WorldWideScience

Sample records for childhood brain tumours

  1. Childhood brain tumours : Health and function in adult survivors and parental fears

    OpenAIRE

    Anclair, Malin

    2009-01-01

    The general aim of the present research was to investigate health and functional ability of patients treated for childhood brain tumour and systematically examine parental fears after a child s brain tumour. The aims were realised through two part-studies. Childhood cancer once regarded as an acute fatal illness has become a life threatening disease. Previous studies of the long-term sequelae in survivors of children treated for a brain tumour reflect the fact that most ...

  2. Thallium uptake and biological behaviour in childhood brain tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernard, E.J.; Howman-Giles, R.; Kellie, S.; Uren, R.F. [Royal Alexandra Hospital for Children, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    1998-03-01

    Full text: The histopathological grade and radiological appearance of the diverse cerebral neoplasms in childhood frequently poorly reflect their biological behaviour. We examined thallium accumulation prior to treatment (and in several cases, at intervals there after) in 13 children to determine its usefulness as a tumour marker. 23 SPECT studies were acquired 20 minutes after the injection of 1-3 mCi of {sup 201}TI. Thallium index (TI), the ratio of counts in tumour/normal brain, was calculated. No uptake was seen in two patients (pts) with a Grade 1 cerebellar astrocytomas (disease free at 4/12 f/u). Three pts with medulloblastomas were studied. One pt showed intense uptake (Tl =12). His tumour (proliferative antigen stain Ki67 = 50%) recurred early after debulking surgery (Tl +ve prior to CT or MRI changes). The second pt was imaged at relapse (Ki67 = 60%) and showed intense uptake, Tl = 17. The third pt showed lower level uptake (Tl = 2), Ki67 = 5%, and is disease-free at 5/12 (as per {sup 201}TI and MRI). One pt with a Grade 1 brainstem glioma showed Tl = 5 and has progressed rapidly despite low grade histology. Four pts with chiasmatic-hypothalamic gliomas have been studied. Although these neoplasms are usually low grade histologically, their growth properties vary greatly. Two pts with Tl<2.5 have been conservatively managed because of slow tumour growth. The other two pts have Tl>3.5 and have required aggressive treatment for rapid disease progression. One pt with a large pilocytic astrocytoma of the optic chiasm showed Tl = 9.5. Active treatment was not undertaken. One pt with a pineal germ cell tumour showed avid {sup 201}TI uptake (Tl not performed) and has had two normal studies, and is clinically well, since BMT. Avid {sup 201}TI uptake also seen in one pt with cerebral neuroblastoma. (Died at 8/12 after Dx.) Thus, {sup 201}TI accumulates in histologically diverse paediatric neoplasms. The Tl appears to reflect biological behaviour in the limited

  3. Thallium uptake and biological behaviour in childhood brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The histopathological grade and radiological appearance of the diverse cerebral neoplasms in childhood frequently poorly reflect their biological behaviour. We examined thallium accumulation prior to treatment (and in several cases, at intervals there after) in 13 children to determine its usefulness as a tumour marker. 23 SPECT studies were acquired 20 minutes after the injection of 1-3 mCi of 201TI. Thallium index (TI), the ratio of counts in tumour/normal brain, was calculated. No uptake was seen in two patients (pts) with a Grade 1 cerebellar astrocytomas (disease free at 4/12 f/u). Three pts with medulloblastomas were studied. One pt showed intense uptake (Tl =12). His tumour (proliferative antigen stain Ki67 = 50%) recurred early after debulking surgery (Tl +ve prior to CT or MRI changes). The second pt was imaged at relapse Ki67 = 60%) and showed intense uptake, Tl = 17. The third pt showed lower level uptake (Tl = 2), Ki67 = 5%, and is disease-free at 5/12 (as per 201TI and MRI). One pt with a Grade 1 brainstem glioma showed Tl = 5 and has progressed rapidly despite low grade histology. Four pts with chiasmatic-hypothalamic gliomas have been studied. Although these neoplasms are usually low grade histologically, their growth properties vary greatly. Two pts with Tl3.5 and have required aggressive treatment for rapid disease progression. One pt with a large pilocytic astrocytoma of the optic chiasm showed Tl = 9.5. Active treatment was not undertaken. One pt with a pineal germ cell tumour showed avid 201TI uptake (Tl not performed) and has had two normal studies, and is clinically well, since BMT. Avid 201TI uptake also seen in one pt with cerebral neuroblastoma. (Died at 8/12 after Dx.) Thus, 201TI accumulates in histologically diverse paediatric neoplasms. The Tl appears to reflect biological behaviour in the limited number of medulloblastoma and optic gliomas pts studied. Whilst promising, further patient studies and longer follow-up is

  4. Target volumes in radiation therapy of childhood brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pediatric tumors have enjoyed considerable improvements for the past 30 years. This is mainly due to the extensive use of combined therapeutical modalities in which chemotherapy plays a prominent role. In many children, local treatment including radiotherapy, can nowadays be adapted in terms of target volume and dose to the 'response' to an initial course of chemotherapy almost on a case by case basis. This makes precise recommendation on local therapy highly difficult in this age group. We will concentrate in this paper on brain tumors in which chemotherapy is of limited value and radiotherapy still plays a key-role. (authors)

  5. Three-dimensional textural features of conventional MRI improve diagnostic classification of childhood brain tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetit, Ahmed E; Novak, Jan; Peet, Andrew C; Arvanitits, Theodoros N

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of three-dimensional texture analysis (3D TA) of conventional MR images for the classification of childhood brain tumours in a quantitative manner. The dataset comprised pre-contrast T1 - and T2-weighted MRI series obtained from 48 children diagnosed with brain tumours (medulloblastoma, pilocytic astrocytoma and ependymoma). 3D and 2D TA were carried out on the images using first-, second- and higher order statistical methods. Six supervised classification algorithms were trained with the most influential 3D and 2D textural features, and their performances in the classification of tumour types, using the two feature sets, were compared. Model validation was carried out using the leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV) approach, as well as stratified 10-fold cross-validation, in order to provide additional reassurance. McNemar's test was used to test the statistical significance of any improvements demonstrated by 3D-trained classifiers. Supervised learning models trained with 3D textural features showed improved classification performances to those trained with conventional 2D features. For instance, a neural network classifier showed 12% improvement in area under the receiver operator characteristics curve (AUC) and 19% in overall classification accuracy. These improvements were statistically significant for four of the tested classifiers, as per McNemar's tests. This study shows that 3D textural features extracted from conventional T1 - and T2-weighted images can improve the diagnostic classification of childhood brain tumours. Long-term benefits of accurate, yet non-invasive, diagnostic aids include a reduction in surgical procedures, improvement in surgical and therapy planning, and support of discussions with patients' families. It remains necessary, however, to extend the analysis to a multicentre cohort in order to assess the scalability of the techniques used. PMID:26256809

  6. Endobronchial tumours in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endobronchial tumours are rare in childhood and are not often considered in the differential diagnosis of persistent pneumonitis and atelectasis. We present the clinical and radiological features of seven cases of childhood bronchial 'adenoma' seen at our hospital over a 16-year period. Because they are relatively slow growing, prompt diagnosis and early surgical treatment offer the best chance of cure in these patients. A review of the literature is given

  7. Endobronchial tumours in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endobronchial tumours are rare in childhood and are not often considered in the differential diagnosis of persistent pneumonitis and atelectasis. We present the clinical and radiological features of seven cases of childhood bronchial 'adenoma' seen at our hospital over a 16-year period. Because they are relatively slow growing, prompt diagnosis and early surgical treatment offer the best chance of cure in these patients. A review of the literature is given. (Copyright (c) Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  8. Childhood brain tumours and use of mobile phones: comparison of a case–control study with incidence data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydin Denis

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The first case–control study on mobile phone use and brain tumour risk among children and adolescents (CEFALO study has recently been published. In a commentary published in Environmental Health, Söderqvist and colleagues argued that CEFALO suggests an increased brain tumour risk in relation to wireless phone use. In this article, we respond and show why consistency checks of case–control study results with observed time trends of incidence rates are essential, given the well described limitations of case–control studies and the steep increase of mobile phone use among children and adolescents during the last decade. There is no plausible explanation of how a notably increased risk from use of wireless phones would correspond to the relatively stable incidence time trends for brain tumours among children and adolescents observed in the Nordic countries. Nevertheless, an increased risk restricted to heavy mobile phone use, to very early life exposure, or to rare subtypes of brain tumours may be compatible with stable incidence trends at this time and thus further monitoring of childhood brain tumour incidence rate time trends is warranted.

  9. A multinational case-control study on childhood brain tumours, anthropogenic factors, birth characteristics and prenatal exposures: A validation of interview data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vienneau, Danielle; Infanger, Denis; Feychting, Maria; Schüz, Joachim; Schmidt, Lisbeth Samsø; Poulsen, Aslak Harbo; Tettamanti, Giorgio; Klæboe, Lars; Kuehni, Claudia E; Tynes, Tore; Von der Weid, Nicolas; Lannering, Birgitta; Röösli, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about the aetiology of childhood brain tumours. We investigated anthropometric factors (birth weight, length, maternal age), birth characteristics (e.g. vacuum extraction, preterm delivery, birth order) and exposures during pregnancy (e.g. maternal: smoking, working, dietary supplement intake) in relation to risk of brain tumour diagnosis among 7-19 year olds. The multinational case-control study in Denmark, Sweden, Norway and Switzerland (CEFALO) included interviews with 352 (participation rate=83.2%) eligible cases and 646 (71.1%) population-based controls. Interview data were complemented with data from birth registries and validated by assessing agreement (Cohen's Kappa). We used conditional logistic regression models matched on age, sex and geographical region (adjusted for maternal age and parental education) to explore associations between birth factors and childhood brain tumour risk. Agreement between interview and birth registry data ranged from moderate (Kappa=0.54; worked during pregnancy) to almost perfect (Kappa=0.98; birth weight). Neither anthropogenic factors nor birth characteristics were associated with childhood brain tumour risk. Maternal vitamin intake during pregnancy was indicative of a protective effect (OR 0.75, 95%-CI: 0.56-1.01). No association was seen for maternal smoking during pregnancy or working during pregnancy. We found little evidence that the considered birth factors were related to brain tumour risk among children and adolescents. PMID:26625087

  10. Leydig cell tumours in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengel, W; Knorr, D

    1983-01-01

    Two cases of Leydig cell tumours in childhood are presented. In one case, delayed diagnosis and operation led to pubertas praecox vera whereas in the other case normal growth and development occurred after early diagnosis and operation. PMID:6878724

  11. Evolution of growth hormone neurosecretory disturbance after cranial irradiation for childhood brain tumours: a prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the aetiopathology of post-irradiation growth hormone (GH) deficiency, we performed a mixed longitudinal analysis of 56 24 h serum GH concentration profiles and 45 paired insulin-induced hypoglycaemia tests (ITT) in 35 prepubertal children, aged 1.5-11.8 years, with brain tumours in the posterior foss (n = 25) or cerebral hemispheres (n 10). Assessments were made before (n = 16), 1 year (n = 25) and 2 to 5 years (n = 15) after a cranial irradiation (DXR) dose of at least 30 Gy. Fourier transforms, occupancy percentage, first-order derivatives (FOD) and mean concentrations were determined from the GH profiles taken after neurosurgery but before radiotherapy (n = 16) and in three treatment groups: Group 1: neurosurgery only without DXR 9n 9); Group 2: ≥ 30 Gy DXR only (n = 22); Group 3: ≥ 30 Gy DXR with additional chemotherapy (n = 9). Results were compared with those from 26 short normally growing (SN) children. (author)

  12. Integrative genomic analyses identify LIN28 and OLIG2 as markers of survival and metastatic potential in childhood central nervous system primitive neuro-ectodermal brain tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Daniel; Miller, Suzanne; Hawkins, Cynthia E; Bouffet, Eric; Rogers, Hazel A; Chan, Tiffany SY; Kim, Seung-Ki; Ra, Young-Shin; Fangusaro, Jason; Korshunov, Andrey; Toledano, Helen; Nakamura, Hideo; Hayden, James T; Chan, Jennifer; Lafay-Cousin, Lucie; Hu, Ping X; Fan, Xing; Muraszko, Karin M; Pomeroy, Scott L; Lau, Ching C; Ng, Ho-Keung; Jones, Chris; Meter, Timothy Van; Clifford, Steven C; Eberhart, Charles; Gajjar, Amar; Pfister, Stefan M; Grundy, Richard G; Huang, Annie

    2013-01-01

    Background Childhood Central Nervous System Primitive Neuro-Ectodermal brain Tumours (CNS-PNETs) are highly aggressive brain tumours for which molecular features and best therapeutic strategy remains unknown. We interrogated a large cohort of these rare tumours in order to identify molecular markers that will enhance clinical management of CNS-PNET. Methods Transcriptional and copy number profiles from primary hemispheric CNS-PNETs were examined using clustering, gene and pathways enrichment analyses to discover tumour sub-groups and group-specific molecular markers. Immuno-histochemical and/or gene expression analyses were used to validate and examine the clinical significance of novel sub-group markers in 123 primary CNS-PNETs. Findings Three molecular sub-groups of CNS-PNETs distinguished by primitive neural (Group 1), oligo-neural (Group 2) and mesenchymal lineage (Group 3) gene expression signature were identified. Tumour sub-groups exhibited differential expression of cell lineage markers, LIN28 and OLIG2, and correlated with distinct demographics, survival and metastatic incidence. Group 1 tumours affected primarily younger females; male: female ratios were respectively 0.61 (median age 2.9 years; 95% CI: 2.4–5.2; p≤ 0.005), 1.25 (median age 7.9 years; 95% CI: 6–9.7) and 1.63 (median age 5.9 years; 95% CI: 4.9–7.8) for group 1, 2 and 3 patients. Overall outcome was poorest in group 1 patients which had a median survival of 0.8 years (95% CI: 0.47–1.2; p=0.019) as compared to 1.8 years (95% CI: 1.4–2.3) and 4.3 years; (95% CI: 0.82–7.8) respectively for group 2 and 3 patients. Group 3 tumours had the highest incidence of metastases at diagnosis; M0: M+ ratio were respectively 0.9 and 3.9 for group 3, versus group 1 and 2 tumours combined (p=0.037). Interpretation LIN28 and OLIG2 represent highly promising, novel diagnostic and prognostic molecular markers for CNS PNET that warrants further evaluation in prospective clinical trials. PMID:22691720

  13. Childhood Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain tumors are abnormal growths inside the skull. They are among the most common types of childhood ... still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches and ...

  14. Childhood Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... They are among the most common types of childhood cancers. Some are benign tumors, which aren't ... can still be serious. Malignant tumors are cancerous. Childhood brain and spinal cord tumors can cause headaches ...

  15. The negative brain scintiscan in brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of 53 histologically verified and two histologically unidentified brain tumours, the author examined the reasons for these wrongly negative scintiscans. EEGs and angiographies carried out at about the same time were taken into account and compared with the scintigraphic findings. (orig.)

  16. Discrimination of paediatric brain tumours using apparent diffusion coefficient histograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bull, Jonathan G.; Clark, Christopher A. [UCL Institute of Child Health, Imaging and Biophysics Unit, London (United Kingdom); Saunders, Dawn E. [Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Trust, Department of Radiology, London (United Kingdom)

    2012-02-15

    To determine if histograms of apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) can be used to differentiate paediatric brain tumours. Imaging of histologically confirmed tumours with pre-operative ADC maps were reviewed (54 cases, 32 male, mean age 6.1 years; range 0.1-15.8 years) comprising 6 groups. Whole tumour ADC histograms were calculated; normalised for volume. Stepwise logistic regression analysis was used to differentiate tumour types using histogram metrics, initially for all groups and then for specific subsets. All 6 groups (5 dysembryoplastic neuroectodermal tumours, 22 primitive neuroectodermal tumours (PNET), 5 ependymomas, 7 choroid plexus papillomas, 4 atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumours (ATRT) and 9 juvenile pilocytic astrocytomas (JPA)) were compared. 74% (40/54) were correctly classified using logistic regression of ADC histogram parameters. In the analysis of posterior fossa tumours, 80% of ependymomas, 100% of astrocytomas and 94% of PNET-medulloblastoma were classified correctly. All PNETs were discriminated from ATRTs (22 PNET and 4 supratentorial ATRTs) (100%). ADC histograms are useful in differentiating paediatric brain tumours, in particular, the common posterior fossa tumours of childhood. PNETs were differentiated from supratentorial ATRTs, in all cases, which has important implications in terms of clinical management. (orig.)

  17. Brain Development in Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Taki, Yasuyuki; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2012-01-01

    Although human brain development continues throughout childhood and adolescence, it is a non-linear process both structurally and functionally. Here we review studies of brain development in healthy children from the viewpoint of structure and the perfusion of gray and white matter. Gray matter volume increases and then decreases with age, with the developmental time of the peak volume differing among brain regions in the first and second decades of life. On the other hand, white matter volum...

  18. Early recognition and management of brain tumours in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Eleanor Katie; Cannon, Anna; Zaborowski, Krzysztof; Paul, Siba Prosad

    2016-08-31

    Brain tumours comprise over one quarter of all childhood cancers in the UK and are the most common cause of cancer-related deaths in children. The presentation of brain tumours can vary substantially in children. The presenting symptoms are often similar to less serious conditions, and are often managed as such initially. Therefore, it can be difficult to diagnose brain tumours in children. An early diagnosis is usually associated with more effective treatment and improved health outcomes. The diagnostic interval between first presentation to a health professional and diagnosis for brain tumours in children has been shown to be three times longer in the UK than in other developed countries. As a result, the HeadSmart campaign launched a symptom card in 2011 to increase awareness of brain tumours in children among the general population and healthcare professionals, with the aim of reducing the diagnostic interval to 5 weeks. Nurses have an essential role in early recognition of brain tumours in children, and in providing care and support to the child and their family following a diagnosis. PMID:27577312

  19. Osteopenia in children surviving brain tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitton, A.C.; Eves, M. [Children' s Hospital at Chedoke-McMaster, Room 3N27B, Health Sciences Centre, McMaster University, 1200 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Hay, J. [Brock University, St. Catharines, Ontario (Canada); Gill, G.J.; Webber, C.E. [Faculty of Health Sciences, McMaster University (Canada); Simpson, T. [Hamilton Regional Cancer Centre, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Barr, R.D. [Children' s Hospital at Chedoke-McMaster, Room 3N27B, Health Sciences Centre, McMaster University, 1200 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    1998-05-01

    Osteopenia has been reported in children surviving acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, apparently as a consequence of therapy. It has been suggested that cranial irradiation may play a crucial role in this disorder. To explore that possibility, survivors of brain tumours in childhood, all of whom had received radiotherapy, were examined for evidence of bone mineral loss. 19 children were assessed, on average at 7 years after treatment. Measurements of growth velocities, plain radiography of the skeleton, bone densitometry, health-related quality of life and physical activity were undertaken. Growth hormone (GH) deficiency had been detected in 6 children and 5 had received GH replacement, for a minimum of more than 3 years. 9 children were radiographically osteopenic (including the 5 who had received GH). Z scores for bone mineral density (BMD) were negative in the majority of children. Health-related quality of life was less and pain more frequent in those with low BMD scores. Pain was correlated negatively with both free-time activity and seasonal activity (P<0.01). Osteopenia is a common sequel of therapy in children with brain tumours. Those with osteopenia have more pain and more compromised, health-related quality of life than those who are not osteopenic, and pain significantly limits physical activity. The pathogenesis of osteopenia in these children is still uncertain, but is likely to be multifactorial. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  20. Osteopenia in children surviving brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osteopenia has been reported in children surviving acute lymphoblastic leukaemia, apparently as a consequence of therapy. It has been suggested that cranial irradiation may play a crucial role in this disorder. To explore that possibility, survivors of brain tumours in childhood, all of whom had received radiotherapy, were examined for evidence of bone mineral loss. 19 children were assessed, on average at 7 years after treatment. Measurements of growth velocities, plain radiography of the skeleton, bone densitometry, health-related quality of life and physical activity were undertaken. Growth hormone (GH) deficiency had been detected in 6 children and 5 had received GH replacement, for a minimum of more than 3 years. 9 children were radiographically osteopenic (including the 5 who had received GH). Z scores for bone mineral density (BMD) were negative in the majority of children. Health-related quality of life was less and pain more frequent in those with low BMD scores. Pain was correlated negatively with both free-time activity and seasonal activity (P<0.01). Osteopenia is a common sequel of therapy in children with brain tumours. Those with osteopenia have more pain and more compromised, health-related quality of life than those who are not osteopenic, and pain significantly limits physical activity. The pathogenesis of osteopenia in these children is still uncertain, but is likely to be multifactorial. (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  1. ABCB1 in children's brain tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Beth; Kessler, Maya; Sabnis, Durgagauri H; Kerr, Ian D

    2015-10-01

    Tumours of the central nervous system are the most common solid tumour, accounting for a quarter of the 1500 cases of childhood cancer diagnosed each year in the U.K. They are the most common cause of cancer-related death in children. Treatment consists of surgery followed by adjuvant chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Survival rates have generally increased, but many survivors suffer from radiotherapy-related neurocognitive and endocrine side effects as well as an increased risk of secondary cancer. Adjuvant chemotherapy is normally given in combination to circumvent chemoresistance, but several studies have demonstrated it to be ineffective in the absence of radiotherapy. The identification of children with drug-resistant disease at the outset could allow stratification of those that are potentially curable by chemotherapy alone. Ultimately, however, what is required is a means to overcome this drug resistance and restore the effectiveness of chemotherapy. Medulloblastomas and ependymomas account for over 30% of paediatric brain tumours. Advances in neurosurgery, adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapy have led to improvements in 5-year overall survival rates. There remain, however, significant numbers of medulloblastoma patients that have intrinsically drug-resistant tumours and/or present with disseminated disease. Local relapse in ependymoma is also common and has an extremely poor prognosis with only 25% of children surviving first relapse. Each of these is consistent with the acquisition of drug and radiotherapy resistance. Since the majority of chemotherapy drugs currently used to treat these patients are transport substrates for ATP-binding cassette sub-family B member 1 (ABCB1) we will address the hypothesis that ABCB1 expression underlies this drug resistance. PMID:26517917

  2. Malignant ovarian tumours in childhood in Britain, 1962-78.

    OpenAIRE

    La Vecchia, C; Morris, H. B.; Draper, G J

    1983-01-01

    The files of the Childhood Cancer Research Group and of the Oxford Survey of Childhood Cancers were scrutinized for all the ovarian neoplasms registered in England, Scotland and Wales in children under age 15 years throughout the period 1962-78. Among 172 cases confirmed as malignant ovarian tumours, 145 (84%) were tumours of germ cell origin (54 dysgerminomas, 36 malignant teratomas, 26 endodermal sinus tumours, 4 embryonal carcinomas, 2 pure choriocarcinomas, 20 mixed germ cell neoplasms, 3...

  3. Effects of childhood body size on breast cancer tumour characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jingmei; Humphreys, Keith; Eriksson, Louise; Czene, Kamila; Liu, Jianjun; Hall, Per

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Although a role of childhood body size in postmenopausal breast cancer risk has been established, less is known about its influence on tumour characteristics. Methods We studied the relationships between childhood body size and tumour characteristics in a Swedish population-based case-control study consisting of 2,818 breast cancer cases and 3,111 controls. Our classification of childhood body size was derived from a nine-level somatotype. Relative risks were estimated by odds ra...

  4. Movement disorders caused by brain tumours.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatoe H

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Movement disorders are uncommon presenting features of brain tumours. Early recognition of such lesions is important to arrest further deficit. We treated seven patients with movement disorders secondary to brain tumours over a period of seven years. Only two of these were intrinsic thalamic tumours (astrocytomas while the rest were extrinsic tumours. The intrinsic tumours were accompanied by hemichorea. Among the extrinsic tumours, there was one pituitary macroadenoma with hemiballismus and four meningiomas with parkinsonism. Symptoms were unilateral in all patients except one with anterior third falcine meningioma who had bilateral rest tremors. There was relief in movement disorders observed after surgery. Imaging by computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging is mandatory in the evaluation of movement disorders, especially if the presentation is atypical, unilateral and/or accompanied by long tract signs.

  5. Behavioural and psychological outcomes in children treated for brain tumours.

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, C.

    2007-01-01

    There is a sparcity of literature examining the outcomes of those treated for childhood brain tumours using surgery-only. Although several areas of significant long-term problems have been identified, such as deficits in executive functions and raised levels of behavioural and psychological problems, research so far has failed to consistently identify factors that predict outcomes. This makes it very difficult to make recommendations about how to lessen the impact of these cognitive, behaviou...

  6. Oncogenic extracellular vesicles in brain tumour progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esterina eD'Asti

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The brain is a frequent site of neoplastic growth, including both primary and metastatic tumours. The clinical intractability of many brain tumours and their distinct biology are implicitly linked to the unique microenvironment of the central nervous system (CNS and cellular interactions within. Among the most intriguing forms of cellular interactions is that mediated by membrane-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs. Their biogenesis (vesiculation and uptake by recipient cells serves as a unique mechanism of intercellular trafficking of complex biological messages including the exchange of molecules that cannot be released through classical secretory pathways, or that are prone to extracellular degradation. Tumour cells produce EVs containing molecular effectors of several cancer-related processes such as growth, invasion, drug resistance, angiogenesis, and coagulopathy. Notably, tumour-derived EVs (oncosomes also contain oncogenic proteins, transcripts, DNA and microRNA (miR. Uptake of this material may change properties of the recipient cells and impact the tumour microenvironment. Examples of transformation-related molecules found in the cargo of tumour-derived EVs include the oncogenic epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFRvIII, tumour suppressors (PTEN and oncomirs (miR-520g. It is postulated that EVs circulating in blood or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of brain tumour patients may be used to decipher molecular features (mutations of the underlying malignancy, reflect responses to therapy or molecular subtypes of primary brain tumours (e.g. glioma or medulloblastoma. It is possible that metastases to the brain may also emit EVs with clinically relevant oncogenic signatures. Thus EVs emerge as a novel and functionally important vehicle of intercellular communication that can mediate multiple biological effects. In addition, they provide a unique platform to develop molecular biomarkers in brain malignancies.

  7. Imaging and pathological features of primary malignant rhabdoid tumours of the brain and spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article two cases of primary malignant extrarenal rhabdoid tumour are described. In the affected children the brain and the spinal cord were the primary sites of origin of the tumour. The imaging findings are presented and the pathology discussed. Although the imaging features are non-specific, rhabdoid tumour should be included in the differential diagnosis of childhood intracranial and spinal neoplasms. (orig.). With 5 figs

  8. Primary brain tumours, meningiomas and brain metastases in pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verheecke, Magali; Halaska, Michael J; Lok, Christianne A;

    2014-01-01

    to obtain better insight into outcome and possibilities of treatment in pregnancy. METHODS: We collected all intracranial tumours (primary brain tumour, cerebral metastasis, or meningioma) diagnosed during pregnancy, registered prospectively and retrospectively by international collaboration since 1973......, respectively. Eight patients (30%) underwent brain surgery, seven patients (26%) had radiotherapy and in three patients (11%) chemotherapy was administered during gestation. Two patients died during pregnancy and four pregnancies were terminated. In 16 (59%) patients elective caesarean section was performed...... were reassuring. CONCLUSION: Adherence to standard protocol for the treatment of brain tumours during pregnancy appears to allow a term delivery and a higher probability of a vaginal delivery....

  9. Malignant tumours of childhood in Zaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaila Modupeola

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The increased prevalence of hitherto uncommon tumours in children in our geographic setting formed the basis for this study. This study aimed to determine the current histopathologic distribution pattern of paediatric malignancies in Zaria. Materials and Methods : An eight year (2000-2007 consecutive analysis of malignant tumours in children ages 0 to 15 years in a referral University laboratory. All tissue biopsies were fixed in 10% formalin and processed in wax. Tumours were characterised histologically into tissues of origin and categorised into three age groups; < 1 year, 1-5 years and 6-15 years. Result : 189 children with malignant tumours were analysed. They showed a male preponderance (M: F; 1.2: 1.0 and their ages ranged from 5 days to 15 years. Tumours of mesenchymal origin were the commonest (115: 60.8% while epithelial tumours including germ cell tumours accounted for 74 (39.2% cases. The age group 1-5 years had the highest epithelial tumours while age group 6-15 years had the most tumours with 102 (54% cases overall. The five commonest tumours over-all were rhabdomyosarcoma, Burkitt lymphoma, retinoblastoma, non-Hodgkin′s lymphoma and nephroblastoma. Germ cell tumours affected the ovary predominantly and two of the endodermal sinus tumour cases were seen in the testis of an eighteen month child and sacrococcygeum of a 5 year old girl, respectively. Of the six immature teratoma cases, four were cutaneous in distribution. The vascular tumours included epithelioid haemangioendothelioma, haemangioblastoma and Dabska tumour and they accounted for (5.8% of all tumours seen. The commonest sites of occurrence of these tumours were the oculo-orbital, jaw, head and neck regions with 82 cases (43.4% while lymph nodes were involved in 31 (16.4% cases. Conclusion : The distribution and occurrence of malignant tumours in children is age related. Lymphomas were the commonest tumours overall while retinoblastoma and Burkitt lymphoma

  10. Phase congruency map driven brain tumour segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilágyi, Tünde; Brady, Michael; Berényi, Ervin

    2015-03-01

    Computer Aided Diagnostic (CAD) systems are already of proven value in healthcare, especially for surgical planning, nevertheless much remains to be done. Gliomas are the most common brain tumours (70%) in adults, with a survival time of just 2-3 months if detected at WHO grades III or higher. Such tumours are extremely variable, necessitating multi-modal Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI). The use of Gadolinium-based contrast agents is only relevant at later stages of the disease where it highlights the enhancing rim of the tumour. Currently, there is no single accepted method that can be used as a reference. There are three main challenges with such images: to decide whether there is tumour present and is so localize it; to construct a mask that separates healthy and diseased tissue; and to differentiate between the tumour core and the surrounding oedema. This paper presents two contributions. First, we develop tumour seed selection based on multiscale multi-modal texture feature vectors. Second, we develop a method based on a local phase congruency based feature map to drive level-set segmentation. The segmentations achieved with our method are more accurate than previously presented methods, particularly for challenging low grade tumours.

  11. Brain SPECT in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modalities and the indications of perfusion and neurotransmission SPECT in childhood are presented. The perfusion as well as neurotransmission tracers have not yet authorization for use in children; they have to be used by prescription of magistral preparation or in research protocols. The radioprotection rules have to be strictly respected. The most frequent indication of perfusion SPECT is pharmacologically resistant epilepsy; the ictal SPECT before surgery allows the localization of the epileptogenic focus. Other indications are relevant in the prognosis of neonatal anoxia and encephalitis. In psychiatric disorders, especially in autism, the interest is the physiopathological approach of the brain dysfunctions. The neurotransmission SPECT is emerging as a consequence of the development of new radiotracer, as the dopaminergic system ligands. The decrease of the dopamine D2 receptors in the striatum can be imaged and quantified in the neonate. The lesions of dopamine system seem to be a consequence of the neonatal hypoxia-ischemia and it is predictive of motor sequelae. Brain SPECT should become a routine examination in child neurologic and psychiatric disorders. (authors)

  12. Malignant tumours of childhood in Zaria

    OpenAIRE

    Samaila Modupeola

    2009-01-01

    Background: The increased prevalence of hitherto uncommon tumours in children in our geographic setting formed the basis for this study. This study aimed to determine the current histopathologic distribution pattern of paediatric malignancies in Zaria. Materials and Methods : An eight year (2000-2007) consecutive analysis of malignant tumours in children ages 0 to 15 years in a referral University laboratory. All tissue biopsies were fixed in 10% formalin and processed in wax. Tumour...

  13. Neuropsychological Differences between Survivors of Supratentorial and Infratentorial Brain Tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, S. K.; Mullins, W. A.; O'Neil, S. H.; Wilson, K.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between brain tumour location and core areas of cognitive and behavioural functioning for paediatric brain tumour survivors. The extant literature both supports and refutes an association between paediatric brain tumour location and neurocognitive outcomes. We examined…

  14. TSPO expression in brain tumours:is TSPO a target for brain tumour imaging?

    OpenAIRE

    Roncaroli, Federico; Su, Zhangjie; Herholz, Karl; Gerhard, Alexander; Turkheimer, Federico E.

    2016-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) alone or in combination with MRI is increasingly assuming a central role in the development of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for brain tumours with the aim of addressing tumour heterogeneity, assisting in patient stratification, and contributing to predicting treatment response. The 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO) is expressed in high-grade gliomas, while its expression is comparatively low in normal brain. In addition, the evidence of elevated TS...

  15. Clinicopathological Profile of Childhood Primary Abdominal Tumours in Kashmir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Parwez Sajad; Akhter, Zahida; Majeed, Showkat; Wani, Mohd Yousuf; Hayat, Humera

    2015-12-01

    Primary abdominal tumours attract considerable notice because of their serious prognosis, high cost of treatment and the emotional and psychological trauma. Abdominal tumours can present with pain, vomiting, constipation or less commonly intestinal obstruction. The presentation of cancer in children mimic those of childhood conditions like infections particularly viral infections, urinary tract infections, gastro-oesophageal reflux, malnutrition, constipation, lymphadnenitis, glomerulonephritis and congenital urinary tract anomalies. PMID:26730026

  16. Imaging biomarkers in primary brain tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopci, Egesta; Chiti, Arturo [Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Nuclear Medicine Department, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Franzese, Ciro; Navarria, Pierina; Scorsetti, Marta [Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Radiosurgery and Radiotherapy, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Grimaldi, Marco [Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Radiology, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Zucali, Paolo Andrea; Simonelli, Matteo [Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Medical Oncology, Rozzano, MI (Italy); Bello, Lorenzo [Humanitas Clinical and Research Center, Neurosurgery, Rozzano, MI (Italy)

    2015-04-01

    We are getting used to referring to instrumentally detectable biological features in medical language as ''imaging biomarkers''. These two terms combined reflect the evolution of medical imaging during recent decades, and conceptually comprise the principle of noninvasive detection of internal processes that can become targets for supplementary therapeutic strategies. These targets in oncology include those biological pathways that are associated with several tumour features including independence from growth and growth-inhibitory signals, avoidance of apoptosis and immune system control, unlimited potential for replication, self-sufficiency in vascular supply and neoangiogenesis, acquired tissue invasiveness and metastatic diffusion. Concerning brain tumours, there have been major improvements in neurosurgical techniques and radiotherapy planning, and developments of novel target drugs, thus increasing the need for reproducible, noninvasive, quantitative imaging biomarkers. However, in this context, conventional radiological criteria may be inappropriate to determine the best therapeutic option and subsequently to assess response to therapy. Integration of molecular imaging for the evaluation of brain tumours has for this reason become necessary, and an important role in this setting is played by imaging biomarkers in PET and MRI. In the current review, we describe most relevant techniques and biomarkers used for imaging primary brain tumours in clinical practice, and discuss potential future developments from the experimental context. (orig.)

  17. Imaging biomarkers in primary brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We are getting used to referring to instrumentally detectable biological features in medical language as ''imaging biomarkers''. These two terms combined reflect the evolution of medical imaging during recent decades, and conceptually comprise the principle of noninvasive detection of internal processes that can become targets for supplementary therapeutic strategies. These targets in oncology include those biological pathways that are associated with several tumour features including independence from growth and growth-inhibitory signals, avoidance of apoptosis and immune system control, unlimited potential for replication, self-sufficiency in vascular supply and neoangiogenesis, acquired tissue invasiveness and metastatic diffusion. Concerning brain tumours, there have been major improvements in neurosurgical techniques and radiotherapy planning, and developments of novel target drugs, thus increasing the need for reproducible, noninvasive, quantitative imaging biomarkers. However, in this context, conventional radiological criteria may be inappropriate to determine the best therapeutic option and subsequently to assess response to therapy. Integration of molecular imaging for the evaluation of brain tumours has for this reason become necessary, and an important role in this setting is played by imaging biomarkers in PET and MRI. In the current review, we describe most relevant techniques and biomarkers used for imaging primary brain tumours in clinical practice, and discuss potential future developments from the experimental context. (orig.)

  18. A PROSPECTIVE HISTOPATHOLOGICAL-BASED STUDY OF BRAIN TUMOURS IN A REFERRAL CENTRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathima Gujjaru

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Brain neoplasms occur at all ages and account for around 2-3 percent of all deaths in adults. In children, the frequency increases to more than twenty percent. In children, it forms the second most common type of malignancy. Most of the tumours encountered are not related to any identifiable risk factors except for irradiation and some hereditary syndromes like subependymal giant cell astrocytoma, glioblastoma multiforme, cerebellar haemangioblastoma, meningioma, Schwannoma of 7 th cranial nerve. Gliomas constitute fifty percent of the brain tumours and sixty percent of all gliomas are glioblastoma multiforme. Meningiomas constitute twenty percent and cerebral metastasis is seen in fifteen percent of the cases. Seventy percent of supratentorial tumours are found in adults and seventy percent of brain tumours in children are infratentorial. The three common tumours of cerebellum are medulloblastoma, haemangioblastoma and juvenile pilocytic astrocytoma. Brain tumours are space occupying lesions and cause compression and destruction of adjacent structures, brain oedema (Peritumoural tissue, infarction and ischaemia of brain by compressing/infiltrating cerebral blood vessels, obstruction of CSF flow causing hydrocephalus, and rise in intracranial pressure with herniations. Tumours can undergo ischaemic necrosis and necrotic tumours tend to bleed. Brain tumours generally do not metastasise. Schwannoma and meningioma are benign tumours. Medulloblastoma of childhood may have drop metastasis via CSF. A sincere effort has been put in this study to identify the incidence of each variety of brain tumour among the fifty confirmed and identified cases of brain tumours. METHODS The age range of the cases in present study was 5-72 years with a mean age of occurrence of 44.11 years and the peak age group affected were in the 3 rd and 4 th decades. Cerebral hemisphere was the commonest site for intracranial tumours. RESULT In the present study, fifty

  19. Telomerase activity in 144 brain tumours.

    OpenAIRE

    Sano, T; Asai, A.; Mishima, K.; Fujimaki, T.; Kirino, T.

    1998-01-01

    Unlimited proliferation in immortalized cells is believed to be highly dependent on the activity of telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein that synthesizes telomeric repeats onto chromosome ends. Using a polymerase chain reaction-based telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) assay, we analysed telomerase activity in 99 benign and 45 malignant brain tumours. The TRAP assay results were quantitated by normalizing the telomerase activity of each specimen to that of human glioma cell line T98G to...

  20. The value of lymphography in childhood solid tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The lymphographic films of 40 children with solid tumours were re-evaluated to assess the value of lymphography. In 11 children the lymphographic findings were positive. In only one child with carcinoma of the small bowel the metastatic changes in a normal-sized lymph node were probably not demonstrable on ultrasound (US) or computed tomography (CT). In the most common childhood tumours the metastatic lymph nodes were enlarged and thus demonstrable on US or CT. Therefore we suggest that US or CT should be performed first, followed by lymphography in doubtfull cases only. (orig.)

  1. Experiences with radiation treatment of soft tissue tumours in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors review the trends in the treatment of soft tissue tumours in childhood mainly after radiation treatment which is an integral part of the combined therapy. During the last 9 years 23 children with soft tissue tumours were treated with radiotherapy. It was found that in this type of tumours only moderate results could be achieved. This necessitates the early diagnosis and the early start of the combined treatment method. In the authors' material the 2 years survival was 16,6%. The radiotherapy improves the results only if it is based on adequate radiobiological and radiophysical planning ensuring the use of adequate doses and radiation sources. (author) 18 refs.; 3 figs.; 3 tables

  2. Scanning Techniques for Brain-Tumour, Localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The colour scanner has been used to scan two small clinical series of brain tumour cases, one by means of As74 using positron detection, the other with I131-labelled albumin using gamma detection and a focusing collimator. The results of these series are given and the value of the procedure to the clinician is presented. Matthews has shown, in studies on tumour- bearing rats, that Bi206 citrate should be a particularly favourable material for brain tumour localization and a preliminary attempt has been made to scan with this material using gamma detection and a focusing collimator. Preliminary results of this study are presented. The focusing collimators used with the gamma-emitting isotopes have a deep geometrical focus and isocount responses are obtained on point sources which are almost depth independent for 20 cm. Experimental results on a series of collimators lead to design data for building such collimators to a given specification. Stationary detector scanning has been carried out on brain-tumour cases using a gamma camera with storage-tube display. The advantages of such machines lie in greater sensitivity and more rapid visualization of the pattern of distribution of radioactivity, which in turn enables dynamic studies to be carried out. Problems which occur with such machines include the difficulty in marking anatomical features and the geometric distortions which occur. These are compared for pin-hole and matrix viewing apertures. The improvement in performance resulting from circuit modifications to remove the dependence of picture size on gamma-ray energy is discussed. The analysis of cerebral scans presents difficulties when the suspected region is only slightly greater in count-rate than its surroundings. A ''normal'' count-rate pattern for a head has been determined by dividing scans into regions which are approximately anatomically equivalent from patient to patient, and counting scintiscan marks in each region. Any abnormal scan may then be

  3. Treatment of Newly Diagnosed and Recurrent Childhood Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Treatment of Newly Diagnosed and Recurrent Childhood Brain Tumors The brain is made of different kinds of cells . Childhood ... following: What You Need To Know About™ Brain Tumors Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium (PBTC) For more childhood cancer information ...

  4. Residential Radon and Brain Tumour Incidence in a Danish Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira V.; Andersen, Zorana J.; Andersen, Claus Erik; Pedersen, Camilla; Gravesen, Peter; Ulbak, Kaare; Hertel, Ole; Loft, Steffen; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2013-01-01

    exposure to residential radon on the risk of primary brain tumour in a prospective Danish cohort. Methods: During 1993–1997 we recruited 57,053 persons. We followed each cohort member for cancer occurrence from enrolment until 31 December 2009, identifying 121 primary brain tumour cases. We traced......Background: Increased brain tumour incidence over recent decades may reflect improved diagnostic methods and clinical practice, but remain unexplained. Although estimated doses are low a relationship between radon and brain tumours may exist. Objective: To investigate the long-term effect of...... (CI) for the risk of primary brain tumours associated with residential radon exposure with adjustment for age, sex, occupation, fruit and vegetable consumption and traffic-related air pollution. Effect modification by air pollution was assessed. Results: Median estimated radon was 40.5 Bq/m3. The...

  5. Brain tumour stem cells: the undercurrents of human brain cancer and their relationship to neural stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Dirks, Peter B.

    2007-01-01

    Conceptual and technical advances in neural stem cell biology are being applied to the study of human brain tumours. These studies suggest that human brain tumours are organized as a hierarchy and are maintained by a small number of tumour cells that have stem cell properties. Most of the bulk population of human brain tumours comprise cells that have lost the ability to initiate and maintain tumour growth. Although the cell of origin for human brain tumours is uncertain, recent evidence poin...

  6. MicroRNA Regulation of Brain Tumour Initiating Cells in Central Nervous System Tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Garg

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available CNS tumours occur in both pediatric and adult patients and many of these tumours are associated with poor clinical outcome. Due to a paradigm shift in thinking for the last several years, these tumours are now considered to originate from a small population of stem-like cells within the bulk tumour tissue. These cells, termed as brain tumour initiating cells (BTICs, are perceived to be regulated by microRNAs at the posttranscriptional/translational levels. Proliferation, stemness, differentiation, invasion, angiogenesis, metastasis, apoptosis, and cell cycle constitute some of the significant processes modulated by microRNAs in cancer initiation and progression. Characterization and functional studies on oncogenic or tumour suppressive microRNAs are made possible because of developments in sequencing and microarray techniques. In the current review, we bring recent knowledge of the role of microRNAs in BTIC formation and therapy. Special attention is paid to two highly aggressive and well-characterized brain tumours: gliomas and medulloblastoma. As microRNA seems to be altered in the pathogenesis of many human diseases, “microRNA therapy” may now have potential to improve outcomes for brain tumour patients. In this rapidly evolving field, further understanding of miRNA biology and its contribution towards cancer can be mined for new therapeutic tools.

  7. Residential Radon and Brain Tumour Incidence in a Danish Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira V.; Andersen, Zorana J.; Andersen, Claus Erik;

    2013-01-01

    Background: Increased brain tumour incidence over recent decades may reflect improved diagnostic methods and clinical practice, but remain unexplained. Although estimated doses are low a relationship between radon and brain tumours may exist. Objective: To investigate the long-term effect of...... exposure to residential radon on the risk of primary brain tumour in a prospective Danish cohort. Methods: During 1993–1997 we recruited 57,053 persons. We followed each cohort member for cancer occurrence from enrolment until 31 December 2009, identifying 121 primary brain tumour cases. We traced...... residential addresses from 1 January 1971 until 31 December 2009 and calculated radon concentrations at each address using information from central databases regarding geology and house construction. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate incidence rate-ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals...

  8. Quantitation of glial fibrillary acidic protein in human brain tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, S; Bock, E; Warecka, K;

    1980-01-01

    The glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFA) content of 58 human brain tumours was determined by quantitative immunoelectrophoresis, using monospecific antibody against GFA. Astrocytomas, glioblastomas, oligodendrogliomas, spongioblastomas, ependymomas and medulloblastomas contained relatively high...... amounts of GFA, up to 85 times the concentration in parietal grey substance of normal human brain. GFA was not found in neurinomas, meningiomas, adenomas of the hypophysis, or in a single case of metastasis of adenocarcinoma. Non-glial tumours of craniopharyngioma and haemangioblastoma were infiltrated by...

  9. Intracerebral haemorrhage in primary and metastatic brain tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmaggi, Andrea; Erbetta, Alessandra; Silvani, Antonio; Maderna, Emanuela; Pollo, Bianca

    2008-09-01

    Intracerebral haemorrhage may both be a presenting manifestation in unrecognised brain tumour or--more frequently--take place in the disease course of known/suspected brain tumour due to diagnostic/therapeutic procedures, including biopsy, locoregional treatments and anti-angiogenic therapies. Apart from the difficulties inherent to accurate neuroradiological diagnosis in selected cases with small tumour volume, the main clinical problem that neurologists face is represented by decision making in prophylaxis/treatment of venous thromboembolism in these patients. These points are briefly discussed and available evidence on the last point is commented on. PMID:18690513

  10. Ex-vivo HRMAS of adult brain tumours: metabolite quantification and assignment of tumour biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson M

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS NMR spectroscopy allows detailed metabolic analysis of whole biopsy samples for investigating tumour biology and tumour classification. Accurate biochemical assignment of small molecule metabolites that are "NMR visible" will improve our interpretation of HRMAS data and the translation of NMR tumour biomarkers to in-vivo studies. Results 1D and 2D 1H HRMAS NMR was used to determine that 29 small molecule metabolites, along with 8 macromolecule signals, account for the majority of the HRMAS spectrum of the main types of brain tumour (astrocytoma grade II, grade III gliomas, glioblastomas, metastases, meningiomas and also lymphomas. Differences in concentration of 20 of these metabolites were statistically significant between these brain tumour types. During the course of an extended 2D data acquisition the HRMAS technique itself affects sample analysis: glycine, glutathione and glycerophosphocholine all showed small concentration changes; analysis of the sample after HRMAS indicated structural damage that may affect subsequent histopathological analysis. Conclusions A number of small molecule metabolites have been identified as potential biomarkers of tumour type that may enable development of more selective in-vivo 1H NMR acquisition methods for diagnosis and prognosis of brain tumours.

  11. Growth after treatment of solid tumours in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examined 90 survivors of childhood solid tumours diagnosed in our hospital between 1960 and 1976. Their ages at the time of this study ranged from 12.2 to 41.5 years. Adult standing height was usually normal. However, final standing height was less than expected in the females, and sitting height was below the normal mean in the males. The males who had received both chemotheraphy and radiation therapy to the spine had a greater decrement in sitting height, but we did not find any association between radiation therapy to the spine without chemotherapy and subsequent total growth of the spine as measured by sitting height. We conclude that these children generally do not experience any major growth disturbances. (au)

  12. Emotional and personality changes following brain tumour resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Lisanne M; Drummond, Katharine J; Andrewes, David G

    2016-07-01

    Psychological distress has a high prevalence in brain tumour patients, and understanding the emotional and personality changes that may follow neurosurgery is important for clinical management of these patients. We aimed to characterise these emotional and personality changes using subjective, observer-rated and clinical measures. We examined subjective changes in emotional experience and observer-rated changes to personality disturbances following neurosurgery for brain tumours (n=44), compared to a control group that had undergone spinal surgery (n=26). Participants completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and a Subjective Emotional Change Questionnaire. Observers who knew the patients well also completed the Iowa Rating Scale of Personality Change. Compared to controls, patients with tumours reported significantly more changes to their subjective experience of emotions following neurosurgery, particularly anger, disgust and sadness. For the observer-ratings, tumour patients were described as having significant changes in the personality disturbances of irritability, impulsivity, moodiness, inflexibility, and being easily overwhelmed. Anxiety and depression were not significantly different between groups. Neurosurgical resection of a brain tumour is a major life event that changes patients' subjective experiences of different emotions, and leads to observer-rated changes in personality. In this study, these changes were not accompanied by increases in anxiety or depression. We conclude with a discussion of biological and psychosocial mechanisms that can impact emotional functioning and personality in patients with brain tumours. PMID:26898575

  13. A rare metastasis from a rare brain tumour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aabenhus, Kristine; Hahn, Christoffer Holst

    2014-01-01

    This case report presents the story of a patient with an oligodendroglioma metastasizing to the bone marrow and to lymph nodes of the neck. The patient had undergone primary brain surgery 13 years prior to the discovery of metastases and radiotherapy directed at the brain tumour two months prior........ Oligodendroglioma are rare primary brain tumours of which extraneural metastasis is even more rare. The incidence of cases like this may be increasing because of better treatment and thus longer survival of patients with oligodendroglioma....

  14. Anatomical and biochemical investigation of primary brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancerous transformation entails major biochemical changes including modifications of the energy metabolism of the cell, e.g. utilisation of glucose and other substrates, protein synthesis, and expression of receptors and antigens. Tumour growth also leads to heterogeneity in blood flow owing to focal necrosis, angiogenesis and metabolic demands, as well as disruption of transport mechanisms of substrates across cell membranes and other physiological boundaries such as the blood-brain barrier. All these biochemical, histological and anatomical changes can be assessed with emission tomography, X-ray computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Whereas anatomical imaging is aimed at the diagnosis of brain tumours, biochemical imaging is better suited for tissue characterisation. The identification of a tumoural mass and the assessment of its size and vascularisation are best achieved with X-ray CT and MRI, while biochemical imaging can provide additional information that is crucial for tumour classification, differential diagnosis and follow-up. As the assessment of variables such as water content, appearance of cystic lesions and location of the tumour are largely irrelevant for tissue characterisation, a number of probes have been employed for the assessment of the biochemical features of tumours. Since biochemical changes may be related to the growth rate of cancer cells, they can be thought of as markers of tumour cell proliferation. Biochemical imaging with radionuclides of processes that occur at a cellular level provides information that complements findings obtained by anatomical imaging aimed at depicting structural, vascular and histological changes. This review focusses on the clinical application of anatomical brain imaging and biochemical assessment with positron emission tomography, single-photon emission tomography and MRS in the diagnosis of primary brain tumours, as well as in follow-up. (orig.)

  15. A reproducible brain tumour model established from human glioblastoma biopsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xingang

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Establishing clinically relevant animal models of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM remains a challenge, and many commonly used cell line-based models do not recapitulate the invasive growth patterns of patient GBMs. Previously, we have reported the formation of highly invasive tumour xenografts in nude rats from human GBMs. However, implementing tumour models based on primary tissue requires that these models can be sufficiently standardised with consistently high take rates. Methods In this work, we collected data on growth kinetics from a material of 29 biopsies xenografted in nude rats, and characterised this model with an emphasis on neuropathological and radiological features. Results The tumour take rate for xenografted GBM biopsies were 96% and remained close to 100% at subsequent passages in vivo, whereas only one of four lower grade tumours engrafted. Average time from transplantation to the onset of symptoms was 125 days ± 11.5 SEM. Histologically, the primary xenografts recapitulated the invasive features of the parent tumours while endothelial cell proliferations and necrosis were mostly absent. After 4-5 in vivo passages, the tumours became more vascular with necrotic areas, but also appeared more circumscribed. MRI typically revealed changes related to tumour growth, several months prior to the onset of symptoms. Conclusions In vivo passaging of patient GBM biopsies produced tumours representative of the patient tumours, with high take rates and a reproducible disease course. The model provides combinations of angiogenic and invasive phenotypes and represents a good alternative to in vitro propagated cell lines for dissecting mechanisms of brain tumour progression.

  16. Ten years summary: FDG-PET on irradiated brain tumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate FDG-PET in differentiation of post-radiotherapy status: recurrence, radiation necrosis, malignant regression of low grade primary brain tumour, and to evaluate PET in terms of survival prediction. Material and methods: 117 irradiated patients (156 PET) were consecutively included. PET results were judged by a set of rigid follow-up standards. Brain metastases from lung carcinoma were further studied. Survival time was analysed with Kaplan-Meier method. Results: There were 61 true-positive, 2 false-positive, 15 false-negative, 51 true-negative PET; leaving 5 positive and 22 negative PET results indeterminate. PET positive predictive value was 96% in all and 100% in brain metastasis from lung carcinoma. PET negative predictive value was 55.6% among surgically selected cases. Survival time was significantly longer in patient's with negative PET, both brain metastasis and primary brain tumour. Conclusions: FDG-PET was a good method to pick up tumour recurrence from radiation necrosis, especially metastasis from lung carcinoma. FDG uptake could be used as a non-invasive parameter to predict patient's prognosis. (authors)

  17. Atypical Teratoid/Rrhabdoid Tumour of Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena Sidhu,P.Sakhuja,V.Malhotra,R.Gondal S.Kumar

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Primitive neuroectodermal tumor (PNET / medulloblastoma (MB are the most commonmalignantcentral nervous tumors of the first decade of life. Atypical teratoid / rhabdoid tumor (ATT / RT isa tumor of infancy and childhood although occasional cases have also been described in adults.ATT/RT has a characteristic histopathological, immunocytochemical and ultrastructural features.ATT /RT is a rare tumor, incidence of which remains to be defined with only hundred publishedcases. The present report docurilents the clinical features, histological and immunohistochemicalfindings of a case ofATT / RT.

  18. Mobile phone use and risk of brain tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahkola, A.

    2010-05-15

    Mobile phone use has increased rapidly worldwide since the 1990's. As mobile telephones are used close to the head, the exposure to the radiofrequency radiation emitted by mobile phones has been suggested as a possible risk factor for brain tumours. The effect of mobile phone use on risk of brain tumours, particularly gliomas and meningiomas as well as acoustic neuromas, was evaluated using both a case-control approach and a meta-analysis. In addition, one of the most important sources of error in a case-control study, selection bias due to differential participation, was assessed in a subset of the case-control data. The risk of glioma and meningioma in relation to mobile phone use was investigated in population-based case-control studies conducted in five North European countries. All these countries used a common protocol and were included in a multinational study on mobile phone use and brain tumours, the INTERPHONE study, coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Cases (1,521 gliomas and 1,209 meningiomas) were identified mostly from hospitals and controls (3,299) from national population registers or general practitioners' patient lists. Detailed history of mobile phone use was obtained in personal interviews. Mobile phone use was assessed using several exposure indicators, such as regular use (phone use at least once a week for at least six months), duration of use as well as cumulative number of hours and calls. To comprehensively evaluate the effect of mobile phone use on risk of brain tumours, the existing evidence from the epidemiological studies published on the issue was combined using meta-analysis. In the analysis, a pooled estimate was calculated for all brain tumours combined, and also separately for the three most common tumour types, glioma, meningioma and acoustic neuroma using inverse variance-weighted method. Pooled estimate was also obtained for different telephone types (NMT and GSM) and by the location

  19. Mobile phone use and risk of brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobile phone use has increased rapidly worldwide since the 1990's. As mobile telephones are used close to the head, the exposure to the radiofrequency radiation emitted by mobile phones has been suggested as a possible risk factor for brain tumours. The effect of mobile phone use on risk of brain tumours, particularly gliomas and meningiomas as well as acoustic neuromas, was evaluated using both a case-control approach and a meta-analysis. In addition, one of the most important sources of error in a case-control study, selection bias due to differential participation, was assessed in a subset of the case-control data. The risk of glioma and meningioma in relation to mobile phone use was investigated in population-based case-control studies conducted in five North European countries. All these countries used a common protocol and were included in a multinational study on mobile phone use and brain tumours, the INTERPHONE study, coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Cases (1,521 gliomas and 1,209 meningiomas) were identified mostly from hospitals and controls (3,299) from national population registers or general practitioners' patient lists. Detailed history of mobile phone use was obtained in personal interviews. Mobile phone use was assessed using several exposure indicators, such as regular use (phone use at least once a week for at least six months), duration of use as well as cumulative number of hours and calls. To comprehensively evaluate the effect of mobile phone use on risk of brain tumours, the existing evidence from the epidemiological studies published on the issue was combined using meta-analysis. In the analysis, a pooled estimate was calculated for all brain tumours combined, and also separately for the three most common tumour types, glioma, meningioma and acoustic neuroma using inverse variance-weighted method. Pooled estimate was also obtained for different telephone types (NMT and GSM) and by the location of the

  20. Iodine-125 brachytherapy for brain tumours - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iodine-125 brachytherapy has been applied to brain tumours since 1979. Even though the physical and biological characteristics make these implants particularly attractive for minimal invasive treatment, the place for stereotactic brachytherapy is still poorly defined. An extensive review of the literature has been performed, especially concerning indications, results and complications. Iodine-125 seeds have been implanted in astrocytomas I-III, glioblastomas, metastases and several other tumour entities. Outcome data given in the literature are summarized. Complications are rare in carefully selected patients. All in all, for highly selected patients with newly diagnosed or recurrent primary or metastatic tumours, this method provides encouraging survival rates with relatively low complication rates and a good quality of life

  1. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) of human brain tumours: assessment of differences between tumour types and its applicability in brain tumour categorization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our objective was to evaluate the usefulness of proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) in categorizing brain tumours. In vivo single-voxel 1H MRS at an echo time of 136 ms was performed in 108 patients with brain neoplasms that included 29 meningiomas (MEN), 15 low-grade astrocytomas (LGA), 12 anaplastic astrocytomas (AA), 25 glioblastomas (GBM) and 27 metastases (MET). Time-domain fitted areas of nine resonances were evaluated in all spectra. Twenty-five additional tumours were prospectively included as independent test set. Differences in at least two resonances were found in all pairwise comparisons of tumour groups except in GBM vs MET. Large lipid resonance at 1.30 ppm was found to be characteristic of GBM and MET, and alanine was characteristic of MEN. Significant differences were found between LGA and AA in choline-containing compounds and total creatine resonances. When implemented in a stepwise algorithm, these findings correctly classified 84% (21 of 25) tumours in the independent test set. Some additional utility was found in glycine/myo-inositol at 3.55 ppm for bilateral differentiation between GBM and MET (9 of 11, 82% correct classification in the test set). 1H MRS provides useful information to categorize the most common brain tumours that can be implemented in clinical practice with satisfactory results. (orig.)

