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Sample records for childhood cancer findings

  1. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in Childhood Period Nasopharynx Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aktas, Elif; Sahin, Burcu; Ciledag, Nazan; Arda, Kemal Niyazi; Caglar, Emrah; Ilhan, Inci Ergurhan

    2015-01-01

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is a rarely seen tumor in childhood. It is mostly detected late as the clinical features are similar to other childhood tumors which affect the nasopharynx and adenoidal hypertrophy. Therefore, the radiological features of childhood tumors of the nasopharynx must be well known. The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of MR imaging features of childhood nasopharynx cancer. The study included 10 nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients under the age of 18 years who presented at hospital between February 2008 and March 2014 and who had tissue diagnosis and MRI of the nasopharynx region. The MRI scans were evaluated by two radiologists. Loco-regional spread, asymmetry, signal intensity of the tumors, and lymph nodes were evaluated. In all the patients there was a mass which narrowed the nasopharynx. In all cases, unilateral mastoid opacification was observed. In 9 cases (90%), parapharyngeal extension was found. In 8 cases (80%), the mass showed an extension into the nasal cavity or oropharynx. In 5 cases (50%), there was an involvement of the skull base. In 3 patients (30%), an extension to the masticator space and pterygopalatine fossa was found. There were enlarged cervical lymph nodes bilaterally in 10 cases (100%). In 4 cases (40%), a lateral retropharyngeal lymph node was detected. Childhood nasopharyngeal cancers are often diagnosed at an advanced stage. MR imaging can be helpful in diagnosis and differential diagnosis of childhood nasopharynx cancer from other diseases of the nasopharynx

  2. Childhood Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Watchdog Ratings Feedback Contact Select Page Childhood Cancer Statistics Home > Cancer Resources > Childhood Cancer Statistics Childhood Cancer Statistics – Graphs and Infographics Number of Diagnoses Incidence Rates ...

  3. Childhood Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... toxins. In children, a genetic condition, such as Down syndrome , can sometimes increase the risk of cancer. Kids who have had chemotherapy or radiation treatment for cancer are more likely to get cancer ...

  4. Finding the right balance : An evaluation of the adequacy of energy and protein intake in childhood cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinksma, Aeltsje; Roodbol, Petrie F; Sulkers, Esther; de Bont, Eveline S J M; Burgerhof, Johannes G M; Tamminga, Rienk Y J; Jager-Wittenaar, Harriët; Tissing, Wim J E

    Background & aims: Despite a widespread belief that adequate dietary intake is needed to maintain weight during childhood cancer treatment, conclusive data about adequacy of intake are lacking. Therefore, we aimed to assess the adequacy of energy and protein intake in a heterogeneous childhood

  5. Study Finds Small Increase in Cancer Risk after Childhood CT Scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study published in the June 6, 2012, issue of The Lancet shows that radiation exposure from computed tomography (CT) scans in childhood results in very small but increased risks of leukemia and brain tumors in the first decade after exposure.

  6. Childhood cancer in Aden, Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ba-Saddik, Iman Ali

    2013-12-01

    Cancer in children is increasingly recognized as a major and growing health problem in different developed and developing countries. In Yemen, it is still difficult to know the extent of cancer and its determinants among children. This study was conducted to determine the magnitude of childhood cancer in Aden and provide the preliminary baseline data by age and sex. Basic epidemiologic data was retrieved from all paediatric cancer Yemen, from 1997 to 2006. The results showed a total of 483 childhood cancers 5 years. An interesting comparison was the preponderance of non-Hodgkins's lymphoma over Hodgkin's disease (1.6:1) stronger in female (3:1) than male (1.25:1). Medulloblastoma was the most common CNS tumour followed by astrocytoma, an infrequent finding in childhood cancer. Osteosarcoma was the most frequent bone tumour (male:female ratio of 1.8:1). A female preponderance was noticed in chondrosarcoma that was not yet documented. The blastoma group was common in younger age group. Retinoblastoma and nephroblastoma predominated in female while neuroblastoma, hepatoblastoma and soft tissue sarcomas in male. It is concluded that there is a lower frequency of childhood cancer in Aden when compared with developed countries. It may explained by the fact that a large number of childhood cancers remain undiagnosed due to limitations of diagnostic facilities or under registration. Central paediatric hospitals should be provided with essential diagnostic and therapeutic services that should be freely available to all children with cancer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Childhood cancer, Dounreay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kynoch, G.A.B.; Stewart, J.A.

    1994-01-01

    Details of the findings of the Committee of the Medical Aspects of Radiation in the Environment (COMARE) on the incidence of childhood cancer in the Dounreay area in the United Kingdom are given in a written response to a parliamentary question. In the period 1985-91, four cases of leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were observed in the 1 to 24 age group living within 25 km of the Dounreay Nuclear Establishment, compared to 1.4 expected cases. In the light of these results, which reinforce previous findings, the Committee concluded that the raised incidence of childhood leukemia in the area is a real phenomenon and is less likely to have risen by chance. COMARE also concluded that further epidemiological research in the area to try to determine causal mechanics was not a practicable way forward at present because of the small number of cases involved. This advice has been accepted by the UK Government, but further nationally based studies are being carried out. (UK)

  8. Danish Childhood Cancer Registry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, Henrik; Rechnitzer, Catherine; Wehner, Peder Skov

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF DATABASE: The overall aim is to monitor the quality of childhood cancer care in Denmark; to register late effects of treatment; to analyze complications of permanent central venous catheters (CVCs); to study blood stream infections in children with cancer; and to study acute toxicity of high......-dose methotrexate infusions in children with leukemia. STUDY POPULATION: All children below 15 years of age at diagnosis living in Denmark diagnosed after January 1, 1985 according to the International Classification of Diseases 10, including diagnoses DC00-DD48. MAIN VARIABLES: Cancer type, extent of disease......, and outcome of antimicrobial chemotherapy. DESCRIPTIVE DATA: Since 1985, 4,944 children below 15 years of age have been registered in the database. There has been no significant change in the incidence of childhood cancer in Denmark since 1985. The 5-year survival has increased significantly since 1985...

  9. Childhood cancer: Early warning signs

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    World-wide there are more than 200 000 new cases of childhood cancer per year and more than 70% of these occur in the developing world. In the First World more than 70% of these children will become long-term survivors. For some childhood cancers 5-year survival rates approach 95% . In England only 0.5% of all ...

  10. Childhood cancer and nuclear installations: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muirhead, C.R.

    1998-01-01

    Many epidemiological studies of childhood cancer around nuclear installations have been conducted in recent years. This article reviews results from Great Britain and elsewhere. Geographical studies have indicated raised risks of childhood leukaemia around some British nuclear installations. However, environmental assessments suggest that the findings are unlikely to be due to radioactive releases from the sites. Case-control studies have allowed more detailed investigation of putative risk factors than is possible from geographical studies. In particular, a recent national study in Britain does not support the hypothesis raised by an earlier study in West Cumbria that paternal radiation exposure prior to conception may increase the risk of leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in offspring. Other studies suggest that childhood leukaemia may have an infective basis, although there is still uncertainty about whether this would explain the findings around nuclear installations. The UK Childhood Cancer Study may provide more information on the causes of these diseases. (author)

  11. Childhood Cancer Survivors Are Living Longer

    Science.gov (United States)

    New data from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study suggest that refinements in pediatric cancer treatment over the last few decades have helped to extend the lifespans of many survivors of childhood cancer.

  12. Financial Burden in Survivors of Childhood Cancer: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nipp, Ryan D; Kirchhoff, Anne C; Fair, Douglas; Rabin, Julia; Hyland, Kelly A; Kuhlthau, Karen; Perez, Giselle K; Robison, Leslie L; Armstrong, Gregory T; Nathan, Paul C; Oeffinger, Kevin C; Leisenring, Wendy M; Park, Elyse R

    2017-10-20

    Purpose Survivors of childhood cancer may experience financial burden as a result of health care costs, particularly because these patients often require long-term medical care. We sought to evaluate the prevalence of financial burden and identify associations between a higher percentage of income spent on out-of-pocket medical costs (≥ 10% of annual income) and issues related to financial burden (jeopardizing care or changing lifestyle) among survivors of childhood cancer and a sibling comparison group. Methods Between May 2011 and April 2012, we surveyed an age-stratified, random sample of survivors of childhood cancer and a sibling comparison group who were enrolled in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Participants reported their household income, out-of-pocket medical costs, and issues related to financial burden (questions were adapted from national surveys on financial burden). Logistic regression identified associations between participant characteristics, a higher percentage of income spent on out-of-pocket medical costs, and financial burden, adjusting for potential confounders. Results Among 580 survivors of childhood cancer and 173 siblings, survivors of childhood cancer were more likely to have out-of-pocket medical costs ≥ 10% of annual income (10.0% v 2.9%; P report spending a higher percentage of their income on out-of-pocket medical costs, which may influence their health-seeking behavior and potentially affect health outcomes. Our findings highlight the need to address financial burden in this population with long-term health care needs.

  13. Prenatal irradiation and childhood cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muirhead, C R [National Radiological Protection Board, Chilton (UK); Kneale, G W [Birmingham Univ. (UK). Dept. of Social Medicine

    1989-09-01

    This letter addresses a technical question in connection with the recent paper by Knox et al. In particular, it concerns a correction to the estimate of childhood cancer risk following obstetric radiography, based on the Oxford Survey of Childhood Cancers (OSCC). One of us (CRM) enquired about the centring values for variables used in the analysis and particularly about the formulae used to calculate the higher order interactions of the radiation risk with birth year and age at diagnosis. These centring values and formulae are given in Table 1. This letter arises from that enquiry. (author).

  14. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment Childhood Cancer Genomics Study Findings Metastatic Cancer Metastatic Cancer Research Common Cancer Types Recurrent Cancer Common Cancer Types ...

  15. Skin Cancer Surveillance Behaviors Among Childhood Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapleton, Jerod L; Tatum, Kristina L; Devine, Katie A; Stephens, Sue; Masterson, Margaret; Baig, Amna; Hudson, Shawna V; Coups, Elliot J

    2016-03-01

    The risk of developing skin cancer is elevated among childhood cancer survivors (CCS), particularly among those treated with radiation. This survey study examined the skin cancer surveillance behaviors of 94 CCS. Approximately 48% of CCS had ever conducted skin self-examination (SSE) and 31% had ever received a physician skin examination. Rates of physician skin examination were 2.5 times higher among CCS treated with radiation compared to those without radiation. However, rates of SSEs did not differ based on treatment history. These findings highlight the need to promote skin cancer surveillance as an important aspect of CCS survivorship care. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. HRCT findings of childhood follicular bronchiolitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinman, Jason P.; Browne, Lorna P. [Children' s Hospital Colorado, Department of Radiology, Aurora, CO (United States); Manning, David A. [Children' s Hospital of New Orleans, Department of Radiology, New Orleans, LA (United States); Liptzin, Deborah R. [Children' s Hospital Colorado, Department of Pediatrics, Section of Pediatric Pulmonology, Aurora, CO (United States); Krausert, Amanda J. [New Orleans Forensic Center, New Orleans, LA (United States)

    2017-12-15

    Follicular bronchiolitis is a lymphoproliferative form of interstitial lung disease (ILD) defined by the presence of peribronchial lymphoid follicles. Follicular bronchiolitis has been associated with viral infection, autoimmune disease and immunodeficiency. The most common clinical manifestation is respiratory distress in infancy followed by a prolonged course with gradual improvement. We found no reports of systematic review of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings in pediatric follicular bronchiolitis. The purpose of this study was to describe the HRCT findings of follicular bronchiolitis in children and correlate these imaging findings with histopathology. A 5-year retrospective review of all pathology-proven cases of follicular bronchiolitis was performed. Inclusion criteria were age <18 years and an HRCT within 6 months of lung biopsy. HRCTs were reviewed by three observers and scored using the system previously described by Brody et al. Six patients met the inclusion criteria with age range at HRCT of 7-82 months (median: 39.5 months). Pulmonary nodules (n=6) were the most common HRCT finding followed by focal consolidation (n=5), bronchiectasis (n=4) and lymphadenopathy (n=3). Tree and bud opacities and nodules on CT correlated with interstitial lymphocytic infiltrates and discrete lymphoid follicles on pathology. The salient HRCT findings of childhood follicular bronchiolitis are bilateral, lower lung zone predominant pulmonary nodules and bronchiectasis with infantile onset of symptoms. These characteristic HRCT findings help differentiate follicular bronchiolitis from other forms of infantile onset ILD. (orig.)

  17. HRCT findings of childhood follicular bronchiolitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinman, Jason P.; Browne, Lorna P.; Manning, David A.; Liptzin, Deborah R.; Krausert, Amanda J.

    2017-01-01

    Follicular bronchiolitis is a lymphoproliferative form of interstitial lung disease (ILD) defined by the presence of peribronchial lymphoid follicles. Follicular bronchiolitis has been associated with viral infection, autoimmune disease and immunodeficiency. The most common clinical manifestation is respiratory distress in infancy followed by a prolonged course with gradual improvement. We found no reports of systematic review of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings in pediatric follicular bronchiolitis. The purpose of this study was to describe the HRCT findings of follicular bronchiolitis in children and correlate these imaging findings with histopathology. A 5-year retrospective review of all pathology-proven cases of follicular bronchiolitis was performed. Inclusion criteria were age <18 years and an HRCT within 6 months of lung biopsy. HRCTs were reviewed by three observers and scored using the system previously described by Brody et al. Six patients met the inclusion criteria with age range at HRCT of 7-82 months (median: 39.5 months). Pulmonary nodules (n=6) were the most common HRCT finding followed by focal consolidation (n=5), bronchiectasis (n=4) and lymphadenopathy (n=3). Tree and bud opacities and nodules on CT correlated with interstitial lymphocytic infiltrates and discrete lymphoid follicles on pathology. The salient HRCT findings of childhood follicular bronchiolitis are bilateral, lower lung zone predominant pulmonary nodules and bronchiectasis with infantile onset of symptoms. These characteristic HRCT findings help differentiate follicular bronchiolitis from other forms of infantile onset ILD. (orig.)

  18. HIV and childhood cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    defining cancers are Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and B-cell lymphomas. (including primary CNS ... shows a modest increase and the incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma increases tenfold or more in the ..... Caselli D, Klersy C, de Martino M, et al. Human.

  19. Marriage and divorce among childhood cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Susanne Vinkel; Kejs, Anne Mette Tranberg; Engholm, Gerda

    2011-01-01

    Many childhood cancer survivors have psychosocial late effects. We studied the risks for cohabitation and subsequent separation. Through the Danish Cancer Register, we identified a nationwide, population-based cohort of all 1877 childhood cancer survivors born from 1965 to 1980, and in whom cance...

  20. Prenatal irradiation and childhood cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, E.G.; Stewart, A.M.; Kneale, G.W.; Gilman, E.A.

    1987-01-01

    Estimates of the relative risk of childhood cancer, following irradiation during fetal life, are reported. They are based upon extended case-control investigations of childhood cancer deaths in England, Wales and Scotland between 1953 and 1979 comprising 14,759 geographically-matched and birth-date-matched case-control pairs. The estimates were calculated using Conditional Logistic Regression (Miettinen-Breslow) techniques. This method of risk-estimation limits the distortions caused by confounding factors or by biased selection of controls. Through analysing a range of reported exposures other than radiation, levels of general reporting and recording biases between cases and controls were also assessed. There was no evidence among cases or controls of any systematic reduction in the frequency of pregnancy x-rays between 1950 and 1979. During this period of time, about 7% of all childhood cancers, and 8% of those with onset between the ages of 4 and 7 years, were caused by x-ray examinations. The dose-response relationship was one death per 990 obstetric x-ray examinations; or 2,000 deaths per 10 4 man-Gy. (author)

  1. Importance of updating family cancer history in childhood cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Selena; Warby, Meera; Tucker, Katherine M; Wakefield, Claire E; Cohn, Richard J

    2017-10-01

    Estimates of the number of childhood cancers with a genetic basis range from 5-8.5% found in germline samples to 29% based on clinical criteria. Family history-taking practice is a fundamental first step in detecting at risk individuals and families. This study focused on Li-Fraumeni Syndrome (LFS), a highly penetrant cancer syndrome. Reported family history in a cohort of 648 of cancer survivor cohort (CCS) was examined. Eligible CCS were: (i) aged up to 14 years at diagnosis; (ii) more than 5 years postdiagnosis; (iii) treated for a childhood cancer at the study hospitals in NSW, Australia; (iv) in remission for more than 3 years. CCS completed self-administered questionnaires. Medical records confirmed diagnosis and treatment-related information. Our findings reveal an increased cancer risk among sibling and relatives of CCS. 91% of siblings diagnosed with cancer were diagnosed under the age of 40 and about 30% diagnosed under the aged of 15 revealing a 5- (RR = 5.1; 95% CI, 3.3-7.9) and 44-fold (RR = 44.6; 95% CI, 18.4-108.3) increased risked of cancer compared with the Australian population, respectively. About 2% of CCS reported that they had been diagnosed with a genetic cancer syndrome. However, 11% of survivors described a family history pattern which met Chompret criteria for screening for TP53 mutations associated with LFS. Our data suggests that familial cancer predispositions may be initially overlooked. Aperiodic and accurate ascertainment of family cancer history of childhood cancer patients and survivors is therefore recommended.

  2. Childhood Cancer Survivor Study: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To address this issue, the Children’s Oncology Group ( COG ) has prepared a resource for physicians called “ Long- ... of American Medical Association; see the journal article ) Breast cancer risk in childhood cancer survivors without a history ...

  3. Suicide among childhood cancer survivors in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cižek Sajko, Mojca; Cižek, Niko; Jareb, Berta

    2012-01-01

    Suicide is one of the causes of late mortality among childhood cancer survivors. The aim of our study was to analyse the risk of suicide among childhood cancer survivors compared with that of the general population of Slovenia. This retrospective study included patients with childhood cancer registered at the Cancer Registry of Slovenia between 1978-2008, with an observation period of 1978-2010. Childhood cancer patients and control subjects from the general population of Slovenia were matched by sex, year and age at the beginning of follow-up and time of follow-up in years. Data on the general population of Slovenia were obtained from the Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia. A total of 1647 patients were recorded in the Cancer Registry as having cancer during childhood, with 3 patients committing suicide. All three were male. Their age at diagnosis of cancer was 12, 13 and 2 years old; their age at suicide was 19, 32 and 28 years old. The mechanism of death was asphyxiation in all three deaths. The calculation of the expected number of suicides in the group of individuals with childhood cancer from the general Slovene population revealed the number of 3.16 persons. The comparison of the observed and expected probability showed that there was no statistically significant difference in the suicide rate between childhood cancer survivors and the general population of Slovenia. Copyright © 2012 by Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  4. Fertility in Female Childhood Cancer Survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, de M.; Broeder, den E.; Berg, van den M.H.; Lambalk, C.B.

    2009-01-01

    Advances in childhood cancer treatment over the past decades have significantly improved survival, resulting in a rapidly enlarging group of childhood cancer survivors. There is much concern, however, about the effects of treatment on reproductive potential. In women there is evidence that both

  5. Male reproductive health after childhood cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lähteenmäki, P M; Arola, M; Suominen, J

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-five male patients were investigated to elucidate the correlation of semen parameters and other related parameters in the assessment of spermatogenesis after childhood cancer treatment.......Twenty-five male patients were investigated to elucidate the correlation of semen parameters and other related parameters in the assessment of spermatogenesis after childhood cancer treatment....

  6. Imaging findings in craniofacial childhood rhabdomyosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freling, Nicole J.M.; Rijn, Rick R. van; Merks, Johannes H.M.; Saeed, Peerooz; Balm, Alfons J.M.; Bras, Johannes; Pieters, Bradley R.; Adam, Judit A.

    2010-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the commonest paediatric soft-tissue sarcoma constituting 3-5% of all malignancies in childhood. RMS has a predilection for the head and neck area and tumours in this location account for 40% of all childhood RMS cases. In this review we address the clinical and imaging presentations of craniofacial RMS, discuss the most appropriate imaging techniques, present characteristic imaging features and offer an overview of differential diagnostic considerations. Post-treatment changes will be briefly addressed. (orig.)

  7. Family Adjustment to Childhood Cancer: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Kristin A.; Marsland, Anna L.

    2011-01-01

    This systematic review integrates qualitative and quantitative research findings regarding family changes in the context of childhood cancer. Twenty-eight quantitative, 42 qualitative, and one mixed-method studies were reviewed. Included studies focused on family functioning, marital quality, and/or parenting in the context of pediatric cancer,…

  8. Recent findings concerning childhood food insecurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kursmark, Meredith; Weitzman, Michael

    2009-05-01

    Food insecurity is a relatively new measure of household and child malnutrition. This paper reviews recent studies that have examined aspects of its etiology and adverse child health and development. Smoking by adults in children's homes has recently been found to be highly associated with childhood food insecurity. Much recent research has also examined the relationship between food insecurity and childhood obesity, and thus far, whereas suggestive, results are conflicting. Some studies have found that parenting practices and parental depression are factors that link household food insecurity with childhood obesity. Other health outcomes recently shown to be associated with food insecurity include undernutrition, decreased mental proficiency, increased developmental risk, adverse pregnancy outcomes, and poor health status. Most of the studies of food insecurity to date have come from the USA. There is, however, absolutely no reason to believe that this measure, and the negative child health outcomes associated with it, does not apply to other developed nations. Similarly, it is likely that children and families living in developing countries suffer a greater prevalence and severity of food insecurity and its negative consequences. Childhood food insecurity has numerous significant negative effects on childhood health and development, may be associated with obesity, and occurs much more often in impoverished homes with adult smokers.

  9. Spirituality in childhood cancer care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima NN

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nádia Nara Rolim Lima,1 Vânia Barbosa do Nascimento,1 Sionara Melo Figueiredo de Carvalho,1 Modesto Leite Rolim Neto,2 Marcial Moreno Moreira,2 Aline Quental Brasil,2 Francisco Telésforo Celestino Junior,2 Gislene Farias de Oliveira,2 Alberto Olavo Advíncula Reis3 1Health Sciences Postgraduate Program, ABC Region Medical School, Santo André, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Department of Medicine, Federal University of Ceará, Barbalha, Ceará, Brazil; 3Public Health Postgraduate Program, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: To deal with the suffering caused by childhood cancer, patients and their families use different coping strategies, among which, spirituality appears a way of minimizing possible damage. In this context, the purpose of the present study was to analyze the influence of spirituality in childhood cancer care, involving biopsychosocial aspects of the child, the family, and the health care team facing the disease. To accomplish this purpose, a nonsystematic review of literature of articles on national and international electronic databases (Scientific Electronic Library Online [SciELO], PubMed, and Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature [LILACS] was conducted using the search terms “spirituality,” “child psychology,” “child,” and “cancer,” as well as on other available resources. After the search, 20 articles met the eligibility criteria and were included in the final sample. Our review showed that the relation between spirituality and health has lately become a subject of growing interest among researchers, as a positive influence of spirituality in the people's welfare was noted. Studies that were retrieved using the mentioned search strategy in electronic databases, independently assessed by the authors according to the systematic review, showed that spirituality emerges as a driving force that helps pediatric patients and their families in coping with cancer. Health care workers

  10. Marriage and divorce among childhood cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Susanne Vinkel; Kejs, Anne Mette Tranberg; Engholm, Gerda

    2011-01-01

    was diagnosed between 1965 and 1996 before they were 20 years of age. A sex-matched and age-matched population-based control cohort was used for comparison (n=45,449). Demographic and socioeconomic data were obtained from national registers and explored by discrete-time Cox regression analyses. Childhood cancer......Many childhood cancer survivors have psychosocial late effects. We studied the risks for cohabitation and subsequent separation. Through the Danish Cancer Register, we identified a nationwide, population-based cohort of all 1877 childhood cancer survivors born from 1965 to 1980, and in whom cancer...... a nonsignificantly lower rate (RR 0.47; 95% CI: 0.38-0.58) than females (RR 0.56; 95% CI: 0.47-0.68). The rates of separation were almost identical to those of controls. In conclusion, the rate of cohabitation was lower for all childhood cancer survivors than for the population-based controls, with the most...

  11. Breast Cancer After Chest Radiation Therapy for Childhood Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, Chaya S.; Chou, Joanne F.; Wolden, Suzanne L.; Bernstein, Jonine L.; Malhotra, Jyoti; Friedman, Danielle Novetsky; Mubdi, Nidha Z.; Leisenring, Wendy M.; Stovall, Marilyn; Hammond, Sue; Smith, Susan A.; Henderson, Tara O.; Boice, John D.; Hudson, Melissa M.; Diller, Lisa R.; Bhatia, Smita; Kenney, Lisa B.; Neglia, Joseph P.; Begg, Colin B.; Robison, Leslie L.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The risk of breast cancer is high in women treated for a childhood cancer with chest irradiation. We sought to examine variations in risk resulting from irradiation field and radiation dose. Patients and Methods We evaluated cumulative breast cancer risk in 1,230 female childhood cancer survivors treated with chest irradiation who were participants in the CCSS (Childhood Cancer Survivor Study). Results Childhood cancer survivors treated with lower delivered doses of radiation (median, 14 Gy; range, 2 to 20 Gy) to a large volume (whole-lung field) had a high risk of breast cancer (standardized incidence ratio [SIR], 43.6; 95% CI, 27.2 to 70.3), as did survivors treated with high doses of delivered radiation (median, 40 Gy) to the mantle field (SIR, 24.2; 95% CI, 20.7 to 28.3). The cumulative incidence of breast cancer by age 50 years was 30% (95% CI, 25 to 34), with a 35% incidence among Hodgkin lymphoma survivors (95% CI, 29 to 40). Breast cancer–specific mortality at 5 and 10 years was 12% (95% CI, 8 to 18) and 19% (95% CI, 13 to 25), respectively. Conclusion Among women treated for childhood cancer with chest radiation therapy, those treated with whole-lung irradiation have a greater risk of breast cancer than previously recognized, demonstrating the importance of radiation volume. Importantly, mortality associated with breast cancer after childhood cancer is substantial. PMID:24752044

  12. Posttraumatic stress symptoms in adult survivors of childhood cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeveld, N E; Grootenhuis, M A; Voûte, P A; de Haan, R J

    2004-06-01

    Previous research suggests that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is present in survivors of childhood cancer. The aim of the current study was to explore posttraumatic stress symptoms in a sample of young adult survivors of childhood cancer. In addition, the impact of demographic, medical and treatment factors on survivors' posttraumatic stress symptoms was studied. Participants were 500 long-term survivors of childhood cancer. The median age at follow-up was 24 years (age range, 16- 49 years, 47% female). To assess symptoms of posttraumatic stress, all participants completed the Impact of Event Scale (IES), a self-report instrument consisting of two subscales, intrusion and avoidance. Twelve percent of this sample of adult survivors of childhood cancer had scores in the severe range, indicating they are unable to cope with the impact of their disease and need professional help. Twenty percent of the female survivors had scores in the severe range as compared with 6% of the male survivors. Linear regression models revealed that being female, unemployed, a lower educational level, type of diagnosis and severe late effects/health problems were associated with posttraumatic stress symptoms. The results indicate that, although the proportion of survivors reporting symptoms is well within the proportions found in the general population, a substantial subset of survivors report symptoms of posttraumatic stress. This finding supports the outcomes reported previously that diagnosis and treatment for childhood cancer may have significant long-term effects, which are manifested in symptoms of posttraumatic stress. The investigated factors could explain posttraumatic stress symptoms only to a limited extent. Further research exploring symptoms of posttraumatic stress in childhood cancer survivors in more detail is clearly warranted. From a clinical perspective, health care providers must pay attention to these symptoms during evaluations in the follow-up clinic. Early

  13. Imaging findings in systemic childhood diseases presenting with dermatologic manifestations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Adam Z; Gittler, Julia K; Nakrani, Radhika N; Alis, Jonathan; Blumfield, Einat; Levin, Terry L

    Many childhood diseases often present with skin abnormalities with which radiologists are largely unfamiliar. Knowledge of associated dermatologic manifestations may aid the radiologist in confirming the diagnosis and recommending targeted imaging of affected organs. We review the imaging findings in childhood diseases associated with dermatologic manifestations. Diseases include dermatologic findings which herald underlying malignancy (Neuroblastoma, leukemia/lymphoma, Langerhans cell histiocytosis),are associated with risk of malignancy (Epidermolysis Bullosa, basal cell nevus syndrome, Cowden's syndrome, Tuberous Sclerosis),or indicate a systemic inflammatory/immune disorder (Kawasaki's disease, Henoch Schonlein Purpura, systemic lupus erythematosus, scleroderma, sarcoidosis, dermatomyositis and immune thrombocytopenic purpura). Familiarity with pertinent findings in childhood diseases presenting with dermatologic manifestations in childhood diseases aids the radiologist in confirming the diagnosis and guiding imaging workup. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The experience of fatherhood following childhood cancer survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, Francis; Higgins, Aiveen; Casey, Maureen; McCarthy, Anthony

    2017-07-01

    This study explored the experience of becoming a father following childhood cancer survival. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with five fathers and analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Three superordinate themes emerged: 'moving away from and revisiting the experience of cancer', 'making sense of fortune and loss following a life-threatening illness' and 'valuing the opportunity to be a father'. The transition to fatherhood brought unique and specific challenges to fathers. Nevertheless, all appeared to have positively adjusted to this transition. Findings recommended providing information and support to childhood survivors who wish to or who are about to become fathers.

  15. Space-time interactions in childhood cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, V.

    1990-01-01

    During the last twenty five years, there have been sporadic published reports of cases of childhood leukaemia occurring in clusters. Renewed interest in the topic, following suggests that clusters may occur in the vicinity of nuclear establishments, has prompted this report of an investigation into 418 childhood cancer cases which occurred in the Midlands between 1953 and 1960. There was evidence among some age groups and diagnoses of an unexpectedly high number of close pairs of onsets, and some indication of similar patterns among births of children who later developed cancer. Measles appeared to occur more often in the 2-3 years before the onset of leukaemia in children who were later involved in close pairs than in their matched controls. It is concluded that common infectious diseases of childhood may play a minor role in the development of some cancers. Epidemics of these diseases may then be reflected on a greatly reduced scale in the subsequent distribution of cancer cases. (author)

  16. Childhood Nasopharyngeal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood nasopharyngeal cancer treatment options include chemotherapy, external and internal radiation therapy, surgery, and immunotherapy (interferon). Learn more about the risk factors, symptoms, tests to diagnose, and treatment of childhood nasopharyngeal cancer in this expert-reviewed summary.

  17. Childhood Liver Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood liver cancer treatment options include surgery, watchful waiting, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, ablation therapy, and antiviral therapy. Learn more about newly diagnosed and recurrent childhood liver cancer in this expert-reviewed summary.

  18. Childhood Thyroid Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood thyroid cancer treatment usually includes surgery and may include radioactive iodine therapy, targeted therapy, and hormone replacement therapy. Learn more about the diagnosis and treatment of childhood thyroid cancer in this expert-reviewed summary.

  19. The Challenge of Childhood Cancer in Developing Countries

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2016-05-12

    May 12, 2016 ... Abraham Haileamlak, MD, Professor of Pediatrics and Child Health ... children under the age of 15 years due to cancer. Childhood cancer is the second leading .... collaboration on childhood leukaemia. Int J. Hematol 2003 ...

  20. Childhood Cancer Genomics Gaps and Opportunities - Workshop Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI convened a workshop of representative research teams that have been leaders in defining the genomic landscape of childhood cancers to discuss the influence of genomic discoveries on the future of childhood cancer research.

  1. Fertility in female childhood cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Bruin, Marie L; Van Dulmen-den Broeder, Eline; Van den Berg, Marleen H

    2009-01-01

    chemotherapy and radiotherapy may have an adverse effect on ovarian function, ovarian reserve and uterine function, clinically leading to sub-fertility, infertility, premature menopause and/or adverse pregnancy outcomes. Here we will first address normal female fertility and methods to detect decreased...... fertility. Hence we will focus on direct effects as well as late fertility-related adverse effects caused by chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and we will conclude with a summary of current options for fertility preservation in female childhood cancer survivors.......Advances in childhood cancer treatment over the past decades have significantly improved survival, resulting in a rapidly enlarging group of childhood cancer survivors. There is much concern, however, about the effects of treatment on reproductive potential. In women there is evidence that both...

  2. Marriage and divorce among childhood cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Susanne Vinkel; Kejs, Anne Mette Tranberg; Engholm, Gerda; Møller, Henrik; Johansen, Christoffer; Schmiegelow, Kjeld

    2011-10-01

    Many childhood cancer survivors have psychosocial late effects. We studied the risks for cohabitation and subsequent separation. Through the Danish Cancer Register, we identified a nationwide, population-based cohort of all 1877 childhood cancer survivors born from 1965 to 1980, and in whom cancer was diagnosed between 1965 and 1996 before they were 20 years of age. A sex-matched and age-matched population-based control cohort was used for comparison (n=45,449). Demographic and socioeconomic data were obtained from national registers and explored by discrete-time Cox regression analyses. Childhood cancer survivors had a reduced rate of cohabitation [rate ratio (RR) 0.78; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.73-0.83], owing to lower rates among survivors of both noncentral nervous system (CNS) tumors (RR 0.88; 95% CI: 0.83-0.95) and CNS tumors (RR 0.52; 95% CI: 0.45-0.59). Male CNS tumor survivors had a nonsignificantly lower rate (RR 0.47; 95% CI: 0.38-0.58) than females (RR 0.56; 95% CI: 0.47-0.68). The rates of separation were almost identical to those of controls. In conclusion, the rate of cohabitation was lower for all childhood cancer survivors than for the population-based controls, with the most pronounced reduction among survivors of CNS tumors. Mental deficits after cranial irradiation are likely to be the major risk factor.

  3. Hypothyroidism after Radiation Therapy for Childhood Cancer: A Report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inskip, Peter D; Veiga, Lene H S; Brenner, Alina V; Sigurdson, Alice J; Ostroumova, Evgenia; Chow, Eric J; Stovall, Marilyn; Smith, Susan A; Weathers, Rita E; Leisenring, Wendy; Robison, Leslie L; Armstrong, Gregory T; Sklar, Charles A; Lubin, Jay H

    2018-05-15

    more than 25 years after exposure. Our findings indicated that hypothyroidism was significantly associated with treatment with bleomycin (RR = 3.4; 95% CI: 1.6-7.3) and the alkylating agents cyclohexyl-chloroethyl-nitrosourea (CCNU) (RR = 3.0; 95% CI: 1.5-5.3) and cyclophosphamide (RR = 1.3; 95% CI: 1.0-1.8), with a significant dose response for CCNU ( P < 0.01). The risk of hypothyroidism among childhood cancer survivors treated with radiation depends both on direct, dose-dependent radiation-induced damage to the thyroid gland and on dose-dependent indirect effects secondary to irradiation of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. The dose-response relationship for each site depends on dose to the other. Radiation-related risk persists for more than 25 years after treatment. Treatment with certain chemotherapy agents may increase the risk of hypothyroidism.

  4. 75 FR 56455 - National Childhood Cancer Awareness Month, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ... Part V The President Proclamation 8556--National Childhood Cancer Awareness Month, 2010... Childhood Cancer Awareness Month, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Each... children. During National Childhood Cancer Awareness Month, we honor the young lives taken too soon and the...

  5. Risk of Salivary Gland Cancer After Childhood Cancer: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boukheris, Houda [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Stovall, Marilyn [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gilbert, Ethel S. [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States); Stratton, Kayla L. [Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington (United States); Smith, Susan A.; Weathers, Rita [Department of Radiation Physics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Hammond, Sue [Department of Pathology, Ohio State University School of Medicine, Columbus, Ohio (United States); Mertens, Ann C. [Department of Pediatrics, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia (United States); Donaldson, Sarah S. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University Medical Center, Stanford, California (United States); Armstrong, Gregory T.; Robison, Leslie L. [Department of Epidemiology and Cancer Control, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Neglia, Joseph P. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis, Minnesota (United States); Inskip, Peter D., E-mail: inskippe@mail.nih.gov [Radiation Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland (United States)

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate effects of radiation therapy, chemotherapy, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption on the risk of second primary salivary gland cancer (SGC) in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS). Methods and Materials: Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) and excess absolute risks (EAR) of SGC in the CCSS were calculated using incidence rates from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results population-based cancer registries. Radiation dose to the salivary glands was estimated based on medical records. Poisson regression was used to assess risks with respect to radiation dose, chemotherapy, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Results: During the time period of the study, 23 cases of SGC were diagnosed among 14,135 childhood cancer survivors. The mean age at diagnosis of the first primary cancer was 8.3 years, and the mean age at SGC diagnosis was 24.8 years. The incidence of SGC was 39-fold higher in the cohort than in the general population (SIR = 39.4; 95% CI = 25.4-57.8). The EAR was 9.8 per 100,000 person-years. Risk increased linearly with radiation dose (excess relative risk = 0.36/Gy; 95% CI = 0.06-2.5) and remained elevated after 20 years. There was no significant trend of increasing risk with increasing dose of chemotherapeutic agents, pack-years of cigarette smoking, or alcohol intake. Conclusion: Although the cumulative incidence of SGC was low, childhood cancer survivors treated with radiation experienced significantly increased risk for at least 2 decades after exposure, and risk was positively associated with radiation dose. Results underscore the importance of long-term follow up of childhood cancer survivors for the development of new malignancies.

  6. Risk of Salivary Gland Cancer After Childhood Cancer: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boukheris, Houda; Stovall, Marilyn; Gilbert, Ethel S.; Stratton, Kayla L.; Smith, Susan A.; Weathers, Rita; Hammond, Sue; Mertens, Ann C.; Donaldson, Sarah S.; Armstrong, Gregory T.; Robison, Leslie L.; Neglia, Joseph P.; Inskip, Peter D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate effects of radiation therapy, chemotherapy, cigarette smoking, and alcohol consumption on the risk of second primary salivary gland cancer (SGC) in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS). Methods and Materials: Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) and excess absolute risks (EAR) of SGC in the CCSS were calculated using incidence rates from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results population-based cancer registries. Radiation dose to the salivary glands was estimated based on medical records. Poisson regression was used to assess risks with respect to radiation dose, chemotherapy, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Results: During the time period of the study, 23 cases of SGC were diagnosed among 14,135 childhood cancer survivors. The mean age at diagnosis of the first primary cancer was 8.3 years, and the mean age at SGC diagnosis was 24.8 years. The incidence of SGC was 39-fold higher in the cohort than in the general population (SIR = 39.4; 95% CI = 25.4-57.8). The EAR was 9.8 per 100,000 person-years. Risk increased linearly with radiation dose (excess relative risk = 0.36/Gy; 95% CI = 0.06-2.5) and remained elevated after 20 years. There was no significant trend of increasing risk with increasing dose of chemotherapeutic agents, pack-years of cigarette smoking, or alcohol intake. Conclusion: Although the cumulative incidence of SGC was low, childhood cancer survivors treated with radiation experienced significantly increased risk for at least 2 decades after exposure, and risk was positively associated with radiation dose. Results underscore the importance of long-term follow up of childhood cancer survivors for the development of new malignancies

  7. Breast carcinoma after cancer therapy in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, F.P.; Corkery, J.; Vawter, G.; Fine, W.; Sallan, S.E.

    1983-01-01

    Among 910 survivors of childhood cancer, four developed infiltrating carcinoma of the breast and another had noninfiltrating breast tumor. Expected frequency was 0.3 cases of breast cancer in the series. The affected women developed breast carcinoma at ages 20, 25 and 38 years, and the men at ages 38 and 39 years, respectively. Each patient had received orthovoltage chest irradiation for treatment of Wilms' tumor or bone sarcoma between seven and 34 years previously, and estimated radiation dose to the breast exceeded 300 rad in each instance. Four patients also received diverse forms of chemotherapy. Survivors of childhood cancer have increased risk of developing breast cancer and should undergo periodic screening, particularly after breast tissue had been irradiated. Individualized radiotherapy planning can help exclude the breasts from treatment fields for some thoracic neoplasms

  8. Childhood cancer survivor cohorts in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winther, Jeanette F.; Kenborg, Line; Byrne, Julianne; Hjorth, Lars; Kaatsch, Peter; Kremer, Leontien C. M.; Kuehni, Claudia E.; Auquier, Pascal; Michel, Gérard; de Vathaire, Florent; Haupt, Riccardo; Skinner, Roderick; Madanat-Harjuoja, Laura M.; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Wesenberg, Finn; Reulen, Raoul C.; Grabow, Desiree; Ronckers, Cecile M.; van Dulmen-den Broeder, Eline; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M.; Schindler, Matthias; Berbis, Julie; Holmqvist, Anna S.; Gudmundsdottir, Thorgerdur; de Fine Licht, Sofie; Bonnesen, Trine G.; Asdahl, Peter H.; Bautz, Andrea; Kristoffersen, Anja K.; Himmerslev, Liselotte; Hasle, Henrik; Olsen, Jørgen H.; Hawkins, Mike M.

    2015-01-01

    With the advent of multimodality therapy, the overall five-year survival rate from childhood cancer has improved considerably now exceeding 80% in developed European countries. This growing cohort of survivors, with many years of life ahead of them, has raised the necessity for knowledge concerning

  9. Neurocognitive Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Robert W.; Haser, Jennifer K.

    2006-01-01

    We review research on the neuropsychological effects that central nervous system (CNS) cancer treatments have on the cognitive abilities of children and adolescents. The authors focus on the two most common malignancies of childhood: leukemias and brain tumors. The literature review is structured so as to separate out earlier studies, generally…

  10. Skin Cancer Surveillance Behaviors among Childhood Cancer Survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Stapleton, Jerod L.; Tatum, Kristina L.; Devine, Katie A.; Stephens, Sue; Masterson, Margaret; Baig, Amna; Hudson, Shawna V.; Coups, Elliot J.

    2015-01-01

    The risk of developing skin cancer is elevated among childhood cancer survivors (CCS), particularly among those treated with radiation. This survey study examined the skin cancer surveillance behaviors of 94 CCS. Approximately 48% of CCS had ever conducted skin self-examination and 31% had ever received a physician skin examination. Rates of physician skin examination were 2.5 times higher among CCS treated with radiation compared to those without radiation. However, rates of skin self-examin...

  11. Offspring of patients treated for cancer in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, F.P.; Fine, W.; Jaffe, N.; Holmes, G.E.; Holmes, F.F.

    1979-01-01

    Genetic effects of cancer in childhood were examined among offspring of patients enrolled in the tumor registries of the Sidney Farber Cancer Institute and the Kansas University Medical Center. For 146 patients, 84 women and 62 men, 293 pregnancies were reported after cessation of treatment of diverse neoplasms. The outcomes of 286 completed pregnancies were as follows: 242 live births (1 set of twins), 1 stillbirth, 25 spontaneous abortions, and 19 therapeutic abortions. Seven live-born infants died during the first 2 years of life, a frequency in accord with expectation. Two offspring have developed cancer. One girl and her father had bilateral hereditary retinoblastoma. A second girl developed acute myelocytic leukemia; her mother had received radiotherapy during childhood for a brain tumor. Compared with their cousins and with published figures for the general population, the study progeny had no excess of congenital anomalles or other diseases. Chromosome and immunoglobulin studies of a few offspring did not reveal damage from preconception exposure to cancer chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Findings indicated that large collaborative studies are needed to monitor the offspring of childhood cancer survivors for inherited traits associated with the parental tumors and for mutagenic effects of therapy, particularly intense multimodality treatments

  12. Good News About Childhood Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... includes: gene therapy, bone marrow transplant, chemotherapy, the biochemistry of normal and cancerous cells, radiation treatment, blood ... drugs that can be evaluated in clinical trials Projects designed to improve the health status of survivors ...

  13. International Childhood Cancer Cohort Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    An alliance of several large-scale prospective cohort studies of children to pool data and biospecimens from individual cohorts to study various modifiable and genetic factors in relation to cancer risk

  14. Thyroid Adenomas After Solid Cancer in Childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddy, Nadia; El-Fayech, Chiraz; Guibout, Catherine; Adjadj, Elisabeth [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France); Thomas-Teinturier, Cecile [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Hopital Bicetre, Bicetre (France); Oberlin, Odile [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Veres, Cristina [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France); Pacquement, Helene [Institut Curie, Paris (France); Jackson, Angela [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France); Munzer, Martine; N' Guyen, Tan Dat [Institut Jean Godinot, Reims (France); Bondiau, Pierre-Yves [Centre Antoine Lacassagne, Nice (France); Berchery, Delphine; Laprie, Anne [Centre Claudius Regaud, Toulouse (France); Bridier, Andre; Lefkopoulos, Dimitri [Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Schlumberger, Martin [Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France); Rubino, Carole; Diallo, Ibrahima [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France); Vathaire, Florent de, E-mail: florent.devathaire@igr.fr [Radiation Epidemiology Group, INSERM, Villejuif (France); Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France)

    2012-10-01

    Purpose: Very few childhood cancer survivor studies have been devoted to thyroid adenomas. We assessed the role of chemotherapy and the radiation dose to the thyroid in the risk of thyroid adenoma after childhood cancer. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 3254 2-year survivors of a solid childhood cancer treated in 5 French centers before 1986 was established. The dose received by the isthmus and the 2 lobes of the thyroid gland during each course of radiation therapy was estimated after reconstruction of the actual radiation therapy conditions in which each child was treated as well as the dose received at other anatomical sites of interest. Results: After a median follow-up of 25 years, 71 patients had developed a thyroid adenoma. The risk strongly increased with the radiation dose to the thyroid up to a few Gray, plateaued, and declined for high doses. Chemotherapy slightly increased the risk when administered alone but also lowered the slope of the dose-response curve for the radiation dose to the thyroid. Overall, for doses up to a few Gray, the excess relative risk of thyroid adenoma per Gray was 2.8 (90% CI: 1.2-6.9), but it was 5.5 (90% CI: 1.9-25.9) in patients who had not received chemotherapy or who had received only 1 drug, and 1.1 (90% CI: 0.4-3.4) in the children who had received more than 1 drug (P=.06, for the difference). The excess relative risk per Gray was also higher for younger children at the time of radiation therapy than for their older counterparts and was higher before attaining 40 years of age than subsequently. Conclusions: The overall pattern of thyroid adenoma after radiation therapy for a childhood cancer appears to be similar to that observed for thyroid carcinoma.

  15. Thyroid Adenomas After Solid Cancer in Childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddy, Nadia; El-Fayech, Chiraz; Guibout, Catherine; Adjadj, Elisabeth; Thomas-Teinturier, Cécile; Oberlin, Odile; Veres, Cristina; Pacquement, Hélène; Jackson, Angela; Munzer, Martine; N'Guyen, Tan Dat; Bondiau, Pierre-Yves; Berchery, Delphine; Laprie, Anne; Bridier, André; Lefkopoulos, Dimitri; Schlumberger, Martin; Rubino, Carole; Diallo, Ibrahima; Vathaire, Florent de

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Very few childhood cancer survivor studies have been devoted to thyroid adenomas. We assessed the role of chemotherapy and the radiation dose to the thyroid in the risk of thyroid adenoma after childhood cancer. Methods and Materials: A cohort of 3254 2-year survivors of a solid childhood cancer treated in 5 French centers before 1986 was established. The dose received by the isthmus and the 2 lobes of the thyroid gland during each course of radiation therapy was estimated after reconstruction of the actual radiation therapy conditions in which each child was treated as well as the dose received at other anatomical sites of interest. Results: After a median follow-up of 25 years, 71 patients had developed a thyroid adenoma. The risk strongly increased with the radiation dose to the thyroid up to a few Gray, plateaued, and declined for high doses. Chemotherapy slightly increased the risk when administered alone but also lowered the slope of the dose-response curve for the radiation dose to the thyroid. Overall, for doses up to a few Gray, the excess relative risk of thyroid adenoma per Gray was 2.8 (90% CI: 1.2-6.9), but it was 5.5 (90% CI: 1.9-25.9) in patients who had not received chemotherapy or who had received only 1 drug, and 1.1 (90% CI: 0.4-3.4) in the children who had received more than 1 drug (P=.06, for the difference). The excess relative risk per Gray was also higher for younger children at the time of radiation therapy than for their older counterparts and was higher before attaining 40 years of age than subsequently. Conclusions: The overall pattern of thyroid adenoma after radiation therapy for a childhood cancer appears to be similar to that observed for thyroid carcinoma.

  16. Individual Prediction of Heart Failure Among Childhood Cancer Survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chow, Eric J.; Chen, Yan; Kremer, Leontien C.; Breslow, Norman E.; Hudson, Melissa M.; Armstrong, Gregory T.; Border, William L.; Feijen, Elizabeth A. M.; Green, Daniel M.; Meacham, Lillian R.; Meeske, Kathleen A.; Mulrooney, Daniel A.; Ness, Kirsten K.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Sklar, Charles A.; Stovall, Marilyn; van der Pal, Helena J.; Weathers, Rita E.; Robison, Leslie L.; Yasui, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To create clinically useful models that incorporate readily available demographic and cancer treatment characteristics to predict individual risk of heart failure among 5-year survivors of childhood cancer. Patients and Methods Survivors in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) free of

  17. 78 FR 54737 - National Childhood Cancer Awareness Month, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ... National Childhood Cancer Awareness Month, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Every September, America renews our commitment to curing childhood cancer and offers our support... cancer each year, and it remains the leading cause of death by disease for American children under 15...

  18. 77 FR 55091 - National Childhood Cancer Awareness Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... National Childhood Cancer Awareness Month, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Every year, thousands of children across America are diagnosed with cancer--an often life... September 2012 as National Childhood Cancer Awareness Month. I encourage all Americans to join me in...

  19. Ovarian and Uterine Functions in Female Survivors of Childhood Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktem, Ozgur; Kim, Samuel S; Selek, Ugur; Schatmann, Glenn; Urman, Bulent

    2018-02-01

    Adult survivors of childhood cancers are more prone to developing poor reproductive and obstetrical outcomes than their siblings and the general population as a result of previous exposure to chemotherapy and radiation during childhood. Chemotherapy drugs exert cytotoxic effects systemically and therefore can damage the ovaries, leading to infertility, premature ovarian failure, and, to a lesser extent, spontaneous abortions. They have very limited or no deleterious effects on the uterus that can be recognized clinically. By contrast, radiation is detrimental to both the ovaries and the uterus, thereby causing a greater magnitude of adverse effects on the female reproductive function. These include infertility, premature ovarian failure, miscarriage, fetal growth restrictions, perinatal deaths, preterm births, delivery of small-for-gestational-age infants, preeclampsia, and abnormal placentation. Regrettably, the majority of these adverse outcomes arise from radiation-induced uterine injury and are reported at higher incidence in the adult survivors of childhood cancers who were exposed to uterine radiation during childhood in the form of pelvic, spinal, or total-body irradiation. Recent findings of long-term follow-up studies evaluating reproductive performance of female survivors provided some reassurance to female cancer survivors by documenting that pregnancy and live birth rates were not significantly compromised in survivors, including those who had been treated with alkylating agents and had not received pelvic, cranial, and total-body irradiation. We aimed in this narrative review article to provide an update on the impact of chemotherapy and radiation on the ovarian and uterine function in female survivors of childhood cancer. Adult survivors of childhood cancers are more prone to developing a number of poor reproductive and obstetrical outcomes than their siblings and the general population as a result of previous exposure to chemotherapy and radiation

  20. CT findings of nasopharyngeal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kie Hwan; Byun, Hong Sik; Chin, Soo Yil

    1987-01-01

    CT findings in 64 patients of nasopharyngeal cancer are analyzed retrospectively to evaluate the region of origin and the route of spread. The results are as follows: 1. The most frequently involved wall is lateral well (90%), followed by posterior wall (78%) and superior wall (58%). 2. There are invasion to parapharyngeal space (86%), retropharyngeal and prevertebral space (72%), carotid space (46%), and masticator space (18%) in that order. 3. Involved anatomic sites are Rosenmueller fossa (90%), torus tubarius (78%), E-tube orifice (68%), carotid sheath (46%), soft palate (50%), nasal cavity (36%), skull base (28%), prevertebral muscle (26%) and intracranial fossa (16%). 4. Direct extension to intracranial fossa is via sphenoid sinus (6/8), foramen lacerum (5/8), foramen ovale (4/8), and jugular foramen (4/8) in that order. 5. Invasion to prevertebral space leads to intraspinal extension (3/13). 6. Cervical lymph node metastasis of found in internal jugular (82%),spinal accessory (56%) and retropharyngeal chain (42%) in that order. 7. After radiation therapy, most frequent site of recurrence is posterior wall (10/14) followed by lateral wall (9/14), superior wall (5/14) and cervical lymph node (6/14), but the presence of recurrence is difficult to determine based on CT only

  1. Drug Interactions in Childhood Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidar, Cyrine; Jeha, Sima

    2016-01-01

    Children with cancer are increasingly benefiting from novel therapeutic strategies and advances in supportive care, as reflected in improvements in both their survival and quality of life. However, the continuous emergence of new oncology drugs and supportive care agents has also increased the possibility of deleterious drug interactions and healthcare providers need to practice extreme caution when combining medications. In this review, we discuss the most common interactions of chemotherapeutic agents with supportive care drugs such as anticonvulsants, antiemetics, uric acid–lowering agents, acid suppressants, antimicrobials, and pain management medications in pediatric oncology patients. As chemotherapy agents interact not only with medications but also with foods and herbal supplements that patients receive during the course of their treatment, we also briefly review such interactions and provide recommendations to avoid unwanted and potentially fatal interactions in children with cancer. PMID:20869315

  2. Background radiation and childhood cancer mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakka, Masatoshi

    1979-01-01

    Oxford Survey of Childhood Cancer estimated an ''extra'' cancer risk of 572 per million man-rad of juvenile cancer deaths under 10 years of age. In Hiroshima and Nagasaki 36.9 juvenile cancers were expected out of 64,490 man-rad of exposed mothers. Observed cancer was, however, only one. The discrepancy was explained partly by possible overlapping of confidence intervals of two samples and partly by excessive doses received by exposed fetuses in Japan. If A-bomb radiation sterilized preleukemic cells induced in fetuses, it must also killed those cells in irradiated adults. Leukemogenic efficiency in adults, about 2.10 -5 per rad, is not different either in A-bomb survivors or in irradiated patients. We examined a dose-effect relationship in childhood cancer mortality (0 - 4 yrs) in Miyagi Prefecture Japan. Ninety two cancers were detected out of 1,214,157 children from 1968 to 1975. They were allocated to 8 districts with different background levels. Population at risk was calculated every year for every district. About 4 deaths occurred every 10,000 man-rad, which is comparable with 572 per million man-rad in Oxford Survey. One out of one thousand infants died from severe malformation in every year when they received 9.8 rad in embryonic stage, the doubling dose is estimated as 20 rad. Clinical and biological significance of the statistical data must be examined in future. Fetal death decreased significantly from 110/1,000 in 1962 to 55/1,000 in 1975. Background radiation plays no role in fetal death in Miyagi Prefecture. (author)

  3. Find an NCI-Designated Cancer Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find the locations of NCI-designated cancer centers by area, region, state, or name that includes contact information to help health care providers and cancer patients with referrals to clinical trials.

  4. Childhood body mass index and risk of adult pancreatic cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogueira, Leticia; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Gamborg, Michael

    2017-01-01

    incident pancreatic cancer cases from 1968-2012. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazard regressions. Results: During 8,207,015 person-years of follow-up, 1,268 pancreatic cancer cases were diagnosed. Childhood BMI z-scores at ages 7-13 years were......Background: Excess weight in adulthood is one of the few modifiable risk factors for pancreatic cancer, and height has associations as well. This leads to question whether body weight and height in childhood are associated with adult pancreatic cancer. Objective: To examine if childhood body mass...... from 7-13 years is positively and linearly associated with adult pancreatic cancer; the higher the BMI, the higher the risk. Excess childhood BMI may be indicative of processes initiated early in life that lead to this cancer. Prevention of childhood adiposity may decrease the burden of pancreatic...

  5. Childhood height, adult height, and the risk of prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Lise Geisler; Aarestrup, Julie; Gamborg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: We previously showed that childhood height is positively associated with prostate cancer risk. It is, however, unknown whether childhood height exerts its effects independently of or through adult height. We investigated whether and to what extent childhood height has a direct effect...... on the risk of prostate cancer apart from adult height. METHODS: We included 5,871 men with height measured at ages 7 and 13 years in the Copenhagen School Health Records Register who also had adult (50-65 years) height measured in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health study. Prostate cancer status was obtained...... through linkage to the Danish Cancer Registry. Direct and total effects of childhood height on prostate cancer risk were estimated from Cox regressions. RESULTS: From 1996 to 2012, 429 prostate cancers occurred. Child and adult heights were positively and significantly associated with prostate cancer risk...

  6. Aspects of mental health dysfunction among survivors of childhood cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Miranda M; Ziff, Oliver J; Wang, Sarra; Cave, Joshua; Janardhanan, Pradeep; Winter, David L; Kelly, Julie; Mehta, Susan; Jenkinson, Helen; Frobisher, Clare; Reulen, Raoul C; Hawkins, Michael M

    2015-09-29

    Some previous studies have reported that survivors of childhood cancer are at an increased risk of developing long-term mental health morbidity, whilst others have reported that this is not the case. Therefore, we analysed 5-year survivors of childhood cancer using the British Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (BCCSS) to determine the risks of aspects of long-term mental health dysfunction. Within the BCCSS, 10 488 survivors completed a questionnaire that ascertained mental health-related information via 10 questions from the Short Form-36 survey. Internal analyses were conducted using multivariable logistic regression to determine risk factors for mental health dysfunction. External analyses were undertaken using direct standardisation to compare mental health dysfunction in survivors with UK norms. This study has shown that overall, childhood cancer survivors had a significantly higher prevalence of mental health dysfunction for 6/10 questions analysed compared to UK norms. Central nervous system (CNS) and bone sarcoma survivors reported the greatest dysfunction, compared to expected, with significant excess dysfunction in 10 and 6 questions, respectively; the excess ranged from 4.4-22.3% in CNS survivors and 6.9-15.9% in bone sarcoma survivors. Compared to expected, excess mental health dysfunction increased with attained age; this increase was greatest for reporting 'limitations in social activities due to health', where the excess rose from 4.5% to 12.8% in those aged 16-24 and 45+, respectively. Within the internal analyses, higher levels of educational attainment and socio-economic classification were protective against mental health dysfunction. Based upon the findings of this large population-based study, childhood cancer survivors report significantly higher levels of mental health dysfunction than those in the general population, where deficits were observed particularly among CNS and bone sarcoma survivors. Limitations were also observed to increase

  7. Reduced male fertility in childhood cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Hee Lee

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available With advances in cancer treatment, more pediatric cancer patients have increased their life expectancy. Because cancer-related therapy causes various physical and psychological problems, many male survivors experience later problems with thyroid and sexual functions, and with growth. As outcomes have improved, more survivors need to maintain their reproductive function to maximize their long-term quality of life. Cancer and cancer-related treatment can impair fertility by damage to the testes, to the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, or to the genitourinary organs. Prior radiation therapy to the testes, the use of alkylating agents, and central hypogonadism further impair fertility in male survivors of childhood cancer. Following any course of chemotherapy, peripubertal maturation, any testicular volume changes, and symptoms of androgen deficiency should be monitored systematically. If patients request fertility testing, spermatogenesis status can be evaluated either directly by semen analysis or indirectly by determination of the levels of testosterone/gonadotropins and by monitoring any changes in testicular volume. According to the patient's condition, semen cryopreservation, hormonal therapy, or assisted reproduction technologies should be provided.

  8. Posttraumatic stress symptoms in adult survivors of childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langeveld, N. E.; Grootenhuis, M. A.; Voûte, P. A.; de Haan, R. J.

    2004-01-01

    Background. Previous research suggests that posttraurnatic stress disorder (PTSD) is present in survivors of childhood cancer. The aim of the current study was to explore posttraurnatic stress symptoms in a sample of young adult survivors of childhood cancer. In addition, the impact of demographic,

  9. Childhood Liver Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood liver cancer has two major histologic subgroups: hepatoblastoma and hepatocellular carcinoma. Less common histologies are undifferentiated embryonal sarcoma of the liver, infantile choriocarcinoma, and vascular liver tumors. Get detailed information about newly diagnosed and recurrent childhood liver cancers including tumor biology, presentation, prognosis, staging, and treatment in this summary for clinicians.

  10. No excess fatigue in young adult survivors of childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langeveld, N. E.; Grootenhuis, M. A.; Voûte, P. A.; de Haan, R. J.; van den Bos, C.

    2003-01-01

    Clinical reports suggest that many survivors of childhood cancer experience fatigue as a long-term effect of their treatment. To investigate this issue further, we assessed the level of fatigue in young adult survivors of childhood cancer. We compared the results with a group of young adults with no

  11. Childhood height increases the risk of prostate cancer mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, J; Gamborg, M; Cook, M B

    2015-01-01

    cancers. Cox proportional hazards regressions were performed. RESULTS: 630 men had prostate cancer recorded as the underlying cause of death. Childhood height at age 13years was positively associated with prostate cancer-specific mortality (hazard ratio [HR]per z-score=1.2, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-1.3......). Associations were significant at all other childhood ages. Growth analyses showed that height at age 13years had a stronger association with prostate cancer-specific mortality than height at age 7, suggesting the association at age 7 is largely mediated through later childhood height. The tallest boys at age...... 13years had a significantly worse survival, but only when restricted to a diagnosis at years of age (HRz-score of 1=1.7, 95% CI: 1.3-2.4). These associations were significant at all other childhood ages. Childhood BMI was not associated with prostate cancer mortality or survival. CONCLUSION...

  12. Childhood predictors of adult adiposity: findings from a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Geraldine Fh; Fergusson, David M; Horwood, L John; Boden, Joseph M; Carter, Frances A

    2018-03-23

    The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity has become a key challenge for New Zealand. The purpose of the present study was to examine childhood risk factors for adult adiposity in a longitudinal birth cohort. Data were gathered from the Christchurch Health and Development Study (CHDS), a birth cohort of 1,265 children born in Christchurch in 1977. Associations were examined between socio-demographic background, perinatal factors, infant and child characteristics, family functioning/child maltreatment and adiposity at ages 30 and 35 years. Adiposity was assessed using body mass index scores. At ages 30 and 35, approximately one-third of cohort members were overweight and one-fifth were obese. Generalised estimating equation models showed that statistically significant (p<.05) predictors of later adiposity and overweight/obesity were: male gender, being born into a single-parent family, having parents with larger body size, higher early infant growth, limited or no breastfeeding, lower levels of cognitive ability and exposure to severe sexual abuse. Overweight and obesity was associated with social and family background, biological endowment, cognitive ability and childhood adversity factors. These findings may assist in the development of structured adiposity intervention programmes in conjunction with established community organisations specialising in child and family health.

  13. PMS2 mutations in childhood cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vos, Michel; Hayward, Bruce E; Charlton, Ruth; Taylor, Graham R; Glaser, Adam W; Picton, Susan; Cole, Trevor R; Maher, Eamonn R; McKeown, Carole M E; Mann, Jill R; Yates, John R; Baralle, Diana; Rankin, Julia; Bonthron, David T; Sheridan, Eamonn

    2006-03-01

    Until recently, the PMS2 DNA mismatch repair gene has only rarely been implicated as a cancer susceptibility locus. New studies have shown, however, that earlier analyses of this gene have had technical limitations and also that the genetic behavior of mutant PMS2 alleles is unusual, in that, unlike MLH1 or MSH2 mutations, PMS2 mutations show low heterozygote penetrance. As a result, a dominantly inherited cancer predisposition has not been a feature reported in families with PMS2 mutations. Such families have instead been ascertained through childhood-onset cancers in homozygotes or through apparently sporadic colorectal cancer in heterozygotes. We present further information on the phenotype associated with homozygous PMS2 deficiency in 13 patients from six families of Pakistani origin living in the United Kingdom. This syndrome is characterized by café-au-lait skin pigmentation and a characteristic tumor spectrum, including leukemias, lymphomas, cerebral malignancies (such as supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors, astrocytomas, and glioblastomas), and colorectal neoplasia with an onset in early adult life. We present evidence for a founder effect in five families, all of which carried the same R802-->X mutation (i.e., arginine-802 to stop) in PMS2. This cancer syndrome can be mistaken for neurofibromatosis type 1, with important management implications including the risk of the disorder occurring in siblings and the likelihood of tumor development in affected individuals.

  14. Imaging in early phase childhood cancer trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamson, Peter C.

    2009-01-01

    Advances made in the treatment of childhood malignancies during the last four decades have resulted in overall cure rates of approximately 80%, but progress has slowed significantly during the last 10 years, underscoring the need for more effective and less toxic agents. Current research is focused on development of molecularly targeted agents, an era ushered in with the discovery of imatinib mesylate for the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia. Since imatinib's introduction into the clinic, an increasing number of tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been developed and entered into clinical trials and practice. Parallel to the initial advances made in molecularly targeted agents has been the development of a spectrum of novel imaging modalities. Future goals for imaging in childhood cancer research thus include (1) patient identification based on target identification or other biologic characteristics of the tumor, (2) assessing pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) effects, and (3) predictive value with an early indication of patient benefit. Development and application of novel imaging modalities for children with cancer can serve to streamline development of molecularly targeted agents. (orig.)

