytogenetic abnormalities and trisomy 8 and trisomy 21 are also occasionally observed. The most effective and curative treatment is Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and this is particularly effective in children with the monosomy 7 genetic defect as well as those displaying complex karyotype abnormalities provided it is instituted early in the course of the disease.

  16. A Tewo Tibetan Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rdo rje tshe brtan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Rdo rje tshe brtan (b. 1986 describes his childhood in Dredze Village, Yiwa Township, Tewo County, Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu Province, China, as well as being a student in Xining City, Qinghai Province. Topics covered include his family, childhood injuries and illnesses, education, Terang (malicious household deities, mountain deities and associated rituals and sacrifices, death, conflict with other locals, collecting local plants, a birth in the village, stealing fruit, a wedding, plowing, a visit to a hot spring, a lost yak, slaughtering pigs, government confiscation of fields, and slaughtering pigs. Photos provide additional detail.

  17. Understanding childhood depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Savita; Das, Partha Pratim

    2007-02-01

    Major depressive disorder in children is a severe and a chronically disabling disorder. This population appears to be a special group in terms of consequences of poor psychosocial and academic outcome and increased risk of substance abuse, and suicide. Studies have revealed several major findings in genetic, familial, psychological, and biological aspects of such depression, some of which have explored into the issue of its relationship with adult depression. Considerable advances have been made now in the area of childhood depression providing a better understanding of its nature. We review literature available on historical aspect, epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and aetiology of childhood depression.

  18. Contactless angle detection using permalloy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkel, Kees J.; Rijk, Rolf

    1988-01-01

    An overview is given of measurements on angle detectors. The detectors consist of a pair of planar-Hall elements opposite to a rotatable magnet. The measurements are performed on a number of planar-Hall elements of different shape and size, and show good agreement with a previously described theoret

  19. Effects of slant angle and illumination angle on MTF estimations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vhengani, LM

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available .085 0.09 0.095 K:\\Working Folder\\Project_On_orbit MTF\\edgetargets\\MTF_Lab_Measurements _20120302_Edge Slant Angle (degrees) Ny qu ist MT F (c yc le/p ixe l) Data Regression -18 -16 -14 -12 -10 -8 -6 -4 -2 0.05 0.055 0.06 0....065 0.07 0.075 0.08 0.085 0.09 K:\\Working Folder\\Project_On_orbit MTF\\edgetargets\\MTF_Lab_Measurements_20120303_Edge Slant Angle (degrees) Ny qu ist MT F (c yc le/p ixe l) Data Regression Figure 6. Regression of positive slant...

  20. Career Adaptability in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Paul J.; Porfeli, Erik J.; Vondracek, Fred W.

    2008-01-01

    Childhood marks the dawn of vocational development, involving developmental tasks, transitions, and change. Children must acquire the rudiments of career adaptability to envision a future, make educational and vocational decisions, explore self and occupations, and problem solve. The authors situate child vocational development within human life…

  1. Early childhood aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alink, Lenneke Rosalie Agnes

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis the development, stability, and correlates of early childhood aggression were investigated. The normative development was examined in a general population sample using questionnaires completed by the parents of 12-, 24-, and 36-month-old children and again one year later. Results show

  2. Narrative Processes across Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvaney, Matthew Keefe

    2011-01-01

    According to the narrative perspective on personality development, personality is constructed largely by interpreting and representing experience in story format (scripts) over the course of the lifespan. The focus of this paper is to describe briefly the narrative perspective on personality development during childhood and adolescence, to discuss…

  3. Childhood environment and obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    US children are at risk for developing childhood obesity. Currently, 23% of children ages 2–5 are overweight or obese, i.e., at or above the 85th percentile. This prevalence becomes even higher as children age, with 34% of children ages 6–11 being overweight or obese. Ethnic minority children are at...

  4. Narrative Processes across Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvaney, Matthew Keefe

    2011-01-01

    According to the narrative perspective on personality development, personality is constructed largely by interpreting and representing experience in story format (scripts) over the course of the lifespan. The focus of this paper is to describe briefly the narrative perspective on personality development during childhood and adolescence, to discuss…

  5. The Teening of Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hymowitz, Kay S.

    2000-01-01

    The market and advertising media aimed at children has skyrocketed in recent years. Many new products targeting 8-12-year-olds appeal to their sense of teen fashion, image consciousness, and independence from adults. Describes the development of this market aimed at early adolescents and how it is changing childhood as Americans have known it. (SM)

  6. Conscientiousness: Origins in Childhood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Duckworth, Angela L.; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Valiente, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we evaluate developmental and personality research with the aim of determining whether the personality trait of conscientiousness can be identified in children and adolescents. After concluding that conscientiousness does emerge in childhood, we discuss the developmental origins of conscientiousness with a specific focus on…

  7. Peer Relations in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Dale F.; Payne, Alexandra; Chadwick, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    We present a developmental model that describes normal peer relations and highlights processes that underlie the emergence of problems with peers in childhood. We propose that children's relationships with peers begin in the first years of life, with stable individual differences and preferences for particular peers emerging by three years of age.…

  8. Global Perspectives and Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Karen

    2007-01-01

    Although the Association for Childhood Education International (ACEI) has a long history, beginning with its inception in 1892 as the International Kindergarten Union, members have more recently made a commitment to value the international perspectives in their goals and actions. Since then, ACEI has adopted as its mission to "promote and support…

  9. Treating childhood trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terr, Lenore C

    2013-01-01

    This review begins with the question "What is childhood trauma?" Diagnosis is discussed next, and then the article focuses on treatment, using 3 basic principles-abreaction, context, and correction. Treatment modalities and complications are discussed, with case vignettes presented throughout to illustrate. Suggestions are provided for the psychiatrist to manage countertransference as trauma therapy proceeds.

  10. Early Childhood Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Early childhood trauma generally refers to the traumatic experiences that occur to children aged 0-6. Because infants' and young children's reactions may be different from older children's, and because they may not be able to verbalize their reactions to threatening or dangerous events, many people assume that young age protects children from the…

  11. Childhood Obesity: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, John J.

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews recent research evidence, largely from systematic reviews, on a number of aspects of childhood obesity: its definition and prevalence; consequences; causes and prevention. The basis of the body mass index (BMI) as a means of defining obesity in children and adolescents is discussed: a high BMI for age constitutes obesity. In…

  12. Childhood microbial keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah G Al Otaibi

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Children with suspected microbial keratitis require comprehensive evaluation and management. Early recognition, identifying the predisposing factors and etiological microbial organisms, and instituting appropriate treatment measures have a crucial role in outcome. Ocular trauma was the leading cause of childhood microbial keratitis in our study.

  13. Childhood Depressive Disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wesselhöft, Rikke Thaarup

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes a female patient diagnosed with Barraquer-Simons syndrome, a rare form of acquired partial lipodystrophy characterised by symmetrical loss of adipose tissue from face, neck, upper extremities and the trunk with onset in early childhood. Initial symptoms were seen...

  14. Childhood disintegrative disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik

    2003-01-01

    are sometimes associated with this disorder, but contrary to earlier belief this is not typical. Interest in childhood disintegrative disorder has increased markedly in recent years and in this review attention is given to more recently published cases based on ICD-9, ICD-10 and DSM-IV diagnostic systems...

  15. Stress and childhood epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campen, J.S. van

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic diseases in childhood, characterized by the enduring predisposition to generate epileptic seizures. Children with epilepsy and their parents often report seizures precipitated by stress. In order to increase our understanding of the pathophysiological mecha

  16. Stress and childhood epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campen, J.S. van

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic diseases in childhood, characterized by the enduring predisposition to generate epileptic seizures. Children with epilepsy and their parents often report seizures precipitated by stress. In order to increase our understanding of the pathophysiological

  17. Dietary Patterns in Childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Louise Beltoft Borup

    A healthy diet is essential for healthy growth and development during childhood and may prevent obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases throughout life. Traditionally, diet has been investigated as single nutrients. However, people do not eat one single nutrient and they do not even eat one...

  18. Music in Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feierabend, John

    1990-01-01

    Argues that music activities in early childhood education foster a variety of developmental skills. Analyzes Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences, contending that music intelligence is a separate intelligence. Provides ways to identify and promote musical intelligence. Suggests methods for encouraging musical development. Using songs…

  19. Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pui, Ching-Hon; Yang, Jun J; Hunger, Stephen P

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To review the impact of collaborative studies on advances in the biology and treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in children and adolescents. METHODS: A review of English literature on childhood ALL focusing on collaborative studies was performed. The resulting article...

  20. An Angle Criterion for Riesz Bases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindner, Alexander M; Bittner, B.

    1999-01-01

    We present a characterization of Riesz bases in terms ofthe angles between certain finite dimensional subspaces. Correlationsbetween the bounds of the Riesz basis and the size of the angles arederived.......We present a characterization of Riesz bases in terms ofthe angles between certain finite dimensional subspaces. Correlationsbetween the bounds of the Riesz basis and the size of the angles arederived....

  1. Body composition in remission of childhood cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseytlin, G. Ja; Anisimova, A. V.; Godina, E. Z.; Khomyakova, I. A.; Konovalova, M. V.; Nikolaev, D. V.; Rudnev, S. G.; Starunova, O. A.; Vashura, A. Yu

    2012-12-01

    Here, we describe the results of a cross-sectional bioimpedance study of body composition in 552 Russian children and adolescents aged 7-17 years in remission of various types of cancer (remission time 0-15 years, median 4 years). A sample of 1500 apparently healthy individuals of the same age interval was used for comparison. Our data show high frequency of malnutrition in total cancer patients group depending on type of cancer. 52.7% of patients were malnourished according to phase angle and percentage fat mass z-score with the range between 42.2% in children with solid tumors located outside CNS and 76.8% in children with CNS tumors. The body mass index failed to identify the proportion of patients with malnutrition and showed diagnostic sensitivity 50.6% for obesity on the basis of high percentage body fat and even much less so for undernutrition - 13.4% as judged by low phase angle. Our results suggest an advantage of using phase angle as the most sensitive bioimpedance indicator for the assessment of metabolic alterations, associated risks, and the effectiveness of rehabilitation strategies in childhood cancer patients.

  2. Multi-angle compound imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Søren Kragh; Wilhjelm, Jens Erik; Sillesen, Henrik

    1998-01-01

    to conventional B-mode imaging MACI offers better defined tissue boundaries and lower variance of the speckle pattern, resulting in an image with reduced random variations. Design and implementation of a compound imaging system is described, images of rubber tubes and porcine aorta are shown and effects......This paper reports on a scanning technique, denoted multi-angle compound imaging (MACI), using spatial compounding. The MACI method also contains elements of frequency compounding, as the transmit frequency is lowered for the highest beam angles in order to reduce grating lobes. Compared...... on visualization are discussed. The speckle reduction is analyzed numerically and the results are found to be in excellent agreement with existing theory. An investigation of detectability of low-contrast lesions shows significant improvements compared to conventional imaging. Finally, possibilities for improving...

  3. Optimisation of Fan Blade Angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swaroop M P

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This report represents the optimization of fan blade angle in accordance with the various room temperatures that can be in the tropical area like India. We took this work mainly because cooling is an important factor now a days in every area where construction and rooms are there and ceiling fans are the most common device that is commonly used. So it is of utmost importance to tweak the performance of this ceiling fan so that it can function in its most optimal condition. We have modeled the fan in a modeling software (SOLIDWORKS and imported that into an analyzing software (ANSYS and a result is generated on the various blade angles (0, 4, 8 and 12.5 degrees in accordance to room conditions. A trend line curve with the obtained data is expected as the result which can be crucial for designing of future fans

  4. Nucleation of small angle boundaries

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nabarro, FRN

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available -ANGLE BOUNDARIES F.R.N. Nabarro Condensed Matter Physics Research Unit, University of the Witwatersrand, Private Bag 3, Wits 2050, Johannesburg, and Division of Materials Science and Technology, CSIR, P.O. Box 395, Pretoria, South... with eq. 11. Acknowledgment F.R.N. Nabarro is grateful to the University of Virginia for hospitality during the course of this work. D. Kuhlmann-Wilsdorf thanks the National Science Foundation, (Surface Engineering...

  5. LHC Report: playing with angles

    CERN Multimedia

    Mike Lamont for the LHC team

    2016-01-01

    Ready (after a machine development period), steady (running), go (for a special run)!   The crossing angles are an essential feature of the machine set-up. They have to be big enough to reduce the long-range beam-beam effect. The LHC has recently enjoyed a period of steady running and managed to set a new record for “Maximum Stable Luminosity Delivered in 7 days” of 3.29 fb-1 between 29 August and 4 September. The number of bunches per beam remains pegged at 2220 because of the limitations imposed by the SPS beam dump. The bunch population is also somewhat reduced due to outgassing near one of the injection kickers at point 8. Both limitations will be addressed during the year-end technical stop, opening the way for increased performance in 2017. On 10 and 11 September, a two day machine development (MD) period took place. The MD programme included a look at the possibility of reducing the crossing angle at the high-luminosity interaction points. The crossing angles are an ess...

  6. A retrospective survey of childhood glaucoma prevalence according to Childhood Glaucoma Research Network classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambika Hoguet

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the Childhood Glaucoma Research Network (CGRN classification system and describe the prevalence of each subtype according to this classification. Materials and Methods: Retrospectively, the medical records of 205 consecutive childhood glaucoma and glaucoma suspect patients at an urban tertiary care center were reviewed. The initial diagnosis and new diagnosis according to CGRN classification were recorded. Results: All patients fit one of the seven categories of the new classification. Seventy-one percent of diagnoses were changed upon reclassification. Twenty-three percent of patients had primary glaucoma (juvenile open-angle glaucoma and primary congenital glaucoma [PCG]; 36% had secondary glaucoma (glaucoma associated with nonacquired ocular anomalies; glaucoma associated with nonacquired systemic disease or syndrome; glaucoma associated with acquired condition; and glaucoma following cataract surgery; and 39% were glaucoma suspect. Of the patients diagnosed with glaucoma, PCG was the most common diagnosis, seen in 32% of patients. Conclusion: The CGRN classification provides a useful method of classifying childhood glaucoma.

  7. Danish Childhood Cancer Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Henrik; Rechnitzer, Catherine; Wehner, Peder Skov

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The overall aim is to monitor the quality of childhood cancer care in Denmark; to register late effects of treatment; to analyze complications of permanent central venous catheters (CVCs); to study blood stream infections in children with cancer; and to study acute toxicity of high......-dose methotrexate infusions in children with leukemia. STUDY POPULATION: All children below 15 years of age at diagnosis living in Denmark diagnosed after January 1, 1985 according to the International Classification of Diseases 10, including diagnoses DC00-DD48. MAIN VARIABLES: Cancer type, extent of disease......, and outcome of antimicrobial chemotherapy. DESCRIPTIVE DATA: Since 1985, 4,944 children below 15 years of age have been registered in the database. There has been no significant change in the incidence of childhood cancer in Denmark since 1985. The 5-year survival has increased significantly since 1985...

  8. Early Childhood Caries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yumiko Kawashita

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental caries is one of the most common childhood diseases, and people continue to be susceptible to it throughout their lives. Although dental caries can be arrested and potentially even reversed in its early stages, it is often not self-limiting and progresses without proper care until the tooth is destroyed. Early childhood caries (ECC is often complicated by inappropriate feeding practices and heavy infection with mutans streptococci. Such children should be targeted with a professional preventive program that includes oral hygiene instructions for mothers or caregivers, along with fluoride and diet counseling. However, these strategies alone are not sufficient to prevent dental caries in high-risk children; prevention of ECC also requires addressing the socioeconomic factors that face many families in which ECC is endemic. The aim of this paper is to systematically review information about ECC and to describe why many children are suffering from dental caries.

  9. Childhood Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Dayal

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is a common condition in childhood and can result insevere complications if left untreated. It is showing a rising trend in India. A significantassociation with obesity has been observed; however, some children with enlargedtonsils and/or adenoids may even be underweight. The patient usually presents withsnoring and other respiratory problems like mouth breathing, choking and gaspingepisodes in night. Poor school performance and neurocognitive deficits have beenreported. Pulmonary hypertension and cor pulmonale are seen in severe cases. Besidesthe history and clinical examination, for definitive diagnosis an overnightpolysomnographic evaluation is the gold standard. In all cases, the specific treatmentranges from simple lifestyle modifications and medications to surgeries likeadenotonsillectomy. Early diagnosis is vital.Key words: Childhood OSA, Obesity, adenotonsillar hypertrophy

  10. Tibetan Nomad Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karma Dondrub

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A Tibetan Nomad Childhood by Kar+ma don 'grub. Kar+ma's life begins on the boundless Tibetan grassland in 1983 in Yushu (Yul shul Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Mtsho sgnon (Qinghai Province. Living in a black yak hair tent, Kar+ma begins tending his family's yak calves as soon as he can walk, in a grassland so barren that he is startled upon first seeing a tree at the age of eight. Charlatan livestock-stealing monks, anthrax, death, birth, happiness, and encounters with modern education create a powerful, unparalleled account of Tibetan nomad childhood in the late twentieth century - a way of life that will soon be forever gone.

  11. Genetics of Childhood Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhua Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major health problem and an immense economic burden on the health care systems both in the United States and the rest of the world. The prevalence of obesity in children and adults in the United States has increased dramatically over the past decade. Besides environmental factors, genetic factors are known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of obesity. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS have revealed strongly associated genomic variants associated with most common disorders; indeed there is general consensus on these findings from generally positive replication outcomes by independent groups. To date, there have been only a few GWAS-related reports for childhood obesity specifically, with studies primarily uncovering loci in the adult setting instead. It is clear that a number of loci previously reported from GWAS analyses of adult BMI and/or obesity also play a role in childhood obesity.

  12. Parasomnias in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotagal, Suresh

    2009-04-01

    Common childhood parasomnias, including those occurring at sleep onset and during rapid eye movement sleep or non-rapid eye movement sleep and their ontogeny are discussed. The events may be distressing to both the patient and family members. Stereotypic movements characteristic of some parasomnias most likely arise from disinhibition of subcortical central pattern generators. Genetic predisposition, an inherent instability of non-rapid eye movement sleep and underlying sleep disturbances such as obstructive sleep apnea may predispose to the activation of confusional arousals, sleep walking or sleep terrors. Many parasomnias can be recognized by history alone, but some require nocturnal polysomnography for appropriate diagnosis and management. A scheme to distinguish non-rapid eye movement sleep parasomnias from nocturnal seizures is provided. Behavioral therapy has a role in the management of many childhood parasomnias, but evidence based recommendations are as yet unavailable.

  13. Childhood Short Stature

    OpenAIRE

    Ray, J.

    2012-01-01

    Childhood short stature comprises Varity of endocrinal, systemic, Skeletal & genetic disorders of pediatrics and is not just confined for endocrinal disorder only. A systemic approach often reduces the need for test which is often expensive &unnecessary. Use growth chart & asses bone age during evaluation. Short & heavy child are generally due to Endocrine causes, Short & thin are due to systemic disease, Short with normal velocity are may be due to Constitutional delay in growth &puberty or ...

  14. Conscientiousness: Origins in Childhood?

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Duckworth, Angela L.; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Valiente, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    In this review, we evaluate developmental and personality research with the aim of determining if the personality trait of conscientiousness can be identified in children and adolescents. After concluding that conscientiousness does emerge in childhood, we discuss the developmental origins of conscientiousness with a specific focus on self-regulation, academic motivation, and internalized compliance/internalization of standards. Based on the accumulated body of evidence, we conclude that self...

  15. Thyroid cancer in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorlin, J.B.; Sallan, S.E. (Children' s Hospital, Boston, MA (USA))

    1990-09-01

    The incidence, clinical presentation, and types of thyroid cancers presenting in childhood are reviewed. The role of antecedent radiation in papillary and follicular thyroid cancers and genetics of medullary thyroid carcinoma are discussed. Unique aspects of therapy and prognosis for the pediatric patient with thyroid carcinoma are addressed as well as a diagnostic approach to the child who presents with a neck mass.59 references.

  16. Cultivating childhood obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Greene-Martin, DeCleasha

    2013-01-01

    In recent years the levels of obesity in the United States has risen greatly especially amongst children. Doctors, psychologists, and other scientists have been studying the growing problem for years. Implications for childhood obesity not only have enormous physical consequences but emotional repercussions which can affect the child’s academic and social development. A number of factors have been identified as having an effect on these children; family life reveals the grocery store habits o...

  17. Cultivating childhood obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Greene-Martin, DeCleasha

    2013-01-01

    In recent years the levels of obesity in the United States has risen greatly especially amongst children. Doctors, psychologists, and other scientists have been studying the growing problem for years. Implications for childhood obesity not only have enormous physical consequences but emotional repercussions which can affect the child’s academic and social development. A number of factors have been identified as having an effect on these children; family life reveals the grocery store habits o...

  18. Childhood obesity and prevention approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Dilek Yildiz; Berna Eren Fidanci; Derya Suluhan

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity has increased dramatically during the past two decades. The growing incidence of childhood obesity is alarming, given the significant short and long term health problems associated with obesity. Being overweight or obese may increase the rate of non-communicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in adulthood. It may contribute to shortening life expectancy and adversely affects the quality of life. Therefore, it is important to prevent childhood obe...

  19. Peer Bullying During Early Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Uysal, Hatice; DİNÇER, Çağlayan

    2012-01-01

    Peer bullying during early childhood is discussed along with the literature reviewed in this article with the purpose of drawing attention to peer bullying during early childhood and its significance, and contributing to studies which are few in number in Turkey. Peer bullying during early childhood was considered with its definition and types, people who play key roles in peer bullying, factors (gender, age, parents, and friendship) that relate to peer bullying, and what should be done befor...

  20. Small angle scattering and polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotton, J.P. [Laboratoire Leon Brillouin (LLB) - Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    1996-12-31

    The determination of polymer structure is a problem of interest for both statistical physics and industrial applications. The average polymer structure is defined. Then, it is shown why small angle scattering, associated with isotopic substitution, is very well suited to the measurement of the chain conformation. The corresponding example is the old, but pedagogic, measurement of the chain form factor in the polymer melt. The powerful contrast variation method is illustrated by a recent determination of the concentration profile of a polymer interface. (author) 12 figs., 48 refs.

  1. Theta angle in holographic QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Jarvinen, Matti

    2016-01-01

    V-QCD is a class of effective holographic models for QCD which fully includes the backreaction of quarks to gluon dynamics. The physics of the theta-angle and the axial anomaly can be consistently included in these models. We analyze their phase diagrams over ranges of values of the quark mass, N_f/N_c, and theta, computing observables such as the topological susceptibility and the meson masses. At small quark mass, where effective chiral Lagrangians are reliable, they agree with the predictions of V-QCD.

  2. Genetics Home Reference: alternating hemiplegia of childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions alternating hemiplegia of childhood alternating hemiplegia of childhood Enable Javascript to view the expand/ ... Download PDF Open All Close All Description Alternating hemiplegia of childhood is a neurological condition characterized by ...

  3. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS): Childhood Adversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... reports of childhood abuse and neglect were investigated. Childhood trauma, defined as abuse, neglect, or loss, is a ... the lifespan. In various animal and human studies childhood trauma has been associated with low resting cortisol levels, ...

  4. Device for Measuring Landslide Critical Angle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xueling; Xia Weisheng; Huang Daoyou; Yu Yun

    2016-01-01

    The mountain landslide has high destructive effects, discussion of its landslide critical angle has always been one of the major concerns, and we designed a system that can automatically measure the landslide critical angle. This equipment consists of the

  5. 30 CFR 56.19037 - Fleet angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fleet angles. 56.19037 Section 56.19037 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Sheaves § 56.19037 Fleet angles. Fleet angles on hoists installed after November 15, 1979, shall not...

  6. 30 CFR 57.19037 - Fleet angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fleet angles. 57.19037 Section 57.19037 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND... Sheaves § 57.19037 Fleet angles. Fleet angles on hoists installed after November 15, 1979, shall not...

  7. Childhood Victimization and Lifetime Revictimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widom, Cathy Spatz; Czaja, Sally J.; Dutton, Mary Ann

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine the fundamental hypothesis that childhood victimization leads to increased vulnerability for subsequent (re)victimization in adolescence and adulthood and, if so, whether there are differences in rates of experiencing traumas and victimizations by gender, race/ethnicity, and type of childhood abuse and/or neglect. Methods:…

  8. Teachers in Early Childhood Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilderry, Anna

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines teacher accountability and authority in early childhood policy. It reports on data from a study that investigated the influences affecting early childhood teacher decision-making at the preschool level in Victoria, Australia. Using a question raised by Ball "Where are the teachers in all this [policy]?" provided a…

  9. Early Childhood Inclusion in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giné, Climent; Balcells-Balcells, Anna; Cañadas, Margarita; Paniagua, Gema

    2016-01-01

    This article describes early childhood inclusion in educational settings in Spain. First, we address the legislative framework of preschool education in Spain and offer a brief analysis of some relevant issues, including the current situation of early childhood education and inclusion at this stage. Second, current policies and practices relating…

  10. Increasing Childhood Influenza Vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Lin, Chyongchiou J.; Hannibal, Kristin; Reis, Evelyn C.; Gallik, Gregory; Moehling, Krissy K.; Huang, Hsin-Hui; Allred, Norma J.; Wolfson, David H.; Zimmerman, Richard K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Since the 2008 inception of universal childhood influenza vaccination, national rates have risen more dramatically among younger children than older children and reported rates across racial/ethnic groups are inconsistent. Interventions may be needed to address age and racial disparities to achieve the recommended childhood influenza vaccination target of 70%. Purpose To evaluate an intervention to increase childhood influenza vaccination across age and racial groups. Methods In 2011–2012, 20 primary care practices treating children were randomly assigned to Intervention and Control arms of a cluster randomized controlled trial to increase childhood influenza vaccination uptake using a toolkit and other strategies including early delivery of donated vaccine, in-service staff meetings, and publicity. Results The average vaccination differences from pre-intervention to the intervention year were significantly larger in the Intervention arm (n=10 practices) than the Control arm (n=10 practices), for children aged 2–8 years (10.2 percentage points (pct pts) Intervention vs 3.6 pct pts Control) and 9–18 years (11.1 pct pts Intervention vs 4.3 pct pts Control, p<0.05), for non-white children (16.7 pct pts Intervention vs 4.6 pct pts Control, p<0.001), and overall (9.9 pct pts Intervention vs 4.2 pct pts Control, p<0.01). In multi-level modeling that accounted for person- and practice-level variables and the interactions among age, race and intervention, the likelihood of vaccination increased with younger age group (6–23 months), white race, commercial insurance, the practice’s pre-intervention vaccination rate, and being in the Intervention arm. Estimates of the interaction terms indicated that the intervention increased the likelihood of vaccination for non-white children in all age groups and white children aged 9–18 years. Conclusions A multi-strategy intervention that includes a practice improvement toolkit can significantly improve influenza

  11. Subclinical hypothyroidism in childhood.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Grady, M J

    2012-02-01

    Subclinical hypothyroidism (SH) is defined as an elevated thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in association with a normal total or free thyroxine (T4) or triiodothyronine (T3). It is frequently encountered in both neonatology and general paediatric practice; however, its clinical significance is widely debated. Currently there is no broad consensus on the investigation and treatment of these patients; specifically who to treat and what cut-off level of TSH should be used. This paper reviews the available evidence regarding investigation, treatments and outcomes reported for childhood SH.

  12. Childhood Cerebellar Ataxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Brent L.

    2012-01-01

    Childhood presentations of ataxia, an impairment of balance and coordination caused by damage to or dysfunction of the cerebellum, can often be challenging to diagnose. Presentations tend to be clinically heterogeneous but key considerations may vary based on the child's age at onset, the course of illness, and subtle differences in phenotype. Systematic investigation is recommended for efficient diagnosis. In this review, we outline common etiologies and describe a comprehensive approach to the evaluation of both acquired and genetic cerebellar ataxia in children. PMID:22764177

  13. The Q-angle and sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahn, Thomas; Foldspang, Anders

    1997-01-01

    Quadriceps muscle contraction tends to straighten the Q angle. We expected that sports comprising a high amount of quadriceps training could be associated with low Q angles. The aim of the present study was to estimate the Q angle in athletes and to investigate its potential associations with par......Quadriceps muscle contraction tends to straighten the Q angle. We expected that sports comprising a high amount of quadriceps training could be associated with low Q angles. The aim of the present study was to estimate the Q angle in athletes and to investigate its potential associations...... with participation in sport. Three hundred and thirty-nine athletes had their Q angle measured. The mean of right-side Q angles was higher than left side, and the mean Q angle was higher in women than in men. The Q angle was positively associated with years of jogging, and negatively with years of soccer, swimming...... and sports participation at all. It is concluded that the use of Q angle measurements is questionable....

  14. Individualized optimal release angles in discus throwing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Steve; Liu, Hui; Hubbard, Mont; Yu, Bing

    2010-02-10

    The purpose of this study was to determine individualized optimal release angles for elite discus throwers. Three-dimensional coordinate data were obtained for at least 10 competitive trials for each subject. Regression relationships between release speed and release angle, and between aerodynamic distance and release angle were determined for each subject. These relationships were linear with subject-specific characteristics. The subject-specific relationships between release speed and release angle may be due to subjects' technical and physical characteristics. The subject-specific relationships between aerodynamic distance and release angle may be due to interactions between the release angle, the angle of attack, and the aerodynamic distance. Optimal release angles were estimated for each subject using the regression relationships and equations of projectile motion. The estimated optimal release angle was different for different subjects, and ranged from 35 degrees to 44 degrees . The results of this study demonstrate that the optimal release angle for discus throwing is thrower-specific. The release angles used by elite discus throwers in competition are not necessarily optimal for all discus throwers, or even themselves. The results of this study provide significant information for understanding the biomechanics of discus throwing techniques.

  15. Childhood trauma and compulsive buying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Randy A; Chang, Joy; Jewell, Bryan; Rock, Rachel

    2013-02-01

    Childhood trauma has been empirically associated with various types of self-regulatory difficulties in adulthood. However, according to the extant literature, no study has examined relationships between various types of childhood trauma and compulsive buying behavior in adulthood. Using a self-report survey methodology in a cross-sectional consecutive sample of 370 obstetrics/gynecology patients, we examined five types of childhood trauma before the age of 12 years (i.e. witnessing violence, physical neglect, emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse) in relationship to compulsive buying as assessed by the Compulsive Buying Scale (CBS). All forms of trauma demonstrated statistically significant correlations with the CBS. Using a linear regression analysis, both witnessing violence and emotional abuse significantly contributed to CBS scores. Further analyses indicated that race did not moderate the relationship between childhood trauma and compulsive buying. Findings indicate that various forms of childhood trauma are correlated with compulsive buying behavior, particularly witnessing violence and emotional abuse.

  16. Wafer scale oblique angle plasma etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burckel, David Bruce; Jarecki, Jr., Robert L.; Finnegan, Patrick Sean

    2017-05-23

    Wafer scale oblique angle etching of a semiconductor substrate is performed in a conventional plasma etch chamber by using a fixture that supports a multiple number of separate Faraday cages. Each cage is formed to include an angled grid surface and is positioned such that it will be positioned over a separate one of the die locations on the wafer surface when the fixture is placed over the wafer. The presence of the Faraday cages influences the local electric field surrounding each wafer die, re-shaping the local field to be disposed in alignment with the angled grid surface. The re-shaped plasma causes the reactive ions to follow a linear trajectory through the plasma sheath and angled grid surface, ultimately impinging the wafer surface at an angle. The selected geometry of the Faraday cage angled grid surface thus determines the angle at with the reactive ions will impinge the wafer.