  2. Long-term therapy related side effect on endocrine system among survivor with paediatric brain tumour and acute lymphoblastic leukaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Shu-wing, Sophia; 陳舒穎

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and brain tumours are frequently seen in childhood malignancies. With the improved effectiveness of treatments, approximately 70–80% patients can be cured of their primary illness. However, therapy-related long-term sequelae among survivors are becoming a major concern. Traditional treatments include surgery, radiation and chemotherapy, and these have been shown to have prolonged side effects on the endocrine system, and symptoms may develop mon...

  3. STUDY OF BRAIN TUMOURS BY NOVE L MAGNETIC RESONANCE TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shamim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study , thirty patients in the age range of 22 to 63 years of age were included after being diagnosed to be having brain tumour on CT scan or conventional MRI. In addition DWI , MRS , and PWI were carried out i n these patients. All the patients with suspicious malignant lesions were then subjected to FDG - PET examination . Histopathological correlation was obtained in all the patients to serve as gold standard against which other modalities will be assessed for th eir sensitivity , specificity , positive predictive value , negative predictive value and diagnostic accuracy. Out of thirty patients selected for this study , twenty cases were found to be malignant and ten cases were benign on Histopathological evaluation. Majority of malignant lesions were glioblastoma multiforme. Amongst benign cases , majorities were meningioma , one was a Granulomatous lesion and one was a benign cystic lesion. MRI including the novel techniques showed high sensitivity and spe cificity in identifying malignant brain lesions and has a future role in better characterization of brain tumours. Wherever available , it should be integrated in routine workup of patients presenting with brain tumours or for follow up of patients undergon e surgery / adjuvant chemotherapy.

  4. Thyroid dysfunction after radiotherapy and chemotherapy of brain tumours.

    OpenAIRE

    Livesey, E A; Brook, C G

    1989-01-01

    We investigated thyroid function in 119 survivors of treatment for brain tumours not involving the hypothalamo-pituitary region. Cranial irradiation did not effect thyroid function but 11 of 47 children (23%) who had spinal irradiation had raised concentrations of thyroid stimulating hormone. Chemotherapy further increased the incidence of thyroid dysfunction: two of four patients who had cranial irradiation and chemotherapy and 20 of 29 patients (69%) who had spinal irradiation and chemother...

  5. Patterns of exposure to infectious diseases and social contacts in early life and risk of brain tumours in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T V; Schmidt, L S; Poulsen, A H;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases and social contacts in early life have been proposed to modulate brain tumour risk during late childhood and adolescence. METHODS: CEFALO is an interview-based case-control study in Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Switzerland, including children and adolescents aged 7...

  6. In situ and in vitro profiling of brain tumour initiating cells of high-grade gliomas

    OpenAIRE

    Leidgens, Verena Jeannine

    2016-01-01

    High-grade gliomas, especially glioblastomas, are highly complex and heterogeneous primary brain tumours. Glioblastoma (GBM) is one of the most aggressive cancers with poor overall survival prognosis. Fast and widespread invasion of the brain parenchyma by a subpopulation of progenitor tumour cells is a main pathophysiological feature of these tumours. Invasion renders localised therapies ineffective and is a primary cause of tumour recurrence as well as associated morbidity. Identification o...

  7. Alterations of monocarboxylate transporter densities during hypoxia in brain and breast tumour cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Chang; Edin, Nina F Jeppesen; Lauritzen, Knut H;

    2012-01-01

    Tumour cells are characterized by aerobic glycolysis, which provides biomass for tumour proliferation and leads to extracellular acidification through efflux of lactate via monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs). Deficient and spasm-prone tumour vasculature causes variable hypoxia, which favours tum...... tumour cell survival and metastases. Brain metastases frequently occur in patients with advanced breast cancer.Effective treatment strategies are therefore needed against brain metastasis from breast carcinoma....

  8. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in brain tumours: clinical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parallel to the rapid development of clinical MRI, MR spectroscopy (MRS) has, after starting as an analytical tool used in chemistry and physics, evolved to a noninvasive clinical examination. Most common neuroradiological diagnostic indications for MRS are functional inborn errors, neonatal hypoxia, ischaemia, metabolic diseases, white matter and degenerative diseases, epilepsy, inflammation, infections and intracranial neoplasm. Compared to CT and MRI, well-established morphological diagnostic tools, MRS provides information on the metabolic state of brain tissue. We review the clinical impact of MRS in diagnosis of tumours and their differentiation from non-neoplastic lesions. (orig.)

  9. Changes in brain water diffusion during childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the changes in brain water diffusion in childhood as seen on diffusion-weighted MRI in 30 children from 1 day of life to 17 years to provide a data base and to investigate the correlation of diffusion changes with known patterns of white matter maturation. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and apparent anisotropy (AA) were calculated in numerous regions of the brain to include major white matter tracts and gray matter. ADC and AA values were directly related to the structural maturity and compactness of the white matter tracts and changed with aging in a way that predated early myelination markers such as signal change on T1- or T2-weighted images. Diffusion of water is sensitive to structural changes in the brain such as white matter maturation and may be useful in investigating white matter disorders. (orig.)

  10. A Systematic Overview of Radiation Therapy Effects in Brain Tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A systematic review of radiation therapy trials in several tumour types was performed by The Swedish Council of Technology Assessment in Health Care (SBU). The procedures for evaluation of the scientific literature are described separately. This synthesis of the literature on radiation therapy for brain tumours is based on data from 9 randomized trials and 1 meta-analysis. Moreover, data from 2 prospective studies, 3 retrospective studies and 4 other articles were used. In total, 19 scientific articles are included, involving 4,266 patients. The results were compared with those of a similar overview from 1996 including 11,252 patients. The conclusions reached can be summarized as follows: The conclusion from SBU 129/2 that curative treatment is not available for patients with high-grade malignant glioma (grade III and IV) is still valid. The survival benefit from postoperative radiotherapy compared to supportive care only or chemotherapy is about 3-4 months, as demonstrated in earlier randomized studies. Quality of life is now currently estimated and considered to be of major importance when reporting the outcome of treatment for patients with brain tumours. There is no scientific evidence that radiotherapy using hyper- and hypofractionation leads to longer survival for patients with high-grade malignant glioma than conventional radiotherapy. There is large documentation, but only one randomized study. There is some documentation to support the view that patients with grade IV glioma and poor prognosis can be treated with hypofractionation and with an outcome similar to that after conventional fractionation. A shorter treatment time should be convenient for the patient. Documentation of the benefit of a radiotherapy boost with brachytherapy is limited and no conclusion can be drawn. There is no scientific evidence that radiotherapy prolongs life for patients with low-grade glioma. There are some data supporting that radiotherapy can be used to treat symptoms in

  11. CS-16THE eEF2 KINASE IS CRITICAL FOR BRAIN TUMOURS ADAPTATION TO METABOLIC STRESS

    OpenAIRE

    Leprivier, Gabriel; Remke, Marc; Rotblat, Barak; Agnihotri, Sameer; Kool, Marcel; Derry, Brent; Pfister, Stefan; Taylor, Michael D.; Sorensen, Poul H.

    2014-01-01

    During tumour progression, brain tumour cells are exposed to metabolic stress, such as nutrient deprivation, due to abnormal tumour vasculature. The ability of tumour cells to respond and manage reduced nutrient availability has a strong impact on tumour outcome. The molecular pathways supporting metabolic adaptation of brain tumour cells to nutrient stress represent potential therapeutic targets which are still not well defined. We report that the translation elongation factor 2 (eEF2) kinas...

  12. The use of PET in evaluating patients with primary brain tumours: is it useful?

    OpenAIRE

    Olivero, W C; Dulebohn, S C; Lister, J R

    1995-01-01

    During an 18 month period 39 patients were evaluated with [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose-PET (FDG-PET) for primary brain tumours. These included patients with suspected newly diagnosed tumours and patients with known tumours who were being evaluated for possible recurrence or increasing tumour grade. Scans were performed on a 951-31 Siemen's PET scanner with 4 mm resolution. Scanning time was about 20 minutes per patient. All patients had undergone recent cerebral MRI. These patients were divided i...

  13. Clinical applications of proton MR spectroscopy in the diagnosis of brain tumours

    OpenAIRE

    Bulakbasi, Nail

    2004-01-01

    There are few but important problems in magnetic resonance (MR) diagnosis of the brain tumours such as predicting the grade, exact definition of the tumour borders, differentiation of the cystic tumours from abscess, the tumoral core from peritumoral oedema, and the tumour recurrence from radiation necrosis. MR spectroscopy (MRS) can add more information to MR imaging (MRI) in solving many of these problems. Widespread usage of faster MRS applications with higher signal‒to‒noise ratio (SNR) a...

  14. Radiation-induced brain disorders in patients with pituitary tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-induced brain disorders (RIBD) are uncommon and they are grave sequelae of conventional radiotherapy. In the present report, we describe the clinical spectrum of RIBD in 11 patients who received post-surgery conventional megavoltage irradiation for residual pituitary tumours. Of these 11 patients (nine men, two women), seven had been treated for non-functioning pituitary tumours and four for somatotropinomas. At the time of irradiation the age of these patients ranged from 30 to 59 years (mean, 39.4 ± 8.3; median, 36) with a follow-up period of 696 months (mean, 18.3 ± 26.4; median, 11). The dose of radiation ranged from 45 to 90 Gy (mean, 51.3 ± 13.4; median, 45), which was given in 1530 fractions (mean, 18.6 ± 5.0; median, 15) with 2.8 ± 0.3 Gy (median, 3) per fraction. The biological effective dose calculated for late complications in these patients ranged from 78.7 to 180 Gy (mean, 99.1 ± 27.5; median, 90). The lag time between tumour irradiation and the onset of symptoms ranged from 6 to 168 months (mean, 46.3 ± 57.0; median, 57). The clinical spectrum of RIBD included new-onset visual abnormalities in five, cerebral radionecrosis in the form of altered sensorium in four, generalized seizures in four, cognitive dysfunction in five, dementia in three and motor deficits in two patients. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/CT of the brain was suggestive of radionecrosis in eight, cerebral oedema in three, cerebral atrophy in two and second neoplasia in one patient. Associated hormone deficiencies at presentation were hypogonadism in eight, hypoadrenalism in six, hypothyroidism in four and diabetes insipidus in one patient. Autopsy in two patients showed primitive neuroectodermal tumour (PNET) and brainstem radionecrosis in one, and a cystic lesion in the left frontal lobe following radionecrosis in the other. We conclude that RIBD have distinctive but varying clinical and radiological presentations. Diabetes insipidus and PNET as a second neoplastic

  15. Brain tumors in childhood; Hirntumoren im Kindesalter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinzig, M.; Gasser, J.; Hausegger, K.A. [Landeskrankenhaus Klagenfurt, Kinderradiologie RZI, Klagenfurt (Austria); Jauk, B. [Landeskrankenhaus Klagenfurt, Abt. fuer Kinder- und Jugendheilkunde, Klagenfurt (Austria)

    2008-10-15

    Central nervous system (CNS) tumors are the most common solid neoplasms in childhood and the second most common malignancies after leukemia in the pediatric age group. Supratentorial tumors are more common in children younger than 2 years old and in adolescents, whereas in patients between 2 and 12 years of age brain tumors originating in the posterior fossa dominate. This implies a relationship between the type of tumor, its location and the age of the patient, which has to be considered in differential diagnoses. Medulloblastoma represents the most common malignant brain tumor in childhood. In the posterior fossa medulloblastomas are approximately as frequent as astrocytomas. Supratentorial astrocytomas are by far the main tumor type. In this report some typical CNS neoplasms in children are discussed and their neuroradiological features are demonstrated. (orig.) [German] Hirntumoren sind die haeufigsten soliden Tumoren des Kindesalters und repraesentieren nach den Leukaemien die zweithaeufigsten malignen Erkrankungen bei Kindern. Waehrend bei Kleinkindern und Adoleszenten supratentorielle Hirntumoren ueberwiegen, ist bei Patienten zwischen 2 und 12 Jahren haeufiger die hintere Schaedelgrube Ursprungsort dieser Malignome. Daraus geht hervor, dass gewisse Tumortypen eine gewisse Alterspraedilektion aufweisen, was neben der radiologischen Morphologie der Raumforderung fuer differenzialdiagnostische Ueberlegungen ueberaus hilfreich sein kann. Das Medulloblastom ist das haeufigste ZNS-Malignom des Kindesalters und repraesentiert zusammen mit zerebellaeren Astrozytomen auch den haeufigsten Tumortyp der hinteren Schaedelgrube. Supratentoriell stehen die Astrozytome ganz im Vordergrund. In dieser Arbeit werden einige typische kindliche infra- und supratentorielle Hirntumoren diskutiert und ihre neuroradiologischen Merkmale dargestellt. (orig.)

  16. Ex-vivo HRMAS of adult brain tumours: metabolite quantification and assignment of tumour biomarkers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wright, A.J.; Fellows, G.A.; Griffiths, J.R.; Wilson, M.; Bell, B.A.; Howe, F.A.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High-resolution magic angle spinning (HRMAS) NMR spectroscopy allows detailed metabolic analysis of whole biopsy samples for investigating tumour biology and tumour classification. Accurate biochemical assignment of small molecule metabolites that are "NMR visible" will improve our inter

  17. Guiding intracortical brain tumour cells to an extracortical cytotoxic hydrogel using aligned polymeric nanofibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anjana; Betancur, Martha; Patel, Gaurangkumar D.; Valmikinathan, Chandra M.; Mukhatyar, Vivek J.; Vakharia, Ajit; Pai, S. Balakrishna; Brahma, Barunashish; MacDonald, Tobey J.; Bellamkonda, Ravi V.

    2014-03-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme is an aggressive, invasive brain tumour with a poor survival rate. Available treatments are ineffective and some tumours remain inoperable because of their size or location. The tumours are known to invade and migrate along white matter tracts and blood vessels. Here, we exploit this characteristic of glioblastoma multiforme by engineering aligned polycaprolactone (PCL)-based nanofibres for tumour cells to invade and, hence, guide cells away from the primary tumour site to an extracortical location. This extracortial sink is a cyclopamine drug-conjugated, collagen-based hydrogel. When aligned PCL-nanofibre films in a PCL/polyurethane carrier conduit were inserted in the vicinity of an intracortical human U87MG glioblastoma xenograft, a significant number of human glioblastoma cells migrated along the aligned nanofibre films and underwent apoptosis in the extracortical hydrogel. Tumour volume in the brain was significantly lower following insertion of aligned nanofibre implants compared with the application of smooth fibres or no implants.

  18. Combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy for high-grade brain tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barazzuol, Lara

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary brain tumour in adults and among the most aggressive of all tumours. For several decades, the standard care of GBM was surgical resection followed by radiotherapy alone. In 2005, a landmark phase III clinical trial coordinated by the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) and the National Cancer Institute of Canada (NCIC) demonstrated the benefit of radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy. With TMZ, the median life expectancy in optimally managed patients is still only 12-14 months, with only 25% surviving 24 months. There is an urgent need for new therapies in particular in those patients whose tumour has an unmethylated methylguanine methyltransferase gene (MGMT) promoter, which is a predictive factor of benefit from TMZ. In this dissertation, the nature of the interaction between TMZ and radiation is investigated using both a mathematical model, based on in vivo population statistics of survival, and in vitro experimentation on a panel of human GBM cell lines. The results show that TMZ has an additive effect in vitro and that the population-based model may be insufficient in predicting TMZ response. The combination of TMZ with particle therapy is also investigated. Very little preclinical data exists on the effects of charged particles on GBM cell lines as well as on the concomitant application of chemotherapy. In this study, human GBM cells are exposed to 3 MeV protons and 6 MeV alpha particles in concomitance with TMZ. The results suggest that the radiation quality does not affect the nature of the interaction between TMZ and radiation, showing reproducible additive cytotoxicity. Since TMZ and radiation cause DNA damage in cancer cells, there has been increased attention to the use of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors. PARP is a family of enzymes that play a key role in the repair of DNA breaks. In this study, a novel PARP inhibitor, ABT-888

  19. Mobile phone use, exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic field, and brain tumour: a case–control study

    OpenAIRE

    Takebayashi, T; Varsier, N.; Kikuchi, Y; Wake, K; Taki, M; Watanabe, S; Akiba, S; Yamaguchi, N

    2008-01-01

    In a case–control study in Japan of brain tumours in relation to mobile phone use, we used a novel approach for estimating the specific absorption rate (SAR) inside the tumour, taking account of spatial relationships between tumour localisation and intracranial radiofrequency distribution. Personal interviews were carried out with 88 patients with glioma, 132 with meningioma, and 102 with pituitary adenoma (322 cases in total), and with 683 individually matched controls. All maximal SAR value...

  20. Imaging of tuberculosis. Pt. 3. Tuberculosis as a mimicker of brain tumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To show that intracranial tuberculosis (TB) often masquerades as brain tumour. Material and Methods: Forty-six patients with intracranial TB, who after CT at the local hospital were referred for surgery or radiotherapy of brain tumour, are presented. Sometimes the correct diagnosis was first established during surgery for tumour. Results: The differentiation between TB and gliomas, meningiomas, metastases, or lymphomas may be impossible from the clinical history and CT findings. Angiography, done in 25 of our cases, often helped by not showing the expected tumour vasculature. MR, performed in 9 patients, helped by demonstrating a layered capsule on T2-weighted images in 4 of the lesions (hypointense rim outside hyperintense rim); the centres of the lesions were of decreased, usually very mixed T2 signal intensity. Conclusion: Even in patients with findings typical of brain tumour, TB remains an important differential diagnosis. (orig.)

  1. Radiotherapy of primary brain tumours in the region of the third ventricle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heesters, M A; Struikmans, H

    1990-01-01

    Patients (n = 18) with a primary brain tumour near the third ventricle and treated by radiotherapy were retrospectively analysed. Four different subgroups of patients, according to the histology (germ cell tumours, astrocytomas, other histologies, no histology) were separately discussed. Third ventr

  2. Accuracy of computerised tomography in diagnosis of brain tumours in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CT scan has replaced most of the invasive techniques in diagnosis of brain tumours because it can accurately demonstrate, localize and characterize the brain tumours. The objective of this study was to observe the accuracy of CT scan in the diagnosis of brain tumours in children by comparing it with histopathology. This descriptive case series was conducted at Department of Radiology, Ayub Teaching Hospital Abbottabad from March 10, 2005 to March 9, 2007 both pre and post contrast CT scan was carried out on 120 patients referred to Radiology Department for CT scan suspected of having brain tumours. Data of CT findings/diagnosis of patients having brain tumours were collected on a proforma. Histopathology of specimen from operation or biopsy was carried out and compared with the CT scan diagnosis. Glial tumours comprised the largest category 68 (56.67%). Medulloblastoma was 23 (19.16%) Craniopharyngioma 8 (6.63%) and Ependymoma were 6 (5.0%) each. Hemangioblastoma 2 (1.67%), Choroid plexus one (0.83%) adenoma and pineal tumours were 9 (3.33%) each. As regards comparison between CT and histopathology, an agreement between the two was found in 104 (86.67%) cases whereas in 16 (13.33%) of the cases, the histopathology reports were different. In case of Astrocytomas 63 (92.64%) were confirmed on histopathology and 5 (7.36%) was reported differently. In Medulloblastomas 19 (82.60%) were accurately diagnosed on CT scan. Sensitivity of CT scan in diagnosis of brain tumours in children was 93.33%. CT Scan is more accurate predictor of brain tumour yet it is not always 100% accurate. (author)

  3. Comparison of contrast in brightness mode and strain ultrasonography of glial brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Image contrast between normal tissue and brain tumours may sometimes appear to be low in intraoperative ultrasound. Ultrasound imaging of strain is an image modality that has been recently explored for intraoperative imaging of the brain. This study aims to investigate differences in image contrast between ultrasound brightness mode (B-mode) images and ultrasound strain magnitude images of brain tumours. Ultrasound radiofrequency (RF) data was acquired during surgery in 15 patients with glial tumours. The data were subsequently processed to provide strain magnitude images. The contrast in the B-mode images and the strain images was determined in assumed normal brain tissue and tumour tissue at selected regions of interest (ROI). Three measurements of contrast were done in the ultrasound data for each patient. The B-mode and strain contrasts measurements were compared using the paired samples t- test. The statistical analysis of a total of 45 measurements shows that the contrasts in the strain magnitude images are significantly higher than in the conventional ultrasound B-mode images (P < 0.0001). The results indicate that ultrasound strain imaging provides better discrimination between normal brain tissue and glial tumour tissue than conventional ultrasound B-mode imaging. Ultrasound imaging of tissue strain therefore holds the potential of becoming a valuable adjunct to conventional intraoperative ultrasound imaging in brain tumour surgery

  4. Brain perfusion CT compared with 15O-H2O PET in patients with primary brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perfusion CT (PCT) measurements of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) have been proposed as a fast and easy method for identifying angiogenically active tumours. In this study, quantitative PCT rCBF measurements in patients with brain tumours were compared to the gold standard PET rCBF with 15O-labelled water (15O-H2O). On the same day within a few hours, rCBF was measured in ten adult patients with treatment-naive primary brain tumours, twice using 15O-H2O PET and once with PCT performed over the central part of the tumour. Matching rCBF values in tumour and contralateral healthy regions of interest were compared. PCT overestimated intratumoural blood flow in all patients with volume-weighted mean rCBF values of 28.2 ± 18.8 ml min-1 100 ml-1 for PET and 78.9 ± 41.8 ml min-1 100 ml-1 for PCT. There was a significant method by tumour grade interaction with a significant tumour grade rCBF difference for PCT of 32.9 ± 15.8 ml min-1 100 ml-1 for low-grade (WHO I + II) and 81.5 ± 15.4 ml min-1 100 ml-1 for high-grade (WHO III + IV) tumours, but not for PET. The rCBF PCT and PET correlation was only significant within tumours in two patients. Although intratumoural blood flow measured by PCT may add valuable information on tumour grade, the method cannot substitute quantitative measurements of blood flow by PET and 15O-H2O PET in brain tumours. (orig.)

  5. Primary malignant rhabdoid tumour of the brain in an adult

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a mass in the left cerebral hemisphere of a 20-year-old man. Histological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical features of the tumour were consistent with primary malignant rhabdoid tumour. The age of presentation, imaging features prior to histological examination, and prognosis in this case were unusual. (orig.)

  6. RM-06IN VITRO CLONAL EVOLUTION OF GLIOBLASTOMA (GBM) BRAIN TUMOUR INITIATING CELLS (BTIC) TO MODEL TUMOUR RECURRENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Qazi, Maleeha; Vora, Parvez; Venugopal, Chitra; McFarlane, Nicole; Hallett, Robin; Singh, Sheila

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and highly aggressive primary adult brain tumour. Despite multimodal therapy, patients on average experience relapse at 9 months and median survival rarely extends beyond 15 months. Targeting the cells that drive GBM formation as well as its inevitable and rapid recurrence has remained a major challenge, likely due to intra-tumoral heterogeneity. At the genetic level, this heterogeneity has prompted a molecular classification of GBM based on differential ...

  7. Quantitative MR imaging and spectroscopy of brain tumours: a step forward?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A prospective quantitative MR study of brain tumours was performed to show the potential of combining different MR techniques to distinguish various disease processes in routine clinical practice. Twenty-three patients with various intracranial tumours before treatment (diagnosis confirmed by a biopsy) and 59 healthy subjects were examined on a 3-T system by conventional MR imaging, 1H spectroscopic imaging, diffusion tensor imaging and T2 relaxometry. Metabolic concentrations and their ratios, T2 relaxation times and mean diffusivities were calculated and correlated on a pixel-by-pixel basis and compared to control data. Different tumour types and different localisations revealed specific patterns of correlations between metabolic concentrations and mean diffusivity or T2 relaxation times. The patterns distinguish given tissue states in the examined area: healthy tissue, tissue infiltrated by tumour, active tumour, oedema infiltrated by tumour, oedema, etc. This method is able to describe the complexity of a highly heterogeneous tissue in the tumour and its vicinity, and determines crucial parameters for tissue differentiation. A combination of different MR parameters on a pixel-by-pixel basis in individual patients enables better identification of the tumour type, direction of proliferation and assessment of the tumour extension. (orig.)

  8. Role of Cerebellum in Fine Speech Control in Childhood: Persistent Dysarthria after Surgical Treatment for Posterior Fossa Tumour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, A. T.; Liegeois, F.; Liederkerke, C.; Vogel, A. P.; Hayward, R.; Harkness, W.; Chong, K.; Vargha-Khadem, F.

    2011-01-01

    Dysarthria following surgical resection of childhood posterior fossa tumour (PFT) is most commonly documented in a select group of participants with mutism in the acute recovery phase, thus limiting knowledge of post-operative prognosis for this population of children as a whole. Here we report on the speech characteristics of 13 cases seen…

  9. To SPECT diagnose of the brain tumour with Tc-MIBI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In spite of the new diagnosing methods developed, the diagnosis of brain tumours - primary and metastasis - still represents a challenge and diagnosing problem. Therefore, we tried in our study to determine the value of Tc-MIBI as a new specific radiopharmaceutical in the tumour diagnosing. The examination was carried out by injecting in bolus 370 MBq of Tc-99m-MIBI under the gamma camera to be followed by a dynamic study on a computer - 60 images in 60 seconds - and the calculation of relative perfusion in the artery phase 3T out of the generated curve. After one hour we performed the SPECT study (60 images within 360 degrees) and made a reconstruction study of all standard sections and generated a 3D picture. The examination has been performed in 9 pts with brain tumour and 10 pts with no signs of brain tumour which were directed to the scintigraphy of myocardium with MIBI. In patients with a tumour 3T was 1.15 and 2.35., i.e. raised. SPECT 3D scintigram evidenced in all patients exactly localized sharp limits of the increased accumulation. In patients without signs of brain tumour 3T was between 0.92 and 1.05 i.e. normal, SPECT 3D scintigram detected no increased accumulation in the brain region. Conclusion: The preliminary study speaks in favour of the fact that a high possibility may be expected to diagnose brain tumours with the SPECT 3D study with Tc-MIBI. (author)

  10. 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the diagnosis of paediatric low grade brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Low grade gliomas are the commonest brain tumours in children but present in a myriad of ways, each with its own treatment challenges. Conventional MRI scans play an important role in their management but have limited ability to identify likely clinical behaviour. The aim of this study is to investigate 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) as a method for detecting differences between the various low grade gliomas and related tumours in children. Patients and methods: Short echo time single voxel 1H MRS at 1.5 or 3.0 T was performed prior to treatment on children with low grade brain tumours at two centres and five MR scanners, 69 cases had data which passed quality control. MRS data was processed using LCModel to give mean spectra and metabolite concentrations which were compared using T-tests, ANOVA, Receiver Operator Characteristic curves and logistic regression in SPSS. Results: Significant differences were found in concentrations of key metabolites between glioneuronal and glial tumours (T-test p < 0.05) and between most of the individual histological subtypes of low grade gliomas. The discriminatory metabolites identified, such as choline and myoinositol, are known tumour biomarkers. In the set of pilocytic astrocytomas and unbiopsied optic pathway gliomas, significant differences (p < 0.05, ANOVA) were found in metabolite profiles of tumours depending on location and patient neurofibromatosis type 1 status. Logistic regression analyses yielded equations which could be used to assess the probability of a tumour being of a specific type. Conclusions: MRS can detect subtle differences between low grade brain tumours in children and should form part of the clinical assessment of these tumours

  11. {sup 1}H magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the diagnosis of paediatric low grade brain tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orphanidou-Vlachou, E., E-mail: eleni.orphanidou@googlemail.com [School of Cancer Sciences, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Birmingham Children' s Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Whittall Street, Birmingham, B4 6NH (United Kingdom); Auer, D., E-mail: dorothee.auer@nottingham.ac.uk [Division of Academic Radiology, School of Medical and Surgical Sciences, The University of Nottingham, University Park, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Children' s Brain Tumour Research Centre, Queens Medical Centre, University of Nottingham (United Kingdom); Brundler, M.A., E-mail: marie-anne.brundler@bch.nhs.uk [Birmingham Children' s Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Whittall Street, Birmingham, B4 6NH (United Kingdom); Davies, N.P., E-mail: nigel.davies@nhs.net [School of Cancer Sciences, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Birmingham Children' s Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Whittall Street, Birmingham, B4 6NH (United Kingdom); Department of Medical Physics, University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Mindelsohn Way, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2WB (United Kingdom); Jaspan, T., E-mail: tim.jaspan@nuh.nhs.uk [Children' s Brain Tumour Research Centre, Queens Medical Centre, University of Nottingham (United Kingdom); MacPherson, L., E-mail: Lesley.MacPherson@bch.nhs.uk [Birmingham Children' s Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Whittall Street, Birmingham, B4 6NH (United Kingdom); Natarajan, K., E-mail: Kal.Natarajan@uhb.nhs.uk [Birmingham Children' s Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Whittall Street, Birmingham, B4 6NH (United Kingdom); Department of Medical Physics, University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust, Mindelsohn Way, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2WB (United Kingdom); and others

    2013-06-15

    Introduction: Low grade gliomas are the commonest brain tumours in children but present in a myriad of ways, each with its own treatment challenges. Conventional MRI scans play an important role in their management but have limited ability to identify likely clinical behaviour. The aim of this study is to investigate {sup 1}H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) as a method for detecting differences between the various low grade gliomas and related tumours in children. Patients and methods: Short echo time single voxel {sup 1}H MRS at 1.5 or 3.0 T was performed prior to treatment on children with low grade brain tumours at two centres and five MR scanners, 69 cases had data which passed quality control. MRS data was processed using LCModel to give mean spectra and metabolite concentrations which were compared using T-tests, ANOVA, Receiver Operator Characteristic curves and logistic regression in SPSS. Results: Significant differences were found in concentrations of key metabolites between glioneuronal and glial tumours (T-test p < 0.05) and between most of the individual histological subtypes of low grade gliomas. The discriminatory metabolites identified, such as choline and myoinositol, are known tumour biomarkers. In the set of pilocytic astrocytomas and unbiopsied optic pathway gliomas, significant differences (p < 0.05, ANOVA) were found in metabolite profiles of tumours depending on location and patient neurofibromatosis type 1 status. Logistic regression analyses yielded equations which could be used to assess the probability of a tumour being of a specific type. Conclusions: MRS can detect subtle differences between low grade brain tumours in children and should form part of the clinical assessment of these tumours.

  12. Parental Exposure to Pesticides and Childhood Brain Cancer: U.S. Atlantic Coast Childhood Brain Cancer Study

    OpenAIRE

    Shim, Youn K.; Mlynarek, Steven P.; van Wijngaarden, Edwin

    2009-01-01

    Background The etiology of childhood brain cancer remains largely unknown. However, previous studies have yielded suggestive associations with parental pesticide use. Objectives We aimed to evaluate parental exposure to pesticides at home and on the job in relation to the occurrence of brain cancer in children. Methods We included 526 one-to-one–matched case–control pairs. Brain cancer cases were diagnosed at < 10 years of age, and were identified from statewide cancer registries of four U.S....

  13. Early medical rehabilitation after neurosurgical treatment of malignant brain tumours in Slovenia

    OpenAIRE

    Kos Natasa; Kos Boris; Benedicic Mitja

    2016-01-01

    The number of patients with malignant brain tumours is on the rise, but due to the novel treatment methods the survival rates are higher. Despite increased survival the consequences of tumour properties and treatment can have a significant negative effect on the patients’ quality of life. Providing timely and appropriate rehabilitation interventions is an important aspect of patient treatment and should be started immediately after surgery. The most important goal of rehabilitation is to prev...

  14. Motor deficits correlate with resting state motor network connectivity in patients with brain tumours

    OpenAIRE

    Otten, Marc L.; Mikell, Charles B; Youngerman, Brett E.; Liston, Conor; Sisti, Michael B.; Bruce, Jeffrey N.; Small, Scott A.; McKhann, Guy M.

    2012-01-01

    While a tumour in or abutting primary motor cortex leads to motor weakness, how tumours elsewhere in the frontal or parietal lobes affect functional connectivity in a weak patient is less clear. We hypothesized that diminished functional connectivity in a distributed network of motor centres would correlate with motor weakness in subjects with brain masses. Furthermore, we hypothesized that interhemispheric connections would be most vulnerable to subtle disruptions in functional connectivity....

  15. Gonadal status in male survivors following childhood brain tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmiegelow, M; Lassen, S; Poulsen, H S; Schmiegelow, K; Hertz, H; Andersson, A M; Skakkebaek, N E; Müller, J

    2001-01-01

    The effect of radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy (CT) on gonadal function was assessed in males treated for a childhood brain tumor not directly involving the hypothalamus/pituitary (HP) axis in a population-based study with a long follow-up time. All males......The effect of radiotherapy (RT) and chemotherapy (CT) on gonadal function was assessed in males treated for a childhood brain tumor not directly involving the hypothalamus/pituitary (HP) axis in a population-based study with a long follow-up time. All males...

  16. Gastrointestinal stromal tumour of the duodenum in childhood: a rare case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GISTs) are uncommon primary mesenchymal tumours of the gastrointestinal tract mostly observed in the adults. Duodenal GISTs are relatively rare in adults and it should be regarded as exceptional in childhood. In young patients duodenal GISTs may be a source of potentially lethal haemorrhage and this adds diagnostic and therapeutic dilemmas to the concern about the long-term outcome. A 14-year-old boy was referred to our hospital with severe anaemia due to recurrent episodes of upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage. Endoscopy, small bowel series, scintigraphy and video capsule endoscopy previously done elsewhere were negative. Shortly after the admission, the patient underwent emergency surgery for severe recurrence of the bleeding. At surgery, a 4 cm solid mass arising from the wall of the fourth portion of the duodenum was identified. The invasion and the erosion of the duodenal mucosa was confirmed by intra-operative pushed duodenoscopy. The mass was resected by a full-thickness duodenal wall excision with adequate grossly free margins. Immunohistochemical analysis of the specimen revealed to be positive for CD117 (c-KIT protein) consistent with a diagnosis of GIST. The number of mitoses was < 5/50 HPF. Mutational analysis for c-KIT/PDGFRA tyrosine kinase receptor genes resulted in a wildtype pattern. The patient had an uneventful course and he has remained disease-free during two years of follow-up. Duodenal GISTs in children are very rare and may present with massive bleeding. Cure can be achieved by complete surgical resection, but even in the low-aggressive tumours the long-term outcome may be unpredictable

  17. Dynamic characterisation of brain tumours growth from time series of nuclear magnetic resonance scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of a high grade glioblastoma of a patient undergoing radio-therapy has been analysed by considering a mathematical model which simulates the brain tumour growth within a two-dimensional domain defined by the brain and ventricles geometry. This simulated behaviour was compared with morphological data obtained from successive nuclear magnetic resonance scans of the patient. The model parameters include the proliferation rate and the diffusion coefficient of the tumour cells as well as their sensitivity to the irradiation. They were estimated using optimisation techniques to minimise the distance between simulated tumour area and scan data from different brain sections. The relevance of this quantitative estimation for the prognosis and for the consideration of additional parameters in the pre and post therapeutic evaluation of glioma is discussed. (authors). 12 refs., 2 figs

  18. Brain tumour migration and invasion. The role of in vitro model systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human primary (intrinsic) brain tumours rarely metastasis to distant organs, however they do show a marked propensity for diffuse infiltrative invasion of the contiguous, normal brain tissue. This is arguably the most important biological feature of this group of - predominantly glial - neoplasms. Single neoplastic glia may migrate several millimetres, or even centimetres from the major tumour mass and there is increasing evidence that during the migratory phase these cells transiently arrest from the cell cycle therefore rendering them refractory to therapeutic radiation. Moreover, they are protected from the action of the majority of cytotoxic drugs by virtue of their investment within areas of intact blood-brain barrier. These migratory, socalled ''guerrilla'' cells later return to the division phase, under hither to unknown microenvironmental cues, to form local recurrences of the primary tumour. (author)

  19. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging and 31P spectroscopy of large human brain tumours at 1.5 tesla

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, C; Jensen, K E; Achten, E;

    1988-01-01

    31P MR spectroscopy of human brain tumours is one feature of magnetic resonance imaging. Eight patients with large superficial brain tumours and eight healthy volunteers were examined with 31P spectroscopy using an 8 cm surface coil for volume selection. Seven frequencies were resolved in our spe...

  20. 1-123-lodo-{alpha}-methyl tyrosine SPECT in non-parenchymal brain tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matheja, P.; Weckesser, M.; Franzius, Ch.; Riemann, B.; Schober, O. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. Hospital Muenster (Germany); Rickert, Ch. [Inst. of Neuropathology, Univ. Hospital Muenster (Germany); Palkovic, St. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Univ. Hospital Muenster (Germany)

    2002-08-01

    Purpose: Scintigraphy using 1-123-iodo-{alpha}-methyl tyrosine (IMT) is useful in the preoperative characterization of gliomas, in detecting recurrent glioma and in the biological re-evaluation of residual or recurrent tumours. A systematic evaluation of non-parenchymal brain tumours has not yet been performed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate IMT SPECT in the management of intracerebral metastases and lymphomas. Patients and methods: IMT uptake was analyzed in 31 patients with 28 metastases of extracerebral solid tumours and 7 cerebral lymphomas. Histology revealed high grade lymphomas, melanomas, and carcinomas of the following origin: lung, unknown primary, breast, colon, renal cell, ovary, vagina, frontal sinus. IMT uptake was quantified as ratio between maximal tumour accumulation and average uptake in the contralateral hemisphere. Results: All tumours except two renal cell and one small cell lung carcinoma metastases accumulated IMT (91%). The highest IMT uptake was found in metastasis of lung carcinoma. IMT uptake was highly variable and was similar in primary and in recurrent tumours. Conclusion: Significant accumulation of IMT is seen in the majority of tumours, so that this technique might be helpful for the management of cerebral metastases and lymphomas. (orig.)

  1. 1-123-lodo-α-methyl tyrosine SPECT in non-parenchymal brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Scintigraphy using 1-123-iodo-α-methyl tyrosine (IMT) is useful in the preoperative characterization of gliomas, in detecting recurrent glioma and in the biological re-evaluation of residual or recurrent tumours. A systematic evaluation of non-parenchymal brain tumours has not yet been performed. The aim of the present study was to evaluate IMT SPECT in the management of intracerebral metastases and lymphomas. Patients and methods: IMT uptake was analyzed in 31 patients with 28 metastases of extracerebral solid tumours and 7 cerebral lymphomas. Histology revealed high grade lymphomas, melanomas, and carcinomas of the following origin: lung, unknown primary, breast, colon, renal cell, ovary, vagina, frontal sinus. IMT uptake was quantified as ratio between maximal tumour accumulation and average uptake in the contralateral hemisphere. Results: All tumours except two renal cell and one small cell lung carcinoma metastases accumulated IMT (91%). The highest IMT uptake was found in metastasis of lung carcinoma. IMT uptake was highly variable and was similar in primary and in recurrent tumours. Conclusion: Significant accumulation of IMT is seen in the majority of tumours, so that this technique might be helpful for the management of cerebral metastases and lymphomas. (orig.)

  2. Music and the Brain in Childhood Development. Review of Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Susan J.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews literature on effects of music on the brain in childhood development. Areas include: (1) early synaptic growth; (2) nature versus nurture; (3) background music; (4) musical practice; (5) music learning and cognitive skills; (6) transfer of music learning; (7) musical instrument practice; (8) children and music; and (9) transfer effects.…

  3. Fractionated afterloading therapy in inoperable malignant tumours of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the advent of the method of afterloading the range of uses for fractionated interstitial brady-therapy could be broadened to include malignant cerebral tumours. The mean survival time of 33 female patients was calculated to be 8.3 months for the entire group and 11.3 months for cases not otherwise pretreated. Even though the age, tumour volume, target dose and Karnofsky index obviously tended to influence the survival time, such relationships could not be confirmed statistically. Using the method by Kaplan-Meier it was determined that 65% of the total study group were likely to survive beyond six months and 32% to survive for one year. A separate analysis of patients receiving no previous treatment showed these chances to be 75% and 44%, respectively. The advantages of this therapy are discussed on a comparative basis. (VHE)

  4. Preclinical studies for increasing radiation response of malignant brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malignant gliomas are the most common among the CNS cancers. Standard treatment for these tumours - comprises of surgery, followed by Radiotherapy (RT). Combination of Temozolomide (TMZ) increases survival, but hematological toxicities are also increased as compared to RT alone. The median survival depends on grade and location of tumour, as well as the age of the patient. Grade IV gliomas (GSMs) are third leading cause of cancer induced death in the age group of 15 to 34 years. Therefore, it is important to carry out further preclinical studies to develop more effective treatment of malignant gliomas. The present studies were carried out on different established malignant glioma cell lines. (U373MG) as well as primary monolayer cultures derived from biopsies obtained from patients with malignant gliomas. Exponentially growing cells were exposed to TMZ, Lonidamine (LND) (in 0.1% DMSO), or 2-Deoxy-D-Glucose (2-DG, aqueous solution) - with or without 60Co-Gamma-rays (1- 2 Gy). The drugs were removed 4 hours after irradiation and the cultures were processed further for different assays of damage. Short term (4 h) treatments with TMZ 20 μM, LND 100 μM or their combination; did not induce micronuclei formation in the unirradiated cultures of U373MG cells. However, radiation (2 Gy) induced micronuclei was significantly increased by drug treatments. In primary cultures from different tumours, TMZ (≤ 10 μM) or 2-DG (1 mM), or gamma-irradiation (1-2 Gy) induced micronuclei and/ or apoptosis. The effects, however, varied in different tumours. These data show that clinically achievable, very low concentrations of these drugs could induce cellular damage and death; and increase radiosensitivity of malignant gliomas. Therefore, adjuvants like Lonidamine and 2-DG, with non-overlapping toxicities, could optimize treatment of malignant gliomas, by reducing the side effects of radio-chemotherapy. (author)

  5. Imaging features of primary malignant rhabdoid tumour of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary malignant rhabdoid tumour of the central nervous system is a rare neoplasm affecting children. We present a pathologically proven case, which was initially referred to the paediatric surgeons as a sebaceous cyst, and highlights the importance of imaging prior to surgery of potentially innocuous scalp lesions. Imaging features on CT and MRI are presented, which show bony involvement not previously reported in the literature. (orig.)

  6. Human cytomegalovirus tegument protein pp65 is detected in all intra- and extra-axial brain tumours independent of the tumour type or grade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Libard

    Full Text Available Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV has been indicated being a significant oncomodulator. Recent reports have suggested that an antiviral treatment alters the outcome of a glioblastoma. We analysed the performance of commercial HCMV-antibodies applying the immunohistochemical (IHC methods on brain sample obtained from a subject with a verified HCMV infection, on samples obtained from 14 control subjects, and on a tissue microarray block containing cores of various brain tumours. Based on these trials, we selected the best performing antibody and analysed a cohort of 417 extra- and intra-axial brain tumours such as gliomas, medulloblastomas, primary diffuse large B-cell lymphomas, and meningiomas. HCMV protein pp65 immunoreactivity was observed in all types of tumours analysed, and the IHC expression did not depend on the patient's age, gender, tumour type, or grade. The labelling pattern observed in the tumours differed from the labelling pattern observed in the tissue with an active HCMV infection. The HCMV protein was expressed in up to 90% of all the tumours investigated. Our results are in accordance with previous reports regarding the HCMV protein expression in glioblastomas and medulloblastomas. In addition, the HCMV protein expression was seen in primary brain lymphomas, low-grade gliomas, and in meningiomas. Our results indicate that the HCMV protein pp65 expression is common in intra- and extra-axial brain tumours. Thus, the assessment of the HCMV expression in tumours of various origins and pathologically altered tissue in conditions such as inflammation, infection, and even degeneration should certainly be facilitated.

  7. Exploring memory and memory rehabilitation in paediatric brain tumour survivors

    OpenAIRE

    Mcgahan, Jennifer Anne

    2014-01-01

    This collection of studies begins by exploring the development of recognition memory in a group of healthy children and adolescents using experimental memory tests developed as part of this thesis. Various versions of these recognition memory tests were trialled in order to establish age appropriate tests for children aged 6-14 years. In keeping with previous literature in this area, these tests showed relatively stable familiarity memory throughout childhood compared to a steep developmental...

  8. Mapping brain development during childhood, adolescence and young adulthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaojuan; Jin, Zhen; Chen, Kewei; Peng, Danling; Li, Yao

    2009-02-01

    Using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM), this study systematically investigated the differences and similarities of brain structural changes during the early three developmental periods of human lives: childhood, adolescence and young adulthood. These brain changes were discussed in relationship to the corresponding cognitive function development during these three periods. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data from 158 Chinese healthy children, adolescents and young adults, aged 7.26 to 22.80 years old, were included in this study. Using the customized brain template together with the gray matter/white matter/cerebrospinal fluid prior probability maps, we found that there were more age-related positive changes in the frontal lobe, less in hippocampus and amygdala during childhood, but more in bilateral hippocampus and amygdala and left fusiform gyrus during adolescence and young adulthood. There were more age-related negative changes near to central sulcus during childhood, but these changes extended to the frontal and parietal lobes, mainly in the parietal lobe, during adolescence and young adulthood, and more in the prefrontal lobe during young adulthood. So gray matter volume in the parietal lobe significantly decreased from childhood and continued to decrease till young adulthood. These findings may aid in understanding the age-related differences in cognitive function.

  9. MR-based cerebral blood volume maps as a diagnostic tool for brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today contrast enhanced MR imaging is a reliable method for detecting mostly distinguishing between different histological types of tumours. In this study we use a MR-based method to measure the regional cerebral blood volume (rCBV). Using this technique we try to judge the grading and vitality of the tumours. 26 patients with various types of brain tumours were examined. To calculate rCBV-maps of one slice, low-dosed Gd-DTPA was injected as a bolus. Using the relaxation effect the obtained signal intensity-time curves were converted pixel-wise into rCBV images. For the tumours rCBV-ratios were calculated relative to the corresponding area in the contralateral hemisphere. In the investigated group all tumours were detected on the basis of a raised rCBV-ratio. Since only vital parts of the tumour are perfused, the rCBV maps may be used to determine the place of biopsy. (orig./MG)

  10. Neuroimaging Studies of Normal Brain Development and Their Relevance for Understanding Childhood Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Rachel; Gerber, Andrew J.; Peterson, Bradley S.

    2008-01-01

    Neuroimaging findings which identify normal brain development trajectories are presented. Results show that early brain development begins with the neural tube formation and ends with myelintation. How disturbances in brain development patterns are related to childhood psychiatric disorders is examined.

  11. MR imaging-guided cryoablation of metastatic brain tumours: initial experience in six patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chengli; Wu, Lebin; Song, Jiqing; Liu, Ming; Lv, Yubo [Shandong University, Shandong Provincial Medical Imaging Research Institute, Jinan, Shandong (China); Sequeiros, Roberto Blanco [Shandong University, Shandong Provincial Medical Imaging Research Institute, Jinan, Shandong (China); Oulu University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Oulu (Finland)

    2010-02-15

    The objective was to evaluate the initial experience and safety of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided transcranial cryoablation in cystic metastatic brain tumours. Seven cystic metastatic brain tumours in six patients were treated with cryoablation. The approval from the local ethics committee and individual patient consent were acquired before the study. Before the procedure the tumours were detected with conventional CT or MRI. The procedure was performed under local anaesthesia and conscious sedation. A 0.23-T open MRI system with optical tracking was used for procedural planning, instrument guidance and procedural monitoring of the ice ball formation. An MR-compatible, argon-based cryoablation system was used. The schedule of follow-up imaging ranged from 12 days to 12 months. Seven treatment sessions were performed. All the cryoprobes were successfully inserted into the target with one pass. All the patients tolerated the procedure well without experiencing any neurological deficits during the treatment phase or during the immediate post-treatment period. One patient died 12 days after cryoablation. MR-guided and monitored metastasis brain tumour cryoablation is technically feasible and may represent an alternative treatment in selected patients. (orig.)

  12. Intra-operative 3-T MRI for paediatric brain tumours: challenges and perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abernethy, L.J.; Avula, S.; Hughes, G.M. [Alder Hey Children' s NHS Foundation Trust, Department of Radiology, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Wright, E.J. [Alder Hey Children' s Hospital, Department of Anaesthesia, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Mallucci, C.L. [Alder Hey Children' s Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    2012-02-15

    MRI is the ideal modality for imaging intracranial tumours. Intraoperative MRI (ioMRI) makes it possible to obtain scans during a neurosurgical operation that can aid complete macroscopic tumour resection - a major prognostic factor in the majority of brain tumours in children. Intra-operative MRI can also help limit damage to normal brain tissue. It therefore has the potential to improve the survival of children with brain tumours and to minimise morbidity, including neurological deficits. The use of ioMRI is also likely to reduce the need for second look surgery, and may reduce the need for chemotherapy and radiotherapy. High-field MRI systems provide better anatomical information and also enable effective utilisation of advanced MRI techniques such as perfusion imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, and magnetic resonance spectroscopy. However, high-field ioMRI facilities require substantial capital investment, and careful planning is required for optimal benefit. Safe ioMRI requires meticulous attention to detail and rigorous application of magnetic field safety precautions. Interpretation of ioMRI can be challenging and requires experience and understanding of artefacts that are common in the intra-operative setting. (orig.)

  13. Spurious leptomeningeal enhancement on immediate post-operative MRI for paediatric brain tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widjaja, Elysa; Connolly, Daniel J.A. [Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Department of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Gatscher, Sylvia; McMullen, John [Royal Hallamshire Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Griffiths, Paul D. [University of Sheffield, Academic section of Radiology, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2005-03-01

    Immediate post-operative MRI has been recommended as an accurate and robust method to assess residual brain tumour. Early enhancement at the resection margin and in the dura is well recognized, but we describe two cases of enhancement in the basal cisterns on immediate post-operative MRI that resolved on follow-up. The underlying cause of the enhancement remains to be elucidated, but it should be recognized that leptomeningeal enhancement may occur after surgery and that this does not necessarily imply tumour spread. (orig.)

  14. Spurious leptomeningeal enhancement on immediate post-operative MRI for paediatric brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immediate post-operative MRI has been recommended as an accurate and robust method to assess residual brain tumour. Early enhancement at the resection margin and in the dura is well recognized, but we describe two cases of enhancement in the basal cisterns on immediate post-operative MRI that resolved on follow-up. The underlying cause of the enhancement remains to be elucidated, but it should be recognized that leptomeningeal enhancement may occur after surgery and that this does not necessarily imply tumour spread. (orig.)

  15. Neuro-ophthalmic and clinical characteristics of brain tumours in a tertiary hospital in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anecdotally, increasing number of patients are seen at Korle Bu Teaching Hospital (KBTH) with brain tumour. Neuro-ophthalmic symptoms and signs may help in timely diagnosis and intervention. The objective of this study is to evaluate the neuro-ophthalmic and clinical characteristics of brain tumour in patients presenting at a tertiary hospital in Ghana. The study design involved a prospective case series involving 36 consecutive patients newly diagnosed with brain tumour from November 2010 to October 2011, at the Ophthalmology, Neurosurgery and Endocrine units of KBTH, Ghana. All patients had clinical diagnosis of brain tumour with confirmation by computerized tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Thirteen patients had histological confirmation of diagnosis. The outcome measures of the study include presenting visual acuity, colour vision, visual fields and cranial nerve deficits. Data of 36 patients were analysed. The results of the study showed that ages ranged from 3 to 69 years, mean (SD) 42.56(±16.6 years). Twenty-six (72%) were females. Tumours included pituitary adenoma (20, 55.5%), meningioma (10, 27.8%), choroid plexus tumour (1, 2.8%), medulloblastom (1, 2.8%), craniopharyngioma (1, 2.8%), haemangioblastoma (1, 2.8%), thalamic tumour (1, 2.8%) and haemangioma (1, 2.8%). Histologically confirmed tumours included pituitary adenoma (9, 69.2%), meningioma (3, 23.1%), craniopharyngioma (1, 7.7%). One patient had both a pituitary adenoma and meningioma. Blurred vision (30, 83.3%), headache (28, 77.8%) and photophobia (13, 36.1%) were predominant symptoms. Commonest neuro-ophthalmic signs were impaired colour vision (62 eyes, 88.6%), optic atrophy (26, 74.3%), unilateral or bitemporal hemianopia (15, 41.5%) and relative afferent pupillary defect (12, 34.3%). Seven (19.4%) patients were visually impaired and nine (25%) blind. Thirty-three of 72(45.8%) eyes had monocular blindness. Common neuro-ophthalmic characteristics were blurred vision

  16. {sup 1}H MR spectroscopy of human brain tumours: a practical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callot, Virginie [Centre de Resonance Magnetique Biologique et Medicale (CRMBM), UMR 6612, CNRS - Universite de la Mediterranee, 27 Boulevard Jean Moulin, 13385 Marseille Cedex 05 (France)], E-mail: virginie.callot@univmed.fr; Galanaud, Damien [Centre de Resonance Magnetique Biologique et Medicale (CRMBM), UMR 6612, CNRS - Universite de la Mediterranee, 27 Boulevard Jean Moulin, 13385 Marseille Cedex 05 (France); Departement de Neuroradiologie, Hopital La Pitie-Salpetriere, Paris (France); Le Fur, Yann; Confort-Gouny, Sylviane; Ranjeva, Jean-Philippe; Cozzone, Patrick J. [Centre de Resonance Magnetique Biologique et Medicale (CRMBM), UMR 6612, CNRS - Universite de la Mediterranee, 27 Boulevard Jean Moulin, 13385 Marseille Cedex 05 (France)

    2008-08-15

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is proposed in addition to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to help in the characterization of brain tumours by detecting metabolic alterations that may be indicative of the tumour class. MRS can be routinely performed on clinical magnets, within a reasonable acquisition time and if performed under adequate conditions, MRS is reproducible and thus can be used for longitudinal follow-up of treatment. MRS can also be performed in clinical practice to guide the neurosurgeon into the most aggressive part of the lesions or to avoid unnecessary surgery, which may furthermore decrease the risk of surgical morbidity.

  17. First experience of brain tumour scintigraphy with 99mTc-MIBI before and after surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Morphological imaging techniques like computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are routinely used to localize tumours. However, their use for prediction of histopathological diagnosis and tumour changes after treatment is difficult. Functional imaging using positron emission tomography and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) were introduced as non-invasive methods for the differentiation and evaluation of brain tumours, especially for their follow-up. The purpose of present study was to investigate the uptake of 99mTc-MIBI in case of malignant brain tumours before and after surgery. 25 patients (13 males and 12 females; age range 21-75 years; average age 48.76±17.25 years) with brain tumours were investigated. The histological diagnoses of the tumours were confirmed from surgical specimens. None of the patients had received any treatment before enrolment for the study. 99mTc-MIBI brain SPECT was performed 3.88±2.85 days before surgery and 9.88±2.24 days after surgery in all cases. SPECT scans were acquired in 64 projections over 360 deg. using a dual-head gamma camera (Siemens E.Cam) coupled with low energy collimator, 15 minutes after intravenous injection of 550 MBq 99mTc-MIBI. Data were recorded in a 64x64 matrix at a zoom factor of 1.78. SPECT images were reconstructed and analysed in the transversal, axial and coronal planes. The study results are presented in the table. Of the 25 tumors, only 19, majority glioblastoma (11) showed avid uptake in the pre- surgery scan. Tumors, II0 astrocytoma (1), oligoasrtrocytoma (1), III0 astrocytoma (3) were missed in the pre surgery scan. Comparison of pre- and postoperative images showed the reduction of 99mTc-MIBI uptake post-operatively except in one case of gliosarcoma where the uptake increased after surgery. In one case of III deg. astrocytoma the 99mTc-MIBI uptakes was observed only after the surgery. All post-operative images showed more intensive uptake in the scalp (zone of

  18. Treatment Options for Childhood Brain Stem Glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tests to check the brain, spinal cord, and nerve function. The exam checks a person’s mental status, coordination, and ability to walk normally, and how well the muscles, senses, and reflexes work. This may also be called a neuro ...

  19. Stages of Childhood Brain Stem Glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tests to check the brain, spinal cord, and nerve function. The exam checks a person’s mental status, coordination, and ability to walk normally, and how well the muscles, senses, and reflexes work. This may also be called a neuro ...

  20. Staging Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tests to check the brain, spinal cord, and nerve function. The exam checks a person’s mental status, coordination, and ability to walk normally, and how well the muscles, senses, and reflexes work. This may also be called a neuro ...

  1. Using R2* values to evaluate brain tumours on magnetic resonance imaging: Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Zhenghua; Liao, Haibo; Yin, Jianhua [the Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, The Department of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Medical Image Center, Nanchang (China); Li, Yanfang [Heze Medical College, The Department of Preventive Medicine, Shandong (China)

    2014-03-15

    To determine the usefulness of the R2* value in assessing the histopathological grade of glioma at magnetic resonance imaging and differentiating various brain tumours. Sixty-four patients with brain tumours underwent R2* mapping and diffusion-weighted imaging examinations. ANOVA was performed to analyse R2* values among four groups of glioma and among high-grade gliomas (grades III and IV), low-grade gliomas (grades I and II), meningiomas, and brain metastasis. Spearman's correlation coefficients were used to determine the relationships between the R2* values or apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and the histopathological grade of gliomas. R2* values of low- and high-grade gliomas were analysed with the receiver-operator characteristic curve. R2* values were significantly different among high-grade gliomas, low-grade gliomas, meningiomas, and brain metastasis, but not between grade I and grade II or between grade III and grade IV. The R2* value (18.73) of high-grade gliomas provided a very high sensitivity and specificity for differentiating low-grade gliomas. A strong correlation existed between the R2* value and the pathological grade of gliomas. R2* mapping is a useful sequence for determining grade of gliomas and in distinguishing benign from malignant tumours. R2* values are better than ADC for characterising gliomas. (orig.)

