Sample records for childhood brain tumours

  1. Thallium uptake and biological behaviour in childhood brain tumours

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    Bernard, E.J.; Howman-Giles, R.; Kellie, S.; Uren, R.F. [Royal Alexandra Hospital for Children, Sydney, NSW (Australia)


    Full text: The histopathological grade and radiological appearance of the diverse cerebral neoplasms in childhood frequently poorly reflect their biological behaviour. We examined thallium accumulation prior to treatment (and in several cases, at intervals there after) in 13 children to determine its usefulness as a tumour marker. 23 SPECT studies were acquired 20 minutes after the injection of 1-3 mCi of {sup 201}TI. Thallium index (TI), the ratio of counts in tumour/normal brain, was calculated. No uptake was seen in two patients (pts) with a Grade 1 cerebellar astrocytomas (disease free at 4/12 f/u). Three pts with medulloblastomas were studied. One pt showed intense uptake (Tl =12). His tumour (proliferative antigen stain Ki67 = 50%) recurred early after debulking surgery (Tl +ve prior to CT or MRI changes). The second pt was imaged at relapse (Ki67 = 60%) and showed intense uptake, Tl = 17. The third pt showed lower level uptake (Tl = 2), Ki67 = 5%, and is disease-free at 5/12 (as per {sup 201}TI and MRI). One pt with a Grade 1 brainstem glioma showed Tl = 5 and has progressed rapidly despite low grade histology. Four pts with chiasmatic-hypothalamic gliomas have been studied. Although these neoplasms are usually low grade histologically, their growth properties vary greatly. Two pts with Tl<2.5 have been conservatively managed because of slow tumour growth. The other two pts have Tl>3.5 and have required aggressive treatment for rapid disease progression. One pt with a large pilocytic astrocytoma of the optic chiasm showed Tl = 9.5. Active treatment was not undertaken. One pt with a pineal germ cell tumour showed avid {sup 201}TI uptake (Tl not performed) and has had two normal studies, and is clinically well, since BMT. Avid {sup 201}TI uptake also seen in one pt with cerebral neuroblastoma. (Died at 8/12 after Dx.) Thus, {sup 201}TI accumulates in histologically diverse paediatric neoplasms. The Tl appears to reflect biological behaviour in the limited

  2. Endocrine disorders following treatment of childhood brain tumours.


    Livesey, E A; Hindmarsh, P C; Brook, C G; Whitton, A. C.; Bloom, H. J.; Tobias, J. S.; Godlee, J. N.; Britton, J.


    We have studied the long-term endocrine effects of treatment on 144 children treated for brain tumours. All received cranial irradiation, 86 also received spinal irradiation and 34 chemotherapy. Almost all patients (140 of 144) had evidence of growth hormone insufficiency. Treatment with growth hormone was effective in maintaining normal growth but could not restore a deficit incurred by delay in instituting treatment. The effect of spinal irradiation on spinal growth was not corrected by gro...

  3. A multinational case-control study on childhood brain tumours, anthropogenic factors, birth characteristics and prenatal exposures

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    Vienneau, Danielle; Infanger, Denis; Feychting, Maria


    complemented with data from birth registries and validated by assessing agreement (Cohen's Kappa). We used conditional logistic regression models matched on age, sex and geographical region (adjusted for maternal age and parental education) to explore associations between birth factors and childhood brain...... during pregnancy was indicative of a protective effect (OR 0.75, 95%-CI: 0.56-1.01). No association was seen for maternal smoking during pregnancy or working during pregnancy. We found little evidence that the considered birth factors were related to brain tumour risk among children and adolescents.......Little is known about the aetiology of childhood brain tumours. We investigated anthropometric factors (birth weight, length, maternal age), birth characteristics (e.g. vacuum extraction, preterm delivery, birth order) and exposures during pregnancy (e.g. maternal: smoking, working, dietary...

  4. Childhood brain tumours and use of mobile phones: comparison of a case–control study with incidence data

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    Aydin Denis


    Full Text Available Abstract The first case–control study on mobile phone use and brain tumour risk among children and adolescents (CEFALO study has recently been published. In a commentary published in Environmental Health, Söderqvist and colleagues argued that CEFALO suggests an increased brain tumour risk in relation to wireless phone use. In this article, we respond and show why consistency checks of case–control study results with observed time trends of incidence rates are essential, given the well described limitations of case–control studies and the steep increase of mobile phone use among children and adolescents during the last decade. There is no plausible explanation of how a notably increased risk from use of wireless phones would correspond to the relatively stable incidence time trends for brain tumours among children and adolescents observed in the Nordic countries. Nevertheless, an increased risk restricted to heavy mobile phone use, to very early life exposure, or to rare subtypes of brain tumours may be compatible with stable incidence trends at this time and thus further monitoring of childhood brain tumour incidence rate time trends is warranted.

  5. Active video gaming improves body coordination in survivors of childhood brain tumours

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    Sabel, M.; Sjölund, A.; Broeren, J.


    Purpose: We investigated whether active video gaming (AVG) could bring about regular, enjoyable, physical exercise in children treated for brain tumours, what level of physical activity could be reached and if the children’s physical functioning improved. Methods: Thirteen children, aged 7–17 years...... compared to their healthy peers. Active video gaming (AVG), supported by Internet coaching, is a feasible home-based intervention in children treated for brain tumours, promoting enjoyable, regular physical exercise of moderate intensity. In this pilot study, AVG with Nintendo Wii improved Body......-blinded assessments of physical functioning were done, using the Bruininks–Osteretsky Test of Motor Performance, second edition, evaluating participants before and after the intervention period, as well as comparing the randomisation groups after the first period. Results: All patients completed the study. AVG...

  6. Evolution of growth hormone neurosecretory disturbance after cranial irradiation for childhood brain tumours: a prospective study

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    Spoudeas, H.A.; Hindmarsh, P.C.; Brook, C.G.D. [Middlesex Hospital, London (United Kingdom); Matthews, D.R. [Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford (United Kingdom)


    To determine the aetiopathology of post-irradiation growth hormone (GH) deficiency, we performed a mixed longitudinal analysis of 56 24 h serum GH concentration profiles and 45 paired insulin-induced hypoglycaemia tests (ITT) in 35 prepubertal children, aged 1.5-11.8 years, with brain tumours in the posterior foss (n = 25) or cerebral hemispheres (n 10). Assessments were made before (n = 16), 1 year (n = 25) and 2 to 5 years (n = 15) after a cranial irradiation (DXR) dose of at least 30 Gy. Fourier transforms, occupancy percentage, first-order derivatives (FOD) and mean concentrations were determined from the GH profiles taken after neurosurgery but before radiotherapy (n = 16) and in three treatment groups: Group 1: neurosurgery only without DXR (9n 9); Group 2: {>=} 30 Gy DXR only (n = 22); Group 3: {>=} 30 Gy DXR with additional chemotherapy (n = 9). Results were compared with those from 26 short normally growing (SN) children. (author).

  7. Burnout in Mothers and Fathers of Children Surviving Brain Tumour


    Lindahl Norberg, Annika


    The aim of this paper was to investigate the occurrence of burnout among parents of brain tumour survivors. Burnout was assessed in 24 mothers and 20 fathers of childhood brain tumour survivors, using the Shirom–Melamed Burnout Questionnaire. Parents of children with no history of chronic or serious diseases served as a reference group. Mothers’ burnout scores were significantly higher compared with reference mothers. For fathers, no relation between burnout and being a parent of a brain tumo...

  8. Childhood Brain Tumors (United States)

    Brain tumors are abnormal growths inside the skull. They are among the most common types of childhood ... still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches and ...

  9. Factors related to pregnancy and birth and the risk of childhood brain tumours: The ESTELLE and ESCALE studies (SFCE, France). (United States)

    Bailey, Helen D; Rios, Paula; Lacour, Brigitte; Guerrini-Rousseau, Léa; Bertozzi, Anne-Isabelle; Leblond, Pierre; Faure-Conter, Cécile; Pellier, Isabelle; Freycon, Claire; Michon, Jean; Puget, Stéphanie; Ducassou, Stéphane; Orsi, Laurent; Clavel, Jacqueline


    Little is known of the causes of childhood brain tumors (CBT). The aims of this study were to investigate whether extremes of birth weight were associated with increased risk of CBT and whether maternal preconceptional folic acid supplementation or breastfeeding reduced the risk. In addition, other maternal characteristics and birth related factors were also investigated. We pooled data from two French national population-based case-control studies with similar designs conducted in 2003-2004 and 2010-2011. The mothers of 510 CBT cases (directly recruited from the national childhood cancer register) and 3,102 controls aged under 15 years, frequency matched by age and gender did a telephone interview, which focussed on demographic and perinatal characteristics, and maternal life style habits and reproductive history. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression, adjusted for age, sex, study of origin and relevant confounders. No association was found between CBT and birth weight or fetal growth. The use of preconceptional folic acid supplementation was rare (5.3% in cases and 7.8% in controls) and the OR was 0.8 (95% CI 0.5, 1.4). There was no association with breastfeeding, even prolonged (six months or more; OR 1.0, 95% CI 0.8, 1.4). Neither was there any association between CBT and other investigated factors (maternal body mass index, gestational weight gain, congenital abnormality, maternal reproductive history or use of fertility treatments. Although large, this study was underpowered for subtype analyses. Pooling data with other population-based studies may provide further insight into findings by CBT subtypes.

  10. Primary brain tumours in adults. (United States)

    Ricard, Damien; Idbaih, Ahmed; Ducray, François; Lahutte, Marion; Hoang-Xuan, Khê; Delattre, Jean-Yves


    Important advances have been made in the understanding and management of adult gliomas and primary CNS lymphomas--the two most common primary brain tumours. Progress in imaging has led to a better analysis of the nature and grade of these tumours. Findings from large phase 3 studies have yielded some standard treatments for gliomas, and have confirmed the prognostic value of specific molecular alterations. High-throughput methods that enable genome-wide analysis of tumours have improved the knowledge of tumour biology, which should lead to a better classification of gliomas and pave the way for so-called targeted therapy trials. Primary CNS lymphomas are a group of rare non-Hodgkin lymphomas. High-dose methotrexate-based regimens increase survival, but the standards of care and the place of whole-brain radiotherapy remain unclear, and are likely to depend on the age of the patient. The focus now is on the development of new polychemotherapy regimens to reduce or defer whole-brain radiotherapy and its delayed complications.

  11. Discrimination of paediatric brain tumours using apparent diffusion coefficient histograms

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    Bull, Jonathan G.; Clark, Christopher A. [UCL Institute of Child Health, Imaging and Biophysics Unit, London (United Kingdom); Saunders, Dawn E. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom)


    To determine if histograms of apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) can be used to differentiate paediatric brain tumours. Imaging of histologically confirmed tumours with pre-operative ADC maps were reviewed (54 cases, 32 male, mean age 6.1 years; range 0.1-15.8 years) comprising 6 groups. Whole tumour ADC histograms were calculated; normalised for volume. Stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to differentiate tumour types using histogram metrics, initially for all groups and then for specific subsets. All 6 groups (5 dysembryoplastic neuroectodermal tumours, 22 primitive neuroectodermal tumours (PNET), 5 ependymomas, 7 choroid plexus papillomas, 4 atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumours (ATRT) and 9 juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas (JPA)) were compared. 74% (40/54) were correctly classified using logistic regression of ADC histogram parameters. In the analysis of posterior fossa tumours, 80% of ependymomas, 100% of astrocytomas and 94% of PNET-medulloblastoma were classified correctly. All PNETs were discriminated from ATRTs (22 PNET and 4 supratentorial ATRTs) (100%). ADC histograms are useful in differentiating paediatric brain tumours, in particular, the common posterior fossa tumours of childhood. PNETs were differentiated from supratentorial ATRTs, in all cases, which has important implications in terms of clinical management. (orig.)

  12. Prognosis of Brain Tumours with Epilepsy



    The prognosis of 560 patients with a clinical and CT diagnosis of intrinsic supratentorial brain tumour was examined retrospectively at the Department of Neurosciences, Walton Hospital, Liverpool, England.

  13. Movement disorders caused by brain tumours.

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    Bhatoe H


    Full Text Available Movement disorders are uncommon presenting features of brain tumours. Early recognition of such lesions is important to arrest further deficit. We treated seven patients with movement disorders secondary to brain tumours over a period of seven years. Only two of these were intrinsic thalamic tumours (astrocytomas while the rest were extrinsic tumours. The intrinsic tumours were accompanied by hemichorea. Among the extrinsic tumours, there was one pituitary macroadenoma with hemiballismus and four meningiomas with parkinsonism. Symptoms were unilateral in all patients except one with anterior third falcine meningioma who had bilateral rest tremors. There was relief in movement disorders observed after surgery. Imaging by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging is mandatory in the evaluation of movement disorders, especially if the presentation is atypical, unilateral and/or accompanied by long tract signs.

  14. Symptoms and time to diagnosis in children with brain tumours

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    Klitbo, Ditte Marie; Nielsen, Rine; Illum, Niels Ove;


    Clinical symptoms in brain tumours in children are variable at onset and diagnosis is often delayed. Symptoms were investigated with regard to brain tumour localisation, prediagnostic symptomatic intervals and malignancy.......Clinical symptoms in brain tumours in children are variable at onset and diagnosis is often delayed. Symptoms were investigated with regard to brain tumour localisation, prediagnostic symptomatic intervals and malignancy....

  15. 'Pseudo-Alzheimer's' and primary brain tumour.


    O'Mahony, D; Walsh, J. B.; Coakley, D.


    Primary brain tumour may present in the elderly purely as a dementing illness before the onset or detection of sensorimotor neurological symptoms or signs. Although neurological examination may indicate no definite signs, close attention to accepted DSM-IIIR and NINCDS-ADRDA diagnostic criteria for primary degenerative dementia and 'probable' Alzheimer's disease respectively will suggest a process other than a degenerative one. This was the case in two patients with primary brain tumour prese...

  16. Oncogenic extracellular vesicles in brain tumour progression

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    Esterina eD'Asti


    Full Text Available The brain is a frequent site of neoplastic growth, including both primary and metastatic tumours. The clinical intractability of many brain tumours and their distinct biology are implicitly linked to the unique microenvironment of the central nervous system (CNS and cellular interactions within. Among the most intriguing forms of cellular interactions is that mediated by membrane-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs. Their biogenesis (vesiculation and uptake by recipient cells serves as a unique mechanism of intercellular trafficking of complex biological messages including the exchange of molecules that cannot be released through classical secretory pathways, or that are prone to extracellular degradation. Tumour cells produce EVs containing molecular effectors of several cancer-related processes such as growth, invasion, drug resistance, angiogenesis, and coagulopathy. Notably, tumour-derived EVs (oncosomes also contain oncogenic proteins, transcripts, DNA and microRNA (miR. Uptake of this material may change properties of the recipient cells and impact the tumour microenvironment. Examples of transformation-related molecules found in the cargo of tumour-derived EVs include the oncogenic epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFRvIII, tumour suppressors (PTEN and oncomirs (miR-520g. It is postulated that EVs circulating in blood or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of brain tumour patients may be used to decipher molecular features (mutations of the underlying malignancy, reflect responses to therapy or molecular subtypes of primary brain tumours (e.g. glioma or medulloblastoma. It is possible that metastases to the brain may also emit EVs with clinically relevant oncogenic signatures. Thus EVs emerge as a novel and functionally important vehicle of intercellular communication that can mediate multiple biological effects. In addition, they provide a unique platform to develop molecular biomarkers in brain malignancies.

  17. Primary brain tumours, meningiomas and brain metastases in pregnancy

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    Verheecke, Magali; Halaska, Michael J; Lok, Christianne A


    to obtain better insight into outcome and possibilities of treatment in pregnancy. METHODS: We collected all intracranial tumours (primary brain tumour, cerebral metastasis, or meningioma) diagnosed during pregnancy, registered prospectively and retrospectively by international collaboration since 1973......, respectively. Eight patients (30%) underwent brain surgery, seven patients (26%) had radiotherapy and in three patients (11%) chemotherapy was administered during gestation. Two patients died during pregnancy and four pregnancies were terminated. In 16 (59%) patients elective caesarean section was performed...... were reassuring. CONCLUSION: Adherence to standard protocol for the treatment of brain tumours during pregnancy appears to allow a term delivery and a higher probability of a vaginal delivery....

  18. Brain tumour-associated status epilepticus. (United States)

    Goonawardena, Janindu; Marshman, Laurence A G; Drummond, Katharine J


    We have reviewed the scant literature on status epilepticus in patients with brain tumours. Patients with brain tumour-associated epilepsy (TAE) appear less likely to develop status epilepticus (TASE) than patients with epilepsy in the general population (EGP) are to develop status epilepticus (SEGP). TASE is associated with lesions in similar locations as TAE; in particular, the frontal lobes. However, in contrast to TAE, where seizures commence early in the course of the disease or at presentation, TASE is more likely to occur later in the disease course and herald tumour progression. In marked contrast to TAE, where epilepsy risk is inversely proportional to Word Health Organization tumour grade, TASE risk appears to be directly proportional to tumour grade (high grade gliomas appear singularly predisposed). Whilst anti-epileptic drug (AED) resistance is more common in TAE than EGP (with resistance directly proportional to tumour grade and frontal location), TASE appears paradoxically more responsive to simple AED regimes than either TAE or SEGP. Although some results suggest that mortality may be higher with TASE than with SEGP, it is likely that (as with SEGP) the major determinant of mortality is the underlying disease process. Because all such data have been derived from retrospective studies, because TASE and SEGP are less common than TAE and EGP, and because TASE and SEGP classification has often been inconsistent, findings can only be considered preliminary: multi-centre, prospective studies are required. Whilst preliminary, our review suggests that TASE has a distinct clinical profile compared to TAE and SEGP.

  19. Lymphoreticular cells in human brain tumours and in normal brain.



    The present investigation, using various rosetting assays of cell suspensions prepared by mechanical disaggregation or collagenase digestion, demonstrated lymphoreticular cells in human normal brain (cerebral cortex and cerebellum) and in malignant brain tumours. The study revealed T and B lymphocytes and their subsets (bearing receptors for Fc(IgG) and C3) in 5/14 glioma suspensions, comprising less than 15% of the cell population. Between 20-60% of cells in tumour suspensions morphologicall...

  20. A preclinical therapy model for childhood neuroectodermal tumours


    Hultman, Isabell


    Childhood cancers show fundamental differences to most common adult solid tumours in their cancer-causing genetics, cell biology and their local tissue microenvironment. Effective treatments will be attainable when the molecular events that are specific to childhood tumourigenesis are better understood. However, it is in this context critical to consider both species and developmental aspects when looking for the relevant signalling. An influence from the microenvironment on cl...

  1. Prophylactic Anticonvulsants in patients with brain tumour

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    Forsyth, P.A. [Depts. of Oncology and Clinical Neurosciences, Univ. of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Tom Baker Cancer Centre, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Weaver, S. [Depts. of Neurology and Medicine, Albany Medical College, Albany, New York (United States); Fulton, D. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Cross Cancer Institute and Dept. of Medicine/Neurology, Univ. of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)


    We conducted a clinical trial to determine if prophylactic anticonvulsants in brain tumour patients (without prior seizures) reduced seizure frequency. We stopped accrual at 100 patients on the basis of the interim analysis. One hundred newly diagnosed brain tumour patients received anticonvulsants (AC Group) or not (No AC Group) in this prospective randomized unblinded study. Sixty patients had metastatic, and 40 had primary brain tumours. Forty-six (46%) patients were randomized to the AC Group and 54 (54%) to the No AC Group. Median follow-up was 5.44 months (range 0.13 -30.1 months). Seizures occurred in 26 (26%) patients, eleven in the AC Group and 15 in the No AC Group. Seizure-free survivals were not different; at three months 87% of the AC Group and 90% of the No AC Group were seizure-free (log rank test, p=0.98). Seventy patients died (unrelated to seizures) and survival rates were equivalent in both groups (median survival = 6.8 months versus 5.6 months, respectively; log rank test, p=0.50). We then terminated accrual at 100 patients because seizure and survival rates were much lower than expected; we would need {>=}900 patients to have a suitably powered study. These data should be used by individuals contemplating a clinical trial to determine if prophylactic anticonvulsants are effective in subsets of brain tumour patients (e.g. only anaplastic astrocytomas). When taken together with the results of a similar randomized trial, prophylactic anticonvulsants are unlikely to be effective or useful in brain tumour patients who have not had a seizure. (author)

  2. Imaging biomarkers in primary brain tumours

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    Lopci, Egesta; Chiti, Arturo [Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Nuclear Medicine Department, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Franzese, Ciro; Navarria, Pierina; Scorsetti, Marta [Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Radiosurgery and Radiotherapy, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Grimaldi, Marco [Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Radiology, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Zucali, Paolo Andrea; Simonelli, Matteo [Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Medical Oncology, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Bello, Lorenzo [Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Neurosurgery, Rozzano, MI (Italy)


    We are getting used to referring to instrumentally detectable biological features in medical language as ''imaging biomarkers''. These two terms combined reflect the evolution of medical imaging during recent decades, and conceptually comprise the principle of noninvasive detection of internal processes that can become targets for supplementary therapeutic strategies. These targets in oncology include those biological pathways that are associated with several tumour features including independence from growth and growth-inhibitory signals, avoidance of apoptosis and immune system control, unlimited potential for replication, self-sufficiency in vascular supply and neoangiogenesis, acquired tissue invasiveness and metastatic diffusion. Concerning brain tumours, there have been major improvements in neurosurgical techniques and radiotherapy planning, and developments of novel target drugs, thus increasing the need for reproducible, noninvasive, quantitative imaging biomarkers. However, in this context, conventional radiological criteria may be inappropriate to determine the best therapeutic option and subsequently to assess response to therapy. Integration of molecular imaging for the evaluation of brain tumours has for this reason become necessary, and an important role in this setting is played by imaging biomarkers in PET and MRI. In the current review, we describe most relevant techniques and biomarkers used for imaging primary brain tumours in clinical practice, and discuss potential future developments from the experimental context. (orig.)


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    Prathima Gujjaru


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Brain neoplasms occur at all ages and account for around 2-3 percent of all deaths in adults. In children, the frequency increases to more than twenty percent. In children, it forms the second most common type of malignancy. Most of the tumours encountered are not related to any identifiable risk factors except for irradiation and some hereditary syndromes like subependymal giant cell astrocytoma, glioblastoma multiforme, cerebellar haemangioblastoma, meningioma, Schwannoma of 7 th cranial nerve. Gliomas constitute fifty percent of the brain tumours and sixty percent of all gliomas are glioblastoma multiforme. Meningiomas constitute twenty percent and cerebral metastasis is seen in fifteen percent of the cases. Seventy percent of supratentorial tumours are found in adults and seventy percent of brain tumours in children are infratentorial. The three common tumours of cerebellum are medulloblastoma, haemangioblastoma and juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma. Brain tumours are space occupying lesions and cause compression and destruction of adjacent structures, brain oedema (Peritumoural tissue, infarction and ischaemia of brain by compressing/infiltrating cerebral blood vessels, obstruction of CSF flow causing hydrocephalus, and rise in intracranial pressure with herniations. Tumours can undergo ischaemic necrosis and necrotic tumours tend to bleed. Brain tumours generally do not metastasise. Schwannoma and meningioma are benign tumours. Medulloblastoma of childhood may have drop metastasis via CSF. A sincere effort has been put in this study to identify the incidence of each variety of brain tumour among the fifty confirmed and identified cases of brain tumours. METHODS The age range of the cases in present study was 5-72 years with a mean age of occurrence of 44.11 years and the peak age group affected were in the 3 rd and 4 th decades. Cerebral hemisphere was the commonest site for intracranial tumours. RESULT In the present study, fifty

  4. The feasibility of a brain tumour website

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    Piil, K; Jakobsen, J; Juhler, M


    PURPOSE: Patients with a high-grade glioma (HGG) and their caregivers have imminent and changing informational and supportive care needs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility and safety of a Danish brain tumour website (BTW) in patients with HGG and their caregivers. We...... and 2) a sample of patients with HGG (n = 9) and their caregivers (n = 8) interviewed three months after being introduced to the BTW. RESULTS: The BTW was accessed from 131 different Danish towns and cities, and from ten different countries. The website had 637 unique users. The interviews identified...

  5. Residential Radon and Brain Tumour Incidence in a Danish Cohort

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    Bräuner, Elvira V.; Andersen, Zorana J.; Andersen, Claus Erik;


    (CI) for the risk of primary brain tumours associated with residential radon exposure with adjustment for age, sex, occupation, fruit and vegetable consumption and traffic-related air pollution. Effect modification by air pollution was assessed. Results: Median estimated radon was 40.5 Bq/m3......Background: Increased brain tumour incidence over recent decades may reflect improved diagnostic methods and clinical practice, but remain unexplained. Although estimated doses are low a relationship between radon and brain tumours may exist. Objective: To investigate the long-term effect...... of exposure to residential radon on the risk of primary brain tumour in a prospective Danish cohort. Methods: During 1993–1997 we recruited 57,053 persons. We followed each cohort member for cancer occurrence from enrolment until 31 December 2009, identifying 121 primary brain tumour cases. We traced...

  6. MicroRNA Regulation of Brain Tumour Initiating Cells in Central Nervous System Tumours

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    Neha Garg


    Full Text Available CNS tumours occur in both pediatric and adult patients and many of these tumours are associated with poor clinical outcome. Due to a paradigm shift in thinking for the last several years, these tumours are now considered to originate from a small population of stem-like cells within the bulk tumour tissue. These cells, termed as brain tumour initiating cells (BTICs, are perceived to be regulated by microRNAs at the posttranscriptional/translational levels. Proliferation, stemness, differentiation, invasion, angiogenesis, metastasis, apoptosis, and cell cycle constitute some of the significant processes modulated by microRNAs in cancer initiation and progression. Characterization and functional studies on oncogenic or tumour suppressive microRNAs are made possible because of developments in sequencing and microarray techniques. In the current review, we bring recent knowledge of the role of microRNAs in BTIC formation and therapy. Special attention is paid to two highly aggressive and well-characterized brain tumours: gliomas and medulloblastoma. As microRNA seems to be altered in the pathogenesis of many human diseases, “microRNA therapy” may now have potential to improve outcomes for brain tumour patients. In this rapidly evolving field, further understanding of miRNA biology and its contribution towards cancer can be mined for new therapeutic tools.

  7. Residential Radon and Brain Tumour Incidence in a Danish Cohort

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    Bräuner, Elvira V.; Andersen, Zorana J.; Andersen, Claus Erik;


    Background: Increased brain tumour incidence over recent decades may reflect improved diagnostic methods and clinical practice, but remain unexplained. Although estimated doses are low a relationship between radon and brain tumours may exist. Objective: To investigate the long-term effect...... of exposure to residential radon on the risk of primary brain tumour in a prospective Danish cohort. Methods: During 1993–1997 we recruited 57,053 persons. We followed each cohort member for cancer occurrence from enrolment until 31 December 2009, identifying 121 primary brain tumour cases. We traced...... residential addresses from 1 January 1971 until 31 December 2009 and calculated radon concentrations at each address using information from central databases regarding geology and house construction. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate incidence rate-ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals...

  8. Ex-vivo HRMAS of adult brain tumours: metabolite quantification and assignment of tumour biomarkers

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    Wilson M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS NMR spectroscopy allows detailed metabolic analysis of whole biopsy samples for investigating tumour biology and tumour classification. Accurate biochemical assignment of small molecule metabolites that are "NMR visible" will improve our interpretation of HRMAS data and the translation of NMR tumour biomarkers to in-vivo studies. Results 1D and 2D 1H HRMAS NMR was used to determine that 29 small molecule metabolites, along with 8 macromolecule signals, account for the majority of the HRMAS spectrum of the main types of brain tumour (astrocytoma grade II, grade III gliomas, glioblastomas, metastases, meningiomas and also lymphomas. Differences in concentration of 20 of these metabolites were statistically significant between these brain tumour types. During the course of an extended 2D data acquisition the HRMAS technique itself affects sample analysis: glycine, glutathione and glycerophosphocholine all showed small concentration changes; analysis of the sample after HRMAS indicated structural damage that may affect subsequent histopathological analysis. Conclusions A number of small molecule metabolites have been identified as potential biomarkers of tumour type that may enable development of more selective in-vivo 1H NMR acquisition methods for diagnosis and prognosis of brain tumours.

  9. Residential radon and brain tumour incidence in a Danish cohort.

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    Elvira V Bräuner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Increased brain tumour incidence over recent decades may reflect improved diagnostic methods and clinical practice, but remain unexplained. Although estimated doses are low a relationship between radon and brain tumours may exist. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the long-term effect of exposure to residential radon on the risk of primary brain tumour in a prospective Danish cohort. METHODS: During 1993-1997 we recruited 57,053 persons. We followed each cohort member for cancer occurrence from enrolment until 31 December 2009, identifying 121 primary brain tumour cases. We traced residential addresses from 1 January 1971 until 31 December 2009 and calculated radon concentrations at each address using information from central databases regarding geology and house construction. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate incidence rate-ratios (IRR and 95% confidence intervals (CI for the risk of primary brain tumours associated with residential radon exposure with adjustment for age, sex, occupation, fruit and vegetable consumption and traffic-related air pollution. Effect modification by air pollution was assessed. RESULTS: Median estimated radon was 40.5 Bq/m(3. The adjusted IRR for primary brain tumour associated with each 100 Bq/m(3 increment in average residential radon levels was 1.96 (95% CI: 1.07; 3.58 and this was exposure-dependently higher over the four radon exposure quartiles. This association was not modified by air pollution. CONCLUSIONS: We found significant associations and exposure-response patterns between long-term residential radon exposure radon in a general population and risk of primary brain tumours, adding new knowledge to this field. This finding could be chance and needs to be challenged in future studies.

  10. Epstein-Barr virus-associated smooth muscle tumour presenting as a parasagittal brain tumour. (United States)

    Ibebuike, K E; Pather, S; Emereole, O; Ndolo, P; Kajee, A; Gopal, R; Naidoo, S


    Dural-based brain tumours, apart from meningiomas, are rare. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated smooth muscle tumor (SMT) is a documented but rare disease that occurs in immunocompromized patients. These tumours may be located at unusual sites including the brain. We present a 37-year-old patient, positive for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), who was admitted after generalized tonic-clonic seizures. MRI and CT scan revealed a dural-based brain tumour, intraoperatively thought to be a meningioma, but with an eventual histological diagnosis of EBV-SMT. Clinically the patient was well postoperatively with a Glasgow coma scale score of 15/15 and no focal neurologic deficit. This case confirms the association between EBV and SMT in patients with HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). It also highlights the need to include EBV-SMT in the differential diagnosis of intracranial mass lesions in patients with HIV/AIDS.

  11. A rare metastasis from a rare brain tumour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabenhus, Kristine; Hahn, Christoffer Holst


    This case report presents the story of a patient with an oligodendroglioma metastasizing to the bone marrow and to lymph nodes of the neck. The patient had undergone primary brain surgery 13 years prior to the discovery of metastases and radiotherapy directed at the brain tumour two months prior........ Oligodendroglioma are rare primary brain tumours of which extraneural metastasis is even more rare. The incidence of cases like this may be increasing because of better treatment and thus longer survival of patients with oligodendroglioma....

  12. Cognitive deficits in adult patients with brain tumours.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taphoorn, M.J.B.; Klein, M.


    Cognitive function, with survival and response on brain imaging, is increasingly regarded as an important outcome measure in patients with brain tumours. This measure provides us with information on a patient's clinical situation and adverse treatment effects. Radiotherapy has been regarded as the m

  13. Plexiform malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour of infancy and childhood of the index finger : Surgical treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meek, Marcel F.; Wolf, Rinze; Coert, J. Henk; Hoekstra, Harald J.; Nicolai, Jean-Philippe A.


    We describe a rare case of plexiform malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour (MPNST) of infancy and childhood in a 3.5-year-old girl. The tumour was located in the proximal phalanx of the left index finger. After initial excisions and a ray amputation, exarticulation of the third and fourth rays wa

  14. Anatomical and biochemical investigation of primary brain tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Sole, A. [Univ. di Milano (Italy); Falini, A. [Univ. Vita e Salute (Italy). IRCCS; Ravasi, L.; Ottobrini, L.; Lucignani, G. [Univ. di Milano (Italy). Ist. di Scienze Radiologiche; De Marchis, D. [Univ. di Milano-Bicocca (Italy); Bombardieri, E. [Istituto Nazionale dei Tumori, Milano (Italy)


    Cancerous transformation entails major biochemical changes including modifications of the energy metabolism of the cell, e.g. utilisation of glucose and other substrates, protein synthesis, and expression of receptors and antigens. Tumour growth also leads to heterogeneity in blood flow owing to focal necrosis, angiogenesis and metabolic demands, as well as disruption of transport mechanisms of substrates across cell membranes and other physiological boundaries such as the blood-brain barrier. All these biochemical, histological and anatomical changes can be assessed with emission tomography, X-ray computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Whereas anatomical imaging is aimed at the diagnosis of brain tumours, biochemical imaging is better suited for tissue characterisation. The identification of a tumoural mass and the assessment of its size and vascularisation are best achieved with X-ray CT and MRI, while biochemical imaging can provide additional information that is crucial for tumour classification, differential diagnosis and follow-up. As the assessment of variables such as water content, appearance of cystic lesions and location of the tumour are largely irrelevant for tissue characterisation, a number of probes have been employed for the assessment of the biochemical features of tumours. Since biochemical changes may be related to the growth rate of cancer cells, they can be thought of as markers of tumour cell proliferation. Biochemical imaging with radionuclides of processes that occur at a cellular level provides information that complements findings obtained by anatomical imaging aimed at depicting structural, vascular and histological changes. This review focusses on the clinical application of anatomical brain imaging and biochemical assessment with positron emission tomography, single-photon emission tomography and MRS in the diagnosis of primary brain tumours, as well as in follow-up. (orig.)

  15. A reproducible brain tumour model established from human glioblastoma biopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xingang


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Establishing clinically relevant animal models of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM remains a challenge, and many commonly used cell line-based models do not recapitulate the invasive growth patterns of patient GBMs. Previously, we have reported the formation of highly invasive tumour xenografts in nude rats from human GBMs. However, implementing tumour models based on primary tissue requires that these models can be sufficiently standardised with consistently high take rates. Methods In this work, we collected data on growth kinetics from a material of 29 biopsies xenografted in nude rats, and characterised this model with an emphasis on neuropathological and radiological features. Results The tumour take rate for xenografted GBM biopsies were 96% and remained close to 100% at subsequent passages in vivo, whereas only one of four lower grade tumours engrafted. Average time from transplantation to the onset of symptoms was 125 days ± 11.5 SEM. Histologically, the primary xenografts recapitulated the invasive features of the parent tumours while endothelial cell proliferations and necrosis were mostly absent. After 4-5 in vivo passages, the tumours became more vascular with necrotic areas, but also appeared more circumscribed. MRI typically revealed changes related to tumour growth, several months prior to the onset of symptoms. Conclusions In vivo passaging of patient GBM biopsies produced tumours representative of the patient tumours, with high take rates and a reproducible disease course. The model provides combinations of angiogenic and invasive phenotypes and represents a good alternative to in vitro propagated cell lines for dissecting mechanisms of brain tumour progression.

  16. Brain tumour classification using Gaussian decomposition and neural networks. (United States)

    Arizmendi, Carlos; Sierra, Daniel A; Vellido, Alfredo; Romero, Enrique


    The development, implementation and use of computer-based medical decision support systems (MDSS) based on pattern recognition techniques holds the promise of substantially improving the quality of medical practice in diagnostic and prognostic tasks. In this study, the core of a decision support system for brain tumour classification from magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) data is presented. It combines data pre-processing using Gaussian decomposition, dimensionality reduction using moving window with variance analysis, and classification using artificial neural networks (ANN). This combination of techniques is shown to yield high diagnostic classification accuracy in problems concerning diverse brain tumour pathologies, some of which have received little attention in the literature.

  17. Patterns of exposure to infectious diseases and social contacts in early life and risk of brain tumours in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T V; Schmidt, L S; Poulsen, A H;


    BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases and social contacts in early life have been proposed to modulate brain tumour risk during late childhood and adolescence. METHODS: CEFALO is an interview-based case-control study in Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Switzerland, including children and adolescents aged 7-...... tumour may reflect involvement of immune functions, recall bias or inverse causality and deserve further attention.......BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases and social contacts in early life have been proposed to modulate brain tumour risk during late childhood and adolescence. METHODS: CEFALO is an interview-based case-control study in Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Switzerland, including children and adolescents aged 7......-19 years with primary intracranial brain tumours diagnosed between 2004 and 2008 and matched population controls. RESULTS: The study included 352 cases (participation rate: 83%) and 646 controls (71%). There was no association with various measures of social contacts: daycare attendance, number...

  18. Mobile phone use and risk of brain tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahkola, A.


    Mobile phone use has increased rapidly worldwide since the 1990's. As mobile telephones are used close to the head, the exposure to the radiofrequency radiation emitted by mobile phones has been suggested as a possible risk factor for brain tumours. The effect of mobile phone use on risk of brain tumours, particularly gliomas and meningiomas as well as acoustic neuromas, was evaluated using both a case-control approach and a meta-analysis. In addition, one of the most important sources of error in a case-control study, selection bias due to differential participation, was assessed in a subset of the case-control data. The risk of glioma and meningioma in relation to mobile phone use was investigated in population-based case-control studies conducted in five North European countries. All these countries used a common protocol and were included in a multinational study on mobile phone use and brain tumours, the INTERPHONE study, coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Cases (1,521 gliomas and 1,209 meningiomas) were identified mostly from hospitals and controls (3,299) from national population registers or general practitioners' patient lists. Detailed history of mobile phone use was obtained in personal interviews. Mobile phone use was assessed using several exposure indicators, such as regular use (phone use at least once a week for at least six months), duration of use as well as cumulative number of hours and calls. To comprehensively evaluate the effect of mobile phone use on risk of brain tumours, the existing evidence from the epidemiological studies published on the issue was combined using meta-analysis. In the analysis, a pooled estimate was calculated for all brain tumours combined, and also separately for the three most common tumour types, glioma, meningioma and acoustic neuroma using inverse variance-weighted method. Pooled estimate was also obtained for different telephone types (NMT and GSM) and by the location

  19. Childhood brain tumor epidemiology: a brain tumor epidemiology consortium review. (United States)

    Johnson, Kimberly J; Cullen, Jennifer; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Ostrom, Quinn T; Langer, Chelsea E; Turner, Michelle C; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Fisher, James L; Lupo, Philip J; Partap, Sonia; Schwartzbaum, Judith A; Scheurer, Michael E


    Childhood brain tumors are the most common pediatric solid tumor and include several histologic subtypes. Although progress has been made in improving survival rates for some subtypes, understanding of risk factors for childhood brain tumors remains limited to a few genetic syndromes and ionizing radiation to the head and neck. In this report, we review descriptive and analytical epidemiology childhood brain tumor studies from the past decade and highlight priority areas for future epidemiology investigations and methodological work that is needed to advance our understanding of childhood brain tumor causes. Specifically, we summarize the results of a review of studies published since 2004 that have analyzed incidence and survival in different international regions and that have examined potential genetic, immune system, developmental and birth characteristics, and environmental risk factors. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 23(12); 2716-36. ©2014 AACR.

  20. Perinatal and early postnatal risk factors for malignant brain tumours in New South Wales children. (United States)

    McCredie, M; Maisonneuve, P; Boyle, P


    A population-based case-control study of incident primary malignant brain tumours diagnosed during 1985-1989 in children aged 0 to 14 years was carried out in the coastal conurbation of New South Wales comprising Sydney, Wollongong and Newcastle in the period 1988 to 1990. Personal interviews were conducted using a structured questionnaire with mothers of 82 cases and 164 control children individually matched to the cases by sex and age. Among the hypotheses examined were those related to: N-nitroso compounds (sources included diet, dummies, medications, tobacco smoke); factors associated with the birth of the child; trauma to the head; and irradiation (X-rays and electromagnetic radiation through electric blankets or water beds). Reported ever-use of a dummy increased the risk of childhood brain tumours (OR = 2.9, 95% CI 1.6 to 5.4), although there did not appear to be any consistent indication of rising risk with reported increased levels of use. Compared with children who had never used a dummy, categories of use during the first year of life of a maximum of "no more than 1 hour per day or night", "several hours per day or night", and "most of the day or night" had statistically significant odds ratios of 2.6, 3.4, and 2.7 respectively. Consumption of fruit by the child before the age of one appeared to be protective. No association was found between childhood brain tumours and birth weight, being the first-born child, or factors linked with the child's birth; head injuries; exposure to X-rays; contact with horses, or living on a farm; pesticide treatment of the house during the child's lifetime; or exposure to burning incense.



    Mohammad Shamim; Reyaz; Anju; Dinesh Kumar; Paricharak


    In the present study , thirty patients in the age range of 22 to 63 years of age were included after being diagnosed to be having brain tumour on CT scan or conventional MRI. In addition DWI , MRS , and PWI were carried out i n these patients. All the patients with suspicious malignant lesions were then subjected to FDG - PET examination . Histopathological correlation was obtained in all the patients to serve as gold standard against which other m...

  2. Childhood Brain Stem Glioma Treatment (United States)

    ... and trouble walking. Vision and hearing problems. Morning headache or headache that goes away after vomiting . Nausea and vomiting. ... Cancer Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Children with Cancer: ...

  3. Development of luciferase tagged brain tumour models in mice for chemotherapy intervention studies. (United States)

    Kemper, E M; Leenders, W; Küsters, B; Lyons, S; Buckle, T; Heerschap, A; Boogerd, W; Beijnen, J H; van Tellingen, O


    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is considered one of the major causes for the low efficacy of cytotoxic compounds against primary brain tumours. The aim of this study was to develop intracranial tumour models in mice featuring intact or locally disrupted BBB properties, which can be used in testing chemotherapy against brain tumours. These tumours were established by intracranial injection of suspensions of different tumour cell lines. All cell lines had been transfected with luciferase to allow non-invasive imaging of tumour development using a super-cooled CCD-camera. Following their implantation, tumours developed which displayed the infiltrative, invasive or expansive growth patterns that are also found in primary brain cancer or brain metastases. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging showed that the Mel57, K1735Br2 and RG-2 lesions grow without disruption of the BBB, whereas the BBB was leaky in the U87MG and VEGF-A-transfected Mel57 lesions. This was confirmed by immunohistochemistry. Bioluminescence measurements allowed the visualisation of tumour burden already within 4 days after injection of the tumour cells. The applicability of our models for performing efficacy studies was demonstrated in an experiment using temozolomide as study drug. In conclusion, we have developed experimental brain tumour models with partly disrupted, or completely intact BBB properties. In vivo imaging by luciferase allows convenient follow-up of tumour growth and these models will be useful for chemotherapeutic intervention studies.

  4. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in brain tumours: clinical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burtscher, I.M.; Holtaas, S. [Lund Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology


    Parallel to the rapid development of clinical MRI, MR spectroscopy (MRS) has, after starting as an analytical tool used in chemistry and physics, evolved to a noninvasive clinical examination. Most common neuroradiological diagnostic indications for MRS are functional inborn errors, neonatal hypoxia, ischaemia, metabolic diseases, white matter and degenerative diseases, epilepsy, inflammation, infections and intracranial neoplasm. Compared to CT and MRI, well-established morphological diagnostic tools, MRS provides information on the metabolic state of brain tissue. We review the clinical impact of MRS in diagnosis of tumours and their differentiation from non-neoplastic lesions. (orig.)

  5. Value of C-11-methionine PET in imaging brain tumours and metastases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glaudemans, Andor W J M; Enting, Roeline; Heesters, Martinus; Dierckx, Rudi A J O; van Rheenen, Ronald W J; Walenkamp, Annemiek M E; Slart, Riemer H J A


    C-11-methionine (MET) is the most popular amino acid tracer used in PET imaging of brain tumours. Because of its characteristics, MET PET provides a high detection rate of brain tumours and good lesion delineation. This review focuses on the role of MET PET in imaging cerebral gliomas. The Introduct

  6. Development of luciferase tagged brain tumour models in mice for chemotherapy intervention studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemper, E.M.; Leenders, W.P.J.; Kusters, B.; Lyons, S.; Buckle, T.; Heerschap, A.; Boogerd, W.; Beijnen, J.H.; Tellingen, O.


    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is considered one of the major causes for the low efficacy of cytotoxic compounds against primary brain tumours. The aim of this study was to develop intracranial tumour models in mice featuring intact or locally disrupted BBB properties, which can be used in testing ch

  7. Ex-vivo HRMAS of adult brain tumours: metabolite quantification and assignment of tumour biomarkers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wright, A.J.; Fellows, G.A.; Griffiths, J.R.; Wilson, M.; Bell, B.A.; Howe, F.A.


    BACKGROUND: High-resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) NMR spectroscopy allows detailed metabolic analysis of whole biopsy samples for investigating tumour biology and tumour classification. Accurate biochemical assignment of small molecule metabolites that are "NMR visible" will improve our inter

  8. Perioperative intensive care in patients with brain tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana A. Aquafredda


    Full Text Available The surgery of brain tumours is not free from complications, above all taking into account that today the patients operated are even older and with multiple comorbidities associated. The multidisciplinary preoperative evaluation aims at minimising the risks; nevertheless this evaluation has not yet been defined and is not based on a strong evidence. The detailed clinical history, the physical examination including functional status and the neuroimaging are the fundamental pillars.The more critical complications occur in the immediate postoperative period: cerebral oedema, postoperative haemorrhage, intracranial hypertension and convulsions; other complications, such as pulmonary thromboembolism or infections, develop lately but are not less severe. Every surgical approach has its own complications in addition to the ones common to the whole neurosurgery.

  9. Guiding intracortical brain tumour cells to an extracortical cytotoxic hydrogel using aligned polymeric nanofibres (United States)

    Jain, Anjana; Betancur, Martha; Patel, Gaurangkumar D.; Valmikinathan, Chandra M.; Mukhatyar, Vivek J.; Vakharia, Ajit; Pai, S. Balakrishna; Brahma, Barunashish; MacDonald, Tobey J.; Bellamkonda, Ravi V.


    Glioblastoma multiforme is an aggressive, invasive brain tumour with a poor survival rate. Available treatments are ineffective and some tumours remain inoperable because of their size or location. The tumours are known to invade and migrate along white matter tracts and blood vessels. Here, we exploit this characteristic of glioblastoma multiforme by engineering aligned polycaprolactone (PCL)-based nanofibres for tumour cells to invade and, hence, guide cells away from the primary tumour site to an extracortical location. This extracortial sink is a cyclopamine drug-conjugated, collagen-based hydrogel. When aligned PCL-nanofibre films in a PCL/polyurethane carrier conduit were inserted in the vicinity of an intracortical human U87MG glioblastoma xenograft, a significant number of human glioblastoma cells migrated along the aligned nanofibre films and underwent apoptosis in the extracortical hydrogel. Tumour volume in the brain was significantly lower following insertion of aligned nanofibre implants compared with the application of smooth fibres or no implants.

  10. Combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy for high-grade brain tumours (United States)

    Barazzuol, Lara

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumour in adults and among the most aggressive of all tumours. For several decades, the standard care of GBM was surgical resection followed by radiotherapy alone. In 2005, a landmark phase III clinical trial coordinated by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) and the National Cancer Institute of Canada (NCIC) demonstrated the benefit of radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy. With TMZ, the median life expectancy in optimally managed patients is still only 12-14 months, with only 25% surviving 24 months. There is an urgent need for new therapies in particular in those patients whose tumour has an unmethylated methylguanine methyltransferase gene (MGMT) promoter, which is a predictive factor of benefit from TMZ. In this dissertation, the nature of the interaction between TMZ and radiation is investigated using both a mathematical model, based on in vivo population statistics of survival, and in vitro experimentation on a panel of human GBM cell lines. The results show that TMZ has an additive effect in vitro and that the population-based model may be insufficient in predicting TMZ response. The combination of TMZ with particle therapy is also investigated. Very little preclinical data exists on the effects of charged particles on GBM cell lines as well as on the concomitant application of chemotherapy. In this study, human GBM cells are exposed to 3 MeV protons and 6 MeV alpha particles in concomitance with TMZ. The results suggest that the radiation quality does not affect the nature of the interaction between TMZ and radiation, showing reproducible additive cytotoxicity. Since TMZ and radiation cause DNA damage in cancer cells, there has been increased attention to the use of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors. PARP is a family of enzymes that play a key role in the repair of DNA breaks. In this study, a novel PARP inhibitor, ABT-888

  11. Glioblastoma brain tumours: estimating the time from brain tumour initiation and resolution of a patient survival anomaly after similar treatment protocols. (United States)

    Murray, J D


    A practical mathematical model for glioblastomas (brain tumours), which incorporates the two key parameters of tumour growth, namely the cancer cell diffusion and the cell proliferation rate, has been shown to be clinically useful and predictive. Previous studies explain why multifocal recurrence is inevitable and show how various treatment scenarios have been incorporated in the model. In most tumours, it is not known when the cancer started. Based on patient in vivo parameters, obtained from two brain scans, it is shown how to estimate the time, after initial detection, when the tumour started. This is an input of potential importance in any future controlled clinical study of any connection between cell phone radiation and brain tumour incidence. It is also used to estimate more accurately survival times from detection. Finally, based on patient parameters, the solution of the model equation of the tumour growth helps to explain why certain patients live longer than others after similar treatment protocols specifically surgical resection (removal) and irradiation.

  12. Radiotherapy of primary brain tumours in the region of the third ventricle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heesters, M A; Struikmans, H


    Patients (n = 18) with a primary brain tumour near the third ventricle and treated by radiotherapy were retrospectively analysed. Four different subgroups of patients, according to the histology (germ cell tumours, astrocytomas, other histologies, no histology) were separately discussed. Third ventr

  13. Brain perfusion CT compared with ¹⁵O-H₂O PET in patients with primary brain tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grüner, Julie Marie; Paamand, Rune Tore; Kosteljanetz, Michael;


    Perfusion CT (PCT) measurements of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) have been proposed as a fast and easy method for identifying angiogenically active tumours. In this study, quantitative PCT rCBF measurements in patients with brain tumours were compared to the gold standard PET rCBF with (15)O...

  14. Targeting breast to brain metastatic tumours with death receptor ligand expressing therapeutic stem cells. (United States)

    Bagci-Onder, Tugba; Du, Wanlu; Figueiredo, Jose-Luiz; Martinez-Quintanilla, Jordi; Shah, Khalid


    Characterizing clinically relevant brain metastasis models and assessing the therapeutic efficacy in such models are fundamental for the development of novel therapies for metastatic brain cancers. In this study, we have developed an in vivo imageable breast-to-brain metastasis mouse model. Using real time in vivo imaging and subsequent composite fluorescence imaging, we show a widespread distribution of micro- and macro-metastasis in different stages of metastatic progression. We also show extravasation of tumour cells and the close association of tumour cells with blood vessels in the brain thus mimicking the multi-foci metastases observed in the clinics. Next, we explored the ability of engineered adult stem cells to track metastatic deposits in this model and show that engineered stem cells either implanted or injected via circulation efficiently home to metastatic tumour deposits in the brain. Based on the recent findings that metastatic tumour cells adopt unique mechanisms of evading apoptosis to successfully colonize in the brain, we reasoned that TNF receptor superfamily member 10A/10B apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) based pro-apoptotic therapies that induce death receptor signalling within the metastatic tumour cells might be a favourable therapeutic approach. We engineered stem cells to express a tumour selective, potent and secretable variant of a TRAIL, S-TRAIL, and show that these cells significantly suppressed metastatic tumour growth and prolonged the survival of mice bearing metastatic breast tumours. Furthermore, the incorporation of pro-drug converting enzyme, herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase, into therapeutic S-TRAIL secreting stem cells allowed their eradication post-tumour treatment. These studies are the first of their kind that provide insight into targeting brain metastasis with stem-cell mediated delivery of pro-apoptotic ligands and have important clinical implications.

  15. Medical exposure to ionising radiation and the risk of brain tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blettner, Maria; Schlehofer, Brigitte; Samkange-Zeeb, Florence


    BACKGROUND: The role of exposure to low doses of ionising radiation in the aetiology of brain tumours has yet to be clarified. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between medically or occupationally related exposure to ionising radiation and brain tumours. METHODS: We...... used self-reported medical and occupational data collected during the German part of a multinational case-control study on mobile phone use and the risk of brain tumours (Interphone study) for the analyses. RESULTS: For any exposure to medical ionising radiation we found odds ratios (ORs) of 0.63 (95...... regions. CONCLUSION: We did not find any significant increased risk of brain tumours for exposure to medical ionising radiation....

  16. Primary malignant rhabdoid tumour of the brain in an adult

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrazola, J.; Pedrosa, I.; Mendez, R. [Radiology Department, Hospital Clinico San Carlos, Madrid (Spain); Saldana, C. [Neurosurgery Department, Hospital Clinico San Carlos, Madrid (Spain); Scheithauer, B.W. [Division of Anatomic Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Martinez, A. [Anatomic Pathology Department, Hospital Clinico San Carlos, Madrid (Spain)


    We report a mass in the left cerebral hemisphere of a 20-year-old man. Histological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical features of the tumour were consistent with primary malignant rhabdoid tumour. The age of presentation, imaging features prior to histological examination, and prognosis in this case were unusual. (orig.)

  17. Brain perfusion CT compared with {sup 15}O-H{sub 2}O PET in patients with primary brain tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruener, Julie Marie; Paamand, Rune; Hoejgaard, Liselotte; Law, Ian [University of Copenhagen, Department of Clinical Physiology, Nuclear Medicine and PET, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark); Kosteljanetz, Michael [University of Copenhagen, Department of Neurosurgery, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark); Broholm, Helle [University of Copenhagen, Department of Neuropathology, Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen (Denmark)


    Perfusion CT (PCT) measurements of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) have been proposed as a fast and easy method for identifying angiogenically active tumours. In this study, quantitative PCT rCBF measurements in patients with brain tumours were compared to the gold standard PET rCBF with {sup 15}O-labelled water ({sup 15}O-H{sub 2}O). On the same day within a few hours, rCBF was measured in ten adult patients with treatment-naive primary brain tumours, twice using {sup 15}O-H{sub 2}O PET and once with PCT performed over the central part of the tumour. Matching rCBF values in tumour and contralateral healthy regions of interest were compared. PCT overestimated intratumoural blood flow in all patients with volume-weighted mean rCBF values of 28.2 {+-} 18.8 ml min{sup -1} 100 ml{sup -1} for PET and 78.9 {+-} 41.8 ml min{sup -1} 100 ml{sup -1} for PCT. There was a significant method by tumour grade interaction with a significant tumour grade rCBF difference for PCT of 32.9 {+-} 15.8 ml min{sup -1} 100 ml{sup -1} for low-grade (WHO I + II) and 81.5 {+-} 15.4 ml min{sup -1} 100 ml{sup -1} for high-grade (WHO III + IV) tumours, but not for PET. The rCBF PCT and PET correlation was only significant within tumours in two patients. Although intratumoural blood flow measured by PCT may add valuable information on tumour grade, the method cannot substitute quantitative measurements of blood flow by PET and {sup 15}O-H{sub 2}O PET in brain tumours. (orig.)

  18. Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and incidence of brain tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jeanette Therming; Johansen, Martin Søes; Ravnskjær, Line;


    -reported information on lifestyle was collected. We obtained data on the incidence of brain tumours until 2013 from the Danish Cancer Register, and estimated annual mean concentrations of particulate matter with diameter2.5μm (PM2.5), particulate matter with diameter... positive association between total brain tumours and PM2.5 (1.06; 0.80-1.40 per 3.37μg/m(3)), NO2 (1.09; 0.91-1.29) per 7.5μg/m(3), and NOx (1.02; 0.93-1.12 per 10.22μg/m(3)), and none with PM10 (0.93; 0.70-1.23 per 3.31μg/m(3)). Associations with PM2.5 and NO2 were stronger for tumours located in meninges...... than in brain, and for benign than for malignant tumours. Finally, association of total brain tumours with PM2.5 was modified by BMI, and was statistically significantly enhanced in obese women (2.03; 1.35-3.05). CONCLUSION: We found weak evidence for association between risk of brain tumours and long...

  19. Role of Cerebellum in Fine Speech Control in Childhood: Persistent Dysarthria after Surgical Treatment for Posterior Fossa Tumour (United States)

    Morgan, A. T.; Liegeois, F.; Liederkerke, C.; Vogel, A. P.; Hayward, R.; Harkness, W.; Chong, K.; Vargha-Khadem, F.


    Dysarthria following surgical resection of childhood posterior fossa tumour (PFT) is most commonly documented in a select group of participants with mutism in the acute recovery phase, thus limiting knowledge of post-operative prognosis for this population of children as a whole. Here we report on the speech characteristics of 13 cases seen…

  20. Quantitative MR imaging and spectroscopy of brain tumours: a step forward?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagnerova, Dita; Herynek, Vit; Dezortova, Monika; Jiru, Filip; Skoch, Antonin; Hajek, Milan [Institute for Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Prague (Czech Republic); Malucelli, Alberto; Bartos, Robert; Sames, Martin [JE Purkyne University and Masaryk Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Usti nad Labem (Czech Republic); Vymazal, Josef [Na Homolce Hospital, Department of Radiology, Prague (Czech Republic); Urgosik, Dusan [Na Homolce Hospital, Stereotactic and Radiation Neurosurgery, Prague (Czech Republic); Syrucek, Martin [Na Homolce Hospital, Department of Pathology, Prague (Czech Republic)


    A prospective quantitative MR study of brain tumours was performed to show the potential of combining different MR techniques to distinguish various disease processes in routine clinical practice. Twenty-three patients with various intracranial tumours before treatment (diagnosis confirmed by a biopsy) and 59 healthy subjects were examined on a 3-T system by conventional MR imaging, 1H spectroscopic imaging, diffusion tensor imaging and T2 relaxometry. Metabolic concentrations and their ratios, T2 relaxation times and mean diffusivities were calculated and correlated on a pixel-by-pixel basis and compared to control data. Different tumour types and different localisations revealed specific patterns of correlations between metabolic concentrations and mean diffusivity or T2 relaxation times. The patterns distinguish given tissue states in the examined area: healthy tissue, tissue infiltrated by tumour, active tumour, oedema infiltrated by tumour, oedema, etc. This method is able to describe the complexity of a highly heterogeneous tissue in the tumour and its vicinity, and determines crucial parameters for tissue differentiation. A combination of different MR parameters on a pixel-by-pixel basis in individual patients enables better identification of the tumour type, direction of proliferation and assessment of the tumour extension. (orig.)

  1. Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors Treatment Overview (United States)

    ... the following: Brain Tumor Signs and Symptoms Morning headache or headache that goes away after vomiting . Frequent nausea and ... Cancer Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Children with Cancer: ...

  2. General Information about Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors (United States)

    ... the following: Brain Tumor Signs and Symptoms Morning headache or headache that goes away after vomiting . Frequent nausea and ... Cancer Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Children with Cancer: ...

  3. {sup 1}H magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the diagnosis of paediatric low grade brain tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orphanidou-Vlachou, E., E-mail: [School of Cancer Sciences, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Birmingham Children' s Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Whittall Street, Birmingham, B4 6NH (United Kingdom); Auer, D., E-mail: [Division of Academic Radiology, School of Medical and Surgical Sciences, The University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Children' s Brain Tumour Research Centre, Queens Medical Centre, University of Nottingham (United Kingdom); Brundler, M.A., E-mail: [Birmingham Children' s Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Whittall Street, Birmingham, B4 6NH (United Kingdom); Davies, N.P., E-mail: [School of Cancer Sciences, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Birmingham Children' s Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Whittall Street, Birmingham, B4 6NH (United Kingdom); Department of Medical Physics, University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Mindelsohn Way, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2WB (United Kingdom); Jaspan, T., E-mail: [Children' s Brain Tumour Research Centre, Queens Medical Centre, University of Nottingham (United Kingdom); MacPherson, L., E-mail: [Birmingham Children' s Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Whittall Street, Birmingham, B4 6NH (United Kingdom); Natarajan, K., E-mail: [Birmingham Children' s Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Whittall Street, Birmingham, B4 6NH (United Kingdom); Department of Medical Physics, University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Mindelsohn Way, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2WB (United Kingdom); and others


    Introduction: Low grade gliomas are the commonest brain tumours in children but present in a myriad of ways, each with its own treatment challenges. Conventional MRI scans play an important role in their management but have limited ability to identify likely clinical behaviour. The aim of this study is to investigate {sup 1}H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) as a method for detecting differences between the various low grade gliomas and related tumours in children. Patients and methods: Short echo time single voxel {sup 1}H MRS at 1.5 or 3.0 T was performed prior to treatment on children with low grade brain tumours at two centres and five MR scanners, 69 cases had data which passed quality control. MRS data was processed using LCModel to give mean spectra and metabolite concentrations which were compared using T-tests, ANOVA, Receiver Operator Characteristic curves and logistic regression in SPSS. Results: Significant differences were found in concentrations of key metabolites between glioneuronal and glial tumours (T-test p < 0.05) and between most of the individual histological subtypes of low grade gliomas. The discriminatory metabolites identified, such as choline and myoinositol, are known tumour biomarkers. In the set of pilocytic astrocytomas and unbiopsied optic pathway gliomas, significant differences (p < 0.05, ANOVA) were found in metabolite profiles of tumours depending on location and patient neurofibromatosis type 1 status. Logistic regression analyses yielded equations which could be used to assess the probability of a tumour being of a specific type. Conclusions: MRS can detect subtle differences between low grade brain tumours in children and should form part of the clinical assessment of these tumours.

  4. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging and 31P spectroscopy of large human brain tumours at 1.5 tesla

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, C; Jensen, K E; Achten, E;


    31P MR spectroscopy of human brain tumours is one feature of magnetic resonance imaging. Eight patients with large superficial brain tumours and eight healthy volunteers were examined with 31P spectroscopy using an 8 cm surface coil for volume selection. Seven frequencies were resolved in our spe...

  5. DNA from KI, WU and Merkel cell polyomaviruses is not detected in childhood central nervous system tumours or neuroblastomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Géraldine Giraud

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: BK and JC polyomaviruses (BKV and JCV are potentially oncogenic and have in the past inconclusively been associated with tumours of the central nervous system (CNS, while BKV has been hinted, but not confirmed to be associated with neuroblastomas. Recently three new polyomaviruses (KIPyV, WUPyV and MCPyV were identified in humans. So far KIPyV and WUPyV have not been associated to human diseases, while MCPyV was discovered in Merkel Cell carcinomas and may have neuroepithelial cell tropism. However, all three viruses can be potentially oncogenic and this compelled us to investigate for their presence in childhood CNS and neuroblastomas. METHODOLOGY: The presence of KI, WU and MCPyV DNA was analysed, by a joint WU and KI specific PCR (covering part of VP1 and by a MCPyV specific regular and real time quantitative PCR (covering part of Large T in 25 CNS tumour biopsies and 31 neuroblastoma biopsies from the Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden. None of the three new human polyomaviruses were found to be associated with any of the tumours, despite the presence of PCR amplifiable DNA assayed by a S14 housekeeping gene PCR. CONCLUSION: In this pilot study, the presence of MCPyV, KI and WU was not observed in childhood CNS tumours and neuroblastomas. Nonetheless, we suggest that additional data are warranted in tumours of the central and peripheral nervous systems and we do not exclude that other still not yet detected polyomaviruses could be present in these tumours.