  17. Transcription and the Pitch Angle of DNA

    CERN Document Server

    Olsen, Kasper W

    2013-01-01

    The question of the value of the pitch angle of DNA is visited from the perspective of a geometrical analysis of transcription. It is suggested that for transcription to be possible, the pitch angle of B-DNA must be smaller than the angle of zero-twist. At the zero-twist angle the double helix is maximally rotated and its strain-twist coupling vanishes. A numerical estimate of the pitch angle for B-DNA based on differential geometry is compared with numbers obtained from existing empirical data. The crystallographic studies shows that the pitch angle is approximately 38 deg., less than the corresponding zero-twist angle of 41.8 deg., which is consistent with the suggested principle for transcription.

  18. Management of childhood stuttering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onslow, Mark; O'Brian, Sue

    2013-02-01

    Stuttering is a speech disorder that begins during the first years of life and is among the most prevalent of developmental disorders. It appears to be a problem with neural processing of speech involving genetics. Onset typically occurs during the first years of life, shortly after language development begins. Clinical presentation during childhood is interrupted and effortful speech production, often with rapid onset. If not corrected during early childhood, it becomes intractable and can cause psychological, social, educational and occupational problems. There is evidence from replicated clinical trials to support early intervention during the pre-school years. Meta-analysis of studies indicates that children who receive early intervention during the pre-school years are 7.7 times more likely to have resolution of their stuttering. Early intervention is recommended with a speech pathologist. Some children who begin to stutter will recover without such intervention. However, the number of such recoveries is currently not known, and it is not possible to predict which children are likely to recover naturally. Consequently, the current best practice is for speech pathologists to monitor children for signs of natural recovery for up to 1 year before beginning treatment.

  19. Acute hemiplegia in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuno, Takehiko; Takao, Tatsuo; Itoh, Masatoshi; Konishi, Yukuo; Nakano, Shozo (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1983-04-01

    The results of CT in 100 patients with acute hemiplegia in childhood are reported here. The etiology was various: 2 patients had infratentorial brain tumors, 56 had cerebral vascular diseases, 3 had head injuries, 16 had intracranial infectious diseases, one had postinfectious encephalomyelitis, one had multiple sclerosis, 2 had epilepsy, and the diagnosis of 19 were unknown. Eleven patients had a normal CT and a good prognosis. As for the type of onset, there were patients of type 1 with fever and 42 with convulsions and unconsciousness; those of type 2 with convulsions and unconsciousness were 12, and those of type 3 without fever and convulsions were 46. This classification is assumed to be useful, as the type of onset is characteristic of the etiology. Six patients were diagnosed correctly by repeated examinations, although the first CT did not reveal any remarkable findings. Capsular infarction, occlusion of the posterior cerebral artery in acute hemiplegia in childhood, abnormal findings of the internal capsule, thalamus, and midbrain in a patient with postinfectious encephalomyelitis, and a diffuse low density in the CT of the unilateral hemisphere in the patients with acute encephalopathy and acute hemiplegia of an obscure origin have been found after the introduction of computerized tomography.

  20. Precisely Tracking Childhood Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Tamer H; Koplan, Jeffrey P; Breiman, Robert F; Madhi, Shabir A; Heaton, Penny M; Mundel, Trevor; Ordi, Jaume; Bassat, Quique; Menendez, Clara; Dowell, Scott F

    2017-07-01

    Little is known about the specific causes of neonatal and under-five childhood death in high-mortality geographic regions due to a lack of primary data and dependence on inaccurate tools, such as verbal autopsy. To meet the ambitious new Sustainable Development Goal 3.2 to eliminate preventable child mortality in every country, better approaches are needed to precisely determine specific causes of death so that prevention and treatment interventions can be strengthened and focused. Minimally invasive tissue sampling (MITS) is a technique that uses needle-based postmortem sampling, followed by advanced histopathology and microbiology to definitely determine cause of death. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation is supporting a new surveillance system called the Child Health and Mortality Prevention Surveillance network, which will determine cause of death using MITS in combination with other information, and yield cause-specific population-based mortality rates, eventually in up to 12-15 sites in sub-Saharan Africa and south Asia. However, the Gates Foundation funding alone is not enough. We call on governments, other funders, and international stakeholders to expand the use of pathology-based cause of death determination to provide the information needed to end preventable childhood mortality.

  1. Childhood depression: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima NNR

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Nádia Nara Rolim Lima,1 Vânia Barbosa do Nascimento,1 Sionara Melo Figueiredo de Carvalho,1 Luiz Carlos de Abreu,1,3 Modesto Leite Rolim Neto,2 Aline Quental Brasil,2 Francisco Telésforo Celestino Junior,2 Gislene Farias de Oliveira,2 Alberto Olavo Advíncula Reis3 1Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Saúde, Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo André, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Departamento de Medicina. Universidade Federal do Ceará, UFC, Barbalha, Ceará, Brazil; 3Departamento de Saúde Materno Infantil, Faculdade de Saúde Pública, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: As an important public health issue, childhood depression deserves special attention, considering the serious and lasting consequences of the disease to child development. Taking this into consideration, the present study was based on the following question: what practical contributions to clinicians and researchers does the current literature on childhood depression have to offer? The objective of the present study was to conduct a systematic review of articles regarding childhood depression. To accomplish this purpose, a systematic review of articles on childhood depression, published from January 1, 2010 to November 24, 2012, on MEDLINE and SciELO databases was carried out. Search terms were “depression” (medical subject headings [MeSH], “child” (MeSH, and "childhood depression" (keyword. Of the 180 retrieved studies, 25 met the eligibility criteria. Retrieved studies covered a wide range of aspects regarding childhood depression, such as diagnosis, treatment, prevention and prognosis. Recent scientific literature regarding childhood depression converge to, directly or indirectly, highlight the negative impacts of depressive disorders to the children's quality of life. Unfortunately, the retrieved studies show that childhood depression commonly grows in a background of vulnerability and poverty, where individual and familiar needs

  2. Literacy Lessons from the Childhoods of Authors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghban, Marcia

    1997-01-01

    Opines that the retrospectives of authors' childhoods provide unique insights into the connections between childhood literacy experiences and adult literacy experiences. Cites the examples of Eudora Welty, Madeleine L'Engle, and Jack London and contrasts aspects of their childhoods with aspects of contemporary childhoods. (PA)

  3. Dynamic contact angle measurements on superhydrophobic surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Hyun; Kavehpour, H. Pirouz; Rothstein, Jonathan P.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, the dynamic advancing and receding contact angles of a series of aqueous solutions were measured on a number of hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces using a modified Wilhelmy plate technique. Superhydrophobic surfaces are hydrophobic surfaces with micron or nanometer sized surface roughness. These surfaces have very large static advancing contact angles and little static contact angle hysteresis. In this study, the dynamic advancing and dynamic receding contact angles on superhydrophobic surfaces were measured as a function of plate velocity and capillary number. The dynamic contact angles measured on a smooth hydrophobic Teflon surface were found to obey the scaling with capillary number predicted by the Cox-Voinov-Tanner law, θD3 ∝ Ca. The response of the dynamic contact angle on the superhydrophobic surfaces, however, did not follow the same scaling law. The advancing contact angle was found to remain constant at θA = 160∘, independent of capillary number. The dynamic receding contact angle measurements on superhydrophobic surfaces were found to decrease with increasing capillary number; however, the presence of slip on the superhydrophobic surface was found to result in a shift in the onset of dynamic contact angle variation to larger capillary numbers. In addition, a much weaker dependence of the dynamic contact angle on capillary number was observed for some of the superhydrophobic surfaces tested.

  4. [Childhood periodic syndromes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuvellier, J-C; Lépine, A

    2010-01-01

    This review focuses on the so-called "periodic syndromes of childhood that are precursors to migraine", as included in the Second Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders. Three periodic syndromes of childhood are included in the Second Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders: abdominal migraine, cyclic vomiting syndrome and benign paroxysmal vertigo, and a fourth, benign paroxysmal torticollis is presented in the Appendix. The key clinical features of this group of disorders are the episodic pattern and intervals of complete health. Episodes of benign paroxysmal torticollis begin between 2 and 8 months of age. Attacks are characterized by an abnormal inclination and/or rotation of the head to one side, due to cervical dystonia. They usually resolve by 5 years. Benign paroxysmal vertigo presents as sudden attacks of vertigo, accompanied by inability to stand without support, and lasting seconds to minutes. Age at onset is between 2 and 4 years, and the symptoms disappear by the age of 5. Cyclic vomiting syndrome is characterized in young infants and children by repeated stereotyped episodes of pernicious vomiting, at times to the point of dehydration, and impacting quality of life. Mean age of onset is 5 years. Abdominal migraine remains a controversial issue and presents in childhood with repeated stereotyped episodes of unexplained abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting occurring in the absence of headache. Mean age of onset is 7 years. Both cyclic vomiting syndrome and abdominal migraine are noted for the absence of pathognomonic clinical features but also for the large number of other conditions to be considered in their differential diagnoses. Diagnostic criteria, such as those of the Second Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders and the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, have made diagnostic approach and management easier. Their diagnosis

  5. Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Aktepe

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Sexual abuse is defined as use of child or adolescent by the adults for satisfying of sexual urges and needs with forcing, threatening or tricking. Sexual abuse can be in the form of sexual abuse without touch, sexual touch, interfemoral intercourse, sexual penetration, and sexual exploitation. The prevalence of sexual abuse is reported as 10-40%. It is seen in female four times more than in males. Abusers are frequently male, only 5-15% of them are female. The abuse by females is usually towards male child. Thirty-fifty percent of abuse cases among child and adolescent are outside the family including strangers or familiar person. Some features of abusers are introvert personality, pedophilic and antisocial personality. Most of the abusers have a history of sexual abuse or aggression during childhood. Sexual intercourse between two people who are not allowed to marry by law is called as incest. Family pattern of incest is defined globally as disorganized and dysfunctional. The most commonly reported familial pattern is rigid and patriarchal family pattern with a harsh father using force quite frequently. The clinical features and impacts of the sexual abuse on the child varies according to the relation between abusers and the child, form of abuse, duration of abuse, presence of physical assault, developmental phase, child age and psychological development before the abuse. Sexual abuse history may result in psychiatric disorders including anxiety, depression, substance dependence, suicide act, borderline personality disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder. Abuse negatively affects interpersonal relationships and self esteem of abused individuals. Several studies reported close association between risky sexual behaviors in adulthood and a history of of sexual abuse during childhood. Four traumatic dynamics including traumatic sexuality with abuse, feeling of betrayal, weakness, and stigmatization exist in childhood abuse. Trauma can cause

  6. Caustic graphene plasmons with Kelvin angle

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, Xihang; Gao, Fei; Xu, Hongyi; Yang, Zhaoju; Zhang, Baile

    2015-01-01

    A century-long argument made by Lord Kelvin that all swimming objects have an effective Mach number of 3, corresponding to the Kelvin angle of 19.5 degree for ship waves, has been recently challenged with the conclusion that the Kelvin angle should gradually transit to the Mach angle as the ship velocity increases. Here we show that a similar phenomenon can happen for graphene plasmons. By analyzing the caustic wave pattern of graphene plasmons stimulated by a swift charged particle moving uniformly above graphene, we show that at low velocities of the charged particle, the caustics of graphene plasmons form the Kelvin angle. At large velocities of the particle, the caustics disappear and the effective semi-angle of the wave pattern approaches the Mach angle. Our study introduces caustic wave theory to the field of graphene plasmonics, and reveals a novel physical picture of graphene plasmon excitation during electron energy-loss spectroscopy measurement.

  7. A thermodynamic model of contact angle hysteresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkonen, Lasse

    2017-08-01

    When a three-phase contact line moves along a solid surface, the contact angle no longer corresponds to the static equilibrium angle but is larger when the liquid is advancing and smaller when the liquid is receding. The difference between the advancing and receding contact angles, i.e., the contact angle hysteresis, is of paramount importance in wetting and capillarity. For example, it determines the magnitude of the external force that is required to make a drop slide on a solid surface. Until now, fundamental origin of the contact angle hysteresis has been controversial. Here, this origin is revealed and a quantitative theory is derived. The theory is corroborated by the available experimental data for a large number of solid-liquid combinations. The theory is applied in modelling the contact angle hysteresis on a textured surface, and these results are also in quantitative agreement with the experimental data.

  8. Peer Bullying During Early Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice UYSAL

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Peer bullying during early childhood is discussed along with the literature reviewed in this article with the purpose of drawing attention to peer bullying during early childhood and its significance, and contributing to studies which are few in number in Turkey. Peer bullying during early childhood was considered with its definition and types, people who play key roles in peer bullying, factors (gender, age, parents, and friendship that relate to peer bullying, and what should be done before and after peer bullying.

  9. Contact angle measurements under thermodynamic equilibrium conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lages, Carol; Méndez, Eduardo

    2007-08-01

    The precise control of the ambient humidity during contact angle measurements is needed to obtain stable and valid data. For a such purpose, a simple low-cost device was designed, and several modified surfaces relevant to biosensor design were studied. Static contact angle values for these surfaces are lower than advancing contact angles published for ambient conditions, indicating that thermodynamic equilibrium conditions are needed to avoid drop evaporation during the measurements.

  10. Pyoderma gangrenosum in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khatri M

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available We have treated 4 cases of pyoderma gangrenosum in infancy and childhood in past 2 years. The ages at onset were 6 months, 8 months, 6 months and 11.5 years respectively. Initial lesions were papulopustular in 3 and nodular in 1 patients but later on all of them developed ulcerative lesions with erythematous, violaceous, infiltrated or undermined edges. The lesions were numerous in 3 patients but few in 1 patient. The first patient had very high leucocyte count. In the second patient skin lesions of PG followed measles vaccinations. We could not reveal any association in the other two patients. None of the patient responded to antibiotic therapy. Three patients were treated successfully with dapsone and one with a combination of dapsone and prednisolone. We conclude that pyoderma gangrenosum is not so rare in infancy and it is more likely to occur without associated systemic diseases.

  11. Childhood and Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    From, Ditte-Marie

    understanding that is characterized by a somewhat larger complexity. The aim of this paper is to present some of the main discussions of my Ph.D.-project on childhood and health understandings by asking the overall question: Does family orientated health promoting programmes help bend the obesity curve......During the past decades, the number of overweight and obese individuals has increased throughout the Danish population. This fact has led to a strong political focus on health promotion especially among children and adolescents to prevent further escalation. The prevailing political point of view...... and a need to act before the so-called obesity epidemic becomes uncontrollable. Governmental health priorities are reproduced in local council family programmes where children and their parents are offered a chance to gain inspiration and knowledge about a healthier lifestyle and are provided tools to re...

  12. Childhood Short Stature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.Ray

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Childhood short stature comprises Varity of endocrinal, systemic, Skeletal & genetic disorders of pediatrics and is not just confined for endocrinal disorder only. A systemic approach often reduces the need for test which is often expensive &unnecessary. Use growth chart & asses bone age during evaluation. Short & heavy child are generally due to Endocrine causes, Short & thin are due to systemic disease, Short with normal velocity are may be due to Constitutional delay in growth &puberty or Familial short stature, differentiation can be done by Bone Age. In Girls Turner syndrome has to be kept in mind. Purpose of evaluation to find out the child who does not need treatment, who cannot be treated & the child who can be benefited from treatment.

  13. Fatty liver in childhood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yesim; Ozturk; Ozlem; Bekem; Soylu

    2014-01-01

    Fatty liver is a growing health problem worldwide. It might evolve to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, cirrhosis and cause hepatocellular carcinoma. This disease, which has increased because of eating habits, changes in food content and lifestyle, affects people from childhood. The most important risk factors are obesity and insulin resistance. Besides these factors, gender, ethnicity, genetic predisposition and some medical problems are also important. Cirrhosis in children is rare but is reported. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD) has no specific symptoms or signs but should be considered in obese children. NAFLD does not have a proven treatment. Weight loss with family based treatments is the most acceptable management. Exercise and an applicable diet with low glycemic index and appropriate calorie intake are preferred. Drugs are promising but not sufficient in children for today.

  14. Trends in childhood disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallapies, Dirk

    2006-09-28

    Child mortality has declined remarkably during the last decades. While neonatal disorders, diarrhoea, pneumonia, and malaria as well as being underweight account for most of the child deaths worldwide, children's health discussions in Europe and the USA focus on other issues such as asthma, neurodevelopmental disorders, male genital malformations, and childhood cancer. There is clear evidence of increasing rates of asthma in various countries during the last decades, although rates in some countries may now have stabilised or even decline as recent UK data indicate. Although an increase in the frequency of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and attention deficit disorder has frequently been discussed, the limited data in this field does not justify such a conclusion. While geographic heterogeneity regarding reproductive outcomes is apparent, global trends have not been identified. Interpretation of the available information on asthma, neurodevelopmental disorders and reproductive outcomes is hampered by inconstant diagnostic criteria over place and time and the lack of good and comprehensive population-based surveillance data, which makes it impossible to ascertain trends in actual disease frequency. Data indicate that developed countries have a gradually increasing incidence in leukaemia with a corresponding drop in the incidence of lymphoma. Increases in brain tumour frequency may be related to the development and wide application of new diagnostic capabilities, rather than a true change in the incidence of malignant disease. With a better prognosis for childhood cancer survival, secondary cancers following chemotherapy appear to be increasing. A wide range of environmental factors is thought to have an impact on children's health. These factors include nutrition (protein, vitamins, antioxidants), lifestyle and behaviour choices such as tobacco and alcohol use, parental health, socio-economic status, choice of living environment (urban versus rural, etc

  15. [Food allergy in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Kirsten; Niggemann, Bodo

    2016-06-01

    IgE-mediated immediate type reactions are the most common form of food allergy in childhood. Primary (often in early childhood) and secondary (often pollen-associated) allergies can be distinguished by their level of severity. Hen's egg, cow's milk and peanut are the most common elicitors of primary food allergy. Tolerance development in hen's egg and cow's milk allergy happens frequently whereas peanut allergy tends toward a lifelong disease. For the diagnostic patient history, detection of sensitization and (in many cases) oral food challenges are necessary. Especially in peanut and hazelnut allergy component-resolves diagnostic (measurement of specific IgE to individual allergens, e. g. Ara h 2) seem to be helpful. In regard to therapy elimination diet is still the only approved approach. Patient education through dieticians is extremely helpful in this regard. Patients at risk for anaphylactic reactions need to carry emergency medications including an adrenaline auto-injector. Instruction on the usage of the adrenaline auto-injector should take place and a written management plan handed to the patient. Moreover, patients or caregivers should be encouraged to attending a structured educational intervention on knowledge and emergency management. In parallel, causal therapeutic options such as oral, sublingual or epicutaneous immunotherapies are currently under development. In regard to prevention of food allergy current guidelines no longer advise to avoid highly allergenic foods. Current intervention studies are investigating wether early introduction of highly allergic foods is effective and safe to prevent food allergy. It was recently shown that peanut introduction between 4 and 11  months of age in infants with severe atopic dermatitis and/or hen's egg allergy (if they are not already peanut allergic) prevents peanut allergy in a country with high prevalence.

  16. Childhood Brain Stem Glioma Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and trouble walking. Vision and hearing problems. Morning headache or headache that goes away after vomiting . Nausea and vomiting. ... Cancer Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Children with Cancer: ...

  17. How Is Childhood Leukemia Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the organs. The echoes are converted by a computer into an image on a computer screen. This is a fairly easy test to ... material. For reprint requests, please see our Content Usage Policy . Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Types Can Childhood ...

  18. Childhood intelligence and adult obesity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kanazawa, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Recent studies conclude childhood intelligence has no direct effect on adult obesity net of education, but evolutionary psychological theories suggest otherwise. Design and Methods: A population ( n = 17,419...

  19. Childhood obesity and adult morbidities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Biro, Frank M; Wien, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    .... The consequences of childhood and adolescent obesity include earlier puberty and menarche in girls, type 2 diabetes and increased incidence of the metabolic syndrome in youth and adults, and obesity in adulthood...

  20. Fiber Intake and Childhood Appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brender, Jean D.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Parents of 135 children with appendicitis and of 212 comparison children were interviewed about their children's diet. Results suggest that a liberal intake of whole-grain breads and cereals may decrease the risk of appendicitis during childhood. (KH)

  1. Childhood obesity and food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jia-Yi; Qi, Sui-Jian

    2015-05-01

    The prevalence of obesity among children is growing in China at present. Childhood obesity reflects complex interactions of genetic, environmental, social and behavioral factors. Foods, nutritional components, and food intake patterns may be associated with the increasing obesity rate in children. Articles about the relationship between childhood obesity and food intake were collected from the databases including Web of Knowledge, PubMed, Elsevier and Google Scholar. Foods and nutritional components such as calcium, dietary fiber are inversely related to obesity, whereas others such as vitamin B and sugar-sweeten beverages play a positive role in obesity development. The differences in food intake pattern also influence the risk of obesity. Food intake is an important factor influencing childhood obesity. One strategy to prevent childhood obesity is to take foods of moderate amount in a proper pattern.

  2. Fiber Intake and Childhood Appendicitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brender, Jean D.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Parents of 135 children with appendicitis and of 212 comparison children were interviewed about their children's diet. Results suggest that a liberal intake of whole-grain breads and cereals may decrease the risk of appendicitis during childhood. (KH)

  3. Contact angle hysteresis on fluoropolymer surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavana, H; Jehnichen, D; Grundke, K; Hair, M L; Neumann, A W

    2007-10-31

    Contact angle hysteresis of liquids with different molecular and geometrical properties on high quality films of four fluoropolymers was studied. A number of different causes are identified for hysteresis. With n-alkanes as probe liquids, contact angle hysteresis is found to be strongly related to the configuration of polymer chains. The largest hysteresis is obtained with amorphous polymers whereas the smallest hysteresis occurs for polymers with ordered molecular chains. This is explained in terms of sorption of liquid by the solid and penetration of liquid into the polymer film. Correlation of contact angle hysteresis with the size of n-alkane molecules supports this conclusion. On the films of two amorphous fluoropolymers with different molecular configurations, contact angle hysteresis of one and the same liquid with "bulky" molecules is shown to be quite different. On the surfaces of Teflon AF 1600, with stiff molecular chains, the receding angles of the probe liquids are independent of contact time between solid and liquid and similar hysteresis is obtained for all the liquids. Retention of liquid molecules on the solid surface is proposed as the most likely cause of hysteresis in these systems. On the other hand, with EGC-1700 films that consist of flexible chains, the receding angles are strongly time-dependent and the hysteresis is large. Contact angle hysteresis increases even further when liquids with strong dipolar intermolecular forces are used. In this case, major reorganization of EGC-1700 chains due to contact with the test liquids is suggested as the cause. The effect of rate of motion of the three-phase line on the advancing and receding contact angles, and therefore contact angle hysteresis, is investigated. For low viscous liquids, contact angles are independent of the drop front velocity up to approximately 10 mm/min. This agrees with the results of an earlier study that showed that the rate-dependence of the contact angles is an issue only

  4. [Childhood of the schizophrenic patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Fonseca, D

    2009-01-01

    We are able to identify the different risk factors involved in the development of the disorder from a study of the childhood of a schizophrenic patient. More specifically, we will define the perinatal risk factors: season and place of birth, viral exposure during pregnancy and obstetric complications. Developmental factors will also be discussed. Socialisation, language, psychomotor and cognitive development disorders are all developmental difficulties seen during the childhood of the schizophrenic patient. Finally we will finish by discussing a few psychosocial risk factors.

  5. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  6. Childhood obesity: causes and consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Sahoo, Krushnapriya; Sahoo, Bishnupriya; Choudhury, Ashok Kumar; Sofi, Nighat Yasin; Kumar, Raman; Bhadoria, Ajeet Singh

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed as well as in developing countries. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. Overweight and obese children are likely to stay obese into adulthood and more likely to develop non-communicable diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with m...

  7. Automatic cobb angle determination from radiographic images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sardjono, Tri Arief; Wilkinson, Michael H.F.; Veldhuizen, Albert G.; Ooijen, van Peter M.A.; Purnama, Ketut E.; Verkerke, Gijsbertus J.

    2013-01-01

    Study Design. Automatic measurement of Cobb angle in patients with scoliosis. Objective. To test the accuracy of an automatic Cobb angle determination method from frontal radiographical images. Summary of Background Data. Thirty-six frontal radiographical images of patients with scoliosis. Met

  8. Automatic Cobb Angle Determination From Radiographic Images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sardjono, Tri Arief; Wilkinson, Michael H. F.; Veldhuizen, Albert G.; van Ooijen, Peter M. A.; Purnama, Ketut E.; Verkerke, Gijsbertus J.

    2013-01-01

    Study Design. Automatic measurement of Cobb angle in patients with scoliosis. Objective. To test the accuracy of an automatic Cobb angle determination method from frontal radiographical images. Summary of Background Data. Thirty-six frontal radiographical images of patients with scoliosis. Methods.

  9. Does gallbladder angle affect gallstone formation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanal, Bekir; Korkmaz, Mehmet; Zeren, Sezgin; Can, Fatma; Elmali, Ferhan; Bayhan, Zulfu

    2016-01-01

    Morphology of gallbladder varies considerably from person to person. We believe that one of the morphological variations of gallbladder is the "gallbladder angle". Gallbladder varies also in "angle", which, to the best of our knowledge, has never been investigated before. The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of gallbladder angle on gallstone formation. in this study, 1075 abdominal computed tomography (CT) images were retrospectively examined. Patients with completely normal gallbladders were selected. Among these patients, those with both abdominal ultrasound and blood tests were identified in the hospital records and included in the study. Based on the findings of the ultrasound scans, patients were divided into two groups as patients with gallstones and patients without gallstones. Following the measurement of gallbladder angles on the CT images, the groups were statistically evaluated. The gallbladder angle was smaller in patients with gallstones (49 ± 21 degrees and 53 ± 19 degrees) and the gallbladder with larger angle was 1.015 (1/0.985) times lower the risk of gallstone formation. However, these were not statistically significant (p>0,05). A more vertically positioned gallbladder does not affect gallstone formation. However, a smaller gallbladder angle may facilitate gallstone formation in patients with the risk factors. Gallstones perhaps more easily and earlier develop in gallbladders with a smaller angle.

  10. Automatic cobb angle determination from radiographic images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sardjono, Tri Arief; Wilkinson, Michael H.F.; Veldhuizen, Albert G.; van Ooijen, Peter M.A.; Purnama, Ketut E.; Verkerke, Gijsbertus Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Study Design. Automatic measurement of Cobb angle in patients with scoliosis. Objective. To test the accuracy of an automatic Cobb angle determination method from frontal radiographical images. Summary of Background Data. Thirty-six frontal radiographical images of patients with scoliosis. Methods.

  11. Acute angle closure glaucoma following ileostomy surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Meirelles Lopes

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Angle-closure glaucoma can be induced by drugs that may cause pupillary dilatation. We report a case of a patient that developed bilateral angle closure glaucoma after an ileostomy surgery because of systemic atropine injection. This case report highlights the importance of a fast ophthalmologic evaluation in diseases with ocular involvement in order to make accurate diagnoses and appropriate treatments.

  12. Apparent contact angle and contact angle hysteresis on liquid infused surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semprebon, Ciro; McHale, Glen; Kusumaatmaja, Halim

    We theoretically investigate the apparent contact angle and contact angle hysteresis of a droplet placed on a liquid infused surface. We show that the apparent contact angle is not uniquely defined by material parameters, but also has a strong dependence on the relative size between the droplet and its surrounding wetting ridge formed by the infusing liquid. We derive a closed form expression for the contact angle in the limit of vanishing wetting ridge, and compute the correction for small but finite ridge, which corresponds to an effective line tension term. We also predict contact angle hysteresis on liquid infused surfaces generated by the pinning of the contact lines by the surface corrugations. Our analytical expressions for both the apparent contact angle and contact angle hysteresis can be interpreted as `weighted sums' between the contact angles of the infusing liquid relative to the droplet and surrounding gas phases, where the weighting coefficients are given by ratios of the fluid surface tensions.

  13. Apparent contact angle and contact angle hysteresis on liquid infused surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semprebon, Ciro; McHale, Glen; Kusumaatmaja, Halim

    2016-12-21

    We theoretically investigate the apparent contact angle and contact angle hysteresis of a droplet placed on a liquid infused surface. We show that the apparent contact angle is not uniquely defined by material parameters, but also has a dependence on the relative size between the droplet and its surrounding wetting ridge formed by the infusing liquid. We derive a closed form expression for the contact angle in the limit of vanishing wetting ridge, and compute the correction for small but finite ridge, which corresponds to an effective line tension term. We also predict contact angle hysteresis on liquid infused surfaces generated by the pinning of the contact lines by the surface corrugations. Our analytical expressions for both the apparent contact angle and contact angle hysteresis can be interpreted as 'weighted sums' between the contact angles of the infusing liquid relative to the droplet and surrounding gas phases, where the weighting coefficients are given by ratios of the fluid surface tensions.

  14. Solid angles III. The role of conformers in solid angle calculations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    White, D

    1995-06-14

    Full Text Available The values of the solid angles Omega for a range of commonly encountered ligands in organometallic chemistry (phosphines, phosphites, amines, arsines and cyclopentadienyl rings) have been determined. The solid angles were derived from a single...

  15. Reliable measurement of the receding contact angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Juuso T; Huhtamäki, Tommi; Ikkala, Olli; Ras, Robin H A

    2013-03-26

    Surface wettability is usually evaluated by the contact angle between the perimeter of a water drop and the surface. However, this single measurement is not enough for proper characterization, and the so-called advancing and receding contact angles also need to be measured. Measuring the receding contact angle can be challenging, especially for extremely hydrophobic surfaces. We demonstrate a reliable procedure by using the common needle-in-the-sessile-drop method. Generally, the contact line movement needs to be followed, and true receding movement has to be distinguished from "pseudo-movement" occurring before the receding angle is reached. Depending on the contact angle hysteresis, the initial size of the drop may need to be surprisingly large to achieve a reliable result. Although our motivation for this work was the characterization of superhydrophobic surfaces, we also show that this method works universally ranging from hydrophilic to superhydrophobic surfaces.

  16. Development of Tibiofemoral Angle in Korean Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Jae Ho; Cho, Tae-Joon; Chung, Chin Youb; Yoo, Won Joon

    2008-01-01

    This study was performed to identify the chronological changes of the knee angle or the tibiofemoral angles in normal healthy Korean children. Full-length anteroposterior view standing radiographs of 818 limbs of 452 Korean children were analyzed. The overall patterns of the chronological changes in the knee angle were similar to those described previously in western or Asian children, but the knee angle development was delayed, i.e., genu varum before 1 yr, neutral at 1.5 yr, increasing genu valgum with maximum a value of 7.8° at 4 yr, followed by a gradual decrease to approximately 5-6° of genu valgum of the adult level at 7 to 8 yr of age. These normative data on chronological changes of knee angles should be taken into consideration when evaluating lower limb alignment in children. PMID:18756063

  17. Nanodrop contact angles from molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravipati, Srikanth; Aymard, Benjamin; Yatsyshin, Petr; Galindo, Amparo; Kalliadasis, Serafim

    2016-11-01

    The contact angle between three phases being in thermodynamic equilibrium is highly sensitive to the nature of the intermolecular forces as well as to various fluctuation effects. Determining the Young contact angle of a sessile drop sitting on a substrate from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations is a highly non-trivial task. Most commonly employed methods for finding droplet contact angles from MD simulation data either require large numbers of particles or are system-dependent. We propose a systematic geometry based methodology for extracting the contact angle from simulated sessile droplets by analysing an appropriately coarse-grained density field. To demonstrate the method, we consider Lennard-Jones (LJ) and SPC/E water nanodroplets of different sizes sitting on planar LJ walls. Our results are in good agreement with Young contact angle values computed employing test-area perturbation method.