  15. Radiation-induced thyroid cancer after radiotherapy for childhood cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiravova, M. [Department of Nuclear Medicine and Endocrinology, Faculty Hospital Motol, Uk, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2012-07-01

    Full text of the publication follows: The thyroid gland in children is among the most sensitive organs to the carcinogenic effects of ionizing radiation, and very young children are at especially high risk. Due to extreme sensitivity of the thyroid gland in children, there is a risk of radiation - induced thyroid cancer even when the thyroid gland is outside the irradiated field. Increased incidence of thyroid cancer has been noted following radiotherapy not only for childhood Hodgkin disease (majority of observed patients), but also for non-Hodgkin lymphoma, neuroblastoma, Wilms tumor, acute lymphocytic leukemia and tumors of the central nervous system also. Radiation-induced tumors begin to appear 5-10 years after irradiation and excess risk persists for decades, perhaps for the remainder of life. The incidence of thyroid cancer is two- to threefold higher among females than males. Most of the thyroid cancers that occur in association with irradiation are of the papillary type, for which the cure rate is high if tumors are detected early. Our Department in co-operation with Department of Children Hematology and Oncology Charles University Second Faculty of Medicine and Faculty Hospital Motol monitors patients after therapy for cancer in childhood for the long term period. The monitoring is focused on detection of thyroid disorders that occur as last consequences of oncology therapy, especially early detection of nodular changes in thyroid gland and thyroid carcinogenesis. The survey presents two patients observed in our department that were diagnosed with the papillary thyroid carcinoma which occurred 15 and more years after radiotherapy for childhood cancer. After total thyroidectomy they underwent therapy with radioiodine. After radiotherapy it is necessary to pursue a long-term following and assure interdisciplinary co-operation which enables early detection of last consequences of radiotherapy, especially the most serious ones as secondary carcinogenesis

  16. Nutritional interventions for survivors of childhood cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jennifer E; Wakefield, Claire E; Cohn, Richard J

    2016-08-22

    Childhood cancer survivors are at a higher risk of developing health conditions such as osteoporosis, and cardiovascular disease than their peers. Health-promoting behaviour, such as consuming a healthy diet, could lessen the impact of these chronic issues, yet the prevalence rate of health-protecting behaviour amongst survivors of childhood cancer is similar to that of the general population. Targeted nutritional interventions may prevent or reduce the incidence of these chronic diseases. The primary aim of this review was to assess the efficacy of a range of nutritional interventions designed to improve the nutritional intake of childhood cancer survivors, as compared to a control group of childhood cancer survivors who did not receive the intervention. Secondary objectives were to assess metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors, measures of weight and body fat distribution, behavioural change, changes in knowledge regarding disease risk and nutritional intake, participants' views of the intervention, measures of health status and quality of life, measures of harm associated with the process or outcomes of the intervention, and cost-effectiveness of the intervention We searched the electronic databases of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2013, Issue 3), MEDLINE/PubMed (from 1945 to April 2013), and Embase/Ovid (from 1980 to April 2013). We ran the search again in August 2015; we have not yet fully assessed these results, but we have identified one ongoing trial. We conducted additional searching of ongoing trial registers - the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number register and the National Institutes of Health register (both screened in the first half of 2013) - reference lists of relevant articles and reviews, and conference proceedings of the International Society for Paediatric Oncology and the International Conference on Long-Term Complications of Treatment of Children and Adolescents for Cancer (both 2008 to

  17. Exploration of life experiences of positive growth in long-term childhood cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoonjung

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to explore experiences of positive growth in long-term childhood cancer survivors, from their perspective. Fifteen long-term survivors of childhood cancer provided descriptions of their experiences. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews and the analysis was based on Giorgi's phenomenological research method. The analysis of positive growth experienced by long-term childhood cancer survivors revealed three themes: self-directed life, normalcy in life, and inner maturity. Long-term survivors defined positive growth as a successful transition to a self-satisfactory life based on motivation acquired through their cancer experience and on subjective goal-setting, as well as becoming cancer-free and living a normal life within society. They seemed to have acquired optimistic, flexible, active attitudes toward life while demonstrating profound gratefulness and consideration of people around them, as well as prudent approaches to health. The findings of this study verified that long-term survivors of childhood cancer have grown positively due to their negative past experience. We expect these findings to contribute to the development of programs that promote positive growth in long-term childhood cancer survivors. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Body composition in remission of childhood cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tseytlin, G Ja; Konovalova, M V; Vashura, A Yu; Anisimova, A V; Godina, E Z; Khomyakova, I A; Nikolaev, D V; Starunova, O A; Rudnev, S G

    2012-01-01

    Here, we describe the results of a cross-sectional bioimpedance study of body composition in 552 Russian children and adolescents aged 7-17 years in remission of various types of cancer (remission time 0-15 years, median 4 years). A sample of 1500 apparently healthy individuals of the same age interval was used for comparison. Our data show high frequency of malnutrition in total cancer patients group depending on type of cancer. 52.7% of patients were malnourished according to phase angle and percentage fat mass z-score with the range between 42.2% in children with solid tumors located outside CNS and 76.8% in children with CNS tumors. The body mass index failed to identify the proportion of patients with malnutrition and showed diagnostic sensitivity 50.6% for obesity on the basis of high percentage body fat and even much less so for undernutrition – 13.4% as judged by low phase angle. Our results suggest an advantage of using phase angle as the most sensitive bioimpedance indicator for the assessment of metabolic alterations, associated risks, and the effectiveness of rehabilitation strategies in childhood cancer patients.

  19. Cholelithiasis after treatment for childhood cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoud, H.; Schell, M.; Pui, C.H. (St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (USA))

    1991-03-01

    The authors evaluated the risk of development of cholelithiasis in 6050 patients treated at a single hospital for various childhood cancers with different therapeutic modalities, including chemotherapy, surgery, radiation therapy, and bone marrow transplantation, from 1963 to 1989. Patients with underlying chronic hemolytic anemia or preexisting gallstones were excluded. Nine female and seven male patients with a median age of 12.4 years (range, 1.2 to 22.8 years) at diagnosis of primary cancer had gallstones develop 3 months to 17.3 years (median, 3.1 years) after therapy was initiated. Cumulative risks of 0.42% at 10 years and 1.03% at 18 years after diagnosis substantially exceed those reported for the general population of this age group. Treatment-related factors significantly associated with an increased risk of cholelithiasis were ileal conduit, parenteral nutrition, abdominal surgery, and abdominal radiation therapy (relative risks and 95% confidence intervals = 61.6 (27.9-135.9), 23.0 (9.8-54.1), 15.1 (7.1-32.2), and 7.4 (3.2-17.0), respectively). There was no correlation with the type of cancer, nor was the frequency of conventional predisposing features (e.g., family history, obesity, use of oral contraceptives, and pregnancy) any higher among the affected patients in this study than in the general population. Patients with cancer who have risk factors identified here should be monitored for the development of gallstones.

  20. Cholelithiasis after treatment for childhood cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, H.; Schell, M.; Pui, C.H.

    1991-01-01

    The authors evaluated the risk of development of cholelithiasis in 6050 patients treated at a single hospital for various childhood cancers with different therapeutic modalities, including chemotherapy, surgery, radiation therapy, and bone marrow transplantation, from 1963 to 1989. Patients with underlying chronic hemolytic anemia or preexisting gallstones were excluded. Nine female and seven male patients with a median age of 12.4 years (range, 1.2 to 22.8 years) at diagnosis of primary cancer had gallstones develop 3 months to 17.3 years (median, 3.1 years) after therapy was initiated. Cumulative risks of 0.42% at 10 years and 1.03% at 18 years after diagnosis substantially exceed those reported for the general population of this age group. Treatment-related factors significantly associated with an increased risk of cholelithiasis were ileal conduit, parenteral nutrition, abdominal surgery, and abdominal radiation therapy (relative risks and 95% confidence intervals = 61.6 [27.9-135.9], 23.0 [9.8-54.1], 15.1 [7.1-32.2], and 7.4 [3.2-17.0], respectively). There was no correlation with the type of cancer, nor was the frequency of conventional predisposing features (e.g., family history, obesity, use of oral contraceptives, and pregnancy) any higher among the affected patients in this study than in the general population. Patients with cancer who have risk factors identified here should be monitored for the development of gallstones

  1. Body composition in remission of childhood cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseytlin, G. Ja; Anisimova, A. V.; Godina, E. Z.; Khomyakova, I. A.; Konovalova, M. V.; Nikolaev, D. V.; Rudnev, S. G.; Starunova, O. A.; Vashura, A. Yu

    2012-12-01

    Here, we describe the results of a cross-sectional bioimpedance study of body composition in 552 Russian children and adolescents aged 7-17 years in remission of various types of cancer (remission time 0-15 years, median 4 years). A sample of 1500 apparently healthy individuals of the same age interval was used for comparison. Our data show high frequency of malnutrition in total cancer patients group depending on type of cancer. 52.7% of patients were malnourished according to phase angle and percentage fat mass z-score with the range between 42.2% in children with solid tumors located outside CNS and 76.8% in children with CNS tumors. The body mass index failed to identify the proportion of patients with malnutrition and showed diagnostic sensitivity 50.6% for obesity on the basis of high percentage body fat and even much less so for undernutrition - 13.4% as judged by low phase angle. Our results suggest an advantage of using phase angle as the most sensitive bioimpedance indicator for the assessment of metabolic alterations, associated risks, and the effectiveness of rehabilitation strategies in childhood cancer patients.

  2. Editorial: Childhood Cancer in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkin, Donald Maxwell; Stefan, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Measurement of incidence rates of childhood cancer in Africa is difficult. The study 'Cancer of Childhood in sub Saharan Africa' [Stefan C, Bray F, Ferlay J, Parkin DM and Liu B (2017) Cancer of Childhood in sub-Saharan Africa ecancer 11 (755)] brings together results from 16 population-based registries which, as members of the African Cancer Registry Network (AFCRN), have been evaluated as achieving adequate coverage of their target population. The cancers are classified according to the third revision of the International Classification of Childhood Cancer (ICCC-3) and recorded rates in Africa are compared with those in childhood populations in the UK, France, and the USA. It is clear that, in many centres, lack of adequate diagnostic and treatment facilities, leads to under-diagnosis (and enumeration) of leukaemias and brain cancers. However, for several childhood cancers, incidence rates in Africa are higher than those in high income countries. This applies to infection-related cancers such as Kaposi sarcoma, Burkitt lymphoma, Hodgkin lymphoma and hepatocellular carcinoma, and also to two common embryonal cancers-retinoblastoma and nephroblastoma. These (and other) observations are unlikely to be artefact, and are of considerable interest when considering possible aetiological factors, including ethnic differences in risk (and hence genetic/familial antecedents). The data reported are the most extensive so far available on the incidence of cancer in sub Saharan Africa, and clearly indicate the need for more resources to be devoted to cancer registration, especially in the childhood age range, as part of an overall programme to improve the availability of diagnosis and treatment of this group of cancers, many of which have-potentially-an excellent prognosis.

  3. Overview of childhood cancers at a regional cancer centre in North-East India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Munlima; Krishnatreya, Manigreeva; Bhuyan, Cidananda; Saikia, Bhargab Jyoti; Kataki, Amal Chandra; Nandy, Pintu; Hazarika, Monalisha; Roy, Partha Sarathi

    2014-01-01

    Childhood cancers are relatively uncommon in comparison to adult cancers. There is no literature available to shed light on clinic-pathological types and patterns of care for childhood cancers in our population in North-East India. In this analysis we therefore tried to determine the common childhood cancers diagnosed in our institute, clinical profile of the patients, types of treatment and compliance, and median survival estimates. Leukemia was most common, followed by retinoblastoma, central nervous system tumours and lymphomas. Ascertaining the clinic-pathological profile of childhood cancers in our population is essential for allocation and management of resources for this small but important group of patients.

  4. The Oxford survey of childhood cancers. A description of the largest and longest continuing national study of childhood cancers in Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilman, E.A.; Kneale, G.W.; Knox, E.G.; Stewart, A.M.

    1989-06-01

    The OSCC was initiated by Alice Stewart and David Hewitt of the University of Oxford to investigate the annual peak of leukaemia mortality in the 3rd and 4th years of life which had been noted by the latter (Hewitt, 1955). Of particular interest was the possibility that this was the result of an antenatal event related to medical innovations of the time, e.g. radiology and antibiotics. Since its inception the OSCC has produced over 200 publications relating to aetiology of childhood cancer. Some of the more important findings include the identification of factors which exert an independent effect on childhood cancer risk. First born children are at greatest risk of childhood cancer, particularly leukaemia, than children of higher birth rank. Children whose parents are in social class I have the highest risk of childhood cancers of all social classes (Kneale and Steward, 1976). Children with Down's Syndrome have a risk of developing leukaemia which is about 20 times that of normal children (Stewart et al, 1958). A major finding of the OSCC was that children who have been irradiated in utero by abdominal x-ray examination of their mother during pregnancy have a significantly increased risk of developing cancer

  5. Assessment of Fundamental Movement Skills in Childhood Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, Fiona L; Hunt, Mitchell; Hunt, Mitchel; Ali, Dulfikar; Wakefield, Claire E; Moultrie, Kevin; Cohn, Richard J

    2015-12-01

    The improved treatment protocols and subsequent improved survival rates among childhood cancer patients have shifted the focus toward the long-term consequences arising from cancer treatment. Children who have completed cancer treatment are at a greater risk of delayed development, diminished functioning, disability, compromised fundamental movement skill (FMS) attainment, and long-term chronic health conditions. The aim of the study was to compare FMS of childhood cancer patients with an aged matched healthy reference group. Pediatric cancer patients aged 5-8 years (n = 26; median age 6.91 years), who completed cancer treatment (<5 years) at the Sydney Children's Hospital, were assessed performing seven key FMS: sprint, side gallop, vertical jump, catch, over-arm throw, kick, and leap. Results were compared to the reference group (n = 430; 6.56 years). Childhood cancer patients scored significantly lower on three out of seven FMS tests when compared to the reference group. These results equated to a significantly lower overall score for FMS. This study highlighted the significant deficits in FMS within pediatric patients having completed cancer treatment. In order to reduce the occurrence of significant FMS deficits in this population, FMS interventions may be warranted to assist in recovery from childhood cancer, prevent late effects, and improve the quality of life in survivors of childhood cancer. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Childhood cancers in families with and without Lynch syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, John A; Reece, Jeanette C; Buchanan, Daniel D; Casey, Graham; Durno, Carol A; Gallinger, Steven; Haile, Robert W; Newcomb, Polly A; Potter, John D; Thibodeau, Stephen N; Le Marchand, Loïc; Lindor, Noralane M; Hopper, John L; Jenkins, Mark A; Win, Aung Ko

    2015-12-01

    Inheritance of a germline mutation in one of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes or the EPCAM gene is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer, endometrial cancer, and other adult malignancies (Lynch syndrome). The risk of childhood cancers in Lynch syndrome families, however, is not well studied. Using data from the Colon Cancer Family Registry, we compared the proportion of childhood cancers (diagnosed before 18 years of age) in the first-, second-, and third-degree relatives of 781 probands with a pathogenic mutation in one of the MMR genes; MLH1 (n = 275), MSH2 (n = 342), MSH6 (n = 99), or PMS2 (n = 55) or in EPCAM (n = 10) (Lynch syndrome families), with that of 5073 probands with MMR-deficient colorectal cancer (non-Lynch syndrome families). There was no evidence of a difference in the proportion of relatives with a childhood cancer between Lynch syndrome families (41/17,230; 0.24%) and non-Lynch syndrome families (179/94,302; 0.19%; p = 0.19). Incidence rate of all childhood cancers was estimated to be 147 (95% CI 107-206) per million population per year in Lynch syndrome families and 115 (95% CI 99.1-134) per million population per year in non-Lynch syndrome families. There was no evidence for a significant increase in the risk of all childhood cancers, hematologic cancers, brain and central nervous system cancers, Lynch syndrome-associated cancers, or other cancers in Lynch syndrome families compared with non-Lynch syndrome families. Larger studies, however, are required to more accurately define the risk of specific individual childhood cancers in Lynch syndrome families.

  7. Clarifying perspectives: Ethics case reflection sessions in childhood cancer care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholdson, Cecilia; Lützén, Kim; Blomgren, Klas; Pergert, Pernilla

    2016-06-01

    Childhood cancer care involves many ethical concerns. Deciding on treatment levels and providing care that infringes on the child's growing autonomy are known ethical concerns that involve the whole professional team around the child's care. The purpose of this study was to explore healthcare professionals' experiences of participating in ethics case reflection sessions in childhood cancer care. Data collection by observations, individual interviews, and individual encounters. Data analysis were conducted following grounded theory methodology. Healthcare professionals working at a publicly funded children's hospital in Sweden participated in ethics case reflection sessions in which ethical issues concerning clinical cases were reflected on. The children's and their parents' integrity was preserved through measures taken to protect patient identity during ethics case reflection sessions. The study was approved by a regional ethical review board. Consolidating care by clarifying perspectives emerged. Consolidating care entails striving for common care goals and creating a shared view of care and the ethical concern in the specific case. The inter-professional perspectives on the ethical aspects of care are clarified by the participants' articulated views on the case. Different approaches for deliberating ethics are used during the sessions including raising values and making sense, leading to unifying interactions. The findings indicate that ethical concerns could be eased by implementing ethics case reflection sessions. Conflicting perspectives can be turned into unifying interactions in the healthcare professional team with the common aim to achieve good pediatric care. Ethics case reflection sessions is valuable as it permits the discussion of values in healthcare-related issues in childhood cancer care. Clarifying perspectives, on the ethical concerns, enables healthcare professionals to reflect on the most reasonable and ethically defensible care for the child

  8. Tobacco Use Among Siblings of Childhood Cancer Survivors: A Report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchbinder, David; Oeffinger, Kevin; Franco-Villalobos, Conrado; Yasui, Yutaka; Alderfer, Melissa A.; Armstrong, Gregory T.; Casillas, Jacqueline; Ford, Jennifer; Krull, Kevin R.; Leisenring, Wendy; Recklitis, Christopher; Robison, Leslie L.; Zeltzer, Lonnie K.; Lown, E. Anne

    2015-01-01

    Background Having a brother or sister with childhood cancer may influence health behaviors during adulthood. The aim of this study was to compare tobacco use in siblings of survivors with peers and to identify factors associated with sibling tobacco use. Procedures A retrospective cohort study was conducted using adult siblings (N=1,974) of 5+ year cancer survivors in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) and participants (N=24,105, weighted to match CCSS) in the 2007 National Health Interview Survey. Self-reported tobacco use, sociodemographic, and cancer-related risk factors were analyzed. Results Siblings were equally likely to have ever smoked compared to their peers, (Odds Ratio [OR] 1.02, 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 0.93–1.12). Siblings were less likely to be current smokers (OR 0.83, 95% CI 0.73–0.94), but more likely to be former smokers (OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.08–1.35). Siblings with low education were more likely to ever smoke (OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.15–2.00) and be current smokers (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.24–2.26) compared to their peers. Among siblings, risk factors for current tobacco use included: low income Siblings of survivors take up smoking at similar rates to their peers, but are more likely to quit. Efforts are needed to address disparities by providing greater psychosocial support and education for the lowest socio-economic status families facing childhood cancer. PMID:26305712

  9. Screening for thyroid cancer in survivors of childhood and young adult cancer treated with neck radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonorezos, Emily S; Barnea, Dana; Moskowitz, Chaya S; Chou, Joanne F; Sklar, Charles A; Elkin, Elena B; Wong, Richard J; Li, Duan; Tuttle, R Michael; Korenstein, Deborah; Wolden, Suzanne L; Oeffinger, Kevin C

    2017-06-01

    The optimal method of screening for thyroid cancer in survivors of childhood and young adult cancer exposed to neck radiation remains controversial. Outcome data for a physical exam-based screening approach are lacking. We conducted a retrospective review of adult survivors of childhood and young adult cancer with a history of neck radiation followed in the Adult Long-Term Follow-Up Clinic at Memorial Sloan Kettering between November 2005 and August 2014. Eligible patients underwent a physical exam of the thyroid and were followed for at least 1 year afterwards. Ineligible patients were those with prior diagnosis of benign or malignant thyroid nodules. During a median follow-up of 3.1 years (range 0-9.4 years), 106 ultrasounds and 2277 physical exams were performed among 585 patients. Forty survivors had an abnormal thyroid physical exam median of 21 years from radiotherapy; 50% of those with an abnormal exam were survivors of Hodgkin lymphoma, 60% had radiation at ages 10-19, and 53% were female. Ultimately, 24 underwent fine needle aspiration (FNA). Surgery revealed papillary carcinoma in seven survivors; six are currently free of disease and one with active disease is undergoing watchful waiting. Among those with one or more annual visits, representing 1732 person-years of follow-up, no cases of thyroid cancer were diagnosed within a year of normal physical exam. These findings support the application of annual physical exam without routine ultrasound for thyroid cancer screening among survivors with a history of neck radiation. Survivors with a history of neck radiation may not require routine thyroid ultrasound for thyroid cancer screening. Among adult survivors of childhood and young adult cancer with a history of radiation therapy to the neck, annual physical exam is an acceptable thyroid cancer screening strategy.

  10. Impact of childhood cancer on parents' relationships: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Fernanda Machado; Jacob, Eufemia; Nascimento, Lucila Castanheira

    2010-09-01

    The diagnosis of cancer and the treatment decisions associated with it may cause uncertainty, stress, and anxiety among parents. Emotional tensions can affect parents' relationships during the trajectory of the child's cancer illness. We conducted an integrative review to examine the evidence related to the effects of childhood cancer on parents' relationships. An integrative literature search of studies published between 1997 and 2009 was conducted in the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Psychology Information (PsycINFO), PubMed, Scopus, CUIDEN, and Latin American and Caribbean Health Science Literature (LILACS). The key words used were neoplasms, child, marriage, spouses, family relations, and nursing. Articles were reviewed if the (a) topic addressed parents' relationships during childhood cancer; (b) participants were mothers, fathers, or both; (c) design was either qualitative or quantitative; (d) language was English, Portuguese, or Spanish; (e) date of publication was between January 1997 and October 2009; and (f) abstract was available. Fourteen articles met the search criteria and were reviewed using Cooper's framework for integrative reviews. Four themes emerged: (a) changes in the parents' relationship during the trajectory of the child's illness; (b) difficulty in communication between couples; (c) gender differences in parental stress and coping; and (d) role changes. Findings revealed positive and negative changes in parents' relationships, communication, stress, and roles. Nurses need to assess the impact of cancer diagnosis and treatments on parent relationships, offer support and encouragement, and allow expression of feelings. Future research is needed to develop and test interventions that increase parents' potentials and strengthen relationships during the challenging trajectory of their children's cancer and treatment. The multiple sources of stress and uncertainty associated with a child's cancer diagnosis and

  11. Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... information. Trouble learning to read, write, or do math. Trouble coordinating movement between the eyes, hands, and ... experience. In general, childhood cancer survivors show low levels of PTSD, depending in part on the coping ...

  12. The Risk of Cataract among Survivors of Childhood and Adolescent Cancer: A Report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodick, Gabriel; Sigurdson, Alice J.; Kleinerman, Ruth A.; Sklar, Charles A.; Leisenring, Wendy; Mertens, Ann C.; Stovall, Marilyn; Smith, Susan A.; Weathers, Rita E.; Veiga, Lene H. S.; Robison, Leslie L.; Inskip, Peter D.

    2016-01-01

    With therapeutic successes and improved survival after a cancer diagnosis in childhood, increasing numbers of cancer survivors are at risk of subsequent treatment-related morbidities, including cataracts. While it is well known that the lens of the eye is one of the most radiosensitive tissues in the human body, the risks associated with radiation doses less than 2 Gy are less understood, as are the long- and short-term cataract risks from exposure to ionizing radiation at a young age. In this study, we followed 13,902 five-year survivors of childhood cancer in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study cohort an average of 21.4 years from the date of first cancer diagnosis. For patients receiving radiotherapy, lens dose (mean: 2.2 Gy; range: 0–66 Gy) was estimated based on radiotherapy records. We used unconditional multivariable logistic regression models to evaluate prevalence of self-reported cataract in relationship to cumulative radiation dose both at five years after the initial cancer diagnosis and at the end of follow-up. We modeled the radiation effect in terms of the excess odds ratio (EOR) per Gy. We also analyzed cataract incidence starting from five years after initial cancer diagnosis to the end of follow-up using Cox regression. A total of 483 (3.5%) cataract cases were identified, including 200 (1.4%) diagnosed during the first five years of follow-up. In a multivariable logistic regression model, cataract prevalence at the end of follow-up was positively associated with lens dose in a manner consistent with a linear dose-response relationship (EOR per Gy = 0.92; 95% CI: 0.65–1.20). The odds ratio for doses between 0.5 and 1.5 Gy was elevated significantly relative to doses <0.5 Gy (OR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.3–3.7). The results from this study indicate a strong association between ocular exposure to ionizing radiation and long-term risk of pre-senile cataract. The risk of cataract increased with increasing exposure, beginning at lens doses as low as 0

  13. Childhood maltreatment, psychological resources, and depressive symptoms in women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlman, Kate Ryan; Boyle, Chloe C; Irwin, Michael R; Ganz, Patricia A; Crespi, Catherine M; Asher, Arash; Petersen, Laura; Bower, Julienne E

    2017-10-01

    Childhood maltreatment is associated with elevated risk for depression across the human lifespan. Identifying the pathways through which childhood maltreatment relates to depressive symptoms may elucidate intervention targets that have the potential to reduce the lifelong negative health sequelae of maltreatment exposure. In this cross-sectional study, 271 women with early-stage breast cancer were assessed after their diagnosis but before the start of adjuvant treatment (chemotherapy, radiation, endocrine therapy). Participants completed measures of childhood maltreatment exposure, psychological resources (optimism, mastery, self-esteem, mindfulness), and depressive symptoms. Using multiple mediation analyses, we examined which psychological resources uniquely mediated the relationship between childhood maltreatment and depressive symptoms. Exposure to maltreatment during childhood was robustly associated with lower psychological resources and elevated depressive symptoms. Further, lower optimism and mindfulness mediated the association between childhood maltreatment and elevated depressive symptoms. These results support existing theory that childhood maltreatment is associated with lower psychological resources, which partially explains elevated depressive symptoms in a sample of women facing breast cancer diagnosis and treatment. These findings warrant replication in populations facing other major life events and highlight the need for additional studies examining childhood maltreatment as a moderator of treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The risk of childhood cancer from intrauterine and preconceptional exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakeford, R.

    1995-01-01

    The findings of studies investigating whether exposures to ionizing radiation before birth, either pre- or post-conception, increase the risk of childhood cancer have provoked much scientific controversy. An epidemiological association between the abdominal exposure or pregnant women to diagnostic X-rays and childhood cancer was first reported in the 1950s, while an association between the recorded dose of radiation received occupationally by fathers before the conception of their offspring and childhood leukemia was reported only recently in 1990. The scientific interpretation of these particular statistical associations is by no means straightforward, but the latest analyses of intrauterine irradiation and childhood cancer indicate that a causal inference is likely. Scientific committees have adopted risk coefficients for the intrauterine exposure of somatic tissues, which for childhood leukemia are comparable to those accepted for exposure in infancy, although questions remain about the level of risk of childhood solid tumors imparted by exposure to radiation in utero and shortly after birth. In contrast, the association has been found to be restricted to children born in one village, it does not extend to cancers other than leukemia, and it is markedly inconsistent with the established body of knowledge on radiation-induced hereditary disease. A causal interpretation of this association has effectively been abandoned by scientific authorities. 84 refs., 1 tab

  15. Early Nutrition and Physical Activity Interventions in Childhood Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang Fang; Kelly, Michael J; Must, Aviva

    2017-06-01

    Childhood cancer survivors experience excessive weight gain early in treatment. Lifestyle interventions need to be initiated early in cancer care to prevent the early onset of obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We reviewed the existing literature on early lifestyle interventions in childhood cancer survivors and consider implications for clinical care. Few lifestyle interventions focus on improving nutrition in childhood cancer survivors. A consistent effect on reducing obesity and CVD risk factors is not evident from the limited number of studies with heterogeneous intervention characteristics, although interventions with a longer duration and follow-up show more promising trends. Future lifestyle interventions should be of a longer duration and include a nutrition component. Interventions with a longer duration and follow-up are needed to assess the timing and sustainability of the intervention effect. Lifestyle interventions introduced early in cancer care are both safe and feasible.

  16. Radiation-associated breast cancer and gonadal hormone exposure: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moskowitz, Chaya S.; Chou, Joanne F.; Sklar, Charles A.; Barnea, Dana; Ronckers, Cécile M.; Friedman, Danielle Novetsky; Neglia, Joseph P.; Turcotte, Lucie; Howell, Rebecca M.; Henderson, Tara O.; Armstrong, Gregory T.; Leisenring, Wendy M.; Robison, Leslie L.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Pike, Malcolm C.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between hormone exposure and breast cancer risk in women treated with chest radiotherapy for childhood cancer is uncertain. Participants included 1108 females from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study who were diagnosed with childhood cancer 1970-1986, treated with chest

  17. Nuclear installations and childhood cancer in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldsmith, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    Data on cancer incidence and mortality near nuclear installations in England and Wales have been published, covering the period 1959-1980. Several age classes and a number of cancer sites have been included. Systematic analysis has so far been limited to cancer mortality. This suggests that childhood leukemia is unusually frequent near some types of installations and the excess is greater for years 0-9 than for later ages. In the earlier decade, 1959-1969, there was questionable consistency of incidence reporting. This report uses the incidence and mortality data only for the period 1971-1980; leukemia and non-leukemia cancer data for those 0-9 years are analyzed, and consistency of incidence reporting is evaluated by comparing incidence and mortality. For comparison with reported data for grouped local authority areas (LAAs) near to 21 different installations, 2 sources of expected incidence are used. The first is based on regional data, and the second is based on a group of LAAs similar in location, urban/rural character and population size. The results of this study confirm Cook-Mozaffari et al.'s findings by mortality analysis for the group of installations involved in non-power producing nuclear technology. This study sheds no light on the possible basis for the association, which remains to be clarified. Initial steps have been taken by Gardner et al. using case-referent methods. (author). 15 refs., 3 figs., 7 tabs

  18. Predictors of Posttraumatic Stress and Posttraumatic Growth in Childhood Cancer Survivors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koutná, Veronika; Jelínek, Martin; Blatný, Marek; Kepák, T.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 3 (2017), s. 1-11, č. článku 26. ISSN 2072-6694 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP407/11/2421 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : posttraumatic stress * posttraumatic growth * benefit finding * childhood cancer survivors Subject RIV: AN - Psychology OBOR OECD: Psychology (including human - machine relations)

  19. Childhood Thyroid Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood thyroid cancer usually presents as a thyroid mass with or without painless cervical adenopathy. It may occur as part of a tumor predisposition syndrome such as multiple endocrine neoplasia or DICER1 syndrome. Get detailed information about the risk factors, histopathology, molecular features, presentation, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment of papillary, follicular, and medullary thyroid cancer in this summary for clinicians.

  20. Childhood cancer among twins and higher order multiples

    OpenAIRE

    Puumala, Susan E.; Carozza, Susan E.; Chow, Eric J.; Fox, Erin E.; Horel, Scott; Johnson, Kimberly J.; McLaughlin, Colleen; Mueller, Beth A.; Reynolds, Peggy; Von Behren, Julie; Spector, Logan G.

    2009-01-01

    Although several studies have found no change or a decreased risk of childhood cancer in twins, few have controlled for potential confounders such as birth weight. We examined the association of birth plurality and childhood cancer in pooled data from five U.S. states (California, Minnesota, New York, Texas, and Washington) using linked birth-cancer registry data. The data, excluding children with Down syndrome or who died before 28 days of life, included 17,672 cases diagnosed 1980–2004 at a...

  1. The UK Childhood Cancer Study: Maternal occupational exposures and childhood leukaemia and lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinney, P. A.; Raji, O. Y.; Van Tongeren, M.; Feltbower, R. G.

    2008-01-01

    Risks of childhood leukaemia and lymphoma were investigated for specific work-related exposures of mothers in the UK Childhood Cancer Study. Interviews with parents of 1881 leukaemia and lymphoma cases (0-14 years) and 3742 controls collected job histories recording exposure to eight specific agents. Exposure was (1) self-reported and (2) reviewed, based mainly on exposure probability and exposure level. Completeness, consistency and sufficiency evaluated data quality. Of all job exposures which were self-reported as exposed, 33% cases and 34% controls remained classified as exposed after review, with the remainder designated as partially exposed or unexposed. No review of underreporting of exposure was made. Data quality was 'good' for 26% of cases and 24% of controls. For self-reported exposure, significant risks of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) were observed for solvents and petrol in all time windows. For reviewed exposure, solvents remained significant for ALL during pregnancy and post-natality. Restricting analyses to good-quality information removed all significant results. Refinement of exposure assessment revealed misclassification of self-reported exposures and data quality influenced risk assessment. Maternal exposure to solvents should further be investigated. These findings must invoke caution in the interpretation of risks reliant on self-reported occupational data. (authors)

  2. Adversity in childhood and measures of aging in midlife: Findings from a cohort of british women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Emma L; Heron, Jon; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Kuh, Diana; Cooper, Rachel; Lawlor, Debbie A; Fraser, Abigail; Howe, Laura D

    2017-09-01

    Very few studies have assessed whether socioeconomic and psychosocial adversity during childhood are associated with objective measures of aging later in life. We assessed associations of socioeconomic position (SEP) and total psychosocial adversity during childhood, with objectively measured cognitive and physical capability in women during midlife. Adverse childhood experiences were retrospectively reported at mean ages 28-30 years in women from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents And Children (N = 2,221). We investigated associations of childhood SEP and total psychosocial adversity, with composite measures of cognitive and physical capability at mean age 51 years. There was evidence that, compared with participants whose fathers had professional occupations, participants whose fathers had managerial/technical, skilled nonmanual, skilled manual, and partly or unskilled manual occupations had, on average, lower physical and cognitive capability. There was a clear trend for increasing magnitudes of association with lowering childhood SEP. There was also evidence that greater total psychosocial adversity in childhood was associated with lower physical capability. Total psychosocial adversity in childhood was not associated with cognitive capability. Lower SEP in childhood is detrimental to cognitive and physical capability in midlife, at least in part, independently of subsequent SEP in adulthood. Greater psychosocial adversity in childhood is associated with poorer physical capability, independently of social disadvantage in childhood. Our findings highlight the need for interventions to both identify and support children experiencing socioeconomic or psychosocial of adversity as early as possible. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder in childhood: radiological findings and differential diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casado, L.; Mansilla, F.; Mansilla, M.D.; Marin, A.

    1998-01-01

    We present a case of transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder in an 11-year-old boy. The rarity of these tumors during childhood is pointed out. The radiological and ultrasonographic findings are described and the differential diagnosis is discussed with respect to other bladder tumors occurring in childhood. (Author) 11 refs

  4. Benign childhood epilepsy with occipital paroxysms: neuropsychological findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germanò, Eva; Gagliano, Antonella; Magazù, Angela; Sferro, Caterina; Calarese, Tiziana; Mannarino, Erminia; Calamoneri, Filippo

    2005-05-01

    Benign childhood epilepsy with occipital paroxysms is classified among childhood benign partial epilepsies. The absence of neurological and neuropsychological deficits has long been considered as a prerequisite for a diagnosis of benign childhood partial epilepsy. Much evidence has been reported in literature in the latest years suggesting a neuropsychological impairment in this type of epilepsy, particularly in the type with Rolandic paroxysms. The present work examines the neuropsychological profiles of a sample of subjects affected by the early-onset benign childhood occipital seizures (EBOS) described by Panayotopulos. The patient group included 22 children (14 males and 8 females; mean age 10.1+/-3.3 years) diagnosed as having EBOS. The patients were examined with a set of tests investigating neuropsychological functions: memory, attention, perceptive, motor, linguistic and academic (reading, writing, arithmetic) abilities. The same instruments have been given to a homogeneous control group as regards sex, age, level of education and socio-economic background. None of the subjects affected by EBOS showed intellectual deficit (mean IQ in Wechsler Full Scale 91.7; S.D. 8.9). Results show a widespread cognitive dysfunction in the context of a focal epileptogenic process in EBOS. In particular, children with EBOS show a significant occurrence of specific learning disabilities (SLD) and other subtle neuropsychological deficits. We found selective dysfunctions relating to perceptive-visual attentional ability (pmemory abilities (psupports the hypothesis that epilepsy itself plays a role in the development of neuropsychological impairment. Supported by other studies that have documented subtle neuropsychological deficits in benign partial epilepsy, we stress the importance of reconsidering its supposed "cognitive benignity", particularly in occipital types.

  5. Entrenched obesity in childhood: findings from a national cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Solveig A; Datar, Ashlesha; Narayan, K M Venkat; Kramer, Michael R

    2017-07-01

    Given the high levels of obesity among U.S. children, we examine whether obesity in childhood is a passing phenomenon or remains entrenched into adolescence. Data are from the prospective nationally representative Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 (analytic sample = 6600). Anthropometrics were measured six times during 1998-2007. Overweight and obesity were defined using CDC cut-points. Entrenched obesity was defined as obesity between ages 5-9 coupled with persistent obesity at ages 11 and 14. Almost 30% of children experienced obesity at some point between ages 5.6 and 14.1 years; 63% of children who ever had obesity between ages 5.6 and 9.1 and 72% of those who had obesity at kindergarten entry experienced entrenched obesity. Children with severe obesity in kindergarten or who had obesity at more than 1 year during early elementary were very likely to experience obesity through age 14, regardless of their sex, race, or socioeconomic backgrounds. Prevention should focus on early childhood, as obesity at school entry is not often a passing phenomenon. Even one timepoint of obesity measured during the early elementary school years may be an indicator of risk for long-term obesity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Exercise echocardiography in asymptomatic survivors of childhood cancer treated with anthracyclines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sieswerda, Elske; Kremer, Leontien C M; Vidmar, Suzanna

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exercise echocardiography reveals abnormalities in asymptomatic childhood cancer survivors who previously have been treated with anthracyclines. We determined the added value of monitoring childhood cancer survivors with exercise echocardiography compared to monitoring with resting ec...

  7. Analysis of mammographic findings of breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hyun Joo; Han, Heon; Yang, Dal Mo; Chung, Hyo Sun; Kim, Jee Eun; Kim, Young Chae

    1995-01-01

    This study is to describe authors' experience on mammographic findings of breast cancer and to know if there is difference between 35 years of age or younger and older groups. Mammograms of 72 patients with breast cancer detected from January, 1991 to December, 1993 were retrospectively analysed. Mammographic findings were classified into mass only, mass with microcalcifications, microcalcifications only and others. Marginal characteristics of mass were classified into spiculated, poorly marginated and well marginated. Shape of microcalcifications were classified into casting, granular and mixed types. These findings were compared between 35 years of age or younger and older groups. Mammogram showed mass only in 33 patients (46%), mass with microcalcifications in 26 patients (36%), microcalcifications only in seven (10%) and other findings in six (8%). Other findings were architectural distortion, asymmetric high density and incidental breast carcinoma from paraffinoma in one patient respectively, and dense breast in three patients. The margins of the breast mass were spiculated in ten (17%). poorly marginated in 30 (51%), well-marginated in 19 (32%). Shape of microcalcifications were casting type in 13 (40%). granular in 14 (42%) and mixed in six (18%) cases. 3 patients had dense breast with which mammography did not demonstrate the lesion. 3 patients without mammographically demonstrable lesions due to dense breasts were under 35 years in age, and there was statistically significant difference between the two groups (ρ -value < 0.05). Microcalcifications only was more common findings in 35 years of age or younger. The most important mammographic findings of breast cancer were mass and microcalcifications. Architectural distortion and asymmetric high density were additional findings. In 35 years of age or younger, microcalcifications only was an important finding because mass lesions are frequently masked by dense breast. Thus other imaging modalities, such as

  8. Nonpalpable breast cancer : mammographic and clinical findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jae Seung; Kim, Eun Kyung; Oh, Ki Keun; Cheon, Young Jik; Lee, Byung Chan [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-08-01

    To evaluate the mammographic and clinical findings of nonpalpable breast cancer. Materials and Methods : In 28 of 607 breast cancer patients examined between January 1994 and April 1997, lesions were nonpalpable. We retrospectively analyzed the mammographic, clinical and pathologic features of 25 patients (28 lesions) whose mammograms we obtained. Results : Among these 25 patients (28 lesions) screening was abnormal in 22; other symptoms were bloody nipple discharge(n=4), and nipple eczema(n=2). The patients were 34-62 (mean 52)years old. Invasive ductal carcinoma(n=13), DCIS(ductal carcinoma in situ, n-12), Paget's disease (n=2), and LCIS(lobular carcinoma in situ, n=1) were found during surgery. Six of 28 lesions(21%) showed evidence of axillary nodal metastasis;the majority arose from the upper outer quadrant of the breast (n=21). The mammographic findings were mass (50%), (and mass with microcalcification, 11%); microcalcification(29%); asymmetrical density(14%); and normal (7%). According to the mammographic density of breast parenchyma, the major finding in the low density group(N1+P1) was mass(9/9), and in the high density group(P2+DY) was microcalcification (12/19). Conclusion : The most common mammographic findings of nonpalpable breast cancer were mass (50%) and microcalcification(29%). Its features varied according to the mammographic density of breast parenchyma;mass was the main finding in the low density group and microcalcification in the high density group.

  9. Nonpalpable breast cancer : mammographic and clinical findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Jae Seung; Kim, Eun Kyung; Oh, Ki Keun; Cheon, Young Jik; Lee, Byung Chan

    1998-01-01

    To evaluate the mammographic and clinical findings of nonpalpable breast cancer. Materials and Methods : In 28 of 607 breast cancer patients examined between January 1994 and April 1997, lesions were nonpalpable. We retrospectively analyzed the mammographic, clinical and pathologic features of 25 patients (28 lesions) whose mammograms we obtained. Results : Among these 25 patients (28 lesions) screening was abnormal in 22; other symptoms were bloody nipple discharge(n=4), and nipple eczema(n=2). The patients were 34-62 (mean 52)years old. Invasive ductal carcinoma(n=13), DCIS(ductal carcinoma in situ, n-12), Paget's disease (n=2), and LCIS(lobular carcinoma in situ, n=1) were found during surgery. Six of 28 lesions(21%) showed evidence of axillary nodal metastasis;the majority arose from the upper outer quadrant of the breast (n=21). The mammographic findings were mass (50%), (and mass with microcalcification, 11%); microcalcification(29%); asymmetrical density(14%); and normal (7%). According to the mammographic density of breast parenchyma, the major finding in the low density group(N1+P1) was mass(9/9), and in the high density group(P2+DY) was microcalcification (12/19). Conclusion : The most common mammographic findings of nonpalpable breast cancer were mass (50%) and microcalcification(29%). Its features varied according to the mammographic density of breast parenchyma;mass was the main finding in the low density group and microcalcification in the high density group

  10. Childhood BMI growth trajectories and endometrial cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Julie; Gamborg, Michael; Tilling, Kate

    2017-01-01

    Previously, we found that excess weight already in childhood has positive associations with endometrial cancer, however, associations with changes in body mass index (BMI) during childhood are not well understood. Therefore, we examined whether growth in childhood BMI is associated with endometrial...... cancer and its sub-types. A cohort of 155,505 girls from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register with measured weights and heights at the ages of 6 to 14 years and born 1930-89 formed the analytical population. BMI was transformed to age-specific z-scores. Using linear spline multilevel models......, each girl's BMI growth trajectory was estimated as the deviance from the average trajectory for three different growth periods (6.25-7.99, 8.0-10.99, 11.0-14.0 years). Via a link to health registers, 1020 endometrial cancer cases were identified, and Cox regressions were performed. A greater gain...

  11. Interrelated Processes toward Quality of Life in Survivors of Childhood Cancer: A Grounded Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsonis, Miranda; McDougall, Janette; Mandich, Angela; Irwin, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Past research has not adequately addressed the quality of life (QOL) of survivors of childhood cancer. The purpose of this study was to understand how QOL is experienced for individuals who have survived childhood cancer. Specific research questions included: (a) How do childhood cancer survivors define the concept of QOL and (b) What processes do…

  12. Delivery by Cesarean Section and risk of childhood cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Momen, Natalie; Olsen, Jørn; Gissler, Mika

    -2006) and a randomly selected sample of 90% of children born in Finland (1987-2007) (N=7,029,843). Children were followed-up from birth, until the first of the following: date of cancer diagnosis, death, emigration, end of 15th year or end of follow-up. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to obtain hazard...... was associated with a hazard ratio of 1.05 (95% confidence interval 0.99, 1.11) for all cancer diagnoses. No significant associations were seen for elective or emergent CS. Elevated risks were seen for some cancer subtypes (for example testis) but none reached statistical significance. Conclusions The results...... suggest CS does not influence overall childhood cancer risk. We did not see any difference between the two types of CS. Additionally it was not strongly associated with any specific childhood cancer, but power was limited for some types. Considering the high CS rates, even a small increase in risk...

  13. Supplemental folic acid in pregnancy and childhood cancer risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jan Helge Seglem; Øyen, Nina; Fomina, Tatiana

    2016-01-01

    Background:We investigated the association between supplemental folic acid in pregnancy and childhood cancer in a nation-wide study of 687 406 live births in Norway, 1999-2010, and 799 children diagnosed later with cancer.Methods:Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) compared cancer risk in children...... by approximated periconceptional folic acid levels (folic acid tablets and multivitamins (0.6 mg), only folic acid (0.4 mg), only multivitamins (0.2 mg)) and cancer risk in unexposed.Results:Any folic acid levels were not associated with leukemia (e.g., high-level folic acid HR 1.25; 95% CI 0.89-1.76, P Trend 0.......90).Conclusions:Folic acid supplementation was not associated with risk of major childhood cancers....

  14. Further statement on the incidence of childhood cancer in Wales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    In March 1999 the Welsh Office asked COMARE to examine two unpublished studies. The first by Busby et al of ''Green Audit'' concluded that there was a significant excess of childhood leukaemia in North Wales associated with residential proximity to the coast. The second study, carried out by Steward et al of the Welsh Cancer Intelligence and Surveillance Unit (WCISU), did not support this conclusion. We were asked to advise as to whether we considered that there was a real raised incidence of childhood leukaemia near the coast of North Wales and whether further study was required. To do this we initially organised a comparison of the figures quoted by both the Green Audit and WCISU with the database held by the Childhood Cancer Research Group (CCRG) in Oxford. This group maintains the National Registry of Childhood Tumours (NRCT), data for which are supplied from a variety of sources including cancer registries but also directly from medical cancer specialists as well as from death certificates. As a consequence this provides an independent check on much of the data on childhood cancer held by cancer registries in Great Britain and is clinically validated. After carrying out the independent check on the number of cases of childhood leukaemia in these Welsh counties it was immediately apparent that the data held by Green Audit, on which the analysis by Busby et al was based, were incorrect. These data were received from the Welsh Cancer Registry (WCR) in 1995. A further data set was received from WCR in 1996 but was not used in the analysis by Busby et al. In June 1999 we issued a statement to the Welsh Office. In that statement we noted that Dr Busby and his colleagues appeared to have used erroneous data in their study. On the basis of the Steward et al data, COMARE also stated that we found no evidence to support the contention that there is an increased incidence of childhood leukaemia or other childhood cancers amongst the Welsh population living close to the

  15. Site of childhood cancer care in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reedijk, A M J; van der Heiden-van der Loo, M; Visser, O; Karim-Kos, H E; Lieverst, J A; de Ridder-Sluiter, J G; Coebergh, J W W; Kremer, L C; Pieters, R

    2017-12-01

    Due to the complexity of diagnosis and treatment, care for children and young adolescents with cancer preferably occurs in specialised paediatric oncology centres with potentially better cure rates and minimal late effects. This study assessed where children with cancer in the Netherlands were treated since 2004. All patients aged under 18 diagnosed with cancer between 2004 and 2013 were selected from the Netherlands Cancer Registry (NCR) and linked with the Dutch Childhood Oncology Group (DCOG) database. Associations between patient and tumour characteristics and site of care were tested statistically with logistic regression analyses. This population-based study of 6021 children diagnosed with cancer showed that 82% of them were treated in a paediatric oncology centre. Ninety-four percent of the patients under 10 years of age, 85% of the patients aged 10-14 and 48% of the patients aged 15-17 were treated in a paediatric oncology centre. All International Classification of Childhood Cancers (ICCC), 3rd edition, ICCC-3 categories, except embryonal tumours, were associated with a higher risk of treatment outside a paediatric oncology centre compared to leukaemia. Multivariable analyses by ICCC-3 category revealed that specific tumour types such as chronic myelogenous leukaemia (CML), embryonal carcinomas, bone tumours other type than osteosarcoma, non-rhabdomyosarcomas, thyroid carcinomas, melanomas and skin carcinomas as well as lower-staged tumours were associated with treatment outside a paediatric oncology centre. The site of childhood cancer care in the Netherlands depends on the age of the cancer patient, type of tumour and stage at diagnosis. Collaboration between paediatric oncology centre(s), other academic units is needed to ensure most up-to-date paediatric cancer care for childhood cancer patients at the short and long term. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. During stress, heart rate variability moderates the impact of childhood adversity in women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tell, Dina; Mathews, Herbert L; Burr, Robert L; Witek Janusek, Linda

    2018-03-01

    Childhood adversity has long-lasting neuro-biological effects that can manifest as exaggerated stress responsivity to environmental challenge. These manifestations include a dysregulated hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis as well as increased levels of inflammatory mediators in response to stress. In this investigation, vagal parasympathetic activity was assessed for its capacity to moderate the relationship between childhood adversity and stress responsivity (cortisol and inflammation) during an acute laboratory challenge (Trier Social Stress Test-TSST). Thirty women recently diagnosed with breast cancer underwent the TSST during which their heart rate was recorded and saliva samples collected for measurement of cortisol and the proinflammatory cytokine, IL-6. Vagal activity during the TSST was calculated as the high-frequency (HF) component of heart rate variability (HRV). Vagal activity during the TSST moderated the effect of childhood adversity on both the cortisol and the IL-6 response. Women who had lower vagal stress-reactivity during the TSST and reported greater childhood adversity showed a larger rise in cortisol and IL-6 when compared to women with lower childhood adversity. The findings demonstrate that women with exposure to childhood adversity and low vagal stress-reactivity (reduced parasympathetic activity) exhibit an elevated stress response characterized by greater cortisol and proinflammatory cytokine release. Inflammatory burden and HPA dysregulation subsequent to stress may impair cancer control.

  17. Treatment of Childhood Head and Neck Cancer - Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Find diagnosis, staging, and treatment information for these head and neck cancers: hypopharynx, larynx, lip and oral cavity, neck cancer with occult primary, nasopharynx, oropharynx, paranasal sinus and nasal cavity, and salivary gland cancer.

  18. Suboptimal Vitamin D levels among adult survivors of childhood cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise A. Rokitka

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Vitamin D plays an important role in many bodily systems, with increasing evidence suggesting its importance for the prevention of chronic diseases and cancer. The identification of vitamin D levels in childhood cancer survivors becomes, therefore, particularly relevant, given that optimizing levels may contribute to the prevention of secondary malignancies and chronic diseases.Methods: A cross - sectional analysis of serum 25 - hydroxyvitamin D levels among adult survivors of childhood cancers living in New York State and surrounding areas (n = 139 was performed. Independent variables included gender, race/ethnicity, cancer site, year of diagnosis, past medical and surgical history, prior radiation therapy; prior chemotherapy, age at diagnosis, age at last clinic visit, year of last clinic visit, height, weight, body mass index, and vitamin D supplementation.Results: Overall, 34% of survivors were vitamin D deficient (< 20 ng/ml, 39% were classified as insufficient (20 - 29 ng/ml and 27% (≥ 30 ng/ml were classified as having sufficient levels. Despite vitamin D supplementation among 41 patients, 68.3% continued to have insufficient or deficient levels. Participants with a BMI > 25 demonstrated lower levels of vitamin D (p < 0.05. Vitamin D levels did not vary by age group, race, ethnicity, diagnosis, or years since diagnosis.Conclusion: Given the growing awareness of the role of vitamin D and the documented late effects of treatment for childhood cancers, the high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency within the childhood cancer survivor population is of concern. Vitamin D represents an important target for surveillance and intervention to help improve long - term outcomes of childhood cancer survivors.

  19. Trajectories of social isolation in adult survivors of childhood cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, A Fuchsia; Tan de Bibiana, Jason; Smillie, Kirsten; Goddard, Karen; Pritchard, Sheila; Olson, Rob; Kazanjian, Arminee

    2014-03-01

    Long-term childhood cancer survivors may be at increased risk for poor social outcomes as a result of their cancer treatment, as well as physical and psychological health problems. Yet, important challenges, namely social isolation, are not well understood. Moreover, survivors' perspectives of social isolation as well as the ways in which this might evolve through young adulthood have yet to be investigated. The purpose of this research was to describe the trajectories of social isolation experienced by adult survivors of a childhood cancer. Data from 30 in-depth interviews with survivors (9 to 38 years after diagnosis, currently 22 to 43 years of age, 60 % women) were analyzed using qualitative, constant comparative methods. Experiences of social isolation evolved over time as survivors grew through childhood, adolescence and young adulthood. Eleven survivors never experienced social isolation after their cancer treatment, nor to the present day. Social isolation among 19 survivors followed one of three trajectories; (1) diminishing social isolation: it got somewhat better, (2) persistent social isolation: it never got better or (3) delayed social isolation: it hit me later on. Knowledge of when social isolation begins and how it evolves over time for different survivors is an important consideration for the development of interventions that prevent or mitigate this challenge. Assessing and addressing social outcomes, including isolation, might promote comprehensive long-term follow-up care for childhood cancer survivors.

  20. Increased risk of antidepressant use in childhood cancer survivors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Lasse Wegener; Winther, J.F.; Cederkvist, L

    2015-01-01

    to the National Prescription Drug Database, which worldwide is the oldest nationwide registry of prescription medication. Hazard ratios (HRs) for antidepressant use were estimated in a Cox proportional hazards model stratified on sex, with population comparisons as referents. RESULTS: Overall, childhood cancer......AIM: Childhood cancer survivors are at risk of both somatic and mental late effects, but large population-based studies of depression are lacking. METHODS: Risk of antidepressant use was evaluated in a population-based cohort of 5452 Danish children treated for cancer in 1975-2009 by linkage....... Increased HRs of 30-50% were seen for survivors of cancers of all main groups (haematological malignancies, central nervous system (CNS) and solid tumors); the highest risk was among children treated with haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.2-3.1). Our data suggested that the risk...

  1. Trajectories of social isolation in adult survivors of childhood cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Howard, A. Fuchsia; Tan de Bibiana, Jason; Smillie, Kirsten; Goddard, Karen; Pritchard, Sheila; Olson, Rob; Kazanjian, Arminee

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Long-term childhood cancer survivors may be at increased risk for poor social outcomes as a result of their cancer treatment, as well as physical and psychological health problems. Yet, important challenges, namely social isolation, are not well understood. Moreover, survivors' perspectives of social isolation as well as the ways in which this might evolve through young adulthood have yet to be investigated. The purpose of this research was to describe the trajectories of social isola...

  2. Parental knowledge of fertility in male childhood cancer survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, Henk; Langeveld, Nelia E.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In childhood, cancer survivors fertility is a major point of concern. In boys, only semen analysis and impregnation confirm fertility. Since parents constitute a major source of information for children, we investigated recall and assumptions on their child's fertility. PROCEDURE: One

  3. Endocrine disorders in childhood cancer survivors: More answers, more questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clement, S.C.

    2016-01-01

    Treatment of pediatric malignancies has advanced substantially over the past several decades, resulting in a rapidly growing group of long-term childhood cancer survivors (CCS). Improved survival leads to an increasing number of individuals who may be at increased risk of substantial morbidity and

  4. Evaluation of a patient information website for childhood cancer survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knijnenburg, Sebastiaan L.; Kremer, Leontien C.; Versluys, A. Birgitta; Braam, Katja I.; Mud, Minke S.; van der Pal, Heleen J.; Caron, Huib N.; Jaspers, Monique W.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood cancer survivors (CCS) are in need of specialized information about late effects of treatment. In the current study, we assessed the perceived usability and satisfaction with the content of a national website with information on late effects and analyzed possible determinants related to

  5. Quality of life of childhood cancer survivors: handicaps and benefits

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blatný, Marek; Kepák, T.; Vlčková, I.; Jelínek, Martin; Tóthová, K.; Pilát, M.; Slezáčková, Alena; Sobotková, Veronika; Bartošová, Kateřina; Hrstková, H.; Štěrba, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 2 (2011), s. 112-125 ISSN 0009-062X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA406/07/1384 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : childhood cancer survivors * quality of life * psycho-oncology Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 0.087, year: 2011

  6. Exercise recommendations for childhood cancer survivors exposed to cardiotoxic therapies: an institutional clinical practice initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Maki; Meeske, Kathleen A; Menteer, Jondavid; Freyer, David R

    2012-01-01

    Childhood cancer survivors who have received treatment with anthracyclines are at risk for developing cardiomyopathy in dose-dependent fashion. Historically, restrictions on certain types of physical activity that were intended to preserve cardiac function have been recommended, based on a mixture of evidence-based and consensus-based recommendations. In the LIFE Cancer Survivorship & Transition Program at Children's Hospital Los Angeles, the authors reevaluated their recommendations for exercise in survivors who were exposed to anthracyclines, with or without irradiation in proximity to the myocardium. The primary goal was to develop consistent, specific, practical, safe, and (where possible) evidence-based recommendations for at-risk survivors in the program. To accomplish this, the authors referred to current exercise guidelines for childhood cancer survivors, consulted recent literature for relevant populations, and obtained input from the program's pediatric cardiology consultant. The resulting risk-based exercise recommendations are designed to complement current published guidelines, maximize safe exercise, and help childhood cancer survivors return to a normal life that emphasizes overall wellness and physical activity. This article describes a single institution's experience in modifying exercise recommendations for at-risk childhood survivors and includes the methods, findings, and current institutional practice recommendations along with sample education materials.

  7. Risk of subsequent gastrointestinal cancer among childhood cancer survivors : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teepen, Jop C.; de Vroom, Suzanne L.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Tissing, Wim J.; Kremer, Leontien C.; Ronckers, Cecile M.

    Background: Childhood cancer survivors (CCS) are at increased risk of developing subsequent malignant neoplasms, including gastrointestinal (GI) cancer. We performed a systematic review to summarize all available literature on the risk of, risk factors for, and outcome after subsequent GI cancer

  8. Metabolic syndrome induced by anticancer treatment in childhood cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chueh, Hee Won; Yoo, Jae Ho

    2017-06-01

    The number of childhood cancer survivors is increasing as survival rates improve. However, complications after treatment have not received much attention, particularly metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome comprises central obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and insulin resistance, and cancer survivors have higher risks of cardiovascular events compared with the general population. The mechanism by which cancer treatment induces metabolic syndrome is unclear. However, its pathophysiology can be categorized based on the cancer treatment type administered. Brain surgery or radiotherapy may induce metabolic syndrome by damaging the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, which may induce pituitary hormone deficiencies. Local therapy administered to particular endocrine organs directly damages the organs and causes hormone deficiencies, which induce obesity and dyslipidemia leading to metabolic syndrome. Chemotherapeutic agents interfere with cell generation and growth, damage the vascular endothelial cells, and increase the cardiovascular risk. Moreover, chemotherapeutic agents induce oxidative stress, which also induces metabolic syndrome. Physical inactivity caused by cancer treatment or the cancer itself, dietary restrictions, and the frequent use of antibiotics may also be risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Since childhood cancer survivors with metabolic syndrome have higher risks of cardiovascular events at an earlier age, early interventions should be considered. The optimal timing of interventions and drug use has not been established, but lifestyle modifications and exercise interventions that begin during cancer treatment might be beneficial and tailored education and interventions that account for individual patients' circumstances are needed. This review evaluates the recent literature that describes metabolic syndrome in cancer survivors, with a focus on its pathophysiology.

  9. Folic acid, one-carbon metabolism & childhood cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmalya Roy Moulik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Folate has been studied in relation to many diseases, especially cancer. Although it has been postulated to exert a dual effect on development of cancer, its role remains to be clearly defined. Its effect on cancer is the result of gene-nutrient interaction between the genes in folate metabolic pathway and dietary folate availability; mutations in genes of folate metabolism have been shown to alter individual susceptibility to certain childhood cancers as well as response to cancer chemotherapy. Although mandatory fortification of food items with folate has been initiated in some countries, many countries are yet to adopt this due to concerns about undesired adverse effects of high folate levels on health, especially cancer. However, initial reports suggest that folate fortification has led to reduction in incidence of certain childhood cancers such as neuroblastoma, wilms tumour and leukaemias. Despite studies showing folate depletion during antifolate chemotherapy and higher toxicity of chemotherapy in folate-depleted individuals, folate supplementation during cancer chemotherapy is not routinely recommended. Studies investigating the precise effect of folate supplementation during chemotherapy on both short- and long-term outcomes of cancer are needed to arrive at a consensus guideline.

  10. Long-term follow-up study and long-term care of childhood cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon Jin Park

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The number of long-term survivors is increasing in the western countries due to remarkable improvements in the treatment of childhood cancer. The long-term complications of childhood cancer survivors in these countries were brought to light by the childhood cancer survivor studies. In Korea, the 5-year survival rate of childhood cancer patients is approaching 70%; therefore, it is extremely important to undertake similar long-term follow-up studies and comprehensive long-term care for our population. On the basis of the experiences of childhood cancer survivorship care of the western countries and the current Korean status of childhood cancer survivors, long-term follow-up study and long-term care systems need to be established in Korea in the near future. This system might contribute to the improvement of the quality of life of childhood cancer survivors through effective intervention strategies.

  11. Familial aggregation of childhood and adult cancer in the Utah genealogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Rachel E; Stiller, Charles A; Bunch, Kathryn J; Milne, Elizabeth; Mineau, Geraldine P; Murphy, Michael F G

    2013-12-15

    A small proportion of childhood cancer is attributable to known hereditary syndromes, but whether there is any familial component to the remainder remains uncertain. We explored familial aggregation of cancer in a population-based case-control study using genealogical record linkage and designed to overcome limitations of previous studies. Subjects were selected from the Utah Population Database. We compared risk of cancer in adult first-degree relatives of children who were diagnosed with cancer with the risk in relatives of children who had not had a cancer diagnosed. We identified 1,894 childhood cancer cases and 3,788 controls; 7,467 relatives of cases and 14,498 relatives of controls were included in the analysis. Relatives of children with cancer had a higher risk of cancer in adulthood than relatives of children without cancer [odds ratio (OR) 1.31, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11-1.56]; this was restricted to mothers and siblings and was not evident in fathers. Familial aggregation appeared stronger among relatives of cases diagnosed before 5 years of age (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.13-1.95) than among relatives of cases who were older when diagnosed (OR 1.22, 95% CI 0.98-1.51). These findings provide evidence of a generalized excess of cancer in the mothers and siblings of children with cancer. The tendency for risk to be higher in the relatives of children who were younger at cancer diagnosis should be investigated in other large data sets. The excesses of thyroid cancer in parents of children with cancer and of any cancer in relatives of children with leukemia merit further investigation. Copyright © 2013 UICC.

  12. Positive and negative outcomes of childhood cancer: is there a connection between posttraumatic stress and growth in childhood cancer survivors?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koutná, Veronika; Blatný, Marek

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 12 (2017), s. 1-15 E-ISSN 2375-1924 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : posttraumatic stress * posttraumatic growth * childhood cancer survivors Subject RIV: AN - Psychology OBOR OECD: Psychology (including human - machine relations) http://journals.ke-i.org/index.php/mra/article/view/1665/1635

  13. Positive and negative outcomes of childhood cancer: is there a connection between posttraumatic stress and growth in childhood cancer survivors?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koutná, Veronika; Blatný, Marek

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 12 (2017), s. 1-15 E-ISSN 2375-1924 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : posttraumatic stress * posttraumatic growth * childhood cancer survivors Subject RIV: AN - Psychology OBOR OECD: Psychology (including human - machine relations) http://journals.ke-i.org/index. php /mra/article/view/1665/1635

  14. Primary thyroid cancer after a first tumour in childhood (the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study): a nested case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sigurdson, Alice J.; Ronckers, Cécile M.; Mertens, Ann C.; Stovall, Marilyn; Smith, Susan A.; Liu, Yan; Berkow, Roger L.; Hammond, Sue; Neglia, Joseph P.; Meadows, Anna T.; Sklar, Charles A.; Robison, Leslie L.; Inskip, Peter D.

    2005-01-01

    Survivors of malignant disease in childhood who have had radiotherapy to the head, neck, or upper thorax have an increased risk of subsequent primary thyroid cancer, but the magnitude of risk over the therapeutic dose range has not been well established. We aimed to quantify the long-term risk of

  15. Late endocrine effects of cancer and cancer therapies in survivors of childhood malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Pedro; Van Huellen, Hans; Fitzpatrick, Ailbhe; Druce, Maralyn

    2016-03-01

    The development of several cancer treatment modalities including surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy has improved the survival rates of childhood cancers over recent decades, leading to an increase in the population of childhood cancer survivors. Detailed epidemiological studies have demonstrated that childhood cancer survivors frequently develop medical complications months or years after cancer treatment. Endocrine complications are common in survivors, particularly those exposed to radiotherapy, total body irradiation and alkylating agents, and may involve dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary axes, gonads, thyroid gland, bone and body composition as well as metabolic abnormalities. Early identification and proper management of these disorders can significantly improve the quality of life and reduce the morbidity and potentially mortality in this population. Multidisciplinary teams, expert physicians and the development of healthcare structures are key elements for improving the screening, surveillance, cost effectiveness and overall management of endocrine late effects of cancer therapies in childhood cancer survivors. The aim of the present review was to discuss the most important and common late endocrine effects of childhood cancer treatment.