  6. Human cytomegalovirus tegument protein pp65 is detected in all intra- and extra-axial brain tumours independent of the tumour type or grade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Libard

    Full Text Available Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV has been indicated being a significant oncomodulator. Recent reports have suggested that an antiviral treatment alters the outcome of a glioblastoma. We analysed the performance of commercial HCMV-antibodies applying the immunohistochemical (IHC methods on brain sample obtained from a subject with a verified HCMV infection, on samples obtained from 14 control subjects, and on a tissue microarray block containing cores of various brain tumours. Based on these trials, we selected the best performing antibody and analysed a cohort of 417 extra- and intra-axial brain tumours such as gliomas, medulloblastomas, primary diffuse large B-cell lymphomas, and meningiomas. HCMV protein pp65 immunoreactivity was observed in all types of tumours analysed, and the IHC expression did not depend on the patient's age, gender, tumour type, or grade. The labelling pattern observed in the tumours differed from the labelling pattern observed in the tissue with an active HCMV infection. The HCMV protein was expressed in up to 90% of all the tumours investigated. Our results are in accordance with previous reports regarding the HCMV protein expression in glioblastomas and medulloblastomas. In addition, the HCMV protein expression was seen in primary brain lymphomas, low-grade gliomas, and in meningiomas. Our results indicate that the HCMV protein pp65 expression is common in intra- and extra-axial brain tumours. Thus, the assessment of the HCMV expression in tumours of various origins and pathologically altered tissue in conditions such as inflammation, infection, and even degeneration should certainly be facilitated.

  7. Respiratory Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumours 1 (DMBT1) levels increase during lung maturation and infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, H; End, C; Weiss, C;


    Deleted in Malignant Brain Tumours 1 (DMBT1) is a secreted scavenger receptor cysteine-rich protein that binds and aggregates various bacteria and viruses in vitro. Studies in adults have shown that DMBT1 is expressed mainly by mucosal epithelia and glands, in particular within the respiratory...

  8. The risk of brain tumours in hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vasen, HFA; Sanders, EACM; Taal, BG; Nagengast, FM; Griffioen, G; Menko, FH; Kleibeuker, JH; HouwingDuistermaat, JJ; Khan, PM


    Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is known to be associated with several extracolonic cancers, e.g., cancers of the endometrium, stomach, urinary tract, small bowel and ovary. An association between HNPCC and brain tumours has also been reported, although previous risk analysis did

  9. Texture analysis in quantitative MR imaging. Tissue characterisation of normal brain and intracranial tumours at 1.5 T

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, L; Ring, P; Thomsen, C


    of common first-order and second-order grey level statistics. Tissue differentiation in the images was estimated by the presence or absence of significant differences between tissue types. A fine discrimination was obtained between white matter, cortical grey matter, and cerebrospinal fluid in the normal...... brain, and white matter was readily separated from the tumour lesions. Moreover, separation of solid tumour tissue and peritumoural oedema was suggested for some tumour types. Mutual comparison of all tumour types revealed extensive differences, and even specific tumour differentiation turned out...

  10. Gonadal status in male survivors following childhood brain tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, M; Lassen, S; Poulsen, H S


    The effect of radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy (CT) on gonadal function was assessed in males treated for a childhood brain tumor not directly involving the hypothalamus/pituitary (HP) axis in a population-based study with a long follow-up time. All males......The effect of radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy (CT) on gonadal function was assessed in males treated for a childhood brain tumor not directly involving the hypothalamus/pituitary (HP) axis in a population-based study with a long follow-up time. All males...

  11. {sup 1}H MR spectroscopy of human brain tumours: a practical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callot, Virginie [Centre de Resonance Magnetique Biologique et Medicale (CRMBM), UMR 6612, CNRS - Universite de la Mediterranee, 27 Boulevard Jean Moulin, 13385 Marseille Cedex 05 (France)], E-mail:; Galanaud, Damien [Centre de Resonance Magnetique Biologique et Medicale (CRMBM), UMR 6612, CNRS - Universite de la Mediterranee, 27 Boulevard Jean Moulin, 13385 Marseille Cedex 05 (France); Departement de Neuroradiologie, Hopital La Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris (France); Le Fur, Yann; Confort-Gouny, Sylviane; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Cozzone, Patrick J. [Centre de Resonance Magnetique Biologique et Medicale (CRMBM), UMR 6612, CNRS - Universite de la Mediterranee, 27 Boulevard Jean Moulin, 13385 Marseille Cedex 05 (France)


    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is proposed in addition to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to help in the characterization of brain tumours by detecting metabolic alterations that may be indicative of the tumour class. MRS can be routinely performed on clinical magnets, within a reasonable acquisition time and if performed under adequate conditions, MRS is reproducible and thus can be used for longitudinal follow-up of treatment. MRS can also be performed in clinical practice to guide the neurosurgeon into the most aggressive part of the lesions or to avoid unnecessary surgery, which may furthermore decrease the risk of surgical morbidity.

  12. Spurious leptomeningeal enhancement on immediate post-operative MRI for paediatric brain tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widjaja, Elysa; Connolly, Daniel J.A. [Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Department of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Gatscher, Sylvia; McMullen, John [Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Griffiths, Paul D. [University of Sheffield, Academic section of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom)


    Immediate post-operative MRI has been recommended as an accurate and robust method to assess residual brain tumour. Early enhancement at the resection margin and in the dura is well recognized, but we describe two cases of enhancement in the basal cisterns on immediate post-operative MRI that resolved on follow-up. The underlying cause of the enhancement remains to be elucidated, but it should be recognized that leptomeningeal enhancement may occur after surgery and that this does not necessarily imply tumour spread. (orig.)

  13. Development of human brain structural networks through infancy and childhood. (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Shu, Ni; Mishra, Virendra; Jeon, Tina; Chalak, Lina; Wang, Zhiyue J; Rollins, Nancy; Gong, Gaolang; Cheng, Hua; Peng, Yun; Dong, Qi; He, Yong


    During human brain development through infancy and childhood, microstructural and macrostructural changes take place to reshape the brain's structural networks and better adapt them to sophisticated functional and cognitive requirements. However, structural topological configuration of the human brain during this specific development period is not well understood. In this study, diffusion magnetic resonance image (dMRI) of 25 neonates, 13 toddlers, and 25 preadolescents were acquired to characterize network dynamics at these 3 landmark cross-sectional ages during early childhood. dMRI tractography was used to construct human brain structural networks, and the underlying topological properties were quantified by graph-theory approaches. Modular organization and small-world attributes are evident at birth with several important topological metrics increasing monotonically during development. Most significant increases of regional nodes occur in the posterior cingulate cortex, which plays a pivotal role in the functional default mode network. Positive correlations exist between nodal efficiencies and fractional anisotropy of the white matter traced from these nodes, while correlation slopes vary among the brain regions. These results reveal substantial topological reorganization of human brain structural networks through infancy and childhood, which is likely to be the outcome of both heterogeneous strengthening of the major white matter tracts and pruning of other axonal fibers.

  14. Music and the Brain in Childhood Development. Review of Research. (United States)

    Strickland, Susan J.


    Reviews literature on effects of music on the brain in childhood development. Areas include: (1) early synaptic growth; (2) nature versus nurture; (3) background music; (4) musical practice; (5) music learning and cognitive skills; (6) transfer of music learning; (7) musical instrument practice; (8) children and music; and (9) transfer effects.…

  15. Development of a positron probe for localization and excision of brain tumours during surgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogalhas, F; Charon, Y; Duval, M-A; Lefebvre, F; Pinot, L; Siebert, R; Menard, L [Laboratoire Imagerie et Modelisation en Neurobiologie et Cancerologie (UMR 8165), Campus d' Orsay, 91406 Orsay Cedex (France); Palfi, S [Service de neurochirurgie, CHU Henri Mondor, 94010 Creteil Cedex (France) and URA CEA-CNRS 2210, 4 Place du General Leclerc, 91401 Orsay Cedex (France)], E-mail:


    The survival outcome of patients suffering from gliomas is directly linked to the complete surgical resection of the tumour. To help the surgeons to delineate precisely the boundaries of the tumour, we developed an intraoperative positron probe with background noise rejection capability. The probe was designed to be directly coupled to the excision tool such that detection and removal of the radiolabelled tumours could be simultaneous. The device consists of two exchangeable detection heads composed of clear and plastic scintillating fibres. Each head is coupled to an optic fibre bundle that exports the scintillating light to a photodetection and processing electronic module placed outside the operative wound. The background rejection method is based on a real-time subtraction technique. The measured probe sensitivity for {sup 18}F was 1.1 cps kBq{sup -1} ml{sup -1} for the small head and 3.4 cps kBq{sup -1} ml{sup -1} for the large head. The mean spatial resolution was 1.6 mm FWHM on the detector surface. The {gamma}-ray rejection efficiency measured by realistic brain phantom modelling of the surgical cavity was 99.4%. This phantom also demonstrated the ability of the probe to detect tumour discs as small as 5 mm in diameter (20 mg) for tumour-to-background ratios higher than 3:1 and with an acquisition time around 4 s at each scanning step. These results indicate that our detector could be a useful complement to existing techniques for the accurate excision of brain tumour tissue and more generally to improve the efficiency of radio-guided cancer surgery.

  16. In vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of intraventricular tumours of the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majos, Carles; Aguilera, Carles [Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, Institut de Diagnostic per la Imatge (IDI). Centre Bellvitge, L' Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona (Spain); Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red en Bioingenieria, Cerdanyola del Valles (Spain); Cos, Monica; Camins, Angels; Samitier, Alex; Castaner, Sara; Sanchez, Juan J. [Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, Institut de Diagnostic per la Imatge (IDI). Centre Bellvitge, L' Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona (Spain); Candiota, Ana P.; Delgado-Goni, Teresa [Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red en Bioingenieria, Cerdanyola del Valles (Spain); Unitat de Bioquimica de Biociencies, Department de Bioquimica i Biologia Molecular, Cerdanyola del Valles (Spain); Mato, David [Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, Department of Neurosurgery, L' Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona (Spain); Acebes, Juan J. [Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, Department of Neurosurgery, L' Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona (Spain); Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red en Bioingenieria, Cerdanyola del Valles (Spain); Arus, Carles [Unitat de Bioquimica de Biociencies, Department de Bioquimica i Biologia Molecular, Cerdanyola del Valles (Spain); Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red en Bioingenieria, Cerdanyola del Valles (Spain)


    The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of proton MR spectroscopy in the diagnosis of intraventricular tumours. Fifty-two intraventricular tumours pertaining to 16 different tumour types were derived from our database. All cases had single-voxel proton MR spectroscopy performed at TE at both 30 and 136 ms at 1.5 T. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to search for the most discriminative datapoints each tumour type. Characteristic trends were found for some groups: high Glx and Ala in meningiomas (p<0.001 and p<0.01, respectively), high mobile lipids in metastasis (p<0.001), high Cho in PNET (p<0.001), high mI+Gly in ependymoma (p<0.001), high NAC (p<0.01) in the absence of the normal brain parenchyma pattern in colloid cysts, and high mI/Gly and Ala in central neurocytoma. Proton MR spectroscopy provides additional metabolic information that could be useful in the diagnosis of intraventricular brain tumors. (orig.)

  17. Mapping brain development during childhood, adolescence and young adulthood (United States)

    Guo, Xiaojuan; Jin, Zhen; Chen, Kewei; Peng, Danling; Li, Yao


    Using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM), this study systematically investigated the differences and similarities of brain structural changes during the early three developmental periods of human lives: childhood, adolescence and young adulthood. These brain changes were discussed in relationship to the corresponding cognitive function development during these three periods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data from 158 Chinese healthy children, adolescents and young adults, aged 7.26 to 22.80 years old, were included in this study. Using the customized brain template together with the gray matter/white matter/cerebrospinal fluid prior probability maps, we found that there were more age-related positive changes in the frontal lobe, less in hippocampus and amygdala during childhood, but more in bilateral hippocampus and amygdala and left fusiform gyrus during adolescence and young adulthood. There were more age-related negative changes near to central sulcus during childhood, but these changes extended to the frontal and parietal lobes, mainly in the parietal lobe, during adolescence and young adulthood, and more in the prefrontal lobe during young adulthood. So gray matter volume in the parietal lobe significantly decreased from childhood and continued to decrease till young adulthood. These findings may aid in understanding the age-related differences in cognitive function.

  18. Bevacizumab plus irinotecan in the treatment patients with progressive recurrent malignant brain tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, H.S.; Grunnet, K.; Sorensen, M.


    MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively determined the efficacy and safety of a combination of bevacizumab and irinotecan in a consecutive series of 52 heavily pre-treated patients with recurrent high-grade brain tumours. Patients received bevacizumab (10 mg/kg) and irinotecan [340 mg/m(2...... glioma and 32 weeks for grade III glioma. Four patients discontinued treatment because of unmanageable toxicity: cerebral haemorrhage, cardiac arrhythmia, intestinal perforation and diarrhoea, the latter resulting in death. DISCUSSION: We conclude that the combination of bevacizumab and irinotecan shows...... acceptable safety and is a clinically relevant choice of therapy in heavily pre-treated patients with recurrent high-grade brain tumours Udgivelsesdato: 2009...

  19. The response of bispectral index to laryngoscopy, comparison between hemispheres in patients with a brain tumour versus a healthy control group.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wyler, B.; Wyffels, P.; de Hert, S.; Okito, Jean Pierre Kalala; Struys, Michel; Vereecke, Hugo Eric Marc


    Background and Goal of Study: Electroencephalogram during anaesthesia may be affected by brain tumour.(1) We studied whether patients with a brain tumour have different BIS responses after laryngoscopy (LAR). We compared tumour patients with healthy control patients. Materials and Methods: After EC

  20. Life satisfaction in adult survivors of childhood brain tumors. (United States)

    Crom, Deborah B; Li, Zhenghong; Brinkman, Tara M; Hudson, Melissa M; Armstrong, Gregory T; Neglia, Joseph; Ness, Kirsten K


    Adult survivors of childhood brain tumors experience multiple, significant, lifelong deficits as a consequence of their malignancy and therapy. Current survivorship literature documents the substantial impact such impairments have on survivors' physical health and quality of life. Psychosocial reports detail educational, cognitive, and emotional limitations characterizing survivors as especially fragile, often incompetent, and unreliable in evaluating their circumstances. Anecdotal data suggest some survivors report life experiences similar to those of healthy controls. The aim of our investigation was to determine whether life satisfaction in adult survivors of childhood brain tumors differs from that of healthy controls and to identify potential predictors of life satisfaction in survivors. This cross-sectional study compared 78 brain tumor survivors with population-based matched controls. Chi-square tests, t tests, and linear regression models were used to investigate patterns of life satisfaction and identify potential correlates. Results indicated that life satisfaction of adult survivors of childhood brain tumors was similar to that of healthy controls. Survivors' general health expectations emerged as the primary correlate of life satisfaction. Understanding life satisfaction as an important variable will optimize the design of strategies to enhance participation in follow-up care, reduce suffering, and optimize quality of life in this vulnerable population.

  1. Multimodal magnetic resonance imaging increases the overall diagnostic accuracy in brain tumours: Correlation with histopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasim Abul-Kasim


    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the contribution of multimodal MRI techniques, specifically perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI, and/or MR spectroscopy (MRS, in increasing the diagnostic accuracy of MRI in brain tumours.Methods: Forty-four patients with suspected brain tumours (27 (61% patients male, mean age 58±17 (mean±SD years were included in this retrospective analysis. Patients were examined with conventional MR sequences, DWI, and with PWI and/or MRS. The concordance between the diagnoses obtained with multimodal MRI and with the conventional MR sequences, and the final diagnosis obtained by biopsy, was estimated. Fisher’s exact test and/or chi-square test was performed to estimate the added utility of multimodal MRI. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05.Results: With multimodal MRI, the diagnosis in 41 (93% patients was the same as that obtained by biopsy, compared with 39% (17/44 patients when the readers were allowed to give one diagnostic possibility during the evaluation of the conventional MR sequences alone (p<0.001. The concordance between the diagnoses provided by evaluating the multimodal MRIs and the final diagnoses was almost perfect (κ value 0.92, 95% CI 0.82 - 1. PWI primarily helped to differentiate lymphomas from other solid tumours, whereas MRS helped to differentiate malignant glioma from metastasis. Both PWI and MRS helped in grading astrocytomas.Conclusion: Multimodal MRI increases diagnostic accuracy and should, wherever available, be performed in the work-up of brain tumours, although this entails increased examination cost and time.

  2. Language and focal brain lesion in childhood. (United States)

    Avila, Lia; Riesgo, Rudimar; Pedroso, Fleming; Goldani, Marcelo; Danesi, Marlene; Ranzan, Josiane; Sleifer, Pricila


    Childhood ischemic strokes can lead to problems like hemiplegias, epilepsies, cognitive changes (memory and mathematical solutions), and language ability (reading, writing, and aphasias). The purpose of this study was to evaluate language and its aspects in children with unilateral ischemic stroke and associate them with the age during the event, injured side, and occurrence of epilepsy. Thirty-two children between 8 months and 19 years of age were evaluated. Among them, 21 (65%) had a change in their language skills, there being a connection between age and the time of injury (P < .05). The most impaired aspects were their phonology, semantics, and syntax. In this sample, there was a persistent change in the semantic aspect, which is an alert for the early detection of learning and future development problems.

  3. Brain Tumour Segmentation based on Extremely Randomized Forest with high-level features. (United States)

    Pinto, Adriano; Pereira, Sergio; Correia, Higino; Oliveira, J; Rasteiro, Deolinda M L D; Silva, Carlos A


    Gliomas are among the most common and aggressive brain tumours. Segmentation of these tumours is important for surgery and treatment planning, but also for follow-up evaluations. However, it is a difficult task, given that its size and locations are variable, and the delineation of all tumour tissue is not trivial, even with all the different modalities of the Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). We propose a discriminative and fully automatic method for the segmentation of gliomas, using appearance- and context-based features to feed an Extremely Randomized Forest (Extra-Trees). Some of these features are computed over a non-linear transformation of the image. The proposed method was evaluated using the publicly available Challenge database from BraTS 2013, having obtained a Dice score of 0.83, 0.78 and 0.73 for the complete tumour, and the core and the enhanced regions, respectively. Our results are competitive, when compared against other results reported using the same database.

  4. Intraoperative probe detecting β- decays in brain tumour radio-guided surgery (United States)

    Solfaroli Camillocci, E.; Bocci, V.; Chiodi, G.; Collamati, F.; Donnarumma, R.; Faccini, R.; Mancini Terracciano, C.; Marafini, M.; Mattei, I.; Muraro, S.; Recchia, L.; Rucinski, A.; Russomando, A.; Toppi, M.; Traini, G.; Morganti, S.


    Radio-guided surgery (RGS) is a technique to intraoperatively detect tumour remnants, favouring a radical resection. Exploiting β- emitting tracers provides a higher signal to background ratio compared to the established technique with γ radiation, allowing the extension of the RGS applicability range. We developed and tested a detector based on para-terphenyl scintillator with high sensitivity to low energy electrons and almost transparent to γs to be used as intraoperative probe for RGS with β- emitting tracer. Portable read out electronics was customised to match the surgeon needs. This probe was used for preclinical test on specific phantoms and a test on ;ex vivo; specimens from patients affected by meningioma showing very promising results for the application of this new technique on brain tumours. In this paper, the prototype of the intraoperative probe and the tests are discussed; then, the results on meningioma are used to make predictions on the performance of the probe detecting residuals of a more challenging and more interesting brain tumour: the glioma.

  5. Cl- and K+ channels and their role in primary brain tumour biology. (United States)

    Turner, Kathryn L; Sontheimer, Harald


    Profound cell volume changes occur in primary brain tumours as they proliferate, invade surrounding tissue or undergo apoptosis. These volume changes are regulated by the flux of Cl(-) and K(+) ions and concomitant movement of water across the membrane, making ion channels pivotal to tumour biology. We discuss which specific Cl(-) and K(+) channels are involved in defined aspects of glioma biology and how these channels are regulated. Cl(-) is accumulated to unusually high concentrations in gliomas by the activity of the NKCC1 transporter and serves as an osmolyte and energetic driving force for volume changes. Cell volume condensation is required as cells enter M phase of the cell cycle and this pre-mitotic condensation is caused by channel-mediated ion efflux. Similarly, Cl(-) and K(+) channels dynamically regulate volume in invading glioma cells allowing them to adjust to small extracellular brain spaces. Finally, cell condensation is a hallmark of apoptosis and requires the concerted activation of Cl(-) and Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels. Given the frequency of mutation and high importance of ion channels in tumour biology, the opportunity exists to target them for treatment.

  6. The Impact of Childhood Trauma on Brain Development: A Literature Review and Supporting Handouts (United States)

    Kirouac, Samantha; McBride, Dawn Lorraine


    This project provides a comprehensive overview of the research literature on the brain and how trauma impacts brain development, structures, and functioning. A basic exploration of childhood trauma is outlined in this project, as it is essential in making associations and connections to brain development. Childhood trauma is processed in the…

  7. Endocannabinoid metabolism in human glioblastomas and meningiomas compared to human non-tumour brain tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, G.; Moesgaard, B.; Hansen, Harald S.


    The endogenous levels of the two cannabinoid receptor ligands 2-arachidonoyl glycerol and anandamide, and their respective congeners, monoacyl glycerols and N-acylethanolamines, as well as the phospholipid precursors of N-acylethanolamines, were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in...... in glioblastoma (WHO grade IV) tissue and meningioma (WHO grade I) tissue and compared with human non-tumour brain tissue. Furthermore, the metabolic turnover of N-acylethanolamines was compared by measurements of the enzymatic activity of N-acyltransferase, N...

  8. Alterations of monocarboxylate transporter densities during hypoxia in brain and breast tumour cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Chang; Edin, Nina F Jeppesen; Lauritzen, Knut H;


    Tumour cells are characterized by aerobic glycolysis, which provides biomass for tumour proliferation and leads to extracellular acidification through efflux of lactate via monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs). Deficient and spasm-prone tumour vasculature causes variable hypoxia, which favours...

  9. Metastatic disease of the brain: extra-axial metastases (skull, dura, leptomeningeal) and tumour spread

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maroldi, Roberto; Ambrosi, Claudia; Farina, Davide [University of Brescia, Department of Radiology, Brescia, BS (Italy)


    Extra-axial intracranial metastases may arise through several situations. Hematogenous spread to the meninges is the most frequent cause. Direct extension from contiguous extra-cranial neoplasms, secondary invasion of the meninges by calvarium and skull base metastases, and migration along perineural or perivascular structures are less common. Leptomeningeal invasion gives rise to tumour cell dissemination by the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), eventually leading to neoplastic coating of brain surfaces. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is complementary to CSF examinations and can be invaluable, detecting up to 50% of false-negative lumbar punctures. MR findings range from diffuse linear leptomeningeal enhancement to multiple enhancing extra-axial nodules, obstructive communicating and non-communicating hydrocephalus. Both calvarial and epidural metastases infrequently transgress the dura, which acts as a barrier against tumour spread. Radionuclide bone studies are still a valuable screening test to detect bone metastases. With computed tomography (CT) and MR, bone metastases extending intracranially and primary dural metastases show the characteristic biconvex shape, usually associated with brain displacement away from the inner table. Although CT is better in detecting skull base erosion, MR is more sensitive and provides more detailed information about dural involvement. Perineural and perivascular spread from head and neck neoplasms require thin-section contrast-enhanced MR. (orig.)

  10. Estimating progression-free survival in paediatric brain tumour patients when some progression statuses are unknown (United States)

    Yuan, Ying; Thall, Peter F.; Wolff, Johannes E.


    Summary In oncology, progression-free survival time, which is defined as the minimum of the times to disease progression or death, often is used to characterize treatment and covariate effects. We are motivated by the desire to estimate the progression time distribution on the basis of data from 780 paediatric patients with choroid plexus tumours, which are a rare brain cancer where disease progression always precedes death. In retrospective data on 674 patients, the times to death or censoring were recorded but progression times were missing. In a prospective study of 106 patients, both times were recorded but there were only 20 non-censored progression times and 10 non-censored survival times. Consequently, estimating the progression time distribution is complicated by the problems that, for most of the patients, either the survival time is known but the progression time is not known, or the survival time is right censored and it is not known whether the patient’s disease progressed before censoring. For data with these missingness structures, we formulate a family of Bayesian parametric likelihoods and present methods for estimating the progression time distribution. The underlying idea is that estimating the association between the time to progression and subsequent survival time from patients having complete data provides a basis for utilizing covariates and partial event time data of other patients to infer their missing progression times. We illustrate the methodology by analysing the brain tumour data, and we also present a simulation study. PMID:22408277

  11. Parental smoking, maternal alcohol, coffee and tea consumption during pregnancy and childhood malignant central nervous system tumours: the ESCALE study (SFCE). (United States)

    Plichart, Matthieu; Menegaux, Florence; Lacour, Brigitte; Hartmann, Olivier; Frappaz, Didier; Doz, François; Bertozzi, Anne-Isabelle; Defaschelles, Anne-Sophie; Pierre-Kahn, Alain; Icher, Céline; Chastagner, Pascal; Plantaz, Dominique; Rialland, Xavier; Hémon, Denis; Clavel, Jacqueline


    Parental smoking and maternal alcohol and caffeinated beverage consumption are prevalent exposures which may play a role, either directly or through their influence on metabolism, in the aetiology of childhood malignant central nervous system (CNS) tumours. The hypothesis was investigated in the Epidemiological Study on childhood Cancer and Leukemia ESCALE study, a national population-based case-control study carried out in France in 2003-2004. The study included 209 incident cases of CNS tumours and 1681 population-based controls, frequency matched with the cases by age and sex. The data were collected through a standardized telephone interview of the biological mothers. No association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and CNS tumours [odds ratio (OR): 1.1 (0.8-1.6)] was observed. Paternal smoking during the year before birth was associated with CNS tumours (P for trend=0.04), particularly astrocytomas [OR: 3.1 (1.3-7.6)]. Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy was not associated with CNS tumours. Associations between ependymomas and the highest consumption of coffee [OR: 2.7 (0.9-8.1)] and tea [OR: 2.5 (1.1-5.9)] were observed. A strong association between CNS tumours and the highest maternal consumption of both coffee and tea during pregnancy was observed [OR: 4.4 (1.5-13)]. The results constitute additional evidence for a role of paternal smoking and suggest that maternal coffee and tea consumption during pregnancy may also increase the risk of CNS tumours. The study does not suggest an increased risk of CNS tumours related to alcohol consumption during pregnancy.

  12. Image-guided microbeam irradiation to brain tumour bearing mice using a carbon nanotube x-ray source array (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Yuan, Hong; Burk, Laurel M.; Inscoe, Christy R.; Hadsell, Michael J.; Chtcheprov, Pavel; Lee, Yueh Z.; Lu, Jianping; Chang, Sha; Zhou, Otto


    Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is a promising experimental and preclinical radiotherapy method for cancer treatment. Synchrotron based MRT experiments have shown that spatially fractionated microbeam radiation has the unique capability of preferentially eradicating tumour cells while sparing normal tissue in brain tumour bearing animal models. We recently demonstrated the feasibility of generating orthovoltage microbeam radiation with an adjustable microbeam width using a carbon nanotube based x-ray source array. Here we report the preliminary results from our efforts in developing an image guidance procedure for the targeted delivery of the narrow microbeams to the small tumour region in the mouse brain. Magnetic resonance imaging was used for tumour identification, and on-board x-ray radiography was used for imaging of landmarks without contrast agents. The two images were aligned using 2D rigid body image registration to determine the relative position of the tumour with respect to a landmark. The targeting accuracy and consistency were evaluated by first irradiating a group of mice inoculated with U87 human glioma brain tumours using the present protocol and then determining the locations of the microbeam radiation tracks using γ-H2AX immunofluorescence staining. The histology results showed that among 14 mice irradiated, 11 received the prescribed number of microbeams on the targeted tumour, with an average localization accuracy of 454 µm measured directly from the histology (537 µm if measured from the registered histological images). Two mice received one of the three prescribed microbeams on the tumour site. One mouse was excluded from the analysis due to tissue staining errors.

  13. A novel brain tumour model in zebrafish reveals the role of YAP activation in MAPK- and PI3K-induced malignant growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Mayrhofer


    Full Text Available Somatic mutations activating MAPK and PI3K signalling play a pivotal role in both tumours and brain developmental disorders. We developed a zebrafish model of brain tumours based on somatic expression of oncogenes that activate MAPK and PI3K signalling in neural progenitor cells and found that HRASV12 was the most effective in inducing both heterotopia and invasive tumours. Tumours, but not heterotopias, require persistent activation of phospho (p-ERK and express a gene signature similar to the mesenchymal glioblastoma subtype, with a strong YAP component. Application of an eight-gene signature to human brain tumours establishes that YAP activation distinguishes between mesenchymal glioblastoma and low grade glioma in a wide The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA sample set including gliomas and glioblastomas (GBMs. This suggests that the activation of YAP might be an important event in brain tumour development, promoting malignant versus benign brain lesions. Indeed, co-expression of dominant-active YAP (YAPS5A and HRASV12 abolishes the development of heterotopias and leads to the sole development of aggressive tumours. Thus, we have developed a model proving that neurodevelopmental disorders and brain tumours might originate from the same activation of oncogenes through somatic mutations, and established that YAP activation is a hallmark of malignant brain tumours.

  14. A novel brain tumour model in zebrafish reveals the role of YAP activation in MAPK- and PI3K-induced malignant growth (United States)

    Mayrhofer, Marie; Gourain, Victor; Reischl, Markus; Affaticati, Pierre; Jenett, Arnim; Joly, Jean-Stephane; Benelli, Matteo; Demichelis, Francesca; Poliani, Pietro Luigi; Sieger, Dirk


    ABSTRACT Somatic mutations activating MAPK and PI3K signalling play a pivotal role in both tumours and brain developmental disorders. We developed a zebrafish model of brain tumours based on somatic expression of oncogenes that activate MAPK and PI3K signalling in neural progenitor cells and found that HRASV12 was the most effective in inducing both heterotopia and invasive tumours. Tumours, but not heterotopias, require persistent activation of phospho (p)-ERK and express a gene signature similar to the mesenchymal glioblastoma subtype, with a strong YAP component. Application of an eight-gene signature to human brain tumours establishes that YAP activation distinguishes between mesenchymal glioblastoma and low grade glioma in a wide The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) sample set including gliomas and glioblastomas (GBMs). This suggests that the activation of YAP might be an important event in brain tumour development, promoting malignant versus benign brain lesions. Indeed, co-expression of dominant-active YAP (YAPS5A) and HRASV12 abolishes the development of heterotopias and leads to the sole development of aggressive tumours. Thus, we have developed a model proving that neurodevelopmental disorders and brain tumours might originate from the same activation of oncogenes through somatic mutations, and established that YAP activation is a hallmark of malignant brain tumours. PMID:27935819

  15. Automated identification of brain tumours from single MR images based on segmentation with refined patient-specific priors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana eSanjuán


    Full Text Available Brain tumours can have different shapes or locations, making their identification very challenging. In functional MRI, it is not unusual that patients have only one anatomical image due to time and financial constraints. Here, we provide a modified automatic lesion identification (ALI procedure which enables brain tumour identification from single MR images. Our method rests on (A a modified segmentation-normalisation procedure with an explicit extra prior for the tumour and (B an outlier detection procedure for abnormal voxel (i.e. tumour classification. To minimise tissue misclassification, the segmentation-normalisation procedure requires prior information of the tumour location and extent. We therefore propose that ALI is run iteratively so that the output of Step B is used as a patient-specific prior in Step A. We test this procedure on real T1-weighted images from 18 patients, and the results were validated in comparison to two independent observers’ manual tracings. The automated procedure identified the tumours successfully with an excellent agreement with the manual segmentation (area under the ROC curve = 0.97 ± 0.03. The proposed procedure increases the flexibility and robustness of the ALI tool and will be particularly useful for lesion-behaviour mapping studies, or when lesion identification and/or spatial normalisation are problematic.

  16. Electroretinography and Visual Evoked Potentials in Childhood Brain Tumor Survivors. (United States)

    Pietilä, Sari; Lenko, Hanna L; Oja, Sakari; Koivisto, Anna-Maija; Pietilä, Timo; Mäkipernaa, Anne


    This population-based cross-sectional study evaluates the clinical value of electroretinography and visual evoked potentials in childhood brain tumor survivors. A flash electroretinography and a checkerboard reversal pattern visual evoked potential (or alternatively a flash visual evoked potential) were done for 51 survivors (age 3.8-28.7 years) after a mean follow-up time of 7.6 (1.5-15.1) years. Abnormal electroretinography was obtained in 1 case, bilaterally delayed abnormal visual evoked potentials in 22/51 (43%) cases. Nine of 25 patients with infratentorial tumor location, and altogether 12 out of 31 (39%) patients who did not have tumors involving the visual pathways, had abnormal visual evoked potentials. Abnormal electroretinographies are rarely observed, but abnormal visual evoked potentials are common even without evident anatomic lesions in the visual pathway. Bilateral changes suggest a general and possibly multifactorial toxic/adverse effect on the visual pathway. Electroretinography and visual evoked potential may have clinical and scientific value while evaluating long-term effects of childhood brain tumors and tumor treatment.

  17. The role of CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL)12-CXC chemokine receptor (CXCR)4 signalling in the migration of neural stem cells towards a brain tumour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meulen, A. A. E.; Biber, K.; Lukovac, S.; Balasubramaniyan, V.; den Dunnen, W. F. A.; Boddeke, H. W. G. M.; Mooij, J. J. A.


    Aims: It has been shown that neural stem cells (NSCs) migrate towards areas of brain injury or brain tumours and that NSCs have the capacity to track infiltrating tumour cells. The possible mechanism behind the migratory behaviour of NSCs is not yet completely understood. As chemokines are involved

  18. Development of a decision support system for diagnosis and grading of brain tumours using in vivo magnetic resonance single voxel spectra.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tate, A.R.; Underwood, J.; Acosta, D.M.; Julia-Sape, M.; Majos, C.; Moreno-Torres, A.; Howe, F.A.; Graaf, M. van der; Lefournier, V.; Murphy, M.M.; Loosemore, A.; Ladroue, C.; Wesseling, P.; Luc Bosson, J.; Cabanas, M.E.; Simonetti, A.W.; Gajewicz, W.; Calvar, J.; Capdevila, A.; Wilkins, P.R.; Bell, B.A.; Remy, C.; Heerschap, A.; Watson, D.; Griffiths, J.R.; Arus, C.


    A computer-based decision support system to assist radiologists in diagnosing and grading brain tumours has been developed by the multi-centre INTERPRET project. Spectra from a database of 1H single-voxel spectra of different types of brain tumours, acquired in vivo from 334 patients at four differe

  19. Effect of childhood maltreatment and brain-derived neurotrophic factor on brain morphology (United States)

    Schmaal, Lianne; Jansen, Rick; Milaneschi, Yuri; Opmeer, Esther M.; Elzinga, Bernet M.; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; Veltman, Dick J.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.


    Childhood maltreatment (CM) has been associated with altered brain morphology, which may partly be due to a direct impact on neural growth, e.g. through the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) pathway. Findings on CM, BDNF and brain volume are inconsistent and have never accounted for the entire BDNF pathway. We examined the effects of CM, BDNF (genotype, gene expression and protein level) and their interactions on hippocampus, amygdala and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) morphology. Data were collected from patients with depression and/or an anxiety disorder and healthy subjects within the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA) (N = 289). CM was assessed using the Childhood Trauma Interview. BDNF Val66Met genotype, gene expression and serum protein levels were determined in blood and T1 MRI scans were acquired at 3T. Regional brain morphology was assessed using FreeSurfer. Covariate-adjusted linear regression analyses were performed. Amygdala volume was lower in maltreated individuals. This was more pronounced in maltreated met-allele carriers. The expected positive relationship between BDNF gene expression and volume of the amygdala is attenuated in maltreated subjects. Finally, decreased cortical thickness of the ACC was identified in maltreated subjects with the val/val genotype. CM was associated with altered brain morphology, partly in interaction with multiple levels of the BNDF pathway. Our results suggest that CM has different effects on brain morphology in met-carriers and val-homozygotes and that CM may disrupt the neuroprotective effect of BDNF. PMID:27405617

  20. Semi-supervised analysis of human brain tumours from partially labeled MRS information, using manifold learning models. (United States)

    Cruz-Barbosa, Raúl; Vellido, Alfredo


    Medical diagnosis can often be understood as a classification problem. In oncology, this typically involves differentiating between tumour types and grades, or some type of discrete outcome prediction. From the viewpoint of computer-based medical decision support, this classification requires the availability of accurate diagnoses of past cases as training target examples. The availability of such labeled databases is scarce in most areas of oncology, and especially so in neuro-oncology. In such context, semi-supervised learning oriented towards classification can be a sensible data modeling choice. In this study, semi-supervised variants of Generative Topographic Mapping, a model of the manifold learning family, are applied to two neuro-oncology problems: the diagnostic discrimination between different brain tumour pathologies, and the prediction of outcomes for a specific type of aggressive brain tumours. Their performance compared favorably with those of the alternative Laplacian Eigenmaps and Semi-Supervised SVM for Manifold Learning models in most of the experiments.

  1. An Improved Brain Tumour Classification System using Wavelet Transform and Neural Network. (United States)

    Dhas, DAS; Madheswaran, M


    An improved brain tumour classification system using wavelet transform and neural network is developed and presented in this paper. The anisotropic diffusion filter is used for image denoising and the performance of oriented rician noise reducing anisotropic diffusion (ORNRAD) filter is validated. The segmentation of the denoised image is carried out by Fuzzy C-means clustering. The features are extracted using Symlet and Coiflet Wavelet transform and Levenberg Marquardt algorithm based neural network is used to classify the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images. This MRI classification technique is tested and analysed with the existing methodologies and its performance is found to be satisfactory with a classification accuracy of 93.02%. The developed system can assist the physicians for classifying the MRI images for better decision-making.

  2. Lipopolysaccharide induces expression of tumour necrosis factor alpha in rat brain : inhibition by methylprednisolone and by rolipram

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buttini, M; Mir, A; Appel, K; Wiederhold, KH; Limonta, S; GebickeHaerter, PJ; Boddeke, HWGM


    1 We have investigated the effects of the phosphodiesterase (PDE) type TV inhibitor rolipram and of the glucocorticoid methylprednisolone on the induction of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) mRNA and protein in brains of rats after peripheral administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). 2 Aft

  3. Radioisotope scanning of brain, liver, lung and bone with a note on tumour localizing agents (United States)

    Lavender, J. P.


    Radioisotopic scanning of brain, liver, lungs and the skeleton is briefly reviewed with a survey of recent developments of clinical significance. In brain scanning neoplasm detection rates of greater than 90% are claimed. The true figure is probably 70-80%. Autopsy data shows a number of false negatives, particularly with vascular lesions. Attempts to make scanning more specific in differentiating neoplasm from vascular lesions by rapid sequence blood flow studies are reviewed. In liver scanning by means of colloids again high success rate is claimed but small metastases are frequently missed and the false negative scan rate is probably quite high. Lung scanning still has its main place in investigating pulmonary embolic disease. Ventilation studies using Xenon 133 are useful, particularly combined with perfusion studies. The various radiopharmaceuticals for use in bone scanning are reviewed. The appearance of technetium labelled phosphate compounds will probably allow much wider use of total skeletal scanning. Research into tumour localizing agents continues, the most recent and interesting being Gallium citrate and labelled bleomycin. Neither agent is predictable however although Gallium may have a place in Hodgkins disease and bronchogenic neoplasm and both may have a place in the detection of cerebral tumours. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3p452-bFig. 3bFig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 5bFig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 12c & 12dFig. 13Fig. 13 b,c,dFig. 14Fig. 14bFig. 15Fig. 15bFig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 18 PMID:4602127

  4. 5-Amino-4-oxopentanoic acid photodynamic diagnosis guided microsurgery and photodynamic therapy on VX2 brain tumour implanted in a rabbit model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Hong; LIAO Qiong; CHENG Ming; LI Fei; XIE Bing; LI Mei; FENG Hua


    Background Complete tumour resection is important for improving the prognosis of brain tumour patients. However,extensive resection remains controversial because the tumour margin is difficult to be distinguished from surrounding brain tissue. It has been established that 5-amino-4-oxopentanoic acid (5-aminolevulinic acid, ALA) can be used as a photodynamic diagnostic marker and a photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy in surgical treatment of brain tumours. We investigated the efficacy of ALA photodynamically guided microsurgery and photodynamic therapy on VX2 brain tumour implanted in a rabbit model.Methods Eighty New Zealand rabbits implanted with VX2 brain tumours were randomly assigned to five groups: control, conventional white light microsurgery, a photodynamic therapy group, a photodynamically guided microsurgery group and a group in which guided microsurgery was followed by photodynamic therapy. The VX2 tumour was resected under a surgical microscope. The tumour resection was confirmed with histological analysis. All animals were examined with MRI for presence of any residual tumour tissue. The survival time of each rabbit was recorded.Results All treatment groups showed a significantly extended survival time compared with the control group.Photodynamically guided microsurgery combined with photodynamic therapy significantly prolonged survival time, compared with guided microsurgery alone. MRI and the autopsy results confirmed removal of most of the tumours.Conclusions Our results suggest that photodynamically guided surgery and photodynamic therapy significantly reduce or delay local recurrence, increase the effectiveness of radical resection and prolong the survival time of tumour bearing rabbits, Their combination has the potential to be used as a rapid and highly effective treatment of metastatic brain tumours.

  5. Perceptual evaluation of motor speech following treatment for childhood cerebellar tumour. (United States)

    Cornwell, Petrea L; Murdoch, Bruce E; Ward, Elizabeth C; Kellie, Stewart


    The speech characteristics, oromotor function and speech intelligibility of a group of children treated for cerebellar tumour (CT) was investigated perceptually. Assessment of these areas was performed on 11 children treated for CT with dysarthric speech as well as 21 non-neurologically impaired controls matched for age and sex to obtain a comprehensive perceptual profile of their speech and oromotor mechanism. Contributing to the perception of dysarthria were a number of deviant speech dimensions including imprecision of consonants, hoarseness and decreased pitch variation, as well as a reduction in overall speech intelligibility for both sentences and connected speech. Oromotor assessment revealed deficits in lip, tongue and laryngeal function, particularly relating to deficits in timing and coordination of movements. The most salient features of the dysarthria seen in children treated for CT were the mild nature of the speech disorder and clustering of speech deficits in the prosodic, phonatory and articulatory aspects of speech production.

  6. Challenges in providing culturally-competent care to patients with metastatic brain tumours and their families. (United States)

    Longo, Lianne; Slater, Serena


    Being diagnosed with a metastatic brain tumour can be devastating as it is characterized by very low cure rates, as well as significant morbidity and mortality. Given the poor life expectancy and progressive disability that ensues, patients and family members experience much turmoil, which includes losses that bring about changes to family roles, routines and relationships. Crisis and conflict are common during such major disruptions to a family system, as individual members attempt to make sense of the illness experience based on cultural and spiritual beliefs, past experiences and personal philosophies. It is imperative health care providers strive towards increased awareness and knowledge of how culture affects the overall experience of illness and death in order to help create a mutually satisfactory care plan. Providing culturally-competent care entails the use of proper communication skills to facilitate the exploration of patient and family perspectives and allows for mutual decision making. A case study will illustrate the challenges encountered in providing culturally-competent care to a woman with brain cancer and her family. As the patient's health declined, the family entered into a state of crisis where communication between family members and health care professionals was strained; leading to conflict and sub-optimal outcomes. This paper will address the ethical dilemma of providing culturally-competent care when a patient's safety is at risk, and the nursing implications of upholding best practices in the context of differing beliefs and priorities.

  7. Dosimetric and geometric evaluation of an open low-field magnetic resonance simulator for radiotherapy treatment planning of brain tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, B.H.; Laursen, F.J.; Logager, V.


    distortion within radial distances below 12 cm (2% are observed in low dose areas. Monte Carlo simulations with 4 MV photons show large deviations in dose (>2%) just behind the skull if bone is not segmented. Conclusions: It is feasible to use an MR...... patients with brain tumours are both CT and MR scanned and the defined tumour volumes are compared. Image distortions and dose calculations based on CT density correction, MR unit density and MR bulk density, bone segmentation are performed. Monte Carlo simulations using 4 and 8 MV beams on homogeneous...... and bone segmented mediums are performed. Results: Mean MR and CT tumour volumes of approximately the same size ((V-MR) over bar = 55 +/- 34 cm(3) and (V-CT) over bar = 51 +/- 32 cm(3)) are observed, but for individual patients, small intersection volumes are observed. The MR images show negligible...

  8. Final height and body mass index among adult survivors of childhood brain cancer: childhood cancer survivor study. (United States)

    Gurney, James G; Ness, Kirsten K; Stovall, Marilyn; Wolden, Suzanne; Punyko, Judy A; Neglia, Joseph P; Mertens, Ann C; Packer, Roger J; Robison, Leslie L; Sklar, Charles A


    The objectives of this study were 1) to compare final height and body mass index (BMI) between adult survivors of childhood brain cancer and age- and sex-matched population norms, 2) to quantify the effects of treatment- and cancer-related factors on the risk of final height below the 10th percentile (adult short stature) or having a BMI of 30 kg/m(2) or more (obesity). Treatment records were abstracted and surveys completed by 921 adults aged 20-45 yr who were treated for brain cancer as children and were participants in the multicenter Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Nearly 40% of childhood brain cancer survivors were below the 10th percentile for height. The strongest risk factors for adult short stature were young age at diagnosis and radiation treatment involving the hypothalamic-pituitary axis (HPA). The multivariate odds ratio for adult short stature among those 4 yr of age or younger at diagnosis, relative to ages 10-20 yr, was 5.67 (95% confidence interval, 3.6-8.9). HPA radiation exposure increased the risk of adult short stature in a dose-response fashion (trend test, P obesity. Except for patients treated with surgery only, survivors of childhood brain cancer are at very high risk for adult short stature, and this risk increases with radiation dose involving the HPA. We did not find a corresponding elevated risk for obesity.

  9. Increased levels of deleted in malignant brain tumours 1 (DMBT1) in active bacteria-related appendicitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaemmerer, Elke; Schneider, Ursula; Klaus, Christina;


    Kaemmerer E, Schneider U, Klaus C, Plum P, Reinartz A, Adolf M, Renner M, Wolfs T G A M, Kramer B W, Wagner N, Mollenhauer J & Gassler N (2012) Histopathology Increased levels of deleted in malignant brain tumours 1 (DMBT1) in active bacteria-related appendicitis Aims:  Deleted in malignant brain...... tumours 1 (DMBT1; gp340) is a secreted glycoprotein which is found in the surface lining epithelia of human small and large intestine. DMBT1 is suggested to play a role in enterocyte differentiation and surface protection from intestinal bacteria. The aim of this study was to elucidate DMBT1 expression...... adjacent to erosive lesions or ulcers. Conclusions:  Our data demonstrate that bacteria-related active inflammation results in a sharp increase of DMBT1 levels in enterocytes. These findings substantiate the view that DMBT1 is of functional relevance for host defence and modulation of the course...

  10. A case series discussing the anaesthetic management of pregnant patients with brain tumours [v2; ref status: indexed,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa A Abd-Elsayed


    Full Text Available Pregnancy may aggravate the natural history of an intracranial tumour, and may even unmask a previously unknown diagnosis. Here we present a series of seven patients who had brain tumours during pregnancy. The aim of this case series is to characterize the current perioperative management and to suggest evidence based guidelines for the anaesthetic management of pregnant females with brain tumours. This is a retrospective study. Information on pregnant patients diagnosed with brain tumours that underwent caesarean section (CS and/or brain tumour resection from May 2003 through June 2008 was obtained from the Department of General Anaesthesia and the Rose Ella Burkhardt Brain Tumour & Neuro-Oncology Centre (BBTC at the Cleveland Clinic, OH, USA. The mean age was 34.5 years (range 29-40 years old. Six patients had glioma, two of whom had concomitant craniotomy and CS. Six cases had the tumour in the frontal lobe. Four cases were operated on under general anaesthesia and three underwent awake craniotomy. The neonatal outcomes of the six patients with elective or emergent delivery were six viable infants with normal Apgar scores. Pregnancy was terminated in the 7th patient. In conclusion, good knowledge of the variable anesthetic agents and their effects on the fetus is very important in managing those patients.

  11. Validating a robust double‐quantum‐filtered 1H MRS lactate measurement method in high‐grade brain tumours


    Payne, G S; Harris, L M; Cairns, G.S.; Messiou, C; deSouza, N M; Macdonald, A.; Saran, F.; Leach, M. O.


    1H MRS measurements of lactate are often confounded by overlapping lipid signals. Double‐quantum (DQ) filtering eliminates lipid signals and permits single‐shot measurements, which avoid subtraction artefacts in moving tissues. This study evaluated a single‐voxel‐localized DQ filtering method qualitatively and quantitatively for measuring lactate concentrations in the presence of lipid, using high‐grade brain tumours in which the results could be compared with standard acquisition as a refere...

  12. Perioperative thromboprophylaxis in patients with craniotomy for brain tumours: a systematic review. (United States)

    Salmaggi, Andrea; Simonetti, Giorgia; Trevisan, Elisa; Beecher, Deirdre; Carapella, Carmine Maria; DiMeco, Francesco; Conti, Laura; Pace, Andrea; Filippini, Graziella


    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) events are frequent in neurooncological patients in perioperative period thus increasing mortality and morbidity. The role of prophylaxis has not yet been established with certainty, and in various neurosurgery and intensive care units the practice is inconsistent. A better definition of the risk/cost/benefit ratio of the various methods, both mechanical (intermittent pneumatic compression-IPC, graduated compression stockings-GCS) and pharmacological (unfractionated heparin-UFH or low molecular weight heparin-LMWH), is warranted. We aim to define the optimal prophylactic treatment in the perioperative period in neurooncological patients. A systematic review of the literature was performed in Medline, Embase and Cochrane Library. Thirteen randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were identified, in which physical methods (IPC or GCS) and/or drugs (UFH or LMWHs) were evaluated in perioperative prophylaxis of neurological patients, mostly with brain cancer not treated with anticoagulants for other diseases. The analysis was conducted on a total of 1,932 randomized patients of whom 1,558 had brain tumours. Overall data show a trend of reduction of VTE in patients treated with mechanical methods (IPC or GCS) that should be initiated preoperatively and continued until discharge or longer in case of persistence of risk factors. The addition of enoxaparin starting the day after surgery, significantly reduces clinically manifest VTE, despite an increase in major bleeding events. Further studies are needed to delineate the types of patients with an increase of VTE risk and risk/benefits ratio of physical and pharmacological treatments in the perioperative period.

  13. In vitro growth environment produces lipidomic and electron transport chain abnormalities in mitochondria from non-tumorigenic astrocytes and brain tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas N Seyfried


    Full Text Available The mitochondrial lipidome influences ETC (electron transport chain and cellular bioenergetic efficiency. Brain tumours are largely dependent on glycolysis for energy due to defects in mitochondria and oxidative phosphorylation. In the present study, we used shotgun lipidomics to compare the lipidome in highly purified mitochondria isolated from normal brain, from brain tumour tissue, from cultured tumour cells and from non-tumorigenic astrocytes. The tumours included the CT-2A astrocytoma and an EPEN (ependymoblastoma, both syngeneic with the C57BL/6J (B6 mouse strain. The mitochondrial lipidome in cultured CT-2A and EPEN tumour cells were compared with those in cultured astrocytes and in solid tumours grown in vivo. Major differences were found between normal tissue and tumour tissue and between in vivo and in vitro growth environments for the content or composition of ethanolamine glycerophospholipids, phosphatidylglycerol and cardiolipin. The mitochondrial lipid abnormalities in solid tumours and in cultured cells were associated with reductions in multiple ETC activities, especially Complex I. The in vitro growth environment produced lipid and ETC abnormalities in cultured non-tumorigenic astrocytes that were similar to those associated with tumorigenicity. It appears that the culture environment obscures the boundaries of the Crabtree and the Warburg effects. These results indicate that in vitro growth environments can produce abnormalities in mitochondrial lipids and ETC activities, thus contributing to a dependency on glycolysis for ATP production.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋广军; 赵春兰


    颅脑肿瘤自身边缘包含重要的病变信息,提取脑肿瘤区域,对脑部疾病的诊断和治疗具有重要意义。 Ncut ( Normalized Cut)是基于图理的典型分割方法。将Ncut算法应用到颅脑MRI肿瘤图像的分割中,针对不同颅脑MRI肿瘤图像,进行相关参数测试,选择合适的权重及参数,进行颅脑MR肿瘤的提取。通过利用Matlab进行仿真测试可知Ncut方法能够提取出肿瘤所在的基本轮廓,取得较好效果。%The brain tumour edge contains important pathology information itself ;it has the important meaning to extract brain tumour area for brain disease diagnosis and treatment .Ncut algorithm is the typical segmentation method based on graph theory .We apply the Ncut algorithm to MRI brain tumour image segmentation , test the related parameters according to different brain MRI tumour images , and select appropriate weights and parameters to extract MR image brain tumour .Through the use of Matlab in simulation test , we know that the Ncut method can extract the basic outline of tumour and achieve good effect .

  15. Spectroscopic magnetic resonance imaging of the brain: voxel localisation and tissue segmentation in the follow up of brain tumour. (United States)

    Poloni, Guy; Bastianello, S; Vultaggio, Angela; Pozzi, S; Maccabelli, Gloria; Germani, Giancarlo; Chiarati, Patrizia; Pichiecchio, Anna


    The field of application of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in biomedical research is expanding all the time and providing opportunities to investigate tissue metabolism and function. The data derived can be integrated with the information on tissue structure gained from conventional and non-conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques. Clinical MRS is also strongly expected to play an important role as a diagnostic tool. Essential for the future success of MRS as a clinical and research tool in biomedical sciences, both in vivo and in vitro, is the development of an accurate, biochemically relevant and physically consistent and reliable data analysis standard. Stable and well established analysis algorithms, in both the time and the frequency domain, are already available, as is free commercial software for implementing them. In this study, we propose an automatic algorithm that takes into account anatomical localisation, relative concentrations of white matter, grey matter, cerebrospinal fluid and signal abnormalities and inter-scan patient movement. The endpoint is the collection of a series of covariates that could be implemented in a multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) of the MRS data, as a tool for dealing with differences that may be ascribed to the anatomical variability of the subjects, to inaccuracies in the localisation of the voxel or slab, or to movement, rather than to the pathology under investigation. The aim was to develop an analysis procedure that can be consistently and reliably applied in the follow up of brain tumour. In this study, we demonstrate that the inclusion of such variables in the data analysis of quantitative MRS is fundamentally important (especially in view of the reduced accuracy typical of MRS measures compared to other MRI techniques), reducing the occurrence of false positives.

  16. A case series discussing the anaesthetic management of pregnant patients with brain tumours [v1; ref status: indexed,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa A Abd-Elsayed


    Full Text Available Pregnancy may aggravate the natural history of an intracranial tumour, and may even unmask a previously unknown diagnosis. Here we present a series of seven patients who had brain tumours during pregnancy. The aim of this case series is to characterize the current perioperative management and to suggest evidence based guidelines for the anaesthetic management of pregnant females with brain tumours. This is a retrospective study. Information on pregnant patients diagnosed with brain tumours that underwent caesarean section (CS and/or brain tumour resection from May 2003 through June 2008 was obtained from the Department of General Anaesthesia and the Rose Ella Burkhardt Brain Tumour & Neuro-Oncology Centre (BBTC at the Cleveland Clinic, OH, USA. The mean age was 34.5 years (range 29-40 years old. Six patients had glioma, two of whom had concomitant craniotomy and CS. Six cases had the tumour in the frontal lobe. Four cases were operated on under general anaesthesia and three underwent awake craniotomy. The neonatal outcomes of the six patients with elective or emergent delivery were six viable infants with normal Apgar scores. Pregnancy was terminated in the 7th patient. In conclusion, management of brain tumours in pregnant women is mainly reliant on case reports and the doctor’s personal experience. Therefore, close communication between the neurosurgeon, neuroanaesthetist, obstetrician and the patient is crucial. General anaesthesia, propofol, dexmedetomidine and remifentanil were used in our study and were safe. Although this may not agree with previous studies, desflurane and isoflurane were used in our patients with no detectable complications.

  17. A standardized and reproducible protocol for serum-free monolayer culturing of primary paediatric brain tumours to be utilized for therapeutic assays. (United States)

    Sandén, Emma; Eberstål, Sofia; Visse, Edward; Siesjö, Peter; Darabi, Anna


    In vitro cultured brain tumour cells are indispensable tools for drug screening and therapeutic development. Serum-free culture conditions tentatively preserve the features of the original tumour, but commonly comprise neurosphere propagation, which is a technically challenging procedure. Here, we define a simple, non-expensive and reproducible serum-free cell culture protocol for establishment and propagation of primary paediatric brain tumour cultures as adherent monolayers. The success rates for establishment of primary cultures (including medulloblastomas, atypical rhabdoid tumour, ependymomas and astrocytomas) were 65% (11/17) and 78% (14/18) for sphere cultures and monolayers respectively. Monolayer culturing was particularly feasible for less aggressive tumour subsets, where neurosphere cultures could not be generated. We show by immunofluorescent labelling that monolayers display phenotypic similarities with corresponding sphere cultures and primary tumours, and secrete clinically relevant inflammatory factors, including PGE2, VEGF, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-15. Moreover, secretion of PGE2 was considerably reduced by treatment with the COX-2 inhibitor Valdecoxib, demonstrating the functional utility of our newly established monolayer for preclinical therapeutic assays. Our findings suggest that this culture method could increase the availability and comparability of clinically representative in vitro models of paediatric brain tumours, and encourages further molecular evaluation of serum-free monolayer cultures.

  18. Whole brain irradiation with hippocampal sparing and dose escalation on multiple brain metastases. Local tumour control and survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oehlke, Oliver; Wucherpfennig, David; Prokic, Vesna [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Freiburg (Germany); Fels, Franziska [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Freiburg (Germany); St. Josefs Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Offenburg (Germany); Frings, Lars [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Freiburg (Germany); University Hospital Freiburg, Department of Geriatrics and Gerontology, Freiburg (Germany); University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Freiburg (Germany); Egger, Karl [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Neuroradiology, Freiburg (Germany); Weyerbrock, Astrid [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Neurosurgery, Freiburg (Germany); Nieder, Carsten [Nordland Hospital, Department of Oncology and Palliative Medicine, Bodoe (Norway); University of Tromsoe, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Tromsoe (Norway); Grosu, Anca-Ligia [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Freiburg (Germany); German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Freiburg (Germany); German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany)


    Hippocampal-avoidance whole brain radiotherapy (HA-WBRT) for multiple brain metastases may prevent treatment-related cognitive decline, compared to standard WBRT. Additionally, simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) on individual metastases may further improve the outcome. Here, we present initial data concerning local tumour control (LTC), intracranial progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), toxicity and safety for this new irradiation technique. Twenty patients, enrolled between 2011 and 2013, were treated with HA-WBRT (30 Gy in 12 fractions, D{sub 98} {sub %} to hippocampus ≤ 9 Gy) and a SIB (51 Gy) on multiple (2-13) metastases using a volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) approach based on 2-4 arcs. Metastases were evaluated bidimensionally along the two largest diameters in contrast-enhanced three-dimensional T1-weighed MRI. Median follow-up was 40 weeks. The median time to progression of boosted metastases has not been reached yet, corresponding to a LTC rate of 73 %. Median intracranial PFS was 40 weeks, corresponding to a 1-year PFS of 45.3 %. Median OS was 71.5 weeks, corresponding to a 1-year OS of 60 %. No obvious acute or late toxicities grade > 2 (NCI CTCAE v4.03) were observed. D{sub mean} to the bilateral hippocampi was 6.585 Gy ± 0.847 (α/β = 2 Gy). Two patients developed a new metastasis in the area of hippocampal avoidance. HA-WBRT (simultaneous integrated protection, SIP) with SIB to metastases is a safe and tolerable regime that shows favorable LTC for patients with multiple brain metastases, while it has the potential to minimize the side-effect of cognitive deterioration. (orig.) [German] Die Hippocampus-schonende Ganzhirnbestrahlung (HS-GHB) kann im Vergleich zur Standard-GHB die Verschlechterung der neurokognitiven Funktion verhindern. Zusaetzlich vermag ein simultan integrierter Boost (SIB) auf die Metastasen die Prognose der betroffenen Patienten weiter zu verbessern. In dieser Studie praesentieren wir erste Ergebnisse

  19. Dynamic CT perfusion imaging of intra-axial brain tumours: differentiation of high-grade gliomas from primary CNS lymphomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, Peter; Xyda, Argyro; Knauth, Michael [University of Goettingen, Medical Center, Department of Neuroradiology, Goettingen (Germany); Klotz, Ernst [Computed Tomography, SIEMENS Healthcare Sector, Forchheim (Germany); Tronnier, Volker [University Schleswig-Holstein, Department of Neurosurgery, Luebeck (Germany); Hartmann, Marius [University of Heidelberg, Medical Center, Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Neurology, Heidelberg (Germany)


    Perfusion computed tomography (PCT) allows to quantitatively assess haemodynamic characteristics of brain tissue. We investigated if different brain tumor types can be distinguished from each other using Patlak analysis of PCT data. PCT data from 43 patients with brain tumours were analysed with a commercial implementation of the Patlak method. Four patients had low-grade glioma (WHO II), 31 patients had glioblastoma (WHO IV) and eight patients had intracerebral lymphoma. Tumour regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn in a morphological image and automatically transferred to maps of cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV) and permeability (K {sup Trans}). Mean values were calculated, group differences were tested using Wilcoxon and Mann Whitney U-tests. In comparison with normal parenchyma, low-grade gliomas showed no significant difference of perfusion parameters (p > 0.05), whereas high-grade gliomas demonstrated significantly higher values (p < 0.0001 for K {sup Trans}, p < 0.0001 for CBV and p = 0.0002 for CBF). Lymphomas displayed significantly increased mean K{sup Trans} values compared with unaffected cerebral parenchyma (p = 0.0078) but no elevation of CBV. High-grade gliomas show significant higher CBV values than lymphomas (p = 0.0078). PCT allows to reliably classify gliomas and lymphomas based on quantitative measurements of CBV and K {sup Trans}. (orig.)