  2. Development of a positron probe for localization and excision of brain tumours during surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogalhas, F.; Charon, Y.; Duval, M.-A.; Lefebvre, F.; Palfi, S.; Pinot, L.; Siebert, R.; Ménard, L.

    2009-07-01

    The survival outcome of patients suffering from gliomas is directly linked to the complete surgical resection of the tumour. To help the surgeons to delineate precisely the boundaries of the tumour, we developed an intraoperative positron probe with background noise rejection capability. The probe was designed to be directly coupled to the excision tool such that detection and removal of the radiolabelled tumours could be simultaneous. The device consists of two exchangeable detection heads composed of clear and plastic scintillating fibres. Each head is coupled to an optic fibre bundle that exports the scintillating light to a photodetection and processing electronic module placed outside the operative wound. The background rejection method is based on a real-time subtraction technique. The measured probe sensitivity for 18F was 1.1 cps kBq-1 ml-1 for the small head and 3.4 cps kBq-1 ml-1 for the large head. The mean spatial resolution was 1.6 mm FWHM on the detector surface. The γ-ray rejection efficiency measured by realistic brain phantom modelling of the surgical cavity was 99.4%. This phantom also demonstrated the ability of the probe to detect tumour discs as small as 5 mm in diameter (20 mg) for tumour-to-background ratios higher than 3:1 and with an acquisition time around 4 s at each scanning step. These results indicate that our detector could be a useful complement to existing techniques for the accurate excision of brain tumour tissue and more generally to improve the efficiency of radio-guided cancer surgery.

  3. Development of a positron probe for localization and excision of brain tumours during surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The survival outcome of patients suffering from gliomas is directly linked to the complete surgical resection of the tumour. To help the surgeons to delineate precisely the boundaries of the tumour, we developed an intraoperative positron probe with background noise rejection capability. The probe was designed to be directly coupled to the excision tool such that detection and removal of the radiolabelled tumours could be simultaneous. The device consists of two exchangeable detection heads composed of clear and plastic scintillating fibres. Each head is coupled to an optic fibre bundle that exports the scintillating light to a photodetection and processing electronic module placed outside the operative wound. The background rejection method is based on a real-time subtraction technique. The measured probe sensitivity for 18F was 1.1 cps kBq-1 ml-1 for the small head and 3.4 cps kBq-1 ml-1 for the large head. The mean spatial resolution was 1.6 mm FWHM on the detector surface. The γ-ray rejection efficiency measured by realistic brain phantom modelling of the surgical cavity was 99.4%. This phantom also demonstrated the ability of the probe to detect tumour discs as small as 5 mm in diameter (20 mg) for tumour-to-background ratios higher than 3:1 and with an acquisition time around 4 s at each scanning step. These results indicate that our detector could be a useful complement to existing techniques for the accurate excision of brain tumour tissue and more generally to improve the efficiency of radio-guided cancer surgery.

  4. Occupational exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields and brain tumour risks in the INTEROCC study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Michelle C; Benke, Geza; Bowman, Joseph D; Figuerola, Jordi; Fleming, Sarah; Hours, Martine; Kincl, Laurel; Krewski, Daniel; McLean, Dave; Parent, Marie-Elise; Richardson, Lesley; Sadetzki, Siegal; Schlaefer, Klaus; Schlehofer, Brigitte; Schüz, Joachim; Siemiatycki, Jack; van Tongeren, Martie; Cardis, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Background Occupational exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF) is a suspected risk factor for brain tumours, however the literature is inconsistent. Few studies have assessed whether ELF in different time windows of exposure may be associated with specific histologic types of brain tumours. This study examines the association between ELF and brain tumours in the large-scale INTEROCC study. Methods Cases of adult primary glioma and meningioma were recruited in seven countries (Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Israel, New Zealand, United Kingdom) between 2000 and 2004. Estimates of mean workday ELF exposure based on a job exposure matrix assigned. Estimates of cumulative exposure, average exposure, maximum exposure, and exposure duration were calculated for the lifetime, and 1–4, 5–9, and 10+ years prior to the diagnosis/reference date. Results There were 3,761 included brain tumour cases (1,939 glioma, 1,822 meningioma) and 5,404 population controls. There was no association between lifetime cumulative ELF exposure and glioma or meningioma risk. However, there were positive associations between cumulative ELF 1–4 years prior to the diagnosis/reference date and glioma (odds ratio (OR) ≥ 90th percentile vs < 25th percentile = 1.67, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.36–2.07, p < 0.0001 linear trend), and, somewhat weaker associations with meningioma (OR ≥ 90th percentile vs < 25th percentile = 1.23, 95% CI 0.97–1.57, p = 0.02 linear trend). Conclusions Results showed positive associations between ELF in the recent past and glioma. Impact Occupational ELF exposure may play a role in the later stages (promotion and progression) of brain tumourigenesis. PMID:24935666

  5. Image processing and quantitative assessment in computer tomography for non-surgical treatment of brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the EMI computer tomographic (CT) system, EMI-1010, a series of new programmes were developed for the digital analysis of the CT images in order to make a more objective and quantitative assessment possible of two non-surgical methods of treatment of brain tumours such as irradiation and chemotherapy. Amongst the various therapeutic effects demonstrable from the CT data, a reduction of the mass effect was found to lower the average CT number, with a dilatation of the cisterns and ventricles. In contrast, an improvement in the amount of perifocal oedema increased the average CT number of the region, however the changes in CT number of the tumour itself may be variable. The separate evaluation of these factors, therefore, gives more information about the results of the treatment than a simple analysis of the histogram of the region. Circumscribed tumours are fairly well evaluated with our programme for the statistical analysis of the volume and the CT weight of tumours and the degree of contrast enhancement using histograms and subtraction scans. For the digital analysis of the ventricular system, the subarachnoid space, perifocal oedema, and irregularly shaped infiltrating tumours, our programmes for the character-image print-out and edge correction for the partial-volume effect of skull and air are much more useful than the CRT display for data extraction and geographic-pattern recognition. (Author)

  6. In vivo proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of intraventricular tumours of the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majos, Carles; Aguilera, Carles [Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, Institut de Diagnostic per la Imatge (IDI). Centre Bellvitge, L' Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona (Spain); Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red en Bioingenieria, Cerdanyola del Valles (Spain); Cos, Monica; Camins, Angels; Samitier, Alex; Castaner, Sara; Sanchez, Juan J. [Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, Institut de Diagnostic per la Imatge (IDI). Centre Bellvitge, L' Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona (Spain); Candiota, Ana P.; Delgado-Goni, Teresa [Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red en Bioingenieria, Cerdanyola del Valles (Spain); Unitat de Bioquimica de Biociencies, Department de Bioquimica i Biologia Molecular, Cerdanyola del Valles (Spain); Mato, David [Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, Department of Neurosurgery, L' Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona (Spain); Acebes, Juan J. [Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, Department of Neurosurgery, L' Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona (Spain); Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red en Bioingenieria, Cerdanyola del Valles (Spain); Arus, Carles [Unitat de Bioquimica de Biociencies, Department de Bioquimica i Biologia Molecular, Cerdanyola del Valles (Spain); Biomateriales y Nanomedicina (CIBER-BBN), Centro de Investigacion Biomedica en Red en Bioingenieria, Cerdanyola del Valles (Spain)

    2009-08-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of proton MR spectroscopy in the diagnosis of intraventricular tumours. Fifty-two intraventricular tumours pertaining to 16 different tumour types were derived from our database. All cases had single-voxel proton MR spectroscopy performed at TE at both 30 and 136 ms at 1.5 T. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to search for the most discriminative datapoints each tumour type. Characteristic trends were found for some groups: high Glx and Ala in meningiomas (p<0.001 and p<0.01, respectively), high mobile lipids in metastasis (p<0.001), high Cho in PNET (p<0.001), high mI+Gly in ependymoma (p<0.001), high NAC (p<0.01) in the absence of the normal brain parenchyma pattern in colloid cysts, and high mI/Gly and Ala in central neurocytoma. Proton MR spectroscopy provides additional metabolic information that could be useful in the diagnosis of intraventricular brain tumors. (orig.)

  7. The Impact of Childhood Trauma on Brain Development: A Literature Review and Supporting Handouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirouac, Samantha; McBride, Dawn Lorraine

    2009-01-01

    This project provides a comprehensive overview of the research literature on the brain and how trauma impacts brain development, structures, and functioning. A basic exploration of childhood trauma is outlined in this project, as it is essential in making associations and connections to brain development. Childhood trauma is processed in the…

  8. Bevacizumab plus irinotecan in the treatment patients with progressive recurrent malignant brain tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, H.S.; Grunnet, K.; Sorensen, M.; Olsen, P.; Hasselbalch, B.; Nelausen, K.; Kosteljanetz, M.; Lassen, U.

    2009-01-01

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively determined the efficacy and safety of a combination of bevacizumab and irinotecan in a consecutive series of 52 heavily pre-treated patients with recurrent high-grade brain tumours. Patients received bevacizumab (10 mg/kg) and irinotecan [340 mg/m(2) for...... grade IV glioma and 32 weeks for grade III glioma. Four patients discontinued treatment because of unmanageable toxicity: cerebral haemorrhage, cardiac arrhythmia, intestinal perforation and diarrhoea, the latter resulting in death. DISCUSSION: We conclude that the combination of bevacizumab and...... irinotecan shows acceptable safety and is a clinically relevant choice of therapy in heavily pre-treated patients with recurrent high-grade brain tumours Udgivelsesdato: 2009...

  9. The HealthAgents ontology: knowledge representation in a distributed decision support system for brain tumours

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Miranda, Juan Crisóforo; Sáez Silvestre, Carlos; Hu, B.; Croitoru, M; Roset, R; Dupplaw, D.; Lurgi, M.; Dasmahapatra, S.; Lewis, P

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present our experience of representing the knowledge behind HealthAgents (HA), a distributed decision support system for brain tumour diagnosis. Our initial motivation came from the distributed nature of the information involved in the system and has been enriched by clinicians' requirements and data access restrictions. We present in detail the steps we have taken towards building our ontology starting from knowledge acquisition to data access and reasoning. We motivate our ...

  10. The contribution of drug resistant cancer stem cells to paediatric brain tumours

    OpenAIRE

    Punjaruk, Wiyada

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Recent studies have revealed that cancer stem cells (CSCs) exist in malignant disease. Additionally, it is proposed that these cells may survive following chemotherapy, and hence contribute to tumour relapse. A significant mechanism of drug resistance in CSCs is believed to be the expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters that efflux cytotoxic agents out of cells. The objective of this study was to study the existence of CSCs in a panel of primary paediatric brain tu...

  11. Treatment of brain tumours with electroporation and bleomycin in an in vivo rat model

    OpenAIRE

    Ljungvall, Magnus; Salford, Leif; Persson, Bertil R

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the possibilities of prolonging the life of rats with brain tumours using electroporation only while conducting impedance scans to evaluate the rate of electroporation. During the experiments, the treated rats in the first batch had tumors grow for 14 days and were then given electroporation with 8 + 8 exponential pulses at 800 v/cm, and 15 micro-F. Three of the animals given electroporation and bleomycin and one of the animals given e...

  12. Excretion of metabolites of biogenic amines in patients with irradiated brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metabolites of biogenic amines were determined in the 24-hour urine samples of patients submitted to surgical removal of a malignant brain tumour and subsequently to telecobalt therapy of the corresponding head region. A significant increase in the excretion of 5-hydroxyindoleasetic acid (5-HIAA), vanillinmandelic acid (VMA) as well as of free 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-phenylglycol (MHPG) during the period of irradiation was found. This increase is presumably the result of radiation induced release of their parent amines from the brain; in the case of VMA the secondary response of the peripheral sympathetic system might occur. (author)

  13. 3-O-Methyl-6-[18F]fluoro-l-DOPA and its evaluation in brain tumour imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    3-O-Methyl-6-[18F]fluoro-l-DOPA (OMFD) is a major metabolite of 6-[18F]fluoro-L-DOPA. Although synthesis of OFMD was primarily established to study the dopaminergic system, as it is an amino acid analogue, uptake in experimental tumours has been found. The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of OMFD for brain tumour imaging and to obtain initial estimates of whole-body biodistribution and radiation dosimetry in humans. Nineteen patients with suspected or confirmed brain tumours were investigated with OMFD and dynamic brain PET, complemented by whole-body PET in seven patients. Tracer kinetics were compared for normal brain and intracerebral lesions. Tissue accumulation was quantified with standardised uptake values (SUVs). Whole-body distribution in combination with tracer kinetics from animal experiments was used for the calculation of radiation dosimetry data. On the basis of OMFD PET, viable brain tumour was suspected in 16 patients with SUVs of 3.0±0.8 and a tumour to non-tumour ratio of 1.9±0.5. Highest tumour and normal brain uptake occurred between 15 and 30 min, with a subsequent slow decrease. Late whole-body tracer distribution was uniform without specific organ accumulation. Elimination occurred via urine. The mean radiation dose to the whole body was estimated at 0.016 mSv/MBq, with the kidneys as dose-critical organ (0.033 mGy/MBq). In conclusion, OMFD enables the visualisation of brain tumours with SUVs similar to other fluorinated amino acids. The whole-body radiation exposure from OMFD is comparable to that from FDG imaging. (orig.)

  14. 3-O-Methyl-6-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-l-DOPA and its evaluation in brain tumour imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beuthien-Baumann, B.; Bredow, J.; Hliscs, R.; Franke, W.G.; Kotzerke, J. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Technische Universitaet Dresden und PET Zentrum Rossendorf, Fetscherstrasse 74, 01307, Dresden (Germany); Burchert, W. [Institut fuer Bioanorganische und Radiopharmazeutische Chemie, PET Zentrum Rossendorf, Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Institut fuer Molekulare Biophysik, Radiopharmazie und Nuklearmedizin, Herz- und Diabeteszentrum Nordrhein-Westfalen, Universitaetsklinik der Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (Germany); Fuechtner, F.; Bergmann, R.; Johannsen, B. [Institut fuer Bioanorganische und Radiopharmazeutische Chemie, PET Zentrum Rossendorf, Forschungszentrum Rossendorf, Dresden (Germany); Alheit, H.D. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie und Radioonkologie, Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany); Reiss, G.; Steinmeier, R. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Neurochirurgie, Technische Universitaet Dresden (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    3-O-Methyl-6-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-l-DOPA (OMFD) is a major metabolite of 6-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-L-DOPA. Although synthesis of OFMD was primarily established to study the dopaminergic system, as it is an amino acid analogue, uptake in experimental tumours has been found. The aim of this study was to evaluate the applicability of OMFD for brain tumour imaging and to obtain initial estimates of whole-body biodistribution and radiation dosimetry in humans. Nineteen patients with suspected or confirmed brain tumours were investigated with OMFD and dynamic brain PET, complemented by whole-body PET in seven patients. Tracer kinetics were compared for normal brain and intracerebral lesions. Tissue accumulation was quantified with standardised uptake values (SUVs). Whole-body distribution in combination with tracer kinetics from animal experiments was used for the calculation of radiation dosimetry data. On the basis of OMFD PET, viable brain tumour was suspected in 16 patients with SUVs of 3.0{+-}0.8 and a tumour to non-tumour ratio of 1.9{+-}0.5. Highest tumour and normal brain uptake occurred between 15 and 30 min, with a subsequent slow decrease. Late whole-body tracer distribution was uniform without specific organ accumulation. Elimination occurred via urine. The mean radiation dose to the whole body was estimated at 0.016 mSv/MBq, with the kidneys as dose-critical organ (0.033 mGy/MBq). In conclusion, OMFD enables the visualisation of brain tumours with SUVs similar to other fluorinated amino acids. The whole-body radiation exposure from OMFD is comparable to that from FDG imaging. (orig.)

  15. Multimodal magnetic resonance imaging increases the overall diagnostic accuracy in brain tumours: Correlation with histopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasim Abul-Kasim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this retrospective study was to assess the contribution of multimodal MRI techniques, specifically perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI, and/or MR spectroscopy (MRS, in increasing the diagnostic accuracy of MRI in brain tumours.Methods: Forty-four patients with suspected brain tumours (27 (61% patients male, mean age 58±17 (mean±SD years were included in this retrospective analysis. Patients were examined with conventional MR sequences, DWI, and with PWI and/or MRS. The concordance between the diagnoses obtained with multimodal MRI and with the conventional MR sequences, and the final diagnosis obtained by biopsy, was estimated. Fisher’s exact test and/or chi-square test was performed to estimate the added utility of multimodal MRI. Statistical significance was set at p<0.05.Results: With multimodal MRI, the diagnosis in 41 (93% patients was the same as that obtained by biopsy, compared with 39% (17/44 patients when the readers were allowed to give one diagnostic possibility during the evaluation of the conventional MR sequences alone (p<0.001. The concordance between the diagnoses provided by evaluating the multimodal MRIs and the final diagnoses was almost perfect (κ value 0.92, 95% CI 0.82 - 1. PWI primarily helped to differentiate lymphomas from other solid tumours, whereas MRS helped to differentiate malignant glioma from metastasis. Both PWI and MRS helped in grading astrocytomas.Conclusion: Multimodal MRI increases diagnostic accuracy and should, wherever available, be performed in the work-up of brain tumours, although this entails increased examination cost and time.

  16. USP11 regulates PML stability to control Notch-induced malignancy in brain tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsin-Chieh; Lin, Yu-Ching; Liu, Cheng-Hsin; Chung, Hsiang-Ching; Wang, Ya-Ting; Lin, Ya-Wen; Ma, Hsin-I; Tu, Pang-Hsien; Lawler, Sean E; Chen, Ruey-Hwa

    2014-01-01

    The promyelocytic leukaemia (PML) protein controls multiple tumour suppressive functions and is downregulated in diverse types of human cancers through incompletely characterized post-translational mechanisms. Here we identify USP11 as a PML regulator by RNAi screening. USP11 deubiquitinates and stabilizes PML, thereby counteracting the functions of PML ubiquitin ligases RNF4 and the KLHL20-Cul3 (Cullin 3)-Roc1 complex. We find that USP11 is transcriptionally repressed through a Notch/Hey1-dependent mechanism, leading to PML destabilization. In human glioma, Hey1 upregulation correlates with USP11 and PML downregulation and with high-grade malignancy. The Notch/Hey1-induced downregulation of USP11 and PML not only confers multiple malignant characteristics of aggressive glioma, including proliferation, invasiveness and tumour growth in an orthotopic mouse model, but also potentiates self-renewal, tumour-forming capacity and therapeutic resistance of patient-derived glioma-initiating cells. Our study uncovers a PML degradation mechanism through Notch/Hey1-induced repression of the PML deubiquitinase USP11 and suggests an important role for this pathway in brain tumour pathogenesis. PMID:24487962

  17. Role of diffusion-weighted echo-planar MRI in distinguishing between brain abscess and tumour: a preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noguchi, K.; Watanabe, N.; Nagayoshi, T.; Kanazawa, T.; Toyoshima, S.; Shimizu, M.; Seto, H. [Department of Radiology, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical Univ. (Japan)

    1999-03-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate diffusion-weighted (DW) echo-planar MRI in differentiating between brain abscess and tumour. We examined two patients with surgically confirmed pyogenic brain abscess and 18 with metastatic brain tumours or high-grade glioma, using a 1.5 T system. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of each necrotic or solid contrast-enhancing lesion was measured with two different b values (20 and 1200 s/mm{sup 2}). All capsule-stage brain abscesses (4 lesions) and zones of cerebritis (2 lesions) were identified on high-b-value DWI as markedly high-signal areas of decreased ADC (range, 0.58-0.70 [(10-3 mm{sup 2}/s; mean, 0.63)]). All cystic or necrotic portions of brain tumours (14 lesions) were identified on high-b-value DWI as low-signal areas of increased ADC (range, 2.20-3.20 [(10-3 mm{sup 2}/s; mean, 2.70)]). Solid, contrast-enhancing portions of brain tumours (19 lesions) were identified on high-b-value DWI as high-signal areas of sightly decreased or increased ADC (range, 0.77-1.29 [(10-3 mm{sup 2}/s; mean, 0.94)]). Our preliminary results indicate that DW echo-planar MRI be used for distinguishing between brain abscess and tumour. (orig.) (orig.) With 3 figs., 1 tab., 11 refs.

  18. Role of diffusion-weighted echo-planar MRI in distinguishing between brain abscess and tumour: a preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our purpose was to evaluate diffusion-weighted (DW) echo-planar MRI in differentiating between brain abscess and tumour. We examined two patients with surgically confirmed pyogenic brain abscess and 18 with metastatic brain tumours or high-grade glioma, using a 1.5 T system. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of each necrotic or solid contrast-enhancing lesion was measured with two different b values (20 and 1200 s/mm2). All capsule-stage brain abscesses (4 lesions) and zones of cerebritis (2 lesions) were identified on high-b-value DWI as markedly high-signal areas of decreased ADC (range, 0.58-0.70 [(10-3 mm2/s; mean, 0.63)]). All cystic or necrotic portions of brain tumours (14 lesions) were identified on high-b-value DWI as low-signal areas of increased ADC (range, 2.20-3.20 [(10-3 mm2/s; mean, 2.70)]). Solid, contrast-enhancing portions of brain tumours (19 lesions) were identified on high-b-value DWI as high-signal areas of sightly decreased or increased ADC (range, 0.77-1.29 [(10-3 mm2/s; mean, 0.94)]). Our preliminary results indicate that DW echo-planar MRI be used for distinguishing between brain abscess and tumour. (orig.) (orig.)

  19. Activity of iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine in childhood neuroblastoma: lack of relation to tumour differentiation in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brans, B.; Wiele, C. van de; Simons, M.; Dierckx, R.A. [Division of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital Gent, Gent (Belgium); Laureys, G.; Dhooge, C. [Department of Pediatric Hemato-oncology, University Hospital Gent, Gent (Belgium); Schelfhout, V.; Potter, C.R. de [Department of Pathology, University Hospital Gent, Gent (Belgium)

    1998-02-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB) tumour cells have a remarkable tendency to differentiate spontaneously or under the influence of certain drugs. It is not clear whether metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) uptake correlates with differentiation of NB cells. In 28 tumours of 26 patients, iodine-123 MIBG uptake in primary NBs was studied in relation to tumour differentiation, tumour size, cell density and degree of necrosis in subsequently resected specimens. Genetic features such as the presence of chromosomal aberrations (1p-deletion and MYCN amplification) and/or P-glycoprotein (mdr-1 gene product) were also evaluated in relation to MIBG uptake. A highly variable and unpredictable intensity of MIBG uptake was observed in primary as well as secondary resected tumours. This intensity did not relate to any of the above-mentioned factors except that there was a trend towards more intense uptake with increasing size of the tumour. We conclude from our observations that, in contrast to commonly held opinion, well-differentiated tumours do not a priori show a lower MIBG uptake in vivo, even when there are a low number of viable cells and a high degree of necrosis. The degree of differentiation or tumour viability and necrosis following longstanding chemotherapeutic treatment cannot be predicted by the MIBG scan findings. The observed MIBG uptake may be importantly influenced by factors other than those associated with cellular differentiation. (orig.) With 2 figs., 1 tab., 19 refs.

  20. Activity of iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine in childhood neuroblastoma: lack of relation to tumour differentiation in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuroblastoma (NB) tumour cells have a remarkable tendency to differentiate spontaneously or under the influence of certain drugs. It is not clear whether metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) uptake correlates with differentiation of NB cells. In 28 tumours of 26 patients, iodine-123 MIBG uptake in primary NBs was studied in relation to tumour differentiation, tumour size, cell density and degree of necrosis in subsequently resected specimens. Genetic features such as the presence of chromosomal aberrations (1p-deletion and MYCN amplification) and/or P-glycoprotein (mdr-1 gene product) were also evaluated in relation to MIBG uptake. A highly variable and unpredictable intensity of MIBG uptake was observed in primary as well as secondary resected tumours. This intensity did not relate to any of the above-mentioned factors except that there was a trend towards more intense uptake with increasing size of the tumour. We conclude from our observations that, in contrast to commonly held opinion, well-differentiated tumours do not a priori show a lower MIBG uptake in vivo, even when there are a low number of viable cells and a high degree of necrosis. The degree of differentiation or tumour viability and necrosis following longstanding chemotherapeutic treatment cannot be predicted by the MIBG scan findings. The observed MIBG uptake may be importantly influenced by factors other than those associated with cellular differentiation. (orig.)

  1. Interstitial iridium-192 implantation for malignant brain tumours: Pt. 2. Clinical experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chun, M.; McKeough, P.; Wu, A.; Kasdon, D.; Heros, D.; Chang, H.

    1989-02-01

    The treatment results of 37 patients with malignant brain neoplasms treated with a computed-tomography-guided stereotactic iridium-192 implant are reviewed. Of these, 29 patients with high-grade gliomas (20 with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), nine with anaplastic astrocytoma (AA)) received an implant as part of their initial management. The median survival was 14.5 and 15.5 months in the patients with previously untreated GBM and AA, respectively. In those patients with recurrent tumour after external-beam irradiation, durable local control over a year was achieved with implantation. Increasing the total tumour dose from 120 to 160 Gy did not improve survival or local control. Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS) was used as an indicator of quality of life and was seen to decrease with a median interval of 8.5 months following treatment. No severe complications were noted in the entire group of patients treated with this implant procedure.

  2. Fast and accurate water content and T2⁎ mapping in brain tumours localised with FET-PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The availability of combined MR-PET scanners opens new opportunities for the characterisation of tumour environment. In this study, water content and relaxation properties of glioblastoma were investigated in five patients using advanced MRI. The region containing metabolically active tumour tissue was defined by simultaneously measured FET-PET uptake. The mean value of water content in tumour tissue – obtained noninvasively with high precision and accuracy for the first time – amounted to 84.5%, similar to the value for normal grey matter. Constancy of water content contrasted with a large variability of T2⁎ values in tumour tissue, qualitatively related to the magnetic inhomogeneity of tissue created by blood vessels and/or microbleeds. The quantitative MRI protocol takes 71/2 min of measurement time and is proposed for extended clinical use. -- Highlights: • Quantitative MRI and simultaneous FET-PET used for the study of brain tumours. • Quantitative water content and T2⁎ of the brain are reported in five glioblastoma patients. • The qMRI method achieves whole brain coverage in 71/2 min. • Water content in normal appearing tissue as well as tumour is constant within 1% for each class. • T2⁎ is highly variable within tumour volume and from patient to patient

  3. Cognitive deficits in long-term survivors of childhood brain tumors: Identification of predictive factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimers, Tonny Solveig; Ehrenfels, Susanne; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Schmiegelow, Marianne; Sønderkaer, Signe; Carstensen, Mads Henrik; Schmiegelow, Kjeld; Müller, Jørn

    2003-01-01

    To describe cognitive function and to evaluate the association between potentially predictive factors and cognitive outcome in an unselected population of survivors of childhood brain tumors.......To describe cognitive function and to evaluate the association between potentially predictive factors and cognitive outcome in an unselected population of survivors of childhood brain tumors....

  4. Pre- and post-operative values of serum CRP in patients undergoing surgery for brain tumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To determine the concentration of C-reactive protein in pre- and post-operative serum samples of brain tumour patients in order to detect the potential risks of post-operative infections. Methods: Serum C-reactive protein was measured on pre- and post-operative Day 1, Day 2 and Day 7 in 18 patients who underwent surgery for brain tumours. The study was performed at the Neurosurgical Ward, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi, from May 2007 to April 2008. Mean pre-operative patients and control values were compared using Mann-Whitney or Wilcoxon tests for comparing between pre- and post-operative values. P-value was considered significant at 5.0mg/L but no statistically significant difference was found when compared with healthy controls, with mean 4.4+-6.6 and 0.9+-0.7, respectively. Significantly raised serum concentrations were observed in all post-operative samples when compared with pre-operative samples. Serum CRP concentrations significantly increased post-operatively on Day 1, with mean value of 102.9+-82.0mg/L (p<0.0005), and further increased on Day 2 with mean value of 166.9+-128.1mg/L (p<0.0005), but declined on Day 7, with mean value of 42.7+-63.6mg/L (p<0.005). Conclusion: Pre-operative serum C-reactive protein concentrations of 28% of the patients were elevated, suggesting an association with brain tumours. Post-operative serum concentrations were significantly higher than those noted before the surgery. Absence of a fall of concentration from peak value on post-operative Day 2 or a secondary rise from post-operative Day 7 could be alarming for inter-current infection. (author)

  5. The biological behaviour of technetium complexes with particular reference to brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionic radionuclide complexes and in particular technetium compounds have long been the reagents of choice for the detection of brain tumours. Despite their lack of tumour specificity detection rates in the region of 80% can be routinely achieved. The most widely-used reagent to date has been sodium pertechnetate but recently a number of other technetium complexes such as DTPA, citrate and glucoheptonate with a more rapid blood clearance and better tumour to blood ratios than pertechnetate have been proposed as alternatives. All of these reagents are anionic complexes of reduced technetium which do not bind to any extent to plasma proteins or to enzymes. They do, however, satisfy the requirements of the ionic model proposed by Van der Pompe which has been outlined in the previous chapter. In the study reported here a number of technetium complexes, citrate, glucoheptonate and n-acetyl cysteine have been compared with pertechnetate with regard to their uptake in a transplantable rhabdomyosarcoma in the rat. The results obtained have then been used to provide a possible explanation for observed differences in clinical performance between these reagents. (Auth.)

  6. Prognostic implications of p53 protein, epidermal growth factor receptor, and Ki-67 labelling in brain tumours.

    OpenAIRE

    Jaros, E.; Perry, R H; Adam, L.; Kelly, P J; Crawford, P. J.; Kalbag, R M; Mendelow, A D; Sengupta, R P; Pearson, A D

    1992-01-01

    The expression of p53 protein, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and Ki-67 nuclear antigen was examined by immunohistochemistry in biopsies of 16 types of human brain tumours, including 43 astrocytomas. P53 protein, almost certainly its mutant form, was expressed in seven of the 16, and EGFR in 11 of the 16 types of tumours. In astrocytomas both the proportion of tumours which expressed p53 or EGFR increased with grade of malignancy as did the mean Ki-67 labelling index (LI): p53-0% in...

  7. Modification of cellular radiosensitivity by the extracellular concentration of hydrogen ions - a possible explanation of the radiation resistance of brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brain tumours show a much higher local relapse frequency than other tumours after radiologic treatment. Influences of the extracellular environment on the radiation sensitivity of glioblastoma cells were examined in vitro. The results indicate that the low pH-value in the tumour might contribute to the radiation resistence. (orig.)

  8. Combined therapy of irradiation and drug treatment in primary brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combinations of radiation - drug regimes in malignant brain tumours are not generally established. The reasons for their limited clinical use are due to the selective permeability of the blood/brain barrier to cytostatic drugs and the increased risk of acute and late effects by altered pathophysiology. Therefore, the effects of combined modality of radio- and chemotherapy in malignant neoplasms of the central nervous system such as malignant gliomas and medulloblastomas should be studied only in randomized trials. In spite of promising experimental results effective radiosensitizing agents are not available for clinical use. The biological response modifiers (Interferons, TNF, IL-2) are now introduced for clinical evaluations, but preliminary results postpone the hope for improvement the therapeutical results to following drug generations. (orig.)

  9. Low temperature magnetic analysis in the identification of iron compounds from human brain tumour tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brem, F [Institute of Geophysics, ETH-Hoenggerberg, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Hirt, A M [Institute of Geophysics, ETH-Hoenggerberg, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Simon, C [Neurology/EEG, University Hospital Zurich, CH-8091 Zurich (Switzerland); Wieser, H-G [Neurology/EEG, University Hospital Zurich, CH-8091 Zurich (Switzerland); Dobson, J [Institute for Science and Technology in Medicine, Keele University, Stoke-on-Trent, ST4 7QB, (United Kingdom)

    2005-01-01

    In the brain, iron plays an important role, but also is potentially toxic if iron metabolism is disrupted. Excess iron accumulation in the brain has been shown to be associated with neurodegenerative diseases. However, identification of iron compounds in human tissue is difficult because concentrations are very low. Three types of magnetic methods were used to characterize iron compounds in tumour tissue from epileptic patients. Isothermal Remanent Magnetization (IRM) was measured at 77 K and 300 K and reveals a low-coercivity phase with the properties of magnetite or maghemite. Induced magnetization was measured between 2 K and 300 K after cooling in zero-field and in a 50 mT field. These curves reveal an average blocking temperature of 11 K, which is compatible with ferritin. The results of this study show that the combination of different magnetic methods provides a useful and sensitive tool for the characterisation of magnetic iron compounds in human tissue.

  10. Spectrum of Side Effects of Anticonvulsants in Patients with Brain Tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benit CP

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Seizures are a common manifestation in patients with brain tumours, and most patients need anticonvulsants. Apart from seizure control, the risk of side effects makes the proper choice of anticonvulsants a major concern. Toxicities not only exist as common side effects, but also appear as drug-drug interactions, neurotoxicities, and other organ dysfunctions. One reason for interactions is the use of the classical anti-epileptic drugs (AED, phenobarbital (PB, phenytoin (PHT, and carbamazepine (CBZ. Large differences in dose regimens with concomitant chemotherapy reflect the potency of these effects. Although valproic acid (VPA can be beneficial to prevent tumour growth, it may lead to bone marrow suppression and other toxicities because of its enzyme-inhibiting properties. Another noteworthy side effect are skin reactions, like erythema multiforme, which occasionally develops during radiation. Although this side effect is rare, it can be life-threatening. Many anti-epileptic drugs can have extra toxic effects with existing organ dysfunction, like bone-marrow suppression or liver abnormalities, this applies particularly for PB, PHT, CBZ, and VPA. Existing clinical or subclinical signs of brain damage secondary to space-occupying tumoural effects or the sequelae of previous neurosurgery, radio-, and chemotherapy enhance the chances of neurotoxicity. Besides, the intake of anticonvulsants itself and their total number strongly contribute to cognitive dysfunction. As neurocognitive decline interferes with quality of life, such changes may substantially affect daily activities of patients and their family members. The multitude of co-therapies applied with brain tumours contributes to a myriad of side effects that are almost impossible to unravel, as drugs and other therapies used can have aggravating or counteracting effects on each other. Knowledge of individual anticonvulsants and anticipation of toxicity including the recognition of already

  11. Epidemiology of brain tumors in childhood--a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malignant brain tumors are the leading cause of cancer death among children and the second most common type of pediatric cancer. Despite several decades of epidemiologic investigation, the etiology of childhood brain tumors (CBT) is still largely unknown. A few genetic syndromes and ionizing radiation are established risk factors. Many environmental exposures and infectious agents have been suspected of playing a role in the development of CBT. This review, based on a search of the medical literature through August 2003, summarizes the epidemiologic evidence to date. The types of exposures discussed include ionizing radiation, N-nitroso compounds (NOC), pesticides, tobacco smoke, electromagnetic frequencies (EMF), infectious agents, medications, and parental occupational exposures. We have chosen to focus on perinatal exposures and review some of the recent evidence indicating that such exposures may play a significant role in the causation of CBT. The scientific community is rapidly learning more about the molecular mechanisms by which carcinogenesis occurs and how the brain develops. We believe that advances in genetic and molecular biologic technology, including improved histologic subtyping of tumors, will be of huge importance in the future of epidemiologic research and will lead to a more comprehensive understanding of CBT etiology. We discuss some of the early findings using these technologies

  12. Metastatic disease of the brain: extra-axial metastases (skull, dura, leptomeningeal) and tumour spread

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maroldi, Roberto; Ambrosi, Claudia; Farina, Davide [University of Brescia, Department of Radiology, Brescia, BS (Italy)

    2005-03-01

    Extra-axial intracranial metastases may arise through several situations. Hematogenous spread to the meninges is the most frequent cause. Direct extension from contiguous extra-cranial neoplasms, secondary invasion of the meninges by calvarium and skull base metastases, and migration along perineural or perivascular structures are less common. Leptomeningeal invasion gives rise to tumour cell dissemination by the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), eventually leading to neoplastic coating of brain surfaces. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is complementary to CSF examinations and can be invaluable, detecting up to 50% of false-negative lumbar punctures. MR findings range from diffuse linear leptomeningeal enhancement to multiple enhancing extra-axial nodules, obstructive communicating and non-communicating hydrocephalus. Both calvarial and epidural metastases infrequently transgress the dura, which acts as a barrier against tumour spread. Radionuclide bone studies are still a valuable screening test to detect bone metastases. With computed tomography (CT) and MR, bone metastases extending intracranially and primary dural metastases show the characteristic biconvex shape, usually associated with brain displacement away from the inner table. Although CT is better in detecting skull base erosion, MR is more sensitive and provides more detailed information about dural involvement. Perineural and perivascular spread from head and neck neoplasms require thin-section contrast-enhanced MR. (orig.)

  13. Metastatic disease of the brain: extra-axial metastases (skull, dura, leptomeningeal) and tumour spread

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extra-axial intracranial metastases may arise through several situations. Hematogenous spread to the meninges is the most frequent cause. Direct extension from contiguous extra-cranial neoplasms, secondary invasion of the meninges by calvarium and skull base metastases, and migration along perineural or perivascular structures are less common. Leptomeningeal invasion gives rise to tumour cell dissemination by the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), eventually leading to neoplastic coating of brain surfaces. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is complementary to CSF examinations and can be invaluable, detecting up to 50% of false-negative lumbar punctures. MR findings range from diffuse linear leptomeningeal enhancement to multiple enhancing extra-axial nodules, obstructive communicating and non-communicating hydrocephalus. Both calvarial and epidural metastases infrequently transgress the dura, which acts as a barrier against tumour spread. Radionuclide bone studies are still a valuable screening test to detect bone metastases. With computed tomography (CT) and MR, bone metastases extending intracranially and primary dural metastases show the characteristic biconvex shape, usually associated with brain displacement away from the inner table. Although CT is better in detecting skull base erosion, MR is more sensitive and provides more detailed information about dural involvement. Perineural and perivascular spread from head and neck neoplasms require thin-section contrast-enhanced MR. (orig.)

  14. Image-guided microbeam irradiation to brain tumour bearing mice using a carbon nanotube x-ray source array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Yuan, Hong; Burk, Laurel M.; Inscoe, Christy R.; Hadsell, Michael J.; Chtcheprov, Pavel; Lee, Yueh Z.; Lu, Jianping; Chang, Sha; Zhou, Otto

    2014-03-01

    Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is a promising experimental and preclinical radiotherapy method for cancer treatment. Synchrotron based MRT experiments have shown that spatially fractionated microbeam radiation has the unique capability of preferentially eradicating tumour cells while sparing normal tissue in brain tumour bearing animal models. We recently demonstrated the feasibility of generating orthovoltage microbeam radiation with an adjustable microbeam width using a carbon nanotube based x-ray source array. Here we report the preliminary results from our efforts in developing an image guidance procedure for the targeted delivery of the narrow microbeams to the small tumour region in the mouse brain. Magnetic resonance imaging was used for tumour identification, and on-board x-ray radiography was used for imaging of landmarks without contrast agents. The two images were aligned using 2D rigid body image registration to determine the relative position of the tumour with respect to a landmark. The targeting accuracy and consistency were evaluated by first irradiating a group of mice inoculated with U87 human glioma brain tumours using the present protocol and then determining the locations of the microbeam radiation tracks using γ-H2AX immunofluorescence staining. The histology results showed that among 14 mice irradiated, 11 received the prescribed number of microbeams on the targeted tumour, with an average localization accuracy of 454 µm measured directly from the histology (537 µm if measured from the registered histological images). Two mice received one of the three prescribed microbeams on the tumour site. One mouse was excluded from the analysis due to tissue staining errors.

  15. Image-guided microbeam irradiation to brain tumour bearing mice using a carbon nanotube x-ray source array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is a promising experimental and preclinical radiotherapy method for cancer treatment. Synchrotron based MRT experiments have shown that spatially fractionated microbeam radiation has the unique capability of preferentially eradicating tumour cells while sparing normal tissue in brain tumour bearing animal models. We recently demonstrated the feasibility of generating orthovoltage microbeam radiation with an adjustable microbeam width using a carbon nanotube based x-ray source array. Here we report the preliminary results from our efforts in developing an image guidance procedure for the targeted delivery of the narrow microbeams to the small tumour region in the mouse brain. Magnetic resonance imaging was used for tumour identification, and on-board x-ray radiography was used for imaging of landmarks without contrast agents. The two images were aligned using 2D rigid body image registration to determine the relative position of the tumour with respect to a landmark. The targeting accuracy and consistency were evaluated by first irradiating a group of mice inoculated with U87 human glioma brain tumours using the present protocol and then determining the locations of the microbeam radiation tracks using γ-H2AX immunofluorescence staining. The histology results showed that among 14 mice irradiated, 11 received the prescribed number of microbeams on the targeted tumour, with an average localization accuracy of 454 µm measured directly from the histology (537 µm if measured from the registered histological images). Two mice received one of the three prescribed microbeams on the tumour site. One mouse was excluded from the analysis due to tissue staining errors. (paper)

  16. Unusual clustering of brain tumours in a family with NF1 and variable expression of cutaneous features

    OpenAIRE

    Faravelli, F.; Upadhyaya, M; Osborn, M.; Huson, S; Hayward, R.; Winter, R.

    1999-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is one of the commonest autosomal dominant disorders in man. It is characterised by café au lait spots, peripheral neurofibromas, Lisch nodules, axillary freckling, skeletal dysplasia, and optic glioma. Symptomatic brain tumours occur in 1.5-2.2% of patients with NF1. We report here a family where seven members developed brain tumours. Of these, three have a clinical history strongly suggestive of NF1, while two do not fulfil diagnostic criteria for the disorder...

  17. Detection of comorbidities and synchronous primary tumours via thoracic radiography and abdominal ultrasonography and their influence on treatment outcome in dogs with soft tissue sarcomas, primary brain tumours and intranasal tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigio Marcello, A; Gieger, T L; Jiménez, D A; Granger, L Abbigail

    2015-12-01

    Canine soft tissue sarcomas (STS), primary brain tumours and intranasal tumours are commonly treated with radiotherapy (RT). Given the low metastatic potential of these tumours, recommendations regarding imaging tests as staging are variable among institutions. The purpose of our study was to describe thoracic radiographic and abdominal ultrasonographic findings in dogs with these neoplasms and to investigate association of abnormal findings with alterations in recommended treatment. Medical records from 101 dogs, each having thoracic radiographs and abdominal ultrasound performed as part of their staging, were reviewed. In 98 of 101 (97%), imaging abnormalities were detected, 27% of which were further investigated with fine needle aspiration cytology or biopsy. Nine percent of the detected abnormalities were considered serious comorbidities that altered treatment recommendations, including 3 (3%) which were confirmed as synchronous primary neoplasms. These findings may influence recommendations regarding the decision to perform thoracic radiographs and abdominal ultrasound prior to initiation of RT. PMID:23968175

  18. The novel RASSF6 and RASSF10 candidate tumour suppressor genes are frequently epigenetically inactivated in childhood leukaemias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher Eamonn R

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Ras-assocation family (RASSF of tumour suppressor genes (TSGs contains 10 members that encode proteins containing Ras-assocation (RA domains. Several members of the RASSF family are frequently epigenetically inactivated in cancer, however, their role in leukaemia has remained largely uninvestigated. Also, RASSF10 is a predicted gene yet to be experimentally verified. Here we cloned, characterised and demonstrated expression of RASSF10 in normal human bone marrow. We also determined the methylation status of CpG islands associated with RASSF1–10 in a series of childhood acute lymphocytic leukaemias (ALL and normal blood and bone marrow samples. Results COBRA and bisulphite sequencing revealed RASSF6 and RASSF10 were the only RASSF members with a high frequency of leukaemia-specific methylation. RASSF6 was methylated in 94% (48/51 B-ALL and 41% (12/29 T-ALL, whilst RASSF10 was methylated in 16% (8/51 B-ALL and 88% (23/26 T-ALL. RASSF6 and RASSF10 expression inversely correlated with methylation which was restored by treatment with 5-aza-2'deoxycytidine (5azaDC. Conclusion This study shows the hypermethylation profile of RASSF genes in leukaemias is distinct from that of solid tumours and represents the first report of inactivation of RASSF6 or RASSF10 in cancer. These data show epigenetic inactivation of the candidate TSGs RASSF6 and RASSF10 is an extremely frequent event in the pathogenesis of childhood leukaemia. This study also warrants further investigation of the newly identified RASSF member RASSF10 and its potential role in leukaemia.

  19. A rare cause of infant facial paralysis: atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumour located in the cerebellopontine angle

    OpenAIRE

    Öztürk, Mehmet; Siğirci, Ahmet; Karadağ, Neşe

    2015-01-01

    Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumour (ATRT) is a rare malignant tumour of the central nervous system with embryonal roots. The majority are seen in early childhood and location is often in the posterior fossa. Surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy are used in treatment. Knowledge of the localisation of the mass preoperatively is necessary for direction of the chemoradiotherapy and sufficient resection in surgery. Differentiation from other brain tumours is important because of poor prognosis an...

  20. Apoptosis induced in vivo by photodynamic therapy in normal brain and intracranial tumour tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilge, L; Portnoy, M; Wilson, B C

    2000-10-01

    The apoptotic response of normal brain and intracranial VX2 tumour following photodynamic therapy (PDT) mediated by 5 different photosensitizers (Photofrin, 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA)-induced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), chloroaluminium phthalocyanine (AlCIPc), Tin Ethyl Etiopurpurin (SnET(2)), and meta -tetra(hydroxyphenyl)chlorin (m THPC)) was evaluated following a previous analysis which investigated the necrotic tissue response to PDT at 24 h post treatment. Free DNA ends, produced by internucleosomal DNA cleavage in apoptotic cells, were stained using a TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick-end labelling) assay. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was used to quantify the local incidence of apoptosis and determine its spatial distribution throughout the brain. The incidence of apoptosis was confirmed by histopathology, which demonstrated cell shrinkage, pyknosis and karyorrhexis. At 24 h post PDT, AlClPc did not cause any detectable apoptosis, while the other photosensitizers produced varying numbers of apoptotic cells near the region of coagulative necrosis. The apoptotic response did not appear to be related to photosensitizer dose. These results suggest that at this time point, a minimal and fairly localized apoptotic effect is produced in brain tissues, the extent of which depends largely on the particular photosensitizer. PMID:10993661

  1. Dosimetric and geometric evaluation of an open low-field magnetic resonance simulator for radiotherapy treatment planning of brain tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, B.H.; Laursen, F.J.; Logager, V.;

    2008-01-01

    Background and purpose: Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is superior to computed tomography (CT) in radiotherapy of brain tumours. In this study an open low-field MR-simulator is evaluated in order to eliminate the cost of and time spent on additional CT scanning. Materials and methods: Eleven...

  2. Intra-arterial and intra-venous chemotherapy combined with radiation in the treatment of brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present investigations were undertaken to study the effect of combining different modalities of chemotherapy with radiation in post-operative treatment of brain tumours. The conclusions and clinical implication of the investigations are as follows: The combination of combined intra-arterial chemotherapy followed by radiation leads to an increased median survival with more long term survivors in patients with anaplastic astrocytomas and in patients older than 40 years with astrocytomas. In patients with glioblastoma multiforme, this modality of treatment do not improve median survival, but an increased number of long-term survivors may be seen. Patients younger than 40 years with astrocytomas do not benefit from this modality of treatment. A parallelism exists between sensitivity to chemotherapy and response to radiotherapy. Patients who will benefit from the treatment may be selected early, normally two months after treatment start. Combining intra-arterial chemotherapy and radiation does not lead to an increased incidence of adverse CNS reactions. Specific transient abnormalities in the brain may occur during the first year after treatment and may be misinterpreted as tumour recurrence. EEG may be valuable in predicting adverse CNS reactions following treatment. Nuclear brain scan may be of valuable in selecting the patients who are in danger of developing adverse CNS reactions. Intra-arterial chemotherapy does have an effect in patients with brain tumours who have recurrent tumour after radiation. The most important prognostic factors are age, corticosteroid dependency at treatment start, performance status, histology and frontal lobe location. 103 refs., 2 tabs

  3. 5-Amino-4-oxopentanoic acid photodynamic diagnosis guided microsurgery and photodynamic therapy on VX2 brain tumour implanted in a rabbit model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Hong; LIAO Qiong; CHENG Ming; LI Fei; XIE Bing; LI Mei; FENG Hua

    2009-01-01

    Background Complete tumour resection is important for improving the prognosis of brain tumour patients. However,extensive resection remains controversial because the tumour margin is difficult to be distinguished from surrounding brain tissue. It has been established that 5-amino-4-oxopentanoic acid (5-aminolevulinic acid, ALA) can be used as a photodynamic diagnostic marker and a photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy in surgical treatment of brain tumours. We investigated the efficacy of ALA photodynamically guided microsurgery and photodynamic therapy on VX2 brain tumour implanted in a rabbit model.Methods Eighty New Zealand rabbits implanted with VX2 brain tumours were randomly assigned to five groups: control, conventional white light microsurgery, a photodynamic therapy group, a photodynamically guided microsurgery group and a group in which guided microsurgery was followed by photodynamic therapy. The VX2 tumour was resected under a surgical microscope. The tumour resection was confirmed with histological analysis. All animals were examined with MRI for presence of any residual tumour tissue. The survival time of each rabbit was recorded.Results All treatment groups showed a significantly extended survival time compared with the control group.Photodynamically guided microsurgery combined with photodynamic therapy significantly prolonged survival time, compared with guided microsurgery alone. MRI and the autopsy results confirmed removal of most of the tumours.Conclusions Our results suggest that photodynamically guided surgery and photodynamic therapy significantly reduce or delay local recurrence, increase the effectiveness of radical resection and prolong the survival time of tumour bearing rabbits, Their combination has the potential to be used as a rapid and highly effective treatment of metastatic brain tumours.

  4. Radiation dose, chemotherapy and risk of osteosarcoma after solid tumours during childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Vu, B; de Vathaire, F; Shamsaldin, A; Hawkins, M M; Grimaud, E; Hardiman, C; Diallo, I; Vassal, G; Bessa, E; Campbell, S; Panis, X; Daly-Schveitzer, N; Lagrange, J L; Zucker, J M; Eschwège, F; Chavaudra, J; Lemerle, J

    1998-07-29

    Osteosarcoma is the most frequent second primary cancer occurring during the first 20 years following treatment for a solid cancer in childhood. Using a cohort study of children treated for a solid cancer, we investigated the incidence and etiology of osteosarcoma as a second malignant neoplasm after childhood cancer in a cohort and a case-control study. We analysed the relationship between the local dose of radiation and the risk of osteosarcoma, taking into account chemotherapy received. A cohort study of 4,400 3-year survivors of a first solid cancer during childhood diagnosed in France or the United Kingdom, between 1942 and 1986, revealed 32 subsequent osteosarcomas. In a nested case-control study, we matched 32 cases and 160 controls for sex, type of first cancer, age at first cancer and the duration of follow-up. Parameters studied were the incidence of osteosarcoma, the cumulative local dose of irradiation and the cumulative dose of chemotherapy received by cases and controls. The risk of a osteosarcoma was found to be a linear function of the local dose of radiation (excess relative risk per gray=1.8), and was found to increase with the number of moles of electrophilic agents per square meter but not with other drugs. No interaction was noted between radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Bilateral retinoblastoma, Ewing's sarcoma and soft tissue sarcoma were found to render patients susceptible to a higher risk of developing an osteosarcoma as a second malignant neoplasm. We recommend long-term surveillance of patients who were treated during childhood for bilateral retinoblastoma, Ewing's sarcoma, soft tissue sarcoma, as well as other first cancer treated with radiotherapy plus high doses of chemotherapy, without focusing exclusively on the radiation field. PMID:9663598

  5. Challenges in providing culturally-competent care to patients with metastatic brain tumours and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Lianne; Slater, Serena

    2014-01-01

    Being diagnosed with a metastatic brain tumour can be devastating as it is characterized by very low cure rates, as well as significant morbidity and mortality. Given the poor life expectancy and progressive disability that ensues, patients and family members experience much turmoil, which includes losses that bring about changes to family roles, routines and relationships. Crisis and conflict are common during such major disruptions to a family system, as individual members attempt to make sense of the illness experience based on cultural and spiritual beliefs, past experiences and personal philosophies. It is imperative health care providers strive towards increased awareness and knowledge of how culture affects the overall experience of illness and death in order to help create a mutually satisfactory care plan. Providing culturally-competent care entails the use of proper communication skills to facilitate the exploration of patient and family perspectives and allows for mutual decision making. A case study will illustrate the challenges encountered in providing culturally-competent care to a woman with brain cancer and her family. As the patient's health declined, the family entered into a state of crisis where communication between family members and health care professionals was strained; leading to conflict and sub-optimal outcomes. This paper will address the ethical dilemma of providing culturally-competent care when a patient's safety is at risk, and the nursing implications of upholding best practices in the context of differing beliefs and priorities. PMID:25265763

  6. Increasing Rates of Brain Tumours in the Swedish National Inpatient Register and the Causes of Death Register

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lennart Hardell

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Radiofrequency emissions in the frequency range 30 kHz–300 GHz were evaluated to be Group 2B, i.e., “possibly”, carcinogenic to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC at WHO in May 2011. The Swedish Cancer Register has not shown increasing incidence of brain tumours in recent years and has been used to dismiss epidemiological evidence on a risk. In this study we used the Swedish National Inpatient Register (IPR and Causes of Death Register (CDR to further study the incidence comparing with the Cancer Register data for the time period 1998–2013 using joinpoint regression analysis. In the IPR we found a joinpoint in 2007 with Annual Percentage Change (APC +4.25%, 95% CI +1.98, +6.57% during 2007–2013 for tumours of unknown type in the brain or CNS. In the CDR joinpoint regression found one joinpoint in 2008 with APC during 2008–2013 +22.60%, 95% CI +9.68, +37.03%. These tumour diagnoses would be based on clinical examination, mainly CT and/or MRI, but without histopathology or cytology. No statistically significant increasing incidence was found in the Swedish Cancer Register during these years. We postulate that a large part of brain tumours of unknown type are never reported to the Cancer Register. Furthermore, the frequency of diagnosis based on autopsy has declined substantially due to a general decline of autopsies in Sweden adding further to missing cases. We conclude that the Swedish Cancer Register is not reliable to be used to dismiss results in epidemiological studies on the use of wireless phones and brain tumour risk.

  7. Uptake of amino acids in brain tumours using positron emission tomography as an indicator for assessing metabolic activity and malignancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diagnosis and post-therapeutic follow-up of tumour patients necessitates morphological and particularly functional imaging methods. For the latter approach positron emission tomography has proven a valid tool for the measurement of perfusion, of energy consumption parameters such as oxygen extraction, glucose metabolism and amino acid uptake. However, neither perfusion nor energy consumption parameters have yielded unambiguous information on the clinical status of various tumours in respect of their malignancy and their growth status. It is shown in this paper that amino acid uptake seems to be a valid measure for the functional activity of tumour tissue for a broad range of neoplasms. The uptake of 11C-L-Methionine was measured in 33 patients having various brain tumours, and was compared with 6 patients who had an infarction, and with 8 patients suffering from arachnoidal cysts. The amino acid uptake correlated well with the histological grading of the tumours and the clinical status of the patient. The uptake was well differentiated against metabolically inactive lesions. Parallel investigations on the uptake mechanisms of amino acids in an animal model have shown that transport phenomena regulate the uptake rather than protein synthesis rates. However, protein synthesis may nevertheless exercise a control function on the transport process. (orig.)

  8. International Case-Control Study of Adult Brain, Head and Neck Tumours: Results of the Feasibility Study (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives of the feasibility study were to collect and analyse the information necessary to assess the feasibility of a multi-centric study of adult head and neck tumours (including brain tumours) and mobile telephones. Information was obtained on the availability and accessibility of records from companies, the prevalence of mobile telephone use over time and the expected number of tumour cases in the proposed study regions. The conclusion is that it is feasible to develop a study of the relation between mobile telephone use and brain cancer risk. The feasibility of a study of the relation between radiofrequency exposure and cancer risk is, however, unclear at present. It is unknown whether a sufficiently accurate and precise RF exposure gradient can be derived to classify adequately each subject in the proposed study. A study of the relation between mobile telephone use and risk of salivary gland tumours and acoustic neurinomas is probably feasible, but more information is required about the logistic difficulties of ascertaining these cases in the study regions. Two subcommittees have been formed to develop the exposure measurement and epidemiological aspect of the study. (author)

  9. Tumours and tumourous diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book on tumours and tumourous diseases comprises two parts: 1. Bone tumours and tumourous lesions. 2. Soft tissue tumours and tumourous lesions. Details are presented on pathology, diagnosis, conservative and perioperative therapy, surgical therapy, complications after resection, indicators for amputation, recommendations for follow-up treatment, radiotherapy, radionuclide therapy, alternative therapies, therapy concepts in case of metastases, tissue engineering and plastic surgery. (uke)

  10. The HealthAgents Ontology: How to Represent the Knowledge behind a Brain Tumour Distributed Decision System

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Bo; Croitoru, Madalina; Roset, Roman; David, Dupplaw; Miguel, Lurgi; Srinandan, Dasmahapatra; Lewis, Paul; Martinez-Miranda, Juan; Saez, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present our experience of representing the knowledge behind HealthAgents, a distributed decision support system for brain tumour diagnosis. Our initial motivation came from the distributed nature of the information involved in the system and has been enriched by clinicians' requirements and data access restrictions. We present in detail the steps we have taken towards building our ontology starting from knowledge acquisition to data access and reasoning. We motivate our repre...