  16. [A childhood and adolescence cancer survivors' association: Les Aguerris].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ly, Kai Yan; Vélius, Élodie; Pitot, Maxime; Rivieri, Lionel; Dupont, Morvan

    2015-01-01

    In France, we can estimate that 50,000 adults are childhood or adolescence cancer survivors. Not all of them will experience late effects but they should be informed about their previous disease and should get a detailed summary of treatment information including a personal plan for late effects screening. They also should have access to appropriate follow-up care including detection and treatment of late effects and provision of support and advice. From a follow-up clinic experience, the need of a survivor association has emerged and "Les Aguerris" has been created with several objectives: to improve the quality of life of survivors providing them information about the possible physical, social and psychological consequences of childhood cancer, to raise awareness of public authorities and other actors on questions regarding the need of long-term follow-up of the patients in dedicated clinics, to support researches about late effects of cancer and treatments and to create a network of adult survivors of childhood cancer in relation with other European survivors or parents associations. This paper describes the activities of the association to fulfill its objectives and the annual national meetings they are organizing. Copyright © 2015 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Domestic Radon Exposure and Risk of Childhood Cancer: A Prospective Census-Based Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hauri, D.; Spycher, B.; Huss, A.; Zimmermann, F.; Grotzer, M.; von der Weid, N.; Weber, D.; Spoerri, A.; Kuehni, C.E.; Röösli, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In contrast with established evidence linking high doses of ionizing radiation with childhood cancer, research on low-dose ionizing radiation and childhood cancer has produced inconsistent results.Objective: We investigated the association between domestic radon exposure and childhood

  18. Fetal Growth and Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Findings from the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium (CLIC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, Elizabeth; Greenop, Kathryn R.; Metayer, Catherine; Schüz, Joachim; Petridou, Eleni; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S.; Infante-Rivard, Claire; Roman, Eve; Dockerty, John D.; Spector, Logan G.; Koifman, Sérgio; Orsi, Laurent; Rudant, Jérémie; Dessypris, Nick; Simpson, Jill; Lightfoot, Tracy; Kaatsch, Peter; Baka, Margarita; Faro, Alessandra; Armstrong, Bruce K.; Clavel, Jacqueline; Buffler, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    Positive associations have been reported between measures of accelerated fetal growth and risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). We investigated this association by pooling individual-level data from 12 case-control studies participating in the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium. Two measures of fetal growth – weight-for-gestational-age and proportion of optimal birth weight (POBW) – were analysed. Study-specific odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using multivariable logistic regression, and combined in fixed effects meta-analyses. Pooled analyses of all data were also undertaken using multivariable logistic regression. Subgroup analyses were undertaken when possible. Data on weight for gestational age were available for 7,348 cases and 12,489 controls from all 12 studies and POBW data were available for 1,680 cases and 3,139 controls from three studies. The summary ORs from the meta-analyses were 1.24 (95% CI 1.13, 1.36) for children who were large for gestational age relative to appropriate for gestational age, and 1.16 (95% CI: 1.09, 1.24) for a one standard deviation increase in POBW. The pooled analyses produced similar results. The summary and pooled ORs for small-for-gestational-age children were 0.83 (95% CI: 0.75, 0.92) and 0.86 (95% CI 0.77, 0.95) respectively. Results were consistent across subgroups defined by sex, ethnicity and immunophenotype, and when the analysis was restricted to children who did not have high birth weight. The evidence that accelerated fetal growth is associated with a modest increased risk of childhood ALL is strong and consistent with known biological mechanisms involving insulin like growth factors. PMID:23754574

  19. Radiological findings of chronic granulomatous disease of childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goo, Jin Mo; Kim, Woo Sun; Kim, In One; Yeon, Kyung Mo [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-04-15

    Chronic granulomatous disease(CGD) is a group of genetic disorders characterized by recurrent pyogenic infections of the respiratory tract, skin, and soft tissue. The aim of this study is to describe the radiological findings of CGD. We retrospectively analyzed radiological findings of 11 patients of CGD, which were diagnosed by nitroblue tetrazolium test. We analyzed the pattern of pneumonia on chest radiograph in all infants. Three cases of chest CT and one case of digital subtraction angiography were performed. According to infant's symptom, abdominal ultrasonography(n = 8), abdominal CT(n = 5), simple bone radiography(n = 2), and brain CT (n = 1) were performed. Repeated infiltration(100%), mass-like consolidation(73%), hilar or mediastinal lymph node largement(64%), scattered nodules(55%), cavity formation(27%), and pleural effusion(27%) were found on the chest radiographs(n = 11) and CT(n = 3). On the abdominal imagings(n = 8), there were hepatosplenomegaly(n = 6), calcification in the liver(n = 2) and kidney(n = 1), hepatic granuloma(n = 1) and renal abscess(n = 1). Two patients had osteomyelitis. There were findings of meningitis on brain CT(n 1). We believe that the combinations of these radiological findings may suggest the diagnosis of CGD in patients with history of reccurent infection.

  20. Clinical and Imaging Findings in Childhood Posterior Reversible Encephalopathy Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    GUNGOR, Serdal; KILIC, Betul; TABEL, Yilmaz; SELIMOGLU, Ayse; OZGEN, Unsal; YILMAZ, Sezai

    2018-01-01

    Objective Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is characterized by typical radiologic findings in the posterior regions of the cerebral hemispheres and cerebellum. The symptoms include headache, nausea, vomiting, visual disturbances, focal neurologic deficits, and seizures. The aim of this study is to evaluate the clinical and radiological features of PRES in children and to emphasize the recognition of atypical features. Materials & Methods We retrospectively examined 23 children with PRES from Mar 2010-Apr 2015 in Inonu University Turgut Ozal Medical Center in Turkey. We compared the clinical features and cranial MRI findings between underlying diseases of PRES. Results The most common precipitating factors were hypertension (78.2%) and medications, namely immunosuppressive and antineoplastic agents (60.8%). Manifestations included mental changes (100%), seizures (95.6%), headache (60.8%), and visual disturbances (21.7%) of mean 3.6 (range 1-10) days' duration. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed bilateral occipital lesions in all patients, associated in 82.6% with less typical distribution of lesions in frontal, temporal or parietal lobes, cerebellum, corpus callosum, basal ganglia, thalamus, and brain stem. Frontal involvement was predominant, observed in 56.5% of patients. Clinical recovery was followed by radiologic resolution in all patients. Conclusion PRES is often unsuspected by the clinician, thus radiologists may be the first to suggest this diagnosis on an MRI obtained for seizures or encephalopathy. Atypical MRI finding is seen quite often. Rapid diagnosis and treatment are required to avoid a devastating outcome. PMID:29379559

  1. Adverse childhood experiences are associated with the risk of lung cancer: A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.W. Brown (David); R.F. Anda (Robert); V.J. Felitti (Vincent); V.J. Edwards (Valerie); A.M. Malarcher (Ann Marie); J.B. Croft (Janet); W.H. Giles (Wayne)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground. Strong relationships between exposure to childhood traumatic stressors and smoking behaviours inspire the question whether these adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are associated with an increased risk of lung cancer during adulthood. Methods. Baseline survey data on health

  2. Central nervous system involvement in childhood HIV: CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muro, D.; Sanguesa, C.; Perez, A.; Otero, C.

    1997-01-01

    To determine the neuroradiological findings disclosed by CT on children infected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and to analyze the different radiological changes observed in the presence and absence of HIV encephalopathy. Fifty-one children with vertically transmitted HIV infection were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of neurological changes (groups I and II, respectively). All the patients underwent cranial CT at different phases during the course of the disease. The presence of cerebral atrophy, calcifications of the basal ganglia, lesions involving white matter, opportunistic infections, vascular lesions and tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) was assessed. Neurological signs were observed in 17 patients (group I) and were absent in 34 (group II). Seventy percent of the patients in group I presented abnormal cranial CT findings, the most common of which were cerebral atrophy (58.8%) and calcifications of the basal ganglia (47%). One patient presented focal white matte lesions, another had hemorrhagic infarction and subdural hematoma and a third presented aneurysmal dilation of the intracerebral arteries. The rate of mortality in children with encephalopathy was 82.3%. Of the 34 patients in group II, Three (8.8%) presented an increase in the size of the ventricular system and of the subarachnoid space. Neuroradiological changes are frequently observed in children with HIV encephalopathy. Diffuse cerebral atrophy and calcification of the basal ganglia and periventricular white matter are the most common findings. Although cerebral atrophy can precede the development of encephalopathy, its presence generally coincides with neurological deterioration. The onset of neurological signs in HIV-infected patients indicates a very poor prognosis for the outcome of the disease. (Author) 32 refs

  3. Radiation therapy in the management of childhood cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kun, L.E.

    1987-01-01

    Over the past two decades, multimodality treatment regimens have produced significant improvement in survival rates for most types of childhood cancer. The role of radiation therapy has been critically evaluated in prospective clinical trials that established the importance of irradiation in assuring local and regional control of disease central to ultimate survival. Indications for cranial and craniospinal irradiation in acute lymphoblastic leukemia are reviewed, as is difficult technical factors important for successful management. The role of radiation therapy in neuroblastoma and Wilms tumor is reviewed in the context of tumor biology and increasing data from multi-institutional trials. Interactions of irradiation with surgery and chemotherapy are stressed in childhood rhabdomyosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma. Current results in the more common central nervous tumors of childhood are presented, including the central role of radiation therapy in medulloblastoma, astrocytoma, and craniopharyngioma. Concerns regarding late effects of radiation therapy are balanced with the importance of achieving disease control

  4. Prenatal x-ray and childhood cancer in twins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, E.B.

    1983-01-01

    In order to evaluate the causal nature of the relationship between prenatal x-ray exposure and childhood cancer, a case control study was conducted in a population of over 32,000 twins born in the state of Connecticut from 1930-1969 and followed to age 15. Thirty-two incident cancer cases were identified by linking the Connecticut Twin and Tumor registries. Each case was matched with four controls on year of birth, sex, race, and survival. Prenatal x-ray information as well as reproductive, delivery and birth data were obtained from the hospital of birth, the physician providing prenatal care, private radiology groups and interviews with hospital staff. The case control study which obtained exposure information on selected subjects found an increased risk of childhood cancer from prenatal x-ray exposure. The risk associated with radiation exposure was elevated in the following subcategories: mother with history of pregnancy loss, a gravity greater than 1, under 30 years of age, and twins weighing five pounds or more at birth. The results, though based on small numbers, strengthen the association between prenatal x-ray exposure and childhood cancer

  5. Predicting Chernobyl childhood thyroid cancers from incoming data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.J.

    1997-01-01

    Data on childhood thyroid cancers contracted in Belarus, the Ukraine and Russia's Bryansk and Kaluga regions have been analysed under the working hypothesis that the excess cancers have been caused by iodine-131 from Chernobyl fallout. It is postulated that the variation in latency period between different individuals is most likely to conform to either a normal or a normal logarithmic distribution. Optimal values of the mean and geometric mean latency period, together with their associated standard deviations, have been found using Belarus data. Both resulting distributions predict significant incidence of childhood thyroid cancer much earlier than ten years after the accident, a length of time widely understood in the past to be the approximate minimum for the development of a radiation-induced, solid tumour. The two distributions incorporating these optimal values have been tested against independent data from the Ukraine and Russian and each distribution has passed the statistical tests to date. Predictions are given for the annual incidence of childhood thyroid cancer in each country and for the total number of excess cases over all years. Tolerances are assigned to the latter figure. (Author)

  6. Obesity in Childhood Cancer Survivors: Call for Early Weight Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang Fang; Parsons, Susan K

    2015-09-01

    A high prevalence of obesity and cardiometabolic conditions has been increasingly recognized in childhood cancer survivors. In particular, survivors of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia have been found to be at risk of becoming overweight or obese early in treatment, with increases in weight maintained throughout treatment and beyond. Nutrition plays an important role in the etiology of obesity and cardiometabolic conditions and is among the few modifiable factors that can prevent or delay the early onset of these chronic conditions. However, nutritional intake in childhood cancer survivors has not been adequately examined and the evidence is built on data from small cohorts of survivors. In addition, the long-term impact of cancer diagnosis and treatment on survivors' nutritional intake as well as how survivors' nutritional intake is associated with chronic health conditions have not been well quantified in large-scale studies. Promoting family-based healthy lifestyles, preferably at a sensitive window of unhealthy weight gain, is a priority for preventing the early onset of obesity and cardiometabolic conditions in childhood cancer survivors. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. Breast Cancer Risk in Childhood Cancer Survivors Without a History of Chest Radiotherapy: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, Chaya S.; Chou, Joanne F.; Bradbury, Angela R.; Neglia, Joseph Phillip; Dang, Chau T.; Onel, Kenan; Novetsky Friedman, Danielle; Bhatia, Smita; Strong, Louise C.; Stovall, Marilyn; Kenney, Lisa B.; Barnea, Dana; Lorenzi, Elena; Hammond, Sue; Leisenring, Wendy M.; Robison, Leslie L.; Armstrong, Gregory T.; Diller, Lisa R.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Little is known about the breast cancer risk among childhood cancer survivors who did not receive chest radiotherapy. We sought to determine the magnitude of risk and associated risk factors for breast cancer among these women. Patients and Methods We evaluated cumulative breast cancer risk in 3,768 female childhood cancer survivors without a history of chest radiotherapy who were participants in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Results With median follow up of 25.5 years (range, 8 to 39 years), 47 women developed breast cancer at a median age of 38.0 years (range, 22 to 47 years) and median of 24.0 years (range, 10 to 34 years) from primary cancer to breast cancer. A four-fold increased breast cancer risk (standardized incidence ratio [SIR] = 4.0; 95% CI, 3.0 to 5.3) was observed when compared with the general population. Risk was highest among sarcoma and leukemia survivors (SIR = 5.3; 95% CI, 3.6 to 7.8 and SIR = 4.1; 95% CI, 2.4 to 6.9, respectively). By the age of 45 years, the cumulative incidence of breast cancer in sarcoma and leukemia survivors was 5.8% (95% CI, 3.7 to 8.4) and 6.3% (95% CI, 3.0 to 11.3), respectively. No other primary cancer diagnosis was associated with an elevated risk. Alkylators and anthracyclines were associated with an increased breast cancer risk in a dose-dependent manner (P values from test for trend were both < .01). Conclusions Women not exposed to chest radiotherapy who survive childhood sarcoma or leukemia have an increased risk of breast cancer at a young age. The data suggest high-dose alkylator and anthracycline chemotherapy increase the risk of breast cancer. This may suggest a possible underlying gene-environment interaction that warrants further study. PMID:26700127

  8. Comparison of radiological findings and microbial aetiology of childhood pneumonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korppi, M.; Kiekara, O.; Kosma, T.H.; Soimakallio, S.

    1993-01-01

    61 children were treated in hospital from 1981 to 1982 because of both radiologically and microbiologically verified viral or bacterial pneumonia. The chest radiographs were interpreted by two radiologists, not familiar with the clinical data, on two occasions three years apart, and only those patients with a definite alveolar or interstitial pneumonia at both evaluations were included in the present analysis. In addition, all patients had viral, mixed viral-bacterial or bacterial infections diagnosed by viral or bacterial antibody or antigen assays. Viral infection alone was seen in 7, mixed viral-bacterial infection in 8 and bacterial infection alone in 12 of the 27 patients with alveolar pneumonia. The respective figures were 13, 13 and 8 for the 34 patients with interstitial pneumonia. C-reactive protein concentration was greater than 40 mg/l in 15 of the patients with alveolar and in 11 of the patients with interstitial pneumonia. Thus 74% of the patients with alveolar and 62% with interstitial pneumonia had bacterial infection, either alone or as a mixed viral-bacterial infection. The results suggest that the presence of an alveolar infiltrate in a chest radiograph is a specific but insensitive indicator of bacterial pneumonia. It is concluded that patients with alveolar pneumonia should be treated with antibiotics. In patients with interstitial pneumonia, however, both viral and bacterial aetiology are possible. In those, the decision concerning antibiotic treatment should be based on clinical and laboratory findings. 21 refs., 4 tabs

  9. Late somatic sequelae after treatment of childhood cancer in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erman Nuša

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This is a long-term follow-up clinical study of adolescents and adults, survivors of childhood cancer. We evaluate and analyze the late somatic sequelae of childhood cancer treatment. Many such studies are susceptible to a strong selection bias, i.e., they employ a limited non-systematic sample of patients, based on a clinical hospital that provided the cancer treatment or performed the follow-up. To address the issue of selection bias, we perform here an analysis of late sequelae on a systematic database of the entire population of the children treated for cancer in Slovenia. Due to the specifics of cancer treatment procedures in Slovenia, they have all been treated and followed-up in the same clinic. Methods The data are based on the centralized registry of cancer patients in Slovenia and present a controlled and homogeneous collection. Late sequelae are evaluated following a modified CTCAE, i.e., the National Cancer Institute’s Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 3.0. We use survival analysis method to estimate the incidence of and risk for late sequelae, where the time variable is measured in years from the diagnosis date, while we follow the event of incidence of late sequelae scored other than none. Survival analysis is performed using KaplanMeier estimator and Cox regression model. Results The incidence of mild, moderate, or severe late sequelae of childhood cancer treatment significantly decreased from 75% in the group of patients diagnosed before 1975 to 55% for those diagnosed after 1995. The Cox regression analysis of the risk factors for the incidence of late sequelae identifies three significant factors: treatment modalities, age at diagnosis, and primary diagnosis. Conclusions The change of treatment modalities in terms of replacement of surgery and radiotherapy with chemotherapy is the main reason for the decrease of the incidence and the risk for late sequelae of childhood cancer treatment

  10. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy for cancers in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leseur, J.; Le Prise, E.; Leseur, J.; Carrie, C.; Beneyton, V.; Bernier, V.; Beneyton, V.; Mahee, M.A.; Supiot, S.

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 40-50% of children with cancer will be irradiated during their treatment. Intensity-modulated radiotherapy (I.M.R.T.) by linear accelerator or helical tomo-therapy improves dose distribution in target volumes and normal tissue sparing. This technology could be particularly useful for pediatric patients to achieve an optimal dose distribution in complex volumes close to critical structures. The use of I.M.R.T. can increase the volume of tissue receiving low-dose radiation, and consequently carcinogenicity in childhood population with a good overall survival and long period of life expectancy. This review will present the current and potential I.M.R.T. indications for cancers in childhood, and discuss the benefits and problems of this technology aiming to define recommendations in the use of I.M.R.T. and specific doses constraints in Pediatrics. (authors)

  11. Radiologic findings of male breast cancer: two cases report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Soo Young; Kim, Sook Hyun; Bae, Sang Hoon; Ahn, Hye Kyung [Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-09-15

    Male breast cancer is very rare, with the incidence of 0.15-1% of all breast cancers and less than 1% of all cancers in men. The prognosis of male breast cancer is poorer than that of female because the median age of detection of the disease is in more late stage. It usually involves higher axillary lymph nodes. We report two case of male breast cancer to describe characteristic mammographic and ultrasonographic findings and to compare with the findings of gynaecomastia.

  12. Reproductive Late Effects in Female Survivors of Childhood Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Gnaneswaran, Shivany; Deans, Rebecca; Cohn, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Childhood cancer treatments can cause female reproductive late effects. Radiation to the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis is associated with altered menarche, miscarriage, and implantation failure. Patients who receive chemotherapy and/or ovarian radiation are at risk of premature ovarian failure; the risk increases with increasing radiation dose, alkylating agent score, combination therapy, and older age at treatment. Ovarian reserve may be assessed using antimullerian hormone assay and u...

  13. Individual Prediction of Heart Failure Among Childhood Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Eric J.; Chen, Yan; Kremer, Leontien C.; Breslow, Norman E.; Hudson, Melissa M.; Armstrong, Gregory T.; Border, William L.; Feijen, Elizabeth A.M.; Green, Daniel M.; Meacham, Lillian R.; Meeske, Kathleen A.; Mulrooney, Daniel A.; Ness, Kirsten K.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Sklar, Charles A.; Stovall, Marilyn; van der Pal, Helena J.; Weathers, Rita E.; Robison, Leslie L.; Yasui, Yutaka

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To create clinically useful models that incorporate readily available demographic and cancer treatment characteristics to predict individual risk of heart failure among 5-year survivors of childhood cancer. Patients and Methods Survivors in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) free of significant cardiovascular disease 5 years after cancer diagnosis (n = 13,060) were observed through age 40 years for the development of heart failure (ie, requiring medications or heart transplantation or leading to death). Siblings (n = 4,023) established the baseline population risk. An additional 3,421 survivors from Emma Children's Hospital (Amsterdam, the Netherlands), the National Wilms Tumor Study, and the St Jude Lifetime Cohort Study were used to validate the CCSS prediction models. Results Heart failure occurred in 285 CCSS participants. Risk scores based on selected exposures (sex, age at cancer diagnosis, and anthracycline and chest radiotherapy doses) achieved an area under the curve of 0.74 and concordance statistic of 0.76 at or through age 40 years. Validation cohort estimates ranged from 0.68 to 0.82. Risk scores were collapsed to form statistically distinct low-, moderate-, and high-risk groups, corresponding to cumulative incidences of heart failure at age 40 years of 0.5% (95% CI, 0.2% to 0.8%), 2.4% (95% CI, 1.8% to 3.0%), and 11.7% (95% CI, 8.8% to 14.5%), respectively. In comparison, siblings had a cumulative incidence of 0.3% (95% CI, 0.1% to 0.5%). Conclusion Using information available to clinicians soon after completion of childhood cancer therapy, individual risk for subsequent heart failure can be predicted with reasonable accuracy and discrimination. These validated models provide a framework on which to base future screening strategies and interventions. PMID:25287823

  14. Prenatal x-ray exposure and childhood cancer in twins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, E.B.; Boice, J.D. Jr.; Honeyman, M.; Flannery, J.T.

    1985-01-01

    A case-control study was conducted to investigate the relation between prenatal exposure to x-rays and childhood cancer, including leukemia, in over 32,000 twins born in Connecticut from 1930 to 1969. Twins as opposed to single births were chosen for study to reduce the likelihood of medical selection bias, since twins were often exposed to x-rays to diagnose the twin pregnancy or to determine fetal positioning before delivery and not because of medical conditions that may conceivably pre-dispose to cancer. Each of 31 incident cases of cancer, identified by linking the Connecticut twin and tumor registries, was matched with four twin controls according to sex, year of birth, and race. Records of hospitals, radiologists, and private physicians were searched for histories of x-ray exposure and other potentially important risk factors. Documented prenatal x-ray exposures were found for 39 per cent of the cases (12 of 31) and for 26 per cent of the controls (28 of 109). No other pregnancy, delivery, or maternal conditions were associated with cancer risk except low birth weight: 38 per cent of the cases as compared with 25 per cent of the controls weighed under 2.27 kg at birth. When birth weight was adjusted for, twins in whom leukemia or other childhood cancer developed were twice as likely to have been exposed to x-rays in utero as twins who were free of disease (relative risk, 2.4; 95 per cent confidence interval, 1.0 to 5.9). The results, though based on small numbers, provide further evidence that low-dose prenatal irradiation may increase the risk of childhood cancer

  15. Hospital contact for mental disorders in survivors of childhood cancer and their siblings in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Lasse Wegener; Winther, Jeanette; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2013-01-01

    Survivors of childhood cancer are known to be at risk for long-term physical and mental effects. However, little is known about how cancers can affect mental health in the siblings of these patients. We aimed to assess the long-term risks of mental disorders in survivors of childhood cancer...... and their siblings....

  16. Bleomycin-associated Lung Toxicity in Childhood Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorzi, Alexandra P; Yang, Connie L; Dell, Sharon; Nathan, Paul C

    2015-11-01

    Pulmonary disease is a significant morbidity among childhood cancer survivors. The aim of this study was to characterize the pulmonary dysfunction experienced by childhood cancer survivors treated with bleomycin. A cross-sectional analysis of pulmonary function testing (PFT) in survivors treated with bleomycin was preformed. The most recent posttherapy PFT was assessed. Spirometry and lung volumes were categorized as normal, restrictive, obstructive, or mixed. Diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide (DLCO) was categorized as normal or abnormal. PFT data of 143 survivors was analyzed. PFTs were performed a median of 2.3 years (interquartile range, 1.4 to 4.9) from completion of therapy. Spirometry was abnormal in 58 (41%), only 5 (9%) had respiratory symptoms. Forty-two (70%) had obstructive, 11 (18%) restrictive, and 5 (9%) mixed ventilatory defects. The majority of abnormalities were mild (91%). DLCO was abnormal in 27. Reductions were mild in 96%. Patients with a history of relapse were more likely to develop abnormalities in spirometry and/or DLCO (odds ratio=5.02, 95% confidence interval: 1.3-19.4, P=0.01; odds ratio=3.47, 95% confidence interval: 1.01-11.9, P=0.03). Asymptomatic abnormalities of PFT are common among childhood cancer survivors treated with bleomycin and associated with a history of relapse. Research studying the risk for clinical progression of this dysfunction is warranted.

  17. Bilateral breast cancer : mammographic and clinical findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun Kyung; Oh, Ki Keun; Jun, Hwang Yoon; Lee, Byung Chan; Lee, Kyong Sik; Lee, Yong Hee

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the mammographic and clinical features of bilateral breast cancer. We retrospectively reviewed clinical records(n=23) and mammograms (n=15) of 23 patients with bilateral breast cancer. Patients' age, location of the tumor and pathologic staging were determined from clinical records. Mammographic features were classified as spiculated mass, nonspiculated mass, mass with microcalcification, microcalcification only, asymmetric density, and normal. Of the 23 cases of bilateral breast cancer, 8(34.8%) were synchronous and 15(65.2%) were metachronous. Age at diagnosis of cancer in the first breast was between 27 and 59(mean 43) years ; there was no statistically significant difference in mean age between patients with synchronous and metachronous cancer. The mean interval between the diagnosis of each lesion of the metachronous pairs was 9.1 years. In 11 of 23 cases(48%), tumors were locaated in the same quadrant, and in the other 12 cases(52%), they were in different quadrant. At mammography, five of 15 metachronous cancers(33%) were similar in appearance and 10 pairs(67%) were different. In 4 of 23 cases(17%), cancer in the first breast was at stage 0 and stage 1, and in 13 of 23(57%), cancer in the second breast was at this same stage. In bilateral breast cancer, the two breasts frequently show different mammographic features. Cancer of the second breast was at an early stage; this suggest that regular examination and mammography are important and can allow early detection of contralateral breast cancer

  18. Molecular profiling of childhood cancer: Biomarkers and novel therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saletta, Federica; Wadham, Carol; Ziegler, David S; Marshall, Glenn M; Haber, Michelle; McCowage, Geoffrey; Norris, Murray D; Byrne, Jennifer A

    2014-06-01

    Technological advances including high-throughput sequencing have identified numerous tumor-specific genetic changes in pediatric and adolescent cancers that can be exploited as targets for novel therapies. This review provides a detailed overview of recent advances in the application of target-specific therapies for childhood cancers, either as single agents or in combination with other therapies. The review summarizes preclinical evidence on which clinical trials are based, early phase clinical trial results, and the incorporation of predictive biomarkers into clinical practice, according to cancer type. There is growing evidence that molecularly targeted therapies can valuably add to the arsenal available for treating childhood cancers, particularly when used in combination with other therapies. Nonetheless the introduction of molecularly targeted agents into practice remains challenging, due to the use of unselected populations in some clinical trials, inadequate methods to evaluate efficacy, and the need for improved preclinical models to both evaluate dosing and safety of combination therapies. The increasing recognition of the heterogeneity of molecular causes of cancer favors the continued development of molecularly targeted agents, and their transfer to pediatric and adolescent populations.

  19. Familial Investigations of Childhood Cancer Predisposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-03

    Acute Leukemia; Adenomatous Polyposis; Adrenocortical Carcinoma; AML; BAP1 Tumor Predisposition Syndrome; Carney Complex; Choroid Plexus Carcinoma; Constitutional Mismatch Repair Deficiency Syndrome; Diamond-Blackfan Anemia; DICER1 Syndrome; Dyskeratosis Congenita; Emberger Syndrome; Familial Acute Myeloid Leukemia; Familial Adenomatous Polyposis; Fanconi Anemia; Familial Cancer; Familial Wilms Tumor; Familial Neuroblastoma; GIST; Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer; Hereditary Paraganglioma-Pheochromocytoma Syndrome; Hodgkin Lymphoma; Juvenile Polyposis; Li-Fraumeni Syndrome; Lynch Syndrome; MDS; Melanoma Syndrome; Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1; Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 2; Neuroblastoma; Neurofibromatosis Type 1; Neurofibromatosis Type II; Nevoid Basal Cell Carcinoma Syndrome; Non Hodgkin Lymphoma; Noonan Syndrome and Other Rasopathy; Overgrowth Syndromes; Pancreatic Cancer; Peutz-Jeghers Syndrome; Pheochromocytoma/Paraganglioma; PTEN Hamartoma Tumor Syndrome; Retinoblastoma; Rhabdoid Tumor Predisposition Syndrome; Rhabdomyosarcoma; Rothmund-Thomson Syndrome; Tuberous Sclerosis; Von Hippel-Lindau Disease

  20. Normal variants and non-pathologic findings of the skeletal system in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaper, J.; Heinen, W.

    2006-01-01

    The knowledge of normal variants of the skeletal system in childhood protects the child from false radiologic diagnosis and the resulting malpractice. In this article we present a survey of common variants of childhood skeletal system. The awareness of these entities, e. g. the benign extraaxial fluid collections of infancy, allows accurate clinical and radiological diagnosis. The most important impact of radiological expertise in normal variations results in avoidance of unneccessary examinations and in omission of unsubstantiated parental and patients fears. Nearly all normal variations with definite radiologic findings should be treated according to the ''leave-me-alone'' principle. (orig.)

  1. Domestic Radon and Childhood Cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Andersen, Claus Erik; Andersen, Helle P.

    2008-01-01

    : We identified 2400 incident cases of leukemia, central nervous system tumor, and malignant lymphoma diagnosed in children between 1968 and 1994 in the Danish Cancer Registry. Control children (n = 6697) were selected from the Danish Central Population Registry. Radon levels in residences of children...

  2. School attendance in childhood cancer survivors and their siblings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Amy E; Tsangaris, Elena; Barrera, Maru; Guger, Sharon; Brown, Robert; Urbach, Stacey; Stephens, Derek; Nathan, Paul C

    2013-01-01

    To investigate school absenteeism among childhood cancer survivors and their siblings and examine factors related to absenteeism in survivors. A cross-sectional study was conducted among consecutive cancer survivors attending a large pediatric cancer survivor clinic. Absenteeism rates were obtained for survivors and their closest in age sibling from school report cards. Absenteeism was compared with a population control group of 167752 students using 1-sample t tests. The Child Vulnerability Scale, Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory, and Behavior Assessment System for Children were administered to survivors. Univariate and multiple regression analyses assessed variables associated with days absent. One hundred thirty-one survivors (median age at assessment: 13.4 years, range 8.0-19.2; median age at diagnosis: 9.4 years, range 4.3-17.3) and 77 siblings (median age at assessment: 13 years, age range 7-18) participated. Survivors and siblings missed significantly more school days than the population control group (mean ± SD: 9.6 ± 9.2 and 9.9 ± 9.8 vs 5.0 ± 5.6 days, respectively, P sibling pairs (N = 77), there was no difference in absenteeism (9.6 ± 9.2 vs 9.9 ± 9.8 days, P = .85). Absenteeism in survivors was significantly associated with a low Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Physical Health Summary Score (P = .01). Parents' perception of their child's vulnerability and emotional and social functioning were not associated with absenteeism. Childhood cancer survivors and siblings miss more school than the general population. The only predictor of absenteeism in survivors is poor physical quality of health. More research should be devoted to school attendance and other outcomes in siblings of childhood cancer survivors. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Childhood body mass index and the risk of prostate cancer in adult men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, J; Gamborg, M; Cook, M B

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer aetiology is poorly understood. It may have origins early in life; previously we found a positive association with childhood height. The effects of early life body mass index (BMI; kg m(-2)) on prostate cancer remain equivocal. We investigated if childhood BMI...... to the Danish Cancer Registry. Cox proportional hazards regressions were performed. RESULTS: Overall, 3355 men were diagnosed with prostate cancer. Body mass index during childhood was positively associated with adult prostate cancer. The hazard ratio of prostate cancer was 1.06 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1...

  4. CT findings of primary lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yeon Won; Kim, So Seon; Woo, Young Hoon; Kim, Ho Joon; Chun, Byung Hee; Suh, Jung Hyek; Suh, Soo Jhi

    1985-01-01

    Authors retrospectively analyzed the CT findings of 102 cases of histologically proven bronchogenic carcinoma during last 4 years from January 1980 to July 1984 at Kosin Medical College. The results were as follows: 1. The sex ratio was 86 males to 16 females and the greatest number (66.7%) of cases were seen in fourth and fifth decades. 2. The distribution of histologic types of primary lung cancer as follows: Squamous cell carcinoma 66 cases, Adenocarcinoma 10 cases, Small cell carcinoma 7 cases, Large cell carcinoma 5 cases, Bronchioloalveolar cell carcinoma 1 case, Unclassified 13 cases. 3. Location of primary lesions as follows: Right lung 61 cases, Left lung 40 cases. In both lungs, the greatest number of cases were found in the upper lobes. Ratio between central and peripheral mass was 2.5:1, except adenocarcinoma (6:4). 4. CT findings were as follows: Hilar or central mass (75 cases), Peripheral mass (26), Bronchial abnormalities such as narrowing, obstruction, or displacement (60), Thickening of the posterior wall of the right upper lobe bronchus, bronchus intermedius, or left main bronchus (17), Post-obstructive changes; Atelectasis, Pneumonitis, Emphysema (34, 17, 1 respectively), Hilar adenopathy (21), Mediastinal lymph node enlargement (50), Mediastinal invasion (51), Pericardial thickening (5), SVC syndrome with collateral vessels (3), Pleural effusion (27), Pleural thickening or invasion (14), Chest wall invasion (2), Distant metastasis (26). 5. In most of patients (92 cases), the size of mass was above 3cm, but in 9 cases below 3cm. Margins of the masses were serrated or lobulated in most cases. In 5 cases, cavitary formations were noted, walls of which were thick and irregular, and air-fluid level was noted in 1 case. In 2 cases, eccentric calcification were noted within mass. 6. Among 51 cases of whom direct mediastinal invasion was suspected, 8 cases were operated upon, and this revealed that the masses were not resectable. Among the patients in

  5. Surviving a childhood cancer: impact on education and employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maule, Milena; Zugna, Daniela; Migliore, Enrica; Alessi, Daniela; Merletti, Franco; Onorati, Roberta; Zengarini, Nicolás; Costa, Giuseppe; Spadea, Teresa

    2017-07-01

    Long-term consequences of childhood cancer encompass adverse psychosocial effects that may severely limit the opportunity to live a satisfying and productive life. We assessed the social integration of adults cured of a cancer in their first 14 years of life by record linkage between the population-based Childhood Cancer Registry of Piedmont and the Turin Longitudinal Study. We compared education and employment outcomes within the cohort of survivors and between the cohort of survivors and their peers in the general population through logistic regression. Individuals cured of a childhood tumour have a higher risk of not obtaining educational qualifications [odds ratio (OR) 0.67 (95% confidence interval 0.40-1.11) for compulsory school, OR 0.81 (0.61-1.07) for higher education] or employment, OR 0.66 (0.45-0.98), than the general population. This problem is particularly severe for individuals cured of a central nervous system neoplasm: OR 0.56 (0.31-1.01) for higher education and OR 0.28 (0.13-0.58) for employment. Within-cohort comparisons show that men are less likely to obtain educational goals than women, OR 0.72 (0.40-1.29), but more likely to be employed, OR 2.18 (0.90-5.28); parental education (university qualifications) is positively associated with the success of the child's education, OR 9.54 (2.60-35.02), but not with their employment status, OR 1.02 (0.21-4.85). Strategies should be put in place to mitigate the risk of adverse psychosocial effects from the beginning of treatment to cure and beyond to offer those suffering a cancer at a young age the possibility of full integration into society.

  6. Predictors of marriage and divorce in adult survivors of childhood cancers: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janson, Christopher; Leisenring, Wendy; Cox, Cheryl; Termuhlen, Amanda M; Mertens, Ann C; Whitton, John A; Goodman, Pamela; Zeltzer, Lonnie; Robison, Leslie L; Krull, Kevin R; Kadan-Lottick, Nina S

    2009-10-01

    Adult survivors of childhood cancer can have altered social functioning. We sought to identify factors that predict marriage and divorce outcomes in this growing population. This was a retrospective cohort study of 8,928 > or = 5-year adult survivors of childhood malignancy and 2,879 random sibling controls participating in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Marital status, current health, psychological status, and neurocognitive functioning were determined from surveys and validated instruments. Survivors were more likely to be never-married than siblings [relative risk (RR), 1.21; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 1.15-1.26] and the U.S. population (RR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.21-1.29), after adjusting for age, gender, and race. Patients with central nervous system tumors were at greatest risk of not marrying (RR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.41-1.59). Married survivors divorced at frequencies similar to controls. In multivariable regression analysis, nonmarriage was most associated with cranial radiation (RR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.02-1.31 for > 2,400 centigray). In analysis of neurobehavioral functioning, nonmarriage was associated with worse task efficiency (RR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.20-1.35), but not with emotional distress, or problems with emotional regulation, memory, or organization. Physical conditions predictive of nonmarriage included short stature (RR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.20-1.34) and poor physical function (RR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.00-1.18). Structural equation modeling suggested that cranial radiation influenced marriage status through short stature, cognitive problems, and poor physical function. Childhood cancer survivors married at lower frequencies compared with peers. Patients with central nervous system tumors, cranial radiation, impaired processing efficiency, and short stature were more likely to never marry. Divorce patterns in survivors were similar to peers.

  7. The mediating roles of cancer-related rumination in the relationship between dispositional hope and psychological outcomes among childhood cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Ada N Y; Ho, Samuel M Y; Chan, Calais K Y

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to examine the effects of dispositional hope on psychopathology as well as self-perceived positive change in childhood cancer survivors through the potential mediation of cancer-related ruminations. A cross-sectional design was used, and a group of childhood cancer survivors (N = 89; mean age = 23.2 years; age range = 17.2-31.3 years) were studied. Dispositional hope level was measured by the Hope Scale; positive and negative cancer-related ruminations were assessed by the Chinese Cancer-related Rumination Scale; depression symptoms were measured by Beck Depression Inventory; and anxiety symptoms were measured by Beck Anxiety Inventory. Positive adjustment outcome of posttraumatic growth (PTG) was assessed by the Chinese Post-traumatic Growth Inventory. Multiple regressions were used to analyze the relationship between dispositional hope and the outcome variables of PTG, anxiety and depression and the potential mediators of positive and negative cancer-related rumination. Dispositional hope was positively related to PTG, and the correlation was specifically mediated by positive cancer-related rumination. Dispositional hope also correlated with lower levels of depression and anxiety, specifically mediated by negative cancer-related rumination. The present finding supported hope as a significant positive factor for childhood cancer survivors, which was associated with PTG and better psychological adjustment. The findings may inform development of therapeutic intervention programs aimed at increasing childhood cancer patients' hope levels, which may be correlated with more positive cancer-related thoughts and better adjustment. The present study, which examined survivors diagnosed at young age, may enrich existing studies on the effect of onset age and adjustment outcomes. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Beyond the bench and the bedside: economic and health systems dimensions of global childhood cancer outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denburg, Avram E; Knaul, Felicia M; Atun, Rifat; Frazier, Lindsay A; Barr, Ronald D

    2014-03-01

    Globally, the number of new cases of childhood cancer continues to rise, with a widening gulf in outcomes across countries, despite the availability of effective cure options for many pediatric cancers. Economic forces and health system realities are deeply embedded in the foundation of disparities in global childhood cancer outcomes. A truly global effort to close the childhood cancer divide therefore requires systemic solutions. Analysis of the economic and health system dimensions of childhood cancer outcomes is essential to progress in childhood cancer survival around the globe. The conceptual power of this approach is significant. It provides insight into how and where pediatric oncology entwines with broader political and economic conditions, and highlights the mutual benefit derived from systems-oriented solutions. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Nuclear installations and childhood cancer in the U.K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldsmith, J.R.

    1990-01-01

    The report in November 1983 of a cluster of childhood leukemia cases in the vicinity of the Sellafield (Windscale) nuclear facility on the west coast of England has led to a substantial effort to study possible excess cancer in the vicinity of British nuclear installations. Although some additional excesses were found, the causal relationship with radionuclides was thought unlikely because the estimated doses were below those established as causal of increase in human leukemia. Since 1956, we have known that diagnostic x-rays during pregnancy are associated with increased risks from childhood cancer, especially leukemia. Gardner et al. showed that excess cases near Sellafield were in children born there, and no excess occurred among in-migrants. Roman et al. showed that significant elevations in leukemia among children living near three nuclear installations in the Midlands were only at 0-5 y, suggesting that the relevant exposure was prenatal. We identify and discuss a set of epidemiological, dosage estimation, and modeling problems relevant to interpretation of such data. We conclude that: (1) a red bone marrow-based model for brief, high-level exposures of adults associated with myelogenous leukemia is inappropriate for evaluating the impact of internal emitters, relatively continuous exposures in perinatal periods in association with acute lymphatic leukemia; (2) incidence of mortality rates of childhood leukemia should be evaluated in the vicinity of nuclear installations in many countries; and (3) in contrast to nuclear reprocessing and nuclear weapons installations, there is little evidence of excess childhood leukemia among residents in areas adjacent to nuclear power installations in the U.K

  10. Characterization of genomic alterations in radiation-associated breast cancer among childhood cancer survivors, using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH arrays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong R Yang

    Full Text Available Ionizing radiation is an established risk factor for breast cancer. Epidemiologic studies of radiation-exposed cohorts have been primarily descriptive; molecular events responsible for the development of radiation-associated breast cancer have not been elucidated. In this study, we used array comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH to characterize genome-wide copy number changes in breast tumors collected in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS. Array-CGH data were obtained from 32 cases who developed a second primary breast cancer following chest irradiation at early ages for the treatment of their first cancers, mostly Hodgkin lymphoma. The majority of these cases developed breast cancer before age 45 (91%, n = 29, had invasive ductal tumors (81%, n = 26, estrogen receptor (ER-positive staining (68%, n = 19 out of 28, and high proliferation as indicated by high Ki-67 staining (77%, n = 17 out of 22. Genomic regions with low-copy number gains and losses and high-level amplifications were similar to what has been reported in sporadic breast tumors, however, the frequency of amplifications of the 17q12 region containing human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2 was much higher among CCSS cases (38%, n = 12. Our findings suggest that second primary breast cancers in CCSS were enriched for an "amplifier" genomic subgroup with highly proliferative breast tumors. Future investigation in a larger irradiated cohort will be needed to confirm our findings.

  11. Mental health insurance access and utilization among childhood cancer survivors: a report from the childhood cancer survivor study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Giselle K; Kirchhoff, Anne C; Recklitis, Christopher; Krull, Kevin R; Kuhlthau, Karen A; Nathan, Paul C; Rabin, Julia; Armstrong, Gregory T; Leisenring, Wendy; Robison, Leslie L; Park, Elyse R

    2018-04-15

    To describe and compare the prevalence of mental health access, preference, and use among pediatric cancer survivors and their siblings. To identify factors associated with mental health access and use among survivors. Six hundred ninety-eight survivors in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (median age = 39.4; median years from diagnosis = 30.8) and 210 siblings (median age = 40.4) were surveyed. Outcomes included having mental health insurance coverage, delaying care due to cost, perceived value of mental health benefits, and visiting a mental health provider in the past year. There were no differences in mental health access, preferences, and use between survivors and siblings (p > 0.05). Among respondents with a history of distress, most reported not having seen a mental health provider in the past year (80.9% survivors vs. 77.1% siblings; p = 0.60). Uninsured survivors were more likely to defer mental health services due to cost (24.6 vs. 8.4%; p mental health coverage. Most childhood cancer survivors value having mental healthcare benefits; however, coverage and use of mental health services remain suboptimal. The most vulnerable of survivors, specifically the uninsured and those with a history of distress, are at risk of experiencing challenges accessing mental health care. Childhood cancer survivors are at risk for experiencing high levels of daily life stress that is compounded by treatment-related sequelae. Integrative, system-based approaches that incorporate financial programs with patient education about insurance benefits can help reduce some of the financial barriers survivors face.

  12. Risk Factors Associated With Secondary Sarcomas in Childhood Cancer Survivors: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, Tara O.; Rajaraman, Preetha; Stovall, Marilyn; Constine, Louis S.; Olive, Aliza; Smith, Susan A.; Mertens, Ann; Meadows, Anna; Neglia, Joseph P.; Hammond, Sue; Whitton, John; Inskip, Peter D.; Robison, Leslie L.; Diller, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Childhood cancer survivors have an increased risk of secondary sarcomas. To better identify those at risk, the relationship between therapeutic dose of chemotherapy and radiation and secondary sarcoma should be quantified. Methods and Materials: We conducted a nested case-control study of secondary sarcomas (105 cases, 422 matched controls) in a cohort of 14,372 childhood cancer survivors. Radiation dose at the second malignant neoplasm (SMN) site and use of chemotherapy were estimated from detailed review of medical records. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by conditional logistic regression. Excess odds ratio (EOR) was modeled as a function of radiation dose, chemotherapy, and host factors. Results: Sarcomas occurred a median of 11.8 years (range, 5.3–31.3 years) from original diagnosis. Any exposure to radiation was associated with increased risk of secondary sarcoma (OR = 4.1, 95% CI = 1.8–9.5). A dose–response relation was observed, with elevated risks at doses between 10 and 29.9 Gy (OR = 15.6, 95% CI = 4.5–53.9), 30–49.9 Gy (OR = 16.0, 95% CI 3.8–67.8) and >50 Gy (OR = 114.1, 95% CI 13.5–964.8). Anthracycline exposure was associated with sarcoma risk (OR = 3.5, 95% CI = 1.6–7.7) adjusting for radiation dose, other chemotherapy, and primary cancer. Adjusting for treatment, survivors with a first diagnosis of Hodgkin lymphoma (OR = 10.7, 95% CI = 3.1–37.4) or primary sarcoma (OR = 8.4, 95% CI = 3.2–22.3) were more likely to develop a sarcoma. Conclusions: Of the risk factors evaluated, radiation exposure was the most important for secondary sarcoma development in childhood cancer survivors; anthracycline chemotherapy exposure was also associated with increased risk.

  13. Leukemia after therapy with alkylating agents for childhood cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucker, M.A.; Meadows, A.T.; Boice, J.D. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The risk of leukemia was evaluated in 9,170 2-or-more-year survivors of childhood cancer in the 13 institutions of the Late Effects Study Group. Secondary leukemia occurred in 22 nonreferred individuals compared to 1.52 expected, based on general population rates [relative risk (RR) = 14; 95% confidence interval (CI), 9-22]. The influence of therapy for the first cancer on subsequent leukemia risk was determined by a case-control study conducted on 25 cases and 90 matched controls. Treatment with alkylating agents was associated with a significantly elevated risk of leukemia (RR = 4.8; 95% CI, 1.2-18.9). A strong dose-response relationship was also observed between leukemia risk and total dose of alkylating agents, estimated by an alkylator score. The RR of leukemia reached 23 in the highest dose category. Radiation therapy, however, did not increase risk. Although doxorubicin was also identified as a possible risk factor, the excess risk of leukemia following treatment for childhood cancer appears almost entirely due to alkylating agents

  14. US findings of bilateral primary breast cancer: Retrospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lou Li; Cong Xinli; Yu Guofang; Li Jichang; Ma Yuxiang

    2007-01-01

    Background: For women with breast cancer, the contralateral breast is at high risk. The bilateral cancers may be synchronous or metachronous. If the bilateral breast cancers have similar ultrasonography (US) appearances, the US findings of the first breast cancer (index cancer) might lead to early detection of the contralateral cancer. The purpose of this study was to identify the US characteristics of bilateral breast cancer and to determine whether bilateral breast cancers have similar US appearances and whether the US findings for one breast cancer might be predictive of the contralateral breast cancer. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the US manifestations of 58 patients with surgically proven bilateral primary breast cancer and compared the contralateral cancer with the index cancer by evaluation the margin, shape, inside echoes, posterior attenuation, calcification and color flow signals of 58 lesion pairs to investigate whether the bilateral breast cancers have similar US appearances. Results: Bilateral primary breast cancers were more located in upper outer quadrant, frequently spiculation, taller than wide shape, with irregular margin, heterogeneous internal echo and acoustic shadowing, containing microcalcification and abundant color flow signals. The most common US appearances were taller than wide shape (75.0%, 87/116), irregular margins (79.3%, 92/116) and heterogeneous internal echo (86.2%, 100/116). Of the total 58 lesion pairs, 18 (31.0%) pairs had similar US characteristics, whereas 40 (69.0%) pairs had different US characteristics. Conclusions: US signs of the index cancer do not indicate the most likely appearance of the second cancer in the contralateral breast. Evaluation of the contralateral cancer should be performed without regard for the US findings for the index cancer

  15. Infertility, infertility treatment, and achievement of pregnancy in female survivors of childhood cancer: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Sara E.; Najita, Julie S.; Ginsburg, Elizabeth S.; Leisenring, Wendy M.; Stovall, Marilyn; Weathers, Rita E.; Sklar, Charles A.; Robison, Leslie L.; Diller, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Background Prior studies have documented decreased pregnancy rates and early menopause in female cancer survivors; however, infertility rates and reproductive interventions have not been studied. This study investigates infertility and time to pregnancy among female childhood cancer survivors, and analyzes treatment characteristics associated with infertility and subsequent pregnancy. Methods The Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) is a cohort study including five-year cancer survivors from 26 institutions who were infertility, medical treatment for infertility, the time to first pregnancy in survivors and siblings, and the risk of infertility in survivors by demographic, disease, and treatment variables were analyzed. Findings Survivors had an increased risk of clinical infertility (>1 year of attempts at conception without success) compared to siblings which was most pronounced at early reproductive ages (≤24 years Relative Risk (RR)=2·92, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1·18–7·20; 25–29 years RR=1·61, 95% CI 1·05–2·48; 30–39 years RR=1·37, 95% CI 1·11–1·69). Despite being equally likely to seek treatment for infertility, survivors were less likely to be prescribed medication for treatment of infertility (RR=0·57, 95% CI 0·46–0·70). Increasing doses of uterine radiation and alkylating agent chemotherapy were most strongly associated with infertility. Although survivors had an increased time to pregnancy interval (p=0·032), 64·2% (292/455) with infertility achieved a pregnancy. Interpretation A more comprehensive understanding of infertility after cancer is critical for counseling and decision-making regarding future attempts at conception as well as fertility preservation. PMID:23856401

  16. Low levels of energy expenditure in childhood cancer survivors: Implications for obesity prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood cancer survivors are at an increased risk of obesity but causes for this elevated risk are uncertain. We evaluated total energy expenditure in childhood cancer survivors using the doubly labeled water method in a cross-sectional study of 17 survivors of pediatric leukemia or lymphoma (medi...

  17. Childhood leukaemia risks: from unexplained findings near nuclear installations to recommendations for future research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurier, D; Jacob, S; Grosche, B; Dehos, A; Hornhardt, S; Ziegelberger, G

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings related to childhood leukaemia incidence near nuclear installations have raised questions which can be answered neither by current knowledge on radiation risk nor by other established risk factors. In 2012, a workshop was organised on this topic with two objectives: (a) review of results and discussion of methodological limitations of studies near nuclear installations; (b) identification of directions for future research into the causes and pathogenesis of childhood leukaemia. The workshop gathered 42 participants from different disciplines, extending widely outside of the radiation protection field. Regarding the proximity of nuclear installations, the need for continuous surveillance of childhood leukaemia incidence was highlighted, including a better characterisation of the local population. The creation of collaborative working groups was recommended for consistency in methodologies and the possibility of combining data for future analyses. Regarding the causes of childhood leukaemia, major fields of research were discussed (environmental risk factors, genetics, infections, immunity, stem cells, experimental research). The need for multidisciplinary collaboration in developing research activities was underlined, including the prevalence of potential predisposition markers and investigating further the infectious aetiology hypothesis. Animal studies and genetic/epigenetic approaches appear of great interest. Routes for future research were pointed out. (review)

  18. The perceived influence of childhood cancer on the parents' relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, L; Battles, H; Zadeh, S; Pelletier, W; Arruda-Colli, M N F; Muriel, Anna C

    2017-12-01

    When a child is diagnosed with cancer, parents are faced with many practical and emotional challenges that can significantly affect their relationship. This study explores how having a child with cancer affects the quality of the parents' relationship, categorizes time points and events during the child's treatment when the relationship becomes most stressed and/or strengthened, identifies factors that help couples remain emotionally engaged throughout their child's cancer treatment, and assesses parental interest in a counseling intervention. This is a cross-sectional, multicenter study conducted via a semistructured self-administered questionnaire that included the Revised Dyadic Adjustment Scale. One hundred ninety-two parents of children diagnosed between the ages of 1 and 21 participated. Forty percent felt their relationship moved in a negative direction. Diagnosis and relapse of disease were cited as the most individually stressful time points in the disease trajectory, with hospitalizations and relapse being most stressful on the relationship. Participants felt most emotionally connected at diagnosis and least emotionally connected at the start and end of treatment. The majority of couples indicated interest in counseling to address ways to support their relationship. Soon after diagnosis and during treatment was reported as the preferred time to offer these interventions. This study identified specific events and parent behaviors that strain the couples' relationship during the childhood cancer trajectory. This information can inform the development of a couple's intervention. Prospective research is needed to better understand how childhood cancer affects caregivers' partnerships through survivorship and beyond. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Relationship between cancer-related traumatic stress and family milestone achievement in adolescent and young adult survivors of childhood cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillery, Rachel; Beal, Sarah J; Thompson, Aimee N; Pai, Ahna L H

    2018-06-01

    Late physical and emotional effects of cancer treatment pose a burden for adolescent and young adult survivors of childhood cancer, including family milestone achievement. This brief report examined links between ongoing cancer-related post-traumatic stress symptoms (CR-PTSS) and family milestone achievement. Survivors (n = 51; M age  = 24.73, SD = 8.20) completed CR-PTSS and family formation questionnaires. Descriptive statistics, univariate parameter-constraints, and correlation analyses examined relations among study variables. Ongoing intrusive thoughts and hyperarousal were negatively linked to family identity development and family achievement. Findings from the present study provide support that ongoing CR-PTSS may be a barrier to family formation. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Body mass index in childhood and adult risk of primary liver cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berentzen, Tina Landsvig; Gamborg, Michael; Holst, Claus

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Childhood overweight increases the risk of early development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, which may predispose to carcinogenesis. We investigated if childhood body size during school ages was associated with the risk of primary liver cancer in adults. METHODS: A cohort......-specific reference. Information on liver cancer was obtained from the National Cancer Registry. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of liver cancer were estimated by Cox regression. RESULTS: During 6,963,105 person-years of follow-up, 438 cases of primary liver cancer were recorded. The hazard ratio...... hepatitis, alcohol-related disorders, and biliary cirrhosis. CONCLUSIONS: Higher BMI in childhood increases the risk of primary liver cancer in adults. In view of the high case fatality of primary liver cancer, this result adds to the future negative health outcomes of the epidemic of childhood overweight...

  1. Childhood Cancer Genomics (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genomic findings have been useful in the identification of subsets of patients that have distinct biological features and clinical characteristics (such as prognosis) for some pediatric cancers. Learn about the genomic alterations associated with central nervous system, leukemia, lymphoma, liver, sarcoma, neuroblastoma, retinoblastoma, melanoma, kidney, and thyroid cancers in children in this comprehensive summary for clinicians.

  2. [Endocrine consequences in young adult survivors of childhood cancer treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, C; Cortet-Rudelli, C; Desailloud, R

    2015-10-01

    Endocrine complications (particularly gonadal, hypothalamic-pituitary and metabolic) of childhood cancer treatments are common in young adults. Gonadal damage may be the result of chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Fertility preservation must be systematically proposed before initiation of gonadotoxic treatment if only the child is eligible. Hypothalamic-pituitary deficiency is common after brain or total-body irradiation, the somatotropic axis is the most sensitive to irradiation. Pituitary deficiency screening must be repeated since this endocrine consequence can occur many years after treatment. Hormone replacement must be prudent particularly in case of treatment with growth hormone or steroids. Metabolic syndrome, diabetes and cardiovascular damage resulting from cancer treatments contribute to the increase of morbidity and mortality in this population and should be screened routinely even if the patient is asymptomatic. The multidisciplinary management of these adults must be organized and the role of the endocrinologist is now well established. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Childhood cancer after low-level intrauterine exposure to radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakeford, Richard [BNFL, Risley, Warrington, Cheshire (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: R.Wakeford@bnfl.com; Little, Mark P. [Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    2002-09-01

    Case-control studies of childhood cancer and foetal exposure to diagnostic x-rays suggest that doses as small as 10 mSv increase the risk of cancer to a detectable extent. A comparison of the risk coefficient derived from the largest such study with that obtained from the Japanese atomic bomb survivors irradiated in utero (average dose, {approx}300 mGy) shows that, once all sources of uncertainty are taken into account, these risk estimates are not incompatible. The absence of a discernible variation in the risk per unit dose over this dose range is consistent with a linear dose-response. However, uncertainties are such that definitive conclusions on the shape of the dose-response at low doses cannot be drawn from this epidemiological evidence alone. Nonetheless, the evidence does suggest that the risk is not zero at doses of the order of 10 mSv. (author)

  4. Treating childhood cancer in Rwanda: the nephroblastoma example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanyamuhunga, Aimable; Tuyisenge, Lisine; Stefan, Daniela Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Wilms tumor (WT) or nephroblastoma is the commonest childhood cancer in Rwanda. Nephroblastoma is regarded as one of the successes of pediatric oncology with long-term survival approaching 90%. The Objectives to evaluate the feasibility of treating childhood cancer using the nephroblastoma example and to calculate its cost of treatment in Rwanda. Prospective study over a 2 year period: 01 Jan 2010- 31 December 2011. A questionnaire was completed by all participants in the study and the following variables were collected at Kigali University Teaching Hospital: age at diagnosis, gender, transport cost, cost of investigations, staging, treatment and outcome, cost of hospitalization, type of medical, surgical, radiological interventions and their costs, number of admissions per patient and factors related to non compliance to treatment. All patients had a confirmed diagnosis on histopathology examination. The cost for treatment was calculated for early and late stage and was expressed in USA dollars. Analysis was done with SPSS 16.0. There were 25 patients diagnosed and treated for WT during the study period. Almost half of the patients 14/25 (56%) had advanced disease, seven children (28%) had stage IV, seven children stage III, six patients (24%) with stage II, while the remaining five (20%) had stage I with high risk tumor. The direct cost of management ranged from1,831.2 USD for early disease to 2,418.7 USD for advanced disease. The cost of transport, investigations and drugs were recorded as main contributing factors to the feasibility and cost of the treatment in 80% of the responses, followed by late presentation (56%) and poor compliance to treatment. Most challenges are related to unaffordable treatment and late presentation. The management of WT is feasible in Rwandan setting but efforts should be made in order to improve awareness of childhood cancer, early diagnosis and access to care. The government of Rwanda is committed to improve cancer care in the

  5. Cytogenetic findings in metastases from colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardi, G; Parada, L A; Bomme, L

    1997-01-01

    Eighteen tumor samples from 11 patients with metastatic colorectal cancer were cytogenetically analyzed after short-term culturing. Of the 13 metastases examined, 11 were from lymph nodes, 1 from the peritoneum and 1 from the lung. In 5 of the 11 patients, matched samples from the primary tumor...... colorectal carcinomas, and del(10)(q22) and add(16)(p13), which so far have not been associated with primary tumors and which may play a particular pathogenetic role in the metastatic process....

  6. Implementing a Childhood Cancer Outcomes Surveillance System Within a Population-Based Cancer Registry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Ramirez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Approximately 80% of cases of childhood cancer occur in low- and middle-income countries and are associated with high mortality rates. Assessing outcomes is essential for designing effective strategies to improve outcomes equally worldwide. We implemented a real-time surveillance system, VIGICANCER, embedded in a population-based cancer registry (PBCR to assess childhood cancer outcomes. Methods: VIGICANCER was established in 2009 as an integral part of Cali’s PBCR to collect real-time data on outcomes of patients (age < 19 years with a new diagnosis of cancer treated in pediatric oncology units in Cali, Colombia. Baseline and follow-up data (death, relapse, treatment abandonment, second neoplasms were collected from medical records, hospital discharge logs, pathology reports, death certificates, and the National Public Health Insurance database. A quality assurance process was implemented for the system. Results: From 2009 to 2013, data from 1,242 patients were included in VIGICANCER: 32% of patients were younger than 5 years, 55% were male, and 15% were Afro-descendants. International Classification of Childhood Cancer group I diagnoses predominated in all age groups except children younger than 1 year old, in whom CNS tumors predominated. Five-year overall survival for all cancers was 51.7% (95% CI, 47.9% to 55.4% for children (< 15 years, and 39.4% (95% CI, 29.8% to 50.5% for adolescents (15 to 18.9 years. Five-year overall survival for acute lymphoblastic leukemia was 55.6% (95% CI, 48.5% to 62.2%. Conclusion: Our study demonstrates the feasibility of implementing a real-time childhood cancer outcomes surveillance system embedded in a PBCR that can guide interventions to improve clinical outcomes in low- and middle-income countries.

  7. Current lifestyle of young adults treated for cancer in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, S E; Radford, M

    1995-05-01

    The aim of this study was to look at the current lifestyle of young adult survivors of childhood cancer between the ages of 16 and 30 years to document their achievements and expose any psychosocial problems. Sixty six young adult survivors were contacted and asked if they and their siblings (16-30 years) would take part in a lifestyle study; 48 patients and 38 sibling controls were interviewed. This took the form of a structured lifestyle questionnaire, a self esteem questionnaire (Oxford Psychologists Press), and an unstructured interview. Fifty five per cent of patients achieved five or more A-C grades at 'O' level/GCSE compared with 62% of siblings and a national average of 30%. Despite that these patients were significantly less likely to go on to higher education than their siblings. The two groups were equally employable and earning similar salaries. There were three cases of known employer prejudice. A slightly higher percentage of patients than siblings had their driving licence. Seventeen patients felt their appearance had changed and eight felt that they had a residual physical mobility problem. Both groups were socially active and equally likely to partake in competitive sports. There was no overall difference in the self esteem of the two groups. In general the survivors of childhood cancer were coping well in their young adult life and achieving the same lifestyle goals as their siblings. However, significant problems have been identified.

  8. Issues around childhood disclosure of HIV status - findings from a qualitative study in West Bengal, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, A; Detels, R; Javanbakht, M; Panda, S

    2016-07-01

    Informing the children living with HIV (CLH) about their disease (disclosure) is important from the perspective of disease treatment and overall psychosocial development. There are no published studies that qualitatively explored HIV disclosure-related issues among CLH in India. Our aim was to provide insights into the perceptions of informal caregivers of CLH regarding childhood disclosure. Children were defined as those aged maturity or was of marriageable age. Disclosure of HIV status to children is an emotional issue, both for the caregiver and the child. Like most low-or middle-income countries, no standardized, age-appropriate disclosure guidelines exist in India. Our findings advocate adoption of a multi-faceted approach, including increased availability of social and familial support, for childhood HIV disclosure. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Treatment-associated subsequent neoplasms among long-term survivors of childhood cancer: the experience of the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robison, Leslie L.

    2009-01-01

    With improvements in survival among individuals diagnosed and treated for cancer there is an increasing recognition of the risk of long-term adverse effects of therapy. Second neoplasms represent one of the more serious late effects of treatment and are associated with a substantial level of morbidity and mortality. Survivors of childhood cancers, because of their potential longevity, are at particular risk for this adverse outcome. The Childhood Cancer Survivor Study is a large cohort consisting of adult survivors of childhood cancer diagnosed and treated between 1970 and 1986. The CCSS has provided important data to quantify radiation-associated risk for subsequent cancers including neoplasms of the breast, thyroid and central nervous system. (orig.)

  10. Treatment-associated subsequent neoplasms among long-term survivors of childhood cancer: the experience of the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robison, Leslie L. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Department of Epidemiology and Cancer Control, Memphis, TN (United States)

    2009-02-15

    With improvements in survival among individuals diagnosed and treated for cancer there is an increasing recognition of the risk of long-term adverse effects of therapy. Second neoplasms represent one of the more serious late effects of treatment and are associated with a substantial level of morbidity and mortality. Survivors of childhood cancers, because of their potential longevity, are at particular risk for this adverse outcome. The Childhood Cancer Survivor Study is a large cohort consisting of adult survivors of childhood cancer diagnosed and treated between 1970 and 1986. The CCSS has provided important data to quantify radiation-associated risk for subsequent cancers including neoplasms of the breast, thyroid and central nervous system. (orig.)

  11. Neuropsychological sequelae of childhood cancer in long-term survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copeland, D.R.; Fletcher, J.M.; Pfefferbaum-Levine, B.; Jaffe, N.; Ried, H.; Maor, M.

    1985-01-01

    In order to assess the effects of various cancer treatments on neuropsychological functioning, 74 long-term survivors of childhood cancer were examined. A comprehensive battery of tests was administered to two CNS treatment groups (irradiated and nonirradiated leukemia and lymphoma patients) and a control group (solid tumor and Hodgkin disease patients receiving no CNS treatment). The CNS-irradiated group obtained lower scores than the other two groups, with significant differences in visual-motor and fine motor skills, spatial memory, and arithmetic achievement resulting in significant differences in IQ scores (VIQ, PIQ, FSIQ). The results are discussed in relation to: (1) the effects of CNS irradiation on cognitive development; (2) the specificity of these effects; and (3) the relationship of age at diagnosis to treatment effects. It is concluded that although there is a general lowering of scores after CNS irradiation, the effect is most pronounced for nonlanguage skills. Age at diagnosis was less important than the type of treatment, with CNS irradiation reducing performance regardless of when cancer was diagnosed. There were indications that children with any type of cancer diagnosed before age 5 years are more likely to have some cognitive difficulties

  12. Birth order and Risk of Childhood Cancer: A Pooled Analysis from Five U.S. States

    OpenAIRE

    Von Behren, Julie; Spector, Logan G.; Mueller, Beth A.; Carozza, Susan E.; Chow, Eric J.; Fox, Erin E.; Horel, Scott; Johnson, Kimberly J.; McLaughlin, Colleen; Puumala, Susan E.; Ross, Julie A.; Reynolds, Peggy

    2010-01-01

    The causes of childhood cancers are largely unknown. Birth order has been used as a proxy for prenatal and postnatal exposures, such as frequency of infections and in utero hormone exposures. We investigated the association between birth order and childhood cancers in a pooled case-control dataset. The subjects were drawn from population-based registries of cancers and births in California, Minnesota, New York, Texas, and Washington. We included 17,672 cases less than 15 years of age who were...