  18. Apparent contact angle and contact angle hysteresis on liquid infused surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Semprebon, Ciro; McHale, Glen; Kusumaatmaja, Halim

    2017-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the apparent contact angle and contact angle hysteresis of a droplet placed on a liquid infused surface. We show that the apparent contact angle is not uniquely defined by material parameters, but also has a strong dependence on the relative size between the droplet and its surrounding wetting ridge formed by the infusing liquid. We derive a closed form expression for the contact angle in the limit of vanishing wetting ridge, and compute the correction for small b...

  19. Contact angle hysteresis of microbead suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghmare, Prashant R; Mitra, Sushanta K

    2010-11-16

    Microbead suspensions are often used in microfluidic devices for transporting biomolecules. An experimental investigation on the wettability of microbead suspension is presented in this study. The variation in the surface tension and the equilibrium contact angle with the change in the volume fraction of the microbead is presented here. The surface tension of the microbead suspension is measured with the pendant drop technique, whereas the dynamic contact angle measurements, i.e., advancing and receding contact angles, are measured with the sessile drop technique. An equilibrium contact angle of a suspension with particular volume fraction is determined by computing an average over the measured advancing and receding contact angles. It is observed that the surface tension and the equilibrium contact angle determined from advancing and receding contact angles vary with the magnitude of the microbeads volume fraction in the suspension. A decrease in the surface tension with an increase in the volume fraction of the microbead suspension is observed. The advancement and the recession in contact line for dynamic contact angle measurements are achieved with the motorized dosing mechanism. For microbead suspensions, the advancement of the contact line is faster as compared to the recession of the contact line for the same flow rate. The presence of microbeads assists in the advancement and the recession of the contact line of the suspension. A decrease in the equilibrium contact angles with an increase in the microbead suspension volume fraction is observed. Inclusion of microbeads in the suspension increases the wetting capability for the considered combination of the microbead suspension and substrate. Finally, empirical correlations for the surface tension and the contact angle of the suspension as a function of microbead volume fraction are proposed. Such correlations can readily be used to develop mechanistic models for the capillary transport of microbead

  20. Osteoporosis in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierucci, Francesco; Saggese, Giuseppe; Cimaz, Rolando

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this review is to highlight recent findings in prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of pediatric osteoporosis. Several genes are involved in bone mass acquisition, and various monogenic bone disorders characterized by reduced bone mineral density and increased bone fragility have been recently described. Moreover, many chronic diseases and/or their treatment have been associated with impaired bone mass acquisition. Pediatric osteoporosis should be adequately suspected and properly diagnosed in children at risk of fractures. Particularly, detection of vertebral fracture allows the diagnosis regardless of densitometric evaluation. Dual X-ray absorptiometry remains the most widely used densitometric technique in childhood, but interpretation of results should be made with caution because of different confounding factors. Bisphosphonates represent one of the main medical treatments of pediatric osteoporosis, and many different protocols have been proposed. Bisphosphonates administration should be characterized by a first phase, followed by a period of maintenance. Optimal route of administration, duration of therapy, and long-term safety of bisphosphonates treatment require further investigation. Careful monitoring of children at risk of fractures is essential to pose early diagnosis of osteoporosis. In children with persistent risk factors and reduced probability of spontaneous recovery, medical treatment with bisphosphonates should be considered.

  1. Asthma in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Benedictis, Fernando Maria; Attanasi, Marina

    2016-03-01

    Several topics on childhood asthma were addressed in the Paediatric Clinical Year in Review session at the 2015 European Respiratory Society International Congress. With regard to the relationship between lower respiratory tract infections and asthma, it emerges that is the number of respiratory episodes in the first years of life, but not the particular viral trigger, to be associated with later asthma development. Understanding which characteristics of individual patients are associated with an increased risk for asthma exacerbation is a critical step to implement strategies preventing these seasonal events. Recent data suggest the possibility that exhaled volatile organic compounds may qualify as biomarkers in detecting early signs of asthma. Adding information of exhaled volatile organic compounds and expression of inflammation genes to a clinical tool significantly improves asthma prediction in preschool wheezy children. Personal communication with children and adolescents is likely more important than the tools actually used for monitoring asthma. Systemic corticosteroids do not affect the long-term prognosis in children with first viral-induced wheezing episode and should be used cautiously during acute episodes. Finally, stress and a polymorphism upstream of a specific gene are both associated with reduced bronchodilator response in children with asthma.

  2. Asthma in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Maria de Benedictis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Several topics on childhood asthma were addressed in the Paediatric Clinical Year in Review session at the 2015 European Respiratory Society International Congress. With regard to the relationship between lower respiratory tract infections and asthma, it emerges that is the number of respiratory episodes in the first years of life, but not the particular viral trigger, to be associated with later asthma development. Understanding which characteristics of individual patients are associated with an increased risk for asthma exacerbation is a critical step to implement strategies preventing these seasonal events. Recent data suggest the possibility that exhaled volatile organic compounds may qualify as biomarkers in detecting early signs of asthma. Adding information of exhaled volatile organic compounds and expression of inflammation genes to a clinical tool significantly improves asthma prediction in preschool wheezy children. Personal communication with children and adolescents is likely more important than the tools actually used for monitoring asthma. Systemic corticosteroids do not affect the long-term prognosis in children with first viral-induced wheezing episode and should be used cautiously during acute episodes. Finally, stress and a polymorphism upstream of a specific gene are both associated with reduced bronchodilator response in children with asthma.

  3. Alternating hemiplegia of childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansagra, Sujay; Mikati, Mohamad A; Vigevano, Federico

    2013-01-01

    Alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC) is a very rare disease characterized by recurrent attacks of loss of muscular tone resulting in hypomobility of one side of the body. The etiology of the disease due to ATP1A3 gene mutations in the majority of patients. Few familial cases have been described. AHC has an onset in the first few months of life. Hemiplegic episodes are often accompanied by other paroxysmal manifestations, such as lateral eyes and head deviation toward the hemiplegic side and a very peculiar monocular nystagmus. As the attack progresses, hemiplegia can shift to the other side of the body. Sometimes the attack can provoke bilateral paralysis, and these patients may have severe clinical impairment, with difficulty in swallowing and breathing. Hemiplegic attacks may be triggered by different stimuli, like bath in warm water, motor activity, or emotion. The frequency of attacks is high, usually several in a month or in a week. The duration is variable from a few minutes to several hours or even days. Sleep can stop the attack. Movement disorders such as dystonia and abnormal movements are frequent. Cognitive delay of variable degree is a common feature. Epilepsy has been reported in 50% of the cases, but seizure onset is usually during the third or fourth year of life. Many drugs have been used in AHC with very few results. Flunarizine has the most supportive anecdotal evidence regarding efficacy.

  4. Completed suicide in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dervic, Kanita; Brent, David A; Oquendo, Maria A

    2008-06-01

    Suicide in children and young adolescents up to 14 years of age has increased in many countries, warranting research and clinical awareness. International reported suicide rates per 100,000 in this young population vary between 3.1 and 0 (mean rate worldwide, approximately 0.6/100.000; male-female ratio, 2:1). Suicide occurs only in vulnerable children; this vulnerability begins with parental mood disorder and impulsive aggression, and family history of suicide. Childhood affective and disruptive disorders and abuse are the most often reported psychiatric risk factors. Suicide becomes increasingly common after puberty, most probably because of pubertal onset of depression and substance abuse, which substantially aggravate suicide risk. Biologic findings are scarce; however, serotonergic dysfunction is assumed. The most common precipitants are school and family problems and may include actual/anticipated transitions in these environments. Suicides in children and young adolescents up to 14 years of age often follow a brief period of stress. Cognitive immaturity/misjudgment, age-related impulsivity, and availability of suicide methods play an important role. Psychologic autopsy studies that focus on suicides in this age group are needed.

  5. Update on childhood brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roushan, Mohammad R H; Amiri, Mohammad J S

    2013-04-01

    In endemic regions of brucellosis, childhood brucellosis includes up to one-third of all cases of human brucellosis. The main source of infection in children is consumption of unpasteurized dairy products and traditional local foods containing dairy products. The older boys are more involved in animal care. Boys are more commonly infected than girls. Common symptoms and signs include fever, arthralgia, sweating, peripheral arthritis and splenomegaly. Peripheral arthritis especially monoarthritis is more common and the most commonly affected joints are hip and knee. All organs may involve during the course of the disease. Isolation of Brucella spp. from the blood, bone marrow or other tissue fluids is the hallmark of diagnosis. Serologic tests are the main tools of diagnosis of brucellosis in endemic regions. Standard agglutination test (SAT) with titers > 1:160 and the 2-mercaptoethanol (2ME) test ≥ 1:80 are suggestive of active infection. Children older than 8 years should be treated with doxycycline for 45 days or 8 weeks plus gentamicin for 7 or 5 days respectively or doxycycline for 45 days and streptomycin for 14 days. Also doxycycline plus rifampin or cotrimoxazole plus rifampin for 45 days may be alternative regimens. Cotrimoxazole plus rifampin for six weeks is the regimen of choice for the treatment of patients younger than 8 years old. Gentamicin for 5 days plus cotrimoxazole for six weeks may be a suitable alternative regimen. The article presented few of the patents associated with Brucellosis.

  6. [Epidemiology of childhood cancers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clavel, Jacqueline

    2007-05-31

    In industrial countries, 1 child out of 500 develops a cancer before the age of 15 years, and before the age of 6 years for almost half of them. In France, incidence rates were stable over the 15 last years with around 1500 cases each year. A very small fraction of cases is attributable to known risk factors, including heritable cancers or cancers in children with heritable predisposing diseases, cancers induced by high doses of ionizing radiation of medical or accidental origin, by chemotherapeutic or immunosuppressive drugs. Responsibility of Epstein Barr virus in a fraction of Hodgkin's and Burkitt's lymphomas is also established, even though little is still known on the cofactors involved in industrial countries. Other virus could cause leukaemia, as suggested by localized increases in incidence in various conditions of population mixing. Conversely, there is some evidence that early common infections could be protective toward leukaemia risk, probably through their contribution to the maturation of the immune system. Several agents are suspected to induce chemical cancers, particularly pesticides, which are consistently reported in childhood leukaemia and brain tumours. It is more and more likely that genetic factors may modulate risk induced of environmental factors.

  7. Introduction: Childhood and Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salter, Erica K

    2017-06-21

    From growth attenuation therapy for severely developmentally disabled children to the post-natal management of infants with trisomy 13 and 18, pediatric treatment decisions regularly involve assessments of the probability and severity of a child's disability. Because these decisions are almost always made by surrogate decision-makers (parents and caregivers) and because these decision-makers must often make decisions based on both prognostic guesses and potentially biased quality of life judgments, they are among the most ethically complex in pediatric care. As the introduction to HEC Forum's special thematic issue on Childhood and Disability, this article orients the reader to the history of bioethics' relationship to both pediatric ethics and disability studies and introduces the issue's five manuscripts. As clinicians, disability scholars, philosophers and clinical ethicists writing on various aspects of pediatric disability, the articles' authors all invite readers to dig beneath an overly-simplified version of what disability might mean to children and families and instead embrace a posture of genuine humility, recognizing both the limits and harms of traditional medical and bioethical responses (or indifferences) to the disabled child.

  8. Childhood sledding injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorter, N A; Mooney, D P; Harmon, B J

    1999-01-01

    Sledding is only rarely thought of as a potentially dangerous childhood activity. However, serious injuries and occasional deaths do occur. A review of patients 18 years old and younger admitted to a pediatric trauma center following a sledding accident from 1991 to 1997 was conducted. By design this study was expected to identify the most seriously injured patients. Twenty-five patients were identified, all but four younger than 13. Seventeen were boys. The mechanisms of injury were: collision with stationary object, 15; sled-sled collision, 1; struck by sled, 2; going off jump, 3; foot caught under sled or on ground, 3; fall off sled being towed by snowmobile, 1. The average pediatric trauma score was 10.5, and the average injury severity score 10.6. There were no deaths. The injuries were: head, 11; long bone/extremity, all lower, 10; abdomen, 5; chest, 1; facial, 2; spinal, 1. Five patients sustained multiple injuries. A surprisingly high number, 5, had pre-existing neurological conditions that could have played a contributory role in the accident. Sledding is predominantly an activity of children, and occasional serious injuries occur. Most are preventable. Obeying the simple caveat that sledding should only be done in clear areas away from stationary objects would eliminate the great majority of serious injuries.

  9. [Chronic ataxia in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erazo Torricelli, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Chronic ataxias are an heterogeneous group of disorders that affect the child at different ages. Thus, the congenital forms, generally non progressive are observed from first months of life and are expressed by hypotonia and motor delay long before the ataxia became evident. The cerebral magnetic resonance images (MRI) may be diagnostic in some pictures like Joubert syndrome. The group of progressive hereditary ataxias, usually begin after the infant period. The clinical signs are gait instability and ocular apraxia that can be associated with oculocutaneous telangiectasias (ataxia-telangiesctasia) or with sensory neuropathy (Friedreich ataxia). In this review are briefly described congenital ataxias and in more detailed form the progressive hereditary ataxias autosomal recessive, autosomal dominants and mitochondrials. The importance of genetic study is emphasized, because it is the key to obtain the diagnosis in the majority of these diseases. Although now there are no treatments for the majority of progressive hereditary ataxias, some they have like Refsum disease, vitamine E deficiency, Coenzyme Q10 deficiency and others, thus the diagnosis in these cases is even more important. At present the diagnosis of childhood hereditary ataxia not yet treatable is fundamental to obtain suitable handling, determine a precise outcome and to give to the family an opportune genetic counseling.

  10. Globographic visualisation of three dimensional joint angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Richard

    2011-07-07

    Three different methods for describing three dimensional joint angles are commonly used in biomechanics. The joint coordinate system and Cardan/Euler angles are conceptually quite different but are known to represent the same underlying mathematics. More recently the globographic method has been suggested as an alternative and this has proved particularly attractive for the shoulder joint. All three methods can be implemented in a number of ways leading to a choice of angle definitions. Very recently Rab has demonstrated that the globographic method is equivalent to one implementation of the joint coordinate system. This paper presents a rigorous analysis of the three different methods and proves their mathematical equivalence. The well known sequence dependence of Cardan/Euler is presented as equivalent to configuration dependence of the joint coordinate system and orientation dependence of globographic angles. The precise definition of different angle sets can be easily visualised using the globographic method using analogues of longitude, latitude and surface bearings with which most users will already be familiar. The method implicitly requires one axis of the moving segment to be identified as its principal axis and this can be extremely useful in helping define the most appropriate angle set to describe the orientation of any particular joint. Using this technique different angle sets are considered to be most appropriate for different joints and examples of this for the hip, knee, ankle, pelvis and axial skeleton are outlined.

  11. Contact angle hysteresis, adhesion, and marine biofouling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Donald L; Brady, Robert F; Lam, Karen; Schmidt, Dale C; Chaudhury, Manoj K

    2004-03-30

    Adhesive and marine biofouling release properties of coatings containing surface-oriented perfluoroalkyl groups were investigated. These coatings were prepared by cross-linking a copolymer of 1H,1H,2H,2H-heptadecafluorodecyl acrylate and acrylic acid with a copolymer of poly(2-isopropenyl-2-oxazoline) and methyl methacrylate at different molar ratios. The relationships between contact angle, contact angle hysteresis, adhesion, and marine biofouling were studied. Adhesion was determined by peel tests using pressure-sensitive adhesives. The chemical nature of the surfaces was studied by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Resistance to marine biofouling of an optimized coating was studied by immersion in seawater and compared to previous, less optimized coatings. The adhesive release properties of the coatings did not correlate well with the surface energies of the coatings estimated from the static and advancing contact angles nor with the amount of fluorine present on the surface. The adhesive properties of the surfaces, however, show a correlation with water receding contact angles and contact angle hysteresis (or wetting hysteresis) resulting from surface penetration and surface reconstruction. Coatings having the best release properties had both the highest cross-link density and the lowest contact angle hysteresis. An optimized coating exhibited unprecedented resistance to marine biofouling. Water contact angle hysteresis appears to correlate with marine biofouling resistance.

  12. Wide-angle vision for road views

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, F.; Fehrs, K.-K.; Hartmann, G.; Klette, R.

    2013-03-01

    The field-of-view of a wide-angle image is greater than (say) 90 degrees, and so contains more information than available in a standard image. A wide field-of-view is more advantageous than standard input for understanding the geometry of 3D scenes, and for estimating the poses of panoramic sensors within such scenes. Thus, wide-angle imaging sensors and methodologies are commonly used in various road-safety, street surveillance, street virtual touring, or street 3D modelling applications. The paper reviews related wide-angle vision technologies by focusing on mathematical issues rather than on hardware.

  13. Bite Angle Effects in Hydroformylation Catalysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    van LEEUWEN

    2001-01-01

    Recent advances in rhodium catalyzed hydroformylation using xanthene-based ligands will be reviewed.The calculated natural bite angles of the ligands discussed are in the range 100-123℃ While the general trend is clear-higher 1:b ratios at wider angles, small changes in the bite angle do not exhibit a regular effect on the selectivity of the reaction.The same is true for the rate of CO dissociation;the larger the rate of the CO dissociation, the larger the rate of hydroformylation, but for small changes the effects do not comply with this rule.

  14. Intermittent acute angle closure glaucoma and chronic angle closure following topiramate use with plateau iris configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajjoub LZ

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Lamise Z Rajjoub, Nisha Chadha, David A Belyea Department of Ophthalmology, The George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA Abstract: This is a case report describing recurrent intermittent acute angle closure episodes in the setting of topiramate use in a female suffering from migraines. Despite laser peripheral iridotomy placement for the pupillary block component, and the discontinuation of topiramate, the acute angle closure did not resolve in the left eye with chronic angle closure and the patient required urgent trabeculectomy. The right eye responded to laser peripheral iridotomy immediately and further improved after the cessation of topiramate. While secondary angle closure glaucoma due to topiramate use has been widely reported, its effects in patients with underlying primary angle closure glaucoma have not been discussed. Our report highlights the importance of recognizing the often multifactorial etiology of angle closure glaucoma to help guide clinical management. Keywords: angle closure glaucoma, plateau iris, topiramate, secondary glaucoma, drug-induced glaucoma

  15. Recent Coverage of Early Childhood Education Approaches in Open Access Early Childhood Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Burhanettin

    2016-01-01

    A content analysis of the coverage of the major approaches to early childhood education in the early childhood research journals, published between 2010 and 2014, that are early childhood research oriented and have free online access were investigated. Among 21 journals in early childhood education, two journals were selected for the content…

  16. Recent Coverage of Early Childhood Education Approaches in Open Access Early Childhood Journals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Burhanettin

    2016-01-01

    A content analysis of the coverage of the major approaches to early childhood education in the early childhood research journals, published between 2010 and 2014, that are early childhood research oriented and have free online access were investigated. Among 21 journals in early childhood education, two journals were selected for the content…

  17. Epidemiology of childhood food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Ashley A; Gupta, Ruchi

    2013-06-01

    Food allergy is a public health problem that affects nearly 6 million children in the United States. The extent to which children, families, and communities live with food allergies varies as much as the range of clinical symptoms associated with the disease itself. Food allergy is defined as the reproducible adverse event that elicits a pathologic immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated or non-IgE-mediated reaction. Once an allergic child ingests a specific food allergen, the reaction can result in clinical symptoms ranging from mild hives to life-threatening anaphylaxis.Not surprisingly, food allergies have been shown to limit social interactions and impair children's quality of life due to the ubiquity of food where children live, learn, and play. To ensure the safety of our children, the development of sound policy, clinical practice, and health programs must be informed by current research characterizing childhood food allergy at the population level. To set the stage for understanding the current evidence base, this article reviews: 1) epidemiology of childhood food allergy; 2) severity of symptoms; 3) geographic distribution of childhood food allergy; 4) tolerance; 5) economic impact of childhood food allergy; and 6) future directions in childhood food allergy epidemiological research.

  18. Empowering the Poor through Early Childhood Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, Rosamunde

    1999-01-01

    Meeting children's needs for early childhood education is one of eight strategies identified by the Food and Agricultural Organization as necessary for the eradication of poverty. Explores how early childhood education might be funded in developing nations. (SLD)

  19. Nutrition Intervention Program and Childhood Malnutrition: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The high prevalence of childhood under‑nutrition in the Niger delta might not ... Keywords: Nutrition intervention program, Childhood malnutrition, Nutrition education,. Niger delta region ..... factors and coronary heart disease. Arch Internal Med.

  20. Maternal postpartum distress and childhood overweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ajslev, Teresa A; Andersen, Camilla S; Ingstrup, Katja G;

    2010-01-01

    We investigated associations between maternal postpartum distress covering anxiety, depression and stress and childhood overweight.......We investigated associations between maternal postpartum distress covering anxiety, depression and stress and childhood overweight....

  1. EMERGENCE ANGLE OF FLOW OVER AN AERATOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Aerator is an important device for release works of hydraulic structures with high-speed flow in order to protect them from cavitation damage. This kind of protecting effect is related closely to cavity length below the aerator, while the cavity length is dominated by the emergence angle over the aerator. Therefore it is crucial to determine this angle accurately. In the present paper the affecting intensities of flow depth and the fluctuating velocity on this angle were analyzed through two introduced parameters. Furthermore, the improved expressions of emergence angle estimation, for both ramp-type and step-type aerators, were presented by means of 68 sets of experimental data from 6 projects based on error theory. The results showed that the present method has higher accuracy than the previously reported methods.

  2. Nanofluid surface wettability through asymptotic contact angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafaei, Saeid; Wen, Dongsheng; Borca-Tasciuc, Theodorian

    2011-03-15

    This investigation introduces the asymptotic contact angle as a criterion to quantify the surface wettability of nanofluids and determines the variation of solid surface tensions with nanofluid concentration and nanoparticle size. The asymptotic contact angle, which is only a function of gas-liquid-solid physical properties, is independent of droplet size for ideal surfaces and can be obtained by equating the normal component of interfacial force on an axisymmetric droplet to that of a spherical droplet. The technique is illustrated for a series of bismuth telluride nanofluids where the variation of surface wettability is measured and evaluated by asymptotic contact angles as a function of nanoparticle size, concentration, and substrate material. It is found that the variation of nanofluid concentration, nanoparticle size, and substrate modifies both the gas-liquid and solid surface tensions, which consequently affects the force balance at the triple line, the contact angle, and surface wettability.

  3. Haematological Parameters in Open Angle Glaucoma Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GA Akinlabi, VI Iyawe. Abstract. There is potential for blood related factors to affect aqueous production or optic nerve functions. ... Here we compare hematological parameters for a group of 68 chronic open-angle glaucoma (OAG) patients and ...

  4. Brucellosis in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, L; Grant, W W; Alva, J D

    1975-03-01

    Brucellosis has always been an unusual disease in children and, concomitant with the control of the disease in domestic animals, reports have become sparse. The pediatrician, therefore, may not be aware of the protean clinical manifestations of childhood brucellosis. In 1973, nine cases occurred during a three-month period in El Paso, Texas. All cases were marked by spiking fevers and lethargy of four days to four weeks in duration. Tender hepatomegaly or splenomegaly was striking in seven patients. Other characteristics included epistaxis, arthralgia, myalgia, and weight loss. Leukopenia and leukemoid reaction were found in five patients. All of the patients tested had elevated liver enzymes. Febrile agglutinins were invaluable in screening for an early clue to diagnosis. When Brucella abortus antigen agglutinated serum from patients with a positive screen in dilutions greater than 1:320, a presumptive diagnosis of brucellosis was made. Brucella was isolated from the blood or bone marrow in seven patients and the time of incubation proved crucial for successful recovery. Bacterial blood cultures are usually discarded at ten days of age, as were cultures from the only two patients from whom the organism was not recovered. All of the cultures incubated for 12 to 15 days grew B. melitensis, an unusual causative species in the United States. However, several patients admitted eating cheese from the State of Chihuahua, Mexico, made from unpasteurized goat's milk, the presumed source of the infection. Within one to three days, all patients responded dramatically to antibiotics; tetracycline was given orally for 21 days and streptomycin intramuscularly for 14 days. Pediatricians caring for patients in areas where consumption of unpasteurized milk products is likely would do well to consider brucellosis in a child with obscure fever or toxic hepatosplenomegaly.

  5. Contact angle hysteresis on superhydrophobic stripes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubov, Alexander L; Mourran, Ahmed; Möller, Martin; Vinogradova, Olga I

    2014-08-21

    We study experimentally and discuss quantitatively the contact angle hysteresis on striped superhydrophobic surfaces as a function of a solid fraction, ϕS. It is shown that the receding regime is determined by a longitudinal sliding motion of the deformed contact line. Despite an anisotropy of the texture the receding contact angle remains isotropic, i.e., is practically the same in the longitudinal and transverse directions. The cosine of the receding angle grows nonlinearly with ϕS. To interpret this we develop a theoretical model, which shows that the value of the receding angle depends both on weak defects at smooth solid areas and on the strong defects due to the elastic energy of the deformed contact line, which scales as ϕS(2)lnϕS. The advancing contact angle was found to be anisotropic, except in a dilute regime, and its value is shown to be determined by the rolling motion of the drop. The cosine of the longitudinal advancing angle depends linearly on ϕS, but a satisfactory fit to the data can only be provided if we generalize the Cassie equation to account for weak defects. The cosine of the transverse advancing angle is much smaller and is maximized at ϕS ≃ 0.5. An explanation of its value can be obtained if we invoke an additional energy due to strong defects in this direction, which is shown to be caused by the adhesion of the drop on solid sectors and is proportional to ϕS(2). Finally, the contact angle hysteresis is found to be quite large and generally anisotropic, but it becomes isotropic when ϕS ≤ 0.2.

  6. A microscopic view on contact angle selection

    OpenAIRE

    Snoeijer, Jacco H.; Andreotti, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    We discuss the equilibrium condition for a liquid that partially wets a solid on the level of intermolecular forces. Using a mean field continuum description, we generalize the capillary pressure from variation of the free energy and show at what length scale the equilibrium contact angle is selected. After recovering Young's law for homogeneous substrates, it is shown how hysteresis of the contact angle can be incorporated in a self-consistent fashion. In all cases the liquid-vapor interface...

  7. Health lifestyles in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie; James-Hawkins, Laurie; Lawrence, Elizabeth; Fomby, Paula

    2014-12-01

    This study integrates two important developments, the concept of health lifestyles (which has focused on adults and adolescents) and the increased attention to early childhood. We introduce the concept of children's health lifestyles, identifying differences from adult health lifestyles and articulating intergenerational transmission and socialization processes shaping children's health lifestyles. Using the nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (2001-2007; N ≈ 6,150), latent class analyses identify predominant health lifestyles among U.S. preschoolers. Five distinct empirical patterns representing health lifestyles emerge, two capturing low and medium levels of overall risk across domains and three capturing domain-specific risks. Social background predicts children's health lifestyles, but lower household resources often explain these relationships. Across kindergarten measures of cognition, behavior, and health, preschool health lifestyles predict children's development even after controlling for social disadvantage and concurrent household resources. Further research on health lifestyles throughout childhood is warranted.

  8. Pressure dependence of the contact angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiyu; Farouk, T; Ward, C A

    2007-06-07

    When a liquid and its vapor contact a smooth, homogeneous surface, Gibbsian thermodynamics indicates that the contact angle depends on the pressure at the three-phase line of an isothermal system. When a recently proposed adsorption isotherm for a solid-vapor interface is combined with the equilibrium conditions and the system is assumed to be in a cylinder where the liquid-vapor interface can be approximated as spherical, the contact-angle-pressure relation can be made explicit. It indicates that a range of contact angles can be observed on a smooth homogeneous surface by changing the pressure at the three-phase line, but it also indicates that the adsorption at the solid-liquid interface is negative, and leads to the prediction that the contact angle increases with pressure. The predicted dependence of the contact angle on pressure is investigated experimentally in a system that has an independent mechanism for determining when thermodynamic equilibrium is reached. The predictions are in agreement with the measurements. The results provide a possible explanation for contact angle hysteresis.

  9. Winding angles of long lattice walks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Yosi; Kantor, Yacov

    2016-07-01

    We study the winding angles of random and self-avoiding walks (SAWs) on square and cubic lattices with number of steps N ranging up to 107. We show that the mean square winding angle of random walks converges to the theoretical form when N → ∞. For self-avoiding walks on the square lattice, we show that the ratio /2 converges slowly to the Gaussian value 3. For self-avoiding walks on the cubic lattice, we find that the ratio /2 exhibits non-monotonic dependence on N and reaches a maximum of 3.73(1) for N ≈ 104. We show that to a good approximation, the square winding angle of a self-avoiding walk on the cubic lattice can be obtained from the summation of the square change in the winding angles of lnN independent segments of the walk, where the ith segment contains 2i steps. We find that the square winding angle of the ith segment increases approximately as i0.5, which leads to an increase of the total square winding angle proportional to (lnN)1.5.

  10. Contact angle hysteresis: study by dynamic cycling contact angle measurements and variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry on polyimide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennig, A; Eichhorn, K-J; Staudinger, U; Sahre, K; Rogalli, M; Stamm, M; Neumann, A W; Grundke, K

    2004-08-03

    The phenomenon of contact angle hysteresis was studied on smooth films of polyimide, a polymer type used in the microelectronic industry, by dynamic cycling contact angle measurements based on axisymmetric drop shape analysis-profile in combination with variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry (VASE). It was found that both advancing and receding contact angles became smaller with increasing the number of cycles and are, therefore, not a property of the dry solid alone. The changes of the wetting behavior during these dynamic cycling contact angle measurements are attributed mainly to swelling and/or liquid retention. To reveal the water-induced changes of the polymer film, the polyimide surface was studied before and after the contact with a water droplet by VASE. Both the experimental ellipsometric spectrum for Delta and that for Psi as well as the corresponding simulations show characteristic shifts due to the contact with water. The so-called effective medium approximation was applied to recover information about the thickness and effective optical constants of the polymer layer from the ellipsometrically measured values of Delta and Psi. On the basis of these results, the swelling and retention behavior of the polyimide films in contact with water droplets were discussed.