  11. Preoperative mapping of cortical language areas in adult brain tumour patients using PET and individual non-normalised SPM analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In patients scheduled for the resection of perisylvian brain tumours, knowledge of the cortical topography of language functions is crucial in order to avoid neurological deficits. We investigated the applicability of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) without stereotactic normalisation for individual preoperative language function brain mapping using positron emission tomography (PET). Seven right-handed adult patients with left-sided brain tumours (six frontal and one temporal) underwent 12 oxygen-15 labelled water PET scans during overt verb generation and rest. Individual activation maps were calculated for P<0.005 and P<0.001 without anatomical normalisation and overlaid onto the individuals' magnetic resonance images for preoperative planning. Activations corresponding to Broca's and Wernicke's areas were found in five and six cases, respectively, for P<0.005 and in three and six cases, respectively, for P<0.001. One patient with a glioma located in the classical Broca's area without aphasic symptoms presented an activation of the adjacent inferior frontal cortex and of a right-sided area homologous to Broca's area. Four additional patients with left frontal tumours also presented activations of the right-sided Broca's homologue; two of these showed aphasic symptoms and two only a weak or no activation of Broca's area. Other frequently observed activations included bilaterally the superior temporal gyri, prefrontal cortices, anterior insulae, motor areas and the cerebellum. The middle and inferior temporal gyri were activated predominantly on the left. An SPM group analysis (P<0.05, corrected) in patients with left frontal tumours confirmed the activation pattern shown by the individual analyses. We conclude that SPM analyses without stereotactic normalisation offer a promising alternative for analysing individual preoperative language function brain mapping studies. The observed right frontal activations agree with proposed reorganisation processes, but

  12. Transient Global Amnesia and Brain Tumour: Chance Concurrence or Aetiological Association? Case Report and Systematic Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Milburn-McNulty, Phil; Larner, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    We report a patient presenting with episodes of transient amnesia, some with features suggestive of transient global amnesia (TGA), and some more reminiscent of transient epileptic amnesia. Investigation with neuroimaging revealed an intrinsic lesion in the right amygdala, with features suggestive of low-grade neoplasia. We undertook a systematic review of the literature on TGA and brain tumour. Fewer than 20 cases were identified, some of which did not conform to the clinical diagnostic crit...

  13. A study of patients with a primary malignant brain tumour and their carers: symptoms and access to services.

    OpenAIRE

    Arber, A; Faithfull, S; Plaskota, M; Lucas, C.; De Vries, K.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the symptom experience, access to supportive care services and rehabilitation of patients with a primary malignant brain tumour (PMBT) and their carers. Methods A case review of 70 patients with a diagnosis of PMBT who received palliative care in five specialist palliative care units between July 2005 and June 2006. The review examined patient’s symptom experience, care issues, access to rehabilitation and access to supportive care services....

  14. Growth and growth hormone secretion in children following treatment of brain tumours with radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have studied the growth of 144 children after treatment of brain tumours distant from the hypothalamo-pituitary axis. All had cranial irradiation and 87 spinal irradiation. In 56 patients observed without intervention for 3 years, height SDS in the cranial (CR) group (n=20) declined from 0.02 to -0.44 and in the craniospinal (CS) group (n=36) from -0.28 to -1.11. Failure of spinal growth had a marked effect in the CS group. The onset of puberty was slightly but not significantly advanced; median ages at onset of puberty were 10.3 years in girls and 12.1 years in boys. Of the total group 86.4% had clinical and biochemical evidence of growth hormone insufficiency. Fifty-two children, 33 (28 CS; 5 CR) of whome were prepubertal, received biosynthetic human growth hormone, in a dose of 15 mU/m2/week by daily injection for a period of one year. Height velocity SDS increased significantly in both groups from -2.74 to +1.90 (CS) and from -1.0 to +4.26 (CR). Spinal response to GH treatment was restricted in the craniospinal group. (authors)

  15. Impact of Chemotherapy for Childhood Leukemia on Brain Morphology and Function

    OpenAIRE

    Genschaft, Marina; Huebner, Thomas; Plessow, Franziska; Ikonomidou, Vasiliki N.; Abolmaali, Nasreddin; Krone, Franziska; Hoffmann, Andre; Holfeld, Elisabeth; Vorwerk, Peter; Kramm, Christof; Gruhn, Bernd; Koustenis, Elisabeth; Hernaiz-Driever, Pablo; Mandal, Rakesh; Suttorp, Meinolf

    2013-01-01

    Objective Using multidisciplinary treatment modalities the majority of children with cancer can be cured but we are increasingly faced with therapy-related toxicities. We studied brain morphology and neurocognitive functions in adolescent and young adult survivors of childhood acute, low and standard risk lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), which was successfully treated with chemotherapy. We expected that intravenous and intrathecal chemotherapy administered in childhood will affect grey matter st...

  16. Influence of X-rays on early response gene expression in rat astrocytes and brain tumour cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vrdoljak, E.; Borchardt, P.E.; Bill, C.A.; Stephens, L.C.; Tofilon, P.J. [Anderson (M.D.) Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    1994-12-01

    The effects of ionizing radiation on c-fos, c-jun and jun-B mRNA levels were determined in cultures of rat perinatal type 1 astrocytes and two rat brain tumour cell lines, 175A and 9L. In astrocyte cultures X-ray doses as low as 1 Gy induced the expression of c-fos and jun-B but had essentially no effect on c-jun. The maximum increase in expression was found 1 h after irradiation, which then rapidly returned to control levels. These findings suggest that astrocytes may play a role in mediating the radiation response of the central nervous system via X-ray-induced changes in gene expression. In contrast, doses of up to 20 Gy had no effect on c-fos, c-jun and jun-B mRNA levels in the two brain tumour cell lines. In addition, whereas 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate induced the expression of these genes in astrocytes, it had little or no effect on fos or jun expression in 9L or 175A cells. These results suggest that the signal transduction pathways mediating radiation-induced genes expression may be different in normal astrocytes and brain tumour cells. (author).

  17. Influence of X-rays on early response gene expression in rat astrocytes and brain tumour cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of ionizing radiation on c-fos, c-jun and jun-B mRNA levels were determined in cultures of rat perinatal type 1 astrocytes and two rat brain tumour cell lines, 175A and 9L. In astrocyte cultures X-ray doses as low as 1 Gy induced the expression of c-fos and jun-B but had essentially no effect on c-jun. The maximum increase in expression was found 1 h after irradiation, which then rapidly returned to control levels. These findings suggest that astrocytes may play a role in mediating the radiation response of the central nervous system via X-ray-induced changes in gene expression. In contrast, doses of up to 20 Gy had no effect on c-fos, c-jun and jun-B mRNA levels in the two brain tumour cell lines. In addition, whereas 12-0-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate induced the expression of these genes in astrocytes, it had little or no effect on fos or jun expression in 9L or 175A cells. These results suggest that the signal transduction pathways mediating radiation-induced genes expression may be different in normal astrocytes and brain tumour cells. (author)

  18. Ncut在颅脑 MRI肿瘤提取中的应用研究%ON APPLYING NORMALISED CUT TO BRAIN MRI TUMOUR EXTRACTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋广军; 赵春兰

    2013-01-01

    颅脑肿瘤自身边缘包含重要的病变信息,提取脑肿瘤区域,对脑部疾病的诊断和治疗具有重要意义。 Ncut ( Normalized Cut)是基于图理的典型分割方法。将Ncut算法应用到颅脑MRI肿瘤图像的分割中,针对不同颅脑MRI肿瘤图像,进行相关参数测试,选择合适的权重及参数,进行颅脑MR肿瘤的提取。通过利用Matlab进行仿真测试可知Ncut方法能够提取出肿瘤所在的基本轮廓,取得较好效果。%The brain tumour edge contains important pathology information itself ;it has the important meaning to extract brain tumour area for brain disease diagnosis and treatment .Ncut algorithm is the typical segmentation method based on graph theory .We apply the Ncut algorithm to MRI brain tumour image segmentation , test the related parameters according to different brain MRI tumour images , and select appropriate weights and parameters to extract MR image brain tumour .Through the use of Matlab in simulation test , we know that the Ncut method can extract the basic outline of tumour and achieve good effect .

  19. In vitro growth environment produces lipidomic and electron transport chain abnormalities in mitochondria from non-tumorigenic astrocytes and brain tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas N Seyfried

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The mitochondrial lipidome influences ETC (electron transport chain and cellular bioenergetic efficiency. Brain tumours are largely dependent on glycolysis for energy due to defects in mitochondria and oxidative phosphorylation. In the present study, we used shotgun lipidomics to compare the lipidome in highly purified mitochondria isolated from normal brain, from brain tumour tissue, from cultured tumour cells and from non-tumorigenic astrocytes. The tumours included the CT-2A astrocytoma and an EPEN (ependymoblastoma, both syngeneic with the C57BL/6J (B6 mouse strain. The mitochondrial lipidome in cultured CT-2A and EPEN tumour cells were compared with those in cultured astrocytes and in solid tumours grown in vivo. Major differences were found between normal tissue and tumour tissue and between in vivo and in vitro growth environments for the content or composition of ethanolamine glycerophospholipids, phosphatidylglycerol and cardiolipin. The mitochondrial lipid abnormalities in solid tumours and in cultured cells were associated with reductions in multiple ETC activities, especially Complex I. The in vitro growth environment produced lipid and ETC abnormalities in cultured non-tumorigenic astrocytes that were similar to those associated with tumorigenicity. It appears that the culture environment obscures the boundaries of the Crabtree and the Warburg effects. These results indicate that in vitro growth environments can produce abnormalities in mitochondrial lipids and ETC activities, thus contributing to a dependency on glycolysis for ATP production.

  20. Pharmaco-thermodynamics of deuterium-induced oedema in living rat brain via 1H2O MRI: implications for boron neutron capture therapy of malignant brain tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Daniel C.; Li, Xin; Springer, Charles S., Jr.

    2005-05-01

    In addition to its common usage as a tracer in metabolic and physiological studies, deuterium possesses anti-tumoural activity and confers protection against γ-irradiation. A more recent interest in deuterium emanates from the search for alternatives capable of improving neutron penetrance whilst reducing healthy tissue radiation dose deposition in boron neutron capture therapy of malignant brain tumours. Despite this potential clinical application, deuterium induces brain oedema, which is detrimental to neutron capture therapy. In this study, five adult male rats were titrated with deuterated drinking water while brain oedema was monitored via water proton magnetic resonance imaging. This report concludes that deuterium, as well as deuterium-induced brain oedema, possesses a uniform brain bio-distribution. At a steady-state blood fluid deuteration value of 16%, when the deuterium isotope fraction in drinking water was 25%, a mean oedematous volume change of 9 ± 2% (p-value effective dose reduction factors using simple linear transport calculations. While body fluid deuteration enhances thermal neutron flux penetrance and reduces dose deposition, oedema has the opposite effect because it increases the volume of interest, e.g., the brain volume. Thermal neutron enhancement and effective dose reduction factors could be reduced by as much as ~10% in the presence of a 9% water volume increase (oedema). All three authors have contributed equally to this work.

  1. Double-labelling immunohistochemistry for MGMT and a “cocktail” of non-tumourous elements is a reliable, quick and easy technique for inferring methylation status in glioblastomas and other primary brain tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Our aim was to develop a new protocol for MGMT immunohistochemistry with good agreement between observers and good correlation with molecular genetic tests of tumour methylation. We examined 40 primary brain tumours (30 glioblastomas and 10 oligodendroglial tumours) with our new technique, namely double-labelling immunohistochemistry for MGMT and a "cocktail" of non-tumour antigens (CD34, CD45 and CD68). We compared the results with single-labelling immunohistochemistry for MGMT and methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MS-MLPA, a recognised molecular genetic technique which we applied as the gold-standard for the methylation status). Results Double-labelling immunohistochemistry for MGMT produced a visual separation of tumourous and non-tumourous elements on the same histological slide, making it quick and easy to determine whether tumour cell nuclei were MGMT-positive or MGMT-negative (and thereby infer the methylation status of the tumour). We found good agreement between observers (kappa 0.76) and within observer (kappa 0.84). Furthermore, double-labelling showed good specificity (80%), sensitivity (73.33%), positive predictive value (PPV, 83.33%) and negative predictive value (NPV, 68.75%) compared to MS-MLPA. Double-labelling was quicker and easier to assess than single-labelling and it outperformed quantitative computerised image analysis of MGMT single-labelling in terms of sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV. Conclusions Double-labelling immunohistochemistry for MGMT and a cocktail of non-tumourous elements provides a "one look" method for determining whether tumour cell nuclei are MGMT-positive or MGMT-negative. This can be used to infer the methylation status of the tumour. There is good observer agreement and good specificity, sensitivity, PPV and NPV compared to a molecular gold-standard. PMID:24252243

  2. Brain tumour imaging with carbon-11 choline: comparison with FDG PET and gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtani, Toshiyuki; Kurihara, Hideyuki; Ishiuchi, Shogo; Saito, Nobuhito; Sasaki, Tomio [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Gunma University School of Medicine (Japan); Oriuchi, Noboru; Inoue, Tomio [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Gunma University School of Medicine, Maebashi (Japan)

    2001-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical potential of methyl-{sup 11}C-choline ({sup 11}C-choline) in the diagnosis of brain tumours. To this end, the results of {sup 11}C-choline positron emission tomography (PET) in 22 patients suspected of having brain tumours were compared with the findings of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose PET. A histopathological diagnosis was made for each patient during open surgery. The standardised uptake values of brain tumours and the tumour-to-white matter count (T/W) ratios were determined. The degree of {sup 11}C-choline accumulation noted in PET images was compared with the gadolinium-enhanced areas of MR images. The mean T/W ratio of {sup 11}C-choline in high-grade gliomas was found to be higher than that in low-grade gliomas. This difference was statistically significant (mean{+-}SD: 8.7{+-}6.2, n=9 versus 1.5{+-}0.7, n=5, P<0.03) when data pertaining to the prominent uptake of {sup 11}C-choline in a patient with a pilocytic astrocytoma were excluded. {sup 11}C-choline PET failed to detect non-neoplastic lesions in two patients. Areas of {sup 11}C-choline accumulation in PET scans were larger than areas enhanced on MR images in five cases involving high-grade gliomas. {sup 11}C-choline PET differentiated between low-grade gliomas and high-grade gliomas, but did not differentiate between low-grade gliomas and non-neoplastic lesions. The combination of {sup 11}C-choline PET and MR imaging may provide investigators with an accurate means by which to identify high-grade gliomas. (orig.)

  3. Brain tumour imaging with carbon-11 choline: comparison with FDG PET and gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical potential of methyl-11C-choline (11C-choline) in the diagnosis of brain tumours. To this end, the results of 11C-choline positron emission tomography (PET) in 22 patients suspected of having brain tumours were compared with the findings of contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose PET. A histopathological diagnosis was made for each patient during open surgery. The standardised uptake values of brain tumours and the tumour-to-white matter count (T/W) ratios were determined. The degree of 11C-choline accumulation noted in PET images was compared with the gadolinium-enhanced areas of MR images. The mean T/W ratio of 11C-choline in high-grade gliomas was found to be higher than that in low-grade gliomas. This difference was statistically significant (mean±SD: 8.7±6.2, n=9 versus 1.5±0.7, n=5, P11C-choline in a patient with a pilocytic astrocytoma were excluded. 11C-choline PET failed to detect non-neoplastic lesions in two patients. Areas of 11C-choline accumulation in PET scans were larger than areas enhanced on MR images in five cases involving high-grade gliomas. 11C-choline PET differentiated between low-grade gliomas and high-grade gliomas, but did not differentiate between low-grade gliomas and non-neoplastic lesions. The combination of 11C-choline PET and MR imaging may provide investigators with an accurate means by which to identify high-grade gliomas. (orig.)

  4. Tumour control by whole brain irradiation of anti-VEGF-treated mice bearing intracerebral glioma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.J.C. Verhoeff; L.J.A. Stalpers; A. Claes; K.E. Hovinga; G.D. Musters; W. Vandertop; D.J. Richel; W.P.J. Leenders; W.R. van Furth

    2009-01-01

    Aim of the study: Tumour angiogenesis and invasion are key features of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Angiogenesis inhibitors increase progression-free survival (PFS) of recurrent GBM patients. VEGF inhibition controls the bulk tumour growth by inhibition of angiogenesis, but does not inhibit the in

  5. Tumour control by whole brain irradiation of anti-VEGF-treated mice bearing intracerebral glioma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeff, J.J.; Stalpers, L.J.; Claes, A.; Hovinga, K.E.; Musters, G.D.; Top, W.P. van der; Richel, D.J.; Leenders, W.P.J.; Furth, W.R. van

    2009-01-01

    AIM OF THE STUDY: Tumour angiogenesis and invasion are key features of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Angiogenesis inhibitors increase progression-free survival (PFS) of recurrent GBM patients. VEGF inhibition controls the bulk tumour growth by inhibition of angiogenesis, but does not inhibit the in

  6. Contribution of sup(99m)Tc pertechnetate brain scintigraphy in the diagnosis of tumours of posterior fossa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work concerns 38 posterior cranial fossa tumour cases subjected to sup(99m)Tc pertechnetate brain scintigraphy between May 1974 and June 1976. 33 of these patients have undergone an anatomical check while for the remaining 5, the existence of a posterior fossa tumour is established from the conjunction of clinical signs and other paraclinical examinations. The procedure was the same for all these 38 patients: after a 300 μC/kg injection of tracer, an immediate angioscintigraphic period, an early set of pictures (half an hour after the tracer injection) then delayed set (4 to 5 hours later) taken from 4 angles: front, back and two profiles. The examination was performed with an OHIO NUCLEAR SIEMENS gamma camera and sometimes a conventional scanner as well (the latter giving no better a diagnosis than the former). In 75% of the cases a hyperfixation of the injected tracer was observed and its site located quite accurately in the posterior fossa tumour. The etiology of the lesion could be diagnosed in 'most probable' or 'least probable' terms. Examination of work by other authors, who obtained similar results, leads to the conclusion that this method is very helpful in the diagnosis of posterior fossa tumours when used as a means of early detection, before the undertaking of more complex neuroradiological explorations

  7. Advance care planning in patients with brain tumours: A prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystal Song

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess and understand the awareness and experience of brain tumour (BT patients in discussing Advance Care Planning (ACP, to identify main symptoms experienced, physical and functional status perceived quality of life, and level of coping. Methods: A prospective cohort study with an initial open-ended questionnaire followed by semi-structured interview questions regarding ACP with 18 patients diagnosed with BT (WHO Grade I-IV, metastatic BT in hospital and community. Standardized assessments measured coping strategies, and quality of life (QoL. Interview transcripts regarding ACP discussions were analyzed, coded and interpreted using qualitative analytic techniques for thematic analyses. Results: Participants' mean age was 51 years (range 22-65 years, female (61%; median time since BT diagnosis was 1.5 years and just over half (56% had glioblastoma multiforme (GBM. Fatigue was the most common symptom reported by 83% of participants. Overall, participants indicated good QoL and used more problem-focused coping strategies including ‘acceptance’ and ‘positive reframing’. Thematic analyses indicated that participants had limited awareness and understanding of ACP, variable views on appropriate timing of ACP discussions and change of decisions over illness trajectory. Most felt able to discuss ACP and preferred dedicated sessions by a trained health professional. Conclusion: This study highlights the importance of providing timely information regarding ACP to BT patients during the course of their disease. Established ACP discussions have an important role in enhancing patient autonomy and to guide delivery of end-of-life care. The demonstrated low uptake of ACP in this pilot study shows need for improved awareness in clinical practice for timely ACP discussions and multifaceted interventions system-wide in implementing ACP

  8. Misdiagnosis of Child Abuse Related to Delay in Diagnosing a Paediatric Brain Tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne Wrennall

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Conflicting opinion regarding the relative weight that should be allocated to the investigation of organic causes of child illness, compared to the pursuit of suspicions of child abuse, has generated considerable public debate. The discourse of Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy/Fabricated and Induced Illness is at the centre of contention. In particular, concern has arisen that children’s medical needs are being neglected when their conditions are misdiagnosed as child abuse. This paper documents a case study in which the use of Child Protection procedures was linked to the belief that the child’s illness had “no organic cause.” The case study is contextualised in a review of literature relevant to the diagnostic process. The deployment of the Child Protection perspective resulted in significant delay in the diagnosis of the child’s brain tumour. The child was ultimately found to be suffering from an optic chasm mass lesion involving the hypothalamus and the medial temporal regions, resulting in Diencephalic Syndrome. The evidence in this case is that erring on the side of suspecting Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy/Fabricated and Induced Illness, was not “erring on the side of the child.” Several lessons need to be learned from the case. The importance of ensuring that the Child Protection perspective does not displace adequate assessment of alternative explanations for the child’s condition is emphasised, as is the need for good communication in medical relationships. Strategies involving empathy, mediation, negotiation and conflict resolution may provide a more appropriate and therapeutic alternative to the use of Child Protection procedures in cases where the diagnosis is contentious. The need to re-write relevant policy, protocols and guidance is imperative.

  9. Potential of anti-cancer therapy based on anti-miR-155 oligonucleotides in glioma and brain tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poltronieri, Palmiro; D'Urso, Pietro I; Mezzolla, Valeria; D'Urso, Oscar F

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs are aberrantly expressed in many cancers and can exert tumour-suppressive or oncogenic functions. As oncomirs promote growth of cancer cells and support survival during chemotherapy, thus microRNA-silencing therapies could be a valuable approach to be associated with anticancer drugs and chemotherapy treatments. miR-155 microRNA was found overexpressed in different types of cancer, such as leukaemias (PML, B-cell lymphomas), lung cancer and glioblastoma. GABA-A receptor downregulation was found correlated with glioma grading, with decreasing levels associated with higher grade of malignancies. A relationship between knock-down of miR-155 and re-expression of GABRA 1 protein in vivo was recently individuated. This finding has implication on the effectiveness of RNA-silencing approaches against miR-155 with the scope to control proliferation and signalling pathways regulated by GABA-A receptor. Applying microRNAs for treatment of brain tumours poses several problems, and fields to be solved are mainly the passage of the brain-blood barrier and the targeted delivery to specific cell types. Glioblastoma multiforme cells bud off microvesicles that deliver cytoplasmic contents to nearby cells. Thus, the exploitation of these mechanisms to deliver antagomir therapeutics targeting microvescicles in the brain could take the lead in the near future in the treatment for brain cancers in substitution of invasive surgical intervention. PMID:22834637

  10. Cellular Telephones, Magnetic Field Exposure, Risk of Brain Tumours and Cancer at Other Sites: A Cohort Study (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the study is to investigate whether exposure to electromagnetic fields from cellular telephones is associated with brain tumours and cancer at other sites. Key information has been obtained on all cellular telephone subscribers in Denmark from 1 January 1982 to 31 December 1995. The overall subscriber cohort will include approximately 500,000 individuals. Collected information includes name of subscriber, address, telephone number, system used (analogue or digital), and annual use of the telephone. The name and address of the subscribers will be linked to the Central Population Register, and the personal identification number will be supplied in addition to information on vital status and migration. Finally, all members of the cohort will be linked to the Danish Cancer Registry, and the observed number of tumours will be compared with those expected on the basis of national cancer incidence rates stratified by sex, age, and calendar time. (author)

  11. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography imaging in brain tumours : The Western Australia positron emission tomography/cyclotron service experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) scans in the first 49 patients referred with either possible brain tumour or brain tumour recurrence were reviewed. FDG-PET imaging was reported with reference to anatomical imaging. Based on the report the FDG study was classified as either positive or negative for the presence of tumour. Thirty-eight cases were included in the analysis, 21 having pathological data and 17 with diagnostic clinical follow up. Eleven were excluded, as they had inadequate follow-up data. Of the 21 cases with pathology, 18 were shown to have tumour. In this group there were five false-negative scans and two false-positive PET scans. Seventeen cases were assessed by clinical follow up, nine were considered to have been tumour. There were two false negatives with one false positive. The overall sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values were 74, 73, 87 and 53% respectively. This is similar to figures previously quoted in published work. Despite relatively limited numbers, the utility of FDG PET imaging in our hands is similar to published reports. With a positive predictive value of 87%, a positive FDG study indicates a high likelihood that there is brain tumour present. A negative study does not exclude the presence of tumour

  12. Enhanced brain signal variability in children with autism spectrum disorder during early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Tetsuya; Yoshimura, Yuko; Hiraishi, Hirotoshi; Hasegawa, Chiaki; Munesue, Toshio; Higashida, Haruhiro; Minabe, Yoshio; Kikuchi, Mitsuru

    2016-03-01

    Extensive evidence shows that a core neurobiological mechanism of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) involves aberrant neural connectivity. Recent advances in the investigation of brain signal variability have yielded important information about neural network mechanisms. That information has been applied fruitfully to the assessment of aging and mental disorders. Multiscale entropy (MSE) analysis can characterize the complexity inherent in brain signal dynamics over multiple temporal scales in the dynamics of neural networks. For this investigation, we sought to characterize the magnetoencephalography (MEG) signal variability during free watching of videos without sound using MSE in 43 children with ASD and 72 typically developing controls (TD), emphasizing early childhood to older childhood: a critical period of neural network maturation. Results revealed an age-related increase of brain signal variability in a specific timescale in TD children, whereas atypical age-related alteration was observed in the ASD group. Additionally, enhanced brain signal variability was observed in children with ASD, and was confirmed particularly for younger children. In the ASD group, symptom severity was associated region-specifically and timescale-specifically with reduced brain signal variability. These results agree well with a recently reported theory of increased brain signal variability during development and aberrant neural connectivity in ASD, especially during early childhood. Results of this study suggest that MSE analytic method might serve as a useful approach for characterizing neurophysiological mechanisms of typical-developing and its alterations in ASD through the detection of MEG signal variability at multiple timescales. PMID:26859309

  13. Social Outcomes in Childhood Brain Disorder: A Heuristic Integration of Social Neuroscience and Developmental Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeates, Keith Owen; Bigler, Erin D.; Dennis, Maureen; Gerhardt, Cynthia A.; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Stancin, Terry; Taylor, H. Gerry; Vannatta, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    The authors propose a heuristic model of the social outcomes of childhood brain disorder that draws on models and methods from both the emerging field of social cognitive neuroscience and the study of social competence in developmental psychology/psychopathology. The heuristic model characterizes the relationships between social adjustment, peer…

  14. Childhood abuse and deprivation are associated with distinct sex-dependent differences in brain morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everaerd, D.S.; Klumpers, F.; Zwiers, M.P.; Guadalupe, T.; Franke, B.; Oostrom, I.I.H. van; Schene, A.H.; Fernandez, G.S.E.; Tendolkar, I.

    2016-01-01

    Childhood adversity (CA) has been associated with long-term structural brain alterations and an increased risk for psychiatric disorders. Evidence is emerging that subtypes of CA, varying in the dimensions of threat and deprivation, lead to distinct neural and behavioral outcomes. However, these spe

  15. Scalp topography of event-related brain potentials and cognitive transitions during childhood.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.C.M. Molenaar; M.W. van der Molen; J.E.A. Stauder

    1993-01-01

    Examined the relation between cognitive development (CGD) and the ontogenesis of event-related brain potentials (ERPs) during childhood among 48 girls (aged 5-7 yrs). The level of CGD was assessed with a standard Piagetian conservation kit. Ss performed a visual selective attention (oddball) task an

  16. Preschool Traumatic Brain Injury: A Review for the Early Childhood Special Educator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherington, Crista E.; Hooper, Stephen R.

    2006-01-01

    This article reviews an emergent area of traumatic brain injury (TBI) literature; namely, developmental outcomes of TBI sustained during the early childhood and preschool period. The developmental time period from birth through age 5 years is one of significant growth and maturity, particularly in the neurological development of the child. An…

  17. Rebooting the Brain: Using Early Childhood Education to Heal Trauma from Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLintock, Ben

    2011-01-01

    Abused and neglected children live in a world that usually includes some sort of violence, chaos, and tremendous physical and mental stress. This toxic environment wreaks havoc on a child's developing brain. This article discusses how to use early childhood education to heal trauma from abuse and neglect. It shares the story of two children, Bryce…

  18. Whole brain irradiation with hippocampal sparing and dose escalation on multiple brain metastases. Local tumour control and survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oehlke, Oliver; Wucherpfennig, David; Prokic, Vesna [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Freiburg (Germany); Fels, Franziska [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Freiburg (Germany); St. Josefs Hospital, Department of Radiation Oncology, Offenburg (Germany); Frings, Lars [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Freiburg (Germany); University Hospital Freiburg, Department of Geriatrics and Gerontology, Freiburg (Germany); University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Freiburg (Germany); Egger, Karl [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Neuroradiology, Freiburg (Germany); Weyerbrock, Astrid [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Neurosurgery, Freiburg (Germany); Nieder, Carsten [Nordland Hospital, Department of Oncology and Palliative Medicine, Bodoe (Norway); University of Tromsoe, Institute of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Tromsoe (Norway); Grosu, Anca-Ligia [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Radiation Oncology, Freiburg (Germany); German Cancer Consortium (DKTK), Freiburg (Germany); German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany)

    2015-01-16

    Hippocampal-avoidance whole brain radiotherapy (HA-WBRT) for multiple brain metastases may prevent treatment-related cognitive decline, compared to standard WBRT. Additionally, simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) on individual metastases may further improve the outcome. Here, we present initial data concerning local tumour control (LTC), intracranial progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), toxicity and safety for this new irradiation technique. Twenty patients, enrolled between 2011 and 2013, were treated with HA-WBRT (30 Gy in 12 fractions, D{sub 98} {sub %} to hippocampus ≤ 9 Gy) and a SIB (51 Gy) on multiple (2-13) metastases using a volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) approach based on 2-4 arcs. Metastases were evaluated bidimensionally along the two largest diameters in contrast-enhanced three-dimensional T1-weighed MRI. Median follow-up was 40 weeks. The median time to progression of boosted metastases has not been reached yet, corresponding to a LTC rate of 73 %. Median intracranial PFS was 40 weeks, corresponding to a 1-year PFS of 45.3 %. Median OS was 71.5 weeks, corresponding to a 1-year OS of 60 %. No obvious acute or late toxicities grade > 2 (NCI CTCAE v4.03) were observed. D{sub mean} to the bilateral hippocampi was 6.585 Gy ± 0.847 (α/β = 2 Gy). Two patients developed a new metastasis in the area of hippocampal avoidance. HA-WBRT (simultaneous integrated protection, SIP) with SIB to metastases is a safe and tolerable regime that shows favorable LTC for patients with multiple brain metastases, while it has the potential to minimize the side-effect of cognitive deterioration. (orig.) [German] Die Hippocampus-schonende Ganzhirnbestrahlung (HS-GHB) kann im Vergleich zur Standard-GHB die Verschlechterung der neurokognitiven Funktion verhindern. Zusaetzlich vermag ein simultan integrierter Boost (SIB) auf die Metastasen die Prognose der betroffenen Patienten weiter zu verbessern. In dieser Studie praesentieren wir erste Ergebnisse

  19. Childhood emotional maltreatment : impact on cognition and the brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmelen, Anne-Laura van

    2013-01-01

    When a child is often scolded or threatened by his parents (emotional abuse) and /or when a child is structurally ignored or isolated by his parents (emotional neglect) we call this childhood emotional maltreatment (CEM). CEM is the most common form of child abuse, however, CEM is also the most hidd

  20. INCIDENCE AND THE DISTRIBUTION OF BRAIN TUMOURS IN SOUTH INDIAN POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudesh Shetty

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION The incidence of intracranial [IC] tumours depends on the sources and methods used to collect the data and whether conditions such as tuberculomas, parasitic cysts and vascular malformations are included. The general consensus is that the annual incidence rate of primary intracranial neoplasm is between 10 and 12 per 100,000 and these constitute approximately 9% of all primary cancers. The presenting features of the case in the Department of Medicine which ultimately leads to the definitive diagnosis depend on the situation of the tumour. So in the present study a valiant effort has been put to help the fellow clinicians to diagnose by knowing the incidence and the common sites that the tumour presents. The aim of the study is to: 1. To establish the incidence of different types of tumours encountered in the Department of Medicine. 2. To establish the site of the tumour. Fifty patients were studied in the Department of Medicine, A. J. Shetty Institute of Medical Sciences, Mangalore. The surgical reference was taken and the type was confirmed by histopathology. So in the present study a valiant effort has been put to help the fellow clinicians to diagnose by knowing the incidence and the common sites that the tumour presents.

  1. Hyperthermia improves the antitumour effect of metronomic cyclophosphamide in a rat transplantable brain tumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: As low-dose metronomic cyclophosphamide (CTX) and hyperthermia (HT) both exert antitumour effects in part through antiangiogenic mechanisms, interactive effects of the two modalities were explored. Materials and methods: Subcutaneously implanted rat tumours (BT4An) were treated with CTX 35 mg/kg i.p. three doses a week for two weeks, local water-bath HT yielding mean tumour temperature of 43 oC for one hour at day 0, both modalities combined (CTX-HT0), or saline. TUNEL assays, immunohistochemical staining of thrombospondin 1 (TSP-1) and real time RT-PCR of TSP-1 mRNA were analysed the first three hours after completed treatment day 0. Results: Metronomic dosed CTX (p = 0.006) and HT (p 0 (41%) treated rats. TSP-1 protein was specifically upregulated in the vascular matrix of tumours receiving CTX (weak), HT (moderate) and CTX-HT0 (strong). In contrast, reduced expression of TSP-1 protein was observed in tumour cells after HT alone and CTX-HT0. TUNEL assays indicated induction of apoptosis by HT and CTX-HT0 90 minutes after end of the first treatment. Conclusion: A single session of local HT enhances the effects of low-dose metronomic CTX, possibly in part mediated through a differential effect on TSP-1 protein levels in tumour cells and tumour vasculature

  2. Pharmaco-thermodynamics of deuterium-induced oedema in living rat brain via 1H2O MRI: implications for boron neutron capture therapy of malignant brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In addition to its common usage as a tracer in metabolic and physiological studies, deuterium possesses anti-tumoural activity and confers protection against γ-irradiation. A more recent interest in deuterium emanates from the search for alternatives capable of improving neutron penetrance whilst reducing healthy tissue radiation dose deposition in boron neutron capture therapy of malignant brain tumours. Despite this potential clinical application, deuterium induces brain oedema, which is detrimental to neutron capture therapy. In this study, five adult male rats were titrated with deuterated drinking water while brain oedema was monitored via water proton magnetic resonance imaging. This report concludes that deuterium, as well as deuterium-induced brain oedema, possesses a uniform brain bio-distribution. At a steady-state blood fluid deuteration value of 16%, when the deuterium isotope fraction in drinking water was 25%, a mean oedematous volume change of 9 ± 2% (p-value <0.001) was observed in the rat brain-this may account for neurological and behavioural abnormalities found in mammals drinking highly deuterated water. In addition to characterizing the pharmaco-thermodynamics of deuterium-induced oedema, this report also estimates the impact of oedema on thermal neutron enhancement and effective dose reduction factors using simple linear transport calculations. While body fluid deuteration enhances thermal neutron flux penetrance and reduces dose deposition, oedema has the opposite effect because it increases the volume of interest, e.g., the brain volume. Thermal neutron enhancement and effective dose reduction factors could be reduced by as much as ∼10% in the presence of a 9% water volume increase (oedema)

  3. Dynamic CT perfusion imaging of intra-axial brain tumours: differentiation of high-grade gliomas from primary CNS lymphomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perfusion computed tomography (PCT) allows to quantitatively assess haemodynamic characteristics of brain tissue. We investigated if different brain tumor types can be distinguished from each other using Patlak analysis of PCT data. PCT data from 43 patients with brain tumours were analysed with a commercial implementation of the Patlak method. Four patients had low-grade glioma (WHO II), 31 patients had glioblastoma (WHO IV) and eight patients had intracerebral lymphoma. Tumour regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn in a morphological image and automatically transferred to maps of cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV) and permeability (K Trans). Mean values were calculated, group differences were tested using Wilcoxon and Mann Whitney U-tests. In comparison with normal parenchyma, low-grade gliomas showed no significant difference of perfusion parameters (p > 0.05), whereas high-grade gliomas demonstrated significantly higher values (p Trans, p Trans values compared with unaffected cerebral parenchyma (p = 0.0078) but no elevation of CBV. High-grade gliomas show significant higher CBV values than lymphomas (p = 0.0078). PCT allows to reliably classify gliomas and lymphomas based on quantitative measurements of CBV and K Trans. (orig.)

  4. Treatment Option Overview (Childhood Brain and Spinal Cord Tumors)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... membranes are surrounded by the vertebrae (back bones). Spinal cord nerves carry messages between the brain and the rest ... of questions and tests to check the brain, spinal cord, and nerve function. The exam checks a person’s mental status, ...

  5. DMBT1, a new member of the SRCR superfamily, on chromosome 10q25.3-26.1 is deleted in malignant brain tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollenhauer, J; Wiemann, S; Scheurlen, W;

    1997-01-01

    Loss of sequences from human chromosome 10q has been associated with the progression of human cancer. Medulloblastoma and glioblastoma multiforme are the most common malignant brain tumours in children and adults, respectively. In glioblastoma multiforme, the most aggressive form, 80% of the...... tumours show loss of 10q. We have used representational difference analysis to identify a homozygous deletion at 10q25.3-26.1 in a medulloblastoma cell line and have cloned a novel gene, DMBT1, spanning this deletion. DMBT1 shows homology to the scavenger receptor cysteine-rich (SRCR) superfamily....... Intragenic homozygous deletions has been detected in 2/20 medulloblastomas and in 9/39 glioblastomas multiformes. Lack of DMBT1 expression has been demonstrated in 4/5 brain-tumour cell lines. We suggest that DMBT1 is a putative tumour-suppressor gene implicated in the carcinogenesis of medulloblastoma and...

  6. Multimodal imaging utilising integrated MR-PET for human brain tumour assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuner, Irene [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine 4, INM 4, Juelich (Germany); RWTH Aachen University, Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, Aachen (Germany); JARA-BRAIN-Translational Medicine, Aachen (Germany); Kaffanke, Joachim B. [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine 4, INM 4, Juelich (Germany); MR-Transfer e.K., Wuppertal (Germany); Langen, Karl-Josef; Kops, Elena Rota; Tellmann, Lutz; Stoffels, Gabriele; Weirich, Christoph; Filss, Christian; Scheins, Juergen; Herzog, Hans [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine 4, INM 4, Juelich (Germany); Shah, N. Jon [Institute of Neuroscience and Medicine 4, INM 4, Juelich (Germany); RWTH Aachen University, Department of Neurology, Aachen (Germany); JARA-BRAIN-Translational Medicine, Aachen (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    The development of integrated magnetic resonance (MR)-positron emission tomography (PET) hybrid imaging opens up new horizons for imaging in neuro-oncology. In cerebral gliomas the definition of tumour extent may be difficult to ascertain using standard MR imaging (MRI) only. The differentiation of post-therapeutic scar tissue, tumour rests and tumour recurrence is challenging. The relationship to structures such as the pyramidal tract to the tumour mass influences the therapeutic neurosurgical approach. The diagnostic information may be enriched by sophisticated MR techniques such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), multiple-volume proton MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) and functional MRI (fMRI). Metabolic imaging with PET, especially using amino acid tracers such as {sup 18}F-fluoroethyl-l-tyrosine (FET) or {sup 11}C-l-methionine (MET) will indicate tumour extent and response to treatment. The new technologies comprising MR-PET hybrid systems have the advantage of providing comprehensive answers by a one-stop-job of 40-50 min. The combined approach provides data of different modalities using the same iso-centre, resulting in optimal spatial and temporal realignment. All images are acquired exactly under the same physiological conditions. We describe the imaging protocol in detail and provide patient examples for the different imaging modalities such as FET-PET, standard structural imaging (T1-weighted, T2-weighted, T1-weighted contrast agent enhanced), DTI, MRSI and fMRI. (orig.)

  7. Multimodal imaging utilising integrated MR-PET for human brain tumour assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of integrated magnetic resonance (MR)-positron emission tomography (PET) hybrid imaging opens up new horizons for imaging in neuro-oncology. In cerebral gliomas the definition of tumour extent may be difficult to ascertain using standard MR imaging (MRI) only. The differentiation of post-therapeutic scar tissue, tumour rests and tumour recurrence is challenging. The relationship to structures such as the pyramidal tract to the tumour mass influences the therapeutic neurosurgical approach. The diagnostic information may be enriched by sophisticated MR techniques such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), multiple-volume proton MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) and functional MRI (fMRI). Metabolic imaging with PET, especially using amino acid tracers such as 18F-fluoroethyl-l-tyrosine (FET) or 11C-l-methionine (MET) will indicate tumour extent and response to treatment. The new technologies comprising MR-PET hybrid systems have the advantage of providing comprehensive answers by a one-stop-job of 40-50 min. The combined approach provides data of different modalities using the same iso-centre, resulting in optimal spatial and temporal realignment. All images are acquired exactly under the same physiological conditions. We describe the imaging protocol in detail and provide patient examples for the different imaging modalities such as FET-PET, standard structural imaging (T1-weighted, T2-weighted, T1-weighted contrast agent enhanced), DTI, MRSI and fMRI. (orig.)

  8. Childhood exposure to ionizing radiation and brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brain has been categorized into the low risk group of radiogenic tumors. However, recent epidemiologic studies on the cancer risks among children who received repeated CT scans, radiotherapies and A-bomb have revealed that low-to-moderate dose of ionizing radiation is effective to induce brain tumors. Ionizing radiation is more strongly associated with risk for meningiomas and schwannomas compared to gliomas. While risk of meningiomas is independent of age at the time of exposure, that of gliomas is profoundly high after neonatal and infantile exposures. Inherited susceptibility to brain tumors is suggested by family history or cancer prone syndromes. People with certain gene mutations such as RB, NF1 or PTCH1 are associated with enhanced cancer risk after radiotherapies. Genetic polymorphism of cancer-related genes on brain tumor risk deserves further investigation. (author)

  9. Increased levels of deleted in malignant brain tumours 1 (DMBT1) in active bacteria-related appendicitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaemmerer, Elke; Schneider, Ursula; Klaus, Christina; Plum, Patrick; Reinartz, Andrea; Adolf, Maximilian; Renner, Marcus; Wolfs, Tim G A M; Kramer, Boris W; Wagner, Norbert; Mollenhauer, Jan; Gassler, Nikolaus

    2012-01-01

    Kaemmerer E, Schneider U, Klaus C, Plum P, Reinartz A, Adolf M, Renner M, Wolfs T G A M, Kramer B W, Wagner N, Mollenhauer J & Gassler N (2012) Histopathology Increased levels of deleted in malignant brain tumours 1 (DMBT1) in active bacteria-related appendicitis Aims:  Deleted in malignant brain...... bacteria-related active intestinal inflammation such as appendicitis. Methods and results:  mRNA and protein levels of DMBT1 were analysed in surgical resections of 50 appendices (active inflammation: n = 25). In non-actively inflamed appendices, inter-individual differences in basal DMBT1 levels of...... enterocytes and some non-epithelial cells were found. In active appendicitis, enterocytic DMBT1 mRNA expression was increased approximately fivefold, which was paralleled by a corresponding increase of cytoplasmic and secreted DMBT1 protein levels. Increased DMBT1 expression was predominant in enterocytes...

  10. Mir-34a mimics are potential therapeutic agents for p53-mutated and chemo-resistant brain tumour cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuen Ngan Fan

    Full Text Available Chemotherapeutic drug resistance and relapse remains a major challenge for paediatric (medulloblastoma and adult (glioblastoma brain tumour treatment. Medulloblastoma tumours and cell lines with mutations in the p53 signalling pathway have been shown to be specifically insensitive to DNA damaging agents. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of triggering cell death in p53 mutated medulloblastoma cells by a direct activation of pro-death signalling downstream of p53 activation. Since non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs have the ability to fine tune the expression of a variety of target genes, orchestrating multiple downstream effects, we hypothesised that triggering the expression of a p53 target miRNA could induce cell death in chemo-resistant cells. Treatment with etoposide, increased miR-34a levels in a p53-dependent fashion and the level of miR-34a transcription was correlated with the cell sensitivity to etoposide. miR-34a activity was validated by measuring the expression levels of one of its well described target: the NADH dependent sirtuin1 (SIRT1. Whilst drugs directly targeting SIRT1, were potent to trigger cell death at high concentrations only, introduction of synthetic miR-34a mimics was able to induce cell death in p53 mutated medulloblastoma and glioblastoma cell lines. Our results show that the need of a functional p53 signaling pathway can be bypassed by direct activation of miR-34a in brain tumour cells.

  11. X-ray fluorescence study of the concentration of selected trace and minor elements in human brain tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandzilak, Aleksandra; Czyzycki, Mateusz; Radwanska, Edyta; Adamek, Dariusz; Geraki, Kalotina; Lankosz, Marek

    2015-12-01

    Neoplastic and healthy brain tissues were analysed to discern the changes in the spatial distribution and overall concentration of elements using micro X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. High-resolution distribution maps of minor and trace elements such as P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn made it possible to distinguish between homogeneous cancerous tissue and areas where some structures could be identified, such as blood vessels and calcifications. Concentrations of the elements in the selected homogeneous areas of brain tissue were compared between tumours with various malignancy grades and with the controls. The study showed a decrease in the average concentration of Fe, P, S and Ca in tissues with high grades of malignancy as compared to the control group, whereas the concentration of Zn in these tissues was increased. The changes in the concentration were found to be correlated with the tumour malignancy grade. The efficacy of micro X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy to distinguish between various types of cancer based on the concentrations of studied elements was confirmed by multivariate discriminant analysis. Our analysis showed that the most important elements for tissue classification are Cu, K, Fe, Ca, and Zn. This method made it possible to correctly classify histopathological types in 99.93% of the cases used to build the model and in as much as 99.16% of new cases.

  12. Diagnostic benefits of presurgical fMRI in patients with brain tumours in the primary sensorimotor cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reliable imaging of eloquent tumour-adjacent brain areas is necessary for planning function-preserving neurosurgery. This study evaluates the potential diagnostic benefits of presurgical functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in comparison to a detailed analysis of morphological MRI data. Standardised preoperative functional and structural neuroimaging was performed on 77 patients with rolandic mass lesions at 1.5 Tesla. The central region of both hemispheres was allocated using six morphological and three functional landmarks. fMRI enabled localisation of the motor hand area in 76/77 patients, which was significantly superior to analysis of structural MRI (confident localisation of motor hand area in 66/77 patients; p < 0.002). FMRI provided additional diagnostic information in 96% (tongue representation) and 97% (foot representation) of patients. FMRI-based presurgical risk assessment correlated in 88% with a positive postoperative clinical outcome. Routine presurgical FMRI allows for superior assessment of the spatial relationship between brain tumour and motor cortex compared with a very detailed analysis of structural 3D MRI, thus significantly facilitating the preoperative risk-benefit assessment and function-preserving surgery. The additional imaging time seems justified. FMRI has the potential to reduce postoperative morbidity and therefore hospitalisation time. (orig.)

  13. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Chronic Dysarthric Speech after Childhood Brain Injury: Reliance on a Left-Hemisphere Compensatory Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Angela T.; Masterton, Richard; Pigdon, Lauren; Connelly, Alan; Liegeois, Frederique J.

    2013-01-01

    Severe and persistent speech disorder, dysarthria, may be present for life after brain injury in childhood, yet the neural correlates of this chronic disorder remain elusive. Although abundant literature is available on language reorganization after lesions in childhood, little is known about the capacity of motor speech networks to reorganize…

  14. Imaging of adult astrocytic brain tumours with 7 T MRI: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study tumour vascularity and necrosis of intracranial astrocytomas were compared using 7 T and 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Fifteen patients with histologically proven astrocytomas (WHO grades II-IV) were prospectively examined at 1.5 T (Magnetom Espree or Sonata) and 7 T (Magnetom 7 T, Siemens, Erlangen, Germany) with T2*-w (weighted), T1-w with (only a subset of five patients at 7 T) and without contrast medium, T2-w and proton-density (PD)-w MRI. Clinically used 1.5 T sequences were adapted to 7 T. Histological findings and T2*-w MR images at both field strengths were compared for the presence of assumed tumour microvascularity and necrosis. Two diffusely infiltrating astrocytomas, four anaplastic astrocytomas and nine glioblastomas were included. T2*-w images depicted susceptibility patterns representing presumed tumour microvascularity in 8 out of 15 (53%) gliomas at 7 T compared with 5 out of 15 (33%) gliomas at 1.5 T. Compared with 1.5 T MRI three additional necrotic tumour areas were depicted only on 7 T T2- and T2*-w images of one glioblastoma. On T1-w MR images, contrast enhancement of five out of five glioblastomas was similar at both field strengths. 7 T gradient-echo sequences provide excellent image contrast of presumed microvasculature and necrosis in astrocytomas. (orig.)

  15. O-(2-[{sup 18}F]Fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine and L-[methyl-{sup 11}C]methionine uptake in brain tumours: initial results of a comparative study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, W.A.; Wester, H.J.; Herz, M.; Dzewas, B.; Stoecklin, G.; Schwaiger, M. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Technische Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Grosu, A.L.; Feldmann, H.J.; Molls, M. [Department of Radiotherapy, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Muenchen (Germany)

    2000-05-01

    O-(2-[{sup 18}F]Fluoroethyl)-l-tyrosine (FET) is a recently described amino acid analogue that has shown high accumulation in animal tumours. The aim of this study was to compare the uptake of FET with that of l-[methyl-{sup 11}C]methionine (MET) in patients with suspected primary or recurrent intracerebral tumours. Sixteen consecutive patients with intracerebral lesions were studied on the same day by positron emission tomography (PET) using MET and FET. Uptake of FET and MET was quantified by standardized uptake values. Tracer kinetics for normal brain and intracerebral lesions were compared. On the basis of the MET-PET studies, viable tumour tissue was found in 13 patients. All tumours showed rapid uptake of FET and were visualized with high contrast. Mean uptake of FET for normal grey matter, white matter and tumour tissue was 1.1{+-}0.2, 0.8{+-}0.2 and 2.7{+-}0.8 SUV, respectively. In all three tissues, uptake of MET was slightly higher (1.4{+-}0.2, 0.9{+-}0.1 and 3.3{+-}1.0 SUV; P<0.01). However, contrast between tumour and normal tissues was not significantly different between MET and FET. Uptake of FET in non-neoplastic lesions (1.0{+-}0.1 SUV) was significantly lower than in tumour tissue (P=0.007). For all lesions there was a close correlation (r=0.98) between MET and FET uptake. In conclusion, in PET studies of human brain tumours, the uptake and image contrast of FET appear to be very similar to those of MET. The specificity of FET for tumour tissue is promising but has to be addressed in a larger series of patients with non-neoplastic lesions. (orig.)

  16. THE CASE OF FOCAL EPILEPSY OF CHILDHOOD WITH STRUCTURAL BRAIN CHANGES AND BENIGN EPILEPTIFORM DISCHARGES ON EEG (FECSBC-BEDC)

    OpenAIRE

    I. A. Sadekov; Petrenko, L. V.; I. V. Sadekova; O. I. Tishkovets

    2015-01-01

    The authors described a case of focal epilepsy of childhood with structural brain changes and benign epileptiform discharges on EEG (FECSBC-BEDC). Correct syndromological diagnostics helped to clarify the clinical dynamics, prognosis and improve the therapy.

  17. Pathologic CT findings of the brain in infancy and childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of 152 CT brain scans in infant and children are reported. Selected cases are demonstrated with special respect to tumors, malformation, dysplasias of the cerebral vasculature, and acquired lesions. A comparative study of alterations seen in the electroencephalogram to morphologic changes in the computer tomogram showed that unspecific EEG alterations are mainly seen in tumors, subdural and epidural effusions, and lesions with ventricular enlargement, whereas hypersynchronous alterations were mostly found in children with substantial brain defects and cystic encephalopathy. (orig.) 891 MG/orig. 892 MB

  18. Memory deficits in long-term survivors of childhood brain tumors may primarily reflect general cognitive dysfunctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimers, Tonny Solveig; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Schmiegelow, Kjeld

    2007-01-01

    To analyze the impact of potential predictors on memory performance in survivors of childhood brain tumors and to examine whether deficits in memory after radiotherapy (RT) should be considered part of a more global mental dysfunction.......To analyze the impact of potential predictors on memory performance in survivors of childhood brain tumors and to examine whether deficits in memory after radiotherapy (RT) should be considered part of a more global mental dysfunction....

  19. Treatment Option Overview (Childhood Brain Stem Glioma Treatment)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tests to check the brain, spinal cord, and nerve function. The exam checks a person’s mental status, coordination, and ability to walk normally, and how well the muscles, senses, and reflexes work. This may also be called a neuro ...

  20. Brain and head injury in infancy and childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article describes typical head injuries in infants and children. In comparison with adults there are distinct differences in the etiology of trauma and in the kind of reaction of the skull and brain. In infants and children there are three different types of trauma: birth trauma, accidental and non-accidental injury. The typical injuries in these three groups are described. (orig.)

  1. Cardiac tumours in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parsons Jonathan M

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cardiac tumours are benign or malignant neoplasms arising primarily in the inner lining, muscle layer, or the surrounding pericardium of the heart. They can be primary or metastatic. Primary cardiac tumours are rare in paediatric practice with a prevalence of 0.0017 to 0.28 in autopsy series. In contrast, the incidence of cardiac tumours during foetal life has been reported to be approximately 0.14%. The vast majority of primary cardiac tumours in children are benign, whilst approximately 10% are malignant. Secondary malignant tumours are 10–20 times more prevalent than primary malignant tumours. Rhabdomyoma is the most common cardiac tumour during foetal life and childhood. It accounts for more than 60% of all primary cardiac tumours. The frequency and type of cardiac tumours in adults differ from those in children with 75% being benign and 25% being malignant. Myxomas are the most common primary tumours in adults constituting 40% of benign tumours. Sarcomas make up 75% of malignant cardiac masses. Echocardiography, Computing Tomography (CT and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI of the heart are the main non-invasive diagnostic tools. Cardiac catheterisation is seldom necessary. Tumour biopsy with histological assessment remains the gold standard for confirmation of the diagnosis. Surgical resection of primary cardiac tumours should be considered to relieve symptoms and mechanical obstruction to blood flow. The outcome of surgical resection in symptomatic, non-myxomatous benign cardiac tumours is favourable. Patients with primary cardiac malignancies may benefit from palliative surgery but this approach should not be recommended for patients with metastatic cardiac tumours. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy may prolong survival. The prognosis for malignant primary cardiac tumours is generally extremely poor.

  2. Health-related quality of life in long-term survivors of childhood brain tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimers, Tonny Solveig; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Nysom, Karsten; Schmiegelow, Kjeld

    2009-01-01

    -up were assessed for general intelligence (IQ) and administered the Minneapolis-Manchester Quality of Life (MMQL) questionnaire. RESULTS: In multivariate linear regression treatment with RT was the most important risk factor for reduced HRQOL. Lower scores for physical functioning and energy, social......BACKGROUND: To identify predictors for health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in survivors of childhood brain tumors and its relationship to cognitive function. PROCEDURE: One hundred twenty-six consecutive Danish childhood brain tumor patients treated 1970-1997 and being 7.9-40.4 years at follow...... functioning, cognitive functioning, body image, outlook of life, and intimate relations were significantly related to RT. Tumor location in the posterior fossa was associated with lower scores for physical functioning and energy, and tumor site in the third ventricle region was associated with lower scores...

  3. Menace of childhood non-accidental traumatic brain injuries: A single unit report

    OpenAIRE

    Musa Ibrahim; Adamu Ladan Mu′azu; Nura Idris; Musa Uba Rabiu; Binta Wudil Jibir; Kabir Ibrahim Getso; Mohammad Aminu Mohammad; Femi Luqman Owolabi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) has high rate of mortality and morbidity worldwide. There are dearths of reports from developing countries with large paediatric population on trauma; neurosurgery trauma of nonaccidental origin is not an exemption. This study analysed menace of non-accidental TBI in the paediatric population from our center. Materials and Methods: This is a single unit, retrospective study of the epidemiology of non-accidental TBI in children starting from S...

  4. Development of Brain EEG Connectivity across Early Childhood: Does Sleep Play a Role?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique K. LeBourgeois

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Sleep has beneficial effects on brain function and learning, which are reflected in plastic changes in the cortex. Early childhood is a time of rapid maturation in fundamental skills—e.g., language, cognitive control, working memory—that are predictive of future functioning. Little is currently known about the interactions between sleep and brain maturation during this developmental period. We propose coherent electroencephalogram (EEG activity during sleep may provide unique insight into maturational processes of functional brain connectivity. Longitudinal sleep EEG assessments were performed in eight healthy subjects at ages 2, 3 and 5 years. Sleep EEG coherence increased across development in a region- and frequency-specific manner. Moreover, although connectivity primarily decreased intra-hemispherically across a night of sleep, an inter-hemispheric overnight increase occurred in the frequency range of slow waves (0.8–2 Hz, theta (4.8–7.8 Hz and sleep spindles (10–14 Hz, with connectivity changes of up to 20% across a night of sleep. These findings indicate sleep EEG coherence reflects processes of brain maturation—i.e., programmed unfolding of neuronal networks—and moreover, sleep-related alterations of brain connectivity during the sensitive maturational window of early childhood.

  5. The effects of exogenous growth factors on matrix metalloproteinase secretion by human brain tumour cells

    OpenAIRE

    Rooprai, H K; Rucklidge, G J; Panou, C; Pilkington, G. J.

    1999-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a growing family of zinc-dependent endopeptidases that are capable of degrading various components of the extracellular matrix. These enzymes have been implicated in a variety of physiological and pathological conditions including embryogenesis and tumour invasion. The synthesis of many MMPs is thought to be regulated by growth factors, cytokines and hormones. In this study, we investigated the effects of five exogenous growth factors known to be expressed...