  13. Employment status and occupational level of adult survivors of childhood cancer in Great Britain: The British childhood cancer survivor study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frobisher, Clare; Lancashire, Emma R; Jenkinson, Helen; Winter, David L; Kelly, Julie; Reulen, Raoul C; Hawkins, Michael M

    2017-06-15

    The British Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (BCCSS) provides the first detailed investigation of employment and occupation to be undertaken in a large population-based cohort. Previous studies have been limited by design issues such as using small numbers of survivors with specific diagnoses, and involved limited assessment of employment status and occupational level. The BCCSS includes 17,981 5-year survivors of childhood cancer. Employment status and occupational level were ascertained by questionnaire from eligible survivors (n = 14,836). Multivariate logistic regression was used to explore factors associated with employment and occupation, and to compare survivors to their demographic peers in the general population. Employment status was available for 10,257 survivors. Gender, current age, cancer type, radiotherapy, age at diagnosis and epilepsy were consistently associated with being: employed; unable to work; in managerial or non-manual occupations. Overall, survivors were less likely to be working than expected (OR (99% CI): 0.89 (0.81-0.98)), and this deficit was greatest for irradiated CNS neoplasm survivors (0.34 (0.28-0.41)). Compared to the general population, survivors were fivefold more likely to be unable to work due to illness/disability; the excess was 15-fold among CNS neoplasm survivors treated with radiotherapy. Overall survivors were less likely to be in managerial occupations than expected (0.85 (0.77-0.94)). However, bone sarcoma survivors were more likely to be in these occupations than expected (1.37 (1.01-1.85)) and also similarly for non-manual occupations (1.90 (1.37-2.62)). Survivors of retinoblastoma (1.55 (1.20-2.01)) and 'other' neoplasm group (1.62 (1.30-2.03)) were also more likely to be in non-manual occupations than expected. © 2017 The Authors International Journal of Cancer published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of UICC.

  14. Higher occurrence of childhood cancer in families with germline mutations in BRCA2, MMR and CDKN2A genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnusson, S.; Borg, A.; Kristoffersson, U.

    2008-01-01

    The contribution of hereditary factors for development of childhood tumors is limited to some few known syndromes associated with predominance of tumors in childhood. Occurrence of childhood tumors in hereditary cancer syndromes such as BRCA1/2 associated breast and ovarian cancer, DNA-mismatch r......-mismatch repair (MMR) genes associated hereditary non polyposis colorectal cancer and CDKN2A associated familial malignant melanoma are very little studied. Herein we report the prevalence of childhood tumors (diagnosed...

  15. Family information needs at childhood cancer treatment completion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Claire E; Butow, Phyllis; Fleming, Catharine A K; Daniel, Gunar; Cohn, Richard J

    2012-04-01

    Despite the recognized importance of information provision across the cancer trajectory, little research has investigated family information needs recently after childhood cancer. This mixed-methods, multiperspective, study explored the information needs of families of childhood cancer survivors in the first year post-treatment. In total, 112 semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 19 survivors (mean age 16.2 years, off treatment for ≤36 months), 44 mothers, 34 fathers, and 15 siblings. Interviews were analyzed inductively, line-by-line, using the framework of Miles and Huberman. Emergent themes were cross-tabulated by sample characteristics using QSR NVivo8. Participant views were mixed regarding the need for a "finishing treatment review" with their oncologist (the primary information source for most families); however, many mothers (29/44) and fathers (17/34) and most siblings (14/15) reported receiving insufficient information post-treatment. Information regarding fertility and how to prepare for likely post-treatment challenges were the most cited unmet needs. Online support was ranked highest by survivors (mean score: 7/2/10) and siblings (7.4/10), whilst parents preferred an information booklet (often due to concerns about accessing accurate and relevant information from the Internet). While many participants reported feelings of isolation/loneliness, many were reluctant to attend face-to-face support groups/seminars. Family members of survivors may experience the most acute unmet needs for information about fertility and in preparation for post-treatment challenges. However, provision of the correct amount of information at the right time for each family member during a highly stressful period remains clinically challenging. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Water syphon test and gastrooesophageal reflux during childhood (correlation with the clinical findings and oesophageal manometry)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fotter, R.; Hoellwarth, M.

    1981-07-01

    The water syphon test is a simple and easily performed method for demonstrating gastro-oesophageal reflux with a high degree of reliability. It is carried out following a conventional barium swallow. Compared with clinical findings and oesophageal manometry, the water syphon test is very reliable for demonstrating gastro-oesophageal reflux during childhood. Prolonged irradiation in order to see spontaneous reflux becomes unnecessary. This results in a significant reduction in radiation dose. Barium swallow and the water syphon test are the most useful initial examinations in children with symptoms which suggest reflux.

  17. Autopsy findings in small cell lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jereczek, B.; Jassem, J.; Karnicka-Mlodkowska, H.; Badzio, A.; Mos-Antkowiak, R.; Dziadziuszko, R.; Szczepek, B.; Chojak, E.; Lisowska, B.; Malak, K.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the pattern of autopsy in 174 small lung cancer patients treated between 1971 and 1991 at seven Polish medical centres. Eighty nine autopsied patients were previously treated with different chemotherapy regimens including 32 patients who also received chest irradiation, 74 received only supportive care and for 11 patients the data on treatment were not available. The age range at diagnosis was 28-81 years (median 57); there were 39 females (22%) and 135 males (78%). Seventy two patients had limited disease at the time of diagnosis, 86 - extensive disease and in 16 the disease extent was not determined. The primary tumor and/or metastases in regional lymph nodes were present in 157 autopsies (90%). There was a significant difference in the rate of locoregional disease found at autopsy in patients given chemotherapy and in those who received only supportive care (85% and 100%, respectively; p = 0.01). Chest radiation therapy given in limited as an adjunct to chemotherapy did not decrease the rate of persistent locoregional disease (primary tumor in the chest was found in 92% of irradiated and in 96% of nonirradiated patients). Locoregional tumor deposit only was found in 28 (16%). Distant metastases were distributed in 143 patients (82%) and were found in 25 different locations, most frequently in liver (49%), supra-renal glands (25%), peripheral lymph nodes (21%), kidneys (18%), brain (17%) and pancreas (12%). In 3 patients no tumor foci were found. The number of organs involved varied between 0 and 10 (median 3). The number of involved organs was not dependent on the disease extent at the time of diagnosis and on the type of treatment. (author)

  18. Impairments that Influence Physical Function among Survivors of Childhood Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen L. Wilson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Children treated for cancer are at increased risk of developing chronic health conditions, some of which may manifest during or soon after treatment while others emerge many years after therapy. These health problems may limit physical performance and functional capacity, interfering with participation in work, social, and recreational activities. In this review, we discuss treatment-induced impairments in the endocrine, musculoskeletal, neurological, and cardiopulmonary systems and their influence on mobility and physical function. We found that cranial radiation at a young age was associated with a broad range of chronic conditions including obesity, short stature, low bone mineral density and neuromotor impairments. Anthracyclines and chest radiation are associated with both short and long-term cardiotoxicity. Although numerous chronic conditions are documented among individuals treated for childhood cancer, the impact of these conditions on mobility and function are not well characterized, with most studies limited to survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and brain tumors. Moving forward, further research assessing the impact of chronic conditions on participation in work and social activities is required. Moreover, interventions to prevent or ameliorate the loss of physical function among children treated for cancer are likely to become an important area of survivorship research.

  19. Recent estimates of the risk of childhood cancer following irradiation of the fetus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilman, E.A.; Kneale, G.W.; Knox, E.G.; Stewart, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    For children born during the period 1939-1979 the authors estimate that 7% of childhood cancers were caused by prenatal X-ray (Knox et al., 1987). The decline in relative risk from the high values of the 1940s to the lower values seen in the late 1960s is probably due to improvements in X-ray techniques and equipment, together with a decline in the number of films used per examination, which resulted in a reduction in dose per examination from a mean of 9 mGy to 3 mGy in 1960. The reason for apparent increase in relative risk in recent years is not clear. The finding that the dose response from terrestrial gamma radiation was three times as great as for prenatal X-ray may be due to exposures from TGR being received throughout pregnancy, including the more sensitive first trimester,. It is also likely that the outdoor TGR measurements used in the analysis are correlated with, and act as an indicator of, level of exposure due to other sources of natural radiation (e.g. indoor gamma and radon). The discrepancy between the findings from the atomic bomb survivors irradiated in utero and those of case/control studies of childhood cancer is discussed. (author)

  20. Risk of second bone sarcoma following childhood cancer: role of radiation therapy treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Boris; Benadjaoud, Mohamed Amine; Cléro, Enora; Haddy, Nadia; El-Fayech, Chiraz; Guibout, Catherine; Teinturier, Cécile; Oberlin, Odile; Veres, Cristina; Pacquement, Hélène; Munzer, Martine; N'guyen, Tan Dat; Bondiau, Pierre-Yves; Berchery, Delphine; Laprie, Anne; Hawkins, Mike; Winter, David; Lefkopoulos, Dimitri; Chavaudra, Jean; Rubino, Carole; Diallo, Ibrahima; Bénichou, Jacques; de Vathaire, Florent

    2014-05-01

    Bone sarcoma as a second malignancy is rare but highly fatal. The present knowledge about radiation-absorbed organ dose-response is insufficient to predict the risks induced by radiation therapy techniques. The objective of the present study was to assess the treatment-induced risk for bone sarcoma following a childhood cancer and particularly the related risk of radiotherapy. Therefore, a retrospective cohort of 4,171 survivors of a solid childhood cancer treated between 1942 and 1986 in France and Britain has been followed prospectively. We collected detailed information on treatments received during childhood cancer. Additionally, an innovative methodology has been developed to evaluate the dose-response relationship between bone sarcoma and radiation dose throughout this cohort. The median follow-up was 26 years, and 39 patients had developed bone sarcoma. It was found that the overall incidence was 45-fold higher [standardized incidence ratio 44.8, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 31.0-59.8] than expected from the general population, and the absolute excess risk was 35.1 per 100,000 person-years (95 % CI 24.0-47.1). The risk of bone sarcoma increased slowly up to a cumulative radiation organ absorbed dose of 15 Gy [hazard ratio (HR) = 8.2, 95 % CI 1.6-42.9] and then strongly increased for higher radiation doses (HR for 30 Gy or more 117.9, 95 % CI 36.5-380.6), compared with patients not treated with radiotherapy. A linear model with an excess relative risk per Gy of 1.77 (95 % CI 0.6213-5.935) provided a close fit to the data. These findings have important therapeutic implications: Lowering the radiation dose to the bones should reduce the incidence of secondary bone sarcomas. Other therapeutic solutions should be preferred to radiotherapy in bone sarcoma-sensitive areas.

  1. Radiologic findings of male breast cancer: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Jeong Geun; Park, Kyung Joo; Han, Chun Hwan; Lee, Joo Hyuk [Kangnam General Hospital Public Corporation, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-10-15

    Male breast cancer is an uncommon disease with an incidence of 1 percent of all breast cancers. Male breast cancer usually appears as a small mass with well defined contour which is eccentrically located in relation to the nipple on mammogram. We report a case of breast cancer in a 51 year old man with mammographic appearance of large hyperdense mass with nipple inversion and axillary lymphadenopathy, gray-scale sonographic finding of homogeneous solid mass and multiple tumor vessels within the mass on color Doppler ultrasound.

  2. Radiologic findings of childhood lower respiratory tract infection by influenza virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ho Taek; Park, Choong Ki; Shin, Hee Jung; Choi, Yo Won; Jeon, Seok Chol; Hahm, Chang Kok; Hern, Ahn You [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-08-01

    After the RS (respiratory syncytial) virus, the influenza virus is the most common cause of childhood lower respiratory tract infection. We assessed the radiologic findings of childhood lower respiratory tract infection by the influenza virus. A total of 105 pediatric patients (76 males and 29 females; mean age, 2.4 years) with symptoms of respiratory tract infection were examined between March 1997 and April 2000. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were obtained and influenza virus infection was confirmed by direct or indirect immunofluorescent assays. Peribronchial infiltration, hyperinflation, atelectasis, pulmonary consolidation, and hilar lymphadenopathy were evaluated retrospectively at simple chest radiography. Bilateral perihiler peribronchial infiltration was noted in 78.1% of patients (n=82), hyperinflation in 63.8% (n=67), atelectasis in 3.8% (n=4, segmental 50%, lobar 50%), and pulmonary consolidation in 16.2% [n=17; segmental 70.6% (n=12), lobar 29.4% (n=5)]. Hilar lymphadenopathy was noted in one patient in whom there was no pleural effusion, and subglottic airway narrowing in 12 of 14 in whom the croup symptom complex was present. The major radiologic findings of influenza virus infection were bilateral perihilar peribronchial infiltration and hyperinflation. In some patients, upper respiratory tract infection was combined with subgolttic airway narrowing. Atelectasis or pleural effusion was rare.

  3. Life after cancer: how does public stigma increase psychological distress of childhood cancer survivors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Ah; Yi, Jaehee

    2014-12-01

    Public stigma is a major source of stress for cancer survivors. However, factors that buffer or exacerbate the negative effects of public stigma on psychological distress have not been elucidated. This study examined how perceived public stigma affects psychological distress as mediated by cancer disclosure, internalized reactions to stigma, and social support availability. Cross-sectional study. The study was conducted in South Korea. The study sample was 223 adolescent and young adult survivors of childhood cancer diagnosed before the age of 19 and currently between 15 and 39 years old. Psychological distress was assessed using the Brief Symptom Inventory-18. Structural equation modeling was used with 1000 bootstrap samples. The goodness of model fit was acceptable. Public stigma perceived by cancer survivors influenced psychological distress via cancer disclosure, internalized shame, and social support availability. Higher levels of perceived public stigma predicted higher levels of internalized shame and self-blame and lower levels of social support availability, which subsequently increased psychological distress. Higher levels of perceived public stigma predicted lower levels of disclosure about cancer history and experiences. Cancer disclosure indirectly ameliorated psychological distress by reducing internalized shame. This study offers evidence that cognitive and social factors play important roles in mediating the effects of perceived public stigma on psychological distress in Korean cancer survivors. A greater understanding of factors that influence psychological distress may help psychosocial oncology service providers to identify childhood cancer survivors in need of psychosocial services and provide them with appropriate resources and interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Adult survivors of childhood cancers' identity disclosures in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Larry R; Hebl, Michelle R

    2016-04-01

    Recent medical advances have resulted in unprecedented increases in the number and vitality of employed adult survivors. These survivors must make decisions about whether or not to disclose their identities to others. The purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics that are related to cancer survivorship disclosure in workplace settings (perceived organizational support, centrality of survivorship to one's self-concept, and the degree to which family and friends know about one's survivor status) and an important organizational consequence: intentions to leave one's job. A total of 151 adult survivors of childhood cancer completed an online survey. Extent of disclosure of one's identity as a cancer survivor was negatively associated with turnover intentions. Furthermore, organizational support, identity centrality, and disclosure outside of work were all related to disclosure in the workplace. Relative weight analysis revealed that disclosure outside of work was the most strongly related to disclosure at work. Finally, there were indirect relations such that disclosure mediated the relations among organizational support, identity centrality, and disclosure outside of work and turnover intentions. Survivors who were more open about their cancer survivor status at work had fewer intentions to leave their organizations. Importantly, although some antecedents to disclosure were personal characteristics, organizations can also encourage identity disclosure demonstrating that they are related to of work retention. While disclosure in the workplace is a complex decision to make, the relationship with work retention may reflect that disclosure is more likely to occur in an existing positive work environment or that disclosure itself may contribute to a positive work environment where employees tend to remain. The specific factors that trigger both disclosure and retention require further study although they are clearly related.

  5. Evaluation of the nutrition screening tool for childhood cancer (SCAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Alexia J; White, Melinda; Viani, Karina; Mosby, Terezie T

    2016-02-01

    Malnutrition is a serious concern for children with cancer and nutrition screening may offer a simple alternative to nutrition assessment for identifying children with cancer who are at risk of malnutrition. The present paper aimed to evaluate the nutrition screening tool for childhood cancer (SCAN). SCAN was developed after an extensive review of currently available tools and published screening recommendation, consideration of pediatric oncology nutrition guidelines, piloting questions, and consulting with members of International Pediatric Oncology Nutrition Group. In Study 1, the accuracy and validity of SCAN against pediatric subjective global nutrition assessment (pediatric SGNA) was determined. In Study 2, subjects were classified as 'at risk of malnutrition' and 'not at risk of malnutrition' according to SCAN and measures of height, weight, body mass index (BMI) and body composition were compared between the groups. The validation of SCAN against pediatric SGNA showed SCAN had 'excellent' accuracy (0.90, 95% CI 0.78-1.00; p malnutrition' and 'not at risk of malnutrition' according to SCAN, the 'at risk of malnutrition' group had significantly lower values for weight Z score (p = 0.001), BMI Z score (p = 0.001) and fat mass index (FMI) (p = 0.04), than the 'not at risk of malnutrition' group. This study shows that SCAN is a simple, quick and valid tool which can be used to identify children with cancer who are at risk of malnutrition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  6. Clinical implications of malnutrition in childhood cancer patients-infections and mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loeffen, E. A. H.; Brinksma, A.; Miedema, K. G. E.; de Bock, G. H.; Tissing, W. J. E.

    In childhood cancer patients, malnutrition has been proposed to increase infection rates and reduce survival. We investigated whether malnutrition at diagnosis and during treatment and weight loss during treatment are prognostic factors for infection rates and survival, within a heterogeneous

  7. Childhood cancers in the UK and their relation to background radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kneale, G.W.; Stewart, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    This chapter shows the results of including two independent data sets in a study of several factors with cancer associations including background radiation. One data set came from the Oxford Survey of Childhood Cancers (OSCC); the other from the National Radiological Protection Board (NRPB) and findings are compatible with background radiation being the single most important cause of juvenile neoplasms. It also emerged that these neoplasms have a strongly clustered distribution. No obvious cause of clusters was found, but they had associations with prenatal and postnatal illnesses as well as background radiation. Therefore, since there is mounting sensitivity to infections during the latent phase of leukaemia, cancer clusters might be the result of competing causes of death having an epidemic distribution. The findings as a whole are compatible with all man-made additions to background (including leakages of radioactivity from a reprocessing plant) adding to risk of an early cancer death. Proof that certain leukaemia clusters in the vicinity of two reprocessing plants were caused in this way must await collection of data. (author)

  8. Childhood cancer in the surroundings of German nuclear power plants: report of an ongoing epidemiological study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze-Rath, R.; Kaatsch, P.; Schmiedel, S.; Spix, C.; Blettner, M.

    2006-01-01

    Epidemiological studies could not show an association between ionising radiation of nuclear power stations in routine operation and the incidence of childhood cancer, yet. The following report presents a case control study conducted by the German Childhood Cancer Registry since autumn 2003. All children in the study region, who were diagnosed with cancer between 1980 and 2003 at an age below five are included. In the first part of the study we investigate whether children with cancer (cases) lived closer to the respective nuclear power stations compared to random children without cancer (controls). In the second part, for a subgroup of cases and controls we conduct computer assisted telephone interviews regarding confounders possibly associated with the exposure of ionising radiation and childhood cancer. Results are expected by the end of 2006. (orig.)

  9. Risk of second bone sarcoma following childhood cancer: role of radiation therapy treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, Boris; Benadjaoud, Mohamed Amine; Clero, Enora; Haddy, Nadia; El-Fayech, Chiraz; Guibout, Catherine; Teinturier, Cecile; Oberlin, Odile; Veres, Cristina; Pacquement, Helene; Munzer, Martine; Tan Dat N'Guyen; Bondiau, Pierre-Yves; Berchery, Delphine; Laprie, Anne

    2014-01-01

    International audience; : Bone sarcoma as a second malignancy is rare but highly fatal. The present knowledge about radiation-absorbed organ dose-response is insufficient to predict the risks induced by radiation therapy techniques. The objective of the present study was to assess the treatment-induced risk for bone sarcoma following a childhood cancer and particularly the related risk of radiotherapy. Therefore, a retrospective cohort of 4,171 survivors of a solid childhood cancer treated be...

  10. Second malignant neoplasms after childhood cancer: a report of three cases of osteogenic sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ironside, J.A.D.

    1987-01-01

    The rising incidence of second malignant neoplasms after childhood cancer, whilst due in part to increasing numbers of survivors, is also thought to be related to increasingly more intensive combined modality treatment schedules. Three illustrative cases are reported in which radiation therapy in childhood for the first cancer is thought to have been a significant aetiological factor in the pathogenesis of the second malignancy (which in all three patients was an osteogenic sarcoma). (author)

  11. Childhood cancer survivors' school (re)entry: Australian parents' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLoone, J K; Wakefield, C E; Cohn, R J

    2013-07-01

    Starting or returning to school after intense medical treatment can be academically and socially challenging for childhood cancer survivors. This study aimed to evaluate the school (re)entry experience of children who had recently completed cancer treatment. Forty-two semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted to explore parents' perceptions of their child's (re)entry to school after completing treatment (23 mothers, 19 fathers, parent mean age 39.5 years; child mean age 7.76 years). Interviews were analysed using the framework of Miles and Huberman and emergent themes were organised using QSR NVivo8. Parents closely monitored their child's school (re)entry and fostered close relationships with their child's teacher to ensure swift communication of concerns should they arise. The most commonly reported difficulty related to aspects of peer socialisation; survivors either displayed a limited understanding of social rules such as turn taking, or related more to older children or teachers relative to their peers. Additionally, parents placed a strong emphasis on their child's overall personal development, above academic achievement alone. Improved parent, clinician and teacher awareness of the importance of continued peer socialisation during the treatment period is recommended in order to limit the ongoing ramifications this may have on school (re)entry post-treatment completion. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Plain radiographic findings of lung cancer with delayed diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Kyu Ok; Chung, Jin Ill

    1994-01-01

    In Korea, Lung cancer is the Second most common prevailing malignancy among male population next to stomach cancer. Although CT scan and MRI is widely used in the staging of lung cancer, plain chest x-ray still plays an important role in screening and diagnosis. Our intention was to review the confusing radiographic features which result in delayed diagnosis of lung cancer. Of the 160 patients with lung cancer evaluated by us, 62 patients(39%) with delayed diagnosis and average diagnostic duration of 5.1 months compared with 2.1 months for those without delay. We reviewed the plain chest x-ray findings of those 62 patients. The diagnosis of lung cancer was delayed more than half of the cases under the impression of intrathoracic tuberculosis. Upon reviewing the roentgenologic findings in patients with diagnostic delay, central type appeared as a small hilar or mediastinal mass with or without obstructive pneumonia. Peripheral type appeared as an ill-defined pulmonary module, a nodule hidden by overlapping structures, or as a lung cancer associated with pulmonary tuberculosis. Some cases were misinterpreted as extranodal spread of malignancy. To solve above mentioned problems, we recommend proper understanding of natural history of lung cancer, incorporation of high kVp technique in chest radiographs, routine acquisition of lateral chest radiograph to increase diagnostic accuracy, and appropriate use of CT scan in cases of difficult diagnosis

  13. Personality disorder, temperament, and childhood adversity: findings from a cohort of prisoners in England and Wales

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Amanda D.L.; Yang, Min; Zhang, Tianqiang; Coid, Jeremy

    2008-01-01

    Adverse childhood experiences and childhood temperamental features are known to contribute to the development of personality disorder. The aim of this study was to examine associations between personality disorder, childhood temperament, adverse childhood experiences, and victimisation. The Prisoner Cohort Study was carried out as part of the dangerous and severe personality disorder (DSPD) service development programme commissioned by the Home Office. The study comprised 1396 male offenders ...

  14. Social Networking Site Usage Among Childhood Cancer Survivors - A Potential Tool for Research Recruitment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltzer, Erica D.; Stolley, Melinda R.; Mensah, Edward K.; Sharp, Lisa K.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The recent and rapid growth of social networking site (SNS) use presents a unique public health opportunity to develop effective strategies for the recruitment of hard-to-reach participants for cancer research studies. This survey investigated childhood cancer survivors’ reported use of SNS such as facebook or MySpace and their perceptions of using SNS, for recruitment into survivorship research. Methods Sixty White, Black and Hispanic, adult childhood cancer survivors (range 18 – 48 years of age) that were randomly selected from a larger childhood cancer study, the Chicago Healthy Living Study (CHLS), participated in this pilot survey. Telephone surveys were conducted to understand current SNS activity and attitudes towards using SNS as a cancer research recruitment tool. Results Seventy percent of participants reported SNS usage of which 80% were at least weekly users and 79 % reported positive attitudes towards the use of SNS as a recruitment tool for survivorship research. Conclusions and implications for cancer survivors The results of this pilot study revealed that SNS use was high and regular among the childhood cancer survivors sampled. Most had positive attitudes towards using SNS for recruitment of research. The results of this pilot survey suggest that SNS may offer an alternative approach for recruitment of childhood cancer survivors into research. PMID:24532046

  15. Information model design health service childhood cancer for parents and caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Syazwani; Muda, Zurina

    2015-05-01

    Most Malaysians do not realize that they are suffer from a chronic disease until the disease is confirmed to be at a critical stage. This is because lack of awareness among Malaysians about a chronic disease especially in a childhood cancer. Based on report of the National Cancer Council (MAKNA),11 million adults and children suffered with cancer and 6 million of them die in a worldwide. Lack of public exposure to this disease leads to health problems to their children. Information model design health service childhood cancer for p arents and caregivers using an android application medium can be used by a doctor to deliver an information of cancer to the parents and caregivers. The development of this information model design health service childhood cancer for parents and caregivers are using an integration of health promotion theory, spiral model and lean model to form a new model that can be used as a model design content of health service. The method using in this study are by an interview technique and questionnaires along the study was conducted. Hopefully the production of this information model design health service childhood cancer for parents and caregivers using an android apps as a medium can help parents, caregivers and public to know more about information of childhood cancer and at the same time can gain an awareness among them and this app also can be used as a medium for doctors to deliver an information to the parents and caregivers.

  16. Impact of childhood cancer on maternal employment in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Hiromi; Maru, Mitsue; Maeda, Rumi; Iwasaki, Fuminori; Nagasawa, Masayuki; Takahashi, Miyako

    2015-01-01

    Family members of children with cancer experience various long-term effects as a result of cancer diagnosis and treatment. Therefore, comprehensive and long-term support is needed. As the employment rate of women has increased in recent years, support for working mothers with children diagnosed with cancer is also required. We investigated the following issues and relevant changes that working mothers of children diagnosed with cancer must deal with: (1) work change, (2) stress, (3) social support, (4) work motivation, and (5) employment status after diagnosis. A cross-sectional exploratory study design was used. Data were collected from 62 mothers of children who were diagnosed with cancer using self-report questionnaires. Of the 32 mothers who worked at the time of diagnosis, 10 continued to work, 12 took an extended leave, and 10 quit working, and 70% lost motivation for work following diagnosis. Half of mothers who continued to work during treatment reported financial reasons. These findings indicate that mothers who quit work following diagnosis did not initially consider a long leave of absence. Even mothers who continued to work during treatment desired a long leave of absence to care for their children. Nurses should provide mothers with explanations of the prospects after the completion of cancer treatment and determine their expectations for their lifestyle and work during treatment. We recommend that nurses confirm mothers' willingness to take a long leave of absence from work and give relevant advice about seeking financial assistance.

  17. Radiotherapy and subsequent thyroid cancer in German childhood cancer survivors: a nested case–control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finke, Isabelle; Scholz-Kreisel, Peter; Hennewig, Ulrike; Blettner, Maria; Spix, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Radiotherapy is associated with a risk of subsequent neoplasms (SN) in childhood cancer survivors. It has been shown that children’s thyroid glands are especially susceptible. The aim is to quantify the risk of a second neck neoplasm after primary cancer radiotherapy with emphasis on thyroid cancer. We performed a nested case–control study: 29 individuals, diagnosed with a solid SN in the neck region, including 17 with thyroid cancer, in 1980–2002 and 57 matched controls with single neoplasms were selected from the database of the German Childhood Cancer Registry. We investigated the risk associated with radiotherapy exposure given per body region, adjusted for chemotherapy. 16/17 (94.1 %) thyroid SN cases, 9/12 (75 %) other neck SN cases and 34/57 (59.6 %) controls received radiotherapy, with median doses of 27.8, 25 and 24 Gy, respectively. Radiotherapy exposure to the neck region increased the risk of the other neck SNs by 4.2 % (OR = 1.042/Gy (95 %-CI 0.980-1.109)) and of thyroid SN by 5.1 % (OR = 1.051/Gy (95 %-CI 0.984-1.123)), and radiotherapy to the neck or spine region increased the thyroid risk by 6.6 % (OR = 1.066/Gy (95 %-CI 1.010-1.125)). Chemotherapy was not a confounder. Exposure to other body regions was not associated with increased risk. Radiotherapy in the neck or spine region increases the risk of thyroid cancer, while neck exposure increases the risk of any other solid SN to a similar extent. Other studies showed a decreasing risk of subsequent thyroid cancer for very high doses; we cannot confirm this

  18. Maternal depressive symptoms across early childhood and asthma in school children: findings from a Longitudinal Australian Population Based Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Giallo

    Full Text Available There is a growing body of evidence attesting to links between early life exposure to stress and childhood asthma. However, available evidence is largely based on small, genetically high risk samples. The aim of this study was to explore the associations between the course of maternal depressive symptoms across early childhood and childhood asthma in a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study of Australian children. Participants were 4164 children and their biological mothers from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Latent class analysis identified three trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms across four biennial waves from the first postnatal year to when children were 6-7 years: minimal symptoms (74.6%, sub-clinical symptoms (20.8%, and persistent and increasing high symptoms (4.6%. Logistic regression analyses revealed that childhood asthma at age 6-7 years was associated with persistent and increasing high depressive symptoms after accounting for known risk factors including smoking during pregnancy and maternal history of asthma (adjusted OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.61-3.45, p.001. Our findings from a nationally representative sample of Australian children provide empirical support for a relationship between maternal depressive symptoms across the early childhood period and childhood asthma. The burden of disease from childhood asthma may be reduced by strengthening efforts to promote maternal mental health in the early years of parenting.

  19. Maternal depressive symptoms across early childhood and asthma in school children: findings from a Longitudinal Australian Population Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giallo, Rebecca; Bahreinian, Salma; Brown, Stephanie; Cooklin, Amanda; Kingston, Dawn; Kozyrskyj, Anita

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence attesting to links between early life exposure to stress and childhood asthma. However, available evidence is largely based on small, genetically high risk samples. The aim of this study was to explore the associations between the course of maternal depressive symptoms across early childhood and childhood asthma in a nationally representative longitudinal cohort study of Australian children. Participants were 4164 children and their biological mothers from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children. Latent class analysis identified three trajectories of maternal depressive symptoms across four biennial waves from the first postnatal year to when children were 6-7 years: minimal symptoms (74.6%), sub-clinical symptoms (20.8%), and persistent and increasing high symptoms (4.6%). Logistic regression analyses revealed that childhood asthma at age 6-7 years was associated with persistent and increasing high depressive symptoms after accounting for known risk factors including smoking during pregnancy and maternal history of asthma (adjusted OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.61-3.45), p.001). Our findings from a nationally representative sample of Australian children provide empirical support for a relationship between maternal depressive symptoms across the early childhood period and childhood asthma. The burden of disease from childhood asthma may be reduced by strengthening efforts to promote maternal mental health in the early years of parenting.

  20. Vietnamese mother's conceptions of childhood overweight: findings from a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loan Minh Do

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood overweight and obesity is a new and emerging problem in Vietnam. The so far observed prevalence increases have pointed to the need for public health intervention strategies with parents as crucial resources for change. Objective: The aim of this study was to understand mothers’ conceptions of childhood overweight. Design: Four focus group discussions were conducted with a total of 33 mothers of preschool children, 4–6 years old, living in urban and rural districts of Hanoi, Vietnam. The discussions were audio taped and transcribed verbatim. The obtained data were analyzed using the principles of phenomenography. Results: Four main categories with 13 subcategories emerged in the process of analysis. The first category, called ‘Concept of overweight’, contained mothers’ views on childhood overweight. A major concern was the negative aspects of overweight such as impaired social interaction and health problems. The second category, ‘Identification of overweight’, described the ways mothers use to recognize overweight in children: own experience, growth chart, and public or health care system's information. The third category, ‘Causes of overweight’, showed mothers’ understanding of factors possibly contributing to overweight development: unhealthy food and lifestyle, genetic susceptibility, parent's lack of knowledge, and limited time to take care of children as well as economic improvement. The fourth category, ‘Management of overweight’, described the ways mothers use to manage a child's weight problem: control of their food intake, increasing their physical activity, and encouraging their child self-control. However, they find such strategies difficult to implement and their intentions are sometimes challenged by the child's grandparents. Conclusions: The study gives an understanding of the mothers’ conceptions of four important and practically useful aspects of overweight in children. The findings

  1. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Finding Health Care Services Managing Costs and Medical Information Advance Directives Using Trusted Resources Cancer Types Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Cancers by Body Location/System Childhood Cancers Late Effects of Childhood Cancer Treatment ...

  2. Social networking site usage among childhood cancer survivors--a potential tool for research recruitment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltzer, Erica D; Stolley, Melinda R; Mensah, Edward K; Sharp, Lisa K

    2014-09-01

    The recent and rapid growth of social networking site (SNS) use presents a unique public health opportunity to develop effective strategies for the recruitment of hard-to-reach participants for cancer research studies. This survey investigated childhood cancer survivors' reported use of SNS such as Facebook or MySpace and their perceptions of using SNS, for recruitment into survivorship research. Sixty White, Black, and Hispanic adult childhood cancer survivors (range 18-48 years of age) that were randomly selected from a larger childhood cancer study, the Chicago Healthy Living Study, participated in this pilot survey. Telephone surveys were conducted to understand current SNS activity and attitudes towards using SNS as a cancer research recruitment tool. Seventy percent of participants reported SNS usage of which 80 % were at least weekly users and 79 % reported positive attitudes towards the use of SNS as a recruitment tool for survivorship research. The results of this pilot study revealed that SNS use was high and regular among the childhood cancer survivors sampled. Most had positive attitudes towards using SNS for recruitment of research. The results of this pilot survey suggest that SNS may offer an alternative approach for recruitment of childhood cancer survivors into research.

  3. Memories of Parent Behaviors and Adult Attachment in Childhood Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Vicky; Hagedoorn, Mariët; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Keim, Madelaine C; Guthrie, Lory; Sanderman, Robbert; Tuinman, Marrit A

    2017-03-01

    Childhood cancer is stressful for the entire family. Preoccupation and anxiety surrounding the child's illness may result in parents of children with cancer being overprotective or less emotionally responsive toward their children. Such parenting in response to a negative life event like childhood cancer may cause survivors to be more insecurely attached than healthy peers, which could have downstream effects on survivors' romantic relationships later in life. Therefore, we examined survivors' perspectives on parent behaviors, adult attachment, and marital status among adult survivors of childhood cancer relative to controls. One hundred forty-nine young adult survivors and 149 matched controls (M age  = 28, range 20-40) indicated their relationship status (single vs. partnered) and completed standardized questionnaires assessing memories of upbringing (warmth, overprotection, rejection) and adult attachment (avoidance, anxiety). Adult survivors of childhood cancer remembered mothers and fathers as emotionally warmer (d = 0.53/0.30), and mothers as less rejecting than controls (d = 0.30). Adult attachment was overall similar between survivors and controls, but partnered survivors reported particularly low attachment-related anxiety. Childhood cancer was related to higher mother and father warmth, which were associated with lower attachment-related avoidance and in turn with a greater likelihood of being in a relationship. Adult childhood cancer survivors did not remember their parents as overprotective, but reported more positive parenting relative to controls; and similar adult attachment and relationship status. The results were unexpected, but offer novel insights for future prospective studies, which are necessary to better understand psychosocial late effects of childhood cancer.

  4. Stability and change in retrospective reports of childhood experiences over a 5-year period: findings from the Davis Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yancura, Loriena A; Aldwin, Carolyn M

    2009-09-01

    The paths via which childhood experiences influence well-being in adulthood are not well defined because most research relies on retrospective reports. This study examined the influence of demographic characteristics and current mood states on the reliability of reports of childhood experiences. The Child Experiences Scale (CES) was administered in 1996 and 2001 to participants in the Davis Longitudinal Study (N = 571; age range 22-61 years). Responses showed moderate to high cross-time reliability. Males were slightly more likely to change their responses. The influence of mood states was weak and more evident for global ratings of childhood than for specific experiences. These findings support the use of retrospective reports of childhood. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Effects of Using Child Personas in the Development of a Digital Peer Support Service for Childhood Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wärnestål, Pontus; Svedberg, Petra; Lindberg, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    Background Peer support services have the potential to support children who survive cancer by handling the physical, mental, and social challenges associated with survival and return to everyday life. Involving the children themselves in the design process allows for adapting services to authentic user behaviors and goals. As there are several challenges that put critical requirements on a user-centered design process, we developed a design method based on personas adapted to the particular needs of children that promotes health and handles a sensitive design context. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of using child personas in the development of a digital peer support service for childhood cancer survivors. Methods The user group’s needs and behaviors were characterized based on cohort data and literature, focus group interviews with childhood cancer survivors (n=15, 8-12 years), stakeholder interviews with health care professionals and parents (n=13), user interviews, and observations. Data were interpreted and explained together with childhood cancer survivors (n=5) in three explorative design workshops and a validation workshop with children (n=7). Results We present findings and insights on how to codesign child personas in the context of developing digital peer support services with childhood cancer survivors. The work resulted in three primary personas that model the behaviors, attitudes, and goals of three user archetypes tailored for developing health-promoting services in this particular use context. Additionally, we also report on the effects of using these personas in the design of a digital peer support service called Give Me a Break. Conclusions By applying our progressive steps of data collection and analysis, we arrive at authentic child-personas that were successfully used to design and develop health-promoting services for children in vulnerable life stages. The child-personas serve as effective collaboration and

  6. Acute traumatic subdural hematoma in infancy and childhood classification and treatment from CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mochimatsu, Yasuhiko

    1988-11-01

    Acute traumatic subdural hematoma in infancy and childhood has much difference from that in adult on their symptom, clinical course, and indication of surgical treatment. The aim of this study is to examine their clinical course and CT findings just after the injury and to evaluate the treatment modality for types of complex this disease. As the result of these examination, SDH patients are divided into five categories in account of their CT findings, especially according to the relationship between the hemispheric swelling and the amount of SDH. Simple SDH type shows classical clinical course and surgical treatment are frequently essential in rapidly progressive cases. Isodensity hemispheric swelling (IHS) type is more frequently seen in CT findings which shows thin SDH and prominent brain swelling. This IHS (a subtype of diffuse brain injury) type should be recognized for their favourable outcome under conservative treatment. Other three types are; contusion with SDH, acute excerbation of chronic SDH, and battered child. Indication of surgical treatment will be decided considering to the volume of hematomas. (author).

  7. Acute traumatic subdural hematoma in infancy and childhood classification and treatment from CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochimatsu, Yasuhiko

    1988-01-01

    Acute traumatic subdural hematoma in infancy and childhood has much difference from that in adult on their symptom, clinical course, and indication of surgical treatment. The aim of this study is to examine their clinical course and CT findings just after the injury and to evaluate the treatment modality for types of complex this disease. As the result of these examination, SDH patients are divided into five categories in account of their CT findings, especially according to the relationship between the hemispheric swelling and the amount of SDH. Simple SDH type shows classical clinical course and surgical treatment are frequently essential in rapidly progressive cases. Isodensity hemispheric swelling (IHS) type is more frequently seen in CT findings which shows thin SDH and prominent brain swelling. This IHS (a subtype of diffuse brain injury) type should be recognized for their favourable outcome under conservative treatment. Other three types are; contusion with SDH, acute excerbation of chronic SDH, and battered child. Indication of surgical treatment will be decided considering to the volume of hematomas. (author)

  8. Childhood and adult cancer in twins: evidence from the Utah genealogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Rachel E; Mineau, Geraldine; Whiteman, David C; Brownbill, Pat A; Murphy, Michael F G

    2005-05-01

    Evidence suggests that the in utero environment may contribute to subsequent development of cancers in childhood and adulthood. Raised levels of estrogen during pregnancy may be the primary in utero etiologic factor. Mothers of twins have higher estrogen levels during pregnancy than mothers of singletons, therefore, assessment of cancer risk in twins may be informative. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of cancer among twin and singleton newborns selected from the Utah Population Database, matched on birth year and sex. Cancer diagnoses were determined by linkage with the Utah state cancer register. Relative rates of all cancers in childhood and in adulthood in twins compared with singletons, and for specific cancers including testicular, breast and melanoma, were calculated using Poisson regression. Twin (35,271) and singleton (74,199) births were identified, among whom there were 336 and 691 cancer diagnoses, respectively. The relative risk (RR) of childhood cancer in twins compared with singletons was 0.82 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.55-1.24] and of adult cancer was 1.06 (0.92-1.22). We found nonsignificant increases in risk among adult twins for cancers of the breast, prostate, testis, lymphatic system, thyroid, and large bowel. The largest departures from unity were for testicular cancer (RR 1.47; 95% CI, 0.73-2.95) and melanoma (RR 0.67; 95% CI, 0.42-1.06). These results are consistent with the body of evidence suggesting that twins have a reduced risk of cancer in childhood. Although there is no overall differential in adult cancer risk, these data support the hypothesis that the in utero environment may play an important role in specific cancers.

  9. Indicative findings of pancreatic cancer in prediagnostic CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Sung Soo; Choi, Jin-Young; Hong, Hye-Suk; Chung, Yong Eun; Lim, Joon Seok; Kim, Myeong-Jin

    2009-01-01

    We examined 20 prediagnostic CTs from 16 patients for whom the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer was delayed until full diagnostic CT was performed. Three radiologists independently reviewed the prediagnostic CTs along with 50 CTs of control subjects, including patients without pancreatic disease (n = 38) or with chronic pancreatitis without calcification visible on CT (n=12). The reviewers recorded the presence of biliary or pancreatic ductal dilation, interruption of the pancreatic duct, distal parenchymal atrophy, contour abnormality and focal hypoattenuation. Frequency, sensitivity and specificity of the significant findings were calculated. Logistic regression analysis was performed. Findings indicative of pancreatic cancer were seen on 85% (17/20) of the prediagnostic CTs. Patients with pancreatic cancer were significantly (p<0.05) more likely to show focal hypoattenuation, pancreatic duct dilation, interruption of the pancreatic duct, and distal parenchymal atrophy, with sensitivities and specificities of 75%/84%, 50%/78%, 45%/82% and 45%/96%, respectively. Focal hypoattenuation and distal parenchymal atrophy were the independent predictors of pancreatic cancer with odds ratios of 20.92 and 11.22, respectively. In conclusion, focal hypoattenuation and pancreatic duct dilation with or without interruption, especially when accompanied by distal parenchymal atrophy, were the most useful findings for avoiding delayed diagnosis of pancreatic cancer. (orig.)

  10. Shared Care of Childhood Cancer Survivors: A Telemedicine Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Aimee G; Nugent, Bethany D; Conover, Noelle; Moore, Amanda; Dempsey, Kathleen; Tersak, Jean M

    2017-12-01

    With an increasing number of childhood cancer survivors (CCSs), determining the best model of survivorship transition care is becoming a growing priority. Shared care between pediatric oncology and adult primary care is often necessary, making survivorship a time of transition, but effective standard models are lacking. We sought to provide a more integrated approach to transition using telemedicine. Recruited primary care provider/CCS dyads were instructed to log-in to a password-protected virtual meeting room using telemedicine equipment at the time or a regularly scheduled office visit. Dyads were joined by a pediatric survivorship clinic team member who conducted the telemedicine portion of the transition visit, which consisted of the review of an individualized treatment summary and care plan. Postquestionnaires were developed to evaluate key points such as fund of knowledge, satisfaction with the visit, and effectiveness of this electronic tool. There were 19 transition visits conducted, 13 of which used the telemedicine equipment as planned. Those that did not use the equipment were primarily unable to due to technical difficulties. Postquestionnaires were overall positive, confirming increased knowledge, comfort and abilities, and patient satisfaction in survivorship care. Negative comments were primarily related to equipment difficulties. A gap still remains in helping CCSs transition from oncology to primary care and this pilot study offered insights into how we might better bridge that gap through the use of telemedicine. Further research is needed to refine the transition process for CCSs, including evaluation and testing models for standard of care.

  11. Clinical implications of malnutrition in childhood cancer patients--infections and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffen, E A H; Brinksma, A; Miedema, K G E; de Bock, G H; Tissing, W J E

    2015-01-01

    In childhood cancer patients, malnutrition has been proposed to increase infection rates and reduce survival. We investigated whether malnutrition at diagnosis and during treatment and weight loss during treatment are prognostic factors for infection rates and survival, within a heterogeneous childhood cancer population. From two previous studies, all children ≤18 years of age diagnosed with cancer between October 2004 and October 2011 were included in this study. Data regarding BMI, infections, and survival were retrieved. Patients with a BMI z-score lower than -2.0 were classified as malnourished. Weight loss more than 5% was considered relevant. Two hundred sixty-nine childhood cancer patients were included in this study. At diagnosis, 5.2% of all patients were malnourished. These patients showed worse survival than those who were well nourished (hazard ratio (HR) = 3.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.52-8.70, p = 0.004). Malnourishment at 3 months after diagnosis (3.3% of all patients) also showed worse survival (HR = 6.34, 95% CI = 2.42-16.65, p childhood cancer patients. In addition, we found for the first time that weight loss during treatment is associated with increased presence of febrile neutropenic episodes with bacteremia. This underlines the importance of optimal feeding designs in childhood cancer patients.

  12. Memories of Parent Behaviors and Adult Attachment in Childhood Cancer Survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann, Vicky; Hagedoorn, Mariët; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Keim, Madelaine C; Guthrie, Lory; Sanderman, Robbert; Tuinman, Marrit A

    PURPOSE: Childhood cancer is stressful for the entire family. Preoccupation and anxiety surrounding the child's illness may result in parents of children with cancer being overprotective or less emotionally responsive toward their children. Such parenting in response to a negative life event like

  13. Birth weight, childhood body mass index, and height in relation to mammographic density and breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Bihrmann, Kristine

    2014-01-01

    High breast density, a strong predictor of breast cancer may be determined early in life. Childhood anthropometric factors have been related to breast cancer and breast density, but rarely simultaneously. We examined whether mammographic density (MD) mediates an association of birth weight, child...

  14. Identification of Genetic Susceptibility to Childhood Cancer through Analysis of Genes in Parallel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plon, Sharon E.; Wheeler, David A.; Strong, Louise C.; Tomlinson, Gail E.; Pirics, Michael; Meng, Qingchang; Cheung, Hannah C.; Begin, Phyllis R.; Muzny, Donna M.; Lewis, Lora; Biegel, Jaclyn A.; Gibbs, Richard A.

    2011-01-01

    Clinical cancer genetic susceptibility analysis typically proceeds sequentially beginning with the most likely causative gene. The process is time consuming and the yield is low particularly for families with unusual patterns of cancer. We determined the results of in parallel mutation analysis of a large cancer-associated gene panel. We performed deletion analysis and sequenced the coding regions of 45 genes (8 oncogenes and 37 tumor suppressor or DNA repair genes) in 48 childhood cancer patients who also (1) were diagnosed with a second malignancy under age 30, (2) have a sibling diagnosed with cancer under age 30 and/or (3) have a major congenital anomaly or developmental delay. Deleterious mutations were identified in 6 of 48 (13%) families, 4 of which met the sibling criteria. Mutations were identified in genes previously implicated in both dominant and recessive childhood syndromes including SMARCB1, PMS2, and TP53. No pathogenic deletions were identified. This approach has provided efficient identification of childhood cancer susceptibility mutations and will have greater utility as additional cancer susceptibility genes are identified. Integrating parallel analysis of large gene panels into clinical testing will speed results and increase diagnostic yield. The failure to detect mutations in 87% of families highlights that a number of childhood cancer susceptibility genes remain to be discovered. PMID:21356188

  15. Childhood body mass index and height and risk of histologic subtypes of endometrial cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, J.; Gamborg, M.; Ulrich, L. G.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Endometrial cancer risk factors include adult obesity and taller stature, but the influence of size earlier in life is incompletely understood. We examined whether childhood body mass index (BMI; kg m(-2)) and height were associated with histologic subtypes of endometrial cancer...

  16. Final height in survivors of childhood cancer compared with Height Standard Deviation Scores at diagnosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knijnenburg, S. L.; Raemaekers, S.; van den Berg, H.; van Dijk, I. W. E. M.; Lieverst, J. A.; van der Pal, H. J.; Jaspers, M. W. M.; Caron, H. N.; Kremer, L. C.; van Santen, H. M.

    2013-01-01

    Our study aimed to evaluate final height in a cohort of Dutch childhood cancer survivors (CCS) and assess possible determinants of final height, including height at diagnosis. We calculated standard deviation scores (SDS) for height at initial cancer diagnosis and height in adulthood in a cohort of

  17. Assessing dietary intake in childhood cancer survivors: Food frequency questionnaire versus 24-hour diet recalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer diagnosis and treatment may influence dietary intake. The validity of using self-reported methods to quantify dietary intake has not been evaluated in childhood cancer survivors. We validated total energy intake (EI) reported from Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and repeated 24-hour diet r...

  18. Socio-economic Status Plays Important Roles in Childhood Cancer Treatment Outcome in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mostert, S.; Gunawan, S.; Wolters, E.; van de Ven, P.M.; Sitaresmi, M.N.; van Dongen, J.; Veerman, A.J.P.; Mantik, M.F.J.; Kaspers, G.J.L.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The influence of parental socio-economic status on childhood cancer treatment outcome in low-income countries has not been sufficiently investigated. Our study examined this influence and explored parental experiences during cancer treatment of their children in an Indonesian academic

  19. Childhood leukaemia in Europe after Chernobyl: Five year follow-up of cancer registry populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkin, D.M.; Black, R.J.; Kramarova, E.; Clayton, D.

    1997-01-01

    The European Childhood Leukaemia-Lymphoma Incidence Study (ECLIS) aims to monitor trends in the incidence of these diseases in European populations in relation to estimated exposures to radioactive material released at the time of the Chernobyl accident. Thirty-six cancer registries in 23 countries are collaborating in ECLIS, coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). 3 figs, 3 tabs

  20. Childhood leukaemia in Europe after Chernobyl: Five year follow-up of cancer registry populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkin, D M; Black, R J; Kramarova, E [International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon (France); Clayton, D [University of Cambridge, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    1997-09-01

    The European Childhood Leukaemia-Lymphoma Incidence Study (ECLIS) aims to monitor trends in the incidence of these diseases in European populations in relation to estimated exposures to radioactive material released at the time of the Chernobyl accident. Thirty-six cancer registries in 23 countries are collaborating in ECLIS, coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). 3 figs, 3 tabs.

  1. Medical assessment of adverse health outcomes in long-term survivors of childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geenen, Maud M.; Cardous-Ubbink, Mathilde C.; Kremer, Leontien C. M.; van den Bos, Cor; van der Pal, Helena J. H.; Heinen, Richard C.; Jaspers, Monique W. M.; Koning, Caro C. E.; Oldenburger, Foppe; Langeveld, Nelia E.; Hart, Augustinus A. M.; Bakker, Piet J. M.; Caron, Huib N.; van Leeuwen, Flora E.

    2007-01-01

    CONTEXT: Improved survival of children with cancer has been accompanied by multiple treatment-related complications. However, most studies in survivors of childhood cancer focused on only 1 late effect. OBJECTIVE: To assess the total burden of adverse health outcomes (clinical or subclinical

  2. Reproductive status in adult male long-term survivors of childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tromp, K.; Claessens, J. J. M.; Knijnenburg, S. L.; van der Pal, H. J. H.; van Leeuwen, F. E.; Caron, H. N.; Beerendonk, C. C. M.; Kremer, L. C. M.

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the long-term effects of cancer therapies on reproductive status in adult male childhood cancer survivors, evaluated the treatment-related risk factors for hypergonadotropic hypogonadism and assessed the association between the FSH levels and the later need for assisted

  3. Reproductive status in adult male long-term survivors of childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tromp, K.; Claessens, J.J.M.; Knijnenburg, S.L.; Pal, H.J. van der; Leeuwen, F.E. van; Caron, H.N.; Beerendonk, C.C.M.; Kremer, L.C.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This study assessed the long-term effects of cancer therapies on reproductive status in adult male childhood cancer survivors, evaluated the treatment-related risk factors for hypergonadotropic hypogonadism and assessed the association between the FSH levels and the later need for

  4. Quality of life, self-esteem and worries in young adult survivors of childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langeveld, N. E.; Grootenhuis, M. A.; Voûte, P. A.; de Haan, R. J.; van den Bos, C.

    2004-01-01

    This study assessed quality of life, self-esteem and worries in young adult survivors of childhood cancer compared to a group of young adults with no history of cancer. The impact of demographic, medical and treatment factors and self-esteem on survivors' quality of life and worries was studied.

  5. Breast Cancer Following Spinal Irradiation for a Childhood Cancer: A Report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, Chaya S.; Malhotra, Jyoti; Chou, Joanne F.; Wolden, Suzanne L.; Weathers, Rita E.; Stovall, Marilyn; Armstrong, Gregory T.; Leisenring, Wendy M.; Neglia, Joseph P.; Robison, Leslie L.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary It has been suggested that pediatric patients treated with spinal irradiation may have an elevated risk of breast cancer. Among a cohort of 363 long-term survivors of a pediatric central nervous system tumor or leukemia treated with spinal irradiation, there was little evidence of an increased breast cancer risk. PMID:26391961

  6. Turning of COGS moves forward findings for hormonally mediated cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakoda, Lori C; Jorgenson, Eric; Witte, John S

    2013-04-01

    The large-scale Collaborative Oncological Gene-environment Study (COGS) presents new findings that further characterize the genetic bases of breast, ovarian and prostate cancers. We summarize and provide insights into this collection of papers from COGS and discuss the implications of the results and future directions for such efforts.

  7. Association of childhood trauma with fatigue, depression, stress, and inflammation in breast cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tatiana J; Felger, Jennifer C; Lee, Anna; Mister, Donna; Miller, Andrew H; Torres, Mylin A

    2016-02-01

    This pilot study examined whether breast cancer patients with childhood trauma exhibit increased fatigue, depression, and stress in association with inflammation as a result of whole breast radiotherapy (RT). Twenty breast cancer patients were enrolled in a prospective, longitudinal study of fatigue, depression, and perceived stress prior to RT, week 6 of RT, and 6 weeks post-RT. Six weeks after RT, subjects completed the childhood trauma questionnaire (CTQ). Patients were also administered the multidimensional fatigue inventory, inventory of depressive symptomatology-self-reported, and perceived stress scale at all three time-points and underwent blood sampling prior to RT for gene expression and inflammatory markers previously associated with childhood trauma and behavioral symptoms in breast cancer patients. Eight subjects (40%) had past childhood trauma (CTQ+). Compared to CTQ- patients, CTQ+ patients had significantly higher fatigue, depression, and stress scores before, during, and after RT (p fatigue, and stress scores in CTQ+ but not CTQ- patients. Childhood trauma was prevalent and was associated with increased symptoms of fatigue, depression, and stress irrespective of RT. Increased symptoms in CTQ+ patients were also associated with baseline inflammatory markers. Treatments targeting childhood trauma and related inflammation may improve symptoms in breast cancer patients. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. The burden of childhood cancer in Mexico: Implications for low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Luna, Roberto; Zapata-Tarres, Marta; Shalkow-Klincovstein, Jaime; Velasco-Hidalgo, Liliana; Olaya-Vargas, Alberto; Finkelstein-Mizrahi, Nicole; Cárdenas-Cardós, Rocío; Aguilar-Ortiz, Marco R

    2017-06-01

    In Mexico, childhood cancer incidence and mortality have increased in the last decade. Through government actions since 2005, the Popular Medical Insurance (PMI) program for childhood cancer was created. The objective of PMI was to offer early cancer diagnosis, standardized treatment regimens, and numerous pediatric oncology residency programs. It has also accredited 55 national hospitals for the care of these children. Current problems still present under the PMI include shortage of pediatric oncologists and nurses and high rate of abandonment of treatment. Our aim is to describe the current scenario of childhood cancer care in Mexico, especially from the perspective of the PMI and how it has impacted human resources, infrastructure, and medical education. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Computerized cognitive training in survivors of childhood cancer: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Kristina K; Willard, Victoria W; Bonner, Melanie J

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to pilot a computerized cognitive training program, Captain's Log, in a small sample of survivors of childhood cancer. A total of 9 survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia and brain tumors with attention and working memory deficits were enrolled in a home-based 12-week cognitive training program. Survivors returned for follow-up assessments postintervention and 3 months later. The intervention was associated with good feasibility and acceptability. Participants exhibited significant increases in working memory and decreases in parent-rated attention problems following the intervention. Findings indicate that home-based, computerized cognitive intervention is a promising intervention for survivors with cognitive late effects; however, further study is warranted with a larger sample.

  10. The prognosis of osteosarcoma occurring as second malignancy of childhood cancers may be favorable: experience of two cancer centers in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonemoto, Tsukasa; Hosono, Ako; Iwata, Shintaro; Kamoda, Hiroto; Hagiwara, Yoko; Fujiwara, Tomohiro; Kawai, Akira; Ishii, Takeshi

    2015-06-01

    Osteosarcoma as second malignancy of childhood cancers rarely occurs, and its clinical characteristics are unclear. Patients with osteosarcoma occurring as second malignancy of childhood cancers were retrospectively surveyed. Of 323 patients with osteosarcoma registered in the database, 10 (3.1%) had a past history of childhood cancers. The mean age at the onset of the first childhood cancer was 2.7 years, and the diagnosis of the first childhood cancer was adrenocortical carcinoma, malignant teratoma, ovarian carcinoma, Ewing's sarcoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma in 1 patient each, and retinoblastoma in 5 patients. Osteosarcoma as second malignancy occurred 14.6 years after the first childhood cancer on average. Seven patients were alive and 3 died. In 1 patient, the cause of death was related to a complication of treatment for the first childhood cancer. Except for this patient, 7 (77.8%) of 9 patients survived with no disease (mean follow-up period: 10.9 years). Attention should be paid to complications of treatment for the first childhood cancer in the treatment for osteosarcoma occurring as second malignancy. The prognosis of osteosarcoma as second malignancy of childhood cancers may be more favorable than that of conventional osteosarcoma.

  11. Childhood cancer mortality in relation to the St Lucie nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boice, John D Jr; Mumma, Michael T; Blot, William J; Heath, Clark W Jr

    2005-01-01

    An unusual county-wide excess of childhood cancers of brain and other nervous tissue in the late 1990s in St Lucie County, Florida, prompted the Florida Department of Health to conduct a case-control study within the county assessing residential chemical exposures. No clear associations were found, but claims were then made that the release of radioactive substances such as strontium 90 from the St Lucie nuclear power station, which began operating in 1976, might have played a role. To test the plausibility of this hypothesis, we extended by 17 years a previous study of county mortality conducted by the National Cancer Institute. Rates of total cancer, leukaemia and cancer of brain and other nervous tissue in children and across all ages in St Lucie County were evaluated with respect to the years before and after the nuclear power station began operation and contrasted with rates in two similar counties in Florida (Polk and Volusia). Over the prolonged period 1950-2000, no unusual patterns of childhood cancer mortality were found for St Lucie County as a whole. In particular, no unusual patterns of childhood cancer mortality were seen in relation to the start-up of the St Lucie nuclear power station in 1976. Further, there were no significant differences in mortality between the study and comparison counties for any cancer in the time period after the power station was in operation. Relative rates for all childhood cancers and for childhood leukaemia were higher before the nuclear facility began operating than after, while rates of brain and other nervous tissue cancer were slightly lower in St Lucie County than in the two comparison counties for both time periods. Although definitive conclusions cannot be drawn from descriptive studies, these data provide no support for the hypothesis that the operation of the St Lucie nuclear power station has adversely affected the cancer mortality experience of county residents

  12. Early colon cancer : findings on double contrast barium enema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Kwon; Lim, Jae Hoon; Lee, Soon Jin; Lim, Hyo Keun

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe the radiologic findings of early colon cancer on double-contrast barium enema. We retrospectively reviewed the double-contrast barium enemas of eight patients (M:F = 6:2; mean age : 67 yrs; range : 48-77 yrs) who were pathologically proven to be early colon cancer. The location, size and gross morphology of lesions was evaluated using double-contrast barium enema, while depth of invasion, degree of differentiation, precancerous lesions and lymph node metastasis were evaluated histopathologically. Early colon cancer was found in the rectum (n=4), sigmoid colon (n=3) and ascending colon (n=1). The size of mass ranged from 2.3 ∼ 8.3 (mean, 4.6) cm. And the polypoid type was most common (n=7); this was subdivided into sessile (Is, n=5), semipedunculated (Isp, n=1) and pedunculated type (Ip, n=1). Another mass was a sessile polypoid combined with a flat depressed lesion. In eight cases, four cancers were confined to the mucosa, while the remaining four had infiltrated the submucosa. Most cancers arose from villous and villotubular adenoma. All cases were well-differentiated adenocarcinoma and no metastasis to lymph nodes had occurred. In early colon cancer, lesions were mainly polypoid and large. Most arose from villous and villotubular adenoma. (author). 19 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs

  13. Is Childhood Physical Abuse Associated with Peptic Ulcer Disease? Findings from a Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Bottoms, Jennifer; Brennenstuhl, Sarah; Hurd, Marion

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated childhood physical abuse and ulcers in a regionally representative community sample. Age, race and sex were controlled for in addition to five clusters of potentially confounding factors: adverse childhood conditions, adult socioeconomic status, current health behaviors, current stress and marital status, and history of…

  14. Prevention of caries with probiotic bacteria during early childhood. Promising but inconsistent findings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mette Rose; pqd956, pqd956; Twetman, Svante

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: This review summarized the available literature on the prevention of childhood caries through biofilm engineering with probiotic bacteria in early childhood. METHODS: Three databases (PubMed, Cochrane Library and Trip) were searched through January, 2016 for randomized controlled trials...

  15. Metabolomic analysis in severe childhood pneumonia in the Gambia, West Africa: findings from a pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evagelia C Laiakis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pneumonia remains the leading cause of death in young children globally and improved diagnostics are needed to better identify cases and reduce case fatality. Metabolomics, a rapidly evolving field aimed at characterizing metabolites in biofluids, has the potential to improve diagnostics in a range of diseases. The objective of this pilot study is to apply metabolomic analysis to childhood pneumonia to explore its potential to improve pneumonia diagnosis in a high-burden setting. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Eleven children with World Health Organization (WHO-defined severe pneumonia of non-homogeneous aetiology were selected in The Gambia, West Africa, along with community controls. Metabolomic analysis of matched plasma and urine samples was undertaken using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC coupled to Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (TOFMS. Biomarker extraction was done using SIMCA-P+ and Random Forests (RF. 'Unsupervised' (blinded data were analyzed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA, while 'supervised' (unblinded analysis was by Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA and Orthogonal Projection to Latent Structures (OPLS. Potential markers were extracted from S-plots constructed following analysis with OPLS, and markers were chosen based on their contribution to the variation and correlation within the data set. The dataset was additionally analyzed with the machine-learning algorithm RF in order to address issues of model overfitting and markers were selected based on their variable importance ranking. Unsupervised PCA analysis revealed good separation of pneumonia and control groups, with even clearer separation of the groups with PLS-DA and OPLS analysis. Statistically significant differences (p<0.05 between groups were seen with the following metabolites: uric acid, hypoxanthine and glutamic acid were higher in plasma from cases, while L-tryptophan and adenosine-5'-diphosphate (ADP were lower

  16. The cost and cost-effectiveness of childhood cancer treatment in El Salvador, Central America: A report from the Childhood Cancer 2030 Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Alabi, Soad; Bhakta, Nickhill; Vasquez, Roberto Franklin; Gupta, Sumit; Horton, Susan E

    2018-01-15

    Although previous studies have examined the cost of treating individual childhood cancers in low-income and middle-income countries, to the authors' knowledge none has examined the overall cost and cost-effectiveness of operating a childhood cancer treatment center. Herein, the authors examined the cost and sources of financing of a pediatric cancer unit in Hospital Nacional de Ninos Benjamin Bloom in El Salvador, and make estimates of cost-effectiveness. Administrative data regarding costs and volumes of inputs were obtained for 2016 for the pediatric cancer unit. Similar cost and volume data were obtained for shared medical services provided centrally (eg, blood bank). Costs of central nonmedical support services (eg, utilities) were obtained from hospital data and attributed by inpatient share. Administrative data also were used for sources of financing. Cost-effectiveness was estimated based on the number of new patients diagnosed annually and survival rates. The pediatric cancer unit cost $5.2 million to operate in 2016 (treating 90 outpatients per day and experiencing 1385 inpatient stays per year). Approximately three-quarters of the cost (74.7%) was attributed to 4 items: personnel (21.6%), pathological diagnosis (11.5%), pharmacy (chemotherapy, supportive care medications, and nutrition; 31.8%), and blood products (9.8%). Funding sources included government (52.5%), charitable foundations (44.2%), and a social security contribution scheme (3.4%). Based on 181 new patients per year and a 5-year survival rate of 48.5%, the cost per disability-adjusted life-year averted was $1624, which is under the threshold considered to be very cost effective. Treating childhood cancer in a specialized unit in low-income and middle-income countries can be done cost-effectively. Strong support from charitable foundations aids with affordability. Cancer 2018;124:391-7. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  17. Screening for psychological late effects in childhood, adolescent and young adult cancer survivors: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Gisela; Vetsch, Janine

    2015-07-01

    In the past years, increasing evidence showed that many childhood cancer survivors suffer from psychological distress long after treatment ended. However, psychosocial issues are often neglected during follow-up care. Including screening for psychological distress before follow-up appointments might help addressing the topic in survivors who need support. Our aim was to systematically review the available evidence on screening for psychological distress in childhood cancer survivors. We found eight studies that investigated different screening tools for their utility in detecting psychological distress in childhood cancer survivors. The Brief Symptom Inventory-18 with an adapted cutoff score for childhood cancer survivors, and the newly developed short form of the Beck Depression Index were both shown to be of a potential benefit as brief screening tools in follow-up care. We identified promising screening tools to be used to detect psychological distress in childhood cancer survivors. However, there is still a lack of studies addressing applicability and effectiveness when screening is routinely implemented into follow-up care. To improve quality of follow-up care, and identify and treat survivors with psychological distress, screening tools should now be implemented and their adequacy further tested in day-to-day clinic life.