  20. Advance care planning in patients with primary malignant brain tumours: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystal Song


    Full Text Available Advance care planning (ACP is a process of reflection and communication of a person’s future health care preferences, and has been shown to improve end-of-life care for patients. The aim of this systematic review is to present an evidence-based overview of ACP in patients with primary malignant brain tumours (pmBT. A comprehensive literature search was conducted using medical and health science electronic databases (PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, MEDLINE, ProQuest, Social Care Online, Scopus and Web of Science up to July 2016. Manual search of bibliographies of articles and grey literature search were also conducted. Two independent reviewers selected studies, extracted data and assessed the methodologic quality of the studies using the Critical Appraisal Skills Program’s appraisal tools. All studies were included irrespective of the study design. A meta-analysis was not possible due to heterogeneity amongst included studies; therefore, a narrative analysis was performed for best evidence synthesis. Overall, 19 studies were included (1 RCT, 17 cohort studies, 1 qualitative study with 4686 participants. All studies scored low to moderate on the methodological quality assessment, implying high risk of bias. A single RCT evaluating a video decision support tool in facilitating ACP in pmBT patients showed a beneficial effect in promoting comfort care and gaining confidence in decision–making. However, the effect of the intervention on quality of life and care at the end-of-life were unclear. There was a low rate of use of ACP discussions at the end-of-life. Advance Directive completion rates and place of death varied between different studies. Positive effects of ACP included lower hospital readmission rates, and intensive care unit utilization. None of the studies assessed mortality outcomes associated with ACP. In conclusion, this review found some beneficial effects of ACP in pmBT. The literature still remains limited in this area, with lack of

  1. Multimodal imaging utilising integrated MR-PET for human brain tumour assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuner, Irene [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine 4, INM 4, Juelich (Germany); RWTH Aachen University, Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, Aachen (Germany); JARA-BRAIN-Translational Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Kaffanke, Joachim B. [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine 4, INM 4, Juelich (Germany); MR-Transfer e.K., Wuppertal (Germany); Langen, Karl-Josef; Kops, Elena Rota; Tellmann, Lutz; Stoffels, Gabriele; Weirich, Christoph; Filss, Christian; Scheins, Juergen; Herzog, Hans [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine 4, INM 4, Juelich (Germany); Shah, N. Jon [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine 4, INM 4, Juelich (Germany); RWTH Aachen University, Department of Neurology, Aachen (Germany); JARA-BRAIN-Translational Medicine, Aachen (Germany)


    The development of integrated magnetic resonance (MR)-positron emission tomography (PET) hybrid imaging opens up new horizons for imaging in neuro-oncology. In cerebral gliomas the definition of tumour extent may be difficult to ascertain using standard MR imaging (MRI) only. The differentiation of post-therapeutic scar tissue, tumour rests and tumour recurrence is challenging. The relationship to structures such as the pyramidal tract to the tumour mass influences the therapeutic neurosurgical approach. The diagnostic information may be enriched by sophisticated MR techniques such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), multiple-volume proton MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) and functional MRI (fMRI). Metabolic imaging with PET, especially using amino acid tracers such as {sup 18}F-fluoroethyl-l-tyrosine (FET) or {sup 11}C-l-methionine (MET) will indicate tumour extent and response to treatment. The new technologies comprising MR-PET hybrid systems have the advantage of providing comprehensive answers by a one-stop-job of 40-50 min. The combined approach provides data of different modalities using the same iso-centre, resulting in optimal spatial and temporal realignment. All images are acquired exactly under the same physiological conditions. We describe the imaging protocol in detail and provide patient examples for the different imaging modalities such as FET-PET, standard structural imaging (T1-weighted, T2-weighted, T1-weighted contrast agent enhanced), DTI, MRSI and fMRI. (orig.)

  2. [Preliminary evidence of neurobiological and behavioral consequences of exposure to childhood maltreatment on regional brain development]. (United States)

    Tomoda, Akemi


    In recent years, the topic of child abuse as an issue facing Japanese society has gained considerable attention with regard to the field of medicine and education and also in scenarios that relate to child care. The definition of child abuse includes abusing children verbally or psychologically, and is not limited to abusing children physically such as beating, sexual abuse, or neglect. Recent studies have revealed that emotional trauma during childhood development could be much more difficult to treat than physical abuse. Severe abuse during childhood can cause abnormal brain development and have a negative impact later in life. In this review, I will introduce the mechanisms of brain damage due to child abuse with consideration of how and when child abuse can have an impact on the victims' brains. The information presented is based on a collaborative study with the Psychiatry Department at Harvard University on the relationship between brain functions and the human mind.

  3. Social outcomes in childhood brain disorder: a heuristic integration of social neuroscience and developmental psychology. (United States)

    Yeates, Keith Owen; Bigler, Erin D; Dennis, Maureen; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Rubin, Kenneth H; Stancin, Terry; Taylor, H Gerry; Vannatta, Kathryn


    The authors propose a heuristic model of the social outcomes of childhood brain disorder that draws on models and methods from both the emerging field of social cognitive neuroscience and the study of social competence in developmental psychology/psychopathology. The heuristic model characterizes the relationships between social adjustment, peer interactions and relationships, social problem solving and communication, social-affective and cognitive-executive processes, and their neural substrates. The model is illustrated by research on a specific form of childhood brain disorder, traumatic brain injury. The heuristic model may promote research regarding the neural and cognitive-affective substrates of children's social development. It also may engender more precise methods of measuring impairments and disabilities in children with brain disorder and suggest ways to promote their social adaptation.

  4. Mir-34a mimics are potential therapeutic agents for p53-mutated and chemo-resistant brain tumour cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuen Ngan Fan

    Full Text Available Chemotherapeutic drug resistance and relapse remains a major challenge for paediatric (medulloblastoma and adult (glioblastoma brain tumour treatment. Medulloblastoma tumours and cell lines with mutations in the p53 signalling pathway have been shown to be specifically insensitive to DNA damaging agents. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of triggering cell death in p53 mutated medulloblastoma cells by a direct activation of pro-death signalling downstream of p53 activation. Since non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs have the ability to fine tune the expression of a variety of target genes, orchestrating multiple downstream effects, we hypothesised that triggering the expression of a p53 target miRNA could induce cell death in chemo-resistant cells. Treatment with etoposide, increased miR-34a levels in a p53-dependent fashion and the level of miR-34a transcription was correlated with the cell sensitivity to etoposide. miR-34a activity was validated by measuring the expression levels of one of its well described target: the NADH dependent sirtuin1 (SIRT1. Whilst drugs directly targeting SIRT1, were potent to trigger cell death at high concentrations only, introduction of synthetic miR-34a mimics was able to induce cell death in p53 mutated medulloblastoma and glioblastoma cell lines. Our results show that the need of a functional p53 signaling pathway can be bypassed by direct activation of miR-34a in brain tumour cells.

  5. Diagnostic benefits of presurgical fMRI in patients with brain tumours in the primary sensorimotor cortex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wengenroth, Martina; Blatow, M.; Guenther, J. [University of Heidelberg Medical School, Department of Neuroradiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Akbar, M. [University of Heidelberg Medical School, Department of Orthopaedics, Heidelberg (Germany); Tronnier, V.M. [University of Schleswig-Holstein, Department of Neurosurgery, Luebeck (Germany); Stippich, C. [University Hospital Basle, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Neuroradiology, Basle (Switzerland)


    Reliable imaging of eloquent tumour-adjacent brain areas is necessary for planning function-preserving neurosurgery. This study evaluates the potential diagnostic benefits of presurgical functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in comparison to a detailed analysis of morphological MRI data. Standardised preoperative functional and structural neuroimaging was performed on 77 patients with rolandic mass lesions at 1.5 Tesla. The central region of both hemispheres was allocated using six morphological and three functional landmarks. fMRI enabled localisation of the motor hand area in 76/77 patients, which was significantly superior to analysis of structural MRI (confident localisation of motor hand area in 66/77 patients; p < 0.002). FMRI provided additional diagnostic information in 96% (tongue representation) and 97% (foot representation) of patients. FMRI-based presurgical risk assessment correlated in 88% with a positive postoperative clinical outcome. Routine presurgical FMRI allows for superior assessment of the spatial relationship between brain tumour and motor cortex compared with a very detailed analysis of structural 3D MRI, thus significantly facilitating the preoperative risk-benefit assessment and function-preserving surgery. The additional imaging time seems justified. FMRI has the potential to reduce postoperative morbidity and therefore hospitalisation time. (orig.)

  6. X-ray fluorescence study of the concentration of selected trace and minor elements in human brain tumours (United States)

    Wandzilak, Aleksandra; Czyzycki, Mateusz; Radwanska, Edyta; Adamek, Dariusz; Geraki, Kalotina; Lankosz, Marek


    Neoplastic and healthy brain tissues were analysed to discern the changes in the spatial distribution and overall concentration of elements using micro X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. High-resolution distribution maps of minor and trace elements such as P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn made it possible to distinguish between homogeneous cancerous tissue and areas where some structures could be identified, such as blood vessels and calcifications. Concentrations of the elements in the selected homogeneous areas of brain tissue were compared between tumours with various malignancy grades and with the controls. The study showed a decrease in the average concentration of Fe, P, S and Ca in tissues with high grades of malignancy as compared to the control group, whereas the concentration of Zn in these tissues was increased. The changes in the concentration were found to be correlated with the tumour malignancy grade. The efficacy of micro X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy to distinguish between various types of cancer based on the concentrations of studied elements was confirmed by multivariate discriminant analysis. Our analysis showed that the most important elements for tissue classification are Cu, K, Fe, Ca, and Zn. This method made it possible to correctly classify histopathological types in 99.93% of the cases used to build the model and in as much as 99.16% of new cases.

  7. Rebooting the Brain: Using Early Childhood Education to Heal Trauma from Abuse and Neglect (United States)

    McLintock, Ben


    Abused and neglected children live in a world that usually includes some sort of violence, chaos, and tremendous physical and mental stress. This toxic environment wreaks havoc on a child's developing brain. This article discusses how to use early childhood education to heal trauma from abuse and neglect. It shares the story of two children, Bryce…

  8. Social Outcomes in Childhood Brain Disorder: A Heuristic Integration of Social Neuroscience and Developmental Psychology (United States)

    Yeates, Keith Owen; Bigler, Erin D.; Dennis, Maureen; Gerhardt, Cynthia A.; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Stancin, Terry; Taylor, H. Gerry; Vannatta, Kathryn


    The authors propose a heuristic model of the social outcomes of childhood brain disorder that draws on models and methods from both the emerging field of social cognitive neuroscience and the study of social competence in developmental psychology/psychopathology. The heuristic model characterizes the relationships between social adjustment, peer…

  9. DMBT1, a new member of the SRCR superfamily, on chromosome 10q25.3-26.1 is deleted in malignant brain tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollenhauer, J; Wiemann, S; Scheurlen, W;


    Loss of sequences from human chromosome 10q has been associated with the progression of human cancer. Medulloblastoma and glioblastoma multiforme are the most common malignant brain tumours in children and adults, respectively. In glioblastoma multiforme, the most aggressive form, 80% of the tumo......Loss of sequences from human chromosome 10q has been associated with the progression of human cancer. Medulloblastoma and glioblastoma multiforme are the most common malignant brain tumours in children and adults, respectively. In glioblastoma multiforme, the most aggressive form, 80...

  10. Two epileptic syndromes, one brain: childhood absence epilepsy and benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes. (United States)

    Cerminara, Caterina; Coniglio, Antonella; El-Malhany, Nadia; Casarelli, Livia; Curatolo, Paolo


    Childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) and benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BCECTS), or benign rolandic epilepsy (BRE), are the most common forms of childhood epilepsy. CAE and BCECTS are well-known and clearly defined syndromes; although they are strongly dissimilar in terms of their pathophysiology, these functional epileptic disturbances share many features such as similar age at onset, overall good prognosis, and inheritance factors. Few reports are available on the concomitance of CAE and BCECTS in the same patients or the later occurrence of generalized epilepsy in patients with a history of partial epilepsy. In most cases described in the literature, absence seizures always started after the onset of benign focal epilepsy but the contrary has never occurred yet. We describe two patients affected by idiopathic generalized epileptic syndrome with typical absences, who experienced BCECTS after remission of seizures and normalization of EEG recordings. While the coexistence of different seizure types within an epileptic syndrome is not uncommon, the occurrence of childhood absence and BCECTS in the same child appears to be extremely rare, and this extraordinary event supports the hypothesis that CAE and BCECTS are two distinct epileptic conditions. However, recent interesting observations in animal models suggest that BCECTS and CAE could be pathophysiologically related and that genetic links could play a large role.

  11. Enhanced brain signal variability in children with autism spectrum disorder during early childhood (United States)

    Yoshimura, Yuko; Hiraishi, Hirotoshi; Hasegawa, Chiaki; Munesue, Toshio; Higashida, Haruhiro; Minabe, Yoshio; Kikuchi, Mitsuru


    Abstract Extensive evidence shows that a core neurobiological mechanism of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) involves aberrant neural connectivity. Recent advances in the investigation of brain signal variability have yielded important information about neural network mechanisms. That information has been applied fruitfully to the assessment of aging and mental disorders. Multiscale entropy (MSE) analysis can characterize the complexity inherent in brain signal dynamics over multiple temporal scales in the dynamics of neural networks. For this investigation, we sought to characterize the magnetoencephalography (MEG) signal variability during free watching of videos without sound using MSE in 43 children with ASD and 72 typically developing controls (TD), emphasizing early childhood to older childhood: a critical period of neural network maturation. Results revealed an age‐related increase of brain signal variability in a specific timescale in TD children, whereas atypical age‐related alteration was observed in the ASD group. Additionally, enhanced brain signal variability was observed in children with ASD, and was confirmed particularly for younger children. In the ASD group, symptom severity was associated region‐specifically and timescale‐specifically with reduced brain signal variability. These results agree well with a recently reported theory of increased brain signal variability during development and aberrant neural connectivity in ASD, especially during early childhood. Results of this study suggest that MSE analytic method might serve as a useful approach for characterizing neurophysiological mechanisms of typical‐developing and its alterations in ASD through the detection of MEG signal variability at multiple timescales. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1038–1050, 2016. © 2015 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26859309

  12. In-phantom two-dimensional thermal neutron distribution for intraoperative boron neutron capture therapy of brain tumours (United States)

    Yamamoto, T.; Matsumura, A.; Yamamoto, K.; Kumada, H.; Shibata, Y.; Nose, T.


    The aim of this study was to determine the in-phantom thermal neutron distribution derived from neutron beams for intraoperative boron neutron capture therapy (IOBNCT). Gold activation wires arranged in a cylindrical water phantom with (void-in-phantom) or without (standard phantom) a cylinder styrene form placed inside were irradiated by using the epithermal beam (ENB) and the mixed thermal-epithermal beam (TNB-1) at the Japan Research Reactor No 4. With ENB, we observed a flattened distribution of thermal neutron flux and a significantly enhanced thermal flux delivery at a depth compared with the results of using TNB-1. The thermal neutron distribution derived from both the ENB and TNB-1 was significantly improved in the void-in-phantom, and a double high dose area was formed lateral to the void. The flattened distribution in the circumference of the void was observed with the combination of ENB and the void-in-phantom. The measurement data suggest that the ENB may provide a clinical advantage in the form of an enhanced and flattened dose delivery to the marginal tissue of a post-operative cavity in which a residual and/or microscopically infiltrating tumour often occurs. The combination of the epithermal neutron beam and IOBNCT will improve the clinical results of BNCT for brain tumours.

  13. Brain tumours at 7T MRI compared to 3T - contrast effect after half and full standard contrast agent dose: initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noebauer-Huhmann, Iris-Melanie; Weber, M. [Medical University of Vienna, High Field MR Centre, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Medical University of Vienna, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Szomolanyi, P.; Juras, V. [Medical University of Vienna, High Field MR Centre, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Slovak Academy of Sciences, Department of Imaging Methods, Institute of Measurement Science, Bratislava (Slovakia); Kronnerwetter, C. [Medical University of Vienna, High Field MR Centre, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Widhalm, G. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Neurosurgery, Vienna (Austria); Nemec, S.; Prayer, D. [Medical University of Vienna, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Ladd, M.E. [University Duisburg-Essen, Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Essen (Germany); German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Division of Medical Physics in Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Trattnig, S. [Medical University of Vienna, High Field MR Centre, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Experimental and Clinical Traumatology, Austrian Cluster for Tissue Regeneration, Vienna (Austria)


    To compare the contrast agent effect of a full dose and half the dose of gadobenate dimeglumine in brain tumours at 7 Tesla (7T) MR versus 3 Tesla (3T). Ten patients with primary brain tumours or metastases were examined. Signal intensities were assessed in the lesion and normal brain. Tumour-to-brain contrast and lesion enhancement were calculated. Additionally, two independent readers subjectively graded the image quality and artefacts. The enhanced mean tumour-to-brain contrast and lesion enhancement were significantly higher at 7T than at 3T for both half the dose (91.8 ± 45.8 vs. 43.9 ± 25.3 [p = 0.010], 128.1 ± 53.7 vs. 75.5 ± 32.4 [p = 0.004]) and the full dose (129.2 ± 50.9 vs. 66.6 ± 33.1 [p = 0.002], 165.4 ± 54.2 vs. 102.6 ± 45.4 [p = 0.004]). Differences between dosages at each field strength were also significant. Lesion enhancement was higher with half the dose at 7T than with the full dose at 3T (p =.037), while the tumour-to-brain contrast was not significantly different. Subjectively, contrast enhancement, visibility, and lesion delineation were better at 7T and with the full dose. All parameters were rated as good, at the least. Half the routine contrast agent dose at 7T provided higher lesion enhancement than the full dose at 3T which indicates the possibility of dose reduction at 7T. (orig.)

  14. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Chronic Dysarthric Speech after Childhood Brain Injury: Reliance on a Left-Hemisphere Compensatory Network (United States)

    Morgan, Angela T.; Masterton, Richard; Pigdon, Lauren; Connelly, Alan; Liegeois, Frederique J.


    Severe and persistent speech disorder, dysarthria, may be present for life after brain injury in childhood, yet the neural correlates of this chronic disorder remain elusive. Although abundant literature is available on language reorganization after lesions in childhood, little is known about the capacity of motor speech networks to reorganize…

  15. The relation of childhood physical activity and aerobic fitness to brain function and cognition: a review. (United States)

    Khan, Naiman A; Hillman, Charles H


    Physical inactivity has been shown to increase the risk for several chronic diseases across the lifespan. However, the impact of physical activity and aerobic fitness on childhood cognitive and brain health has only recently gained attention. The purposes of this article are to: 1) highlight the recent emphasis for increasing physical activity and aerobic fitness in children's lives for cognitive and brain health; 2) present aspects of brain development and cognitive function that are susceptible to physical activity intervention; 3) review neuroimaging studies examining the cross-sectional and experimental relationships between aerobic fitness and executive control function; and 4) make recommendations for future research. Given that the human brain is not fully developed until the third decade of life, preadolescence is characterized by changes in brain structure and function underlying aspects of cognition including executive control and relational memory. Achieving adequate physical activity and maintaining aerobic fitness in childhood may be a critical guideline to follow for physical as well as cognitive and brain health.

  16. Memory deficits in long-term survivors of childhood brain tumors may primarily reflect general cognitive dysfunctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimers, Tonny Solveig; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Schmiegelow, Kjeld


    To analyze the impact of potential predictors on memory performance in survivors of childhood brain tumors and to examine whether deficits in memory after radiotherapy (RT) should be considered part of a more global mental dysfunction.......To analyze the impact of potential predictors on memory performance in survivors of childhood brain tumors and to examine whether deficits in memory after radiotherapy (RT) should be considered part of a more global mental dysfunction....

  17. Improvement effect on the depth-dose distribution by CSF drainage and air infusion of a tumour-removed cavity in boron neutron capture therapy for malignant brain tumours (United States)

    Sakurai, Yoshinori; Ono, Koji; Miyatake, Shin-ichi; Maruhashi, Akira


    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) without craniotomy for malignant brain tumours was started using an epi-thermal neutron beam at the Kyoto University Reactor in June 2002. We have tried some techniques to overcome the treatable-depth limit in BNCT. One of the effective techniques is void formation utilizing a tumour-removed cavity. The tumorous part is removed by craniotomy about 1 week before a BNCT treatment in our protocol. Just before the BNCT irradiation, the cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) in the tumour-removed cavity is drained out, air is infused to the cavity and then the void is made. This void improves the neutron penetration, and the thermal neutron flux at depth increases. The phantom experiments and survey simulations modelling the CSF drainage and air infusion of the tumour-removed cavity were performed for the size and shape of the void. The advantage of the CSF drainage and air infusion is confirmed for the improvement in the depth-dose distribution. From the parametric surveys, it was confirmed that the cavity volume had good correlation with the improvement effect, and the larger effect was expected as the cavity volume was larger.

  18. Brain volume and cognitive function in adult survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia. (United States)

    Edelmann, Michelle N; Krull, Kevin R


    The survival rate for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is greater than 80%. However, many of these survivors develop long-term chronic health conditions, with a relatively common late effect being neurocognitive dysfunction. Although neurocognitive impairments have decreased in frequency and severity as treatment has evolved, there is a subset of survivors in the current treatment era that are especially vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of ALL and its treatment. Additionally, little is known about long-term brain development as survivors mature into adulthood. A recent study by Zeller et al. compared neurocognitive function and brain volume in 130 adult survivors of childhood ALL to 130 healthy adults matched on age and sex. They identified the caudate as particularly sensitive to the neurotoxic effects of chemotherapy. We discuss the implications and limitations of this study, including how their findings support the concept of individual vulnerability to ALL and its treatment.

  19. An Improved Image Mining Technique For Brain Tumour Classification Using Efficient Classifier


    Rajendran, P.; M.Madheswaran


    An improved image mining technique for brain tumor classification using pruned association rule with MARI algorithm is presented in this paper. The method proposed makes use of association rule mining technique to classify the CT scan brain images into three categories namely normal, benign and malign. It combines the low-level features extracted from images and high level knowledge from specialists. The developed algorithm can assist the physicians for efficient classification with multiple ...



    Jagadeesan, R; S.N. Sivanandam


    In image processing, it is difficult to detect the abnormalities in brain especially in MRI brain images. Also the tumor segmentation from MRI image data is an important; however it is time consumingwhile carried out by medical specialists. A lot of methods have been proposed to solve MR images problems, quite difficult to develop an automated recognition system which could process on a large information of patient and provide a correct estimation. Hence enhanced k-means and fuzzy c-means wit...

  1. Localisation of motor areas in brain tumour patients: a comparison of preoperative [{sup 18}F]FDG-PET and intraoperative cortical electrostimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreckenberger, M.; Sabri, O.; Meyer, P.T.; Zeggel, T.; Zimny, M.; Buell, U. [Technische Univ. Aachen (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Spetzger, U.; Gilsbach, J. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Aachen Univ. of Technology (Germany)


    Assessment of the exact spatial relation between tumour and adjacent functionally relevant brain areas is a primary tool in the presurgical planning in brain tumour patients. The purpose of this study was to compare a preoperative fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ([{sup 18}F]FDG PET) activation protocol in patients with tumours near the central area with the results of intraoperative direct cortical electrostimulation, and to determine whether non-invasive preoperative PET imaging can provide results equivalent to those achieved with the invasive neurosurgical ''gold standard''. In this prospective study, we examined 20 patients with various tumours of the central area, performing two PET scans (each 30 min after i.v. injection of 134-341 MBq [{sup 18}F]FDG) in each patient: (1) a resting baseline scan and (2) an activation scan using a standardised motor task (finger tapping, foot stretching). Following PET/MRI realignment and normalisation to the whole brain counts, parametric images of the activation versus the rest study were calculated and pixels above categorical threshold values were projected to the individual MRI for bimodal assessment of morphology and function (PET/MRI overlay). Intraoperative direct cortical electrostimulation was performed using a Viking IV probe (5 pulses, each of 100 {mu}s) and documented using a dedicated neuro navigation system. Results were compared with the preoperative PET findings. PET revealed significant activation of the contralateral primary motor cortex in 95% (19/20) of the brain tumour patients (hand activation 13/13, foot activation 6/7), showing a mean increase in normalised [{sup 18}F]FDG uptake of 20.5%{+-}5.2% (hand activation task) and 17.2%{+-}2.5% (foot activation task). Additionally detected activation of the ipsilateral primary motor cortex was interpreted as a metabolic indication for interhemispheric compensational processes. Evaluation of the PET findings by

  2. An Improved Image Mining Technique For Brain Tumour Classification Using Efficient Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Rajendran


    Full Text Available An improved image mining technique for brain tumor classification using pruned association rule with MARI algorithm is presented in this paper. The method proposed makes use of association rule mining technique to classify the CT scan brain images into three categories namely normal, benign and malign. It combines the low-level features extracted from images and high level knowledge from specialists. The developed algorithm can assist the physicians for efficient classification with multiple keywords per image to improve the accuracy. The experimental result on pre-diagnosed database of brain images showed 96% and 93% sensitivity and accuracy respectively.Keywords- Data mining; Image ming; Association rule mining; Medical Imaging; Medical image diagnosis; Classification;

  3. Effects of HIV and childhood trauma on brain morphometry and neurocognitive function. (United States)

    Spies, Georgina; Ahmed-Leitao, Fatima; Fennema-Notestine, Christine; Cherner, Mariana; Seedat, Soraya


    A wide spectrum of neurocognitive deficits characterises HIV infection in adults. HIV infection is additionally associated with morphological brain abnormalities affecting neural substrates that subserve neurocognitive function. Early life stress (ELS) also has a direct influence on brain morphology. However, the combined impact of ELS and HIV on brain structure and neurocognitive function has not been examined in an all-female sample with advanced HIV disease. The present study examined the effects of HIV and childhood trauma on brain morphometry and neurocognitive function. Structural data were acquired using a 3T Magnetom MRI scanner, and a battery of neurocognitive tests was administered to 124 women: HIV-positive with ELS (n = 32), HIV-positive without ELS (n = 30), HIV-negative with ELS (n = 31) and HIV-negative without ELS (n = 31). Results revealed significant group volumetric differences for right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), bilateral hippocampi, corpus callosum, left and right caudate and left and right putamen. Mean regional volumes were lowest in HIV-positive women with ELS compared to all other groups. Although causality cannot be inferred, findings also suggest that alterations in the left frontal lobe, right ACC, left hippocampus, corpus callosum, left and right amygdala and left caudate may be associated with poorer neurocognitive performance in the domains of processing speed, attention/working memory, abstraction/executive functions, motor skills, learning and language/fluency with these effects more pronounced in women living with both HIV and childhood trauma. This study highlights the potential contributory role of childhood trauma to brain alterations and neurocognitive decline in HIV-infected individuals.

  4. A role for the malignant brain tumour (MBT domain protein LIN-61 in DNA double-strand break repair by homologous recombination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas M Johnson

    Full Text Available Malignant brain tumour (MBT domain proteins are transcriptional repressors that function within Polycomb complexes. Some MBT genes are tumour suppressors, but how they prevent tumourigenesis is unknown. The Caenorhabditis elegans MBT protein LIN-61 is a member of the synMuvB chromatin-remodelling proteins that control vulval development. Here we report a new role for LIN-61: it protects the genome by promoting homologous recombination (HR for the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs. lin-61 mutants manifest numerous problems associated with defective HR in germ and somatic cells but remain proficient in meiotic recombination. They are hypersensitive to ionizing radiation and interstrand crosslinks but not UV light. Using a novel reporter system that monitors repair of a defined DSB in C. elegans somatic cells, we show that LIN-61 contributes to HR. The involvement of this MBT protein in HR raises the possibility that MBT-deficient tumours may also have defective DSB repair.

  5. Effect of childhood maltreatment on brain structure in adult patients with major depressive disorder and healthy participants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chaney, Aisling


    Background: Childhood maltreatment has been found to play a crucial role in the development of psychiatric disorders. However, whether childhood maltreatment is associated with structural brain changes described for major depressive disorder (MDD) is still a matter of debate. The aim of this study was to investigate whether patients with MDD and a history of childhood maltreatment display more structural changes than patients without childhood maltreatment or healthy controls. Methods: Patients with MDD and healthy controls with and without childhood maltreatment experience were investigated using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and data were analyzed using voxel-based morphometry. Results: We studied 37 patients with MDD and 46 controls. Grey matter volume was significantly decreased in the hippocampus and significantly increased in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in participants who had experienced childhood maltreatment compared with those who had not. Patients displayed smaller left OFC and left DMPFC volumes than controls. No significant difference in hippocampal volume was evident between patients with MDD and healthy controls. In regression analyses, despite effects from depression, age and sex on the DMPFC, OFC and hippocampus, childhood maltreatment was found to independently affect these regions. Limitations: The retrospective assessment of childhood maltreatment; the natural problem that patients experienced more childhood maltreatment than controls; and the restrictions, owing to sample size, to investigating higher order interactions among factors are discussed as limitations. Conclusion: These results suggest that early childhood maltreatment is associated with brain structural changes irrespective of sex, age and a history of depression. Thus, the study highlights the importance of childhood maltreatment when investigating brain structures.

  6. Intravenous versus inhalational techniques for rapid emergence from anaesthesia in patients undergoing brain tumour surgery: A Cochrane systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemanshu Prabhakar


    Full Text Available Background: Early and rapid emergence from anaesthesia is desirable for most neurosurgical patients. With the availability of newer intravenous and inhalational anaesthetic agents, all of which have inherent advantages and disadvantages, we remain uncertain as to which technique may result in more rapid early recovery from anaesthesia. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of intravenous versus inhalational techniques for rapid emergence from anaesthesia in patients undergoing brain tumour surgery. Methods: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2014, Issue 6 in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE via Ovid SP (1966 to June 2014 and EMBASE via Ovid SP (1980 to June 2014. We also searched specific websites, such as, and (October 2014. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs that compared the use of intravenous anaesthetic agents such as propofol and thiopentone with inhalational anaesthetic agents such as isoflurane and sevoflurane for maintenance of general anaesthesia during brain tumour surgery. Primary outcomes were emergence from anaesthesia (assessed by time to follow verbal commands, in minutes and adverse events during emergence, such as haemodynamic changes, agitation, desaturation, muscle weakness, nausea and vomiting, shivering and pain. Secondary outcomes were time to eye opening, recovery from anaesthesia using the Aldrete or modified Aldrete score (i.e., time to attain score ≥9, in minutes, opioid consumption, brain relaxation (as assessed by the surgeon on a 4- or 5-point scale and complications of anaesthetic techniques, such as intraoperative haemodynamic instability in terms of hypotension or hypertension (mmHg, increased or decreased heart rate (beats/min and brain swelling. We used standardised methods in conducting the systematic review, as described by the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of

  7. L-Phenylalanine preloading reduces the (10)B(n, α)(7)Li dose to the normal brain by inhibiting the uptake of boronophenylalanine in boron neutron capture therapy for brain tumours. (United States)

    Watanabe, Tsubasa; Tanaka, Hiroki; Fukutani, Satoshi; Suzuki, Minoru; Hiraoka, Masahiro; Ono, Koji


    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is a cellular-level particle radiation therapy that combines the selective delivery of boron compounds to tumour tissue with neutron irradiation. Previously, high doses of one of the boron compounds used for BNCT, L-BPA, were found to reduce the boron-derived irradiation dose to the central nervous system. However, injection with a high dose of L-BPA is not feasible in clinical settings. We aimed to find an alternative method to improve the therapeutic efficacy of this therapy. We examined the effects of oral preloading with various analogues of L-BPA in a xenograft tumour model and found that high-dose L-phenylalanine reduced the accumulation of L-BPA in the normal brain relative to tumour tissue. As a result, the maximum irradiation dose in the normal brain was 19.2% lower in the L-phenylalanine group relative to the control group. This study provides a simple strategy to improve the therapeutic efficacy of conventional boron compounds for BNCT for brain tumours and the possibility to widen the indication of BNCT to various kinds of other tumours.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In image processing, it is difficult to detect the abnormalities in brain especially in MRI brain images. Also the tumor segmentation from MRI image data is an important; however it is time consumingwhile carried out by medical specialists. A lot of methods have been proposed to solve MR images problems, quite difficult to develop an automated recognition system which could process on a large information of patient and provide a correct estimation. Hence enhanced k-means and fuzzy c-means with firefly algorithm for a segmentation of brain magnetic resonance images were developed. Thisalgorithm is based on maximum measure of the distance function which is found for cluster center detection process using the Mahalanobis concept. Particularly the firefly algorithm is implemented tooptimize the Fuzzy C-means membership function for better accuracy segmentation process. At the same time the convergence criteria is fixed for the efficient clustering method. The Firefly algorithmparameters are set fixed and they do not adjust by the time. As well Firefly algorithm does not memorize any history of better situation for each firefly and this reasons they travel in any case of it, and they miss their situations. So there is a need of better algorithm that could provide even better solution than the firefly algorithm. To attain this requirement as a proposed work the Artificial Fish Swarm Algorithm to optimize the fuzzy membership function. During surveying of the previous literature, it has been found out that no work has been done in segmentation of brain tumor using AFSA based clustering. In AFSA, artificial fishes for next movement act completely independent from past and next movement is justrelated to current position of artificial fish and its other companions which lead to select best initial centers for the MRI brain tumor segmentation. Experimental results show that presented method has an acceptable performance than the previous method.

  9. Developmental changes in the structure of the social brain in late childhood and adolescence. (United States)

    Mills, Kathryn L; Lalonde, François; Clasen, Liv S; Giedd, Jay N; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne


    Social cognition provides humans with the necessary skills to understand and interact with one another. One aspect of social cognition, mentalizing, is associated with a network of brain regions often referred to as the 'social brain.' These consist of medial prefrontal cortex [medial Brodmann Area 10 (mBA10)], temporoparietal junction (TPJ), posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) and anterior temporal cortex (ATC). How these specific regions develop structurally across late childhood and adolescence is not well established. This study examined the structural developmental trajectories of social brain regions in the longest ongoing longitudinal neuroimaging study of human brain maturation. Structural trajectories of grey matter volume, cortical thickness and surface area were analyzed using surface-based cortical reconstruction software and mixed modeling in a longitudinal sample of 288 participants (ages 7-30 years, 857 total scans). Grey matter volume and cortical thickness in mBA10, TPJ and pSTS decreased from childhood into the early twenties. The ATC increased in grey matter volume until adolescence and in cortical thickness until early adulthood. Surface area for each region followed a cubic trajectory, peaking in early or pre-adolescence before decreasing into the early twenties. These results are discussed in the context of developmental changes in social cognition across adolescence.

  10. Use of the Graded Prognostic Assessment (GPA) score in patients with brain metastases from primary tumours not represented in the diagnosis-specific GPA studies

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    Nieder, C. [Nordland Hospital, Bodoe (Norway). Dept. of Oncology and Palliative Medicine; Tromsoe Univ. (Norway). Inst. of Clinical Medicine; Andratschke, N.H. [University Hospital Rostock (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Geinitz, H. [Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology; Grosu, A.L. [University Hospital Freiburg (Germany). Dept. of Radiation Oncology


    Background and purpose: Assessment of prognostic factors might influence treatment decisions in patients with brain metastases. Based on large studies, the diagnosis-specific graded prognostic assessment (GPA) score is a useful tool. However, patients with unknown or rare primary tumours are not represented in this model. A pragmatic approach might be use of the first GPA version which is not limited to specific primary tumours. Patients and methods: This retrospective analysis examines for the first time whether the GPA is a valid score in patients not eligible for the diagnosis-specific GPA. It includes 71 patients with unknown primary tumour, bladder cancer, ovarian cancer, thyroid cancer or other uncommon primaries. Survival was evaluated in uni- and multivariate tests. Results: The GPA significantly predicted survival. Moreover, improved survival was seen in patients treated with surgical resection or radiosurgery (SRS) for brain metastases. The older recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) score was significant in univariate analysis. However, the multivariate model with RPA, GPA and surgery or SRS versus none showed that only GPA and type of treatment were independent predictors of survival. Conclusion: Ideally, cooperative research efforts would lead to development of diagnosis-specific scores also for patients with rare or unknown primary tumours. In the meantime, a pragmatic approach of using the general GPA score appears reasonable. (orig.)

  11. A numerical model for the study of photoacoustic imaging of brain tumours

    CERN Document Server

    Firouzi, Kamyar


    Photoacoustic imaging has shown great promise for medical imaging, where optical energy absorption by blood haemoglobin is used as the contrast mechanism. A numerical method was developed for the in-silico assessment of the photoacoustic image reconstruction of the brain. Image segmentation techniques were used to prepare a digital phantom from MR images. Light transport through brain tissue was modelled using a Finite Element approach. The resulting acoustic pressure was then estimated by pulsed photoacoustics considerations. The forward acoustic wave propagation was modelled by the linearized coupled first order wave equations and solved by an acoustic k-space method. Since skull bone is an elastic solid and strongly attenuates ultrasound (due to both scattering and absorption), a k-space method was developed for elastic media. To model scattering effects, a new approach was applied based on propagation in random media. In addition, absorption effects were incorporated using a power law. Finally, the acoust...



    Mohammad Shamim; Reyaz; Anju; Dinesh Kumar; Paricharak


    : This study was conducted on thirty patients of brain tumors diagnosed on CT scan/ Conventional MRI. It was performed in the Department of Radiological and PET Imaging, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (INMAS), Brig S. K. Mazumdar Marg , Lucknow road, Delhi. Out of thirty patients, 19 patients (63.33%) were male and 11 patients (36.66%) were female. Their ages ranged from 22 to 63 years. The most common presenting symptom was headache followed by seizures...

  13. Attention remediation following traumatic brain injury in childhood and adolescence. (United States)

    Galbiati, Susanna; Recla, Monica; Pastore, Valentina; Liscio, Mariarosaria; Bardoni, Alessandra; Castelli, Enrico; Strazzer, Sandra


    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) frequently affects both the basic and the superordinate components of attention; deficits vary according to patient age. This study evaluated the efficacy of a specific remediation intervention for attention. Sixty-five TBI patients (aged 6?18 years) with attention deficit were assessed at baseline and at 1-year follow-up: 40 patients received attention-specific neuropsychological training for 6 months, and the control group comprised 25 patients. Cognitive assessment included a Wechsler Intelligence Scale (e.g., A. Orsini, 1993) and the Continuous Performance Test II (CPT II; C. K. Conners, 2000). The Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS; S. Sparrow, D. Balla & D. V. Cicchetti, 1984) was administered to assess the treatment's ecological validity. At baseline, all patients presented with a mild intellectual disability and pathological scores on the CPT II. At follow-up, significant differences were found between the 2 groups on the CPT II and VABS: The clinical group improved more than the control group. Specific remediation training for attention, including a combination of a process-specific approach and metacognitive strategies, significantly improved attention performance. Improvement in attention skills also affected adaptive skills positively.

  14. Challenges relating to solid tumour brain metastases in clinical trials, part 1: patient population, response, and progression. A report from the RANO group. (United States)

    Lin, Nancy U; Lee, Eudocia Q; Aoyama, Hidefumi; Barani, Igor J; Baumert, Brigitta G; Brown, Paul D; Camidge, D Ross; Chang, Susan M; Dancey, Janet; Gaspar, Laurie E; Harris, Gordon J; Hodi, F Stephen; Kalkanis, Steven N; Lamborn, Kathleen R; Linskey, Mark E; Macdonald, David R; Margolin, Kim; Mehta, Minesh P; Schiff, David; Soffietti, Riccardo; Suh, John H; van den Bent, Martin J; Vogelbaum, Michael A; Wefel, Jeffrey S; Wen, Patrick Y


    Therapeutic outcomes for patients with brain metastases need to improve. A critical review of trials specifically addressing brain metastases shows key issues that could prevent acceptance of results by regulatory agencies, including enrolment of heterogeneous groups of patients and varying definitions of clinical endpoints. Considerations specific to disease, modality, and treatment are not consistently addressed. Additionally, the schedule of CNS imaging and consequences of detection of new or progressive brain metastases in trials mainly exploring the extra-CNS activity of systemic drugs are highly variable. The Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) working group is an independent, international, collaborative effort to improve the design of trials in patients with brain tumours. In this two-part series, we review the state of clinical trials of brain metastases and suggest a consensus recommendation for the development of criteria for future clinical trials.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shamim


    Full Text Available : This study was conducted on thirty patients of brain tumors diagnosed on CT scan/ Conventional MRI. It was performed in the Department of Radiological and PET Imaging, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied Sciences (INMAS, Brig S. K. Mazumdar Marg , Lucknow road, Delhi. Out of thirty patients, 19 patients (63.33% were male and 11 patients (36.66% were female. Their ages ranged from 22 to 63 years. The most common presenting symptom was headache followed by seizures. MRI is a powerful tool for evaluation and characterization of brain tumors because of its superior soft tissue contrast and multiplanar capabilities. All these patients underwent routine MRI sequences, including T1W, T2WI and FLAIR sequences. Histopathological correlation was obtained in all the patients to serve as the gold standard. Out of thirty patients selected for this study, twenty cases were found to be malignant and ten cases were benign on histopathological evaluation. Majority of malignant lesions were glioblastomamultiforme. Amongst benign cases, majorities were meningioma, one was a granulomatous lesion and one was a benign cystic lesion. On conventional MRI sequences, including T1, T2 and FLAIR, there was significant overlap between appearances of benign and malignant lesions in their intensity on various sequences. Moreover, it has got no prognostic value in follow up of patients after therapy.

  16. Thermoregulatory Instability in Childhood: Linking the Normal Brain to Hypothalamic Storm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Alves Martins


    Full Text Available Central core temperature is tightly controlled by hypothalamic centers, a feature that makes sudden changes in body temperature very unusual. A dysfunction of these hypothalamic pathways leads to Shapiro’s syndrome, comprising spontaneous hypothermia, hyperhidrosis, and corpus callosum dysgenesis. Although it may affect any age, usually it presents in childhood. Variants to this syndrome with completely normal brain anatomy have been consistently reported, expanding the clinical spectrum of the syndrome. Herein, we report the case of a 4-year-old girl with Shapiro’s syndrome and unaffected corpus callosum.

  17. Influence of metallothioneins on zinc and copper distribution in brain tumours. (United States)

    Floriańczyk, Bolesław; Osuchowski, Jacek; Kaczmarczyk, Robert; Trojanowski, Tomasz; Stryjecka-Zimmer, Marta


    Metallothioneins take part in the homeostasis of the ions of the metals which are necessary for the proper metabolism of the organism (zinc, copper), in biosynthesis regulation of the zinc-containing proteins and also in the detoxication of metals from the tissues. They also protect the tissue from the effects of free radicals, radiation, electrophilic pharmacological agents used in the cancer therapy and from mutagens. The experimental materials were brain astrocytomas, benign gliomas and malignant gliomas. The levels of the metallothionein were determined by cadmium-haemoglobin affinity assay using the cadmium isotope (109Cd). The values of zinc and copper were determined by means of atomic absorption spectrophotometry. In our studies, the level of metallothioneins in the group of malignant neoplasms was slightly higher than the level of these proteins in the group of benign neoplasms. The correlation coefficient of the studied parameters proved an interrelation between the levels of zinc and copper and the content of metallothioneins. In malignant neoplasms, the level of zinc showed a positive relationship with the metallothionein level, whereas the copper content showed an inverse relationship. There was a statistical difference, but no significant difference, in the levels of copper between malignant and benign groups.

  18. Simultaneous evaluation of brain tumour metabolism, structure and blood volume using [{sup 18}F]-fluoroethyltyrosine (FET) PET/MRI: feasibility, agreement and initial experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriksen, Otto M.; Hansen, Adam E.; Law, Ian [Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet Blegdamsvej, Department of Clinical Physiology Nuclear Medicine and PET, Copenhagen (Denmark); Larsen, Vibeke A. [Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet Blegdamsvej, Department of Radiology, Copenhagen (Denmark); Muhic, Aida; Poulsen, Hans S. [Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet Blegdamsvej, Department of Oncology, Copenhagen (Denmark); Larsson, Henrik B.W. [Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet Glostrup, Functional Imaging Unit, Department of Clinical Physiology Nuclear Medicine and PET, Glostrup (Denmark)


    imaging of brain tumour metabolism and perfusion using hybrid PET/MR systems may provide complementary information on tumour biology, but the potential clinical value remains to be determined in future trials. (orig.)

  19. Assessing occupational exposure to chemicals in an international epidemiological study of brain tumours. (United States)

    van Tongeren, Martie; Kincl, Laurel; Richardson, Lesley; Benke, Geza; Figuerola, Jordi; Kauppinen, Timo; Lakhani, Ramzan; Lavoué, Jérôme; McLean, Dave; Plato, Nils; Cardis, Elisabeth


    The INTEROCC project is a multi-centre case-control study investigating the risk of developing brain cancer due to occupational chemical and electromagnetic field exposures. To estimate chemical exposures, the Finnish Job Exposure Matrix (FINJEM) was modified to improve its performance in the INTEROCC study and to address some of its limitations, resulting in the development of the INTEROCC JEM. An international team of occupational hygienists developed a crosswalk between the Finnish occupational codes used in FINJEM and the International Standard Classification of Occupations 1968 (ISCO68). For ISCO68 codes linked to multiple Finnish codes, weighted means of the exposure estimates were calculated. Similarly, multiple ISCO68 codes linked to a single Finnish code with evidence of heterogeneous exposure were refined. One of the key time periods in FINJEM (1960-1984) was split into two periods (1960-1974 and 1975-1984). Benzene exposure estimates in early periods were modified upwards. The internal consistency of hydrocarbon exposures and exposures to engine exhaust fumes was improved. Finally, exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and benzo(a)pyrene was modified to include the contribution from second-hand smoke. The crosswalk ensured that the FINJEM exposure estimates could be applied to the INTEROCC study subjects. The modifications generally resulted in an increased prevalence of exposure to chemical agents. This increased prevalence of exposure was not restricted to the lowest categories of cumulative exposure, but was seen across all levels for some agents. Although this work has produced a JEM with important improvements compared to FINJEM, further improvements are possible with the expansion of agents and additional external data.

  20. Distinct effects of childhood ADHD and cannabis use on brain functional architecture in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Kelly, PhD


    Full Text Available One of the most salient long-term implications of a childhood diagnosis of ADHD is an increased risk for substance use, abuse, or dependence in adolescence and adulthood. The extent to which cannabis use affects ADHD-related alterations in brain functional organization is unknown, however. To address this research gap, we recruited a sample of 75 individuals aged 21–25 years with and without a childhood diagnosis of ADHD Combined Type, who were either frequent users or non-users of cannabis. These participants have been followed longitudinally since age 7–9.9 years as part of a large multi-site longitudinal study of ADHD, the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (MTA. We examined task-independent intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC within 9 functional networks using a 2 × 2 design, which compared four groups of participants: (1 individuals with a childhood diagnosis of ADHD who currently use cannabis (n = 23; (2 individuals with ADHD who do not currently use cannabis (n = 22; (3 comparisons who currently use cannabis (n = 15; and (4 comparisons who do not currently use cannabis (n = 15. The main effects of childhood ADHD were primarily weakened iFC in networks supporting executive function and somatomotor control. Contrary to expectations, effects of cannabis use were distinct from those of diagnostic group and no interactions were observed. Exploratory brain-behavior analyses suggested that ADHD-related effects were primarily linked with poorer neurocognitive performance. Deficits in the integrity of functional networks supporting executive function and somatomotor control are consistent with the phenotypic and neurocognitive features of ADHD. Our data suggest that cannabis use does not exacerbate ADHD-related alterations, but this finding awaits replication in a larger sample. Longitudinal neuroimaging studies are urgently required to delineate the neurodevelopmental cascade that culminates in positive and

  1. Cilengitide in Treating Children With Refractory Primary Brain Tumors (United States)


    Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Ependymoblastoma; Childhood Grade I Meningioma; Childhood Grade II Meningioma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood High-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Childhood Mixed Glioma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma

  2. Pathology, treatment and management of posterior fossa brain tumors in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonner, K.; Siegel, K.R.


    Brain tumors are the second most common childhood malignancy. Between 1975 and 1985, 462 newly diagnosed patients were treated at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia; 207 (45%) tumors arose in the posterior fossa and 255 (55%) appeared supratentorially. A wide variety of histological subtypes were seen, each requiring tumor-specific treatment approaches. These included primitive neuroectodermal tumor (n = 86, 19%), astrocytoma (n = 135, 30%), brainstem glioma (n = 47, 10%), anaplastic astrocytoma (n = 32, 7%), and ependymoma (n = 30, 6%). Because of advances in diagnostic abilities, surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy, between 60% and 70% of these patients are alive today. Diagnostic tools such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging allow for better perioperative management and follow-up, while the operating microscope, CO/sub 2/ laser, cavitron ultrasonic aspirator and neurosurgical microinstrumentation allow for more extensive and safer surgery. Disease specific treatment protocols, utilizing radiotherapy and adjuvant chemotherapy, have made survival common in tumors such as medulloblastoma. As survival rates increase, cognitive, endocrinologic and psychologic sequelae become increasingly important. The optimal management of children with brain tumors demands a multidisciplinary approach, best facilitated by a neuro-oncology team composed of multiple subspecialists. This article addresses incidence, classification and histology, clinical presentation, diagnosis, pre-, intra- and postoperative management, long-term effects and the team approach in posterior fossa tumors in childhood. Management of specific tumor types is included as well. 57 references.

  3. Intra-individual, randomised comparison of the MRI contrast agents gadobutrol versus gadoteridol in patients with primary and secondary brain tumours, evaluated in a blinded read

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, M. [Klinikum Luenen St. Marien-Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Neuroradiology, Luenen (Germany); Schulte-Altedorneburg, G. [Staedtisches Klinikum Muenchen Harlaching, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Neuroradiology and Nuclear Medicine, Muenchen (Germany); Piontek, M.; Heuser, L. [Universitaetsklinikum Knappschaftskrankenhaus GmbH, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Neuroradiology and Nuclear Medicine, Bochum (Germany); Hentsch, A. [Radiologisches Institut Hohenzollernstrasse, Koblenz (Germany); Spangenberg, P. [Universitaetsklinikum Knappschaftskrankenhaus GmbH, Department of Neurosurgery, Bochum (Germany); Schwenke, C. [SCO:SSiS, Berlin (Germany); Harders, A. [Universitaetsklinikum Knappschaftskrankenhaus GmbH, Department of Neurosurgery Knappschaftskrankenhaus, Bochum (Germany)


    To prove that 1.0 M gadobutrol provides superior contrast enhancement and MRI image characteristics of primary and secondary brain tumours compared with 0.5 M gadoteridol, thereby providing superior diagnostic information. Brain MRI was performed in two separate examinations in patients scheduled for neurosurgery. Independent injections of 1.0 M gadobutrol and 0.5 M gadoteridol at doses of 0.1 mmol Gd/kg body weight were administered per patient in randomised order. Evaluation was performed in an off-site blinded read. Fifty-one patients in the full analysis set (FAS) were eligible for efficacy analysis and 44 for the per-protocol analysis. For the primary efficacy variable ''preference in contrast enhancement for one contrast agent or the other'', the rate of ''gadobutrol preferred'' was estimated at 0.73 (95 % confidence interval 0.61; 0.83), showing significant superiority of gadobutrol over gadoteridol. Calculated lesion-to-brain contrast and the results of all qualitative secondary efficacy variables were also in favour of gadobutrol. Keeping a sufficient time delay after contrast application proved to be essential to get optimal image quality. Compared with 0.5 M gadoteridol, 1.0 M gadobutrol was proven to have significantly superior contrast enhancement characteristics in a routine MRI protocol of primary and secondary brain tumours. (orig.)

  4. Altered microstructure within social-cognitive brain networks during childhood in Williams syndrome. (United States)

    Haas, Brian W; Barnea-Goraly, Naama; Sheau, Kristen E; Yamagata, Bun; Ullas, Shruti; Reiss, Allan L


    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental condition caused by a hemizygous deletion of ∼26-28 genes on chromosome 7q11.23. WS is associated with a distinctive pattern of social cognition. Accordingly, neuroimaging studies show that WS is associated with structural alterations of key brain regions involved in social cognition during adulthood. However, very little is currently known regarding the neuroanatomical structure of social cognitive brain networks during childhood in WS. This study used diffusion tensor imaging to investigate the structural integrity of a specific set of white matter pathways (inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus [IFOF] and uncinate fasciculus [UF]) and associated brain regions [fusiform gyrus (FG), amygdala, hippocampus, medial orbitofrontal gyrus (MOG)] known to be involved in social cognition in children with WS and a typically developing (TD) control group. Children with WS exhibited higher fractional anisotropy (FA) and axial diffusivity values and lower radial diffusivity and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values within the IFOF and UF, higher FA values within the FG, amygdala, and hippocampus and lower ADC values within the FG and MOG compared to controls. These findings provide evidence that the WS genetic deletion affects the development of key white matter pathways and brain regions important for social cognition.

  5. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Early Endocrine Disorders in Childhood Brain Tumor Survivors : A Nationwide, Multicenter Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clement, Sarah C.; Schouten-van Meeteren, Antoinette Y. N.; Boots, Annemieke; Claahsen-van der Grinten, Hedy L.; Granzen, Bernd; Sen Han, K.; Janssens, Geert O.; Michiels, Erna M.; van Trotsenburg, A. S. Paul; Vandertop, W. Peter; van Vuurden, Dannis G.; Kremer, Leontien C. M.; Caron, Hubert N.; van Santen, Hanneke M.


    Purpose To evaluate the prevalence of, and risk factors for, early endocrine disorders in childhood brain tumor survivors (CBTS). Patients and Methods This nationwide study cohort consisted of 718 CBTS who were diagnosed between 2002 and 2012, and who survived >= 2 years after diagnosis. Patients wi

  6. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Early Endocrine Disorders in Childhood Brain Tumor Survivors : A Nationwide, Multicenter Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clement, Sarah C; Schouten-van Meeteren, Antoinette Y N; Boot, Annemieke M; Claahsen-van der Grinten, Hedy L; Granzen, Bernd; Sen Han, K; Janssens, Geert O; Michiels, Erna M; van Trotsenburg, A S Paul; Vandertop, W Peter; van Vuurden, Dannis G; Kremer, Leontien C M; Caron, Hubert N; van Santen, Hanneke M


    Purpose To evaluate the prevalence of, and risk factors for, early endocrine disorders in childhood brain tumor survivors (CBTS). Patients and Methods This nationwide study cohort consisted of 718 CBTS who were diagnosed between 2002 and 2012, and who survived ≥ 2 years after diagnosis. Patients wit

  7. Brain Development of Very Preterm and Very Low-Birthweight Children in Childhood and Adolescence: A Meta-Analysis (United States)

    de Kieviet, Jorrit F.; Zoetebier, Lydia; van Elburg, Ruurd M.; Vermeulen, R. Jeroen; Oosterlaan, Jaap


    Aim: The aim of this article was to clarify the impact and consequences of very preterm birth (born less than 32wks of gestation) and/or very low birthweight ([VLBW], weighing less than 1500g) on brain volume development throughout childhood and adolescence. Method: The computerized databases PubMed, Web of Knowledge, and EMBASE were searched for…

  8. Coordinated brain development: exploring the synchrony between changes in grey and white matter during childhood maturation. (United States)

    Moura, L M; Crossley, N A; Zugman, A; Pan, P M; Gadelha, A; Del Aquilla, M A G; Picon, F A; Anés, M; Amaro, E; de Jesus Mari, J; Miguel, E C; Rohde, L A; Bressan, R A; McGuire, P; Sato, J R; Jackowski, A P


    Brain development during childhood and early adolescence is characterized by global changes in brain architecture. Neuroimaging studies have revealed overall decreases in cortical thickness (CT) and increases in fractional anisotropy (FA). Furthermore, previous studies have shown that certain cortical regions display coordinated growth during development. However, there is significant heterogeneity in the timing and speed of these developmental transformations, and it is still unclear whether white and grey matter changes are co-localized. In this multimodal neuroimaging study, we investigated the relationship between grey and white matter developmental changes and asynchronous maturation within brain regions in 249 normally developing children between the ages 7-14. We used structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to analyze CT and FA, respectively, as well as their covariance across development. Consistent with previous studies, we observed overall cortical thinning with age, which was accompanied by increased FA. We then compared the coordinated development of grey and white matter as indexed by covariance measures. Covariance between grey matter regions and the microstructure of white matter tracts connecting those regions were highly similar, suggesting that coordinated changes in the cortex were mirrored by coordinated changes in their respective tracts. Examining within-brain divergent trajectories, we found significant structural decoupling (decreased covariance) between several brain regions and tracts in the 9- to 11-year-old group, particularly involving the forceps minor and the regions that it connects to. We argue that this decoupling could reflect a developmental pattern within the prefrontal region in 9- and 11-year-old children, possibly related to the significant changes in cognitive control observed at this age.

  9. Evidence of Change in Brain Activity among Childhood Cancer Survivors Participating in a Cognitive Remediation Program (United States)

    Zou, Ping; Li, Yimei; Conklin, Heather M.; Mulhern, Raymond K.; Butler, Robert W.; Ogg, Robert J.


    Increased understanding of the underlying mechanisms of cognitive remediation is needed to facilitate development of intervention strategies for childhood cancer survivors experiencing cognitive late effects. Accordingly, a pilot functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study was conducted with 14 cancer survivors (12.02 ± 0.09 years old), who participated in a cognitive remediation clinical trial, and 28 healthy children (12.7 ± 0.6 years old). The ventral visual areas, cerebellum, supplementary motor area, and left inferior frontal cortex were significantly activated in the healthy participants during a continuous performance task. In survivors, brain activation in these regions was diminished at baseline, and increased upon completion of remediation and at a 6-month follow-up. The fMRI activation index for each region of interest was inversely associated with the Conners' Clinical Competence Index (p<.01). The pilot study suggests that fMRI is useful in evaluating neural responses to cognitive remediation. PMID:23079152

  10. Childhood cognitive ability accounts for associations between cognitive ability and brain cortical thickness in old age. (United States)

    Karama, S; Bastin, M E; Murray, C; Royle, N A; Penke, L; Muñoz Maniega, S; Gow, A J; Corley, J; Valdés Hernández, M del C; Lewis, J D; Rousseau, M-É; Lepage, C; Fonov, V; Collins, D L; Booth, T; Rioux, P; Sherif, T; Adalat, R; Starr, J M; Evans, A C; Wardlaw, J M; Deary, I J


    Associations between brain cortical tissue volume and cognitive function in old age are frequently interpreted as suggesting that preservation of cortical tissue is the foundation of successful cognitive aging. However, this association could also, in part, reflect a lifelong association between cognitive ability and cortical tissue. We analyzed data on 588 subjects from the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 who had intelligence quotient (IQ) scores from the same cognitive test available at both 11 and 70 years of age as well as high-resolution brain magnetic resonance imaging data obtained at approximately 73 years of age. Cortical thickness was estimated at 81 924 sampling points across the cortex for each subject using an automated pipeline. Multiple regression was used to assess associations between cortical thickness and the IQ measures at 11 and 70 years. Childhood IQ accounted for more than two-third of the association between IQ at 70 years and cortical thickness measured at age 73 years. This warns against ascribing a causal interpretation to the association between cognitive ability and cortical tissue in old age based on assumptions about, and exclusive reference to, the aging process and any associated disease. Without early-life measures of cognitive ability, it would have been tempting to conclude that preservation of cortical thickness in old age is a foundation for successful cognitive aging when, instead, it is a lifelong association. This being said, results should not be construed as meaning that all studies on aging require direct measures of childhood IQ, but as suggesting that proxy measures of prior cognitive function can be useful to take into consideration.

  11. Decrease of deleted in malignant brain tumour-1 (DMBT-1) expression is a crucial late event in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasaki, M; Huang, S-F; Chen, M-F;


    AIMS: To investigate the participation of DMBT-1, a candidate tumour suppressor gene, in the development of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma via intraductal papillary neoplasm of the liver (IPN-L) arising in hepatolithiasis. DMBT-1 plays a role in mucosal immune defence. METHODS AND RESULTS: The e...

  12. Brain SPECT in childhood; Temp cerebrale chez l'enfant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tranquart, F.; Saliba, E.; Prunier, C.; Baulieu, F.; Besnard, J.C.; Guilloteau, D.; Baulieu, J.L. [Hopital Bretonneau, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Unite Inserm 316, 37 - Tours (France)


    The modalities and the indications of perfusion and neurotransmission SPECT in childhood are presented. The perfusion as well as neurotransmission tracers have not yet authorization for use in children; they have to be used by prescription of magistral preparation or in research protocols. The radioprotection rules have to be strictly respected. The most frequent indication of perfusion SPECT is pharmacologically resistant epilepsy; the ictal SPECT before surgery allows the localization of the epileptogenic focus. Other indications are relevant in the prognosis of neonatal anoxia and encephalitis. In psychiatric disorders, especially in autism, the interest is the physiopathological approach of the brain dysfunctions. The neurotransmission SPECT is emerging as a consequence of the development of new radiotracer, as the dopaminergic system ligands. The decrease of the dopamine D2 receptors in the striatum can be imaged and quantified in the neonate. The lesions of dopamine system seem to be a consequence of the neonatal hypoxia-ischemia and it is predictive of motor sequelae. Brain SPECT should become a routine examination in child neurologic and psychiatric disorders. (authors)

  13. Management of childhood brain tumors: consensus report by the Pediatric Hematology Oncology (PHO) Chapter of Indian Academy of Pediatrics (IAP). (United States)

    Bhat, Sunil; Yadav, Satya Prakash; Suri, Vaishali; Patir, Rana; Kurkure, Purna; Kellie, Stewart; Sachdeva, Anupam


    Brain tumors are the second most common childhood tumors and remain the leading cause of cancer related deaths in children. Appropriate diagnosis and management of these tumors are essential to improve survival. There are no clinical practical guidelines available for the management of brain tumors in India. This document is a consensus report prepared after a National Consultation on Pediatric Brain Tumors held in Delhi on 06 Nov 2008. The meeting was attended by eminent experts from all over the country, in the fields of Neurosurgery, Radiation Oncology, Pediatric Oncology, Neuropathology, Diagnostic Imaging, Pediatric Endocrinology and Allied Health Professionals. This article highlights that physicians looking after children with brain tumors should work as part of a multidisciplinary team to improve the survival, quality of life, neuro-cognitive outcomes and standards of care for children with brain tumors. Recommendations for when to suspect, diagnostic workup, initial management, long-term follow up and specific management of individual tumors are outlined.

  14. Simultaneous evaluation of brain tumour metabolism, structure and blood volume using [18F]-fluoroethyltyrosine (FET) PET/MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Otto M.; Larsen, Vibeke A; Muhic, Aida;


    PURPOSE: Both [(18)F]-fluoroethyltyrosine (FET) PET and blood volume (BV) MRI supplement routine T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MRI in gliomas, but whether the two modalities provide identical or complementary information is unresolved. The aims of the study were to investigate the feasibility...... congruence in the tumour volumes determined by FET PET, BV MRI and contrast-enhanced MRI. RESULTS: FET volume and TBRmax were higher in BV-positive than in BV-negative scans, and both VOLBV and rBVmax were higher in FET-positive than in FET-negative scans. TBRmax and rBVmax were positively correlated (R (2...

  15. Parcellation of the healthy neonatal brain into 107 regions using atlas propagation through intermediate time points in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel eBlesa Cabez


    Full Text Available Neuroimage analysis pipelines rely on parcellated atlases generated from healthy individuals to provide anatomic context to structural and diffusion MRI data. Atlases constructed using adult data introduce bias into studies of early brain development. We aimed to create a neonatal brain atlas of healthy subjects that can be applied to multi-modal MRI data. Structural and diffusion 3T MRI scans were acquired soon after birth from 33 typically developing neonates born at term (mean postmenstrual age at birth 39+5 weeks, range 37+2-41+6. An adult brain atlas (SRI24/TZO was propagated to the neonatal data using temporal registration via childhood templates with dense temporal samples (NIH Pediatric Database, with the final atlas (Edinburgh Neonatal Atlas, ENA33 constructed using the Symmetric Group Normalization method. After this step, the computed final transformations were applied to T2-weighted data, and fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, and tissue segmentations to provide a multi-modal atlas with 107 anatomical regions; a symmetric version was also created to facilitate studies of laterality. Volumes of each region of interest were measured to provide reference data from normal subjects. Because this atlas is generated from step-wise propagation of adult labels through intermediate time points in childhood, it may serve as a useful starting point for modelling brain growth during development.