  6. Current technological progress in neurosurgery and its impact on surgical treatment of glioma brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brain gliomas are characterized by infiltrative growth, with possible finding of functional brain tissue within the tumor. Intraoperatively are glioma borders often indistinguishable from surrounding brain. Eloquent areas can be damaged during surgical removal of tumors near or within these areas. Therefore, in addition to preoperative identification of cortical and subcortical eloquent areas, meticulous microsurgical technique, neuro navigation, intraoperative imaging, neuro monitoring and awake surgery are necessary. Using these methods, satisfactory and safe resection of tumors previously considered as unresectable is possible. (author)

  7. Brain tumours at 7T MRI compared to 3T - contrast effect after half and full standard contrast agent dose: initial results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noebauer-Huhmann, Iris-Melanie; Weber, M. [Medical University of Vienna, High Field MR Centre, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Medical University of Vienna, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Szomolanyi, P.; Juras, V. [Medical University of Vienna, High Field MR Centre, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Slovak Academy of Sciences, Department of Imaging Methods, Institute of Measurement Science, Bratislava (Slovakia); Kronnerwetter, C. [Medical University of Vienna, High Field MR Centre, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Widhalm, G. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Neurosurgery, Vienna (Austria); Nemec, S.; Prayer, D. [Medical University of Vienna, Division of Neuroradiology and Musculoskeletal Radiology, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Ladd, M.E. [University Duisburg-Essen, Erwin L. Hahn Institute for Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Essen (Germany); German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Division of Medical Physics in Radiology, Heidelberg (Germany); Trattnig, S. [Medical University of Vienna, High Field MR Centre, Department of Biomedical Imaging and Image-guided Therapy, Vienna (Austria); Ludwig Boltzmann Institute for Experimental and Clinical Traumatology, Austrian Cluster for Tissue Regeneration, Vienna (Austria)

    2015-01-15

    To compare the contrast agent effect of a full dose and half the dose of gadobenate dimeglumine in brain tumours at 7 Tesla (7T) MR versus 3 Tesla (3T). Ten patients with primary brain tumours or metastases were examined. Signal intensities were assessed in the lesion and normal brain. Tumour-to-brain contrast and lesion enhancement were calculated. Additionally, two independent readers subjectively graded the image quality and artefacts. The enhanced mean tumour-to-brain contrast and lesion enhancement were significantly higher at 7T than at 3T for both half the dose (91.8 ± 45.8 vs. 43.9 ± 25.3 [p = 0.010], 128.1 ± 53.7 vs. 75.5 ± 32.4 [p = 0.004]) and the full dose (129.2 ± 50.9 vs. 66.6 ± 33.1 [p = 0.002], 165.4 ± 54.2 vs. 102.6 ± 45.4 [p = 0.004]). Differences between dosages at each field strength were also significant. Lesion enhancement was higher with half the dose at 7T than with the full dose at 3T (p =.037), while the tumour-to-brain contrast was not significantly different. Subjectively, contrast enhancement, visibility, and lesion delineation were better at 7T and with the full dose. All parameters were rated as good, at the least. Half the routine contrast agent dose at 7T provided higher lesion enhancement than the full dose at 3T which indicates the possibility of dose reduction at 7T. (orig.)

  8. Brain tumours at 7T MRI compared to 3T - contrast effect after half and full standard contrast agent dose: initial results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare the contrast agent effect of a full dose and half the dose of gadobenate dimeglumine in brain tumours at 7 Tesla (7T) MR versus 3 Tesla (3T). Ten patients with primary brain tumours or metastases were examined. Signal intensities were assessed in the lesion and normal brain. Tumour-to-brain contrast and lesion enhancement were calculated. Additionally, two independent readers subjectively graded the image quality and artefacts. The enhanced mean tumour-to-brain contrast and lesion enhancement were significantly higher at 7T than at 3T for both half the dose (91.8 ± 45.8 vs. 43.9 ± 25.3 [p = 0.010], 128.1 ± 53.7 vs. 75.5 ± 32.4 [p = 0.004]) and the full dose (129.2 ± 50.9 vs. 66.6 ± 33.1 [p = 0.002], 165.4 ± 54.2 vs. 102.6 ± 45.4 [p = 0.004]). Differences between dosages at each field strength were also significant. Lesion enhancement was higher with half the dose at 7T than with the full dose at 3T (p =.037), while the tumour-to-brain contrast was not significantly different. Subjectively, contrast enhancement, visibility, and lesion delineation were better at 7T and with the full dose. All parameters were rated as good, at the least. Half the routine contrast agent dose at 7T provided higher lesion enhancement than the full dose at 3T which indicates the possibility of dose reduction at 7T. (orig.)

  9. In-phantom two-dimensional thermal neutron distribution for intraoperative boron neutron capture therapy of brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to determine the in-phantom thermal neutron distribution derived from neutron beams for intraoperative boron neutron capture therapy (IOBNCT). Gold activation wires arranged in a cylindrical water phantom with (void-in-phantom) or without (standard phantom) a cylinder styrene form placed inside were irradiated by using the epithermal beam (ENB) and the mixed thermal-epithermal beam (TNB-1) at the Japan Research Reactor No 4. With ENB, we observed a flattened distribution of thermal neutron flux and a significantly enhanced thermal flux delivery at a depth compared with the results of using TNB-1. The thermal neutron distribution derived from both the ENB and TNB-1 was significantly improved in the void-in-phantom, and a double high dose area was formed lateral to the void. The flattened distribution in the circumference of the void was observed with the combination of ENB and the void-in-phantom. The measurement data suggest that the ENB may provide a clinical advantage in the form of an enhanced and flattened dose delivery to the marginal tissue of a post-operative cavity in which a residual and/or microscopically infiltrating tumour often occurs. The combination of the epithermal neutron beam and IOBNCT will improve the clinical results of BNCT for brain tumours. (author)

  10. Effect of childhood maltreatment on brain structure in adult patients with major depressive disorder and healthy participants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Chaney, Aisling

    2013-07-30

    Background: Childhood maltreatment has been found to play a crucial role in the development of psychiatric disorders. However, whether childhood maltreatment is associated with structural brain changes described for major depressive disorder (MDD) is still a matter of debate. The aim of this study was to investigate whether patients with MDD and a history of childhood maltreatment display more structural changes than patients without childhood maltreatment or healthy controls. Methods: Patients with MDD and healthy controls with and without childhood maltreatment experience were investigated using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and data were analyzed using voxel-based morphometry. Results: We studied 37 patients with MDD and 46 controls. Grey matter volume was significantly decreased in the hippocampus and significantly increased in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in participants who had experienced childhood maltreatment compared with those who had not. Patients displayed smaller left OFC and left DMPFC volumes than controls. No significant difference in hippocampal volume was evident between patients with MDD and healthy controls. In regression analyses, despite effects from depression, age and sex on the DMPFC, OFC and hippocampus, childhood maltreatment was found to independently affect these regions. Limitations: The retrospective assessment of childhood maltreatment; the natural problem that patients experienced more childhood maltreatment than controls; and the restrictions, owing to sample size, to investigating higher order interactions among factors are discussed as limitations. Conclusion: These results suggest that early childhood maltreatment is associated with brain structural changes irrespective of sex, age and a history of depression. Thus, the study highlights the importance of childhood maltreatment when investigating brain structures.

  11. A combined MRI and MRSI based multiclass system for brain tumour recognition using LS-SVMs with class probabilities and feature selection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luts, J.; Heerschap, A.; Suykens, J.A.; Huffel, S. van

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the use of automated pattern recognition methods on magnetic resonance data with the ultimate goal to assist clinicians in the diagnosis of brain tumours. Recently, the combined use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (M

  12. Prognostic and predictive biomarkers in adult and paediatric gliomas: towards personalised brain tumour treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KathreenaMaryKurian

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available It is increasingly clear that both adult and paediatric glial tumour entities represent collections of neoplastic lesions, each with individual pathological molecular events and treatment responses. In this review we discuss the current prognostic biomarkers validated for clinical use or with future clinical validity for gliomas. Accurate prognostication is crucial for managing patients as treatments may be associated with high morbidity and the benefits of high risk interventions must be judged by the treating clinicians. We also review biomarkers with predictive validity which may become clinically relevant with the development of targeted therapies for adult and paediatric gliomas.

  13. Childhood abuse and deprivation are associated with distinct sex-dependent differences in brain morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everaerd, Daphne; Klumpers, Floris; Zwiers, Marcel; Guadalupe, Tulio; Franke, Barbara; van Oostrom, Iris; Schene, Aart; Fernández, Guillén; Tendolkar, Indira

    2016-06-01

    Childhood adversity (CA) has been associated with long-term structural brain alterations and an increased risk for psychiatric disorders. Evidence is emerging that subtypes of CA, varying in the dimensions of threat and deprivation, lead to distinct neural and behavioral outcomes. However, these specific associations have yet to be established without potential confounders such as psychopathology. Moreover, differences in neural development and psychopathology necessitate the exploration of sexual dimorphism. Young healthy adult subjects were selected based on history of CA from a large database to assess gray matter (GM) differences associated with specific subtypes of adversity. We compared voxel-based morphometry data of subjects reporting specific childhood exposure to abuse (n=127) or deprivation (n=126) and a similar sized group of controls (n=129) without reported CA. Subjects were matched on age, gender, and educational level. Differences between CA subtypes were found in the fusiform gyrus and middle occipital gyrus, where subjects with a history of deprivation showed reduced GM compared with subjects with a history of abuse. An interaction between sex and CA subtype was found. Women showed less GM in the visual posterior precuneal region after both subtypes of CA than controls. Men had less GM in the postcentral gyrus after childhood deprivation compared with abuse. Our results suggest that even in a healthy population, CA subtypes are related to specific alterations in brain structure, which are modulated by sex. These findings may help understand neurodevelopmental consequences related to CA. PMID:26576924

  14. An Improved Image Mining Technique For Brain Tumour Classification Using Efficient Classifier

    CERN Document Server

    Rajendran, P

    2010-01-01

    An improved image mining technique for brain tumor classification using pruned association rule with MARI algorithm is presented in this paper. The method proposed makes use of association rule mining technique to classify the CT scan brain images into three categories namely normal, benign and malign. It combines the low level features extracted from images and high level knowledge from specialists. The developed algorithm can assist the physicians for efficient classification with multiple keywords per image to improve the accuracy. The experimental result on prediagnosed database of brain images showed 96 percent and 93 percent sensitivity and accuracy respectively.

  15. Biodegradable interstitial release polymer loading a novel small molecule targeting Axl receptor tyrosine kinase and reducing brain tumour migration and invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, S-Y; Chen, S-R; Hsieh, J; Li, Y-S; Chuang, S-E; Chuang, H-M; Huang, M-H; Lin, S-Z; Harn, H-J; Chiou, T-W

    2016-04-28

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive brain tumour. The neoplasms are difficult to resect entirely because of their highly infiltration property and leading to the tumour edge is unclear. Gliadel wafer has been used as an intracerebral drug delivery system to eliminate the residual tumour. However, because of its local low concentration and short diffusion distance, patient survival improves non-significantly. Axl is an essential regulator in cancer metastasis and patient survival. In this study, we developed a controlled-release polyanhydride polymer loading a novel small molecule, n-butylidenephthalide (BP), which is not only increasing local drug concentration and extending its diffusion distance but also reducing tumour invasion, mediated by reducing Axl expression. First, we determined that BP inhibited the expression of Axl in a dose- and time-dependent manner and reduced the migratory and invasive capabilities of GBM cells. In addition, BP downregulated matrix metalloproteinase activity, which is involved in cancer cell invasion. Furthermore, we demonstrated that BP regulated Axl via the extracellular signal-regulated kinases pathway. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is related to epithelial cells in the invasive migratory mesenchymal cells that underlie cancer progression; we demonstrated that BP reduced the expression of EMT-related genes. Furthermore, we used the overexpression of Axl in GBM cells to prove that Axl is a crucial target in the inhibition of GBM EMT, migration and invasion. In an in vivo study, we demonstrated that BP inhibited tumour growth and suppressed Axl expression in a dose-dependent manner according to a subcutaneous tumour model. Most importantly, in an intracranial tumour model with BP wafer in situ treatment, we demonstrated that the BP wafer not only significantly increased the survival rate but also decreased Axl expression, and inhibited tumour invasion. These results contribute to the

  16. Disruption of White Matter Integrity in Adult Survivors of Childhood Brain Tumors: Correlates with Long-Term Intellectual Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    King, Tricia Z.; Liya Wang; Hui Mao

    2015-01-01

    Background Although chemotherapy and radiation treatment have contributed to increased survivorship, treatment-induced brain injury has been a concern when examining long-term intellectual outcomes of survivors. Specifically, disruption of brain white matter integrity and its relationship to intellectual outcomes in adult survivors of childhood brain tumors needs to be better understood. Methods Fifty-four participants underwent diffusion tensor imaging in addition to structural MRI and an in...

  17. Localisation of motor areas in brain tumour patients: a comparison of preoperative [{sup 18}F]FDG-PET and intraoperative cortical electrostimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreckenberger, M.; Sabri, O.; Meyer, P.T.; Zeggel, T.; Zimny, M.; Buell, U. [Technische Univ. Aachen (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Spetzger, U.; Gilsbach, J. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Aachen Univ. of Technology (Germany)

    2001-09-01

    Assessment of the exact spatial relation between tumour and adjacent functionally relevant brain areas is a primary tool in the presurgical planning in brain tumour patients. The purpose of this study was to compare a preoperative fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ([{sup 18}F]FDG PET) activation protocol in patients with tumours near the central area with the results of intraoperative direct cortical electrostimulation, and to determine whether non-invasive preoperative PET imaging can provide results equivalent to those achieved with the invasive neurosurgical ''gold standard''. In this prospective study, we examined 20 patients with various tumours of the central area, performing two PET scans (each 30 min after i.v. injection of 134-341 MBq [{sup 18}F]FDG) in each patient: (1) a resting baseline scan and (2) an activation scan using a standardised motor task (finger tapping, foot stretching). Following PET/MRI realignment and normalisation to the whole brain counts, parametric images of the activation versus the rest study were calculated and pixels above categorical threshold values were projected to the individual MRI for bimodal assessment of morphology and function (PET/MRI overlay). Intraoperative direct cortical electrostimulation was performed using a Viking IV probe (5 pulses, each of 100 {mu}s) and documented using a dedicated neuro navigation system. Results were compared with the preoperative PET findings. PET revealed significant activation of the contralateral primary motor cortex in 95% (19/20) of the brain tumour patients (hand activation 13/13, foot activation 6/7), showing a mean increase in normalised [{sup 18}F]FDG uptake of 20.5%{+-}5.2% (hand activation task) and 17.2%{+-}2.5% (foot activation task). Additionally detected activation of the ipsilateral primary motor cortex was interpreted as a metabolic indication for interhemispheric compensational processes. Evaluation of the PET findings by

  18. Localisation of motor areas in brain tumour patients: a comparison of preoperative [18F]FDG-PET and intraoperative cortical electrostimulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assessment of the exact spatial relation between tumour and adjacent functionally relevant brain areas is a primary tool in the presurgical planning in brain tumour patients. The purpose of this study was to compare a preoperative fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ([18F]FDG PET) activation protocol in patients with tumours near the central area with the results of intraoperative direct cortical electrostimulation, and to determine whether non-invasive preoperative PET imaging can provide results equivalent to those achieved with the invasive neurosurgical ''gold standard''. In this prospective study, we examined 20 patients with various tumours of the central area, performing two PET scans (each 30 min after i.v. injection of 134-341 MBq [18F]FDG) in each patient: (1) a resting baseline scan and (2) an activation scan using a standardised motor task (finger tapping, foot stretching). Following PET/MRI realignment and normalisation to the whole brain counts, parametric images of the activation versus the rest study were calculated and pixels above categorical threshold values were projected to the individual MRI for bimodal assessment of morphology and function (PET/MRI overlay). Intraoperative direct cortical electrostimulation was performed using a Viking IV probe (5 pulses, each of 100 μs) and documented using a dedicated neuro navigation system. Results were compared with the preoperative PET findings. PET revealed significant activation of the contralateral primary motor cortex in 95% (19/20) of the brain tumour patients (hand activation 13/13, foot activation 6/7), showing a mean increase in normalised [18F]FDG uptake of 20.5%±5.2% (hand activation task) and 17.2%±2.5% (foot activation task). Additionally detected activation of the ipsilateral primary motor cortex was interpreted as a metabolic indication for interhemispheric compensational processes. Evaluation of the PET findings by cortical stimulation yielded a 94% sensitivity

  19. WAVELET STATISTICAL TEXTURE FEATURES WITH ORTHOGONAL OPERATORS TUMOUR CLASSIFICATION IN MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING BRAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Meenakshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumors medically also called neoplasms are an abnormal mass of tissue resulting from uncontrolled proliferation or division of cells occurring in the human body. If such growth is located in the brain then it is called as brain tumor. Identification of such tumors is a major challenge in the field of medical science. Early identification of tumors prove to be critical as serious consequences can be averted. Its threat level depends on a combination of various factors like the type of tumor, its location, its size and its developmental stage. Tumor can occur in any part of the body. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI technique is mainly used for analyzing the brain, as the images produced are of high precision and applicability. The main objective of this study is to classify the brain MRI dataset for the existence or non existence of tumors. The proposed method uses Two Dimensional Discrete Wavelet Transform (2D-DWT for pre-processing and further classification with orthogonal operators and SVM. The usage of 2D-DWT for pre-processing improves the classification accuracy by 2% when compared to the existing classification techniques.

  20. Diagnosis and treatment of cognitive deficits caused by radiation in patients with brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses about the diagnosis and evaluation of brain higher functions, feature of their impairment induced by radiotherapy for brain tumor, and association of the impairment and neurogenesis in hippocampus (H). Radiation is one of important causes of cognitive impairment in patients with brain tumor: exempli gratia (e.g.) single irradiation of 2 Gy increases its risk. The impairment is usually diagnosed and evaluated with neuropsychological tests like mini-mental state examination (MMSE), authors' Ryudai version of the brief neuropsychological test battery, etc. The neurotoxicity of radiation is classified in acute effect caused by destruction of the blood brain barrier (BBB) appearing within 2 weeks after irradiation, early-late one of demyelination as a result of BBB rupture within 1-6 months after radiotherapy and late-late effect accompanying serious symptoms like necrosis of irradiated region at later than a few months to several years. Lowered neurogenic function in H and invasion of microglia cells are observed in autopsy specimen of the irradiated brain, and single X-irradiation at 5 or 10 Gy is known to result in the arrest of neurogenesis in the mouse H dentate gyrus. Lowered cognition by irradiation of H in clinical cases is particularly reported in children. Inflammatory biomarkers like cytokines are detected in the serum of irradiated patients as well as of animals. Although fMRI alone is not satisfactory to diagnose and evaluate the radiation-induced impairment, the imaging reveals the association of anatomically different regions in cognition through neural network. It has been recently shown that the impairment can be partially protected by planning the irradiation field so as to avoid H, by medication with donepezil, memantine, erythropoietin and indomethacin, and by hyperbaric oxygen therapy. (T.T.)

  1. Epilepsy-associated tumours: what epileptologists should know about neuropathology, terminology, and classification systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holthausen, Hans; Blümcke, Ingmar

    2016-09-01

    Brain tumours are an ever-challenging issue in neurology and related medical disciplines. This applies in particular to brain tumours associated with childhood-onset epilepsies, in which seizures are the presenting and only neurological symptom, as our current understanding of the biology and clinical behaviour of an individual tumour is far from being evidence-based. Prospective and randomized clinical trials are lacking in the field of epilepsy-associated tumours and a review of the current literature evokes more questions than provides answers. In this review, current areas of controversy in neuropathology, as well as terminology and classification, are discussed from an epileptologist's perspective. An illustrative case report exemplifies this controversy to further promote interdisciplinary discussion and novel research avenues towards comprehensive patient management in the near future. PMID:27506282

  2. Calcification of the bilateral basal ganglia after radiation therapy for childhood brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcification of the basal ganglia subsequent to radiation therapy for childhood brain tumors has rarely been reported. Three cases of this calcification subsequent to radiation are presented here. Case 1 is a 7 year-old boy who underwent irradiation of 5000 rads locally for craniopharyngioma at the age of 4 years. Case 2 is a 4 year-old boy who was treated with irradiation of 4500 rads locally for cerebellar medulloblastoma at the age of 1 year. Case 3 is a 15 year-old girl who was treated with irradiation of 5000 rads to the brain and 3000 rads locally for suprasellar germinoma at the age of 11 years. In all these cases, the interval between radiation and evidence of calcification as detected only by CT scan, was more than 3 years and 2 cases are experiencing mild mental retardation. These findings suggest the possibility of long-term complications due to radiation therapy. (author)

  3. Cilengitide in Treating Children With Refractory Primary Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Ependymoblastoma; Childhood Grade I Meningioma; Childhood Grade II Meningioma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood High-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Childhood Mixed Glioma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma

  4. A numerical model for the study of photoacoustic imaging of brain tumours

    CERN Document Server

    Firouzi, Kamyar

    2015-01-01

    Photoacoustic imaging has shown great promise for medical imaging, where optical energy absorption by blood haemoglobin is used as the contrast mechanism. A numerical method was developed for the in-silico assessment of the photoacoustic image reconstruction of the brain. Image segmentation techniques were used to prepare a digital phantom from MR images. Light transport through brain tissue was modelled using a Finite Element approach. The resulting acoustic pressure was then estimated by pulsed photoacoustics considerations. The forward acoustic wave propagation was modelled by the linearized coupled first order wave equations and solved by an acoustic k-space method. Since skull bone is an elastic solid and strongly attenuates ultrasound (due to both scattering and absorption), a k-space method was developed for elastic media. To model scattering effects, a new approach was applied based on propagation in random media. In addition, absorption effects were incorporated using a power law. Finally, the acoust...

  5. Detection of human herpesviruses 6 and 7 genomic sequences in brain tumours.

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, P K; Ng, H.K.; Cheng, A. F.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human herpesviruses 6 and 7 (HHV-6, HHV-7) are ubiquitous, with primary infection occurring early in life followed by persistence, which may involve neural tissue. While HHV-6 and HHV-7 are predominantly T lymphotropic, the extent of tissue tropism in persistent infection is not known. AIM: To investigate neuropersistence and the role of HHV-6 and HHV-7 in brain tumorigenesis. METHODS: Nested polymerase chain reaction was used to detect HHV-6 and HHV-7 genomic sequences in prepara...

  6. Use of the Graded Prognostic Assessment (GPA) score in patients with brain metastases from primary tumours not represented in the diagnosis-specific GPA studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: Assessment of prognostic factors might influence treatment decisions in patients with brain metastases. Based on large studies, the diagnosis-specific graded prognostic assessment (GPA) score is a useful tool. However, patients with unknown or rare primary tumours are not represented in this model. A pragmatic approach might be use of the first GPA version which is not limited to specific primary tumours. Patients and methods: This retrospective analysis examines for the first time whether the GPA is a valid score in patients not eligible for the diagnosis-specific GPA. It includes 71 patients with unknown primary tumour, bladder cancer, ovarian cancer, thyroid cancer or other uncommon primaries. Survival was evaluated in uni- and multivariate tests. Results: The GPA significantly predicted survival. Moreover, improved survival was seen in patients treated with surgical resection or radiosurgery (SRS) for brain metastases. The older recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) score was significant in univariate analysis. However, the multivariate model with RPA, GPA and surgery or SRS versus none showed that only GPA and type of treatment were independent predictors of survival. Conclusion: Ideally, cooperative research efforts would lead to development of diagnosis-specific scores also for patients with rare or unknown primary tumours. In the meantime, a pragmatic approach of using the general GPA score appears reasonable. (orig.)

  7. Challenges relating to solid tumour brain metastases in clinical trials, part 1: patient population, response, and progression. A report from the RANO group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Nancy U; Lee, Eudocia Q; Aoyama, Hidefumi; Barani, Igor J; Baumert, Brigitta G; Brown, Paul D; Camidge, D Ross; Chang, Susan M; Dancey, Janet; Gaspar, Laurie E; Harris, Gordon J; Hodi, F Stephen; Kalkanis, Steven N; Lamborn, Kathleen R; Linskey, Mark E; Macdonald, David R; Margolin, Kim; Mehta, Minesh P; Schiff, David; Soffietti, Riccardo; Suh, John H; van den Bent, Martin J; Vogelbaum, Michael A; Wefel, Jeffrey S; Wen, Patrick Y

    2013-09-01

    Therapeutic outcomes for patients with brain metastases need to improve. A critical review of trials specifically addressing brain metastases shows key issues that could prevent acceptance of results by regulatory agencies, including enrolment of heterogeneous groups of patients and varying definitions of clinical endpoints. Considerations specific to disease, modality, and treatment are not consistently addressed. Additionally, the schedule of CNS imaging and consequences of detection of new or progressive brain metastases in trials mainly exploring the extra-CNS activity of systemic drugs are highly variable. The Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) working group is an independent, international, collaborative effort to improve the design of trials in patients with brain tumours. In this two-part series, we review the state of clinical trials of brain metastases and suggest a consensus recommendation for the development of criteria for future clinical trials. PMID:23993384

  8. Altered Microstructure Within Social-Cognitive Brain Networks During Childhood in Williams Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Brian W.; Barnea-Goraly, Naama; Sheau, Kristen E.; Yamagata, Bun; Ullas, Shruti; Reiss, Allan L.

    2014-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental condition caused by a hemizygous deletion of ∼26–28 genes on chromosome 7q11.23. WS is associated with a distinctive pattern of social cognition. Accordingly, neuroimaging studies show that WS is associated with structural alterations of key brain regions involved in social cognition during adulthood. However, very little is currently known regarding the neuroanatomical structure of social cognitive brain networks during childhood in WS. This study used diffusion tensor imaging to investigate the structural integrity of a specific set of white matter pathways (inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus [IFOF] and uncinate fasciculus [UF]) and associated brain regions [fusiform gyrus (FG), amygdala, hippocampus, medial orbitofrontal gyrus (MOG)] known to be involved in social cognition in children with WS and a typically developing (TD) control group. Children with WS exhibited higher fractional anisotropy (FA) and axial diffusivity values and lower radial diffusivity and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values within the IFOF and UF, higher FA values within the FG, amygdala, and hippocampus and lower ADC values within the FG and MOG compared to controls. These findings provide evidence that the WS genetic deletion affects the development of key white matter pathways and brain regions important for social cognition. PMID:23709644

  9. Demyelinating disease simulating brain tumours: A histopathologic assessment of seven cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Deepali

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Demyelinating diseases can present as space occupying lesions with in the brain. It is clinically and radiologically difficult to differentiate them from primary neoplasms. Histopathologically they mimic astrocytic neoplasms closely and identifying these lesions correctly has a profound impact in treatment and prognosis of these patients. Aims and Objectives: The objective was to determine the histopathologic features of such acute focal demyelinating disease that clinically presented as brain tumors. Material and Methods: Seven cases were included for the study. Detailed histopathological examination including stains for myelin and axon were performed. The histopathological keys in arriving at the right diagnoses included a well demarcated lesion that contains uniform distribution of foamy macrophages in the absence of any associated coagulative necrosis, sheets of gemistocytic astrocytes in the white matter that show well-formed processes, perivascular chronic inflammatory cell infiltration and total absence of myelin with relative preservation of axons within these areas. Conclusion: The degree of suspicion (clinical, radiological and histopathological should be high to diagnose these group of lesions. The above-mentioned diagnostic keys should help in arriving at the correct histopathological diagnoses of such cases.

  10. Childhood cancer and paternal employment in agriculture: the role of pesticides.

    OpenAIRE

    Fear, N T; E. ROMAN; G. Reeves; Pannett, B

    1998-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that the offspring of men potentially exposed to pesticides at work may be at increased risk of kidney cancer (Wilms' tumour), brain tumours, Ewing's bone sarcoma and acute leukaemia. This paper examines the association between potential occupational exposure of fathers to pesticides and offspring's death from cancer in a large national database. Records for 167703 childhood deaths occurring during 1959-63, 1970-78 and 1979-90 in England and Wales have been ana...

  11. The significance of electron spin resonance of the ascorbic acid radical in freeze dried human brain tumours and oedematous or normal periphery.

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, H. W.; Tannert, S.

    1986-01-01

    The ESR spectrum, attributed to the ascorbic acid (ascorbyl) radical and obtained by exposing freeze dried material to air, can not be used as proof for the occurrence of in vivo free radical reactions. Depending on the method of freeze drying, the content of blood or hemolyzed blood is the dominant factor in creating higher than normal ESR signals in brain or related tissue. These findings explain why the signal, though larger in many human brain tumours than in their surroundings, is not in...

  12. Brain Development of Very Preterm and Very Low-Birthweight Children in Childhood and Adolescence: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kieviet, Jorrit F.; Zoetebier, Lydia; van Elburg, Ruurd M.; Vermeulen, R. Jeroen; Oosterlaan, Jaap

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this article was to clarify the impact and consequences of very preterm birth (born less than 32wks of gestation) and/or very low birthweight ([VLBW], weighing less than 1500g) on brain volume development throughout childhood and adolescence. Method: The computerized databases PubMed, Web of Knowledge, and EMBASE were searched for…

  13. Childhood Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Childhood Cancer KidsHealth > For Parents > Childhood Cancer Print A A A Text Size What's ... in children, but can happen. The most common childhood cancers are leukemia , lymphoma , and brain cancer . As ...

  14. The INTERPRET Decision-Support System version 3.0 for evaluation of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy data from human brain tumours and other abnormal brain masses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercadal Guillem

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Proton Magnetic Resonance (MR Spectroscopy (MRS is a widely available technique for those clinical centres equipped with MR scanners. Unlike the rest of MR-based techniques, MRS yields not images but spectra of metabolites in the tissues. In pathological situations, the MRS profile changes and this has been particularly described for brain tumours. However, radiologists are frequently not familiar to the interpretation of MRS data and for this reason, the usefulness of decision-support systems (DSS in MRS data analysis has been explored. Results This work presents the INTERPRET DSS version 3.0, analysing the improvements made from its first release in 2002. Version 3.0 is aimed to be a program that 1st, can be easily used with any new case from any MR scanner manufacturer and 2nd, improves the initial analysis capabilities of the first version. The main improvements are an embedded database, user accounts, more diagnostic discrimination capabilities and the possibility to analyse data acquired under additional data acquisition conditions. Other improvements include a customisable graphical user interface (GUI. Most diagnostic problems included have been addressed through a pattern-recognition based approach, in which classifiers based on linear discriminant analysis (LDA were trained and tested. Conclusions The INTERPRET DSS 3.0 allows radiologists, medical physicists, biochemists or, generally speaking, any person with a minimum knowledge of what an MR spectrum is, to enter their own SV raw data, acquired at 1.5 T, and to analyse them. The system is expected to help in the categorisation of MR Spectra from abnormal brain masses.

  15. Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging After High-Dose Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy for Childhood Brain Tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Brain necrosis or other subacute iatrogenic reactions has been recognized as a potential complication of radiotherapy (RT), although the possible synergistic effects of high-dose chemotherapy and RT might have been underestimated. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the clinical and radiologic data of 49 consecutive children with malignant brain tumors treated with high-dose thiotepa and autologous hematopoietic stem cell rescue, preceded or followed by RT. The patients were assessed for neurocognitive tests to identify any correlation with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) anomalies. Results: Of the 49 children, 18 (6 of 25 with high-grade gliomas and 12 of 24 with primitive neuroectodermal tumors) had abnormal brain MRI findings occurring a median of 8 months (range, 2-39 months) after RT and beginning to regress a median of 13 months (range, 2-26 months) after onset. The most common lesion pattern involved multiple pseudonodular, millimeter-size, T1-weighted unevenly enhancing, and T2-weighted hyperintense foci. Four patients with primitive neuroectodermal tumors also had subdural fluid leaks, with meningeal enhancement over the effusion. One-half of the patients had symptoms relating to the new radiographic findings. The MRI lesion-free survival rate was 74% ± 6% at 1 year and 57% ± 8% at 2 years. The number of marrow ablative courses correlated significantly to the incidence of radiographic anomalies. No significant difference was found in intelligent quotient scores between children with and without radiographic changes. Conclusion: Multiple enhancing cerebral lesions were frequently seen on MRI scans soon after high-dose chemotherapy and RT. Such findings pose a major diagnostic challenge in terms of their differential diagnosis vis-a-vis recurrent tumor. Their correlation with neurocognitive results deserves further investigation

  16. Endocrine sequelae of irradiation in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis explores some of the endocrine sequelae following irradiation and cytotoxic chemotherapy in childhood which to date have not been clearly defined. Greater understanding of these sequelae will aid the management of survivors of childhood malignancy, who by virtue of improved management of the primary disease are increasing in number and complexity. The majority of this thesis involves children who have received cranial irradiation for a brain tumour distant from the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, but endocrine sequelae in children who have undergone total body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation for haematological malignancies have also been studied. (author)

  17. Simultaneous evaluation of brain tumour metabolism, structure and blood volume using [18F]-fluoroethyltyrosine (FET) PET/MRI: feasibility, agreement and initial experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Both [18F]-fluoroethyltyrosine (FET) PET and blood volume (BV) MRI supplement routine T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MRI in gliomas, but whether the two modalities provide identical or complementary information is unresolved. The aims of the study were to investigate the feasibility of simultaneous structural MRI, BV MRI and FET PET of gliomas using an integrated PET/MRI scanner and to assess the spatial and quantitative agreement in tumour imaging between BV MRI and FET PET. A total of 32 glioma patients underwent a 20-min static simultaneous PET/MRI acquisition on a Siemens mMR system 20 min after injection of 200 MBq FET. The MRI protocol included standard structural MRI and dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) imaging for BV measurements. Maximal relative tumour FET uptake (TBRmax) and BV (rBVmax), and Dice coefficients were calculated to assess the quantitative and spatial congruence in the tumour volumes determined by FET PET, BV MRI and contrast-enhanced MRI. FET volume and TBRmax were higher in BV-positive than in BV-negative scans, and both VOLBV and rBVmax were higher in FET-positive than in FET-negative scans. TBRmax and rBVmax were positively correlated (R2 = 0.59, p < 0.001). FET and BV positivity were in agreement in only 26 of the 32 patients and in 42 of 63 lesions, and spatial congruence in the tumour volumes as assessed by the Dice coefficients was generally poor with median Dice coefficients exceeding 0.1 in less than half the patients positive on at least one modality for any pair of modalities. In 56 % of the patients susceptibility artefacts in DSC BV maps overlapped the tumour on MRI. The study demonstrated that although tumour volumes determined by BV MRI and FET PET were quantitatively correlated, their spatial congruence in a mixed population of treated glioma patients was generally poor, and the modalities did not provide the same information in this population of patients. Combined imaging of brain tumour metabolism and perfusion using

  18. Simultaneous evaluation of brain tumour metabolism, structure and blood volume using [{sup 18}F]-fluoroethyltyrosine (FET) PET/MRI: feasibility, agreement and initial experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henriksen, Otto M.; Hansen, Adam E.; Law, Ian [Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet Blegdamsvej, Department of Clinical Physiology Nuclear Medicine and PET, Copenhagen (Denmark); Larsen, Vibeke A. [Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet Blegdamsvej, Department of Radiology, Copenhagen (Denmark); Muhic, Aida; Poulsen, Hans S. [Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet Blegdamsvej, Department of Oncology, Copenhagen (Denmark); Larsson, Henrik B.W. [Copenhagen University Hospital Rigshospitalet Glostrup, Functional Imaging Unit, Department of Clinical Physiology Nuclear Medicine and PET, Glostrup (Denmark)

    2016-01-15

    imaging of brain tumour metabolism and perfusion using hybrid PET/MR systems may provide complementary information on tumour biology, but the potential clinical value remains to be determined in future trials. (orig.)

  19. Cortical Brain Development in Schizophrenia: Insights From Neuroimaging Studies in Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogtay, Nitin

    2008-01-01

    Childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS; defined as onset by age 12 years) is rare, difficult to diagnose, and represents a severe and chronic phenotype of the adult-onset illness. A study of childhood-onset psychoses has been ongoing at the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) since 1990, where children with COS and severe atypical psychoses (provisionally labeled “multidimensionally impaired” or MDI by the NIMH team) are studied prospectively along with all first-degree relatives. COS subjects have robust cortical gray matter (GM) loss during adolescence, which appears to be an exaggeration of the normal cortical GM developmental pattern and eventually mimics the pattern seen in adult-onset cases as the children become young adults. These cortical GM changes in COS are diagnostically specific and seemingly unrelated to the effects of medications. Furthermore, the cortical GM loss is also shared by healthy full siblings of COS probands suggesting a genetic influence on the abnormal brain development. PMID:17906336

  20. Intra-individual, randomised comparison of the MRI contrast agents gadobutrol versus gadoteridol in patients with primary and secondary brain tumours, evaluated in a blinded read

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To prove that 1.0 M gadobutrol provides superior contrast enhancement and MRI image characteristics of primary and secondary brain tumours compared with 0.5 M gadoteridol, thereby providing superior diagnostic information. Brain MRI was performed in two separate examinations in patients scheduled for neurosurgery. Independent injections of 1.0 M gadobutrol and 0.5 M gadoteridol at doses of 0.1 mmol Gd/kg body weight were administered per patient in randomised order. Evaluation was performed in an off-site blinded read. Fifty-one patients in the full analysis set (FAS) were eligible for efficacy analysis and 44 for the per-protocol analysis. For the primary efficacy variable ''preference in contrast enhancement for one contrast agent or the other'', the rate of ''gadobutrol preferred'' was estimated at 0.73 (95 % confidence interval 0.61; 0.83), showing significant superiority of gadobutrol over gadoteridol. Calculated lesion-to-brain contrast and the results of all qualitative secondary efficacy variables were also in favour of gadobutrol. Keeping a sufficient time delay after contrast application proved to be essential to get optimal image quality. Compared with 0.5 M gadoteridol, 1.0 M gadobutrol was proven to have significantly superior contrast enhancement characteristics in a routine MRI protocol of primary and secondary brain tumours. (orig.)

  1. MRI EVALUATION OF SUPRATENTORIAL TUMOURS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shruti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain tumours represents 1.7% of all cancers and contributes 1.8% of all cancer deaths. Of all the brain tumours 80% are supratentorial.1 Magnetic Resonance Imaging is an important modality, having higher sensitivity for detecting intracranial pathology. Multiplanar imaging is possible with MRI which helps in detection, localization and characterization of the lesion. The MRI examination has helped in early diagnosis, accurate localization of the tumour with prompt initiation of appropriate medical or surgical therapy. Recent advances like Magnetic Resonance (MR spectroscopy, MR fluoroscopy with stereotactic guided biopsy have revolutionized the role of MRI in study of intracranial tumours.

  2. Brain SPECT in childhood; Temp cerebrale chez l'enfant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tranquart, F.; Saliba, E.; Prunier, C.; Baulieu, F.; Besnard, J.C.; Guilloteau, D.; Baulieu, J.L. [Hopital Bretonneau, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Unite Inserm 316, 37 - Tours (France)

    2001-04-01

    The modalities and the indications of perfusion and neurotransmission SPECT in childhood are presented. The perfusion as well as neurotransmission tracers have not yet authorization for use in children; they have to be used by prescription of magistral preparation or in research protocols. The radioprotection rules have to be strictly respected. The most frequent indication of perfusion SPECT is pharmacologically resistant epilepsy; the ictal SPECT before surgery allows the localization of the epileptogenic focus. Other indications are relevant in the prognosis of neonatal anoxia and encephalitis. In psychiatric disorders, especially in autism, the interest is the physiopathological approach of the brain dysfunctions. The neurotransmission SPECT is emerging as a consequence of the development of new radiotracer, as the dopaminergic system ligands. The decrease of the dopamine D2 receptors in the striatum can be imaged and quantified in the neonate. The lesions of dopamine system seem to be a consequence of the neonatal hypoxia-ischemia and it is predictive of motor sequelae. Brain SPECT should become a routine examination in child neurologic and psychiatric disorders. (authors)

  3. Changes of brain and cerebrospinal fluid area with development in childhood on CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There have been reported about changes of the brain CT (Computed Tomography) findings with development in childhood. These reports have been applied with one dimensional measurement, and we previously reported that one dimensional measurement was insufficient for objective judgement of CT findings, compared with our two dimensional measurement. Brain CT were performed in sixty-six children (thirty-four males and thirty-two females, aged from ten-day-old to twelve-year-old). Two dimensional measurement were played on the slice through foramen of Monro. We measured intracranial area (IC), brain area (BA), ventricular area (VA), and bifrontal fluid collection area (BFC). IC and BA were increased with development, but VA had no obvious change. Increase of IC and BA were disclosed significantly in infancy and toddling period. BFC was decreased with development on the average, and invisible in many cases over three-year-old. Thus, in the cases under three-year-old there lay massive variation of BFC in size. About the relationship between large BFC and central coordination difficulty in infancy, we reported in the last number of this journal. Variation of BFC in the cases under three-year-old might be due to selection of our subjects, those including eighteen infants with central coordination difficulty. Index of BA (BA x 100/IC), VA (VA x 100/IC), and BFC (BFC x 100/IC) were well matched to changes of BA, VA, and BFC with development. This is the first report for application of two dimensional measurement in CT findings of children with development. (author)

  4. Brain metastases after stereotactic radiosurgery using the Leksell gamma knife: can FDG PET help to differentiate radionecrosis from tumour progression?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) using the Leksell gamma knife promotes acute and chronic local changes in glucose metabolism. We have been able to find very few papers on Medline on the subject of assessment of metastases by 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) after SRS. The aim of this work was to specify the additional value of FDG PET, in comparison with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in differentiating SRS-induced radionecrosis from viable brain metastasis in a clinical setting. Fifty-seven metastases in 25 patients were treated by SRS. An average of 33 weeks later, all the patients underwent FDG PET. At the same time (SD=2 weeks) all the patients underwent MRI. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of both FDG PET and MRI examinations were calculated with reference to clinical and radiological follow-up or biopsies. The additional value derived from use of FDG PET after MRI was assessed and progression-free survival rates were compared. The difference in progression-free survival rates between the negative and positive subgroups was significant (P=0.0005) for MRI and even more so (P<0.00001) for FDG PET. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 75% (6/8), 93.9% (46/49) and 91.2% (52/57) for FDG PET, and 100% (8/8), 65.3% (32/49) and 70.2% (40/57) for MRI. In the subgroup of patients with positive or non-diagnostic MRI, the probability of presence of a viable tumour was only 32% (8/25). This probability increased to 100% (5/5) when subsequent FDG PET was positive and decreased to 11.1% (2/18) when FDG PET was negative. The frequency of a viable neoplasm was significantly different (P=0.001) in the FDG PET negative and positive subgroups. MRI and FDG PET both have an important predictive value for persistent viable metastases after treatment by SRS. Neither sensitive but non-specific MRI nor specific but insensitive FDG PET is reliable on its own. While FDG PET significantly improved the diagnostic accuracy in the

  5. The Mediating Role of Visuospatial Planning Skills on Adaptive Function Among Young-Adult Survivors of Childhood Brain Tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Tricia Z; Smith, Kristen M; Ivanisevic, Mirjana

    2015-08-01

    The Boston Qualitative Scoring System (BQSS) was used as a method to examine executive skills on the Rey-Osterrieth complex figure (ROCF). Young-adult survivors of childhood brain tumor (N = 31) and a demographically-matched comparison group (N = 33) completed the ROCF copy version and Grooved Pegboard, and informants were administered the Scales of Independent Behavior-Revised (SIB-R) and Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). Survivors had significantly lower BQSS planning and SIB-R community living skills and greater perseveration. Mediation analyses found that BQSS planning skills mediate the relationship between group and community living skills. Convergent findings of the BRIEF Planning, and discriminant findings with the BQSS Fragmentation, BRIEF Emotional Control, and Grooved Pegboard support the planning construct as the specific mediator in this model. Together, these findings highlight the role of planning skills in adaptive functions of young-adult survivors of childhood brain tumor. PMID:26055499

  6. Disruption of White Matter Integrity in Adult Survivors of Childhood Brain Tumors: Correlates with Long-Term Intellectual Outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tricia Z King

    Full Text Available Although chemotherapy and radiation treatment have contributed to increased survivorship, treatment-induced brain injury has been a concern when examining long-term intellectual outcomes of survivors. Specifically, disruption of brain white matter integrity and its relationship to intellectual outcomes in adult survivors of childhood brain tumors needs to be better understood.Fifty-four participants underwent diffusion tensor imaging in addition to structural MRI and an intelligence test (IQ. Voxel-wise group comparisons of fractional anisotropy calculated from DTI data were performed using Tract Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS on 27 survivors (14 treated with radiation with and without chemotherapy and 13 treated without radiation treatment on average over 13 years since diagnosis and 27 healthy comparison participants. Whole brain white matter fractional anisotropy (FA differences were explored between each group. The relationships between IQ and FA in the regions where statistically lower FA values were found in survivors were examined, as well as the role of cumulative neurological factors.The group of survivors treated with radiation with and without chemotherapy had lower IQ relative to the group of survivors without radiation treatment and the healthy comparison group. TBSS identified white matter regions with significantly different mean fractional anisotropy between the three different groups. A lower level of white matter integrity was found in the radiation with or without chemotherapy treated group compared to the group without radiation treatment and also the healthy control group. The group without radiation treatment had a lower mean FA relative to healthy controls. The white matter disruption of the radiation with or without chemotherapy treated survivors was positively correlated with IQ and cumulative neurological factors.Lower long-term intellectual outcomes of childhood brain tumor survivors are associated with lower white

  7. Simultaneous evaluation of brain tumour metabolism, structure and blood volume using [(18)F]-fluoroethyltyrosine (FET) PET/MRI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Otto M; Larsen, Vibeke A; Muhic, Aida; Hansen, Adam E; Larsson, Henrik B W; Poulsen, Hans S; Law, Ian

    2016-01-01

    at least one modality for any pair of modalities. In 56 % of the patients susceptibility artefacts in DSC BV maps overlapped the tumour on MRI. CONCLUSION: The study demonstrated that although tumour volumes determined by BV MRI and FET PET were quantitatively correlated, their spatial congruence in......PURPOSE: Both [(18)F]-fluoroethyltyrosine (FET) PET and blood volume (BV) MRI supplement routine T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MRI in gliomas, but whether the two modalities provide identical or complementary information is unresolved. The aims of the study were to investigate the feasibility of...... simultaneous structural MRI, BV MRI and FET PET of gliomas using an integrated PET/MRI scanner and to assess the spatial and quantitative agreement in tumour imaging between BV MRI and FET PET. METHODS: A total of 32 glioma patients underwent a 20-min static simultaneous PET/MRI acquisition on a Siemens m...

  8. An experimental environment for the production, exchange and discussion of fused radiology images, for the management of patients with residual brain tumour disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakellaropoulos, G C; Kagadis, G C; Karystianos, C; Karnabatidis, D; Constantoyannis, C; Nikiforidis, G C

    2003-06-01

    The present work aims to display the use of groupware as a tool for better management of the available resources (human, computing and imaging) within the University Hospital of Patras, Greece for the task of managing patients with postoperative residual brain tumour. Emphasis is given to the additional information that can be revealed and taken into account from novel image processing techniques, developed by our group, and the central role of the Medical Physicist in the groupware. Fused images, produced by the combination of CT, MR and SPECT representations of the brain, contain both anatomical and functional information and comprise a new representation of reality. Medical experts, unfamiliar with this new representation, form a groupware for the task of interpreting them and providing better services to the patient. Groupware procedures, facilitated by modern network technology, bring experts' tacit knowledge to the surface and facilitate its exchange. PMID:14692590

  9. Pattern of childhood malignancies at combined military hospital, rawalpindi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To document distribution of childhood malignancies among Paediatric Oncology patients. Study design: Descriptive study Place and duration of study: Department of Paediatric Oncology, Combined Military Hospital, Rawalpindi from June 2006 to May 2007. Methodology: We collected data of 141 consecutive newly diagnosed paediatric oncology patients. Demographics (age and gender) and types of malignancy (diagnosed on histopathology) were collected in all cases. Results: Of the total patients 90 were male, 51 female with a male to female ratio of 1.76. Childhood malignancies found were leukaemia (60.3%) lymphomas (11.3%), bone tumours (4.3%), brain tumours (2.8%), germ cell tumours (3.5%), retinoblastoma (7.1%), neuroblastoma (3.5%), Wilms tumour (2.8%), rhabdomyosarcoma (2.1%), hepatoblastoma (1.4%) and synovial sarcoma(0.7%).Mean age at diagnosis was 5.4 +- 3.05 years. 24 (17%) patients were from Punjab, 9 (6.4%) from Sindh, 82 (58.2%) from Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, 5 (3.5%) from Baluchistan and 21 (14.9%) from Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK). Conclusion: This study showed that distribution varies according to gender, age and geography. Leukemia is the commonest childhood malignancy. Our research findings are useful for prioritizing future childhood cancer research needs. (author)

  10. Childhood acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: the role of brain and spinal cord MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. It is recognised that the clinical and radiological spectrum of childhood acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is wide. Objective. To determine whether initial MRI features are predictive of clinical outcome and to determine the role of MRI in the management of ADEM. Materials and methods. The MRI scans of ten consecutive children (eight boys, two girls), clinically and radiologically diagnosed to have ADEM, were retrospectively reviewed. Follow-up MRI was available for eight patients. Results. Lesions ranged from small and punctate (<1 cm) to moderate sized and confluent (4-5 cm) to diffuse and extensive. Spinal cord lesions, seen in five of seven children, were contiguous or segmental. Seven children (70%) made good clinical recovery while three children (30%) remained severely handicapped. There was no correlation between the site, extent and pattern of involvement and clinical outcome. However, the evolution of MRI findings on follow-up correlated well with the subsequent clinical course and outcome. Conclusions. Although the extent and site of lesions on initial MRI scans are not predictive of clinical outcome, early MRI of the brain and spine is useful in aiding clinical diagnosis, and subsequent follow-up MRI is helpful in monitoring disease progression. (orig.)

  11. Parcellation of the Healthy Neonatal Brain into 107 Regions Using Atlas Propagation through Intermediate Time Points in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blesa, Manuel; Serag, Ahmed; Wilkinson, Alastair G.; Anblagan, Devasuda; Telford, Emma J.; Pataky, Rozalia; Sparrow, Sarah A.; Macnaught, Gillian; Semple, Scott I.; Bastin, Mark E.; Boardman, James P.

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimage analysis pipelines rely on parcellated atlases generated from healthy individuals to provide anatomic context to structural and diffusion MRI data. Atlases constructed using adult data introduce bias into studies of early brain development. We aimed to create a neonatal brain atlas of healthy subjects that can be applied to multi-modal MRI data. Structural and diffusion 3T MRI scans were acquired soon after birth from 33 typically developing neonates born at term (mean postmenstrual age at birth 39+5 weeks, range 37+2–41+6). An adult brain atlas (SRI24/TZO) was propagated to the neonatal data using temporal registration via childhood templates with dense temporal samples (NIH Pediatric Database), with the final atlas (Edinburgh Neonatal Atlas, ENA33) constructed using the Symmetric Group Normalization (SyGN) method. After this step, the computed final transformations were applied to T2-weighted data, and fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, and tissue segmentations to provide a multi-modal atlas with 107 anatomical regions; a symmetric version was also created to facilitate studies of laterality. Volumes of each region of interest were measured to provide reference data from normal subjects. Because this atlas is generated from step-wise propagation of adult labels through intermediate time points in childhood, it may serve as a useful starting point for modeling brain growth during development. PMID:27242423

  12. Parcellation of the healthy neonatal brain into 107 regions using atlas propagation through intermediate time points in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel eBlesa Cabez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Neuroimage analysis pipelines rely on parcellated atlases generated from healthy individuals to provide anatomic context to structural and diffusion MRI data. Atlases constructed using adult data introduce bias into studies of early brain development. We aimed to create a neonatal brain atlas of healthy subjects that can be applied to multi-modal MRI data. Structural and diffusion 3T MRI scans were acquired soon after birth from 33 typically developing neonates born at term (mean postmenstrual age at birth 39+5 weeks, range 37+2-41+6. An adult brain atlas (SRI24/TZO was propagated to the neonatal data using temporal registration via childhood templates with dense temporal samples (NIH Pediatric Database, with the final atlas (Edinburgh Neonatal Atlas, ENA33 constructed using the Symmetric Group Normalization method. After this step, the computed final transformations were applied to T2-weighted data, and fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, and tissue segmentations to provide a multi-modal atlas with 107 anatomical regions; a symmetric version was also created to facilitate studies of laterality. Volumes of each region of interest were measured to provide reference data from normal subjects. Because this atlas is generated from step-wise propagation of adult labels through intermediate time points in childhood, it may serve as a useful starting point for modelling brain growth during development.

  13. Beauty product-related exposures and childhood brain tumors in seven countries: results from the SEARCH International Brain Tumor Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efird, J T; Holly, E A; Cordier, S; Mueller, B A; Lubin, F; Filippini, G; Peris-Bonet, R; McCredie, M; Arslan, A; Bracci, P; Preston-Martin, S

    2005-04-01

    Data from 1218 cases of childhood brain tumors (CBT) diagnosed between 1976 and 1994 and 2223 matched controls from the general population were included in an analysis of maternal beauty product exposure and beauty-related employment in 9 centers in 7 countries. A 50% increased odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.0-2.1] for CBT was observed among children of mothers who were exposed via personal use of and/or possible ambient contact with beauty products during the 5 years preceding the index child's birth compared with children of mothers never exposed to beauty products during this time period. Overall maternal personal use of hair-coloring agents in the month before or during the pregnancy of the index child's birth was not associated with CBT (OR = 1.0, CI = 0.83-1.3) or with astroglial (OR = 1.1, CI = 0.85-1.4), PNET (OR = 1.0, CI = 0.71-1.5) and other glial subtypes (OR = 1.0, CI = 0.62-1.0). Similarly, no statistically increased ORs or discernable pattern of risk estimates were observed for period of use or for number of applications per year for maternal personal use of hair-coloring agents overall or by histologic type. Among children born on or after 1980, increased ORs for CBT were associated with maternal non-work-related exposure to any beauty products (OR = 2.6, CI = 1.2-5.9), hair-dyes (OR = 11, CI = 1.2-90), and hair sprays (OR = 3.4, CI = 1.0-11). No overall increased OR for CBT was observed among children of mothers employed in beauty-related jobs during the 5 years preceding the index child's birth compared with those who reported no beauty-related employment. In general, other specific beauty product-related exposures were not associated with increased ORs for CBT. Data from our study provide little evidence of an increased risk for CBT with mothers' exposures to beauty products. PMID:15925993

  14. Cerebral glucose metabolism in long-term survivors of childhood primary brain tumors treated with surgery and radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Preben B.; Krabbe, Katja; Leffers, Anne M.; Schmiegelow, Marianne; Holm, Søren; Laursen, Henning; Müller, Jørn R.; Paulson, Olaf B.

    2003-01-01

    Delayed structural cerebral sequelae has been reported following cranial radiation therapy (CRT) to children with primary brain tumors, but little is known about potential functional changes. Twenty-four patients were included, diagnosed and treated at a median age of 11 years, and examined after a...... general reduction in rCMRglc in long-term recurrence free survivors of childhood primary brain tumors treated with CRT in high doses (44-56 Gy)...... evaluable and regional cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (rCMRglc) was estimated in nontumoral brain regions in 12 patients treated with surgery alone and 9 patients treated with both surgery and CRT. Furthermore 10 normal controls matched for age at examination were included. Patients treated with both...

  15. Menace of childhood non-accidental traumatic brain injuries: A single unit report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI has high rate of mortality and morbidity worldwide. There are dearths of reports from developing countries with large paediatric population on trauma; neurosurgery trauma of nonaccidental origin is not an exemption. This study analysed menace of non-accidental TBI in the paediatric population from our center. Materials and Methods: This is a single unit, retrospective study of the epidemiology of non-accidental TBI in children starting from September, 2008 to March, 2014. The management outcomes of the epidemiology of the non-accidental TBI were analysed. Results: Total of 109 children age range from 0 (intra-natal to 16 years with a mean of 5.8 ± 4.6 years (median, 5 years were enrolled into the study. 34 (31.2% were domestic violence, 26 (23.9% street assaults, 16 (14.7% were due to animal assaults and mishaps, 17 (15.6% fall from heights. Seven (6.4% cases of collapsed buildings were also seen during the period. Four (3.7% industrial accidents and two (1.8% were self-inflicted injuries. There were also three (2.8% cases of iatrogenic TBI out of which two infants (1.8% sustained TBI from cesarean section procedure while one patient (0.9% under general anaesthesia felt from the operation bed resulting to severe TBI. Conclusion: Child abuse, unprotected child labour, parental/care-givers negligence are the main cause of nonaccidental TBI. Human right activists and government agents should be incorporated in curtailing the menace.

  16. Early Childhood Brain Development and Elementary Music Curricula: Are They in Tune?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Larissa K.

    2004-01-01

    This article examines elementary music curricula. It presents an overview of research on childhood mental development; the importance of the early experiences of children on childhood development; the impact of environmental factors on language development; children's acquisition of music ability; enhancing elementary music curriculum; and…

  17. Cardiovascular diseases mortality following cancer during childhood: long term risk, role of chemotherapy and of radiation dose to heart and brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Background: A multi-centric French-UK cohort study was performed to evaluate the role of treatment in the long-term overall and cause-specific mortality among childhood cancer survivors. Methods: This study cohort included 4,120 patients treated for a solid tumours before the age of 17 between 1942-1986, in 8 centres in France and UK and who survived at least 5 years from diagnosis. Detailed clinical and therapeutic data were extracted for each patients from medical records. For 2868 of the 2868 patients who received radiotherapy, radiation doses were estimated using DOSEG software at 188 anatomical sites, including heart (7 sites) and lungs (10 sites). We obtained the death causes of 95 % of dead patients. Overall and cause-specific mortality standardized ratios (SMR), absolute excess risk (AER) of death were studied using Poisson regression. Results: 603 patients died during the follow-up, i.e. 8.5-fold (95 % CI: 7.7-9.1) more than that expected in the general population. A total of 32 patients died of cardiovascular diseases, i.e. 4.8-fold (95 % CI, 3.3 to 6.7) more than expected, 21 of which were cardiac diseases, i.e. 6.0-fold more (95% CI, 3.8 to 9.0). Overall, patients who had received radiotherapy had a 5.4-fold (95% CI, 1.5 to 32.1) higher risk of mortality due to cardiovascular disease than those who had not. Mortality due to cardiac disease was related to the administration of alkylating agents and / or vinca alkaloids, and to that of anthracyclines. Each additional 100 mg of anthracyclines per m2 of body surface area increased the mortality rate due to heart diseases by 92% (95% CI, 16% to 318%). Patients who had received between 5 to 14.9 Gy to the heart during radiotherapy had a 14.5-fold (95% CI, 2.0 to 291) higher risk of mortality from cardiac diseases than patients who had not received radiotherapy, this ratio being 32.6 (95% CI, 5.6 to 622) in those who had received more than 15 Gy. Conclusion: Childhood cancer survivors are at high

  18. C1q-tumour necrosis factor-related protein 8 (CTRP8) is a novel interaction partner of relaxin receptor RXFP1 in human brain cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glogowska, Aleksandra; Kunanuvat, Usakorn; Stetefeld, Jörg; Patel, Trushar R; Thanasupawat, Thatchawan; Krcek, Jerry; Weber, Ekkehard; Wong, G William; Del Bigio, Marc R; Hoang-Vu, Cuong; Hombach-Klonisch, Sabine; Klonisch, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    We report a novel ligand-receptor system composed of the leucine-rich G-protein-coupled relaxin receptor, RXFP1, and the C1q-tumour necrosis factor-related protein 8 (CTRP8) in human primary brain cancer, a tumour entity devoid of the classical RXFP1 ligands, RLN1-3. In structural homology studies and computational docking experiments we delineated the N-terminal region of the globular C1q region of CTRP8 and the leucine-rich repeat units 7 and 8 of RXFP1 to mediate this new ligand-receptor interaction. CTRP8 secreted from HEK293T cells, recombinant human (rh) CTRP8, and short synthetic peptides derived from the C1q globular domain of human CTRP8 caused the activation of RXFP1 as determined by elevated intracellular cAMP levels and the induction of a marked pro-migratory phenotype in established glioblastoma (GB) cell lines and primary cells from GB patients. Employing a small competitor peptide, we were able to disrupt the CTRP8-RXFP1-induced increased GB motility. The CTRP8-RXFP1-mediated migration in GB cells involves the activation of PI3K and specific protein kinase C pathways and the increased production/secretion of the potent lysosomal protease cathepsin B (cathB), a known prognostic marker of GB. Specific inhibition of CTRP8-induced cathB activity effectively blocked the ability of primary GB to invade laminin matrices. Finally, co-immunoprecipitation studies revealed the direct interaction of human CTRP8 with RXFP1. Our results support a therapeutic approach in GB aimed at targeting multiple steps of the CTRP8-RXFP1 signalling pathway by a combined inhibitor and peptide-based strategy to block GB dissemination within the brain. PMID:24014093

  19. Early Life Stress and the Anxious Brain : : Neural Structure and Function Underlying the Relationship Between Childhood Emotional Maltreatment and Anxiety in Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Fonzo, Gregory Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment (CM), particularly emotional abuse (EA) and emotional neglect (EN), is a significant risk factor for the development of excessive anxiety in adulthood. However, the neurobiological mechanisms which underlie the relationship between CM and later development of anxiety are poorly understood. The purpose of this investigation is to delineate brain structure/function in adulthood which underlies the relationship between childhood EA/EN and adult anxiety. One-hundred eighty-...