  18. Impact of childhood asthma on growth trajectories in early adolescence: Findings from the Childhood Asthma Prevention Study (CAPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movin, Maria; Garden, Frances L; Protudjer, Jennifer L P; Ullemar, Vilhelmina; Svensdotter, Frida; Andersson, David; Kruse, Andreas; Cowell, Chris T; Toelle, Brett G; Marks, Guy B; Almqvist, Catarina

    2017-04-01

    Understanding the associations between childhood asthma and growth in early adolescence by accounting for the heterogeneity of growth during puberty has been largely unexplored. The objective was to identify sex-specific classes of growth trajectories during early adolescence, using a method which takes the heterogeneity of growth into account and to evaluate the association between childhood asthma and different classes of growth trajectories in adolescence. Our longitudinal study included participants with a family history of asthma born during 1997-1999 in Sydney, Australia. Hence, all participants were at high risk for asthma. Asthma status was ascertained at 8 years of age using data from questionnaires and lung function tests. Growth trajectories between 11 and 14 years of age were classified using a latent basis growth mixture model. Multinomial regression analyses were used to evaluate the association between asthma and the categorized classes of growth trajectories. In total, 316 participants (51.6% boys), representing 51.3% of the entire cohort, were included. Sex-specific classes of growth trajectories were defined. Among boys, asthma was not associated with the classes of growth trajectories. Girls with asthma were more likely than girls without asthma to belong to a class with later growth (OR: 3.79, 95% CI: 1.33, 10.84). Excluding participants using inhaled corticosteroids or adjusting for confounders did not significantly change the results for either sex. We identified sex-specific heterogeneous classes of growth using growth mixture modelling. Associations between childhood asthma and different classes of growth trajectories were found for girls only. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  19. Childhood Cancer Incidence in India Betweem 2012 and 2014: Report of a Population-based Cancer Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Suman; Paul, Dilip Kumar; Anshu, Kumar; Bhakta, Subhajit

    2017-12-15

    To provide an overview of childhood cancer incidence in India between 2012-2014. Secondary data analysis on age-adjusted rates of cancer incidence for children (0-14 years) were collected from the report of the National Cancer Registry Programme in the year 2016. Age-adjusted rates of childhood cancer incidence ranged from 18.5 per million in the state of Nagaland to 235.3 per million in Delhi for boys. The rates were 11.4 per million in East Khasi Hill district and 152.3 per million in Delhi for girls. Leukemia was the most predominant cancer for both boys and girls. Lymphoma was the second most common cancer in boys, and brain tumors in girls. Childhood cancer incidence is increasing in India compared to population-based cancer registry survey of 2009-2011. Cancers are mostly affecting 0-4 years age group, and there is a rising trend of Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  20. A Worldwide Collaboration to Harmonize Guidelines for the Long-Term Follow-Up of Childhood and Young Adult Cancer Survivors: A Report From the International Late Effects of Childhood Cancer Guideline Harmonization Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremer, Leontien C. M.; Mulder, Renée L.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Bhatia, Smita; Landier, Wendy; Levitt, Gill; Constine, Louis S.; Wallace, W. Hamish; Caron, Huib N.; Armenian, Saro H.; Skinner, Roderick; Hudson, Melissa M.

    2013-01-01

    Childhood and young adult cancer survivors should receive optimum care to reduce the consequences of late effects and improve quality of life. We can facilitate achieving this goal by international collaboration in guideline development. In 2010, the International Late Effects of Childhood Cancer

  1. Patterns of Internet-based health information seeking in adult survivors of childhood cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claridy, Mechelle D; Hudson, Melissa M; Caplan, Lee; Mitby, Pauline A; Leisenring, Wendy; Smith, Selina A; Robison, Leslie L; Mertens, Ann C

    2018-05-01

    To assess where, when, and why survivors of childhood cancer seek health information. Data from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) cohort (n = 1386) and Health Information National Trends Survey (n = 2385) were analyzed to determine the health information seeking strategies of childhood cancer survivors. Descriptive frequencies, χ 2 analyses, t-tests, and multivariable logistic regression models were used. To seek health-related information for themselves, 54% (n = 742) of the childhood survivors reported using the Internet in the past 12 months, compared to 45% of the general population (adjusted OR: 2.76; 95% CI: 2.40-3.19). Childhood cancer survivors who used the Internet for health information were more likely to be female, between the ages of 18-34, have received some college education or be a college graduate, and report being in poor health. Although survivors were less likely than the general population to trust health information from the Internet (P < 0.01), they indicated that they would like a secure website that uses information from their medical records to provide individualized health-related information. The use of the Internet to access health information among the childhood cancer survivors was over 50%. Information on late effects was a high priority for most survivors, as was their interest in websites related to late effects and a website on patient information tailored to personal situations. Identification of factors associated with searching the Internet for cancer information may provide direction for development of effective cancer communication interventions for this at-risk population. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Renal sonographic findings of type I glycogen storage disease in infancy and early childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chun-Chen; Lin, Shuan-Pei [Mackay Memorial Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Taipei (Taiwan); Tsai, Jeng-Daw; Lee, Hung-Chang [Mackay Memorial Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Taipei (Taiwan); Taipei Medical University, Department of Pediatrics, Taipei (Taiwan)

    2005-08-01

    Type I glycogen storage disease (GSD-I) is an inherited disorder affecting glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis. The characteristic manifestations are hepatomegaly, hypoglycemia, hyperlacticacidemia, hyperuricemia, and hyperlipidemia. Renal disease is regarded as a long-term complication and is reported mainly in older patients. We report the renal manifestations and renal ultrasonographic findings of GSD-I in infancy and early childhood in order to assess the role of renal sonography in the diagnosis of GSD-I. We retrospectively reviewed our hospital's database for patients with GSD-I from January 1993 to September 2004. The records of five patients were reviewed for this study. These five patients were diagnosed when they were younger than 3 years old. Data extracted from the charts included the initial extrarenal and renal manifestations, laboratory data, and imaging studies. We analyzed the indications for, and results of, renal sonography. In addition to the clinical presentations and laboratory abnormalities, all five children had nephromegaly and increased echogenicity on ultrasonography on their first visit, although only a minor degree of tubular dysfunction was noted clinically. Three of these five patients had nephrocalcinosis or renal stones or both. Hyperechoic large kidneys, nephrocalcinosis, and renal stones are common in GSD-I. They can be present in early infancy. Abnormalities on renal sonography might suggest GSD-I in a patient with suspected inborn errors of metabolism. (orig.)

  3. No damaging effect of chemotherapy in addition to radiotherapy on the thyroid axis in young adult survivors of childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Santen, Hanneke M.; Vulsma, Thomas; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G.; Blumer, Regje M. E.; Heinen, Richard; Jaspers, Monique W. M.; Geenen, Maud M.; Offringa, Martin O.; de Vijlder, Jan J. M.; van den Bos, Cor

    2003-01-01

    Late effects of treatment for childhood cancer on the thyroid axis are ascribed predominantly to radiotherapy. Whether chemotherapy has an additional detrimental effect is still unclear. Our aim was to evaluate this effect in young adult survivors of a broad spectrum of childhood cancers. The

  4. Childhood cancer in the cinema: how the celluloid mirror reflects psychosocial care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavisic, Jovana; Chilton, Julie; Walter, Garry; Soh, Nerissa L; Martin, Andrés

    2014-08-01

    This study aims to evaluate the childhood cancer experience in commercially produced, readily available films that include a character with childhood cancer, with a particular focus on psychosocial care. We reviewed 29 films, using quantitative and qualitative content analysis, to identify the medical and psychosocial characteristics of the cinematic childhood cancer experience. We rated psychosocial support on a 5-point scale (0 to 4) based on the availability and efficacy of support characters in the categories of nonprofessional internal (eg, parent), nonprofessional external (eg, friend), professional medical (eg, oncologist), and professional psychosocial (eg, social worker) supports. Film depicts an unrealistic, bleak picture of childhood cancer, with a 66% mortality rate among the 35 characters evaluated. Psychosocial supports portrayed in film are generally limited to resources already available to families before the cancer diagnosis: mean ratings across films were 2.4 for both nonprofessional, 1.6 for professional medical, and 0.3 for professional psychosocial supports (Kruskal-Wallis χ3=43.1051, Plandscape. Film generally depicts images of an isolated family courageously battling cancer alone with limited support from a treatment team solely dedicated to medical care. Commercially available films minimize the importance of the psychosocial dimension of care, which can perpetuate stigma around psychosocial needs and interventions. These films can be used to encourage discussion about how to optimize psychosocial care in pediatric oncology so that such care is not abandoned in actual practice as it is, for entertainment purposes, on the screen.

  5. Bone mineral density deficits in childhood cancer survivors: Pathophysiology, prevalence, screening, and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jae Kang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available As chemotherapy and other sophisticated treatment strategies evolve and the number of survivors of long-term childhood cancer grows, the long-term complications of treatment and the cancer itself are becoming ever more important. One of the most important but often neglected complications is osteoporosis and increased risk of fracture during and after cancer treatment. Acquisition of optimal peak bone mass and strength during childhood and adolescence is critical to preventing osteoporosis later in life. However, most childhood cancer patients have multiple risk factors for bone mineral loss. Cancer itself, malnutrition, decreased physical activity during treatment, chemotherapeutic agents such as steroids, and radiotherapy cause bone mineral deficit. Furthermore, complications such as growth hormone deficiency and musculoskeletal deformity have negative effects on bone metabolism. Low bone mineral density is associated with fractures, skeletal deformity, pain, and substantial financial burden not only for childhood cancer survivors but also for public health care systems. Thus, it is important to monitor bone health in these patients and minimize their risk of developing osteoporosis and fragility fractures later in life.

  6. Childhood maltreatment as a risk factor for COPD: findings from a population-based survey of Canadian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shields ME

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Margot E Shields, Wendy E Hovdestad, Charles P Gilbert, Lil E Tonmyr Public Health Agency of Canada, Ottawa, ON, Canada Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the associations between childhood maltreatment (CM and COPD in adulthood.Methods: Data were from 15,902 respondents to the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey – Mental Health. Multiple logistic regression models were used to examine associations between CM and COPD and the role of smoking and mental and substance use variables as mediators in associations.Results: COPD in adulthood was related to CM, with associations differing by sex. Among females, COPD was related to childhood physical abuse (CPA, childhood sexual abuse, and childhood exposure to intimate partner violence, but in the fully adjusted models, the association with CPA did not persist. Among males, COPD was related to childhood exposure to intimate partner violence and severe and frequent CPA, but these associations did not persist in the fully adjusted models.Conclusion: Results from this study establish CM as a risk factor for COPD in adulthood. A large part of the association is attributable to cigarette smoking, particularly for males. These findings underscore the importance of interventions to prevent CM as well as programs to assist victims of CM in dealing with tobacco addiction. Keywords: child abuse, cigarette, smoking, physical abuse, sexual abuse, intimate partner violence, domestic violence, family violence

  7. Birth order and risk of childhood cancer in the Danish birth cohort of 1973-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüz, Joachim; Luta, George; Erdmann, Friederike; Ferro, Gilles; Bautz, Andrea; Simony, Sofie Bay; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Lightfoot, Tracy; Winther, Jeanette Falck

    2015-11-01

    Many studies have investigated the possible association between birth order and risk of childhood cancer, although the evidence to date has been inconsistent. Birth order has been used as a marker for various in utero or childhood exposures and is relatively straightforward to assess. Data were obtained on all children born in Denmark between 1973 and 2010, involving almost 2.5 million births and about 5,700 newly diagnosed childhood cancers before the age of 20 years. Data were analyzed using Poisson regression models. We failed to observe associations between birth order and risk of any childhood cancer subtype, including acute lymphoblastic leukemia; all rate ratios were close to one. Further analyses stratified by birth cohort (those born between 1973 and 1990, and those born between 1991 and 2010) also failed to show any associations. Considering stillbirths and/or controlling for birth weight and parental age in the analyses had no effect on the results. Analyses by years of birth (those born between 1973 and 1990, and those born between 1991 and 2010) did not show any changes in the overall pattern of no association. In this large cohort of all children born in Denmark over an almost 40-year period, we did not observe an association between birth order and the risk of childhood cancer.

  8. Evaluation of Tl-201 SPECT imaging findings in prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinem Ozyurt

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To compare with histopathological findings the findings of prostate cancer imaging by SPECT method using Tl-201 as a tumor seeking agent. Methods: The study comprised 59 patients (age range 51-79 years, mean age 65.3 ± 6.8 years who were planned to have transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS-guided biopsies due to suspicion of prostate cancer between April 2011 and September 2011. Early planar, late planar and SPECT images were obtained for all patients. Scintigraphic evaluation was made in relation to uptake presence and patterns in the visual assessment and to Tumor/Background (T/Bg ratios for both planar and SPECT images in the quantitative assessment. Histopathological findings were compatible with benign etiology in 36 (61% patients and malign etiology in 23 (39% patients. Additionally, comparisons were made to evaluate the relationships between uptake patterns,total PSA values and Gleason scores. Results: A statistically significant difference was found between the benign and malignant groups in terms of uptake in planar and SPECT images and T/Bg ratios and PSA values. No statistically significant difference was found between uptake patterns of planar and SPECT images and Gleason scores in the malignant group. Conclusions: SPECT images were superior to planar images in the comparative assessment. Tl-201 SPECT imaging can provide an additional contribution to clinical practice in the diagnosis of prostate cancer and it can be used in selected patients.

  9. Childhood hunger and depressive symptoms in adulthood: Findings from a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickley, Andrew; Leinsalu, Mall

    2018-01-15

    Several studies have linked childhood hunger to an increased risk for later depression. However, as yet, there has been little research on this relation in adults of all ages or whether there are sex differences in this association. The current study examined these issues using data from a national population-based sample. Data were analyzed from 5095 adults aged 25-84 collected during the Estonian Health Interview Survey 2006. Information was obtained on the frequency of going to bed hungry in childhood and on depressive symptoms using the Emotional State Questionnaire (EST-Q). Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between hunger and depression while controlling for other demographic, socioeconomic and health-related variables. In a fully adjusted model, going to bed hungry in childhood either sometimes or often was associated with significantly increased odds for depressive symptoms. When the analysis was stratified by sex the association was more evident in men where any frequency of childhood hunger was linked to adult depression while only women who had experienced hunger often had higher odds for depressive symptoms in the final model. Data on childhood hunger were retrospectively reported and may have been affected by recall bias. We also lacked information on potentially relevant variables such as other childhood adversities that might have been important for the observed associations. Childhood hunger is associated with an increased risk for depressive symptoms among adults. Preventing hunger in childhood may be important for mental health across the life course. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Maternal employment and early childhood overweight: findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkins, S. S.; Cole, T. J.; Law, C.; Millennium Cohort Study Child Health Group, The

    2008-01-01

    Background: In most developed countries, maternal employment has increased rapidly. Changing patterns of family life have been suggested to be contributing to the rising prevalence of childhood obesity. Objectives: Our primary objective was to examine the relationship between maternal and partner employment and overweight in children aged 3 years. Our secondary objective was to investigate factors related to early childhood overweight only among mothers in employment. Design: Cohort study. Su...

  11. Maternal employment and early childhood overweight: findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkins, S. S.; Cole, T. J.; Law, C.; Millennium Cohort Study Child Hlth

    2008-01-01

    Background: In most developed countries, maternal employment has increased rapidly. Changing patterns of family life have been suggested to be contributing to the rising prevalence of childhood obesity.Objectives: Our primary objective was to examine the relationship between maternal and partner employment and overweight in children aged 3 years. Our secondary objective was to investigate factors related to early childhood overweight only among mothers in employment.Design: Cohort study.Subje...

  12. Mental health-care utilization in survivors of childhood cancer and siblings: the Swiss childhood cancer survivor study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianinazzi, Micol E; Rueegg, Corina S; von der Weid, Nicolas X; Niggli, Felix K; Kuehni, Claudia E; Michel, Gisela

    2014-02-01

    We aimed to (1) describe the utilization of mental health-care in survivors and siblings, the association with severity of distress, and visits to other professionals in distressed survivors not utilizing mental health-care; and (2) identify factors associated with utilization of mental health-care in distressed survivors. Within the Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study, we sent postal questionnaires to all participants aged siblings could indicate if they utilized mental health-care in the past year. Psychological distress was assessed with the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18). Participants with scores T ≥ 57 on two of three scales or the Global Severity Index were considered distressed. We included 1,602 survivors and 703 siblings. Overall, 160 (10 %) and 53 (8 %), utilized mental health-care and 203 (14 %) and 127 (14 %) were considered distressed. Among these, 69 (34 %) survivors and 20 (24 %) siblings had utilized mental health-care. Participants with higher distress were more likely to utilize mental health-care. Distressed survivors not utilizing mental health-care were more likely to see a medical specialist than nondistressed. In the multivariable regression, factors associated with utilizing mental health-care were higher psychological distress and reporting late effects. Our results underline the importance of developing interventional programs and implementing psychological screening in follow-up of survivors. It is also important to systematically address siblings' needs. In follow-up, patients at risk should be informed about existing possibilities or advised to visit mental health professionals.

  13. The effect of health insurance on childhood cancer survival in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jong Min; Wang, Xiaoyan; Ojha, Rohit P; Johnson, Kimberly J

    2017-12-15

    The effect of health insurance on childhood cancer survival has not been well studied. Using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) data, this study was designed to assess the association between health insurance status and childhood cancer survival. Data on cancers diagnosed among children less than 15 years old from 2007 to 2009 were obtained from the SEER 18 registries. The effect of health insurance at diagnosis on 5-year childhood cancer mortality was estimated with marginal survival probabilities, restricted mean survival times, and Cox proportional hazards (PH) regression analyses, which were adjusted for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and county-level poverty. Among 8219 childhood cancer cases, the mean survival time was 1.32 months shorter (95% confidence interval [CI], -4.31 to 1.66) after 5 years for uninsured children (n = 131) versus those with private insurance (n = 4297), whereas the mean survival time was 0.62 months shorter (95% CI, -1.46 to 0.22) for children with Medicaid at diagnosis (n = 2838). In Cox PH models, children who were uninsured had a 1.26-fold higher risk of cancer death (95% CI, 0.84-1.90) than those who were privately insured at diagnosis. The risk for those with Medicaid was similar to the risk for those with private insurance at diagnosis (hazard ratio, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.93-1.21). Overall, the results suggest that cancer survival is largely similar for children with Medicaid and those with private insurance at diagnosis. Slightly inferior survival was observed for those who were uninsured in comparison with those with private insurance at diagnosis. The latter result is based on a small number of uninsured children and should be interpreted cautiously. Further study is needed to confirm and clarify the reasons for these patterns. Cancer 2017;123:4878-85. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  14. Childhood Nasopharyngeal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasopharyngeal carcinoma is strongly associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in children. Get comprehensive information about the risk factors, clinical presentation, diagnostic and staging evaluation, prognosis, and treatment of childhood nasopharyngeal carcinoma in this summary for clinicians.

  15. Effects of childhood trauma exposure and cortisol levels on cognitive functioning among breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamen, Charles; Scheiber, Caroline; Janelsins, Michelle; Jo, Booil; Shen, Hanyang; Palesh, Oxana

    2017-10-01

    Cognitive functioning difficultiesin breast cancer patients receiving chemotherapy are common, but not all women experience these impairments. Exposure to childhood trauma may impair cognitive functioning following chemotherapy, and these impairments may be mediated by dysregulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function and cortisol slope. This study evaluated the association between childhood trauma exposure, cortisol, and cognition in a sample of breast cancer survivors. 56 women completed measures of trauma exposure (the Traumatic Events Survey), salivary cortisol, and self-reported cognitive functioning (the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy - Cognitive). We examined correlations between childhood trauma exposure and cognitive functioning, then used linear regression to control for factors associated with cognition (age, education, time since chemotherapy, depression, anxiety, and insomnia), and the MacArthur approach to test whether cortisol levels mediated the relationship between trauma and cognitive functioning. 57.1% of the sample had experienced at least one traumatic event in childhood, with 19.6% of the sample witnessing a serious injury, 17.9% experiencing physical abuse, and 14.3% experiencing sexual abuse. Childhood trauma exposure and cognitive functioning were moderately associated (r=-0.29). This association remained even when controlling for other factors associated with cognition; the final model explained 47% of the variance in cognitive functioning. The association between childhood trauma and cognitive functioning was mediated by steeper cortisol slope (partial r=0.35, p=0.02). Childhood trauma exposure is associated with self-reported cognitive functioning among breast cancer survivors and is mediated by cortisol dysregulation. Trauma should be considered, among other factors, in programs aiming to address cognition in this population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Brain metastasis of breast cancer: clinical and radiologic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Jin Kyung; Oh, Ki Keun; Kim, Eun Kyung; Chung, Tae Sub

    2001-01-01

    To analyse the clinical and radiologic findings brain metastasis of breast cancer. Sixty-one of 1399 patients in whom breast cancer was diagnosed between 1983 and 1999 were affected by brain metastasis. Among these 1399, the stage of the breast cancer, in descending order of frequency, was IIA (n=508), I (n=366), IIB (n=247), IIIA (n=189), IIIB (n=45), 0 (n=33) and IV (n=11). The stage of the 61 brain metastases, similarly ordered, was IIB (12.5%), IIA (3.9%), IIIA (3.1%), IIIB (2.2%) and I (0.8%). In all confirmed breast cancers, the age distribution, in descending order of frequency, was 40-49years (n=610), 50-59 (n=301), 30-39 (n=291), 60-69 (n=124), 20-19 (n=41), 70-79 (n=28), and 80-89 (n=4). The age distribution of brain metastasis was 20-29 (14.6%), 30-39 (7.9%), 50-59 (4.6%). 40-49 (2.6%) and 60-69 (1.6%). Imaging findings were available for 35 of the 61 patients affected by brain metastasis, and symptoms from brain among the 35, analysis of the symptoms of this metastasis, the site of the first distant metastasis to an extracranial or cranial organ, the interval from the diagnosis of breast cancer to brain metastasis, the interval from brain metastasis to death, and the difference in survival time between patients with initial and succeeding brain metastasis was undertaken. Brain CT findings were analysed in 29 cases and MRI findings in eight. The most common symptoms were headache and vomiting. Among the 35 brain metastasis patients for whom imaging findings were available, other systemic metastasis occurred in 22. Initial brain metastasis occurred in the remaining 13, and in seven of these there was also coincident organ metastasis, while six showed only brain metastasis, The most frequent intervals from the diagnosis of breast cancer to brain metastasis were 1-2 years(8/35) and 2-3years(8/35). Twenty-six of 35 patients died within one year of brain metastasis. Patients in whom this occurred later survived for longer than those in whom it occurred

  17. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Cancers by Body Location/System Childhood Cancers Late Effects of Childhood Cancer ... to Z List of Cancers Cancers by Body Location Childhood Cancers Adolescent & Young Adult Cancers Metastatic Cancer ...

  18. Molecular alterations in childhood thyroid cancer after Chernobyl accident and low-dose radiation risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Keiji; Mitsutake, Norisato; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2012-01-01

    The linear no-threshold (LNT) model of radiation carcinogenesis has been used for evaluating the risk from radiation exposure. While the epidemiological studies have supported the LNT model at doses above 100 mGy, more uncertainties are still existed in the LNT model at low doses below 100 mGy. Thus, it is urged to clarify the molecular mechanisms underlying radiation carcinogenesis. After the Chernobyl accident in 1986, significant amount of childhood thyroid cancer has emerged in the children living in the contaminated area. As the incidence of sporadic childhood thyroid cancer is very low, it is quite evident that those cancer cases have been induced by radiation exposure caused mainly by the intake of contaminated foods, such as milk. Because genetic alterations in childhood thyroid cancers have extensively been studied, it should provide a unique chance to understand the molecular mechanisms of radiation carcinogenesis. In a current review, molecular signatures obtained from the molecular studies of childhood thyroid cancer after Chernobyl accident have been overviewed, and new roles of radiation exposure in thyroid carcinogenesis will be discussed. (author)

  19. Differences in MRI findings between subgroups of recent-onset childhood arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkhus, Eva; Flatoe, Berit; Smith, Hans-Joergen; Riise, Oeystein; Reiseter, Tor

    2011-01-01

    MRI is sensitive for joint inflammation, but its ability to separate subgroups of arthritis in children has been questioned. Infectious arthritis (IA), postinfectious arthritis (PA), transient arthritis (TA) and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) are subgroups that may need early, different treatment. To determine whether MRI findings differ in IA, PA/TA and JIA in recent-onset childhood arthritis. Fifty-nine children from a prospective study of incidence of arthritis (n = 216) were, based on clinical and biochemical criteria, examined by MRI. Joint fluid, synovium, bone marrow, soft tissue and cartilage were scored retrospectively and analysed by Pearson chi-square test and logistic regression analysis. Fifty-nine children had MRI of one station. IA was suggested by bone marrow oedema (OR 7.46, P = 0.011) and absence of T1-weighted and T2-weighted low signal intensity synovial tissue (OR 0.06, P = 0.015). Furthermore, soft-tissue oedema and reduced contrast enhancement in the epiphyses were more frequent in children with IA. JIA correlated positively with low signal intensity synovial tissue (OR 13.30, P < 0.001) and negatively with soft-tissue oedema (OR 0.20, P = 0.018). No significant positive determinants were found for PA/TA, but bone marrow oedema, soft-tissue oedema, irregular thickened synovium and low signal intensity synovial tissue was less frequent than in IA/JIA. In children with high clinical suspicion of recent onset arthritis, there was a significant difference in the distribution of specific MRI features among the diagnostic groups. (orig.)

  20. Childhood cancer survival in Switzerland (1976-2013): Time-trends and predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, Matthias; Belle, Fabiën N; Grotzer, Michael A; von der Weid, Nicolas X; Kuehni, Claudia E

    2017-01-01

    Population-based studies on childhood cancer survival are key to monitor progress against cancer and to detect potential differences between regions and other subgroups in the population. We investigated time trends and factors associated with childhood cancer survival on a national level in Switzerland, from 1976 to 2013. We extracted data from the population-based Swiss Childhood Cancer Registry of 5,776 children (age 0-14 years) diagnosed with cancer from 1985 to 2014 in Switzerland. We calculated age-adjusted 5-year survival, defined the annual reduction in risk of death (ARR), and explored associations of survival with clinical and demographic factors. Overall, 5-year survival improved significantly, from 64% in 1976-1983 to 88% in 2004-2013. ARR over the whole period was 4% for all diagnostic groups, greatest for Hodgkin lymphomas (8%), ependymomas (6%), Burkitt's lymphomas (6%) and germ cell tumours (6%). Children treated in hospitals without specialised paediatric cancer centre for leukaemia (HR 12.9), lymphoma (HR 5.0) and neuroblastoma (HR 3.7) were at higher risk of death. In French-speaking Switzerland, risk of death was lower for lymphoma (HR 0.6), CNS tumours (HR 0.7) and neuroblastoma (HR 0.5). Children with migration background had a higher risk of death from all tumours except bone tumours. Childhood cancer survival significantly improved from 1976 to 2013, but there is room for further improvement. Survival rates varied by type of clinical treatment, language region and nationality. All paediatric cancer patients should be referred to a specialised paediatric cancer centre. Further research is needed to intervene and completely eliminate inequalities in survival. © 2016 UICC.

  1. Childhood family income and life outcomes in adulthood: findings from a 30-year longitudinal study in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibb, Sheree J; Fergusson, David M; Horwood, L John

    2012-06-01

    The aims of this study were to use data gathered over the course of a 30-year longitudinal study to examine the linkages between economic circumstances in childhood and subsequent developmental outcomes spanning educational achievement; economic circumstances; crime; mental health; and teenage pregnancy. All of these outcomes have been linked with childhood economic conditions and it is frequently argued that reducing income inequalities will mitigate psychosocial risks of children reared in families facing economic hardship. Alternatively it may be suggested that the associations between childhood family economic circumstances and later outcomes are mediated by individual, family and social factors that are correlated with low family income and contribute to later outcomes. To examine these issues, data were drawn from a birth cohort of New Zealand children born in 1977 and followed to age 30. Declining childhood family income was associated with a range of negative outcomes in adulthood, including: lower educational achievement; poorer economic circumstances; higher rates of criminal offending; higher rates of mental health problems; and higher rates of teenage pregnancy. After covariate adjustment, childhood family income remained significantly associated with educational achievement and economic circumstances, but was no longer significantly associated with the mental health, offending and teenage pregnancy outcomes. These findings suggest that, after due allowance has been made for social, family and individual contextual factors, low family income during childhood is associated with a range of educational and economic disadvantages in adulthood but is not directly related to increased risks of crime, mental health problems or teen pregnancy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Lifestyle behavior interventions delivered using technology in childhood, adolescent, and young adult cancer survivors: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Lisa M; Gastelum, Zachary; Guerrero, Christian H; Howe, Carol L; Hingorani, Pooja; Hingle, Melanie

    2017-01-01

    Childhood, adolescent, and young adult cancer survivors demonstrate increased cardio-metabolic risk factors, which are amenable to lifestyle changes. The use of technology to impact lifestyle change expands previously limited intervention access, yet little is known about its use. We summarized lifestyle interventions for survivors delivered using technology, finding six studies, primarily targeting physical activity. Study samples were small and durations ranged from 5 to 16 weeks and outcomes modest. Participants were older, white, survivors of leukemia or brain tumors, and the majority received Web-based interventions. Study quality was moderate. Few technology-based interventions have been developed, suggesting an area of opportunity for survivors. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Childhood cancer in El Salvador: A preliminary exploration of parental concerns in the abandonment of treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossell, Nuria; Gigengack, Roy; Blume, Stuart

    2015-08-01

    In El Salvador, children under 12 diagnosed with cancer have access to free treatment at a specialized national facility. Until recently, 13 percent of patients annually abandoned therapy--a serious loss of lives and scarce resources. This qualitative study explores how some parents perceived their child's cancer and treatment, and what led them to stop bringing their child for chemotherapy. In in-depth interviews, parents of six children who abandoned their child's cancer treatment discussed sickness and life circumstances during the course of treatment. Poverty, effects of treatment, mistrust, emotions and religious convictions all figured in the parents' explanation of their actions. However, each family weighed these concerns differently. It was the interaction of the concerns, and not the concern per se, that represented the explanatory frameworks the families used to explain stopping their child's treatment. This finding illustrates the parents' navigation among a collection of variable concerns, rather than exposing one fixed cause for their behavior. For example, poverty affects a parent's worldview as well as concrete living conditions, and therefore has a complex relationship with abandonment of treatment. Thus, it follows that strategies to reduce treatment abandonment (and increase a child's chance for survival) must be multidimensional. Qualitative studies of how families perceive childhood cancer and treatment can illuminate the processes and relationships involved in abandonment of treatment. This approach can also show how families' living circumstances frame their perceptions and inform strategies to improve how medical services are provided, thus reducing abandonment of treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Recommendations for breast cancer surveillance for female survivors of childhood, adolescent, and young adult cancer given chest radiation: a report from the International Late Effects of Childhood Cancer Guideline Harmonization Group

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Renée L.; Kremer, Leontien C. M.; Hudson, Melissa M.; Bhatia, Smita; Landier, Wendy; Levitt, Gill; Constine, Louis S.; Wallace, W. Hamish; van Leeuwen, Flora E.; Ronckers, Cécile M.; Henderson, Tara O.; Dwyer, Mary; Skinner, Roderick; Oeffinger, Kevin C.

    2013-01-01

    Female survivors of childhood, adolescent, and young adult (CAYA) cancer who were given radiation to fields that include breast tissue (ie, chest radiation) have an increased risk of breast cancer. Clinical practice guidelines are essential to ensure that these individuals receive optimum care and

  5. Birth order and risk of childhood cancer: a pooled analysis from five US States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Behren, Julie; Spector, Logan G; Mueller, Beth A; Carozza, Susan E; Chow, Eric J; Fox, Erin E; Horel, Scott; Johnson, Kimberly J; McLaughlin, Colleen; Puumala, Susan E; Ross, Julie A; Reynolds, Peggy

    2011-06-01

    The causes of childhood cancers are largely unknown. Birth order has been used as a proxy for prenatal and postnatal exposures, such as frequency of infections and in utero hormone exposures. We investigated the association between birth order and childhood cancers in a pooled case-control dataset. The subjects were drawn from population-based registries of cancers and births in California, Minnesota, New York, Texas and Washington. We included 17,672 cases confidence intervals using logistic regression, adjusted for sex, birth year, maternal race, maternal age, multiple birth, gestational age and birth weight. Overall, we found an inverse relationship between childhood cancer risk and birth order. For children in the fourth or higher birth order category compared to first-born children, the adjusted OR was 0.87 (95% CI: 0.81, 0.93) for all cancers combined. When we examined risks by cancer type, a decreasing risk with increasing birth order was seen in the central nervous system tumors, neuroblastoma, bilateral retinoblastoma, Wilms tumor and rhabdomyosarcoma. We observed increased risks with increasing birth order for acute myeloid leukemia but a slight decrease in risk for acute lymphoid leukemia. These risk estimates were based on a very large sample size, which allowed us to examine rare cancer types with greater statistical power than in most previous studies, however the biologic mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Copyright © 2010 UICC.

  6. Will Treatment of Helicobacter Pylori Infection in Childhood Alter the Risk of Developing Gastric Cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Billy Bourke

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori has been classified as a group 1 carcinogen for gastric cancer. It is estimated that there is between a two- and sixfold increase in the risk of developing gastric cancer among infected patients. Among different populations, the risk of H pylori-infected individuals developing gastric cancer varies greatly. However, on a worldwide scale, gastric cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related death. Therefore, H pylori eradication could help prevent up to three to four million gastric cancer deaths per year. H pylori is usually acquired in childhood. Because infected children have not harboured the organism for long enough to have developed precancerous lesions, childhood is theoretically an attractive time for H pylori eradication and, thus, could help prevent gastric cancer later in life. However, as H pylori prevalence and the incidence of gastric cancer are falling rapidly in developed nations, widespread population screening programs aimed at the eradication of H pylori in these countries would be enormously expensive. Therefore, except in groups with a high risk for development of gastric cancer (eg, Japanese or those with a strong positive family history of gastric cancer, a population-based test-and-treat policy is not justified.

  7. The landscape of genomic alterations across childhood cancers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gröbner, Susanne N; Worst, Barbara C; Weischenfeldt, Joachim

    2018-01-01

    Pan-cancer analyses that examine commonalities and differences among various cancer types have emerged as a powerful way to obtain novel insights into cancer biology. Here we present a comprehensive analysis of genetic alterations in a pan-cancer cohort including 961 tumours from children, adoles...

  8. Effect of socioeconomic position on survival after childhood cancer in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simony, Sofie B; Lund, Lasse W; Erdmann, Friederike

    2016-01-01

    (numbers. For hematological cancers, no significant associations were observed. For CNS tumors, better survival was seen with parents living together (HR 0.70, CI 0.51–0.97). For non-CNS solid tumors, survival...... were associated with survival after childhood cancer. Material and methods In a nationwide cohort of 3797 children diagnosed with cancer [hematological cancer, central nervous system (CNS) tumors, non-CNS solid tumors] before age 20 between 1990 and 2009 we identified parents and siblings and obtained...

  9. Pneumonia diagnosis in childhood and incidence of leukaemia, lymphoma and brain cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Kirstine Kobberøe; Farkas, Dóra Körmendiné; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2017-01-01

    of pneumonia was a clinical marker of the three most common childhood cancers. DESIGN: Population-based cohort study. SETTING: Denmark, hospital diagnoses, 1994-2013. METHODS: Using national health registries, we compared the observed incidence of leukaemia, lymphoma and brain cancer among 83 935 children...... with a hospital-based pneumonia diagnosis with that expected among children in the general population. We calculated absolute cancer risks and standardised incidence ratios (SIRs) as a measure of relative risk. RESULTS: The cancer SIRs were substantially increased during the first 6 months of follow-up; lymphoid...

  10. Childhood cancer incidence in relation to distance from the former nuclear testing site in Semipalatinsk, Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaridze, D G; Li, N; Men, T; Duffy, S W

    1994-11-15

    Rates of childhood cancer between 1981 and 1990 in the 4 administrative zones of Kazakhstan were studied to assess the relationship, if any, with distance from nuclear testing sites. Risk of various cancers among children aged 14 years or younger were estimated in relation to distance from (1) a site where testing in air was performed before 1963, (2) a site where underground testing took place thereafter, and (3) a reservoir, known as "Atom Lake," created by 4 nuclear explosions in 1965. Risk of acute leukaemia rose significantly with increasing proximity of residence to the testing areas, although the absolute value of the risk gradient was relatively small. The relative risk for those living less than 200 km from the air-testing site was 1.76 compared with those living 400 km or more away from the site. Similar relative risks were observed for the underground site and "Atom Lake." There was also some evidence of increased risk of brain tumours in association with proximity to the test sites. In 2 of the 4 zones studied, there was substantial regional variation in acute leukaemia rates which was not attributable to distance from the test site. The findings may be affected by potential confounders, notably urban/rural status and ethnic factors.

  11. Challenges Evaluating Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy in Childhood Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohrmann, Caroline; Armer, Jane; Hayashi, Robert J

    Children treated for cancer are exposed to a variety of chemotherapeutic agents with known toxicity to the peripheral nervous system. The side effect of peripheral neuropathy can cause changes in sensation, function, and even cause pain. Although peripheral neuropathy is recognized by pediatric oncology nurses as an important and significant side effect, measuring neuropathy can be quite complex for clinical care and research efforts. With more children surviving a cancer diagnosis today, this issue is increasingly important for childhood cancer survivors. This article has reviewed existing literature examining peripheral neuropathy in childhood cancer survivors with particular interest paid to measurement tools available and needs for future research. It is important for nurses to choose appropriate measures for clinical care and research methods in order to have an impact on patients experiencing this condition.

  12. Plain radiologic findings of primary lung cancer by histologic types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Young Seok; Park, Jae Hyung; Choi, Byung In; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Kim, Chu Wan

    1983-01-01

    Plain chest films are the most useful modality in diagnosis of primary lung cancer, but it is difficult to interpret the radiologic findings by histological types. Authors reviewed chest films of 324 cases of histologically confirmed primary lung cancer from January 1974 to April 1982 at Seoul National University. The results are as follows; 1. Incidence was most common in the 6th decade as 34.4%. Male to female sex radio was 3.8 : 1 and there was no sex difference in Adenocarcinoma. 2. Distribution of histologic types of primary lung cancers as follows; Squamous cell carcinoma 50.6%, Small cell carcinoma 22.5%, Large cell carcinoma 9.3%, Bronchogenic adeno carcinoma 10.5%, Bronchioloalveolar cell carcinoma 1.9%, Adenosquamous carcinoma 0.6%, Carcinoid tumor 0.3%, Adenoid cystic carcinoma 0.3%. 3. Radiologic findings by histologic types are follows; a) Squamous cell carcinoma commonly present as collapse (51.8%), peripheral mass (40.8%), pneumonitis (37.2%), hilar involvement (34.8%), and in single abnormality, peripheral mass (44.4%). b) Small cell carcinoma commonly present as hilar involvement (78.1%), mediastinal widening or mass (53.4%) and in single abnormality, hilar involvement (58.3%). c) Large cell carcinoma commonly present as hilar involvement (50%), pneumonia (46.7%), collapse (40%), peripheral mass (36.7%) and in single abnormality, large peripheral mass (33.3%). d) Bronchogenic adenocarcinoma commonly present as peripheral mass (44.1%), collapse (41.2%), pleural effusion (35.2%) and in single abnormality, peripheral mass (50%). e) Solitary peripheral mass commonly present as lobulation (48%) and spiculated margin (51%), but no specific findings by histologic types. Cavitary formation was most common in Squamous cell carcinoma

  13. Novel PMS2 Pseudogenes Can Conceal Recessive Mutations Causing a Distinctive Childhood Cancer Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    De Vos, Michel; Hayward, Bruce E.; Picton, Susan; Sheridan, Eamonn; Bonthron, David T.

    2004-01-01

    We investigated a family with an autosomal recessive syndrome of café-au-lait patches and childhood malignancy, notably supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumor. There was no cancer predisposition in heterozygotes; nor was there bowel cancer in any individual. However, autozygosity mapping indicated linkage to a region of 7p22 surrounding the PMS2 mismatch-repair gene. Sequencing of genomic PCR products initially failed to identify a PMS2 mutation. Genome searches then revealed a previo...

  14. Congenital Malformations among the Offspring of Danish Survivors of Childhood Cancer and their Siblings-Interim Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binks, K.; Boice, J. D.; Winther, J. F.

    2004-01-01

    Survival is now the norm for children treated with radiotherapy and chemotherapy for childhood cancers. These children are now living to have children of their own. A Danish study of adverse health outcomes in the offspring of childhood cancer survivors and the offspring of the cancer survivor's sibling is ongoing. The cumulative probability of congenital malformation is non significantly higher amongst the offspring of cancer survivors than amongst the offspring of cancer survivor's siblings; and non significantly higher amongst the offspring of cancer survivors who received radiotherapy treatment compared with those who did not. future analyses will incorporate radiation dose to the uterus and gonads of cancer survivors. To date, studies of childhood cancer survivors offspring have not indicated and excess of congenial malformation. (Author) 7 refs

  15. Relationship of socio-economic status and childhood cancer: an in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-11-30

    Nov 30, 2017 ... Social and economic factors are known to affect health and well-being in several ... -seeking attitudes in childhood cancer; this usually re- sults in late ..... reported in guardians of 5.0% in Kenya and 19% in. Uganda.20 This ...

  16. Changes in body mass index in long-term childhood cancer survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Santen, HM; Geskus, Ronald B; Raemaekers, Steven; van Trotsenburg, A S Paul; Vulsma, Thomas; van der Pal, Helena J H; Caron, Hubert N; Kremer, Leontien C M

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported changes in the body mass index (BMI) with time in childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) during follow-up. The limitations of these studies include that they described only a subgroup of survivors or used questionnaires with self-reported heights and weights.

  17. Changes in body mass index in long-term childhood cancer survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Santen, Hanneke M.; Geskus, Ronald B.; Raemaekers, Steven; van Trotsenburg, A. S. Paul; Vulsma, Thomas; van der Pal, Helena J. H.; Caron, Hubert N.; Kremer, Leontien C. M.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have reported changes in the body mass index (BMI) with time in childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) during follow-up. The limitations of these studies include that they described only a subgroup of survivors or used questionnaires with self-reported heights and weights. The goal of

  18. A coding variant in RARG confers susceptibility to anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity in childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aminkeng, Folefac; Bhavsar, Amit P.; Visscher, Henk; Rassekh, Shahrad R.; Li, Yuling; Lee, Jong W.; Brunham, Liam R.; Caron, Huib N.; van Dalen, Elvira C.; Kremer, Leontien C.; van der Pal, Helena J.; Amstutz, Ursula; Rieder, Michael J.; Bernstein, Daniel; Carleton, Bruce C.; Hayden, Michael R.; Ross, Colin J. D.; MacLeod, Stuart; Smith, Anne; Hildebrand, Claudette; Ghannadan, Reza; Miao, Fudan; Higginson, Michelle; Massah, Nasim; Borrie, Adrienne; Hughes, Shevaun; Shaw, Kaitlyn; Dhoot, Satvir; Kowalec, Kaarina; Stortz, Jessica; Bendyshe-Walton, Tessa; Waltrip, Duncan; Bader, Rachel; Nijssen-Jordan, Cheri; Johnson, David; Verbeek, Linda; Kaczowka, Rick; Stevenson, Patti; Zhuwaki, Carnation; Grundy, Paul; Stobart, Kent; Wilson, Bev; Desai, Sunil; Spavor, Maria; Churcher, Linda; Chow, Terence; Hall, Kevin; Honcharik, Nick; Israels, Sara; Chan, Shanna

    2015-01-01

    Anthracyclines are used in over 50% of childhood cancer treatment protocols, but their clinical usefulness is limited by anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity (ACT) manifesting as asymptomatic cardiac dysfunction and congestive heart failure in up to 57% and 16% of patients, respectively. Candidate

  19. Childhood and adolescent energy restriction and subsequent colorectal cancer risk: Results from The Netherlands cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hughes, L.A.E.; Brandt, P.A. van den; Goldbohm, R.A.; Goeij, A.F.P.M. d; Bruïne, A.P. de; Engeland, M. van; Weijenberg, M.P.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Energy restriction during childhood and adolescence is suggested to lower colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. We investigated this in the Netherlands Cohort Study. Methods: Information on diet and other risk factors was collected by a baseline questionnaire in 1986 when cohort members were

  20. Applicability and evaluation of a psychosocial intervention program for childhood cancer patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk-Lokkart, Elisabeth M.; Braam, Katja I.; Kaspers, Gertjan J L; van Dulmen-den Broeder, Eline; Takken, Tim; Grootenhuis, Martha A.; Streng, Isabelle C.; Bierings, Marc; Merks, Johannes H.; Eibrink, Marry; Veening, Margreet A.; Huisman, Jaap

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the applicability of a psychosocial intervention in childhood cancer patients. This individualized structured psychosocial program to enhance social-emotional functioning and coping with disease-related effects includes six sessions for children and two

  1. Body composition and bone density during and after childhood cancer therapy : The flip side of therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Hoed, M.A.H.

    2017-01-01

    In the Netherlands, there are approximately 8000 childhood cancer survivors, and this population of survivors is expanding due to improved therapy. However, therapy has a consequent flip side, namely their inherent side effects. Approximately 75% of the CCS will develop one or more severe chronic

  2. Changes in body composition after childhood cancer treatment : Impact on future health status - A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, C. A. J.; Gietema, J. A.; Kamps, W. A.; de Vries, E. G. E.; Postma, A.

    Purpose: To describe data on changes in body composition in childhood cancer survivors. Underlying mechanisms in development of obesity are addressed, in order to discuss intervention strategies. Methods: A systematic literature search was undertaken with a number of search terms. Results: Female

  3. Malnutrition in childhood cancer patients : A review on its prevalence and possible causes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinksma, Aeltsje; Huizinga, Gea; Sulkers, Esther; Kamps, Willem; Roodbol, Petrie; Tissing, Wim

    Purpose: To perform a systematic literature review for critical evaluation of prevalence and factors contributing to malnutrition in childhood cancer. Methods: A systematic search resulting in 46 suitable articles. Results: Due to lack of uniform criteria and adequate studies, the prevalence rates

  4. Changes in nutritional status in childhood cancer patients : A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinksma, Aeltsje; Roodbol, Petrie F.; Sulkers, Esther; Kamps, Willem A.; de Bont, Eveline S. J. M.; Boot, Annemieke M.; Burgerhof, Johannes G. M.; Tamminga, Rienk Y. J.; Tissing, Wim J. E.

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Under- and overnutrition are linked to adverse outcomes during and after childhood cancer treatment. Therefore, understanding the timing of weight loss and weight gain and their contributory factors is essential for improving outcomes. We aimed to determine in which period of

  5. Representation of Illness and Self-identity in Childhood Cancer Survivors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blažková, T.; Koutná, Veronika; Blatný, Marek; Kepák, T.; Jelínek, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, JUL (2015), s. 348-348 ISSN 1057-9249. [World Congress of Psycho -Oncology. 28.07.2015-01.08.2015, Washington, DC] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP407/11/2421 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : representation of illness * self-identity * childhood cancer survivors Subject RIV: AN - Psycho logy

  6. Representation of Illness and Self-identity in Childhood Cancer Survivors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blažková, T.; Koutná, Veronika; Blatný, Marek; Kepák, T.; Jelínek, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 24, JUL (2015), s. 348-348 ISSN 1057-9249. [World Congress of Psycho-Oncology. 28.07.2015-01.08.2015, Washington, DC] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP407/11/2421 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : representation of illness * self-identity * childhood cancer survivors Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  7. Follicle Stimulating Hormone is an accurate predictor of azoospermia in childhood cancer survivors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W Kelsey

    Full Text Available The accuracy of Follicle Stimulating Hormone as a predictor of azoospermia in adult survivors of childhood cancer is unclear, with conflicting results in the published literature. A systematic review and post hoc analysis of combined data (n = 367 were performed on all published studies containing extractable data on both serum Follicle Stimulating Hormone concentration and semen concentration in survivors of childhood cancer. PubMed and Medline databases were searched up to March 2017 by two blind investigators. Articles were included if they contained both serum FSH concentration and semen concentration, used World Health Organisation certified methods for semen analysis, and the study participants were all childhood cancer survivors. There was no evidence for either publication bias or heterogeneity for the five studies. For the combined data (n = 367 the optimal Follicle Stimulating Hormone threshold was 10.4 IU/L with specificity 81% (95% CI 76%-86% and sensitivity 83% (95% CI 76%-89%. The AUC was 0.89 (95%CI 0.86-0.93. A range of threshold FSH values for the diagnosis of azoospermia with their associated sensitivities and specificities were calculated. This study provides strong supporting evidence for the use of serum Follicle Stimulating Hormone as a surrogate biomarker for azoospermia in adult males who have been treated for childhood cancer.

  8. Health problems in childhood cancer survivors: Linkage studies and guideline development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Font-Gonzalez, A.

    2016-01-01

    This thesis comprises two parts. The first part of this thesis aims to increase the evidence on the burden of disease in childhood cancer survivors and to define high-risk groups of survivors by using medical record linkage studies. A two-step record linkage methodology between Dutch national

  9. Parental involvement in exercise and diet interventions for childhood cancer survivors: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childhood cancer survivors (CCS) are at risk of becoming overweight or obese due to treatment effects and/or post-treatment behaviors. Parents are key agents influencing child diet and physical activity (PA), which are modifiable risk factors for obesity. A systematic literature review following the...

  10. Prevalence and predictors of risky and heavy alcohol consumption among adult siblings of childhood cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lown, E Anne; Mertens, Ann C; Korcha, Rachael A; Leisenring, Wendy; Hudson, Melissa M; Greenfield, Thomas K; Robison, Leslie L; Zeltzer, Lonnie K

    2013-05-01

    To describe alcohol consumption patterns and risk factors for risky and heavy alcohol use among siblings of childhood cancer survivors compared with survivors and national controls. Secondary analysis of prospectively collected data from two national surveys was performed including a cohort of 3034 adult siblings of childhood cancer survivors (age 18-56 years) and 10,398 adult childhood cancer survivors, both from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study, plus 5712 adult participants from the population-based National Alcohol Survey. Cancer-related experiences, self-reported current health, and mental health were examined in relation to alcohol consumption patterns including heavy and risky drinking. Adult siblings of childhood cancer survivors were more likely to be heavy drinkers (OR adj = 1.3; 1.0-1.6) and risky drinkers (OR adj = 1.3; 1.1-1.6) compared with controls from a national sample. Siblings were also more likely to drink at these two levels compared with survivors. Factors associated with heavy drinking among siblings included being 18-21 years old (OR adj = 2.9; 2.0-4.4), male (OR adj = 2.3; 1.7-3.0), having a high school education or less (OR adj = 2.4; 1.7-3.5), and drinking initiation at a young age (OR adj = 5.1; 2.5-10.3). Symptoms of depression, (OR adj = 2.1; 1.3-3.2), anxiety (OR adj = 1.9; 1.1-3.3), and global psychiatric distress (OR adj = 2.5; 1.5-4.3) were significantly associated with heavy alcohol use. Siblings of children with cancer are more likely to be risky and heavy drinkers as adults compared with childhood cancer survivors or national controls. Early initiation of drinking and symptoms of psychological distress should be identified during early adolescence and effective sibling-specific interventions should be developed and made available for siblings of children with cancer. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Childhood adversity in association with personality disorder dimensions: new findings in an old debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengartner, M P; Ajdacic-Gross, V; Rodgers, S; Müller, M; Rössler, W

    2013-10-01

    Various studies have reported a positive relationship between child maltreatment and personality disorders (PDs). However, few studies included all DSM-IV PDs and even fewer adjusted for other forms of childhood adversity, e.g. bullying or family problems. We analyzed questionnaires completed by 512 participants of the ZInEP epidemiology survey, a comprehensive psychiatric survey of the general population in Zurich, Switzerland. Associations between childhood adversity and PDs were analyzed bivariately via simple regression analyses and multivariately via multiple path analysis. The bivariate analyses revealed that all PD dimensions were significantly related to various forms of family and school problems as well as child abuse. In contrast, according to the multivariate analysis only school problems and emotional abuse were associated with various PDs. Poverty was uniquely associated with schizotypal PD, conflicts with parents with obsessive-compulsive PD, physical abuse with antisocial PD, and physical neglect with narcissistic PD. Sexual abuse was statistically significantly associated with schizotypal and borderline PD, but corresponding effect sizes were small. Childhood adversity has a serious impact on PDs. Bullying and violence in schools and emotional abuse appear to be more salient markers of general personality pathology than other forms of childhood adversity. Associations with sexual abuse were negligible when adjusted for other forms of adversity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Lifetime secondhand smoke exposure and childhood and adolescent asthma : findings from the PIAMA cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milanzi, Edith B.; Brunekreef, Bert; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Wijga, Alet H.; van Rossem, Lenie; Vonk, Judith M.; Smit, Henriette A.; Gehring, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    Background: Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is a modifiable risk factor associated with childhood asthma. Associations with adolescent asthma and the relevance of the timing and patterns of exposure are unclear. Knowledge of critical windows of exposure is important for targeted interventions.

  13. Lifetime secondhand smoke exposure and childhood and adolescent asthma : findings from the PIAMA cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milanzi, Edith B; Brunekreef, Bert; Koppelman, Gerard H; Wijga, Alet H; van Rossem, Lenie; Vonk, Judith M; Smit, Henriëtte A; Gehring, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is a modifiable risk factor associated with childhood asthma. Associations with adolescent asthma and the relevance of the timing and patterns of exposure are unclear. Knowledge of critical windows of exposure is important for targeted interventions.

  14. The Impact of Accommodative Coping on Well-Being in Childhood and Adolescence: Longitudinal Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Tamara; Fritz, Viktoria; Mößle, Regine; Greve, Werner

    2015-01-01

    Coping research has consistently shown that accommodative coping is positively correlated with individuals' health. Until now, however, there have been little to no studies on the prognostic impact of accommodative coping on health, and only a few studies investigating its buffering effect on the relation between stress and health in childhood and…

  15. Poor Speech Perception Is Not a Core Deficit of Childhood Apraxia of Speech: Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuk, Jennifer; Iuzzini-Seigel, Jenya; Cabbage, Kathryn; Green, Jordan R.; Hogan, Tiffany P.

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: Childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) is hypothesized to arise from deficits in speech motor planning and programming, but the influence of abnormal speech perception in CAS on these processes is debated. This study examined speech perception abilities among children with CAS with and without language impairment compared to those with…

  16. Latino Parental Involvement in Kindergarten: Findings from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durand, Tina M.

    2011-01-01

    Parental involvement in children's schooling is an important component of children's early school success. Few studies have examined this construct exclusively among Latino families. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-K), the present investigation (N = 2,051) explored relations between Latino parents' home and school…

  17. Findings from a Pre-Kindergarten Classroom: Making the Case for STEM in Early Childhood Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippett, Christine D.; Milford, Todd M.

    2017-01-01

    Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) in early childhood education is an area currently given little attention in the literature, which is unfortunate since young children are natural scientists and engineers. Here, we outline our mixed-methods design-based research investigation of a pre-kindergarten (Pre-K) classroom where two…

  18. Finding common ground: perspectives on community-based childhood obesity prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Christine M; Pelletier, David L

    2012-11-01

    To support successful and inclusive community organizing for childhood obesity prevention, this research identified stakeholder perspectives on what communities should do to prevent childhood obesity. It employed factor analysis on statement sorts (Q methodology) conducted by 95 people in an upstate New York community. These participants sorted 36 statements about the issue by how much he or she agreed or disagreed with each. Participants were recruited through strategic snowball sampling to sample a variety of perspectives. The four resulting factors, or perspectives, were interpreted in the context of presort demographic surveys and postsort interviews. This research found one stance that fits the environmental perspective common in public health. The other three factors indicate important variations among perspectives centered on individual responsibility, ranging from libertarian to technocratic views. However, overall, results revealed a substantial degree of agreement among the four perspectives, including on providing access to family activities and on making fruits and vegetables more available and affordable, for example, through subsidies. This article points to common ground for community action on childhood obesity prevention, highlights areas likely to generate considerable contention, and shows whose views are not being accounted for in, at least, this community's childhood obesity prevention project.

  19. Adverse childhood experiences are associated with the risk of lung cancer: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwards Valerie J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Strong relationships between exposure to childhood traumatic stressors and smoking behaviours inspire the question whether these adverse childhood experiences (ACEs are associated with an increased risk of lung cancer during adulthood. Methods Baseline survey data on health behaviours, health status and exposure to adverse childhood experiences (ACEs were collected from 17,337 adults during 1995-1997. ACEs included abuse (emotional, physical, sexual, witnessing domestic violence, parental separation or divorce, or growing up in a household where members with mentally ill, substance abusers, or sent to prison. We used the ACE score (an integer count of the 8 categories of ACEs as a measure of cumulative exposure to traumatic stress during childhood. Two methods of case ascertainment were used to identify incident lung cancer through 2005 follow-up: 1 hospital discharge records and 2 mortality records obtained from the National Death Index. Results The ACE score showed a graded relationship to smoking behaviors. We identified 64 cases of lung cancer through hospital discharge records (age-standardized risk = 201 × 100,000-1 population and 111 cases of lung cancer through mortality records (age-standardized mortality rate = 31.1 × 100,000-1 person-years. The ACE score also showed a graded relationship to the incidence of lung cancer for cases identified through hospital discharge (P = 0.0004, mortality (P = 0.025, and both methods combined (P = 0.001. Compared to persons without ACEs, the risk of lung cancer for those with ≥ 6 ACEs was increased approximately 3-fold (hospital records: RR = 3.18, 95%CI = 0.71-14.15; mortality records: RR = 3.55, 95%CI = 1.25-10.09; hospital or mortality records: RR = 2.70, 95%CI = 0.94-7.72. After a priori consideration of a causal pathway (i.e., ACEs → smoking → lung cancer, risk ratios were attenuated toward the null, although not completely. For lung cancer identified through hospital

  20. CT findings of small bowel metastases from primary lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Wook; Ha, Hyun Kwon; Kim, Ah Young; Kim, Gab Choul; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Kim, Pyo Nyun; Lee, Moon Gyu [Ulsan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-11-01

    To evaluate the CT findings of small bowel metastases from primary lung cancer. Of the 1468 patients with primary lung cancer between 1990 and 2000, 13 patients who had metastasis to the small intestine were collected. Of these 13 patients, nine who underwent CT scan were included for analysis. The pathologic diagnoses of primary lung cancer in these nine patients were squamous cell carcinoma in six, adenocarcinoma in two, and large cell carcinoma in one. CT scans were analyzed with regard to the site and patterns (intraluminal mass/bowel wall thickening/bowel implants) of metastatic masses, and the presence or absence of complication such as intussusception, obstruction, or perforation of the small bowel. The medical records of the patients were also reviewed retrospectively for evaluation of presenting abdominal symptom and time interval of metastases from initial diagnosis of lung cancer. Metastatic lesions were distributed throughout the small intestine: the duodenum in five, the jejunum in four, the ileum in six, and both jejunum and ileum in one patient. The size of metastatic masses of small bowel ranged from 1.3 cm to 5.0 cm (mean size, 2.6 cm) On CT, the small bowel was involved with intraluminal masses (mean size, 3.4 cm) in eight patients, diffuse wall thickening (mean thickness, 1.6 cm) in five, and bowel implants (mean size, 2.2 cm) in two. Complications occurred in seven patients, including intussusceptions without obstruction in two patients and with obstruction in two, obstruction without intussusceptions in two, and bowel perforation in one. Of 9 patients, 6 had at least one symptom referable to the small bowel including abdominal pain in 4, anemia in 3, vomiting in 1, and jaundice in 1. Lung cancer and small bowel lesions were detected simultaneously in four patients and the time interval of metastases from initial diagnosis of lung cancer ranged from 10 days to 30 months (median interval, 54 days) in patients. CT helps in defining the extent and

  1. CT findings of small bowel metastases from primary lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Wook; Ha, Hyun Kwon; Kim, Ah Young; Kim, Gab Choul; Kim, Tae Kyoung; Kim, Pyo Nyun; Lee, Moon Gyu

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the CT findings of small bowel metastases from primary lung cancer. Of the 1468 patients with primary lung cancer between 1990 and 2000, 13 patients who had metastasis to the small intestine were collected. Of these 13 patients, nine who underwent CT scan were included for analysis. The pathologic diagnoses of primary lung cancer in these nine patients were squamous cell carcinoma in six, adenocarcinoma in two, and large cell carcinoma in one. CT scans were analyzed with regard to the site and patterns (intraluminal mass/bowel wall thickening/bowel implants) of metastatic masses, and the presence or absence of complication such as intussusception, obstruction, or perforation of the small bowel. The medical records of the patients were also reviewed retrospectively for evaluation of presenting abdominal symptom and time interval of metastases from initial diagnosis of lung cancer. Metastatic lesions were distributed throughout the small intestine: the duodenum in five, the jejunum in four, the ileum in six, and both jejunum and ileum in one patient. The size of metastatic masses of small bowel ranged from 1.3 cm to 5.0 cm (mean size, 2.6 cm) On CT, the small bowel was involved with intraluminal masses (mean size, 3.4 cm) in eight patients, diffuse wall thickening (mean thickness, 1.6 cm) in five, and bowel implants (mean size, 2.2 cm) in two. Complications occurred in seven patients, including intussusceptions without obstruction in two patients and with obstruction in two, obstruction without intussusceptions in two, and bowel perforation in one. Of 9 patients, 6 had at least one symptom referable to the small bowel including abdominal pain in 4, anemia in 3, vomiting in 1, and jaundice in 1. Lung cancer and small bowel lesions were detected simultaneously in four patients and the time interval of metastases from initial diagnosis of lung cancer ranged from 10 days to 30 months (median interval, 54 days) in patients. CT helps in defining the extent and

  2. Maternal employment and early childhood overweight: findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, S S; Cole, T J; Law, C

    2008-01-01

    In most developed countries, maternal employment has increased rapidly. Changing patterns of family life have been suggested to be contributing to the rising prevalence of childhood obesity. Our primary objective was to examine the relationship between maternal and partner employment and overweight in children aged 3 years. Our secondary objective was to investigate factors related to early childhood overweight only among mothers in employment. Cohort study. A total of 13 113 singleton children aged 3 years in the Millennium Cohort Study, born between 2000 and 2002 in the United Kingdom, who had complete height/weight data and parental employment histories. Parents were interviewed when the child was aged 9 months and 3 years, and the child's height and weight were measured at 3 years. Overweight (including obesity) was defined by the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs. A total of 23% (3085) of children were overweight at 3 years. Any maternal employment after the child's birth was associated with early childhood overweight (odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval (CI)]; 1.14 [1.00, 1.29]), after adjustment for potential confounding and mediating factors. Children were more likely to be overweight for every 10 h a mother worked per week (OR [95% CI]; 1.10 [1.04, 1.17]), after adjustment. An interaction with household income revealed that this relationship was only significant for children from households with an annual income of pound33 000 ($57 750) or higher. There was no evidence for an association between early childhood overweight and whether or for how many hours the partner worked, or with mothers' or partners' duration of employment. These relationships were also evident among mothers in employment. Independent risk factors for early childhood overweight were consistent with the published literature. Long hours of maternal employment, rather than lack of money may impede young children's access to healthy foods and physical activity. Policies

  3. Childhood Oral Cavity Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral cavity cancer in children is usually lymphoma or sarcoma, but most tumors of the mouth are benign. Get information about the risk factors, symptoms, tests to diagnose, and treatment of oral cavity cancer in this expert-reviewed summary.

  4. Do pregnancy characteristics contribute to rising childhood cancer incidence rates in the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehm, Rebecca D; Osypuk, Theresa L; Poynter, Jenny N; Vock, David M; Spector, Logan G

    2018-03-01

    Since 1975, childhood cancer incidence rates have gradually increased in the United States; however, few studies have conducted analyses across time to unpack this temporal rise. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that increasing cancer incidence rates are due to secular trends in pregnancy characteristics that are established risk factors for childhood cancer incidence including older maternal age, higher birthweight, and lower birth order. We also considered temporal trends in sociodemographic characteristics including race/ethnicity and poverty. We conducted a time series county-level ecologic analysis using linked population-based data from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results cancer registries (1975-2013), birth data from the National Center for Health Statistics (1970-2013), and sociodemographic data from the US Census (1970-2010). We estimated unadjusted and adjusted average annual percent changes (AAPCs) in incidence of combined (all diagnoses) and individual types of cancer among children, ages 0-4 years, from Poisson mixed models. There was a statistically significant unadjusted temporal rise in incidence of combined childhood cancers (AAPC = 0.71%; 95% CI = 0.55-0.86), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (0.78%; 0.49-1.07), acute myeloid leukemia (1.86%; 1.13-2.59), central nervous system tumors (1.31%; 0.94-1.67), and hepatoblastoma (2.70%; 1.68-3.72). Adjustment for county-level maternal age reduced estimated AAPCs between 8% (hepatoblastoma) and 55% (combined). However, adjustment for other county characteristics did not attenuate AAPCs, and AAPCs remained significantly above 0% in models fully adjusted for county-level characteristics. Although rising maternal age may account for some of the increase in childhood cancer incidence over time, other factors, not considered in this analysis, may also contribute to temporal trends. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Cancer Stem Cells in Primary Liver Cancers: Pathological Concepts and Imaging Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Ijin [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Haeryoung [Department of Pathology, Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam 463-707 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Min [Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul 110-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-01

    There is accumulating evidence that cancer stem cells (CSCs) play an integral role in the initiation of hepatocarcinogenesis and the maintaining of tumor growth. Liver CSCs derived from hepatic stem/progenitor cells have the potential to differentiate into either hepatocytes or cholangiocytes. Primary liver cancers originating from CSCs constitute a heterogeneous histopathologic spectrum, including hepatocellular carcinoma, combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma, and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma with various radiologic manifestations. In this article, we reviewed the recent concepts of CSCs in the development of primary liver cancers, focusing on their pathological and radiological findings. Awareness of the pathological concepts and imaging findings of primary liver cancers with features of CSCs is critical for accurate diagnosis, prediction of outcome, and appropriate treatment options for patients.