  11. Childhood sarcoidosis: Louisiana experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedalia, Abraham; Khan, Tahir A; Shetty, Avinash K; Dimitriades, Victoria R; Espinoza, Luis R

    2016-07-01

    A retrospective chart review was conducted to detect patients with sarcoidosis seen by pediatric rheumatology service from the period of 1992 to 2013 at Children's hospital of New Orleans. Twenty-seven patients were identified. The average duration of symptoms before diagnosis was 5 (range 1-120) months. Five patients had onset before the age of 5 years and were diagnosed with early-onset sarcoidosis. The most common manifestations at presentation were constitutional symptoms (62 %) followed by ocular (38 %). During the course of illness, 19/27 (70 %) had multiorgan involvement. Common manifestations included uveitis/iritis (77 %), fever (50 %), hilar adenopathy (42 %), arthritis (31 %), peripheral lympadenopathy (31 %), hepatosplenomegaly (31 %), parenchymal lung disease (27 %), and skin rash (19 %). Unusual manifestations included granulomatous bone marrow disease (3 cases), hypertension (2), abdominal aortic aneurysm (large vessel vasculitis; 1), granulomatous hepatitis (1), nephrocalcinosis (1), membranous nephropathy (1), refractory granulomatous interstitial nephritis with recurrence in transplanted kidney (1), CNS involvement (2), parotid gland enlargement (1), and sensorineural hearing loss (1). Biopsy specimen was obtained in 21/27 (77 %) patients, and demonstration of noncaseating granuloma associated with negative stains for mycobacteria and fungi was seen in 18 patients. Elevated angiotensin-converting enzyme level was seen in 74 % of patients. Treatment with oral prednisone was initiated in symptomatic patients with significant clinical improvement. Low-dose methotrexate (MTX) 10-15 mg/m(2)/week orally, as steroid-sparing agent, was administered in 14 patients. Other immunomodulators included cyclophosphamide (2 patients), etanercept (2), infliximab (2), mycophenolate mofetil (1), and tacrolimus (1). Childhood sarcoidosis is prevalent in Louisiana. Most of the affected children present with a multisystem disease associated with

  12. Contact angle of unset elastomeric impression materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menees, Timothy S; Radhakrishnan, Rashmi; Ramp, Lance C; Burgess, John O; Lawson, Nathaniel C

    2015-10-01

    Some elastomeric impression materials are hydrophobic, and it is often necessary to take definitive impressions of teeth coated with some saliva. New hydrophilic materials have been developed. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare contact angles of water and saliva on 7 unset elastomeric impression materials at 5 time points from the start of mixing. Two traditional polyvinyl siloxane (PVS) (Aquasil, Take 1), 2 modified PVS (Imprint 4, Panasil), a polyether (Impregum), and 2 hybrid (Identium, EXA'lence) materials were compared. Each material was flattened to 2 mm and a 5 μL drop of distilled water or saliva was dropped on the surface at 25 seconds (t0) after the start of mix. Contact angle measurements were made with a digital microscope at initial contact (t0), t1=2 seconds, t2=5 seconds, t3=50% working time, and t4=95% working time. Data were analyzed with a generalized linear mixed model analysis, and individual 1-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD post hoc tests (α=.05). For water, materials grouped into 3 categories at all time-points: the modified PVS and one hybrid material (Identium) produced the lowest contact angles, the polyether material was intermediate, and the traditional PVS materials and the other hybrid (EXA'lence) produced the highest contact angles. For saliva, Identium, Impregum, and Imprint 4 were in the group with the lowest contact angle at most time points. Modified PVS materials and one of the hybrid materials are more hydrophilic than traditional PVS materials when measured with water. Saliva behaves differently than water in contact angle measurement on unset impression material and produces a lower contact angle on polyether based materials. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Bioelectric impedance phase angle in breast carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Tyagi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Worldwide breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed life threatening cancer and the leading cause of death in women. Bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA affords an emerging opportunity to assess prognosis because of its ability to non invasively assess cell and plasma membrane structure and function by means of phase angle. Aims: To compare the phase angle between patients of breast cancer and their matched control with the help of BIA. Settings and Design: After taking clearance from ethical committee, a total of 34 female cases of histologically proven infiltrating ductal breast carcinoma were included from the surgery IPD, department of surgery. Equal numbers of the matched controls were recruited from the friends and relatives of cases. Materials and Methods: Bio Electrical Impedance Analyzer (BIA BODY STAT QUAD SCAN 4000 was used to measure resistance (R and reactance (Xc by recording a voltage drop in applied current. Phase angle is the ratio of reactance to resistance and is a measure of cell vitality. Statistical analysis used: Unpaired "t" test was applied. Results: In control group, the phase angle showed a mean of 5.479 whereas in test group, it showed a mean value of 4.726. The P value showed a significant difference (P < 0.0001. The smaller the phase angle values were higher was the tumor, nodes, metastases (TNM staging. The phase angles differed significantly from the healthy age matched control values. Conclusions: This study demonstrated that phase angle is a strong predictor of severity of breast cancer and differed significantly between the two groups.

  14. Fractal Approach in Petrology: Combining Ultra-Small Angle (USANA) and Small Angle Neutron Scattering (SANS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LoCelso, F.; Triolo, F.; Triolo, A.; Lin, J.S.; Lucido, G.; Triolo, R.

    1999-10-14

    Ultra small angle neutron scattering instruments have recently covered the gap between the size resolution available with conventional intermediate angle neutron scattering and small angle neutron scattering instruments on one side and optical microscopy on the other side. Rocks showing fractal behavior in over two decades of momentum transfer and seven orders of magnitude of intensity are examined and fractal parameters are extracted from the combined USANS and SANS curves.

  15. THE CONCEPT OF CHILDHOOD IN LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Igorevna KRUPENINA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the nature, types, characteristics of the phenomenon of childhood as a social phenomenon of our time. The author notes the complexity of the definition of “childhood” and its different interpretations. The author also notes that social “construction” considers not childhood itself in its entirety but childhood through the "prism of adulthood". Childhood is often seen as something natural through which goes everyone and something that everybody must have as a result of education and development. At the same time, is lost the understanding of childhood as a valuable phenomenon in itself. The author draws attention to different ways of studying childhood in psychology, literature and history and correlates concepts of childhood in psychology, history and culturology. The author considers the childhood concept by Philippe Aries in correlation with the image of childhood in the novels by Charles Dickens. This choice is determined by specific periodizations of childhood in history and culture what makes the specific development of the world of childhood dependent on the evolution of the world of grown-ups and its culture. 

  16. Early Childhood Special Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darrow, Alice-Ann

    2011-01-01

    The process of early intervention is a critical component of Early Childhood Special Music Education. Early intervention is the process of providing services, education, and support to young children who have disabilities or to children who are at-risk of developing needs that may affect their physical, cognitive, or emotional development. The…

  17. Expertise of Early Childhood Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Happo, Iiris; Määttä, Kaarina

    2011-01-01

    Every preschool age child in Finland has the right to day care and the expertise of educators is multidimensional. The aim of this article is to clarify the expertise of those early childhood educators, who have the competence of kindergarten teachers (n = 80). The data consisted of the early educators' stories of their growth towards expertise.…

  18. The Notebook of My Childhood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王潇涵

    2011-01-01

    About three years ago, I wrote this small poem in a beautiful notebook in memory of my happy childhood. It was missing for a long time. But luckily, in my winter holiday when I was cleaning my room I found it on the bottom of a pile of books. I was so exc

  19. Early Childhood Educator's Nutrition Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Christine; And Others

    This nutrition handbook is designed to provide enough information on nutrition and food habits to enable early childhood educators to add a nutrition dimension to children's learning activities. Topics covered are the role of nutrition in growth during the preschool years; nutrients and their functions; selecting a healthy diet; common nutritional…

  20. Communicable Diseases in Childhood Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Networks, 1994

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter addresses managing the spread of communicable diseases in childhood settings as well as educational program concerns for children who are HIV infected. Noting that communicable diseases are a source of concern no matter how minor they might appear, the newsletter suggests that it is important for individuals who work with the…

  1. Boys' Bodies in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Murray

    2012-01-01

    This paper is based on qualitative research data from a project investigating early childhood boys' constructions of masculinities in relation to sport, health and the body. The focus group data, with 33 boys, has been collected in each of the boys' first three years at school. It is part of the data that will be collected over eight years with…

  2. Signs of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... physical and emotional pain. It has long-term effects on the child. And it is a crime. Recognizing childhood sexual ... living with stepparents.Lives in a rural or low-income area.Has been a ... and children with intellectual disabilities face a higher risk. Remember, ...

  3. Imaging intracranial tuberculosis in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamieson, D.H. [Dept. of Radiology, Red Cross War Memorial Children`s Hospital, Rondebosch (South Africa)

    1995-05-01

    A morphologically based imaging review of intracranial tuberculosis in childhood is presented. The computed tomography and magnetic resonance features of parenchymal tuberculoma, tuberculous meningitis and meningeal/meniningocerebral tuberculoma are illustrated. Recent insight into the nature of tuberculoma necrosis and its magnetic resonance correlation is reviewed. Pathogenesis, relevant clinical background and the role of modern imaging is discussed. (orig.)

  4. Antecedents to Prostitution: Childhood Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadon, Susan M.; Koverola, Catherine; Schludermann, Eduard H.

    1998-01-01

    Adolescent prostitutes (n=45) and adolescent nonprostitutes (n=37) were interviewed regarding their experiences related to childhood physical and sexual abuse, leaving home, family functioning, parental alcohol and drug use, and level of self-esteem. Although results replicated previous findings, when a comparison group was considered the same…

  5. SEL Interventions in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Megan M.; Tominey, Shauna L.; Schmitt, Sara A.; Duncan, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Young children who enter school without sufficient social and emotional learning (SEL) skills may have a hard time learning. Yet early childhood educators say they do not get enough training to effectively help children develop such skills. In this article, Megan McClelland, Shauna Tominey, Sara Schmitt, and Robert Duncan examine the theory and…

  6. Childhood obesity: causes and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Krushnapriya; Sahoo, Bishnupriya; Choudhury, Ashok Kumar; Sofi, Nighat Yasin; Kumar, Raman; Bhadoria, Ajeet Singh

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed as well as in developing countries. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. Overweight and obese children are likely to stay obese into adulthood and more likely to develop non-communicable diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising prevalence of obesity worldwide. In general, overweight and obesity are assumed to be the results of an increase in caloric and fat intake. On the other hand, there are supporting evidence that excessive sugar intake by soft drink, increased portion size, and steady decline in physical activity have been playing major roles in the rising rates of obesity all around the world. Childhood obesity can profoundly affect children's physical health, social, and emotional well-being, and self esteem. It is also associated with poor academic performance and a lower quality of life experienced by the child. Many co-morbid conditions like metabolic, cardiovascular, orthopedic, neurological, hepatic, pulmonary, and renal disorders are also seen in association with childhood obesity.

  7. Predicting adult asthma in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, JM; Boezen, HM

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There still is no cure for asthma. Early identification of patients at risk for disease progression may lead to better treatment opportunities and hopefully better disease outcomes in adulthood. Recent literature on childhood risk factors associated with the outcome of asthma in a

  8. Green Space and Childhood Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autism, a group of complex neurodevelopmental disorders typically identified in early childhood, affects more than 3 million people in the U.S. To date, the cause of autism is unclear. It is believed that autism results from a combination of genetic and environmental factors incl...

  9. Sociological Factors Affecting Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forster-Scott, Latisha

    2007-01-01

    According to data from the National Center for Health Statistics, childhood obesity rates are highest among ethnic minorities. It is very helpful to consider the role of culture when attempting to analyze and explain obesity rates in ethnic minority populations. Culture influences the attitudes and beliefs toward exercise, food and nutrition, and…

  10. Childhood Obesity: Prediction and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Michael D.

    Obesity in children is a problem both insidious and acute. Childhood obesity has been indicated as a forerunner of adult obesity; it is also an immediate problem for the child. Given the lack of evidence for long term maintenance of any weight loss, this paper investigates the etiology of the disorder as a prelude to prevention. Upon review of the…

  11. Childhood Obesity. Special Reference Briefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winick, Myron

    This reference brief deals with the problem of childhood obesity and how it can lead to obesity in the adult. Eighty-four abstracts are presented of studies on the identification, prevention, and treatment of obesity in children, focusing on diet and psychological attitudes. Subjects of the studies were children ranging in age from infancy through…

  12. Early Childhood Inclusion in Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljubešic, Marta; Šimleša, Sanja

    2016-01-01

    This article explains early childhood inclusion in Croatia from its beginnings up to challenges in current policy and practice. The first preschool education for children with disabilities dates back to the 1980s and was provided in special institutions. In the last 10 years, mainstream kindergartens have been enrolling children with disabilities…

  13. Childhood Obesity: The Caregiver's Role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haschke, Bernadette

    2003-01-01

    Describes the role caregivers play in helping young children dealing with obesity. Examines: (1) causes of childhood obesity; (2) caregiver's position; (3) learning nutrition concepts; (4) preparing and serving healthy foods; (5) encouraging physical activity; (6) working with parents; and (7) assisting an obese child. (SD)

  14. Childhood Obesity: The Caregiver's Role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haschke, Bernadette

    2003-01-01

    Describes the role caregivers play in helping young children dealing with obesity. Examines: (1) causes of childhood obesity; (2) caregiver's position; (3) learning nutrition concepts; (4) preparing and serving healthy foods; (5) encouraging physical activity; (6) working with parents; and (7) assisting an obese child. (SD)

  15. Childhood obesity: causes and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krushnapriya Sahoo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed as well as in developing countries. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. Overweight and obese children are likely to stay obese into adulthood and more likely to develop non-communicable diseases like diabetes and cardiovascular diseases at a younger age. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising prevalence of obesity worldwide. In general, overweight and obesity are assumed to be the results of an increase in caloric and fat intake. On the other hand, there are supporting evidence that excessive sugar intake by soft drink, increased portion size, and steady decline in physical activity have been playing major roles in the rising rates of obesity all around the world. Childhood obesity can profoundly affect children′s physical health, social, and emotional well-being, and self esteem. It is also associated with poor academic performance and a lower quality of life experienced by the child. Many co-morbid conditions like metabolic, cardiovascular, orthopedic, neurological, hepatic, pulmonary, and renal disorders are also seen in association with childhood obesity.

  16. Early Childhood Intervention in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuzhu; Maude, Susan P.; Brotherson, Mary Jane

    2015-01-01

    With rapid economic development and increasing awareness of the importance of early childhood intervention (ECI), China is re-examining its social and educational practices for young children with disabilities. This re-examination may have a significant impact on young children with disabilities in China. It may also set an example for other…

  17. Childhood Head and Neck Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... increased in size and/or may perform a fine needle aspiration biopsy of the nodule (see Thyroid Nodule brochure). Thyroid ... childhood. Thyroid cancer can be detected by a fine needle aspiration biopsy of thyroid cells from the nodule. This procedure ...

  18. [Psychopathy in childhood and adolescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petermann, F; Remschmidt, H

    2013-12-01

    Personality disorders manifest themselves in stable deviations of personality traits that especially arise in negative interactions with others. Those typical dysfunctional interactions can be observed particularly in dissocial and antisocial personality disorders: adults with severe forms of personality disorders often showed specific symptoms in childhood and adolescence. Clinical researchers therefore demand a respective diagnosis of childhood and adolescent psychopathy. There is an extensive body of research on dissocial and borderline personality disorders in children and adolescents. To date the severe form of dissocial personality disorders, psychopathy, cannot be specifically classified. The transfer of this diagnosis to childhood and adolescence is crucial: based on the assumption of persistence and the risk of stigmatisation many clinicians refuse to diagnose psychopathy at a young age. On the other hand there are positive treatment outcomes that aim at symptom reduction from a very early age. The specification of dissocial personality disorders in childhood and adolescence may encourage the development of new treatments and the de-stigmatisation as well as qualify the dogged assumption of persistence of personality disorders.

  19. Global characteristics of childhood acute promyelocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Samad, A; Pombo-de-Oliveira, M S; Scelo, G; Smith, M T; Feusner, J; Wiemels, J L; Metayer, C

    2015-03-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) comprises approximately 5-10% of childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cases in the US. While variation in this percentage among other populations was noted previously, global patterns of childhood APL have not been thoroughly characterized. In this comprehensive review of childhood APL, we examined its geographic pattern and the potential contribution of environmental factors to observed variation. In 142 studies (spanning >60 countries) identified, variation was apparent-de novo APL represented from 2% (Switzerland) to >50% (Nicaragua) of childhood AML in different geographic regions. Because a limited number of previous studies addressed specific environmental exposures that potentially underlie childhood APL development, we gathered 28 childhood cases of therapy-related APL, which exemplified associations between prior exposures to chemotherapeutic drugs/radiation and APL diagnosis. Future population-based studies examining childhood APL patterns and the potential association with specific environmental exposures and other risk factors are needed.

  20. Lateral angle and cranial base sexual dimorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duquesnel Mana, Mathilde; Adalian, Pascal; Lynnerup, Niels

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY: Previous studies have yielded very different results in sex estimation based on measurements of the lateral angle (LA) of the temporal bone. The purpose of this study was to, first, investigate if the bad results obtained by the LA method could be due to the methodology and then, second......, to examine sexual dimorphism in the relationship between the lateral angle and cranial base shape. The lateral angle method was tested using a forensic sample of 102 CT scans of the head with known sex. We measured the angle using two methods: measurements directly on the CT slide, the method usually applied...... the direct measurements. The mean angle was greater in females (48.2° ± 7.2°) than in males (45.38° ±8.06°) but the difference was not significant (t-test, p = 0.063). A statistically significant difference in cranial base shape existed between the two sexes, but the results also demonstrated a major overlap...

  1. PRIMARY OPEN ANGLE GLAUCOMA IN THYROID DISORDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pragati Garg

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE To assess the association of thyroid profile with open angle glaucoma. DESIGN Cross-sectional observational study. MATERIAL AND METHOD 128 cases of diagnosed thyroid disorder were enrolled. 5 cases dropped out. Ocular examination included applanation tonometry, stereoscopic optic disc photography, and automated perimetry. Correlative association of thyroid disorder and open angle glaucoma was assessed. RESULTS Of 123 patients of thyroid disorder, 87.8% had hypothyroidism and remaining 12.2% had hyperthyroidism. 15.74% of hypothyroidism and 20% of hyperthyroidism patients had open angle glaucoma, which was statistically significant (Pearson chi-square: Value=6.548, df=2, p=0.040. On multivariate analysis with other risk factors like female sex, family history of glaucoma, myopia, hypertension, and diabetes; it was found that hypothyroidism is an independent risk factor for open angle glaucoma. CONCLUSION All patients having thyroid disorder should be investigated for early diagnosis of open angle glaucoma so that if need be antiglaucoma treatment is started at the earliest and the eye maybe saved from any further deterioration.

  2. Three paths toward the quantum angle operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazeau, Jean Pierre; Szafraniec, Franciszek Hugon

    2016-12-01

    We examine mathematical questions around angle (or phase) operator associated with a number operator through a short list of basic requirements. We implement three methods of construction of quantum angle. The first one is based on operator theory and parallels the definition of angle for the upper half-circle through its cosine and completed by a sign inversion. The two other methods are integral quantization generalizing in a certain sense the Berezin-Klauder approaches. One method pertains to Weyl-Heisenberg integral quantization of the plane viewed as the phase space of the motion on the line. It depends on a family of "weight" functions on the plane. The third method rests upon coherent state quantization of the cylinder viewed as the phase space of the motion on the circle. The construction of these coherent states depends on a family of probability distributions on the line.

  3. Michelson interferometer for precision angle measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikram, M; Hussain, G

    1999-01-01

    An angle-measuring technique based on an optical interferometer is reported. The technique exploits a Michelson interferometric configuration in which a right-angle prism and a glass strip are introduced into a probe beam. Simultaneous rotation of both components along an axis results in an optical path difference between the reference and the probe beams. In a second arrangement two right-angle prisms and glass strips are introduced into two beams of a Michelson interferometer. The prisms and the strips are rotated simultaneously to introduce an optical path difference between the two beams. In our arrangement, optimization of various parameters makes the net optical path difference between the two beams approximately linear for a rotation as great as +/-20 degrees . Results are simulated that show an improvement of 2-3 orders of magnitude in error and nonlinearity compared with a previously reported technique.

  4. Tunable contact angle hysteresis on micropatterned surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Debuisson, Damien; Arscott, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Micropatterned surfaces composed of concentric circular defects having a smooth trench-like profile are formed using a photoresist (SU-8). When an evaporating droplet encounters the micropatterned surface an evaporation phase is observed consisting of distinct discontinuities and steps in the droplet wetting contact angle and base radius respectively. The addition of gaps into the circular defects enables tuning of the contact angle hysteresis; the receding contact angle of fluorocarbon coated SU-8 can be tuned between 34.6{\\deg} and 89.1{\\deg} and that of SU-8 surfaces from 5.6{\\deg} to 43.3{\\deg} depending on the gap length. In addition, a model is developed which accurately predicts the observed behavior.

  5. Magic-angle thermal desorption mass spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauls, Steven W.; Campbell, Charles T.

    1990-02-01

    Accurate quantitative measurements of desorption rates or adsorbate coverages in thermal desorption mass spectroscopy (TDS) using line-of-sight mass spectrometers are hindered by the fact that the angular distributions of desorption flux can vary widely from desorbate to desorbate, ranging from cos 1ø to cos 9 ø for most species studied to date (ø = polar angle from surface normal). These differences can easily lead to errors exceeding 400% in measuring the relative desorption rates of different species. We show here that, by placing the mass spectrometer's ion source or entrance aperture at a "magic-angle" ø mthese errors can be reduced to less than 26% maximum deviation (or ± 7% standard deviation). Depending upon the sample-to-detector distance, ø m varies from ~ 42° to 34°. It is recommended that TDS experiments be performed at this "magic-angle" for improvement in the quantitative accuracy of coverage or rate measurements.

  6. Notes on large angle crossing graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Dujmovic, Vida; Morin, Pat; Wolle, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    A graph G is an a-angle crossing (aAC) graph if every pair of crossing edges in G intersect at an angle of at least a. The concept of right angle crossing (RAC) graphs (a=Pi/2) was recently introduced by Didimo et. al. It was shown that any RAC graph with n vertices has at most 4n-10 edges and that there are infinitely many values of n for which there exists a RAC graph with n vertices and 4n-10 edges. In this paper, we give upper and lower bounds for the number of edges in aAC graphs for all 0 < a < Pi/2.

  7. Weak lensing using only galaxy position angles

    CERN Document Server

    Whittaker, Lee; Battye, Richard

    2013-01-01

    We develop a method for performing a weak lensing analysis using only measurements of galaxy position angles. By analyzing the statistical properties of the galaxy orientations given a known intrinsic ellipticity distribution, we show that it is possible to obtain estimates of the shear by minimizing a $\\chi^2$ statistic. The method is demonstrated using simulations where the components of the intrinsic ellipticity are taken to be Gaussian distributed. Uncertainties on the position angle measurements introduce a bias into the shear estimates which can be reduced to negligible levels by introducing a correction term into the formalism. We generalize our approach by developing an algorithm to obtain direct shear estimators given any azimuthally symmetric intrinsic ellipticity distribution. We demonstrate this technique by applying it to simulations where the ellipticities are taken to follow a log-normal distribution. We compare the performance of the position angle only method with the standard method based on...

  8. Precision measurements of the CKM angle gamma

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    The level of CP-violation permitted within the Standard Model cannot account for the matter dominated universe in which we live. Within the Standard Model the CKM matrix, which describes the quark couplings, is expected to be unitary. By making precise measurements of the CKM matrix parameters new physics models can be constrained, or with sufficient precision the effects of physics beyond the standard model might become apparent. The CKM angle gamma is the least well known angle of the unitarity triangle. It is the only angle easily accessible at tree-level, and furthermore has almost no theoretical uncertainties. Therefore it provides an invaluable Standard Model benchmark against which other new physics sensitive tests of the CP-violation can be made. I will discuss recent measurements of gamma using the the Run 1 LHCb dataset, which improve our knowledge of this key parameter.

  9. Bicycle helmet ventilation and comfort angle dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brühwiler, Paul A; Ducas, Charline; Huber, Roman; Bishop, Phillip A

    2004-09-01

    Five modern bicycle helmets were studied to elucidate some of the variations in ventilation performance, using both a heated manikin headform and human subjects (n = 7). Wind speed and head angle were varied to test their influence on the measured steady-state heat exchange (cooling power) in the skull section of the headform. The cooling power transmitted by the helmets varied from about 60% to over 90% of that of the nude headform, illustrating the range of present manufacturer designs. Angling the head forward by 30 degrees was found to provide better cooling power to the skull (up to 25%) for three of the helmets and almost equal cooling power in the remaining two cases. Comparisons of skull ventilation at these angles with human subjects strongly supported the headform results.

  10. Positron Emission Mammography with Multiple Angle Acquisition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark F. Smith; Stan Majewski; Raymond R. Raylman

    2002-11-01

    Positron emission mammography (PEM) of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FbG) uptake in breast tumors with dedicated detectors typically has been accomplished with two planar detectors in a fixed position with the breast under compression. The potential use of PEM imaging at two detector positions to guide stereotactic breast biopsy has motivated us to use PEM coincidence data acquired at two or more detector positions together in a single image reconstruction. Multiple angle PEM acquisition and iterative image reconstruction were investigated using point source and compressed breast phantom acquisitions with 5, 9, 12 and 15 mm diameter spheres and a simulated tumor:background activity concentration ratio of 6:1. Image reconstruction was performed with an iterative MLEM algorithm that used coincidence events between any two detector pixels on opposed detector heads at each detector position. This present study compared two acquisition protocols: 2 angle acquisition with detector angular positions of -15 and +15 degrees and 11 angle acquisition with detector positions spaced at 3 degree increments over the range -15 to +15 degrees. Three-dimensional image resolution was assessed for the point source acquisitions, and contrast and signal-to-noise metrics were evaluated for the compressed breast phantom with different simulated tumor sizes. Radial and tangential resolutions were similar for the two protocols, while normal resolution was better for the 2 angle acquisition. Analysis is complicated by the asymmetric point spread functions. Signal- to-noise vs. contrast tradeoffs were better for 11 angle acquisition for the smallest visible 9 mm sphere, while tradeoff results were mixed for the larger and more easily visible 12 mm and 15 mm diameter spheres. Additional study is needed to better understand the performance of limited angle tomography for PEM. PEM tomography experiments with complete angular sampling are planned.

  11. Positron Emission Mammography with Multiple Angle Acquisition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mark F. Smith; Stan Majewski; Raymond R. Raylman

    2002-11-01

    Positron emission mammography (PEM) of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in breast tumors with dedicated detectors typically has been accomplished with two planar detectors in a fixed position with the breast under compression. The potential use of PEM imaging at two detector positions to guide stereotactic breast biopsy has motivated us to use PEM coincidence data acquired at two or more detector positions together in a single image reconstruction. Multiple angle PEM acquisition and iterative image reconstruction were investigated using point source and compressed breast phantom acquisitions with 5, 9, 12 and 15 mm diameter spheres and a simulated tumor:background activity concentration ratio of 6:1. Image reconstruction was performed with an iterative MLEM algorithm that used coincidence events between any two detector pixels on opposed detector heads at each detector position. This present study compared two acquisition protocols: 2 angle acquisition with detector angular positions of -15 and +15 degrees and 11 angle acquisition with detector positions spaced at 3 degree increments over the range -15 to +15 degrees. Three- dimensional image resolution was assessed for the point source acquisitions, and contrast and signal-to-noise metrics were evaluated for the compressed breast phantom with different simulated tumor sizes. Radial and tangential resolutions were similar for the two protocols, while normal resolution was better for the 2 angle acquisition. Analysis is complicated by the asymmetric point spread functions. Signal- to-noise vs. contrast tradeoffs were better for 11 angle acquisition for the smallest visible 9 mm sphere, while tradeoff results were mixed for the larger and more easily visible 12 mm and 15 mm diameter spheres. Additional study is needed to better understand the performance of limited angle tomography for PEM. PEM tomography experiments with complete angular sampling are planned.

  12. Methodology for high accuracy contact angle measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantarian, A; David, R; Neumann, A W

    2009-12-15

    A new version of axisymmetric drop shape analysis (ADSA) called ADSA-NA (ADSA-no apex) was developed for measuring interfacial properties for drop configurations without an apex. ADSA-NA facilitates contact angle measurements on drops with a capillary protruding into the drop. Thus a much simpler experimental setup, not involving formation of a complete drop from below through a hole in the test surface, may be used. The contact angles of long-chained alkanes on a commercial fluoropolymer, Teflon AF 1600, were measured using the new method. A new numerical scheme was incorporated into the image processing to improve the location of the contact points of the liquid meniscus with the solid substrate to subpixel resolution. The images acquired in the experiments were also analyzed by a different drop shape technique called theoretical image fitting analysis-axisymmetric interfaces (TIFA-AI). The results were compared with literature values obtained by means of the standard ADSA for sessile drops with the apex. Comparison of the results from ADSA-NA with those from TIFA-AI and ADSA reveals that, with different numerical strategies and experimental setups, contact angles can be measured with an accuracy of less than 0.2 degrees. Contact angles and surface tensions measured from drops with no apex, i.e., by means of ADSA-NA and TIFA-AI, were considerably less scattered than those from complete drops with apex. ADSA-NA was also used to explore sources of improvement in contact angle resolution. It was found that using an accurate value of surface tension as an input enhances the accuracy of contact angle measurements.

  13. Angle-Resolved Spectroscopy of Parametric Fluorescence

    CERN Document Server

    Hsu, Feng-kuo

    2013-01-01

    The parametric fluorescence from a nonlinear crystal forms a conical radiation pattern. We measure the angular and spectral distributions of parametric fluorescence in a beta-barium borate crystal pumped by a 405-nm diode laser employing angle-resolved imaging spectroscopy. The experimental angle-resolved spectra and the generation efficiency of parametric down conversion are compared with a plane-wave theoretical analysis. The parametric fluorescence is used as a broadband light source for the calibration of the instrument spectral response function in the wavelength range from 450 to 1000 nm.

  14. Angles between Curves in Metric Measure Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Bang-Xian

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the paper is to study the angle between two curves in the framework of metric (and metric measure spaces. More precisely, we give a new notion of angle between two curves in a metric space. Such a notion has a natural interplay with optimal transportation and is particularly well suited for metric measure spaces satisfying the curvature-dimension condition. Indeed one of the main results is the validity of the cosine formula on RCD*(K, N metric measure spaces. As a consequence, the new introduced notions are compatible with the corresponding classical ones for Riemannian manifolds, Ricci limit spaces and Alexandrov spaces.

  15. Spherical Parameterization Balancing Angle and Area Distortions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeem, Saad; Su, Zhengyu; Zeng, Wei; Kaufman, Arie; Gu, Xianfeng

    2017-06-01

    This work presents a novel framework for spherical mesh parameterization. An efficient angle-preserving spherical parameterization algorithm is introduced, which is based on dynamic Yamabe flow and the conformal welding method with solid theoretic foundation. An area-preserving spherical parameterization is also discussed, which is based on discrete optimal mass transport theory. Furthermore, a spherical parameterization algorithm, which is based on the polar decomposition method, balancing angle distortion and area distortion is presented. The algorithms are tested on 3D geometric data and the experiments demonstrate the efficiency and efficacy of the proposed methods.