  16. Beauty product-related exposures and childhood brain tumors in seven countries: results from the SEARCH International Brain Tumor Study. (United States)

    Efird, J T; Holly, E A; Cordier, S; Mueller, B A; Lubin, F; Filippini, G; Peris-Bonet, R; McCredie, M; Arslan, A; Bracci, P; Preston-Martin, S


    Data from 1218 cases of childhood brain tumors (CBT) diagnosed between 1976 and 1994 and 2223 matched controls from the general population were included in an analysis of maternal beauty product exposure and beauty-related employment in 9 centers in 7 countries. A 50% increased odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.0-2.1] for CBT was observed among children of mothers who were exposed via personal use of and/or possible ambient contact with beauty products during the 5 years preceding the index child's birth compared with children of mothers never exposed to beauty products during this time period. Overall maternal personal use of hair-coloring agents in the month before or during the pregnancy of the index child's birth was not associated with CBT (OR = 1.0, CI = 0.83-1.3) or with astroglial (OR = 1.1, CI = 0.85-1.4), PNET (OR = 1.0, CI = 0.71-1.5) and other glial subtypes (OR = 1.0, CI = 0.62-1.0). Similarly, no statistically increased ORs or discernable pattern of risk estimates were observed for period of use or for number of applications per year for maternal personal use of hair-coloring agents overall or by histologic type. Among children born on or after 1980, increased ORs for CBT were associated with maternal non-work-related exposure to any beauty products (OR = 2.6, CI = 1.2-5.9), hair-dyes (OR = 11, CI = 1.2-90), and hair sprays (OR = 3.4, CI = 1.0-11). No overall increased OR for CBT was observed among children of mothers employed in beauty-related jobs during the 5 years preceding the index child's birth compared with those who reported no beauty-related employment. In general, other specific beauty product-related exposures were not associated with increased ORs for CBT. Data from our study provide little evidence of an increased risk for CBT with mothers' exposures to beauty products.

  17. Malignant tumours of the kidney: imaging strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smets, Anne M. [Academic Medical Center, Department of Radiology G1, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Kraker, Jan de [Paediatric Oncology-Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)


    Primitive malignant renal tumours comprise 6% of all childhood cancers. Wilms tumour (WT) or nephroblastoma is the most frequent type accounting for more than 90%. Imaging alone cannot differentiate between these tumours with certainty but it plays an important role in screening, diagnostic workup, assessment of therapy response, preoperative evaluation and follow-up. The outcome of WT after therapy is excellent with an overall survival around 90%. In tumours such as those where the outcome is extremely good, focus can be shifted to a risk-based stratification to maintain excellent outcome in children with low risk tumours while improving quality of life and decreasing toxicity and costs. This review will discuss the imaging issues for WT from the European perspective and briefly discuss the characteristics of other malignant renal tumours occurring in children and new imaging techniques with potential in this matter. (orig.)

  18. Menace of childhood non-accidental traumatic brain injuries: A single unit report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Ibrahim


    Full Text Available Background: Childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI has high rate of mortality and morbidity worldwide. There are dearths of reports from developing countries with large paediatric population on trauma; neurosurgery trauma of nonaccidental origin is not an exemption. This study analysed menace of non-accidental TBI in the paediatric population from our center. Materials and Methods: This is a single unit, retrospective study of the epidemiology of non-accidental TBI in children starting from September, 2008 to March, 2014. The management outcomes of the epidemiology of the non-accidental TBI were analysed. Results: Total of 109 children age range from 0 (intra-natal to 16 years with a mean of 5.8 ± 4.6 years (median, 5 years were enrolled into the study. 34 (31.2% were domestic violence, 26 (23.9% street assaults, 16 (14.7% were due to animal assaults and mishaps, 17 (15.6% fall from heights. Seven (6.4% cases of collapsed buildings were also seen during the period. Four (3.7% industrial accidents and two (1.8% were self-inflicted injuries. There were also three (2.8% cases of iatrogenic TBI out of which two infants (1.8% sustained TBI from cesarean section procedure while one patient (0.9% under general anaesthesia felt from the operation bed resulting to severe TBI. Conclusion: Child abuse, unprotected child labour, parental/care-givers negligence are the main cause of nonaccidental TBI. Human right activists and government agents should be incorporated in curtailing the menace.

  19. The Trajectory of Long-Term Psychosocial Development 16 Years following Childhood Traumatic Brain Injury. (United States)

    Rosema, Stefanie; Muscara, Frank; Anderson, Vicki; Godfrey, Celia; Hearps, Stephen; Catroppa, Cathy


    Childhood traumatic brain injury (CTBI) is one of the most common causes of impairment in children and adolescents, with psychosocial difficulties found to be the most persisting. Given that the transition into adolescence and adulthood can be a stressful period, it is likely that young people who have sustained a CTBI will be more vulnerable to developing psychosocial problems. To date, most research has focused on psychosocial development up to five years following a CTBI and it is unclear how survivors develop in the long-term as young adults. The aim of this research was to track the long-term psychosocial outcomes of children with CTBI and compare them with healthy controls over a period of 16 years. Seventy-five participants with a CTBI and 29 control participants were followed up at five time-points over a period of 16 years. To measure psychosocial functioning (social skills, internalizing, and externalizing symptoms), questionnaires were completed by the primary caregiver acutely (pre-injury baseline), then six months, five years, 10 years, and 16 years post-injury. No significant group differences were found regarding the developmental trajectory of social skills, or internalizing and externalizing symptoms between the CTBI and control groups. The severe CTBI group demonstrated a trend of lower social skills, while the mild CTBI group showed a trend of higher internalizing and externalizing skills at six months, five years, and ten years post-CTBI event, compared with other groups. The mild CTBI group scored in the borderline range for externalizing symptoms six months post-CTBI; however, all other mean scores were within the normal range. Over a period of 16 years, young adults with CTBI showed similar developmental trajectories regarding psychosocial outcomes, compared with healthy controls. This study confirmed previous literature that CTBI is associated with increased levels of psychosocial problems.

  20. Subdural Pressure and Brain Condition During Propofol Vs Isoflurane - Nitrous Oxide Anaesthesia in Patients Undergoing Elective Supratentorial Tumour Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankari Santra


    No differences were found between the groups with regards to demographics, neuroradiologic diagnosis, posi-tion of head and time of ICP measurement. Before hyperventilation, both ICP and dural tension were significantly lower in Group I compared with Group-II (P< 0.05. But after hyperventilation there was no significant difference of ICP and dural tension in between groups. The degree of brain swelling after opening of dura was similar in both groups. There was a positive correlation between measured ICP and brain swelling score.

  1. The effects of poverty on childhood brain development: the mediating effect of caregiving and stressful life events. (United States)

    Luby, Joan; Belden, Andy; Botteron, Kelly; Marrus, Natasha; Harms, Michael P; Babb, Casey; Nishino, Tomoyuki; Barch, Deanna


    IMPORTANCE The study provides novel data to inform the mechanisms by which poverty negatively impacts childhood brain development. OBJECTIVE To investigate whether the income-to-needs ratio experienced in early childhood impacts brain development at school age and to explore the mediators of this effect. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This study was conducted at an academic research unit at the Washington University School of Medicine in St Louis. Data from a prospective longitudinal study of emotion development in preschool children who participated in neuroimaging at school age were used to investigate the effects of poverty on brain development. Children were assessed annually for 3 to 6 years prior to the time of a magnetic resonance imaging scan, during which they were evaluated on psychosocial, behavioral, and other developmental dimensions. Preschoolers included in the study were 3 to 6 years of age and were recruited from primary care and day care sites in the St Louis metropolitan area; they were annually assessed behaviorally for 5 to 10 years. Healthy preschoolers and those with clinical symptoms of depression participated in neuroimaging at school age/early adolescence. EXPOSURE Household poverty as measured by the income-to-needs ratio. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Brain volumes of children's white matter and cortical gray matter, as well as hippocampus and amygdala volumes, obtained using magnetic resonance imaging. Mediators of interest were caregiver support/hostility measured observationally during the preschool period and stressful life events measured prospectively. RESULTS Poverty was associated with smaller white and cortical gray matter and hippocampal and amygdala volumes. The effects of poverty on hippocampal volume were mediated by caregiving support/hostility on the left and right, as well as stressful life events on the left. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The finding that exposure to poverty in early childhood materially impacts brain

  2. Temozolomide and O6-Benzylguanine in Treating Children With Recurrent Brain Tumors (United States)


    Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Ependymoblastoma; Childhood Grade I Meningioma; Childhood Grade II Meningioma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood High-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Childhood Mixed Glioma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma

  3. Radiosensitivity in vitro of clonogenic and non-clonogenic glioblastoma cells obtained from a human brain tumour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buronfosse, A.; Thomas, C.P.; Ginestet, C.; Dore, J.F. [Centre de Lutte Contre le Cancer Leon-Berard, 69 - Lyon (France)


    Cells obtained from a human glioblastoma (G5) were characterized and used to develop an assay measuring their radiosensitivity in vitro. Surviving fractions were estimated 12 days after irradiation by image analysis of the total surface occupied by the cells. This report evaluates 4 experimental factors which may influence the radiosensitivity in vitro of G5 cells: passage number, delay between plating and irradiation, cell density and clonal heterogeneity. The radiosensitivity of the G5 cell line was found to be passage-independent at least between passages 12 and 75. Experimental conditions influence the radiosensitivity as surviving fraction at 2 Gy (SF2) range from 90% (5 000 cells/well, irradiation 72 h after seeding) to 49% (2 500 cells per well, irradiation 24 h after seeding). The heterogeneity of the radiosensitivity is large at the clonal level as SF2 of six clones isolated from the G5 line were 45%, 50%, 72%, 74%, 79% and 84%. Finally, when G5 cells were irradiated at low cell density and at the beginning of the growth phase, the radiosensitivity measured with this assay is comparable to that obtained with a standard colony assay. We propose that this assay may be useful to determine the intrinsic radiosensitivity of cells obtained from human tumours. (authors). 24 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. New Zealand adolescents’ cellphone and cordless phone user-habits: are they at increased risk of brain tumours already? A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redmayne Mary


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cellphone and cordless phone use is very prevalent among early adolescents, but the extent and types of use is not well documented. This paper explores how, and to what extent, New Zealand adolescents are typically using and exposed to active cellphones and cordless phones, and considers implications of this in relation to brain tumour risk, with reference to current research findings. Methods This cross-sectional study recruited 373 Year 7 and 8 school students with a mean age of 12.3 years (range 10.3-13.7 years from the Wellington region of New Zealand. Participants completed a questionnaire and measured their normal body-to-phone texting distances. Main exposure-metrics included self-reported time spent with an active cellphone close to the body, estimated time and number of calls on both phone types, estimated and actual extent of SMS text-messaging, cellphone functions used and people texted. Statistical analyses used Pearson Chi2 tests and Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r. Analyses were undertaken using SPSS version 19.0. Results Both cellphones and cordless phones were used by approximately 90% of students. A third of participants had already used a cordless phone for ≥ 7 years. In 4 years from the survey to mid-2013, the cordless phone use of 6% of participants would equal that of the highest Interphone decile (≥ 1640 hours, at the surveyed rate of use. High cellphone use was related to cellphone location at night, being woken regularly, and being tired at school. More than a third of parents thought cellphones carried a moderate-to-high health risk for their child. Conclusions While cellphones were very popular for entertainment and social interaction via texting, cordless phones were most popular for calls. If their use continued at the reported rate, many would be at increased risk of specific brain tumours by their mid-teens, based on findings of the Interphone and Hardell-group studies.

  5. Effects of childhood poverty and chronic stress on emotion regulatory brain function in adulthood. (United States)

    Kim, Pilyoung; Evans, Gary W; Angstadt, Michael; Ho, S Shaun; Sripada, Chandra S; Swain, James E; Liberzon, Israel; Phan, K Luan


    Childhood poverty has pervasive negative physical and psychological health sequelae in adulthood. Exposure to chronic stressors may be one underlying mechanism for childhood poverty-health relations by influencing emotion regulatory systems. Animal work and human cross-sectional studies both suggest that chronic stressor exposure is associated with amygdala and prefrontal cortex regions important for emotion regulation. In this longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging study of 49 participants, we examined associations between childhood poverty at age 9 and adult neural circuitry activation during emotion regulation at age 24. To test developmental timing, concurrent, adult income was included as a covariate. Adults with lower family income at age 9 exhibited reduced ventrolateral and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity and failure to suppress amygdala activation during effortful regulation of negative emotion at age 24. In contrast to childhood income, concurrent adult income was not associated with neural activity during emotion regulation. Furthermore, chronic stressor exposure across childhood (at age 9, 13, and 17) mediated the relations between family income at age 9 and ventrolateral and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity at age 24. The findings demonstrate the significance of childhood chronic stress exposures in predicting neural outcomes during emotion regulation in adults who grew up in poverty.

  6. Estimating associations of mobile phone use and brain tumours taking into account laterality: a comparison and theoretical evaluation of applied methods. (United States)

    Frederiksen, Kirsten; Deltour, Isabelle; Schüz, Joachim


    Estimating exposure-outcome associations using laterality information on exposure and on outcome is an issue, when estimating associations of mobile phone use and brain tumour risk. The exposure is localized; therefore, a potential risk is expected to exist primarily on the side of the head, where the phone is usually held (ipsilateral exposure), and to a lesser extent at the opposite side of the head (contralateral exposure). Several measures of the associations with ipsilateral and contralateral exposure, dealing with different sampling designs, have been presented in the literature. This paper presents a general framework for the analysis of such studies using a likelihood-based approach in a competing risks model setting. The approach clarifies the implicit assumptions required for the validity of the presented estimators, particularly that in some approaches the risk with contralateral exposure is assumed to be zero. The performance of the estimators is illustrated in a simulation study showing for instance that while in some scenarios there is a loss of statistical power, others - in case of a positive ipsilateral exposure-outcome association - would result in a negatively biased estimate of the contralateral exposure parameter, irrespective of any additional recall bias. In conclusion, our theoretical evaluations and results from the simulation study emphasize the importance of setting up a formal model, which furthermore allows for estimation in more complicated and perhaps more realistic exposure settings, such as taking into account exposure to both sides of the head.

  7. Preoperative shunts in thalamic tumours.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goel A


    Full Text Available Thirty one patients with thalamic glioma underwent a pre-tumour resection shunt surgery. The procedure was uneventful in 23 patients with relief from symptoms of increased intracranial pressure. Eight patients worsened after the procedure. The level of sensorium worsened from excessively drowsy state to unconsciousness in seven patients. Three patients developed hemiparesis, 4 developed paresis of extra-ocular muscles and altered pupillary reflexes, and 1 developed incontinence of urine and persistent vomiting. Alteration in the delicately balanced intracranial pressure and movements in the tumour and vital adjacent brain areas could be the probable cause of the worsening in the neurological state in these 8 patients. On the basis of these observations and on review of literature, it is postulated that the ventricular dilatation following an obstruction in the path of the cerebrospinal fluid flow by a tumour could be a natural defense phenomenon of the brain.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthilvel Arumugam


    Full Text Available Wilms’ tumour also called as nephroblastoma is a malignant renal neoplasm of childhood that arises from remnant of immature kidney. About 80% of Wilms’ tumour cases occur before age 5 with a median age of 3.5 years. But adult Wilms’ tumour can occur at any age from 16 to 70 years, the median age in young adult is around 24. CASE REPORT A 16-year-old girl came with history of mass right abdomen, which she noticed for 1 week duration; no urinary symptoms. Her recent blood pressure was 140/90 mmHg. Per abdomen a 10 x 9 cm mass palpable in the right lumbar region, surface smooth, firmto-hard in consistency, non-tender, well defined, no bruit. Urine routine examination was normal; urine culture was sterile; renal and liver function tests were within normal limits; Sr. calcium 9.5 mg/dL. CT abdomen plain and contrast showed a 10 x 9 cm heterodense lesion equivocal with renal cell carcinoma and angiomyolipoma. MR angiogram was done. It showed well-defined encapsulated heterointense mass of size 12 x 8 x 7cm, IVC and bilateral renal vein normal. Since findings were inconclusive, we did a CT-guided biopsy and report came as feature positive for small round cell tumour. Hence, proceeded with right radical nephrectomy. The final histopathology report came as Wilms’ tumour spindle cell variant. Margins clear and ureter not involved. She was then started on adjuvant chemotherapy Inj. Vincristine 2 mg weekly for 27 weeks. She is on regular followup now. CONCLUSION Wilms’ tumour should be considered in a patient who presents with a renal mass with or without loin pain, haematuria especially in young adults. Every attempt should be made to differentiate it from renal cell carcinoma. The outcome for adult Wilms’ tumour is steadily improving with current multimodality treatment approach.

  9. Tipifarnib in Treating Young Patients With Recurrent or Progressive High-Grade Glioma, Medulloblastoma, Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor, or Brain Stem Glioma (United States)


    Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma

  10. Gastric Calcifying Fibrous Tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Attila


    Full Text Available Intramucosal gastric tumours are most commonly found to be gastrointestinal stromal tumours or leiomyomas (smooth muscle tumours; however, a variety of other uncommon mesenchymal tumours can occur in the stomach wall. A rare benign calcifying fibrous tumour is reported and the endoscopic appearance, ultrasound findings and morphology are documented. A review of the literature found only two similar cases.

  11. Translation and pilot validation of Hindi translation of assessing quality of life in patients with primary brain tumours using EORTC brain module (BN-20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budrukkar Ashwini


    Full Text Available Aim: To translate and validate the European Organisation for Research and Treatment for Cancer (EORTC brain cancer module (BN-20 into Hindi to make it available for patients and scientific community. Methods and Results: The EORTC BN-20 was translated into Hindi using standard guidelines by EORTC. The process included forward translation by two translators, discussion with the translators in case of discrepancies and formation of first intermediate questionnaire. This questionnaire was then given to two more translators who translated this questionnaire back into English. These 2 questionnaires were then compared with the original EORTC questionnaire and the second intermediate questionnaire was formed. The second intermediate questionnaire was subsequently administered in 10 patients with brain tumors who had never seen the questionnaire before, for pilot-testing. Each of these 10 patients after filling up the questionnaire themselves was then interviewed for any difficulty encountered during the filling up of the questionnaire. These were in the form of specific modules including difficulty in answering, confusion while answering and difficulty to understand, whether the questions were upsetting and if patients would have asked the question in any different way. There were major suggestions in three questions, which were incorporated into the second intermediate questionnaire to form the final Hindi BN-20 questionnaire. Conclusion: The final Hindi BN-20 has been approved by EORTC and can be used in clinical practice and studies for patients with brain tumors.

  12. Testicular adrenal rest tumours in congenital adrenal hyperplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claahsen-van der Grinten, H.L.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.; Otten, B.J.


    In adult patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), the presence of testicular adrenal rest tumours (TART) is an important complication leading to gonadal dysfunction and infertility. These tumours can be already found in childhood and puberty. In this paper, we review the embryological, hi

  13. Short-Term Second Language and Music Training Induces Lasting Functional Brain Changes in Early Childhood (United States)

    Moreno, Sylvain; Lee, Yunjo; Janus, Monika; Bialystok, Ellen


    Immediate and lasting effects of music or second-language training were examined in early childhood using event-related potentials. Event-related potentials were recorded for French vowels and musical notes in a passive oddball paradigm in thirty-six 4- to 6-year-old children who received either French or music training. Following training, both…

  14. Cerebral glucose metabolism in long-term survivors of childhood primary brain tumors treated with surgery and radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Preben B.; Krabbe, Katja; Leffers, Anne M.;


    Delayed structural cerebral sequelae has been reported following cranial radiation therapy (CRT) to children with primary brain tumors, but little is known about potential functional changes. Twenty-four patients were included, diagnosed and treated at a median age of 11 years, and examined after...... that there is a general reduction in rCMRglc in long-term recurrence free survivors of childhood primary brain tumors treated with CRT in high doses (44-56 Gy)......Delayed structural cerebral sequelae has been reported following cranial radiation therapy (CRT) to children with primary brain tumors, but little is known about potential functional changes. Twenty-four patients were included, diagnosed and treated at a median age of 11 years, and examined after...... a median recurrence free survival of 16 years by MRI and Positron Emission Tomography using the glucose analog 2-18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (18FDG). Three patients were not analyzed further due to diffuse cerebral atrophy, which might be related to previous hydrocephalus. Twenty-one patients were...

  15. O6-Methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase protein expression by immunohistochemistry in brain and non-brain systemic tumours: systematic review and meta-analysis of correlation with methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibáñez Javier


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The DNA repair protein O6-Methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT confers resistance to alkylating agents. Several methods have been applied to its analysis, with methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP the most commonly used for promoter methylation study, while immunohistochemistry (IHC has become the most frequently used for the detection of MGMT protein expression. Agreement on the best and most reliable technique for evaluating MGMT status remains unsettled. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the correlation between IHC and MSP. Methods A computer-aided search of MEDLINE (1950-October 2009, EBSCO (1966-October 2009 and EMBASE (1974-October 2009 was performed for relevant publications. Studies meeting inclusion criteria were those comparing MGMT protein expression by IHC with MGMT promoter methylation by MSP in the same cohort of patients. Methodological quality was assessed by using the QUADAS and STARD instruments. Previously published guidelines were followed for meta-analysis performance. Results Of 254 studies identified as eligible for full-text review, 52 (20.5% met the inclusion criteria. The review showed that results of MGMT protein expression by IHC are not in close agreement with those obtained with MSP. Moreover, type of tumour (primary brain tumour vs others was an independent covariate of accuracy estimates in the meta-regression analysis beyond the cut-off value. Conclusions Protein expression assessed by IHC alone fails to reflect the promoter methylation status of MGMT. Thus, in attempts at clinical diagnosis the two methods seem to select different groups of patients and should not be used interchangeably.

  16. Breastfeeding and nutrition to 2 years of age and risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia and brain tumors. (United States)

    Greenop, Kathryn R; Bailey, Helen D; Miller, Margaret; Scott, Rodney J; Attia, John; Ashton, Lesley J; Downie, Peter; Armstrong, Bruce K; Milne, Elizabeth


    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and childhood brain tumors (CBT) are 2 of the most common forms of childhood cancer, but little is known of their etiology. In 2 nationwide case-control studies we investigated whether breastfeeding, age of food introduction, or early diet are associated with the risk of these cancers. Cases aged 0-14 years were identified from Australian pediatric oncology units between 2003 and 2007 (ALL) and 2005 and 2010 (CBT) and population-based controls through nationwide random-digit dialing. Mothers completed questionnaires giving details of infant feeding up to the age of 2 yr. Data from 322 ALL cases, 679 ALL controls, 299 CBT cases, and 733 CBT controls were analysed using unconditional logistic regression. Breastfeeding was associated with a reduced risk of ALL [odds ratio (OR) = 0.52, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.32, 0.84), regardless of duration. Introduction of artificial formula within 14 days of birth was positively associated with ALL (OR = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.03, 2.37), as was exclusive formula feeding to 6 mo (OR = 1.81, 95% CI: 1.07, 3.05). No associations were seen between breastfeeding or formula use and risk of CBT. Our results suggest that breastfeeding and delayed introduction of artificial formula may reduce the risk of ALL but not CBT.

  17. Frontal brain asymmetry, childhood maltreatment, and low-grade inflammation at midlife. (United States)

    Hostinar, Camelia E; Davidson, Richard J; Graham, Eileen K; Mroczek, Daniel K; Lachman, Margie E; Seeman, Teresa E; van Reekum, Carien M; Miller, Gregory E


    Frontal EEG asymmetry is thought to reflect variations in affective style, such that greater relative right frontal activity at rest predicts enhanced emotional responding to threatening or negative stimuli, and risk of depression and anxiety disorders. A diathesis-stress model has been proposed to explain how this neuro-affective style might predispose to psychopathology, with greater right frontal activity being a vulnerability factor especially under stressful conditions. Less is known about the extent to which greater relative right frontal activity at rest might be associated with or be a diathesis for deleterious physical health outcomes. The present study examined the association between resting frontal EEG asymmetry and systemic, low-grade inflammation and tested the diathesis-stress model by examining whether childhood maltreatment exposure interacts with resting frontal asymmetry in explaining inflammation. Resting EEG, serum inflammatory biomarkers (interleukin-6, C-reactive protein, and fibrinogen) and self-reported psychological measures were available for 314 middle-aged adults (age M=55.3years, SD=11.2, 55.7% female). Analyses supported the diathesis-stress model and revealed that resting frontal EEG asymmetry was significantly associated with inflammation, but only in individuals who had experienced moderate to severe levels of childhood maltreatment. These findings suggest that, in the context of severe adversity, a trait-like tendency towards greater relative right prefrontal activity may predispose to low-grade inflammation, a risk factor for conditions with inflammatory underpinnings such as coronary heart disease.

  18. The study of brain tumour during pregnancy%妊娠合并颅内肿瘤的临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于文; 黄春玉; 高婉丽; 梁辉; 侯晓慧; 梁竹巍; 李文君


    Objective:To study the clinical characteristics and the pregnancy outcomes of pregnancy complicated with brain tumour. Methods:A retrospective analysis of clinical data of 16 cases of pregnancy in patients with brain tumor from Oct. 1986 to Sep. 2013 in our hospital were ana—lyzed. Results:Among the 16 cases,there were 4 maternal deaths occurred and 12 cases of neonatal survived:1 case of medical abortion,1 case of spontaneous abortion,6 cases of artifical abortion and mid-term abortion,6 cases of neonatal survical,2cases of neonata death. 14 cases of intracranial tumors with surgical operation,1 case die for lung and intracranial infection before craniotomy,an—other case whose intracranial glioma tumor recurred after surgery,who had cerebral hernia,and in a critical condition,the pregnant die after family give up surgical treatment. Postoperative pathological indicated that 6 patients with malignant tumor:1 case of small sticks of glioma. 1 case of metastatic cancer. 1 case of astrocytoma glioma;1 case of between the deformation of astrocytoma,local rubber mother variable. 1 case of neurocytoma. 1 case of mixed neuromal cell glioma. 8 cases with benign tumor:3 cases of meningiomas;3 cases of schwannoma;2 cases of neurofibromatosis. Conclusions:Pregnancy complicated with brain tumour often occurs in the second and third trimester gestation. Early pregnancy combined intracranial tumor,we suggest to terminate pregnancy and then to treat intracranial diseases. The patient who 34 weeks of gestation,we do surgical operation after cesarean section. Any benign tumors progress slowly,response well to corticosteroids may continue pregnancy, Malignant tumor,which progress rapidly or in a critical condition,we should treat intracranial dis—ease actively. The patients who had history of intracranial malignant tumor surgery should be termi—nate gestation actively in early pregnancy. Cesarean section under general anesthesia is advisable. Neonatal rescue should be

  19. Functional Plasticity in Childhood Brain Disorders: When, What, How, and Whom to Assess (United States)

    Dennis, Maureen; Spiegler, Brenda J.; Simic, Nevena; Sinopoli, Katia J.; Wilkinson, Amy; Yeates, Keith Owen; Taylor, H. Gerry; Bigler, Erin D.; Fletcher, Jack M.


    At every point in the lifespan, the brain balances malleable processes representing neural plasticity that promote change with homeostatic processes that promote stability. Whether a child develops typically or with brain injury, his or her neural and behavioral outcome is constructed through transactions between plastic and homeostatic processes and the environment. In clinical research with children in whom the developing brain has been malformed or injured, behavioral outcomes provide an index of the result of plasticity, homeostasis, and environmental transactions. When should we assess outcome in relation to age at brain insult, time since brain insult, and age of the child at testing? What should we measure? Functions involving reacting to the past and predicting the future, as well as social-affective skills, are important. How should we assess outcome? Information from performance variability, direct measures and informants, overt and covert measures, and laboratory and ecological measures should be considered. In whom are we assessing outcome? Assessment should be cognizant of individual differences in gene, socio-economic status (SES), parenting, nutrition, and interpersonal supports, which are moderators that interact with other factors influencing functional outcome. PMID:24821533

  20. MLLT1 YEATS domain mutations in clinically distinctive Favourable Histology Wilms tumours | Office of Cancer Genomics (United States)

    Wilms tumour is an embryonal tumour of childhood that closely resembles the developing kidney. Genomic changes responsible for the development of the majority of Wilms tumours remain largely unknown. Here we identify recurrent mutations within Wilms tumours that involve the highly conserved YEATS domain of MLLT1 (ENL), a gene known to be involved in transcriptional elongation during early development. The mutant MLLT1 protein shows altered binding to acetylated histone tails.

  1. Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumors Treatment (United States)

    ... Cord Tumors Treatment Childhood Astrocytomas Treatment Childhood Brain Stem Glioma ... Central nervous system (CNS) embryonal tumors may begin in embryonic (fetal) cells that remain in the brain after birth. ...

  2. Surviving a brain tumor in childhood : impact on family functioning in adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, Laura; Schappin, R; Gooskens, Rob; Huisman, Jaap; Jongmans, Marian


    ObjectiveTo investigate family functioning in families with an adolescent survivor of a pediatric brain tumor. We explored whether adolescent, parent, disease and treatment factors, and demographic characteristics predicted family functioning. MethodsIn this cross-sectional study, 45 adolescent surv

  3. Perceived Quality of Maternal Care in Childhood and Structure and Function of Mothers' Brain (United States)

    Kim, Pilyoung; Leckman, James F.; Mayes, Linda C.; Newman, Michal-Ann; Feldman, Ruth; Swain, James E.


    Animal studies indicate that early maternal care has long-term effects on brain areas related to social attachment and parenting, whereas neglectful mothering is linked with heightened stress reactivity in the hippocampus across the lifespan. The present study explores the possibility, using magnetic resonance imaging, that perceived quality of…

  4. Childhood trauma and platelet brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) after a three month follow-up in patients with major depressive disorder. (United States)

    Jeon, Hong Jin; Kang, Eun-Suk; Lee, Eun Ho; Jeong, Eu-Gene; Jeon, Ju-Ri; Mischoulon, David; Lee, Dongsoo


    A large amount of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is stored in the human platelets and only small amounts of it circulate in the plasma. However, a few studies have focused on platelet BDNF in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and childhood trauma. Our study population consisted of 105 MDD patients and 50 healthy controls. We used the mini-international neuropsychiatric interview (M.I.N.I.), the early trauma inventory self report-short form (ETISR-SF), as well as measured serum, plasma, and platelet BDNF at baseline, 1 month, and 3 month periods. There was a significant association between childhood trauma and platelet BDNF at baseline, 1 month, and 3 months, after adjusting for age, gender, education, body mass index, severity of depression, anxiety, alcohol consumption, and current stress. Conversely, plasma and serum BDNF did not have a significant association with childhood trauma. MDD patients revealed significantly higher levels of platelet BDNF in those with childhood trauma than in those without (t = 2.4, p = 0.018), and platelet BDNF was significantly higher in cases with sexual abuse on post-hoc analysis (p = 0.042). However, no significant differences were found in healthy controls, according to whether or not they had experienced childhood trauma. Platelet BDNF showed a significant correlation with severity of childhood trauma at baseline (r = 0.25, p = 0.012) and at 3 months (r = 0.38, p = 0.003) in MDD. In conclusion, platelet BDNF was significantly higher in MDD patients with childhood trauma than in those without, and it was correlated with severity of trauma.

  5. Vorinostat and Temozolomide in Treating Young Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Primary Brain Tumors or Spinal Cord Tumors (United States)


    Childhood Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Choriocarcinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Teratoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Yolk Sac Tumor; Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Ependymoblastoma; Childhood Grade I Meningioma; Childhood Grade II Meningioma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood High-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Childhood Mixed Glioma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Extra-adrenal Paraganglioma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Spinal Cord Neoplasm; Recurrent Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma

  6. N-Nitroso compounds and childhood brain tumors: a case-control study. (United States)

    Preston-Martin, S; Yu, M C; Benton, B; Henderson, B E


    We questioned mothers of 209 young brain tumor patients and mothers of 209 controls about experiences of possible etiological relevance which they had during pregnancy or which their children had while growing up. Long-suspected brain tumor risk factors such as head trauma and X-rays appeared to be factors for relatively few cases. Increased risk was associated with maternal contact with nitrosamine-containing substances such as burning incense (odds ratio, 3.3; p = 0.005), sidestream cigarette smoke (odds ratio, 1.5; p = 0.03), and face makeup (odds ratio, 1.6; p = 0.02); with maternal use of diuretics (odds ratio, 2.0; p = 0.03) and antihistamines (odds ratio, 3.4; p = 0.002); and with the level of maternal consumption of cured meats (p = 0.008). These drugs contain nitrosatable amines and amides, and the cured meats contain nitrites, chemicals which are precursors of N-nitroso compounds. We propose a hypothesis that brain tumors in these young people are related to in utero exposure to N-nitroso compounds and their precursors, the most potent nervous system carcinogens known in experimental animals.

  7. Longitudinal MRI reveals altered trajectory of brain development during childhood and adolescence in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. (United States)

    Treit, Sarah; Lebel, Catherine; Baugh, Lauren; Rasmussen, Carmen; Andrew, Gail; Beaulieu, Christian


    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of brain development in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) has revealed structural abnormalities, but studies have been limited by the use of cross-sectional designs. Longitudinal scans can provide key insights into trajectories of neurodevelopment within individuals with this common developmental disorder. Here we evaluate serial DTI and T1-weighted volumetric MRI in a human sample of 17 participants with FASD and 27 controls aged 5-15 years who underwent 2-3 scans each, ∼2-4 years apart (92 scans total). Increases of fractional anisotropy and decreases of mean diffusivity (MD) were observed between scans for both groups, in keeping with changes expected of typical development, but mixed-models analysis revealed significant age-by-group interactions for three major white matter tracts: superior longitudinal fasciculus and superior and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus. These findings indicate altered developmental progression in these frontal-association tracts, with the FASD group notably showing greater reduction of MD between scans. ΔMD is shown to correlate with reading and receptive vocabulary in the FASD group, with steeper decreases of MD in the superior fronto-occipital fasciculus and superior longitudinal fasciculus between scans correlating with greater improvement in language scores. Volumetric analysis revealed reduced total brain, white, cortical gray, and deep gray matter volumes and fewer significant age-related volume increases in the FASD group, although age-by-group interactions were not significant. Longitudinal DTI indicates delayed white matter development during childhood and adolescence in FASD, which may underlie persistent or worsening behavioral and cognitive deficits during this critical period.

  8. Loss of independent limb control in childhood hemiparesis is related to time of brain injury onset. (United States)

    Sukal-Moulton, Theresa; Murray, Theresa M; Dewald, Julius P A


    This study investigated the presence of inter-limb activity at the elbow joint in individuals with childhood-onset hemiparesis, including spontaneous mirror movements during unilateral tasks and the ability to suppress them during bilateral tasks. Eighteen individuals with hemiparesis were divided into three categories of injury timing: before birth (PRE-natal), around the time of birth (PERI-natal), and after 6 months of age (POST-natal). Individuals with hemiparesis, as well as 12 typically developing peers, participated in unilateral and bilateral elbow flexion and extension tasks completed at maximal and submaximal effort while muscle activity was monitored and motor output was quantified by two multiple degrees-of-freedom load cells. Significantly, higher levels of paretic elbow flexion were found only in the PRE- and PERI-natal groups during the flexion of the non-paretic limb, which was modulated by effort level in both unilateral and bilateral tasks. The bilateral activation of elbow flexors in the PRE-/PERI-natal groups indicates potential use of a common cortical command source to drive both upper extremities, while the POST-natal/typically developing groups' flexors appear to receive input from different supraspinal structures.

  9. Trends in childhood disease. (United States)

    Pallapies, Dirk


    Child mortality has declined remarkably during the last decades. While neonatal disorders, diarrhoea, pneumonia, and malaria as well as being underweight account for most of the child deaths worldwide, children's health discussions in Europe and the USA focus on other issues such as asthma, neurodevelopmental disorders, male genital malformations, and childhood cancer. There is clear evidence of increasing rates of asthma in various countries during the last decades, although rates in some countries may now have stabilised or even decline as recent UK data indicate. Although an increase in the frequency of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and attention deficit disorder has frequently been discussed, the limited data in this field does not justify such a conclusion. While geographic heterogeneity regarding reproductive outcomes is apparent, global trends have not been identified. Interpretation of the available information on asthma, neurodevelopmental disorders and reproductive outcomes is hampered by inconstant diagnostic criteria over place and time and the lack of good and comprehensive population-based surveillance data, which makes it impossible to ascertain trends in actual disease frequency. Data indicate that developed countries have a gradually increasing incidence in leukaemia with a corresponding drop in the incidence of lymphoma. Increases in brain tumour frequency may be related to the development and wide application of new diagnostic capabilities, rather than a true change in the incidence of malignant disease. With a better prognosis for childhood cancer survival, secondary cancers following chemotherapy appear to be increasing. A wide range of environmental factors is thought to have an impact on children's health. These factors include nutrition (protein, vitamins, antioxidants), lifestyle and behaviour choices such as tobacco and alcohol use, parental health, socio-economic status, choice of living environment (urban versus rural, etc

  10. [Epidemiology of childhood cancers]. (United States)

    Clavel, Jacqueline


    In industrial countries, 1 child out of 500 develops a cancer before the age of 15 years, and before the age of 6 years for almost half of them. In France, incidence rates were stable over the 15 last years with around 1500 cases each year. A very small fraction of cases is attributable to known risk factors, including heritable cancers or cancers in children with heritable predisposing diseases, cancers induced by high doses of ionizing radiation of medical or accidental origin, by chemotherapeutic or immunosuppressive drugs. Responsibility of Epstein Barr virus in a fraction of Hodgkin's and Burkitt's lymphomas is also established, even though little is still known on the cofactors involved in industrial countries. Other virus could cause leukaemia, as suggested by localized increases in incidence in various conditions of population mixing. Conversely, there is some evidence that early common infections could be protective toward leukaemia risk, probably through their contribution to the maturation of the immune system. Several agents are suspected to induce chemical cancers, particularly pesticides, which are consistently reported in childhood leukaemia and brain tumours. It is more and more likely that genetic factors may modulate risk induced of environmental factors.

  11. Power-Frequency Magnetic Fields and Childhood Brain Tumors: A Case-Control Study in Japan (United States)

    Saito, Tomohiro; Nitta, Hiroshi; Kubo, Osami; Yamamoto, Seiichiro; Yamaguchi, Naohito; Akiba, Suminori; Honda, Yasushi; Hagihara, Jun; Isaka, Katsuo; Ojima, Toshiyuki; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Mizoue, Tetsuya; Ito, Satoko; Eboshida, Akira; Yamazaki, Shin; Sokejima, Shigeru; Kurokawa, Yoshika; Kabuto, Michinori


    Background The strength of the association between brain tumors in children and residential power-frequency magnetic fields (MF) has varied in previous studies, which may be due in part to possible misclassification of MF exposure. This study aimed to examine this association in Japan by improving measurement techniques, and by extending measurement to a whole week. Methods This population-based case-control study encompassed 54% of Japanese children under 15 years of age. After excluding ineligible targeted children, 55 newly diagnosed brain tumor cases and 99 sex-, age-, and residential area-matched controls were included in the analyses. The MF exposures of each set of matching cases and controls were measured in close temporal proximity to control for seasonal variation; the average difference was 12.4 days. The mean interval between diagnosis and MF measurements was 1.1 years. The weekly mean MF level was defined as the exposure. The association was evaluated using conditional logistic regression analysis that controlled for possible confounding factors. Results The odds ratios (95% CI) for exposure categories of 0.1 to 0.2, 0.2 to 0.4, and above 0.4 µT, against a reference category of <0.1 µT, were 0.74 (0.17–3.18), 1.58 (0.25–9.83), and 10.9 (1.05–113), respectively, after adjusting for maternal education. This dose-response pattern was stable when other variables were included in the model as possible confounding factors. Conclusions A positive association was found between high-level exposure—above 0.4 µT—and the risk of brain tumors. This association could not be explained solely by confounding factors or selection bias. PMID:19915304

  12. Targeting tumour Cell Plasticity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elizabeth D. WILLIAMS


    @@ Her research is focused on understanding the mechanisms of tumour progression and metastasis, particularly in uro-logical carcinomas (bladder and prostate). Tumour cell plasticity, including epithelial-mesenchymal transition, is a cen-tral theme in Dr Williams' work.

  13. Brain and head injury in infancy and childhood; Schaedel- und Hirntrauma im Kindesalter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struffert, T. [Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Radiologische Klinik, Universitaet des Saarlandes, Homburg, Saar (Germany); Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Radiologische Klinik, Universitaet des Saarlandes, 66421, Homburg, Saar (Germany); Grunwald, I.; Reith, W. [Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Radiologische Klinik, Universitaet des Saarlandes, Homburg, Saar (Germany)


    This article describes typical head injuries in infants and children. In comparison with adults there are distinct differences in the etiology of trauma and in the kind of reaction of the skull and brain. In infants and children there are three different types of trauma: birth trauma, accidental and non-accidental injury. The typical injuries in these three groups are described. (orig.) [German] In diesem Beitrag werden die typischen Schaedel- und Hirnverletzungen bei Kindern zusammengefasst. Bei diesen bestehen im Vergleich zu Erwachsenen deutliche Unterschiede in der Aetiologie und der Reaktion der Kalotte und des Gehirns auf ein Trauma. Bezueglich der Aetiologie kann unterschieden werden in Geburtstrauma, akzidentelles und nichtakzidentelles Trauma. Die typischen Verletzungen dieser 3 Gruppen werden ausfuehrlich beschrieben. (orig.)

  14. Perinatal tumours: the contribution of radiology to management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donoghue, Veronica; Ryan, Stephanie; Twomey, Eilish [Children' s University Hospital, Radiology Department, Dublin (Ireland)


    A formal classification does not exist and they are probably best classified by their location. Overall the most common neoplasms are - Extracranial teratoma - Neuroblastoma - Soft-tissue tumours - Brain tumours - Leukaemia - Renal tumours - Liver tumours - Retinoblastoma. The prognosis is generally poor, although there are some exceptions such as congenital neuroblastoma and hepatoblastoma. These tumours have a tendency to regress and have a benign clinical course despite a clear malignant histological picture. Other tumours, though histologically benign, may be fatal because of their size and location. Large benign masses may cause airway or cardiovascular compromise and death. Others may cause significant mass effect preventing normal organ development. As normal embryonic cells have a high mitotic rate it is not surprising that perinatal tumours may have a rapid growth rate and become enormous in size. (orig.)

  15. Mathematical Modelling of a Brain Tumour Initiation and Early Development: A Coupled Model of Glioblastoma Growth, Pre-Existing Vessel Co-Option, Angiogenesis and Blood Perfusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Cai

    Full Text Available We propose a coupled mathematical modelling system to investigate glioblastoma growth in response to dynamic changes in chemical and haemodynamic microenvironments caused by pre-existing vessel co-option, remodelling, collapse and angiogenesis. A typical tree-like architecture network with different orders for vessel diameter is designed to model pre-existing vasculature in host tissue. The chemical substances including oxygen, vascular endothelial growth factor, extra-cellular matrix and matrix degradation enzymes are calculated based on the haemodynamic environment which is obtained by coupled modelling of intravascular blood flow with interstitial fluid flow. The haemodynamic changes, including vessel diameter and permeability, are introduced to reflect a series of pathological characteristics of abnormal tumour vessels including vessel dilation, leakage, angiogenesis, regression and collapse. Migrating cells are included as a new phenotype to describe the migration behaviour of malignant tumour cells. The simulation focuses on the avascular phase of tumour development and stops at an early phase of angiogenesis. The model is able to demonstrate the main features of glioblastoma growth in this phase such as the formation of pseudopalisades, cell migration along the host vessels, the pre-existing vasculature co-option, angiogenesis and remodelling. The model also enables us to examine the influence of initial conditions and local environment on the early phase of glioblastoma growth.

  16. Mathematical Modelling of a Brain Tumour Initiation and Early Development: A Coupled Model of Glioblastoma Growth, Pre-Existing Vessel Co-Option, Angiogenesis and Blood Perfusion. (United States)

    Cai, Yan; Wu, Jie; Li, Zhiyong; Long, Quan


    We propose a coupled mathematical modelling system to investigate glioblastoma growth in response to dynamic changes in chemical and haemodynamic microenvironments caused by pre-existing vessel co-option, remodelling, collapse and angiogenesis. A typical tree-like architecture network with different orders for vessel diameter is designed to model pre-existing vasculature in host tissue. The chemical substances including oxygen, vascular endothelial growth factor, extra-cellular matrix and matrix degradation enzymes are calculated based on the haemodynamic environment which is obtained by coupled modelling of intravascular blood flow with interstitial fluid flow. The haemodynamic changes, including vessel diameter and permeability, are introduced to reflect a series of pathological characteristics of abnormal tumour vessels including vessel dilation, leakage, angiogenesis, regression and collapse. Migrating cells are included as a new phenotype to describe the migration behaviour of malignant tumour cells. The simulation focuses on the avascular phase of tumour development and stops at an early phase of angiogenesis. The model is able to demonstrate the main features of glioblastoma growth in this phase such as the formation of pseudopalisades, cell migration along the host vessels, the pre-existing vasculature co-option, angiogenesis and remodelling. The model also enables us to examine the influence of initial conditions and local environment on the early phase of glioblastoma growth.

  17. Alex's Lemonade Stand Foundation Infant and Childhood Primary Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors Diagnosed in the United States in 2007-2011. (United States)

    Ostrom, Quinn T; de Blank, Peter M; Kruchko, Carol; Petersen, Claire M; Liao, Peter; Finlay, Jonathan L; Stearns, Duncan S; Wolff, Johannes E; Wolinsky, Yingli; Letterio, John J; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S


    The CBTRUS Statistical Report: Alex's Lemonade Stand Foundation Infant and Childhood Primary Brain and Central Nervous System Tumors Diagnosed in the United States in 2007–2011 comprehensively describes the current population-based incidence of primary malignant and non-malignant brain and CNS tumors in children ages 0–14 years, collected and reported by central cancer registries covering approximately 99.8% of the United States population (for 2011 only, data were available for 50 out of 51 registries). Overall, brain and CNS tumors are the most common solid tumor, the most common cancer, and the most common cause of cancer death in infants and children 0–14 years. This report aims to serve as a useful resource for researchers, clinicians, patients, and families.

  18. Executive functions and theory of mind as predictors of social adjustment in childhood traumatic brain injury. (United States)

    Robinson, Kristen E; Fountain-Zaragoza, Stephanie; Dennis, Maureen; Taylor, H Gerry; Bigler, Erin D; Rubin, Kenneth; Vannatta, Kathryn; Gerhardt, Cynthia A; Stancin, Terry; Yeates, Keith Owen


    This study examined whether executive function and theory of mind mediate the effects of pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) on social adjustment, relative to children with orthopedic injury (OI). Participants included 19 children with severe TBI, 41 children with complicated mild/moderate TBI, and 57 children with OI. They completed measures of executive function, as well as cognitive, affective, and conative theory of mind. Parents provided ratings of children's social adjustment. Children with severe TBI performed more poorly than children with OI on executive function and theory of mind tasks and were rated by parents as having more behavioral symptoms and worse communication and social skills. Executive function and theory of mind were positively correlated with social skills and communication skills, and negatively correlated with behavioral symptoms. In multiple mediator models, theory of mind and executive function were not significant direct predictors of any measure of social adjustment, but mediated the association between injury and adjustment for children with severe TBI. Theory of mind was a significant independent mediator when predicting social skills, but executive function was not. TBI in children, particularly severe injury, is associated with poor social adjustment. The impact of TBI on children's social adjustment is likely mediated by its effects on executive function and theory of mind.

  19. Executive Functions and Theory of Mind as Predictors of Social Adjustment in Childhood Traumatic Brain Injury (United States)

    Fountain-Zaragoza, Stephanie; Dennis, Maureen; Taylor, H. Gerry; Bigler, Erin D.; Rubin, Kenneth; Vannatta, Kathryn; Gerhardt, Cynthia A.; Stancin, Terry; Yeates, Keith Owen


    Abstract This study examined whether executive function and theory of mind mediate the effects of pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) on social adjustment, relative to children with orthopedic injury (OI). Participants included 19 children with severe TBI, 41 children with complicated mild/moderate TBI, and 57 children with OI. They completed measures of executive function, as well as cognitive, affective, and conative theory of mind. Parents provided ratings of children's social adjustment. Children with severe TBI performed more poorly than children with OI on executive function and theory of mind tasks and were rated by parents as having more behavioral symptoms and worse communication and social skills. Executive function and theory of mind were positively correlated with social skills and communication skills, and negatively correlated with behavioral symptoms. In multiple mediator models, theory of mind and executive function were not significant direct predictors of any measure of social adjustment, but mediated the association between injury and adjustment for children with severe TBI. Theory of mind was a significant independent mediator when predicting social skills, but executive function was not. TBI in children, particularly severe injury, is associated with poor social adjustment. The impact of TBI on children's social adjustment is likely mediated by its effects on executive function and theory of mind. PMID:25003478

  20. Diagnostic value of proton MR spectroscopy and diffusion-weighted MR imaging in childhood inherited neurometabolic brain diseases and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cakmakci, Handan, E-mail: [Dokuz Eylul University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Izmir (Turkey); Pekcevik, Yeliz [Dokuz Eylul University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Izmir (Turkey); Yis, Uluc [Dokuz Eylul University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Izmir (Turkey); Unalp, Aycan [Behcet Uz Hospital, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Izmir (Turkey); Kurul, Semra [Dokuz Eylul University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Izmir (Turkey)


    The purpose of this study is to evaluate parenchymal diffusion properties and metabolite ratios in affected brain tissues of inherited neurometabolic brain diseases with an overview of the current literature about the diagnostic data of both techniques in childhood inherited metabolic brain diseases. The study group was consisting, 19 patients (15 males, 4 females; mean age, 54 months (4.5 years); age range, 1-171 months (14.25 years)) diagnosed with inherited neurometabolic brain disease. Single- and multivoxel proton MRS was carried out and NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, mI/Cr, Glx/Cr ratios were calculated. Presence of lactate peak and abnormal different peaks were noted. ADC values were calculated from brain lesions. Results are compared with age and sex matched normal subjects. Elevated NAA/Cr ratio (Canavan disease), galactitol peak (galactosemia) at 3.7 ppm, branched chain amino acids (Maple syrup urine disease-MSUD) at 0.9 ppm were seen on different diseases. In Leigh disease and MSUD restricted diffusion was detected. Different diffusion properties were seen only in one Glutaric aciduria lesions. NAA/Cr ratios and calculated ADC values were significantly different from normal subjects (p < 0.05). DWI combined with MRS are complementary methods to routine cranial MRI for evaluating neurometabolic diseases which can give detailed information about neurochemistry of affected brain areas.

  1. Malignant rhabdoid tumour of kidney - a rare aggressive tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Shetty MV


    Full Text Available Malignant rhabdoid tumour of kidney is a rare highly aggressive neoplasm of childhood. We present the case of a 18-months old girl presenting with decreased appetite, abdominal distention of 20 days duration and 3 episodes of haematuria. The patient underwent left radical nephrectomy and histopathological examination of the excised specimen confirmed the diagnosis of malignant rhabdoid tumour of the kidney. This case highlights the need to consider malignant rhabdoid tumour of the kidney of possibility young children in presenting with a renal mass.

  2. Randomized pilot study and qualitative evaluation of a clinical decision support system for brain tumour diagnosis based on SV ¹H MRS: evaluation as an additional information procedure for novice radiologists. (United States)

    Sáez, Carlos; Martí-Bonmatí, Luis; Alberich-Bayarri, Angel; Robles, Montserrat; García-Gómez, Juan M


    The results of a randomized pilot study and qualitative evaluation of the clinical decision support system Curiam BT are reported. We evaluated the system's feasibility and potential value as a radiological information procedure complementary to magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to assist novice radiologists in diagnosing brain tumours using MR spectroscopy (1.5 and 3.0T). Fifty-five cases were analysed at three hospitals according to four non-exclusive diagnostic questions. Our results show that Curiam BT improved the diagnostic accuracy in all the four questions. Additionally, we discuss the findings of the users' feedback about the system, and the further work to optimize it for real environments and to conduct a large clinical trial.

  3. Imaging of sacral tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerber, S.; Ollivier, L.; Brisse, H.; Neuenschwander, S. [Institut Curie, Department of Radiology, Paris (France); Leclere, J. [Institut Gustave Roussy, Department of Radiology, Villejuif (France); Vanel, D. [The Rizzoli Institute, Department of Radiology, Bologna (Italy); Missenard, G. [Institut Gustave Roussy, Comite de pathologie tumorale de l' appareil locomoteur, Villejuif (France); Pinieux, G. de [CHRU de Tours, Department of Pathology, Hopital Trousseau, Tours (France)


    All components of the sacrum (bone, cartilage, bone marrow, meninges, nerves, notochord remnants, etc.) can give rise to benign or malignant tumours. Bone metastases and intraosseous sites of haematological malignancies, lymphoma and multiple myeloma are the most frequent aetiologies, while primary bone tumours and meningeal or nerve tumours are less common. Some histological types have a predilection for the sacrum, especially chordoma and giant cell tumour. Clinical signs are usually minor, and sacral tumours are often discovered in the context of nerve root or pelvic organ compression. The roles of conventional radiology, CT and MRI are described and compared with the histological features of the main tumours. The impact of imaging on treatment decisions and follow-up is also reviewed. (orig.)

  4. MR diffusion imaging of human intracranial tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbe, K; Gideon, P; Wagn, P;


    We used MRI for in vivo measurement of brain water self-diffusion in patients with intracranial tumours. The study included 28 patients (12 with high-grade and 3 with low-grade gliomas, 7 with metastases, 5 with meningiomas and 1 with a cerebral abscess). Apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) wer...

  5. Peripheral SLC6A4 DNA methylation is associated with in vivo measures of human brain serotonin synthesis and childhood physical aggression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongsha Wang

    Full Text Available The main challenge in addressing the role of DNA methylation in human behaviour is the fact that the brain is inaccessible to epigenetic analysis in living humans. Using positron emission tomography (PET measures of brain serotonin (5-HT synthesis, we found in a longitudinal sample that adult males with high childhood-limited aggression (C-LHPA had lower in vivo 5-HT synthesis in the orbitofrontal cortex (OBFC. Here we hypothesized that 5-HT alterations associated with childhood aggression were linked to differential DNA methylation of critical genes in the 5-HT pathway and these changes were also detectable in peripheral white blood cells. Using pyrosequencing, we determined the state of DNA methylation of SLC6A4 promoter in T cells and monocytes isolated from blood of cohort members (N = 25 who underwent a PET scan, and we examined whether methylation status in the blood is associated with in vivo brain 5-HT synthesis. Higher levels of methylation were observed in both T cells and monocytes at specific CpG sites in the C-LHPA group. DNA methylation of SLC6A4 in monocytes appears to be associated more reliably with group membership than T cells. In both cell types the methylation state of these CpGs was associated with lower in vivo measures of brain 5-HT synthesis in the left and right lateral OBFC (N = 20 where lower 5-HT synthesis in C-LHPA group was observed. Furthermore, in vitro methylation of the SLC6A4 promoter in a luciferase reporter construct suppresses its transcriptional activity supporting a functional role of DNA methylation in SLC6A4 promoter regulation. These findings indicate that state of SLC6A4 promoter methylation is altered in peripheral white blood cells of individuals with physical aggression during childhood. This supports the relevance of peripheral DNA methylation for brain function and suggests that peripheral SLC6A4 DNA methylation could be a marker of central 5-HT function.

  6. Breast tumours of adolescents in an African population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umanah Ivy


    Full Text Available Background: Tumours of the breast are uncommon in childhood and adolescence. Patients in this age group often require a different approach to diagnosis and treatment. The purpose of this study is to highlight the clinicopathologic features of breast tumours in adolescents in a Nigerian city. Materials and Methods: Eighty-four breast tumour materials from patients aged 10-19 years were analyzed over a 10-year period at the Department of Pathology, University of Benin Teaching Hospital (UBTH, Benin City, Edo State, Benin City, Nigeria. Results: A majority of the breast tumours were benign. Fibroadenoma was the most common tumour with 46 cases (54.8%, followed by fibrocystic changes with 15 cases (17%. Malignancy was extremely rare in this group, with only one case (1.2% of an invasive ductal carcinoma. Histologically, most tumours were indistinguishable from the adult types. Conclusion: Fibroadenoma is the most common breast tumour in adolescents in Benin City, Nigeria. Breast cancer and male breast tumours are rare in this age group. Routine complete physical examination of children and adolescents should include breast examination.

  7. Biochemistry of neuroendocrine tumours. (United States)

    de Herder, Wouter W


    Several circulating or urinary tumour markers can be used for the diagnosis and follow-up of functioning and clinically non-functioning neuroendocrine tumours of the pancreatic islet cells and intestinal tract. Among the specific tumour markers are serotonin and its metabolites--e.g. 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA)--in carcinoid tumours and the carcinoid syndrome, insulin and its precursors or breakdown products in insulinoma, and gastrin in gastrinoma. Plasma vasointestinal polypeptide (VIP) determinations have been used in the diagnosis of VIPoma, plasma glucagon for glucagonoma, and serum somatostatin for somatostatinoma. Among the tumour-non-specific markers are: chromogranins, neuron-specific enolase (NSE), alpha-subunits of the glycoprotein hormones, catecholamines, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), ghrelin and adrenomedullin.

  8. Carcinoid tumour of appendix in a child: A rare case at an uncommon site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B R Vani


    Full Text Available Carcinoid tumours of the appendix are uncommon incidentally detected tumours during histopathological examination following appendicectomy for acute appendicitis. Even though considered rare in children, they are the most frequently encountered tumours of the gastrointestinal tract. To our knowledge, carcinoid tumour of appendix in childhood has not yet been reported from Indian Subcontinent. The clinical presentation is similar to acute appendicitis and the signs and symptoms of carcinoid syndrome have not been reported in children. The prognosis of carcinoid tumour of appendix is excellent in children as the tumour is generally small in size and less aggressive with no metastasis. Simple appendicectomy is curative in most of the patients and long term follow up is debatable. We present here a case of carcinoid tumour of the body of appendix, which is an uncommon location in a 6-year-old child.

  9. MLLT1 YEATS domain mutations in clinically distinctive Favourable Histology Wilms tumours

    KAUST Repository

    Perlman, Elizabeth J.


    Wilms tumour is an embryonal tumour of childhood that closely resembles the developing kidney. Genomic changes responsible for the development of the majority of Wilms tumours remain largely unknown. Here we identify recurrent mutations within Wilms tumours that involve the highly conserved YEATS domain of MLLT1 (ENL), a gene known to be involved in transcriptional elongation during early development. The mutant MLLT1 protein shows altered binding to acetylated histone tails. Moreover, MLLT1-mutant tumours show an increase in MYC gene expression and HOX dysregulation. Patients with MLLT1-mutant tumours present at a younger age and have a high prevalence of precursor intralobar nephrogenic rests. These data support a model whereby activating MLLT1 mutations early in renal development result in the development of Wilms tumour.

  10. 青少年首发精神分裂症患者脑结构异常及其相关因素研究%structural brain abnormalities and clinical features in childhood-onset schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨春林; 潘伟刚; 马俊芳; 李军


    Objective To investigate the clinical features and structural brain abnormalities in childhood-onset schizophrenia. Methods Retrospective analysis clinical features and brain CT images of 379 patients diagnosed with schizophrenia from January 2013 to April 2016. The patients were divided into 2 groups;with(n = 39)and without(n = 340)structural brain abnormalities. Socio-demographic and clinical data were compared between two groups. To observe the abnormality rate of structure CT and the types of structural brain abnormalities and analyze the clinical features in childhood-onset schizophrenia. Results The abnormality rate of structure CT scan was 10. 3% . There were 17 cases with ventricular dilatation,11 cases with broadening of cerebral sulci,7 cases with enlarged cisterna magna,4 cases with arachnoid cyst. Compared to without structural brain abnormalities,childhood-onset schizophrenia with structural brain abnormalities significantly had younger age,more fre-quent abnormal maternal pregnancy( P 0.05).结论 青少年首发精神分裂症脑结构异常检出率较高,并且脑结构异常者起病年龄更小、母孕期异常更多,青少年精神分裂症脑结构异常可能为其神经生物学基础.

  11. Childhood cancer and magnetic fields from high-voltage power lines in England and Wales: a case–control study (United States)

    Kroll, M E; Swanson, J; Vincent, T J; Draper, G J


    Background: Epidemiological evidence suggests that chronic low-intensity extremely-low-frequency magnetic-field exposure is associated with increased risk of childhood leukaemia; it is not certain the association is causal. Methods: We report a national case–control study relating childhood cancer risk to the average magnetic field from high-voltage overhead power lines at the child's home address at birth during the year of birth, estimated using National Grid records. From the National Registry of Childhood Tumours, we obtained records of 28 968 children born in England and Wales during 1962–1995 and diagnosed in Britain under age 15. We selected controls from birth registers, matching individually by sex, period of birth, and birth registration district. No participation by cases or controls was required. Results: The estimated relative risk for each 0.2 μT increase in magnetic field was 1.14 (95% confidence interval 0.57 to 2.32) for leukaemia, 0.80 (0.43–1.51) for CNS/brain tumours, and 1.34 (0.84–2.15) for other cancers. Conclusion: Although not statistically significant, the estimate for childhood leukaemia resembles results of comparable studies. Assuming causality, the estimated attributable risk is below one case per year. Magnetic-field exposure during the year of birth is unlikely to be the whole cause of the association with distance from overhead power lines that we previously reported. PMID:20877338

  12. Bilateral Malignant Brenner Tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser D Choudhary, S.Manzoor Kadri, Ruby Reshi, S. Besina, Mansoor A. Laharwal, Reyaz tasleem, Qurrat A. Chowdhary


    Full Text Available Bilateral malignant Brenner tumour ofovary is extremely rate. A case ofmalignant Brenner tumourinvolving both the ovaries with mctastasis to mesentery in a 48 year femalc is presented. Grosslyo'arian masses were firm with soft areas, encapsulated and having bosselated external surfaces.Cut sections showed yellowish white surface with peripheral cysts (in both tumours. Microscopyrevealed transitional cell carcinoma with squamoid differentiation at places. Metastatic deposits werefound in the mesentery. Endometrium showed cystic glandular hyperplasia.