  6. Cancer Stem Cells in Primary Liver Cancers: Pathological Concepts and Imaging Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Ijin; Kim, Haeryoung; Lee, Jeong Min

    2015-01-01

    There is accumulating evidence that cancer stem cells (CSCs) play an integral role in the initiation of hepatocarcinogenesis and the maintaining of tumor growth. Liver CSCs derived from hepatic stem/progenitor cells have the potential to differentiate into either hepatocytes or cholangiocytes. Primary liver cancers originating from CSCs constitute a heterogeneous histopathologic spectrum, including hepatocellular carcinoma, combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma, and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma with various radiologic manifestations. In this article, we reviewed the recent concepts of CSCs in the development of primary liver cancers, focusing on their pathological and radiological findings. Awareness of the pathological concepts and imaging findings of primary liver cancers with features of CSCs is critical for accurate diagnosis, prediction of outcome, and appropriate treatment options for patients

  7. Socio-economic status plays important roles in childhood cancer treatment outcome in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostert, Saskia; Gunawan, Stefanus; Wolters, Emma; van de Ven, Peter; Sitaresmi, Mei; Dongen, Josephine van; Veerman, Anjo; Mantik, Max; Kaspers, Gertjan

    2012-01-01

    The influence of parental socio-economic status on childhood cancer treatment outcome in low-income countries has not been sufficiently investigated. Our study examined this influence and explored parental experiences during cancer treatment of their children in an Indonesian academic hospital. Medical charts of 145 children diagnosed with cancer between 1999 and 2009 were reviewed retrospectively. From October 2011 until January 2012, 40 caretakers were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires. Of all patients, 48% abandoned treatment, 34% experienced death, 9% had progressive/ relapsed disease, and 9% overall event-free survival. Prosperous patients had better treatment outcome than poor patients (Pfate or God (55%). Causes of cancer were thought to be destiny (35%) or God's punishment (23%). Alternative treatment could (18%) or might (50%) cure cancer. Most parents (95%) would like more information about cancer and treatment. More contact with doctors was desired (98%). Income decreased during treatment (55%). Parents lost employment (48% fathers, 10% mothers), most of whom stated this loss was caused by their child's cancer (84% fathers, 100% mothers). Loss of income led to financial difficulties (63%) and debts (55%). Treatment abandonment was most important reason for treatment failure. Treatment outcome was determined by parental socio-economic status. Childhood cancer survival could improve if financial constraints and provision of information and guidance are better addressed.

  8. Childhood cancer after prenatal exposure to diagnostic X-ray examinations in Britain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mole, R.H.

    1990-01-01

    Detailed data were provided by the Oxford Survey of Childhood Cancer OSCC on deaths from childhood cancer in Britain after irradiation of the fetus during diagnostic radiology of the mother. In each age group at death, 0-5, 6-9 and 10-15 years, excess cancer deaths decreased suddenly for births in and after 1958. A major factor was concerted action initiated in 1956 to reduce radiation exposure of fetal gonads for fear of genetic hazards. Dose reduction was achieved during 1957 and early 1958 by reducing the rising rate of obstetric radiography and by virtually abandoning pelvimetry as that had been understood. In the 1970s the rate of X-raying increased again and so did cancer risk but not significantly. Direct evidence that diagnostic X-rays can cause childhood cancer is the similar excess rate per X-ray in twins and singleton births when X-raying rate is 5-6 times higher in twins. (author)

  9. Cancer treatment in childhood and testicular function: the importance of the somatic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stukenborg, Jan-Bernd; Jahnukainen, Kirsi; Hutka, Marsida

    2018-01-01

    Testicular function and future fertility may be affected by cancer treatment during childhood. Whilst survival of the germ (stem) cells is critical for ensuring the potential for fertility in these patients, the somatic cell populations also play a crucial role in providing a suitable environment to support germ cell maintenance and subsequent development. Regulation of the spermatogonial germ-stem cell niche involves many signalling pathways with hormonal influence from the hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal axis. In this review, we describe the somatic cell populations that comprise the testicular germ-stem cell niche in humans and how they may be affected by cancer treatment during childhood. We also discuss the experimental models that may be utilized to manipulate the somatic environment and report the results of studies that investigate the potential role of somatic cells in the protection of the germ cells in the testis from cancer treatment. PMID:29351905

  10. Findings of Visual Arts Research in Early Childhood and Primary Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijana Županić Benić

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Arts research was introduced in the field of education during the 1990s by Barone and Eisner, but their methodology is rarely used because it is not considered to be consistent with traditional paradigms of the scientific method. This review identified only seven visual arts research studies in early childhood education and primary education. Four studies were conducted in early childhood education settings, and two of those studies used quantitative methods to investigate the effects of art on early childhood development. The three studies that were conducted in primary education used a case study approach to examine art projects in the community or the classroom. Participation in visual arts was associated with enhanced learning outcomes in other areas and the development of individual and social competences, but it was not found to facilitate the development of age-dependent abilities, such as visual or grapho-motor abilities. Visual arts also proved to be an effective method of communication for children in preschool and primary education institutions because it is easier for them to express their opinions and beliefs to adults with visual media than with words.

  11. Trends in incidence, survival and mortality of childhood and adolescent cancer in Austria, 1994-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim-Kos, Henrike E; Hackl, Monika; Mann, Georg; Urban, Christian; Woehrer, Adelheid; Slavc, Irene; Ladenstein, Ruth

    2016-06-01

    This is the first study on trends in cancer incidence, survival and mortality for children and adolescents in Austria. The aim was to assess to what extent progress against childhood and adolescent cancer has been made in Austria since the 1990s and to complement the childhood and adolescent cancer trends for Central Europe. All malignant neoplasms and non-malignant tumours of the Central Nervous System (CNS) in patients aged less than 20 years and diagnosed between 1994 and 2011 (N=5425) were derived from the Austrian National Cancer Registry (ANCR). Incidence and mortality trends were evaluated by the average annual percentage change (AAPC). Observed survival rates were calculated based on follow-up until December 31st 2013. Childhood cancer remained stable with 182 cases per million in 2011, but rose among girls by 1.4% (95% CI: .1, 3.6) annually due to an increase of non-malignant CNS tumours and Non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Adolescent cancer rose by 1.5% (95% CI: .4, 2.6) annually, from 182 cases per million in 1994-269 in 2011, especially leukaemia, CNS tumours (including non-malignant types) and epithelial tumours. Five-year survival improved by 5-7% reaching 86% for both groups (p<.05). Mortality declined by -2.4% (95% CI: -3.7, -1.2) and -2.0% (95% CI: -4.6, .5), respectively, especially for childhood leukaemia. Progress is demonstrated by improved survival and declined mortality most likely related to improved diagnostic techniques, more effective therapeutic regimes, supportive care and a central advisory function of experts in the Austrian paediatric oncology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Childhood and family influences on body mass index in early adulthood: findings from the Ontario Child Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez Andrea

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight and obesity are steadily increasing worldwide with the greatest prevalence occurring in high-income countries. Many factors influence body mass index (BMI; however multiple influences assessed in families and individuals are rarely studied together in a prospective design. Our objective was to model the impact of multiple influences at the child (low birth weight, history of maltreatment, a history of childhood mental and physical conditions, and school difficulties and family level (parental income and education, parental mental and physical health, and family functioning on BMI in early adulthood. Methods We used data from the Ontario Child Health Study, a prospective, population-based study of 3,294 children (ages 4–16 years enrolled in 1983 and followed up in 2001 (N = 1,928; ages 21–35 years. Using multilevel models, we tested the association between family and child-level variables and adult BMI after controlling for sociodemographic variables and health status in early adulthood. Results At the child level, presence of psychiatric disorder and school difficulties were related to higher BMI in early adulthood. At the family level, receipt of social assistance was associated with higher BMI, whereas family functioning, having immigrant parents and higher levels of parental education were associated with lower BMI. We found that gender moderated the effect of two risk factors on BMI: receipt of social assistance and presence of a medical condition in childhood. In females, but not in males, the presence of these risk factors was associated with higher BMI in early adulthood. Conclusion Overall, these findings indicate that childhood risk factors associated with higher BMI in early adulthood are multi-faceted and long-lasting. These findings highlight the need for preventive interventions to be implemented at the family level in childhood.

  13. Childhood and family influences on body mass index in early adulthood: findings from the Ontario Child Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Andrea; Boyle, Michael H; Georgiades, Katholiki; Duncan, Laura; Atkinson, Leslie R; MacMillan, Harriet L

    2012-09-09

    Overweight and obesity are steadily increasing worldwide with the greatest prevalence occurring in high-income countries. Many factors influence body mass index (BMI); however multiple influences assessed in families and individuals are rarely studied together in a prospective design. Our objective was to model the impact of multiple influences at the child (low birth weight, history of maltreatment, a history of childhood mental and physical conditions, and school difficulties) and family level (parental income and education, parental mental and physical health, and family functioning) on BMI in early adulthood. We used data from the Ontario Child Health Study, a prospective, population-based study of 3,294 children (ages 4-16 years) enrolled in 1983 and followed up in 2001 (N = 1,928; ages 21-35 years). Using multilevel models, we tested the association between family and child-level variables and adult BMI after controlling for sociodemographic variables and health status in early adulthood. At the child level, presence of psychiatric disorder and school difficulties were related to higher BMI in early adulthood. At the family level, receipt of social assistance was associated with higher BMI, whereas family functioning, having immigrant parents and higher levels of parental education were associated with lower BMI. We found that gender moderated the effect of two risk factors on BMI: receipt of social assistance and presence of a medical condition in childhood. In females, but not in males, the presence of these risk factors was associated with higher BMI in early adulthood. Overall, these findings indicate that childhood risk factors associated with higher BMI in early adulthood are multi-faceted and long-lasting. These findings highlight the need for preventive interventions to be implemented at the family level in childhood.

  14. CT findings of the mucin producing pancreatic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ri, Kyoushichi; Hashimoto, Toushi; Munechika, Hirotsugu

    1992-01-01

    Mucin-producing pancreatic cancers (MPPC), which include mucinous adenocarcinoma, papillary adenocarcinoma and cystadenocarcinoma, are radiographically characterized by diffuse or localized dilatation of the main pancreatic duct due to excessive mucin production. Therefore, MPPC are occasionally difficult to distinguish from chronic pancreatitis on CT unless the primary pancreatic lesion is visualized. We compared five cases of MPPC with five cases of chronic pancreatitis with marked duct dilatation to determine differences in CT images between the two diseases. There was no significant difference between the two diseases in the nature of duct dilatation (size, extent, contour) or parenchymal changes (atrophy, enlargement, calcification, cystic lesion). However, dilatation of the intramural duct was characteristically observed in MPPC but not in chronic pancreatitis. Papillary masses in the pancreatic duct, when observed, were another finding specific to MPPC. (author)

  15. Childhood cancer and occupational radiation exposure in parents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hicks, N.; Zack, M.; Caldwell, G.G.; Fernbach, D.J.; Falletta, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that a parent's job exposure to radiation affeOR). its his or her child's risk of cancer, the authors compared this exposure during the year before the child's birth for parents of children with and without cancer. Parents of children with cancer were no more likely to have worked in occupations, industries, or combined occupations and industries with potential ionizing radiation exposure. Bone cancer and Wilms' tumor occurred more frequently among children of fathers in all industries with moderate potential ionizing radiation exposure. Children with cancer more often had fathers who were aircraft mechanics (odds ratio (OR)) . infinity, one-sided 95% lower limit . 1.5; P . 0.04). Although four of these six were military aircraft mechanics, only children whose fathers had military jobs with potential ionizing radiation exposure had an increased cancer risk (OR . 2.73; P . 0.01). Four cancer types occurred more often among children of fathers in specific radiation-related occupations: rhabdomyosarcoma among children whose fathers were petroleum industry foremen; retinoblastoma among children whose fathers were radio and television repairmen; central nervous system cancers and other lymphatic cancers among children of Air Force fathers. Because numbers of case fathers are small and confidence limits are broad, the associations identified by this study need to be confirmed in other studies. Better identification and gradation of occupational exposure to radiation would increase the sensitivity to detect associations

  16. Herbicides and nitrates in groundwater of Maryland and childhood cancers: a geographic information systems approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Nancy; Shirmohammadi, Adel

    2005-01-01

    This hypothesis-generating study explores spatial patterns of childhood cancers in Maryland and investigates their potential associations with herbicides and nitrates in groundwater. The Maryland Cancer Registry (MCR) provided data for bone and brain cancers, leukemia, and lymphoma, for ages 0-17, during the years 1992-1998. Cancer clusters and relative risks generated in the study indicate higher relative risk areas and potential clusters in several counties. Contingency table analysis indicates a potential association with several herbicides and nitrates. Cancer rates for the four types have a crude odds ratio (OR) = 1.10 (0.78-1.56) in relationship to atrazine, and an OR = 1.54 (1.14-2.07) for metolachlor. Potential association to mixtures of three compounds give an OR = 7.56 (4.16-13.73). A potential association is indicated between leukemia and nitrates, OR = 1.81 (1.35-2.42), and bone cancer with metolachlor, OR = 2.26 (0.97-5.24). These results give insight to generate a hypothesis of the potential association between exposure to these herbicides and nitrates and specific types of childhood cancer.

  17. Medical interventions for treating anthracycline-induced symptomatic and asymptomatic cardiotoxicity during and after treatment for childhood cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheuka, Daniel K. L.; Sieswerda, Elske; van Dalen, Elvira C.; Postma, Aleida; Kremer, Leontien C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Anthracyclines are frequently used chemotherapeutic agents for childhood cancer that can cause cardiotoxicity during and after treatment. Although several medical interventions in adults with symptomatic or asymptomatic cardiac dysfunction due to other causes are beneficial, it is not

  18. Determinants of ototoxicity in 451 platinum-treated Dutch survivors of childhood cancer : A DCOG late-effects study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clemens, Eva; de Vries, Andrica C.; Pluijm, Saskia F.; Zehnhoff-Dinnesen, Antoinette Am; Tissing, Wim J.; Loonen, Jacqueline J.; van Dulmen-den Broeder, Eline; Bresters, Dorine; Versluys, Birgitta; Kremer, Leontien C.; van der Pal, Heleen J.; van Grotel, Martine; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M.

    2016-01-01

    Platinum-containing chemotherapeutics are efficacious for a variety of pediatric malignancies, nevertheless these drugs can induce ototoxicity. However, ototoxicity data on large cohorts of childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) who received platinum agents, but not cranial irradiation are scarce.

  19. Roentgenological findings in the non-cancerous portion of the stomach with early gastric cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsu, Yukihisa

    1987-10-01

    Roentgenological findings of the fine reliefs in the non-cancerous portion were studied in 61 patients with early gastric cancer by double contrast examination. Incidence of the various types of the fine reliefs in the non-cancerous portion were as follows;verrucae 4 %, granularity 34 %, fine granularity 58 %, islet 24 %, network 17 % and irregular network 16 %, respectively. Fine granularity and network were observed in 61 % and 46 % of the cases with poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, respectively. Granularity, fine granularity and irregular network were observed in 30 %, 55 % and 40 % of the cases with signet-ring cell carcinoma, respectively. Granularity, fine granularity and islet were observed in 41 %, 59 % and 30 % of the cases with tubular adenocarcinoma, respectively. These results suggest that fine reliefs in the non-cancerous portion of the stomach with early gastric cancer showed both findings those found in atrophic gastritis (verrucae, granularity, fine granularity and network) and those in gastric cancer (granularity, fine granularity, islet and irregular network).

  20. Roentgenological findings in the non-cancerous portion of the stomach with early gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, Yukihisa

    1987-01-01

    Roentgenological findings of the fine reliefs in the non-cancerous portion were studied in 61 patients with early gastric cancer by double contrast examination. Incidence of the various types of the fine reliefs in the non-cancerous portion were as follows ; verrucae 4 %, granularity 34 %, fine granularity 58 %, islet 24 %, network 17 % and irregular network 16 %, respectively. Fine granularity and network were observed in 61 % and 46 % of the cases with poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, respectively. Granularity, fine granularity and irregular network were observed in 30 %, 55 % and 40 % of the cases with signet-ring cell carcinoma, respectively. Granularity, fine granularity and islet were observed in 41 %, 59 % and 30 % of the cases with tubular adenocarcinoma, respectively. These results suggest that fine reliefs in the non-cancerous portion of the stomach with early gastric cancer showed both findings those found in atrophic gastritis (verrucae, granularity, fine granularity and network) and those in gastric cancer (granularity, fine granularity, islet and irregular network). (author)

  1. Gender-specific association between childhood adversities and smoking in adulthood: findings from a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Thomson, E; Filippelli, J; Lue-Crisostomo, C A

    2013-05-01

    To investigate gender-specific differences between individual adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and smoking behaviours in adulthood; while controlling for several known risk factors, including adult health behaviours, adult mental health, adult socio-economic indicators and social support. Data were obtained from the 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. The sample included 19,356 individuals (11,506 females and 7850 males) aged ≥18 years who were asked questions about their ACEs. Using logistic regression, the independent factors associated with ever smoking and current smoking were determined. Childhood physical abuse was associated with ever smoking for both males and females. Neither sexual abuse nor verbal abuse were significantly associated with ever smoking for males, but they were for females [odds ratio (OR) 1.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.13-1.63 and OR 1.14, 95% CI 1.02-1.27, respectively]. For both genders, childhood exposure to parental separation or divorce, household drug abuse or household problem drinking, were significantly associated with ever smoking. These findings underscore the need for future research that investigates gender-specific differences, and the possible mechanisms, linking individual ACEs and smoking behaviours. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Childhood Conscientiousness and Leukocyte Telomere Length 40 Years Later in Adult Women--Preliminary Findings of a Prospective Association.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant W Edmonds

    Full Text Available Leukocyte telomere length (LTL shortens with age, and is a prospective marker of mortality related to cardiovascular disease. Many health behaviors and social environmental factors have been found to be associated with LTL. Several of these are also associated with conscientiousness, a dispositional personality trait. Conscientiousness is a propensity to be planful, adhere to social norms, and inhibit pre-potent responses. Like LTL, conscientiousness is prospectively related to mortality, possibly through cumulative effects on health over the life course via multiple pathways. As a result, we hypothesized that childhood levels of conscientiousness would predict LTL prospectively in adulthood. We selected a sample of 60 women in the Hawaii Personality and Health Cohort; 30 described by their teachers as high on conscientiousness in childhood and 30 described as low on the trait. Dried blood spot samples collected in adulthood 40 years later were used as sources of DNA for the LTL assay. Conscientiousness was associated with longer LTL (p = .02. Controlling for age did not account for this association. Controlling for education and physiological dysregulation partially attenuated the association, and the effect remained significant when accounting for differences in LTL across cultural groups. These results represent the first evidence that childhood personality prospectively predicts LTL 40 years later in adulthood. Our findings would be consistent with a mediation hypothesis whereby conscientiousness predicts life paths and trajectories of health that are reflected in rates of LTL erosion across the lifespan.

  3. Cardiac damage after treatment of childhood cancer: A long-term follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velensek, Veronika; Mazic, Uros; Krzisnik, Ciril; Demšar, Damjan; Jazbec, Janez; Jereb, Berta

    2008-01-01

    With improved childhood cancer cure rate, long term sequelae are becoming an important factor of quality of life. Signs of cardiovascular disease are frequently found in long term survivors of cancer. Cardiac damage may be related to irradiation and chemotherapy. We have evaluated simultaneous influence of a series of independent variables on the late cardiac damage in childhood cancer survivors in Slovenia and identified groups at the highest risk. 211 long-term survivors of different childhood cancers, at least five years after treatment were included in the study. The evaluation included history, physical examination, electrocardiograpy, exercise testing and echocardiograpy. For analysis of risk factors, beside univariate analysis, multivariate classification tree analysis statistical method was used. Patients treated latest, from 1989–98 are at highest risk for any injury to the heart (73%). Among those treated earlier are at the highest risk those with Hodgkin's disease treated with irradiation above 30 Gy and those treated for sarcoma. Among specific forms of injury, patients treated with radiation to the heart area are at highest risk of injury to the valves. Patients treated with large doses of anthracyclines or concomitantly with anthracyclines and alkylating agents are at highest risk of systolic function defect and enlarged heart chambers. Those treated with anthracyclines are at highest risk of diastolic function defect. The time period of the patient's treatment is emerged as an important risk factor for injury of the heart

  4. A DRD1 polymorphism predisposes to lung cancer among those exposed to secondhand smoke during childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Ana I; Yang, Ping; Jen, Jin; McClary, Andrew C; Calhoun, Kara; Bowman, Elise D; Vähäkangas, Kirsi; Greathouse, K Leigh; Wang, Yi; Olivo-Marston, Susan; Wenzlaff, Angela S; Deng, Bo; Schwartz, Ann G; Ryan, Bríd M

    2014-12-01

    Lung cancer has a familial component which suggests a genetic contribution to its etiology. Given the strong evidence linking smoking with lung cancer, we studied miRNA-related loci in genes associated with smoking behavior. CHRNA, CHRNB gene families, CYP2A6, and DRD1 (dopamine receptor D1) were mined for SNPs that fell within the seed region of miRNA binding sites and then tested for associations with risk in a three-stage validation approach. A 3'UTR (untranslated region) SNP in DRD1 was associated with a lower risk of lung cancer among individuals exposed to secondhand smoke during childhood [OR, 0.69; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.60-0.79; P secondhand smoke and heterogeneity between individuals in regard to their susceptibility to the effects of secondhand smoke, our data show an interaction between an SNP in the 3'UTR of DRD1 and exposure to secondhand smoke during childhood. Further work is needed to explore the mechanistic underpinnings of this SNP and the nature of the interaction between DRD1 and exposure to secondhand smoke during childhood. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  5. Supplemental security income and social security disability insurance coverage among long-term childhood cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchhoff, Anne C; Parsons, Helen M; Kuhlthau, Karen A; Leisenring, Wendy; Donelan, Karen; Warner, Echo L; Armstrong, Gregory T; Robison, Leslie L; Oeffinger, Kevin C; Park, Elyse R

    2015-06-01

    Supplemental security income (SSI) and social security disability insurance (DI) are federal programs that provide disability benefits. We report on SSI/DI enrollment in a random sample of adult, long-term survivors of childhood cancer (n = 698) vs a comparison group without cancer (n = 210) from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study who completed a health insurance survey. A total of 13.5% and 10.0% of survivors had ever been enrolled on SSI or DI, respectively, compared with 2.6% and 5.4% of the comparison group. Cranial radiation doses of 25 Gy or more were associated with a higher risk of current SSI (relative risk [RR] = 3.93, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.05 to 7.56) and DI (RR = 3.65, 95% CI = 1.65 to 8.06) enrollment. Survivors with severe/life-threatening conditions were more often enrolled on SSI (RR = 3.77, 95% CI = 2.04 to 6.96) and DI (RR = 2.73, 95% CI = 1.45 to 5.14) compared with those with mild/moderate or no health conditions. Further research is needed on disability-related financial challenges after childhood cancer. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Impact of childhood cancer on the mental health of parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockerty, J D; Williams, S M; McGee, R; Skegg, D C

    2000-11-01

    When a child is diagnosed with cancer, the family experiences great stress and disruption to daily life. As part of a national study in New Zealand, we evaluated the mental health of mothers and fathers of children with cancer, making comparisons to parents of children from the general population. This was a cross-sectional study. All children diagnosed with cancer at ages 0-14 years in New Zealand during a defined period were ascertained from the national cancer registry and other databases. The population-based comparison children were selected using national birth records. Parents from both groups completed self-administered questionnaires containing the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) and other measures. The analyses included 218 mothers and 179 fathers of children with cancer, and 266 mothers and 224 fathers of children in the comparison group. Multivariate regression was used to adjust for demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, life events, and social support. Mothers and fathers of children with cancer had poorer GHQ-12 and mood rating scores than those of controls. The adjusted difference in the mean total GHQ-12 score (comparing mothers of children with cancer to mothers of controls) was 2.2 (95% confidence interval 1.3-3.2). The 12 items of the GHQ were each scored 0-3, and the total score was the sum, so 2 points is a small difference. For fathers the difference was 1.5 (95% confidence interval 0.6-2.4). Some subgroups of cancer group parents had poorer emotional health scores than others, including those with poor social support and no paid employment and also those who were bereaved. We found statistically significant but small differences between the mental health of parents of children with cancer and controls. The small differences suggest that as a group the parents of children with cancer are relatively resilient. Copyright 2000 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Esophagographic findings of early esophageal cancer : comparison with pathologic results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Jae Joon; Kim, Choong Bai; Kim, Ho Guen; Kim, Myeong Jin; Lee, Jong Tae; Yoo, Hyung Sik

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the esophagographic findings of early esophageal cancer (EEC), and to compare these with the pathologic results, and to thus determine the most useful method of esophagography for detection of EEC. We examined 18 patients (M:F=16:2) with pathologically proven EEC; 17 cases were squamous cell carcinoma and one was adenocarcinoma. Tumor size, shape and location were evaluated by esophagography and the findings were compared with the pathologic results. The tumors were 0.5 - 7 cm in size; all except two were smaller than 4 cm. Twelve were located in the middle esophagus, five cases in the lower esophagus and one case in the upper esophagus; in ten cases, the margin was ill-defined. Esophagography showed that eight cases were of the superficial depressed type, seven were the superficial elevated type, and three were the tumorous type. All 18 cases were detected by double contrast study, but mucosal relief study and barium filling study revealed only ten and eight cases, respectively; for the detection of EEC double contrast study was thus the most useful. EEC was commonly demonstrated in the middle esophagus with an ill-defined margin; it was of the superficial depressed or elevated type. For the detection of EEC, double contrast study was the most useful. (author). 14 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs

  8. Birth order and Risk of Childhood Cancer: A Pooled Analysis from Five U.S. States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Behren, Julie; Spector, Logan G.; Mueller, Beth A.; Carozza, Susan E.; Chow, Eric J.; Fox, Erin E.; Horel, Scott; Johnson, Kimberly J.; McLaughlin, Colleen; Puumala, Susan E.; Ross, Julie A.; Reynolds, Peggy

    2010-01-01

    The causes of childhood cancers are largely unknown. Birth order has been used as a proxy for prenatal and postnatal exposures, such as frequency of infections and in utero hormone exposures. We investigated the association between birth order and childhood cancers in a pooled case-control dataset. The subjects were drawn from population-based registries of cancers and births in California, Minnesota, New York, Texas, and Washington. We included 17,672 cases less than 15 years of age who were diagnosed from1980-2004 and 57,966 randomly selected controls born 1970-2004, excluding children with Down syndrome. We calculated odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals using logistic regression, adjusted for sex, birth year, maternal race, maternal age, multiple birth, gestational age, and birth weight. Overall, we found an inverse relationship between childhood cancer risk and birth order. For children in the fourth or higher birth order category compared to first-born children, the adjusted OR was 0.87 (95% CI: 0.81, 0.93) for all cancers combined. When we examined risks by cancer type, a decreasing risk with increasing birth order was seen in the central nervous system (CNS) tumors, neuroblastoma, bilateral retinoblastoma, Wilms tumor, and rhabdomyosarcoma. We observed increased risks with increasing birth order for acute myeloid leukemia but a slight decrease in risk for acute lymphoid leukemia. These risk estimates were based on a very large sample size which allowed us to examine rare cancer types with greater statistical power than in most previous studies, however the biologic mechanisms remain to be elucidated. PMID:20715170

  9. Nutrition in adult and childhood cancer: role of carcinogens and anti-carcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosby, Terezie T; Cosgrove, Maeve; Sarkardei, Samiramis; Platt, Karl L; Kaina, Bernd

    2012-10-01

    There is no doubt that diet is one of the main modifiable risk factors for many degenerative diseases, including cancer. More than 30% of adult cancers can be prevented or delayed by diet, being physically active and having a healthy body weight. Plant-based foods, including fruit, vegetables, and whole grains, a favorable omega-6/omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ratio, and fish consumption have a protective effect against cancer. On the contrary, a low intake of fruit and vegetables, high intake of red and processed meat, high intake of sodium, alcohol consumption, a diet rich in refined carbohydrates, and a high intake of total fat may increase risk of cancer. Furthermore, calorie restriction and having a body/mass index on the lower end of the normal range can significantly decrease or delay the onset of cancers. Most studies were performed on adults and thus the role of diet in childhood cancer is less well-understood. In the past, diet was not considered to play any role in its etiology in children. However, nowadays there is a growing body of evidence that prolonged and frequent breastfeeding, the maternal diet during pregnancy and vitamin intake during pregnancy, may impart benefit for reduced cancer risk in children. Usually, decades of healthy dietary habits are needed to see significant difference in cancer risk. Therefore, diet choices and diet preparation starting early in life deserve more attention. Here we review data focusing on which dietary factors, including food-borne carcinogens, affect the onset of cancers in adults and stress out the potential role of diet in childhood cancer prevention.

  10. Does childhood cancer affect parental divorce rates? A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syse, Astri; Loge, Jon H; Lyngstad, Torkild H

    2010-02-10

    PURPOSE Cancer in children may profoundly affect parents' personal relationships in terms of psychological stress and an increased care burden. This could hypothetically elevate divorce rates. Few studies on divorce occurrence exist, so the effect of childhood cancers on parental divorce rates was explored. PATIENTS AND METHODS Data on the entire Norwegian married population, age 17 to 69 years, with children age 0 to 20 years in 1974 to 2001 (N = 977,928 couples) were retrieved from the Cancer Registry, the Central Population Register, the Directorate of Taxes, and population censuses. Divorce rates for 4,590 couples who were parenting a child with cancer were compared with those of otherwise similar couples by discrete-time hazard regression models. Results Cancer in a child was not associated with an increased risk of parental divorce overall. An increased divorce rate was observed with Wilms tumor (odds ratio [OR], 1.52) but not with any of the other common childhood cancers. The child's age at diagnosis, time elapsed from diagnosis, and death from cancer did not influence divorce rates significantly. Increased divorce rates were observed for couples in whom the mothers had an education greater than high school level (OR, 1.16); the risk was particularly high shortly after diagnosis, for CNS cancers and Wilms tumors, for couples with children 0 to 9 years of age at diagnosis, and after a child's death. CONCLUSION This large, registry-based study shows that cancer in children is not associated with an increased parental divorce rate, except with Wilms tumors. Couples in whom the wife is highly educated appear to face increased divorce rates after a child's cancer, and this may warrant additional study.

  11. Classification tree analysis of second neoplasms in survivors of childhood cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jazbec, Janez; Todorovski, Ljupčo; Jereb, Berta

    2007-01-01

    Reports on childhood cancer survivors estimated cumulative probability of developing secondary neoplasms vary from 3,3% to 25% at 25 years from diagnosis, and the risk of developing another cancer to several times greater than in the general population. In our retrospective study, we have used the classification tree multivariate method on a group of 849 first cancer survivors, to identify childhood cancer patients with the greatest risk for development of secondary neoplasms. In observed group of patients, 34 develop secondary neoplasm after treatment of primary cancer. Analysis of parameters present at the treatment of first cancer, exposed two groups of patients at the special risk for secondary neoplasm. First are female patients treated for Hodgkin's disease at the age between 10 and 15 years, whose treatment included radiotherapy. Second group at special risk were male patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia who were treated at the age between 4,6 and 6,6 years of age. The risk groups identified in our study are similar to the results of studies that used more conventional approaches. Usefulness of our approach in study of occurrence of second neoplasms should be confirmed in larger sample study, but user friendly presentation of results makes it attractive for further studies

  12. [MRI findings and pathological features of occult breast cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J J; Yang, X T; Du, X S; Zhang, J X; Hou, L N; Niu, J L

    2018-01-23

    Objective: To investigate the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and clinicopathological features of primary lesions in patients with occult breast cancer (OBC). Methods: The imaging reports from the Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System in 2013 were retrospectively analyzed to investigate the morphology and the time signal intensity curve (TIC) of breast lesions in patients with OBC. The clinical and pathological characteristics of these patients were also included. Results: A total of 34 patients were enrolled. Among these patients, 24 patients underwent modified radical mastectomy and 18 of them had primary breast carcinoma in pathological sections. MRI detected 17 cases of primary lesions, including six masse lesions with a diameter of 0.6-1.2 cm (average 0.9 cm), and 11 non-mass lesions with four linear distributions, three segmental distributions, three focal distributions, and one regions distribution. Five patients had TIC typeⅠprimary lesions, ten had TIC type Ⅱ primary lesions, and two had TIC type Ⅲ primary lesions. Among all 34 cases, 23 of them had complete results of immunohistochemistry: 11 estrogen receptor (ER) positive lesions (47.8%), tenprogesterone receptor (PR) positive lesions (43.5%), seven human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER-2) positive lesions (30.4%), and 20high expression(>14%) of Ki-67 (87.0%). The proportion of type luminal A was 4.3%, type luminal B was 43.5%, triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) was 30.4%, and HER-2 over expression accounted for 21.7%. Conclusions: The primary lesions of OBC usually manifested as small mass lesions, or focal, linear or segmental distribution of non-mass lesions. The positive rate of ER and PR was low, but the positive rate of HER-2 and the proliferation index of Ki-67 was high. Type luminal B is the most common molecular subtype.

  13. Long-Term Positive and Negative Psychological Late Effects for Parents of Childhood Cancer Survivors: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungman, Lisa; Cernvall, Martin; Grönqvist, Helena; Ljótsson, Brjánn; Ljungman, Gustaf; von Essen, Louise

    2014-01-01

    Increasing survival rates in childhood cancer have yielded a growing population of parents of childhood cancer survivors (CCSs). This systematic review compiles the literature on positive and negative long-term psychological late effects for parents of CCSs, reported at least five years after the child's diagnosis and/or two years after the end of the child's treatment. Systematic searches were made in the databases CINAHL, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and PubMed. Fifteen studies, published between 1988 and 2010, from 12 projects were included. Thirteen studies used quantitative methodology, one quantitative and qualitative methodology, and one qualitative methodology. A total of 1045 parents participated in the reviewed studies. Mean scores were within normal ranges for general psychological distress, coping, and family functioning. However, a substantial subgroup reported a clinical level of general psychological distress, and 21–44% reported a severe level of posttraumatic stress symptoms. Worry, disease-related thoughts and feelings, marital strains, as well as posttraumatic growth was reported. Several factors were associated with the long-term late effects, such as parents' maladaptive coping during earlier stages of the childs disease trajectory and children's current poor adjustment. Quality assessments of reviewed studies and clinical implications of findings are discussed and recommendations for future research are presented. PMID:25058607

  14. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Cancers by Body Location/System Childhood Cancers Late Effects of Childhood ... A to Z List of Cancers Cancers by Body Location Childhood Cancers Adolescent & Young Adult Cancers Metastatic ...

  15. Hyoid Displacement in Post-Treatment Cancer Patients: Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Yihe; Yang, Zhenyu; Perlman, Adrienne L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Dysphagia after head and neck cancer treatment is a health care issue; in some cases, the cause of death is not cancer but, rather, the passage of food or liquid into the lungs. Hyoid displacement is known to be important to safe swallowing function. The purpose of this study was to evaluate hyoid displacement after cancer treatment.…

  16. Molecular profiling of childhood cancer: Biomarkers and novel therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Saletta

    2014-06-01

    General significance: The increasing recognition of the heterogeneity of molecular causes of cancer favors the continued development of molecularly targeted agents, and their transfer to pediatric and adolescent populations.

  17. Malnutrition in childhood cancer patients: a review on its prevalence and possible causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinksma, Aeltsje; Huizinga, Gea; Sulkers, Esther; Kamps, Willem; Roodbol, Petrie; Tissing, Wim

    2012-08-01

    To perform a systematic literature review for critical evaluation of prevalence and factors contributing to malnutrition in childhood cancer. A systematic search resulting in 46 suitable articles. Due to lack of uniform criteria and adequate studies, the prevalence rates of malnutrition can only be estimated. Based on strengths and weaknesses of included references, prevalence rates are estimated to be 0-10% for leukemia, 20-50% for neuroblastoma, and 0-30% for other malignancies. Whether energy deficiency or inflammation contributed to malnutrition could not be confirmed because the occurrence of energy deficit (low energy intake, increased metabolic rate) or inflammation (related to cachexia) was not convincing. Also, a relationship between these factors and malnutrition was not studied. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine which children are at risk of malnutrition, and to investigate the impact of energy deficiency and inflammation on the nutritional status and body composition of childhood cancer patients. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Systemic Antibiotic Use During Pregnancy and Childhood Cancer in the Offspring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Momen, Natalie; Olsen, Jørn; Gissler, Mika

    to estimate odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs), adjusted for parity, maternal smoking during pregnancy, and maternal age and maternal education at time of birth. Results About 39% of mothers redeemed prescriptions for systemic antibiotics during the exposure window......Background Research suggests the majority of women are prescribed at least one drug during pregnancy, and that there is an association between systemic antibiotics taken during pregnancy and childhood cancers. However, studies to date have been unable to consider timing and dosage, and provided...... inconclusive results. Methods A nested case-control design was used to study associations between use of systemic antibiotics during pregnancy and cancer in childhood. By means of the nationwide registers of Denmark we identified women who filled prescriptions from three months before conception up...

  19. A hypothesis to explain childhood cancers near nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairlie, Ian

    2014-01-01

    Over 60 epidemiological studies world-wide have examined cancer incidences in children near nuclear power plants (NPPs): most of them indicate leukemia increases. These include the 2008 KiKK study commissioned by the German Government which found relative risks (RR) of 1.6 in total cancers and 2.2 in leukemias among infants living within 5 km of all German NPPs. The KiKK study has retriggered the debate as to the cause(s) of these increased cancers. A suggested hypothesis is that the increased cancers arise from radiation exposures to pregnant women near NPPs. However any theory has to account for the >10,000 fold discrepancy between official dose estimates from NPP emissions and observed increased risks. An explanation may be that doses from spikes in NPP radionuclide emissions are significantly larger than those estimated by official models which are diluted through the use of annual averages. In addition, risks to embryos/fetuses are greater than those to adults and haematopoietic tissues appear more radiosensitive in embryos/fetuses than in newborn babies. The product of possible increased doses and possible increased risks per dose may provide an explanation. - Highlights: • Over 60 studies worldwide on increased cancers near nuclear power plants (NPPs). • German government KiKK study provides very strong evidence. • Hypothesis proposes cancers arise in pregnant women near NPPs. • Nuclide spikes during refuelling could result in increased exposures. • Explanation offered for discrepancy between small dose estimates and large risks

  20. New immunotherapy approach leads to remission in patients with the most common type of childhood cancer | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell immunotherapy has emerged as a promising treatment for pre-B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL), the most common type of childhood cancer. B-ALL is characterized by an overproduction of immature white blood cells called lymphoblasts. In a trial led by Center for Cancer Research investigators, around 70 to 90 percent of patients whose B-ALL has relapsed or developed resistance to chemotherapy entered remission after CAR T-cell therapy targeting CD19. Read more…

  1. Follow-up care of young childhood cancer survivors: attendance and parental involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetsch, Janine; Rueegg, Corina S; Mader, Luzius; Bergstraesser, Eva; Rischewski, Johannes; Kuehni, Claudia E; Michel, Gisela

    2016-07-01

    Despite recommendations, only a proportion of long-term childhood cancer survivors attend follow-up care. We aimed to (1) describe the follow-up attendance of young survivors aged 11-17 years; (2) describe the parental involvement in follow-up, and (3) investigate predictors of follow-up attendance and parental involvement. As part of the Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study, a follow-up questionnaire was sent to parents of childhood cancer survivors aged 11-17 years. We assessed follow-up attendance of the child, parents' involvement in follow-up, illness perception (Brief IPQ), and sociodemographic data. Clinical data was available from the Swiss Childhood Cancer Registry. Of 309 eligible parents, 189 responded (67 %; mean time since diagnosis 11.3 years, range 6.8-17.2) and 75 % (n = 141) reported that their child still attended follow-up. Of these, 83 % (n = 117) reported ≥1 visit per year and 17 % (n = 23) reported parents (92 %) reported being involved in follow-up (n = 130). In multivariable and Cox regression analyses, longer time since diagnosis (p = 0.025) and lower perceived treatment control (assessed by IPQ4: how much parents thought follow-up can help with late effects; p = 0.009) were associated with non-attendance. Parents' overall information needs was significantly associated with parental involvement in the multivariable model (p = 0.041). Educating survivors and their parents on the importance and effectiveness of follow-up care might increase attendance in the longer term.

  2. Cerebrovascular Diseases in Childhood Cancer Survivors: Role of the Radiation Dose to Willis Circle Arteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Fayech, Chiraz; Haddy, Nadia; Allodji, Rodrigue Sètchéou; Veres, Cristina; Diop, Fara; Kahlouche, Amar; Llanas, Damien; Jackson, Angela; Rubino, Carole; Guibout, Catherine [Inserm U1018, Villejuif (France); Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); University of Paris XI, Villejuif (France); Pacquement, Hélène [Institut Curie, Paris (France); Oberlin, Odile [Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Thomas-Teinturier, Cécile [Inserm U1018, Villejuif (France); Hôpital Bicêtre, Le Kremlin Bicêtre (France); Scarabin, Pierre-Yves [Inserm U1018, Villejuif (France); Chavaudra, Jean; Lefkopoulos, Dimitry [Gustave Roussy, Villejuif (France); Giroud, Maurice; Bejot, Yannick [Registre Dijonnais des accidents vasculaires cérébraux, Dijon (France); Bernier, Valérie [Centre Alexis Vautrin, Vandoeuvre-lès-Nancy (France); Carrie, Christian [Centre Léon Bérard, Lyon (France); and others

    2017-02-01

    Background and Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the role of radiation dose received to the circle of Willis (WC) during radiation therapy (RT) and of potential dose-response modifiers on the risk of stroke after treatment of childhood cancer. Methods: We evaluated the risk factors for stroke in a cohort of 3172 5-year survivors of childhood cancer who were followed up for a median time of 26 years. Radiation doses to the WC and brain structures were estimated for each of the 2202 children who received RT. Results: Fifty-four patients experienced a confirmed stroke; 39 were ischemic. Patients not receiving RT had a stroke risk similar to that of the general population, whereas those who received RT had an 8.5-fold increased risk (95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.3-11.0). The excess of incidence of stroke increased yearly. The dose of radiation to the WC, rather than to other brain structures, was found to be the best predictor of stroke. The relative risk was 15.7 (95% CI: 4.9-50.2) for doses of 40 Gy or more. At 45 years of age, the cumulative stroke incidence was 11.3% (95% CI: 7.1%-17.7%) in patients who received 10 Gy or more to the WC, compared with 1% expected from general population data. Radiation doses received to the heart and neck also increased the risk. Surgery for childhood brain cancer was linked to hemorrhagic strokes in these patients. Conclusion: The WC should be considered as a major organ at risk during RT for childhood brain cancers. The incidence of radiation-induced ischemic stroke strongly increases with long-term follow-up.

  3. Social Support of Childhood Cancer Survivors and Heatlhy Children: Are There Any Differences?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Koutná, Veronika; Blatný, Marek; Kepák, T.; Jelínek, Martin; Blažková, T.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 22, Supplement s3 (2013), s. 234-235 ISSN 1099-1611. [IPOS World Congress of Psycho-Oncology /15./. 04.11.-0811.2013, Rotterdam] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP407/11/2421 Institutional support: RVO:68081740 Keywords : childhood cancer survivors * social support * social network Subject RIV: AN - Psychology http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1099-1611.2013.3394/abstract

  4. Obesity in Childhood Cancer Survivors: Call for Early Weight Management123

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Fang Fang; Parsons, Susan K

    2015-01-01

    A high prevalence of obesity and cardiometabolic conditions has been increasingly recognized in childhood cancer survivors. In particular, survivors of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia have been found to be at risk of becoming overweight or obese early in treatment, with increases in weight maintained throughout treatment and beyond. Nutrition plays an important role in the etiology of obesity and cardiometabolic conditions and is among the few modifiable factors that can prevent or del...

  5. Cerebrovascular Diseases in Childhood Cancer Survivors: Role of the Radiation Dose to Willis Circle Arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Fayech, Chiraz; Haddy, Nadia; Allodji, Rodrigue Sètchéou; Veres, Cristina; Diop, Fara; Kahlouche, Amar; Llanas, Damien; Jackson, Angela; Rubino, Carole; Guibout, Catherine; Pacquement, Hélène; Oberlin, Odile; Thomas-Teinturier, Cécile; Scarabin, Pierre-Yves; Chavaudra, Jean; Lefkopoulos, Dimitry; Giroud, Maurice; Bejot, Yannick; Bernier, Valérie; Carrie, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the role of radiation dose received to the circle of Willis (WC) during radiation therapy (RT) and of potential dose-response modifiers on the risk of stroke after treatment of childhood cancer. Methods: We evaluated the risk factors for stroke in a cohort of 3172 5-year survivors of childhood cancer who were followed up for a median time of 26 years. Radiation doses to the WC and brain structures were estimated for each of the 2202 children who received RT. Results: Fifty-four patients experienced a confirmed stroke; 39 were ischemic. Patients not receiving RT had a stroke risk similar to that of the general population, whereas those who received RT had an 8.5-fold increased risk (95% confidence interval [CI]: 6.3-11.0). The excess of incidence of stroke increased yearly. The dose of radiation to the WC, rather than to other brain structures, was found to be the best predictor of stroke. The relative risk was 15.7 (95% CI: 4.9-50.2) for doses of 40 Gy or more. At 45 years of age, the cumulative stroke incidence was 11.3% (95% CI: 7.1%-17.7%) in patients who received 10 Gy or more to the WC, compared with 1% expected from general population data. Radiation doses received to the heart and neck also increased the risk. Surgery for childhood brain cancer was linked to hemorrhagic strokes in these patients. Conclusion: The WC should be considered as a major organ at risk during RT for childhood brain cancers. The incidence of radiation-induced ischemic stroke strongly increases with long-term follow-up.

  6. Health behaviour and posttraumatic growth in parents of childhood cancer survivors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slezáčková, Alena; Blatný, Marek; Jelínek, Martin; Kepák, T.; Vlčková, I.; Pilát, M.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 1 (2009), s. 366-367 ISSN 0887-0446. [Annual Conference of the European Health Psychology Society /23./. 23.09.2009-26.09.2009, Pisa] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA406/07/1384 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : health behaviour * posttraumatic growth * childhood cancer survivors Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  7. Preventive child health care findings on early childhood predict peer-group social status in early adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaspers, Merlijne; de Winter, Andrea F; Veenstra, René; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2012-12-01

    A disputed social status among peers puts children and adolescents at risk for developing a wide range of problems, such as being bullied. However, there is a lack of knowledge about which early predictors could be used to identify (young) adolescents at risk for a disputed social status. The aim of this study was to assess whether preventive child health care (PCH) findings on early childhood predict neglected and rejected status in early adolescence in a large longitudinal community-based sample. Data came from 898 participants who participated in TRAILS, a longitudinal study. Information on early childhood factors was extracted from the charts of routine PCH visits registered between infancy and age of 4 years. To assess social status, peer nominations were used at age of 10-12 years. Multinomial logistic regression showed that children who had a low birth weight, motor problems, and sleep problems; children of parents with a low educational level (odds ratios [ORs] between 1.71 and 2.90); and those with fewer attention hyperactivity problems (ORs = .43) were more likely to have a neglected status in early adolescence. Boys, children of parents with a low educational level, and children with early externalizing problems were more likely to have a rejected status in early adolescence (ORs between 1.69 and 2.56). PCH findings on early childhood-on motor and social development-are predictive of a neglected and a rejected status in early adolescence. PCH is a good setting to monitor risk factors that predict the social status of young adolescents. Copyright © 2012 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Psychological factors impacting transition from paediatric to adult care by childhood cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granek, Leeat; Nathan, Paul C; Rosenberg-Yunger, Zahava R S; D'Agostino, Norma; Amin, Leila; Barr, Ronald D; Greenberg, Mark L; Hodgson, David; Boydell, Katherine; Klassen, Anne F

    2012-09-01

    Childhood cancer survivors require life-long care focused on the specific late effects that may arise from their cancer and its treatment. In many centers, survivors are required to transition from follow-up care in a paediatric cancer center, to care provided in an adult care setting. The purpose of this study was to identify the psychological factors involved in this transition to adult care long-term follow-up clinics. Qualitative interviews were conducted with ten paediatric survivors still in paediatric care, as well as 28 adult survivors of whom 11 had transitioned successfully to adult care (attended three long-term follow-up (LTFU) appointments consecutively); ten who failed to transition (attended at least one LTFU appointment as an adult, but were inconsistent with subsequent attendance); and seven who had never transitioned (did not attend any LTFU care as an adult). Line-by-line coding was used to establish categories and themes. Constant comparison was used to examine relationships within and across codes and categories. Two overall categories and four subthemes were identified: (1) Identification with being a cancer survivor included the subthemes of 'cancer identity' and 'cancer a thing of the past' and; (2) Emotional components included the subthemes of 'fear and anxiety' and 'gratitude and gaining perspective'. The analysis revealed that the same factor could act as either a motivator or a hindrance to successful transition in different survivors (e.g., fear of recurrence of cancer might be a barrier or a facilitator depending on the survivor's life experience). Psychological factors are an important consideration when preparing cancer survivors for transition to adult long-term follow-up care. Identifying and addressing the individual psychological needs of childhood cancer survivors may improve the likelihood of their successful transition to adult care.

  9. Hospital contacts for endocrine disorders in Adult Life after Childhood Cancer in Scandinavia (ALiCCS): a population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Fine Licht, Sofie; Winther, Jeanette Falck; Gudmundsdottir, Thorgerdur

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The pattern of endocrine disorders in long-term survivors of childhood cancer has not been investigated comprehensively. Here, we aimed to assess the lifetime risk of these disorders in Nordic survivors of childhood cancer. METHODS: From the national cancer registries of Denmark, Finl...

  10. Lifetime secondhand smoke exposure and childhood and adolescent asthma: findings from the PIAMA cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanzi, Edith B; Brunekreef, Bert; Koppelman, Gerard H; Wijga, Alet H; van Rossem, Lenie; Vonk, Judith M; Smit, Henriëtte A; Gehring, Ulrike

    2017-02-23

    Secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure is a modifiable risk factor associated with childhood asthma. Associations with adolescent asthma and the relevance of the timing and patterns of exposure are unclear. Knowledge of critical windows of exposure is important for targeted interventions. We used data until age 17 from 1454 children of the Dutch population-based PIAMA birth cohort. Residential SHS exposure was assessed through parental questionnaires completed at ages 3 months, 1-8 (yearly), 11, 14, and 17 years. Lifetime exposure was determined as; a) time window-specific exposure (prenatal, infancy, preschool, primary school, and secondary school); b) lifetime cumulative exposure; c) longitudinal exposure patterns using latent class growth modeling (LCGM). Generalized estimation equations and logistic regression were used to analyze associations between exposure and asthma at ages 4 to 17 years, adjusting for potential confounders. With all three methods, we consistently found no association between SHS exposure and asthma at ages 4 to 17 years e.g. adjusted overall odds ratio (95% confidence interval) 0.67 (0.41-1.12), 1.00 (0.66-1.51) and 0.67 (0.41-1.11) for prenatal maternal active smoking, infancy, and preschool school time window exposures, respectively. We assessed lifetime SHS exposure using different methods. Different timing and patterns of SHS exposure were not associated with an increased risk of asthma in childhood and adolescence in our study. More longitudinal studies could investigate effects of lifetime SHS exposure on asthma in adolescence and later life.

  11. Clustering of health behaviours in adult survivors of childhood cancer and the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebholz, C E; Rueegg, C S; Michel, G; Ammann, R A; von der Weid, N X; Kuehni, C E; Spycher, B D

    2012-07-10

    Little is known about engagement in multiple health behaviours in childhood cancer survivors. Using latent class analysis, we identified health behaviour patterns in 835 adult survivors of childhood cancer (age 20-35 years) and 1670 age- and sex-matched controls from the general population. Behaviour groups were determined from replies to questions on smoking, drinking, cannabis use, sporting activities, diet, sun protection and skin examination. The model identified four health behaviour patterns: 'risk-avoidance', with a generally healthy behaviour; 'moderate drinking', with higher levels of sporting activities, but moderate alcohol-consumption; 'risk-taking', engaging in several risk behaviours; and 'smoking', smoking but not drinking. Similar proportions of survivors and controls fell into the 'risk-avoiding' (42% vs 44%) and the 'risk-taking' cluster (14% vs 12%), but more survivors were in the 'moderate drinking' (39% vs 28%) and fewer in the 'smoking' cluster (5% vs 16%). Determinants of health behaviour clusters were gender, migration background, income and therapy. A comparable proportion of childhood cancer survivors as in the general population engage in multiple health-compromising behaviours. Because of increased vulnerability of survivors, multiple risk behaviours should be addressed in targeted health interventions.

  12. The risk of childhood cancer from low doses of ionizing radiation received in utero

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakeford, R.; Doll, R.; Bithell, J.F.

    1997-01-01

    Radiological protection is based upon the assumption that any additional exposure to ionising radiation leads to an increased risk of stochastic adverse health effects. The validity of this assumption is supported by the epidemiological association between childhood cancer and X-ray exposure of the fetus in utero for diagnostic purposes. Evidence for a direct causal interpretation of this association is compelling: the association has high statistical significance, it is consistent across many case-control studies carried out worldwide, and an appropriate dose-response relationship is indicated. Evidence against bias and confounding as alternative explanations is strong. Nonetheless, objections to causality have been raised. Four grounds for controversy are examined in detail, with the conclusion that they do not provide persuasive evidence against a cause and effect relationship. We conclude that acute doses of the order of 10 mGy received by the fetus in utero cause a subsequent increase in the risk of cancer in childhood, and that, in these circumstances, the excess absolute risk coefficient for childhood cancer incidence is 6-12% per Gy. (author)

  13. The Swiss ''CANUPIS'' study on childhood cancer in the vicinity of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voelkle, Hansruedi

    2011-01-01

    A nationwide cohort study on leukaemia and any other childhood cancer in the vicinity of Swiss nuclear power stations (CANUPIS) was supported by the Krebsliga Schweiz and the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health. The results, covering the years 1985 to 2009 and including some 21 million person years, was published in July 2011. Three zones around nuclear installations were investigated: 0 to 5 km, 5 to 10 km and 10 to 15 km distance. The CANUPIS study found no evidence for a statistically significant increased cancer risk among 0 to 15 year old children living near Swiss nuclear power stations, compared to children living in other regions of the country. (orig.)

  14. Risk reduction for nonmelanoma skin cancer with childhood sunscreen use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, R.S.; Weinstein, M.C.; Baker, S.G.

    1986-01-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet radiation is the principle cause of basal and squamous cell carcinomas of the skin, which are the most frequent tumors occurring in white residents of the United States. Using a mathematical model based on epidemiologic data, we quantified the potential benefits of using a sunscreen with a sun protective factor of 15 and estimate that regular use of such a sunscreen during the first 18 years of life would reduce the lifetime incidence of these tumors by 78%. Additional benefits of sunscreen use during childhood include reduced risk of sunburn, retarding the pace of skin aging, and possible reduction in melanoma risk. We recommend that pediatricians encourage sunscreen use and sun avoidance as a regular part of pediatric preventive health care

  15. Childhood cancer and environmental integrity: a commentary and a proposal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Modonesi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Improvements in the health standards of developed and developing societies depend primarily on the relationships between economy and environment. Recent long-term changes in the chemical composition of man-made environments may be linked to changes in the biology of human beings. Here we argue that children are at the greatest risk of being affected by the dangerous effects of these changes, with particular reference to cancer. The concept of cancer risk must be extended to new contexts. Considering the increasing rates of chemical pollution and its spreading in the environment, we illustrate a proposal aiming to protect the human health, in an intra- and intergenerational perspective. A surveillance system of occupational and residential exposures should be implemented to prevent cancer risk in embryos and children.

  16. Childhood cancer and environmental integrity: a commentary and a proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modonesi, Carlo; Oddone, Enrico; Panizza, Celestino; Gatta, Gemma

    2017-04-10

    Improvements in the health standards of developed and developing societies depend primarily on the relationships between economy and environment. Recent long-term changes in the chemical composition of man-made environments may be linked to changes in the biology of human beings. Here we argue that children are at the greatest risk of being affected by the dangerous effects of these changes, with particular reference to cancer. The concept of cancer risk must be extended to new contexts. Considering the increasing rates of chemical pollution and its spreading in the environment, we illustrate a proposal aiming to protect the human health, in an intra- and intergenerational perspective. A surveillance system of occupational and residential exposures should be implemented to prevent cancer risk in embryos and children.

  17. Childhood cancer and factors related to prolonged diagnostic intervals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrensberg, J M; Olesen, F; Hansen, R P

    2013-01-01

    overleveringen til hospitalet var af betydning for hvor lang tid, der går fra lægesøgning til diagnose. Metode: Dansk populations-baseret studie. Data for 550 børn cancer diagnose (jan 2007-dec 2010) blev indsamlet vha spørgeskemaer til forældre (response-rate=69%) and praktiserende læger...... barnets symptomer som vage og ukarakteristiske i 25,4%; som alvorlige, men ikke cancer-relaterede i 50,0%; og som alarm symptom i 19,0% af tilfælde. Symptom tolkningen varierede med cancertype (p

  18. Portrayal of childhood cancer in English language magazines in North America: 1970-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Juanne

    2005-01-01

    This article is a content and discourse analysis of the portrayal of childhood cancer in English language magazines in North America. In a unique specification of published research on the media portrayal of disease, magazines were divided into three market or audience groupings called (1) science, (2) news/special interest, and (3) other (women/teen/parenting/health). The predominate frames or discoursesin these three groups were compared and differences were found amongst them and discussed in the article. Considerable evidence suggests that people with cancer are stigmatized. In the analyzed media focused on children, those with cancer are highly idealized and stereotyped. On the one hand, this can be thought of as a very positive portrayal of children in this situation. Children are described as if they possess heroic and idealized character traits, appearances, social characteristics, and personalities. Possible links between this idealized, polarized, and biased portrayal of children with cancer and their documented experiences of stigma are discussed.

  19. CT Findings of Colonic Complications Associated with Colon Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Won; Shin, Hyeong Cheol; Kim, Il Young; Kim, Young Tong; Kim, Chang Jin

    2010-01-01

    A broad spectrum of colonic complications can occur in patients with colon cancer. Clinically, some of these complications can obscure the presence of underlying malignancies in the colon and these complications may require emergency surgical management. The complications of the colon that can be associated with colon cancer include obstruction, perforation, abscess formation, acute appendicitis, ischemic colitis and intussusception. Although the majority of these complications only rarely occur, familiarity with the various manifestations of colon cancer complications will facilitate making an accurate diagnosis and administering prompt management in these situations. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to review the CT appearance of the colonic complications associated with colon cancer

  20. CT Findings of Colonic Complications Associated with Colon Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sang Won; Shin, Hyeong Cheol; Kim, Il Young; Kim, Young Tong; Kim, Chang Jin [Cheonan Hospital, Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    A broad spectrum of colonic complications can occur in patients with colon cancer. Clinically, some of these complications can obscure the presence of underlying malignancies in the colon and these complications may require emergency surgical management. The complications of the colon that can be associated with colon cancer include obstruction, perforation, abscess formation, acute appendicitis, ischemic colitis and intussusception. Although the majority of these complications only rarely occur, familiarity with the various manifestations of colon cancer complications will facilitate making an accurate diagnosis and administering prompt management in these situations. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to review the CT appearance of the colonic complications associated with colon cancer.

  1. Energy restriction during childhood and early adulthood and ovarian cancer risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo J Schouten

    Full Text Available Dietary energy restriction may protect against cancer. In parts of The Netherlands, mostly in larger cities, periods of chronically impaired nutrition and even severe famine (Hunger Winter 1944-1945 existed during the 1930s and World War II (1940-1945. We studied the association between energy restriction during childhood and early adulthood on the risk of ovarian cancer later in life. In 1986, the Netherlands Cohort Study was initiated. A self-administered questionnaire on dietary habits and other cancer risk factors was completed by 62,573 women aged 55-69 years at baseline. Follow-up for cancer was established by record linkage to the Netherlands Cancer Registry. After 16.3 years of follow-up, 364 invasive epithelial ovarian cancer cases and 2220 subcohort members (sampled from the total cohort directly after baseline with complete information confounders were available for case-cohort analyses. In multivariable analysis, ovarian cancer risk was lower for participants with an unemployed father during the 1930s (Hazard Ratio (HR, 0.70; 95% Confidence Interval (CI, 0.47-1.06 compared to participants with an employed father as well as for participants living in a city during World War II (HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.54-0.90 compared to participants living in the country-side. Residence in a Western City during the famine (Hunger Winter was not associated with a decreased risk. Our results show a relation between proxy variables for modest energy restriction over a longer period of time during childhood or early adulthood and a reduced ovarian cancer risk.

  2. Determinants & Sequelae of Altered Body Composition in Childhood Cancer Survivors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Blijdorp (Karin)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractIn the Netherlands, approximately 600 children are diagnosed with cancer every year. Due to improvement of treatment, combining surgery, multi-agent chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, in addition to remarkable advances in supportive care, survival has increased substantially over the

  3. Long-term population-based divorce rates among adult survivors of childhood cancer in Britain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frobisher, Clare; Lancashire, Emma R; Winter, David L; Taylor, Aliki J; Reulen, Raoul C; Hawkins, Michael M

    2010-01-01

    Previously from the British Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (BCCSS) it was seen that adult survivors of childhood cancer were less likely to marry than the general population. The objectives of this study were to assess the number of childhood cancer survivors from the BCCSS who were currently divorced or separated, examine factors associated with marriage dissolution and compare survivor divorce rates to population rates. The BCCSS is a population-based cohort of 18,119 individuals diagnosed with cancer aged 0-14 years between 1940 and 1991, and survived at least 5 years. 14,539 were alive, aged 16 years or over and eligible to receive a questionnaire, which ascertained marital status. From 8,155 survivors, who were aged at least 20 years at questionnaire completion, the proportions currently divorced and divorced or separated were 13.5% and 18.1%, respectively. Only current age, educational attainment and age at marriage were associated with divorce, and for divorce and separation status only age at marriage (P divorced (odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence intervals (95% CI)): 0.94 (0.81-1.10)). However, the survivors overall (OR (95% CI): 0.82 (0.72-0.94)), and separately for those diagnosed with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (OR (95% CI): 0.55 (0.34-0.89)) and leukaemia (OR (95% CI): 0.70 (0.52-0.95)), were less likely to be currently divorced or separated than the general population. It is reassuring that survivors do not experience more divorce than the general population, and that no cancer or treatment factors were shown to be associated with marriage dissolution. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Prevalence and Predictors of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Vaccination among Young Women Surviving Childhood Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosky, James L.; Favaro, Brianne; Peck, Kelly R.; Simmons, Jessica L.; Russell, Kathryn M.; Green, Daniel M.; Hudson, Melissa M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a sexually transmitted infection and the cause of cervical and other cancers. Vaccination is available to protect against genital HPV and is recommended for individuals aged 9-26 years. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of HPV vaccination among childhood cancer survivors and to identify factors associated with vaccine outcomes. Methods Young adult females with (n = 114; M age =21.18 years, SD =2.48) and without (n = 98; M age = 20.65 years, SD = 2.29) a childhood cancer history completed surveys querying HPV vaccination initiation/completion, as well as sociodemographic, medical, and health belief factors. Multivariable logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for vaccine outcomes. Results Among survivors, 38.6% (44/114) and 26.3% (30/114) initiated or completed vaccination compared to 44.9% (44/98) and 28.6% (28/98) among controls, respectively. In the combined survivor/control group, physician recommendation (OR = 11.24, 95% CI, 3.15 – 40.14), and familial HPV communication (OR = 7.28, 95% CI, 1.89 – 28.05) associated with vaccine initiation. Perceptions of vaccine benefit associated with vaccine completion (OR = 10.55, 95% CI, 1.59 – 69.92), whereas perceptions of HPV-related severity associated with non-completion (OR = 0.14, 95% CI, 0.03 – 0.71). Conclusion Despite their increased risk for HPV-related complication, a minority of childhood cancer survivors have initiated or completed HPV vaccination. Modifiable factors associating with vaccine outcomes were identified. Implications HPV vaccination is a useful tool for cancer prevention in survivorship, and interventions to increase vaccine uptake are warranted. PMID:26572902

  5. Thyroid Radiation Dose and Other Risk Factors of Thyroid Carcinoma Following Childhood Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vathaire, Florent; Haddy, Nadia; Allodji, Rodrigue S; Hawkins, Mike; Guibout, Catherine; El-Fayech, Chiraz; Teinturier, Cécile; Oberlin, Odile; Pacquement, Hélène; Diop, Fara; Kalhouche, Amar; Benadjaoud, Mohamedamine; Winter, David; Jackson, Angela; Bezin Mai-Quynh, Giao; Benabdennebi, Aymen; Llanas, Damien; Veres, Cristina; Munzer, Martine; Nguyen, Tan Dat; Bondiau, Pierre-Yves; Berchery, Delphine; Laprie, Anne; Deutsch, Eric; Lefkopoulos, Dimitri; Schlumberger, Martin; Diallo, Ibrahima; Rubino, Carole

    2015-11-01

    Thyroid carcinoma is a frequent complication of childhood cancer radiotherapy. The dose response to thyroid radiation dose is now well established, but the potential modifier effect of other factors requires additional investigation. This study aimed to investigate the role of potential modifiers of the dose response. We followed a cohort of 4338 5-year survivors of solid childhood cancer treated before 1986 over an average of 27 years. The dose received by the thyroid gland and some other anatomical sites during radiotherapy was estimated after reconstruction of the actual conditions in which irradiation was delivered. Fifty-five patients developed thyroid carcinoma. The risk of thyroid carcinoma increased with a radiation dose to the thyroid of up to two tenths of Gy, then leveled off for higher doses. When taking into account the thyroid radiation dose, a surgical or radiological splenectomy (>20 Gy to the spleen) increased thyroid cancer risk (relative risk [RR] = 2.3; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-4.0), high radiation doses (>5 Gy) to pituitary gland lowered this risk (RR = 0.2; 95% CI, 0.1-0.6). Patients who received nitrosourea chemotherapy had a 6.6-fold (95% CI, 2.5-15.7) higher risk than those who did not. The excess RR per Gy of radiation to the thyroid was 4.7 (95% CI, 1.7-22.6). It was 7.6 (95% CI, 1.6-33.3) if body mass index at time of interview was equal or higher than 25 kg/m(2), and 4.1 (95% CI, 0.9-17.7) if not (P for interaction = .1). Predicting thyroid cancer risk following childhood cancer radiation therapy probably requires the assessment of more than just the radiation dose to the thyroid. Chemotherapy, splenectomy, radiation dose to pituitary gland, and obesity also play a role.