  16. Understanding Angle and Angle Measure: A Design-Based Research Study Using Context Aware Ubiquitous Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crompton, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Mobile technologies are quickly becoming tools found in the educational environment. The researchers in this study use a form of mobile learning to support students in learning about angle concepts. Design-based research is used in this study to develop an empirically-substantiated local instruction theory about students' develop of angle and…

  17. Using Digital Technology to See Angles from Different Angles. Part 2: Openings and Turns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Host, Erin; Baynham, Emily; McMaster, Heather

    2015-01-01

    Ever wondered how to use technology to teach angles? This article follows on from an earlier article published last year, providing a range of ideas for integrating technology and concrete materials with the teaching of angle concepts. The authors also provide a comprehensive list of free online games and learning objects that can be used to teach…

  18. Understanding Angle and Angle Measure: A Design-Based Research Study Using Context Aware Ubiquitous Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crompton, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Mobile technologies are quickly becoming tools found in the educational environment. The researchers in this study use a form of mobile learning to support students in learning about angle concepts. Design-based research is used in this study to develop an empirically-substantiated local instruction theory about students' develop of angle and…

  19. Angle at the Medial Border: The Spinovertebra Angle and Its Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. S. Oladipo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The evolution from quadrupedalism to bipedalism has adjusted the balance of the upper limb to extensive movement at the shoulder. The scapular angles provide the point of attachment and control to various muscles and have been associated with the different movements of the shoulder girdle and joint. This has made the morphometric and anthropometric study of scapula a subject of extensive investigation. Aim. In the present study, the angle at the medial border was measured in the South-Southern Nigerian population and an anatomical name was ascribed to the angle. Method. The study was conducted on 173 scapulae (75 right and 98 left obtained from various Anatomy Department of South-Sothern Nigerian Universities. The angle at medial border was obtained by pinning the edge of the superior and inferior angles, the lined traced out, and the angle measured using a protractor. SPSS version 20 was used to analyse the data. t-test was used to determine mean angular difference in the sides. Result. The mean ± SD of the medial angle was observed to be 136.88 ± 7.70° (R = 138.13 ± 7.06° : L = 135.92 ± 8.05°. Statistical analysis using the Z-test for mean difference showed the medial angle was found to be higher in the right side of the scapula (mean difference of 2.214 ± 1.152°, but the observed difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05. The above findings have adjusted the scapula from three to four angles (lateral, superior, inferior, and medial formed from four borders (lateral, superior, inferior, and superomedial and inferomedial. The medial angle because of its anatomical location was named “spinovertebral” angle, owing to its position at the scapulae spine, and located in medial proximity to the vertebra column. Conclusion. The medial angle (now referred to as the spinovertebral angle of the right side of the scapula is wider than the left. The representation of the spinovertebral angle is very important, as

  20. A thin-film magnetoresistive angle detector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkel, Kees J.M.; Wieberdink, Johan W.; Fluitman, Jan H.J; Popma, Theo J.A.; Groot, Peter; Leeuwis, Henk

    1990-01-01

    An overview is given of the results of our research on a contactless angle detector based on the anisotropic magnetoresistance effect (AMR effect) in a permalloy thin film. The results of high-temperature annealing treatment of the pemalloy film are discussed. Such a treatment suppresses the effects

  1. Wind Turbine Blade with Angled Girders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a reinforced blade for a wind turbine, particularly to a blade having a new arrangement of two or more girders in the blade, wherein each of the girders is connected to the upper part and the lower part of the shell and forms an angle with another girder thereby...

  2. Incidence angle normalization of radar backscatter data

    Science.gov (United States)

    NASA’s Soil Moisture Passive Active (SMAP) satellite (~2014) will include a radar system that will provide L-band multi-polarization backscatter at a constant incidence angle of 40º. During the pre-launch phase of the project there is a need for observations that will support the radar-based soil mo...

  3. Partitioning Pythagorean Triangles Using Pythagorean Angles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Carl E.; Yandl, Andre L.

    2012-01-01

    Inside any Pythagorean right triangle, it is possible to find a point M so that drawing segments from M to each vertex of the triangle yields angles whose sines and cosines are all rational. This article describes an algorithm that generates an infinite number of such points.

  4. Statistical analysis of Contact Angle Hysteresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janardan, Nachiketa; Panchagnula, Mahesh

    2015-11-01

    We present the results of a new statistical approach to determining Contact Angle Hysteresis (CAH) by studying the nature of the triple line. A statistical distribution of local contact angles on a random three-dimensional drop is used as the basis for this approach. Drops with randomly shaped triple lines but of fixed volumes were deposited on a substrate and their triple line shapes were extracted by imaging. Using a solution developed by Prabhala et al. (Langmuir, 2010), the complete three dimensional shape of the sessile drop was generated. A distribution of the local contact angles for several such drops but of the same liquid-substrate pairs is generated. This distribution is a result of several microscopic advancing and receding processes along the triple line. This distribution is used to yield an approximation of the CAH associated with the substrate. This is then compared with measurements of CAH by means of a liquid infusion-withdrawal experiment. Static measurements are shown to be sufficient to measure quasistatic contact angle hysteresis of a substrate. The approach also points towards the relationship between microscopic triple line contortions and CAH.

  5. Measurement of the angle alpha at BABAR

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez, A

    2009-01-01

    We present recent measurements of the CKM angle alpha using data collected by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy e^+e^- collider at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, operating at the Upsilon(4S) resonance. We present constraints on alpha from B->pipi, B->rhorho and B->rhopi decays.

  6. Molecular mechanisms underlying primary open angle glaucoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, S.F.

    2014-01-01

    Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is a complex, multigenetic and heterogeneous optic neuropathy. It is an insidious disease that untreated leads to irreversible visual field loss and blindness. Worldwide, glaucoma causes around 12% of blindness. Although various risk factors have been established,

  7. Constant Angle Surfaces in the Heisenberg Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Johan FASTENAKELS; Marian Ioan MUNTEANU; Joeri VAN DER VEKEN

    2011-01-01

    In this article we extend the notion of constant angle surfaces in S2 × R and H2 × R to general Bianchi-Cartan-Vranceanu spaces. We show that these surfaces have constant Gaussian curvature and we give a complete local classification in the Heisenberg group.

  8. Testing CMB polarization data using position angles

    CERN Document Server

    Preece, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We consider a novel null test for contamination which can be applied to CMB polarization data that involves analysis of the statistics of the polarization position angles. Specifically, we will concentrate on using histograms of the measured position angles to illustrate the idea. Such a test has been used to identify systematics in the NVSS point source catalogue with an amplitude well below the noise level. We explore the statistical properties of polarization angles in CMB maps. If the polarization angle is not correlated between pixels, then the errors follow a simple $\\sqrt{N_{pix}}$ law. However this is typically not the case for CMB maps since these have correlations which result in an increase in the variance since the effective number of independent pixels is reduced. Then we illustrate how certain classes of systematic errors can result in very obvious patterns in these histograms, and thus that these errors could possibly be identified using this method. We discuss how this idea might be applied in...

  9. Measurement of the UT angle phi_2

    CERN Document Server

    Mohanty, Gagan B

    2011-01-01

    We give a status report on measurements of the angle phi_2 (alpha) of the CKM unitarity triangle (UT) and the so-called Kpi puzzle. Results presented are mostly from the two B-factory experiments, Belle and BaBar.

  10. Contact Angle Effects in Boiling Heat Transfer

    OpenAIRE

    Urquiola, Erwin; Fujita, Yasunobu

    2002-01-01

    This paper reports boiling experiments with pure water and surfactant solutions of SDS on horizontal heating surface. The static contact angle, rather than the surface tension value, was found to be the leading factor for the results and probably its prev

  11. Wind Turbine Blade with Angled Girders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    The present invention relates to a reinforced blade for a wind turbine, particularly to a blade having a new arrangement of two or more girders in the blade, wherein each of the girders is connected to the upper part and the lower part of the shell and forms an angle with another girder thereby...

  12. Camber Angle Inspection for Vehicle Wheel Alignments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jieh-Shian; Hsu, Hong-Yi; Chuang, Chih-Yuan

    2017-01-01

    This paper introduces an alternative approach to the camber angle measurement for vehicle wheel alignment. Instead of current commercial approaches that apply computation vision techniques, this study aims at realizing a micro-control-unit (MCU)-based camber inspection system with a 3-axis accelerometer. We analyze the precision of the inspection system for the axis misalignments of the accelerometer. The results show that the axes of the accelerometer can be aligned to the axes of the camber inspection system imperfectly. The calibrations that can amend these axis misalignments between the camber inspection system and the accelerometer are also originally proposed since misalignments will usually happen in fabrications of the inspection systems. During camber angle measurements, the x-axis or z-axis of the camber inspection system and the wheel need not be perfectly aligned in the proposed approach. We accomplished two typical authentic camber angle measurements. The results show that the proposed approach is applicable with a precision of ±0.015∘ and therefore facilitates the camber measurement process without downgrading the precision by employing an appropriate 3-axis accelerometer. In addition, the measured results of camber angles can be transmitted via the medium such as RS232, Bluetooth, and Wi-Fi. PMID:28165365

  13. Camber Angle Inspection for Vehicle Wheel Alignments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieh-Shian Young

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces an alternative approach to the camber angle measurement for vehicle wheel alignment. Instead of current commercial approaches that apply computation vision techniques, this study aims at realizing a micro-control-unit (MCU-based camber inspection system with a 3-axis accelerometer. We analyze the precision of the inspection system for the axis misalignments of the accelerometer. The results show that the axes of the accelerometer can be aligned to the axes of the camber inspection system imperfectly. The calibrations that can amend these axis misalignments between the camber inspection system and the accelerometer are also originally proposed since misalignments will usually happen in fabrications of the inspection systems. During camber angle measurements, the x-axis or z-axis of the camber inspection system and the wheel need not be perfectly aligned in the proposed approach. We accomplished two typical authentic camber angle measurements. The results show that the proposed approach is applicable with a precision of ± 0.015 ∘ and therefore facilitates the camber measurement process without downgrading the precision by employing an appropriate 3-axis accelerometer. In addition, the measured results of camber angles can be transmitted via the medium such as RS232, Bluetooth, and Wi-Fi.

  14. Psychological factors in childhood headaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Kathleen; Dunn, David; Scott, Eric

    2010-06-01

    Recurrent headaches in children are most often migraines and are based in a genetic predisposition with a low headache threshold. As with any pain experience, there is a large emotional component associated with an attack of migraines that grows in amplitude as the headaches become more frequent and resistant to medicine, sleep, or other agents that used to work. Childhood headaches are especially complicated for 3 reasons: (1) the parents' fear (communicated to the child that serious medical pathology underlies the head pain), (2) the lack of evidence-based pharmacologic treatment, and (3) the belief that these headaches are largely psychological. This article addresses the mystery surrounding childhood headaches by delving into the influence of school, friends, and family; the impact of divorce; the coping skills required for a child to manage a migrainous nervous system; the potential secondary gain from headaches; psychiatric comorbidities and how to treat them; and the role of psychological intervention.

  15. Protection of Childhood in Greece

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deligeoroglou E; Christopoulos P; Salakos N; Roupa Z; Sotiropoulou P; Papadimitriou P

    2005-01-01

    The early childhood care is important not only for individual Greek children and families but also for Greek society at large. Furthermore, it needs to be secured that the burden of labour and the raising of child is not only a woman's duty. There is a broad recognition that a strategy for developing early childhood services and childcare to support mother's labour force participation is in the public interest and should be the primary scope of the national health and social care policy. The inadequate organization of the child welfare system has adverse effects on the well-being, and function of the family. Only the improvement of the expected protection can lead to social politics that will give a chance to mother and child to live in conditions fitting human value and dignity. Herein, we presented the regulations and services along with health care professionals that refer to the protection of child in Greece.

  16. Allergic Rhinitis in Childhood - Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzu Babayiğit

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Allergic rhinitis, an immunoglobulin E mediated disease, is the most common chronic allergic childhood disease. The disease is characterized by nasal sneezing, rhinorrhea, palate and eye itchiness, and congestion and it can significantly impact children’s health. It causes uncomfortable symptoms, impairs quality of life and can predispose to the development of comorbidities such as asthma. Etiological diagnosis is based on cutaneous prick tests, which have a high sensitivity and specificity rate and which can be easily applied to young children. Treatment initially involves avoidance measures and, when necessary, pharmacotherapy or immunotherapy. Pharmacotherapy generally involves antihistamines and/or nasal corticosteroids, but leukotriene antagonists have also demonstrated effectiveness in treating allergic rhinitis symptoms. In this article, the symptoms, diagnosis and treatment of allergic rhinitis in childhood are discussed. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2010; 8: 105-12

  17. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia

    2013-01-01

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... objective reports of various anthropometric and other measures of fatness from the IDEFICS study of children aged 2-9 in 16 regions of eight European countries. Based on such data as accelerometer measures and information from nutritional diaries, we also investigate the effects of maternal employment...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  18. Early childhood caries: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalingam, Lochana; Messer, Louise Brearley

    2004-12-01

    Early childhood caries is the currently accepted term used to describe dental caries occurring in infants and toddlers. It is a multifactorial, transmissible and infectious disease that has recently been under scrutiny in the literature. The microflora, substrate, saliva and host are key factors involved in the pathogenesis, together with the immature host defence system and developing bacterial flora. Immature enamel surfaces and developmental defects of enamel should also be considered in the aetiology. This paper addresses the controversies of the cariogenicity of bovine milk, human breast milk and infant formulas. Clinical management should be planned according to age, extent of lesions, compliance of primary caregivers and where treatment is rendered (private or public sector). Cases of early childhood caries need comprehensive restorative management and preventive treatment together with the help of other health care professionals.

  19. Childhood Obesity and Cognitive Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Nicole; Johnston, David W; Peeters, Anna

    2015-09-01

    Obese children tend to perform worse academically than normal-weight children. If poor cognitive achievement is truly a consequence of childhood obesity, this relationship has significant policy implications. Therefore, an important question is to what extent can this correlation be explained by other factors that jointly determine obesity and cognitive achievement in childhood? To answer this question, we exploit a rich longitudinal dataset of Australian children, which is linked to national assessments in math and literacy. Using a range of estimators, we find that obesity and body mass index are negatively related to cognitive achievement for boys but not girls. This effect cannot be explained by sociodemographic factors, past cognitive achievement or unobserved time-invariant characteristics and is robust to different measures of adiposity. Given the enormous importance of early human capital development for future well-being and prosperity, this negative effect for boys is concerning and warrants further investigation. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Childhood Leukemia and Electromagnetic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alpaslan Türkkan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this review, the relationship between very low frequency electromagnetic fields, originating from high voltage powerlines, and childhood leukemia was evaluated. Electromagnetic fields have biological effects. Whole populations are effected by different levels of electromagnetic fields but children are more sensible. In urban areas high voltage powerlines are the main sources of electromagnetic fields. The relation of electromagnetic fields due to high voltage powerlines and leukemia with consideration of dose-response and distance is investigated in several studies. There are different opinions on the effects of electromagnetic fields on general health. The relation between electromagnetic fields and childhood leukemia must be considered separately. Although there is no limit value, it is generally accepted that exposure to 0.4 µT and over doubles the risk of leukemia in children 15 years and younger. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2009; 7: 137-41

  1. Childhood pneumonia and vitamin A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Heidarian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the major causes of mortality in children younger than 5 years old is acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRI. ALRI clinical features are cough, tachypnea, fever, coryza, chest retraction, crackles and wheeze. Increased white blood cell count with left shift might happen in pneumonia. C-reactive protein (CRP and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR might rise in children with respiratory tract infections. Vitamin A deficiency is associated with severe childhood infections. The effect of vitamin A supplementation in childhood pneumonia depends on the prevalence and the level of vitamin A deficiency in the population. Some studies confirmed that retinol levels were significantly higher after recovery from acute pneumonia compared to acute phase. But there were no significant association between serum retinol level and the clinical manifestation.

  2. Maternal Employment and Childhood Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Sousa-Poza, Alfonso; Reisch, Lucia

    The substantial increase in female employment rates in Europe over the past two decades has often been linked in political and public rhetoric to negative effects on child development, including obesity. We analyse this association between maternal employment and childhood obesity using rich...... objective reports of various anthropometric and other measures of fatness from the IDEFICS study of children aged 2-9 in 16 regions of eight European countries. Based on such data as accelerometer measures and information from nutritional diaries, we also investigate the effects of maternal employment...... on obesity's main drivers: calorie intake and physical activity. Our analysis provides little evidence for any association between maternal employment and childhood obesity, diet or physical activity....

  3. Bipolar Disorder and Childhood Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evrim Erten

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar disorder is a chronic disorder in which irregular course of depressive, mania or mixed episodes or a complete recovery between episodes can be observed. The studies about the effects of traumatic events on bipolar disorder showed that they had significant and long-term effects on the symptoms of the disorder. Psychosocial stress might change the neurobiology of bipolar disorder over time. The studies revealed that the traumatic events could influence not only the onset of the disorder but also the course of the disorder and in these patients the rate of suicide attempt and comorbid substance abuse might increase. Bipolar patients who had childhood trauma had an earlier onset, higher number of episodes and comorbid disorders. In this review, the relationship between childhood trauma and bipolar disorder is reviewed. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(2: 157-165

  4. Chronic avulsive injuries of childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donnelly, L.F.; Helms, C.A. [Dept. of Radiology, Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Bisset, G.S. III [Dept. of Radiology, Duke Univ. Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)]|[Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States); Squire, D.L. [Department of Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC (United States)

    1999-03-01

    Children and adolescents are prone to avulsive injuries related to a combination of their propensity for great strength, ability to sustain extreme levels of activity, and immature growing apophyses. Appropriate interpretation of imaging studies showing chronic avulsive injuries is essential so that the irregularity and periostitis that can be associated with chronic avulsions is not misinterpreted as probable malignancy. This article reviews the chronic avulsive injuries of childhood. (orig.) With 12 figs., 8 refs.

  5. General Overview on Childhood Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevil İnal

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, it has not been put much emphasis on obesity in children and the view of “obese child is healthy” is widely accepted by families. However, understanding that a close relation exists between obesity prevalence and childhood obesity, which increased in recent years both across the world and in our country, and many diseases such as hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases changed the opinion of both of health care professionals and the society about childhood obesity in Turkey, like it changed the opinion in all around the world. Although there are no studies in our country, which have been conducted to investigate obesity prevalence and affecting factors in children nationwide, it is reported in studies carried out in various cities that rate of overweight children in preschool children is between 4-13%, whereas rate of obese children is between 9-27%. In the literature, a positive correlation was found between the frequency of taking the children to fast-food restaurants, compelling children to eat foods on their dishes, one or two of the parents being obese and obesity of children in Turkey. In this review will focus on the risk factors of childhood obesity in Turkey. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2013; 11: 27-30

  6. The dynamics of childhood poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, M E; Chaudry, A

    1997-01-01

    Child poverty rates have remained high since the middle of the 1970s. While several trends, including declines in the number of children per family and increases in parental years of schooling, worked to reduce child poverty rates, several others, including show economic growth, widening economic inequality, and increases in the proportion of children living in mother-only families, had the opposite effect, pushing more children into poverty. Poverty is a common risk: One-third of all children will be poor for at least one year. For many, poverty lasts only a short while, but for a small percentage, poverty persists both throughout childhood and into the adult years. Poverty is not shared equally across different demographic groups. African-American children. Latino children, and children in mother-only families are disproportionately poor. Long-term poverty is even more concentrated than single-year poverty. In 1992, almost 90% of long-term poor children were African-American as compared to all poor children (single-year and long-term poor), of whom 60% were white. Both family structure and the labor market are implicated in long-term childhood poverty. Changes in employment of family members and changes in family composition are each strongly associated with transitions into and out of childhood poverty. Of these, changes in employment are the most important.

  7. Experimental Validation of the Invariance of Electrowetting Contact Angle Saturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chevalliot, S.; Dhindsa, M.; Kuiper, S.; Heikenfeld, J.

    2011-01-01

    Basic electrowetting theory predicts that a continued increase in applied voltage will allow contact angle modulation to zero degrees. In practice, the effect of contact angle saturation has always been observed to limit the contact angle modulation, often only down to a contact angle of 60 to 70°.

  8. Combating Childhood Obesity: Changing Our Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Anna,

    2007-01-01

    A review of literature was conducted to identify risk factors and prevention strategies for childhood obesity. Factors contributing to childhood obesity include poor food choices, physical inactivity, and genetics. Complications of obesity include respiratory, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, and endocrine diseases, cancer, gallbladder disease, poor health status, depression, low self-esteem, and social withdrawal. Since childhood obesity, largely due to the environment that children live in ...

  9. The Life Time Prevalence of Childhood Seizure

    OpenAIRE

    P AlizadehTaheri; Naseri, M; M Lahooti; Sadeghi, M

    2009-01-01

    "nBackground: Seizure is the most common pediatric neurologic disorder. Epidemiological studies of childhood epilepsy are of importance to compare incidence and prevalence rates, age distribution, inheritance, seizure types, epilepsy syn­dromes and treatment strategies. Since there is little information about prevalence of childhood seizure in Iran, this study was aimed to determine the life time prevalence of childhood seizure and some of its determining factors in Tehran, Iran....

  10. 77 FR 64997 - Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning... poisoning prevention efforts. The committee also reviews and reports regularly on childhood lead poisoning prevention practices and recommends improvements in national childhood lead poisoning prevention...

  11. The long reach of childhood: childhood experiences influence close relationships and loneliness across life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merz, E.-M.; Jak, S.

    2013-01-01

    This paper intends to gain insight into the role of childhood relationships and experiences within the parental home for the formation and meaning of later family relationships and loneliness. Particularly, childhood attachment to mother and father and stressful childhood experiences were studied in

  12. The long reach of childhood. Childhood experiences influence close relationships and loneliness across life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Merz; S. Jak

    2013-01-01

    This paper intends to gain insight into the role of childhood relationships and experiences within the parental home for the formation and meaning of later family relationships and loneliness. Particularly, childhood attachment to mother and father and stressful childhood experiences were studied in

  13. Early Childhood Service Delivery for Families Living with Childhood Disability: Disabling Families through Problematic Implicit Ideology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Lauren J.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to unpack the implicit ideology underpinning early childhood service delivery for families living with childhood disability. The family as the unit of care is central to the philosophy and practice of early childhood services. However, the practice of family-centred care can be problematic; it is based upon neo-liberal…

  14. On some relations between advancing, receding and Young's contact angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibowski, Emil

    2007-05-31

    Problems of experimental determination and theoretical verification of equilibrium contact angles are discussed basing on the literature data. A relationship between the advancing and receding contact angles versus the equilibrium contact angle is described and then verified using the literature contact angles determined on paraffin wax and polypropylene. Using the proposed relationship and experimentally determined equilibrium contact angles, obtained by plotting the advancing and receding contact angles versus the contact angle hysteresis or by applying vibration of the system liquid drop/solid surface, it is found that the same value of the surface free energy for paraffin wax is calculated from the contact angles of water and ethylene glycol. However, in the case of polypropylene some inconsistency appears between the equilibrium contact angles of the probe liquid used and the calculated surface free energy. More experimental data of the equilibrium contact angle are needed to verify further the relationship.

  15. Contact angle and contact angle hysteresis measurements using the capillary bridge technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restagno, Frédéric; Poulard, Christophe; Cohen, Céline; Vagharchakian, Laurianne; Léger, Liliane

    2009-09-15

    A new experimental technique is proposed to easily measure both advancing and receding contact angles of a liquid on a solid surface, with unprecedented accuracy. The technique is based on the analysis of the evolution of a capillary bridge formed between a liquid bath and a solid surface (which needs to be spherical) when the distance between the surface and the liquid bath is slowly varied. The feasibility of the technique is demonstrated using a low-energy perfluorinated surface with two different test liquids (water and hexadecane). A detailed description of both experimental procedures and computational modeling are given, allowing one to determine contact angle values. It is shown that the origin of the high accuracy of this technique relies on the fact that the contact angles are automatically averaged over the whole periphery of the contact. This method appears to be particularly adapted to the characterization of surfaces with very low contact angle hysteresis.

  16. The Contact Angle in Inviscid Fluid Mechanics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P N Shankar; R Kidambi

    2005-05-01

    We show that in general, the specification of a contact angle condition at the contact line in inviscid fluid motions is incompatible with the classical field equations and boundary conditions generally applicable to them. The limited conditions under which such a specification is permissible are derived;however, these include cases where the static meniscus is not flat. In view of this situation, the status of the many `solutions’ in the literature which prescribe a contact angle in potential flows comes into question. We suggest that these solutions which attempt to incorporate a phenomenological, but incompatible, condition are in some, imprecise sense `weak-type solutions’;they satisfy or are likely to satisfy, at least in the limit, the governing equations and boundary conditions everywhere except in the neighbourhood of the contact line. We discuss the implications of the result for the analysis of inviscid flows with free surfaces.

  17. Picoliter water contact angle measurement on polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Michael; Urquhart, Andrew J; Zelzer, Mischa; Davies, Martyn C; Alexander, Morgan R

    2007-06-19

    Water contact angle measurement is the most common method for determining a material's wettability, and the sessile drop approach is the most frequently used. However, the method is generally limited to macroscopic measurements because the base diameter of the droplet is usually greater than 1 mm. Here we report for the first time on a dosing system to dispense smaller individual droplets with control of the position and investigate whether water contact angles determined from picoliter volume water droplets are comparable with those obtained from the conventional microliter volume water droplets. This investigation was conducted on a group of commonly used polymers. To demonstrate the higher spatial resolution of wettability that can be achieved using picoliter volume water droplets, the wettability of a radial plasma polymer gradient was mapped using a 250 microm interval grid.

  18. Sparse regularization in limited angle tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Frikel, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the reconstruction problem of limited angle tomography. Such problems arise naturally in applications like digital breast tomosynthesis, dental tomography, electron microscopy etc. Since the acquired tomographic data is highly incomplete, the reconstruction problem is severely ill-posed and the traditional reconstruction methods, such as filtered backprojection (FBP), do not perform well in such situations. To stabilize the reconstruction procedure additional prior knowledge about the unknown object has to be integrated into the reconstruction process. In this work, we propose the use of the sparse regularization technique in combination with curvelets. We argue that this technique gives rise to an edge-preserving reconstruction. Moreover, we show that the dimension of the problem can be significantly reduced in the curvelet domain. To this end, we give a characterization of the kernel of limited angle Radon transform in terms of curvelets and derive a characterization of solutions obtained thr...

  19. The small angle diffractometer SANS at PSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    With the start-up of SINQ an instrument for small angle neutron scattering will be operational which compares well with the world`s largest and most powerful facilities of this kind. Following the classical principle of the D11-instrument of ILL, it is equipped with state-of-the-art components as are nowadays available, including options for further upgrading. Great emphasis was laid upon providing a flexible, universal multi-user facility which guarantees a comfortable and reliable operation. In the present paper, the principle layout of the instrument is presented, and the individual components are described in detail. The paper concludes with model application of small angle scattering to a system of dilute CuCo alloys which undergo a phase separation under thermal treatment, forming spherical Co-precipitates dispersed in a Cu-rich matrix. (author) 3 figs., 1 tab., 14 refs.

  20. Gaia: focus, straylight and basic angle

    CERN Document Server

    Mora, A; Bombrun, A; Boyadian, J; Chassat, F; Corberand, P; Davidson, M; Doyle, D; Escolar, D; Gielesen, W L M; Guilpain, T; Hernandez, J; Kirschner, V; Klioner, S A; Koeck, C; Laine, B; Lindegren, L; Serpell, E; Tatry, P; Thoral, P

    2016-01-01

    The Gaia all-sky astrometric survey is challenged by several issues affecting the spacecraft stability. Amongst them, we find the focus evolution, straylight and basic angle variations Contrary to pre-launch expectations, the image quality is continuously evolving, during commissioning and the nominal mission. Payload decontaminations and wavefront sensor assisted refocuses have been carried out to recover optimum performance. An ESA-Airbus DS working group analysed the straylight and basic angle issues and worked on a detailed root cause analysis. In parallel, the Gaia scientists have also analysed the data, most notably comparing the BAM signal to global astrometric solutions, with remarkable agreement. In this contribution, a status review of these issues will be provided, with emphasis on the mitigation schemes and the lessons learned for future space missions where extreme stability is a key requirement.

  1. Gaia: focus, straylight and basic angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, A.; Biermann, M.; Bombrun, A.; Boyadjian, J.; Chassat, F.; Corberand, P.; Davidson, M.; Doyle, D.; Escolar, D.; Gielesen, W. L. M.; Guilpain, T.; Hernandez, J.; Kirschner, V.; Klioner, S. A.; Koeck, C.; Laine, B.; Lindegren, L.; Serpell, E.; Tatry, P.; Thoral, P.

    2016-07-01

    The Gaia all-sky astrometric survey is challenged by several issues affecting the spacecraft stability. Amongst them, we find the focus evolution, straylight and basic angle variations Contrary to pre-launch expectations, the image quality is continuously evolving, during commissioning and the nominal mission. Payload decontaminations and wavefront sensor assisted refocuses have been carried out to recover optimum performance. An ESA-Airbus DS working group analysed the straylight and basic angle issues and worked on a detailed root cause analysis. In parallel, the Gaia scientists have also analysed the data, most notably comparing the BAM signal to global astrometric solutions, with remarkable agreement. In this contribution, a status review of these issues will be provided, with emphasis on the mitigation schemes and the lessons learned for future space missions where extreme stability is a key requirement.

  2. Absorbing angles, Steiner minimal trees, and antipodality

    CERN Document Server

    Martini, Horst; de Wet, P Oloff; 10.1007/s10957-009-9552-1

    2011-01-01

    We give a new proof that a star $\\{op_i:i=1,...,k\\}$ in a normed plane is a Steiner minimal tree of its vertices $\\{o,p_1,...,p_k\\}$ if and only if all angles formed by the edges at o are absorbing [Swanepoel, Networks \\textbf{36} (2000), 104--113]. The proof is more conceptual and simpler than the original one. We also find a new sufficient condition for higher-dimensional normed spaces to share this characterization. In particular, a star $\\{op_i: i=1,...,k\\}$ in any CL-space is a Steiner minimal tree of its vertices $\\{o,p_1,...,p_k\\}$ if and only if all angles are absorbing, which in turn holds if and only if all distances between the normalizations $\\frac{1}{\\|p_i\\|}p_i$ equal 2. CL-spaces include the mixed $\\ell_1$ and $\\ell_\\infty$ sum of finitely many copies of $R^1$.

  3. Magic-angle turning with double acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Tatsuya; Takegoshi, K

    2017-01-01

    The double-acquisition scheme for efficient data collection of hypercomplex data (the States method) of a two-dimensional experiment is adopted to magic-angle hopping (MAH) and magic-angle turning (MAT) experiments, which are powerful methods to measure the principal values of the chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) in a powder sample. It is shown that the double acquisition MAT (DAMAT) sequence realizes the S/N ratio comparable to or better than those of other variants of the MAH/MAT sequences. In addition, we show that DAMAT has preferable features that there are no spinning sidebands in the indirect dimension, and no spectral shearing is necessary. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Reactor mixing angle from hybrid neutrino masses

    CERN Document Server

    Sierra, D Aristizabal

    2014-01-01

    In terms of its eigenvector decomposition, the neutrino mass matrix (in the basis where the charged lepton mass matrix is diagonal) can be understood as originating from a tribimaximal dominant structure with small deviations, as demanded by data. If neutrino masses originate from at least two different mechanisms, referred to as "hybrid neutrino masses", the experimentally observed structure naturally emerges provided one mechanism accounts for the dominant tribimaximal structure while the other is responsible for the deviations. We demonstrate the feasibility of this picture in a fairly model-independent way by using lepton-number-violating effective operators, whose structure we assume becomes dictated by an underlying $A_4$ flavor symmetry. We show that if a second mechanism is at work, the requirement of generating a reactor angle within its experimental range always fixes the solar and atmospheric angles in agreement with data, in contrast to the case where the deviations are induced by next-to-leading ...