  20. A magnetoencephalography study of functional brain connectivity in childhood, adolescence and adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Helen Joanna Fabienne

    2015-01-01

    Functional brain networks are interconnected brain regions that flexibly coordinate their activity to support cognitive demands (Fair et al., 2009). Functional brain connectivity describes a statistical dependency between the activities recorded at spatially distinct brain regions (Friston, 2009). Changes in the pattern of connections and level of activation in functional brain networks are thought to occur across development (Taylor, Donner, & Pang, 2012) but the nature of these changes and ...

  1. Tumours following retinoblastoma radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioinduced tumours in young patients irradiated in childhood for retinoblastoma take on a particularly deadly aspect. The onset of this true clinical entity characterized by a long post-irradiation latency period induced by a dose above 6000 rads is a real tragedy. The vast majority of patients then enter into a long martyrdom ending in death. The only cure is surgical, but seldom possible. Treatment is limited to palliative radiotherapy, effective for a while, and chemiotherapy as a last resort but often difficult to prescribe. Prevention alone is the answer. The quality and reliability of the radiotherapeutic treatment depend not only on the personal talent of the radiotherapist but above all on the standard of the equipment. A strong reduction in the doses employed as well as recent technological progress improving the material, its precision and reproducibility appear already to have lowered the frequency curve of these fatal radioinduced tumours

  2. The new WHO classification of brain tumors. Radiological aspects of 4 new tumor entities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characterisation of the classification of brain tumours authorised by the WHO. Method of appraisal: This classification was revised and published in its second version. In the revision, some tumours were regrouped histogenetically and some tumour variants were added. Radiologically relevant changes of the classification include the differentiation of four new tumour entities that are easily distinguished by MR imaging. These four tumours belong to the group of childhood tumours or tumours occurring in early adulthood and are characterized by a good prognosis after extirpation. Results of appraisal: Central neurocytomas are small-cyst ventricular tumours associated with the foramen of Monroi and show moderate contrast enhancement. Infantile desmoplastic gangliogliomas/astrocytomas commonly consist of a solid tumour portion related to the leptomeninges with pronounced contrast enhancement and a typically very large cyst. Pleomorphic xanthostrocytomas are circumscribed cortical tumours and usually show very moderate gyriform enhancement with only slight signs of a mass effect. Dysembryoblastic neuroepithelial tumours, which originate in the cortical/subcortical region, likewise show no mass effect; they are characterised by thickening of the cortex from surrounding dysplastic tissue and erosion of the calotte. (orig.)

  3. Decrease of deleted in malignant brain tumour-1 (DMBT-1) expression is a crucial late event in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sasaki, M; Huang, S-F; Chen, M-F;

    2003-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate the participation of DMBT-1, a candidate tumour suppressor gene, in the development of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma via intraductal papillary neoplasm of the liver (IPN-L) arising in hepatolithiasis. DMBT-1 plays a role in mucosal immune defence. METHODS AND RESULTS: The...... expression of DMBT-1 was examined immunohistochemically in biliary epithelial cells in hepatolithiasis (n = 25), invasive and non-invasive cholangiocarcinoma associated with hepatolithiasis (n = 52), IPN-L with hepatolithiasis (n = 49), cholangiocarcinoma without hepatolithiasis (n = 32), and 10 normal...... control livers. DMBT-1 was expressed more frequently in the biliary epithelia of hepatolithiasis when compared with normal livers (P < 0.05). DMBT-1 expression was also frequent in IPN-L (57%) and non-invasive cholangiocarcinoma (79%). By contrast, DMBT-1 was decreased in invasive cholangiocarcinoma with...

  4. Germline mutations in the PAF1 complex gene CTR9 predispose to Wilms tumour

    OpenAIRE

    Hanks, Sandra; Perdeaux, Elizabeth R; Seal, Sheila; Ruark, Elise; Mahamdallie, Shazia S; Murray, Anne; Ramsay, Emma; del Vecchio Duarte, Silvana; Zachariou, Anna; de Souza, Bianca; Warren-Perry, Margaret; Elliott, Anna; Davidson, Alan; Price, Helen; Stiller, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Wilms tumour is a childhood kidney cancer. Here we identify inactivating CTR9 mutations in 3 of 35 Wilms tumour families, through exome and Sanger sequencing. By contrast, no similar mutations are present in 1,000 population controls (P

  5. Tipifarnib in Treating Young Patients With Recurrent or Progressive High-Grade Glioma, Medulloblastoma, Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor, or Brain Stem Glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-07

    Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma

  6. Radiosensitivity in vitro of clonogenic and non-clonogenic glioblastoma cells obtained from a human brain tumour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buronfosse, A.; Thomas, C.P.; Ginestet, C.; Dore, J.F. [Centre de Lutte Contre le Cancer Leon-Berard, 69 - Lyon (France)

    1994-11-01

    Cells obtained from a human glioblastoma (G5) were characterized and used to develop an assay measuring their radiosensitivity in vitro. Surviving fractions were estimated 12 days after irradiation by image analysis of the total surface occupied by the cells. This report evaluates 4 experimental factors which may influence the radiosensitivity in vitro of G5 cells: passage number, delay between plating and irradiation, cell density and clonal heterogeneity. The radiosensitivity of the G5 cell line was found to be passage-independent at least between passages 12 and 75. Experimental conditions influence the radiosensitivity as surviving fraction at 2 Gy (SF2) range from 90% (5 000 cells/well, irradiation 72 h after seeding) to 49% (2 500 cells per well, irradiation 24 h after seeding). The heterogeneity of the radiosensitivity is large at the clonal level as SF2 of six clones isolated from the G5 line were 45%, 50%, 72%, 74%, 79% and 84%. Finally, when G5 cells were irradiated at low cell density and at the beginning of the growth phase, the radiosensitivity measured with this assay is comparable to that obtained with a standard colony assay. We propose that this assay may be useful to determine the intrinsic radiosensitivity of cells obtained from human tumours. (authors). 24 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Interaction Between Childhood Adversity, Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor val/met and Serotonin Transporter Promoter Polymorphism on Depression : The TRAILS Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederhof, E; Bouma, Esther; Oldehinkel, A.J.; Ormel, J.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The three-way interaction between the functional polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene linked promoter region, the val66met polymorphism in the brain-derived neurotrophic factor gene, and childhood adversity in the prediction of depression in children, reported by Kaufman and co

  8. New Zealand adolescents’ cellphone and cordless phone user-habits: are they at increased risk of brain tumours already? A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redmayne Mary

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cellphone and cordless phone use is very prevalent among early adolescents, but the extent and types of use is not well documented. This paper explores how, and to what extent, New Zealand adolescents are typically using and exposed to active cellphones and cordless phones, and considers implications of this in relation to brain tumour risk, with reference to current research findings. Methods This cross-sectional study recruited 373 Year 7 and 8 school students with a mean age of 12.3 years (range 10.3-13.7 years from the Wellington region of New Zealand. Participants completed a questionnaire and measured their normal body-to-phone texting distances. Main exposure-metrics included self-reported time spent with an active cellphone close to the body, estimated time and number of calls on both phone types, estimated and actual extent of SMS text-messaging, cellphone functions used and people texted. Statistical analyses used Pearson Chi2 tests and Pearson’s correlation coefficient (r. Analyses were undertaken using SPSS version 19.0. Results Both cellphones and cordless phones were used by approximately 90% of students. A third of participants had already used a cordless phone for ≥ 7 years. In 4 years from the survey to mid-2013, the cordless phone use of 6% of participants would equal that of the highest Interphone decile (≥ 1640 hours, at the surveyed rate of use. High cellphone use was related to cellphone location at night, being woken regularly, and being tired at school. More than a third of parents thought cellphones carried a moderate-to-high health risk for their child. Conclusions While cellphones were very popular for entertainment and social interaction via texting, cordless phones were most popular for calls. If their use continued at the reported rate, many would be at increased risk of specific brain tumours by their mid-teens, based on findings of the Interphone and Hardell-group studies.

  9. Short-Term Second Language and Music Training Induces Lasting Functional Brain Changes in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Sylvain; Lee, Yunjo; Janus, Monika; Bialystok, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Immediate and lasting effects of music or second-language training were examined in early childhood using event-related potentials. Event-related potentials were recorded for French vowels and musical notes in a passive oddball paradigm in thirty-six 4- to 6-year-old children who received either French or music training. Following training, both…

  10. Interaction of neuropeptide Y genotype and childhood emotional maltreatment on brain activity during emotional processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opmeer, Esther M.; Kortekaas, Rudie; van Tol, Marie-Jose; van der Wee, Nic J. A.; Woudstra, Saskia; van Buchem, Mark A.; Penninx, Brenda W. J. H.; Veltman, Dick J.; Aleman, Andre

    2014-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) has been associated with stress reactivity in affective disorders and is most densely expressed in the amygdala. An important stressor associated with affective disorders is the experience of childhood emotional maltreatment (CEM). We investigated whether the interaction of NPY

  11. To Stroop or not to Stroop: Sex-related differences in brain-behavior associations during early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Kimberly; Calkins, Susan D; Bell, Martha Ann

    2016-01-01

    Executive functions (EFs) are linked with optimal cognitive and social-emotional development. Despite behavioral evidence of sex differences in early childhood EF, little is known about potential sex differences in corresponding brain-behavior associations. The present study examined changes in 4-year-olds' 6-9 Hz EEG power in response to increased executive processing demands (i.e., "Stroop-like" vs. "non-Stroop" day-night tasks). Although there were no sex differences in task performance, an examination of multiple scalp electrode sites revealed that boys exhibited more widespread changes in EEG power as compared to girls. Further, multiple regression analyses controlling for maternal education and non-EF performance indicated that individual differences in boys' and girls' EF performance were associated with different frontal neural correlates (i.e., different frontal scalp sites and different measures of EEG power). These data reveal valuable information concerning sex differences in the neural systems underlying executive processing during early childhood. PMID:26681615

  12. Early-Childhood Social Reticence Predicts Brain Function in Preadolescent Youths During Distinct Forms of Peer Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarcho, Johanna M; Davis, Megan M; Shechner, Tomer; Degnan, Kathryn A; Henderson, Heather A; Stoddard, Joel; Fox, Nathan A; Leibenluft, Ellen; Pine, Daniel S; Nelson, Eric E

    2016-06-01

    Social reticence is expressed as shy, anxiously avoidant behavior in early childhood. With development, overt signs of social reticence may diminish but could still manifest themselves in neural responses to peers. We obtained measures of social reticence across 2 to 7 years of age. At age 11, preadolescents previously characterized as high (n = 30) or low (n = 23) in social reticence completed a novel functional-MRI-based peer-interaction task that quantifies neural responses to the anticipation and receipt of distinct forms of social evaluation. High (but not low) social reticence in early childhood predicted greater activity in dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and left and right insula, brain regions implicated in processing salience and distress, when participants anticipated unpredictable compared with predictable feedback. High social reticence was also associated with negative functional connectivity between insula and ventromedial prefrontal cortex, a region commonly implicated in affect regulation. Finally, among participants with high social reticence, negative evaluation was associated with increased amygdala activity, but only during feedback from unpredictable peers. PMID:27150109

  13. A little goes a long way: how the adult brain is shaped by musical training in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoe, Erika; Kraus, Nina

    2012-08-22

    Playing a musical instrument changes the anatomy and function of the brain. But do these changes persist after music training stops? We probed this question by measuring auditory brainstem responses in a cohort of healthy young human adults with varying amounts of past musical training. We show that adults who received formal music instruction as children have more robust brainstem responses to sound than peers who never participated in music lessons and that the magnitude of the response correlates with how recently training ceased. Our results suggest that neural changes accompanying musical training during childhood are retained in adulthood. These findings advance our understanding of long-term neuroplasticity and have general implications for the development of effective auditory training programs. PMID:22915097

  14. P17.35GEINO-10: A PROSPECTIVE OBSERVATIONAL MULTICENTER STUDY OF THE CHARACTERISTICS OF PATIENTS WITH INTRA-AXIAL BRAIN TUMOURS AND THEIR THERAPEUTIC MANAGEMENT IN SPANISH HOSPITALS

    OpenAIRE

    Gil-Gil, M.J.; Sepúlveda, J.M.; Vieitez, J.M. (J. M.); Peñas, R. de las; Fernández-Pérez, I.; Pérez-Segura, P.; Fuster, P.; Martinez-García, M.; Quintanar, T.; del Barco, S.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Primitive brain tumours (BT) represent 2% of adult malignancies. BT patients are treated by different clinical specialists in Spanish hospitals. This means that we did not know with certainty how these patients are treated in Spain. To improve this knowledge the Neuro-Oncology Investigation Spanish Group (GEINO) designed this prospective observational multicenter study. OBJECTIVE: Describe the clinical and pathological characteristics and therapeutic management of intra-axial BT...

  15. Short-term Second Language and Music Training Induces Lasting Functional Brain Changes in Early Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno, Sylvain; Lee, Yunjo

    2014-01-01

    Immediate and lasting effects of music or second-language training were examined in early childhood using event-related potentials (ERPs). ERPs were recorded for French vowels and musical notes in a passive oddball paradigm in 36 four- to six-year-old children who received either French or music training. Following training, both groups showed enhanced late discriminative negativity (LDN) in their trained condition (music group–musical notes; French group–French vowels) and reduced LDN in the...

  16. Translation and pilot validation of Hindi translation of assessing quality of life in patients with primary brain tumours using EORTC brain module (BN-20

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budrukkar Ashwini

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To translate and validate the European Organisation for Research and Treatment for Cancer (EORTC brain cancer module (BN-20 into Hindi to make it available for patients and scientific community. Methods and Results: The EORTC BN-20 was translated into Hindi using standard guidelines by EORTC. The process included forward translation by two translators, discussion with the translators in case of discrepancies and formation of first intermediate questionnaire. This questionnaire was then given to two more translators who translated this questionnaire back into English. These 2 questionnaires were then compared with the original EORTC questionnaire and the second intermediate questionnaire was formed. The second intermediate questionnaire was subsequently administered in 10 patients with brain tumors who had never seen the questionnaire before, for pilot-testing. Each of these 10 patients after filling up the questionnaire themselves was then interviewed for any difficulty encountered during the filling up of the questionnaire. These were in the form of specific modules including difficulty in answering, confusion while answering and difficulty to understand, whether the questions were upsetting and if patients would have asked the question in any different way. There were major suggestions in three questions, which were incorporated into the second intermediate questionnaire to form the final Hindi BN-20 questionnaire. Conclusion: The final Hindi BN-20 has been approved by EORTC and can be used in clinical practice and studies for patients with brain tumors.

  17. Desmoplastic infantile ganglioglioma: a questionably benign tumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desmoplastic infantile ganglioglioma is a rare intracranial tumour of childhood that involves the cerebral cortex and the leptomeninges. We report two patients with desmoplastic infantile gangliogliomas and multiple cerebrospinal metastases. To our knowledge, only two similar cases have been reported in the published literature. Pathologically, this rare intracranial tumour shows glial and ganglionic differentiation, accompanied by an extreme desmoplastic reaction. These are low-grade neoplasms that are questionably benign. Copyright (2005) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  18. Childhood CT scans linked to leukemia and brain cancer later in life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Children and young adults scanned multiple times by computed tomography (CT), a commonly used diagnostic tool, have a small increased risk of leukemia and brain tumors in the decade following their first scan.

  19. Molecular imaging of tumour hypoxia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By allowing an earlier diagnosis and a more exhaustive assessment of extension of the disease, the tomography by emission of positrons (PET) transforms the care of numerous cancers. At present, 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]-F.D.G.) imaging appears as the only one available but new molecular markers are being developed. In the next future they would modify the approach of cancers. In this context, the molecular imaging of the hypoxia and especially the 18Fluoromisonidazole PET ([18F]-MISO PET) can give supplementary information allowing the mapping of hypoxic regions within the tumour. Because of the links, which exist between tumour hypoxia and treatment resistance of very numerous cancers, this information can have an interest, for determination of prognosis as well as for the delineation, volumes to be irradiated. Head and neck tumours are doubtless those for which the literature gives the most elements on the therapeutic impact of tumour hypoxia. Targeted therapies, based on hypoxia, already exist and the contribution of the molecular imaging could be decisive in the evaluation of the impact of such treatment. Molecular imaging of brain tumours remains to be developed. The potential contributions of the [18F]-MISO PET for the care of these patients need to be confirmed. In this context, we propose a review of hypoxia molecular imaging taking as examples head and neck tumours and glioblastomas (GB), two tumours for which hypoxia is one of the key factors to overcome in order to increase therapeutics results

  20. Associations among treatment-related neurological risk factors and neuropsychological functioning in survivors of childhood brain tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, Mark D; Rane, Shruti; Daly, Brian P; Jacobson, Lisa A

    2016-03-01

    Adverse neurological side effects associated with childhood brain tumors and their treatments contribute to long-term neurocognitive morbidity. Measures designed to quantify tumor-related risk factors are lacking. The neurological predictor scale (NPS) is designed to assess treatment-related neurological risks. Preliminary validation established associations between the NPS and global cognitive functioning in this population, though its associations with specific neurobehavioral domains has yet to be addressed. Participants referred for outpatient neuropsychological assessment completed performance-based measures of intellectual, attentional, working memory, motor speed, and executive abilities. Caregivers completed ratings of adaptive functioning. Neuropsychological and adaptive data were available for 100 brain tumor survivors (51 % female), ages 6 to 22 years (M = 12.83, SD = 4.37). Total NPS scores were generated via retrospective medical record review. Total NPS scores were significantly associated with several neurocognitive composite scores including verbal reasoning and working memory, after controlling for years post-diagnosis (ps  .05). Results indicate that the NPS is associated with performance-based neurocognitive functioning and executive skills but not with functioning in specific caregiver-reported adaptive behavior domains. The NPS offers some value as a resource for understanding associations between treatment-related neurological risks and select aspects of neurocognitive morbidity. Future studies should examine whether the NPS can aid in planning appropriate therapeutic intervention as survivors progress into early adulthood. PMID:26725098

  1. O6-Methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase protein expression by immunohistochemistry in brain and non-brain systemic tumours: systematic review and meta-analysis of correlation with methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DNA repair protein O6-Methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) confers resistance to alkylating agents. Several methods have been applied to its analysis, with methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction (MSP) the most commonly used for promoter methylation study, while immunohistochemistry (IHC) has become the most frequently used for the detection of MGMT protein expression. Agreement on the best and most reliable technique for evaluating MGMT status remains unsettled. The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the correlation between IHC and MSP. A computer-aided search of MEDLINE (1950-October 2009), EBSCO (1966-October 2009) and EMBASE (1974-October 2009) was performed for relevant publications. Studies meeting inclusion criteria were those comparing MGMT protein expression by IHC with MGMT promoter methylation by MSP in the same cohort of patients. Methodological quality was assessed by using the QUADAS and STARD instruments. Previously published guidelines were followed for meta-analysis performance. Of 254 studies identified as eligible for full-text review, 52 (20.5%) met the inclusion criteria. The review showed that results of MGMT protein expression by IHC are not in close agreement with those obtained with MSP. Moreover, type of tumour (primary brain tumour vs others) was an independent covariate of accuracy estimates in the meta-regression analysis beyond the cut-off value. Protein expression assessed by IHC alone fails to reflect the promoter methylation status of MGMT. Thus, in attempts at clinical diagnosis the two methods seem to select different groups of patients and should not be used interchangeably

  2. Functional Plasticity in Childhood Brain Disorders: When, What, How, and Whom to Assess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Maureen; Spiegler, Brenda J.; Simic, Nevena; Sinopoli, Katia J.; Wilkinson, Amy; Yeates, Keith Owen; Taylor, H. Gerry; Bigler, Erin D.; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2014-01-01

    At every point in the lifespan, the brain balances malleable processes representing neural plasticity that promote change with homeostatic processes that promote stability. Whether a child develops typically or with brain injury, his or her neural and behavioral outcome is constructed through transactions between plastic and homeostatic processes and the environment. In clinical research with children in whom the developing brain has been malformed or injured, behavioral outcomes provide an index of the result of plasticity, homeostasis, and environmental transactions. When should we assess outcome in relation to age at brain insult, time since brain insult, and age of the child at testing? What should we measure? Functions involving reacting to the past and predicting the future, as well as social-affective skills, are important. How should we assess outcome? Information from performance variability, direct measures and informants, overt and covert measures, and laboratory and ecological measures should be considered. In whom are we assessing outcome? Assessment should be cognizant of individual differences in gene, socio-economic status (SES), parenting, nutrition, and interpersonal supports, which are moderators that interact with other factors influencing functional outcome. PMID:24821533

  3. Preoperative shunts in thalamic tumours.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goel A

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Thirty one patients with thalamic glioma underwent a pre-tumour resection shunt surgery. The procedure was uneventful in 23 patients with relief from symptoms of increased intracranial pressure. Eight patients worsened after the procedure. The level of sensorium worsened from excessively drowsy state to unconsciousness in seven patients. Three patients developed hemiparesis, 4 developed paresis of extra-ocular muscles and altered pupillary reflexes, and 1 developed incontinence of urine and persistent vomiting. Alteration in the delicately balanced intracranial pressure and movements in the tumour and vital adjacent brain areas could be the probable cause of the worsening in the neurological state in these 8 patients. On the basis of these observations and on review of literature, it is postulated that the ventricular dilatation following an obstruction in the path of the cerebrospinal fluid flow by a tumour could be a natural defense phenomenon of the brain.

  4. Late deaths after treatment for childhood cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkins, M M; Kingston, J. E.; Kinnier Wilson, L. M.

    1990-01-01

    An investigation of 749 deaths occurring among 4082 patients surviving at least five years after the diagnosis of childhood cancer in Britain before 1971 has been undertaken. Of the 738 with sufficient information the numbers of deaths attributable to the following causes were: recurrent tumour, 550 (74%), a second primary tumour, 61 (8%), a medical condition related to treatment of the tumour, 49 (7%), an traumatic death unrelated to the tumour or its treatment, 34 (5%), finally, any other c...

  5. Perceived Quality of Maternal Care in Childhood and Structure and Function of Mothers' Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pilyoung; Leckman, James F.; Mayes, Linda C.; Newman, Michal-Ann; Feldman, Ruth; Swain, James E.

    2010-01-01

    Animal studies indicate that early maternal care has long-term effects on brain areas related to social attachment and parenting, whereas neglectful mothering is linked with heightened stress reactivity in the hippocampus across the lifespan. The present study explores the possibility, using magnetic resonance imaging, that perceived quality of…

  6. The Development of Emotion and Empathy Skills after Childhood Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonks, James; Slater, Alan; Frampton, Ian; Wall, Sarah E.; Yates, Phil; Williams, W. Huw

    2009-01-01

    Lasting socio-emotional behaviour difficulties are common among children who have suffered brain injuries. A proportion of difficulties may be attributed to impaired cognitive and/or executive skills after injury. A recent and rapidly accruing body of literature indicates that deficits in recognizing and responding to the emotions of others are…

  7. Evolving hypopituitarism as a consequence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in childhood - call for attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medic-Stojanoska, Milica; Pekic, Sandra; Curic, Nikola; Djilas-Ivanovic, Dragana; Popovic, Vera

    2007-06-01

    Hypopituitarism is a common complication of TBI in long-term survivors, more frequent than previously realized. It may be partial or complete, sometimes very subtle without visible lesions in hypothalamo-pituitary region and is diagnosed only by biochemical means. Neuroendocrine abnormalities caused by TBI may have significant implications for the recovery and rehabilitation of these patients. The subjects at risk are those who have suffered moderate to severe trauma, although mild intensity trauma may precede hypopituitarism also. Particular attention should be paid to this problem in children and adolescents. We describe a patient with hypopituitarism thought to be idiopathic due to mild head trauma which caused diabetes insipidus in childhood, gradual failure of pituitary hormones during the period of growth and development, and metabolic (dyslipidemia), physical (obesity), and cognitive impairments in the adult period. PMID:17906374

  8. Vorinostat and Temozolomide in Treating Young Patients With Relapsed or Refractory Primary Brain Tumors or Spinal Cord Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Childhood Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Choriocarcinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Teratoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Yolk Sac Tumor; Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Ependymoblastoma; Childhood Grade I Meningioma; Childhood Grade II Meningioma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood High-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Childhood Mixed Glioma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Extra-adrenal Paraganglioma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Spinal Cord Neoplasm; Recurrent Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma

  9. Magnetic susceptibility of brain iron is associated with childhood spatial IQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Kimberly L H; Li, Wei; Wei, Hongjiang; Wu, Bing; Xiao, Xue; Liu, Chunlei; Worley, Gordon; Egger, Helen Link

    2016-05-15

    Iron is an essential micronutrient for healthy brain function and development. Because of the importance of iron in the brain, iron deficiency results in widespread and lasting effects on behavior and cognition. We measured iron in the basal ganglia of young children using a novel MRI method, quantitative susceptibility mapping, and examined the association of brain iron with age and cognitive performance. Participants were a community sample of 39 young children recruited from pediatric primary care who were participating in a 5-year longitudinal study of child brain development and anxiety disorders. The children were ages 7 to 11years old (mean age: 9.5years old) at the time of the quantitative susceptibility mapping scan. The differential abilities scale was administered when the children were 6years old to provide a measure of general intelligence and verbal (receptive and expressive), non-verbal, and spatial performance. Magnetic susceptibility values, which are linearly related to iron concentration in iron-rich areas, were extracted from regions of interest within iron-rich deep gray matter nuclei from the basal ganglia, including the caudate, putamen, substantia nigra, globus pallidus, and thalamus. Controlling for scan age, there was a significant positive association between iron in the basal ganglia and spatial IQ, with this effect being driven by iron in the right caudate We also replicated previous findings of a significant positive association between iron in the bilateral basal ganglia and age. Our finding of a positive association between spatial IQ and mean iron in the basal ganglia, and in the caudate specifically, suggests that iron content in specific regions of the iron-rich deep nuclei of the basal ganglia influences spatial intelligence. This provides a potential neurobiological mechanism linking deficits in spatial abilities reported in children who were severely iron deficient as infants to decreased iron within the caudate. PMID:26899787

  10. Loss of independent limb control in childhood hemiparesis is related to time of brain injury onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukal-Moulton, Theresa; Murray, Theresa M.; Dewald, Julius P.A.

    2013-01-01

    Aim This study investigated the presence of inter-limb activity at the elbow joint in individuals with childhood-onset hemiparesis, including spontaneous mirror movements during unilateral tasks and the ability to suppress them during bilateral tasks. Method Eighteen individuals with hemiparesis were divided into three categories of injury timing: before birth (PRE-natal), around the time of birth (PERI-natal), and after 6 months of age (POST-natal). Individuals with hemiparesis, as well as 12 typically developing peers, participated in unilateral and bilateral elbow flexion and extension tasks completed at maximal and submaximal effort while muscle activity was monitored and motor output was quantified by two multiple degrees-of-freedom load cells. Results Significantly higher levels of paretic elbow flexion were found only in the PRE- and PERI-natal groups during the flexion of the non-paretic limb, which was modulated by effort level in both unilateral and bilateral tasks. Interpretation The bilateral activation of elbow flexors in the PRE-/PERI-natal groups indicates potential use of a common cortical command source to drive both upper extremities, while the POST-natal/typically developing groups’ flexors appear to receive input from different supraspinal structures. PMID:23411673

  11. Imaging of non-central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal tumours: Diagnostic features and correlation with outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AIM: To document the varied radiological features before, during, and after treatment of non-Central Nervous System Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumours (PNETs), which are rare tumours of childhood. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-three children with PNETs have been treated at our institution between 1990 and 1999. Full radiological and clinical follow-up was obtained in 29 (17 females, 12 males). Imaging was retrospectively reviewed, with particular attention to Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). RESULTS: Age range at diagnosis was 0-16 years old (mean 4.4 years). There were five main sites of tumour: head and neck (n = 7), scapula/axilla (n 2), chest (n = 11), abdomen (n = 3), and spinal/paraspinal (n = 6). Overall mortality was 62%. Tumours of the scapula or paraspinal region appear to show better survival than other sites. Of 23 patients who had Tc99m-methylene diphosphonate (MDP) bone scans at diagnosis, four patients showed widespread distant metastases, seven showed focal increased uptake in an adjacent bone only, and 12 had normal examinations. CT was performed in 25 patients and MRI in 20, both at diagnosis and follow-up. Average size of tumours at presentation was 4.5 cm in the paraspinal, head and neck and scapular regions and 7.5 cm in the chest and abdomen. Tumours were typically of soft tissue density on CT with the larger (>5 cm) masses tending to be more heterogeneous in character. The lesions were slightly higher signal than muscle on T1-weighted (T1W) MRI and all masses were heterogeneous on T2W sequences. Calcification was uncommon (n = 6) and generally sparse. Tumours tended to displace adjacent soft tissue structures such as vessels and bronchi rather than invade or encase them. Tumours rarely crossed the midline. Local or bony invasion was seen in 12 patients at diagnosis. Metastases were identified in the lung (n = 5), pleura (n = 2), brain (n = 4), bone (n = 4), lymph nodes (n = 2), liver (n = 2), subcutaneous tissues

  12. Aniridia-Wilms′ tumour syndrome-A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidyasagar M

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Wilms′ tumour is rarely associated with sporadic non-familial congenital aniridia. A child with sporadic aniridia has a 25% chance of subsequently developing Wilms′ tumour. Unawareness of this association can lead to a delayed diagnosis of Wilms′ tumour. One such case in a 2 year old is reported. Wilms′ tumour, one of the common childhood malignancies, is associated with other congenital anomalies in about 15% of cases. These include hemihypertrophy, genitourinary abnormalities, mental retardation, aniridia etc. Sporadic non-familial aniridia was noted in only 1.1% of 547 children with Wilms′ tumours evaluated by the National Wilms′ Tumour study group. Unawareness on the part of a clinician about these associated anomalies can lead to an avoidable delay in diagnosing Wilms′ tumour. One such case in a two year old girl is being reported.

  13. Brain and head injury in infancy and childhood; Schaedel- und Hirntrauma im Kindesalter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struffert, T. [Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Radiologische Klinik, Universitaet des Saarlandes, Homburg, Saar (Germany); Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Radiologische Klinik, Universitaet des Saarlandes, 66421, Homburg, Saar (Germany); Grunwald, I.; Reith, W. [Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Radiologische Klinik, Universitaet des Saarlandes, Homburg, Saar (Germany)

    2003-11-01

    This article describes typical head injuries in infants and children. In comparison with adults there are distinct differences in the etiology of trauma and in the kind of reaction of the skull and brain. In infants and children there are three different types of trauma: birth trauma, accidental and non-accidental injury. The typical injuries in these three groups are described. (orig.) [German] In diesem Beitrag werden die typischen Schaedel- und Hirnverletzungen bei Kindern zusammengefasst. Bei diesen bestehen im Vergleich zu Erwachsenen deutliche Unterschiede in der Aetiologie und der Reaktion der Kalotte und des Gehirns auf ein Trauma. Bezueglich der Aetiologie kann unterschieden werden in Geburtstrauma, akzidentelles und nichtakzidentelles Trauma. Die typischen Verletzungen dieser 3 Gruppen werden ausfuehrlich beschrieben. (orig.)

  14. Language development following brain injury in early childhood: a longitudinal case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trudeau, N; Poulin-Dubois, D; Joanette, Y

    2000-01-01

    The present longitudinal case study was designed to investigate the possibility that a traumatic brain injury (TBI) occurring during the second year of life, while significant lexical and grammatical competencies are emerging, could have an impact on subsequent language development. Thus, the language development of a very young girl (BL) who suffered a TBI at the age of 17 months was monitored for 6 months following the injury. Different procedures were used to measure her lexical and grammatical development: monthly parental checklists, free-play sessions and word-learning tasks. BL's results were compared with two control groups (n = 5 and 9) matched for age and gender. Overall, the results are consistent with the classical view of acquired language disorders in children: despite an initial decrease in the use of her premorbid vocabulary, BL showed no durable significant impairment on any measure of lexical or grammatical development. PMID:10912253

  15. Application of SPET using technetium-99m sestamibi in brain tumours and comparison with expression of the MDR-1 gene: is it possible to predict the response to chemotherapy in patients with gliomas by means of 99mTc-sestamibi SPET?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, MIBI SPET was compared with thallium-201 (Tl) SPET using magnetic resonance imaging as a guide in 16 patients with untreated brain tumours (ten glioblastomas (GBs)), two anaplastic astrocytomas (AAs), two low-grade gliomas (LGASs) and two metastatic brain tumours and in four patients who had received treatment for with brain tumours (two GBs, two AAs). In addition, we investigated the expression of the MDR-1 gene and its product Pgp inn the same patients, and compared the results with MIBI SPET findings. MIBI, as well as Tl, was highly accumulated and retained in the enhanced region of malignant gliomas. In addition, MIBI SPET yielded sharp and well-contrasted images, and the margin of the tumour was more clearly defined than with Tl SPET due to a good signal-to-noise ratio. Follow-up MIBI SPET in patients who had received therapy showed marked uptake in a patient with malignant transformation, who deteriorated clinically. Patients with no uptake on MIBI SPET showed no sign of recurrence. Semiquantitative analysis of untreated patients showed a relationship between the early uptake index and the degree of malignancy. The retention index (RI, ratio of delayed to early UI) of MIBI was significantly lower than that of Tl in metastatic brain tumours (P<0.05), but not in malignant gliomas. Histological and biological investigation of gliomas showed that the MDR-1 gene and its product Pgp were expressed only in normal endothelial cells and not in tumour cells or proliferating enen550601l cells; Pgp tended to decrease as the degree of malignancy rose. Hence, the presence of Pgp and the grade of malignancy were inversely related in gliomas. By contrast, immunohistochemical study showed strong accumulation of Pgp in metastatic brain tumour cells. (orig./MG) (orig.)

  16. Incidence of childhood brain and other non-haematopoietic neoplasms near nuclear sites in Scotland, 1975-94

    OpenAIRE

    Sharp, L.; McKinney, P. A.; Black, R J

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the risk of cancers other than leukaemia and non- Hodgkin's lymphoma in children resident in the vicinity of nuclear sites in Scotland. METHODS: The study dataset comprised registrations of cancer other than leukaemia and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma diagnosed in children aged under 15 in the period 1975-94. These were validated for completeness and accuracy and analysed in two groups: (a) tumours of the central nervous system and (b) other malignant tumours (excluding ...

  17. [Minimal early-childhood brain damage in the pediatric practice and disability insurance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frischknecht, W

    1976-07-01

    In modern practice the pediatrician is called upon daily to take preventive, curative and rehabilitative action in children with cerebro-organic and psychosocial risk factors: 1. Eearly diagnosis of handicaps by POLTIBAC on the occasion of individual vaccinations and infectious diseases. 2. Fitness programs for infants to improve the mother-child relationship and reduce frustrations in children's homes and day nurseries. 3. Psychohygiene and mini-psychotherapy of ambivalent mothers during every pediatric consultation. The pediatrician's second patient is the mother. 4. The self-help mentality in pediatrician, parents and educationists assumes increasing importance as economy cames to rule pediatric practice in view of the cost explosion in the health sector. 5. In the Canton of St. Gall increasing numbers of children with cerebral lesions have been registered with the Disablement Insurance since 1970: in 1972 12%, in 1973 14% and in 1974 19% of first-registered minors. Since 1961 all definitely cerebral motor disorders have been registered with the Disablement Insurance, and since 1971 the infantile psychoorganic syndrome and questionable minimal "dyskinesias" have also been registered. The diagnostic and therapeutic costs for infantile minimal brain lesions according to Disablement Insurance tariffs are computed. PMID:990577

  18. Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... will return after updating. Resources Archived Modules Updates Brain Cerebrum The cerebrum is the part of the ... the outside of the brain and spinal cord. Brain Stem The brain stem is the part of ...

  19. Diagnostic value of proton MR spectroscopy and diffusion-weighted MR imaging in childhood inherited neurometabolic brain diseases and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cakmakci, Handan, E-mail: handan.cakmakci@deu.edu.t [Dokuz Eylul University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Izmir (Turkey); Pekcevik, Yeliz [Dokuz Eylul University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Izmir (Turkey); Yis, Uluc [Dokuz Eylul University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Izmir (Turkey); Unalp, Aycan [Behcet Uz Hospital, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Izmir (Turkey); Kurul, Semra [Dokuz Eylul University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pediatric Neurology, Izmir (Turkey)

    2010-06-15

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate parenchymal diffusion properties and metabolite ratios in affected brain tissues of inherited neurometabolic brain diseases with an overview of the current literature about the diagnostic data of both techniques in childhood inherited metabolic brain diseases. The study group was consisting, 19 patients (15 males, 4 females; mean age, 54 months (4.5 years); age range, 1-171 months (14.25 years)) diagnosed with inherited neurometabolic brain disease. Single- and multivoxel proton MRS was carried out and NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, mI/Cr, Glx/Cr ratios were calculated. Presence of lactate peak and abnormal different peaks were noted. ADC values were calculated from brain lesions. Results are compared with age and sex matched normal subjects. Elevated NAA/Cr ratio (Canavan disease), galactitol peak (galactosemia) at 3.7 ppm, branched chain amino acids (Maple syrup urine disease-MSUD) at 0.9 ppm were seen on different diseases. In Leigh disease and MSUD restricted diffusion was detected. Different diffusion properties were seen only in one Glutaric aciduria lesions. NAA/Cr ratios and calculated ADC values were significantly different from normal subjects (p < 0.05). DWI combined with MRS are complementary methods to routine cranial MRI for evaluating neurometabolic diseases which can give detailed information about neurochemistry of affected brain areas.

  20. MLLT1 YEATS domain mutations in clinically distinctive Favourable Histology Wilms tumours | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilms tumour is an embryonal tumour of childhood that closely resembles the developing kidney. Genomic changes responsible for the development of the majority of Wilms tumours remain largely unknown. Here we identify recurrent mutations within Wilms tumours that involve the highly conserved YEATS domain of MLLT1 (ENL), a gene known to be involved in transcriptional elongation during early development. The mutant MLLT1 protein shows altered binding to acetylated histone tails.

  1. Late cranial MRI after cranial irradiation in survivors of childhood cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paeaekkoe, E. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. of Oulu (Finland); Talvensaari, K. [Dept. of Pediatrics, Univ. of Oulu (Finland); Pyhtinen, J. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Univ. of Oulu (Finland); Lanning, M. [Dept. of Pediatrics, Univ. of Oulu (Finland)

    1994-11-01

    We carried out MRI on 43 survivors of childhood cancer after different treatment protocols with or without cranial radiotherapy. They were free of disease, therapy having been discontinued 2-20 years earlier. Treatment had been for various malignancies, excluding brain tumours; 27 had received cranial irradiation for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) or lymphoma. Two asymptomatic young women treated for ALL had falx meningiomas. White matter changes, low intensity foci (representing calcification or old haemorrhage) and (heterogeneous intensity focic old haemorrhages) were seen only in patients who had undergone radiotherapy. Because of the possibility of benign, potentially curable brain tumours occurring after cranial irradiation, it may be wise to carry out occasional cranial imaging in the follow-up of these patients. No routine imaging follow-up is needed after chemotherapy alone. (orig.)

  2. The 'skinny' on childhood obesity: how our western environment starves kids' brains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustig, Robert H

    2006-12-01

    In this review, the mechanism of our "toxic environment's" effects on insulin and weight gain in the genesis of obesity is elaborated. The composition of our diet is highly insulinogenic. The insulin drives energy into fat, and interferes with leptin signaling in the VMH. This results in weight gain and the sense of starvation, which results in decreased SNS activity, reducing energy expenditure and physical activity; and increased vagal activity, which promotes yet further insulin release and energy storage. Thus, hyperinsulinemia turns the leptin negative feedback system into a "vicious cycle" of obesity (see Figure 3, page 905). Externally, this appears as "gluttony and sloth" but it is biochemically driven. How does this work? A thin, insulin-sensitive, 13-year-old boy might consume a daily allotment of 2,000 kcal, and burn 2,000 kcal daily (or 50 kcal/kg fat-free mass) in order to remain weight-stable, with a stable leptin level. However, if that same 13-year-old became hyperinsulinemic and/or insulin resistant, perhaps as many as 250 kcal of the daily allotment would be shunted to storage in adipose tissue, promoting a persistent obligate weight gain. Due to the obligate energy storage, he now only has 1,750 kcal per day to burn. The hyperinsulinemia also results in a lower level of leptin signal transduction, conveying a CNS signal of energy insufficiency. The remaining calories available are lower than his energy expenditure; the CNS would sense starvation. Through decreased SNS tone, he would reduce his physical activity, resulting in decreased quality of life; and through increased vagal tone, he would increase caloric intake and insulin secretion, but now at a much higher level. Thus, the vicious cycle of gluttony, sloth, and obesity is promulgated. Is this personal responsibility, when a kid's brain thinks it's starving? Is it personal responsibility when the American Academy of Pediatrics still recommends juice for toddlers? Is it personal

  3. Tumours and tumourous diseases; Tumoren, tumoraehnliche Erkrankungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkelmann, W. (ed.)

    2005-07-01

    This book on tumours and tumourous diseases comprises two parts: 1. Bone tumours and tumourous lesions. 2. Soft tissue tumours and tumourous lesions. Details are presented on pathology, diagnosis, conservative and perioperative therapy, surgical therapy, complications after resection, indicators for amputation, recommendations for follow-up treatment, radiotherapy, radionuclide therapy, alternative therapies, therapy concepts in case of metastases, tissue engineering and plastic surgery. (uke) [German] Der vorliegende Band der Reihe Orthopaedie und orthopaedische Chirurgie behandelt das Thema Tumoren und tumoraehnliche Erkrankungen. Der Band teilt sich in zwei Kapitel: 1. Knochentumoren und tumorartige Laesionen und 2. Weichteiltumoren und tumorartige Laesionen. Dargestellt werden Pathologie, Diagnostik, konservative und perioperative Therapie, chirurgische Therapie, Komplikationen nach Resektion, Indikatoren zur Amputation, Nachsorgeempfehlung, Strahlentherapie, Radionuklidtherapie, alternative Therapieverfahren, Therapiekonzepte bei Metastasen, Tissue Engineering und plastisch-chirurgische Massnahmen. (uke)

  4. Peripheral SLC6A4 DNA methylation is associated with in vivo measures of human brain serotonin synthesis and childhood physical aggression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongsha Wang

    Full Text Available The main challenge in addressing the role of DNA methylation in human behaviour is the fact that the brain is inaccessible to epigenetic analysis in living humans. Using positron emission tomography (PET measures of brain serotonin (5-HT synthesis, we found in a longitudinal sample that adult males with high childhood-limited aggression (C-LHPA had lower in vivo 5-HT synthesis in the orbitofrontal cortex (OBFC. Here we hypothesized that 5-HT alterations associated with childhood aggression were linked to differential DNA methylation of critical genes in the 5-HT pathway and these changes were also detectable in peripheral white blood cells. Using pyrosequencing, we determined the state of DNA methylation of SLC6A4 promoter in T cells and monocytes isolated from blood of cohort members (N = 25 who underwent a PET scan, and we examined whether methylation status in the blood is associated with in vivo brain 5-HT synthesis. Higher levels of methylation were observed in both T cells and monocytes at specific CpG sites in the C-LHPA group. DNA methylation of SLC6A4 in monocytes appears to be associated more reliably with group membership than T cells. In both cell types the methylation state of these CpGs was associated with lower in vivo measures of brain 5-HT synthesis in the left and right lateral OBFC (N = 20 where lower 5-HT synthesis in C-LHPA group was observed. Furthermore, in vitro methylation of the SLC6A4 promoter in a luciferase reporter construct suppresses its transcriptional activity supporting a functional role of DNA methylation in SLC6A4 promoter regulation. These findings indicate that state of SLC6A4 promoter methylation is altered in peripheral white blood cells of individuals with physical aggression during childhood. This supports the relevance of peripheral DNA methylation for brain function and suggests that peripheral SLC6A4 DNA methylation could be a marker of central 5-HT function.

  5. Mathematical Modelling of a Brain Tumour Initiation and Early Development: A Coupled Model of Glioblastoma Growth, Pre-Existing Vessel Co-Option, Angiogenesis and Blood Perfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yan; Wu, Jie; Li, Zhiyong; Long, Quan

    2016-01-01

    We propose a coupled mathematical modelling system to investigate glioblastoma growth in response to dynamic changes in chemical and haemodynamic microenvironments caused by pre-existing vessel co-option, remodelling, collapse and angiogenesis. A typical tree-like architecture network with different orders for vessel diameter is designed to model pre-existing vasculature in host tissue. The chemical substances including oxygen, vascular endothelial growth factor, extra-cellular matrix and matrix degradation enzymes are calculated based on the haemodynamic environment which is obtained by coupled modelling of intravascular blood flow with interstitial fluid flow. The haemodynamic changes, including vessel diameter and permeability, are introduced to reflect a series of pathological characteristics of abnormal tumour vessels including vessel dilation, leakage, angiogenesis, regression and collapse. Migrating cells are included as a new phenotype to describe the migration behaviour of malignant tumour cells. The simulation focuses on the avascular phase of tumour development and stops at an early phase of angiogenesis. The model is able to demonstrate the main features of glioblastoma growth in this phase such as the formation of pseudopalisades, cell migration along the host vessels, the pre-existing vasculature co-option, angiogenesis and remodelling. The model also enables us to examine the influence of initial conditions and local environment on the early phase of glioblastoma growth. PMID:26934465

  6. Primary rib tumours in children (report of 27 cases with short literature review)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    27 cases of primary malignant and benign rib tumours are reported. The most common malignant rib tumour in childhood is Ewing sarcoma (20 cases). Some other rare bone tumours and tumorous conditions (reticulosarcoma, aneurysmal bone cyst, monostotic rib eosinophilic granuloma, osteoid osteoma and lymphangioma) are also described. In the authors' opinion Ewing sarcoma presents with characteristic clinico-radiographic findings in most of the cases. Other monostotic, primary rib tumours and tumorous conditions in childhood - with the exception of exchondroma and enchondroma - rarely show diagnostic radiographic features. 26 refs., 21 figs., 3 tabs

  7. Paediatric high and low grade glioma: the impact of tumour biology on current and future therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargrave, Darren

    2009-08-01

    Gliomas are the most common type of paediatric brain tumour and range from benign low grade gliomas which can be resected/observed to aggressive brainstem gliomas with dismal survival rates. Current therapies rely on neurosurgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy or combination of these conventional modalities and although histopathology helps to direct therapy, molecular pathology has so far not played a major role in the management of paediatric glioma. However, increasing knowledge of glioma biology is starting to impact on drug development towards targeted therapies. Pilocytic astrocytoma, the most common childhood low grade brain tumour, has recently been shown to harbour an activated BRAF/MAPK/ERK pathway in the majority of cases; this represents an attractive target for new agents. The molecular biology of adult malignant glioma is now well described and targeted therapies against VEGFR are already playing a role in the management of glioblastoma. It is likely that high grade gliomas in children and adults share common aberrant molecular pathways but the frequency and mechanisms involved probably will exhibit key differences and on-going comprehensive molecular analyses of paediatric high grade glioma are essential to determine which targets are important in children. However, selection for specific targeted therapy is unlikely to be based on, or restricted by, age but will require individual case by case testing for target presence in order to direct and maximise the efficacy of molecular therapy. Brainstem glioma remains a tumour with a dismal prognosis but relatively little is known about the underlying biology and progress will require a concerted effort to collect tissue by biopsy and autopsy to allow appropriate analysis to identify and validate targets. A new era of molecular based therapies offers the promise of major benefits in the management of paediatric glioma but translating this promise into reality will require further understanding of the biology

  8. In vivo diffusion tensor imaging in infants: assessment of brain development and correlation with language abilities in childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Aeby, Alec

    2013-01-01

    Rapid and important cerebral developmental changes occur between the third trimester of gestation and the first postnatal months (Sidman and Rakic, 1982). Assessment of these changes in term and preterm infants is of great interest, as it provides insights into early brain development but also how early birth may affect normal brain development (Mewes et al. 2006).Conventional brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a useful technique to provide structural information on brain development, ...

  9. Perinatal tumours: the contribution of radiology to management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donoghue, Veronica; Ryan, Stephanie; Twomey, Eilish [Children' s University Hospital, Radiology Department, Dublin (Ireland)

    2008-06-15

    A formal classification does not exist and they are probably best classified by their location. Overall the most common neoplasms are - Extracranial teratoma - Neuroblastoma - Soft-tissue tumours - Brain tumours - Leukaemia - Renal tumours - Liver tumours - Retinoblastoma. The prognosis is generally poor, although there are some exceptions such as congenital neuroblastoma and hepatoblastoma. These tumours have a tendency to regress and have a benign clinical course despite a clear malignant histological picture. Other tumours, though histologically benign, may be fatal because of their size and location. Large benign masses may cause airway or cardiovascular compromise and death. Others may cause significant mass effect preventing normal organ development. As normal embryonic cells have a high mitotic rate it is not surprising that perinatal tumours may have a rapid growth rate and become enormous in size. (orig.)

  10. Ablation of lung tumours

    OpenAIRE

    Gillams, Alice

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Radiofrequency, laser, microwave and cryotherapy have all been used for the ablation of lung tumours. However, radiofrequency ablation (RFA) and microwave ablation are the most widely used technologies. RFA has been successfully applied to tumour measuring from

  11. Malignant rhabdoid tumour of kidney - a rare aggressive tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Shetty MV

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant rhabdoid tumour of kidney is a rare highly aggressive neoplasm of childhood. We present the case of a 18-months old girl presenting with decreased appetite, abdominal distention of 20 days duration and 3 episodes of haematuria. The patient underwent left radical nephrectomy and histopathological examination of the excised specimen confirmed the diagnosis of malignant rhabdoid tumour of the kidney. This case highlights the need to consider malignant rhabdoid tumour of the kidney of possibility young children in presenting with a renal mass.

  12. MR diffusion imaging of human intracranial tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbe, K; Gideon, P; Wagn, P; Hansen, Ulla; Thomsen, C; Madsen, F

    1997-01-01

    We used MRI for in vivo measurement of brain water self-diffusion in patients with intracranial tumours. The study included 28 patients (12 with high-grade and 3 with low-grade gliomas, 7 with metastases, 5 with meningiomas and 1 with a cerebral abscess). Apparent diffusion coefficients (ADC) wer...

  13. Tumours and tumour mimics in the olecranon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesions in the olecranon are rare and may be identified during the investigation of a clinically suspected abnormality or as an incidental finding. This review describes the spectrum of tumours and tumour-like lesions that can involve the olecranon and illustrates the radiographic, CT, and MRI appearances that may facilitate diagnosis. A variety of pathological processes affecting the olecranon are presented and discussed including the epidemiology and imaging features

  14. Solid pseudopapillary tumour of the pancreas in an 11-year-old Iranian girl

    OpenAIRE

    Akhavan, Ali; Binesh, Fariba; Navabii, Hossein

    2012-01-01

    Solid pseudopapillary tumour (SPT) of the pancreas is a low-malignancy-potential tumour of the pancreas. It mostly occurs in young female adults. It is uncommon in childhood. Here, we present the case of an 11-year-old girl with SPT.

  15. The MOBI-Kids study protocol: challenges in assessing childhood and adolescent exposure to electromagnetic fields from wireless telecommunication technologies and possible association with brain tumor risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegal eSadetzki

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The rapid increase in mobile phone use in young people has generated concern about possible health effects of exposure to radiofrequency (RF, extremely low frequency (ELF electromagnetic fields (EMF. MOBI-Kids, a multinational case-control study, investigates the potential effects of childhood and adolescent exposure to EMF from mobile communications technologies on brain tumor risk in 14 countries. The study, which aims to include approximately 1,000 brain tumor cases aged 10-24 years and two individually matched controls for each case, follows a common protocol and builds upon the methodological experience of the INTERPHONE study. The design and conduct of a study on EMF exposure and brain tumor risk in young people in a large number of countries is complex and poses methodological challenges. This manuscript discusses the design of MOBI-Kids and describes the challenges and approaches chosen to address them, including: 1 the choice of controls operated for suspected appendicitis, to reduce potential selection bias related to low response rates among population controls; 2 investigating a young study population spanning a relatively wide age-range. 3 conducting a large, multinational epidemiological study, while adhering to increasingly stricter ethics requirements; 4 investigating a rare and potentially fatal disease; and 5 assessing exposure to EMF from communication technologies. Our experience thus far developing and implementing the study protocol indicates that MOBI-Kids is feasible and will generate results that will contribute to the understanding of potential brain tumor risks associated with use of mobile phones and other wireless communications technologies among young people.

  16. The MOBI-Kids Study Protocol: Challenges in Assessing Childhood and Adolescent Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields from Wireless Telecommunication Technologies and Possible Association with Brain Tumor Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadetzki, Siegal; Langer, Chelsea Eastman; Bruchim, Revital; Kundi, Michael; Merletti, Franco; Vermeulen, Roel; Kromhout, Hans; Lee, Ae-Kyoung; Maslanyj, Myron; Sim, Malcolm R.; Taki, Masao; Wiart, Joe; Armstrong, Bruce; Milne, Elizabeth; Benke, Geza; Schattner, Rosa; Hutter, Hans-Peter; Woehrer, Adelheid; Krewski, Daniel; Mohipp, Charmaine; Momoli, Franco; Ritvo, Paul; Spinelli, John; Lacour, Brigitte; Delmas, Dominique; Remen, Thomas; Radon, Katja; Weinmann, Tobias; Klostermann, Swaantje; Heinrich, Sabine; Petridou, Eleni; Bouka, Evdoxia; Panagopoulou, Paraskevi; Dikshit, Rajesh; Nagrani, Rajini; Even-Nir, Hadas; Chetrit, Angela; Maule, Milena; Migliore, Enrica; Filippini, Graziella; Miligi, Lucia; Mattioli, Stefano; Yamaguchi, Naohito; Kojimahara, Noriko; Ha, Mina; Choi, Kyung-Hwa; Mannetje, Andrea ’t; Eng, Amanda; Woodward, Alistair; Carretero, Gema; Alguacil, Juan; Aragones, Nuria; Suare-Varela, Maria Morales; Goedhart, Geertje; Schouten-van Meeteren, A. Antoinette Y. N.; Reedijk, A. Ardine M. J.; Cardis, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    The rapid increase in mobile phone use in young people has generated concern about possible health effects of exposure to radiofrequency (RF) and extremely low frequency (ELF) electromagnetic fields (EMF). MOBI-Kids, a multinational case–control study, investigates the potential effects of childhood and adolescent exposure to EMF from mobile communications technologies on brain tumor risk in 14 countries. The study, which aims to include approximately 1,000 brain tumor cases aged 10–24 years and two individually matched controls for each case, follows a common protocol and builds upon the methodological experience of the INTERPHONE study. The design and conduct of a study on EMF exposure and brain tumor risk in young people in a large number of countries is complex and poses methodological challenges. This manuscript discusses the design of MOBI-Kids and describes the challenges and approaches chosen to address them, including: (1) the choice of controls operated for suspected appendicitis, to reduce potential selection bias related to low response rates among population controls; (2) investigating a young study population spanning a relatively wide age range; (3) conducting a large, multinational epidemiological study, while adhering to increasingly stricter ethics requirements; (4) investigating a rare and potentially fatal disease; and (5) assessing exposure to EMF from communication technologies. Our experience in thus far developing and implementing the study protocol indicates that MOBI-Kids is feasible and will generate results that will contribute to the understanding of potential brain tumor risks associated with use of mobile phones and other wireless communications technologies among young people. PMID:25295243

  17. Results from an international case-control study of childhood brain tumors: the role of prenatal vitamin supplementation.

    OpenAIRE

    Preston-Martin, S; Pogoda, J M; Mueller, B A; Lubin, F; Modan, B.; Holly, E. A.; G. Filippini; Cordier, S; Peris-Bonet, R.; Choi, W; Little, J; Arslan, A.

    1998-01-01

    An international case-control study of primary pediatric brain tumors included interviews with mothers of cases diagnosed from 1976 to 1994 and mothers of population controls. Data are available on maternal vitamin use during pregnancy for 1051 cases and 1919 controls from eight geographic areas in North America, Europe, and Israel. Although risk estimates varied by study center, combined results suggest that maternal supplementation for two trimesters may decrease risk of brain tumor (odds r...