  6. International incidence of childhood cancer, 2001-10: a population-based registry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steliarova-Foucher, Eva; Colombet, Murielle; Ries, Lynn A G; Moreno, Florencia; Dolya, Anastasia; Bray, Freddie; Hesseling, Peter; Shin, Hee Young; Stiller, Charles A

    2017-06-01

    Cancer is a major cause of death in children worldwide, and the recorded incidence tends to increase with time. Internationally comparable data on childhood cancer incidence in the past two decades are scarce. This study aimed to provide internationally comparable local data on the incidence of childhood cancer to promote research of causes and implementation of childhood cancer control. This population-based registry study, devised by the International Agency for Research on Cancer in collaboration with the International Association of Cancer Registries, collected data on all malignancies and non-malignant neoplasms of the CNS diagnosed before age 20 years in populations covered by high-quality cancer registries with complete data for 2001-10. Incidence rates per million person-years for the 0-14 years and 0-19 years age groups were age-adjusted using the world standard population to provide age-standardised incidence rates (WSRs), using the age-specific incidence rates (ASR) for individual age groups (0-4 years, 5-9 years, 10-14 years, and 15-19 years). All rates were reported for 19 geographical areas or ethnicities by sex, age group, and cancer type. The regional WSRs for children aged 0-14 years were compared with comparable data obtained in the 1980s. Of 532 invited cancer registries, 153 registries from 62 countries, departments, and territories met quality standards, and contributed data for the entire decade of 2001-10. 385 509 incident cases in children aged 0-19 years occurring in 2·64 billion person-years were included. The overall WSR was 140·6 per million person-years in children aged 0-14 years (based on 284 649 cases), and the most common cancers were leukaemia (WSR 46·4), followed by CNS tumours (WSR 28·2), and lymphomas (WSR 15·2). In children aged 15-19 years (based on 100 860 cases), the ASR was 185·3 per million person-years, the most common being lymphomas (ASR 41·8) and the group of epithelial tumours and melanoma (ASR 39·5

  7. Geriatric cancer trends in the Middle-East: Findings from Lebanese cancer projections until 2025.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Fady Gh; Kattan, Joseph; Kourie, Hampig R; El Rassy, Elie; Assi, Tarek; Adib, Salim M

    2018-03-01

    By 2020, 70% of all cancers will occur in patients aged 65years and older, causing an increase in related morbidity, mortality, and cost. This study projects cancer trends in the elderly population in Lebanon, a country experiencing accelerating aging trends. Findings will guide future policy decisions regarding geriatric oncology in Lebanon and the surrounding Arab world. Cancer incidence rates were derived for men and women 65years and above, divided into three age groups: 65-69years, 70-74years, and 75years and above. Raw data were obtained from the National Cancer Registry reports 2003-2010. The eight consecutive year data were used to project the incidence until 2025 using a logarithmic model. The Average Annual Percent Change in incidence rates was calculated to determine whether it would significantly increase, decrease, or remain stable over time. Incidence rates are projected to increase significantly in all age groups of both genders until 2025. In men, the fastest rise is expected in prostate cancer, followed by bladder, lung, colorectal, and NHL. In women, the rise will be fastest in breast, followed by colorectal, lung, NHL, and ovary. Projected rates increase faster in the "younger" age group 65-69 compared to the "oldest" ≥75, both in men and women. Only kidney and liver cancers continue to rise significantly after 75. Cancer incidence is projected to increase in individuals between 65 and 74years of age. Lebanese and Middle Eastern physicians must implement adapted therapeutic strategies in the management of the increasing caseload among frail, elderly patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Developmental pathways from childhood conduct problems to early adult depression: findings from the ALSPAC cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringaris, Argyris; Lewis, Glyn; Maughan, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    Background Pathways from early-life conduct problems to young adult depression remain poorly understood. Aims To test developmental pathways from early-life conduct problems to depression at age 18. Method Data (n = 3542) came from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Previously derived conduct problem trajectories (ages 4-13 years) were used to examine associations with depression from ages 10 to 18 years, and the role of early childhood factors as potential confounders. Results Over 43% of young adults with depression in the ALSPAC cohort had a history of child or adolescent conduct problems, yielding a population attributable fraction of 0.15 (95% CI 0.08-0.22). The association between conduct problems and depression at age 18 was considerable even after adjusting for prior depression (odds ratio 1.55, 95% CI 1.24-1.94). Early-onset persistent conduct problems carried the highest risk for later depression. Irritability characterised depression for those with a history of conduct problems. Conclusions Early-life conduct problems are robustly associated with later depressive disorder and may be useful targets for early intervention. PMID:24764545

  9. Body issues, sexual satisfaction, and relationship status satisfaction in long-term childhood cancer survivors and healthy controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lehmann, Vicky; Hagedoorn, Mariet; Gerhardt, Cynthia A.; Fults, Marci; Olshefski, Randal S.; Sanderman, Robbert; Tuinman, Marrit A.

    ObjectiveResearch on body image and sexual satisfaction after adult onset cancer has shown significant and lasting impairments regarding survivors' sexuality and romantic relationships. However, knowledge about these topics and their associations in adult survivors of childhood cancer is largely

  10. High-risk populations identified in Childhood Cancer Survivor Study investigations: implications for risk-based surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Melissa M; Mulrooney, Daniel A; Bowers, Daniel C; Sklar, Charles A; Green, Daniel M; Donaldson, Sarah S; Oeffinger, Kevin C; Neglia, Joseph P; Meadows, Anna T; Robison, Leslie L

    2009-05-10

    Childhood cancer survivors often experience complications related to cancer and its treatment that may adversely affect quality of life and increase the risk of premature death. The purpose of this manuscript is to review how data derived from Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) investigations have facilitated identification of childhood cancer survivor populations at high risk for specific organ toxicity and secondary carcinogenesis and how this has informed clinical screening practices. Articles previously published that used the resource of the CCSS to identify risk factors for specific organ toxicity and subsequent cancers were reviewed and results summarized. CCSS investigations have characterized specific groups to be at highest risk of morbidity related to endocrine and reproductive dysfunction, pulmonary toxicity, cerebrovascular injury, neurologic and neurosensory sequelae, and subsequent neoplasms. Factors influencing risk for specific outcomes related to the individual survivor (eg, sex, race/ethnicity, age at diagnosis, attained age), sociodemographic status (eg, education, household income, health insurance) and cancer history (eg, diagnosis, treatment, time from diagnosis) have been consistently identified. These CCSS investigations that clarify risk for treatment complications related to specific treatment modalities, cumulative dose exposures, and sociodemographic factors identify profiles of survivors at high risk for cancer-related morbidity who deserve heightened surveillance to optimize outcomes after treatment for childhood cancer.

  11. Parental reactions in childhood cancer: distress, risk and resilience

    OpenAIRE

    Gudmundsdóttir, Eygló

    2011-01-01

    Parents of children with cancer encounter an exceptionally difficult life experience. Acute and long-lasting distress adds to the initial traumatic experience of being told that a family member suffers from a potentially fatal illness. This thesis investigates the determinants of short and long-term psychological effects in parents in two Nordic sites with different routines for care and follow-up. A general aim was increased knowledge and understanding of parental reactions and psychosocial ...

  12. Radiation, Atherosclerotic Risk Factors, and Stroke Risk in Survivors of Pediatric Cancer: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Sabine, E-mail: muellers@neuropeds.ucsf.edu [Department of Neurology, Pediatrics and Neurosurgery, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Fullerton, Heather J. [Department of Neurology and Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Stratton, Kayla; Leisenring, Wendy [Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington (United States); Weathers, Rita E.; Stovall, Marilyn [Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Armstrong, Gregory T. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States); Goldsby, Robert E. [Department of Pediatrics, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Packer, Roger J. [Children' s National Medical Center, Washington, District of Columbia (United States); Sklar, Charles A. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Bowers, Daniel C. [University of Texas Southwestern Medical School, Dallas, Texas (United States); Robison, Leslie L.; Krull, Kevin R. [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: To test the hypotheses that (1) the increased risk of stroke conferred by childhood cranial radiation therapy (CRT) persists into adulthood; and (2) atherosclerotic risk factors further increase the stroke risk in cancer survivors. Methods and Materials: The Childhood Cancer Survivor Study is a multi-institutional retrospective cohort study of 14,358 5-year survivors of childhood cancer and 4023 randomly selected sibling controls with longitudinal follow-up. Age-adjusted incidence rates of self-reported late-occurring (≥5 years after diagnosis) first stroke were calculated. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify independent stroke predictors. Results: During a mean follow-up of 23.3 years, 292 survivors reported a late-occurring stroke. The age-adjusted stroke rate per 100,000 person-years was 77 (95% confidence interval [CI] 62-96), compared with 9.3 (95% CI 4-23) for siblings. Treatment with CRT increased stroke risk in a dose-dependent manner: hazard ratio 5.9 (95% CI 3.5-9.9) for 30-49 Gy CRT and 11.0 (7.4-17.0) for 50+ Gy CRT. The cumulative stroke incidence in survivors treated with 50+ Gy CRT was 1.1% (95% CI 0.4-1.8%) at 10 years after diagnosis and 12% (95% CI 8.9-15.0%) at 30 years. Hypertension increased stroke hazard by 4-fold (95% CI 2.8-5.5) and in black survivors by 16-fold (95% CI 6.9-36.6). Conclusion: Young adult pediatric cancer survivors have an increased stroke risk that is associated with CRT in a dose-dependent manner. Atherosclerotic risk factors enhanced this risk and should be treated aggressively.

  13. Radiation, Atherosclerotic Risk Factors, and Stroke Risk in Survivors of Pediatric Cancer: A Report From the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Sabine; Fullerton, Heather J.; Stratton, Kayla; Leisenring, Wendy; Weathers, Rita E.; Stovall, Marilyn; Armstrong, Gregory T.; Goldsby, Robert E.; Packer, Roger J.; Sklar, Charles A.; Bowers, Daniel C.; Robison, Leslie L.; Krull, Kevin R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To test the hypotheses that (1) the increased risk of stroke conferred by childhood cranial radiation therapy (CRT) persists into adulthood; and (2) atherosclerotic risk factors further increase the stroke risk in cancer survivors. Methods and Materials: The Childhood Cancer Survivor Study is a multi-institutional retrospective cohort study of 14,358 5-year survivors of childhood cancer and 4023 randomly selected sibling controls with longitudinal follow-up. Age-adjusted incidence rates of self-reported late-occurring (≥5 years after diagnosis) first stroke were calculated. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to identify independent stroke predictors. Results: During a mean follow-up of 23.3 years, 292 survivors reported a late-occurring stroke. The age-adjusted stroke rate per 100,000 person-years was 77 (95% confidence interval [CI] 62-96), compared with 9.3 (95% CI 4-23) for siblings. Treatment with CRT increased stroke risk in a dose-dependent manner: hazard ratio 5.9 (95% CI 3.5-9.9) for 30-49 Gy CRT and 11.0 (7.4-17.0) for 50+ Gy CRT. The cumulative stroke incidence in survivors treated with 50+ Gy CRT was 1.1% (95% CI 0.4-1.8%) at 10 years after diagnosis and 12% (95% CI 8.9-15.0%) at 30 years. Hypertension increased stroke hazard by 4-fold (95% CI 2.8-5.5) and in black survivors by 16-fold (95% CI 6.9-36.6). Conclusion: Young adult pediatric cancer survivors have an increased stroke risk that is associated with CRT in a dose-dependent manner. Atherosclerotic risk factors enhanced this risk and should be treated aggressively

  14. Estimating the effect of childhood socioeconomic disadvantage on oral cancer in India using marginal structural models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna Rao, Sreevidya; Mejia, Gloria C; Roberts-Thomson, Kaye; Logan, Richard M; Kamath, Veena; Kulkarni, Muralidhar; Mittinty, Murthy N

    2015-07-01

    Early life socioeconomic disadvantage could affect adult health directly or indirectly. To the best of our knowledge, there are no studies of the direct effect of early life socioeconomic conditions on oral cancer occurrence in adult life. We conducted a multicenter, hospital-based, case-control study in India between 2011 and 2012 on 180 histopathologically confirmed incident oral and/or oropharyngeal cancer cases, aged 18 years or more, and 272 controls that included hospital visitors, who were not diagnosed with any cancer in the same hospitals. Life-course data were collected on socioeconomic conditions, risk factors, and parental behavior through interview employing a life grid. The early life socioeconomic conditions measure was determined by occupation of the head of household in childhood. Adult socioeconomic measures included participant's education and current occupation of the head of household. Marginal structural models with stabilized inverse probability weights were used to estimate the controlled direct effects of early life socioeconomic conditions on oral cancer. The total effect model showed that those in the low socioeconomic conditions in the early years of childhood had 60% (risk ratio [RR] = 1.6 [95% confidence interval {CI} = 1.4, 1.9]) increased risk of oral cancer. From the marginal structural models, the estimated risk for developing oral cancer among those in low early life socioeconomic conditions was 50% (RR = 1.5 [95% CI = 1.4, 1.5]), 20% (RR = 1.2 [95% CI = 0.9, 1.7]), and 90% (RR = 1.9 [95% CI = 1.7, 2.2]) greater than those in the high socioeconomic conditions when controlled for smoking, chewing, and alcohol, respectively. When all the three mediators were controlled in a marginal structural model, the RR was 1.3 (95% CI = 1.0, 1.6). Early life low socioeconomic condition had a controlled direct effect on oral cancer when smoking, chewing tobacco, and alcohol were separately adjusted in marginal structural models.

  15. Protecting Family Interests: An Interview Study with Foreign-Born Parents Struggling On in Childhood Cancer Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernilla Pergert

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sweden's population is gradually changing to become more multiethnic and diverse and that applies also for recipients of health care, including childhood cancer care. A holistic view on the sick child in the context of its family has always been a cornerstone in childhood cancer care in Sweden. The purpose of this study was to gain knowledge about the experiences and main concern of foreign-born parents in the context of paediatric cancer care. Interviews were performed with eleven foreign-born parents and data were analysed using a classic grounded theory approach. Foreign-born parents often feel in a position of powerless dependence, but family interests are protected in their approaches to interaction with healthcare staff, through cooperation, contesting, and reluctant resigning. Healthcare staff need to listen to foreign-born parents and deal with their concerns seriously to prevent powerless-dependence and work for trustful cooperation in the common fight against childhood cancer.

  16. Thyroid Cancer after Childhood Exposure to External Radiation: An Updated Pooled Analysis of 12 Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Lene H. S.; Holmberg, Erik; Anderson, Harald; Pottern, Linda; Sadetzki, Siegal; Adams, M. Jacob; Sakata, Ritsu; Schneider, Arthur B.; Inskip, Peter; Bhatti, Parveen; Johansson, Robert; Neta, Gila; Shore, Roy; de Vathaire, Florent; Damber, Lena; Kleinerman, Ruth; Hawkins, Michael M.; Tucker, Margaret; Lundell, Marie; Lubin, Jay H.

    2016-01-01

    Studies have causally linked external thyroid radiation exposure in childhood with thyroid cancer. In 1995, investigators conducted relative risk analyses of pooled data from seven epidemiologic studies. Doses were mostly 50 Gy. We pooled data from 12 studies of thyroid cancer patients who were exposed to radiation in childhood (ages <20 years), more than doubling the data, including 1,070 (927 exposed) thyroid cancers and 5.3 million (3.4 million exposed) person-years. Relative risks increased supralinearly through 2–4 Gy, leveled off between 10–30 Gy and declined thereafter, remaining significantly elevated above 50 Gy. There was a significant relative risk trend for doses <0.10 Gy (P < 0.01), with no departure from linearity (P = 0.36). We observed radiogenic effects for both papillary and nonpapillary tumors. Estimates of excess relative risk per Gy (ERR/Gy) were homogeneous by sex (P = 0.35) and number of radiation treatments (P = 0.84) and increased with decreasing age at the time of exposure. The ERR/Gy estimate was significant within ten years of radiation exposure, 2.76 (95% CI, 0.94–4.98), based on 42 exposed cases, and remained elevated 50 years and more after exposure. Finally, exposure to chemotherapy was significantly associated with thyroid cancer, with results supporting a nonsynergistic (additive) association with radiation. PMID:27128740

  17. Nongenetic causes of childhood cancers: evidence from international variation, time trends, and risk factor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunin, Greta R.

    2004-01-01

    Ionizing radiation and a variety of genetic conditions are thought to explain 5-10% of childhood cancers. Infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in parts of Africa and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) increase the risk of Burkitt's lymphoma and Kaposi's sarcoma, respectively. Other risk factors have not been conclusively identified. A review of the data on international variation in incidence, recent changes in incidence, and risk factors suggests that many childhood cancers are likely to have nongenetic causes. The pattern of international variation and associations with surrogates of infection suggest an infectious etiology for acute lymphoblastic leukemia, although no agent has been identified. The biologic plausibility is strong that maternal consumption of food containing DNA topoisomerase II inhibitors may increase the risk of acute myeloid leukemia, although the data are limited now. For brain tumors, cured meats, polyomaviruses, and farm exposures may have etiologic roles. Changes in the incidence and characteristics of children with hepatoblastoma as well as risk factor studies suggest a role for an exposure of very low birth weight babies. High birth weight, tea or coffee consumption, and certain paternal occupations have shown some consistency in their association with Wilms' tumor. For most of the other cancers, very few epidemiologic studies have been conducted, so it is not surprising that nongenetic risk factors have not been detected. The most important difference between the cancers for which there are good etiologic clues and those for which there are not may be the number of relevant studies

  18. Meningiomas after cranial radiotherapy for childhood cancer: a single institution experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felicetti, Francesco; Fortunati, Nicoletta; Garbossa, Diego; Biasin, Eleonora; Rudà, Roberta; Daniele, Dino; Arvat, Emanuela; Corrias, Andrea; Fagioli, Franca; Brignardello, Enrico

    2015-07-01

    Childhood cancer survivors (CCS) treated with cranial radiation therapy (CRT) are at risk of developing meningiomas. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cumulative incidence of meningiomas in a cohort of CCS who previously underwent CRT. We considered all CCS who received CRT and were followed up at the "Transition Unit for Childhood Cancer Survivors" in Turin. Even though asymptomatic, they had at least one brain computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging performed at a minimum interval of 10 years after treatment for pediatric cancer. We identified 90 patients (median follow-up 24.6 years). Fifteen patients developed meningioma (median time from pediatric cancer, 22.5 years). In four patients, it was suspected on the basis of neurological symptoms (i.e., headache or seizures), whereas all other cases, including five giant meningiomas, were discovered in otherwise asymptomatic patients. Multiple meningiomas were discovered in four CCS. Ten patients underwent surgical resection. An atypical meningioma (grade II WHO) was reported in four patients. One patient with multiple meningiomas died for a rapid growth of the intracranial lesions. A second neoplasm (SN) other than meningioma was diagnosed in five out of the 15 patients with meningioma and in ten out of the 75 CCS without meningioma. Cox multivariate analysis showed that the occurrence of meningioma was associated with the development of other SNs, whereas age, sex, or CRT dose had no influence. CCS at risk of the development of meningioma deserve close clinical follow-up, especially those affected by other SNs.

  19. Proteomics Analysis for Finding Serum Markers of Ovarian Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yushan Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A combination of peptide ligand library beads (PLLB and 1D gel liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (1DGel-LC-MS/MS was employed to analyze serum samples from patients with ovarian cancer and from healthy controls. Proteomic analysis identified 1200 serum proteins, among which 57 proteins were upregulated and 10 were downregulated in the sera from cancer patients. Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4 is highly upregulated in the ovarian cancer serum samples. ELISA was employed to measure plasma concentrations of RBP4 in 80 samples from ovarian cancer patients, healthy individuals, myoma patients, and patients with benign ovarian tumor, respectively. The plasma concentrations of RBP4 ranging from 76.91 to 120.08 ng/mL with the mean value 89.13±1.67 ng/mL in ovarian cancer patients are significantly higher than those in healthy individuals (10.85±2.38 ng/mL. Results were further confirmed with immunohistochemistry, demonstrating that RBP4 expression levels in normal ovarian tissue were lower than those in ovarian cancer tissues. Our results suggested that RBP4 is a potential biomarker for diagnostic of screening ovarian cancer.

  20. Investigating the Experiences of Childhood Cancer Patients and Parents Participating in Optional Nontherapeutic Clinical Research Studies in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Errington, Julie; Malik, Ghada; Evans, Julie; Baston, Jenny; Parry, Annie; Price, Lisa; Johnstone, Hina; Peters, Selena; Oram, Victoria; Howe, Karen; Whiteley, Emma; Tunnacliffe, Jane; Veal, Gareth J

    2016-07-01

    While the majority of childhood cancer clinical trials are treatment related, additional optional research investigations may be carried out that do not directly impact on treatment. It is essential that these studies are conducted ethically and that the experiences of families participating in these studies are as positive as possible. A questionnaire study was carried out to investigate the key factors that influence why families choose to participate in optional nontherapeutic research studies, the level of understanding of the trials involved, and the experiences of participation. A total of 100 participants from six UK centers were studied; 77 parents, 10 patients >16 years, and 13 patients aged 8-15 years. Ninety-seven percent of parents and 90% of patients felt that information provided prior to study consent was of the right length, with 52% of parents and 65% of patients fully understanding the information provided. Seventy-four percent of parents participated in research studies in order to "do something important", while 74% of patients participated "to help medical staff". Encouragingly, <5% of participants felt that their clinical care would be negatively affected if they did not participate. Positive aspects of participation included a perception of increased attention from medical staff. Negative aspects included spending longer periods in hospital and the requirement for additional blood samples. Ninety-six percent of parents and 87% of patients would participate in future studies. The study provides an insight into the views of childhood cancer patients and their parents participating in nontherapeutic clinical research studies. Overwhelmingly, the findings suggest that participation is seen as a positive experience. © 2016 The Authors. Pediatric Blood & Cancer, published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Fertility-related knowledge and reproductive goals in childhood cancer survivors: short communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, V; Keim, M C; Nahata, L; Shultz, E L; Klosky, J L; Tuinman, M A; Gerhardt, C A

    2017-11-01

    Do young adult survivors of childhood cancer know their fertility status, in the context of their parenthood goals and screening for gonadal functioning? While 80% of survivors (who were without children) wanted children in the future, most did not know their fertility status, and screening for gonadal functioning was underutilized. Survivors of childhood cancer are at risk for infertility, but fertility counseling and assessment are underutilized. Separate studies indicated that survivors' fertility-related knowledge is poor and that they often wanted to have children. Yet, studies have not investigated the intersection of both issues, as well as potential distress if parenthood goals are not met. Young adult male and female survivors of childhood cancer (N = 149) completed cross-sectional surveys, and data for those without children (n = 105, 70.5%) are presented here. Participants were 20-40 years old (M = 26.5), diagnosed 5-33 years prior to study participation, and completed questionnaires online. Knowledge of fertility status, parenthood goals, and potential distress if survivors were unable to have children were assessed. Medical records were reviewed for hormone levels as indicators of screening for gonadal functioning. Most survivors (n = 81; 77.1%) did not know their fertility status, while over 80% (n = 89) wanted children (neither aspect varied by socio-demographic/cancer-specific factors). Two-thirds of survivors indicated they would be distressed if parenthood goals remained unfulfilled; especially female (versus male, t = 2.64; P = 0.01) or partnered (versus single, t = -3.45; P fertility status. Relevant risk factors may have not been identified owing to limited sample size and missing treatment information. The underutilization of screening for gonadal functioning needs further exploration in other pediatric centers. Most adult childhood cancer survivors want to become parents, but do not know their fertility status, which could cause significant

  2. Causes and emerging trends of childhood blindness: findings from schools for the blind in Southeast Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghaji, Ada; Okoye, Obiekwe; Bowman, Richard

    2015-06-01

    To ascertain the causes severe visual impairment and blindness (SVI/BL) in schools for the blind in southeast Nigeria and to evaluate temporal trends. All children who developed blindness at schools for the blind in southeast Nigeria were examined. All the data were recorded on a WHO/Prevention of Blindness (WHO/PBL) form entered into a Microsoft Access database and transferred to STATA V.12.1 for analysis. To estimate temporal trends in causes of blindness, older (>15 years) children were compared with younger (≤15 years) children. 124 children were identified with SVI/BL. The most common anatomical site of blindness was the lens (33.9%). Overall, avoidable blindness accounted for 73.4% of all blindness. Exploring trends in SVI/BL between children ≤15 years of age and those >15 years old, this study shows a reduction in avoidable blindness but an increase in cortical visual impairment in the younger age group. The results from this study show a statistically significant decrease in avoidable blindness in children ≤15 years old. Corneal blindness appears to be decreasing but cortical visual impairment seems to be emerging in the younger age group. Appropriate strategies for the prevention of avoidable childhood blindness in Nigeria need to be developed and implemented. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  3. Tobacco smoke and risk of childhood acute non-lymphocytic leukemia: findings from the SETIL study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Mattioli

    Full Text Available Parental smoking and exposure of the mother or the child to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS as risk factors for Acute non-Lymphocytic Leukemia (AnLL were investigated.Incident cases of childhood AnLL were enrolled in 14 Italian Regions during 1998-2001. We estimated odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI conducting logistic regression models including 82 cases of AnLL and 1,044 controls. Inverse probability weighting was applied adjusting for: age; sex; provenience; birth order; birth weight; breastfeeding; parental educational level age, birth year, and occupational exposure to benzene.Paternal smoke in the conception period was associated with AnLL (OR for ≥ 11 cigarettes/day  = 1.79, 95% CI 1.01-3.15; P trend 0.05. An apparent effect modification by maternal age was identified: only children of mothers aged below 30 presented increased risks. We found weak statistical evidence of an association of AnLL with maternal exposure to ETS (OR for exposure>3 hours/day  = 1.85, 95%CI 0.97-3.52; P trend 0.07. No association was observed between AnLL and either maternal smoking during pregnancy or child exposure to ETS.This study is consistent with the hypothesis that paternal smoke is associated with AnLL. We observed statistical evidence of an association between maternal exposure to ETS and AnLL, but believe bias might have inflated our estimates.

  4. Tobacco Smoke and Risk of Childhood Acute Non-Lymphocytic Leukemia: Findings from the SETIL Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioli, Stefano; Farioli, Andrea; Legittimo, Patrizia; Miligi, Lucia; Benvenuti, Alessandra; Ranucci, Alessandra; Salvan, Alberto; Rondelli, Roberto; Magnani, Corrado

    2014-01-01

    Background Parental smoking and exposure of the mother or the child to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) as risk factors for Acute non-Lymphocytic Leukemia (AnLL) were investigated. Methods Incident cases of childhood AnLL were enrolled in 14 Italian Regions during 1998–2001. We estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) conducting logistic regression models including 82 cases of AnLL and 1,044 controls. Inverse probability weighting was applied adjusting for: age; sex; provenience; birth order; birth weight; breastfeeding; parental educational level age, birth year, and occupational exposure to benzene. Results Paternal smoke in the conception period was associated with AnLL (OR for ≥11 cigarettes/day  = 1.79, 95% CI 1.01–3.15; P trend 0.05). An apparent effect modification by maternal age was identified: only children of mothers aged below 30 presented increased risks. We found weak statistical evidence of an association of AnLL with maternal exposure to ETS (OR for exposure>3 hours/day  = 1.85, 95%CI 0.97–3.52; P trend 0.07). No association was observed between AnLL and either maternal smoking during pregnancy or child exposure to ETS. Conclusions This study is consistent with the hypothesis that paternal smoke is associated with AnLL. We observed statistical evidence of an association between maternal exposure to ETS and AnLL, but believe bias might have inflated our estimates. PMID:25401754

  5. Early childhood growth and cognitive outcomes: Findings from the MAL-ED study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Rebecca J; Rogawski, Elizabeth T; Murray-Kolb, Laura E; Maphula, Angelina; Svensen, Erling; Tofail, Fahmida; Rasheed, Muneera; Abreu, Claudia; Vasquez, Angel Orbe; Shrestha, Rita; Pendergast, Laura; Mduma, Estomih; Koshy, Beena; Conaway, Mark R; Platts-Mills, James A; Guerrant, Richard L; DeBoer, Mark D

    2018-02-02

    Although many studies around the world hope to measure or improve developmental progress in children to promote community flourishing and productivity, growth is sometimes used as a surrogate because cognitive skills are more difficult to measure. Our objective was to assess how childhood measures of anthropometry correlate with measures of child development in low-income settings with high prevalence of poor nutrition and enteric disease, to inform studies considering growth outcomes in the absence of direct child developmental skill assessment. Children from the MAL-ED study were followed from birth to 24 months of age in field sites in 8 low- and middle-income countries across 3 continents. Monthly weight, length, and head circumference measurements were performed. At 24 months, the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development was administered. We correlated cognitive measures at 24 months with anthropometric measurements from birth to 2 years comparing 3 constructs: absolute attained monthly measures, summative difference in measures from the mean growth curve, and rate of change in measures. Growth faltering at multiple time periods is related to Bayley cognitive outcomes at 24 months. Birthweight, overall growth by 18-24 months, and rate of growth in the 6- to 18-month period were most associated with 24-month developmental scores. In this study, head circumference measurements, compared with length, was more closely linked to cognitive scores at 24 months. Notably, all studies between growth and cognitive outcomes exhibited low r 2 values (0.001-0.049). Anthropometric measures, particularly head circumference, were related to cognitive development, although explaining a low percent of variance. When feasible, direct measures of child development may be more useful. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. The use of the SF-36 questionnaire in adult survivors of childhood cancer: evaluation of data quality, score reliability, and scaling assumptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winter David L

    2006-10-01

    scales. Conclusion The findings presented in this paper provide support for the validity and reliability of the SF-36 when used in long-term survivors of childhood cancer. These findings should encourage other researchers and health care practitioners to use the SF-36 when assessing health status in this population, although it should be recognised that ceiling effects can occur.

  7. Genome-Wide Association Study to Identify Susceptibility Loci That Modify Radiation-Related Risk for Breast Cancer After Childhood Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Lindsay M; Sampson, Joshua N; Armstrong, Gregory T; Chen, Ting-Huei; Hudson, Melissa M; Karlins, Eric; Dagnall, Casey L; Li, Shengchao Alfred; Wilson, Carmen L; Srivastava, Deo Kumar; Liu, Wei; Kang, Guolian; Oeffinger, Kevin C; Henderson, Tara O; Moskowitz, Chaya S; Gibson, Todd M; Merino, Diana M; Wong, Jeannette R; Hammond, Sue; Neglia, Joseph P; Turcotte, Lucie M; Miller, Jeremy; Bowen, Laura; Wheeler, William A; Leisenring, Wendy M; Whitton, John A; Burdette, Laurie; Chung, Charles; Hicks, Belynda D; Jones, Kristine; Machiela, Mitchell J; Vogt, Aurelie; Wang, Zhaoming; Yeager, Meredith; Neale, Geoffrey; Lear, Matthew; Strong, Louise C; Yasui, Yutaka; Stovall, Marilyn; Weathers, Rita E; Smith, Susan A; Howell, Rebecca; Davies, Stella M; Radloff, Gretchen A; Onel, Kenan; Berrington de González, Amy; Inskip, Peter D; Rajaraman, Preetha; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Bhatia, Smita; Chanock, Stephen J; Tucker, Margaret A; Robison, Leslie L

    2017-11-01

    Childhood cancer survivors treated with chest-directed radiotherapy have substantially elevated risk for developing breast cancer. Although genetic susceptibility to breast cancer in the general population is well studied, large-scale evaluation of breast cancer susceptibility after chest-directed radiotherapy for childhood cancer is lacking. We conducted a genome-wide association study of breast cancer in female survivors of childhood cancer, pooling two cohorts with detailed treatment data and systematic, long-term follow-up: the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study and St. Jude Lifetime Cohort. The study population comprised 207 survivors who developed breast cancer and 2774 who had not developed any subsequent neoplasm as of last follow-up. Genotyping and subsequent imputation yielded 16 958 466 high-quality variants for analysis. We tested associations in the overall population and in subgroups stratified by receipt of lower than 10 and 10 or higher gray breast radiation exposure. We report P values and pooled per-allele risk estimates from Cox proportional hazards regression models. All statistical tests were two-sided. Among survivors who received 10 or higher gray breast radiation exposure, a locus on 1q41 was associated with subsequent breast cancer risk (rs4342822, nearest gene PROX1 , risk allele frequency in control subjects [RAF controls ] = 0.46, hazard ratio = 1.92, 95% confidence interval = 1.49 to 2.44, P = 7.09 × 10 -9 ). Two rare variants also showed potentially promising associations (breast radiation ≥10 gray: rs74949440, 11q23, TAGLN , RAF controls = 0.02, P = 5.84 × 10 -8 ; breast cancer risk after childhood cancer. Published by Oxford University Press 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  8. Colon Mucinous Adenocarcinoma in Childhood: A Case Report with Emphasis on Image Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Muccillo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer is extremely rare in children. We report a case of a 12-year-old boy who presented with a five-month history of weight loss and anorexia, associated with vomiting episodes, dizziness, fatigue, and dyspnea. On physical examination, a palpable abdominal mass was noticed on the right hypochondrium and flank. An imaging study was performed, which showed a solid mass on the right colon. The patient underwent incisional surgical biopsy, and subsequent histopathologic analysis revealed a colon mucinous adenocarcinoma.

  9. ABO blood type and the risk of cancer - Findings from the Shanghai Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Yongxu Huang

    Full Text Available ABO blood type is an inherited characteristic. The associations between ABO blood type and risk of all cancer and specific cancers were examined in a prospective cohort study of 18,244 Chinese men enrolled in 1986. During the 25 years of follow-up, 3,973 men developed cancer including 964 lung cancers, 624 colorectal cancers, 560 gastric cancers, 353 liver cancers, and 172 urinary bladder cancers. Hazard ratios (HR for all cancer and specific cancers by ABO blood type were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models. Compared with blood type A, blood type B was associated with statistically significant reduced risk of all cancers (HR, 0.91, 95% CI:0.84, 0.99. Both blood types B and AB were associated with significantly lower risk of gastrointestinal cancer and colorectal cancer, respectively. Blood type B was also associated with significantly lower risk of stomach cancer and bladder cancer, while blood type AB was associated with significantly increased risk of liver cancer. By histological type, blood types B and AB were associated with lower risk of epidermoid carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, but were not associated with risk of sarcoma, lymphoma, leukemia or other cell types of cancer. The findings of this study support a role of genetic traits related to ABO blood type in the development of cancers in the gastrointestinal and urinary tracts.

  10. ABO blood type and the risk of cancer - Findings from the Shanghai Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Joyce Yongxu; Wang, Renwei; Gao, Yu-Tang; Yuan, Jian-Min

    2017-01-01

    ABO blood type is an inherited characteristic. The associations between ABO blood type and risk of all cancer and specific cancers were examined in a prospective cohort study of 18,244 Chinese men enrolled in 1986. During the 25 years of follow-up, 3,973 men developed cancer including 964 lung cancers, 624 colorectal cancers, 560 gastric cancers, 353 liver cancers, and 172 urinary bladder cancers. Hazard ratios (HR) for all cancer and specific cancers by ABO blood type were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models. Compared with blood type A, blood type B was associated with statistically significant reduced risk of all cancers (HR, 0.91, 95% CI:0.84, 0.99). Both blood types B and AB were associated with significantly lower risk of gastrointestinal cancer and colorectal cancer, respectively. Blood type B was also associated with significantly lower risk of stomach cancer and bladder cancer, while blood type AB was associated with significantly increased risk of liver cancer. By histological type, blood types B and AB were associated with lower risk of epidermoid carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, but were not associated with risk of sarcoma, lymphoma, leukemia or other cell types of cancer. The findings of this study support a role of genetic traits related to ABO blood type in the development of cancers in the gastrointestinal and urinary tracts.

  11. ABO blood type and the risk of cancerFindings from the Shanghai Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Renwei; Gao, Yu-Tang

    2017-01-01

    ABO blood type is an inherited characteristic. The associations between ABO blood type and risk of all cancer and specific cancers were examined in a prospective cohort study of 18,244 Chinese men enrolled in 1986. During the 25 years of follow-up, 3,973 men developed cancer including 964 lung cancers, 624 colorectal cancers, 560 gastric cancers, 353 liver cancers, and 172 urinary bladder cancers. Hazard ratios (HR) for all cancer and specific cancers by ABO blood type were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models. Compared with blood type A, blood type B was associated with statistically significant reduced risk of all cancers (HR, 0.91, 95% CI:0.84, 0.99). Both blood types B and AB were associated with significantly lower risk of gastrointestinal cancer and colorectal cancer, respectively. Blood type B was also associated with significantly lower risk of stomach cancer and bladder cancer, while blood type AB was associated with significantly increased risk of liver cancer. By histological type, blood types B and AB were associated with lower risk of epidermoid carcinoma and adenocarcinoma, but were not associated with risk of sarcoma, lymphoma, leukemia or other cell types of cancer. The findings of this study support a role of genetic traits related to ABO blood type in the development of cancers in the gastrointestinal and urinary tracts. PMID:28880901

  12. Decline in physical activity level in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Carmen L; Stratton, Kayla; Leisenring, Wendy L; Oeffinger, Kevin C; Nathan, Paul C; Wasilewski-Masker, Karen; Hudson, Melissa M; Castellino, Sharon M; Stovall, Marilyn; Armstrong, Gregory T; Brinkman, Tara M; Krull, Kevin R; Robison, Leslie L; Ness, Kirsten K

    2014-08-01

    We aimed to identify demographic and health-related predictors of declining physical activity levels over a four-year period among participants in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Analyses included 7,287 ≥5-year childhood cancer survivors and 2,107 siblings who completed multiple follow-up questionnaires. Participants were classified as active if they met the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines for physical activity. Generalized linear models were used to compare participants whose physical activity levels declined from active to inactive over the study to those who remained active. In addition, selected chronic conditions (CTCAE v4.03 Grade 3 and 4) were evaluated as risk factors in an analysis limited to survivors only. The median age at last follow-up among survivors and siblings was 36 (range, 21-58) and 38 (range, 21-62) years, respectively. The rate of decline did not accelerate over time among survivors when compared with siblings. Factors that predicted declining activity included body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2) [RR = 1.32; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.19-1.46, P physical activity levels were associated with the presence of chronic musculoskeletal conditions (P = 0.034), but not with the presence of cardiac (P = 0.10), respiratory (P = 0.92), or neurologic conditions (P = 0.21). Interventions designed to maximize physical activity should target female, obese, and less educated survivors. Survivors with chronic musculoskeletal conditions should be monitored, counseled, and/or referred for physical therapy. Clinicians should be aware of low activity levels among subpopulations of childhood cancer survivors, which may heighten their risk for chronic illness. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  13. Coping with cancer - finding the support you need

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and cancer centers offer free counseling Online counseling Group counseling often costs less than one-on-one services ... programs-and-services.html : The society offers online counseling and support groups as well as other emotional support programs. Some ...

  14. Wisconsin’s Environmental Public Health Tracking Network: Information Systems Design for Childhood Cancer Surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanrahan, Lawrence P.; Anderson, Henry A.; Busby, Brian; Bekkedal, Marni; Sieger, Thomas; Stephenson, Laura; Knobeloch, Lynda; Werner, Mark; Imm, Pamela; Olson, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    In this article we describe the development of an information system for environmental childhood cancer surveillance. The Wisconsin Cancer Registry annually receives more than 25,000 incident case reports. Approximately 269 cases per year involve children. Over time, there has been considerable community interest in understanding the role the environment plays as a cause of these cancer cases. Wisconsin’s Public Health Information Network (WI-PHIN) is a robust web portal integrating both Health Alert Network and National Electronic Disease Surveillance System components. WI-PHIN is the information technology platform for all public health surveillance programs. Functions include the secure, automated exchange of cancer case data between public health–based and hospital-based cancer registrars; web-based supplemental data entry for environmental exposure confirmation and hypothesis testing; automated data analysis, visualization, and exposure–outcome record linkage; directories of public health and clinical personnel for role-based access control of sensitive surveillance information; public health information dissemination and alerting; and information technology security and critical infrastructure protection. For hypothesis generation, cancer case data are sent electronically to WI-PHIN and populate the integrated data repository. Environmental data are linked and the exposure–disease relationships are explored using statistical tools for ecologic exposure risk assessment. For hypothesis testing, case–control interviews collect exposure histories, including parental employment and residential histories. This information technology approach can thus serve as the basis for building a comprehensive system to assess environmental cancer etiology. PMID:15471739

  15. Controlling radiation exposure during interventional procedures in childhood cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Racadio, John M.

    2009-01-01

    Many pediatric cancer patients undergo multiple diagnostic and therapeutic radiologic procedures over the course of their illnesses and are therefore at high risk for radiation exposure. There are a variety of measures that radiologists can employ to reduce this risk. These include limiting the use of radiation whenever possible, using specific strategies to reduce radiation exposure during interventional procedures, using quality assurance programs to ensure compliance, and maintaining continuing staff radiation safety educational programs. Some of the diagnostic and therapeutic interventional radiologic procedures that are performed in pediatric oncology patients are discussed here, along with specific tips for managing radiation exposure. (orig.)

  16. Childhood Trauma and Two Stages of Alcohol Use in African American and European American Women: Findings from a Female Twin Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartor, Carolyn E; Grant, Julia D; Few, Lauren R; Werner, Kimberly B; McCutcheon, Vivia V; Duncan, Alexis E; Nelson, Elliot C; Madden, Pamela A F; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Heath, Andrew C; Agrawal, Arpana

    2017-09-05

    The current investigation assessed for moderating effects of childhood trauma on genetic and environmental contributions to timing of alcohol use initiation and alcohol use disorder in African American (AA) and European American (EA) women. Data were drawn from diagnostic telephone interviews conducted with 3786 participants (14.6% AA) in a longitudinal female twin study. Childhood trauma was defined alternately as child maltreatment and more broadly to include other events (e.g., witnessing violence). Phenotypic associations between childhood trauma and alcohol outcomes were estimated using logistic regression analyses. Twin modeling was conducted to test for moderating effects of childhood trauma on the contributions of genetic and environmental factors to timing of initiation and alcohol use disorder. Under both definitions, childhood trauma was associated with early initiation (relative risk ratios: 1.90, 1.72) and alcohol use disorder (odds ratios: 1.92, 1.76). Yet gene by environment effects were observed only for child maltreatment and timing of initiation in EA women, with heritable influences less prominent in those who had experienced child maltreatment (0.35, 95% CI: 0.05-0.66 vs. 0.52, 95% CI: 0.30-0.73). We found more similarities than differences in the association of childhood trauma with alcohol outcomes across racial/ethnic groups, trauma type, and stages of alcohol use. However, findings suggest that the relative contribution of genetic factors to alcohol outcomes differs by childhood maltreatment history in EA women specifically in the earliest stage of alcohol use.

  17. Radiation signatures in childhood thyroid cancers after the Chernobyl accident: Possible roles of radiation in carcinogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Keiji; Mitsutake, Norisato; Saenko, Vladimir; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2015-01-01

    After the Tokyo Electric Power Company Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident, cancer risk from low-dose radiation exposure has been deeply concerning. The linear no-threshold model is applied for the purpose of radiation protection, but it is a model based on the concept that ionizing radiation induces stochastic oncogenic alterations in the target cells. As the elucidation of the mechanism of radiation-induced carcinogenesis is indispensable to justify the concept, studies aimed at the determination of molecular changes associated with thyroid cancers among children who suffered effects from the Chernobyl nuclear accident will be overviewed. We intend to discuss whether any radiation signatures are associated with radiation-induced childhood thyroid cancers. PMID:25483826

  18. Predicting Adverse Health Outcomes in Long-Term Survivors of a Childhood Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaya S. Moskowitz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available More than 80% of children and young adults diagnosed with invasive cancer will survive five or more years beyond their cancer diagnosis. This population has an increased risk for serious illness- and treatment-related morbidity and premature mortality. A number of these adverse health outcomes, such as cardiovascular disease and some second primary neoplasms, either have modifiable risk factors or can be successfully treated if detected early. Absolute risk models that project a personalized risk of developing a health outcome can be useful in patient counseling, in designing intervention studies, in forming prevention strategies, and in deciding upon surveillance programs. Here, we review existing absolute risk prediction models that are directly applicable to survivors of a childhood cancer, discuss the concepts and interpretation of absolute risk models, and examine ways in which these models can be used applied in clinical practice and public health.

  19. Sustaining innovation and improvement in the treatment of childhood cancer: lessons from high-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard-Jones, Kathy; Pieters, Rob; Reaman, Gregory H; Hjorth, Lars; Downie, Peter; Calaminus, Gabriele; Naafs-Wilstra, Marianne C; Steliarova-Foucher, Eva

    2013-03-01

    Cancer in children and adolescents is rare and biologically very different from cancer in adults. It accounts for 1·4% of all cancers worldwide, although this proportion ranges from 0·5% in Europe to 4·8% in Africa, largely because of differences in age composition and life expectancy. In high-income countries, survival from childhood cancer has reached 80% through a continuous focus on the integration of clinical research into front-line care for nearly all children affected by malignant disease. However, further improvement must entail new biology-driven approaches, since optimisation of conventional treatments has in many cases reached its limits. In many instances, such approaches can only be achieved through international collaborative research, since rare cancers are being subdivided into increasingly smaller subgroups on the basis of their molecular characteristics. The long-term effect of anticancer treatment on quality of life must also be taken into account because more than one in 1000 adults in high-income countries are thought to be survivors of cancer in childhood or adolescence. The introduction of drugs that are less toxic and more targeted than those currently used necessitates a partnership between clinical and translational researchers, the pharmaceutical industry, drug regulators, and patients and their families. This therapeutic alliance will ensure that efforts are focused on the unmet clinical needs of young people with cancer. Most children with cancer live in low-income and middle-income countries, and these countries account for 94% of all deaths from cancer in people aged 0-14 years. The immediate priority for these children is to improve access to an affordable, best standard of care in each country. Every country should have a national cancer plan that recognises the unique demographic characteristics and care needs of young people with cancer. Centralisation of the complex components of treatment of these rare diseases is essential

  20. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in childhood and incidence of cancer in adulthood in never smokers in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chuang, Shu-Chun; Gallo, Valentina; Michaud, Dominique; Overvad, Kim; Tjonneland, Anne; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Romieu, Isabelle; Straif, Kurt; Palli, Domenico; Pala, Valeria; Tumino, Rosario; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Panico, Salvatore; Peeters, Petra H.; Lund, Eiliv; Gram, Inger Torhild; Manjer, Jonas; Borgquist, Signe; Riboli, Elio; Vineis, Paolo

    The association between childhood environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure and adult cancer risk is controversial; we examined this relationship in never smokers within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. Over an average of 10 years, 8,372 cases of

  1. A French national breast and thyroid cancer screening programme for survivors of childhood, adolescent and young adult (CAYA) cancers - DeNaCaPST programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demoor-Goldschmidt, Charlotte; Drui, Delphine; Doutriaux, Isabelle; Michel, Gérard; Auquier, Pascal; Dumas, Agnès; Berger, Claire; Bernier, Valérie; Bohrer, Sandrine; Bondiau, Pierre-Yves; Filhon, Bruno; Fresneau, Brice; Freycon, Claire; Stefan, Dinu; Helfre, Sylvie; Jackson, Angela; Kerr, Christine; Laprie, Anne; Leseur, Julie; Mahé, Marc-André; Oudot, Caroline; Pluchard, Claire; Proust, Stéphanie; Sudour-Bonnange, Hélène; Vigneron, Céline; Lassau, Nathalie; Schlumberger, Martin; Conter, Cécile Faure; de Vathaire, Florent

    2017-05-12

    Survival of childhood, adolescent and young adult (CAYA) cancers has increased with progress in the management of the treatments and has reached more than 80% at 5 years. Nevertheless, these survivors are at great risk of second cancers and non-malignant co-morbidities in later life. DeNaCaPST is a non-interventional study whose aim is to organize a national screening for thyroid cancer and breast cancer in survivors of CAYA cancers. It will study the compliance with international recommendations, with the aim, regarding a breast screening programme, of offering for every woman living in France, at equal risk, an equal screening. DeNaCaPST trial is coordinated by the INSERM 1018 unit in cooperation with the LEA (French Childhood Cancer Survivor Study for Leukaemia) study's coordinators, the long term follow up committee and the paediatric radiation committee of the SFCE (French Society of Childhood Cancers). A total of 35 centres spread across metropolitan France and la Reunion will participate. FCCSS (French Childhood Cancer Survivor Study), LEA and central registry will be interrogated to identify eligible patients. To participate, centers agreed to perform a complete "long-term follow-up consultations" according to good clinical practice and the guidelines of the SFCE (French Society of Children Cancers). As survival has greatly improved in childhood cancers, detection of therapy-related malignancies has become a priority even if new radiation techniques will lead to better protection for organs at risk. International guidelines have been put in place because of the evidence for increased lifetime risk of breast and thyroid cancer. DeNaCaPST is based on these international recommendations but it is important to recognize that they are based on expert consensus opinion and are supported by neither nonrandomized observational studies nor prospective randomized trials in this specific population. Over-diagnosis is a phenomenon inherent in any screening program and

  2. False Negative Mammogram of Breast Cancer : Analysis of Mammographic and Sonographic Findings and Correlation with Clinical Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kil Jun; Lee, Ji Yeon; Han, Sung Nim; Jeong, Seong Ki; Tae, Seok; Shin, Kyoung Ja; Lee, Sang Chun

    1995-01-01

    Recent mammographic equipment have been of good quality and yielded high diagnostic accuracy for the detection of breast cancer. However, negative mammogram does not necessarily rule out breast cancer. Therefore were viewed cause of false negative mammography in confirmed breast cancer to improve diagnostic accuracy and for adequate clinical approach. We reviewed 19 cases of confirmed breast cancer, which showed false negative mammography with positive sonographic findings. Retrospective analysis was done by correlating the patient's age, sonographic finding and mass size, mammographic breast pattern and cause of false negative mammogram, and clinical symptoms. Among the 5 patients below 35 years in age, mass was not visible due to dense breast in 4 and due to small size in 1 case. In 14 patients over 35 years in age, 11 had normal mammographic findings, 4 had dense breast, and 7 had small sized mass. Remaining 3 cases showed asymmetric density in 2 and architecture distortion in 1 case. All showed mass lesion in sonography : ill defined malignant appearance in 14,well defined malignant appearance in 2, and well defined benign in 3 cases. Negative mammogram should be correlated with sonography in case of dense breast, below 35 years in age with palpable mass and under risk for breast cancer

  3. Effects of treatment on fertility in long-term survivors of childhood or adolescent cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, J.; Mulvihill, J.J.; Myers, M.H.

    1987-01-01

    In a retrospective cohort study of survivors of cancer and of controls, we estimated the risk of infertility after treatment for cancer during childhood or adolescence. We interviewed 2283 long-term survivors of childhood or adolescent cancer diagnosed in the period from 1945 through 1975, who were identified at five cancer centers in the United States. Requirements for admission to the study were diagnosis before the age of 20, survival for at least five years, and attainment of the age of 21. In addition, 3270 controls selected from among the survivors' siblings were interviewed. Cox regression analysis showed that cancer survivors who married and were presumed to be at risk of pregnancy were less likely than their sibling controls to have ever begun a pregnancy (relative fertility, 0.85; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.78 to 0.92). Radiation therapy directed below the diaphragm depressed fertility in both sexes by about 25 percent. Chemotherapy with alkylating agents, with or without radiation to sites below the diaphragm, was associated with a fertility deficit of about 60 percent in the men. Among the women, there was no apparent effect of alkylating-agent therapy administered alone (relative fertility, 1.02) and only a moderate fertility deficit when alkylating-agent therapy was combined with radiation below the diaphragm (relative fertility, 0.81). Relative fertility in the survivors varied considerably according to sex, site of cancer, and type of treatment; these factors should be taken into consideration in counseling survivors about the long-term consequences of disease

  4. Male infertility in long-term survivors of pediatric cancer: A report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasilewski-Masker, K; Seidel, K D; Leisenring, W; Mertens, A C; Shnorhavorian, M; Ritenour, C W; Stovall, M; Green, D M; Sklar, C A; Armstrong, G T; Robison, L L; Meacham, L R

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of male infertility and treatment-related risk factors in childhood cancer survivors. Methods Within the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study, 1622 survivors and 274 siblings completed the Male Health Questionnaire. The analysis was restricted to survivors (938/1622; 57.8%) and siblings (174/274; 63.5%) who tried to become pregnant. Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the prevalence of self-reported infertility were calculated using generalized linear models for demographic variables and treatment-related factors to account for correlation among survivors and siblings of the same family. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Among those who provided self-report data, the prevalence of infertility was 46.0% in survivors versus 17.5% in siblings (RR=2.64, 95% CI 1.88-3.70, p infertility, 37% had reported at least one pregnancy with a female partner that resulted in a live birth. In a multivariable analysis, risk factors for infertility included an alkylating agent dose score (AAD) ≥ 3 (RR= 2.13, 95% CI 1.69-2.68 for AAD ≥ 3 versus AADinfertility father their own children suggesting episodes of both fertility and infertility. This and the novel association of infertility with bleomycin warrant further investigation. Implications for Cancer Survivors Though infertility is common, male survivors reporting infertility often father their own children. Bleomycin may pose some fertility risk. PMID:24711092

  5. Eating difficulties and parental feeding strategies during and after childhood cancer treatment: The experiences of parents. : A systematic literature review.

    OpenAIRE

    Philippe, Kaat

    2017-01-01

    Childhood cancer is a life-threatening disease with a profound impact on the family. Treatment side-effects and accompanied dietary difficulties are for example severe stressors, as appropriate nutrition is important for the treatment success and quality of life. In addition, (unhealthy) dietary patterns established in childhood tend to maintain in survivors. Parents are key players in feeding and establishing these pat-terns, though, systematic research on how parents experience these dietar...

  6. Inflammatory myopathies in childhood: correlation between nailfold capillaroscopy findings and clinical and laboratory data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascif, Ana K S; Terreri, Maria T R A; Len, Cláudio A; Andrade, Luis E C; Hilário, Maria O E

    2006-01-01

    Nailfold capillaroscopy is an important tool for the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with rheumatic diseases, in particular dermatomyositis and scleroderma. A relationship has been observed in adults between improved capillaroscopic findings and reduced disease activity. Our aim was to correlate disease activity (clinical and laboratory data) and nailfold capillaroscopy findings in 18 patients with inflammatory myopathies. This prospective study included 13 juvenile dermatomyositis patients (Bohan and Peter criteria) (mean age of 8.8 years) and five patients with overlap syndrome (mean age of 15.7 years). We evaluated disease activity (skin abnormalities and muscle weakness, muscle enzymes and acute phase reactants) and its correlation with nailfold capillaroscopy findings (dilatation of isolated loops, dropout of surrounding vessels and giant capillary loops). We used a microscope with special light and magnification of 10 to 16X. Eighteen patients underwent a total of 26 capillaroscopic examinations, seven of them on two or more occasions (13 were performed during the active disease phase and 13 during remission). Twelve of the 13 examinations performed during the active phase exhibited scleroderma pattern and 8 of the 13 examinations performed during remission were normal. Therefore, in 20 of the 26 examinations clinical and laboratory data and nailfold capillaroscopy findings correlated (p = 0.01). Nailfold capillaroscopy is a non-invasive examination that offers satisfactory correlation with disease activity and could be a useful tool for the diagnosis and follow-up of inflammatory myopathies.

  7. Quality of life, self-esteem and worries in young adult survivors of childhood cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langeveld, N E; Grootenhuis, M A; Voûte, P A; de Haan, R J; van den Bos, C

    2004-12-01

    This study assessed quality of life, self-esteem and worries in young adult survivors of childhood cancer compared to a group of young adults with no history of cancer. The impact of demographic, medical and treatment factors and self-esteem on survivors' quality of life and worries was studied. Participants were 400 long-term survivors (LTS) of childhood cancer (age range 16-49 years, 45% female) who had completed treatment an average of 16 years previously and 560 persons (age range 16-53 years, 55% female) with no history of cancer. All participants completed the MOS-24 (Medical Outcome Study Scale), a Worry questionnaire consisting of three scales (cancer-specific concerns, general health concerns, present and future concerns), and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. Small to moderate differences were found in mean MOS-24 scores between the LTS group and controls (range effect sizes -0.36-0.22). No significant difference was found in the mean self-esteem scores between LTS and controls. Female LTS had more cancer-specific concerns than male LTS. In several related areas of general health, self-image and dying, the LTS group reported less worries than controls, but LTS worried significantly more about their fertility, getting/changing a job and obtaining insurance's. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that female gender, unemployment, severe late effects/health problems and a low self-esteem were predictors of worse quality of life in survivors. In addition, age at follow-up, unemployment, years since completion of therapy and a low self-esteem were associated with a higher degree of survivors' worries. Quality of life and the level of self-esteem in LTS of childhood cancer is not different from their peers. Although many LTS worried not more or even less about health issues than their peers, they often are concerned about some present and future concerns. The investigated factors could explain poor quality of life and worries only to a limited extent

  8. Validation of questionnaire-reported hearing with medical records: A report from the Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Weiss

    Full Text Available Hearing loss is a potential late effect after childhood cancer. Questionnaires are often used to assess hearing in large cohorts of childhood cancer survivors and it is important to know if they can provide valid measures of hearing loss. We therefore assessed agreement and validity of questionnaire-reported hearing in childhood cancer survivors using medical records as reference.In this validation study, we studied 361 survivors of childhood cancer from the Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (SCCSS who had been diagnosed after 1989 and had been exposed to ototoxic cancer treatment. Questionnaire-reported hearing was compared to the information in medical records. Hearing loss was defined as ≥ grade 1 according to the SIOP Boston Ototoxicity Scale. We assessed agreement and validity of questionnaire-reported hearing overall and stratified by questionnaire respondents (survivor or parent, sociodemographic characteristics, time between follow-up and questionnaire and severity of hearing loss.Questionnaire reports agreed with medical records in 85% of respondents (kappa 0.62, normal hearing was correctly assessed in 92% of those with normal hearing (n = 249, and hearing loss was correctly assessed in 69% of those with hearing loss (n = 112. Sensitivity of the questionnaires was 92%, 74%, and 39% for assessment of severe, moderate and mild bilateral hearing loss; and 50%, 33% and 10% for severe, moderate and mild unilateral hearing loss, respectively. Results did not differ by sociodemographic characteristics of the respondents, and survivor- and parent-reports were equally valid.Questionnaires are a useful tool to assess hearing in large cohorts of childhood cancer survivors, but underestimate mild and unilateral hearing loss. Further research should investigate whether the addition of questions with higher sensitivity for mild degrees of hearing loss could improve the results.

  9. Validation of questionnaire-reported hearing with medical records: A report from the Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheinemann, Katrin; Grotzer, Michael; Kompis, Martin; Kuehni, Claudia E.

    2017-01-01

    Background Hearing loss is a potential late effect after childhood cancer. Questionnaires are often used to assess hearing in large cohorts of childhood cancer survivors and it is important to know if they can provide valid measures of hearing loss. We therefore assessed agreement and validity of questionnaire-reported hearing in childhood cancer survivors using medical records as reference. Procedure In this validation study, we studied 361 survivors of childhood cancer from the Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (SCCSS) who had been diagnosed after 1989 and had been exposed to ototoxic cancer treatment. Questionnaire-reported hearing was compared to the information in medical records. Hearing loss was defined as ≥ grade 1 according to the SIOP Boston Ototoxicity Scale. We assessed agreement and validity of questionnaire-reported hearing overall and stratified by questionnaire respondents (survivor or parent), sociodemographic characteristics, time between follow-up and questionnaire and severity of hearing loss. Results Questionnaire reports agreed with medical records in 85% of respondents (kappa 0.62), normal hearing was correctly assessed in 92% of those with normal hearing (n = 249), and hearing loss was correctly assessed in 69% of those with hearing loss (n = 112). Sensitivity of the questionnaires was 92%, 74%, and 39% for assessment of severe, moderate and mild bilateral hearing loss; and 50%, 33% and 10% for severe, moderate and mild unilateral hearing loss, respectively. Results did not differ by sociodemographic characteristics of the respondents, and survivor- and parent-reports were equally valid. Conclusions Questionnaires are a useful tool to assess hearing in large cohorts of childhood cancer survivors, but underestimate mild and unilateral hearing loss. Further research should investigate whether the addition of questions with higher sensitivity for mild degrees of hearing loss could improve the results. PMID:28333999

  10. Oral and dental late effects in survivors of childhood cancer: a Children’s Oncology Group report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliorati, Cesar A.; Hudson, Melissa M.; McMullen, Kevin P.; Kaste, Sue C.; Ruble, Kathy; Guilcher, Gregory M. T.; Shah, Ami J.; Castellino, Sharon M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Multi-modality therapy has resulted in improved survival for childhood malignancies. The Children’s Oncology Group Long-Term Follow-Up Guidelines for Survivors of Childhood, Adolescent, and Young Adult Cancers provide practitioners with exposure- and risk-based recommendations for the surveillance and management of asymptomatic survivors who are at least 2 years from completion of therapy. This review outlines the pathophysiology and risks for oral and dental late effects in pediatric cancer survivors and the rationale for oral and dental screening recommended by the Children’s Oncology Group. Methods An English literature search for oral and dental complications of childhood cancer treatment was undertaken via MEDLINE and encompassed January 1975 to January 2013. Proposed guideline content based on the literature review was approved by a multi-disciplinary panel of survivorship experts and scored according to a modified version of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network “Categories of Consensus” system. Results The Children’s Oncology Group oral-dental pan el selected 85 relevant citations. Childhood cancer therapy may impact tooth development, salivary function, craniofacial development, and temporomandibular joint function placing some childhood cancer survivors at an increased risk for poor oral and dental health. Addition ally, head and neck radiation and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation increase the risk of subsequent ma lignant neoplasms in the oral cavity. Survivors require routine dental care to evaluate for potential side effects and initiate early treatment. Conclusions Certain childhood cancer survivors are at an increased risk for poor oral and dental health. Early identification of oral and dental morbidity and early interventions can optimize health and quality of life. PMID:24781353

  11. Small cell cervical cancer: an unusual finding at cholecystectomy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Boyle, Emily

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Small cell carcinoma of the cervix is a rare cancer, comprising less than 3% of all cervical neoplasms. It uniformly has a poor prognosis, and has a high mortality even with early stage disease. It can metastasise rapidly and metastatic sites include lung, liver, brain, bone, pancreas and lymph nodes. CASE: Here, we report the case of a 60-year-old woman with no symptoms of cervical pathology who developed post-renal failure following a laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The cause was bilateral ureteric obstruction from metastatic small cell cervical cancer and metastases were subsequently found on her gallbladder specimen. CONCLUSION: This is an unusual presentation of small cell cervical cancer and demonstrates the aggressive nature of this disease.

  12. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer: correlation between the baseline MR imaging findings and responses to therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uematsu, Takayoshi; Yuen, Sachiko; Kasami, Masako

    2010-01-01

    To retrospectively evaluate the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of breast cancer before neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and to compare findings of chemosensitive breast cancer with those of chemoresistant breast cancer. The MR imaging findings before NAC in 120 women undergoing NAC were reviewed. The MR imaging findings were compared with the pathological findings and responses. A complete response (pCR) and marked response were achieved in 12 and 35% of 120 breast cancers in 120 women respectively. Breast cancers with a pCR or marked response were classified as chemosensitive breast cancer. The remaining 64 breast cancers (53%) were classified as chemoresistant breast cancer. Large tumour size, a lesion without mass effect, and very high intratumoural signal intensity on T2-weighted MR images were significantly associated with chemoresistant breast cancer. Lesions with mass effect and washout enhancement pattern were significantly associated with chemosensitive breast cancer. Areas with very high intratumoural signal intensity on T2-weighted images corresponded pathologically to areas of intratumoural necrosis. Several MR imaging features of breast cancer before NAC can help predict the efficacy of NAC. (orig.)