  5. Dancing droplets: Contact angle, drag, and confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benusiglio, Adrien; Cira, Nate; Prakash, Manu

    2015-11-01

    When deposited on a clean glass slide, a mixture of water and propylene glycol forms a droplet of given contact angle, when both pure liquids spread. (Cira, Benusiglio, Prakash: Nature, 2015). The droplet is stabilized by a gradient of surface tension due to evaporation that induces a Marangoni flow from the border to the apex of the droplets. The apparent contact angle of the droplets depends on both their composition and the external humidity as captured by simple models. These droplets present remarkable properties such as lack of a large pinning force. We discuss the drag on these droplets as a function of various parameters. We show theoretical and experimental results of how various confinement geometries change the vapor gradient and the dynamics of droplet attraction.

  6. AGN jet physics and apparent opening angles

    CERN Document Server

    Clausen-Brown, Eric; Pushkarev, Alexander B; Kovalev, Yuri Y; Lister, Matthew L

    2013-01-01

    We present a new method to measure Gamma*theta_j in flux-limited samples of active galactic nuclei (AGN) jets, where Gamma is the bulk Lorentz factor and theta_j is the jet's half-opening angle. The Gamma*theta_j parameter is physically important for models of jet launching, and also determines the effectiveness of jet instabilities and magnetic reconnection. We measure Gamma*theta_j by analyzing the observed distribution of apparent opening angles in very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) flux-limited samples of jets, given some prior knowledge of the active galactic nuclei (AGN) radio luminosity function. We then apply this method to the MOJAVE flux-limited sample of radio loud objects and find Gamma*theta_j = 0.1 +- 0.03, which implies that AGN jets are subject to a variety of physical processes that require causal connection.

  7. Measurement of the angle alpha at BABAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, A.; /Orsay, LAL

    2009-06-25

    The authors present recent measurements of the CKM angle {alpha} using data collected by the BABAR detector at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, operating at the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance. They present constraints on {alpha} from B {yields} {pi}{pi}, B {yields} {rho}{rho} and B {yields} {rho}{pi} decays.

  8. Contact angle hysteresis at the nanometer scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delmas, Mathieu; Monthioux, Marc; Ondarçuhu, Thierry

    2011-04-01

    Using atomic force microscopy with nonconventional carbon tips, the pinning of a liquid contact line on individual nanometric defects was studied. This mechanism is responsible for the occurrence of the contact angle hysteresis. The presence of weak defects which do not contribute to the hysteresis is evidenced for the first time. The dissipated energy associated with strong defects is also measured down to values in the range of kT, which correspond to defect sizes in the order of 1 nm.

  9. On accurate determination of contact angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concus, P.; Finn, R.

    1992-01-01

    Methods are proposed that exploit a microgravity environment to obtain highly accurate measurement of contact angle. These methods, which are based on our earlier mathematical results, do not require detailed measurement of a liquid free-surface, as they incorporate discontinuous or nearly-discontinuous behavior of the liquid bulk in certain container geometries. Physical testing is planned in the forthcoming IML-2 space flight and in related preparatory ground-based experiments.

  10. Primary open-angle glaucoma genes

    OpenAIRE

    Fingert, J.H.

    2011-01-01

    A substantial fraction of glaucoma has a genetic basis. About 5% of primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) is currently attributed to single-gene or Mendelian forms of glaucoma (ie glaucoma caused by mutations in myocilinor optineurin). Mutations in these genes have a high likelihood of leading to glaucoma and are rarely seen in normal subjects. Other cases of POAG have a more complex genetic basis and are caused by the combined effects of many genetic and environmental risk factors, each of whic...

  11. Constraining the CKM angle $\\gamma$ at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    Vallier, Alexis

    2015-01-01

    A selection of latest LHCb measurements related to the determination of the CKM angle $\\gamma$ is presented. Included are: the current combination of direct $\\gamma$ measurements, the first observation of the $B^0_s \\to D^{*±} K^±$ decay, the first observation and amplitude analysis of the $B^- \\to D^+ K^- \\pi^-$ decay and the constraint on $\\gamma$ from charmless B decays

  12. Black hole microstates from branes at angle

    CERN Document Server

    Pieri, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    We derive the leading g_s perturbation of the SUGRA fields generated by a supersymmetric configuration of respectively 1, 2 or 4 D3-branes intersecting at an arbitrary angle via the computation of the string theory disk scattering amplitude of one massless NSNS field interacting with open strings stretched between the branes. The configuration with four branes is expected to be relevant for black hole microstate counting in four dimensions.

  13. Target Localization Based on Angle of Arrivals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi-Chao Cao

    2007-01-01

    Mobile location using angle of arrival (AOA) measurements has received considerable attention. This paper presents an approximation of maximum likelihood estimator (MLE) for localizing a source based on AOA measurements. By introducing an intermediate variable, the nonlinear equations relating AOA estimates can be transformed into a set of equations which are linear in the unknown parameters. It is an approximate realization of the MLE. Simulations show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the previous contribution.

  14. Wireless Orbiter Hang-Angle Inclinometer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucena, Angel; Perotti, Jose; Green, Eric; Byon, Jonathan; Burns, Bradley; Mata, Carlos; Randazzo, John; Blalock, Norman

    2011-01-01

    A document describes a system to reliably gather the hang-angle inclination of the orbiter. The system comprises a wireless handheld master station (which contains the main station software) and a wireless remote station (which contains the inclinometer sensors, the RF transceivers, and the remote station software). The remote station is designed to provide redundancy to the system. It includes two RF transceivers, two power-management boards, and four inclinometer sensors.

  15. Angles-Let's treat them squarely

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownstein, K. R.

    1997-07-01

    We suggest a self-consistent treatment of the dimensions and units of the geometric quantity "angle." The method regards "angle" as a fundamental dimensional physical quantity, on a par with length, mass, time, etc. All units (whether angular or otherwise) are treated on an equal footing and balance out correctly; in particular, "radian" units need never be spuriously inserted or deleted. The method could find application in algebraic and calculus symbolic manipulation computer programs to correctly process units of physical quantities. The technique necessitates a minor modification of the relation "s=Rθ" and its consequences, rather than any modification of the units of other physical quantities (such as moment arms) as previously suggested by others. We make several important clarifying distinctions: (a) ω [SI: radṡs-1] for rotational motion (as in θ=ωt) versus Ω [SI: s-1] for simple harmonic motion [as in x=xm cos(Ωt)], (b) geometric trigonometric functions whose arguments are angles [SI: rad] versus mathematical trigonometric functions whose arguments are pure numbers, (c) simple harmonic motion versus uniform circular motion in the reference circle analogy.

  16. Multi-Angle Snowflake Camera Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuefer, Martin [University of Alaska--Fairbanks; Bailey, J [University of Alaska--Fairbanks

    2016-07-01

    The Multi-Angle Snowflake Camera (MASC) takes 9- to 37-micron resolution stereographic photographs of free-falling hydrometers from three angles, while simultaneously measuring their fall speed. Information about hydrometeor size, shape orientation, and aspect ratio is derived from MASC photographs. The instrument consists of three commercial cameras separated by angles of 36º. Each camera field of view is aligned to have a common single focus point about 10 cm distant from the cameras. Two near-infrared emitter pairs are aligned with the camera’s field of view within a 10-angular ring and detect hydrometeor passage, with the lower emitters configured to trigger the MASC cameras. The sensitive IR motion sensors are designed to filter out slow variations in ambient light. Fall speed is derived from successive triggers along the fall path. The camera exposure times are extremely short, in the range of 1/25,000th of a second, enabling the MASC to capture snowflake sizes ranging from 30 micrometers to 3 cm.

  17. Angle-resolved optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desjardins, Adrien Emmanuel

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has emerged as a powerful tool for probing the microstructure of biological tissue non-invasively at high-speed. OCT measures depth-resolved reflectance of infrared light, generating cross-sectional images non-invasively with micron-scale resolution. As with other imaging modalities that employ coherent detection, OCT images are confounded by speckle noise. Speckle imposes a grainy texture on images that reduces the signal-to-noise ratio to near unity values. As a result, it conceals subtle differences in scattering properties known to be crucial for differentiating normal from diseased tissue states. In this thesis, we developed a novel OCT modality called "Angle-Resolved OCT" in which depth scans (A-lines) are obtained simultaneously from a broad range of backscattering angles. We demonstrated that high levels of speckle reduction can be achieved by averaging the magnitudes of A-lines corresponding to the same transverse locations. With both experimental and analytic approaches, we demonstrated that this averaging method does not lead to a substantial loss in spatial resolution. We developed two different imaging systems for performing Angle-Resolved OCT. With the first system, angular data was acquired simultaneously; with the second, it was acquired sequentially. The first system had superior speckle-reduction capabilities but image quality degraded significantly with small sample movements. The second system allowed for in vivo imaging, as demonstrated with Resolved OCT systems, the speckle-reduced images showed hitherto unprecedented delineation of tissue microstructure.

  18. Constitutive modeling of contact angle hysteresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedantam, Srikanth; Panchagnula, Mahesh V

    2008-05-15

    We introduce a phase field model of wetting of surfaces by sessile drops. The theory uses a two-dimensional non-conserved phase field variable to parametrize the Gibbs free energy of the three-dimensional system. Contact line tension and contact angle hysteresis arise from the gradient term in the free energy and the kinetic coefficient respectively. A significant advantage of this approach is in the constitutive specification of hysteresis. The advancing and receding angles of a surface, the liquid-vapor interfacial energy and three-phase line tension are the only required constitutive inputs to the model. We first simulate hysteresis on a smooth chemically homogeneous surface using this theory. Next we show that it is possible to study heterogeneous surfaces whose component surfaces are themselves hysteretic. We use this theory to examine the wetting of a surface containing a circular heterogeneous island. The contact angle for this case is found to be determined solely by the material properties at the contact line in accord with recent experimental data.

  19. Dynamic contact angle cycling homogenizes heterogeneous surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belibel, R; Barbaud, C; Mora, L

    2016-12-01

    In order to reduce restenosis, the necessity to develop the appropriate coating material of metallic stent is a challenge for biomedicine and scientific research over the past decade. Therefore, biodegradable copolymers of poly((R,S)-3,3 dimethylmalic acid) (PDMMLA) were prepared in order to develop a new coating exhibiting different custom groups in its side chain and being able to carry a drug. This material will be in direct contact with cells and blood. It consists of carboxylic acid and hexylic groups used for hydrophilic and hydrophobic character, respectively. The study of this material wettability and dynamic surface properties is of importance due to the influence of the chemistry and the potential motility of these chemical groups on cell adhesion and polymer kinetic hydrolysis. Cassie theory was used for the theoretical correction of contact angles of these chemical heterogeneous surfaces coatings. Dynamic Surface Analysis was used as practical homogenizer of chemical heterogeneous surfaces by cycling during many cycles in water. In this work, we confirmed that, unlike receding contact angle, advancing contact angle is influenced by the difference of only 10% of acidic groups (%A) in side-chain of polymers. It linearly decreases with increasing acidity percentage. Hysteresis (H) is also a sensitive parameter which is discussed in this paper. Finally, we conclude that cycling provides real information, thus avoiding theoretical Cassie correction. H(10)is the most sensible parameter to %A.

  20. Off-Angle Iris Correction Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos-Villalobos, Hector J [ORNL; Thompson, Joseph T [ORNL; Karakaya, Mahmut [ORNL; Boehnen, Chris Bensing [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    In many real world iris recognition systems obtaining consistent frontal images is problematic do to inexperienced or uncooperative users, untrained operators, or distracting environments. As a result many collected images are unusable by modern iris matchers. In this chapter we present four methods for correcting off-angle iris images to appear frontal which makes them compatible with existing iris matchers. The methods include an affine correction, a retraced model of the human eye, measured displacements, and a genetic algorithm optimized correction. The affine correction represents a simple way to create an iris image that appears frontal but it does not account for refractive distortions of the cornea. The other method account for refraction. The retraced model simulates the optical properties of the cornea. The other two methods are data driven. The first uses optical flow to measure the displacements of the iris texture when compared to frontal images of the same subject. The second uses a genetic algorithm to learn a mapping that optimizes the Hamming Distance scores between off-angle and frontal images. In this paper we hypothesize that the biological model presented in our earlier work does not adequately account for all variations in eye anatomy and therefore the two data-driven approaches should yield better performance. Results are presented using the commercial VeriEye matcher that show that the genetic algorithm method clearly improves over prior work and makes iris recognition possible up to 50 degrees off-angle.

  1. Wide Angle Effects in Galaxy Surveys

    CERN Document Server

    Yoo, Jaiyul

    2013-01-01

    Current and future galaxy surveys cover a large fraction of the entire sky with a significant redshift range, and the recent theoretical development shows that general relativistic effects are present in galaxy clustering on very large scales. This trend has renewed interest in the wide angle effect in galaxy clustering measurements, in which the distant-observer approximation is often adopted. Using the full wide-angle formula for computing the redshift-space correlation function, we show that compared to the sample variance, the deviation in the redshift-space correlation function from the simple Kaiser formula with the distant-observer approximation is negligible in the SDSS and is completely irrelevant in future galaxy surveys such as Euclid and the BigBOSS, if the theoretical prediction from the Kaiser formula is averaged over the survey volume and the non-uniform distribution of cosine angle between the line-of-sight and the pair separation directions is properly considered. We also find small correctio...

  2. Head flexion angle while using a smartphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sojeong; Kang, Hwayeong; Shin, Gwanseob

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive or prolonged head flexion posture while using a smartphone is known as one of risk factors for pain symptoms in the neck. To quantitatively assess the amount and range of head flexion of smartphone users, head forward flexion angle was measured from 18 participants when they were conducing three common smartphone tasks (text messaging, web browsing, video watching) while sitting and standing in a laboratory setting. It was found that participants maintained head flexion of 33-45° (50th percentile angle) from vertical when using the smartphone. The head flexion angle was significantly larger (p smartphone, could be a main contributing factor to the occurrence of neck pain of heavy smartphone users. Practitioner Summary: In this laboratory study, the severity of head flexion of smartphone users was quantitatively evaluated when conducting text messaging, web browsing and video watching while sitting and standing. Study results indicate that text messaging while sitting caused the largest head flexion than that of other task conditions.

  3. Protein Amyloidogenesis Investigated by Small Angle Scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Caterina; Spinozzi, Francesco; Mariani, Paolo; Ortore, Maria Grazia

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades, the study of the mechanisms inducing amyloid fibril formation has involved several experimental and theoretical biophysical approaches. Many efforts have been made by scientist at the borderline between biology, chemistry, biochemistry and physics in order to understand why and in which way a protein starts its amyloidogenic pattern. This fundamental research issue is evolving in parallel to the development of drugs and inhibitors able to modify protein self assembly towards amyloid fibrils. Small angle xray and neutron scattering experiments represent suitable methods to investigate protein amyloidogenesis and the possible effects of inhibitors: they are in-solution techniques, require low amount of sample and their time-resolution makes it possible to follow aggregation pattern. In this paper we review small angle x-ray and neutron scattering studies dedicated to investigate amyloid β peptide and α-synuclein, related to Alzheimer`s and Parkinson`s diseases, respectively, together with some other studies that introduced innovative models to describe with small angle scattering techniques amyloid fibrillation processes.

  4. The Brewster angle effect in SAR polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, B.

    1993-01-01

    For the double bounce case, where the radar signal is reflected twice before returning to the radar antenna, some polarization effects may be observed related to the dielectric constant of the two surfaces causing the reflections. The most noticeable effect would be that the returned signal would be preferentially H polarized. In fact, it may be possible to discern the Brewster angle for both surfaces. The locations of the Brewster angle will depend on the dielectric constant and permittivity of each surface. If it is assumed that both reflections are in the same plane of incidence, and that both surfaces are smooth and flat, there is a straightforward relationship between the degree of linear polarization m and both the dielectric constants of the two reflecting surfaces and the angle of incidence of the illuminating wave: m carat = cos 2(arccot (square root of (R(sub v) / R(sub h)))) where R(sub v,h) are the V and H polarized Fresnel reflection coefficients for two surfaces perpendicular to each other. The degree of linear polarization may be calculated from AIRSAR compressed Stokes data and compared with the given equation. The degree of linear polarization may also be calculated using tree models and compared with AIRSAR data. With further work, it may be possible to use the degree of linear polarization to determine surface parameters of certain imaged areas.

  5. Visual estimation of pro-supination angle is superior to wrist or elbow angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Shai; Apt, Elad; Kandel, Leonid; Bdolah-Abram, Tali; Zinger, Gershon

    2015-05-01

    To examine our hypothesis that the accuracy of visual estimation, while measuring the angles of forearm, wrist and elbow, may vary between the different angles, and that this may depend on the experience of the observer. A slide show comprising of clinical photos and radiographs of different elbow, forearm and wrist angles was presented to 164 attending orthopedic surgeons, orthopedic residents and medical students who made a visual estimation of the different joints' angles. Forearm pronation was found to be estimated most accurately (mean 6.1°) while radiographs of wrist flexion (mean 12°) and photos of wrist extension (mean 16°) were estimated the least accurately. Specialists estimated angles more accurately than residents and both were more accurate than students, regardless of the estimated joint. The accuracy of visual estimation of a joint's angle depends on the specific joint viewed. Experience in the practice of orthopedic surgery (and not only upper extremity surgery) will improve the accuracy of estimation in general. Regarding the elbow, forearm and wrist, the results of our study suggest that a goniometer should be used whenever an accuracy of up to 10° is important, and for measuring wrist flexion and extension.

  6. Pair Creation at Large Inherent Angles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, P.; Tauchi, T.; Schroeder, D.V.; /SLAC

    2007-04-25

    In the next-generation linear colliders, the low-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} pairs created during the collision of high-energy e{sup +}e{sup -} beams would cause potential deleterious background problems to the detectors. At low collider energies, the pairs are made essentially by the incoherent process, where the pair is created by the interaction of beamstrahlung photons on the individual particles in the oncoming beam. This problem was first identified by Zolotarev, et al[1]. At energies where the beamstrahlung parameter {Upsilon} lies approximately in the range 0.6 {approx}< {Upsilon} {approx}< 100, pair creation from the beamstrahlung photons is dominated by a coherent process, first noted by Chen[2]. The seriousness of this pair creation problem lies in the transverse momenta that the pair particles carry when leaving the interaction point (IP) with large angles. One source of transverse momentum is from the kick by the field of the oncoming beam which results in an outcoming angle {theta} {proportional_to} 1/{radical}x, where x is the fractional energy of the particle relative to the initial beam particle energy[2,3]. As was shown in Ref. 131, there in fact exists an energy threshold for the coherent pairs, where x{sub th} {approx}> 1/2{Upsilon}. Thus within a tolerable exiting angle, there exists an upper limit for {Upsilon} where all coherent pairs would leave the detector through the exhaust port[4]. A somewhat different analysis has been done by Schroeder[5]. In the next generation of linear colliders, as it occurs, the coherent pairs can be exponentially suppressed[2] by properly choosing the {Upsilon}({approx}< 0.6). When this is achieved, the incoherent pairs becomes dominant. Since the central issue is the transverse momentum for particles with large angles, we notice that there is another source for it. Namely, when the pair particles are created at low energies, the intrinsic angles of these pairs when produced may already be large. This issue was

  7. Research on recognition of ramp angle based on transducer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhao GU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on the recognition of ramp angle, the relationship between the signal of vehicle transducer and real ramp angle is studied. The force change of vehicle on the ramp, and the relationship between the body tilt angle and front and rear suspension scale is discussed. According to the suspension and tire deformation, error angle of the ramp angle is deduced. A mathematical model is established with Matlab/Simulink and used for simulation to generate error curve of ramp angle. The results show that the error angle increases with the increasing of the ramp angle, and the limit value can reach 6.5%, while the identification method can effectively eliminate this error, and enhance the accuracy of ramp angle recognition.

  8. Quality Measurement in Early Childhood Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaslow, Martha, Ed.; Martinez-Beck, Ivelisse, Ed.; Tout, Kathryn, Ed.; Halle, Tamara, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    What constitutes quality in early childhood settings, and how can it best be measured with today's widely used tools and promising new approaches? Find authoritative answers in this book, a must-have for high-level administrators and policymakers as more and more states adopt early childhood Quality Rating and Improvement Systems. The most…

  9. Formative Assessment: Guidance for Early Childhood Policymakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley-Ayers, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    This policy report provides a guide and framework to early childhood policymakers considering formative assessment. The report defines formative assessment and outlines its process and application in the context of early childhood. The substance of this document is the issues for consideration in the implementation of the formative assessment…

  10. Personality and Adult Perceptions of Childhood Dreams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacka, Brian

    This study used adult recall of childhood dreams to test Cann and Donderi's (1986) findings that Jungian intuitives recall more archetypal dreams than do sensate subjects, and that introverts recall more everyday dreams than extraverts. It was hypothesized that since dreams recalled from childhood are relatively high in archetypal content, there…

  11. Pulmonary Complications of Childhood Cancer Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versluijs, AB; Bresters, Dorine

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary complications of childhood cancer treatment are frequently seen. These can lead to adverse sequelae many years after treatment, with important impact on morbidity, quality of life and mortality in childhood cancer survivors. This review addresses the effects of chemotherapy, radiotherapy,

  12. Mourning a Lost Childhood: A Therapeutic Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulish, Nancy Mann

    J. M. Barrie's popular story of Peter Pan depicts the never-neverland of an endless happy childhood. Analysis of the story and of J. M. Barrie's personal background, however, reveals that the tale is a conflicted solution to and separation from early childhood losses and disappointments. Themes of separation and reunion, redesertion and revenge…

  13. Domestic Radon and Childhood Cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Claus Erik; Andersen, Helle P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Higher incidence rates of childhood cancer and particularly leukemia have been observed in regions with higher radon levels, but case-control studies have given inconsistent results. We tested the hypothesis that domestic radon exposure increases the risk for childhood cancer. Methods...

  14. Fertility in Female Childhood Cancer Survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, de M.; Broeder, den E.; Berg, van den M.H.; Lambalk, C.B.

    2009-01-01

    Advances in childhood cancer treatment over the past decades have significantly improved survival, resulting in a rapidly enlarging group of childhood cancer survivors. There is much concern, however, about the effects of treatment on reproductive potential. In women there is evidence that both

  15. Childhood Abuse and the Content of Delusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Oliver J.; Brett, Emma; Collinge, Miriam; Curr, Helen; Rhodes, John

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: We aimed to investigate possible associations between histories of childhood abuse and the content of delusions for individuals with psychotic disorders. Methods: 39 participants with a psychotic disorder including one or more delusional beliefs successfully completed structured interviews about childhood trauma, delusional beliefs and…

  16. Childhood abuse in late-life depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Comijs, Hannie C; van Exel, Eric; van der Mast, Roos C; Paauw, Anna; Oude Voshaar, Richard; Stek, Max L

    2013-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the role of childhood abuse in late-life depression. The aim of the study is therefore to study whether childhood abuse is associated with late-life depression according to its onset, and which clinical characteristics play a role in this association. Methods: Data

  17. Childhood abuse in late-life depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Comijs, H.C.; Exel, E. van; Mast, R.C. van der; Paauw, A.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Stek, M.L.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the role of childhood abuse in late-life depression. The aim of the study is therefore to study whether childhood abuse is associated with late-life depression according to its onset, and which clinical characteristics play a role in this association. METHODS: Data

  18. Mourning a Lost Childhood: A Therapeutic Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulish, Nancy Mann

    J. M. Barrie's popular story of Peter Pan depicts the never-neverland of an endless happy childhood. Analysis of the story and of J. M. Barrie's personal background, however, reveals that the tale is a conflicted solution to and separation from early childhood losses and disappointments. Themes of separation and reunion, redesertion and revenge…

  19. Linking Families and Early Childhood Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Verna

    1985-01-01

    Discusses and uses a global human ecological system framework to analyze family needs in relation to early childhood education. Topics emphasized include family support systems, population trends, health care, employment patterns, and political systems. Suggestions for meeting these needs are addressed to early childhood educators. (DST)

  20. Familial Aggregation and Childhood Blood Pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Xiaoling; Xu, Xiaojing; Su, Shaoyong; Snieder, Harold

    2015-01-01

    There is growing concern about elevated blood pressure (BP) in children. The evidence for familial aggregation of childhood BP is substantial. Twin studies have shown that a large part of the familial aggregation of childhood BP is due to genes. The first part of this review provides the latest prog

  1. Managing Asthma in the Early Childhood Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graville, Iris

    2011-01-01

    Asthma, one of the most common chronic disorders in childhood, affects more than seven million children in the United States, and is the third leading cause of hospitalization for children. Statistics like these make planning and preparing for asthma in the early childhood setting a high priority. With the high rates of asthma in the U.S. today,…

  2. Moving beyond Colorblindness in Early Childhood Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutte, Gloria Swindler; Lopez-Robertson, Julia; Powers-Costello, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Countering the position that colorblindness is desirable for teachers and children, this article encourages early childhood education teachers to engage in conversations about race and racism with young children. We discuss why the early childhood years are important for interrupting racism and make suggestions for helping children develop tools…

  3. Childhood Febrile Seizures: Overview and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Tonia; Jacobsen, Steven J.

    2007-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the latest knowledge and understanding of childhood febrile seizures. This review also discusses childhood febrile seizure occurrence, health services utilization and treatment costs. Parental reactions associated with its occurrence and how healthcare providers can assist parents with dealing effectively with this potentially frightening and anxiety-producing event are also discussed. PMID:17479160

  4. The Early Childhood Social Skills Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Frank W.; Strain, Phillip S.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the Early Childhood Social Skills Program developed at the University of Pittsburgh's Early Childhood Research Institute. The paper discusses specific social skill strategies as well as steps for implementing the peer-mediated social skill program in an integrated preschool setting. (JDD)

  5. Childhood abuse in late-life depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Comijs, Hannie C; van Exel, Eric; van der Mast, Roos C; Paauw, Anna; Oude Voshaar, Richard; Stek, Max L

    Background: Little is known about the role of childhood abuse in late-life depression. The aim of the study is therefore to study whether childhood abuse is associated with late-life depression according to its onset, and which clinical characteristics play a role in this association. Methods: Data

  6. Marriage and divorce among childhood cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Susanne Vinkel; Kejs, Anne Mette Tranberg; Engholm, Gerda

    2011-01-01

    Many childhood cancer survivors have psychosocial late effects. We studied the risks for cohabitation and subsequent separation. Through the Danish Cancer Register, we identified a nationwide, population-based cohort of all 1877 childhood cancer survivors born from 1965 to 1980, and in whom cance...

  7. Changing Images of Childhood. Issues in Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goellner, Lydia A.

    2000-01-01

    Examines the changing images of childhood throughout history, focusing on how changes are reflected in beliefs and educational and social practices toward children with special needs. Describes impact of a painful childhood on Friedrich Froebel and actor Cary Grant. Suggests ways to enhance children's lives, including government subsidized…

  8. Familial Aggregation and Childhood Blood Pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Xiaoling; Xu, Xiaojing; Su, Shaoyong; Snieder, Harold

    There is growing concern about elevated blood pressure (BP) in children. The evidence for familial aggregation of childhood BP is substantial. Twin studies have shown that a large part of the familial aggregation of childhood BP is due to genes. The first part of this review provides the latest

  9. Orthostatic intolerance in survivors of childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terlou, Annelinde; Ruble, Kathy; Stapert, Anne F.; Chang, Ho-Choong; Rowe, Peter C.; Schwartz, Cindy L.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the prevalence and severity of orthostatic intolerance in survivors of childhood cancer and in healthy controls, and to correlate results of self-reported measures of health status with orthostatic testing in survivors of childhood cancer. Patient and methods: Thirty-nine survivo

  10. Male reproductive health after childhood cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lähteenmäki, P M; Arola, M; Suominen, J

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-five male patients were investigated to elucidate the correlation of semen parameters and other related parameters in the assessment of spermatogenesis after childhood cancer treatment.......Twenty-five male patients were investigated to elucidate the correlation of semen parameters and other related parameters in the assessment of spermatogenesis after childhood cancer treatment....

  11. The Lay Concept of Childhood Mental Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giummarra, Melita J.; Haslam, Nick

    2005-01-01

    The structure of lay people's concepts of childhood mental disorder was investigated in a questionnaire study and examined for convergence with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV). Eighty-four undergraduates who had no formal education in abnormal psychology rated 54 conditions--36 DSM-IV childhood disorders and 18 non-disorders--on…

  12. Childhood Abuse and the Content of Delusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Oliver J.; Brett, Emma; Collinge, Miriam; Curr, Helen; Rhodes, John

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: We aimed to investigate possible associations between histories of childhood abuse and the content of delusions for individuals with psychotic disorders. Methods: 39 participants with a psychotic disorder including one or more delusional beliefs successfully completed structured interviews about childhood trauma, delusional beliefs and…

  13. Good practices in early childhood education:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanders, Lise; Gregoriadis, Athanasis; Zachopoulou, Evridiki;

    Good practices in early childhood education er en undersøgelse fortaget efter Early Childhood Environmental Rating Scale - R (ECERS-R). I undersøgelsen deltog Akademikere, pædagoger og kommunalt personale fra de 6 partnerlande bestående af Grækenland, Portugal, Finland, Danmark, Rumænien og Cyper...

  14. Childhood Maltreatment in South Korea: Retrospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yanghee; Kim, Sangwon

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study explored the prevalence of childhood maltreatment in South Korea using the retrospective version of ICAST and the associations between perceptions of abuse experienced during childhood and recent interpersonal problems and depression. Methods: 539 young persons, aged 18-24 years, from various universities, work places, and…

  15. Early Childhood Inclusion in the United Kingdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    A policy-to-practice paper is presented of early childhood inclusion in England. The article aims to report the benefits of early intervention services and early childhood inclusion for children with special educational needs and disabilities (SEND), document the chronology of policy development, and discuss research evidence about…

  16. Striving for Quality in Early Childhood Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brancato, Kimberly

    2013-01-01

    An essential component of best practice in the field of early childhood special education is the inclusion of children with disabilities in typical early childhood settings. As the practice of inclusion has increased in recent years it has become imperative to ensure that children with disabilities attend quality programs. The main purpose of this…

  17. Determinants of gonadal function after childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. van Dorp (Wendy)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstractEach year, 600–700 children are diagnosed with cancer in the Netherlands. Over the last decades, the overall long-term survival of childhood cancer has increased up to ~75%. Due to the expansion of the childhood cancer survivor population, chronic health sequelae resulting from

  18. Childhood Participation Experiences in the Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, M.; Morata, T.; Trilla, J.

    2016-01-01

    This article is based on the findings of a broader research project entitled "Childhood Participation and Citizenship Building," which examined the medium-term effects of intense experiences of participation in childhood within both the school environment and those of leisure-time and community education. The results presented in this…

  19. Fertility in Female Childhood Cancer Survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, de M.; Broeder, den E.; Berg, van den M.H.; Lambalk, C.B.

    2009-01-01

    Advances in childhood cancer treatment over the past decades have significantly improved survival, resulting in a rapidly enlarging group of childhood cancer survivors. There is much concern, however, about the effects of treatment on reproductive potential. In women there is evidence that both chem

  20. Childhood Abuse and Attachment Styles of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakus, Ozlem

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The fact that emotional and social experiences in early childhood period within the family influence the experiences in adolescence and adulthood (communication skills, interpersonal relations) is not a new case. Therefore, the aim of this study is to examine the relationship between childhood abuse and attachment styles. Method: The…

  1. Genetic Causes of Cerebrovascular Disorders in Childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.E.C. Meuwissen (Marije)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Cerebrovascular disorders in childhood comprise ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke. This thesis comprises a escription of genetic causes of childhood cerebrovascular disorders. Two examples of genetic causes of ischemic stroke, comprising a case of ACTA2 mutation an

  2. Marriage and divorce among childhood cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Susanne Vinkel; Kejs, Anne Mette Tranberg; Engholm, Gerda

    2011-01-01

    Many childhood cancer survivors have psychosocial late effects. We studied the risks for cohabitation and subsequent separation. Through the Danish Cancer Register, we identified a nationwide, population-based cohort of all 1877 childhood cancer survivors born from 1965 to 1980, and in whom cancer...