  13. Occurrence studies of intracranial tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larjavaara, S.


    Intracranial tumours are a histopathologically heterogeneous group of tumours. This thesis focused on three types of intracranial tumours; gliomas, meningiomas and vestibular schwannomas (VS). The main objectives of the dissertation were to estimate the occurrence of intracranial tumours by different subtypes, and to assess the validity and completeness of the cancer registry data. The specific aims of the publications were to evaluate the validity of reported incidence rates of meningioma cases, to describe the trends of VS incidence in four Nordic countries, and to define the anatomic distribution of gliomas and to investigate their location in relation to mobile phone use. Completeness of meningioma registration was examined by comparing five separate sources of information, and by defining the frequencies of cases reported to the Finnish Cancer Registry (FCR). Incidence trends of VS were assessed in the four Nordic countries over a twenty-one-year period (1987 - 2007) using cancer registry data. The anatomic site of gliomas was evaluated using both crude locations in the cerebral lobes and, in more detail, a three-dimensional (3D) distribution in the brain. In addition, a study on specific locations of gliomas in relation to the typical position of mobile phones was conducted using two separate approaches: a case-case and a case-specular analysis. The thesis was based on four sets of materials. Data from the international Interphone study were used for the studies on gliomas, while the two other studies were register-based. The dataset for meningiomas included meningioma cases from the FCR and four clinical data sources in Tampere University Hospital (neurosurgical clinic, pathology database, hospital discharge register and autopsy register). The data on VS were obtained from the national cancer registries of Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The coverage of meningiomas was not comprehensive in any of the data sources. The completeness of FCR was

  14. The MOBI-Kids Study Protocol: Challenges in Assessing Childhood and Adolescent Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields from Wireless Telecommunication Technologies and Possible Association with Brain Tumor Risk. (United States)

    Sadetzki, Siegal; Langer, Chelsea Eastman; Bruchim, Revital; Kundi, Michael; Merletti, Franco; Vermeulen, Roel; Kromhout, Hans; Lee, Ae-Kyoung; Maslanyj, Myron; Sim, Malcolm R; Taki, Masao; Wiart, Joe; Armstrong, Bruce; Milne, Elizabeth; Benke, Geza; Schattner, Rosa; Hutter, Hans-Peter; Woehrer, Adelheid; Krewski, Daniel; Mohipp, Charmaine; Momoli, Franco; Ritvo, Paul; Spinelli, John; Lacour, Brigitte; Delmas, Dominique; Remen, Thomas; Radon, Katja; Weinmann, Tobias; Klostermann, Swaantje; Heinrich, Sabine; Petridou, Eleni; Bouka, Evdoxia; Panagopoulou, Paraskevi; Dikshit, Rajesh; Nagrani, Rajini; Even-Nir, Hadas; Chetrit, Angela; Maule, Milena; Migliore, Enrica; Filippini, Graziella; Miligi, Lucia; Mattioli, Stefano; Yamaguchi, Naohito; Kojimahara, Noriko; Ha, Mina; Choi, Kyung-Hwa; Mannetje, Andrea 't; Eng, Amanda; Woodward, Alistair; Carretero, Gema; Alguacil, Juan; Aragones, Nuria; Suare-Varela, Maria Morales; Goedhart, Geertje; Schouten-van Meeteren, A Antoinette Y N; Reedijk, A Ardine M J; Cardis, Elisabeth


    The rapid increase in mobile phone use in young people has generated concern about possible health effects of exposure to radiofrequency (RF) and extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields (EMF). MOBI-Kids, a multinational case-control study, investigates the potential effects of childhood and adolescent exposure to EMF from mobile communications technologies on brain tumor risk in 14 countries. The study, which aims to include approximately 1,000 brain tumor cases aged 10-24 years and two individually matched controls for each case, follows a common protocol and builds upon the methodological experience of the INTERPHONE study. The design and conduct of a study on EMF exposure and brain tumor risk in young people in a large number of countries is complex and poses methodological challenges. This manuscript discusses the design of MOBI-Kids and describes the challenges and approaches chosen to address them, including: (1) the choice of controls operated for suspected appendicitis, to reduce potential selection bias related to low response rates among population controls; (2) investigating a young study population spanning a relatively wide age range; (3) conducting a large, multinational epidemiological study, while adhering to increasingly stricter ethics requirements; (4) investigating a rare and potentially fatal disease; and (5) assessing exposure to EMF from communication technologies. Our experience in thus far developing and implementing the study protocol indicates that MOBI-Kids is feasible and will generate results that will contribute to the understanding of potential brain tumor risks associated with use of mobile phones and other wireless communications technologies among young people.

  15. The MOBI-Kids study protocol: challenges in assessing childhood and adolescent exposure to electromagnetic fields from wireless telecommunication technologies and possible association with brain tumor risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegal eSadetzki


    Full Text Available The rapid increase in mobile phone use in young people has generated concern about possible health effects of exposure to radiofrequency (RF, extremely low frequency (ELF electromagnetic fields (EMF. MOBI-Kids, a multinational case-control study, investigates the potential effects of childhood and adolescent exposure to EMF from mobile communications technologies on brain tumor risk in 14 countries. The study, which aims to include approximately 1,000 brain tumor cases aged 10-24 years and two individually matched controls for each case, follows a common protocol and builds upon the methodological experience of the INTERPHONE study. The design and conduct of a study on EMF exposure and brain tumor risk in young people in a large number of countries is complex and poses methodological challenges. This manuscript discusses the design of MOBI-Kids and describes the challenges and approaches chosen to address them, including: 1 the choice of controls operated for suspected appendicitis, to reduce potential selection bias related to low response rates among population controls; 2 investigating a young study population spanning a relatively wide age-range. 3 conducting a large, multinational epidemiological study, while adhering to increasingly stricter ethics requirements; 4 investigating a rare and potentially fatal disease; and 5 assessing exposure to EMF from communication technologies. Our experience thus far developing and implementing the study protocol indicates that MOBI-Kids is feasible and will generate results that will contribute to the understanding of potential brain tumor risks associated with use of mobile phones and other wireless communications technologies among young people.

  16. Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumour in sella turcica in an adult. (United States)

    Arita, K; Sugiyama, K; Sano, T; Oka, H


    Although atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumours preferentially arise in the posterior fossa of infants, we encountered a 56 year old woman with an atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumour located in the sella. She presented with right abducent and oculomotor nerve paresis. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an intrasellar tumour impinging on the right cavernous sinus. Microscopically, the tumour was composed of cells with rhabdoid features; we observed atypia, eccentric nuclei, and intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies. The Ki-67 labeling index was around 30%. The tumour cells were positive for vimentin, epithelial membrane antigen, and neurofilament, but negative for INI1. Despite extended local brain and whole-spine irradiation she died of neural axis dissemination.

  17. Non-invasive brain stimulation for the treatment of brain diseases in childhood and adolescence: state of the art, current limits and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Mario Vicario


    Full Text Available In the last decades interest in application of non-invasive brain stimulation for enhancing neural functions is growing continuously. However, the use of such techniques in pediatric populations remains rather limited and mainly confined to the treatment of severe neurological and psychiatric diseases. In this article we provide a complete review of non-invasive brain stimulation studies conducted in pediatric populations. We also provide a brief discussion about the current limitations and future directions in a field of research still very young and full of issues to be explored.

  18. Efficacy of 68Ga-DOTATOC Positron Emission Tomography (PET) CT in Children and Young Adults With Brain Tumors (United States)


    Acoustic Schwannoma; Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Meningioma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Choroid Plexus Tumor; Adult Craniopharyngioma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoblastoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Grade I Meningioma; Adult Grade II Meningioma; Adult Medulloblastoma; Adult Meningeal Hemangiopericytoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Myxopapillary Ependymoma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Papillary Meningioma; Adult Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Pineoblastoma; Adult Pineocytoma; Adult Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Adult Subependymoma; Adult Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET); Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Ependymoblastoma; Childhood Grade I Meningioma; Childhood Grade II Meningioma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood High-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Meningeal Melanocytoma; Newly Diagnosed Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Diffuse Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Fibrillary Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Gemistocytic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Gliomatosis Cerebri; Recurrent Childhood Gliosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood

  19. Parallel evolution of tumour subclones mimics diversity between tumours. (United States)

    Martinez, Pierre; Birkbak, Nicolai Juul; Gerlinger, Marco; McGranahan, Nicholas; Burrell, Rebecca A; Rowan, Andrew J; Joshi, Tejal; Fisher, Rosalie; Larkin, James; Szallasi, Zoltan; Swanton, Charles


    Intratumour heterogeneity (ITH) may foster tumour adaptation and compromise the efficacy of personalized medicine approaches. The scale of heterogeneity within a tumour (intratumour heterogeneity) relative to genetic differences between tumours (intertumour heterogeneity) is unknown. To address this, we obtained 48 biopsies from eight stage III and IV clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCCs) and used DNA copy-number analyses to compare biopsies from the same tumour with 440 single tumour biopsies from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of TCGA and multi-region ccRCC samples revealed segregation of samples from the same tumour into unrelated clusters; 25% of multi-region samples appeared more similar to unrelated samples than to any other sample originating from the same tumour. We found that the majority of recurrent DNA copy number driver aberrations in single biopsies were not present ubiquitously in late-stage ccRCCs and were likely to represent subclonal events acquired during tumour progression. Such heterogeneous subclonal genetic alterations within individual tumours may impair the identification of robust ccRCC molecular subtypes classified by distinct copy number alterations and clinical outcomes. The co-existence of distinct subclonal copy number events in different regions of individual tumours reflects the diversification of individual ccRCCs through multiple evolutionary routes and may contribute to tumour sampling bias and impact upon tumour progression and clinical outcome.

  20. Percutaneous renal tumour biopsy. (United States)

    Delahunt, Brett; Samaratunga, Hemamali; Martignoni, Guido; Srigley, John R; Evans, Andrew J; Brunelli, Matteo


    The use of percutaneous renal tumour biopsy (RTB) as a diagnostic tool for the histological characterization of renal masses has increased dramatically within the last 30 years. This increased utilization has paralleled advances in imaging techniques and an evolving knowledge of the clinical value of nephron sparing surgery. Improved biopsy techniques using image guidance, coupled with the use of smaller gauge needles has led to a decrease in complication rates. Reports from series containing a large number of cases have shown the non-diagnostic rate of RTB to range from 4% to 21%. Re-biopsy has been shown to reduce this rate, while the use of molecular markers further improves diagnostic sensitivity. In parallel with refinements of the biopsy procedure, there has been a rapid expansion in our understanding of the complexity of renal cell neoplasia. The 2013 Vancouver Classification is the current classification for renal tumours, and contains five additional entities recognized as novel forms of renal malignancy. The diagnosis of tumour morphotype on RTB is usually achievable on routine histology; however, immunohistochemical studies may be of assistance in difficult cases. The morphology of the main tumour subtypes, based upon the Vancouver Classification, is described and differentiating features are discussed.

  1. Neuroblastoma patient-derived orthotopic xenografts reflect the microenvironmental hallmarks of aggressive patient tumours. (United States)

    Braekeveldt, Noémie; Wigerup, Caroline; Tadeo, Irene; Beckman, Siv; Sandén, Caroline; Jönsson, Jimmie; Erjefält, Jonas S; Berbegall, Ana P; Börjesson, Anna; Backman, Torbjörn; Øra, Ingrid; Navarro, Samuel; Noguera, Rosa; Gisselsson, David; Påhlman, Sven; Bexell, Daniel


    Treatment of high-risk childhood neuroblastoma is a clinical challenge which has been hampered by a lack of reliable neuroblastoma mouse models for preclinical drug testing. We have previously established invasive and metastasising patient-derived orthotopic xenografts (PDXs) from high-risk neuroblastomas that retained the genotypes and phenotypes of patient tumours. Given the important role of the tumour microenvironment in tumour progression, metastasis, and treatment responses, here we analysed the tumour microenvironment of five neuroblastoma PDXs in detail. The PDXs resembled their parent tumours and retained important stromal hallmarks of aggressive lesions including rich blood and lymphatic vascularisation, pericyte coverage, high numbers of cancer-associated fibroblasts, tumour-associated macrophages, and extracellular matrix components. Patient-derived tumour endothelial cells occasionally formed blood vessels in PDXs; however, tumour stroma was, overall, of murine origin. Lymphoid cells and lymphatic endothelial cells were found in athymic nude mice but not in NSG mice; thus, the choice of mouse strain dictates tumour microenvironmental components. The murine tumour microenvironment of orthotopic neuroblastoma PDXs reflects important hallmarks of aggressive and metastatic clinical neuroblastomas. Neuroblastoma PDXs are clinically relevant models for preclinical drug testing.

  2. Characterizing and Targeting Bone Marrow-Derived Inflammatory Cells in Driving the Malignancy and Progression of Childhood Astrocytic Brain Tumors (United States)


    Figure 21. Upstream of KDR (a) the bioinformatic analysis of promoter and 5’-UTR region of KDR by biobase . Highlighted fragment of KDR promoter... plasticity and may be more sensitive to transformation (9, 10). In certain rodent brain tumor models, it has been demonstrat- ed that recruited stromal

  3. Sources of Variability in Working Memory in Early Childhood: A Consideration of Age, Temperament, Language, and Brain Electrical Activity (United States)

    Wolfe, Christy D.; Bell, Martha Ann


    This study investigated age-related differences in working memory and inhibitory control (WMIC) in 3 1/2-, 4-, and 4 1/2-year-olds and how these differences were associated with differences in regulatory aspects of temperament, language comprehension, and brain electrical activity. A series of cognitive control tasks was administered to measure…

  4. Radiation Injury to the Brain (United States)

    ... Tumors Brain Tumors Brain Disorders AVMs Radiosurgery Gamma Knife Linac Radiotherapy Overview Childhood Brain Tumors IMRT Radiation Therapy Radiation Injury Treatment Day Making a Decision Centers of Excellence Publications Definitions Q & ...

  5. Tumour exosome integrins determine organotropic metastasis. (United States)

    Hoshino, Ayuko; Costa-Silva, Bruno; Shen, Tang-Long; Rodrigues, Goncalo; Hashimoto, Ayako; Tesic Mark, Milica; Molina, Henrik; Kohsaka, Shinji; Di Giannatale, Angela; Ceder, Sophia; Singh, Swarnima; Williams, Caitlin; Soplop, Nadine; Uryu, Kunihiro; Pharmer, Lindsay; King, Tari; Bojmar, Linda; Davies, Alexander E; Ararso, Yonathan; Zhang, Tuo; Zhang, Haiying; Hernandez, Jonathan; Weiss, Joshua M; Dumont-Cole, Vanessa D; Kramer, Kimberly; Wexler, Leonard H; Narendran, Aru; Schwartz, Gary K; Healey, John H; Sandstrom, Per; Labori, Knut Jørgen; Kure, Elin H; Grandgenett, Paul M; Hollingsworth, Michael A; de Sousa, Maria; Kaur, Sukhwinder; Jain, Maneesh; Mallya, Kavita; Batra, Surinder K; Jarnagin, William R; Brady, Mary S; Fodstad, Oystein; Muller, Volkmar; Pantel, Klaus; Minn, Andy J; Bissell, Mina J; Garcia, Benjamin A; Kang, Yibin; Rajasekhar, Vinagolu K; Ghajar, Cyrus M; Matei, Irina; Peinado, Hector; Bromberg, Jacqueline; Lyden, David


    Ever since Stephen Paget's 1889 hypothesis, metastatic organotropism has remained one of cancer's greatest mysteries. Here we demonstrate that exosomes from mouse and human lung-, liver- and brain-tropic tumour cells fuse preferentially with resident cells at their predicted destination, namely lung fibroblasts and epithelial cells, liver Kupffer cells and brain endothelial cells. We show that tumour-derived exosomes uptaken by organ-specific cells prepare the pre-metastatic niche. Treatment with exosomes from lung-tropic models redirected the metastasis of bone-tropic tumour cells. Exosome proteomics revealed distinct integrin expression patterns, in which the exosomal integrins α6β4 and α6β1 were associated with lung metastasis, while exosomal integrin αvβ5 was linked to liver metastasis. Targeting the integrins α6β4 and αvβ5 decreased exosome uptake, as well as lung and liver metastasis, respectively. We demonstrate that exosome integrin uptake by resident cells activates Src phosphorylation and pro-inflammatory S100 gene expression. Finally, our clinical data indicate that exosomal integrins could be used to predict organ-specific metastasis.

  6. Brain serotonin synthesis in adult males characterized by physical aggression during childhood: a 21-year longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Booij

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adults exhibiting severe impulsive and aggressive behaviors have multiple indices of low serotonin (5-HT neurotransmission. It remains unclear though whether low 5-HT mediates the behavior or instead reflects a pre-existing vulnerability trait. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, positron emission tomography with the tracer alpha-[(11C]methyl-L-tryptophan ((11C-AMT was used to compare 5-HT synthesis capacity in two groups of adult males from a 21-year longitudinal study (mean age +/- SD: 27.1+/-0.7: individuals with a history of childhood-limited high physical aggression (C-LHPA; N = 8 and individuals with normal (low patterns of physical aggression (LPA; N = 18. The C-LHPA males had significantly lower trapping of (11C-AMT bilaterally in the orbitofrontal cortex and self-reported more impulsiveness. Despite this, in adulthood there were no group differences in plasma tryptophan levels, genotyping, aggression, emotional intelligence, working memory, computerized measures of impulsivity, psychosocial functioning/adjustment, and personal and family history of mood and substance abuse disorders. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results force a re-examination of the low 5-HT hypothesis as central in the biology of violence. They suggest that low 5-HT does not mediate current behavior and should be considered a vulnerability factor for impulsive-aggressive behavior that may or may not be expressed depending on other biological factors, experience, and environmental support during development.

  7. Malignant salivary gland tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, S.H. (University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Dept. of Oral Pathology)


    The most frequent malignant salivary gland tumours are the mucoepidermoid tumour, adenoid cystic carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The major salivary glands and the minor glands of the mouth and upper respiratory tract may potentially develop any of these malignant lesions. Malignant lesions most frequently present as a palpable mass and tend to enlarge more rapidly than benign neoplasms. Pain, paresthesia, muscle paralysis and fixation to surrounding tissue are all ominous signs and symptoms. The only reliable means of differential diagnosis of these lesions is biopsy and histologic analysis. Therapy involves surgery or a combination of surgery and radiation therapy. The ultimate prognosis is governed by the intrinsic biologic behaviour of the neoplasms, the extent of disease and adequate clinical therapy.

  8. Skull base tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Alexandra [Instituto Portugues de Oncologia Francisco Gentil, Servico de Radiologia, Rua Professor Lima Basto, 1093 Lisboa Codex (Portugal)], E-mail:


    With the advances of cross-sectional imaging radiologists gained an increasing responsibility in the management of patients with skull base pathology. As this anatomic area is hidden to clinical exam, surgeons and radiation oncologists have to rely on imaging studies to plan the most adequate treatment. To fulfil these endeavour radiologists need to be knowledgeable about skull base anatomy, about the main treatment options available, their indications and contra-indications and needs to be aware of the wide gamut of pathologies seen in this anatomic region. This article will provide a radiologists' friendly approach to the central skull base and will review the most common central skull base tumours and tumours intrinsic to the bony skull base.

  9. The peabody picture vocabulary test as a pre-screening tool for global cognitive functioning in childhood brain tumor survivors. (United States)

    Castellino, Sharon M; Tooze, Janet A; Flowers, Lynn; Parsons, Susan K


    Minimal acceptable global intelligence is often a determinant for entry into studies utilizing children's self-reported health-related quality of life (HRQL) or symptoms' appraisal. However, most measures of cognitive functioning are lengthy and require a trained psychologist for administration. We used the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (third edition; PPVT-III) to assess adequacy of verbal comprehension and language flexibility before entry into a pilot pharmacologic intervention trial in pediatric BT survivors who were >1 year from treatment, and received >23.4 gray as part of therapy. Participation included the ability to complete self-reported measures of HRQL. Among thirteen BT survivors who were screened, twelve proceeded to the full intervention trial and then underwent a detailed baseline neurocognitive assessment including the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI), administered by a neuropsychologist. Correlation of PPVT-III with WASI was 0.90 for full scale IQ (P < 0.0001), 0.89 for verbal IQ (P = 0.0001) and 0.75 for performance IQ (P = 0.0004) The PPVT-III is easy to administer by trained clinical staff and is a reliable clinic-based screening tool for research studies. While it is not designed to replace in depth neuropsychological evaluation of potential areas of cognitive dysfunction, it provides an estimation of minimal global cognitive functioning for entry into studies that rely on self-report in childhood BT survivors and other cancer survivors who have received central nervous system-directed therapy.

  10. Progress of brain imaging in childhood autism%儿童孤独症脑影像学研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Childhood autism (CA) is a kind of refractoriness disease.The characteristics of brain imaging of CA were reviewed in this article.Cerebral blood flow perfusion tomography revealed abnormalities of regional cerebral blood flow and function in left (or both) frontal lobes, left Broca area and left Wernicke area.Glucose metabolism imaging showed an decrease of local cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (LCMRGlu) in the frontal lobe, temporal lobe and thalamus.DAT SPECT imaging indicated the dopamine transporter (DAT) level in the brains of the children with autism was higher compared with that in normal controls, but there was no difference in distribution.The serotonin transporter (SERT) imaging proved declined reuptake capacity in medial prefrontal cortex.Reduced 5-HT2 receptor density and impaired synthetical capacity of 5-HT were observed in autistic children.fMRI showed neural pathway abnormalities in cortex-limbic system, and illustrated the white matter integrity disconnected in many brain regions in children with autism, significant reductions in NAA and less ratio of NAA/Cr, and so on.%儿童孤独症(CA)是一种难治性疾病.本文综述其脑影像学显像特点.脑血流灌注显像示CA患儿左侧(或双侧)额叶前部、左侧Broca区和左侧Wernicke区局部脑血流灌注和功能异常;葡萄糖代谢显像示额叶、颞叶及丘脑等局部脑葡萄糖代谢率(LCMRGlu)减低;多巴胺转运体(DAT)显像示CA患儿脑内DAT水平高于对照组,但两者分布无差异;5-羟色胺转运体(SERT)显像示SERT再摄取能力在大脑内侧额叶皮质下降;5-HT2受体显像提示,5-HT2受体密度减低.CA患儿脑内5-HT合成能力减低;fMRI示CA患儿皮层-边缘系统神经通路异常,脑内多个部位白质纤维的完整性受到破坏,脑内NAA浓度减低、NAA/Cr比值降低等.

  11. Automatic Brain Tumour Detection Using Symmetry Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr.Mubarak Jamadar


    Full Text Available Image segmentation is used to separate an image into several “meaningful” parts. Image segmentation is identification of homogeneous regions in the image. Many algorithms have been elaborated for gray scale images. However, the problem of segmentation for color images, which convey much more information about objects in scenes, has received much less attention of scientific community. While several surveys of monochrome image segmentation techniques were published, similar surveys for color images did not emerge. Image segmentation is a process of pixel classification. An image is segmented into subsets by assigning individual pixels to classes. It is an important step towards pattern detection and recognition. Segmentation is one of the first steps in image analysis. It refers to the process of partitioning a digital image into multiple regions (sets of pixels. Each of the pixels in a region is similar with respect to some characteristic or computed property, such as color, intensity, or texture. The level of segmentation is decided by the particular characteristics of the problem being considered. Image segmentation could be further used for object matching between two images. An object of interest is specified in the first image by using the segmentation result of that image; then the specified object is matched in the second image by using the segmentation result of that image

  12. Childhood Schizophrenia (United States)

    Childhood schizophrenia Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Childhood schizophrenia is an uncommon but severe mental disorder in which children interpret reality abnormally. Schizophrenia involves a range of problems with thinking (cognitive), ...

  13. Childhood obesity


    Wilkinson, Justine; Howard, Simon


    Childhood obesity has important consequences for health and wellbeing both during childhood and also in later adult life. The rising prevalence of childhood obesity poses a major public health challenge in both developed and developing countries by increasing the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases. Despite the urgent need for effective preventative strategies, there remains disagreement over its definition due to a lack of evidence on the optimal cut-offs linking childhood BMI to dis...

  14. Neuro-behavioral profile and brain imaging study of the 22q13.3 deletion syndrome in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philippe, A.; Malan, V.; De Blois, M.C.; Colleaux, L.; Munnich, A. [Hop Necker Enfants Malad, Assistance Publ Hop Paris, Natl Inst Hlth and Med Res, Paris (France); Philippe, A.; De Blois, M.C.; Colleaux, L.; Munnich, A. [HopNecker Enfants Malad, Assistance Publ Hop Paris, Dept Genet, Paris (France); Boddaert, N. [Natl Inst Hlth and Med Res, Mixed Unit Res 0205, Orsay (France); Vaivre-Douret, L.; Robel, L.; Golse, B. [Hop Necker Enfants Malad, Assistance Publ Hop Paris, Dept Psychiat, Paris (France); Vaivre-Douret, L. [Univ Paris 10, Mixed Unit Res S0669, Univ Paris 05, Univ Paris 11, Paris 10 (France); Vaivre-Douret, L. [Assistance Publ Hop Paris, Dept Obstet et Gynaecol, Paris (France); Danon-Boileau, L. [Natl Ctr Sci Res, Mixed Unit Res 7114, Paris (France); Heron, D. [Hop La Pitie Salpetriere, Assistance Publ HopParis, Dept Genet, Paris (France)


    The 22q13.3 deletion syndrome (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man No. 606232) is a neuro-developmental disorder that includes hypotonia, severely impaired development of speech and language, autistic-like behavior, and minor dysmorphic features. Although the number of reported cases is increasing, the 22q13.3 deletion remains under-diagnosed because of failure in recognizing the clinical phenotype and detecting the 22qter deletion by routine chromosome analyses. Our goal is to contribute to the description of the neuro-behavioral phenotype and brain abnormalities of this micro-deletional syndrome. We assessed neuro-motor, sensory, language, communication, and social development and performed cerebral MRI and study of regional cerebral blood flow measured by positron emission tomography in 8 children carrying the 22q13.3 deletion. Despite variability in expression and severity, the children shared a common developmental profile characterized by hypotonia, sleep disorders, and poor response to their environment in early infancy; expressive language deficit contrasting with emergence of social reciprocity from ages similar to 3 to 5 years; sensory processing dysfunction; and neuro-motor disorders. Brain MRI findings were normal or showed a thin or morphologically atypical corpus callosum. Positron emission tomography study detected a localized dysfunction of the left temporal polar lobe and amygdala hypoperfusion. The developmental course of the 22q13.3 deletion syndrome belongs to pervasive developmental disorders but is distinct from autism. An improved description of the natural history of this syndrome should help in recognizing this largely under-diagnosed condition. (authors)

  15. Vaginal haemangioendothelioma: an unusual tumour.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mohan, H


    Vaginal tumours are uncommon and this is a particularly rare case of a vaginal haemangioendothelioma in a 38-year-old woman. Initial presentation consisted of symptoms similar to uterovaginal prolapse with "something coming down". Examination under anaesthesia demonstrated a necrotic anterior vaginal wall tumour. Histology of the lesion revealed a haemangioendothelioma which had some features of haemangiopericytoma. While the natural history of vaginal haemangioendothelioma is uncertain, as a group, they have a propensity for local recurrence. To our knowledge this is the third reported case of a vaginal haemangioendothelioma. Management of this tumour is challenging given the paucity of literature on this tumour. There is a need to add rare tumours to our "knowledge bank" to guide management of these unusual tumours.

  16. Cushing syndrome associated with an adrenal tumour. (United States)

    Vieira, Helena; Brain, Caroline


    Cushing syndrome (CS) in children is a rare disorder that is most frequently caused by an adrenal tumour or a pituitary corticotrophin-secreting adenoma. The management is challenging and requires an individualised approach and multidisciplinary care. We present the case of a 23-month-old female child with a history of excessive weight gain, growth failure, hirsutism, acne and behavioural difficulties. Investigations revealed elevated serum midnight cortisol and 24 h urinary free cortisol. Overnight dexamethasone suppression testing showed no suppression of cortisol levels. Abdominal imaging revealed a right-sided suprarenal mass. She underwent right adrenalectomy and the histology showed an adrenal cortical carcinoma. There was clinical improvement with catch-up growth and weight normalisation. Despite being rare in clinical practice, in a child with weight gain, hirsuitism and growth failure the diagnosis must be considered. The overall prognosis of CS in childhood is good, but challenges remain to ensure normal growth and body composition.

  17. Primary bone tumours in infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, K.; Beluffi, G.; Cohen, D.H.; Padovani, J.; Tamaela, L.; Azouz, M.; Bale, P.; Martin, H.C.; Nayanar, V.V.; Arico, M.


    Ten cases of primary bone tumours in infants (1 osteosarcoma, 3 Ewing's sarcoma, 1 chondroblastoma and 5 angiomastosis) are reported. All cases of angiomatosis showed characteristic radiographic findings. In all the other tumours the X-ray appearances were different from those usually seen in older children and adolescents. In the auhtors' opinion the precise diagnosis of malignant bone tumours in infancy is very difficult as no characteristic X-ray features are present in this age period.

  18. LET-painting increases tumour control probability in hypoxic tumours. (United States)

    Bassler, Niels; Toftegaard, Jakob; Lühr, Armin; Sørensen, Brita Singers; Scifoni, Emanuele; Krämer, Michael; Jäkel, Oliver; Mortensen, Lise Saksø; Overgaard, Jens; Petersen, Jørgen B


    LET-painting was suggested as a method to overcome tumour hypoxia. In vitro experiments have demonstrated a well-established relationship between the oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) and linear energy transfer (LET), where OER approaches unity for high-LET values. However, high-LET radiation also increases the risk for side effects in normal tissue. LET-painting attempts to restrict high-LET radiation to compartments that are found to be hypoxic, while applying lower LET radiation to normoxic tissues. Methods. Carbon-12 and oxygen-16 ion treatment plans with four fields and with homogeneous dose in the target volume, are applied on an oropharyngeal cancer case with an identified hypoxic entity within the tumour. The target dose is optimised to achieve a tumour control probability (TCP) of 95% when assuming a fully normoxic tissue. Using the same primary particle energy fluence needed for this plan, TCP is recalculated for three cases assuming hypoxia: first, redistributing LET to match the hypoxic structure (LET-painting). Second, plans are recalculated for varying hypoxic tumour volume in order to investigate the threshold volume where TCP can be established. Finally, a slight dose boost (5-20%) is additionally allowed in the hypoxic subvolume to assess its impact on TCP. Results. LET-painting with carbon-12 ions can only achieve tumour control for hypoxic subvolumes smaller than 0.5 cm(3). Using oxygen-16 ions, tumour control can be achieved for tumours with hypoxic subvolumes of up to 1 or 2 cm(3). Tumour control can be achieved for tumours with even larger hypoxic subvolumes, if a slight dose boost is allowed in combination with LET-painting. Conclusion. Our findings clearly indicate that a substantial increase in tumour control can be achieved when applying the LET-painting concept using oxygen-16 ions on hypoxic tumours, ideally with a slight dose boost.

  19. Paediatric solid tumours in Nigerian children: A changing pattern?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanko Na′anlep


    Full Text Available Background: Childhood cancer is fast becoming an important paediatric problem in Nigeria and several parts of Africa, with the progressive decline of infectious and nutritional diseases. The following study was a 5-year retrospective review of paediatric solid tumours as seen at the Jos University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. Objective: To determine the relative frequencies of childhood solid malignant tumours in Jos, Central Nigeria and compare with reports of previous studies both locally and abroad. Materials and Methods: Cancer registers and medical records of patients were used to extract demographic data, specimen number and/or codes. Archival materials were retrieved from the histopathology laboratory and sections were made from paraffin embedded blocks of these specimens. Slides of these histological sections were reviewed and reclassified where necessary. The relative frequencies were then determined. Results: One hundred and eighty one solid tumours of children were diagnosed within the study period. Ninety-four (51% were benign and 87 (49% malignant. Male: Female ratio was 1.3:1. The commonest malignant tumour diagnosed was rhabdomyosarcoma which accounted for 27 (31%, comprising of 15 (55.6%, 11 (40.7% and 1 (3.7% embryonal, alveolar and pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcomas, respectively. Non Hodgkin lymphoma and Burkitt lymphoma accounted for 17 (19.5% and 12 (13.8%, respectively. Conclusion: Based on the result of our study, we conclude that the commonest solid malignancy of childhood in Jos, Nigeria is rhabdomyosarcoma. This has implications for diagnosis, management and prognosis of theses soft tissue sarcomas in our paediatric population.

  20. Identification of genes involved in the biology of atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumours using Drosophila melanogaster (United States)

    Jeibmann, Astrid; Eikmeier, Kristin; Linge, Anna; Kool, Marcel; Koos, Björn; Schulz, Jacqueline; Albrecht, Stefanie; Bartelheim, Kerstin; Frühwald, Michael C.; Pfister, Stefan M.; Paulus, Werner; Hasselblatt, Martin


    Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumours (AT/RT) are malignant brain tumours. Unlike most other human brain tumours, AT/RT are characterized by inactivation of one single gene, SMARCB1. SMARCB1 is a member of the evolutionarily conserved SWI/SNF chromatin remodelling complex, which has an important role in the control of cell differentiation and proliferation. Little is known, however, about the pathways involved in the oncogenic effects of SMARCB1 inactivation, which might also represent targets for treatment. Here we report a comprehensive genetic screen in the fruit fly that revealed several genes not yet associated with loss of snr1, the Drosophila homologue of SMARCB1. We confirm the functional role of identified genes (including merlin, kibra and expanded, known to regulate hippo signalling pathway activity) in human rhabdoid tumour cell lines and AT/RT tumour samples. These results demonstrate that fly models can be employed for the identification of clinically relevant pathways in human cancer.

  1. Radiotherapy by particle beams (hadrontherapy) of intracranial tumours: a survey on pathology. (United States)

    Schiffer, D


    A review of the principal contributions of radio-therapy of brain tumours by beam particles is carried out. Neutrons, protons and light ions are considered along with their pros and cons in relation to types and locations of brain tumours. A particular emphasis is given to the pathologic studies of their effects directly o n tumours and on the normal nervous tissue, considering mainly the relevant action mechanisms of the radiation types and the requirements of the clinical therapeutic strategies. For comparison the main features of the pathologic effects of radiotherapy by photons are described. From the review it emerges that the new modality of radiation by protons and light ions, because of their peculiar physical characteristics, may represent a new way of destroying the tumour and sparing normal nervous tissue, especially when deeply located and irregularly shaped tumours are concerned. More neuropathological studies are needed in order to better understand the potentiality of the new treatment of modalities.

  2. Tumours in the Small Bowel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kurniawan


    Full Text Available Small bowel tumours are rare and originate from a wide variety of benign and malignant entities. Adenocarcinomas are the most frequent primary malignant small bowel tumours. Submucosal tumours like gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST or neuroendocrine tumours (NET may show a central umbilication, pathologic vessels, bridging folds or an ulceration of the overlying mucosa. These signs help to differentiate them from harmless bulges caused by impression from outside, e.g. from other intestinal loops. Sarcomas of the small bowel are rare neoplasias with mesenchymal origin, sometimes presenting as protruding masses. Benign tumours like lipoma, fibrolipoma, fibroma, myoma, and heterotopias typically present as submucosal masses. They cannot be differentiated endoscopically from those with malignant potential as GIST or NET. Neuroendocrine carcinomas may present with diffuse infiltration, which may resemble other malignant tumours. The endoscopic appearance of small bowel lymphomas has a great variation from mass lesions to diffuse infiltrative changes. Melanoma metastases are the most frequent metastases to the small bowel. They may be hard to distinguish from other tumours when originating from an amelanotic melanoma.

  3. Long-term cardiac follow-up in survivors of a malignant bone tumour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, C. A. J.; Gietema, J. A.; van den Berg, M. P.; Bink-Boelkens, M. T. E.; Elzenga, N. J.; Haaksma, J.; Kamps, W. A.; Vonk, J. M.; de Vries, E. G. E.; Postma, A.


    Background: Longitudinal studies of cardiac function in long-term childhood cancer survivors are scarce and frequently concern a median follow-up shorter than 13 years. Patients and methods: Cardiac assessment was performed in 22 doxorubicin-treated long-term survivors of a malignant bone tumour at

  4. Intraspinal tumours in the Kenya African. (United States)

    Ruberti, R F; Carmagnani, A L


    Thirty-one cases of intraspinal tumours in the African have been described, with age, sex incidence, frequency, site and histopathology shown. Intraspinal tumours in this series are compared with the larger series. Extradural and intramedullary tumours together with cervical spine tumours appear to be more frequent in this series. There is a high incidence of dumbell tumours in the neurinomas. Sarcomas are the most common type of tumours and mainly affect the thoracic spine.

  5. Unusual tumours of the lung. (United States)

    Wright, E S; Pike, E; Couves, C M


    Unusual lung tumors are not simply pathological curiosities. They demonstrate features of major significance in diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. Six of these tumours are discussed: (1) Carcinosarcoma is rarely found in the lung. The histogenis of the lesion is unclear and the prognosis is poor. (2) Only three cases of pleomorphic adenoma have previously been described. Differentiation from other "mixed tumours" of the lung is essential. (3) A rare case of bronchial adenoma producing ectopic ACTH is described. Early recognition of these polypeptide hormone-secreting tumours is stressed. (4) Oat cell carcinoma with the myasthenic (Eaton-Lambert) syndrome shows the clinical features which should permit early tumour diagnosis. The hazards of muscle relaxants must be recognized. (5) Prostatic carcinoma with endobronchial metastases is is discussed. The importance of localization of the primary tumour is emphasized. (6) An example of double primary carcinoma is presented. The rarity of this finding may be related to the poor prognosis of patients with bronchogenesis carcinoma.

  6. Non-cerebellar primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET): summary of the Milan consensus and state of the art workshop on marrow ablative chemotherapy with hematopoietic cell rescue for malignant brain tumors of childhood and adolescents. (United States)

    Fangusaro, Jason; Massimino, Maura; Rutkowski, Stefan; Gururangan, Sridharan


    CNS non-cerebellar primitive neuroectodermal tumors (PNET) represent <5% of all childhood brain tumors. Despite similar therapies, these patients have had significantly worse outcomes compared to patients with medulloblastoma. Although these tumors have historically been considered analogous to medulloblastoma, there is growing evidence that they are biologically distinct. Since these tumors are relatively rare, there are few large series in the literature. Here we present the international experience treating these patients with a variety of therapies, including marrow ablative chemotherapy followed by autologous hematopoietic cell rescue.

  7. Cerebral infarction in childhood bacterial meningitis


    Snyder, R.D.; Stovring, J; Cushing, A H; Davis, L. E.; Hardy, T. L.


    Forty-nine children with complicated bacterial meningitis were studied. Thirteen had abnormalities on computed tomography compatible with the diagnosis of brain infarction; one had a brain biopsy with the histological appearance of infarction. Factors exist in childhood bacterial meningitis which are associated with the development of brain infraction.

  8. [Epidemiological aspects of childhood cancer]. (United States)

    Lacour, Brigitte; Clavel, Jacqueline


    In France, cancer hits around 1700 children (0-14 years) each year. The age-standardized incidence rate for all cancers combined is 152 cases per million children per year, with a sex ratio of 1.2. In other terms, one child out of 440 develops a cancer before the age of 15 in industrial countries. The most frequent cancers were leukaemia (29%), embryonal tumours apart central nervous system (25%), central nervous system tumour (23%) and lymphoma (12%). The incidence varies between countries with higher overall rates in industrialized countries. These variations may reflect differences in diagnostic techniques or registration or in the distribution of possible risk factors. Five-year survival after childhood cancer has dramatically improved in the last 30 years, reaching yet 80%.

  9. Current and future strategies in radiotherapy of childhood low-grade glioma of the brain. Part II. Treatment-related late toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortmann, R.D.; Timmermann, B.; Plasswilm, L.; Paulsen, F.; Jeremic, B.; Kay, S.; Bamberg, M. [Dept. of Radiooncology, Univ. of Tuebingen (Germany); Taylor, R.E. [Radiotherapy Dept., Cookridge Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom); Scarzello, G. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Padua General Hospital (Italy); Gnekow, A.K. [Children' s Hospital Augsburg (Germany); Dieckmann, K. [Dept. of Radiooncology, General Hospital Vienna (Austria)


    Material and Methods: Studies on the use of radiation therapy in children with low-grade glioma were systematically reviewed for data on radiotherapy-induced side effects on brain parenchyma, endocrine dysfunction, growth retardation, neurocognitive dysfunction, vasculopathy, and secondary neoplasms. Results: Data on late effects are scarce and heterogeneous. Past reports included only retrospective series from the 1930s to present days, a time during which treatment policies and radiation techniques widely varied and considerably changed in recent years. Often, considerable uncertainty existed regarding pretreatment health status and radiotherapy-related factors (e.g., total dose, dose per fraction, treatment fields). In spite of these shortcomings and often conflicting observations, it appears that especially younger children and children with neurofibromatosis (NF) are at risk of endocrinopathies in terms of growth retardation and developmental abnormalities, as well as neurocognitive dysfunction expressed as problems in the psychosocial environment such as in education and occupation. However, both observations may be attributed to the higher proportion of NF in the very young who frequently develop large tumors spreading along the entire supratentorial midline. The risk of radiation-induced disturbances in visual function is low (no case reported). Young children with NF appear to have an increased risk of vasculopathies. 33 cases of moyamoya disease were found (preferably in the very young), 18 of whom were NF-positive. Other cerebrovascular accidents (24 cases, of whom 14 were NF-positive) and secondary neoplasms (15 cases, of whom only five occurred in field - four were high-grade astrocytomas) are a rare condition. The latter cannot be distinguished from late relapses with malignant transformation. Modern treatment techniques appear to reduce the risk of radiation-induced late effects. Conclusions: More studies and clear definitions of clinical endpoints

  10. Primary vertebral tumours in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlowski, K.; Beluffi, G.; Masel, J.; Diard, F.; Ferrari-Ciboldi, F.; Le Dosseur, P.; Labatut, J.


    20 cases of primary benign and malignant bone tumours in children were reported. The most common tumours were Ewing's sarcoma, aneurismal bone cyst, benign osteoblastoma and osteoid osteoma. Some rare primary bone tumours in children (osteochondroma, chondroblastoma 6F, primary lymphoma of bone and neurofibromatosis with unusual cervical spinal changes) were also reported. The authors believe that radiographic findings together with clinical history and clinical examination may yield a high percentage of accurate diagnoses. Although microscopy is essential in the final diagnosis, the microscopic report should be also accepted with caution.

  11. The Heidelberg classification of renal cell tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kovacs, G; Akhtar, M; Beckwith, BJ; Bugert, P; Cooper, CS; Delahunt, B; Eble, JN; Fleming, S; Ljungberg, B; Medeiros, LJ; Moch, H; Reuter, VE; Ritz, E; Roos, G; Schmidt, D; Srigley, [No Value; Storkel, S; VandenBerg, E; Zbar, B


    This paper presents the conclusions of a workshop entitled 'Impact of Molecular Genetics on the Classification of Renal Cell Tumours', which was held in Heidelberg in October 1996, The focus on 'renal cell tumours' excludes any discussion of Wilms' tumour and its variants, or of tumours metastatic t

  12. Soft tissue tumours: imaging strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brisse, Herve J. [Institute Curie, Department of Radiology, Paris (France); Orbach, Daniel [Institute Curie, Department of Paediatric Oncology, Paris (France); Klijanienko, Jerzy [Institute Curie, Department of Pathology, Paris (France)


    Vascular tumours and malformations, fibrous and fibrohistiocytic tumours and pseudotumours are the most common benign soft-tissue masses observed in children, and can be treated conservatively. Rhabdomyosarcomas are the most frequent malignant tumours, accounting for about half of soft tissue sarcomas. A child referred for a soft-tissue mass should ideally be managed by a multidisciplinary team and primary excision should be proscribed until a definite diagnosis has been established. Clinical examination, conventional radiography and US with Doppler represent the first-line examinations and are sometimes sufficient to make a diagnosis. In all other situations, MRI is mandatory to establish the aggressiveness and extension of the tumour. This technique provides the relevant data to guide the decision regarding tissue sampling. (orig.)

  13. MRI characteristics of midbrain tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, B. [Chinese Academy of Medical Science, Beijing (China). Neurosurgical Inst.]|[Department of Neuroradiology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital (China); Wang, C.C.; Wang, J. [Chinese Academy of Medical Science, Beijing (China). Neurosurgical Inst.


    We diagnosed 60 cases of midbrain tumours by MRI between 1993 to 1997. There were 39 males and 21 females, aged 2-64 years, mean 25.6 years. We found 38 patients with true intramedullary midbrain tumours, 11 predominantly in the tectum, 20 in the tegmentum and 7 with a downward extension to the pons; there were 7 within the cerebral aqueduct. There were 22 patients with infiltrating midbrain tumours extending from adjacent structures, 11 cases each from the thalamus and pineal region. All patients received surgical treatment. Gross total resection was achieved in 42 cases, subtotal (> 75 %) resection in 18. Pathological diagnoses included 16 low-grade and 15 high-grade astrocytomas; 5 oligodendroastrocytomas; 2 ependymomas; 11 glioblastomas; and 11 pineal parenchymal or germ-cell tumours. Midbrain tumours are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms, with wide variation in clinical and MRI features, related to the site and type of tumour. MRI not only allows precise analysis of their growth pattern, but also can lead to a correct preoperative diagnosis in the majority of cases. (orig.) (orig.) With 3 figs., 3 tabs., 19 refs.

  14. Tumour markers in gastrointestinal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamerz, R.


    For non-endocrine gastrointestinal tumours the following tumour markers are of clinical interest: For esophageal cancer CEA (sensitivity, s: 40-60%) and SCC (squamous cell carcinoma antigen, x: 20-50%); for gastric cancer CEA (s: 30-40%) as well as CA 19-9 (s: 30-40%) because of complementary results (additive s: 50-60); for hepatocellular cancer AFP (first choice, s: 70-90%; second choice CA 19-9, s: 50-70%); for cholangiocellular cancer CA 19-9 (s: 40-70%); for secondary liver cancer in general CEA; for biliary tract cancer CA 19-9 (s: 40-70%) as well as for excretory pancreatic cancer (s: 70-90%); for colorectal cancer CEA (s: 40-70%) as a first choice marker, and CA 19-9 (s: 20-60%) as a second choice marker, and for anal cancer SCC. The frequency of tumour marker determinations depends on follow-up care recommendations for different tumour diseases (e.g. 1-3 monthly during the 1st and 2nd postoperative year, following chemotherapy courses, on change of therapy, on restaging and at unclear alteration of the clinical state). Tumour markers are only valuable adjuncts to the medical care of tumour patients and therefore useless as solitary findings or on missing therapeutic consequence.

  15. Childhood Cancer Statistics (United States)

    ... Room Employment Feedback Contact Select Page Childhood Cancer Statistics Home > Cancer Resources > Childhood Cancer Statistics Childhood Cancer Statistics – Graphs and Infographics Number of Diagnoses Incidence Rates ...

  16. Childhood Emergencies (United States)

    ... emergency physicians. They receive comprehensive training in treating childhood emergencies and have more training in pediatric emergencies than other physicians, including pediatricians. Does Your Child's School Know About Food Allergies? - 8/10/2015 The nation's emergency physician ...

  17. Childhood Craniopharyngioma (United States)

    ... has any of the following: Headaches, including morning headache or headache that goes away after vomiting . Vision changes. Nausea ... Cancer Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Children with Cancer: ...

  18. Congruency of tumour volume delineated by FET PET and MRSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauler, Jörg; Langen, Karl-Josef [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, Forschungszentrum Jülich (Germany); Maudsley, Andrew A [Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami (United States); Nikoubashman, Omid [Department of Neuroradiology, Faculty of Medicine, RWTH Aachen University (Germany); Filss, Christian; Stoffels, Gabriele; Shah, N Jon [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine, Forschungszentrum Jülich (Germany)


    In addition to MR imaging, PET imaging of O-(2-[18F]Fluorethyl)-L-Tyrosine (FET) uptake provides information on brain tumour extent and metabolic activity. Similarly, MRS has been shown to be of value for distinguishing high- from low-grade gliomas. Based on 2D spatially resolved MRSI, an overlap between 18FET uptake and the choline/N-acetyl-aspartate (Cho/NAA) ratio of more than 75 % has been reported.

  19. The MOBI-Kids Study Protocol : Challenges in Assessing Childhood and Adolescent Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields from Wireless Telecommunication Technologies and Possible Association with Brain Tumor Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadetzki, Siegal; Langer, Chelsea Eastman; Bruchim, Revital; Kundi, Michael; Merletti, Franco; Vermeulen, Roel; Kromhout, Hans; Lee, Ae-Kyoung; Maslanyj, Myron; Sim, Malcolm R; Taki, Masao; Wiart, Joe; Armstrong, Bruce; Milne, Elizabeth; Benke, Geza; Schattner, Rosa; Hutter, Hans-Peter; Woehrer, Adelheid; Krewski, Daniel; Mohipp, Charmaine; Momoli, Franco; Ritvo, Paul; Spinelli, John; Lacour, Brigitte; Delmas, Dominique; Remen, Thomas; Radon, Katja; Weinmann, Tobias; Klostermann, Swaantje; Heinrich, Sabine; Petridou, Eleni; Bouka, Evdoxia; Panagopoulou, Paraskevi; Dikshit, Rajesh; Nagrani, Rajini; Even-Nir, Hadas; Chetrit, Angela; Maule, Milena; Migliore, Enrica; Filippini, Graziella; Miligi, Lucia; Mattioli, Stefano; Yamaguchi, Naohito; Kojimahara, Noriko; Ha, Mina; Choi, Kyung-Hwa; Mannetje, Andrea 't; Eng, Amanda; Woodward, Alistair; Carretero, Gema; Alguacil, Juan; Aragones, Nuria; Suare-Varela, Maria Morales; Goedhart, Geertje; Schouten-van Meeteren, A Antoinette Y N; Reedijk, A Ardine M J; Cardis, Elisabeth; Goedhart - de Wolf, Geertje


    The rapid increase in mobile phone use in young people has generated concern about possible health effects of exposure to radiofrequency (RF) and extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields (EMF). MOBI-Kids, a multinational case-control study, investigates the potential effects of childhood

  20. Anaesthetic management for combined emergency caesarean section and craniotomy tumour removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Y Bisri


    Full Text Available Presentation of primary intracranial tumour during pregnancy is extremely rare. Symptoms of brain tumour include nausea, vomiting, headache and seizures which mimic symptoms of pregnancy-related hyperemesis or eclampsia. In very few cases, craniotomy tumour removal is performed earlier or even simultaneously with foetal delivery. A 40-year-old woman at 32 weeks of gestation in foetal distress presented to the emergency room with decreased level of consciousness Glasgow Coma Scale 6 (E2M2V2. Computed tomographic scan revealed a mass lesion over the left temporoparietal region with midline shift and intratumoural bleeding. In view of high risk of herniation and foetal distress, she underwent emergency caesarean section followed by craniotomy tumour removal. In parturient with brain tumour, combined surgery of tumour removal and caesarean section is decided based on clinical symptoms, type of tumour and foetal viability. Successful anaesthetic management requires a comprehensive knowledge of physiology and pharmacology, individually tailored to control intracranial pressure while ensuring the safety of mother and foetus.

  1. Tumour banking: the Spanish design. (United States)

    Morente, M M; de Alava, E; Fernandez, P L


    In the last decade the technical advances in high throughput techniques to analyze DNA, RNA and proteins have had a potential major impact on prevention, diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of many human diseases. Key pieces in this process, mainly thinking about the future, are tumour banks and tumour bank networks. To face these challenges, diverse suitable models and designs can be developed. The current article presents the development of a nationwide design of tumour banks in Spain based on a network of networks, specially focusing on its harmonization efforts mainly regarding technical procedures, ethical requirements, unified quality control policy and unique sample identification. We also describe our most important goals for the next years. This model does not correspond to a central tumour bank, but to a cooperative and coordinated network of national and regional networks. Independently from the network in which it is included, sample collections reside in their original institution, where it can be used for further clinical diagnosis, teaching and research activities of each independent hospital. The herein described 'network of networks' functional model could be useful for other countries and/or international tumour bank activities.

  2. Pitfalls in colour photography of choroidal tumours. (United States)

    Schalenbourg, A; Zografos, L


    Colour imaging of fundus tumours has been transformed by the development of digital and confocal scanning laser photography. These advances provide numerous benefits, such as panoramic images, increased contrast, non-contact wide-angle imaging, non-mydriatic photography, and simultaneous angiography. False tumour colour representation can, however, cause serious diagnostic errors. Large choroidal tumours can be totally invisible on angiography. Pseudogrowth can occur because of artefacts caused by different methods of fundus illumination, movement of reference blood vessels, and flattening of Bruch's membrane and sclera when tumour regression occurs. Awareness of these pitfalls should prevent the clinician from misdiagnosing tumours and wrongfully concluding that a tumour has grown.

  3. Pitfalls in colour photography of choroidal tumours (United States)

    Schalenbourg, A; Zografos, L


    Colour imaging of fundus tumours has been transformed by the development of digital and confocal scanning laser photography. These advances provide numerous benefits, such as panoramic images, increased contrast, non-contact wide-angle imaging, non-mydriatic photography, and simultaneous angiography. False tumour colour representation can, however, cause serious diagnostic errors. Large choroidal tumours can be totally invisible on angiography. Pseudogrowth can occur because of artefacts caused by different methods of fundus illumination, movement of reference blood vessels, and flattening of Bruch's membrane and sclera when tumour regression occurs. Awareness of these pitfalls should prevent the clinician from misdiagnosing tumours and wrongfully concluding that a tumour has grown. PMID:23238442

  4. Tumour endothelial cells in high metastatic tumours promote metastasis via epigenetic dysregulation of biglycan (United States)

    Maishi, Nako; Ohba, Yusuke; Akiyama, Kosuke; Ohga, Noritaka; Hamada, Jun-ichi; Nagao-Kitamoto, Hiroko; Alam, Mohammad Towfik; Yamamoto, Kazuyuki; Kawamoto, Taisuke; Inoue, Nobuo; Taketomi, Akinobu; Shindoh, Masanobu; Hida, Yasuhiro; Hida, Kyoko


    Tumour blood vessels are gateways for distant metastasis. Recent studies have revealed that tumour endothelial cells (TECs) demonstrate distinct phenotypes from their normal counterparts. We have demonstrated that features of TECs are different depending on tumour malignancy, suggesting that TECs communicate with surrounding tumour cells. However, the contribution of TECs to metastasis has not been elucidated. Here, we show that TECs actively promote tumour metastasis through a bidirectional interaction between tumour cells and TECs. Co-implantation of TECs isolated from highly metastatic tumours accelerated lung metastases of low metastatic tumours. Biglycan, a small leucine-rich repeat proteoglycan secreted from TECs, activated tumour cell migration via nuclear factor-κB and extracellular signal–regulated kinase 1/2. Biglycan expression was upregulated by DNA demethylation in TECs. Collectively, our results demonstrate that TECs are altered in their microenvironment and, in turn, instigate tumour cells to metastasize, which is a novel mechanism for tumour metastasis. PMID:27295191

  5. Neuroblastoma patient-derived orthotopic xenografts retain metastatic patterns and geno- and phenotypes of patient tumours. (United States)

    Braekeveldt, Noémie; Wigerup, Caroline; Gisselsson, David; Mohlin, Sofie; Merselius, My; Beckman, Siv; Jonson, Tord; Börjesson, Anna; Backman, Torbjörn; Tadeo, Irene; Berbegall, Ana P; Ora, Ingrid; Navarro, Samuel; Noguera, Rosa; Påhlman, Sven; Bexell, Daniel


    Neuroblastoma is a childhood tumour with heterogeneous characteristics and children with metastatic disease often have a poor outcome. Here we describe the establishment of neuroblastoma patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) by orthotopic implantation of viably cryopreserved or fresh tumour explants of patients with high risk neuroblastoma into immunodeficient mice. In vivo tumour growth was monitored by magnetic resonance imaging and fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography. Neuroblastoma PDXs retained the undifferentiated histology and proliferative capacity of their corresponding patient tumours. The PDXs expressed neuroblastoma markers neural cell adhesion molecule, chromogranin A, synaptophysin and tyrosine hydroxylase. Whole genome genotyping array analyses demonstrated that PDXs retained patient-specific chromosomal aberrations such as MYCN amplification, deletion of 1p and gain of chromosome 17q. Thus, neuroblastoma PDXs recapitulate the hallmarks of high-risk neuroblastoma in patients. PDX-derived cells were cultured in serum-free medium where they formed free-floating neurospheres, expressed neuroblastoma gene markers MYCN, CHGA, TH, SYP and NPY, and retained tumour-initiating and metastatic capacity in vivo. PDXs showed much higher degree of infiltrative growth and distant metastasis as compared to neuroblastoma SK-N-BE(2)c cell line-derived orthotopic tumours. Importantly, the PDXs presented with bone marrow involvement, a clinical feature of aggressive neuroblastoma. Thus, neuroblastoma PDXs serve as clinically relevant models for studying and targeting high-risk metastatic neuroblastoma.

  6. Childhood maltreatment and amygdala connectivity in methamphetamine dependence: a pilot study


    Dean, Andy C.; Kohno, Milky; Hellemann, Gerhard; London, Edythe D


    Introduction Childhood maltreatment, a well-known risk factor for the development of substance abuse disorders, is associated with functional and structural abnormalities in the adult brain, particularly in the limbic system. However, almost no research has examined the relationship between childhood maltreatment and brain function in individuals with drug abuse disorders. Methods We conducted a pilot study of the relationship between childhood maltreatment (evaluated with the Childhood Traum...

  7. Childhood maternal care is associated with DNA methylation of the genes for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and oxytocin receptor (OXTR) in peripheral blood cells in adult men and women. (United States)

    Unternaehrer, Eva; Meyer, Andrea Hans; Burkhardt, Susan C A; Dempster, Emma; Staehli, Simon; Theill, Nathan; Lieb, Roselind; Meinlschmidt, Gunther


    In adults, reporting low and high maternal care in childhood, we compared DNA methylation in two stress-associated genes (two target sequences in the oxytocin receptor gene, OXTR; one in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene, BDNF) in peripheral whole blood, in a cross-sectional study (University of Basel, Switzerland) during 2007-2008. We recruited 89 participants scoring  33 (n = 42, 35 women) on the maternal care subscale of the Parental Bonding Instrument (PBI) at a previous assessment of a larger group (N = 709, range PBI maternal care = 0-36, age range = 19-66 years; median 24 years). 85 participants gave blood for DNA methylation analyses (Sequenom(R) EpiTYPER, San Diego, CA) and cell count (Sysmex PocH-100i™, Kobe, Japan). Mixed model statistical analysis showed greater DNA methylation in the low versus high maternal care group, in the BDNF target sequence [Likelihood-Ratio (1) = 4.47; p = 0.035] and in one OXTR target sequence Likelihood-Ratio (1) = 4.33; p = 0.037], but not the second OXTR target sequence [Likelihood-Ratio (1) BDNF (estimate = -0.005, 95% CI = -0.025 to 0.015; p = 0.626) or OXTR DNA methylation (estimate = -0.015, 95% CI = -0.038 to 0.008; p = 0.192). Hence, low maternal care in childhood was associated with greater DNA methylation in an OXTR and a BDNF target sequence in blood cells in adulthood. Although the study has limitations (cross-sectional, a wide age range, only three target sequences in two genes studied, small effects, uncertain relevance of changes in blood cells to gene methylation in brain), the findings may indicate components of the epiphenotype from early life stress.

  8. Follicular infundibulum tumour presenting as cutaneous horn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaraman M


    Full Text Available Tumour of follicular infundibulum is an organoid tumour with a plate like growth attached to the epidermis with connection from the follicular epithelium. We are reporting such a case unusually presenting as cutaneous horn.

  9. Childhood obesity. (United States)

    Seth, Anju; Sharma, Rajni


    Childhood obesity is an issue of serious medical and social concern. In developing countries including India, it is a phenomenon seen in higher socioeconomic strata due to the adoption of a western lifestyle. Consumption of high calorie food, lack of physical activity and increased screen time are major risk factors for childhood obesity apart from other genetic, prenatal factors and socio-cultural practices. Obese children and adolescents are at increased risk of medical and psychological complications. Insulin resistance is commonly present especially in those with central obesity and manifests as dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, impaired glucose tolerance, hypertension, polycystic ovarian syndrome and metabolic syndrome. Obese children and adolescents often present to general physicians for management. The latter play a key role in prevention and treatment of obesity as it involves lifestyle modification of the entire family. This article aims at discussing the approach to diagnosis and work-up, treatment and preventive strategies for childhood obesity from a general physician's perspective.

  10. Brain metastases from colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vagn-Hansen, Chris Aksel; Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael


    Brain metastases from colorectal cancer are rare. The prognosis for patients with even a single resectable brain metastasis is poor. A case of surgically treated cerebral metastasis from a rectal carcinoma is reported. The brain tumour was radically resected. However, cerebral, as well...... as extracerebral, disease recurred 12 months after diagnosis. Surgical removal of colorectal metastatic brain lesions in selected cases results in a longer survival time....

  11. Computer-aided hepatic tumour ablation

    CERN Document Server

    Voirin, D; Amavizca, M; Leroy, A; Letoublon, C; Troccaz, J; Voirin, David; Payan, Yohan; Amavizca, Miriam; Leroy, Antoine; Letoublon, Christian; Troccaz, Jocelyne


    Surgical resection of hepatic tumours is not always possible. Alternative techniques consist in locally using chemical or physical agents to destroy the tumour and this may be performed percutaneously. It requires a precise localisation of the tumour placement during ablation. Computer-assisted surgery tools may be used in conjunction to these new ablation techniques to improve the therapeutic efficiency whilst benefiting from minimal invasiveness. This communication introduces the principles of a system for computer-assisted hepatic tumour ablation.

  12. Intraoral myxoid nerve sheath tumour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schortinghuis, J; Hille, JJ; Singh, S


    A case of an intraoral myxoid nerve sheath tumour of the dorsum of the tongue in a 73-year-old Caucasian male is reported. This case describes the oldest patient with this pathology to date. Immunoperoxidase staining for neuronspecific enolase (NSE) and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) expression d

  13. Childhood obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitmann, Berit L; Koplan, Jeffrey; Lissner, Lauren


    Despite progress toward assuring the health of today's young population, the 21(st) century began with an epidemic of childhood obesity. There is general agreement that the situation must be addressed by means of primary prevention, but relatively little is known about how to intervene effectively....... The evidence behind the assumption that childhood obesity can be prevented was discussed critically in this roundtable symposium. Overall, there was general agreement that action is needed and that the worldwide epidemic itself is sufficient evidence for action. As the poet, writer, and scholar Wittner Bynner...... (1881-1968) wrote, "The biggest problem in the world could have been solved when it was small"....

  14. FDG uptake, a surrogate of tumour hypoxia?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dierckx, Rudi Andre; de Wiele, Christophe Van


    Introduction Tumour hyperglycolysis is driven by activation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) through tumour hypoxia. Accordingly, the degree of 2-fluro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) uptake by tumours might indirectly reflect the level of hypoxia, obviating the need for more specific radiopharmaceutic

  15. Melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of the pineal region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorhan, C.; Soto-Ares, G.; Pruvo, J.P. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Hopital Roger Salengro, CHRU Lille, Lille (France); Ruchoux, M.M. [Dept. of Neuropathology, Hopital Roger Salengro, CHRU Lille (France); Blond, S. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hopital Roger Salengro, CHRU Lille (France)


    We describe CT and MR findings in a 23-month-old infant with a melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of the pineal gland. The tumour has been stereotactically biopsied and surgically resected. The pathological diagnosis was made on the resected piece. Embryology of the pineal gland and the histology of melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of infancy are discussed. (orig.)

  16. Quantification of tumour {sup 18}F-FDG uptake: Normalise to blood glucose or scale to liver uptake?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keramida, Georgia [Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Clinical Imaging Sciences Centre, Brighton (United Kingdom); Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Brighton (United Kingdom); University of Sussex, Clinical Imaging Sciences Centre, Brighton (United Kingdom); Dizdarevic, Sabina; Peters, A.M. [Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Clinical Imaging Sciences Centre, Brighton (United Kingdom); Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Brighton (United Kingdom); Bush, Janice [Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Clinical Imaging Sciences Centre, Brighton (United Kingdom)


    To compare normalisation to blood glucose (BG) with scaling to hepatic uptake for quantification of tumour {sup 18}F-FDG uptake using the brain as a surrogate for tumours. Standardised uptake value (SUV) was measured over the liver, cerebellum, basal ganglia, and frontal cortex in 304 patients undergoing {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT. The relationship between brain FDG clearance and SUV was theoretically defined. Brain SUV decreased exponentially with BG, with similar constants between cerebellum, basal ganglia, and frontal cortex (0.099-0.119 mmol/l{sup -1}) and similar to values for tumours estimated from the literature. Liver SUV, however, correlated positively with BG. Brain-to-liver SUV ratio therefore showed an inverse correlation with BG, well-fitted with a hyperbolic function (R = 0.83), as theoretically predicted. Brain SUV normalised to BG (nSUV) displayed a nonlinear correlation with BG (R = 0.55); however, as theoretically predicted, brain nSUV/liver SUV showed almost no correlation with BG. Correction of brain SUV using BG raised to an exponential power of 0.099 mmol/l{sup -1} also eliminated the correlation between brain SUV and BG. Brain SUV continues to correlate with BG after normalisation to BG. Likewise, liver SUV is unsuitable as a reference for tumour FDG uptake. Brain SUV divided by liver SUV, however, shows minimal dependence on BG. (orig.)