  13. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer: correlation between the baseline MR imaging findings and responses to therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uematsu, Takayoshi; Yuen, Sachiko [Shizuoka Cancer Center Hospital, Breast Imaging and Breast Intervention Section, Naga-izumi, Shizuoka (Japan); Kasami, Masako [Shizuoka Cancer Center Hospital, Department of Pathology, Naga-izumi, Shizuoka (Japan)

    2010-10-15

    To retrospectively evaluate the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings of breast cancer before neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and to compare findings of chemosensitive breast cancer with those of chemoresistant breast cancer. The MR imaging findings before NAC in 120 women undergoing NAC were reviewed. The MR imaging findings were compared with the pathological findings and responses. A complete response (pCR) and marked response were achieved in 12 and 35% of 120 breast cancers in 120 women respectively. Breast cancers with a pCR or marked response were classified as chemosensitive breast cancer. The remaining 64 breast cancers (53%) were classified as chemoresistant breast cancer. Large tumour size, a lesion without mass effect, and very high intratumoural signal intensity on T2-weighted MR images were significantly associated with chemoresistant breast cancer. Lesions with mass effect and washout enhancement pattern were significantly associated with chemosensitive breast cancer. Areas with very high intratumoural signal intensity on T2-weighted images corresponded pathologically to areas of intratumoural necrosis. Several MR imaging features of breast cancer before NAC can help predict the efficacy of NAC. (orig.)

  14. The influence of antineoplastic treatment on the weight of survivors of childhood cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Ferrari Carneiro Teixeira

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose: Obesity is a late effect in survivors of childhood cancer and correlates with chronic complications. Survivors of leukemia, brain tumors, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation are more likely to develop obesity resulting from treatment modalities such as radiotherapy and glucocorticoids. This paper analyzes and integrates the current data available to health professionals in order to clarify strategies that can be used to treat and prevent obesity in childhood cancer survivors. Sources: This is a literature review from on scientifically reliable electronic databases. We selected articles published in the last five years and earlier articles of great scientific importance. Data synthesis: The mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of obesity in cancer survivors are not completely understood, but it is believed that damage to the hypothalamus and endocrine disorders such as insulin resistance, leptin resistance, and hormone deficiency may be involved. The body composition of this group includes a predominance of adipose tissue, especially in those undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplant and total body irradiation. The use of body mass index in these patients may lead to an underestimation of individuals' risk for metabolic complications. Conclusion: Early identification of groups using accurate anthropometric assessments, interventional treatment, and/or preventative measures and counseling is essential to minimize the adverse effects of treatment. Physical activity and healthy eating to promote adequacy of weight in the whole population should be encouraged.

  15. A Population-Based Study of Childhood Cancer Survivors’ Body Mass Index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, E. L.; Fluchel, M.; Sweeney, C.; Smith, K. R.; Kirchhoff, A. C.; Fluchel, M.; Wright, J.

    2014-01-01

    Population-based studies are needed to estimate the prevalence of underweight or overweight/obese childhood cancer survivors. Procedure. Adult survivors (diagnosed ≤20 years) were identified from the linked Utah Cancer Registry and Utah Population Database. We included survivors currently aged ≥20 years and ≥5 years from diagnosis (N=1060), and a comparison cohort selected on birth year and sex (N=5410). BMI was calculated from driver license data available from 2000 to 2010. Multivariable generalized linear regression models were used to calculate prevalence relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) of BMI outcomes for survivors and the comparison cohort. Results. Average time since diagnosis was 18.5 years (SD=7.8), and mean age at BMI for both groups was 30.5 (survivors SD-= 7.7, comparison SD=8.0). Considering all diagnoses, survivors were not at higher risk for being underweight or overweight/obese than the comparison. Male central nervous system tumor survivors were overweight (RR=1.12, 95% CI 1.01 - 1.23) more often than the comparison. Female survivors, who were diagnosed at age 10 and under, had a 10% higher risk of being obese than survivors diagnosed at ages 16-20 (P<0.05). Conclusion. While certain groups of childhood cancer survivors are at risk for being overweight/obese, in general they do not differ from population estimates.

  16. Workplace experiences and turnover intention among adult survivors of childhood cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crom, Deborah B; Ness, Kirsten K; Martinez, Larry R; Hebl, Michelle R; Robison, Leslie L; Hudson, Melissa M; Brinkman, Tara M

    2018-03-17

    The purpose of this study was to investigate workplace experiences and turnover intention (consideration of leaving or changing a job) and to examine factors associated with turnover intention among survivors. Adult survivors of childhood cancer with a history of employment (n = 289) completed measures of workplace experiences (n = 50, 18-29 years; n = 183, 30-44 years; n = 56; > 45 years of age at follow-up). Turnover intention was assessed using three items from the Job Satisfaction Scale. Responses were dichotomized as reflecting high vs. low turnover intention. Path analysis was used to estimate the influence of demographic characteristics, treatment exposures (cranial radiation therapy [CRT]), and workplace experiences on turnover intention. Thirty percent of survivors reported high turnover intention (95% CL, 25 to 36%). Exposure to CRT (P = 0.003), older attained age (P workplace discrimination (P = 0.008), and having lower continuance (P discrimination, mediated through job satisfaction, also influenced survivors' reported intent to leave their jobs. One third of adult survivors of childhood cancer report turnover intention, which is related to their cancer treatment, but more temporally proximal, workplace discrimination. Additional research is needed to understand the consequences of turnover intention among survivors. Survivors and their health care providers should be aware of legislative policies related to workplace discrimination (e.g., American with Disabilities Act) and related implications for job turnover.

  17. Pregnancy x-rays and childhood cancers: effects of exposure age and radiation dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilman, E.A.; Kneale, G.W.; Knox, E.G.; Stewart, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    Using data from the Oxford Survey of Childhood Cancers this paper examines the effect of foetal age and number of films used on the subsequent risk of childhood cancer associated with prenatal x-rays. X-rays early in pregnancy were taken for different reasons and required more films when compared with those taken in late pregnancy. Therefore, Mantel-Haenszel techniques were used to estimate the independent effects of (a) exposure age and (b) number of films. Age at exposure had a clearly significant effect; x-rays taken in the first trimester of pregnancy were 2.69 times as effective as x-rays taken in the third trimester. First trimester exposures were often the result of maternal illnesses, so these maternal illnesses were then included among the controlling factors. When this was done the first trimester x-rays were 2.73 times as effective as later exposures. First trimester x-rays were most strongly associated with the cancers which were diagnosed between 4 and 5 years of age. Although the number of films had no detectable effect upon relative risk calculated over all ages, multiple exposures were demonstrably associated with early age at diagnosis. (author)

  18. Assessment of the chemosensitizing activity of TAT-RasGAP317-326 in childhood cancers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Chevalier

    Full Text Available Although current anti-cancer protocols are reasonably effective, treatment-associated long-term side effects, induced by lack of specificity of the anti-cancer procedures, remain a challenging problem in pediatric oncology. TAT-RasGAP317-326 is a RasGAP-derived cell-permeable peptide that acts as a sensitizer to various anti-cancer treatments in adult tumor cells. In the present study, we assessed the effect of TAT-RasGAP317-326 in several childhood cancer cell lines. The RasGAP-derived peptide-induced cell death was analyzed in several neuroblastoma, Ewing sarcoma and leukemia cell lines (as well as in normal lymphocytes. Cell death was evaluated using flow cytometry methods in the absence or in the presence of the peptide in combination with various genotoxins used in the clinics (4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide, etoposide, vincristine and doxorubicin. All tested pediatric tumors, in response to at least one genotoxin, were sensitized by TAT-RasGAP317-326. The RasGAP-derived peptide did not increase cell death of normal lymphocytes, alone or in combination with the majority of the tested chemotherapies. Consequently, TAT-RasGAP317-326 may benefit children with tumors by increasing the efficacy of anti-cancer therapies notably by allowing reductions in anti-cancer drug dosage and the associated drug-induced side effects.

  19. Risk of childhood leukaemia in the vicinity of nuclear installations: Findings and recent controversies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominique Laurier; Bernd Grosche; Hall, Per

    2002-01-01

    The identification of a local excess of cancer cases, possibly associated with ionizing radiation, always receives substantial media coverage and communication about clusters is difficult. We reviewed studies that examined the risk of leukaemia among young people near nuclear installations. An excess of leukaemia exists near some nuclear installations, at least for the reprocessing plants at Sellafield and Dounreay and the nuclear power plant Kruemmel. Nonetheless, the results of multi-site studies invalidate the hypothesis of an increased risk of leukaemia related to nuclear discharge. Up until now, analytic studies have not found an explanation for the leukaemia clusters observed near certain nuclear installations. The hypothesis of an infectious aetiology associated with population mixing has been proposed, but needs to be investigated further. The review illustrates two recent examples in France (La Hague reprocessing plant) and in Germany (Kruemmel power plant), where controversies developed after reports of increased leukaemia risks. These examples show the importance of recalling the current epidemiological knowledge and of using systematic recording of cases to replace the alleged excesses in a more general framework. Some elements should also be suggested from the recent French and German experiences to reinforce credibility in the results

  20. Second Malignant Neoplasms in Childhood Cancer Survivors Treated in a Tertiary Paediatric Oncology Centre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jia Wei; Yeap, Frances Sh; Chan, Yiong Huak; Yeoh, Allen Ej; Quah, Thuan Chong; Tan, Poh Lin

    2017-01-01

    Introduction : One of the most feared complications of childhood cancer treatment is second malignant neoplasms (SMNs). This study evaluates the incidence, risk factors and outcomes of SMNs in a tertiary paediatric oncology centre in Singapore. Materials and Methods : A retrospective review was conducted on patients diagnosed with childhood cancer under age 21 and treated at the National University Hospital, Singapore, from January 1990 to 15 April 2012. Case records of patients with SMNs were reviewed. Results : We identified 1124 cases of childhood cancers with a median follow-up of 3.49 (0 to 24.06) years. The most common primary malignancies were leukaemia (47.1%), central nervous system tumours (11.7%) and lymphoma (9.8%). Fifteen cases developed SMNs, most commonly acute myeloid leukaemia/myelodysplastic syndrome (n = 7). Median interval between the first and second malignancy was 3.41 (0.24 to 18.30) years. Overall 20-year cumulative incidence of SMNs was 5.3% (95% CI, 0.2% to 10.4%). The 15-year cumulative incidence of SMNs following acute lymphoblastic leukaemia was 4.4% (95% CI, 0% to 8.9%), significantly lower than the risk after osteosarcoma of 14.2% (95% CI, 0.7% to 27.7%) within 5 years ( P <0.0005). Overall 5-year survival for SMNs was lower than that of primary malignancies. Conclusion : This study identified factors explaining the epidemiology of SMNs described, and found topoisomerase II inhibitor use to be a likely risk factor in our cohort. Modifications have already been made to our existing therapeutic protocols in osteosarcoma treatment. We also recognised the importance of other risk management strategies, including regular long-term surveillance and early intervention for detected SMNs, to improve outcomes of high risk patients.

  1. Finding the Right Care | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trained as a registered nurse and with a doctoral degree in public health, Jane D. is no stranger to the U.S. health care system. But, when she found herself facing a diagnosis of anal cancer in 2013, she felt adrift.

  2. Cancer find and treat the individual: The nuclear medicine approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britton, K.E.; Granowska, M.

    2002-01-01

    Most cancer surgery and radiotherapy is based on the physical extent of the disease and not the biological extent. Most cancer chemotherapy is based on the clinical trials of the many and may or may not work in the individual. Nuclear Medicine treats the individual in whom it has provided evidence for uptake of the agent for therapy. Radiology requires a mass in tissue, displacing tissue, infiltrating tissue for contrast. Nuclear Medicine does not require a mass. It exploits the subtle differences between the cancer cell and the normal cell for identification. For cancer imaging, Nuclear Medicine has a considerable amplification factor. For the use of F-18 de-oxyglucose (FDG), the glucose transporter protein may be increased 5 - 10 times in the malignant cell and the hexokinase enzyme may be up-regulated 2-5 times. The Positron Emission Tomography (PET) detector may be a hundred fold more sensitive than a conventional gamma camera. For peptides, receptor expression may be increased 500- 10,000 times and antigen expression per cell for monoclonal antibodies between 5000 and 50,000 times. As well as the uptake, the residence time of the radiopharmaceutical is important so that what is taken up stays a sufficient length of time for imaging and/or for therapy. A radioactive pinhead is identifiable if it has enough radioactivity on it and a detector sensitive enough to detect it. For tumours less than 1.5 cm in diameter, size is not the determinant of detection

  3. Patients' and parents' views regarding supportive care in childhood cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenniglo, L J A; Loeffen, E A H; Kremer, L C M; Font-Gonzalez, A; Mulder, R L; Postma, A; Naafs-Wilstra, M C; Grootenhuis, M A; van de Wetering, M D; Tissing, W J E

    2017-10-01

    Intensive therapies in pediatric malignancies increased survival rates but also occurrence of treatment-related morbidities. Therefore, supportive care fulfills an increasingly important role. In planning development of guidelines with incorporation of shared decision making, we noticed that little is known about the needs and preferences of patients and their parents. Our goals were therefore to investigate (1) which supportive care topics patients and parents regard as most important and (2) the preferred role they wish to fulfill in decision making. This qualitative study consisted of three focus groups (two traditional, one online) with patients and parents of two Dutch pediatric oncology centers. Data were transcribed as simple verbatim and analyzed using thematic analysis. Eleven adolescent patients and 18 parents shared detailed views on various aspects of supportive care. Themes of major importance were communication between patient and physician (commitment, accessibility, proactive attitude of physicians), well-timed provision of information, and the suitability and accessibility of psychosocial care. In contrast to prioritized supportive care topics by medical professionals, somatic issues (e.g., febrile neutropenia) were infrequently addressed. Patients and parents preferred to be actively involved in decision making in selected topics, such as choice of analgesics and anti-emetics, but not in, e.g., choice of antibiotics. Children with cancer and parents were provided a valuable insight into their views regarding supportive care and shared decision making. These results have important implications towards improving supportive care, both in selecting topics for guideline development and incorporating preferences of patients and parents herein.

  4. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with Cancer Reports, Research, and Literature Cancers by Body Location/System Childhood Cancers Late Effects of Childhood Cancer Treatment Pediatric Supportive Care Unusual ...

  5. Endocrinological analysis of 122 Japanese childhood cancer survivors in a single hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyoshi, Yoko; Ohta, Hideaki; Hashii, Yoshiko; Tokimasa, Sadao; Namba, Noriyuki; Mushiake, Sotaro; Ozono, Keiichi; Hara, Junichi

    2008-01-01

    With recent improvements in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, the number of childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) has been increasing in Japan. The importance of quality of life during the lifetime of CCSs has now been recognized, and the late effects of cancer treatments are essential and important issues. In this study we analyzed the endocrinological abnormalities of CCSs by retrospectively evaluating 122 outpatients (62 males and 60 females) who had been referred from pediatric oncologists to our follow-up clinic among 151 CCSs attending our hospital more than two years after their cancer treatment. Follow-up duration varied from 2 to 30 (median 8.0) years. Their average age was 17.3 (range 4-36, median 17.0) years, and 38 patients (31.1%) reached adulthood. Endocrinological abnormalities were found in 82 (67%) of 122 survivors. Gonadal dysfunction was observed in 60 patients (49%). Thirty-nine patients (32%) were short or grew at a slower rate. Twenty-six patients (21%) showed thyroid dysfunction. Other abnormalities were as follows: obesity in 20 patients (16%), leanness in 10 (8%), central diabetes insipidus in 11 (9%) and adrenocortical dysfunction in 9 (7%). Low bone mineral density was observed in 41 (42%) of 98 patients evaluated. These endocrinological abnormalities were caused by the combined effects of cancer itself and various treatments (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, surgery, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation). Lifetime medical surveillance and continuous follow-up are necessary for CCSs, because treatment-related complications may occur during childhood and many years after the therapy as well. Endocrinologists should participate in long-term follow-up of these survivors in collaboration with pediatric oncologists. (author)

  6. Endocrinological analysis of 122 Japanese childhood cancer survivors in a single hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Yoko; Ohta, Hideaki; Hashii, Yoshiko; Tokimasa, Sadao; Namba, Noriyuki; Mushiake, Sotaro; Hara, Junichi; Ozono, Keiichi

    2008-12-01

    With recent improvements in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer, the number of childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) has been increasing in Japan. The importance of quality of life during the lifetime of CCSs has now been recognized, and the late effects of cancer treatments are essential and important issues. In this study we analyzed the endocrinological abnormalities of CCSs by retrospectively evaluating 122 outpatients (62 males and 60 females) who had been referred from pediatric oncologists to our follow-up clinic among 151 CCSs attending our hospital more than two years after their cancer treatment. Follow-up duration varied from 2 to 30 (median 8.0) years. Their average age was 17.3 (range 4-36, median 17.0) years, and 38 patients (31.1%) reached adulthood. Endocrinological abnormalities were found in 82 (67%) of 122 survivors. Gonadal dysfunction was observed in 60 patients (49%). Thirty-nine patients (32%) were short or grew at a slower rate. Twenty-six patients (21%) showed thyroid dysfunction. Other abnormalities were as follows: obesity in 20 patients (16%), leanness in 10 (8%), central diabetes insipidus in 11 (9%) and adrenocortical dysfunction in 9 (7%). Low bone mineral density was observed in 41 (42%) of 98 patients evaluated. These endocrinological abnormalities were caused by the combined effects of cancer itself and various treatments (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, surgery, and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation). Lifetime medical surveillance and continuous follow-up are necessary for CCSs, because treatment-related complications may occur during childhood and many years after the therapy as well. Endocrinologists should participate in long-term follow-up of these survivors in collaboration with pediatric oncologists.

  7. Household income and risk-of-poverty of parents of long-term childhood cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, Luzius; Roser, Katharina; Baenziger, Julia; Tinner, Eva Maria; Scheinemann, Katrin; Kuehni, Claudia Elisabeth; Michel, Gisela

    2017-08-01

    Taking care of children diagnosed with cancer affects parents' professional life and may place the family at risk-of-poverty. We aimed to (i) compare the household income and risk-of-poverty of parents of childhood cancer survivors (CCS) to parents of the general population, and (ii) identify sociodemographic and cancer-related factors associated with risk-of-poverty. As part of the Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study, we sent a questionnaire to parents of CCS aged 5-15 years, who survived ≥5 years after diagnosis. Information on parents of the general population came from the Swiss Household Panel (parents with ≥1 child aged 5-15 years). Risk-of-poverty was defined as having a monthly household income of poverty. We included parents of 383 CCS and 769 control parent households. Parent-couples of CCS had a lower household income (P trend poverty (30.4% vs. 19.3%, P = 0.001) compared to control parent-couples. Household income and risk-of-poverty of single parents of CCS was similar to control single parents. Parents of CCS were at higher risk-of-poverty if they had only standard education (OR mother = 3.77 [where OR is odds ratio], confidence interval [CI]: 1.61-8.82; OR father = 8.59, CI: 4.16-17.72) and were from the German language region (OR = 1.99, CI: 1.13-3.50). We found no cancer-related risk factors. Parents of long-term CCS reported lower household income and higher risk-of-poverty than control parents. Support strategies may be developed to mitigate parents' risk-of-poverty in the long term, particularly among parents with lower education. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Mobile phone base stations and early childhood cancers: case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Paul; Toledano, Mireille B; Bennett, J; Beale, L; de Hoogh, K; Best, N; Briggs, D J

    2010-06-22

    To investigate the risk of early childhood cancers associated with the mother's exposure to radiofrequency from and proximity to macrocell mobile phone base stations (masts) during pregnancy. Case-control study. Cancer registry and national birth register data in Great Britain. 1397 cases of cancer in children aged 0-4 from national cancer registry 1999-2001 and 5588 birth controls from national birth register, individually matched by sex and date of birth (four controls per case). Incidence of cancers of the brain and central nervous system, leukaemia, and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, and all cancers combined, adjusted for small area measures of education level, socioeconomic deprivation, population density, and population mixing. Mean distance of registered address at birth from a macrocell base station, based on a national database of 76,890 base station antennas in 1996-2001, was similar for cases and controls (1107 (SD 1131) m v 1073 (SD 1130) m, P=0.31), as was total power output of base stations within 700 m of the address (2.89 (SD 5.9) kW v 3.00 (SD 6.0) kW, P=0.54) and modelled power density (-30.3 (SD 21.7) dBm v -29.7 (SD 21.5) dBm, P=0.41). For modelled power density at the address at birth, compared with the lowest exposure category the adjusted odds ratios were 1.01 (95% confidence interval 0.87 to 1.18) in the intermediate and 1.02 (0.88 to 1.20) in the highest exposure category for all cancers (P=0.79 for trend), 0.97 (0.69 to 1.37) and 0.76 (0.51 to 1.12), respectively, for brain and central nervous system cancers (P=0.33 for trend), and 1.16 (0.90 to 1.48) and 1.03 (0.79 to 1.34) for leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (P=0.51 for trend). There is no association between risk of early childhood cancers and estimates of the mother's exposure to mobile phone base stations during pregnancy.

  9. Burden of cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular disease in childhood cancer survivors: data from the German CVSS-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, J; Wingerter, A; Neu, M A; Henninger, N; Eckerle, S; Münzel, T; Lackner, K J; Beutel, M E; Blettner, M; Rathmann, W; Peters, A; Meisinger, C; Linkohr, B; Neuhauser, H; Kaatsch, P; Spix, C; Schneider, A; Merzenich, H; Panova-Noeva, M; Prochaska, J H; Wild, P S

    2018-05-01

    The cardiac and vascular late sequelae in long-term survivors of childhood cancer (CVSS)-study aimed to quantify the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in German childhood cancer survivors (CCS). In the CVSS-study (NCT02181049), 1002 CCS (age range 23-48 years) diagnosed with neoplasia prior to 15 years of age between 1980 and 1990 prospectively underwent a systematic, standardized clinical and laboratory cardiovascular screening, identical to the population-based Gutenberg Health Study (GHS) cohort. For 951 individuals, prevalences of CVRF and CVD were primarily compared to the GHS sample and to two further German population-based cohorts. Using log-binomial regression models, an increased risk for occurrence of arterial hypertension [relative risk (RR) 1.38, 95% confidence interval (95% CI 1.21-1.57)] and dyslipidaemia [RR 1.26 (95% CI 1.12-1.42)] was found. This indicates a premature occurrence compared to the general population of approximately 6 and 8 years, respectively [rate advancement period estimator, RAPhypertension 5.75 (95% CI 3.5-8.0) and RAPdyslipidaemia 8.16 (95% CI 4.4-11.9)]. Overall, no differences were observed for obesity and diabetes. Overt CVD was present in 4.5% (95% CI 3.0-6.6%) of CCS [RR 1.89 (95% CI 1.34-2.66), RAPCVD 7.9 (95% CI 4.1-11.7)], of which the most frequent entities were congestive heart failure and venous thromboembolism. Prevalences of CVRF and CVD increased with age without reaching a plateau over time. This large CCS screening examination revealed consistently in comparison to three population samples a considerably increased risk for premature CVD. The findings in these young adult CCS indicate a high burden of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in the long term. NCT02181049.

  10. Analysis on the childhood and adolescent differentiated thyroid cancer: clinical features and radioiodine treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zequan; Luo Quanyong; Chen Libo; Ding Yin; Yu Yongli; Lu Hankui; Zhu Ruisen

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Children with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) frequently present with more extensive disease than adults. The aim of this study was to characterize the clinical features of child-hood and adolescent DTC and evaluate the outcome and safety of radioiodine treatment. Methods: The records of 38 childhood and adolescent DTC cases, with 28 females and 10 males (mean age: 16.4 years) were reviewed. At diagnosis, all had metastatic lesions with 38 at regional lymph nodes, 15 at lung, 2 at brain and bone. Twenty-three had a total thyroidectomy, 7 had subtotal thyroidectomy, 5 had lobectomy, and 3 had other treatment. All received post-operative radioiodine therapy. All had follow-up for at least one year. Results: At the time of follow-up, all were survive (with a median follow-up of 5.13 years). Four-teen patients had no evidence of disease, 16 had partial remission, and 8 were stable disease. Conclusions: DTC of the thyroid in childhood and adolescent has high risks of residual/recurrence and metastasis. Post-thyroidectomy oral administration of radioiodine was an effective and safety adjuvant therapy for outcomes. (authors)

  11. Predicted cancer risks induced by computed tomography examinations during childhood, by a quantitative risk assessment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journy, Neige; Ancelet, Sophie; Rehel, Jean-Luc; Mezzarobba, Myriam; Aubert, Bernard; Laurier, Dominique; Bernier, Marie-Odile

    2014-03-01

    The potential adverse effects associated with exposure to ionizing radiation from computed tomography (CT) in pediatrics must be characterized in relation to their expected clinical benefits. Additional epidemiological data are, however, still awaited for providing a lifelong overview of potential cancer risks. This paper gives predictions of potential lifetime risks of cancer incidence that would be induced by CT examinations during childhood in French routine practices in pediatrics. Organ doses were estimated from standard radiological protocols in 15 hospitals. Excess risks of leukemia, brain/central nervous system, breast and thyroid cancers were predicted from dose-response models estimated in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors' dataset and studies of medical exposures. Uncertainty in predictions was quantified using Monte Carlo simulations. This approach predicts that 100,000 skull/brain scans in 5-year-old children would result in eight (90 % uncertainty interval (UI) 1-55) brain/CNS cancers and four (90 % UI 1-14) cases of leukemia and that 100,000 chest scans would lead to 31 (90 % UI 9-101) thyroid cancers, 55 (90 % UI 20-158) breast cancers, and one (90 % UI risks without exposure). Compared to background risks, radiation-induced risks would be low for individuals throughout life, but relative risks would be highest in the first decades of life. Heterogeneity in the radiological protocols across the hospitals implies that 5-10 % of CT examinations would be related to risks 1.4-3.6 times higher than those for the median doses. Overall excess relative risks in exposed populations would be 1-10 % depending on the site of cancer and the duration of follow-up. The results emphasize the potential risks of cancer specifically from standard CT examinations in pediatrics and underline the necessity of optimization of radiological protocols.

  12. Acute and long-term cytogenetic effects of treatment in childhood cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aronson, M.M.; Miller, R.C.; Hill, R.B.; Nichols, W.W.; Meadows, A.T.

    1982-01-01

    The incidence of chromosomal aberrations in banded karyotypes and of sister-chromatid exchanges (SCEs) was determined in the lymphocytes of survivors of childhood cancer as 2 parameters which are pertinent in assessing the genetic damage induced by chemotherapy. The proportion of cells with chromosome breakage or structural rearrangement-type aberration was 1 cell in 67 in a control group of 8 untreated cancer patients and 2 parents of cancer patients, 1 cell in 8 in 12 patients currently on therapy, and 1 cell in 50 in 17 patients sampled 6 months to 35 years post-treatment. The range of mean SCE levels per cell was 4.5-6.5 in the untreated cancer patients, 4.0-9.6 in non-cancer controls, 3.3-33.7 in patients on therapy, and 4.6-9.7 in post-therapy survivors. Considerable variability was observed between individuals with both SCE and breakage assays but therapy-induced increases in SCEs were not necessarily correlated with increased levels of aberrations arising from chromosomal breakage. (orig.)

  13. Male infertility in long-term survivors of pediatric cancer: a report from the childhood cancer survivor study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasilewski-Masker, K; Seidel, K D; Leisenring, W; Mertens, A C; Shnorhavorian, M; Ritenour, C W; Stovall, M; Green, D M; Sklar, C A; Armstrong, G T; Robison, L L; Meacham, L R

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of male infertility and treatment-related risk factors in childhood cancer survivors. Within the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study, 1,622 survivors and 274 siblings completed the Male Health Questionnaire. The analysis was restricted to survivors (938/1,622; 57.8 %) and siblings (174/274; 63.5 %) who tried to become pregnant. Relative risks (RR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for the prevalence of self-reported infertility were calculated using generalized linear models for demographic variables and treatment-related factors to account for correlation among survivors and siblings of the same family. All statistical tests were two-sided. Among those who provided self-report data, the prevalence of infertility was 46.0 % in survivors versus 17.5 % in siblings (RR = 2.64, 95 % CI 1.88-3.70, p infertility, 37 % had reported at least one pregnancy with a female partner that resulted in a live birth. In a multivariable analysis, risk factors for infertility included an alkylating agent dose (AAD) score ≥3 (RR = 2.13, 95 % CI 1.69-2.68 for AAD ≥3 versus AAD infertility father their own children, suggesting episodes of both fertility and infertility. This and the novel association of infertility with bleomycin warrant further investigation. Though infertility is common, male survivors reporting infertility often father their own children. Bleomycin may pose some fertility risk.

  14. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

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    Full Text Available ... Research Screening & Early Detection Cancer Treatment Research Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancers Clinical Trials Global ... Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & Early Detection Treatment Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancer Clinical Trials Global ...

  15. Understanding Cancer Prognosis

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Research Screening & Early Detection Cancer Treatment Research Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancers Clinical Trials ... Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & Early Detection Treatment Cancer & Public Health Cancer Health Disparities Childhood Cancer Clinical Trials ...

  16. Employment Situation of Parents of Long-Term Childhood Cancer Survivors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luzius Mader

    Full Text Available Taking care of children diagnosed with cancer affects parents' professional life. The impact in the long-term however, is not clear. We aimed to compare the employment situation of parents of long-term childhood cancer survivors with control parents of the general population, and to identify clinical and socio-demographic factors associated with parental employment.As part of the Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study, we sent a questionnaire to parents of survivors aged 5-15 years, who survived ≥5 years after diagnosis. Information on control parents of the general population came from the Swiss Health Survey (restricted to men and women with ≥1 child aged 5-15 years. Employment was categorized as not employed, part-time, and full-time employed. We used generalized ordered logistic regression to determine associations with clinical and socio-demographic factors. Clinical data was available from the Swiss Childhood Cancer Registry.We included 394 parent-couples of survivors and 3'341 control parents (1'731 mothers; 1'610 fathers. Mothers of survivors were more often not employed (29% versus 22%; ptrend = 0.007. However, no differences between mothers were found in multivariable analysis. Fathers of survivors were more often employed full-time (93% versus 87%; ptrend = 0.002, which remained significant in multivariable analysis. Among parents of survivors, mothers with tertiary education (OR = 2.40, CI:1.14-5.07 were more likely to be employed. Having a migration background (OR = 3.63, CI: 1.71-7.71 increased the likelihood of being full-time employed in mothers of survivors. Less likely to be employed were mothers of survivors diagnosed with lymphoma (OR = 0.31, CI:0.13-0.73 and >2 children (OR = 0.48, CI:0.30-0.75; and fathers of survivors who had had a relapse (OR = 0.13, CI:0.04-0.36.Employment situation of parents of long-term survivors reflected the more traditional parenting roles. Specific support for parents with low education

  17. Employment Situation of Parents of Long-Term Childhood Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, Luzius; Rueegg, Corina S; Vetsch, Janine; Rischewski, Johannes; Ansari, Marc; Kuehni, Claudia E; Michel, Gisela

    2016-01-01

    Taking care of children diagnosed with cancer affects parents' professional life. The impact in the long-term however, is not clear. We aimed to compare the employment situation of parents of long-term childhood cancer survivors with control parents of the general population, and to identify clinical and socio-demographic factors associated with parental employment. As part of the Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study, we sent a questionnaire to parents of survivors aged 5-15 years, who survived ≥5 years after diagnosis. Information on control parents of the general population came from the Swiss Health Survey (restricted to men and women with ≥1 child aged 5-15 years). Employment was categorized as not employed, part-time, and full-time employed. We used generalized ordered logistic regression to determine associations with clinical and socio-demographic factors. Clinical data was available from the Swiss Childhood Cancer Registry. We included 394 parent-couples of survivors and 3'341 control parents (1'731 mothers; 1'610 fathers). Mothers of survivors were more often not employed (29% versus 22%; ptrend = 0.007). However, no differences between mothers were found in multivariable analysis. Fathers of survivors were more often employed full-time (93% versus 87%; ptrend = 0.002), which remained significant in multivariable analysis. Among parents of survivors, mothers with tertiary education (OR = 2.40, CI:1.14-5.07) were more likely to be employed. Having a migration background (OR = 3.63, CI: 1.71-7.71) increased the likelihood of being full-time employed in mothers of survivors. Less likely to be employed were mothers of survivors diagnosed with lymphoma (OR = 0.31, CI:0.13-0.73) and >2 children (OR = 0.48, CI:0.30-0.75); and fathers of survivors who had had a relapse (OR = 0.13, CI:0.04-0.36). Employment situation of parents of long-term survivors reflected the more traditional parenting roles. Specific support for parents with low education, additional

  18. Risk of a Second Kidney Carcinoma Following Childhood Cancer: Role of Chemotherapy and Radiation Dose to Kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vathaire, Florent; Scwhartz, Boris; El-Fayech, Chiraz; Allodji, Rodrigue Sètchéou; Escudier, Bernard; Hawkins, Mike; Diallo, Ibrahima; Haddy, Nadia

    2015-11-01

    Kidney carcinoma is a rare second malignancy following childhood cancer. We sought to quantify risk and assess risk factors for kidney carcinoma following treatment for childhood cancer. We evaluated a cohort of 4,350 patients who were 5-year cancer survivors and had been treated for cancer as children in France and the United Kingdom. Patients were treated between 1943 and 1985, and were followed for an average of 27 years. Radiation dose to the kidneys during treatment was estimated with dedicated software, regardless of the site of childhood cancer. Kidney carcinoma developed in 13 patients. The cumulative incidence of kidney carcinoma was 0.62% (95% CI 0.27%-1.45%) at 40 years after diagnosis, which was 13.3-fold higher (95% CI 7.1-22.3) than in the general population. The absolute excess risk strongly increased with longer duration of followup (p kidney carcinoma was 5.7-fold higher (95% CI 1.4-14.7) if radiotherapy was not performed or less than 1 Gy had been absorbed by the kidney but 66.3-fold higher (95% CI 23.8-142.5) if the radiation dose to the kidneys was 10 to 19 Gy and 14.5-fold higher (95% CI 0.8-63.9) for larger radiation doses to the kidney. Treatment with chemotherapy increased the risk of kidney carcinoma (RR 5.1, 95% CI 1.1-22.7) but we were unable to identify a specific drug or drug category responsible for this effect. Moderate radiation dose to the kidneys during childhood cancer treatment increases the risk of a second kidney carcinoma. This incidence will be further increased when childhood cancer survivors reach old age. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. GH replacement therapy and second neoplasms in adult survivors of childhood cancer: a retrospective study from a single institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignardello, E; Felicetti, F; Castiglione, A; Fortunati, N; Matarazzo, P; Biasin, E; Sacerdote, C; Ricardi, U; Fagioli, F; Corrias, A; Arvat, E

    2015-02-01

    Growth hormone deficiency (GHD) is the most common endocrine late effect observed in childhood cancer survivors (CCS) previously submitted to cranial irradiation. Radiation therapy can also increase the risk of second neoplasms (SNs). Since in previous studies GH replacement therapy was associated with increased incidence of neoplasia, we explored the association between SNs and GH replacement therapy in a cohort of CCS with GHD. Within the clinical cohort of CCS referred to the Transition Unit for Childhood Cancer Survivors of Turin between November 2001 and December 2012, we considered all patients who developed GHD as a consequence of cancer therapies. GHD was always diagnosed in childhood. To evaluate the quality of data, our cohort was linked to the Childhood Cancer Registry of Piedmont. GHD was diagnosed in 49 out of 310 CCS included in our clinical cohort. At least one SN was diagnosed in 14 patients, meningioma and basal cell carcinoma being the most common SNs. The cumulative incidence of SNs was similar in GH-treated and -untreated patients (8 SNs out of 26 GH-treated and 6 out of 23 GH-untreated patients; p = 0.331). Age, sex and paediatric cancer type had no impact on SNs development. In our CCS, GH replacement therapy does not seem to increase the risk of SNs. Anyway, independently from replacement therapy, in these patients we observed an elevated risk of SNs, possibly related to previous radiation therapy, which suggests the need of a close long-term follow-up.

  20. Developing an Active Play Resource for a Range of Australian Early Childhood Settings: Formative Findings and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riethmuller, Annaleise; McKeen, Kim; Okely, Anthony D.; Bell, Colin; de Silva Sanigorski, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Physical activity habits are established in early childhood. Increasing a child's fundamental movement skill confidence and competence may result in a trajectory of increased physical activity and a lower risk of becoming overweight. The evidence upon which the promotion of physical activity in early childhood settings is based is tenuous. This…

  1. Pulmonary function abnormalities in long-term survivors of childhood cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.W.; Fusner, J.E.; Fink, R.J.; Murphy, T.M.; Getson, P.R.; Vojtova, J.A.; Reaman, G.H.

    1986-01-01

    Pulmonary function testing (PFT) was performed on 29 long-term survivors of childhood cancer. The patients, whose mean age was 11.7 years and whose mean age at diagnosis was 3.7 years, included 12 females and 17 males. Original diagnoses included 15 patients with leukemia and 14 individuals with solid tumors. Nine patients had received cyclophosphamide and 20 had received radiation therapy. Included in this latter group were five patients who had received radiation therapy to the thorax. Eight patients had acquired pneumonia during their treatment. Physical examination was normal in all the patients, and none had a history of acute or chronic pulmonary disease. PFT demonstrated an incidence of abnormalities in forced vital capacity (FVC) and/or total lung capacity (TLC) in 48% of the patients. Patients who were under 3 years of age at the time of diagnosis or who had received radiation to the thorax were more likely to demonstrate PFT abnormalities, but these differences did not reach statistical significance. The natural history of pulmonary function and subsequent respiratory disease in survivors of childhood cancer requires further definition

  2. Creating a Meeting Point of Understanding: Interpreters' Experiences in Swedish Childhood Cancer Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granhagen Jungner, Johanna; Tiselius, Elisabet; Lützén, Kim; Blomgren, Klas; Pergert, Pernilla

    2016-01-01

    Children and families with a foreign background and limited Swedish proficiency have to communicate through interpreters in childhood cancer care centers in Sweden. Interpreter-mediated events deal with many difficulties that potentially hinder the transfer of information. The purpose of our study was to explore interpreters' experiences of interpreting between health care staff and limited Swedish proficiency patients/families in childhood cancer care. Using purposive samples, we interviewed 11 interpreters individually. The interviews were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Analyses of the data resulted in the main theme of creating a meeting point of understanding, constructed from 3 subthemes: balancing between cultures, bridging the gaps of knowledge, and balancing between compassion and professionalism. Our result shows that in order to create a sustainable meeting point of understanding, it is necessary to explain both the context and cultural differences. These results suggest that the responsibility for information transfer lies with both the health care profession and the interpreters. Tools have to be developed for both parties to contribute to creating the meeting point of understanding. © 2015 by Association of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology Nurses.

  3. Marriage, employment, and health insurance in adult survivors of childhood cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crom, Deborah B; Lensing, Shelly Y; Rai, Shesh N; Snider, Mark A; Cash, Darlene K; Hudson, Melissa M

    2007-09-01

    Adult survivors of childhood cancer are at risk for disease- and therapy-related morbidity, which can adversely impact marriage and employment status, the ability to obtain health insurance, and access to health care. Our aim was to identify factors associated with survivors' attainment of these outcomes. We surveyed 1,437 childhood cancer survivors who were >18 years old and >10 years past diagnosis. We compared our cohort's data to normative data in the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey and the U.S. Census Bureau's Current Population Surveys. Respondents were stratified by hematologic malignancies, central nervous system tumors, or other solid tumors and by whether they had received radiation therapy. Most respondents were survivors of hematologic malignancies (71%), white (91%), and working full-time (62%); 43% were married. Compared with age- and sex-adjusted national averages, only survivors of hematologic malignancies who received radiation were significantly less likely to be married (44 vs. 52%). Full-time employment among survivors was lower than national norms, except among survivors of hematologic malignancies who had not received radiation therapy. The rates of coverage of health insurance, especially public insurance, were higher in all diagnostic groups than in the general population. While difficulty obtaining health care was rarely reported, current unemployment and a lack of insurance were associated with difficulty in obtaining health care (P unmarried, unemployed, and uninsured experience difficulty accessing health care needed to address long-term health concerns.

  4. Impact of cancer support groups on childhood cancer treatment and abandonment in a private pediatric oncology centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arathi Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To analyze the impact of two cancer support groups in the treatment and abandonment of childhood cancer. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective review of children with cancer funded and non-funded who were treated at Kanchi Kamakoti CHILDS Trust Hospital from 2010 to 2013. A total of 100 patients were funded, 57 by Ray of Light Foundation and 43 by Pediatric Lymphoma Project and 70 non-funded. Results: The total current survival of 80%, including those who have completed treatment and those currently undergoing treatment, is comparable in both the groups. Abandonment of treatment after initiating therapy was not seen in the financially supported group whereas abandonment of treatment after initiation was seen in one child in the non-funded group. Conclusions: Besides intensive treatment with good supportive care, financial support also has an important impact on compliance and abandonment in all socioeconomic strata of society. Financial support from private cancer support groups also has its impact beyond the patient and family, in reducing the burden on government institutions by non-governmental funding in private sector. Improvement in the delivery of pediatric oncology care in developing countries could be done by financial support from the private sector.

  5. CT findings of benign omental lesions following abdominal cancer surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Yun; Kim, Dong Won; Cho, Jin Han; Kwon, Hee Jin; Ha, Dong Ho; Oh, Jong Young [Diagnostic Radiology, Dong-A University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    The greater omentum is the largest peritoneal fold and can be the origin of primary pathologic conditions, as well as a boundary and conduit for disease processes. Most diseases involving the omentum manifest with nonspecific and overlapping features on computed tomography (CT). In particular, varying benign disease processes of traumatic, inflammatory, vascular, or systemic origin can occur in the omentum during the follow-up period after surgery for intra-abdominal malignancy. It can be challenging for radiologists due to various spectrum of CT findings. Thus, we reviewed the CT findings of various benign omental lesions after surgery for intra-abdominal malignancy.

  6. The long-term significance of teacher-rated hyperactivity and reading ability in childhood: findings from two longitudinal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Rob; Prior, Margot; Willams, Sheila; Smart, Diana; Sanson, Anne

    2002-11-01

    The aims of this study were twofold: first, to examine behavioural and academic outcomes of children with hyperactivity, using data from two longitudinal studies; and second, to examine comparable psychosocial outcomes for children with early reading difficulties. Measures of teacher-rated persistent hyperactivity, and reading ability obtained during early primary school were available for children from the Australian Temperament Project and the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study. Both samples were followed up to assess behavioural and academic outcomes during the adolescent and early adult years. Family background, antisocial behaviour and literacy were controlled in the first set of analyses to examine the influence of early hyperactivity. There were strong linear relationships between early hyperactivity and later adverse outcomes. Adjustment for other childhood variables suggested that early hyperactivity was associated with continuing school difficulties, problems with attention and poor reading in adolescence. Early reading difficulties, after controlling for early hyperactivity, predicted continuing reading problems in high school and leaving school with no qualifications. The findings suggest that there are dual pathways from early inattentive behaviours to later inattention and reading problems, and from early reading difficulties to substantial impairments in later academic outcomes.

  7. Early Childhood Adversity and its Associations With Anxiety, Depression, and Distress in Women With Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Daniel C; Andreotti, Charissa; Harris, Kirk; Mandeli, John; Tiersten, Amy; Holland, Jimmie

    2016-01-01

    Certain vulnerability factors have been found to place patients at risk for depression and anxiety, especially within the context of medical illness. We sought to describe the relationships among early childhood adversity (ECA) and anxiety, depression and distress in patients with breast cancer. Patients with breast cancer (stages 0-IV) were assessed for ECA (i.e., the Risky Families Questionnaire subscales include Abuse/Neglect/Chaotic Home Environment), distress (i.e., Distress Thermometer and Problem List), anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety), depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Depression), meeting standardized cut-off thresholds for distress (Distress Thermometer and Problem List ≥4 or ≥7)/anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety ≥8)/depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Depression ≥8) and demographic factors. A total of 125 participants completed the study (78% response rate). ECA was associated with depression (p psychologic symptoms, but most specifically depression in the setting of breast cancer. ECA contributes to psychologic burden as a vulnerability factor. ECA may help to explain individual patient trajectories and influence the provision of patient-centered care for psychologic symptoms in patients with breast cancer. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Do Childhood Adversities Predict Suicidality? Findings from the General Population of the Metropolitan Area of Sao Paulo, Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Mendonça Coêlho

    Full Text Available Childhood adversities have been associated with a number of medical and psychiatric outcomes. However, the reported effects that specific childhood adversities have on suicidality vary across studies.This was a cross-sectional, stratified, multistage area probability investigation of a general population in Brazil, designated the São Paulo Megacity Mental Health Survey. The World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview was applied in 5037 individuals ≥ 18 years of age, in order to assess 12 different adversities occurring during childhood and/or adolescence, as well as to look for associations between those adversities and subsequent suicidality in different age strata.Over half of the respondents reported at least one childhood adversity. Only physical abuse was consistently associated with suicide attempts in all subsequent life stages (OR = 2.1. Among adults 20-29 years of age, the likelihood of a suicide attempt was correlated with parental divorce, whereas suicidal ideation was associated with prior sexual abuse. Among adults over 30 years of age, physical illness and economic adversity emerged as relevant childhood adversities associated with suicide attempts, whereas sexual abuse, family violence, and economic adversity were associated with suicidal ideation.Childhood adversities, especially physical abuse, are likely associated with unfavorable consequences in subsequent years. For suicidality across a lifespan, the role of different childhood adversities must be examined independently.

  9. Second Malignant Neoplasms in Digestive Organs After Childhood Cancer: A Cohort-Nested Case-Control Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tukenova, Markhaba; Diallo, Ibrahima; Anderson, Harald; Hawkins, Mike; Garwicz, Stanislaw; Sankila, Risto; El Fayech, Chiraz; Winter, Dave; Rubino, Carole; Adjadj, Elisabeth; Haddy, Nadia; Oberlin, Odile; Moller, Torgil; Langmark, Froydis

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Cancers of the digestive system constitute a major risk for childhood cancer survivors treated with radiotherapy once they reach adulthood. The aim of this study was to determine therapy-related risk factors for the development of a second malignancy in the digestive organs (SMDO) after a childhood cancer. Methods and Materials: Among 4,568 2-year survivors of a childhood solid cancer diagnosed before 17 years of age at eight French and British centers, and among 25,120 patients diagnosed as having a malignant neoplasm before the age of 20 years, whose data were extracted from the Nordic Cancer Registries, we matched 58 case patients (41 men and 17 women) of SMDO and 167 controls, in their respective cohort, for sex, age at first cancer, calendar year of occurrence of the first cancer, and duration of follow-up. The radiation dose received at the site of each second malignancy and at the corresponding site of its matched control was estimated. Results: The risk of developing a SMDO was 9.7-fold higher in relation to the general populations in France and the United Kingdom. In the case-control study, a strong dose–response relationship was estimated, compared with that in survivors who had not received radiotherapy; the odds ratio was 5.2 (95% CI, 1.7–16.0) for local radiation doses between 10 and 29 Gy and 9.6 (95% CI, 2.6–35.2) for doses equal to or greater than 30 Gy. Chemotherapy was also found to increase the risk of developing SMDO. Conclusions: This study confirms that childhood cancer treatments strongly increase the risk of SMDO, which occur only after a very long latency period.

  10. Interaction between cannabis consumption and childhood abuse in psychotic disorders: preliminary findings on the role of different patterns of cannabis use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sideli, Lucia; Fisher, Helen L; Murray, Robin M; Sallis, Hannah; Russo, Manuela; Stilo, Simona A; Paparelli, Alessandra; Wiffen, Benjamin D R; O'Connor, Jennifer A; Pintore, Sonia; Ferraro, Laura; La Cascia, Caterina; La Barbera, Daniele; Morgan, Craig; Di Forti, Marta

    2018-04-01

    Several studies have suggested that lifetime cannabis consumption and childhood abuse synergistically contribute to the risk for psychotic disorders. This study aimed to extend existing findings regarding an additive interaction between childhood abuse and lifetime cannabis use by investigating the moderating role of type and frequency of cannabis use. Up to 231 individuals presenting for the first time to mental health services with psychotic disorders and 214 unaffected population controls from South London, United Kingdom, were recruited as part of the Genetics and Psychosis study. Information about history of cannabis use was collected using the Cannabis Experiences Questionnaire. Childhood physical and sexual abuse was assessed using the Childhood Experience of Care and Abuse Questionnaire. Neither lifetime cannabis use nor reported exposure to childhood abuse was associated with psychotic disorder when the other environmental variable was taken into account. Although the combination of the two risk factors raised the odds for psychosis by nearly three times (adjusted OR = 2.94, 95% CI: 1.44-6.02, P = 0.003), no evidence of interaction was found (adjusted OR = 1.46, 95% CI: -0.54 to 3.46, P = 0.152). Furthermore, the association of high-potency cannabis and daily consumption with psychosis was at least partially independent of the effect of childhood abuse. The heavy use of high-potency cannabis increases the risk of psychosis but, in addition, smoking of traditional resin (hash) and less than daily cannabis use may increase the risk for psychosis when combined with exposure to severe childhood abuse. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  11. Stages of Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Version Key Points Childhood Hodgkin lymphoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the lymph system. There are two types of childhood Hodgkin lymphoma. Epstein-Barr virus infection increases the risk of childhood Hodgkin ...

  12. Childhood Height and Body Mass Index Were Associated with Risk of Adult Thyroid Cancer in a Large Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kitahara, Cari M; Gamborg, Michael; Berrington de González, Amy

    2014-01-01

    Taller stature and obesity in adulthood have been consistently associated with an increased risk of thyroid cancer, but few studies have investigated the role of childhood body size. Using data from a large prospective cohort, we examined associations for height and body mass index (BMI) at ages 7...

  13. Development of depression in survivors of childhood and adolescent cancer: a multi-level life course conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Erica C; Brinkman, Tara M; Baker, Justin N

    2017-06-01

    As therapeutic and supportive care interventions become increasingly effective, growing numbers of childhood and adolescent cancer survivors face a myriad of physical and psychological sequelae secondary to their disease and treatment. Mental health issues, in particular, present a significant problem in this unique patient population, with depression affecting a sizable number of childhood and adolescent cancer survivors. Multiple key determinants impact a survivor's risk of developing depression, with variables traversing across biologic, individual, family, community, and global levels, as well as spanning throughout the life course of human development from the preconception and prenatal periods to adulthood. A multi-level life course conceptual model offers a valuable framework to identify and organize the diverse variables that modulate the risk of developing depression in survivors of childhood and adolescent cancer. This review describes the first multi-level life course perspective applied to development of depression in childhood and adolescent cancer survivors. This conceptual framework may be used to guide the investigation of mental health interventions for SCACs to ensure that key determinants of depression occurrence are adequately addressed across various levels and throughout the life trajectory.

  14. Changes in body mass index in long-term childhood cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Santen, Hanneke M; Geskus, Ronald B; Raemaekers, Steven; van Trotsenburg, A S Paul; Vulsma, Thomas; van der Pal, Helena J H; Caron, Hubert N; Kremer, Leontien C M

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies have reported changes in the body mass index (BMI) with time in childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) during follow-up. The limitations of these studies include that they described only a subgroup of survivors or used questionnaires with self-reported heights and weights. The goal of this study was to examine BMI in a large cohort of long-term CCSs and relate this to the BMI at diagnosis, age, sex, tumor type, treatment, and endocrine defects. All patients treated for childhood cancer at the Emma Children's Hospital/Academic Medical Center between 1966 and 1996 who had survived for at least 5 years were eligible for inclusion. For 893 CCSs with a mean follow-up of 14.9 years, the BMI at the late effects outpatient clinic was compared with the BMI for the general Dutch population. For girls, an increased prevalence of obesity was found. Risk factors for developing a high BMI at follow-up were a younger age and a high BMI at diagnosis and treatment with cranial radiotherapy. A significantly increased prevalence of severe underweight was found in all adult subgroups except for females aged 26 to 45 years. An association was found between a low BMI at diagnosis and a low BMI at follow-up. No treatment-related variables could be related to changes in BMI. The BMI at diagnosis is one of the most important predictors for the BMI at follow-up, and this suggests an important genetic or environmental cause. Adult CCSs are at high risk for developing severe underweight at follow-up. Future studies should focus on the causes and clinical consequences of underweight. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  15. Influence of health-insurance access and hospital retention policies on childhood cancer treatment in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostert, S; Njuguna, F; van de Ven, P M; Olbara, G; Kemps, L J P A; Musimbi, J; Strother, R M; Aluoch, L M; Skiles, J; Buziba, N G; Sitaresmi, M N; Vreeman, R C; Kaspers, G J L

    2014-05-01

    Kenyan national policies for public hospitals dictate that patients are retained on hospital wards until their hospital bills are paid, but this payment process differs for patients with or without access to National Hospital Insurance Fund (NHIF) at diagnosis. Whether these differences impact treatment outcomes has not been described. Our study explores whether childhood cancer treatment outcomes in Kenya are influenced by health-insurance status and hospital retention policies. This study combined retrospective review of medical records with an illustrative case report. We identified children diagnosed with malignancies at a large Kenyan academic hospital between 2007 and 2009, their treatment outcomes, and health-insurance status at diagnosis. Between 2007 and 2009, 222 children were diagnosed with malignancies. Among 180 patients with documented treatment outcome, 54% abandoned treatment, 22% had treatment-related death, 4% progressive/relapsed disease, and 19% event-free survival. Health-insurance status at diagnosis was recorded in 148 children: 23% had NHIF and 77% had no NHIF. For children whose families had NHIF compared with those who did not, the relative risk for treatment abandonment relative to event-free survival was significantly smaller (relative-risk ratio = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.12-0.81, P = 0.016). The case report illustrates difficulties that Kenyan families might face when their child is diagnosed with cancer, has no NHIF, and is retained in hospital. Children with NHIF at diagnosis had significantly lower chance of abandoning treatment and higher chance of survival. Childhood cancer treatment outcomes could be improved by interventions that prevent treatment abandonment and improve access to NHIF. Hospital retention of patients over unpaid medical bills must stop. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Epidemiological findings of ocular trauma in childhood Achados epidemiológicos do trauma ocular na infância

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelino Julio Cariello

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To describe epidemiological findings of ocular trauma in childhood in an emergency unit. METHODS: A retrospective study was carried out including patients under 16 years old who were treated for ocular trauma at the emergency unit of the Federal University of São Paulo from September 2001 to September 2004. Age, sex, involved eye, place, circumstance and mechanism of injury, initial visual acuity and immediate management were recorded. RESULTS: A total of 273 patients were included in the study. The age group comprising most cases was 7 to 10 years (39.9%. The most frequent cause of ocular injury was traumatism by external agents like stone, iron and wood objects (27.9%. The commonest place was the home (53.1%. Initial visual acuity was over 20/40 in 63.4% of cases. Closed globe injury occurred in 201 (73.6% accidents. Seventy-six children (27. 8% were treated with medicines and in forty-eight (17.6% cases surgery was necessary. CONCLUSION: Ocular trauma in childhood was more frequent in the male schoolchild and was due mostly to traumatism with agents like stone, wood and iron pieces, domestic utensils and leisure objects. The injuries occurred most frequently at home. Closed globe injuries predominated. Programs of education and prevention for ocular trauma in childhood are necessary.OBJETIVO: Descrever os achados epidemiológicos do trauma ocular na infância em uma unidade de emergência. MÉTODOS: Em estudo retrospectivo, foram analisados prontuários de pacientes menores que 16 anos que foram atendidos por trauma ocular no Pronto-Socorro de Oftalmologia da Universidade Federal de São Paulo de setembro de 2001 a setembro de 2004. Foram coletadas informações a respeito da idade, sexo, olho envolvido, local, circunstância e mecanismo do trauma, acuidade visual inicial e conduta imediata. RESULTADOS: Um total de 273 pacientes foi incluído no estudo. A faixa etária com maior número de casos foi a de 7 a 10 anos (39,9%. A causa

  17. A qualitative cancer screening study with childhood sexual abuse survivors: experiences, perspectives and compassionate care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesink, Dionne; Nattel, Lilian

    2015-08-05

    The childhood sexual abuse (CSA) survivor population is substantial and survivors have been identified as part of the population who were under-screened or never-screened for breast, cervical and colon cancer. Our objective was to learn CSA survivor perspectives on, and experiences with, breast, cervical and colon cancer screening with the intention of generating recommendations to help healthcare providers improve cancer screening participation. A pragmatic constructivist qualitative study involving individual, semistructured, in-depth interviews was conducted in January 2014. Thematic analysis was used to describe CSA survivor perspectives on cancer screening and identify potential facilitators for screening. A diverse purposive sample of adult female CSA survivors was recruited. The inclusion criteria were: being a CSA survivor, being in a stable living situation, where stable meant able to meet one's financial needs independently, able to maintain supportive relationships, having participated in therapy to recover from past abuse, and living in a safe environment. 12 survivors were interviewed whose ages ranged from the early 40s to mid-70s. Descriptive saturation was reached after 10 interviews. Interviews were conducted over the phone or Internet. CSA survivors were primarily from urban and rural Ontario, but some resided elsewhere in Canada and the USA. The core concept that emerged was that compassionate care at every level of the healthcare experience could improve cancer screening participation. Main themes included: desire for holistic care; unique needs of patients with dissociative identity disorder; the patient-healthcare provider relationship; appointment interactions; the cancer screening environment; and provider assumptions about patients. Compassionate care can be delivered by: building a relationship; practising respect; focusing attention on the patient; not rushing the appointment; keeping the environment positive and comfortable; maintaining

  18. Awareness about past diagnosis and treatment history: nationwide survey of childhood cancer survivors and their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Eunmi; Park, Hyeon Jin; Baek, Hee Jo; Hwang, Pyoung Han; Lee, Young Ho; Park, Byung-Kiu; Kim, Young So; Shim, Hye-Young; Shin, Dongwook; Yang, Hyung Kook; Park, Jong Hyock; Park, Kyung Duk

    2017-10-01

    To assess the awareness of past medical history and long-term care issues of childhood cancer survivors (CCS) in Korea. A nationwide survey was conducted on CCS and their parents in 10 regional cancer centers in Korea. Answers regarding cancer diagnosis and treatment history were compared with the treatment summary and categorized into three ('specific,' 'general,' and 'no') or two ('yes' and 'no') groups. Out of 343 contacts, 293 dyads completed the survey, and 281 dyads were analyzed. Awareness of cancer diagnosis was mostly specific for parents (76.5%) and CCS (35.2%). Awareness of anti-cancer treatment exposure was mostly general (84.6% for surgery, 67.9% for chemotherapy, and 53.9% for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation) rather than specific. In particular, more than half of the parents were not aware of the exposure to cardiotoxic agents (72.9%) or radiation therapy (56.3%). Providing information about long-term side effects and prevention of secondary cancer was significantly correlated only with more concern and more follow-up visits (P ≤ 0.001, respectively), without correlation with more specific awareness of exposure to cardiotoxic agents or radiation. Most of the parents of CCS were not aware of treatment-related risk factors necessary for long-term care. Providing information was significantly correlated with more concern and more follow-up visits, without improving corresponding knowledge about their past medical history. Effort aimed towards improving awareness about risk factors, the manner of providing information, and the patient referral system within which we use this information is warranted. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  19. Trajectories of Early Childhood Developmental Skills and Early Adolescent Psychotic Experiences: Findings from the ALSPAC UK Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, Mohajer A; Lingam, Raghu; Zammit, Stanley; Salvi, Giovanni; Sullivan, Sarah; Lewis, Andrew J

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to use prospective data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) to examine association between trajectories of early childhood developmental skills and psychotic experiences (PEs) in early adolescence. Method: This study examined data from n = 6790 children from the ALSPAC cohort who participated in a semi-structured interview to assess PEs at age 12. Child development was measured using parental report at 6, 18, 30, and 42 months of age using a questionnaire of items adapted from the Denver Developmental Screening Test - II. Latent class growth analysis was used to generate trajectories over time for measures of fine and gross motor development, social, and communication skills. Logistic regression was used to investigate associations between developmental trajectories in each of these early developmental domains and PEs at age 12. Results: The results provided evidence that decline rather than enduringly poor social (adjusted OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.10-1.92, p = 0.044) and communication skills (adjusted OR 1.12, 95% CI = 1.03-1.22, p = 0.010) is predictive of suspected or definite PEs in early adolescence, than those with stable and/or improving skills. Motor skills did not display the same pattern of association; although gender specific effects provided evidence that only declining pattern of fine motor skills was associated with suspected and definite PEs in males compared to females (interaction OR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.09-1.97, p = 0.012). Conclusion: Findings suggest that decline rather than persistent impairment in social and communication skills were most predictive of PEs in early adolescence. Findings are discussed in terms of study's strengths, limitations, and clinical implications.

  20. Trajectories of Early Childhood Developmental Skills and Early Adolescent Psychotic Experiences: Findings from the ALSPAC UK Birth Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohajer A. Hameed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to use prospective data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC to examine association between trajectories of early childhood developmental skills and psychotic experiences (PEs in early adolescence.Method: This study examined data from n = 6790 children from the ALSPAC cohort who participated in a semi-structured interview to assess PEs at age 12. Child development was measured using parental report at 6, 18, 30, and 42 months of age using a questionnaire of items adapted from the Denver Developmental Screening Test – II. Latent class growth analysis was used to generate trajectories over time for measures of fine and gross motor development, social, and communication skills. Logistic regression was used to investigate associations between developmental trajectories in each of these early developmental domains and PEs at age 12.Results: The results provided evidence that decline rather than enduringly poor social (adjusted OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.10–1.92, p = 0.044 and communication skills (adjusted OR 1.12, 95% CI = 1.03–1.22, p = 0.010 is predictive of suspected or definite PEs in early adolescence, than those with stable and/or improving skills. Motor skills did not display the same pattern of association; although gender specific effects provided evidence that only declining pattern of fine motor skills was associated with suspected and definite PEs in males compared to females (interaction OR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.09–1.97, p = 0.012.Conclusion: Findings suggest that decline rather than persistent impairment in social and communication skills were most predictive of PEs in early adolescence. Findings are discussed in terms of study’s strengths, limitations, and clinical implications.

  1. Trajectories of Early Childhood Developmental Skills and Early Adolescent Psychotic Experiences: Findings from the ALSPAC UK Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, Mohajer A.; Lingam, Raghu; Zammit, Stanley; Salvi, Giovanni; Sullivan, Sarah; Lewis, Andrew J.

    2018-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to use prospective data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) to examine association between trajectories of early childhood developmental skills and psychotic experiences (PEs) in early adolescence. Method: This study examined data from n = 6790 children from the ALSPAC cohort who participated in a semi-structured interview to assess PEs at age 12. Child development was measured using parental report at 6, 18, 30, and 42 months of age using a questionnaire of items adapted from the Denver Developmental Screening Test – II. Latent class growth analysis was used to generate trajectories over time for measures of fine and gross motor development, social, and communication skills. Logistic regression was used to investigate associations between developmental trajectories in each of these early developmental domains and PEs at age 12. Results: The results provided evidence that decline rather than enduringly poor social (adjusted OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.10–1.92, p = 0.044) and communication skills (adjusted OR 1.12, 95% CI = 1.03–1.22, p = 0.010) is predictive of suspected or definite PEs in early adolescence, than those with stable and/or improving skills. Motor skills did not display the same pattern of association; although gender specific effects provided evidence that only declining pattern of fine motor skills was associated with suspected and definite PEs in males compared to females (interaction OR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.09–1.97, p = 0.012). Conclusion: Findings suggest that decline rather than persistent impairment in social and communication skills were most predictive of PEs in early adolescence. Findings are discussed in terms of study’s strengths, limitations, and clinical implications. PMID:29375433

  2. Lung cancer in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: frequency and CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hak Jong; Im, Jung Gi; Ahn, Joong Mo; Yeon, Kyung Mo

    1994-01-01

    The incidence of lung cancer in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis(lPF) is higher than that of general population. To evaluate the frequency and CT findings of lung cancer associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, we analyzed 19 patients with lung cancer associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. We analyzed retrospectively 19 patients with histologically confirmed lung cancer out of 208 patients diagnosed as IPF either by CT and clinical findings(n=188) or histologically(n=20). All 19 patients were male, aged 40-85 years (mean 66 years). Scanning techniques were conventional CT in 12 patients, HRCT in 1 patient and both conventional CT and HRCT in 6 patients. We analyzed the CT patterns of lung cancer and IPF, locations of the tumor and histologic types of lung cancer. The incidence of lung cancer in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis was 9.1%(19/208). In 11 of 19 patients, CT findings of lung cancer were ill-defined consolidation-like mass. Lung cancer was located mainly in lower lobes(right lower lobe; 10/19, left lower lobe; 5/19) and at the periphery(12/19). Histologically, squamous cell carcinoma was the most common cell type (11/19). The incidence of lung cancer in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis was much higher than that of general population. Typical CT findings of lung cancer were predominantly ill-defined consolidation like mass at the peripheral lung portion which is the location where the most advanced fibrosis occur

  3. Lung cancer in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis: frequency and CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hak Jong; Im, Jung Gi; Ahn, Joong Mo; Yeon, Kyung Mo [College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-12-15

    The incidence of lung cancer in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis(lPF) is higher than that of general population. To evaluate the frequency and CT findings of lung cancer associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, we analyzed 19 patients with lung cancer associated with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. We analyzed retrospectively 19 patients with histologically confirmed lung cancer out of 208 patients diagnosed as IPF either by CT and clinical findings(n=188) or histologically(n=20). All 19 patients were male, aged 40-85 years (mean 66 years). Scanning techniques were conventional CT in 12 patients, HRCT in 1 patient and both conventional CT and HRCT in 6 patients. We analyzed the CT patterns of lung cancer and IPF, locations of the tumor and histologic types of lung cancer. The incidence of lung cancer in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis was 9.1%(19/208). In 11 of 19 patients, CT findings of lung cancer were ill-defined consolidation-like mass. Lung cancer was located mainly in lower lobes(right lower lobe; 10/19, left lower lobe; 5/19) and at the periphery(12/19). Histologically, squamous cell carcinoma was the most common cell type (11/19). The incidence of lung cancer in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis was much higher than that of general population. Typical CT findings of lung cancer were predominantly ill-defined consolidation like mass at the peripheral lung portion which is the location where the most advanced fibrosis occur.

  4. Ultrasound surveillance for radiation-induced thyroid carcinoma in adult survivors of childhood cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brignardello, Enrico; Felicetti, Francesco; Castiglione, Anna; Gallo, Marco; Maletta, Francesca; Isolato, Giuseppe; Biasin, Eleonora; Fagioli, Franca; Co