  3. Obstruction of cerebral arteries in childhood stroke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velkey, I.; Lombay, B. (County Teaching Hospital, Miskolc (Hungary). Child Health Center); Panczel, G. (Semmelweis Medical Univ., Budapest (Hungary). Dept. of Psychiatry)

    1992-09-01

    Middle cerebral artery obstruction in children is reviewed by our two cases. Ischemic childhood stroke was caused by moyamoya disease in the first, and by fibromuscular dysplasia in the second patient. In both cases transcranial Doppler sonography and cranial CT were performed, but the final diagnosis was made by angiography. The importance of angiography in childhood stroke is emphasized. (orig.).

  4. Attachment and Socioemotional Problems in Middle Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Ellen; Lecompte, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we will evaluate the evidence concerning links between attachment and behavior problems in the middle childhood period. We will first provide a general introduction to the question of attachment and maladaptation in the middle childhood period, and then examine the recent empirical evidence with respect to both externalizing and…

  5. Attachment in Middle Childhood: Progress and Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosmans, Guy; Kerns, Kathryn A.

    2015-01-01

    Contrary to the substantial amount of research on infant, preschool, adolescent, and adult attachment, middle childhood has long been neglected by the international attachment research community. In the past two decades, however, there has been a steep increase in research focusing on middle childhood attachment. This article provides an overview…

  6. Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and birthweight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roman, Eve; Lightfoot, Tracy; Smith, Alexandra G

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Heavy birthweight is one of the few established risk factors for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). To provide new insight into this relationship, particularly at the extremes ( 4500 g), we pooled data from three of the largest childhood cancer case...

  7. Disorders of childhood growth and development: childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Robert; Grissom, Maureen

    2013-07-01

    The incidence of childhood obesity in the United States is estimated at 17%, or 12 million children ages 2 to 19 years. Obesity is a multifactorial condition with syndromic and nonsyndromic variants. Genetic, social, ethnic, endocrinologic, and behavioral issues are all potential etiologic factors. Preventive efforts should begin with monitoring from birth and include breastfeeding until age 6 months, avoiding juices, and promoting fruit and vegetable consumption and adequate exercise. Childhood obesity is diagnosed based on body mass index; a child is considered overweight at the 85th to 95th percentiles and obese at or above the 95th percentile. After obesity is diagnosed, testing should include blood pressure levels, fasting lipid profile, diabetes screening, and liver function tests. The physician should obtain a detailed history of the physical activity level and food intake and assess possible complications of obesity, including depression and hypertension, annually. Lifestyle interventions with family involvement are the mainstay of management, with pharmacotherapy or bariatric surgery considered for adolescents only if intensive lifestyle modifications have failed and in the presence of comorbidities. Intervention by multiple disciplines (ie, medicine, nutrition, psychology) is recommended, and family physicians are encouraged to become more involved in encouraging physical activity and improved nutrition for children.

  8. Japanese Guideline for Childhood Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Nishimuta

    2011-01-01

    JAGL differs from the Global Initiative for Asthma Guideline (GINA in that the former emphasizes long-term management of childhood asthma based on asthma severity and early diagnosis and intervention at <2 years and 2–5 years of age. However, a management method, including step-up or step-down of long-term management agents based on the status of asthma symptoms, is easy to understand and thus JAGL is suitable for routine medical treatment. JAGL also introduced treatment and management using a control test for children, recommending treatment and management aimed at complete control through avoiding exacerbation factors and appropriate use of antiinflammatory agents.

  9. Assessment of chronic childhood dysphonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mornet, E; Coulombeau, B; Fayoux, P; Marie, J-P; Nicollas, R; Robert-Rochet, D; Marianowski, R

    2014-11-01

    Chronic childhood dysphonia is a common condition in the school-age period. Perceived functional disorder is subjective and the alert is usually given by a person not belonging to the child's immediate environment. History-taking often suggests a malformation or acquired lesion. Functional assessment helps measure and diagnose the vocal impairment. Physical and endoscopic assessment in consultation is the key examination: it is only rarely impossible in children and can often found diagnosis. Additional examinations are sometimes necessary. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. Factors associated with childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietz, W

    1991-01-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with host factors that enhance susceptibility and environmental factors that increase food intake and decrease energy expenditure. Obese children underreport food intake and probably consume more food to maintain their weight at increased levels. Prevalence of obesity is related to family variables, including parental obesity, family size and age, and socioeconomic status. Television viewing is strongly associated with the prevalence of obesity through its impact on food intake and activity. How these environmental variables are behaviorally interrelated to the genesis of obesity is unclear.

  11. Familial aggregation and childhood blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoling; Xu, Xiaojing; Su, Shaoyong; Snieder, Harold

    2015-01-01

    There is growing concern about elevated blood pressure (BP) in children. The evidence for familial aggregation of childhood BP is substantial. Twin studies have shown that a large part of the familial aggregation of childhood BP is due to genes. The first part of this review provides the latest progress in gene finding for childhood BP, focusing on the combined effects of multiple loci identified from the genome-wide association studies on adult BP. We further review the evidence on the contribution of the genetic components of other family risk factors to the familial aggregation of childhood BP including obesity, birth weight, sleep quality, sodium intake, parental smoking, and socioeconomic status. At the end, we emphasize the promise of using genomic-relatedness-matrix restricted maximum likelihood (GREML) analysis, a method that uses genome-wide data from unrelated individuals, in answering a number of unsolved questions in the familial aggregation of childhood BP.

  12. Childhood Precursors of the Narcissistic Personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Phebe

    2017-09-01

    This research identifies the childhood personality characteristics that predict the presence of narcissism in adulthood. Using data from the longitudinal study of Block and Block (The California Child Q-set. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press, 1980), childhood personality characteristics were assessed at age 11 (N = 100) using the California Child Q-set. A number of these were shown to differentially predict the presence of grandiose or vulnerable narcissism at age 23. Factor analyses of the Child Q-set items showed that the presence of Grandiose Narcissism was positively related to childhood factors representing social presence and negatively related to planfulness. In contrast, vulnerable narcissism was positively related to childhood impulsivity and negatively related to stable self-esteem. Both types of narcissism were positively related to childhood factors representing need for control.

  13. Determining surface wave arrival angle anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Erik W. F.; Ekström, Göran

    2002-06-01

    A new method for measuring arrival angles of teleseismic Love and Rayleigh waves is developed. The new method utilizes estimates of surface wave dispersion to create a phase-matched filter to isolate the Love or Rayleigh wave in three-component recordings. The polarization of the filtered wave group is determined in the time domain by application of a variation of the complex polarization method of Vidale [1986]. Orientation, linearity, and ellipticity of particle motion are estimated in several frequency bands to determine the frequency-dependent polarization. The method employs an iterative scheme, by which a predicted Love wave, based on the estimated dispersion and polarization, is subtracted from the three-component data prior to the estimation of Rayleigh wave polarization, and vice versa. The method is applied to an extensive set of Global Seismographic Network data covering the years 1989-1998. Between 4244 and 15,075 measurements are collected for fundamental mode Love and Rayleigh waves at nine different periods (37 to 150 s). Measurement uncertainties are estimated using the statistics of observations for pairwise similar paths and are generally of the order of 15-50% of the total signal, depending on the period and the wave type. Large and azimuthally invariant angle anomalies are documented for several stations and are consistent with misorientation of the horizontal seismometers. Two schemes are employed to determine the misorientations: (1) an azimuthally weighted average at each station, and (2) a joint inversion for seismometer misorientation and globally heterogeneous phase velocities. The determined corrections are robust and correlate well with those reported in earlier studies. Azimuthally varying arrival angle anomalies are shown to agree qualitatively with predictions of wave refraction calculated for recent phase velocity maps, which explain up to 30% of the variance in the new measurements.

  14. A simple method to obtain consistent and clinically meaningful pelvic angles from euler angles during gait analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wren, Tishya A L; Mitiguy, Paul C

    2007-08-01

    Clinical gait analysis usually describes joint kinematics using Euler angles, which depend on the sequence of rotation. Studies have shown that pelvic obliquity angles from the traditional tilt-obliquity-rotation (TOR) Euler angle sequence can deviate considerably from clinical expectations and have suggested that a rotation-obliquity-tilt (ROT) Euler angle sequence be used instead. We propose a simple alternate approach in which clinical joint angles are defined and exactly calculated in terms of Euler angles from any rotation sequence. Equations were derived to calculate clinical pelvic elevation, progression, and lean angles from TOR and ROT Euler angles. For the ROT Euler angles, obliquity was exactly the same as the clinical elevation angle, rotation was similar to the clinical progression angle, and tilt was similar to the clinical lean angle. Greater differences were observed for TOR. These results support previous findings that ROT is preferable to TOR for calculating pelvic Euler angles for clinical interpretation. However, we suggest that exact clinical angles can and should be obtained through a few extra calculations as demonstrated in this technical note.

  15. Optimum Staging with Varying Thrust Attitude Angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Srivastava

    1966-07-01

    Full Text Available Optimum staging programme for step rockets of arbitrary number of stages having different specific impulses and mass fractions with stages is derived, the optimization criterion being minimum take-off weight for a desired burntout velocity at an assigned altitude. Variation of thrust attitude angle from stage to stage and effects of gravity factor are taken into account. Analysis is performed for a degenerate problem obtained by relaxing the altitude constraint and it has been shown that problems of Weisbord, Subotowicz, Hall & Zambelli and Malina & Summerfield are the particular cases of the degenerate problem.

  16. Rapidly-Indexing Incremental-Angle Encoder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christon, Philip R.; Meyer, Wallace W.

    1989-01-01

    Optoelectronic system measures relative angular position of shaft or other device to be turned, also measures absolute angular position after device turned through small angle. Relative angular position measured with fine resolution by optoelectronically counting finely- and uniformly-spaced light and dark areas on encoder disk as disk turns past position-sensing device. Also includes track containing coarsely- and nonuniformly-spaced light and dark areas, angular widths varying in proportion to absolute angular position. This second track provides gating and indexing signal.

  17. Angle of arrival estimation using spectral interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, Z.W.; Harrington, C.; Thiel, C.W.; Babbitt, W.R. [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Krishna Mohan, R., E-mail: krishna@spectrum.montana.ed [Spectrum Lab, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States)

    2010-09-15

    We have developed a correlative signal processing concept based on a Mach-Zehnder interferometer and spatial-spectral (S2) materials that enables direct mapping of RF spectral phase as well as power spectral recording. This configuration can be used for precise frequency resolved time delay estimation between signals received by a phased antenna array system that in turn could be utilized to estimate the angle of arrival. We present an analytical theoretical model and a proof-of-principle demonstration of the concept of time difference of arrival estimation with a cryogenically cooled Tm:YAG crystal that operates on microwave signals modulated onto a stabilized optical carrier at 793 nm.

  18. Childhood asthma and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljuština-Pribić Radmila

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This article summarizes the contribution of epidemiology to the understanding of childhood asthma. The first task in epidemiology is to determine prevalence and incidence of any disease. Prevalence. Epidemiological investigations are aimed at evaluating hypotheses about causes of disease by defining demographic characteristics of a certain population as well as by determining possible effects of environmental factors. In spite of some limitations, data obtained by epidemiological investigations have been valuable in confirming both the increasing incidence of asthma and the differences in prevalence in certain population groups. The observance of this phenomenon has led to much speculation and a lot of attempts to identify the reasons behind the rising prevalence. Risk factors. Epidemiological studies have identified risk factors for the development of childhood asthma and provided insight into natural history of disease and prognosis. Factors ranging from increased numbers of immunizations to increased air pollution have been suggested, but subsequent analysis has failed to provide the supporting evidence to implicate most of these possibilities. The concept known as the hygiene hypothesis has gained some support from epidemiological studies. Conclusion. The development of asthma as well as its severity are affected by numerous factors and their interactions can be explained by the heterogeneous nature of this disease.

  19. Depersonalization, mindfulness, and childhood trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michal, Matthias; Beutel, Manfred E; Jordan, Jochen; Zimmermann, Michael; Wolters, Susanne; Heidenreich, Thomas

    2007-08-01

    Depersonalization (DP), i.e., feelings of being detached from one's own mental processes or body, can be considered as a form of mental escape from the full experience of reality. This mental escape is thought to be etiologically linked with maltreatment during childhood. The detached state of consciousness in DP contrasts with certain aspects of mindfulness, a state of consciousness characterized by being in touch with the present moment. Against this background, the present article investigates potential connections between DP severity, mindfulness, and childhood trauma in a mixed sample of nonpatients and chronic nonmalignant pain patients. We found a strong inverse correlation between DP severity and mindfulness in both samples, which persisted after partialing out general psychological distress. In the nonpatient sample, we additionally found significant correlations between emotional maltreatment on the one hand and DP severity (positive) and mindfulness (negative) on the other. We conclude that the results first argue for an antithetical relationship between DP and certain aspects of mindfulness and thus encourage future studies on mindfulness-based interventions for DP and second throw light on potential developmental factors contributing to mindfulness.

  20. Childhood asthma and physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lochte, Lene; Nielsen, Kim G; Petersen, Poul Erik;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Childhood asthma is a global problem affecting the respiratory health of children. Physical activity (PA) plays a role in the relationship between asthma and respiratory health. We hypothesized that a low level of PA would be associated with asthma in children and adolescents. The obj......BACKGROUND: Childhood asthma is a global problem affecting the respiratory health of children. Physical activity (PA) plays a role in the relationship between asthma and respiratory health. We hypothesized that a low level of PA would be associated with asthma in children and adolescents...... and extracted data from original articles that met the inclusion criteria. Summary odds ratios (ORs) and confidence intervals (CIs) were used to express the results of the meta-analysis (forest plot). We explored heterogeneity using funnel plots and the Graphic Appraisal Tool for Epidemiology (GATE). RESULTS......: We retrieved 1,571 titles and selected 11 articles describing three cohort and eight cross-sectional studies for inclusion. A meta-analysis of the cohort studies revealed a risk of new-onset asthma in children with low PA (OR [95 % CI] 1.32 [0.95; 1.84] [random effects] and 1.35 [1.13; 1.62] [fixed...

  1. Childhood Pneumonia Screener: a concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka Räsänen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Childhood pneumonia continues to be the number one cause of death in children under five years of age in developing countries. In addition to mortality, pneumonia constitutes an enormous economic and social burden because late diagnosis is associated with high cost of treatment and often leads to chronic health problems. There are several bottlenecks in developing countries in the case flow of a child with lung infection: 1 recognising the symptoms as a reason to seek care, 2 getting the patient to a first-tier health facility, 3 scarcity of trained healthcare personnel who can diagnose the condition and its severity, 4 access to a second-tier facility in severe cases. These factors are commonly present in rural areas but even in more urban settings, access to a physician is often delayed. The Childhood Pneumonia Screener project aims at bridging the diagnostic gap using emerging technology. Mobile “smart” phone communication with several inexpensive dedicated sensors is proposed as a rapid data-collection and transmission unit that is connected to a central location where trained personnel assisted by sophisticated signal processing algorithms, evaluate the data and determine if the child is likely to have pneumonia and what the level and urgency of care should be.

  2. Catatonia in childhood and adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaoka, Ken; Takata, Tomoji

    2003-04-01

    Child and adolescent catatonia has been poorly investigated. A literature review was undertaken to clarify phenomenology, diagnosis, etiology, and treatment as well as ethical problems of catatonia in childhood and adolescence. Although there are no accepted standardized criteria for catatonia in childhood and adolescence, catatonic features described by child psychiatrists are similar to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edn; DSM-IV) criteria for catatonia. With respect to etiology, the motor and behavioral symptoms that are part of catatonia bear some similarities with those seen in autism. Several case reports suggest an association between catatonia and general medical conditions. Certain drugs abused by youngsters as well as prescribed medicine can induce catatonia. Regarding catatonic cases originally diagnosed as schizophrenia, it is unclear whether all of these cases should be identified as schizophrenia or whether some of them are pervasive developmental disorders that develop psychic features in adolescence. Environmental changes preceding the onset of catatonia in patients with mood disorder play a possibly important role. Examples that suggest stress-induced catatonia, although rare, also exist. A few patients exhibit features of malignant catatonia, some without taking neuroleptics and others having taken them. Benzodiazepines and electroconvulsive therapy are considered to be effective treatments for catatonic youngsters.

  3. Wide-angle imaging system with fiberoptic components providing angle-dependent virtual material stops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Arthur H. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A strip imaging wide angle optical system is provided. The optical system is provided with a 'virtual' material stop to avoid aberrational effects inherent in wide angle optical systems. The optical system includes a spherical mirror section for receiving light from a 180 deg strip or arc of a target image. Light received by the spherical mirror section is reflected to a frustoconical mirror section for subsequent rereflection to a row of optical fibers. Each optical fiber transmits a portion of the received light to a detector. The optical system exploits the narrow cone of acceptance associated with optical fibers to substantially eliminate vignetting effects inherent in wide angle systems. Further, the optical system exploits the narrow cone of acceptance of the optical fibers to substantially limit spherical aberration. The optical system is ideally suited for any application wherein a 180 deg strip image need be detected, and is particularly well adapted for use in hostile environments such as in planetary exploration.

  4. Cluster headache or narrow angle glaucoma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad Palimar

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A 47 year old man with episodes of attacks of pain, redness and mild blurring of vision was investigated for narrow angle glaucoma in view of shallow anterior chambers and a cupped optic disc. The history was reviewed following a spontaneous attack in hospital, which had features other than acute glaucoma. A diagnosis of cluster headache was made on the basis of tests. Cluster headache has been defined as unilateral intense pain, involving the eye and head on one side, usually associated with flushing, nasal congestion and lacrimation; the attacks recurring one or more times daily and lasting 20 - 120 minutes. Such attacks commonly continue for weeks or months and are separated by an asymptomatic period of months to years. This episodic nature, together with unilaterality and tendency to occur at night, closely mimics narrow angle glaucoma. Further, if patients have shallow anterior chambers and disc cupping, the differentiation becomes more difficult yet critical. Resource to provocative tests is often the only answer as the following case report demonstrates.

  5. Hidden topological angles and Lefschetz thimbles

    CERN Document Server

    Behtash, Alireza; Schaefer, Thomas; Unsal, Mithat

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the existence of hidden topological angles (HTAs) in a large class of quantum field theories and quantum mechanical systems. HTAs are distinct from theta-parameters in the lagrangian. They arise as invariant angle associated with saddle points of the complexified path integral and their descent manifolds (Lefschetz thimbles). Physical effects of HTAs become most transparent upon analytic continuation in $n_f$ to non-integer number of flavors, reducing in the integer $n_f$ limit to a $\\mathbb Z_2$ valued phase difference between dominant saddles. In ${\\cal N}=1$ super Yang-Mills theory we demonstrate the microscopic mechanism for the vanishing of the gluon condensate. The same effect leads to an anomalously small condensate in a QCD-like $SU(N)$ gauge theory with fermions in the two-index representation. The basic phenomenon is that, contrary to folklore, the gluon condensate can receive both positive and negative contributions in a semi-classical expansion. In quantum mechanics, a HTA leads to ...

  6. Active limited-angle tomographic phase microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kus, Arkadiusz; Krauze, Wojciech; Kujawinska, Malgorzata

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate an active, holographic tomography system, working with limited angle of projections, realized by optical-only, diffraction-based beam steering. The system created for this purpose is a Mach–Zehnder interferometer modified to serve as a digital holographic microscope with a high numerical aperture illumination module and a spatial light modulator (SLM). Such a solution is fast and robust. Apart from providing an elegant solution to viewing angle shifting, it also adds new capabilities of the holographic microscope system. SLM, being an active optical element, allows wavefront correction in order to improve measurement accuracy. Integrated phase data captured with different illumination scenarios within a highly limited angular range are processed by a new tomographic reconstruction algorithm based on the compressed sensing technique: total variation minimization, which is applied here to reconstruct nonpiecewise constant samples. Finally, the accuracy of full measurement and the proposed processing path is tested for a calibrated three-dimensional micro-object as well as a biological object--C2C12 myoblast cell.

  7. determination of determination of optimal tilt angle for maximum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Keywords: Energy output, photovoltaic module, best tilt angle, solar radiation, sunshine hours, ambient temperature. 1. .... at any given time is vital in the design of a PV system. ..... Panels at Different Temperatures and Tilt Angles,”. ISESCO ...

  8. Psychiatric Aspects of Childhood Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman Deep PATTANAYAK

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite this Article: Pattanayak RD, Sagar R. Psychiatric Aspects of Childhood Epilepsy. Iran J Child Neurol 2012;6(2:9-18.Childhood epilepsy is a chronic, recurrent disorder of unprovoked seizures. Theonset of epilepsy in childhood has significant implications for brain growth anddevelopment. Seizures may impair the ongoing neurodevelopmental processes and compromise the child’s intellectual and cognitive functioning, leading totremendous cognitive, behavioral and psychosocial consequences. Children with epilepsy are at increased risk for emotional and behavioral problems. In addition to the direct effects of epilepsy, there are multiple contributory factors including the underlying neurological abnormalities and adverse effects of medication. This review discusses the current understanding of various psychiatric aspects of childhood epilepsy, including the neuropsychological, behavioral and psychosocial concomitants of childhood epilepsy.References1. Shinnar S, Pellock JM. Update on the epidemiology and prognosis of pediatric epilepsy. J Child Neurol 2002;7 suppl 1:4-17.2. Murphy CC, Trevathan E, Yeargin-Allsopp M. Prevalence of epilepsy and epileptic seizures in 10-year-old children: results from the Metropolitan Atlanta Developmental Disabilities Study. Epilepsia 1995;36(9:866-72.3. Placencia M, Shorvon SD, Paredes V, Bimos C, Sander JW, Suarez J, et al. Epileptic seizures in an Andean region of Ecuador ncidence and prevalence and regional variation. Brain 1992;115:771-82.4. Henkin Y, Sadeh M, Kivity S, Shabtai E, KishonRabin L, Gadoth N. Cognitive function in idiopathic generalized epilepsy of childhood. Dev Med Child Neurol 2005;47:126-32.5. Rodenburg R, Stams GJ, Meijer AM, Aldenkamp AP, Dekovic M. Psychopathology in children with epilepsy: a meta-analysis. J Pediatr Psychol 2005;30(6:453-68.6. Caplan R, Siddarth P, Gurbani S, Ott D, Sankar R, Shields WD. Psychopathology and pediatric complex partial seizures: seizure

  9. Studying of the Contact Angle Hysteresis on Various Surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Kirichenko E. O.; Gatapova E. Ya.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is devoted to investigation of the contact angle hysteresis on various surfaces. It was carried out by two different methods: measuring the advancing and the receding contact angles and measuring the contact angles at water droplet evaporation under isothermal conditions. Data obtained using two methods have been compared. The influence of the contact angle hysteresis on the mode of the drop evaporation has been shown.

  10. Studying of the Contact Angle Hysteresis on Various Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirichenko E. O.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to investigation of the contact angle hysteresis on various surfaces. It was carried out by two different methods: measuring the advancing and the receding contact angles and measuring the contact angles at water droplet evaporation under isothermal conditions. Data obtained using two methods have been compared. The influence of the contact angle hysteresis on the mode of the drop evaporation has been shown.

  11. A Hydrodynamic Model of Dynamic Contact Angle Hysteresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    contact angle hysteresis is developed in terms of the interaction of capillary, viscous, and...used to obtain the equations which describe the contact angle region and thereby to define the dynamic contact angle . The analysis is limited to...velocity dependence of the receding contact angle and of the thickness of the deposited film of the receding interface of a wetting liquid are determined as functions of the capillary, viscous, and disjoining forces.

  12. Suicide among childhood cancer survivors in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Čižek Sajko

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Suicide is one of the causes of late mortality among childhood cancer survivors. The aim of our study was to analyse the risk of suicide among childhood cancer survivors compared with that ofthe general population of Slovenia. Patients and methods. This retrospective study included patients with childhood cancer registeredat the Cancer Registry of Slovenia between 1978-2008, with an observation period of 1978-2010. Childhood cancer patients and controlsubjects from the general population of Slovenia were matched by sex,year and age at the beginning of follow-up and time of follow-up inyears. Data on the general population of Slovenia were obtained fromthe Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia. Results. A total of 1647 patients were recorded in the Cancer Registry as having cancerduring childhood, with 3 patients committing suicide. All three weremale. Their age at diagnosis of cancer was 12, 13 and 2 years old; their age at suicide was 19, 32 and 28 years old. The mechanism of death was asphyxiation in all three deaths. The calculation of the expected number of suicides in the group of individuals with childhood cancer from the general Slovene population revealed the number of 3.16persons. Conclusion. The comparison of the observed and expectedprobability showed that there was no statistically significant difference in the suicide rate between childhood cancer survivors and the general population of Slovenia.

  13. Asthma in childhood: a complex, heterogeneous disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Lee Chung

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma in childhood is a heterogeneous disease with different phenotypes and variable clinical manifestations, which depend on the age, gender, genetic background, and environmental influences of the patients. Several longitudinal studies have been conducted to classify the phenotypes of childhood asthma, on the basis of the symptoms, triggers of wheezing illness, or pathophysiological features of the disease. These studies have provided us with important information about the different wheezing phenotypes in young children and about potential mechanisms and risk factors for the development of chronic asthma. The goal of these studies was to provide a better insight into the causes and natural course of childhood asthma. It is well-known that complicated interactions between genes and environmental factors contribute to the development of asthma. Because childhood is a period of rapid growth in both the lungs and the immune system, developmental factors should be considered in the pathogenesis of childhood asthma. The pulmonary system continues to grow and develop until linear growth is completed. Longitudinal studies have reported significant age-related immune development during postnatal early life. These observations suggest that the phenotypes of childhood asthma vary among children and also in an individual child over time. Improved classification of heterogeneous conditions of the disease will help determine novel strategies for primary and secondary prevention and for the development of individualized treatment for childhood asthma.

  14. Synergistic childhood adversities and complex adult psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Karen T; Harris, William W; Putnam, Frank W

    2013-08-01

    Numerous studies find a cumulative effect of different types of childhood adversities on increasing risk for serious adult mental and medical outcomes. This study uses the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication sample to investigate the cumulative impact of 8 childhood adversities on complex adult psychopathology as indexed by (a) number of lifetime diagnoses according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994); (b) number of 4 DSM-IV disorder categories (mood, anxiety, impulse control, and substance abuse disorders); and (c) coexistence of internalizing and externalizing disorders. Seven of the 8 childhood adversities were significantly associated with complex adult psychopathology. Individuals with 4 or more childhood adversities had an odds ratio of 7.3, 95% confidence interval [4.7, 11.7] for 4 disorder categories. Additive and multiplicative synergistic effects increasing adult psychopathology were found for specific pairwise combinations of childhood adversities. Synergistic patterns differed by gender suggesting that women are more impacted by sexual abuse and men by economic hardship. The absence of childhood adversities was protective, in that it significantly decreased an individual's risk for subsequent adult mental illness. The results support the clinical impression that increased childhood adversity is associated with more complex adult psychopathology.

  15. Influence of higher order modes on angled-facet amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Z.; Mikkelsen, B.; Stubkjær, Kristian

    1991-01-01

    The influence of the first-order mode on the residual reflectivity of angled-facet amplifiers is analyzed. For a 7 degrees angled-facet ridge waveguide amplifier with a single-layer antireflective (AR) coating, a gain ripple lower than 1-dB at 25-dB gain can be obtained independent...... by increasing the facet angles to 10 degrees...

  16. Fostering Students' Development of the Concept of Angles Using Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Sue Ellen; Koyunkaya, Melike Yigit

    2017-01-01

    We have used "GeoGebra," a dynamic geometry software environment, to explore how Year 4 students understand definitions of angles. Seven students defined angle and then completed several activities adapted for the dynamic environment. Afterward, students again shared their definitions of angles. We found that even a short investigation…

  17. INFLUENCE OF SURFACE-ROUGHNESS ON THE WETTING ANGLE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, X.B; de Hosson, J.T.M.

    1995-01-01

    In this paper the influence of surface roughness on contact angles in the system of liquid Al wetting solid surfaces of Al2O3 has been studied. It was observed that contact angles of liquid Al vary significantly on different rough surfaces of Al2O3 A model is proposed to correlate contact angles wit

  18. Surgery for an "Acute Erection Angle," When Counseling Fails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nugteren, Helena M.; Pascal, Astrid L.; Schultz, Willibrord C. M. Weijmar; van Driel, Mels F.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. During erection, the penis increases in volume, rigidity, and angle. Textbooks of urology and sexology provide only very limited information about erection angle dysfunction. In some men, this angle is too tight toward their belly, causing problems with intercourse. Aim. We reported tw

  19. Maximum Atmospheric Entry Angle for Specified Retrofire Impulse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. N. Srivastava

    1969-07-01

    Full Text Available Maximum atmospheric entry angles for vehicles initially moving in elliptic orbits are investigated and it is shown that tangential retrofire impulse at the apogee results in the maximum entry angle. Equivalence of maximizing the entry angle and minimizing the retrofire impulse is also established.

  20. Optimal angle reduction - a behavioral approach to linear system approximation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roorda, Berend; Fuhrmann, P.A.

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the problem of optimal state reduction under minimization of the angle between system behaviors. The angle is defined in a worst-case sense, as the largest angle that can occur between a system trajectory and its optimal approximation in the reduced-order model. This problem is analyz

  1. Lateral angle: a method for sexing using the petrous bone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norén, Anna; Lynnerup, Niels; Czarnetzki, Alfred

    2005-01-01

    We report on the results of applying the so-called lateral angle method for sex determination on skeletal remains. The lateral angle denotes the angle of the internal auditory canal in relation to the medial surface of the petrous part of the temporal bone. The method involves making a small cast...

  2. 47 CFR 25.205 - Minimum angle of antenna elevation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minimum angle of antenna elevation. 25.205... SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Technical Standards § 25.205 Minimum angle of antenna elevation. (a) Earth station antennas shall not normally be authorized for transmission at angles less than 5° measured from the...

  3. Surgery for an "Acute Erection Angle," When Counseling Fails

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nugteren, Helena M.; Pascal, Astrid L.; Schultz, Willibrord C. M. Weijmar; van Driel, Mels F.

    Introduction. During erection, the penis increases in volume, rigidity, and angle. Textbooks of urology and sexology provide only very limited information about erection angle dysfunction. In some men, this angle is too tight toward their belly, causing problems with intercourse. Aim. We reported

  4. Spray coating of superhydrophobic and angle-independent coloured films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Dengteng; Yang, Lili; Wu, Gaoxiang; Yang, Shu

    2014-03-07

    Angle-independent coloured films with superhydrophobicity were fabricated from quasi-amorphous arrays of monodispersed fluorinated silica nanoparticles via one-step spray coating. The film exhibited a high contact angle (>150°) and a low roll-off angle (~2°) and the colour could be tuned to blue, green and moccasin by varying the size of the nanoparticles.