  18. Brain metastases of solid tumour. Treatment distribution and analysis of survival in the period 1/01/2004 to 31/12/2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To retrospectively analyze the characteristics, treatments and survival analysis in patients with solid tumors with brain metastases (E IV) assisted in Unit Neuro-Oncology over a period of five years. Patients and methods: The records of patients (pts) with diagnosis of brain metastases from solid tumors assisted in Neuro-Oncology Unit, from 1/01/2004 and 31/12/2008. Results: 51 new patients carriers of brain metastases were treated with solid tumors. The median age at diagnosis was 57 years, ranging from 30 to 75. They corresponded to the male 37 and female 14 ratio 2.5 / 1. The majority was presented as metastases 31/51. The location was in the supratentorial region in 27 cases, posterior fossa in 11 and 13 were supra and infratentorial. In only 5 patients cranial MRI was performed in only one case and it changed the therapeutical strategy. In 35 patients he corresponded to the lung primary tumor (CBP), following cancer renal (5/51). Within the CBP, the most common histologic subtypes were to large cells and adenocarcinomas, 11 and 10, respectively. In 32 patients were not found dissemination elsewhere. Surgery + RT was performed in 30 cases, in 11 exclusive RT, exclusive surgery in 4 and 3 patients symptomatic treatment. In 39 cases did not Systemic treatment diagnosis. When a progression was only diagnosed It could make systemic treatment 5 pts. The median survival was 15.4 weeks (1-301 weeks). Conclusions: Lung cancer is the most common source of metastases brain, with a poor survival. The results of other characteristics patients, systemic treatments performed and survival according to the treatments performed will be presented during the congresss

  19. Non-invasive brain stimulation for the treatment of brain diseases in childhood and adolescence: state of the art, current limits and future challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmelo Mario Vicario

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades interest in application of non-invasive brain stimulation for enhancing neural functions is growing continuously. However, the use of such techniques in pediatric populations remains rather limited and mainly confined to the treatment of severe neurological and psychiatric diseases. In this article we provide a complete review of non-invasive brain stimulation studies conducted in pediatric populations. We also provide a brief discussion about the current limitations and future directions in a field of research still very young and full of issues to be explored.

  20. Psychiatric Aspects of Childhood Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Pattanayak, Raman Deep; Sagar, Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    How to Cite this Article: Pattanayak RD, Sagar R. Psychiatric Aspects of Childhood Epilepsy. Iran J Child Neurol 2012;6(2):9-18.Childhood epilepsy is a chronic, recurrent disorder of unprovoked seizures. Theonset of epilepsy in childhood has significant implications for brain growth anddevelopment. Seizures may impair the ongoing neurodevelopmental processes and compromise the child’s intellectual and cognitive functioning, leading totremendous cognitive, behavioral and psychosocial consequen...

  1. PATHOLOGICAL SPECTRUM OF CNS TUMOURS: FIVE YEAR STUDY IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tumours form an integral part of disease process affecting the CNS and constitute a major part of all intracranial space occupying lesions. AIM: To study the histological findings of CNS tumors and to classify them according to WHO classification. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a five year study in which all the specimens of tumors of brain and spinal cord received in the department of Pathology were analyzed with reference to histological type and grade of tumors by examination of hematoxylin and eosin stained slides and from information in pathology reports. RESULTS: A total of 315 cases were analyzed in the present study. Brain tumors formed the major part with a percentage of 87.9%, and tumors of spinal cord constituted 12.1% of all CNS tumors. All the brain and spinal cord tumors showed male preponderance except meningiomas in which male to female ratio was 1:2.3. Mean age of presentation of CNS tumors was 45.5 years. Overall, astrocytomas were the most common CNS tumors followed by meningiomas. Among the astrocytic tumors, glioblastoma multiforme was commonest accounting for 69.5% of all astrocytic tumors. Transitional meningioma was the most commonly observed meningeal tumor in brain as well as spinal cord. Pilocytic astrocytoma and medulloblastoma were the commonest tumors seen in childhood.

  2. Efficacy of 68Ga-DOTATOC Positron Emission Tomography (PET) CT in Children and Young Adults With Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-17

    Acoustic Schwannoma; Adult Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Adult Anaplastic Ependymoma; Adult Anaplastic Meningioma; Adult Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Choroid Plexus Tumor; Adult Craniopharyngioma; Adult Diffuse Astrocytoma; Adult Ependymoblastoma; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Adult Glioblastoma; Adult Gliosarcoma; Adult Grade I Meningioma; Adult Grade II Meningioma; Adult Medulloblastoma; Adult Meningeal Hemangiopericytoma; Adult Mixed Glioma; Adult Myxopapillary Ependymoma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Papillary Meningioma; Adult Pilocytic Astrocytoma; Adult Pineal Gland Astrocytoma; Adult Pineoblastoma; Adult Pineocytoma; Adult Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Adult Subependymoma; Adult Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor (PNET); Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Ependymoblastoma; Childhood Grade I Meningioma; Childhood Grade II Meningioma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood High-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Meningeal Melanocytoma; Newly Diagnosed Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Adult Brain Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligoastrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Diffuse Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Fibrillary Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Gemistocytic Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Giant Cell Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Glioblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Gliomatosis Cerebri; Recurrent Childhood Gliosarcoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood

  3. Childhood medulloblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massimino, Maura; Biassoni, Veronica; Gandola, Lorenza; Garrè, Maria Luisa; Gatta, Gemma; Giangaspero, Felice; Poggi, Geraldina; Rutkowski, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    Medulloblastoma accounts for 15-20% of childhood nervous system tumours. The risk of dying was reduced by 30% in the last twenty years. Patients are divided in risk strata according to post-surgical disease, dissemination, histology and some molecular features such as WNT subgroup and MYC status. Sixty to 70% of patients older than 3 years are assigned to the average-risk group. High-risk patients include those with disseminated and/or residual disease, large cell and/or anaplastic histotypes, MYC genes amplification. Current and currently planned clinical trials will: (1) evaluate the feasibility of reducing both the dose of craniospinal irradiation and the volume of the posterior fossa radiotherapy (RT) for those patients at low biologic risk, commonly identified as those having a medulloblastoma of the WNT subgroup; (2) determine whether intensification of chemotherapy (CT) or irradiation can improve outcome in patients with high-risk disease; (3) find target therapies allowing tailored therapies especially for relapsing patients and those with higher biological risk. PMID:27375228

  4. Carcinoid tumour of appendix in a child: A rare case at an uncommon site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B R Vani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoid tumours of the appendix are uncommon incidentally detected tumours during histopathological examination following appendicectomy for acute appendicitis. Even though considered rare in children, they are the most frequently encountered tumours of the gastrointestinal tract. To our knowledge, carcinoid tumour of appendix in childhood has not yet been reported from Indian Subcontinent. The clinical presentation is similar to acute appendicitis and the signs and symptoms of carcinoid syndrome have not been reported in children. The prognosis of carcinoid tumour of appendix is excellent in children as the tumour is generally small in size and less aggressive with no metastasis. Simple appendicectomy is curative in most of the patients and long term follow up is debatable. We present here a case of carcinoid tumour of the body of appendix, which is an uncommon location in a 6-year-old child.

  5. MLLT1 YEATS domain mutations in clinically distinctive Favourable Histology Wilms tumours

    KAUST Repository

    Perlman, Elizabeth J.

    2015-12-04

    Wilms tumour is an embryonal tumour of childhood that closely resembles the developing kidney. Genomic changes responsible for the development of the majority of Wilms tumours remain largely unknown. Here we identify recurrent mutations within Wilms tumours that involve the highly conserved YEATS domain of MLLT1 (ENL), a gene known to be involved in transcriptional elongation during early development. The mutant MLLT1 protein shows altered binding to acetylated histone tails. Moreover, MLLT1-mutant tumours show an increase in MYC gene expression and HOX dysregulation. Patients with MLLT1-mutant tumours present at a younger age and have a high prevalence of precursor intralobar nephrogenic rests. These data support a model whereby activating MLLT1 mutations early in renal development result in the development of Wilms tumour.

  6. Alzheimer's Gene May Show Effects in Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159854.html Alzheimer's Gene May Show Effects in Childhood Brain scans ... 13, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A gene related to Alzheimer's disease may start to show effects on brain ...

  7. De novo WDR45 mutation in a patient showing clinically Rett syndrome with childhood iron deposition in brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohba, Chihiro; Nabatame, Shin; Iijima, Yoshitaka; Nishiyama, Kiyomi; Tsurusaki, Yoshinori; Nakashima, Mitsuko; Miyake, Noriko; Tanaka, Fumiaki; Ozono, Keiichi; Saitsu, Hirotomo; Matsumoto, Naomichi

    2014-05-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder mostly caused by MECP2 mutations. We identified a de novo WDR45 mutation, which caused a subtype of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation, in a patient showing clinically typical RTT. The mutation (c.830+1G>A) led to aberrant splicing in lymphoblastoid cells. Sequential brain magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated that iron deposition in the globus pallidus and the substantia nigra was observed as early as at 11 years of age. Because the patient showed four of the main RTT diagnostic criteria, WDR45 should be investigated in patients with RTT without MECP2 mutations. PMID:24621584

  8. Detection of multiple endocrine tumours using 131I-MIBG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: An 131l-MIBG scan was requested in an effort to locate an endocrine tumour after the patient presented with a history of funny turns, intermittent hypertension and elevated urinary catecholamines. The patient was injected with 131l-MIBG, and scanned 48 and 72 hours post-injection. Anterior and posterior static images of the torso identified several abnormal accumulations of 131l-MIBG. To help with the diagnosis a 99mTc-MPP scan followed. Blood pool images showed areas of intense activity matching some of the abnormalities on the 131l-MIBG scan. The delayed images were unremarkable. Some of these abnormalities were palpable on physical examination and the patient was aware of these lesions since childhood. Surgical excision of five tumours was performed. Histology of 131l tumours confirmed the diagnosis of ganglioneuroma. The nuclear medicine scans successfully identified the location and type of tumour responsible for the patient''s hormonal problems

  9. Neonatal exposure to estradiol-17β modulates tumour necrosis factor alpha and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in brain and also in ovaries of adult female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shridharan, Radhika Nagamangalam; Krishnagiri, Harshini; Govindaraj, Vijayakumar; Sarangi, SitiKantha; Rao, Addicam Jagannadha

    2016-02-01

    The sexually dimorphic organization in perinatal rat brain is influenced by steroid hormones. Exposure to high levels of estrogen or endocrine-disrupting compounds during perinatal period may perturb this process, resulting in compromised reproductive physiology and behavior as observed in adult In our recent observation neonatal exposure of the female rats to estradiol-17β resulted in down-regulation of TNF-α, up-regulation of COX-2 and increase in SDN-POA size in pre-optic area in the adulthood. It is known that the control of reproductive performance in female involves a complex interplay of the hypothalamus, pituitary, and ovary. The present study was undertaken to understand the possible molecular mechanism involved in changes observed in the ovarian morphology and expression of selected genes in the ovary. Administration of estradiol-17β (100 μg) on day 2 and 3 after birth revealed up-regulation of ER-α, ER-β, COX-2 and down-regulation of TNF-α expression. Also the decrease in the ovarian weight, altered ovarian morphology and changes in the 2D protein profiles were also seen. This is apparently the first report documenting that neonatal estradiol exposure modulates TNF-α and COX-2 expression in the ovary as seen during adult stage. Our results permit us to suggest that cues originating from the modified brain structure due to neonatal exposure of estradiol-17β remodel the ovary at the molecular level in such a way that there is a disharmony in the reproductive function during adulthood and these changes are perennial and can lead to infertility and changes of reproductive behavior. PMID:26872318

  10. Electrochemotherapy of tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrochemotherapy consists of chemotherapy followed by local application of electric pulses to the tumour to increase drug delivery into cells. Drug uptake can be increased by electroporation for only those drugs whose transport through the plasma membrane is impeded. Among many drugs that have been tested so far, only bleomycin and cisplatin found their way from preclinical testing to clinical trials. In vitro studies demonstrated several fold increase of their cytotoxicity after electroporation of cells. In vivo, electroporation of tumours after local or systemic administration of either of the drugs, i.e. electrochemotherapy, proved to be an effective antitumour treatment. In preclinical studies on several tumour models, electrochemotherapy either with bleomycin or cisplatin was elaborated and parameters for effective local tumour control were determined. In veterinary medicine, electrochemotherapy also proved to be effective in the treatment of primary tumours in cats, dogs and horses. In human clinical studies, electrochemotherapy was performed on the patients with progressive disease and accessible tumour nodules of different malignancies. All clinical studies demonstrated that electrochemotherapy is an effective treatment for local tumour control in cancer patients. (author)

  11. A STUDY OF TUMOURS OF THE CRANIAL NERVE AND PARASPINAL NERVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudesh Shetty

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION One of the frequent sites of tumour formation is the cranial nerves and paraspinal nerves. The cranial nerves perform a plethora of functions and so the signs and symptoms caused may be different. They are mainly classified into four different types. The aim of the study is: 1. To study the tumours arising from the cranial nerves in an epidemiological point of view. 2. To study the tumours histopathologically. 3. To classify the tumours according to WHO classification. Thirty-eight brain tumor cases were studied in the Department of Medicine, A. J. Shetty Institute of Medical Sciences, Mangalore. Cranial nerve tumours accounts for 4(10% among the intracranial tumours. Schwannomas makes up 3(7.39% among the Intracranial tumours. and constituted 3(75% among cranial nerve tumours. All the 3 schwannomas were located in CP angle. The geographic distribution of cases was found to be 28 cases from Mangalore and 10 cases from Kerala.

  12. Malignant tumors of childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains 34 papers about malignant tumors. some of the titles are: Invasive Cogenital Mesoblastic Nephroma, Leukemia Update, Unusual Perinatal Neoplasms, Lymphoma Update, Gonadal Germ Cell Tumors in Children, Nutritional Status and Cancer of Childhood, and Chemotherapy of Brain tumors in Children

  13. Brain serotonin synthesis in adult males characterized by physical aggression during childhood: a 21-year longitudinal study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Booij

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adults exhibiting severe impulsive and aggressive behaviors have multiple indices of low serotonin (5-HT neurotransmission. It remains unclear though whether low 5-HT mediates the behavior or instead reflects a pre-existing vulnerability trait. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, positron emission tomography with the tracer alpha-[(11C]methyl-L-tryptophan ((11C-AMT was used to compare 5-HT synthesis capacity in two groups of adult males from a 21-year longitudinal study (mean age +/- SD: 27.1+/-0.7: individuals with a history of childhood-limited high physical aggression (C-LHPA; N = 8 and individuals with normal (low patterns of physical aggression (LPA; N = 18. The C-LHPA males had significantly lower trapping of (11C-AMT bilaterally in the orbitofrontal cortex and self-reported more impulsiveness. Despite this, in adulthood there were no group differences in plasma tryptophan levels, genotyping, aggression, emotional intelligence, working memory, computerized measures of impulsivity, psychosocial functioning/adjustment, and personal and family history of mood and substance abuse disorders. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results force a re-examination of the low 5-HT hypothesis as central in the biology of violence. They suggest that low 5-HT does not mediate current behavior and should be considered a vulnerability factor for impulsive-aggressive behavior that may or may not be expressed depending on other biological factors, experience, and environmental support during development.

  14. Occurrence studies of intracranial tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larjavaara, S.

    2011-07-01

    Intracranial tumours are a histopathologically heterogeneous group of tumours. This thesis focused on three types of intracranial tumours; gliomas, meningiomas and vestibular schwannomas (VS). The main objectives of the dissertation were to estimate the occurrence of intracranial tumours by different subtypes, and to assess the validity and completeness of the cancer registry data. The specific aims of the publications were to evaluate the validity of reported incidence rates of meningioma cases, to describe the trends of VS incidence in four Nordic countries, and to define the anatomic distribution of gliomas and to investigate their location in relation to mobile phone use. Completeness of meningioma registration was examined by comparing five separate sources of information, and by defining the frequencies of cases reported to the Finnish Cancer Registry (FCR). Incidence trends of VS were assessed in the four Nordic countries over a twenty-one-year period (1987 - 2007) using cancer registry data. The anatomic site of gliomas was evaluated using both crude locations in the cerebral lobes and, in more detail, a three-dimensional (3D) distribution in the brain. In addition, a study on specific locations of gliomas in relation to the typical position of mobile phones was conducted using two separate approaches: a case-case and a case-specular analysis. The thesis was based on four sets of materials. Data from the international Interphone study were used for the studies on gliomas, while the two other studies were register-based. The dataset for meningiomas included meningioma cases from the FCR and four clinical data sources in Tampere University Hospital (neurosurgical clinic, pathology database, hospital discharge register and autopsy register). The data on VS were obtained from the national cancer registries of Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The coverage of meningiomas was not comprehensive in any of the data sources. The completeness of FCR was

  15. Occurrence studies of intracranial tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intracranial tumours are a histopathologically heterogeneous group of tumours. This thesis focused on three types of intracranial tumours; gliomas, meningiomas and vestibular schwannomas (VS). The main objectives of the dissertation were to estimate the occurrence of intracranial tumours by different subtypes, and to assess the validity and completeness of the cancer registry data. The specific aims of the publications were to evaluate the validity of reported incidence rates of meningioma cases, to describe the trends of VS incidence in four Nordic countries, and to define the anatomic distribution of gliomas and to investigate their location in relation to mobile phone use. Completeness of meningioma registration was examined by comparing five separate sources of information, and by defining the frequencies of cases reported to the Finnish Cancer Registry (FCR). Incidence trends of VS were assessed in the four Nordic countries over a twenty-one-year period (1987 - 2007) using cancer registry data. The anatomic site of gliomas was evaluated using both crude locations in the cerebral lobes and, in more detail, a three-dimensional (3D) distribution in the brain. In addition, a study on specific locations of gliomas in relation to the typical position of mobile phones was conducted using two separate approaches: a case-case and a case-specular analysis. The thesis was based on four sets of materials. Data from the international Interphone study were used for the studies on gliomas, while the two other studies were register-based. The dataset for meningiomas included meningioma cases from the FCR and four clinical data sources in Tampere University Hospital (neurosurgical clinic, pathology database, hospital discharge register and autopsy register). The data on VS were obtained from the national cancer registries of Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. The coverage of meningiomas was not comprehensive in any of the data sources. The completeness of FCR was

  16. Imaging findings in craniofacial childhood rhabdomyosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the commonest paediatric soft-tissue sarcoma constituting 3-5% of all malignancies in childhood. RMS has a predilection for the head and neck area and tumours in this location account for 40% of all childhood RMS cases. In this review we address the clinical and imaging presentations of craniofacial RMS, discuss the most appropriate imaging techniques, present characteristic imaging features and offer an overview of differential diagnostic considerations. Post-treatment changes will be briefly addressed. (orig.)

  17. Imaging findings in craniofacial childhood rhabdomyosarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freling, Nicole J.M.; Rijn, Rick R. van [Academic Medical Centre, Radiology Department, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Merks, Johannes H.M. [Academic Medical Centre, Paediatric Oncology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Saeed, Peerooz [Academic Medical Centre, Orbital Surgery and Ophthalmology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Balm, Alfons J.M. [Netherlands Cancer Institute, Head and Neck Oncology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bras, Johannes [Academic Medical Centre, Pathology, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pieters, Bradley R. [Academic Medical Centre, Radiotherapy, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Adam, Judit A. [Academic Medical Centre, Nuclear Medicine, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-11-15

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the commonest paediatric soft-tissue sarcoma constituting 3-5% of all malignancies in childhood. RMS has a predilection for the head and neck area and tumours in this location account for 40% of all childhood RMS cases. In this review we address the clinical and imaging presentations of craniofacial RMS, discuss the most appropriate imaging techniques, present characteristic imaging features and offer an overview of differential diagnostic considerations. Post-treatment changes will be briefly addressed. (orig.)

  18. Cardiac tumours in infancy

    OpenAIRE

    Yadava, O.P.

    2012-01-01

    Cardiac tumours in infancy are rare and are mostly benign with rhabdomyomas, fibromas and teratomas accounting for the majority. The presentation depends on size and location of the mass as they tend to cause cavity obstruction or arrhythmias. Most rhabdomyomas tend to regress spontaneously but fibromas and teratomas generally require surgical intervention for severe haemodynamic or arrhythmic complications. Other relatively rare cardiac tumours too are discussed along with an Indian perspect...

  19. Pituitary tumour clonality revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, R N; Farrell, W E

    2004-01-01

    Allelotype analysis and X chromosome inactivation analysis in women enables the assessment of tissue clonality, and has demonstrated that the majority of sporadic human pituitary adenomas are monoclonal. This implies that these tumours arise from de novo somatic genetic change(s) in a single pituitary cell. However, clonality within any given tumour may be multiple or single, multiple tumours arising on the background of hyperplasia may be of identical or different clonality, multiple 'sporadic' tumours in a tissue may be of differing clonal origin, and finally morphology cannot predict genetic makeup. These general principles may also apply to the pituitary so it is simplistic to assume that monoclonality is inevitable and that pituitary tumours cannot be multiclonal in origin. Indeed, these observations would be entirely compatible with the initiating stimulus resulting in hyperplasia of specific cell subtypes in the pituitary giving rise to a number of different clones each with variable potential to develop into a discrete tumour depending on their rate of cell division/rate of apotosis. Stimuli might include pituitary-specific oncogenes, intrapituitary growth factors, or extrapituitary trophic factors (e.g. hypothalamic releasing hormones). PMID:15281347

  20. Immunology of naturally transmissible tumours

    OpenAIRE

    Siddle, Hannah V; Kaufman, Jim

    2014-01-01

    Naturally transmissible tumours can emerge when a tumour cell gains the ability to pass as an infectious allograft between individuals. The ability of these tumours to colonise a new host and to cross histocompatibility barriers contradicts our understanding of the vertebrate immune response to allografts. Two naturally occurring contagious cancers are currently active in the animal kingdom, Canine Transmissible Venereal Tumour (CTVT) that spreads among dogs and Devil Facial Tumour Disease (D...

  1. Neuro-behavioral profile and brain imaging study of the 22q13.3 deletion syndrome in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Philippe, A.; Malan, V.; De Blois, M.C.; Colleaux, L.; Munnich, A. [Hop Necker Enfants Malad, Assistance Publ Hop Paris, Natl Inst Hlth and Med Res, Paris (France); Philippe, A.; De Blois, M.C.; Colleaux, L.; Munnich, A. [HopNecker Enfants Malad, Assistance Publ Hop Paris, Dept Genet, Paris (France); Boddaert, N. [Natl Inst Hlth and Med Res, Mixed Unit Res 0205, Orsay (France); Vaivre-Douret, L.; Robel, L.; Golse, B. [Hop Necker Enfants Malad, Assistance Publ Hop Paris, Dept Psychiat, Paris (France); Vaivre-Douret, L. [Univ Paris 10, Mixed Unit Res S0669, Univ Paris 05, Univ Paris 11, Paris 10 (France); Vaivre-Douret, L. [Assistance Publ Hop Paris, Dept Obstet et Gynaecol, Paris (France); Danon-Boileau, L. [Natl Ctr Sci Res, Mixed Unit Res 7114, Paris (France); Heron, D. [Hop La Pitie Salpetriere, Assistance Publ HopParis, Dept Genet, Paris (France)

    2008-07-01

    The 22q13.3 deletion syndrome (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man No. 606232) is a neuro-developmental disorder that includes hypotonia, severely impaired development of speech and language, autistic-like behavior, and minor dysmorphic features. Although the number of reported cases is increasing, the 22q13.3 deletion remains under-diagnosed because of failure in recognizing the clinical phenotype and detecting the 22qter deletion by routine chromosome analyses. Our goal is to contribute to the description of the neuro-behavioral phenotype and brain abnormalities of this micro-deletional syndrome. We assessed neuro-motor, sensory, language, communication, and social development and performed cerebral MRI and study of regional cerebral blood flow measured by positron emission tomography in 8 children carrying the 22q13.3 deletion. Despite variability in expression and severity, the children shared a common developmental profile characterized by hypotonia, sleep disorders, and poor response to their environment in early infancy; expressive language deficit contrasting with emergence of social reciprocity from ages similar to 3 to 5 years; sensory processing dysfunction; and neuro-motor disorders. Brain MRI findings were normal or showed a thin or morphologically atypical corpus callosum. Positron emission tomography study detected a localized dysfunction of the left temporal polar lobe and amygdala hypoperfusion. The developmental course of the 22q13.3 deletion syndrome belongs to pervasive developmental disorders but is distinct from autism. An improved description of the natural history of this syndrome should help in recognizing this largely under-diagnosed condition. (authors)

  2. Neuro-behavioral profile and brain imaging study of the 22q13.3 deletion syndrome in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 22q13.3 deletion syndrome (Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man No. 606232) is a neuro-developmental disorder that includes hypotonia, severely impaired development of speech and language, autistic-like behavior, and minor dysmorphic features. Although the number of reported cases is increasing, the 22q13.3 deletion remains under-diagnosed because of failure in recognizing the clinical phenotype and detecting the 22qter deletion by routine chromosome analyses. Our goal is to contribute to the description of the neuro-behavioral phenotype and brain abnormalities of this micro-deletional syndrome. We assessed neuro-motor, sensory, language, communication, and social development and performed cerebral MRI and study of regional cerebral blood flow measured by positron emission tomography in 8 children carrying the 22q13.3 deletion. Despite variability in expression and severity, the children shared a common developmental profile characterized by hypotonia, sleep disorders, and poor response to their environment in early infancy; expressive language deficit contrasting with emergence of social reciprocity from ages similar to 3 to 5 years; sensory processing dysfunction; and neuro-motor disorders. Brain MRI findings were normal or showed a thin or morphologically atypical corpus callosum. Positron emission tomography study detected a localized dysfunction of the left temporal polar lobe and amygdala hypoperfusion. The developmental course of the 22q13.3 deletion syndrome belongs to pervasive developmental disorders but is distinct from autism. An improved description of the natural history of this syndrome should help in recognizing this largely under-diagnosed condition. (authors)

  3. Verification of genes differentially expressed in neuroblastoma tumours: a study of potential tumour suppressor genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kogner Per

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the most striking features of the childhood malignancy neuroblastoma (NB is its clinical heterogeneity. Although there is a great need for better clinical and biological markers to distinguish between tumours with different severity and to improve treatment, no clear-cut prognostic factors have been found. Also, no major NB tumour suppressor genes have been identified. Methods In this study we performed expression analysis by quantitative real-time PCR (QPCR on primary NB tumours divided into two groups, of favourable and unfavourable outcome respectively. Candidate genes were selected on basis of lower expression in unfavourable tumour types compared to favourables in our microarray expression analysis. Selected genes were studied in two steps: (1 using TaqMan Low Density Arrays (TLDA targeting 89 genes on a set of 12 NB tumour samples, and (2 12 genes were selected from the TLDA analysis for verification using individual TaqMan assays in a new set of 13 NB tumour samples. Results By TLDA analysis, 81 out of 87 genes were found to be significantly differentially expressed between groups, of which 14 have previously been reported as having an altered gene expression in NB. In the second verification round, seven out of 12 transcripts showed significantly lower expression in unfavourable NB tumours, ATBF1, CACNA2D3, CNTNAP2, FUSIP1, GNB1, SLC35E2, and TFAP2B. The gene that showed the highest fold change in the TLDA analysis, POU4F2, was investigated for epigenetic changes (CpG methylation and mutations in order to explore the cause of the differential expression. Moreover, the fragile site gene CNTNAP2 that showed the largest fold change in verification group 2 was investigated for structural aberrations by copy number analysis. However, the analyses of POU4F2 and CNTNAP2 showed no genetic alterations that could explain a lower expression in unfavourable NB tumours. Conclusion Through two steps of verification, seven

  4. Elevation of neuron specific enolase and brain iron deposition on susceptibility-weighted imaging as diagnostic clues for beta-propeller protein-associated neurodegeneration in early childhood: Additional case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Kyoko; Shiba, Naoko; Wakui, Keiko; Yamaguchi, Tomomi; Aida, Noriko; Inaba, Yuji; Fukushima, Yoshimitsu; Kosho, Tomoki

    2016-02-01

    Beta-propeller protein-associated neurodegeneration (BPAN), also known as static encephalopathy of childhood with neurodegeneration in adulthood (SENDA), is a subtype of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA). BPAN is caused by mutations in an X-linked gene WDR45 that is involved in autophagy. BPAN is characterized by developmental delay or intellectual disability until adolescence or early adulthood, followed by severe dystonia, parkinsonism, and progressive dementia. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) shows iron deposition in the bilateral globus pallidus (GP) and substantia nigra (SN). Clinical manifestations and laboratory findings in early childhood are limited. We report a 3-year-old girl with BPAN who presented with severe developmental delay and characteristic facial features. In addition to chronic elevation of serum aspartate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and soluble interleukin-2 receptor, she had persistent elevation of neuron specific enolase (NSE) in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. MRI using susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) demonstrated iron accumulation in the GP and SN bilaterally. Targeted next-generation sequencing identified a de novo splice-site mutation, c.831-1G>C in WDR45, which resulted in aberrant splicing evidenced by reverse transcriptase-PCR. Persistent elevation of NSE and iron deposition on SWI may provide clues for diagnosis of BPAN in early childhood. PMID:26481852

  5. Experimental tumour treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report of 1984 is the seventh in a series and presents that year's results of continuous studies in the domain of experimental tumour radiotherapy. In the year under review, more personnel has been available for the studies, and the scientific programmes for the assessment of acute and chronic side effects of radiotherapies have been extended. New models have been developed, among them a first system based on animal experiments, for quantifying the mucositis of the oral and pharyngeal mucosa, a limiting condition in the radiotherapy of head and throat tumours. Another significant advancement is a model for quantification of chronical damage to the ureter, which still is a serious problem in the radiotherapy of gynaecological tumours. The 1984 experimental tumour studies have been mainly devoted to the repopulation and split-dose recovery in various tumours, concentrating on dose fractionation as one of the major problems studies. Particular interest has been attached to the processes involved in treatments over several weeks with a daily effective dose of 2 Gy. (orig./MG)

  6. Childhood Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cells. It is the most common type of childhood cancer. Your blood cells form in your bone ... in the bones or joints Risk factors for childhood leukemia include having a brother or sister with ...

  7. Childhood Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Childhood Stress KidsHealth > For Parents > Childhood Stress Print A A ... and feel stress to some degree. Sources of Stress Stress is a function of the demands placed ...

  8. Immunology of naturally transmissible tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddle, Hannah V; Kaufman, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Naturally transmissible tumours can emerge when a tumour cell gains the ability to pass as an infectious allograft between individuals. The ability of these tumours to colonize a new host and to cross histocompatibility barriers contradicts our understanding of the vertebrate immune response to allografts. Two naturally occurring contagious cancers are currently active in the animal kingdom, canine transmissible venereal tumour (CTVT), which spreads among dogs, and devil facial tumour disease (DFTD), among Tasmanian devils. CTVT are generally not fatal as a tumour-specific host immune response controls or clears the tumours after transmission and a period of growth. In contrast, the growth of DFTD tumours is not controlled by the Tasmanian devil's immune system and the disease causes close to 100% mortality, severely impacting the devil population. To avoid the immune response of the host both DFTD and CTVT use a variety of immune escape strategies that have similarities to many single organism tumours, including MHC loss and the expression of immunosuppressive cytokines. However, both tumours appear to have a complex interaction with the immune system of their respective host, which has evolved over the relatively long life of these tumours. The Tasmanian devil is struggling to survive with the burden of this disease and it is only with an understanding of how DFTD passes between individuals that a vaccine might be developed. Further, an understanding of how these tumours achieve natural transmissibility should provide insights into general mechanisms of immune escape that emerge during tumour evolution. PMID:25187312

  9. Childhood Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, Justine; Howard, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Childhood obesity has important consequences for health and wellbeing both during childhood and also in later adult life. The rising prevalence of childhood obesity poses a major public health challenge in both developed and developing countries by increasing the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases. Despite the urgent need for effective preventative strategies, there remains disagreement over its definition due to a lack of evidence on the optimal cut-offs linking childhood BMI to dis...

  10. Pathobiology of brain metastases

    OpenAIRE

    Nathoo, N; Chahlavi, A; Barnett, G. H.; Toms, S A

    2005-01-01

    Brain metastasis is a major cause of systemic cancer morbidity and mortality. Many factors participate in the development and maintenance of brain metastases. The survival of the metastasis depends upon crucial interactions between tumour cells and the brain microenvironment during its development at the new site. This review focuses on the pathobiological mechanisms involved in the establishment and regulation of brain metastases. Developments in molecular biology have vastly expanded our kn...

  11. Parallel evolution of tumour subclones mimics diversity between tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Pierre; Birkbak, Nicolai Juul; Gerlinger, Marco; McGranahan, Nicholas; Burrell, Rebecca A; Rowan, Andrew J; Joshi, Tejal; Fisher, Rosalie; Larkin, James; Szallasi, Zoltan; Swanton, Charles

    2013-08-01

    Intratumour heterogeneity (ITH) may foster tumour adaptation and compromise the efficacy of personalized medicine approaches. The scale of heterogeneity within a tumour (intratumour heterogeneity) relative to genetic differences between tumours (intertumour heterogeneity) is unknown. To address this, we obtained 48 biopsies from eight stage III and IV clear cell renal cell carcinomas (ccRCCs) and used DNA copy-number analyses to compare biopsies from the same tumour with 440 single tumour biopsies from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of TCGA and multi-region ccRCC samples revealed segregation of samples from the same tumour into unrelated clusters; 25% of multi-region samples appeared more similar to unrelated samples than to any other sample originating from the same tumour. We found that the majority of recurrent DNA copy number driver aberrations in single biopsies were not present ubiquitously in late-stage ccRCCs and were likely to represent subclonal events acquired during tumour progression. Such heterogeneous subclonal genetic alterations within individual tumours may impair the identification of robust ccRCC molecular subtypes classified by distinct copy number alterations and clinical outcomes. The co-existence of distinct subclonal copy number events in different regions of individual tumours reflects the diversification of individual ccRCCs through multiple evolutionary routes and may contribute to tumour sampling bias and impact upon tumour progression and clinical outcome. PMID:23716380

  12. Facial reflex examination for assessment of trigeminal nerve involvement in pituitary fossa tumours.

    OpenAIRE

    Bynke, O

    1985-01-01

    Sixteen patients with pituitary fossa tumours with different intrasellar extension have been studied by facial reflex examination, a neurophysiological test for the trigemino-facial pathway. Impaired transmission along the reflex path was shown in patients with proved encroachments on the flexible walls of the cavernous sinuses, but with no tumour spread to the brain stem and facial nerve. The findings were consistent with a subclinical involvement of the first trigeminal division. Tumour rem...

  13. The feasibility of a brain tumour website

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piil, K; Jakobsen, J; Juhler, M;

    2015-01-01

    hypothesized that the BTW would be feasible, safe, helpful and convenient for individuals to obtain support and information. METHODS: This is an exploratory, prospective six-month feasibility study. Two separate samples were collected: 1) a nationwide sample consisting of BTW visitors over a six-month period...... and 2) a sample of patients with HGG (n = 9) and their caregivers (n = 8) interviewed three months after being introduced to the BTW. RESULTS: The BTW was accessed from 131 different Danish towns and cities, and from ten different countries. The website had 637 unique users. The interviews identified...

  14. Genetically modified tumour vaccines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bubeník, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 3, Suppl. 1 (2005), S7. ISSN 1214-021X. [Cells VI - Biological Days /18./. 24.10.2005-26.10.2005, České Budějovice] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : tumour vaccines * HPV16 Subject RIV: EC - Immunology

  15. Tumour vasculature and angiogenic profile of paediatric pilocytic astrocytoma; is it much different from glioblastoma?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sie, M.; de Bont, E. S. J. M.; Scherpen, F. J. G.; Hoving, E. W.; den Dunnen, W. F. A.

    2010-01-01

    Aims: Pilocytic astrocytomas are the most frequent brain tumours in children. Because of their high vascularity, this study aimed to obtain insights into potential angiogenic related therapeutic targets in these tumours by characterization of the vasculature and the angiogenic profile. In this study

  16. Gating and tracking, 4D in thoracic tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verellen, D; Depuydt, T; Gevaert, T; Linthout, N; Tournel, K; Duchateau, M; Reynders, T; Storme, G; De Ridder, M

    2010-10-01

    The limited ability to control for a tumour's location compromises the accuracy with which radiation can be delivered to tumour-bearing tissue. The resultant requirement for larger treatment volumes to accommodate target uncertainty restricts the radiation dose because more surrounding normal tissue is exposed. With image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT), these volumes can be optimized and tumouricidal doses may be delivered, achieving maximum tumour control with minimal complications. Moreover, with the ability of high precision dose delivery and real-time knowledge of the target volume location, IGRT has initiated the exploration of new indications in radiotherapy such as hypofractionated radiotherapy (or stereotactic body radiotherapy), deliberate inhomogeneous dose distributions coping with tumour heterogeneity (dose painting by numbers and biologically conformal radiation therapy), and adaptive radiotherapy. In short: "individualized radiotherapy". Tumour motion management, especially for thoracic tumours, is a particular problem in this context both for the delineation of tumours and organs at risk as well as during the actual treatment delivery. The latter will be covered in this paper with some examples based on the experience of the UZ Brussel. With the introduction of the NOVALIS system (BrainLAB, Feldkirchen, Germany) in 2000 and consecutive prototypes of the ExacTrac IGRT system, gradually a hypofractionation treatment protocol was introduced for the treatment of lung tumours and liver metastases evolving from motion-encompassing techniques towards respiratory-gated radiation therapy with audio-visual feedback and most recently dynamic tracking using the VERO system (BrainLAB, Feldkirchen, Germany). This evolution will be used to illustrate the recent developments in this particular field of research. PMID:20673737

  17. Regulation of ongoing DNA synthesis in normal and neoplastic brain tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Yakisich, Juan Sebastián

    2005-01-01

    The treatment of human brain tumour is challenging in part due to the blood brain barrier and in part due to the specific biology of brain tumours that confer resistance to chemotherapy. For instance, the 5 years survival rate for patients carrying intracranial glioblastoma multiforme has remained at 4-5 % for the last 30 years. The knowledge of the brain tumour biology as well as the biology of the normal brain tissue would help to design new therapeutic strategies and to d...

  18. The potential for epigenetic analysis of paediatric CNS tumours to improve diagnosis, treatment and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton-Oates, A; MacGregor, D; Dodgshun, A; Saffery, R

    2015-07-01

    Tumours of central nervous system (CNS) origin are the second most prevalent group of cancers in children, yet account for the majority of childhood cancer-related deaths. Such tumours show diverse location, cell type of origin, disease course and long-term outcome, both across and within tumour types, making treatment problematic and contributing to the relatively modest progress in reducing mortality over recent decades. As technological advances begin to reveal the genetic landscape of all cancers, it is becoming increasingly clear that genetic disruption represents only one 'layer' of molecular disruption associated with disease aetiology. Obtaining a full understanding of tumour behaviour requires an understanding of the cellular and molecular pathways disrupted during tumourigenesis, particularly in relation to gene expression. The utility of such an approach has allowed stratification of cancers such as medulloblastoma into subgroups based on molecular features, with potential to refine risk prediction. Given that epigenetic disruption is a universal feature of all human cancers, it is logical to speculate that interrogating epigenetic marks may help to further define the molecular profile, and therefore the clinical trajectory, of tumours. An integrated approach to build a molecular 'signature' of individual tumours that incorporates traditional morphological and demographic information, genetic and transcriptome analysis, in addition to epigenomics (DNA methylation and non-coding RNA analysis), offers tremendous promise to (i) inform treatment approach, (ii) facilitate accurate early identification (preferably at diagnosis) of variable risk groups (both good and poor prognosis groups), and (iii) track disease progression in childhood CNS tumours. PMID:25605740

  19. Malignant salivary gland tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, S.H. (University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa). Dept. of Oral Pathology)

    1982-08-01

    The most frequent malignant salivary gland tumours are the mucoepidermoid tumour, adenoid cystic carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The major salivary glands and the minor glands of the mouth and upper respiratory tract may potentially develop any of these malignant lesions. Malignant lesions most frequently present as a palpable mass and tend to enlarge more rapidly than benign neoplasms. Pain, paresthesia, muscle paralysis and fixation to surrounding tissue are all ominous signs and symptoms. The only reliable means of differential diagnosis of these lesions is biopsy and histologic analysis. Therapy involves surgery or a combination of surgery and radiation therapy. The ultimate prognosis is governed by the intrinsic biologic behaviour of the neoplasms, the extent of disease and adequate clinical therapy.

  20. Malignant salivary gland tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The most frequent malignant salivary gland tumours are the mucoepidermoid tumour, adenoid cystic carcinoma and adenocarcinoma. The major salivary glands and the minor glands of the mouth and upper respiratory tract may potentially develop any of these malignant lesions. Malignant lesions most frequently present as a palpable mass and tend to enlarge more rapidly than benign neoplasms. Pain, paresthesia, muscle paralysis and fixation to surrounding tissue are all ominous signs and symptoms. The only reliable means of differential diagnosis of these lesions is biopsy and histologic analysis. Therapy involves surgery or a combination of surgery and radiation therapy. The ultimate prognosis is governed by the intrinsic biologic behaviour of the neoplasms, the extent of disease and adequate clinical therapy

  1. Haemorrhagic pituitary tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a group of 69 patients with pituitary tumours, 12 were found to have evidence of intratumoral haemorrhage on MRI, characterized by high signal intensity on short TR/TE sequences. This was verified in all but 1 patient. The majority of the bleedings occurred in macroadenomas. Five (42%) were prolactinomas and 4 (33%) were non-functioning adenomas. There were 2 GH- and 1 ACTH-secreting tumours. All 5 patients with prolactinomas were on bromocriptine medication. Two of the patients had a clinical picture of pituitary apoplexy. The haemorrhage was not large enough to prompt surgery in any of the patients. However, surgical verification of the diagnosis was obtained in 5 cases, while 6 patients were examined with follow-up MRI. (orig.)

  2. Neonatal soft tissue tumours.

    OpenAIRE

    Spicer, R D

    1992-01-01

    Thirty-five different soft tissue tumours occurring in the first month of life are described and classified into five Clinical Groups. A. Excellent prognosis with no treatment or simple surgical excision. B. Good prognosis. Treatment depends upon anatomical site. C. Good prognosis. Treatment usually surgical but chemotherapy may be indicated in certain situations. D. Intermediate prognosis. Treatment as for older child, usually surgery or chemotherapy. E. Poor prognosis. Treatment palliative ...

  3. Soft tissue tumours.

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, A J; Thomas, J M

    1997-01-01

    Any soft tissue swelling beneath the deep fascia should be considered a sarcoma until proven otherwise. As the most important factor in the primary treatment of these cancers is the adequacy of the primary surgical resection, it is vital to diagnose these malignant tumours pre-operatively. The modern treatment of soft tissue sarcomas may involve all modalities, but the most important aspect of treatment of a primary localised sarcoma is wide excisional surgery preserving limb function. Radiot...

  4. A RARE PANCREATIC TUMOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Panda

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Insulinomas are extremely rare. Patients present with hypoglycaemic symptoms which are due to neuroglycopenia and catecholamine release. Many patients are wrongly treated for neurological symptoms for some time before proper diagnosis is made. We present a case of insulinoma and include a review of literature. Case Report: A 35 year old male presented with 4 years history of symptoms suggesting, tremor, convulsion, palpitation and swelling often relieved by eating sugar lumps . He had considerable weight gains and was under antiepileptic medication for frequent seizure. Investigation reveled low blood sugar with high insulin level. CT identified a nodular tumour of pancreas. Further tests ruled out MEN 1 but confirmed insulinoma. He was operated with successful enucleation of tumour. Results: Postoperative his blood sugar normalised and was completely symptom free. Conclusions: Though insulinoma is a rare tumour, the classical presentation with symptoms of hypoglycemia, low blood glucose (40-50 mg/dL and relief of symptoms after administration of glucose (Whipple triad makes it easy to suspect. Biochemical tests with 72 hour fasting test, blood glucose and insulin ratios etc are highly confirmatory. It is associated with MEN 1 in 5% cases . Preoperative localization and introperative localization is essential for successful outcome.

  5. Paediatric solid tumours in Nigerian children: A changing pattern?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanko Na′anlep

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood cancer is fast becoming an important paediatric problem in Nigeria and several parts of Africa, with the progressive decline of infectious and nutritional diseases. The following study was a 5-year retrospective review of paediatric solid tumours as seen at the Jos University Teaching Hospital, Nigeria. Objective: To determine the relative frequencies of childhood solid malignant tumours in Jos, Central Nigeria and compare with reports of previous studies both locally and abroad. Materials and Methods: Cancer registers and medical records of patients were used to extract demographic data, specimen number and/or codes. Archival materials were retrieved from the histopathology laboratory and sections were made from paraffin embedded blocks of these specimens. Slides of these histological sections were reviewed and reclassified where necessary. The relative frequencies were then determined. Results: One hundred and eighty one solid tumours of children were diagnosed within the study period. Ninety-four (51% were benign and 87 (49% malignant. Male: Female ratio was 1.3:1. The commonest malignant tumour diagnosed was rhabdomyosarcoma which accounted for 27 (31%, comprising of 15 (55.6%, 11 (40.7% and 1 (3.7% embryonal, alveolar and pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcomas, respectively. Non Hodgkin lymphoma and Burkitt lymphoma accounted for 17 (19.5% and 12 (13.8%, respectively. Conclusion: Based on the result of our study, we conclude that the commonest solid malignancy of childhood in Jos, Nigeria is rhabdomyosarcoma. This has implications for diagnosis, management and prognosis of theses soft tissue sarcomas in our paediatric population.

  6. Identification of genes involved in the biology of atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumours using Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeibmann, Astrid; Eikmeier, Kristin; Linge, Anna; Kool, Marcel; Koos, Björn; Schulz, Jacqueline; Albrecht, Stefanie; Bartelheim, Kerstin; Frühwald, Michael C.; Pfister, Stefan M.; Paulus, Werner; Hasselblatt, Martin

    2014-06-01

    Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumours (AT/RT) are malignant brain tumours. Unlike most other human brain tumours, AT/RT are characterized by inactivation of one single gene, SMARCB1. SMARCB1 is a member of the evolutionarily conserved SWI/SNF chromatin remodelling complex, which has an important role in the control of cell differentiation and proliferation. Little is known, however, about the pathways involved in the oncogenic effects of SMARCB1 inactivation, which might also represent targets for treatment. Here we report a comprehensive genetic screen in the fruit fly that revealed several genes not yet associated with loss of snr1, the Drosophila homologue of SMARCB1. We confirm the functional role of identified genes (including merlin, kibra and expanded, known to regulate hippo signalling pathway activity) in human rhabdoid tumour cell lines and AT/RT tumour samples. These results demonstrate that fly models can be employed for the identification of clinically relevant pathways in human cancer.

  7. Simulating tumour removal in neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radetzky, A; Rudolph, M

    2001-12-01

    In this article the software system ROBO-SIM is described. ROBO-SIM is a planning and simulation tool for minimally invasive neurosurgery. Different to the most other simulation tools, ROBO-SIM is able to use actual patient's datasets for simulation. Same as in real neurosurgery a planning step, which provides more functionality as up-to-date planning systems on the market, is performed before undergoing the simulated operation. The planning steps include the definition of the trepanation point for entry into the skull and the target point within the depth of the brain, checking the surgical track and doing virtual trepanations (virtual craniotomy). For use with an intra-operative active manipulator, which is guided by the surgeon during real surgery (robotic surgery), go- and non-go-areas can be defined. During operation, the robot restricts the surgeon from leaving these go-areas. After planning, an additional simulation system, which is understood as an extension to the planning step, is used to simulate whole surgical interventions directly on the patient's anatomy basing on the planning data and by using the same instruments as for the real intervention. First tests with ROBO-SIM are performed on a phantom developed for this purpose and on actual patient's datasets with ventricular tumours. PMID:11734406

  8. Vaginal haemangioendothelioma: an unusual tumour.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mohan, H

    2012-02-01

    Vaginal tumours are uncommon and this is a particularly rare case of a vaginal haemangioendothelioma in a 38-year-old woman. Initial presentation consisted of symptoms similar to uterovaginal prolapse with "something coming down". Examination under anaesthesia demonstrated a necrotic anterior vaginal wall tumour. Histology of the lesion revealed a haemangioendothelioma which had some features of haemangiopericytoma. While the natural history of vaginal haemangioendothelioma is uncertain, as a group, they have a propensity for local recurrence. To our knowledge this is the third reported case of a vaginal haemangioendothelioma. Management of this tumour is challenging given the paucity of literature on this tumour. There is a need to add rare tumours to our "knowledge bank" to guide management of these unusual tumours.

  9. Childhood Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Aydın, Ahmet; Koca, Fahrettin; Fıçıcıoğlu, Can; Çam, Halit; Mıkla, Şerare

    1995-01-01

    Management of childhood obesity and its early and late complications are among the most difficult problems confronted by pediatricians and practitioners The purpose of this review is to provide information for the evaluation and treatment of childhood obesity Key nbsp;words: nbsp;Child Obesity Etiology Management Complications

  10. Radiological diagnosis of liver tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixty patients treated with an intra-arterial cytostatic drug for metastases from colo-rectal carcinoma were evaluated with angiography to determine prognostic parameters. The extent of tumour in the liver and an unchanged or diminished tumour volume following treatment, as demonstrated with angiography, were associated with significant prolongation of survival. Patients who developed occlusion of the hepatic artery or of branches of the portal vein, also survived longer. 189 patients examined with angiography, 161 with computed tomography (CT), 95 with computed tomographic arteriography (CTA) and 71 with ultrasound (US) were subjected to liver evaluation at laparotomy consisting of inspection and palpation. The result of this surgical liver evaluation was for the purpose of the study regarded as completely accurate and was used to assess the accuracy of the different radiological methods. The location of tumour in the liver lobes or segments was analysed, with a separate evaluation of the right and left liver lobes. The rate of detection of individual tumour nodules was also determined. Angiography detected 55% of liver areas affected by tumour and 47% of individual tumour nodules. CT detected 83% of liver lobes or segments containing tumour, and 70% of the tumour nodules. US detected 69% of the portions of liver holding tumour, and also 69% of the tumour nodules. CTA detected 85% of tumours areas and 74% of separate tumour nodules. Some lesions detected with CT were not seen with CTA and vice versa. More false-positive results were recorded with CTA than with CT using intravenous contrast enhancement. (orig.)

  11. Neurohypophysis granular cell tumours. Upon neurohypophysis rare tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granular cell tumours of neurohypophysis are rare. These tumours are more often encountered as incidental autopsy findings seen in up to 17 % of unselected adult autopsy cases. There are few reports of para-sellar granular cell tumours large enough to cause symptoms. We present three cases of neurohypophysis granular cell tumour and a review of the literature. In one patient, the asymptomatic granular cell tumour was incidentally discovered at surgical removal of a corticotrophic micro-adenoma. The remaining 2 patients had a symptomatic tumour which caused neurological symptoms such as visual disturbance and headaches and endocrine disorders such as hypopituitarism or hyper-prolactinaemia. In these 2 cases, computerized tomography showed a well-circumscribed, contrast-enhanced, intra-sellar and supra-sellar mass. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated an isointense gadolinium-enhanced mass in T1-weighted-images. Trans-sphenoidal partial resection was performed and histology was interpreted as a granular cell tumour. The immunohistochemical study was positive for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GEAP) and neuron specific enolase (NSE) in 1 of the 2 tumours and positive for S100 protein and vimentin in both tumours but negative for CD68. The histogenesis of neurohypophysis granular cell tumours is still controversial but ultrastructural and immunohistochemical studies support the theory that may arise from pituicytes, the glial cells of neurohypophysis. Management of these benign, slow growing, tumours is based mainly on neurosurgical resection. Data from the literature do not support a beneficial effect of post operative radiation therapy on postoperative recurrences. (authors). 23 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  12. Benign tumours of the vulva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To present clinicopathological analysis of benign tumours of the vulva. Patients and Methods: Thirty cases of benign tumours of vulva were studied during 2 years research period. Detailed history along with complete local and general physical examination followed by all necessary pre-operative investigations were carried out. Excision surgery was the treatment of choice in majority of cases while marsupialization was done for Bartholin's cyst. Histopathology of tumours specimen was also collected. Results: A total of 30 cases were studied. Twenty-two were cystic and 8 were solid tumours. Aggressive angiomyxoma was 10% of solid tumours and Bartholin's cyst was 46.6% of cystic tumours. Most of the patients were multipara and between 21-30 years of age. The main site of tumour was labium majus. Excision surgery for all cases and marsupialization for Bartholin's cyst was treatment of choice. Conclusion: Aggressive angiomyxoma is the commonest solid benign vulval tumour. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of vulval mass in women of reproductive age. (author)

  13. Improving tumour response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation oncology is in the middle of the most exciting developments in its 100-year history. Progress in treatment planning and delivery, in medical imaging and in basic cancer and normal tissue biology is likely to change the indication for radiotherapy as well as the way it is prescribed and delivered. Technological and conceptual advances, in particular the development of the multi-leaf collimator and the concept of inverse treatment planning, have led to the introduction of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with its capability to plan and deliver non-uniform dose distributions in the clinic. This has forced us to re-think radiation oncology: refining the indication for radiotherapy, optimizing the prescription of dose distributions and considering how, based on clinical evidence, radiation can best be combined with other treatment modalities, surgery, cytotoxic chemotherapy and biologically targeted therapies. The attraction of radiation therapy as an element of multi-modality cancer therapy is that it induces DNA damage that can be modulated in space and time. Progress in basic cancer biology, genomics and proteomics, as well as biological imaging provides novel avenues for individualization of cancer therapy and for biological optimization of radiotherapy. In improving cancer care, it is the therapeutic ratio, rather than tumour control per se, that must be optimised. Interestingly, the two main avenues for improving the effectiveness of radiotherapy currently being actively pursued in the clinic generally aim at different sides of the therapeutic ratio: 3D conformal radiotherapy and IMRT predominantly aim to reduce normal-tissue side effects - and by doing this, open the way for dose escalation that may lead to increased tumour control rates - whereas combined radio-chemotherapy aims to improve tumour response - while keeping the fingers crossed that this will not increase normal-tissue complications to the same extent. In parallel with these

  14. Childhood Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells. It is the most common type of childhood cancer. ... blood cells help your body fight infection. In leukemia, the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood cells. ...

  15. Brain metastases from colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vagn-Hansen, Chris Aksel; Rafaelsen, Søren Rafael

    2001-01-01

    Brain metastases from colorectal cancer are rare. The prognosis for patients with even a single resectable brain metastasis is poor. A case of surgically treated cerebral metastasis from a rectal carcinoma is reported. The brain tumour was radically resected. However, cerebral, as well...... as extracerebral, disease recurred 12 months after diagnosis. Surgical removal of colorectal metastatic brain lesions in selected cases results in a longer survival time....

  16. Childhood leukaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The debate on whether there is any link between leukaemia clusters and nuclear installations has been raging since the early eighties. A Government Inquiry found no link between childhood leukaemia and residence near Seascale, an area near British Nuclear Fuels Sellafield plant. Research in the 1980s linked childhood leukaemia to fathers' occupations prior to conception in the Seascale plant but also to workers in the iron, steel, farming and chemical industries. This article reviews research findings to date. (UK)

  17. Inside the Adolescent Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Stacy S.

    2009-01-01

    Dr. Jay Giedd says that the main alterations in the adolescent brain are the inverted U-shaped developmental trajectories with late childhood/early teen peaks for gray matter volume among others. Giedd adds that the adolescent brain is vulnerable to substances that artificially modulate dopamine levels since its reward system is in a state of flux.

  18. Cancer and tumour markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer has been a major cause of death world wide and in Nigeria there are six commonest forms of manifestation of cancer known. Of these prostrate cancer is the highest with 16% occurrence of all known cancers according to a study by the Histopathology Department of the UCH. Many factors, amongst them dietary, environmental, lifestyle, age and sedentary work are possible causes. With the global rise in incidents, the IAEA initiated the Tumour Marker Project as a means of screening cancers in 15 African countries including Nigeria. In Nigeria, 4 groups of the commonest cancers have been chosen for screening. These are prostrate cancer, primary liver cancer, cancer of the GI tract and trophoblastic cancer

  19. Recurrent hyperphosphatemic tumoural calcinosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amit, Sonal; Agarwal, Asha; Nigam, Anand; Rao, Yashwant Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Tumoural calcinosis (TC) is a benign gradually developing disorder that can occur in a variety of clinical settings, characterised by subcutaneous deposition of calcium phosphate with or without giant cell reaction. We describe a case of 11-year-old girl presenting with recurrent hard swellings in the vicinity of shoulder and hip joints associated with elevated serum phosphate and normal serum calcium levels. TC has been mainly reported from Africa, with very few cases reported from India. After the diagnosis of hyperphosphatemic TC was established, the patient was treated with oral sevelamer and is under constant follow-up to detect recurrence, if any. The present case highlights the fact that although an uncommon lesion, TC must be considered in the differential diagnosis of subcutaneous hard lump in the vicinity of a joint. PMID:23010461

  20. Determination of sarcosine as possible tumour marker of prostate tumours

    OpenAIRE

    Natalia Cernei; Michal Masarik; Jaromir Gumulec; Ondrej Zitka; Petr Babula; Rene Kizek

    2010-01-01

    Amino acid sarcosine, known also as N-methylglycine, may beestablished as new very important marker in prostate malignant tumours and may be determined by very simple test. Cancer of prostate is one of the most incident types of malignant tumours in men. More than one thousand men in Czech Republic die due to this disease. As well as in the case of other malignant tumours, for initiation of treatment well timed diagnosis of disease is necessary. For determination of sarcosine we employed the ...

  1. Childhood maltreatment and amygdala connectivity in methamphetamine dependence: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Dean, Andy C.; Kohno, Milky; Hellemann, Gerhard; London, Edythe D.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Childhood maltreatment, a well-known risk factor for the development of substance abuse disorders, is associated with functional and structural abnormalities in the adult brain, particularly in the limbic system. However, almost no research has examined the relationship between childhood maltreatment and brain function in individuals with drug abuse disorders. Methods We conducted a pilot study of the relationship between childhood maltreatment (evaluated with the Childhood Traum...

  2. Primary malignant lymphoma of the brain of true histiocytic origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary lymphomas are rare brain tumours. A case is reported where the true histiocytic origin was proved by autopsy. The CT features and the differential diagnoses in malignant lymphomas of the brain are discussed. (orig.)