  17. Imaging of salivary gland tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y.Y.P.; Wong, K.T.; King, A.D. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin NT, Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Ahuja, A.T. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin NT, Hong Kong (Hong Kong)], E-mail:


    Salivary gland neoplasms account for <3% of all tumors. Most of them are benign and parotid gland is the commonest site. As a general rule, the smaller the involved salivary gland, the higher is the possibility of the tumor being malignant. The role of imaging in assessment of salivary gland tumour is to define intra-glandular vs. extra-glandular location, detect malignant features, assess local extension and invasion, detect nodal metastases and systemic involvement. Image guided fine needle aspiration cytology provides a safe means to obtain cytological confirmation. For lesions in the superficial parotid and submandibular gland, ultrasound is an ideal tool for initial assessment. These are superficial structures accessible by high resolution ultrasound and FNAC which provides excellent resolution and tissue characterization without a radiation hazard. Nodal involvement can also be assessed. If deep tissue extension is suspected or malignancy confirmed on cytology, an MRI or CT is mandatory to evaluate tumour extent, local invasion and perineural spread. For all tumours in the sublingual gland, MRI should be performed as the risk of malignancy is high. For lesions of the deep lobe of parotid gland and the minor salivary glands, MRI and CT are the modalities of choice. Ultrasound has limited visualization of the deep lobe of parotid gland which is obscured by the mandible. Minor salivary gland lesions in the mucosa of oral cavity, pharynx and tracheo-bronchial tree, are also not accessible by conventional ultrasound. Recent study suggests that MR spectroscopy may differentiate malignant and benign salivary gland tumours as well as distinguishing Warthin's tumor from pleomorphic adenoma. However, its role in clinical practice is not well established. Similarly, the role of nuclear medicine and PET scan, in imaging of parotid masses is limited. Sialography is used to delineate the salivary ductal system and has limited role in assessment of tumour extent.

  18. Reductions in blood lead overestimate reductions in brain lead following repeated succimer regimens in a rodent model of childhood lead exposure. (United States)

    Stangle, Diane E; Strawderman, Myla S; Smith, Donald; Kuypers, Mareike; Strupp, Barbara J


    Although many studies have demonstrated the efficacy of succimer chelation in reducing blood and brain lead levels, the relative efficacy of the drug in the two tissues is less well understood. This issue is important because blood lead levels after chelation are used clinically to estimate reductions in the brain, the most critical organ in considering lead-induced neurotoxicity. The present study was designed to further investigate this issue, using multiple chelation regimens. Long-Evans rats were exposed to one of three lead exposure regimens from birth until postnatal day 40, followed by treatment with succimer (one or two 3-week regimens) or vehicle. The results indicated that one succimer regimen was significantly superior to vehicle treatment in lowering lead levels in both blood and brain across the entire 8-week follow-up period. Similarly, a second succimer regimen offered significant additional benefit relative to one regimen for both blood and brain across the 4-week follow-up period. However, several findings revealed that succimer-induced reductions in brain lead lagged behind reductions in blood lead and were generally smaller in magnitude. Furthermore, a rebound was detected in blood, but not brain, lead levels after both succimer regimens. Given the results of this study, we urge caution in using blood lead as a surrogate for brain lead levels, particularly during and immediately after chelation treatment when reductions in blood lead levels overestimate reductions in brain lead levels. The present results suggest that, in clinical use, succimer treatment may need to extend beyond the point at which blood lead levels have dropped to an "acceptable" target value in order to effectively reduce brain lead levels and minimize neurotoxicity.

  19. Childhood Obesity

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts


    In this podcast, Dr. Tom Frieden, CDC Director, discusses the decrease in childhood obesity rates and what strategies have been proven to work to help our children grow up and thrive.  Created: 8/6/2013 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control.   Date Released: 3/6/2014.

  20. Childhood Obesity (United States)

    Yuca, Sevil Ari, Ed.


    This book aims to provide readers with a general as well as an advanced overview of the key trends in childhood obesity. Obesity is an illness that occurs due to a combination of genetic, environmental, psychosocial, metabolic and hormonal factors. The prevalence of obesity has shown a great rise both in adults and children in the last 30 years.…

  1. Childhood obesity. (United States)

    Strauss, R


    Approximately 10% of children are obese. Twin and adoption studies demonstrate a large genetic component to obesity, especially in adults. However, the increasing prevalence of obesity over the last 20 years can only be explained by environmental factors. In most obese individuals, no measurable differences in metabolism can be detected. Few children engage in regular physical activity. Obese children and adults uniformly underreport the amount of food they eat. Obesity is particularly related to increased consumption of high-fat foods. BMI is a quick and easy way to screen for childhood obesity. Treating childhood obesity relies on positive family support and lifestyle changes involving the whole family. Food preferences are influenced early by parental eating habits, and when developed in childhood, they tend to remain fairly constant into adulthood. Children learn to be active or inactive from their parents. In addition, physical activity (or more commonly, physical inactivity) habits that are established in childhood tend to persist into adulthood. Weight loss is usually followed by changes in appetite and metabolism, predisposing individuals to regain their weight. However, when the right family dynamics exist--a motivated child with supportive parents--long-term success is possible.

  2. Tumours of the fetal body: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avni, Fred E.; Massez, Anne; Cassart, Marie [University Clinics of Brussels - Erasme Hospital, Department of Medical Imaging, Brussels (Belgium)


    Tumours of the fetal body are rare, but lesions have been reported in all spaces, especially in the mediastinum, the pericardial space, the adrenals, the kidney, and the liver. Lymphangioma and teratoma are the commonest histological types encountered, followed by cardiac rhabdomyoma. Adrenal neuroblastoma is the commonest malignant tumour. Imaging plays an essential role in the detection and work-up of these tumours. In addition to assisting clinicians it also helps in counselling parents. Most tumours are detected by antenatal US, but fetal MRI is increasingly used as it brings significant additional information in terms of tumour extent, composition and complications. (orig.)

  3. Antigens in human glioblastomas and meningiomas: Search for tumour and onco-foetal antigens. Estimation of S-100 and GFA protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dittmann, L; Axelsen, N H; Norgaard-Pedersen, B


    Extracts of glioblastomas and meningiomas were analysed by quantitative immunoelectrophoresis for the presence of foetal brain antigens and tumour-associated antigens, and levels of 2 normal brain-specific proteins were also determined. The following antibodies were used: monospecific anti-S-100......-alpha-foetoprotein; and monospecific anti-ferritin. Using the antibodies raised against the tumours, several antigens not present in foetal or adult normal brain were found in the glioblastomas and the meningiomas. These antigens cross-reacted with antigens present in normal liver and were therefore not tumour-associated. S-100...

  4. Molecular imaging of tumour hypoxia;Imagerie moleculaire de l'hypoxie tumorale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huchet, A.; Maire, J.P.; Trouette, R. [Hopital Saint-Andre, CHU de Bordeaux, Service d' Oncologie Medicale et de Radiotherapie, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Fernandez, P.; Allard, M. [CHU de Bordeaux, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Belkacemi, Y. [Hopital Henri-Mondor, AP-HP, Oncologie-radiotherapie, 94 - Creteil (France); Eimer, S. [CHU de Bordeaux, Service d' Anatomopathologie, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Tourdias, T. [CHU de Bordeaux, Service de Neuroradiologie, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Loiseau, H. [CHU de Bordeaux, Clinique universitaire de Neurochirurgie, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Huchet, A.; Fernandez, P.; Allard, M.; Maire, J.P.; Eimer, S.; Tourdias, T.; Loiseau, H. [Bordeaux-2 Univ., 33 - Bordeaux (France); Belkacemi, Y. [Paris-12 Univ., 94 - Creteil (France)


    By allowing an earlier diagnosis and a more exhaustive assessment of extension of the disease, the tomography by emission of positrons (PET) transforms the care of numerous cancers. At present, {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose ([{sup 18}F]-F.D.G.) imaging appears as the only one available but new molecular markers are being developed. In the next future they would modify the approach of cancers. In this context, the molecular imaging of the hypoxia and especially the {sup 18}Fluoromisonidazole PET ([{sup 18}F]-MISO PET) can give supplementary information allowing the mapping of hypoxic regions within the tumour. Because of the links, which exist between tumour hypoxia and treatment resistance of very numerous cancers, this information can have an interest, for determination of prognosis as well as for the delineation, volumes to be irradiated. Head and neck tumours are doubtless those for which the literature gives the most elements on the therapeutic impact of tumour hypoxia. Targeted therapies, based on hypoxia, already exist and the contribution of the molecular imaging could be decisive in the evaluation of the impact of such treatment. Molecular imaging of brain tumours remains to be developed. The potential contributions of the [{sup 18}F]-MISO PET for the care of these patients need to be confirmed. In this context, we propose a review of hypoxia molecular imaging taking as examples head and neck tumours and glioblastomas (GB), two tumours for which hypoxia is one of the key factors to overcome in order to increase therapeutics results

  5. Mesenteric gastrointestinal stromal tumour presenting as intracranial space occupying lesion (United States)

    Puri, Tarun; Gunabushanam, Gowthaman; Malik, Monica; Goyal, Shikha; Das, Anup K; Julka, Pramod K; Rath, Goura K


    Background Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) usually present with non-specific gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal mass, pain, anorexia and bowel obstruction. Methods We report a case of a 42 year old male who presented with a solitary intracranial space occupying lesion which was established as a metastasis from a mesenteric tumour. Results The patient was initially treated as a metastatic sarcoma, but a lack of response to chemotherapy prompted testing for CD117 which returned positive. A diagnosis of mesenteric GIST presenting as solitary brain metastasis was made, and the patient was treated with imatinib. Conclusion We recommend that all sarcomas with either an intraabdominal or unknown origin be routinely tested for CD117 to rule out GIST. PMID:17105654

  6. Tumour targeting with systemically administered bacteria.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morrissey, David


    Challenges for oncology practitioners and researchers include specific treatment and detection of tumours. The ideal anti-cancer therapy would selectively eradicate tumour cells, whilst minimising side effects to normal tissue. Bacteria have emerged as biological gene vectors with natural tumour specificity, capable of homing to tumours and replicating locally to high levels when systemically administered. This property enables targeting of both the primary tumour and secondary metastases. In the case of invasive pathogenic species, this targeting strategy can be used to deliver genes intracellularly for tumour cell expression, while non-invasive species transformed with plasmids suitable for bacterial expression of heterologous genes can secrete therapeutic proteins locally within the tumour environment (cell therapy approach). Many bacterial genera have been demonstrated to localise to and replicate to high levels within tumour tissue when intravenously (IV) administered in rodent models and reporter gene tagging of bacteria has permitted real-time visualisation of this phenomenon. Live imaging of tumour colonising bacteria also presents diagnostic potential for this approach. The nature of tumour selective bacterial colonisation appears to be tumour origin- and bacterial species- independent. While originally a correlation was drawn between anaerobic bacterial colonisation and the hypoxic nature of solid tumours, it is recently becoming apparent that other elements of the unique microenvironment within solid tumours, including aberrant neovasculature and local immune suppression, may be responsible. Here, we consider the pre-clinical data supporting the use of bacteria as a tumour-targeting tool, recent advances in the area, and future work required to develop it into a beneficial clinical tool.

  7. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour of maxilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshingkar S


    Full Text Available Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour (IMT is a biologically controversial entity that was originally described as non-neoplastic lesion in the lungs and designated initially as inflammatory pseudotumour. The lesion has recently been recognized to occur at various sites but rarely affects head and neck region. Controversies still exist regarding its reactive versus neoplastic nature. The lesion has a potential for recurrence, persistent local growth, progression to frank sarcoma and metastasis. Hence IMT can best be regarded as a low-grade sarcoma. A case of a 30-year-old female with swelling in the right maxilla and associated ophthalmic manifestations is discussed here. Contribution of immunohistochemistry for diagnosis of IMT is emphasized. Additional cytogenetic studies of this highly enigmatic and minimally studied tumour are warranted.

  8. Comparison of contrast-enhanced modified T1-weighted 3D TSE black-blood and 3D MP-RAGE sequences for the detection of cerebral metastases and brain tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kammer, N.N.; Coppenrath, E.; Treitl, K.M.; Saam, T. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Kooijman, H. [Philips Healthcare, Hamburg (Germany); Dietrich, O. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Josef Lissner Laboratory for Biomedical Imaging, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany)


    To compare a modified T1-weighted 3D TSE black-blood sequence with sub-millimetre resolution (T1-mVISTA) with a magnetization-prepared rapid gradient echo (MP-RAGE) sequence for the diagnosis of cerebral malignomas. Forty-six patients with known or suspected intracranial tumours and 15 control patients were included in this retrospective study. All patients underwent T1-mVISTA (0.75-mm isotropic resolution, 4:43 min) and MP-RAGE (0.8-mm isotropic resolution, 4:46 minutes) at 3-Tesla in random order after application of contrast agent. Two experienced radiologists determined the number of lesions. Maximum diameter, diagnostic confidence (DC), visual assessment of contrast enhancement (VCE) and CNR{sub lesion/parenchyma} were assessed for each lesion. Significantly more lesions were detected with T1-mVISTA compared to the MP-RAGE (61 vs. 36; p < 0.05). Further, DC and VCE was rated significantly higher in the T1-mVISTA (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001). Mean CNR{sub lesion/parenchyma} was twofold higher for T1-mVISTA (24.2 ± 17.5 vs. 12.7 ± 11.5, p < 0.001). The 25 lesions detected only in T1-mVISTA were significantly smaller than those detected in both sequences (4.3 ± 3.7 mm vs. 11.3 ± 10.7 mm; p < 0.01). T1-mVISTA increases the contrast of lesions significantly compared to MP-RAGE and might therefore improve detection rates of small lesions in early stages of disease. (orig.)

  9. Desmoplastic small round cell tumour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, T.H.L. [North District Hospital, Fanling, Kowloon (Hong Kong). Radiology Department; Ong, K.L. [Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Kowloon (Hong Kong). Accident and Emergency Department; Au, Y.M.C. [Princess Margarete Hospital, Kowloon, (Hong Kong). Department of Radiology


    The present report describes a rare case of primary desmoplastic small cell tumour of the recto-sigmoid colon with hepatic metastases and lymphadenopathy. There are no pathognomonic radiological features and often their features overlap with other diseases including lymphoma. Histology is necessary to confirm this diagnosis. Unfortunately despite aggressive therapy, the prognosis for this disease is poor. Copyright (1998) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd 8 refs., 1 fig.

  10. Reconstructive options in pelvic tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayilvahanan N


    Full Text Available Background: Pelvic tumours present a complex problem. It is difficult to choose between limb salvage and hemipelvectomy. Method: Forty three patients of tumours of pelvis underwent limb salvage resection with reconstruction in 32 patients. The majority were chondrosarcomas (20 cases followed by Ewing sarcoma. Stage II B was the most common stage in malignant lesions and all the seven benign lesions were aggressive (B3. Surgical margins achieved were wide in 31 and marginal in 12 cases. Ilium was involved in 51% of cases and periacetabular involvement was seen in 12 patients. The resections done were mostly of types I &II of Enneking′s classification of pelvic resection. Arthrodesis was attempted in 24 patients. Customized Saddle prosthesis was used in seven patients and no reconstruction in 12 patients. Adjuvant chemotherapy was given to all high-grade malignant tumours, combined with radiotherapy in 7 patients. Results: With a mean follow up of 48.5 months and one patient lost to follow up, the recurrence rate among the evaluated cases was 16.6%. Oncologically, 30 patients were continuously disease free with 7 local recurrences and 4 deaths due to disseminated disease and 2 patients died of other causes. During the initial years, satisfactory functional results were achieved with prosthetic replacement. Long-term functional result of 36 patients who were alive at the time of latest follow up was satisfactory in 75% who underwent arthrodesis and in those where no reconstruction was used. We also describe a method of new classification of pelvic resections that clarifies certain shortcomings of the previous systems of classification. Conclusion: Selection of a procedure depends largely on the patient factors, the tumour grade, the resultant defect and the tissue factors. Resection with proper margins gives better functional and oncological results

  11. Differential diagnosis of cystic bone tumors in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Refior, H.J.; Stuerz, H.


    Skeletal changes leading to a suspicion of the presence of a tumour frequently occur in childhood with the roentgenological manifestation of a cyst. X-ray morphology can differ depending upon the localisation and the course. In childhood, however such findings are mainly classified as tumour-like bone lesions. This group comprises, inter alia, the juvenile bone cyst, the aneurysmatic bone cyst and fibrous dysplasia. However, it is necessary to exclude by differential diagnosis - even though the main age of manifestation is after completion of growth - genuine bone tumours with cystic phenomena, such as the giant cell tumour, chondroma or chondroblastoma. Verification of the diagnosis can be effected via radiologic-diagnostic methods such as tomography and angiography as well as computerized tomography. The use of scintigraphy of the skeleton can likewise be indicated. Numerous laboratory parameters can be used in individual cases to exclude certain diagnoses. Taking these aspects into consideration, the article reviews differential diagnosis of the most frequent skeletal affections in childhood. Great emphasis is given to the ranking and importance of the individual diagnostic methods.

  12. Notch as a tumour suppressor. (United States)

    Nowell, Craig S; Radtke, Freddy


    The Notch signalling cascade is an evolutionarily conserved pathway that has a crucial role in regulating development and homeostasis in various tissues. The cellular processes and events that it controls are diverse, and continued investigation over recent decades has revealed how the role of Notch signalling is multifaceted and highly context dependent. Consistent with the far-reaching impact that Notch has on development and homeostasis, aberrant activity of the pathway is also linked to the initiation and progression of several malignancies, and Notch can in fact be either oncogenic or tumour suppressive depending on the tissue and cellular context. The Notch pathway therefore represents an important target for therapeutic agents designed to treat many types of cancer. In this Review, we focus on the latest developments relating specifically to the tumour-suppressor activity of Notch signalling and discuss the potential mechanisms by which Notch can inhibit carcinogenesis in various tissues. Potential therapeutic strategies aimed at restoring or augmenting Notch-mediated tumour suppression will also be highlighted.

  13. Subdural enhancement on postoperative spinal MRI after resection of posterior cranial fossa tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warmuth-Metz, M.; Solymosi, L. [Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Klinikum der Bayerischen Julius Maximilians Universitaet, Josef-Schneider-Strasse 11, 97080, Wuerzburg (Germany); Kuehl, J. [Paediatric Oncology, Klinikum der Bayerischen Julius Maximilians Universitaet, Josef-Schneider-Strasse 11, 97080, Wuerzburg (Germany); Krauss, J. [Paediatric Neurosurgery, Klinikum der Bayerischen Julius Maximilians Universitaet, Josef-Schneider-Strasse 11, 97080, Wuerzburg (Germany)


    In malignant brain tumours which may disseminate staging, usually by cranial and spinal MRI is necessary. If MRI is performed in the postoperative period pitfalls should be considered. Nonspecific subdural contrast enhancement on spinal staging MRI is rarely reported after resection of posterior fossa tumours, which may be mistaken for dissemination of malignancy. We investigated the frequency of spinal subdural enhancement after posterior cranial fossa neurosurgery in children. We reviewed 53 postoperative spinal MRI studies performed for staging of paediatric malignant brain tumours, mainly infratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumours 2-40 days after surgery. There was contrast enhancement in the spinal subdural space in seven cases. This was not seen in any of eight patients who had been operated upon for a supratentorial tumour. After resection of 45 posterior cranial fossa tumours the frequency of subdural enhancement was 15.5%. MRI showing subdural enhancement was obtained up to 25 days postoperatively. No patient with subdural enhancement had cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examinations positive for tumour cells or developed dissemination of disease in the CSF. Because the characteristic appearances of subdural contrast enhancement, appropriate interpretation is possible; diagnosis of neoplastic meningitis should rarely be impeded. Because of the striking similarity to that in patients with a low CSF-pressure syndrome and in view of the fact that only resection of tumours of the posterior cranial fossa, usually associated with obstructive hydrocephalus, was followed by this type of enhancement one might suggest that rapid changes in CSF pressure are implicated, rather the effects of blood introduced into the spinal canal at surgery. (orig.)

  14. Childhood pancreatitis. (United States)

    Uretsky, G; Goldschmiedt, M; James, K


    Acute pancreatitis is a rare finding in childhood but probably more common than is generally realized. This condition should be considered in the evaluation of children with vomiting and abdominal pain, because it can cause significant morbidity and mortality. Clinical suspicion is required to make the diagnosis, especially when the serum amylase concentration is normal. Recurrent pancreatitis may be familial as a result of inherited biochemical or anatomic abnormalities. Patients with hereditary pancreatitis are at high risk for pancreatic cancer.

  15. Childhood rhabdomyosarcoma. (United States)

    Córdoba Rovira, S M; Inarejos Clemente, E J

    Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common soft-tissue sarcoma in children; it can appear in any part of the body. Its biological behavior varies widely, and despite the absence of specific clinical or radiological characteristics, rhabdomyosarcoma should be taken into account in the differential diagnosis of solid tumors in children. This review focuses primarily on the imaging findings and anatomical distribution of the histological subtypes of childhood rhabdomyosarcoma and secondarily on the differential findings in histological studies.

  16. Childhood Obesity Facts (United States)

    ... Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Childhood Obesity Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Children (WIC) Program, 2000–2014 Prevalence of Childhood Obesity in the United States, 2011-2014 Childhood obesity ...

  17. Adrenal Disorders and the Paediatric Brain: Pathophysiological Considerations and Clinical Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Salpietro


    Full Text Available Various neurological and psychiatric manifestations have been recorded in children with adrenal disorders. Based on literature review and on personal case-studies and case-series we focused on the pathophysiological and clinical implications of glucocorticoid-related, mineralcorticoid-related, and catecholamine-related paediatric nervous system involvement. Childhood Cushing syndrome can be associated with long-lasting cognitive deficits and abnormal behaviour, even after resolution of the hypercortisolism. Exposure to excessive replacement of exogenous glucocorticoids in the paediatric age group (e.g., during treatments for adrenal insufficiency has been reported with neurological and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI abnormalities (e.g., delayed myelination and brain atrophy due to potential corticosteroid-related myelin damage in the developing brain and the possible impairment of limbic system ontogenesis. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH, a disorder of unclear pathophysiology characterised by increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF pressure, has been described in children with hypercortisolism, adrenal insufficiency, and hyperaldosteronism, reflecting the potential underlying involvement of the adrenal-brain axis in the regulation of CSF pressure homeostasis. Arterial hypertension caused by paediatric adenomas or tumours of the adrenal cortex or medulla has been associated with various hypertension-related neurological manifestations. The development and maturation of the central nervous system (CNS through childhood is tightly regulated by intrinsic, paracrine, endocrine, and external modulators, and perturbations in any of these factors, including those related to adrenal hormone imbalance, could result in consequences that affect the structure and function of the paediatric brain. Animal experiments and clinical studies demonstrated that the developing (i.e., paediatric CNS seems to be particularly vulnerable to alterations induced by

  18. The impact of childhood abuse and recent stress on serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor and the moderating role of BDNF Val(66)Met

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzinga, Bernet M.; Molendijk, Marc L.; Voshaar, Richard C. Oude; Bus, Boudewijn A. A.; Prickaerts, Jos; Spinhoven, Philip; Penninx, Brenda J. W. H.


    Recent findings show lowered brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in major depressive disorder (MDD). Exposure to stressful life events may (partly) underlie these BDNF reductions, but little is known about the effects of early or recent life stress on BDNF levels. Moreover, the effects o

  19. The impact of childhood abuse and recent stress on serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor and the moderating role of BDNF Val66Met

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elzinga, B.M.; Molendijk, M.L.; Oude Voshaar, R.C.; Bus, B.A.A.; Prickaerts, J.; Spinhoven, P.; Penninx, B.J.


    RATIONALE: Recent findings show lowered brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in major depressive disorder (MDD). Exposure to stressful life events may (partly) underlie these BDNF reductions, but little is known about the effects of early or recent life stress on BDNF levels. Moreover, th

  20. Brain tumor survivors speak out. (United States)

    Carlson-Green, Bonnie


    Although progress has been made in the treatment of childhood brain tumors,work remains to understand the complexities of disease, treatment, and contextual factors that underlie individual differences in outcome. A combination of both an idiographic approach (incorporating observations made by adult survivors of childhood brain tumors) and a nomothetic approach (reviewing the literature for brain tumor survivors as well as childhood cancer survivors) is presented. Six areas of concern are reviewed from both an idiographic and nomothetic perspective, including social/emotional adjustment, insurance, neurocognitive late effects, sexuality and relationships, employment, and where survivors accessed information about their disease and treatment and possible late effects. Guidelines to assist health care professionals working with childhood brain tumor survivors are offered with the goal of improving psychosocial and neurocognitive outcomes in this population.

  1. Tumour risk associated with use of cellular telephones or cordless desktop telephones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Söderqvist Fredrik


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of cellular and cordless telephones has increased dramatically during the last decade. There is concern of health problems such as malignant diseases due to microwave exposure during the use of these devices. The brain is the main target organ. Methods Since the second part of the 1990's we have performed six case-control studies on this topic encompassing use of both cellular and cordless phones as well as other exposures. Three of the studies concerned brain tumours, one salivary gland tumours, one non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL and one testicular cancer. Exposure was assessed by self-administered questionnaires. Results Regarding acoustic neuroma analogue cellular phones yielded odds ratio (OR = 2.9, 95 % confidence interval (CI = 2.0–4.3, digital cellular phones OR = 1.5, 95 % CI = 1.1–2.1 and cordless phones OR = 1.5, 95 % CI = 1.04–2.0. The corresponding results were for astrocytoma grade III-IV OR = 1.7, 95 % CI = 1.3–2.3; OR = 1.5, 95 % CI = 1.2–1.9 and OR = 1.5, 95 % CI = 1.1–1.9, respectively. The ORs increased with latency period with highest estimates using > 10 years time period from first use of these phone types. Lower ORs were calculated for astrocytoma grade I-II. No association was found with salivary gland tumours, NHL or testicular cancer although an association with NHL of T-cell type could not be ruled out. Conclusion We found for all studied phone types an increased risk for brain tumours, mainly acoustic neuroma and malignant brain tumours. OR increased with latency period, especially for astrocytoma grade III-IV. No consistent pattern of an increased risk was found for salivary gland tumours, NHL, or testicular cancer.

  2. 精神分裂症患儿颅脑结构异常与认知功能的关系%Relationship of Abnormal Brain Structure and Cognitive Changes in Childhood Schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    娄涛; 郭素芹; 衣志爽; 郭芳; 李玉玲; 郭敬华


    目的 调查精神分裂症患儿颅脑结构异常和认知功能的关系.方法 选择55例首发精神分裂症患儿和39名健康儿童为研究对象,利用MRI进行颅脑结构测量,用《中国修订韦氏儿童智力量表手册》(C-WISC)评估其认知功能.结果 1.精神分裂症患儿第三脑室横径、侧脑室前脚间距、左右颞角宽度、左右外侧裂脑沟根部宽、额叶和顶叶脑沟宽均高于健康对照组(Pa<0.05),胼胝体厚低于健康对照组(P<0.05);2.精神分裂症患儿第三脑室横径与常识、领悟、算术、数字广度、言语总分、言语智商(VIQ)、全量表分及全量表智商(FIQ)均呈负相关(Pa<0.05),第三脑室侧壁至左右脑岛面距、侧脑室前脚间距、侧脑室体最大距与常识均呈负相关(Pa<0.05),左右颞角宽度与常识、算术、言语总分、VIQ、全量表分及FIQ均呈负相关(Pa<0.05),左右外侧裂脑沟根部宽与常识、算术、数字广度、言语总分、VIQ、全量表分及FIQ均呈负相关(Pa<0.05),额叶脑沟宽与算术、言语总分及VIQ均呈负相关(Pa<0.05),顶叶脑沟宽与常识、算术、言语总分及VIQ均呈负相关(Pa<0.05),胼胝体厚与常识呈正相关(P<0.05).结论 精神分裂症患儿存在显著的脑室扩大和脑结构异常,脑室扩大和脑结构异常与认知损害存在相关关系,脑室扩大和脑结构异常越明显,认知损害越严重.%Objective To survey the relationship of abnormal brain structure and/ cognitive assessment in childhood schizophrenia. Methods Fifty - five patients with childhood schizophrenia were studied with magnetic resonance imaging for brain structural measurement, who were compared with the normal control group( n = 39). Their cognitive assessment were measured by Chinese Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children( C - WISC). Results 1. Compared with the controls, patients had significantly higher transverse diameter of third ventricle and width of

  3. [Adenomatoid tumour of the adrenal gland]. (United States)

    Bandier, Philippe Claus; Hansen, Alastair; Thorelius, Lars


    An adenomatoid tumour in the right suprarenal gland was discovered during clinical cancer staging of a 73-year-old woman. Adenomatoid tumours in the suprarenal glands are rare and are most often found incidentally. A definitive diagnosis is made on the basis of histology since imaging methods are non-specific. Differential diagnoses comprise malignant vascular neoplasm or adenocarcinoma. Immunohistochemistry or electron microscopy allows uncomplicated distinction between these tumours. In general, it is recommended to obtain biopsies from suprarenal processes.

  4. An unusual presentation of a glomus tumour.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nugent, N


    Glomus tumours are benign, soft tissue tumours, usually of fingertips. Classically they present with severe pain, temperature sensitivity and localised tenderness. The diagnosis is often delayed due to sometimes non-specific symptoms and rarity of the disorder. While usually a clinical diagnosis, imaging may be necessary for diagnosis and localisation. We present a case of glomus tumour of the fingertip with an unusual history.

  5. Elevated tumour marker: an indication for imaging?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McMahon, Colm J


    INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of imaging examinations in patients with elevated tumour markers when (a) the tumour marker is not validated for as a primary diagnostic test; (b) the patient had no personal history of cancer and (c) the patient had no other imaging indication. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients without known cancer who had abnormal carcinoembryonic antigen, CA19-9, CA125 and\\/or CA15-3 serology over a one-year period were included. A retrospective medical record review was performed to assess the number of these cases who underwent imaging because of \\'elevated tumour marker\\' in the absence of a clinical indication for imaging. The number and result of these imaging studies were evaluated. RESULTS: Eight hundred and nineteen patients were included. Of those, 25 patients (mean age: 67.8 [range 41-91] y), were imaged to evaluate: \\'elevated tumour marker\\'. They underwent 29 imaging studies (mean [+\\/-standard deviation (SD)] per patient = 1.2 [+\\/-0.4]), and had 42 elevated tumour marker serology tests (mean [+\\/-SD] per patient = 1.7 [+\\/-0.7]). Four patients had >1 imaging test. No patient had an imaging study which diagnosed a malignancy or explained the elevated tumour marker. CONCLUSION: The non-judicious use of tumour markers can prompt further unnecessary investigations including imaging. In this study, there was no positive diagnostic yield for imaging performed for investigation of \\'elevated tumour marker\\'. \\'Elevated tumour marker\\

  6. 2 year follow-up of childhood moyamoya after encephalo-arterio-myo-synangiosis (EDAMS): evaluation with acetazolamide brain SPECT (Acz-SPECT) and MR angiography (MRA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Seung; Ra, Young Shin; Moon, Dae Hyuk; Ryu, Jin Sook; Lee, Hee Kyung [College of Medicine, Ulsan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Longterm F/U evaluation of cerebrovascular hemodynamic changes after EDAMS is important because childhood moyamoya disease has a progressive nature and EDAMS is an indirect revascularization method. We evaluated cerebro-vascular hemodynamic changes of moyamoya pts during 2 yr after EDAMS with Acz-SPECT and correlated with MRA finding. 23 operated cerebral hemispheres of the 21 childhood moyamoya pts (M/F: 10/11, mean age 8{+-}3 yrs) were evaluated with Acz-SPECT using {sup 99m}Tc-ECD and MRA within 1 mo before, 1 yr ( 6 {+-}3 mo) and 2 yr (21 {+-}7 mo) after EDAMS. 10 pts also underwent frontal encephalo-galeo-synangiosis. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and cerebrovascular reserve (rCVR) of 8 cortical regions in each hemisphere (2 anterior cerebral artery (ACA), 4 mid-cerebral artery (MCA), and 2 posterior cerebral artery (PCA) territories) were scored as 5 grade scale (0=perfusion defect to 4=normal). Perfusion index (PI) was defined as the sum scores of rCBF and rCVR in each territory. Arterial stenosis and transdural collaterals were also evaluated. The changes of PIs in each territory and the changes of cerebral arterial stenosis with collateral formation at 1 and 2 yr F/U were correlated. Pre-operative stages of moyamoya disease were Suzuki type 1 in 1, 2 in 6, 3 in 7, and 4 in 9 cases. Mean PIs of each territory were summarized in the table. PIs of operated (MCA and ACA) territories were improved in 14, unchanged in 7, and aggravated in 2 cases at 1 yr F/U. PIs of PCA territory were improved in 4, unchanged in 16, and aggravated in 3 cases. At 2 yr F/U, PIs of operated territories were unchanged in 10 and improved in 12 cases including 2 with aggravation and 5 with no change at 1 yr F/U, but newly aggravated in 2 cases. Pis of PCA territory were improved in 5 or unchanged in 15, but further or newly aggravated in 3 cases. The arterial stenosis was progressed in 9 cases (5 MCA, 3 PCA, and/or 3 ACA). In these cases, PIs were aggravated in 3(2 operated and

  7. Granular cell tumour of the neurohypophysis: a rare sellar tumour with specific radiological and operative features.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Aquilina, K


    Symptomatic granular cell tumours of the neurohypophysis are rare sellar lesions. Preoperative prediction of the diagnosis on the basis of radiological appearance is useful as these tumours carry specific surgical difficulties. This is possible when the tumour arises from the pituitary stalk, rostral to a normal pituitary gland. This has not been emphasized previously.

  8. Acute hemiplegia in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuno, Takehiko; Takao, Tatsuo; Itoh, Masatoshi; Konishi, Yukuo; Nakano, Shozo (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)


    The results of CT in 100 patients with acute hemiplegia in childhood are reported here. The etiology was various: 2 patients had infratentorial brain tumors, 56 had cerebral vascular diseases, 3 had head injuries, 16 had intracranial infectious diseases, one had postinfectious encephalomyelitis, one had multiple sclerosis, 2 had epilepsy, and the diagnosis of 19 were unknown. Eleven patients had a normal CT and a good prognosis. As for the type of onset, there were patients of type 1 with fever and 42 with convulsions and unconsciousness; those of type 2 with convulsions and unconsciousness were 12, and those of type 3 without fever and convulsions were 46. This classification is assumed to be useful, as the type of onset is characteristic of the etiology. Six patients were diagnosed correctly by repeated examinations, although the first CT did not reveal any remarkable findings. Capsular infarction, occlusion of the posterior cerebral artery in acute hemiplegia in childhood, abnormal findings of the internal capsule, thalamus, and midbrain in a patient with postinfectious encephalomyelitis, and a diffuse low density in the CT of the unilateral hemisphere in the patients with acute encephalopathy and acute hemiplegia of an obscure origin have been found after the introduction of computerized tomography.

  9. Clinico-pathological characteristics of different types of immunodeficiency-associated smooth muscle tumours. (United States)

    Hussein, Kais; Rath, Berenice; Ludewig, Britta; Kreipe, Hans; Jonigk, Danny


    Rare Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)+ smooth muscle tumours (SMT) manifest typically under immunosuppression. Three major subtypes are known: human immunodeficiency virus-associated (HIV-SMT), after transplantation (PTSMT) or associated with congenital immunodeficiency syndromes (CI-SMT). So far, there are no analyses which compare the clinico-pathological characteristics of all three subtypes. Case reports and case series on these three tumour types were collected (1990-2012). Meta-data analysis was performed for identification of similarities and differences. A total of 73 HIV-SMT, 66 PTSMT and 9 CI-SMT were evaluated. There was a slight female predominance (55-67%). Children were affected nearly equally in HIV-SMT (33%) and PTSMT (35%), while all CI-SMT occurred in children. HIV-SMT manifested preferentially in the central nervous system, gut/liver, skin, lungs/larynx/pharynx and adrenal glands. PTSMT were predominantly found in the liver, lungs/larynx/pharynx, gut/spleen and brain. CI-SMT were often found in lungs/larynx, brain, liver, adrenal glands and spleen. Antecedent EBV+ lymphoproliferations manifested more often in PTSMT. In all three tumour subtypes, survival analyses did not show any significant differences regarding surgical therapeutic approaches, the occurrence of multiple tumours, tumour size or sarcoma-like histological features. HIV-SMT had the poorest overall survival, which might be attributed to HIV-associated infectious complications.

  10. Steroid hormones affect binding of the sigma ligand {sup 11}C-SA4503 in tumour cells and tumour-bearing rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rybczynska, Anna A.; Elsinga, Philip H.; Sijbesma, Jurgen W.; Jong, Johan R. de; Vries, Erik F. de; Dierckx, Rudi A.; Waarde, Aren van [University of Groningen, Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University of Groningen Medical Center, Groningen (Netherlands); Ishiwata, Kiichi [Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Positron Medical Center, Tokyo (Japan)


    Sigma receptors are implicated in memory and cognitive functions, drug addiction, depression and schizophrenia. In addition, sigma receptors are strongly overexpressed in many tumours. Although the natural ligands are still unknown, steroid hormones are potential candidates. Here, we examined changes in binding of the sigma-1 agonist {sup 11}C-SA4503 in C6 glioma cells and in living rats after modification of endogenous steroid levels. {sup 11}C-SA4503 binding was assessed in C6 monolayers by gamma counting and in anaesthetized rats by microPET scanning. C6 cells were either repeatedly washed and incubated in steroid-free medium or exposed to five kinds of exogenous steroids (1 h or 5 min before tracer addition, respectively). Tumour-bearing male rats were repeatedly treated with pentobarbital (a condition known to result in reduction of endogenous steroid levels) or injected with progesterone. Binding of {sup 11}C-SA4503 to C6 cells was increased ({proportional_to}50%) upon removal and decreased ({proportional_to}60%) upon addition of steroid hormones (rank order of potency: progesterone > allopregnanolone = testosterone = androstanolone > dehydroepiandrosterone-3-sulphate, IC{sub 50} progesterone 33 nM). Intraperitoneally administered progesterone reduced tumour uptake and tumour-to-muscle contrast (36%). Repeated treatment of animals with pentobarbital increased the PET standardized uptake value of {sup 11}C-SA4503 in tumour (16%) and brain (27%), whereas the kinetics of blood pool radioactivity was unaffected. The binding of {sup 11}C-SA4503 is sensitive to steroid competition. Since not only increases but also decreases of steroid levels affect ligand binding, a considerable fraction of the sigma-1 receptor population in cultured tumour cells or tumour-bearing animals is normally occupied by endogenous steroids. (orig.)

  11. Epithelial tumours of the lacrimal gland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Holstein, Sarah Linéa; Coupland, Sarah E; Briscoe, Daniel;


    Epithelial tumours of the lacrimal gland represent a large spectrum of lesions with similarities in clinical signs and symptoms but with different biological behaviour and prognosis. They are rare, but with aggressive malignant potential. Tumours of the lacrimal gland may present with swelling of...

  12. Percutaneously implanted markers in peripheral lung tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, G.F.; Josipovic, Mirjana; Nygaard, Ditte Eklund;


    A letter to the editor is presented which is concerned with research which investigated percutaneously implanted markers in peripheral lung tumours and their complications.......A letter to the editor is presented which is concerned with research which investigated percutaneously implanted markers in peripheral lung tumours and their complications....

  13. Thermal resistance in a spontaneous murine tumour. (United States)

    Maher, J; Urano, M; Rice, L; Suit, H D


    Resistance to subsequent hyperthermia as a result of prior heating was investigated using a spontaneous murine tumour implanted into the feet of C3H/Sed mice. Tumours were treated by immersing the tumour-bearing foot into a constant-temperature hot water bath set at 45.5 degrees C and were given single and split doses of heat. Response was assessed using a tumour-growth time assay. Three aspects of thermally-induced resistance were particularly considered: the time course of development and decay; the importance of the magnitude of the priming dose and the influence of the size of the tumour at the time of treatment. Substantial resistance was induced in this tumour by short priming doses at 45.5 degrees C, rising rapidly 1-2 days after the first treatment and then starting to decay. There was no significant difference in the kinetics of thermal resistance induced in tumours treated at 4mm and those treated at 8 mm in size, although the large tumours were more sensitive to single doses of heat. Increasing the magnitude of the priming dose of heat resulted in an increase in the magnitude of resistance to the second dose. The results of this study are compared with results of similar studies in this and other laboratories using murine normal tissues and cells in culture. Possible clinical implications are considered.

  14. Skull metastasis from rectal gastrointestinal stromal tumours. (United States)

    Gil-Arnaiz, Irene; Martínez-Trufero, Javier; Pazo-Cid, Roberto Antonio; Felipo, Francesc; Lecumberri, María José; Calderero, Verónica


    Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) are the most common mesenchymal neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract. Rectum localisation is infrequent for these neoplasms, accounting for about 5% of all cases. Distant metastases of GIST are also rare. We present a patient with special features: the tumour is localised in rectum and it has an uncommon metastatic site, the skull, implying a complex differential diagnosis approach.

  15. Idea units in notes and summaries for read texts by keyboard and pencil in middle childhood students with specific learning disabilities: Cognitive and brain findings. (United States)

    Richards, Todd; Peverly, Stephen; Wolf, Amie; Abbott, Robert; Tanimoto, Steven; Thompson, Rob; Nagy, William; Berninger, Virginia


    Seven children with dyslexia and/or dysgraphia (2 girls, 5 boys, M=11 years) completed fMRI connectivity scans before and after twelve weekly computerized lessons in strategies for reading source material, taking notes, and writing summaries by touch typing or groovy pencils. During brain scanning they completed two reading comprehension tasks-one involving single sentences and one involving multiple sentences. From before to after intervention, fMRI connectivity magnitude changed significantly during sentence level reading comprehension (from right angular gyrus→right Broca's) and during text level reading comprehension (from right angular gyrus→cingulate). Proportions of ideas units in children's writing compared to idea units in source texts did not differ across combinations of reading-writing tasks and modes. Yet, for handwriting/notes, correlations insignificant before the lessons became significant after the strategy instruction between proportion of idea units and brain connectivity at all levels of language in reading comprehension (word-, sentence-, and text) during scanning; but for handwriting/summaries, touch typing/notes, and touch typing/summaries changes in those correlations from insignificant to significant after strategy instruction occurred only at text level reading comprehension during scanning. Thus, handwriting during note-taking may benefit all levels of language during reading comprehension, whereas all other combinations of modes and writing tasks in this exploratory study appear to benefit only the text level of reading comprehension. Neurological and educational significance of the interdisciplinary research findings for integrating reading and writing and future research directions are discussed.

  16. The Neuropsychological Basis of Childhood Psychopathology (United States)

    Davis, Andrew S.


    A clear link exists between neurological dysfunction and psychopathology in children, as evidenced by research on the sequelae of developmental childhood brain impairment, the neuropsychological investigation of children with psychiatric disorders, and neuroimaging research. Understanding the neuropsychological basis of a disorder helps teachers,…

  17. The ‘Pantie' Tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silada Kanokrungsee


    Full Text Available We present a case of radiation-associated angiosarcoma. A 67-year-old Thai woman was diagnosed with endometrium carcinoma stage IC and was treated with surgery and radiations. Ten years later, she presented with a gradually enlarging mass on the pubic area, in the shape of a pair of panties. Skin biopsy of lesions confirmed angiosarcoma. The diagnosis was radiation-associated angiosarcoma. She was treated with chemotherapy due to unresectable tumour. The chemotherapy was started with paclitaxel 70 mg/m2 every 2 weeks. After completing the fifth cycle of paclitaxel, the lesion was markedly decreased in size and the symptoms previously described were also completely resolved.

  18. Immunohistochemical study of IOT-10 natural killer cells in brain metastases. (United States)

    Vaquero, J; Coca, S; Escandón, J; Magallón, R; Martínez, R


    The presence of NK-cells in a series of 40 metastatic brain tumours has been studied by means of the monoclonal antibody IOT-10. There appeared IOT-10 NK-cells in all tumours studied, but in most cases these cells represented less than 10% of the tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL). In the present series, the obtained data suggest that the number of NK-cells in brain metastases can be influenced by other factors than the mere quantity of TIL.

  19. Childhood poverty and recruitment of adult emotion regulatory neurocircuitry. (United States)

    Liberzon, Israel; Ma, Sean T; Okada, Go; Ho, S Shaun; Swain, James E; Evans, Gary W


    One in five American children grows up in poverty. Childhood poverty has far-reaching adverse impacts on cognitive, social and emotional development. Altered development of neurocircuits, subserving emotion regulation, is one possible pathway for childhood poverty's ill effects. Children exposed to poverty were followed into young adulthood and then studied using functional brain imaging with an implicit emotion regulation task focused. Implicit emotion regulation involved attention shifting and appraisal components. Early poverty reduced left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex recruitment in the context of emotional regulation. Furthermore, this emotion regulation associated brain activation mediated the effects of poverty on adult task performance. Moreover, childhood poverty also predicted enhanced insula and reduced hippocampal activation, following exposure to acute stress. These results demonstrate that childhood poverty can alter adult emotion regulation neurocircuitry, revealing specific brain mechanisms that may underlie long-term effects of social inequalities on health. The role of poverty-related emotion regulatory neurocircuitry appears to be particularly salient during stressful conditions.

  20. Incidence Patterns and Trends of non-Central Nervous System Solid Tumours in Children and Adolescents. A Collaborative Study of the Spanish Population Based Cancer Registries (United States)

    Larrañaga, Nerea; Sanchez, Mª José; Ardanaz, Eva; Felipe, Saray; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Ramos, María; Carulla, Marià; Chirlaque, Mª Dolores; Argüelles, Marcial V.; Martos, Carmen; Mateo, Antonio; Peris-Bonet, Rafael


    Objective: To describe incidence patterns and trends in children (0-14 years) and adolescents (15-19 age-range) with solid tumours, except those of central nervous system (CNS), in Spain. Methods: Cases were drawn from eleven Spanish population-based cancer registries. Incidence was estimated for the period 1983-2007 and trends were evaluated using Joinpoint regression analysis. Results: The studied tumour groups accounted for 36% of total childhood cancers and 47.6% of those diagnosed in adolescence with annual rates per million of 53.5 and 89.3 respectively. In children 0 to 14 years of age, Neuroblastoma (NB) was the commonest (7.8%) followed by Soft-tissue sarcomas (STS) (6.3%), bone tumours (BT) (6.2%) and renal tumours (RT) (4.5%). NB was the most frequently diagnosed tumour before the 5th birthday, while STS and BT were the commonest at 5-9 years of age, and BT and Carcinoma and other epithelial tumours (COET) at 10-14. COET presented the highest incidence in adolescents, followed by germ-cell tumours (GCT), BT and STS. These four diagnostic groups accounted for 94% of total non-CNS solid tumours, in adolescents. Overall incidence rates increased significantly in children up to 1996 with an annual percentage change (APC) of 2.6% (95%CI: 1.7; 3.6). NB and COET showed significant time trend (APCs: 1.4% and 3.8% respectively) while other tumour groups such as RT, STS, BT or GCT had no significant changes over time. A significant increase was present in NB under the age of 5 and in BT and STS in children aged 10-14 years. In adolescents there were significant increases for all tumours combined (APC=2.7; 95%CI: 1.8-3.6) and for STS, GCT and COET (APCs: 3.2%, 4.4% and 3.5% respectively), while other tumour groups such as hepatic tumours, BT or thyroid carcinomas showed a decreasing trend or no increase. Conclusions: Overall, the incidence of the studied cancers in children increased along the period 1983-1996 with no posterior significant rise, while the incidence

  1. Hidden Wounds? Inflammatory Links Between Childhood Trauma and Psychopathology. (United States)

    Danese, Andrea; Baldwin, Jessie R


    Childhood trauma is a key risk factor for psychopathology. However, little is known about how exposure to childhood trauma is translated into biological risk for psychopathology. Observational human studies and experimental animal models suggest that childhood exposure to stress can trigger an enduring systemic inflammatory response not unlike the bodily response to physical injury. In turn, these "hidden wounds" of childhood trauma can affect brain development, key behavioral domains (e.g., cognition, positive valence systems, negative valence systems), reactivity to subsequent stressors, and, ultimately, risk for psychopathology. Further research is needed to better characterize the inflammatory links between childhood trauma and psychopathology. Detecting and healing these hidden wounds may help prevent and treat psychopathology emerging after childhood trauma.

  2. MRI of pineal region tumours: relationship between tumours and adjacent structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satoh, H. [Hiroshima University, School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Uozumi, T. [Hiroshima University, School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Kiya, K. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Prefectural Hospital, Hiroshima (Japan); Kurisu, K. [Hiroshima University, School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Arita, K. [Hiroshima University, School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Sumida, M. [Hiroshima University, School of Medicine (Japan). Dept. of Neurosurgery; Ikawa, F. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Prefectural Hospital, Hiroshima (Japan)


    A variety of tumours may arise in the pineal region; accurate diagnosis is important in the selection of treatment and prognosis. A retrospective analysis of the MRI studies of 25 patients with pathologically proven pineal region tumours was performed, focused on the relationship between the tumour and neighbouring structures. Compression of the tectal plate was classified as expansive or invasive, and compression of the corpus callosum as inferior, anterior or posterior. In 10 of the 14 patients (71 %) with germ cell tumours tectal compression was of the invasive type; 8 patients (57 %) had multiple tumours and in 13 (93 %) the tumour margins were irregular. Teratomas were readily diagnosed because of characteristic heterogeneous signal intensity. Pineal cell tumours were differentiated from germ cell tumours by their rounded shape, solid nature, sharp margins, and expansive type of tectal compression. Meningiomas were characterised by their falcotentorial attachments, posterior callosal compression, and a low-intensity rim on T2-weighted images. Gd-DTPA injection enabled clear demonstration of the site and extent of tumour spread and was useful in differentiating cystic and solid components. The appearances described, while not pathognomonic, are helpful in the differential diagnosis of pineal region tumours, and valuable in planning appropriate treatment. (orig.). With 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Acute Pancreatitis Secondary to Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grinó P


    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Pancreatic neoplasms are an uncommon aetiology of acute pancreatitis. Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours are a rare subgroup of pancreatic neoplasms. CASE REPORT: We report on three patients having acute pancreatitis secondary to pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours, one of them with severe pancreatitis, and review the published cases up to now. Only 22 patients with acute pancreatitis secondary to pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours have been reported (including the present cases. Most of these cases were of non-functioning neoplasms and the course of the pancreatitis tended to be mild. In the most recent reports and in the present cases, the initial diagnostic method was CT scan. Less than half had metastases when the tumour was diagnosed and mortality from these neoplasms reached approximately 50%. CONCLUSIONS: Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours can cause acute pancreatitis even in patients under 50 years of age. On many occasions, the tumours are non-functioning; therefore, acute pancreatitis may be the first clinical symptom. Consequently, faced with acute pancreatitis of unknown origin, a non-functioning neuroendocrine tumour should be ruled out.

  4. Mechanisms of tumour escape from immune surveillance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiecka Urszula


    Full Text Available The progressive growth and spread of tumour cells in the form of metastases requires an interaction of healthy host cells, such as endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and other cells of mesenchymal origin with immune cells taking part in innate and adaptive responses within the tumour lesion and entire body. The host cells interact with tumour cells to create a dynamic tumour microenvironment, in which healthy cells can both positively and negatively influence the growth and spread of the tumour. The balance of cellular homeostasis and the effect of substances they secrete on the tumour microenvironment determine whether the tumour has a tendency to grow or disappear, and whether the cells remain within the lesion or are capable of metastasis to other regions of the body. Intercellular interactions also determine the tumour’s susceptibility to radiation or other types of cancer treatment. They may also be a rational explanation for differences in treatment outcomes, in which some metastases regress and others progress in response to the same treatment method.

  5. Adiposity in childhood brain tumors: A report from the Canadian Study of Determinants of Endometabolic Health in Children (CanDECIDE Study) (United States)

    Wang, Kuan-Wen; Souza, Russell J. de; Fleming, Adam; Singh, Sheila K.; Johnston, Donna L.; Zelcer, Shayna M.; Rassekh, Shahrad Rod; Burrow, Sarah; Scheinemann, Katrin; Thabane, Lehana; Samaan, M. Constantine


    Children with brain tumors (CBT) are at high risk of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes compared to the general population. Recently, adiposity has been reported to be more informative for cardiometabolic risk stratification than body mass index (BMI) in the general population. The goal of this study is to describe the adiposity phenotype in CBT, and to establish adiposity determinants. We recruited CBT (n = 56) and non-cancer controls (n = 106). Percent body fat (%FM), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) were measured to determine total and central adiposity, respectively. Regression analyses were used to evaluate adiposity determinants. CBT had higher total and central adiposity compared to non-cancer controls despite having similar BMI measurements. Those with tumors at the supratentorial region had increased total and central adiposity, while those who received radiotherapy had increased total adiposity. In conclusion, CBT have increased total and central adiposity in the presence of similar BMI levels when compared to non-cancer controls. Adiposity, especially central adiposity, is a potential cardiometabolic risk factor present relatively early in life in CBT. Defining interventions to target adiposity may improve long-term outcomes by preventing cardiometabolic disorders in CBT. PMID:28327649

  6. Intraoperative β{sup -} detecting probe for radio-guided surgery in tumour resection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Bellini, Fabio; Bocciy, Valerio; Collamatiyz, Francesco; Faccini, Riccardo; Paramattiy, Riccardo; Paterayz, Vincenzo; Pinciy, Davide; Recchiay, Luigi; Sciubbayz, Adalberto; Senzacqua, Martina; Voenay, Cecilia; Morgantiy, Silvio [INFN Sezione di Roma, Rome, (Italy); De Luciax, Erika; Matteixk, Ilaria; Sartizx, Alessio [Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati dell INFN, Frascati, (Italy); Russomando, Aandrea [INFN Sezione di Roma, Rome, (Italy); Center for Life Nano Science-at-Sapienza, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Rome, (Italy); Marafiniy, Michela [INFN Sezione di Roma, Rome, (Italy); Museo Storico della Fisica e Centro Studi e Ricerche ' E. Fermi' , Rome, (Italy)


    The development of the β{sup -} based radio-guided surgery aims to extend the technique to those tumours where surgery is the only possible treatment and the assessment of the resection would most profit from the low background around the lesion, as for brain tumours. Feasibility studies on meningioma and gliomas already estimated the potentiality of this new treatment. To validate the technique, a prototype of the intraoperative probe detecting β{sup -} decays and specific phantoms simulating tumour remnant patterns embedded in healthy tissue have been realized. The response of the probe in this simulated environment is tested with dedicated procedures. This document discusses the innovative aspects of the method, the status of the developed intraoperative β{sup -} detecting probe and the results of the preclinical tests. (authors)

  7. The establishment of an intracranial tumour registry at the University Hospital of the West Indies. (United States)

    Campbell, J; Jaggon, J R; Johnson, P; Bruce, C; Eldemire-Shearer, D


    In March 2010, the first intracranial tumour registry (ITR) in the English-speaking Caribbean was started at the University Hospital of the West Indies (UHWI). This was deemed necessary as the already established Jamaica Cancer Registry only reports on malignant brain tumours. The ITR will collect data on all prospective intracranial tumours, benign and malignant, which are diagnosed histologically at the UHWI. Retrospective information dating back five years was also collected. Data collected so far reveal that between the years 2006 to 2010, a total of 317 cases were entered into the database. Of these, only 45 cases were considered eligible. The issues surrounding this discrepancy are discussed in this paper along with the many challenges experienced in the establishment of the ITR. From these experiences, the authors have also put forward several recommendations that may be useful to other researchers who wish to implement similar systems.

  8. Carcinoid tumour of the middle ear

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Baig, Salman


    A case of middle ear mass in a young female from Ireland is described, who presented with left ear hearing loss and intermittent bloody discharge from the same ear. Examination under microscope revealed occlusive polyp in the left ear and a biopsy had been taken under general anaesthesia. Histopathology report described an adenoma \\/ carcinoid tumour of the middle ear confirmed by positive immunohistochemical staining. CT temporal bones revealed the extension of the disease. The patient underwent left tympanotomy and excision of the tumour. In general, these tumours are regarded as benign but may be mistaken for adenocarcinomas because of their histological heterogenecity.

  9. Pharmacological doses of daily ascorbate protect tumours from radiation damage after a single dose of radiation in an intracranial mouse glioma model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carole eGrasso


    Full Text Available Pharmacological ascorbate is currently used as an anti-cancer treatment, potentially in combination with radiation therapy, by integrative medicine practitioners. In the acidic, metal-rich tumour environment, ascorbate acts as a pro-oxidant, with a mode of action similar to that of ionising radiation; both treatments kill cells predominantly by free radical-mediated DNA damage. The brain tumour, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, is very resistant to radiation; radiosensitising GBM cells will improve survival of GBM patients. Here we demonstrate that a single fraction (6 Gy of radiation combined with a one hour exposure to ascorbate (5 mM sensitised murine glioma GL261cells to radiation in survival and colony-forming assays in vitro. In addition, we report the effect of a single fraction (4.5 Gy of whole brain radiation combined with daily intra-peritoneal injections of ascorbate (1 mg/kg in an intra-cranial GL261 glioma mouse model. Tumour-bearing C57BL/6 mice were divided into four groups: one group received a single dose of 4.5 Gy to the brain eight days after tumour implantation, a second group received daily intra-peritoneal injections of ascorbate (day 8-45 after implantation, a third group received both treatments and a fourth control group received no treatment. While radiation delayed tumour progression, intra-peritoneal ascorbate alone had no effect on tumour progression. Tumour progression was faster in tumour-bearing mice treated with radiation and daily ascorbate than those treated with radiation alone. Histological analysis showed less necrosis in tumours treated with both radiation and ascorbate, consistent with a radio-protective effect of ascorbate in vivo. Discrepancies between our in vitro and in vivo results may be explained by differences in the tumour micro-environment which determines whether ascorbate remains outside the cell, acting as a pro-oxidant or whether it enters the cells and acts as an anti-oxidant.

  10. Neutron medical treatment of tumours — a survey of facilities (United States)

    Wagner, F. M.; Loeper-Kabasakal, B.; Breitkreutz, H.


    Neutron therapy has two branches: Fast Neutron Therapy (FNT) and Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT). The mean neutron energies used for FNT range from 2 MeV to 25 MeV whereas the maximum energy for BNCT is about 10 keV. Neutron generators for FNT have been cyclotrons, accelerators and reactors, whereas BNCT is so far bound to reactors. Both therapies use the effects of high-LET radiation (secondary recoil protons and alpha particles, respectively) and can attack otherwise radioresistant tumours, however, with the hazard of adverse effects for irradiated healthy tissue. FNT has been administered to about 30,000 patients world-wide. From formerly 40 facilities, only eight are operational or stand-by today. The reasons for this development have been, on the one hand, related to technical and economical conditions; on the other hand, strong side effects and insufficient proof of clinical results in the early years as well as increasing competition with new clinical methods have reduced patient numbers. In fact, strict observations of indications, appropriate therapy-planning including low-LET radiation, and consequent treatment of side effects have lead to remarkable results in the meantime. BNCT initially was developed for the treatment of extremely aggressive forms of brain tumour, taking advantage of the action of the blood-brain-barrier which allows for a boronated compound to be selectively enriched in tumour cells. Meanwhile, also malignant melanoma (MM) and Head-and-Neck (H&T) tumours are treated because of their relative radioresistance. At present, epithermal beams with sufficient flux are available only at two facilities. Existing research reactors were indispensable in the development of BNCT, but are to be replaced by hospital-based epithermal neutron sources. Clinical results indicate significantly increased survival times, but the number of patients ever treated is still below 1,000. 3D-dose calculation systems have been developed at several facilities

  11. Regional tumour glutamine supply affects chromatin and cell identity. (United States)

    Højfeldt, Jonas W; Helin, Kristian


    Limited perfusion of solid tumours produces a nutrient-deprived tumour core microenvironment. Low glutamine levels in the tumour core are now shown to lead to reduced levels of α-ketoglutarate and decreased histone demethylase activity, thereby promoting a less differentiated and more therapy-resistant state of the tumour cells.

  12. Interactions of human monocytes with TMVs (tumour-derived microvesicles). (United States)

    Baj-Krzyworzeka, Monika; Baran, Jarosław; Szatanek, Rafał; Mytar, Bożenna; Siedlar, Maciej; Zembala, Marek


    The tumour microenvironment represents a dynamic complex milieu, which includes tumour cells, cells of the immune system and other (cellular and non-cellular) components. The role of these particular 'puzzle pieces' may change substantially due to their mutual interactions. The present review concerns different opinions on interactions that occur between monocytes, tumour cells and TMVs (tumour-derived microvesicles).

  13. Pineal anlage tumour - a rare entity with divergent histology. (United States)

    Ahuja, Arvind; Sharma, Mehar Chand; Suri, Vaishali; Sarkar, Chitra; Sharma, B S; Garg, Ajay


    Pineal anlage tumour is a rare tumour of the pineal gland that is not listed in the 2007 World Health Organization classification of tumours of the central nervous system. Pineal anlage has been defined as a primary pineal tumour with both neuroepithelial and ectomesenchymal differentiation but without endodermal differentiation. We report a pineal anlage tumour in a 4-month-old boy, the youngest patient reported with this rare tumour, with a brief review of the literature. Clinicians and neuropathologists should be aware of this entity as it is likely to be misdiagnosed as a teratoma or a melanocytic tumour of the central nervous system.

  14. Serum tumour markers in malignant mesothelioma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Pallavi


    Full Text Available Malignant mesothelioma is a rare malignancy of the body cavities with dismal prognosis. It has been a diagnostic dilemma for years with many clinical and pathological mimics. Discovery of a reliable tumour marker will definitely be of value in screening individuals with a history of asbestos exposure, diagnosis, treatment and follow up of malignant mesothelioma. Many tumour markers have been studied and speculatively associated with the malignant mesothelioma, but much still needs to be proven.

  15. Diagnosis and treatment of bronchopulmonary neuroendocrine tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabaksblat, Elizaveta Mitkina; Langer, Seppo W; Knigge, Ulrich;


    Bronchopulmonary neuroendocrine tumours (BP-NET) are a heterogeneous population of neoplasms with different pathology, clinical behaviour and prognosis compared to the more common lung cancers. The management of BP-NET patients is largely based on studies with a low level of evidence and extrapol...... and extrapolation of data obtained from more common types of neuroendocrine tumours. This review reflects our view of the current state of the art of diagnosis and treatment of patients with BP-NET....