  5. Childhood adversities and laboratory pain perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieritz K

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Karoline Pieritz, Winfried Rief, Frank EuteneuerDivision of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Philipps University Marburg, Marburg, GermanyAbstract: Childhood adversity has frequently been related to a wide range of psychosomatic complaints in adulthood. The present study examined the relationship between different forms of childhood adversity and laboratory measures of pain. Heat pain tolerance and perceived heat pain intensity were measured in a community-based sample of 62 women (aged 20–64 years. Participants completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ, which assesses five forms of childhood adversity: physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect. Somatic symptoms, depressive symptoms, and pain catastrophizing were assessed as potential mediators. Bivariate analyses indicated that emotional abuse but no other forms of childhood adversity were significantly related to decreased heat pain tolerance (r=-0.27; P<0.05. Accordingly, multiple regression analyses revealed that only emotional abuse was a significant predictor of heat pain tolerance (β=-0.62; P=0.034 when entering all CTQ subscales simultaneously. Although emotional abuse was also related to somatic symptoms, depressive symptoms, and pain catastrophizing, none of these variables mediated the relationship between childhood adversity and laboratory pain (P>0.1. No significant associations were found between any forms of childhood adversity and heat pain intensity. Our findings indicate that the severity of emotional childhood abuse is associated with decreased pain tolerance, an affective component of pain, but not with heat pain intensity, which has been described as a sensory component of pain.Keywords: childhood adversity, emotional abuse, pain tolerance, pain intensity, somatic symptoms

  6. Childhood obesity, prevalence and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merchant Anwar T

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in developed countries. Twenty five percent of children in the US are overweight and 11% are obese. Overweight and obesity in childhood are known to have significant impact on both physical and psychological health. The mechanism of obesity development is not fully understood and it is believed to be a disorder with multiple causes. Environmental factors, lifestyle preferences, and cultural environment play pivotal roles in the rising prevalence of obesity worldwide. In general, overweight and obesity are assumed to be the results of an increase in caloric and fat intake. On the other hand, there are supporting evidence that excessive sugar intake by soft drink, increased portion size, and steady decline in physical activity have been playing major roles in the rising rates of obesity all around the world. Consequently, both over-consumption of calories and reduced physical activity are involved in childhood obesity. Almost all researchers agree that prevention could be the key strategy for controlling the current epidemic of obesity. Prevention may include primary prevention of overweight or obesity, secondary prevention or prevention of weight regains following weight loss, and avoidance of more weight increase in obese persons unable to lose weight. Until now, most approaches have focused on changing the behaviour of individuals in diet and exercise. It seems, however, that these strategies have had little impact on the growing increase of the obesity epidemic. While about 50% of the adults are overweight and obese in many countries, it is difficult to reduce excessive weight once it becomes established. Children should therefore be considered the priority population for intervention strategies. Prevention may be achieved through a variety of interventions targeting built environment, physical activity, and diet. Some of these potential strategies for intervention in children can be

  7. Superwide-angle acoustic propagations above the critical angles of the Snell law in liquid—solid superlattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sai; Zhang, Yu; Gao, Xiao-Wei

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, superwide-angle acoustic propagations above the critical angles of the Snell law in liquid—solid superlattice are investigated. Incident waves above the critical angles of the Snell law usually inevitably induce total reflection. However, incident waves with big oblique angles through the liquid—solid superlattice will produce a superwide angle transmission in a certain frequency range so that total reflection does not occur. Together with the simulation by finite element analysis, theoretical analysis by using transfer matrix method suggests the Bragg scattering of the Lamb waves as the physical mechanism of acoustic wave super-propagation far beyond the critical angle. Incident angle, filling fraction, and material thickness have significant influences on propagation. Superwide-angle propagation phenomenon may have potential applications in nondestructive evaluation of layered structures and controlling of energy flux.

  8. Computer simulation of dislocation core structure of metastable left angle 111 right angle dislocations in NiAl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Z.Y. (Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)); Vailhe, C. (Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)); Farkas, D. (Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States))

    1993-10-01

    The atomistic structure of dislocation cores of left angle 111 right angle dislocations in NiAl was simulated using embedded atom method potentials and molecular statics computer simulation. In agreement with previous simulation work and experimental observations, the complete left angle 111 right angle dislocation is stable with respect to the two superpartials of 1/2 left angle 111 right angle separated by an antiphase boundary. The structure of the latter configuration, though metastable, is of interest in the search for ways of improving ductility in this material. The structure of the complete dislocation and that of the metastable superpartials was studied using atomistic computer simulation. An improved visualization method was used for the representation of the resulting structures. The structure of the partials is different from that typical of 1/2 left angle 111 right angle dislocations in b.c.c. materials and that reported previously for the B2 structure using model pair potentials. (orig.)

  9. Distinguishing features of shallow angle plunging jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Suraj S.; Trujillo, Mario F.

    2013-08-01

    Numerical simulations employing an algebraic volume-of-fluid methodology are used to study the air entrainment characteristics of a water jet plunging into a quiescent water pool at angles ranging from θ = 10° to θ = 90° measured from the horizontal. Our previous study of shallow angled jets [S. S. Deshpande, M. F. Trujillo, X. Wu, and G. L. Chahine, "Computational and experimental characterization of a liquid jet plunging into a quiescent pool at shallow inclination," Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow 34, 1-14 (2012)], 10.1016/j.ijheatfluidflow.2012.01.011 revealed the existence of a clearly discernible frequency of ingestion of large air cavities. This is in contrast with chaotic entrainment of small air pockets reported in the literature in case of steeper or vertically plunging jets. In the present work, the differences are addressed by first quantifying the cavity size and entrained air volumes for different impingement angles. The results support the expected trend - reduction in cavity size (D43) as θ is increased. Time histories of cavity volumes in the vicinity of the impingement region confirm the visual observations pertaining to a near-periodic ingestion of large air volumes for shallow jets (10°, 12°), and also show that such cavities are not formed for steep or vertical jets. Each large cavity (defined as Dc/Dj ≳ 3) exists in close association with a stagnation point flow. A local mass and momentum balance shows that the high stagnation pressure causes a radial redirection of the jet, resulting in a flow that resembles the initial impact of a jet on the pool. In fact, for these large cavities, their speed matches closely Uimpact/2, which coincides with initial cavity propagation for sufficiently high Froude numbers. Furthermore, it is shown that the approximate periodicity of air entrainment scales linearly with Froude number. This finding is confirmed by a number of simulations at θ = 12°. Qualitatively, for steeper jets, such large stagnation

  10. Childhood body mass index growth trajectories and endometrial cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Julie; Gamborg, Michael; Tilling, Kate

    2017-01-01

    Previously, we found that excess weight already in childhood has positive associations with endometrial cancer; however, associations with changes in body mass index (BMI) during childhood are not well understood. Therefore, we examined whether growth in childhood BMI is associated with endometri...... cancer risk. We did not identify any sensitive childhood growth period, which suggests that excess gain in BMI during the entire childhood period should be avoided.[on SciFinder (R)]...

  11. Childhood Poverty, Early Motherhood and Adult Social Exclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Hobcraft, John; Kiernan, Kathleen

    1999-01-01

    Childhood poverty and early parenthood are both high on the political agenda. The key new issue addressed in this research is the relative importance of childhood poverty and of early motherhood as correlates of outcomes later in life. How far are the 'effects' of early motherhood on later outcomes due to childhood precursors, especially experience of childhood poverty? If there are powerful associations of both childhood poverty and early parenthood with later adult outcomes, there are a num...

  12. Income in Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wengenroth, Laura; Sommer, Grit; Schindler, Matthias; Spycher, Ben D.; von der Weid, Nicolas X.; Stutz-Grunder, Eveline; Michel, Gisela; Kuehni, Claudia E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Little is known about the impact of childhood cancer on the personal income of survivors. We compared income between survivors and siblings, and determined factors associated with income. Methods As part of the Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (SCCSS), a questionnaire was sent to survivors, aged ≥18 years, registered in the Swiss Childhood Cancer Registry (SCCR), diagnosed at age 4’500 CHF), even after we adjusted for socio-demographic and educational factors (OR = 0.46, psocio-demographic characteristics, education and working hours, survivors of various diagnostic groups have lower incomes than siblings. Further research needs to identify the underlying causes. PMID:27213682

  13. Health Behaviors of Childhood Cancer Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S. Ford

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There has been a dramatic increase in the number of childhood cancer survivors living to an old age due to improved cancer treatments. However, these survivors are at risk of numerous late effects as a result of their cancer therapy. Engaging in protective health behaviors and limiting health damaging behaviors are vitally important for these survivors given their increased risks. We reviewed the literature on childhood cancer survivors’ health behaviors by searching for published data and conference proceedings. We examine the prevalence of a variety of health behaviors among childhood cancer survivors, identify significant risk factors, and describe health behavior interventions for survivors.

  14. [Economical costs and consequences of childhood obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Cortés, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    There is some concern because the generations born in the last decades of the 20th century could have lower longevity than the previous ones as a result of the diseases caused by obesity. Mexico has the highest index of prevalence of childhood obesity, and it has increased very fast. It is fundamental to generate healthcare models focused on obese patients, and oriented to the prevention of complications. Implementing preventive actions since childhood must be the priority. Health education in childhood obesity will be the only realistic way to solve the problem.

  15. Imaginary companions in childhood and adult creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, W A

    1979-01-01

    Case material is presented to illustrate the thesis that the ability to create an imaginary companion during childhood is an early expression of the special ego aptitudes found in creative individuals in adult life. Such "companions" allow these children to attempt to master creatively a variety of narcissistic mortifications suffered in reality and to displace unacceptable affects. In creative adults who had imaginary companions in childhood, the early fantasies serve as an organizing schema in memory for the childhood traumata. Stimuli in adult life which evoke the earlier traumata may revive the original imaginary companion fantasies. These then serve as nodal bases for the creation of specific adult works of art.

  16. Images about childhood according to Peruvian mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magaly Nóblega

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the images that Peruvian mothers of middle and low socioeconomic status hold about childhood. Participants included 91 mothers from four Peruvian cities and information was collected through focus groups. Results show that childhood is seen as a developmental period with its own characteristics and as a period of play and absence of responsibilities. Mothers acknowledge the importance of the affective dimension fordevelopment and perceive the child as an active participant in his surroundings, with cognitive and social capacities. These results reveal a positive view on childhood images in contrast with previous conceptualizations.

  17. A superconducting large-angle magnetic suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downer, James R.; Anastas, George V., Jr.; Bushko, Dariusz A.; Flynn, Frederick J.; Goldie, James H.; Gondhalekar, Vijay; Hawkey, Timothy J.; Hockney, Richard L.; Torti, Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    SatCon Technology Corporation has completed a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Phase 2 program to develop a Superconducting Large-Angle Magnetic Suspension (LAMS) for the NASA Langley Research Center. The Superconducting LAMS was a hardware demonstration of the control technology required to develop an advanced momentum exchange effector. The Phase 2 research was directed toward the demonstration for the key technology required for the advanced concept CMG, the controller. The Phase 2 hardware consists of a superconducting solenoid ('source coils') suspended within an array of nonsuperconducting coils ('control coils'), a five-degree-of-freedom positioning sensing system, switching power amplifiers, and a digital control system. The results demonstrated the feasibility of suspending the source coil. Gimballing (pointing the axis of the source coil) was demonstrated over a limited range. With further development of the rotation sensing system, enhanced angular freedom should be possible.

  18. Narrow-angle astrometry with PRIMA

    CERN Document Server

    Sahlmann, J; Mérand, A; Zimmerman, N; Abuter, R; Chazelas, B; Delplancke, F; Henning, T; Kaminski, A; Köhler, R; Launhardt, R; Mohler, M; Pepe, F; Queloz, D; Quirrenbach, A; Reffert, S; Schmid, C; Schuhler, N; Schulze-Hartung, T

    2012-01-01

    The Extrasolar Planet Search with PRIMA project (ESPRI) aims at characterising and detecting extrasolar planets by measuring the host star's reflex motion using the narrow-angle astrometry capability of the PRIMA facility at the Very Large Telescope Interferometer. A first functional demonstration of the astrometric mode was achieved in early 2011. This marked the start of the astrometric commissioning phase with the purpose of characterising the instrument's performance, which ultimately has to be sufficient for exoplanet detection. We show results obtained from the observation of bright visual binary stars, which serve as test objects to determine the instrument's astrometric precision, its accuracy, and the plate scale. Finally, we report on the current status of the ESPRI project, in view of starting its scientific programme.

  19. Pneumatic Rotary Actuator Angle Control System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鹏; 彭光正; 伍清河

    2003-01-01

    Based on the adaptive control method, a kind of parameter adjustor was used to control pneumatic rotary actuator to track the expected output. The system uses electropneumatic proportional valve as control device, which adjusts the gas flow of actuator 's two cavities, then changes the pressure of cavity and pushes the piston of actuator to move, so the rotary actuator 's axis can be made to revolve to the required angle at last. According to the characteristic of pneumatic system, the control system was described with a fourth-order mathematic model. The control rule is deduced by model reference adaptive control method. By the result of experiment, it was proved that by using the adaptive control method, the output of rotary actuator could track the expected value timely and accurately.

  20. Intrinsic polarization angle ambiguity in Faraday tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Kumazaki, Kohei; Ideguchi, Shinsuke; Kurayama, Tomoharu; Takahashi, Keitaro

    2014-01-01

    Faraday tomography is a powerful method to diagnose polarizations and Faraday rotations along the line of sight. Quality of Faraday tomography is, however, limited by several conditions. Recently, it is reported that Faraday tomography indicates false signals in some specific situations. In this paper, we systematically investigate the condition of the appearance of false signals in Faraday tomography. We study the situations that we observe two sources within a beam, and change the intrinsic polarization angles, rotation measures, intensities, and frequency coverage. We find that false signals arise when rotation measure between the sources is less than 1.5 times the full width at half maximum of the rotation measure spread function. False signals also depend on the intensity ratio between the sources and are reduced for large ratio. On the other hand, the appearance of false signals does not depend on frequency coverage, meaning that the uncertainty should be correctly understood and taken into consideratio...

  1. Wide Angle Michelson Doppler Imaging Interferometer (WAMDII)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, B.

    1986-01-01

    The wide angle Michelson Doppler imaging interferometer (WAMDII) is a specialized type of optical Michelson interferometer working at sufficiently long path difference to measure Doppler shifts and to infer Doppler line widths of naturally occurring upper atmospheric Gaussian line emissions. The instrument is intended to measure vertical profiles of atmospheric winds and temperatures within the altitude range of 85 km to 300 km. The WAMDII consists of a Michelson interferometer followed by a camera lens and an 85 x 106 charge coupled device photodiode array. Narrow band filters in a filter wheel are used to isolate individual line emissions and the lens forms an image of the emitting region on the charge coupled device array.

  2. Small angle electron diffraction and deflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Koyama

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Electron optical system is constructed in order to obtain small angle diffraction and Lorentz deflection of electrons at the order of down to 10-6 radian in the reciprocal space. Long-distance camera length up to 3000 m is achieved in a conventional transmission electron microscope with LaB6 thermal emission type. The diffraction pattern at 5 × 10-6 radian is presented in a carbon replica grating with 500 nm lattice spacing while the magnetic deflection pattern at 2 × 10-5 radian is exhibited in Permalloy elements. A simultaneous recording of electron diffraction and Lorentz deflection is also demonstrated in 180 degree striped magnetic domains of La0.825Sr0.175MnO3.

  3. Sinusoidal Order Estimation Using Angles between Subspaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Holdt Jensen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of determining the order of a parametric model from a noisy signal based on the geometry of the space. More specifically, we do this using the nontrivial angles between the candidate signal subspace model and the noise subspace. The proposed principle is closely related to the subspace orthogonality property known from the MUSIC algorithm, and we study its properties and compare it to other related measures. For the problem of estimating the number of complex sinusoids in white noise, a computationally efficient implementation exists, and this problem is therefore considered in detail. In computer simulations, we compare the proposed method to various well-known methods for order estimation. These show that the proposed method outperforms the other previously published subspace methods and that it is more robust to the noise being colored than the previously published methods.

  4. Flow angle from intermediate mass fragment measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rami, F.; Crochet, P.; Dona, R.; De Schauenburg, B.; Wagner, P.; Alard, J.P.; Andronic, A.; Basrak, Z.; Bastid, N.; Belyaev, I.; Bendarag, A.; Berek, G.; Best, D.; Caplar, R.; Devismes, A.; Dupieux, P.; Dzelalija, M.; Eskef, M.; Fodor, Z.; Gobbi, A.; Grishkin, Y.; Herrmann, N.; Hildenbrand, K.D.; Hong, B.; Kecskemeti, J.; Kirejczyk, M.; Korolija, M.; Kotte, R.; Lebedev, A.; Leifels, Y.; Merlitz, H.; Mohren, S.; Moisa, D.; Neubert, W.; Pelte, D.; Petrovici, M.; Pinkenburg, C.; Plettner, C.; Reisdorf, W.; Schuell, D.; Seres, Z.; Sikora, B.; Simion, V.; Siwek-Wilczynska, K.; Stoicea, G.; Stockmeir, M.; Vasiliev, M.; Wisniewski, K.; Wohlfarth, D.; Yushmanov, I.; Zhilin, A

    1999-02-15

    Directed sideward flow of light charged particles and intermediate mass fragments was measured in different symmetric reactions at bombarding energies from 90 to 800 A MeV. The flow parameter is found to increase with the charge of the detected fragment up to Z = 3-4 and then turns into saturation for heavier fragments. Guided by simple simulations of an anisotropic expanding thermal source, we show that the value at saturation can provide a good estimate of the flow angle, {theta}{sub flow}, in the participant region. It is found that {theta}{sub flow} depends strongly on the impact parameter. The excitation function of {theta}{sub flow} reveals striking deviations from the ideal hydrodynamical scaling. The data exhibit a steep rise of {theta}{sub flow} to a maximum at around 250 - 400 A MeV, followed by a moderate decrease as the bombarding energy increases further.

  5. Angle-resolved cathodoluminescence imaging polarimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Osorio, Clara I; Brenny, Benjamin; Polman, Albert; Koenderink, A Femius

    2015-01-01

    Cathodoluminescence spectroscopy (CL) allows characterizing light emission in bulk and nanostructured materials and is a key tool in fields ranging from materials science to nanophotonics. Previously, CL measurements focused on the spectral content and angular distribution of emission, while the polarization was not fully determined. Here we demonstrate a technique to access the full polarization state of the cathodoluminescence emission, that is the Stokes parameters as a function of the emission angle. Using this technique, we measure the emission of metallic bullseye nanostructures and show that the handedness of the structure as well as nanoscale changes in excitation position induce large changes in polarization ellipticity and helicity. Furthermore, by exploiting the ability of polarimetry to distinguish polarized from unpolarized light, we quantify the contributions of different types of coherent and incoherent radiation to the emission of a gold surface, silicon and gallium arsenide bulk semiconductor...

  6. Wide-angle energy-momentum spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Dodson, Christopher M; Li, Dongfang; Zia, Rashid

    2014-01-01

    Light emission is defined by its distribution in energy, momentum, and polarization. Here, we demonstrate a method that resolves these distributions by means of wide-angle energy-momentum spectroscopy. Specifically, we image the back focal plane of a microscope objective through a Wollaston prism to obtain polarized Fourier-space momentum distributions, and disperse these two-dimensional radiation patterns through an imaging spectrograph without an entrance slit. The resulting measurements represent a convolution of individual radiation patterns at adjacent wavelengths, which can be readily deconvolved using any well-defined basis for light emission. As an illustrative example, we use this technique with the multipole basis to quantify the intrinsic emission rates for electric and magnetic dipole transitions in europium-doped yttrium oxide (Eu$^{3+}$:Y$_{2}$O$_{3}$) and chromium-doped magnesium oxide (Cr$^{3+}$:MgO). Once extracted, these rates allow us to reconstruct the full, polarized, two-dimensional radi...

  7. Overweight in childhood and adolescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toennesen, L.L; Bjerregaard, A; Porsbjerg, C

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity is increasing worldwide among children and adolescents, and has been associated with an increased incidence of asthma. However, the mechanisms underlying this association are incompletely understood. OBJECTIVE: In this cohort study we aimed to investigate whether being...... overweight in childhood and adolescence is associated with an increased risk of airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), a hallmark of asthma, in early adulthood. METHODS: Of 527 subjects from a random population sample of children and adolescents (7-17 years) examined at baseline, a total of 184 subjects completed...... exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) was measured at follow-up. RESULTS: No significant difference in the prevalence of AHR at follow-up was found between subjects who were overweight or obese at baseline visit (n = 26) (pediatric definition, body mass index ≥ 85%percentile) and normal weight subjects (n = 158...

  8. Childhood asthma and physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lochte, Lene; Nielsen, Kim G; Petersen, Poul Erik

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Childhood asthma is a global problem affecting the respiratory health of children. Physical activity (PA) plays a role in the relationship between asthma and respiratory health. We hypothesized that a low level of PA would be associated with asthma in children and adolescents....... The objectives of our study were to (1) summarize the evidence available on associations between PA and asthma prevalence in children and adolescents and (2) assess the role of PA in new-onset or incident asthma among children and adolescents. METHODS: We searched Medline, the Cochrane Library, and Embase......: We retrieved 1,571 titles and selected 11 articles describing three cohort and eight cross-sectional studies for inclusion. A meta-analysis of the cohort studies revealed a risk of new-onset asthma in children with low PA (OR [95 % CI] 1.32 [0.95; 1.84] [random effects] and 1.35 [1.13; 1.62] [fixed...

  9. [Epidemiological aspects of childhood cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacour, Brigitte; Clavel, Jacqueline

    2014-11-01

    In France, cancer hits around 1700 children (0-14 years) each year. The age-standardized incidence rate for all cancers combined is 152 cases per million children per year, with a sex ratio of 1.2. In other terms, one child out of 440 develops a cancer before the age of 15 in industrial countries. The most frequent cancers were leukaemia (29%), embryonal tumours apart central nervous system (25%), central nervous system tumour (23%) and lymphoma (12%). The incidence varies between countries with higher overall rates in industrialized countries. These variations may reflect differences in diagnostic techniques or registration or in the distribution of possible risk factors. Five-year survival after childhood cancer has dramatically improved in the last 30 years, reaching yet 80%.

  10. [Acute benign ataxia in childhood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grippo, J; Arroyo, H A; Rocco, R D; Iraola, J

    1979-01-01

    The patogenesis and etiology of acute ataxia in childhood is not well known. It may occur without previous symptoms or may be the expression of specific infectious diseases. Forty patients hospitalized at the Hospital de Niños de Buenos Aires en 1972-1978, were studied. The neurological manifestations showed an acute onset, being ataxia the main sign, associate to tremor, nystagmus, dysartria, oculo-motor paresia, muscular weakness, and hyporeflexia. Most of the patients (82%) became cured within the first four weeks. It is advisable to establish a follow-up with periodic controls, mainly in those patients in whom an association with previous infectious diseases did not exist to be able to detect an association with degenerative or desmyelinizing diseases.

  11. Childhood Obesity for Pediatric Gastroenterologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jeannie S.; Barlow, Sarah E.; Quiros-Tejeira, Ruben E.; Scheimann, Ann; Skelton, Joseph; Suskind, David; Tsai, Patrika; Uko, Victor; Warolin, Joshua P.; Xanthakos, Stavra A.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity in childhood is one of the major health issues in pediatric health care today. As expected, the prevalence of obesity-related comorbidities has risen in parallel with that of obesity. Consultation regarding these concomitant diseases and subsequent management by subspecialists, including pediatric gastroenterologists, is now common and has resulted in obesity being recognized as a chronic disease requiring coordination of care. Although medications and even surgery may provide effective, though often temporary, treatments for obesity and its comorbidities, behavioral interventions addressing healthy dietary and physical activity habits remain a mainstay in the obesity treatment paradigm. Therefore, the issue of weight management must be addressed by both general practitioner and subspecialist alike. In this report, we review select aspects of pediatric obesity and obesity-related management issues because it relates in particular to the field of pediatric gastroenterology and hepatology. PMID:23282941

  12. Cerebral venous thrombosis in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huisman, T.A.G.M.; Martin, E.; Willi, U.V. [Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging and Radiology, University Children' s Hospital Zurich (Switzerland); Holzmann, D. [Dept. of Otorhinolaryngology, University Children' s Hospital Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2001-09-01

    This was a retrospective study to determine different etiologies of cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) in childhood and to correlate extent and location of thrombosis with the etiology and the age of the child as well as the final outcome. In addition, the radiologic approach is discussed. This was a retrospective analysis of 19 children with CVT. The children were examined by contrast-enhanced dynamic CT. Radiologic findings were correlated with the etiology of CVT. Cerebral venous thrombosis is not as infrequent in children as has been thought. Cerebral venous thrombosis in children can occur due to trauma (n=9), infections (n=7), or coagulation disorders (n=3). Extent and location of thrombosis, as well as complications, final outcome, and therapy, depend on the etiology. Computed tomography remains a valuable primary imaging modality in the diagnosis of CVT in the acutely injured or diseased child. (orig.)

  13. Bejel: acquirable only in childhood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothschild, Bruce M; Rothschild, Christine; Naples, Virginia; Billard, Michel; Panero, Barbara

    2006-10-01

    Bejel clearly has a long history in the Middle East and the Sudan, but was it transmitted to Europe? As the major manifestation of bejel is presence of periosteal reaction in 20-40% of afflicted populations, absence of significant population frequency of periosteal reaction in Europe would exclude that diagnosis. Examination of skeletal populations from continental Europe revealed no significant periosteal reaction at the time of and immediately subsequent to the Crusades. Thus, there is no evidence for bejel in Europe, in spite of clear contact (the mechanism of bejel transmission in children) between warring groups, at least during the Crusades. This supports the hypothesis that bejel is a childhood-acquired disease and apparently cannot be contracted in adulthood.

  14. Disequilibrium dihedral angles in dolerite sills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holness, Marian B.; Richardson, Chris; Helz, Rosalind T.

    2012-01-01

    The geometry of clinopyroxene-plagioclase-plagioclase junctions in mafic rocks, measured by the median dihedral angle Θcpp, is created during solidification. In the solidifying Kilauea Iki (Hawaii) lava lake, the wider junctions between plagioclase grains are the first to be filled by pyroxene, followed by the narrower junctions. The final Θcpp, attained when all clinopyroxene-plagioclase-plagioclase junctions are formed, is 78° in the upper crust of the lake, and 85° in the lower solidification front. Θcpp in the 3.5-m-thick Traigh Bhàn na Sgùrra sill (Inner Hebrides) is everywhere 78°. In the Whin Sill (northern England, 38 m thick) and the Portal Peak sill (Antarctica, 129 m thick), Θcpp varies symmetrically, with the lowest values at the margins. The 266-m-thick Basement Sill (Antarctica) has asymmetric variation of Θcpp, attributed to a complex filling history. The chilled margins of the Basement Sill are partially texturally equilibrated, with high Θcpp. The plagioclase grain size in the two widest sills varies asymmetrically, with the coarsest rocks found in the upper third. Both Θcpp and average grain size are functions of model crystallization times. Θcpp increases from 78° to a maximum of ∼100° as the crystallization time increases from 1 to 500 yr. Because the use of grain size as a measure of crystallization time is dependent on an estimate of crystal growth rates, dihedral angles provide a more direct proxy for cooling rates in dolerites.

  15. Mandibular advancement surgery in high-angle and low-angle class II patients: different long-term skeletal responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mobarak, K A; Espeland, L; Krogstad, O; Lyberg, T

    2001-04-01

    The objective of this cephalometric study was to compare skeletal stability and the time course of postoperative changes in high-angle and low-angle Class II patients after mandibular advancement surgery. The subjects were 61 consecutive mandibular retrognathism patients whose treatment included bilateral sagittal split osteotomy and rigid fixation. The patients were divided according to the preoperative mandibular plane angle; the 20 patients with the lowest mandibular plane angle (20.8 degrees +/- 4.9 degrees ) constituted the low-angle group, while the 20 cases with the highest mandibular plane angle (43.0 degrees +/- 4.0 degrees ) represented the high-angle group. Lateral cephalograms were taken on 6 occasions: immediately before surgery, immediately after surgery, 2 and 6 months after surgery, and 1 and 3 years after surgery. Results demonstrated that the high-angle and low-angle groups had different patterns of surgical and postoperative changes. High-angle patients were associated with both a higher frequency and a greater magnitude of horizontal relapse. While 95% of the total relapse took place during the first 2 months after surgery in the low-angle group, high-angle patients demonstrated a more continuous relapse pattern, with a significant proportion (38%) occurring late in the follow-up period. Possible reasons for the different postsurgical response are discussed.

  16. Investigation of drop dynamic contact angle on copper surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlova, Evgenija; Feoktistov, Dmitriy; Kuznetsov, Geniy

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents experimental results of the studying the effect of surface roughness, microstructure and flow rate on the dynamic contact angle at spreading of distilled non deaerate water drop on a solid horizontal substrates. Copper substrates with different roughness have been investigated. For each substrate static contact angles depending on volume flow rate have been obtained using shadow system. Increasing the volume flow rate resulted in an increase of the static contact angle. It was found that with increasing surface roughness dynamic contact angle arises. Also difference in formation of the equilibrium contact angle at low and high rates of drop growth has been detected.

  17. Development of a Contact Angle Measurement Method Based Upon Geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Su; Pyo, Na Young; Seo, Seung Hee [Ewha Womans University, Seoul (Korea); Choi, Woo Jin [Suwon University, Suwon (Korea); Kwon, Young Shik [Suwon Science College, Suwon (Korea)

    1998-12-31

    A new way of contact angle measurement is derived based on simple geometrical calculation. Without using complicated contact angle measurement instrument, just measuring the diameter and height of liquid lens made it possible to calculate the contact angle value with a reasonable reliability. To validate the contact angle value obtained by this method, contact angle of the same liquid lens is measured using conventional goniometer and it is verified that two values are nearly same within the limit of observational error. (author). 6 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  18. Absolute small-angle measurement based on optical feedback interferometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingang Zhong; Xianhua Zhang; Zhixiang Ju

    2008-01-01

    We present a simple but effective method for small-angle measurement based on optical feedback inter-ferometry (or laser self-mixing interferometry). The absolute zero angle can be defined at the biggest fringe amplitude point, so this method can also achieve absolute angle measurement. In order to verify the method, we construct an angle measurement system. The Fourier-transform method is used to analysis the interference signal. Rotation angles are experimentally measured with a resolution of 10-6 rad and a measurement range of approximately from -0.0007 to +0.0007 rad.

  19. Optimal relative view angles for an object viewed multiple times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilani, Syed U.; Shende, Apoorva; Nguyen, Bao; Stilwell, Daniel J.

    2015-05-01

    Typically, the detection of an object of interest improves as we view the object from multiple angles. For cases where viewing angle matters, object detection can be improved further by optimally selecting the relative angles of multiple views. This motivates the search for viewing angles that maximize the expected probability of detection. Although our work is motivated by applications in subsea sensing, our fundamental analysis is easily adapted for other classes of applications. The specific challenge that motivates our work is the selection of optimal viewing angles for subsea sensing in which sonar is used for bathymetric imaging.

  20. Measurement of dihedral angles by scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achutaramayya, G.; Scott, W. D.

    1973-01-01

    The extension of Hoover's (1971) technique to the case of dihedral-angle measurement is described. Dihedral angles are often determined by interferometry on thermally grooved grain boundaries to obtain information on relative interfacial energies. In the technique considered the measured angles approach the true angles as the tilt angle approaches 90 deg. It is pointed out that the scanning electron microscopy method provides a means of seeing the real root of a groove at a lateral magnification which is higher than that obtainable with interferometry.