  16. Gating and tracking, 4D in thoracic tumours; Gating et tracking 4D dans les tumeurs thoraciques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verellen, D.; Depuydt, T.; Gevaert, T.; Linthout, N.; Tournel, K.; Duchateau, M.; Reynders, T.; Storme, G.; De Ridder, M. [Department of Radiotherapy, UZ Brussel, Oncologisch Centrum, Brussels (Belgium)


    The limited ability to control for a tumour's location compromises the accuracy with which radiation can be delivered to tumour-bearing tissue. The resultant requirement for larger treatment volumes to accommodate target uncertainty restricts the radiation dose because more surrounding normal tissue is exposed. With image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT), these volumes can be optimized and tumoricidal doses may be delivered, achieving maximum tumour control with minimal complications. Moreover, with the ability of high precision dose delivery and real-time knowledge of the target volume location, IGRT has initiated the exploration of new indications in radiotherapy such as hypo-fractionated radiotherapy (or stereotactic body radiotherapy), deliberate inhomogeneous dose distributions coping with tumour heterogeneity (dose painting by numbers and biologically conformal radiation therapy), and adaptive radiotherapy. In short: 'individualized radiotherapy'. Tumour motion management, especially for thoracic tumours, is a particular problem in this context both for the delineation of tumours and organs at risk as well as during the actual treatment delivery. The latter will be covered in this paper with some examples based on the experience of the UZ Brussel. With the introduction of the NOVALIS system (BrainLAB, Feldkirchen, Germany) in 2000 and consecutive prototypes of the ExacTrac IGRT system, gradually a hypo-fractionation treatment protocol was introduced for the treatment of lung tumours and liver metastases evolving from motion-encompassing techniques towards respiratory-gated radiation therapy with audio-visual feedback and most recently dynamic tracking using the VERO system (BrainLAB, Feldkirchen, Germany). This evolution will be used to illustrate the recent developments in this particular field of research. (authors)

  17. Consensus on biomarkers for neuroendocrine tumour disease (United States)

    Oberg, Kjell; Modlin, Irvin M; De Herder, Wouter; Pavel, Marianne; Klimstra, David; Frilling, Andrea; Metz, David C; Heaney, Anthony; Kwekkeboom, Dik; Strosberg, Jonathan; Meyer, Timothy; Moss, Steven F; Washington, Kay; Wolin, Edward; Liu, Eric; Goldenring, James


    Management of neuroendocrine neoplasia represents a clinical challenge because of its late presentation, lack of treatment options, and limitations in present imaging modalities and biomarkers to guide management. Monoanalyte biomarkers have poor sensitivity, specificity, and predictive ability. A National Cancer Institute summit, held in 2007, on neuroendocrine tumours noted biomarker limitations to be a crucial unmet need in the management of neuroendocrine tumours. A multinational consensus meeting of multidisciplinary experts in neuroendocrine tumours assessed the use of current biomarkers and defined the perquisites for novel biomarkers via the Delphi method. Consensus (at >75%) was achieved for 88 (82%) of 107 assessment questions. The panel concluded that circulating multianalyte biomarkers provide the highest sensitivity and specificity necessary for minimum disease detection and that this type of biomarker had sufficient information to predict treatment effectiveness and prognosis. The panel also concluded that no monoanalyte biomarker of neuroendocrine tumours has yet fulfilled these criteria and there is insufficient information to support the clinical use of miRNA or circulating tumour cells as useful prognostic markers for this disease. The panel considered that trials measuring multianalytes (eg, neuroendocrine gene transcripts) should also identify how such information can optimise the management of patients with neuroendocrine tumours. PMID:26370353

  18. Myeloid cells in tumour-immune interactions. (United States)

    Kareva, Irina; Berezovskaya, Faina; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos


    Despite highly developed specific immune responses, tumour cells often manage to escape recognition by the immune system, continuing to grow uncontrollably. Experimental work suggests that mature myeloid cells may be central to the activation of the specific immune response. Recognition and subsequent control of tumour growth by the cells of the specific immune response depend on the balance between immature (ImC) and mature (MmC) myeloid cells in the body. However, tumour cells produce cytokines that inhibit ImC maturation, altering the balance between ImC and MmC. Hence, the focus of this manuscript is on the study of the potential role of this inhibiting mechanism on tumour growth dynamics. A conceptual predator-prey type model that incorporates the dynamics and interactions of tumour cells, CD8(+) T cells, ImC and MmC is proposed in order to address the role of this mechanism. The prey (tumour) has a defence mechanism (blocking the maturation of ImC) that prevents the predator (immune system) from recognizing it. The model, a four-dimensional nonlinear system of ordinary differential equations, is reduced to a two-dimensional system using time-scale arguments that are tied to the maturation rate of ImC. Analysis shows that the model is capable of supporting biologically reasonable patterns of behaviour depending on the initial conditions. A range of parameters, where healing without external influences can occur, is identified both qualitatively and quantitatively.

  19. Perfusion imaging of parotid gland tumours: usefulness of arterial spin labeling for differentiating Warthin's tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Hiroki; Watanabe, Haruo [Gifu University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Gifu (Japan); Kanematsu, Masayuki [Gifu University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Gifu (Japan); Gifu University Hospital, High-level Imaging Diagnosis Center, Gifu (Japan); Kajita, Kimihiro [Gifu University Hospital, High-level Imaging Diagnosis Center, Gifu (Japan); Mizuta, Keisuke; Aoki, Mitsuhiro [Gifu University School of Medicine, Department of Otolaryngology, Gifu (Japan); Okuaki, Tomoyuki [Philips Healthcare, Tokyo (Japan)


    To assess prospectively the efficacy of arterial spin labelling (ASL) against conventional and diffusion-weighted (DW) MR imaging for differentiating parotid gland tumours. We included 10 pleomorphic adenomas, 12 Warthin's tumours, and nine malignant tumours of the parotid glands. Only tumours larger than 10 mm were included in this study. All parotid gland tumours underwent T1-weighted, T2-weighted, DW, and ASL imaging. Tumour-to-parotid gland signal intensity ratios (SIRs) and apparent diffusion coefficients (ADCs) of solid components were correlated with these pathologies. SIRs on T2-weighted images and ADCs were higher in pleomorphic adenomas than in Warthin's tumours (p <.01) and malignant tumours (p <.01). SIRs on ASL were higher in Warthin's tumours than in pleomorphic adenomas (p <.01) and malignant tumours (p <.05). Az value of SIRs on ASL for differentiating Warthin's tumours from the other pathologies was 0.982. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of SIRs on ASL for the diagnosis of Warthin's tumours at an optimal SIR threshold of over 8.70 were 91.7 %, 94.7 %, and 93.5 %, respectively. ASL with SIR measurements could non-invasively evaluate tumour blood flow of parotid gland tumours and differentiate Warthin's tumours from pleomorphic adenomas and malignant tumours. (orig.)

  20. Functional neuroimaging and childhood autism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boddaert, Nathalie [Service de Radiologie Pediatrique, Necker-Enfants Malades Hospital, Paris (France); Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, DRM, DSV, CEA, Orsay (France); Zilbovicius, Monica [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, DRM, DSV, CEA, Orsay (France); INSERM, Tours (France)


    Childhood autism is now widely viewed as being of developmental neurobiological origin. Yet, localised structural and functional brain correlates of autism have to be established. Structural brain-imaging studies performed in autistic patients have reported abnormalities such as increased total brain volume and cerebellar abnormalities. However, none of these abnormalities fully account for the full range of autistic symptoms. Functional brain imaging, such as positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and functional MRI (fMRI) have added a new perspective to the study of normal and pathological brain functions. In autism, functional studies have been performed at rest or during activation. However, first-generation functional imaging devices were not sensitive enough to detect any consistent dysfunction. Recently, with improved technology, two independent groups have reported bilateral hypoperfusion of the temporal lobes in autistic children. In addition, activation studies, using perceptive and cognitive paradigms, have shown an abnormal pattern of cortical activation in autistic patients. These results suggest that different connections between particular cortical regions could exist in autism. The purpose of this review is to present the main results of rest and activation studies performed in autism. (orig.)

  1. Brain hyaluronan binding protein inhibits tumor growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高锋; 曹曼林; 王蕾


    Background Great efforts have been made to search for the angiogenic inhibitors in avascular tissues. Several proteins isolated from cartilage have been proved to have anti-angiogenic or anti-tumour effects. Because cartilage contains a great amount of hyaluronic acid (HA) oligosaccharides and abundant HA binding proteins (HABP), therefore, we speculated that HABP might be one of the factors regulating vascularization in cartilage or anti-angiogenesis in tumours. The purpose of this research was to evaluale the effects of hyaluronan binding protein on inhibiting tumour growth both in vivo and vitro. Methods A unique protein termed human brain hyaluronan (HA) binding protein (b-HABP) was cloned from human brain cDNA library. MDA-435 human breast cancer cell line was chosen as a transfectant. The in vitro underlying mechanisms were investigated by determining the possibilities of MDA-435/b-HABP colony formation on soft agar, the effects of the transfectant on the proliferation of endothelial cells and the expression levels of caspase 3 and FasL from MDA-435/b-HABP. The in vivo study included tumour growth on the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of chicken embryos and nude mice. Results Colony formation assay revealed that the colonies formed by MDA-435/b-HABP were greatly reduced compared to mock transfectants. The conditioned media from MDA-435/b-HABP inhibited the growth of endothelial cells in culture. Caspase 3 and FasL expressions were induced by MDA-435/b-HABP. The size of tumours of MDA-435/b-HABP in both CAM and nude mice was much smaller than that of MDA-435 alone. Conclusions Human brain hyaluronan binding protein (b-HABP) may represent a new kind of naturally existing anti-tumour substance. This brain-derived glycoprotein may block tumour growth by inducing apoptosis of cancer cells or by decreasing angiogenesis in tumour tissue via inhibiting proliferation of endothelial cells.

  2. Integrated and Early Childhood Education: Preparation for Social Development. Theme A: Relevant Provision for Early Childhood. (United States)

    Axton, J. H. M.

    Factors which influence child development are listed and briefly discussed. These factors are (1) mother's childhood, (2) mother's age, (3) care during pregnancy and delivery, (4) early neonatal factors, (5) birth interval, (6) effect of repeated infection and malnutrition on brain growth and intellectual development, and (7) home environment. The…

  3. Exophytic benign mixed epithelial stromal tumour of the kidney: case report of a rare tumour entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Küster Jens


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mixed epithelial and stromal tumour (MEST represents a recently described benign composite neoplasm of the kidney, which predominantly affects perimenopausal females. Most tumours are benign, although rare malignant cases have been observed. Case report A 47-year-old postmenopausal female presented to the urologist with flank pain. A CT scan of the abdomen showed a 30-mm-in-diameter uniform mass adjacent to the pelvis of the left kidney. Surgical exploration showed a tumour arising from the lower anterior hilus of the left kidney. The tumour could be excised by preserving the kidney. By intraoperative frozen section the tumour showed characteristic features of MEST with epithelial-covered cysts embedded in an "ovarian-like" stroma. Additional immunohistochemistry investigations showed expression for hormone receptors by the stromal component of the tumour. Discussion MEST typically presents in perimenopausal women as a primarily cystic mass. Commonly, the tumour arises from the renal parenchyma or pelvis. The tumour is composed of an admixture of cystic and sometimes more solid areas. The stromal cells typically demonstrate an ovarian-type stroma showing expression for the estrogen and progesterone receptors. Conclusion MEST represents a distinctive benign tumour entity of the kidney, which affects perimenopausal woman. The tumour should be distinguished from other cystic renal neoplasms. By imaging studies it is difficult to distinguish between a benign or malignant nature of the tumour. Thus, intraoperative frozen section is necessary for conservative surgery, since the overall prognosis is favourable and renal function can be preserved in most cases.

  4. Brain tumour as a rare cause of cardiac syncope.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijs, B.M. van der; Renier, W.O.; Kappelle, A.C.


    We report on a patient with a bradycardia followed by an asystole as expression of a complex partial seizure arising from a cerebral neoplasm in the medial part of the left temporal lobe. Previously published papers have shown that cardiac asystole and bradycardia as manifestation of epilepsy origin

  5. Recent developments in the use of chemotherapy in brain tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. van den Bent (Martin); M.E. Hegi (Monika); R. Stupp (Roger)


    textabstractSeveral recent studies have further clarified the role of chemotherapy in newly diagnosed anaplastic glioma. For newly diagnosed glioblastoma, combined daily radiotherapy with daily temozolomide followed by six cycles of adjuvant temozolomide improves overall survival. This benefit is es

  6. Brain tumour risk in relation to mobile telephone use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Christoffer


    The rapid increase in mobile telephone use has generated concern about possible health risks related to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields from this technology.......The rapid increase in mobile telephone use has generated concern about possible health risks related to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields from this technology....

  7. Guidelines for the management of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (including bronchopulmonary and thymic neoplasms). Part II-specific NE tumour types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oberg, Kjell; Astrup, Lone Bording; Eriksson, Barbro;


    Part II of the guidelines contains a description of epidemiology, histopathology, clinical presentation, diagnostic procedure, treatment, and survival for each type of neuroendocrine tumour. We are not only including gastroenteropancreatic tumours but also bronchopulmonary and thymic neuroendocrine...... tumours. These guidelines essentially cover basic knowledge in the diagnosis and management of the different forms of neuroendocrine tumour. We have, however, tried to give more updated information about the epidemiology and histopathology, which is essential for the clinical management of these tumours....

  8. Music and the Baby's Brain: Early Experiences. (United States)

    Fox, Donna Brink


    States that brain research may be too immature to use it as the only rationale for early music education. Proposes integrated instruction for music education and addresses the need for teacher preparation in early childhood music education. Discusses future collaborations providing three examples of models of childhood music collaborations and…

  9. Desmoplastic nested spindle cell tumours and nested stromal epithelial tumours of the liver. (United States)

    Misra, Sunayana; Bihari, Chhagan


    Desmoplastic nested spindle cell tumour of liver (DNSTL), nested stromal-epithelial tumour (NSET) and calcifying nested stromal-epithelial tumour (CNSET) are recently described entities with similar morphology, immunohistochemistry and molecular genetics. These are rare entities with only three large case series described till date. These tumours commonly present in the paediatric age group. NSETs, in addition have been described to be associated with ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) production and Cushingoid features. It is important to discuss this rare group of tumours with a low malignant potential as the most common radiological differential diagnosis is hepatoblastoma, which has a relatively poorer prognosis. Thus, a pathologist needs to keep this entity in mind, so as to offer a correct histological diagnosis.

  10. Synergic anti-tumour effect of B7.1 gene modified tumour vaccine combined with allicin for murine bladder tumour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian; LIN Li-guo; LIU Jian-jun; LIU Xin-guang; HE Cheng-wei; HE Hui-juan; WU ping; HUANG Ping-ping; CHEN Xiao-wen; DONG Zhong; WU Xiu-dong


    @@ In the previous study, we found that B7.1 gene transduction failed to induce sufficient anti-tumour response when it is used as a tumour vaccine. It is necessary to develop immunity by a combination of appropriate cytokines to stimulate effective tumour immunity in a therapeutic setting.

  11. Molecular advances to treat cancer of the brain. (United States)

    Fathallah-Shaykh, H M; Zhao, L J; Mickey, B; Kafrouni, A I


    Malignant primary and metastatic brain tumours continue to be associated with poor prognosis. Nevertheless, recent advances in molecular medicine, specifically in the strategies of gene therapy, targeting tumour cells, anti-angiogenesis and immunotherapy, have created novel tools that may be of therapeutic value. To date, gene therapy trials have not yet demonstrated clinical efficacy because of inherent defects in vector design. Despite this, advances in adenoviral technology, namely the helper-dependent adenoviral constructs (gutless) and the uncovering of brain parenchymal cells as effective and necessary targets for antitumour benefits of adenoviral-mediated gene transfer, suggest that developments in vector design may be approaching the point of clinical utility. Targeting tumour cells refers to strategies that destroy malignant but spare normal cells. A new assortment of oncolytic viruses have emerged, capable of specific lysis of cancer tissue while sparing normal cells and propagating until they reach the tumour borders. Furthermore, peptides have been transformed into bullets that specifically seek and destroy cancer cells. The concept of tumour angiogenesis has been challenged by new but still very controversial findings that tumour cells themselves may form blood channels. These results may lead to the redirecting of the molecular targets toward anti-angiogenesis in some tumours including glioblastoma multiform. Unfortunately, our knowledge regarding the immunological ignorance of the tumour is still limited. Even so, newly discovered molecules have shed light on novel pathways leading to the escape of the tumour from the immune system. Finally, significant limitations in our current experimental tumour models may soon be overcome by firstly, the development of models of reproducible organ-specific tumours in non-inbred animals and secondly applying genomics to individualize therapy for a particular tumour in a specific patient.

  12. Targeting the tumour microenvironment in ovarian cancer. (United States)

    Hansen, Jean M; Coleman, Robert L; Sood, Anil K


    The study of cancer initiation, growth, and metastasis has traditionally been focused on cancer cells, and the view that they proliferate due to uncontrolled growth signalling owing to genetic derangements. However, uncontrolled growth in tumours cannot be explained solely by aberrations in cancer cells themselves. To fully understand the biological behaviour of tumours, it is essential to understand the microenvironment in which cancer cells exist, and how they manipulate the surrounding stroma to promote the malignant phenotype. Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynaecologic cancer worldwide. The majority of patients will have objective responses to standard tumour debulking surgery and platinum-taxane doublet chemotherapy, but most will experience disease recurrence and chemotherapy resistance. As such, a great deal of effort has been put forth to develop therapies that target the tumour microenvironment in ovarian cancer. Herein, we review the key components of the tumour microenvironment as they pertain to this disease, outline targeting opportunities and supporting evidence thus far, and discuss resistance to therapy.

  13. Tumour-host dynamics under radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Placeres Jimenez, Rolando, E-mail: [Departamento de Fi' sica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, Sao Carlos - SP (Brazil); Ortiz Hernandez, Eloy [Centre of Medicine and Complexity, Medical University Carlos J. Finlay, Carretera Central s/n, Camagueey (Cuba)


    Highlight: > Tumour-host interaction is modelled by Lotka-Volterra equations. > A brief review of the motion integral and analysis of linear stability is presented. > Radiotherapy is introduced into the model, using a periodic Dirac delta function. > A two-dimensional logistic map is derived from the modified Lotka-Volterra model. > It is shown that tumour can be controlled by a correct selection of therapy strategy. - Abstract: Tumour-host interaction is modelled by the Lotka-Volterra equations. Qualitative analysis and simulations show that this model reproduces all known states of development for tumours. Radiotherapy effect is introduced into the model by means of the linear-quadratic model and the periodic Dirac delta function. The evolution of the system under the action of radiotherapy is simulated and parameter space is obtained, from which certain threshold of effectiveness values for the frequency and applied doses are derived. A two-dimensional logistic map is derived from the modified Lotka-Volterra model and used to simulate the effectiveness of radiotherapy in different regimens of tumour development. The results show the possibility of achieving a successful treatment in each individual case by employing the correct therapeutic strategy.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pituitary gland is known as the “Master Gland” of the body as it controls majority of the endocrine glands of the body. Embryologically, they are formed by two parts. There are two types of malignancies encountered namely adenomas and carcinomas. Vast majority of the neoplasms located in the sella turcica are benign pituitary adenomas derived from adenohypophyseal cells. The aim is to study the pituitary malignancies. METHODS The sample size included 100 cases of intra-cranial neoplasms that turned in the Department of Medicine in KVG Medical College, Sullia and different local private hospitals of Sullia and Mangalore. RESULTS Pituitary tumours comprised 6(6% of all the tumour studies. They occurred maximally in the age above 14 years. Tumours showed a male predominance. All the tumours were located in pituitary fossa. Principal presenting complaint was visual disturbance. Microscopically, the tumour was composed of small polyhedral to round cells with a uniform darkly staining round nucleus and scant eosinophilic cytoplasm. The cells formed papillary structures or were arranged in a trabecular pattern. CONCLUSION There is a male predominance in this study and the percentage of cases was found to be less in this region of Karnataka


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Devi


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study incidence age distribution of benign and malignant ovarian tu mours in general population. METHODS AND MATERIAL : To study 120 patients with ovarian tumours in Govt . general hospital during June 2003 and June 2005. RESULTS: Clinical and pathological evaluation of all ovarian tumours was done and incidence, age distrib ution of various benign and malignant ovarian neoplasms were tabulated and compared with other studies. CONCLUSIONS: Most common ovarian tumours are benign tumours and serous cystadenoma is the commonest benign tumour and S erous cystadeno carcinoma is the most common malignant tumour.

  16. MRI of intracranial germ cell tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sumida, M. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Univ. School of Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan); Uozumi, T. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Univ. School of Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan); Kiya, K. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Univ. School of Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan); Mukada, K. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Univ. School of Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan); Arita, K. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Univ. School of Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan); Kurisu, K. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Univ. School of Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan); Sugiyama, K. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Univ. School of Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan); Onda, J. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Univ. School of Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan); Satoh, H. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Univ. School of Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan); Ikawa, F. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Univ. School of Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan); Migita, K. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hiroshima Univ. School of Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan)


    We reviewed MRI findings in proven intracranial germ cell tumours in 22 cases, 12 of whom received Gd-DTPA. On T1-weighted images, the signal intensity of the tumour parenchyma was moderately low in 19 cases and isointense in 3; on T2-weighted images, it was high in all cases. Regions of different intensity thought to be cysts were found in 17 (77 %): 7 of 12 patients with germinoma (58 %) and in all other cases. Of the 13 patients with pineal lesions T1-weighted sagittal images showed the aqueduct to be obstructed in 5, stenotic in 7 and normal in 1. Strong contrast enhancement was observed in all 12 cases. Of the 14 patients with suprasellar lesions, 5 were found to have an intrasellar extension, and in 3 of these, the normal pituitary gland, which could be distinguished from the tumour, was displaced anteriorly. Ten patients (45 %) had multiple lesions. (orig.)

  17. Autoimmune pancreatitis mimicking Klatskin tumour on radiology. (United States)

    Hadi, Yousaf Bashir; Sohail, Abdul Malik Amir Humza; Haider, Zishan


    Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is categorised into two distinct types, AIP type 1 and 2. Although there can be multisystem involvement, rarely, the cholangitis associated with AIP can present radiologically in a manner similar to that of Klatskin tumour. We present the case of a 65-year-old man who was almost misdiagnosed with a Klatskin tumour because of the similarity in radiological features of the two aforementioned clinical entities. The patient presented with a history of jaundice, pruritus and abdominal pain, and work up showed deranged liver function tests, elevated cancer antigen 19-9 levels and positive antinuclear antibodies. CT scan of the abdomen showed findings suggestive of Klatskin tumour but due to diffuse enlargement of the pancreas and surrounding low-attenuation halo found on a closer review, a diagnosis of AIP was performed. The patient was started on standard corticosteroid therapy and responded well, with complete resolution of the radiological findings.

  18. Childhood trauma and childhood urbanicity in relation to psychotic disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frissen, Aleida; Lieverse, Ritsaert; Drukker, Marjan; van Winkel, Ruud; Delespaul, Philippe; Cahn, W


    BACKGROUND: Urban upbringing and childhood trauma are both associated with psychotic disorders. However, the association between childhood urbanicity and childhood trauma in psychosis is poorly understood. The urban environment could occasion a background of social adversity against which any effect

  19. How to express tumours using membrane systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miguel A. Gutiérrez-Naranjo; Mario J. Pérez-Jiménez; Agustín Riscos-Nú(n)ez; Francisco J. Romero-Campero


    In this paper we discuss the potential usefulness of membrane systems as tools for modelling tumours. The approach is followed both from a macroscopic and a microscopic point of view. In the first case, one considers the tumour as a growing mass of cells,focusing on its external shape. In the second case, one descends to the microscopic level, studying molecular signalling pathways that are crucial to determine if a cell is cancerous or not. In each of these approaches we work with appropriate variants of membrane systems.

  20. [Surgical treatment of children with hepatic tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, A.; Kvist, N.; Kirkegaard, P.;


    INTRODUCTION: In this paper we review the results of surgical treatment of children with hepatic tumours. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study comprises 33 children who have undergone lever resection or liver transplantation since 1990. 26 patients had hepatoblastoma, 3 had hepatocellular carcinoma, 2......%). There was no difference in survival dependent on the type of resection, and there was no impact of the extension of tumour growth at the time of diagnosis. CONCLUSION: The combination of neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by liver resection or liver transplantation is the treatment of choice in all children...

  1. High dose radiotherapy for pituitary tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mead, K.W. (Queensland Radium Inst., Herston (Australia))


    The results of treatment of 120 pituitary tumours are presented. Based on this experience operable chromophobe adenomas are now treated with 5,000 rads in 4 weeks and inoperable ones receive an additional central dose to 7,500 rads. Pituitary Cushing's tumours are given 10,000 rads in 5 weeks using small fields and acromegalics 5,000 rads to the whole sella and 7,500 to its lower half. The absence of complications at these dose levels is attributed to the use of small fields and the precise application of treatment.

  2. Coordinated regulation of myeloid cells by tumours. (United States)

    Gabrilovich, Dmitry I; Ostrand-Rosenberg, Suzanne; Bronte, Vincenzo


    Myeloid cells are the most abundant nucleated haematopoietic cells in the human body and are a collection of distinct cell populations with many diverse functions. The three groups of terminally differentiated myeloid cells - macrophages, dendritic cells and granulocytes - are essential for the normal function of both the innate and adaptive immune systems. Mounting evidence indicates that the tumour microenvironment alters myeloid cells and can convert them into potent immunosuppressive cells. Here, we consider myeloid cells as an intricately connected, complex, single system and we focus on how tumours manipulate the myeloid system to evade the host immune response.

  3. Stochastic Gompertz model of tumour cell growth. (United States)

    Lo, C F


    In this communication, based upon the deterministic Gompertz law of cell growth, a stochastic model in tumour growth is proposed. This model takes account of both cell fission and mortality too. The corresponding density function of the size of the tumour cells obeys a functional Fokker--Planck equation which can be solved analytically. It is found that the density function exhibits an interesting "multi-peak" structure generated by cell fission as time evolves. Within this framework the action of therapy is also examined by simply incorporating a therapy term into the deterministic cell growth term.

  4. Sertoliform cystadenoma: a rare benign tumour of the rete testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bremmer Felix


    Full Text Available Abstract Sertoliform cystadenoma of the rete testis represents an uncommon benign tumour. They appear in patients from 26 to 62 years of age. We describe a case of a 66-year-old man with a tumour in the area of the epididymal head. The tumour markers were not increased. Under the assumption of a malignant testicular tumour an inguinal orchiectomy was performed. The cut surface of this tumour was of grey/white color and showed small cysts. The tumour consisted of two compartments. The epithelial like tumour cells showed a sertoliform growth pattern and cystic dilatations. In between the tumour cells repeatedly actin expressing sclerotic areas could be recognized as the second tumour component. Proliferative activity was not increased. Immunohistochemically the tumour cells were positiv for inhibin, S-100, and CD 99. Alpha feto protein (AFP, human chorionic gonadotropin (ß-HCG and placental alkaline phosphatase (PLAP as well as synaptophysin, epithelial membrane antigene (EMA, and BCL-2 were not expressed. As far as we know this is the sixth reported case of this tumour. Because of the benign nature of this tumour the correct diagnosis is important for the intra- and postoperative management. Here we present a case of this rare tumour and discuss potential differential diagnosis. Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here:

  5. Coupled modeling of tumour angiogenesis, tumour growth,and blood perfusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This paper proposes a more realistic mathematical simulation method to investigate the dynamic process of tumour angio-genesis by fully coupling the vessel growth,tumour growth and associated blood perfusion.The tumour growth and angiogenesis are coupled by the chemical microenvironment and the cell-matrix interaction.The haemodynamic calculation is carried out on the new vasculature,and an estimation of vessel collapse is made according to the wall shear stress criterion.The results are consistent with phy...

  6. IV. The cognitive implications of obesity and nutrition in childhood. (United States)

    Khan, Naiman A; Raine, Lauren B; Donovan, Sharon M; Hillman, Charles H


    The prevalence of childhood obesity in the United States has tripled since the 1980s and is strongly linked to the early onset of several metabolic diseases. Recent studies indicate that lower cognitive function may be another complication of childhood obesity. This review considers the research to date on the role of obesity and nutrition on childhood cognition and brain health. Although a handful of studies point to a maladaptive relationship between obesity and aspects of cognitive control, remarkably little is known regarding the impact of fat mass on brain development and cognitive function. Further, missing from the literature is the role of nutrition in the obesity-cognition interaction. Nutrition may directly or indirectly influence cognitive performance via several pathways including provision of key substrates for optimal brain health, modulation of gut microbiota, and alterations in systemic energy balance. However, in the absence of malnutrition, the functional benefits of specific nutrient intake on particular cognitive domains are not well characterized. Here, we examine the literature linking childhood obesity and cognition while considering the effects of nutritional intake. Possible mechanisms for these relationships are discussed and suggestions are made for future study topics. Although childhood obesity prevalence rates in some developed countries have recently stabilized, significant disparities remain among groups based on sex and socioeconomic status. Given that the elevated prevalence of pediatric overweight and obesity may persist for the foreseeable future, it is crucial to develop a comprehensive understanding of the influence of obesity and nutrition on cognition and brain health in the pediatric population.

  7. Utility of positron emission tomography for tumour surveillance in children with neurofibromatosis type 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moharir, Mahendranath [Hospital for Sick Children, Division of Neurology, Ontario (Canada); London, Kevin [Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Sydney (Australia); Howman-Giles, Robert [University of Sydney, Discipline of Imaging, Faculty of Medicine, Sydney (Australia); North, Kathryn [Children' s Hospital at Westmead, Institute for Neuroscience and Muscle Research, Sydney, NSW (Australia)


    There is little consensus regarding optimal surveillance of optic pathway glioma (OPG) and plexiform neurofibroma (PNF) in childhood neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). {sup 18}F-2-Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) is employed in the surveillance of adult PNFs; but its utility has neither been specifically studied in children with PNFs nor in children with OPG. Review of PET/CT studies was performed in NF1 children with OPG or PNF. FDG-avidity of tumours was semi-quantitatively analysed and graded by calculating the maximum standardised uptake value (SUV{sub max}) [grade 1: <3 (low), grade 2: >3-<4 (intermediate), grade 3: >4 (intense)]. Eighteen children (ten girls; median age: 8.5-years) had PET/CT. Nineteen OPGs were imaged. The SUV{sub max} could be measured in 16. Ten were grade 1 and three each were grade 2 and grade 3. FDG-avidity reduced from grade 3 to grade 1 in two symptomatic OPGs following chemotherapy and this was associated with clinical improvement. PET/CT diagnosed symptomatic OPGs with a sensitivity of 0.625 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.259-0.897] and specificity of 0.875 (95% CI: 0.466-0.993). Sixteen PNFs were imaged. Twelve were grade 1 and two each were grade 2 and grade 3. The two grade 3 PNFs were confirmed malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours. PET/CT diagnosed malignant transformation with a sensitivity of 1.0 (95% CI: 0.197-1.0) and specificity of 0.857 (95% CI: 0.561-0.974). PET/CT may contribute useful information to the surveillance of OPG in childhood NF1 - particularly to identify progressive, symptomatic tumours. As in adults, PET/CT is useful for the detection of malignant transformation in PNFs in children with NF1. (orig.)

  8. Prospective therapies for high-grade glial tumours: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Samed Talibi


    Full Text Available After three decades of intensive research, cytoreductive surgery remains the gold standard of treatment of malignant gliomas. Survivorship at both 1-year and 5-years has not drastically changed in the UK. Concomitant chemo- and radiotherapy has enhanced the efficiency of surgery, enabling more aggressive tumour resection whilst also preserving the surrounding healthy brain parenchyma. More accurate imaging techniques have also played a role in tumour identification, key to this has been pre- and intra-operative contrast enhancement and compounds that have a high affinity in binding to glioma cells. Intra-operative imaging has heralded the ability to give the operating surgeon continuous feedback to assess the completeness of resection. Research is shifting into investigating the complex cellular and molecular glial tumour-genesis, and has led to the development of efficacious chemotherapy agents and trial novel therapies. Oncolytic virotherapy has shown promise in clinical trials and gene therapy in-vitro studies. Surgery however remains the primary therapeutic option for the management of malignant gliomas removing the mass of proliferating malignant tumour cells and decompression of the space-occupying lesion.

  9. [Biotherapy of neuroendocrine tumours of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C.P.; Knigge, U.


    Biotherapy of hormonal symptoms and tumour growth is a mainstay in the therapy of metastatic neuroendocrine tumours of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas. Symptomatic relief can be achieved by somatostatin analogues and interferon, either alone or in combination. The effect on tumour growth...... is less convincing although a stabilization of disease is recorded in almost 50% of patients. Interferon treatment should mainly be considered for tumours with a low proliferation index Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6/9...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Phosphaturic mesenchymal tumour is a tumour that can involve bone or soft tissue. This is a rare tumour and is known to be associated with osteomalasia. This is caused by tumour induced expression of fibroblastic growth factor (FGF23. We present a case of PMT in a 72 year old female patient who was diagnosed with osteomalasia due to nutritional deficiency of vitamin D and was appropriately treated but later presented with a mass in her foot.

  11. Carcinoid Klatskin tumour: A rare cause of obstructive jaundice. (United States)

    Khuroo, Suhail; Rashid, Arshad; Bali, Rajandeep Singh; Mushtaque, Majid; Khuroo, Farzana


    Carcinoid tumours of the extrahepatic biliary ducts represent an extremely rare cause of bile duct obstruction. We report a case of obstructive jaundice secondary to carcinoid tumour arising at the hilar confluence. Resection of the primary tumour was done and the patient is doing well on follow-up. This case demonstrated that surgery offers the only potential cure for biliary carcinoid and aggressive surgical therapy should be the preferred treatment in cases of potentially resectable biliary tumours.

  12. The role of methylation in urological tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijden, A.G. van der


    Alterations in DNA methylation have been described in human cancer for more than thirty years now. Since the last decade DNA methylation gets more and more important in cancer research. In this review the different alterations of DNA methylation are discussed in testicular germ cell tumours, Wilms't

  13. Bone scintigraphy (B S) in testicle tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, F.J.H.N.; Arbex, M.A.; Souza, J.F.; Haddad, J. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina


    Full text. Testicle tumours are not very frequent and radiotherapy has an important role in the cure of many patients. The detection of metastases is not an easy task and we do not know any study concerning B S in the search for bone metastases in such cases. We studied 28 patients (8-52 years old) with proven testicle tumours by means of 99 m Tc-M D P (750 MBq intravenously). Images were obtained 2 h after. B S was normal in 21 studies. In 7 evaluations the only abnormality we found was variable but diffuse involvement of the iliac bone on the same side as the affected testicle. Five out of these patients showed important uptake of M D P (4 seminoma and 1 epididymoma) and the 2 others showed moderate uptake of the radio pharmaceutical (2 seminoma). Metastases were confirmed by biopsy. Testicle tumour metastases are known to occur through the lymphatic drainage which goes to the iliac lymph node chain and this makes our findings very logical. The scintigraphic aspect of the affected iliac bone is characteristic and makes it possible to imagine an `iliac sign` for such cases. Early detection of metastases is very important because of radiotherapy efficacy and B S may play an important role in such cases. Testicle tumour metastases should be thought of when this scintigraphic aspect is seen. Differential diagnosis is Paget`s Disease

  14. Analysis of nanoparticle delivery to tumours (United States)

    Wilhelm, Stefan; Tavares, Anthony J.; Dai, Qin; Ohta, Seiichi; Audet, Julie; Dvorak, Harold F.; Chan, Warren C. W.


    Targeting nanoparticles to malignant tissues for improved diagnosis and therapy is a popular concept. However, after surveying the literature from the past 10 years, only 0.7% (median) of the administered nanoparticle dose is found to be delivered to a solid tumour. This has negative consequences on the translation of nanotechnology for human use with respect to manufacturing, cost, toxicity, and imaging and therapeutic efficacy. In this article, we conduct a multivariate analysis on the compiled data to reveal the contributions of nanoparticle physicochemical parameters, tumour models and cancer types on the low delivery efficiency. We explore the potential causes of the poor delivery efficiency from the perspectives of tumour biology (intercellular versus transcellular transport, enhanced permeability and retention effect, and physicochemical-dependent nanoparticle transport through the tumour stroma) as well as competing organs (mononuclear phagocytic and renal systems) and present a 30-year research strategy to overcome this fundamental limitation. Solving the nanoparticle delivery problem will accelerate the clinical translation of nanomedicine.

  15. Solitary fibrous tumour of the vagus nerve. (United States)

    Scholsem, Martin; Scholtes, Felix


    We describe the complete removal of a foramen magnum solitary fibrous tumour in a 36-year-old woman. It originated on a caudal vagus nerve rootlet, classically described as the 'cranial' accessory nerve root. This ninth case of immunohistologically confirmed cranial or spinal nerve SFT is the first of the vagus nerve.

  16. Molecular mechanisms for tumour resistance to chemotherapy. (United States)

    Pan, Shu-Ting; Li, Zhi-Ling; He, Zhi-Xu; Qiu, Jia-Xuan; Zhou, Shu-Feng


    Chemotherapy is one of the prevailing methods used to treat malignant tumours, but the outcome and prognosis of tumour patients are not optimistic. Cancer cells gradually generate resistance to almost all chemotherapeutic drugs via a variety of distinct mechanisms and pathways. Chemotherapeutic resistance, either intrinsic or acquired, is caused and sustained by reduced drug accumulation and increased drug export, alterations in drug targets and signalling transduction molecules, increased repair of drug-induced DNA damage, and evasion of apoptosis. In order to better understand the mechanisms of chemoresistance, this review highlights our current knowledge of the role of altered drug metabolism and transport and deregulation of apoptosis and autophagy in the development of tumour chemoresistance. Reduced intracellular activation of prodrugs (e.g. thiotepa and tegafur) or enhanced drug inactivation by Phase I and II enzymes contributes to the development of chemoresistance. Both primary and acquired resistance can be caused by alterations in the transport of anticancer drugs which is mediated by a variety of drug transporters such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multidrug resistance associated proteins, and breast cancer resistance protein. Presently there is a line of evidence indicating that deregulation of programmed cell death including apoptosis and autophagy is also an important mechanism for tumour resistance to anticancer drugs. Reversal of chemoresistance is likely via pharmacological and biological approaches. Further studies are warranted to grasp the full picture of how each type of cancer cells develop resistance to anticancer drugs and to identify novel strategies to overcome it.

  17. Gastrointestinal stromal tumour presenting as gastroduodenal intussusception.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Wilson, Mark H


    Gastroduodenal intussusception secondary to gastrointestinal stromal tumour is a very rare cause for intestinal obstruction. The diagnosis of this condition can be challenging, as symptoms are often non-specific and intermittent. This article reports a case where the diagnosis was made preoperatively with abdominal imaging and was treated by a combination of endoscopic reduction and laparoscopic resection.

  18. Granular cell tumour of the urinary bladder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph von Klot


    Full Text Available With only 16 cases reported in the literature, the mostly benign granular cell tumour of the urinary bladder is exceptionally rare. We present the case of a 68-year old patient with one of these lesions demonstrating our histological findings including several immunohistochemical stainings used to differentiate between other more common entities.

  19. Tumour and tumour-like lesions of the patella - a multicentre experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, J.; James, S.L.; Davies, A.M. [The Royal Orthopaedic Hospital, Department of Radiology, Birmingham (United Kingdom); Kroon, H.M. [Leiden University Medical Centre, Department of Radiology, C-2-S, P. O Box 9600, Leiden (Netherlands); Woertler, K. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Radiology, Munich (Germany); Anderson, S.E. [Knochentumor- Referenzzentrum der Schweizerischen Gesellschaft fuer Pathologie, Basel (Switzerland)


    Fifty-nine cases of lesions presenting in the patella were identified after review of the databases of four European bone tumour registries. Of the 59 cases, 46% were non neoplastic, 39% were benign and 15% were malignant. The commonest benign neoplasm was giant cell tumour (GCT) (11 cases). Younger patients were more likely to have a benign neoplasm. Lesions in patients less than 40 years of age included giant cell tumour, chondroblastoma, aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC), osteomyelitis, osteoid osteoma and solitary bone cyst. In patients older than 40 years, the following were common lesions: intra-osseous gout, metastasis and intra-osseous ganglion. Expansion of the patella with thinning of cortex was seen more commonly in GCT and brown tumour in hyperparathyroidism. There was associated soft tissue extension in gout and malignant lesions. (orig.)

  20. Brain SPECT in children; Explorations scintigraphiques en neurologie et psychiatrie de l`enfant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guyot, M. [Hopital Pellegrin, 33 - Bordeaux (France); Baulieu, J.L. [Hopital Bretonneau, 37 - Tours (France)


    Brain SPECT in child involves specific trends regarding the patient cooperation, irradiation, resolution and especially interpretation because of the rapid scintigraphic modifications related to the brain maturation. In a general nuclear medicine department, child brain SPECT represents about 2 % of the activity. The choice indications are the perfusion children: thallium and MIBI in brain tumours, pharmacological and neuropsychological interventions. In the future, brain dedicated detectors and new radiopharmaceuticals will promote the development of brain SPECT in children. (author). 18 refs.

  1. Improved classification, diagnosis and prognosis of canine round cell tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cangul, Taci


    As the name suggests, canine round cell tumour (RCTs) are composed of cells with a round morphology. There is some discrepancy amongst authors as to which tumours belong to this category, but most designate lymphomas, melanomas, plasmacytomas, transmissible venereal tumours (TVTs), histiocytomas, an

  2. [Malignant germinal tumours of the mediastinum: diagnosis and treatment]. (United States)

    Lemarié, E


    Mediastinal germinal tumours are composed of tissues resembling those that follow one another during embryo development, by differentiation of the primordial and extraembryonic layers. Such practice separates the mature teratomas (benign), seminomas and non-seminomatous germinal tumours (NSGT). Platin-based chemotherapy has shattered the prognosis of such tumours.

  3. Tumour suppressor genes in sporadic epithelial ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Ying; Ganesan, Trivadi S


    of the evolution of tumour progression. A major focus of research has been to identify tumour suppressor genes implicated in sporadic ovarian cancer over the past decade. Several tumour suppressor genes have been identified by strategies such as positional cloning and differential expression display. Further...

  4. Relevance of high-dose chemotherapy in solid tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieboer, P; de Vries, EGE; Mulder, NH; van der Graaf, WTA


    Drug resistance is a major problem in the treatment of solid tumours. Based on a steep dose-response relationship for especially alkylating agents on tumour cell survival, high-dose chemotherapy was considered of interest for the treatment of solid tumours. Results of phase 1 and 2 studies with high

  5. Renal space-occupying solid growth of uncertain tumour status in metastasising tumour of the testicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelhard, K.; Sarmiento-Garcia, G.; Worlicek, H.


    On the basis of a particular case of 'atypical' hypernephroma the main differential diagnosis of solid renal masses are described with reference to the basis disease: testicle tumour causing metastasis. The problems of determining the dignity of the disease by methods of sonography, pyelogram and CT are pointed out as well as the differences between those characteristics of the said tumour revealed by X-ray diagnosis and the known characteristics of substantial kidney deformations as described in medical literature.

  6. Orbital tumours and tumour-like lesions: exploring the armamentarium of multiparametric imaging. (United States)

    Purohit, Bela S; Vargas, Maria Isabel; Ailianou, Angeliki; Merlini, Laura; Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre; Platon, Alexandra; Delattre, Bénédicte M; Rager, Olivier; Burkhardt, Karim; Becker, Minerva


    Although the orbit is a small anatomical space, the wide range of structures present within it are often the site of origin of various tumours and tumour-like conditions, both in adults and children. Cross-sectional imaging is mandatory for the detection, characterization, and mapping of these lesions. This review focuses on multiparametric imaging of orbital tumours. Each tumour is reviewed in relation to its clinical presentation, compartmental location, imaging characteristics, and its histological features. We herein describe orbital tumours as lesions of the globe (retinoblastoma, uveal melanoma), optic nerve sheath complex (meningioma, optic nerve glioma), conal-intraconal compartment (hemangioma), extraconal compartment (dermoid/epidermoid, lacrimal gland tumours, lymphoma, rhabdomysarcoma), and bone and sinus compartment (fibrous dysplasia). Lesions without any typical compartmental localization and those with multi-compartment involvement (veno-lymphatic malformation, plexiform neurofibroma, idiopathic orbital pseudotumour, IgG4 related disease, metastases) are also reviewed. We discuss the role of advanced imaging techniques, such as MR diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), diffusion tensor imaging, fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography CT (FDG-PET CT), and positron emission tomography MRI (MRI PET) as problem-solving tools in the evaluation of those orbital masses that present with non-specific morphologic imaging findings. Main messages/Teaching points • A compartment-based approach is essential for the diagnosis of orbital tumours. • CT and MRI play a key role in the work-up of orbital tumours. • DWI, PET CT, and MRI PET are complementary tools to solve diagnostic dilemmas. • Awareness of salient imaging pearls and diagnostic pitfalls avoids interpretation errors.

  7. RNF43 is a tumour suppressor gene mutated in mucinous tumours of the ovary. (United States)

    Ryland, Georgina L; Hunter, Sally M; Doyle, Maria A; Rowley, Simone M; Christie, Michael; Allan, Prue E; Bowtell, David D L; Gorringe, Kylie L; Campbell, Ian G


    Mucinous carcinomas represent a distinct morphological subtype which can arise from several organ sites, including the ovary, and their genetic characteristics are largely under-described. Exome sequencing of 12 primary mucinous ovarian tumours identified RNF43 as the most frequently somatically mutated novel gene, secondary to KRAS and mutated at a frequency equal to that of TP53 and BRAF. Further screening of RNF43 in a larger cohort of ovarian tumours identified additional mutations, with a total frequency of 2/22 (9%) in mucinous ovarian borderline tumours and 6/29 (21%) in mucinous ovarian carcinomas. Seven mutations were predicted to truncate the protein and one missense mutation was predicted to be deleterious by in silico analysis. Six tumours had allelic imbalance at the RNF43 locus, with loss of the wild-type allele. The mutation spectrum strongly suggests that RNF43 is an important tumour suppressor gene in mucinous ovarian tumours, similar to its reported role in mucinous pancreatic precancerous cysts.

  8. Immunohistochemical detection of tumour cell proliferation and intratumoural microvessel density in canine malignant mammary tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sennazli Gulbin


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation between different histological types and grades of canine malignant mammary tumours, tumour cell proliferation and their angiogenic activity using immunohistochemical markers. Mammary tissue samples from 47 bitches with mammary cancer were evaluated. The expression of cellular proliferation marker Ki-67 and endothelial marker Von Willebrand’s factor (vWF were immunohistochemically demonstrated. The tumours with the highest Ki-67 and vWF expressions were found to share similar histomorphological features. Simple solid carcinoma had the highest levels of Ki-67, vWF, and higher histological grade while complex carcinomas, osteosarcomas, and carcinosarcomas had the lowest ones. The differences between the expressions of Ki-67 and vWF in different tumour types were considered to be of great importance in determination of biological behaviour and prognosis of these tumours. This study is one of the few studies that evaluate these differences among the subtypes of malignant canine mammary tumours

  9. Childhood Roots of Schizophrenia (United States)

    Watt, Norman F.; Lubensky, Amy W.


    Earlier project reports compared childhood social behavior of nonmigratory schizophrenics and normal classmates by analyzing teachers' comments in school records. This article expands the sample to include migratory schizophrenics and analyzes childhood intellectual functioning. Behavioral differences indicated emotional immaturity and social…

  10. Childhood Overweight and Obesity (United States)

    ... Home Prevention and Wellness Food and Nutrition Healthy Food Choices Childhood Overweight and Obesity Childhood Overweight and Obesity Family HealthFood and NutritionHealthy Food ChoicesKids and TeensPrevention and WellnessWeight Loss and Diet ...

  11. Undiagnosed asthma in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gent, R.


    Asthma is the most prevalent chronic disease in childhood. To study the actual prevalence and impact of undiagnosed childhood asthma in daily life (i.e. quality of life, participation in physical and school activities) we performed a survey in schoolchildren (aged 7-10 years) in the southern part of

  12. Pulmonary tumours in the Netherlands : focus on temporal trends in histology and stage and on rare tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, W. K.; Schaapveld, M.; Blaauwgeers, J. L. G.; Groen, H. J. M.


    Background: Recent temporal trends in histology and stage of pulmonary tumours in the Netherlands were studied. The incidence of rare pulmonary tumours was determined. Methods: All tumours originating from the trachea, bronchus and lung recorded in the Netherlands Cancer Registry were included. Base

  13. Ovarian Steroid Cell Tumour: Correlation of Histopathology with Clinicopathologic Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghazala Mehdi


    Full Text Available Ovarian steroid cell tumours (not otherwise specified are rare neoplasms of the ovary and are classified under lipid cell tumours. Their diagnosis can be considered as one of exclusion. Histopathologically, the tumour should carefully be evaluated for microscopic features of malignancy, but it is essential for the clinician and the pathologist to remember that in these tumours, pathologically benign histomorphology does not exclude the possibility of clinically malignant behaviour. Our case study focuses on the comparative findings in a postmenopausal female diagnosed with an ovarian steroid tumour (not otherwise specified. A careful correlation between clinical and surgical evaluation and microscopic analysis is necessary, as is a regular followup.

  14. Oral and maxillofacial tumours in children: a review. (United States)

    Sato, M; Tanaka, N; Sato, T; Amagasa, T


    This retrospective review presents our experience of oral and maxillofacial tumours in children. The subjects were 250 children under the age of 15 years (out of a total of 2747 patients with oral and maxillofacial tumours), who were treated after histopathological confirmation of their diagnoses during the 28 years 1965-92. Diagnosis, incidence, and age at presentation were the main outcome measures and the results showed that 232 patients (93%) had benign tumours and 18 (7%) were malignant. The most common benign tumour was haemangioma (n = 69) and the most common malignant tumour sarcoma (n = 14). The most common odontogenic tumour was odontoma (n = 47) and non-odontogenic tumour ossifying fibroma (n = 5). The most common site of soft tissue tumours was the tongue (n = 65) and of bony tumours the mandible (n = 62). About a third of the tumours developed in patients between the ages of 6 and 11 years. Most of the angiomas developed in patients less than 6 years old, and most of the ameloblastomas in those over 12 years of age. Children accounted for 55% of patients with lymphangoma, 41% of those with odontoma, and 22% of those with haemangioma. It is concluded that most of these lesions were probably developmental malformations rather than neoplasms, and that the definition of oral and maxillofacial tumours in children should be reconsidered.

  15. Self-Control and the Developing Brain (United States)

    Tarullo, Amanda R.; Obradovic, Jelena; Gunnar, Megan R.


    Self-control is a skill that children need to succeed academically, socially, and emotionally. Brain regions essential to self-control are immature at birth and develop slowly throughout childhood. From ages 3 to 6 years, as these brain regions become more mature, children show improved ability to control impulses, shift their attention flexibly,…

  16. Primary Malignant Neuroendocrine Tumour of Pleura: First Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirban Das


    Full Text Available Metastatic tumours of pleura are the most common malignant tumours causing malignant pleural effusion. Lungs are the most common primary sites. Primary pleural tumours are rarely seen and diffuse malignant mesothelioma is the most common malignant tumour of pleura. Primary malignant neuroendocrine tumour of pleura is not reported in the literature. Here, we report a rare case of primary malignant neuroendocrine tumour of pleura in a fifty-two-year-old, nonsmoker female who presented with right-sided pleural effusion and ipsilateral, dull aching chest pain. Clinical presentations of inflammatory lesions like tuberculous pleuritis and benign and malignant neoplasms of pleura are indistinguishable; hence, fluid cytology, pleural biopsy, and immunohistochemistry are necessary for exact tissue diagnosis of the tumours, which is mandatory for correct treatment and prognostic assessment.

  17. Giant Mediastinal Germ Cell Tumour: An Enigma of Surgical Consideration (United States)

    Ali, Nurayub Mohd; Azizan, Nornazirah; Zakaria, Andee Dzulkarnaen; Rahman, Mohd Ramzisham Abdul


    We present a case of 16-year-old male, who was referred from private centre for dyspnoea, fatigue, and orthopnea. The chest radiograph revealed complete opacification of left chest which was confirmed by computed tomography as a large left mediastinal mass measuring 14 × 15 × 18 cm. The diagnostic needle core biopsy revealed mixed germ cell tumour with possible combination of embryonal carcinoma, yolk sac, and teratoma. After 4 cycles of neoadjuvant BEP regime, there was initial response of tumour markers but not tumour bulk. Instead of classic median sternotomy or clamshell incision, posterolateral approach with piecemeal manner was chosen. Histology confirmed mixed germ cell tumour with residual teratomatous component without yolk sac or embryonal carcinoma component. Weighing 3.5 kg, it is one of the largest mediastinal germ cell tumours ever reported. We describe this rare and gigantic intrathoracic tumour and discuss the spectrum of surgical approach and treatment of this exceptional tumour.

  18. An Intraoperative $\\beta^-$ Detecting Probe For Radio-Guided Surgery in Tumour Resection

    CERN Document Server

    Russomando, Andrea; Bocci, Valerio; Chiodi, Giacomo; Collamati, Francesco; De Lucia, Erika; Donnarumma, Raffaella; Faccini, Riccardo; Terracciano, Carlo Mancini; Marafini, Michela; Paramatti, Riccardo; Patera, Vincenzo; Pinci, %Davide; Recchia, Luigi; Sarti, Alessio; Sciubba, Adalberto; Camillocci, Elena Solfaroli; Voena, Cecilia; Morganti, Silvio


    The development of the $\\beta^-$ based radio-guided surgery aims to extend the technique to those tumours where surgery is the only possible treatment and the assessment of the resection would most profit from the low background around the lesion, as for brain tumours. Feasibility studies on meningioma, glioma, and neuroendocrine tumors already estimated the potentiality of this new treatment. To validate the technique, prototypes of the intraoperative probe required by the technique to detect $\\beta^-$ radiation have been developed. This paper discusses the design details of the device and the tests performed in laboratory. In such tests particular care has to be taken to reproduce the surgical field conditions. The innovative technique to produce specific phantoms and the dedicated testing protocols is described in detail.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Neurofibromatosis type 2 is a rare autosomal dominant syndrome, characterized by multiple intracranial and intraspinal tumours associated with ocular abnormalities. The most common tumor associated with the disease is the vestibule cochlear schwannoma, and as many as 10% of patients with this tumor have neurofibromatosis type 2. Based on clinical and imaging findings the diagnostic of neurofibromatosis type 2 can be made. In this report we aim to report a 24 - year - old male who was evaluated for progressive h earing loss, vertigo, ataxic gait and right lower limb weakness. During the workup, cranial CT, Brain and whole s pine MRI was done which showed all the findings in one patient including bilateral vestibulocochlear schwannoma, multiple meningiomas, and intr amedullary and extramedullary tumours in spinal cord.

  20. An Intraoperative beta (-) Detecting Probe for Radio-Guided Surgery in Tumour Resection (United States)

    Russomando, Andrea; Bellini, Fabio; Bocci, Valerio; Collamati, Francesco; De Lucia, Erika; Faccini, Riccardo; Marafini, Michela; Mattei, Ilaria; Chiodi, Giacomo; Patera, Vincenzo; Recchia, Luigi; Sarti, Alessio; Sciubba, Adalberto; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Paramatti, Riccardo; Voena, Cecilia; Donnarumma, Raffaella; Mancini-Terracciano, Carlo; Morganti, Silvio


    The development of the $\\beta^-$ based radio-guided surgery aims to extend the technique to those tumours where surgery is the only possible treatment and the assessment of the resection would most profit from the low background around the lesion, as for brain tumours. Feasibility studies on meningioma, glioma, and neuroendocrine tumors already estimated the potentiality of this new treatment. To validate the technique, prototypes of the intraoperative probe required by the technique to detect $\\beta^-$ radiation have been developed. This paper discusses the design details of the device and the tests performed in laboratory. In such tests particular care has to be taken to reproduce the surgical field conditions. The innovative technique to produce specific phantoms and the dedicated testing protocols is described in detail.

  1. Tumour auto-antibody screening: performance of protein microarrays using SEREX derived antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludwig Nicole


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The simplicity and potential of minimal invasive testing using serum from patients make auto-antibody based biomarkers a very promising tool for use in diagnostics of cancer and auto-immune disease. Although several methods exist for elucidating candidate-protein markers, immobilizing these onto membranes and generating so called macroarrays is of limited use for marker validation. Especially when several hundred samples have to be analysed, microarrays could serve as a good alternative since processing macro membranes is cumbersome and reproducibility of results is moderate. Methods Candidate markers identified by SEREX (serological identification of antigens by recombinant expression cloning screenings of brain and lung tumour were used for macroarray and microarray production. For microarray production recombinant proteins were expressed in E. coli by autoinduction and purified His-tag (histidine-tagged proteins were then used for the production of protein microarrays. Protein arrays were hybridized with the serum samples from brain and lung tumour patients. Result Methods for the generation of microarrays were successfully established when using antigens derived from membrane-based selection. Signal patterns obtained by microarrays analysis of brain and lung tumour patients' sera were highly reproducible (R = 0.92-0.96. This provides the technical foundation for diagnostic applications on the basis of auto-antibody patterns. In this limited test set, the assay provided high reproducibility and a broad dynamic range to classify all brain and lung samples correctly. Conclusion Protein microarray is an efficient means for auto-antibody-based detection when using SEREX-derived clones expressing antigenic proteins. Protein microarrays are preferred to macroarrays due to the easier handling and the high reproducibility of auto-antibody testing. Especially when using only a few microliters of patient samples protein microarrays

  2. Anatomical Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Typically Developing Children and Adolescents (United States)

    Giedd, Jay N.; Lalonde, Francois M.; Celano, Mark J.; White, Samantha L.; Wallace, Gregory L.; Lee, Nancy R.; Lenroot, Rhoshel K.


    Methodological issues relevant to magnetic resonance imaging studies of brain anatomy are discussed along with the findings on the neuroanatomic changes during childhood and adolescence. The development of the brain is also discussed.

  3. An autopsy case of acute cor pulmonale and paradoxical systemic embolism due to tumour cell microemboli in a patient with breast cancer. (United States)

    Uga, Sayuri; Ikeda, Shuntaro; Matsukage, Sho-ichi; Hamada, Mareomi


    A 62-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital because of severe respiratory distress. Diagnostic imaging studies suggested the existence of inexplicable cor pulmonale. Although we immediately sought the aetiology of her severe condition, she died suddenly on the fourth day after admission. Postmortem autopsy revealed tumour cell microemboli in the small pulmonary arteries. In addition, tumour cell embolisation identical to that in primary breast cancer cells was also observed in microvessels in systemic multiple organs, such as the liver, brain, kidneys, spleen, uterus, bone marrow and adrenal glands-with simultaneous findings of peripheral infarction. Systemic tumour cell embolism mediated through the patent foramen ovale superimposed on pulmonary tumour cell emboli (PTCE) is considered to be the mechanism underlying inexplicable cor pulmonale. The rapid aggravation of her condition terminated in death.

  4. The hypoxic tumour microenvironment and metastatic progression. (United States)

    Subarsky, Patrick; Hill, Richard P


    The microenvironment of solid tumours contains regions of poor oxygenation and high acidity. Growing evidence from clinical and experimental studies points to a fundamental role for hypoxia in metastatic progression. Prolonged hypoxia increases genomic instability, genomic heterogeneity, and may act as a selective pressure for tumour cell variants. Hypoxia can also act in an epigenetic fashion, altering the expression of genes. Hypoxia-induced changes in gene expression alter non-specific stress responses, anaerobic metabolism, angiogenesis, tissue remodeling, and cell-cell contacts. Experimental studies have demonstrated that inhibition of proteins involved in these processes can modify metastasis formation, suggesting a causal role in metastatic progression. Recent advances in high-throughput screening techniques have allowed identification of many hypoxia-induced genes that are involved in the processes associated with metastasis. Here we review the epigenetic control of gene expression by the hypoxic microenvironment and its potential contribution to metastatic progression.

  5. Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour of penis. (United States)

    Kaur, J; Madan, R; Singh, L; Sharma, D N; Julka, P K; Rath, G K; Roy, S


    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour (MPNST) is a rare variety of soft tissue sarcoma that originates from Schwann cells or pluripotent cells of neural crest origin. They have historically been difficult tumours to diagnose and treat. Surgery is the mainstay of treatment with a goal to achieve negative margins. Despite aggressive surgery and adjuvant therapy, the prognosis of patients with MPNST remains poor. MPNST arising from penis is a very rare entity; thus, it presents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. We present a case of penile MPNST in a 38-year-old man in the absence of neurofibromatosis treated with surgery followed by post-operative radiotherapy to a dose of 60 Gray in 30 fractions and adjuvant chemotherapy with ifosfamide and adriamycin.

  6. SPECT/CT and tumour imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abikhzer, Gad [Rambam Health Care Campus, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Haifa (Israel); Keidar, Zohar [Rambam Health Care Campus, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Haifa (Israel); Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, The Ruth and Bruce Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Haifa (Israel)


    Scintigraphic techniques are sensitive imaging modalities in the diagnosis and follow-up of cancer patients providing the functional and metabolic activity characteristics of the tumour. Hybrid SPECT/CT improves the diagnostic accuracy of these well-established imaging techniques by precise anatomical localization and characterization of morphological findings, differentiation between foci of physiological and pathological tracer uptake, resulting in a significant impact on patient management and more definitive interpretations. The use of SPECT/CT has been studied in a variety of applications in tumour imaging which are reviewed in this article. By combining functional and anatomical information in a single imaging session, SPECT/CT has become a one-stop cancer imaging modality. (orig.)

  7. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma presented as cavernous sinus tumour. (United States)

    Moona, Mohammad Shafi; Mehdi, Itrat


    A 32 year Libyan male presented with the complaints of headache and diplopia. He was diagnosed with a cavernous sinus meningioma on the basis of MRI findings but no initial biopsy was taken. Depending on the radiologic diagnosis the patient was treated with gamma knife surgery twice, abroad. During follow up he developed left ear deafness and left cervical lymph adenopathy. An ENT evaluation with biopsy from the nasopharynx and cervical lymph node was taken. The histopathologic diagnosis of the resected tumour showed a nasopharyngeal carcinoma with cervical lymph node metastasis (poorly differentiated lympho-epithelial carcinoma). The cavernous sinus tumour which was initially treated as a meningioma was in fact metastasis from the nasopharyngeal carcinoma, making this an interesting and rare occurrence.

  8. Tumour Debulking for Esophageal Cancer - Thermal Modalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Fleischer


    Full Text Available Esophageal cancer usually is discovered at a late stage and curative therapy seldom is possible. The prognosis is poor and most therapy is palliative. Endoscopic therapy commonly is employed; two common treatments involve thermal modalities. The Nd:YAG laser has been employed for 10 years and is effective in relieving obstruction in approximately 90% of cases. Re-ohstruction usually occurs in two to three months and repeat treatment may be necessary. Limitations to laser use include the fact that equipment is expensive and there are technical restrictions. An alternative thermal modality is the bipolar coagulation tumour probe which employs bipolar electrocoagulation. It is less expensive and, if the tumour is circumferential, tends to be easier to use. (It should not be used if the cancer is noncircumferential. The advantages and limitations of each modality are addressed.

  9. Electrochemotherapy for rat implanted liver tumour

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@ The most common interventional therapies for liver cancer at present include transcatheter hepatic arterial chemoembolization (TACE),1 percutaneous ethanol injection2 and radiofrequency ablation,3 but all these therapies have some intrinsic disadvantages. Since the advent of electrochemo- therapy (EChT), it has been accepted as a safe and effective therapy for malignant tumors4,5 There are only a few experimental studies reporting the use of EChT in the treatment of liver cancer in the foreign medical literature.6-8 However, there have been some clinical studies, and even fewer reports of experimental studies on EChT for liver cancer in China. We used a rat implanted liver cancer animal model to monitor changes in tumour size, tumour necrosis, cellular apoptosis, expression of peripheral immunological markers (IL-2, sIL-2R, IL-6 and TNF-α) and survival.

  10. Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy of neuroendocrine tumours. (United States)

    Brabander, Tessa; Teunissen, Jaap J M; Van Eijck, Casper H J; Franssen, Gaston J H; Feelders, Richard A; de Herder, Wouter W; Kwekkeboom, Dik J


    In the past decades, the number of neuroendocrine tumours that are detected is increasing. A relative new and promising therapy for patients with metastasised or inoperable disease is peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). This therapy involves an infusion of somatostatin analogues linked to radionuclides like Yttrium-90 or Lutetium-177. Objective response rates are reported in 15-35%. Response rates may vary between type of tumour and radionuclide. Besides the objective response rate, overall survival and progression free survival increase significantly. Also, the quality of life improves as well. Serious side-affects are rare. PRRT is usually well tolerated, also in patients with extensive metastasised disease. Recent studies combined PRRT with other types of therapies. Unfortunately no randomised trials comparing these strategies are available. In the future, more research is needed to evaluate the best therapy combinations or sequence of therapies.

  11. Metastatic carcinoid tumour with spinal cord compression. (United States)

    Scott, Si; Antwi-Yeboah, Y; Bucur, Sd


    Carcinoid tumours are rare with an incidence of 5.25/100,000. They predominantly originate in the gastrointestinal tract (50-60%) or bronchopulmonary system (25-30%). Common sites of metastasis are lymph nodes, liver, lungs and bone. Spinal metastasis are rare, but has been reported in patients with symptoms of spinal cord compression including neurological deficits. We report a rare case of carcinoid metastasis with spinal cord compression, in a 63-year-old man, presenting with a one-year history of back pain without any neurological symptoms. The patient underwent a two-level decompressive laminectomy of T10 and T11 as well as piecemeal tumour resection. Post-operatively the patient made a good recovery without complications.

  12. COX-2, VEGF and tumour angiogenesis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Toomey, D P


    Epidemiological evidence suggests a protective effective of regular NSAID use against developing cancer. Cyclooxygenase-2, a target of NSAIDs, is upregulated in many cancers and has been associated with increased VEGF production and angiogenesis. Angiogenesis is the formation of new vessels from existing vasculature and as an essential process for tumour development represents an important therapeutic target. Following an extensive review of the literature this article details the current knowledge on the role of COX-2 in tumorigenesis focusing on its relationship to angiogenesis and VEGF production by tumour cells. While COX-2 is clearly detrimental to prognosis and NSAIDs have a beneficial effect, the possibility of COX-2 independent effects being partly or wholly responsible for this benefit cannot be excluded.

  13. Endometrial stromal sarcoma: a rare tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrit Pal Kaur


    Full Text Available Endometrial stromal sarcomas (ESS are rare endometrial tumours arising from stroma of endometrium i.e. connective tissue of endometrium rather than glands. Usually a pre-operative diagnosis is difficult. Total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy is main line of treatment. Adjuvant hormone therapy in the form of progesterones, GnRH analogues, aromatase inhibitors are effective for prevention of recurrences as these tumours are invariably positive for oestrogen & progesterone receptors. Surgical excision, radiotherapy, hormone therapy are recommended for recurrences. We report a 52 yrs widow with undifferentiated endometrial stromal sarcoma weighing 3.75 kg with a short history of 3 months diagnosed only after histopathology. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(1.000: 276-278

  14. Anesthesia and the developing brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidson, Andrew J; Becke, Karin; de Graaff, Jurgen


    It is now well established that many general anesthetics have a variety of effects on the developing brain in animal models. In contrast, human cohort studies show mixed evidence for any association between neurobehavioural outcome and anesthesia exposure in early childhood. In spite of large...

  15. Mutant, wild type, or overall p53 expression: freedom from clinical progression in tumours of astrocytic lineage. (United States)

    Pardo, F S; Hsu, D W; Zeheb, R; Efird, J T; Okunieff, P G; Malkin, D M


    Abnormalities of the p53 tumor-suppressor gene are found in a significant proportion of astrocytic brain tumours. We studied tumour specimens from 74 patients evaluated over 20 years at the Massachusetts General Hospital, where clinical outcome could be determined and sufficient pathologic material was available for immunostaining. p53 expression studies employed an affinity-purified p53 monoclonal antibody, whose specificity was verified in absorption studies and, in a minority of cases, a second antibody recognising a different epitope of p53. Significant overexpression of p53 protein was found in 48% of the 74 tumours included in this series and high levels of expression were associated with higher mortality from astrocytic tumours (Pexpression of p53 plays an important role in the pathobiology of these tumours. In a subset of 36 cases, coding regions of the p53 gene were completely sequenced via SSCP and direct DNA sequencing, revealing that overexpression of p53 protein is not always associated with point mutations in conserved exons of the p53 gene. Finally, we confirmed p53 protein expression in early-passage human glioma cell lines of known p53 mutational status and immunostaining scores. Although grade continues to be the strongest prognostic variable, the use of p53 staining as a prognostic indicator, in contrast to mutational DNA analyses, may be a useful adjunct in identifying patients at higher risk of treatment failure.

  16. [De novo tumours of renal transplants]. (United States)

    Hétet, J F; Rigaud, J; Dorel-Le Théo, M; Láuté, F; Karam, G; Blanchet, P


    Kidney cancer occurs rarely and late in renal transplants. The lack of grafts and the increasing age of the cadaver donors are likely to result in an increasing number of such cancers. To date, the treatment of choice is the transplant removal. Nevertheless partial nephrectomy may be discussed in selected cases. Ultrasonographic screening should allow detection of low volume tumours suitable for partial nephrectomy. Alternative techniques (radiofrequency, cryoablation) are to be assessed in such patients.

  17. [Epidemiology and risk factors of testicular tumours]. (United States)

    Kozłowski, Piotr; Starosławska, Elżbieta; Szumiło, Justyna; Jankiewicz, Małgorzata; Kozłowska, Magdalena; Burdan, Franciszek


    Testicular tumours are rare neoplasms, which most commonly affects men aged 25 to 35 years. Among young adult males it is the most common cause of testicular swelling. In recent decades, the number of cases of testicular tumours has greatly increased. The most significant predisposing factors are cryptorchidism and some endocrine disorders, especially increased levels of gonadotropins and female sex hormones. Testicular trauma, inguinal hernia, extreme values of body mass index (BMI), high-calorie diet rich in dairy products as well as high social status are also regarded as risk factors. Furthermore, some chromosomal abnormalities like increased number of chromosomes 7, 8. 12, 21 and X, loss of chromosomes 4, 5, 11, 13, 18, or Y, mutation in the gene Xq27; as well as multiplied copy of the gene i(12p) are associated with tumor development. It has been proven that high testosterone levels and regular physical activity may prevent testicular tumours. Since one of the first sign the lesion is often a lump or swelling of the testis and the appearance of abnormal structure in the scrotum routine testicular self-examination seems to be important in early detection. In all suspected cases an immediate ultrasound examination of both testicles is highly recommended. It is also advised to conduct a computerized tomography (CT) and a positron emission tomography (PET) scan for staging of the tumor to select the best mode of treatment.

  18. Imatinib treatment for gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST). (United States)

    Lopes, Lisandro F; Bacchi, Carlos E


    Gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) is the most common mesenchymal neoplasm of the gastrointestinal tract. GISTs are believed to originate from intersticial cells of Cajal (the pacemaker cells of the gastrointestinal tract) or related stem cells, and are characterized by KIT or platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA) activating mutations. The use of imatinib has revolutionized the management of GIST and altered its natural history, substantially improving survival time and delaying disease progression in many patients. The success of imatinib in controlling advanced GIST led to interest in the neoadjuvant and adjuvant use of the drug. The neoadjuvant (preoperative) use of imatinib is recommended to facilitate resection and avoid mutilating surgery by decreasing tumour size, and adjuvant therapy is indicated for patients at high risk of recurrence. The molecular characterization (genotyping) of GISTs has become an essential part of the routine management of the disease as KIT and PDGFRA mutation status predicts the likelihood of achieving response to imatinib. However, the vast majority of patients who initially responded to imatinib will develop tumour progression (secondary resistance). Secondary resistance is often related to secondary KIT or PDGFRA mutations that interfere with drug binding. Multiple novel tyrosine kinase inhibitors may be potentially useful for the treatment of imatinib-resistant GISTs as they interfere with KIT and PDGFRA receptors or with the downstream-signalling proteins.

  19. The natural history of disappearing bone tumours and tumour-like conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagawa, Takashi; Watanabe, Hideomi; Shinozaki, Tetsuya; Ahmed, Adel Refaat; Shirakura, Kenji; Takagishi, Kenji


    We describe 27 cases of bone tumours or tumour-like lesions where there was spontaneous regression. The follow-up period was 2.8-16.7 years (average, 7.0 years). Fourteen of these cases were no longer visible on plain radiographs. Histological diagnosis included exostosis, eosinophilic granuloma, fibrous dysplasia, fibrous cortical defect, non-ossifying fibroma, osteoid osteoma and bone island. Most cases began to reduce in adolescence or earlier, although sclerotic type lesions showed their regression in older patients. All lesions thought to be eosinophilic granuloma began to regress after periods of less than 3 months, while the duration of the other lesions showed wide variation (1-74 months). As resolution of the lesions took between 2 and 79 months (mean, 25.0 {+-} 20.3 months) we consider that the most likely mechanism was recovery of normal skeletal growth control. In exostosis with fracture, alteration of vascular supply may contribute to growth arrest, but not to subsequent remodelling stage. In inflammatory-related lesions such as eosinophilic granuloma, cessation of inflammation may be the mechanism of growth arrest, whilst temporary inflammation may stimulate osteogenic cells engaged in remodeling. In the sclerotic type, growth arrest is a less probable mechanism. Necrosis within the tumour and/or local changes in hormonal control, plus remodelling of the sclerotic area takes longer. Knowledge of the potential for spontaneous resolution may help in management of these tumour and tumour-like lesions of bone. Yanagawa, T. et al. (2001)

  20. Evaluating the agreement between tumour volumetry and the estimated volumes of tumour lesions using an algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laubender, Ruediger P. [German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Heidelberg (Germany); University Hospital Munich - Campus Grosshadern, Institute of Medical Informatics, Biometry, and Epidemiology (IBE), Munich (Germany); German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany); Lynghjem, Julia; D' Anastasi, Melvin; Graser, Anno [University Hospital Munich - Campus Grosshadern, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Heinemann, Volker; Modest, Dominik P. [University Hospital Munich - Campus Grosshadern, Department of Medical Oncology, Munich (Germany); Mansmann, Ulrich R. [University Hospital Munich - Campus Grosshadern, Institute of Medical Informatics, Biometry, and Epidemiology (IBE), Munich (Germany); Sartorius, Ute; Schlichting, Michael [Merck KGaA, Darmstadt (Germany)


    To evaluate the agreement between tumour volume derived from semiautomated volumetry (SaV) and tumor volume defined by spherical volume using longest lesion diameter (LD) according to Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST) or ellipsoid volume using LD and longest orthogonal diameter (LOD) according to World Health Organization (WHO) criteria. Twenty patients with metastatic colorectal cancer from the CIOX trial were included. A total of 151 target lesions were defined by baseline computed tomography and followed until disease progression. All assessments were performed by a single reader. A variance component model was used to compare the three volume versions. There was a significant difference between the SaV and RECIST-based tumour volumes. The same model showed no significant difference between the SaV and WHO-based volumes. Scatter plots showed that the RECIST-based volumes overestimate lesion volume. The agreement between the SaV and WHO-based relative changes in tumour volume, evaluated by intraclass correlation, showed nearly perfect agreement. Estimating the volume of metastatic lesions using both the LD and LOD (WHO) is more accurate than those based on LD only (RECIST), which overestimates lesion volume. The good agreement between the SaV and WHO-based relative changes in tumour volume enables a reasonable approximation of three-dimensional tumour burden. (orig.)

  1. [Improving the management of rare brain cancers with the POLA network]. (United States)

    Terziev, Robert; Ravin, Mylène; Carpentier, Catherine; Dehais, Caroline


    The national POLA network is dedicated to the management of certain rare brain tumours, mainly anaplastic oligodendrogliomas, anaplastic oligoastrocytomas and glioblastomas with oligodendroglioma component. The nursing team and the patient are at the heart of the organisation.

  2. Nanoparticle-blood interactions: the implications on solid tumour targeting. (United States)

    Lazarovits, James; Chen, Yih Yang; Sykes, Edward A; Chan, Warren C W


    Nanoparticles are suitable platforms for cancer targeting and diagnostic applications. Typically, less than 10% of all systemically administered nanoparticles accumulate in the tumour. Here we explore the interactions of blood components with nanoparticles and describe how these interactions influence solid tumour targeting. In the blood, serum proteins adsorb onto nanoparticles to form a protein corona in a manner dependent on nanoparticle physicochemical properties. These serum proteins can block nanoparticle tumour targeting ligands from binding to tumour cell receptors. Additionally, serum proteins can also encourage nanoparticle uptake by macrophages, which decreases nanoparticle availability in the blood and limits tumour accumulation. The formation of this protein corona will also increase the nanoparticle hydrodynamic size or induce aggregation, which makes nanoparticles too large to enter into the tumour through pores of the leaky vessels, and prevents their deep penetration into tumours for cell targeting. Recent studies have focused on developing new chemical strategies to reduce or eliminate serum protein adsorption, and rescue the targeting potential of nanoparticles to tumour cells. An in-depth and complete understanding of nanoparticle-blood interactions is key to designing nanoparticles with optimal physicochemical properties with high tumour accumulation. The purpose of this review article is to describe how the protein corona alters the targeting of nanoparticles to solid tumours and explains current solutions to solve this problem.

  3. Childhood vitiligo: Treatment paradigms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrinder Jit Kanwar


    Full Text Available Childhood vitiligo differs from the adults by showing a higher incidence in females, segmental vitiligo being more common and less frequent association with other systemic autoimmune and endocrine disorders.Childhood vitiligo is often associated with a marked psychosocial and long lasting effect on the self-esteem of the affected children and their parents, hence an adequate treatment is very essential. Treatment of vitiligo is indeed a tough challenge for the dermatologists′ more so in the background of childhood vitiligo. Although multiple therapeutic modalities are available in the therapeutic armamentarium, not all can be used in children. This brief report updates regarding various therapies available in the treatment of childhood vitiligo.

  4. Childhood Obesity: Common Misconceptions (United States)

    ... of childhood obesity. Yes, hypothyroidism (a deficit in thyroid secretion) and other rarer and more severe genetic and metabolic disorders (eg, Prader-Willi syndrome, Turner syndrome, Cushing syndrome) ...

  5. Cardiovascular Conditions of Childhood (United States)

    ... diagnosed, treated and even cured in younger children. Kawasaki Disease This childhood illness can result in long-term ... complications. Learn the symptoms, diagnosis and treatment for Kawasaki disease. Cholesterol Raised cholesterol levels early in life may ...

  6. Stages of Childhood Craniopharyngioma (United States)

    ... has any of the following: Headaches, including morning headache or headache that goes away after vomiting . Vision changes. Nausea ... Cancer Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Children with Cancer: ...

  7. Childhood Craniopharyngioma Treatment (United States)

    ... has any of the following: Headaches, including morning headache or headache that goes away after vomiting . Vision changes. Nausea ... Cancer Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Children with Cancer: ...

  8. Stages of Childhood Rhabdomyosarcoma (United States)

    ... It may be painful. Bulging of the eye. Headache. Trouble urinating or having bowel movements. Blood in ... Cancer Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Children with Cancer: ...

  9. Childhood Astrocytomas Treatment (United States)

    ... your child has any of the following: Morning headache or headache that goes away after vomiting . Nausea and vomiting. ... Cancer Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer Adolescents and Young Adults with Cancer Children with Cancer: ...

  10. Perinatal and Childhood Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap


    Full Text Available The epidemiology, risk factors, outcome and prognosis of perinatal and childhood stroke were reviewed at a workshop sponsored by the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke in Bethesda, MD, on Sept 18 and 19, 2000.

  11. Early childhood aggression


    Alink, Lenneke Rosalie Agnes


    In this thesis the development, stability, and correlates of early childhood aggression were investigated. The normative development was examined in a general population sample using questionnaires completed by the parents of 12-, 24-, and 36-month-old children and again one year later. Results showed an early childhood aggression curve, with increasing rates of aggression in the second year of life and decreasing rates in the fourth year. One-year stabilities were moderate for 12-month-olds ...

  12. Nutrition in childhood


    Bartolo, Marie Claire


    Childhood is the stage in a human’s life associated with growth and development. Growth proceeds rapidly in early life, slows down in middle childhood and accelerates at puberty before linear growth ceases. With increasing age there is also physical and psychomotor maturation, which influences activity, body composition, feeding skills and food choices (Geissler, 2011). Adequate nutrition is essential for growth, health and development of children. Poor nutrition in...

  13. Platelet-activating factor receptor (PAF-R-dependent pathways control tumour growth and tumour response to chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohde Ciro BS


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by macrophages induces a suppressor phenotype. Previous data from our group suggested that this occurs via Platelet-activating factor receptor (PAF-R-mediated pathways. In the present study, we investigated the impact of apoptotic cell inoculation or induction by a chemotherapeutic agent (dacarbazine, DTIC on tumour growth, microenvironmental parameters and survival, and the effect of treatment with a PAF-R antagonist (WEB2170. These studies were performed in murine tumours: Ehrlich Ascitis Tumour (EAT and B16F10 melanoma. Methods Tumour growth was assessed by direct counting of EAT cells in the ascitis or by measuring the volume of the solid tumour. Parameters of the tumour microenvironment, such as the frequency of cells expressing cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2, caspase-3 and galectin-3, and microvascular density, were determined by immunohistochemistry. Levels of vascular endothelium growth factor (VEGF and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 were determined by ELISA, and levels of nitric oxide (NO by Griess reaction. PAF-R expression was analysed by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry. Results Inoculation of apoptotic cells before EAT implantation stimulated tumour growth. This effect was reversed by in vivo pre-treatment with WEB2170. This treatment also reduced tumour growth and modified the microenvironment by reducing PGE2, VEGF and NO production. In B16F10 melanoma, WEB2170 alone or in association with DTIC significantly reduced tumour volume. Survival of the tumour-bearing mice was not affected by WEB2170 treatment but was significantly improved by the combination of DTIC with WEB2170. Tumour microenvironment elements were among the targets of the combination therapy since the relative frequency of COX-2 and galectin-3 positive cells and the microvascular density within the tumour mass were significantly reduced by treatment with WEB2170 or DTIC alone or in combination. Antibodies to PAF-R stained

  14. Brain Basics

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  15. Brain Basics (United States)

    ... News About Us Home > Health & Education > Educational Resources Brain Basics Introduction The Growing Brain The Working Brain ... to mental disorders, such as depression. The Growing Brain Inside the Brain: Neurons & Neural Circuits Neurons are ...

  16. Thoracic malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour mimicking a pleural tumour: a rare pedunculated appearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komori, Masahiro [Department of Radiology, National Kyushu Cancer Centre, 3-1-1 Notame, Minami-ku, Fukuoka 811-1395 (Japan); Department of Radiology, Munakata Medical Association Hospital, 1201-1 Taguma, Munakata 811-3431 (Japan); Yabuuchi, Hidetake; Kuroiwa, Toshiro [Department of Radiology, National Kyushu Cancer Centre, 3-1-1 Notame, Minami-ku, Fukuoka 811-1395 (Japan); Nagatoshi, Yoshihisa [Department of Paediatrics, National Kyushu Cancer Centre, Fukuoka (Japan); Ichinose, Yukito [Department of Thoracic Surgery, National Kyushu Cancer Centre, Fukuoka (Japan); Hachitanda, Yoichi [Department of Pathology, National Kyushu Cancer Centre, Fukuoka (Japan)


    A malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour (MPNST) generally occurs in adults and often in patients with neurofibromatosis-1 (NF-1). We present a rare case of a huge thoracic MPNST arising from the intercostal nerve in a 12-year-old girl without NF-1. In addition to the unusual occurrence in a child without NF-1, MRI demonstrated a unique pedunculated appearance mimicking a pleural tumour. In this report, we present the CT and MRI findings of our case, together with the histopathological findings, and review previous reports. (orig.)

  17. Childhood poverty and stress reactivity are associated with aberrant functional connectivity in default mode network. (United States)

    Sripada, Rebecca K; Swain, James E; Evans, Gary W; Welsh, Robert C; Liberzon, Israel


    Convergent research suggests that childhood poverty is associated with perturbation in the stress response system. This might extend to aberrations in the connectivity of large-scale brain networks, which subserve key cognitive and emotional functions. Resting-state brain activity was measured in adults with a documented history of childhood poverty (n=26) and matched controls from middle-income families (n=26). Participants also underwent a standard laboratory social stress test and provided saliva samples for cortisol assay. Childhood poverty was associated with reduced default mode network (DMN) connectivity. This, in turn, was associated with higher cortisol levels in anticipation of social stress. These results suggest a possible brain basis for exaggerated stress sensitivity in low-income individuals. Alterations in DMN may be associated with less efficient cognitive processing or greater risk for development of stress-related psychopathology among individuals who experienced the adversity of chronic childhood poverty.

  18. Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumour of the Maxilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puja Sahai


    Full Text Available A 38-year-old man was diagnosed with malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour of the maxilla. He was treated with total maxillectomy. Histopathological examination of the resected specimen revealed a close resection margin. The tumour was of high grade with an MIB-1 labelling index of almost 60%. At six weeks following the surgery, he developed local tumour relapse. The patient succumbed to the disease at five months from the time of diagnosis. The present report underlines the locally aggressive nature of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour of the maxilla which necessitates an early therapeutic intervention. A complete resection with clear margins is the most important prognostic factor for malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour in the head and neck region. Adjuvant radiotherapy may be considered to improve the local control. Future research may demarcate the role of targeted therapy for patients with malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour.

  19. Pulsation-limited oxygen diffusion in the tumour microenvironment (United States)

    Milotti, Edoardo; Stella, Sabrina; Chignola, Roberto


    Hypoxia is central to tumour evolution, growth, invasion and metastasis. Mathematical models of hypoxia based on reaction-diffusion equations provide seemingly incomplete descriptions as they fail to predict the measured oxygen concentrations in the tumour microenvironment. In an attempt to explain the discrepancies, we consider both the inhomogeneous distribution of oxygen-consuming cells in solid tumours and the dynamics of blood flow in the tumour microcirculation. We find that the low-frequency oscillations play an important role in the establishment of tumour hypoxia. The oscillations interact with consumption to inhibit oxygen diffusion in the microenvironment. This suggests that alpha-blockers–a class of drugs used to treat hypertension and stress disorders, and known to lower or even abolish low-frequency oscillations of arterial blood flow –may act as adjuvant drugs in the radiotherapy of solid tumours by enhancing the oxygen effect.

  20. Brain metastases free survival differs between breast cancer subtypes (United States)

    Berghoff, A; Bago-Horvath, Z; De Vries, C; Dubsky, P; Pluschnig, U; Rudas, M; Rottenfusser, A; Knauer, M; Eiter, H; Fitzal, F; Dieckmann, K; Mader, R M; Gnant, M; Zielinski, C C; Steger, G G; Preusser, M; Bartsch, R


    Background: Brain metastases (BM) are frequently diagnosed in patients with HER-2-positive metastatic breast cancer; in addition, an increasing incidence was reported for triple-negative tumours. We aimed to compare brain metastases free survival (BMFS) of breast cancer subtypes in patients treated between 1996 until 2010. Methods: Brain metastases free survival was measured as the interval from diagnosis of extracranial breast cancer metastases until diagnosis of BM. HER-2 status was analysed by immunohistochemistry and reanalysed by fluorescent in situ hybridisation if a score of 2+ was gained. Oestrogen-receptor (ER) and progesterone-receptor (PgR) status was analysed by immunohistochemistry. Brain metastases free survival curves were estimated with the Kaplan–Meier method and compared with the log-rank test. Results: Data of 213 patients (46 luminal/124 HER-2/43 triple-negative subtype) with BM from breast cancer were available for the analysis. Brain metastases free survival differed significantly between breast cancer subtypes. Median BMFS in triple-negative tumours was 14 months (95% CI: 11.34–16.66) compared with 18 months (95% CI: 14.46–21.54) in HER-2-positive tumours (P=0.001) and 34 months (95% CI: 23.71–44.29) in luminal tumours (P=0.001), respectively. In HER-2-positive patients, co-positivity for ER and HER-2 prolonged BMFS (26 vs 15 m; P=0.033); in luminal tumours, co-expression of ER and PgR was not significantly associated with BMFS. Brain metastases free survival in patients with lung metastases was significantly shorter (17 vs 21 months; P=0.014). Conclusion: Brain metastases free survival in triple-negative breast cancer, as well as in HER-2-positive/ER-negative, is significantly shorter compared with HER-2/ER co-positive or luminal tumours, mirroring the aggressiveness of these breast cancer subtypes. PMID:22233926

  1. Childhood cancer survival in France, 2000-2008. (United States)

    Lacour, Brigitte; Goujon, Stéphanie; Guissou, Sandra; Guyot-Goubin, Aurélie; Desmée, Solène; Désandes, Emmanuel; Clavel, Jacqueline


    This paper reports the latest survival data for French childhood cancer patients at the national level. Data from the two French National Registries of Childhood Cancer (Haematopoietic Malignancies and Solid Tumours) were used to describe survival outcomes for 15,479 children diagnosed with cancer between 2000 and 2008 in mainland France. The overall survival was 91.7% at 1 year, 86.9% at 2 years and 81.6% at 5 years. Relative survival did not differ from overall survival even for infants. Survival was lower among infants for lymphoblastic leukaemia and astrocytoma, but higher for neuroblastoma. For all cancers considered together, 5-year survival increased from 79.5% in the first (2000-2002) diagnostic period to 83.2% in the last (2006-2008) period. The improvement was significant for leukaemia, both myeloid and lymphoid, central nervous system tumours (ependymoma) and neuroblastoma. The results remained valid in the multivariate analysis, and, for all cancers combined, the risk of death decreased by 20% between 2000-2002 and 2006-2008. The figures are consistent with various international estimates and are the result of progress in treatment regimens and collaborative clinical trials. The challenge for the French registries is now to study the long-term follow-up of survivors to estimate the incidence of long-term morbidities and adverse effects of treatments.

  2. Stroma and extracellular matrix proteins in canine tumours



    In this thesis, studies on temporal and spatial changes in stromal cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules in canine gastrointestinal (GIT) tumours and canine transmissible venereal (CTVT) tumours are described. The mechanisms involved in the phenotypic transformation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts, and ECM changes were investigated. We found that the myofibroblast is the most common stromal cell in canine GIT epithelial tumours and most likely originated from pre-existing fibroblast...

  3. The challenges of detecting circulating tumour cells in sarcoma


    Tellez-Gabriel, M.; Brown, H K; Young, R.; Heymann, M. F.; Heymann, D


    International audience; Sarcomas are a heterogenous group of malignant neoplasms of mesenchymal origin, many of which have a propensity to develop distant metastases. Cancer cells that have escaped from the primary tumour are able to invade into surrounding tissues, to intravasate into the bloodstream to become Circulating Tumour Cells (CTCs), and are responsible for the generation of distant metastases. Due to the rarity of these tumours and the absence of specific markers expressed by sarco...

  4. Is it Possible to Extract Brain Metabolic Pathways Information from In Vivo H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Data?

    CERN Document Server

    de Lara, Alejandro Chinea Manrique


    In vivo H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is an important tool for performing non-invasive quantitative assessments of brain tumour glucose metabolism. Brain tumours are considered as fast-growth tumours because of their high rate of proliferation. In addition, tumour cells exhibit profound genetic, biochemical and histological differences with respect to the original non-transformed cellular types. Therefore, there is a strong interest from the clinical investigator point of view in understanding the role of brain metabolites in normal and pathological conditions and especially on the development of early tumour detection techniques. Unfortunately, current diagnosis techniques ignore the dynamic aspects of these signals. It is largely believed that temporal variations of NMR Spectra are noisy or just simply do not carry enough information to be exploited by any reliable diagnosis procedure. Thus, current diagnosis procedures are mainly based on empirical observations extracted from single avera...

  5. Spectrum of Childhood and Adolescent Ovarian Tumors in India: 25 Years Experience at a Single Institution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Rathore


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ovarian tumour in children and adolescent girls form an uncommon but important part of gynaecological malignancies. They account for 1% of all the childhood malignancies and 8% of all abdominal tumours in children. Since the ovarian cysts are thought to arise from mature follicles, these tumours were considered to be infrequent in the paediatric population. AIM: The rarity of this condition prompted us to conduct this study and share our experience on the incidence and clinicopathological features of different ovarian tumours in girls up to 20 years of age observed in last 25 years at a single tertiary care hospital. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study conducted in the Department of Pathology at a tertiary hospital, Delhi. All ovarian tumours up to the age of 20 years in the past 25 years (1990-2014 were included for the purpose of studying the clinicopathological aspects of ovarian tumours in this age group. Descriptive statistics for prevalence and age-wise prevalence was done. Chi-square test, to find an association between the age, laterality and size with malignancy was performed. RESULTS: We received a total of 1102 cases of ovarian tumours over the period of 25 years  (1990 to 2014, of which 112 (10% cases were seen in girls up to 20 years of age. The mean age of the patients was 15.3 ± 4 years. The most common presenting complaint was pain abdomen (46.4 % There was a statistically significant correlation found between size and malignancy status of tumours in our study (p = 0.00. Of 112 cases of ovarian tumours, 39/112 (34.8% were malignant and 73/112 (65.2% were benign. Mature  cystic teratoma (27.6% was the most common type of benign tumour in this age group and immature teratomas were the most common type of malignant ovarian neoplasms. CONCLUSION: Premenarchal girls with ovarian masses may have varied presentations. Abdominal pain is the most common presenting complaint of young adolescent girls with

  6. Tumour Heterogeneity: The Key Advantages of Single-Cell Analysis (United States)

    Tellez-Gabriel, Marta; Ory, Benjamin; Lamoureux, Francois; Heymann, Marie-Francoise; Heymann, Dominique


    Tumour heterogeneity refers to the fact that different tumour cells can show distinct morphological and phenotypic profiles, including cellular morphology, gene expression, metabolism, motility, proliferation and metastatic potential. This phenomenon occurs both between tumours (inter-tumour heterogeneity) and within tumours (intra-tumour heterogeneity), and it is caused by genetic and non-genetic factors. The heterogeneity of cancer cells introduces significant challenges in using molecular prognostic markers as well as for classifying patients that might benefit from specific therapies. Thus, research efforts for characterizing heterogeneity would be useful for a better understanding of the causes and progression of disease. It has been suggested that the study of heterogeneity within Circulating Tumour Cells (CTCs) could also reflect the full spectrum of mutations of the disease more accurately than a single biopsy of a primary or metastatic tumour. In previous years, many high throughput methodologies have raised for the study of heterogeneity at different levels (i.e., RNA, DNA, protein and epigenetic events). The aim of the current review is to stress clinical implications of tumour heterogeneity, as well as current available methodologies for their study, paying specific attention to those able to assess heterogeneity at the single cell level. PMID:27999407

  7. Isolation and identification of marine fish tumour (odontoma) associated bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramalingam Vijayakumar; Kuzhanthaivel Raja; Vijayapoopathi Singaravel; Ayyaru Gopalakrishnan


    Objective: To identify fish tumour associated bacteria. Methods: The marine fish Sphyraena jello with odontoma was collected from in Tamil Nadu (Southeast India), and tumour associated bacteria were isolated. Then the isolated bacteria were identified based on molecular characters. Results: A total of 4 different bacterial species were isolated from tumour tissue. The bacterial species were Bacillus sp., Pontibacter sp., Burkholderia sp. and Macrococcus sp., and the sequences were submitted in DNA Data Bank of Japan with accession numbers of AB859240, AB859241, AB859242 and AB859243 respectively. Conclusions: Four different bacterial species were isolated from Sphyraena jello, but the role of bacteria within tumour needs to be further investigated.

  8. 3D Multiscale Modelling of Angiogenesis and Vascular Tumour Growth

    KAUST Repository

    Perfahl, H.


    We present a three-dimensional, multiscale model of vascular tumour growth, which couples nutrient/growth factor transport, blood flow, angiogenesis, vascular remodelling, movement of and interactions between normal and tumour cells, and nutrient-dependent cell cycle dynamics within each cell. We present computational simulations which show how a vascular network may evolve and interact with tumour and healthy cells. We also demonstrate how our model may be combined with experimental data, to predict the spatio-temporal evolution of a vascular tumour.

  9. Salivary gland tumours in a Mexican sample. A retrospective study. (United States)

    Ledesma-Montes, C; Garces-Ortiz, M


    Salivary gland tumours are an important part of the Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, unfortunately, only few studies on these tumours have been done in Latin-American population. The aim of this study was to compare demographic data on salivary gland tumours in a Mexican sample with those previously published from Latin American and non-Latin American countries. All cases of salivary gland tumours or lesions diagnosed in our service were reviewed. Of the reviewed cases,67 were confirmed as salivary gland tumours. Out of these 64.2% were benign neoplasms, 35.8% were malignant and a slight female predominance (56.7%) was found. The most common location was palate followed by lips and floor of the mouth. Mean age for benign tumours was 40.6 years with female predominance (60.5%). Mean age for malignant tumours was 41 years and female predominance was found again. Palate followed by retromolar area were the usual locations. Pleomorphic adenoma (58.2%), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (17.9%) and adenoid cystic carcinoma (11.9%) were the more frequent neoplasms. All retromolar cases were malignant and all submandibular gland tumours were benign. We found a high proportion of salivary gland neoplasms in children. Our results showed that differences of the studied tumours among our sample and previously reported series exist. These differences can be related to race and geographical location.

  10. Multimodal therapy for synergic inhibition of tumour cell invasion and tumour-induced angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muehlenweg Bernd


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN are highly invasive tumours with frequent local and distant recurrence. Metastasis formation requires degradation of the extracellular matrix, which is fulfilled by membrane-associated proteases such as the urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA. WX-UK1 is a competitive active site inhibitor of the protease function of uPA that impairs on the capacity of tumour cells to invade in vitro. Methods In the present study, effects of combinations of WX-UK1 with matrix metalloprotease inhibitors (MMP, galardin® and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, celecoxib® inhibitors on tumour cell proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis induction were evaluated. Matrigel invasion chambers and a spheroid co-cultivation model with human fibroblast served to determine the invasive potential of both FaDu (SCCHN and HeLa (cervical carcinoma cells, each treated with combinations of Celecoxib®, Galardin®, and WX-UK1. Results Blocking of single protease systems resulted in a significant 50% reduction of tumour cell invasion using WX-UK1, while the triple combination was even more effective with 80% reduction of invasion. Additionally, a sprouting assay with HUVEC was used to test the anti-angiogenetic potential of the triple combination, resulting in a 40% decrease in the sprouting rate. Conclusions A combined approach targeting different families of proteases and cyclooxygenases represents a promising adjuvant therapy.

  11. Brain herniation (United States)

    ... herniation; Uncal herniation; Subfalcine herniation; Tonsillar herniation; Herniation - brain ... Brain herniation occurs when something inside the skull produces pressure that moves brain tissues. This is most ...

  12. MRI of intracranial germ-cell tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, L.; Korogi, Y.; Sugahara, T.; Ikushima, I.; Shigematsu, Y.; Okuda, T.; Takahashi, M. [Department of Radiology, Kumamoto University School of Medicine (Japan); Kochi, M.; Ushio, Y. [Department of Neurosurgery, Kumamoto University School of Medicine (Japan)


    Abstract. Our aim was to review the MRI appearances of primary intracranial germ-cell tumours (GCT). We reviewed the MRI studies of 32 patients: 19 with germinomas, five with teratomas, one with an embryonal carcinoma, five with mixed and two with malignant nongerminomatous GCT. Eleven were in the pineal region, 12 suprasellar, five in the both sites, two in the basal ganglia and two in the corpus callosum. Contrast-enhanced images were available for 27 patients. The solid parts of GCT were nearly isointense with grey matter on both T1- and T2-weighted images. In seven patients with nongerminomatous GCT high-signal components were found on T1-weighted images, representing haemorrhage, high-protein fluid or fat. Cystic components were detected in 17 of 27 patients; eight germinomas and all nine nongerminomatous GCT had cysts. The solid components of germinomas enhanced homogeneously in eight cases and heterogeneously in 10, while all nongerminomatous GCT showed heterogeneous enhancement. MRI features tumours can facilitate correct diagnosis of GCT, including histological subtypes. (orig.)

  13. Targeted therapy of gastrointestinal stromal tumours

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashish Jakhetiya; Pankaj Kumar Garg; Gaurav Prakash; Jyoti Sharma; Rambha Pandey; Durgatosh Pandey


    Gastrointestinal stromal tumours(GISTs) are mesen-chymal neoplasms originating in the gastrointestinal tract, usually in the stomach or the small intestine, and rarely elsewhere in the abdomen. The malignant potential of GISTs is variable ranging from small lesions with a benign behaviour to fatal sarcomas. The majo-rity of the tumours stain positively for the CD-117(KIT) and discovered on GIST-1(DOG-1 or anoctamin 1) expression, and they are characterized by the presence of a driver kinase-activating mutation in either KIT or platelet-derived growth factor receptor α. Although surgery is the primary modality of treatment, almost half of the patients have disease recurrence following surgery, which highlights the need for an effective adjuvant therapy. Traditionally, GISTs are considered chemotherapy and radiotherapy resistant. With the advent of targeted therapy(tyrosine kinase inhibitors), there has been a paradigm shift in the management of GISTs in the last decade. We present a comprehensive review of targeted therapy in the management of GISTs.

  14. Comprehensive molecular portraits of human breast tumours. (United States)


    We analysed primary breast cancers by genomic DNA copy number arrays, DNA methylation, exome sequencing, messenger RNA arrays, microRNA sequencing and reverse-phase protein arrays. Our ability to integrate information across platforms provided key insights into previously defined gene expression subtypes and demonstrated the existence of four main breast cancer classes when combining data from five platforms, each of which shows significant molecular heterogeneity. Somatic mutations in only three genes (TP53, PIK3CA and GATA3) occurred at >10% incidence across all breast cancers; however, there were numerous subtype-associated and novel gene mutations including the enrichment of specific mutations in GATA3, PIK3CA and MAP3K1 with the luminal A subtype. We identified two novel protein-expression-defined subgroups, possibly produced by stromal/microenvironmental elements, and integrated analyses identified specific signalling pathways dominant in each molecular subtype including a HER2/phosphorylated HER2/EGFR/phosphorylated EGFR signature within the HER2-enriched expression subtype. Comparison of basal-like breast tumours with high-grade serous ovarian tumours showed many molecular commonalities, indicating a related aetiology and similar therapeutic opportunities. The biological finding of the four main breast cancer subtypes caused by different subsets of genetic and epigenetic abnormalities raises the hypothesis that much of the clinically observable plasticity and heterogeneity occurs within, and not across, these major biological subtypes of breast cancer.

  15. Proton MR spectroscopy of cerebral gliomas at 3 T: spatial heterogeneity, and tumour grade and extent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Costanzo, Alfonso; Catapano, Domenico; D' Angelo, Vincenzo A. [Department of Health Sciences, University of Molise, Campobasso (Italy); Scarabino, Tommaso; Popolizio, Teresa; Giannatempo, Giuseppe M. [Department of Neuroradiology, Scientific Institute, Foggia (Italy); Trojsi, Francesca; Bonavita, Simona; Tedeschi, Gioacchino [Department of Neurological Sciences, 2. University of Naples (Italy); Portaluri, Maurizio [Department of Radiotherapy, Perrino Hospital, Brindisi (Italy); Tosetti, Michela [Department of Magnetic Resonance, Scientific Institute Stella Maris, Pisa (Italy); Salvolini, Ugo [Department of Radiology, Polytechnic University of Marches, Ancona (Italy)


    This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of proton MR spectroscopic imaging ({sup 1}H-MRSI) at 3 T in differentiating high- from low-grade gliomas, and tumour from necrosis, oedema or normal tissue. Forty-four patients with brain gliomas and four with meningiomas were retrospectively reviewed. The normalised metabolites choline (nCho), N-acetylaspartate (nNAA), creatine (nCr) and lactate/lipids (nLL), and the metabolite ratios Cho/NAA, NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr were calculated. Necrotic-appearing areas showed two spectroscopic patterns: 'necrosis' with variable nCho and high nLL, and 'cystic necrosis' with variable nLL or nonevident peaks. Peri-enhancing oedematous-appearing areas showed three spectroscopic patterns ('tumour' with abnormal Cho/NAA, 'oedema' with normal Cho/NAA and 'tumour/oedema' with normal nCho and abnormal Cho/NAA) in gliomas, and one ('oedema') in meningiomas. Peri-enhancing or peri-tumour normal-appearing areas showed two patterns ('infiltrated' with abnormal nCho and/or Cho/NAA and 'normal' with normal spectra) in gliomas and one ('normal') in meningiomas. Discriminant analysis showed that classification accuracy between high- and low-grade glioma masses was better with normalised metabolites or all parameters together than metabolite ratios and that among peri-enhancing areas was much better with normalised metabolites. The analysis of spatial distribution of normalised metabolites by 3-T {sup 1}H-MRSI helps to discriminate among different tissues, offering information not available with conventional MRI. (orig.)

  16. Childhood trauma in bipolar disorder


    Watson, Stuart; Gallagher, Peter; Dougall, Dominic; Porter, Richard; Moncrieff, Joanna; Ferrier, I Nicol; Young, Allan H.


    Objective: There has been little investigation of early trauma in bipolar disorder despite evidence that stress impacts on the course of this illness. We aimed to compare the rates of childhood trauma in adults with bipolar disorder to a healthy control group, and to investigate the impact of childhood trauma on the clinical course of bipolar disorder. Methods: Retrospective assessment of childhood trauma was conducted using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) in 60 outpatients with bipo...

  17. Childhood trauma in bipolar disorder.


    Watson, S; Gallagher, P.; Dougall, D.; Porter, R.; Moncrieff, J; Ferrier, I N; Young, A.H.


    Objective:There has been little investigation of early trauma in bipolar disorder despite evidence that stress impacts on the course of this illness. We aimed to compare the rates of childhood trauma in adults with bipolar disorder to a healthy control group, and to investigate the impact of childhood trauma on the clinical course of bipolar disorder.Methods:Retrospective assessment of childhood trauma was conducted using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) in 60 outpatients with bipolar...

  18. Psychiatric Aspects of Childhood Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman Deep PATTANAYAK


    Full Text Available How to Cite this Article: Pattanayak RD, Sagar R. Psychiatric Aspects of Childhood Epilepsy. Iran J Child Neurol 2012;6(2:9-18.Childhood epilepsy is a chronic, recurrent disorder of unprovoked seizures. Theonset of epilepsy in childhood has significant implications for brain growth anddevelopment. Seizures may impair the ongoing neurodevelopmental processes and compromise the child’s intellectual and cognitive functioning, leading totremendous cognitive, behavioral and psychosocial consequences. Children with epilepsy are at increased risk for emotional and behavioral problems. In addition to the direct effects of epilepsy, there are multiple contributory factors including the underlying neurological abnormalities and adverse effects of medication. This review discusses the current understanding of various psychiatric aspects of childhood epilepsy, including the neuropsychological, behavioral and psychosocial concomitants of childhood epilepsy.References1. Shinnar S, Pellock JM. Update on the epidemiology and prognosis of pediatric epilepsy. J Child Neurol 2002;7 suppl 1:4-17.2. Murphy CC, Trevathan E, Yeargin-Allsopp M. Prevalence of epilepsy and epileptic seizures in 10-year-old children: results from the Metropolitan Atlanta Developmental Disabilities Study. Epilepsia 1995;36(9:866-72.3. Placencia M, Shorvon SD, Paredes V, Bimos C, Sander JW, Suarez J, et al. Epileptic seizures in an Andean region of Ecuador ncidence and prevalence and regional variation. Brain 1992;115:771-82.4. Henkin Y, Sadeh M, Kivity S, Shabtai E, KishonRabin L, Gadoth N. Cognitive function in idiopathic generalized epilepsy of childhood. Dev Med Child Neurol 2005;47:126-32.5. Rodenburg R, Stams GJ, Meijer AM, Aldenkamp AP, Dekovic M. Psychopathology in children with epilepsy: a meta-analysis. J Pediatr Psychol 2005;30(6:453-68.6. Caplan R, Siddarth P, Gurbani S, Ott D, Sankar R, Shields WD. Psychopathology and pediatric complex partial seizures: seizure

  19. The IL-33/ST2 pathway in CNS : Traumatic brain injury and brain tumour


    Li, Xiaofei


    Interleukin 33 (IL-33) is a dual function cytokine. It is a member of the IL-1 family and it acts as a pro-inflammatory factor (18 kilo Dalton, 18 kD) like other cytokines in IL-1 family. IL-33 is also a transcription factor (32 kD - form) which can suppress or activate gene transcription in diverse cases. A variety of cell types and tissues in the central nervous system (CNS) can release IL-33 after injury. The 18 kD IL-33 binds to the membrane receptor protein ST2 ligand, then regulates dow...

  20. Childhood pheochromocytoma in a survivor of central primitive neuroectodermal tumor. (United States)

    Nakano, Yoshiko; Fujimaru, Rika; Ishii, Keiichi; Sakamoto, Hiroaki; Inoue, Takeshi; Sako, Masahiro; Yamada, Hiroshi


    Pheochromocytoma and central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal tumor are both neural crest-derived tumors. The former is usually benign and develops mainly in adulthood and the latter brain tumor mainly occurs in childhood and has a poor prognosis. We report a case of a 15-year-old boy who developed pheochromocytoma after more than 10 years of complete remission of central primitive neuroectodermal tumor. Thus far, there have been no reports of childhood cancer survivors who developed pheochromocytoma. This quite rare occurrence of two tumors in a single patient may imply some unidentified linkage or common genetic background.

  1. Atopic endotype in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoos, Ann-Marie Malby; Chawes, Bo Lund Krogsgaard; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt


    against 28 inhalant and food allergens was assessed at ½, 1½, 4, 6, and 13 years of age in 399 children from the Copenhagen Prospective Study on Asthma in Childhood2000 birth cohort by using both skin prick test responses and specific IgE levels. Asthma and eczema were diagnosed longitudinally by strictly...... with asthma through early childhood (0-6 years) when analyzed as any sensitization (odds ratio [OR] range, 0.78-1.29; P ≥ .48). However, at 13 years of age, any sensitization was associated with asthma (OR range, 4.02-5.94; all P ...%), eczema (26%), asthma (14%), or healthy status (24%). Conclusion: We found very little interdependency between asthma, eczema, and allergic sensitization through childhood. The associations between those entities were strongly dependent on age, type of allergens, and method of testing for sensitization...

  2. Discovering the Culture of Childhood (United States)

    Plank, Emily


    We often filter our interactions with children through the lens of adulthood. View the culture of childhood through a whole new lens. Identify age-based bias and expand your outlook on and understanding of early childhood as a culture. Examine various elements of childhood culture: language, the power of believing, artistic expressions, and social…

  3. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Suicide (United States)

    ... 5 1 Molnar, B., Berkman, L., & Buka, S. (2001). Psychopathology, childhood sexual abuse, and other childhood adversities: Relative links ... 4 Shapiro, S. (1992). Suicidality and the sequelae of childhood victimization. In S. ... and psychopathology. NY: Lexington Books. 56 Goldsmith et al., (2000). ...

  4. Childhood myelodysplastic syndrome. (United States)

    Chatterjee, Tathagata; Choudhry, V P


    Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) comprises of a heterogeneous group of bone marrow disorders resulting from a clonal stem cell defect characterised by cytopenias despite a relatively hypercellular marrow, ineffective hematopoiesis, morphological dysplasia in the marrow elements, no response to hematinics such as iron, B12 or folic acid and risk of progression to leukemia. Myelodysplastic syndrome in childhood is extremely rare and accounts for less than 5% of all hematopoietic neoplasms in children below the age of 14 y. The primary MDS in children, also known as de novo MDS differs from secondary MDS which generally follows congenital or acquired bone marrow (BM) failure syndromes as well as from therapy related MDS, commonly resulting from cytotoxic therapy. MDS associated with Down syndrome which accounts for approximately one-fourth of cases of childhood MDS is now considered a unique biologic entity synonymous with Down syndrome-related myeloid leukemia and is biologically distinct from other cases of childhood MDS. Refractory cytopenia of childhood (RCC) is the commonest type of MDS. Genetic changes predisposing to MDS in childhood remain largely obscure. Monosomy 7 is by-far the commonest cytogenetic abnormality associated with childhood MDS; however most cases of RCC show a normal karyotype. Complex cytogenetic abnormalities and trisomy 8 and trisomy 21 are also occasionally observed. The most effective and curative treatment is Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and this is particularly effective in children with the monosomy 7 genetic defect as well as those displaying complex karyotype abnormalities provided it is instituted early in the course of the disease.

  5. A Tewo Tibetan Childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rdo rje tshe brtan


    Full Text Available Rdo rje tshe brtan (b. 1986 describes his childhood in Dredze Village, Yiwa Township, Tewo County, Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Gansu Province, China, as well as being a student in Xining City, Qinghai Province. Topics covered include his family, childhood injuries and illnesses, education, Terang (malicious household deities, mountain deities and associated rituals and sacrifices, death, conflict with other locals, collecting local plants, a birth in the village, stealing fruit, a wedding, plowing, a visit to a hot spring, a lost yak, slaughtering pigs, government confiscation of fields, and slaughtering pigs. Photos provide additional detail.

  6. Bacterial targeted tumour therapy-dawn of a new era. (United States)

    Wei, Ming Q; Mengesha, Asferd; Good, David; Anné, Jozef


    Original observation of patients' spontaneous recovery from advanced tumours after an infection or a "fever" inspired extensive research. As a result, Coley's toxin for the therapy of sarcomas and live Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) for bladder cancer were born. In addition, three genera of anaerobic bacteria have been shown to specifically and preferentially target solid tumours and cause significant tumour lyses. Initial research had focused on determining the best tumour colonizing bacteria, and assessing the therapeutic efficacy of different strategies either as a single or combination treatment modalities. However, although clinical trials were carried out as early as the 1960s, lack of complete tumour lyses with injection of Clostridial spores had limited their further use. Recent progress in the field has highlighted the rapid development of new tools for genetic manipulation of Clostridia which have otherwise been a hurdle for a long time, such as plasmid transformation using electroporation that bore the problems of inefficiency, instability and plasmid loss. A new Clostridium strain, C. novyi-NT made apathogenic by genetic modification, is under clinical trials. New genetic engineering tools, such as the group II intron has shown promise for genetic manipulation of bacteria and forecast the dawn of a new era for a tumour-targeted bacterial vector system for gene therapy of solid tumours. In this review we will discuss the potential of genetically manipulated bacteria that will usher in the new era of bacterial therapy for solid tumours, and highlight strategies and tools used to improve the bacterial oncolytic capability.

  7. A short history of neuroendocrine tumours and their peptide hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Herder, Wouter W; Rehfeld, Jens F; Kidd, Mark;


    The discovery of neuroendocrine tumours of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas started in 1870, when Rudolf Heidenhain discovered the neuroendocrine cells, which can lead to the development of these tumours. Siegfried Oberndorfer was the first to introduce the term carcinoid in 1907. The panc...

  8. Assessment of breast cancer tumour size using six different methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier-Meitinger, Martina; Uder, Michael; Schulz-Wendtland, Ruediger; Adamietz, Boris [Erlangen University Hospital, Institute of Diagnostic Radiology, Erlangen (Germany); Haeberle, Lothar; Fasching, Peter A.; Bani, Mayada R.; Heusinger, Katharina; Beckmann, Matthias W. [Erlangen University Hospital, University Breast Center, Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Erlangen (Germany); Wachter, David [Erlangen University Hospital, Institute of Pathology, Erlangen (Germany)


    Tumour size estimates using mammography (MG), conventional ultrasound (US), compound imaging (CI) and real-time elastography (RTE) were compared with histopathological specimen sizes. The largest diameters of 97 malignant breast lesions were measured. Two US and CI measurements were made: US1/CI1 (hypoechoic nucleus only) and US2/CI2 (hypoechoic nucleus plus hyperechoic halo). Measurements were compared with histopathological tumour sizes using linear regression and Bland-Altman plots. Size prediction was best with ultrasound (US/CI/RTE: R{sup 2} 0.31-0.36); mammography was poorer (R{sup 2} = 0.19). The most accurate method was US2, while US1 and CI1 were poorest. Bland-Altman plots showed better size estimation with US2, CI2 and RTE, with low variation, while mammography showed greatest variability. Smaller tumours were better assessed than larger ones. CI2 and US2 performed best for ductal tumours and RTE for lobular cancers. Tumour size prediction accuracy did not correlate significantly with breast density, but on MG tumours were more difficult to detect in high-density tissue. The size of ductal tumours is best predicted with US2 and CI2, while for lobular cancers RTE is best. Hyperechoic tumour surroundings should be included in US and CI measurements and RTE used as an additional technique in the clinical staging process. (orig.)

  9. Fluorinated amino acids for tumour imaging with positron emission tomography.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laverman, P.; Boerman, O.C.; Corstens, F.H.M.; Oyen, W.J.G.


    The currently preferred radiopharmaceutical for positron emission tomography (PET) in oncology is 2-[(18)F]fluoro-deoxyglucose (FDG). Increased accumulation of this deoxyglucose analogue in tumour cells is based on elevated glucose metabolism by tumour cells and subsequent trapping in the cells. In

  10. A rare case of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Harry, Nirankumar Samuel, Vigil TD


    Full Text Available Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumours are tumours of ectomesenchymal origin often originating from major nerves or their nerve sheaths, they are commonly found in patients with neurofibromatosis-1 though sporadic cases have been reported. We report a rare sporadic case of MPNST in a 20 year old patient arising from the spinal accessory nerve.

  11. Tumour screening by means of tomography methods; Tumorscreening mit Schnittbildverfahren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diederich, S. [Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin, Marien-Hospital Duesseldorf (Germany)


    Tomography methods such as computer tomography (CT), magnetic resonance tomography (MRT), and sonography/ultrasound examinations make it possible to detect small asymptomatic tumours, thus potentially preventing their manifestation at an advanced stage and improving survival prospects for the patients concerned. There are data available on various common tumours which show that modern tomography methods are capable of detecting not only small asymptomatic tumours but also their benign precursors (e.g. polyps of the large intestine). This has been demonstrated for lung cancer, colon cancer and breast cancer. However, it has not been possible to date to show for any tomography method or any type of tumour that the systematic use of such diagnostic procedures does anything to lower the mortality rate for that tumour. For other types of tumour (pancreatic cancer, kidney cancer, ovary cancer) the above named methods are either not sufficiently sensitive or the body of data that has accumulated on their respective use is too small to judge the benefit of tomography screenings. Current technical developments make it appear probable that for many types of cancer the reliability with which small tumours can be detected will improve in future. Studies aimed at clarifying the potential of screenings for reducing mortality rates are already underway for lung cancer and would be worthwhile performing for other tumour types.

  12. Somatic mutations of KIT in familial testicular germ cell tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rapley, EA; Hockley, S; Warren, W; Johnson, L; Huddart, R; Crockford, G; Forman, D; Leahy, MG; Oliver, DT; Tucker, K; Friedlander, M; Phillips, KA; Hogg, D; Jewett, MAS; Lohynska, R; Daugaard, G; Richard, S; Heidenreich, A; Geczi, L; Bodrogi, [No Value; Olah, E; Ormiston, WJ; Daly, PA; Looijenga, LHJ; Guilford, P; Aass, N; Fossa, SD; Heimdal, K; Tjulandin, SA; Liubchenko, L; Stoll, H; Weber, W; Einhorn, L; Weber, BL; McMaster, M; Greene, MH; Bishop, DT; Easton, D; Stratton, M


    Somatic mutations of the KIT gene have been reported in mast cell diseases and gastrointestinal stromal tumours. Recently, they have also been found in mediastinal and testicular germ cell tumours (TGCTs), particularly in cases with bilateral disease. We screened the KIT coding sequence ( except exo

  13. Desmoid tumour in familial adenomatous polyposis. A review of literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Anne Louise; Bülow, Steffen


    Desmoid tumours (DT) are rare benign tumours that do not metastasise, but tend to invade locally. DT are frequently seen in patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP), and diagnosis and treatment are often difficult. Surgical trauma, genetic predisposition and hormonal factors are conside...

  14. Neurohypophysis granular cell tumours. Upon neurohypophysis rare tumours; Les tumeurs a cellules granuleuses. Des tumeurs rares de la neurohypophyse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrande, G.; Kujas, M.; Gancel, A.; Turpin, G.; Bruckert, E.; Kuhn, J.M.; Luton, J.P. [Hopital Cochin, 75 - Paris (France)


    Granular cell tumours of neurohypophysis are rare. These tumours are more often encountered as incidental autopsy findings seen in up to 17 % of unselected adult autopsy cases. There are few reports of para-sellar granular cell tumours large enough to cause symptoms. We present three cases of neurohypophysis granular cell tumour and a review of the literature. In one patient, the asymptomatic granular cell tumour was incidentally discovered at surgical removal of a corticotrophic micro-adenoma. The remaining 2 patients had a symptomatic tumour which caused neurological symptoms such as visual disturbance and headaches and endocrine disorders such as hypopituitarism or hyper-prolactinaemia. In these 2 cases, computerized tomography showed a well-circumscribed, contrast-enhanced, intra-sellar and supra-sellar mass. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an isointense gadolinium-enhanced mass in T1-weighted-images. Trans-sphenoidal partial resection was performed and histology was interpreted as a granular cell tumour. The immunohistochemical study was positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GEAP) and neuron specific enolase (NSE) in 1 of the 2 tumours and positive for S100 protein and vimentin in both tumours but negative for CD68. The histogenesis of neurohypophysis granular cell tumours is still controversial but ultrastructural and immunohistochemical studies support the theory that may arise from pituicytes, the glial cells of neurohypophysis. Management of these benign, slow growing, tumours is based mainly on neurosurgical resection. Data from the literature do not support a beneficial effect of post operative radiation therapy on postoperative recurrences. (authors). 23 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Non-FDG PET imaging of brain tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Zemin; GUAN Yihui; ZUO Chuantao; ZHANG Zhengwei; XUE Fangping; LIN Xiangtong


    Due to relatively high uptake of glucose in the brain cortex, the use of FDG PET imaging is greatly limited in brain tumor imaging, especially for low-grade gliomas and some metastatic tumours. More and more tracers with higher specificity were developed lately for brain tumor imaging. There are 3 main types of non-FDG PET tracers:amino acid tracers, choline tracers and nucleic acid tracers. These tracers are now widely applied in many aspects of brain tumor imaging. This article summarized the general use of non-FDG PET in different aspects of brain tumor imaging.

  16. Approaches to the management of antenatally diagnosed congenital tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahony, Rhona; McParland, Peter [National Maternity Hospital, Department of Fetal and Maternal Medicine, Dublin (Ireland)


    Congenital fetal tumours are rare, but current imaging modalities including US and MRI facilitate antenatal diagnosis and investigation, allowing a presumptive diagnosis and management strategy. Although the prevalence of fetal tumours is difficult to ascertain, an incidence of 7.2 per 100,000 live births has previously been reported, with the incidence of neonatal malignancy estimated at 36.5 per million births. Teratomas and neuroblastomas are the most common solid tumours described. Tumours may be very large or associated with severe hydrops leading to significant dystocia with the potential for difficult vaginal or caesarean delivery. Once the diagnosis of a fetal tumour is made, optimal management incorporates a multidisciplinary approach including obstetrician, neonatologist, paediatric surgeon and paediatric oncologist so that counselling is appropriate and a clear management plan is in place for parents. (orig.)

  17. Anti-tumour activity of Ruta graveolens extract. (United States)

    Preethi, K C; Kuttan, Girija; Kuttan, Ramadasan


    An extract of Ruta graveolens was found to be cytotoxic to Dalton's lymphoma ascites (DLA), Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) and L929 cells in culture (IC100=16 mg/ml) and also to increase the lifespan of tumour bearing animals. The extract further decreased solid tumours developing from DLA and EAC cells when given simultaneously with elongation of the lifespan of tumour-bearing animals. A homeopathic preparation of Ruta graveolens (200 c) was equally effective. Neither was effective for reducing already developed tumours. The Ruta graveolens extract was found to scavenge hydroxyl radicals and inhibit lipid peroxidation at low concentrations. However, at higher concentrations the extract acted as a prooxidant as inhibition of lipid peroxidation and scavenging of hydroxyl radical was minimal. These data indicates that the prooxidant activity of Ruta graveolens may be responsible for the cytocidal action of the extract and its ability to produce tumour reduction.

  18. A pictorial review of imaging of abdominal tumours in adolescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasalkar, Darshana D.; Chu, Winnie C.W. [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong (China); Cheng, Frankie W.T.; Li, Chi Kong [Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Shatin, Hong Kong (China); Hui, Sze Ki [Princess Margaret Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Hong Kong (China); Ling, Siu Cheung [Princess Margaret Hospital, Department of Paediatric and Adolescent Medicine, Hong Kong (China)


    Neoplastic abdominal tumours, particularly those originating from embryonal tissue (such as hepatoblastoma and nephroblastoma) and neural crest cells (such as neuroblastoma), are well-documented in young children. Neoplasms of adulthood, most commonly carcinoma of different visceral organs, are also well-documented. Abdominal tumours in adolescence constitute a distinct pathological group. The radiological features of some of these tumours have been described only in isolated reports. The purpose of this pictorial essay was to review the imaging findings of various kinds of abdominal tumours in adolescent patients (with an age range of 10-16 years) who presented to the Children Cancer Center of our institution in the past 15 years. Some tumours, though rare, have characteristic imaging appearances (especially in CT) that enable an accurate diagnosis before definite histological confirmation. (orig.)

  19. Large cell neuroendocrine – Adenocarcinona mixed tumour of colon: Collision tumour with peculiar behaviour. What do we know about these tumours?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Minaya-Bravo


    Conclusion: We conclude that not all collision tumours follow the biclonal theory and more studies are needed to clarify the origin of these neoplasms, and consequently, to reach an adequate treatment.

  20. Features of immunohistochemical diagnostic of melanocytic tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shpon’ka I.S.


    Full Text Available Background. The malignant melanomas are the most important group of skin cancers. Although less common than the familiar basal and squamous cell tumours of the skin, they are much more frequently fatal, due to their intrinsic tendency to lymphatic and haematogenic metastasis. Objective. The article is devoted to parsing cases melanocytic tumours that were established through immunohistochemical study. Methods. In the study analyzed 236 patient material (150 women and 86 men aged 28 to 77 years during 2010-2013 turned out to clarify the histological diagnosis of skin tumors or metastases to lymph nodes (rare at other sites. The primary monoclonal antibodies used Сytokeratin, Рan Ab1 (clone AE1/AE3, S100 (clone 4C4.9, Ki-67 (clone SP6, Vimentin (clone V9, Melanoma gp100 (clone HMB-45. Results. Naevus proliferation rate showed a statistically significant difference with respect to proliferation rate of malignant melanomas (p<0,05. All samples (100% showed positive expression of high-intensity staining (+++ or moderate (++ intensity on the marker S100; 98,30% of samples (232 of 236 showed positive expression of marker HMB-45 at least in terms of tumor cells with intensity color from the high (+++ to weak (+ and 83.89% of the samples (198 of 236 were negative (– Сytokeratin, Рan Ab1 (other 38 cases showed weakly positive expression (+/– of tumor cells. Conclusions. 1. In the differential diagnosis of melanoma and naevus, we must bear in mind the uniformity immunophenotype of these tumors and consider only the cytological features of the tumor, changes in the structure of the epidermis and dermis (contour, symmetry, depth, inflammatory infiltration and proliferation rate. 2. Patients whose lymph nodes were the first clinical signs of cancer are always in need for additional immunohistochemical studies to avoid diagnostic errors. 3. The most common phenotype of melanocytic tumours responsible Сytokeratin, Рan–, Vimintin+, S100+, HMB-45