  3. Effect of antemortem and postmortem factors on [3H]MK-801 binding in the human brain: Transient elevation during early childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of a number of antemortem and postmortem factors on [3H]MK-801 binding was investigated under equilibrium conditions in the frontal cortex of human brains of 38 controls. Binding values transiently increased during the early postnatal period reaching a maximum at the age of about 2 years. After age 10 years [3H]MK-801 binding sites disappeared at 5.7% per decade. The storage time of brain tissue had a reducing effect on these binding sites. There was no effect of gender, brain weight or postmortem time interval and the binding sites were bilaterally symmetrically distributed in the frontal cortex

  4. JC polyomavirus in the aetiology and pathophysiology of glial tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftimov, Tihomir; Enchev, Yavor; Tsekov, Iliya; Simeonov, Plamen; Kalvatchev, Zlatko; Encheva, Elitsa

    2016-01-01

    Glial brain tumours with their poor prognosis, limited treatment modalities and unclear detailed pathophysiology represent a significant health concern. The purpose of the current study was to investigate and describe the possible role of the human polyomavirus JC as an underlying cancerogenic or co-cancerogenic factor in the complex processes of glial tumour induction and development. Samples from 101 patients with glial tumours were obtained during neurosurgical tumour resection. Small tissue pieces were taken from several areas of the histologically verified solid tumour core. Biopsies were used for DNA extraction and subsequent amplification reactions of sequences from the JC viral genome. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used for detection and quantification of its non-coding control region (NCCR) and gene encoding the regulatory protein Large T antigen (LT). An average of 37.6% of all patients was found to be LT positive, whereas only 6.9% tested positive for NCCR. The analysis of the results demonstrated significant variance between the determined LT prevalence and the rate for NCCR, with a low starting copy number in all positive samples and threshold cycles in the range of 36 to 42 representing viral load in the range from 10 to 1000 copies/μl. The results most probably indicate incomplete JC viral replication. Under such conditions, mutations in the host cell genome may be accumulated due to interference of the virus with the host cell machinery, and eventually malignant transformation may occur. PMID:26560882

  5. Imaging methods for ovarian tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper compares the results of MRT with sonography in 64 patients with tumours of the adnexa in 35 patients examined by CT. There was no difference between these three imaging methods as regards lateralisation of the lesion. MRT provided better differentiation because of the excellent demonstration of the uterus and of tumours of the adnexa. Detailed tissue characterisation, particularly as regards cystic lesions, provides improved diagnostic information. MRT has problems, however, because of its low spatial resolution and the difficulty in differentiation from bowel loops. At present sonography and CT is better at establishing a differential diagnosis. CT remains the method of choice for tumour staging. (orig.)

  6. CT appearances of pleural tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salahudeen, H.M. [Department of Radiology, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust (United Kingdom)], E-mail: hmdsal@gmail.com; Hoey, E.T.D. [Department of Radiology, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust (United Kingdom); Department of Radiology, Papworth Hospital, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Robertson, R.J.; Darby, M.J. [Department of Radiology, Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust (United Kingdom)

    2009-09-15

    Computed tomography (CT) is the imaging technique of choice for characterizing pleural masses with respect to their location, composition, and extent. CT also provides important information regarding invasion of the chest wall and surrounding structures. A spectrum of tumours can affect the pleura of which metastatic adenocarcinoma is the commonest cause of malignant pleural disease, while malignant mesothelioma is the most common primary pleural tumour. Certain CT features help differentiate benign from malignant processes. This pictorial review highlights the salient CT appearances of a range of tumours that may affect the pleura.

  7. Targeting the erythropoietin receptor on glioma cells reduces tumour growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peres, Elodie A.; Valable, Samuel [CERVOxy team ' Hypoxia and cerebrovascular pathophysiology' , UMR 6232 CI-NAPS, Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, Universite Paris-Descartes, CNRS, CEA. G.I.P. CYCERON, Caen (France); Guillamo, Jean-Sebastien [CERVOxy team ' Hypoxia and cerebrovascular pathophysiology' , UMR 6232 CI-NAPS, Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, Universite Paris-Descartes, CNRS, CEA. G.I.P. CYCERON, Caen (France); Departement de Neurologie, CHU de Caen (France); Marteau, Lena [CERVOxy team ' Hypoxia and cerebrovascular pathophysiology' , UMR 6232 CI-NAPS, Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, Universite Paris-Descartes, CNRS, CEA. G.I.P. CYCERON, Caen (France); Bernaudin, Jean-Francois [Service d' Histologie-Biologie Tumorale, ER2UPMC, Universite Paris 6, Hopital Tenon, Paris (France); Roussel, Simon [CERVOxy team ' Hypoxia and cerebrovascular pathophysiology' , UMR 6232 CI-NAPS, Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, Universite Paris-Descartes, CNRS, CEA. G.I.P. CYCERON, Caen (France); Lechapt-Zalcman, Emmanuele [CERVOxy team ' Hypoxia and cerebrovascular pathophysiology' , UMR 6232 CI-NAPS, Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, Universite Paris-Descartes, CNRS, CEA. G.I.P. CYCERON, Caen (France); Service d' Anatomie Pathologique, CHU de Caen (France); Bernaudin, Myriam [CERVOxy team ' Hypoxia and cerebrovascular pathophysiology' , UMR 6232 CI-NAPS, Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, Universite Paris-Descartes, CNRS, CEA. G.I.P. CYCERON, Caen (France); Petit, Edwige, E-mail: epetit@cyceron.fr [CERVOxy team ' Hypoxia and cerebrovascular pathophysiology' , UMR 6232 CI-NAPS, Universite de Caen Basse-Normandie, Universite Paris-Descartes, CNRS, CEA. G.I.P. CYCERON, Caen (France)

    2011-10-01

    Hypoxia has been shown to be one of the major events involved in EPO expression. Accordingly, EPO might be expressed by cerebral neoplastic cells, especially in glioblastoma, known to be highly hypoxic tumours. The expression of EPOR has been described in glioma cells. However, data from the literature remain descriptive and controversial. On the basis of an endogenous source of EPO in the brain, we have focused on a potential role of EPOR in brain tumour growth. In the present study, with complementary approaches to target EPO/EPOR signalling, we demonstrate the presence of a functional EPO/EPOR system on glioma cells leading to the activation of the ERK pathway. This EPO/EPOR system is involved in glioma cell proliferation in vitro. In vivo, we show that the down-regulation of EPOR expression on glioma cells reduces tumour growth and enhances animal survival. Our results support the hypothesis that EPOR signalling in tumour cells is involved in the control of glioma growth.

  8. Targeting the erythropoietin receptor on glioma cells reduces tumour growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hypoxia has been shown to be one of the major events involved in EPO expression. Accordingly, EPO might be expressed by cerebral neoplastic cells, especially in glioblastoma, known to be highly hypoxic tumours. The expression of EPOR has been described in glioma cells. However, data from the literature remain descriptive and controversial. On the basis of an endogenous source of EPO in the brain, we have focused on a potential role of EPOR in brain tumour growth. In the present study, with complementary approaches to target EPO/EPOR signalling, we demonstrate the presence of a functional EPO/EPOR system on glioma cells leading to the activation of the ERK pathway. This EPO/EPOR system is involved in glioma cell proliferation in vitro. In vivo, we show that the down-regulation of EPOR expression on glioma cells reduces tumour growth and enhances animal survival. Our results support the hypothesis that EPOR signalling in tumour cells is involved in the control of glioma growth.

  9. Multicellular Streaming in Solid Tumours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kas, Josef

    As early as 400 BCE, the Roman medical encyclopaedist Celsus recognized that solid tumours are stiffer than surrounding tissue. However, cancer cell lines are softer, and softer cells facilitate invasion. This paradox raises several questions: Does softness emerge from adaptation to mechanical and chemical cues in the external microenvironment, or are soft cells already present inside a primary solid tumour? If the latter, how can a more rigid tissue contain more soft cells? Here we show that in primary tumour samples from patients with mammary and cervix carcinomas, cells do exhibit a broad distribution of rigidities, with a higher fraction of softer and more contractile cells compared to normal tissue. Mechanical modelling based on patient data reveals that, surprisingly, tumours with a significant fraction of very soft cells can still remain rigid. Moreover, in tissues with the observed distributions of cell stiffnesses, softer cells spontaneously self-organize into lines or streams, possibly facilitating cancer metastasis.

  10. Sclerosing stromal tumour of ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chitrawati B. Gargade

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sclerosing stromal tumor is rare benign ovarian sex cord stromal tumour which occurs predominantly in the 2nd and 3rd decades of life. We report a case of a 32-year-old woman who presented with irregular menstruation and pelvic pain. She underwent panhysterectomy as USG revealed a solid and cystic 15 cm right ovarian tumour with increased vascularity with raised CA125. Hysterectomy specimen revealed a benign sclerosing stromal tumour of right ovary. We present this rare case to emphasis the awareness of benign sclerosing stromal tumour of ovary in young female to avoid unnecessary extensive surgery. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(6.000: 2037-2040

  11. Pulmonary Scintigraphy for Tumour Diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scanning of the lungs with albumin aggregates is one of the most useful methods for studying variations in pulmonary circulation and diagnosing embolisms and infarcts. However, its utilization for the diagnosis of tumours is barely in the trial stage. Using scintillation scanning, the authors have centered their attention on the study of patients with primary pulmonary tumours and secondary tumours at-other sites, and have observed that the tracer distribution pattern differs fundamentally according to the type of tumour. With metastatic tumours, the repercussion of the lesions in scintillation scanning is slight and is entirely dependent on the volume of the zone of condensation. The tumorous nodules behave entirely like inactive zones within a mass of active functional parenchyma and their effect on the scanning image depends solely on the size of the tumorous region and the amount of healthy parenchyma intervening between it and the detector. With primary pulmonary tumours and more especially those located in the hilar region, relatively small lesions give rise to defects in uptake in extensive areas of the lung, and these may affect various segments, a lobe or even the entire lung. This decrease in uptake cannot be entirely explained by the image of the tumour or by the associated zones of atelectasia, but must be due to serious alteration in the haemodynamics of the lung affected. Various kinds of phenomena associated with tumorous development may cause vascular changes affecting even the periphery of the lung: changes in breathing conditions accompanied by a reduction of oxygen tension, leading to change in haemodynamic conditions; pulmonary hypertension through compression of the veins in the lungs which are less resistant than the arteries; and direct nervous stimulation due to irritation of the bronchial plexi as a result of the growth of the tumour and, associated reactive. phenomena. (author)

  12. Ablative therapy for liver tumours

    OpenAIRE

    Dick, E A; Taylor-Robinson, S D; Thomas, H C; Gedroyc, W M W

    2002-01-01

    Established ablative therapies for the treatment of primary and secondary liver tumours, including percutaneous ethanol injection, cryotherapy, and radiofrequency ablation, are discussed. Newer techniques such as magnetic resonance imaging guided laser interstitial thermal therapy of liver tumours has produced a median survival rate of 40.8 months after treatment. The merits of this newly emerging technique are discussed, together with future developments, such as focused ultrasound therapy, ...

  13. Canine mammary tumours, an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeckx, N; de Rooster, H; Veldhuis Kroeze, E J B; Van Ginneken, C; Van Brantegem, L

    2011-12-01

    Canine mammary tumours (CMTs) are the most common neoplasms in intact female dogs. Although the prevalence of these tumours decreases in regions where preventive ovari(ohyster)ectomy is performed, it remains an important disease entity in veterinary medicine. Moreover, treatment options are limited in comparison with human breast cancer. Nevertheless, recent human treatment protocols might have potential in bitches suffering from CMTs. PMID:21645126

  14. Paediatric laryngeal granular cell tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dauda Ayuba

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Granular cell tumour (GCT affecting the larynx is not common, especially in children. Most cases are apt to be confused with respiratory papilloma and may even be mistaken for a malignant neoplasia. We present a case of laryngeal GCT in a 12-year-old child to emphasize that the tumour should be regarded in the differential of growths affecting the larynx in children.

  15. Late endocrine effects of childhood cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Susan R; Horne, Vincent E; Howell, Jonathan; Lawson, Sarah A; Rutter, Meilan M; Trotman, Gylynthia E; Corathers, Sarah D

    2016-06-01

    The cure rate for paediatric malignancies is increasing, and most patients who have cancer during childhood survive and enter adulthood. Surveillance for late endocrine effects after childhood cancer is required to ensure early diagnosis and treatment and to optimize physical, cognitive and psychosocial health. The degree of risk of endocrine deficiency is related to the child's sex and their age at the time the tumour is diagnosed, as well as to tumour location and characteristics and the therapies used (surgery, chemotherapy or radiation therapy). Potential endocrine problems can include growth hormone deficiency, hypothyroidism (primary or central), adrenocorticotropin deficiency, hyperprolactinaemia, precocious puberty, hypogonadism (primary or central), altered fertility and/or sexual function, low BMD, the metabolic syndrome and hypothalamic obesity. Optimal endocrine care for survivors of childhood cancer should be delivered in a multidisciplinary setting, providing continuity from acute cancer treatment to long-term follow-up of late endocrine effects throughout the lifespan. Endocrine therapies are important to improve long-term quality of life for survivors of childhood cancer. PMID:27032982

  16. Tumour markers in urology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The same applies essentially also for the bladder carcinomas: There is no reliable marker for these cancers which would be useful for clinical purposes. TPA has proven to be too non-specific in malignoma-detection and therefore hardly facilitates clinical decision-making in individual cases. The CEA is not sensitive enough to be recommendable for routine application. However, in advanced stages a CEA examination may be useful if applied within the scope of therapeutic efforts made to evaluate efficacy. In cases of carcinomas of the prostate the sour prostate-specific phosphatase (SPP) and, more recently, especially the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) have proven in follow-up and therapy monitoring, whereby the PSA is superior to the SPP. Nevertheless, both these markers should be employed in therapy monitoring because differences in behaviour will be observed when the desired treatment effect is only achieved in one of the two markers producing tumour cell clonuses. Both markers, but especially the PSA, are quite reliably in agreement with the result of the introduced chemo-/hormone therapy, whereby an increase may be a sure indicator of relapse several months previous to clinical symptoms, imaging procedures, so-called routine laboratory results and subjective complaints. However, none of the 2 markers is appropriate for the purposes of screening or early diagnosis of carcinomas of the prostate. (orig.)

  17. Radiotherapy of testicular tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schumacher, M.

    1980-01-01

    In the first part of the paper, the general pathological, diagnostical and therapeutical measures against seminomas and teratomas are dealt with. In the second part, the results obtained by the radiotherapeutical division of the University Clinics of Freiburg 1964-1977 in the treatment of seminomas and teratomas are described. The average age of the 59 seminoma patients was 36 years, the average age of the 28 teratoma patients was 26. The 5-years-total survival rate of the seminoma patients was 80.8%, for teratoma patients it was 30.5%. In the individual phases, of all seminoma patients in stage I, 93.1% were still alive after 5 years, in stage II 95.9%, in stage III 12.5%. The 5-years survival rate of the teratoma patients in stage I was around 100%, in stage II around 36.8% and in stage III around 20.5%. In the discussion, the problems of the histological and pathological classification for testicular tumours are talked about and the treatment methods used at the Freiburg university clinics are described. The results obtained in the Freiburg university clinics are compared with those of other authors.

  18. Analysis of losses of heterozygosity of the candidate tumour suppressor gene DMBT1 in melanoma resection specimens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deichmann, M; Mollenhauer, J; Helmke, B;

    2002-01-01

    Deleted in malignant brain tumours 1 (DMBT1), a candidate tumour suppressor gene located on chromosome 10q25.3-q26.1, has recently been identified and found to be deleted in several different types of human tumours. In melanomas, the chromosomal region 10q22-qter is commonly affected by losses, h...... naevi and melanoma cells themselves were negative. All considered, the candidate tumour suppressor gene DMBT1 does not appear to be a major inactivation target in the development of melanomas....

  19. Gastrointestinal stromal tumours: pictorial review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) are the most common mesenchymal tumours of the alimentary tract. They normally involve the stomach, the small bowel, or the colon. Localisation within the oesophagus, rectum, mesentery, omentum, or retroperitoneum is less common, GISTs are immunohistochemically identified by the expression of the c-kit protein, which is not detected in other mesenchymal tumours. The role of imaging includes the detection (subjects with occult gastro-intestinal bleeding, incidental recognition, etc.), characterisation, analysis of relations between mass and gastrointestinal wall, staging, prognostic assessment (recognition of signs of malignancy and unfavourable prognosis), and follow-up during specific treatment. Owing to the frequent exophytic growth of these lesions, differentiation of these tumours from non digestive lesions of different nature is a common diagnostic problem. Imaging findings usually allow differentiation from gastrointestinal epithelial tumours but not from non-epithelial tumours, for which histological confirmation is necessary, in part to verify potential response to therapy. Smaller lesions, which are usually benign, tend to be well-defined, relatively homogeneous, and with intraluminal growth. Larger lesions normally show well-defined or ill defined margins, inhomogeneous density both on unenhanced and on contrast-enhanced scans, with combined intraluminal/extra luminal growth and a tendency to spread to surrounding structures. Internal attenuation is often necrotic or clearly fluid. Signs of high-grade GIST include liver metastasis, gastrointestinal wall infiltration, large volume, irregular surface, ill-defined margins, inhomogeneous enhancement and peritoneal spread. Recurrences usually share the appearance of the larger, primary malignant GIST

  20. Childhood obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitmann, Berit L; Koplan, Jeffrey; Lissner, Lauren

    2009-01-01

    Despite progress toward assuring the health of today's young population, the 21(st) century began with an epidemic of childhood obesity. There is general agreement that the situation must be addressed by means of primary prevention, but relatively little is known about how to intervene effectively....... The evidence behind the assumption that childhood obesity can be prevented was discussed critically in this roundtable symposium. Overall, there was general agreement that action is needed and that the worldwide epidemic itself is sufficient evidence for action. As the poet, writer, and scholar...

  1. HISTOMORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF PAEDIATRIC LIVER TUMOUR S-A SINGLE INSTITUTION EXPERIENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhika Krishna

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Liver tumours are uncommon in infan cy and childhood, accounting to 1-2% of all paediatr ic neoplasms. Though rare, 2/3rds of cases unfold as malignancies. These neoplasms differ considerably from their coun terparts in the older age group. The present study reflects the Niloufer experience , a well established tertiary referral centre, Hyde rabad. AIMS & OBJECTIVES: To analyze the various paediatric liver tumours ,to review the frequency and histopatholog y of paediatric liver tumours and to review the existing literature on liver tumou rs of infancy and childhood. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A retrospective analysis of children aged between 8 days and 11 years diagnosed with hepatic tumours wa s done over a period of 7 years (Ju ly 2004 –June 2011.The cases were a nalyzed based on clinical, radiological, biochemic al, gross and microscopic findings. RESULTS: Of the 22 cases studied, 16 were mali gnant tumours of which 11 cases were diagnosed as hepatoblastoma and of the remaining 6 cases, 4 were diagnosed as infantile hemangioendothelioma, 2 as mesenchy mal hamartomas. The incidence in males is slightly higher than in females reflected by the ratio of 1.6:1. CONCLUSIONS: The spectrum of liver tumours in paedi atric population is different from t hat of the older age group. From the present study, we can gather that hepatoblast oma by far is the most common childhood hepatic malignancy unlike hepatocellular carcinoma in the adults. This study also throws light on the incidence in different paediatric age group, difference in male to female incidence, clinical presentation and biochemical data.

  2. An Intraoperative $\\beta^-$ Detecting Probe For Radio-Guided Surgery in Tumour Resection

    OpenAIRE

    Russomando, Andrea; Bellini, Fabio; Bocci, Valerio; Chiodi, Giacomo; Collamati, Francesco; De Lucia, Erika; Donnarumma, Raffaella; Faccini, Riccardo; Terracciano, Carlo Mancini; Marafini, Michela; Paramatti, Riccardo; Patera, Vincenzo; Pinci, Davide; Recchia, Luigi; Sarti, Alessio

    2015-01-01

    The development of the $\\beta^-$ based radio-guided surgery aims to extend the technique to those tumours where surgery is the only possible treatment and the assessment of the resection would most profit from the low background around the lesion, as for brain tumours. Feasibility studies on meningioma, glioma, and neuroendocrine tumors already estimated the potentiality of this new treatment. To validate the technique, prototypes of the intraoperative probe required by the technique to detec...

  3. The Askin tumour. Neuroactodermic tumour of the thoracic wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Askin tumours is an extremely rare and malignant process in the thoracic pulmonary region during infancy and youth. The differential diagnosis has to be considered with other thoracic wall tumours that are more common in pediatrics like the undifferentiated neuroblastoma, the embionic rabdomiosarcoma, the Ewing sarcoma and the linfoma. A retrospective examination was carried out on 473 thoracic wall tumours from 1994 to 1997 at our centre, resulting in 4 patients with an anatomopathologically tested Askin tumour (ages from 13-21). All the cases were studied using simple radiography and CT. In two cases MRI was also used. The most common clinical manifestation was a palpable painful mass in the thoracic wall. In the simple radiograph the main finding was a large mass of extrapleural soft material, with costal destruction ( n=3) and a pleural effusion (n=2). In the CT study the mass was heterogeneous, with internal calcifications in one case. CT and MRI showed invasion in the mediastinum (n=1), medular channel (n=1) and phrenic and sulphrenic extension (n=1). The Askin tumour should be included in the differential diagnosis of thoracic wall masses in infant-youth ages. There are no specific morphological characteristics. Both CT and MRI are useful for the diagnosis, staging and follow up. (Author) 11 refs

  4. Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuca, Sevil Ari, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book aims to provide readers with a general as well as an advanced overview of the key trends in childhood obesity. Obesity is an illness that occurs due to a combination of genetic, environmental, psychosocial, metabolic and hormonal factors. The prevalence of obesity has shown a great rise both in adults and children in the last 30 years.…

  5. Childhood Obesity

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-06

    In this podcast, Dr. Tom Frieden, CDC Director, discusses the decrease in childhood obesity rates and what strategies have been proven to work to help our children grow up and thrive.  Created: 8/6/2013 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control.   Date Released: 3/6/2014.

  6. Adrenal Disorders and the Paediatric Brain: Pathophysiological Considerations and Clinical Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Salpietro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Various neurological and psychiatric manifestations have been recorded in children with adrenal disorders. Based on literature review and on personal case-studies and case-series we focused on the pathophysiological and clinical implications of glucocorticoid-related, mineralcorticoid-related, and catecholamine-related paediatric nervous system involvement. Childhood Cushing syndrome can be associated with long-lasting cognitive deficits and abnormal behaviour, even after resolution of the hypercortisolism. Exposure to excessive replacement of exogenous glucocorticoids in the paediatric age group (e.g., during treatments for adrenal insufficiency has been reported with neurological and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI abnormalities (e.g., delayed myelination and brain atrophy due to potential corticosteroid-related myelin damage in the developing brain and the possible impairment of limbic system ontogenesis. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH, a disorder of unclear pathophysiology characterised by increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF pressure, has been described in children with hypercortisolism, adrenal insufficiency, and hyperaldosteronism, reflecting the potential underlying involvement of the adrenal-brain axis in the regulation of CSF pressure homeostasis. Arterial hypertension caused by paediatric adenomas or tumours of the adrenal cortex or medulla has been associated with various hypertension-related neurological manifestations. The development and maturation of the central nervous system (CNS through childhood is tightly regulated by intrinsic, paracrine, endocrine, and external modulators, and perturbations in any of these factors, including those related to adrenal hormone imbalance, could result in consequences that affect the structure and function of the paediatric brain. Animal experiments and clinical studies demonstrated that the developing (i.e., paediatric CNS seems to be particularly vulnerable to alterations induced by

  7. Cranial nerve palsies in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, C J; Godoy, F; ALQahtani, E

    2015-02-01

    We review ocular motor cranial nerve palsies in childhood and highlight many of the features that differentiate these from their occurrence in adulthood. The clinical characteristics of cranial nerve palsies in childhood are affected by the child's impressive ability to repair and regenerate after injury. Thus, aberrant regeneration is very common after congenital III palsy; Duane syndrome, the result of early repair after congenital VI palsy, is invariably associated with retraction of the globe in adduction related to the innervation of the lateral rectus by the III nerve causing co-contraction in adduction. Clinical features that may be of concern in adulthood may not be relevant in childhood; whereas the presence of mydriasis in III palsy suggests a compressive aetiology in adults, this is not the case in children. However, the frequency of associated CNS abnormalities in III palsy and the risk of tumour in VI palsy can be indications for early neuroimaging depending on presenting features elicited through a careful history and clinical examination. The latter should include the neighbouring cranial nerves. We discuss the impact of our evolving knowledge of congenital cranial dysinnervation syndromes on this field. PMID:25572578

  8. Determination of sarcosine as possible tumour marker of prostate tumours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Cernei

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Amino acid sarcosine, known also as N-methylglycine, may beestablished as new very important marker in prostate malignant tumours and may be determined by very simple test. Cancer of prostate is one of the most incident types of malignant tumours in men. More than one thousand men in Czech Republic die due to this disease. As well as in the case of other malignant tumours, for initiation of treatment well timed diagnosis of disease is necessary. For determination of sarcosine we employed the ionex chromatography with postcolumn derivatization by ninhydrin. We achieved the calibration curve linearity R2=0.9984 with limit of detection 500nM. Moreover we confirmed that the calibration was not affected by presence of another aminoacids and ensure thatselectivity of separation is near to 99% efficiency.

  9. Quantification of tumour {sup 18}F-FDG uptake: Normalise to blood glucose or scale to liver uptake?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keramida, Georgia [Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Clinical Imaging Sciences Centre, Brighton (United Kingdom); Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Brighton (United Kingdom); University of Sussex, Clinical Imaging Sciences Centre, Brighton (United Kingdom); Dizdarevic, Sabina; Peters, A.M. [Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Clinical Imaging Sciences Centre, Brighton (United Kingdom); Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Brighton (United Kingdom); Bush, Janice [Brighton and Sussex Medical School, Clinical Imaging Sciences Centre, Brighton (United Kingdom)

    2015-09-15

    To compare normalisation to blood glucose (BG) with scaling to hepatic uptake for quantification of tumour {sup 18}F-FDG uptake using the brain as a surrogate for tumours. Standardised uptake value (SUV) was measured over the liver, cerebellum, basal ganglia, and frontal cortex in 304 patients undergoing {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT. The relationship between brain FDG clearance and SUV was theoretically defined. Brain SUV decreased exponentially with BG, with similar constants between cerebellum, basal ganglia, and frontal cortex (0.099-0.119 mmol/l{sup -1}) and similar to values for tumours estimated from the literature. Liver SUV, however, correlated positively with BG. Brain-to-liver SUV ratio therefore showed an inverse correlation with BG, well-fitted with a hyperbolic function (R = 0.83), as theoretically predicted. Brain SUV normalised to BG (nSUV) displayed a nonlinear correlation with BG (R = 0.55); however, as theoretically predicted, brain nSUV/liver SUV showed almost no correlation with BG. Correction of brain SUV using BG raised to an exponential power of 0.099 mmol/l{sup -1} also eliminated the correlation between brain SUV and BG. Brain SUV continues to correlate with BG after normalisation to BG. Likewise, liver SUV is unsuitable as a reference for tumour FDG uptake. Brain SUV divided by liver SUV, however, shows minimal dependence on BG. (orig.)

  10. Pilocytic Astrocytoma of the Optic Pathway: A Tumour Deriving from Radial Glia Cells with a Specific Gene Signature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchoghandjian, Aurelie; Fernandez, Carla; Colin, Carole; El Ayachi, Ikbale; Voutsinos-Porche, Brigitte; Fina, Frederic; Scavarda, Didier; Piercecchi-Marti, Marie-Dominique; Intagliata, Dominique; Ouafik, L'Houcine; Fraslon-Vanhulle, Caroline; Figarella-Branger, Dominique

    2009-01-01

    Pilocytic astrocytomas are WHO grade I gliomas that occur predominantly in childhood. They share features of both astroglial and oligodendroglial lineages. These tumours affect preferentially the cerebellum (benign clinical course) and the optic pathway, especially the hypothalamo-chiasmatic region (poor prognosis). Understanding the molecular…

  11. A prospective, multicentre trial on the Value of {sup 18}F-FET PET in the post-therapeutic evaluation of childhood brain tumors; Prospektive, multizentrische Studie zur Bedeutung der O-(2-[{sup 18}F]Fluoroethyl)-L-Tyrosin-Positronen-Emissions-Tomografie (FET-PET) in der Verlaufsbeurteilung von Hirntumoren im Kindes- und Jugendalter (FET PET 2010). Vorstellung des Studiendesigns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plotkin, M.; Steffen, I.G. [Charite, Universitaetsmedizin Berlin (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Guggemos, A. [Kliniken der Stadt Koeln (Germany). Klinik fuer Kinder- und Jugendmedizin; Hernaiz Driever, P. [Charite, Universitaetsmedizin Berlin (Germany). Klinik fuer Paediatrie m.S. Onkologie/Haematologie

    2011-07-15

    We present a study concept of a prospective, multicentre trial on the value of {sup 18}F-FET PET in the post-therapeutic evaluation of childhood brain tumors (FET PET 2010). The main objective of this study is to evaluate the performance of {sup 18}F-FET PET in comparison to the MRI in differentiating residual tumor/recurrence from therapy-related changes in pediatric brain tumors after first line therapy. 160 patients will be recruited in this German multicenter study. Duration of study will be 3 years for all patients. (orig.)

  12. Tumour endothelial cells in high metastatic tumours promote metastasis via epigenetic dysregulation of biglycan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maishi, Nako; Ohba, Yusuke; Akiyama, Kosuke; Ohga, Noritaka; Hamada, Jun-ichi; Nagao-Kitamoto, Hiroko; Alam, Mohammad Towfik; Yamamoto, Kazuyuki; Kawamoto, Taisuke; Inoue, Nobuo; Taketomi, Akinobu; Shindoh, Masanobu; Hida, Yasuhiro; Hida, Kyoko

    2016-01-01

    Tumour blood vessels are gateways for distant metastasis. Recent studies have revealed that tumour endothelial cells (TECs) demonstrate distinct phenotypes from their normal counterparts. We have demonstrated that features of TECs are different depending on tumour malignancy, suggesting that TECs communicate with surrounding tumour cells. However, the contribution of TECs to metastasis has not been elucidated. Here, we show that TECs actively promote tumour metastasis through a bidirectional interaction between tumour cells and TECs. Co-implantation of TECs isolated from highly metastatic tumours accelerated lung metastases of low metastatic tumours. Biglycan, a small leucine-rich repeat proteoglycan secreted from TECs, activated tumour cell migration via nuclear factor-κB and extracellular signal–regulated kinase 1/2. Biglycan expression was upregulated by DNA demethylation in TECs. Collectively, our results demonstrate that TECs are altered in their microenvironment and, in turn, instigate tumour cells to metastasize, which is a novel mechanism for tumour metastasis. PMID:27295191

  13. Anti-tumour activity of oncolytic Western Reserve vaccinia viruses in canine tumour cell lines, xenografts, and fresh tumour biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Autio, K; Knuuttila, A; Kipar, A; Ahonen, M; Parviainen, S; Diaconu, I; Kanerva, A; Hakonen, T; Vähä-Koskela, M; Hemminki, A

    2014-10-10

    Cancer is one of the most common reasons for death in dogs. One promising approach is oncolytic virotherapy. We assessed the oncolytic effect of genetically modified vaccinia viruses in canine cancer cells, in freshly excised tumour biopsies, and in mice harbouring canine tumour xenografts. Tumour transduction efficacy was assessed using virus expressing luciferase or fluorescent marker genes and oncolysis was quantified by a colorimetric cell viability assay. Oncolytic efficacy in vivo was evaluated in a nude mouse xenograft model. Vaccinia virus was shown to infect most tested canine cancer cell lines and primary surgical tumour tissues. Virus infection significantly reduced tumour growth in the xenograft model. Oncolytic vaccinia virus has antitumour effects against canine cancer cells and experimental tumours and is able to replicate in freshly excised patient tumour tissue. Our results suggest that oncolytic vaccinia virus may offer an effective treatment option for otherwise incurable canine tumours. PMID:25302859

  14. MRI of the normal brain from early childhood to middle age. Pt. 2. Age dependence of signal intensity changes on T2-weighted images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examined 66 healthy volunteers aged 4 to 50 years by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the signal intensity was measured on T2-weighted images in numerous sites and correlated with age and sex. Using distilled water and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) as references on each slice, we calculated the signal intensities of the brain structures. Calculated ratios between structures did not change with age, except for those of the globus pallidus and thalamus, in which the signal intensities decreased more rapidly. The signal intensities of other brain structures changed equally but this could not be discerned visually and quantitative measurements were required. The signal intensities in the white and deep grey matter decreased rapidly in the first decade and then gradually to reach a plateau after the age of 18 years. Maturation of the brain thus seems to continue until near the end of the second decade of life. No sex differences were found. Quantitative analysis requires intensity references. The CSF in the tips of the frontal horns seems to be as reliable as an external fluid reference for intensity, and can be used in routine examinations provided the frontal horns are large enough to avoid partial volume effect. (orig.)

  15. Tailored nanoparticles for tumour therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Pei-Shin; Drake, Philip; Cho, Hui-Ju; Kao, Chao-Hung; Lee, Kun-Feng; Kuo, Chien-Hung; Lin, Xi-Zhang; Lin, Yuh-Jiuan

    2012-06-01

    Gd doped iron-oxide nanoparticles were developed for use in tumour therapy via magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH). The effect of the Gd3+ dopant on the particle size and magnetic properties was investigated. The final particle composition varied from Gd0.01Fe2.99O4 to Gd0.04Fe2.96O4 as determined by Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). TEM image analysis showed the average magnetic core diameters to be 12 nm and 33 nm for the lowest and highest Gd levels respectively. The specific power adsorption rate (SAR) determined with a field strength of 246 Oe and 52 kHz had a maximum of 38Wg(-1) [Fe] for the Gd0.03Fe2.97O4 sample. This value is about 4 times higher than the reported SAR values for Fe3O4. The potential for in vivo tumour therapy was investigated using a mouse model. The mouse models treated with Gd0.02Fe2.98O4 displayed much slower tumour growth after the first treatment cycle, the tumour had increased its mass by 25% after 7 days post treatment compared to a 79% mass increase over the same period for those models treated with standard iron-oxide or saline solution. After a second treatment cycle the mouse treated with Gd0.02Fe2.98O4 showed complete tumour regression with no tumour found for at least 5 days post treatment. PMID:22905580

  16. Childhood vitiligo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Palit

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Childhood vitiligo is often encountered in dermatological practice. When present in infancy or early childhood, various nevoid and hereditary disorders are to be differentiated. In many cases, familial aggregation of the disease is seen and other autoimmune disorders may be associated. Segmental presentation is more common, and limited body surface area involvement is usual in this age group. Children with vitiligo often suffer from anxiety and depression because of their unusual appearance. Management of vitiligo in children is difficult as therapeutic options are restricted when compared to that in adult patients. Selection of treatment should be careful in these patients with the aim to achieve best results with minimal side effects as well as relieving patients′ and parents′ anxiety.

  17. Childhood psoriasis

    OpenAIRE

    Dogra Sunil; Kaur Inderjeet

    2010-01-01

    Psoriasis is a common dermatosis in children with about one third of all patients having onset of disease in the first or second decade of life. A chronic disfiguring skin disease, such as psoriasis, in childhood is likely to have profound emotional and psychological effects, and hence requires special attention. Psoriasis in children has been reported to differ from that among adults being more frequently pruritic; plaque lesions are relatively thinner, softer, and less scaly; face and flexu...

  18. Childhood Traumatic Grief

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Educators Resources for Kids and Teens Childhood Traumatic Grief What is Childhood Traumatic Grief? Children grieve in their own way following the ... child may have a condition called Childhood Traumatic Grief (CTG). Thinking about the person who died—even ...

  19. Childhood Cancer Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Shop With CureSearch Blog Donate Now Select Page Childhood Cancer Statistics Home > Understanding Children’s Cancer > Childhood Cancer Statistics Childhood Cancer Statistics – Graphs and Infographics Number of Diagnoses ...

  20. Current and future strategies in radiotherapy of childhood low-grade glioma of the brain. Part I. Treatment modalities of radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Treatment of childhood low-grade gliomas is a challenging issue owing to their low incidence and the lack of consensus about ''optimal'' treatment approach. Material and Methods: Reports in the literature spanning 60 years of radiation therapy, including orthovoltage, megavoltage and recently modern high-precision treatments, were reviewed with respect to visual function, survival, prognostic factors, dose prescriptions, target volumes, and treatment techniques. Based on these experiences, future strategies in the management of childhood low-grade glioma are presented. Results: Evaluation of published reports is difficult because of inconsistencies in data presentation, relatively short follow-up in some series and failure to present findings and results in a comparable way. Even with the shortcomings of the reports available in the literature, primarily concerning indications, age at treatment, dose response, timing and use of ''optimal'' treatment fields, radiation therapy continues to play an important role in the management of these tumors achieving long-term survival rates up to 80% or more. Particularly in gliomas of the visual pathway, high local tumor control and improved or stable function is achieved in approximately 90% of cases. Data on dose-response relationships recommend dose prescriptions between 45 and 54 Gy with standard fractionation. There is consensus now to employ radiation therapy in older children in case of progressive disease only, regardless of tumor location and histologic subtype. In younger children, the role of radiotherapy is unclear. Recent advances in treatment techniques, such as 3-D treatment planning and various ''high-precision'' treatments achieved promising initial outcome, however with limited patient numbers and short follow-ups. Conclusions: Radiation therapy is an effective treatment modality in children with low-grade glioma regarding tumor control and improvement and/or preservation of neurologic function or

  1. 2 year follow-up of childhood moyamoya after encephalo-arterio-myo-synangiosis (EDAMS): evaluation with acetazolamide brain SPECT (Acz-SPECT) and MR angiography (MRA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longterm F/U evaluation of cerebrovascular hemodynamic changes after EDAMS is important because childhood moyamoya disease has a progressive nature and EDAMS is an indirect revascularization method. We evaluated cerebro-vascular hemodynamic changes of moyamoya pts during 2 yr after EDAMS with Acz-SPECT and correlated with MRA finding. 23 operated cerebral hemispheres of the 21 childhood moyamoya pts (M/F: 10/11, mean age 8±3 yrs) were evaluated with Acz-SPECT using 99mTc-ECD and MRA within 1 mo before, 1 yr ( 6 ±3 mo) and 2 yr (21 ±7 mo) after EDAMS. 10 pts also underwent frontal encephalo-galeo-synangiosis. Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and cerebrovascular reserve (rCVR) of 8 cortical regions in each hemisphere (2 anterior cerebral artery (ACA), 4 mid-cerebral artery (MCA), and 2 posterior cerebral artery (PCA) territories) were scored as 5 grade scale (0=perfusion defect to 4=normal). Perfusion index (PI) was defined as the sum scores of rCBF and rCVR in each territory. Arterial stenosis and transdural collaterals were also evaluated. The changes of PIs in each territory and the changes of cerebral arterial stenosis with collateral formation at 1 and 2 yr F/U were correlated. Pre-operative stages of moyamoya disease were Suzuki type 1 in 1, 2 in 6, 3 in 7, and 4 in 9 cases. Mean PIs of each territory were summarized in the table. PIs of operated (MCA and ACA) territories were improved in 14, unchanged in 7, and aggravated in 2 cases at 1 yr F/U. PIs of PCA territory were improved in 4, unchanged in 16, and aggravated in 3 cases. At 2 yr F/U, PIs of operated territories were unchanged in 10 and improved in 12 cases including 2 with aggravation and 5 with no change at 1 yr F/U, but newly aggravated in 2 cases. Pis of PCA territory were improved in 5 or unchanged in 15, but further or newly aggravated in 3 cases. The arterial stenosis was progressed in 9 cases (5 MCA, 3 PCA, and/or 3 ACA). In these cases, PIs were aggravated in 3(2 operated and/or 2 PCA

  2. Current and future strategies in radiotherapy of childhood low-grade glioma of the brain. Part I. Treatment modalities of radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortmann, R.D.; Timmermann, B.; Plasswilm, L.; Paulsen, F.; Jeremic, B.; Kay, S.; Bamberg, M. [Dept. of Radiooncology, Univ. of Tuebingen (Germany); Taylor, R.E. [Radiotherapy Dept., Cookridge Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom); Scarzello, G. [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Padua General Hospital (Italy); Gnekow, A.K. [Children' s Hospital, Augsburg (Germany); Dieckmann, K. [Dept. of Radiooncology, General Hospital Vienna (Austria)

    2003-08-01

    Background: Treatment of childhood low-grade gliomas is a challenging issue owing to their low incidence and the lack of consensus about ''optimal'' treatment approach. Material and Methods: Reports in the literature spanning 60 years of radiation therapy, including orthovoltage, megavoltage and recently modern high-precision treatments, were reviewed with respect to visual function, survival, prognostic factors, dose prescriptions, target volumes, and treatment techniques. Based on these experiences, future strategies in the management of childhood low-grade glioma are presented. Results: Evaluation of published reports is difficult because of inconsistencies in data presentation, relatively short follow-up in some series and failure to present findings and results in a comparable way. Even with the shortcomings of the reports available in the literature, primarily concerning indications, age at treatment, dose response, timing and use of ''optimal'' treatment fields, radiation therapy continues to play an important role in the management of these tumors achieving long-term survival rates up to 80% or more. Particularly in gliomas of the visual pathway, high local tumor control and improved or stable function is achieved in approximately 90% of cases. Data on dose-response relationships recommend dose prescriptions between 45 and 54 Gy with standard fractionation. There is consensus now to employ radiation therapy in older children in case of progressive disease only, regardless of tumor location and histologic subtype. In younger children, the role of radiotherapy is unclear. Recent advances in treatment techniques, such as 3-D treatment planning and various ''high-precision'' treatments achieved promising initial outcome, however with limited patient numbers and short follow-ups. Conclusions: Radiation therapy is an effective treatment modality in children with low-grade glioma regarding tumor control

  3. Intraoperative ultrasound in determining the extent of resection of parenchymal brain tumors - a comparative study with computed tomography and histopathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radical excision of parenchymal brain tumours is generally associated with a better long-term outcome; however, it is difficult to ascertain the extent of resection at surgery. We used intra-operative ultrasound [IOUS] to help detect residual tumour and define the tumour-brain interface. Thirty-five patients with parenchymal brain lesions including 11 low-grade and 22 high-grade tumours and 2 inflammatory granulomata were included in the study. The IOUS was used to localize tumours not seen on the surface, define their margins and assess the extent of resection at the end of surgery. Multiple samples from the tumour-brain interface which were reported as tumour or normal tissue an IOUS were submitted to histopathology. The IOUS findings were compared with a postoperative contrast enhanced computed tomogram [CT] and with histopathology. All tumours irrespective of histology were hyperechoic an IOUS. IOUS was useful in localizing those tumours not seen on the surface of the brain. In 71.4 % of cases IOUS was useful in defining their margins, however in the remaining cases the margins were ill-defined. The tumour margins were ill-defined in those treated previously by radiation. With regard to the extent of excision, after excluding the cases who were irradiated, it was found that in the 28 patients who had parenchymal neoplasms, there was concordance between the ultrasound findings and the postoperative CT scan in 23 cases. Of the 79 samples taken from the tumor-brain interface which were reported as tumour on ultrasound, 66 had histopathological evidence of tumour while 13 samples were negative for tumour. On the other hand, in the tissue sent from 17 sites where the IOUS showed no residual tumour, 2 were positive for tumour on histopathology while 15 were negative. In conclusion, IOUS is a cheap and useful real-time tool for localizing tumours not seen on the brain surface, for defining their margins and for determining the extent of resection. (author)

  4. Comparison of contrast-enhanced modified T1-weighted 3D TSE black-blood and 3D MP-RAGE sequences for the detection of cerebral metastases and brain tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kammer, N.N.; Coppenrath, E.; Treitl, K.M.; Saam, T. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Kooijman, H. [Philips Healthcare, Hamburg (Germany); Dietrich, O. [Ludwig-Maximilians-University Hospital Munich, Josef Lissner Laboratory for Biomedical Imaging, Institute for Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    To compare a modified T1-weighted 3D TSE black-blood sequence with sub-millimetre resolution (T1-mVISTA) with a magnetization-prepared rapid gradient echo (MP-RAGE) sequence for the diagnosis of cerebral malignomas. Forty-six patients with known or suspected intracranial tumours and 15 control patients were included in this retrospective study. All patients underwent T1-mVISTA (0.75-mm isotropic resolution, 4:43 min) and MP-RAGE (0.8-mm isotropic resolution, 4:46 minutes) at 3-Tesla in random order after application of contrast agent. Two experienced radiologists determined the number of lesions. Maximum diameter, diagnostic confidence (DC), visual assessment of contrast enhancement (VCE) and CNR{sub lesion/parenchyma} were assessed for each lesion. Significantly more lesions were detected with T1-mVISTA compared to the MP-RAGE (61 vs. 36; p < 0.05). Further, DC and VCE was rated significantly higher in the T1-mVISTA (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001). Mean CNR{sub lesion/parenchyma} was twofold higher for T1-mVISTA (24.2 ± 17.5 vs. 12.7 ± 11.5, p < 0.001). The 25 lesions detected only in T1-mVISTA were significantly smaller than those detected in both sequences (4.3 ± 3.7 mm vs. 11.3 ± 10.7 mm; p < 0.01). T1-mVISTA increases the contrast of lesions significantly compared to MP-RAGE and might therefore improve detection rates of small lesions in early stages of disease. (orig.)

  5. Comparison of contrast-enhanced modified T1-weighted 3D TSE black-blood and 3D MP-RAGE sequences for the detection of cerebral metastases and brain tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare a modified T1-weighted 3D TSE black-blood sequence with sub-millimetre resolution (T1-mVISTA) with a magnetization-prepared rapid gradient echo (MP-RAGE) sequence for the diagnosis of cerebral malignomas. Forty-six patients with known or suspected intracranial tumours and 15 control patients were included in this retrospective study. All patients underwent T1-mVISTA (0.75-mm isotropic resolution, 4:43 min) and MP-RAGE (0.8-mm isotropic resolution, 4:46 minutes) at 3-Tesla in random order after application of contrast agent. Two experienced radiologists determined the number of lesions. Maximum diameter, diagnostic confidence (DC), visual assessment of contrast enhancement (VCE) and CNRlesion/parenchyma were assessed for each lesion. Significantly more lesions were detected with T1-mVISTA compared to the MP-RAGE (61 vs. 36; p < 0.05). Further, DC and VCE was rated significantly higher in the T1-mVISTA (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001). Mean CNRlesion/parenchyma was twofold higher for T1-mVISTA (24.2 ± 17.5 vs. 12.7 ± 11.5, p < 0.001). The 25 lesions detected only in T1-mVISTA were significantly smaller than those detected in both sequences (4.3 ± 3.7 mm vs. 11.3 ± 10.7 mm; p < 0.01). T1-mVISTA increases the contrast of lesions significantly compared to MP-RAGE and might therefore improve detection rates of small lesions in early stages of disease. (orig.)

  6. Ultrasonic treatment of experimental animal tumours.

    OpenAIRE

    Kremkau, F. W.

    1982-01-01

    Studies on the effects of ultrasound on several solid tumours in experimental animals have indicated that tumour growth rates can be reduced. These data are generally consistent with a thermal mechanism of action. Application of combined ultrasound and X-irradiation have shown that with some experimental animal tumours the radiation dose required to locally control 50% of the tumours can be reduced by ultrasound. These results were also consistent with a thermal mechanism of action hypothesis...

  7. Cardiac tumours simulating collagen vascular disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzpatrick, A. P.; Lanham, J. G.; Doyle, D V

    1986-01-01

    Cardiac tumours can mimic collagen vascular disease and they are often accompanied by profound systemic upset. Both benign and malignant tumours may present in this way. Three cases of cardiac tumour, two malignant and one benign, are reported with just such a presentation. A review of fifteen similar case reports showed that a spectrum of different collagen vascular diseases was diagnosed and treated before the true diagnosis emerged. In half of these cases the cardiac tumour was only diagno...

  8. Computer-aided hepatic tumour ablation

    CERN Document Server

    Voirin, D; Amavizca, M; Leroy, A; Letoublon, C; Troccaz, J; Voirin, David; Payan, Yohan; Amavizca, Miriam; Leroy, Antoine; Letoublon, Christian; Troccaz, Jocelyne

    2001-01-01

    Surgical resection of hepatic tumours is not always possible. Alternative techniques consist in locally using chemical or physical agents to destroy the tumour and this may be performed percutaneously. It requires a precise localisation of the tumour placement during ablation. Computer-assisted surgery tools may be used in conjunction to these new ablation techniques to improve the therapeutic efficiency whilst benefiting from minimal invasiveness. This communication introduces the principles of a system for computer-assisted hepatic tumour ablation.

  9. Tumour markers in gynaecological practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gynaecological cancers are fairly common in developing countries and represent about 26 % f all cancers. Application of cervical cytology screening nationally has made cervical cancer one of the most preventable malignant diseases thus eliminating the challenges of advanced cancer management. Tumour markers has played a most crucial role in this respect

  10. Intraoral myxoid nerve sheath tumour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schortinghuis, J; Hille, JJ; Singh, S

    2001-01-01

    A case of an intraoral myxoid nerve sheath tumour of the dorsum of the tongue in a 73-year-old Caucasian male is reported. This case describes the oldest patient with this pathology to date. Immunoperoxidase staining for neuronspecific enolase (NSE) and epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) expression d

  11. Melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of the pineal region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorhan, C.; Soto-Ares, G.; Pruvo, J.P. [Dept. of Neuroradiology, Hopital Roger Salengro, CHRU Lille, Lille (France); Ruchoux, M.M. [Dept. of Neuropathology, Hopital Roger Salengro, CHRU Lille (France); Blond, S. [Dept. of Neurosurgery, Hopital Roger Salengro, CHRU Lille (France)

    2001-11-01

    We describe CT and MR findings in a 23-month-old infant with a melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of the pineal gland. The tumour has been stereotactically biopsied and surgically resected. The pathological diagnosis was made on the resected piece. Embryology of the pineal gland and the histology of melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of infancy are discussed. (orig.)

  12. Solitary fibrous tumour of the spinal cord

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mordani, J.P. [City General Hospital, Stoke-on-Trent (United Kingdom). Dept. of Radiology; Haq, I.U. [North Staffordshire Royal Infirmary, Stoke-on-Trent (United Kingdom). Dept. of Neuroradiology; Singh, J. [North Staffordshire Royal Infirmary, Stoke-on-Trent (United Kingdom). Dept. of Neurosurgery

    2000-09-01

    We report an intramedullary primary solitary fibrous tumour of the cervical spinal cord in a 33-year-old man. The tumour predominantly consisted of monomorphic spindle cells with a storiform pattern. MRI demonstrated an inhomogeneously enhancing cervical intramedullary tumour. The patient was well without recurrence 18 months after surgery. (orig.)

  13. YOLK SAC TUMOUR IN A PREMENARCHAL GIRL : A CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Sourav; Avishek; Pallab Kumar; Bandana; Mrinmoyee

    2015-01-01

    Yolk sac tumour, otherwise known as endodermal sinus tumour, is a rare and highly malignant germ cell tumour accounting for approximately 10% of malignant germ cell tumours. The tumour usually presents as a rapidly growing mass in young women. Here we present a case of a young premenarchal girl with a huge ovarian tumour which pro...

  14. Acute hemiplegia in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuno, Takehiko; Takao, Tatsuo; Itoh, Masatoshi; Konishi, Yukuo; Nakano, Shozo (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1983-04-01

    The results of CT in 100 patients with acute hemiplegia in childhood are reported here. The etiology was various: 2 patients had infratentorial brain tumors, 56 had cerebral vascular diseases, 3 had head injuries, 16 had intracranial infectious diseases, one had postinfectious encephalomyelitis, one had multiple sclerosis, 2 had epilepsy, and the diagnosis of 19 were unknown. Eleven patients had a normal CT and a good prognosis. As for the type of onset, there were patients of type 1 with fever and 42 with convulsions and unconsciousness; those of type 2 with convulsions and unconsciousness were 12, and those of type 3 without fever and convulsions were 46. This classification is assumed to be useful, as the type of onset is characteristic of the etiology. Six patients were diagnosed correctly by repeated examinations, although the first CT did not reveal any remarkable findings. Capsular infarction, occlusion of the posterior cerebral artery in acute hemiplegia in childhood, abnormal findings of the internal capsule, thalamus, and midbrain in a patient with postinfectious encephalomyelitis, and a diffuse low density in the CT of the unilateral hemisphere in the patients with acute encephalopathy and acute hemiplegia of an obscure origin have been found after the introduction of computerized tomography.

  15. Childhood psoriasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dogra Sunil

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a common dermatosis in children with about one third of all patients having onset of disease in the first or second decade of life. A chronic disfiguring skin disease, such as psoriasis, in childhood is likely to have profound emotional and psychological effects, and hence requires special attention. Psoriasis in children has been reported to differ from that among adults being more frequently pruritic; plaque lesions are relatively thinner, softer, and less scaly; face and flexural involvement is common and guttate type is the characteristic presentation. Whether onset in childhood predicts a more severe form of psoriasis is a matter of controversy, it may cause significant morbidity particularly if it keeps relapsing. Most children have mild form of psoriasis which can be generally treated effectively with topical agents such as emollients, coal tar, corticosteroids, dithranol, calcipotriol etc. according to age and the sites affected. Narrow band UVB is the preferred form of phototherapy in children for moderate to severe disease or in patients not responding to topical therapy alone. Systemic therapies are reserved for more severe and extensive cases that cannot be controlled with topical treatment and/or phototherapy such as severe plaque type, unstable forms like erythrodermic and generalized pustular psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. There are no controlled trials of systemic therapies in this age group, most experience being with retinoids and methotrexate with favorable results. Cyclosporine can be used as a short-term intermittent crisis management drug. There is an early promising experience with the use of biologics (etanercept and infliximab in childhood psoriasis. Systemic treatments as well as phototherapy have limited use in children due to cumulative dose effects of drugs, low acceptance, and risk of gonadal toxicity. More evidence-based data is needed about the effectiveness and long-term safety of topical

  16. Reduced gray matter volume in psychotic disorder patients with a history of childhood sexual abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Sheffield, Julia M.; Williams, Lisa E.; Woodward, Neil D.; Heckers, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    Childhood trauma is associated with smaller gray matter volume, similar to the pattern seen in psychotic disorders. We explored the relationship between childhood abuse, psychosis, and brain volume in a group of 60 individuals with a psychotic disorder and 26 healthy control subjects. We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to quantify gray and white matter volume and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) to measure childhood abuse. Within the psychotic disorders group, total gray matter vol...

  17. Subdural enhancement on postoperative spinal MRI after resection of posterior cranial fossa tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warmuth-Metz, M.; Solymosi, L. [Abteilung fuer Neuroradiologie, Klinikum der Bayerischen Julius Maximilians Universitaet, Josef-Schneider-Strasse 11, 97080, Wuerzburg (Germany); Kuehl, J. [Paediatric Oncology, Klinikum der Bayerischen Julius Maximilians Universitaet, Josef-Schneider-Strasse 11, 97080, Wuerzburg (Germany); Krauss, J. [Paediatric Neurosurgery, Klinikum der Bayerischen Julius Maximilians Universitaet, Josef-Schneider-Strasse 11, 97080, Wuerzburg (Germany)

    2004-03-01

    In malignant brain tumours which may disseminate staging, usually by cranial and spinal MRI is necessary. If MRI is performed in the postoperative period pitfalls should be considered. Nonspecific subdural contrast enhancement on spinal staging MRI is rarely reported after resection of posterior fossa tumours, which may be mistaken for dissemination of malignancy. We investigated the frequency of spinal subdural enhancement after posterior cranial fossa neurosurgery in children. We reviewed 53 postoperative spinal MRI studies performed for staging of paediatric malignant brain tumours, mainly infratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumours 2-40 days after surgery. There was contrast enhancement in the spinal subdural space in seven cases. This was not seen in any of eight patients who had been operated upon for a supratentorial tumour. After resection of 45 posterior cranial fossa tumours the frequency of subdural enhancement was 15.5%. MRI showing subdural enhancement was obtained up to 25 days postoperatively. No patient with subdural enhancement had cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examinations positive for tumour cells or developed dissemination of disease in the CSF. Because the characteristic appearances of subdural contrast enhancement, appropriate interpretation is possible; diagnosis of neoplastic meningitis should rarely be impeded. Because of the striking similarity to that in patients with a low CSF-pressure syndrome and in view of the fact that only resection of tumours of the posterior cranial fossa, usually associated with obstructive hydrocephalus, was followed by this type of enhancement one might suggest that rapid changes in CSF pressure are implicated, rather the effects of blood introduced into the spinal canal at surgery. (orig.)

  18. Targeting hypoxic tumour cells to overcome metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microenvironment within solid tumours can influence the metastatic dissemination of tumour cells, and recent evidence suggests that poorly oxygenated (hypoxic) cells in primary tumours can also affect the survival and proliferation of metastatic tumour cells in distant organs. Hypoxic tumour cells have been historically targeted during radiation therapy in attempts to improve loco-regional control rates of primary tumours since hypoxic cells are known to be resistant to ionizing radiation-induced DNA damage. There are, therefore, a number of therapeutic strategies to directly target hypoxic cells in primary (and metastatic) tumours, and several compounds are becoming available to functionally inhibit hypoxia-induced proteins that are known to promote metastasis. This mini-review summarizes several established and emerging experimental strategies to target hypoxic cells in primary tumours with potential clinical application to the treatment of patients with tumour metastases or patients at high risk of developing metastatic disease. Targeting hypoxic tumour cells to reduce metastatic disease represents an important advance in the way scientists and clinicians view the influence of tumour hypoxia on therapeutic outcome

  19. Childhood obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Joan C; Lawlor, Debbie A; Kimm, Sue Y S

    2010-05-15

    Worldwide prevalence of childhood obesity has increased greatly during the past three decades. The increasing occurrence in children of disorders such as type 2 diabetes is believed to be a consequence of this obesity epidemic. Much progress has been made in understanding of the genetics and physiology of appetite control and from these advances, elucidation of the causes of some rare obesity syndromes. However, these rare disorders have so far taught us few lessons about prevention or reversal of obesity in most children. Calorie intake and activity recommendations need reassessment and improved quantification at a population level because of sedentary lifestyles of children nowadays. For individual treatment, currently recommended calorie prescriptions might be too conservative in view of evolving insight into the so-called energy gap. Although quality of research into both prevention and treatment has improved, high-quality multicentre trials with long-term follow-up are needed. Meanwhile, prevention and treatment approaches to increase energy expenditure and decrease intake should continue. Recent data suggest that the spiralling increase in childhood obesity prevalence might be abating; increased efforts should be made on all fronts to continue this potentially exciting trend. PMID:20451244

  20. Primary bone tumours of the hand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-one primary bone tumours of the hand in children from 8 paediatric hospitals are reported. Osteochondromas and enchondromas were not included. Our material consisted of 16 patients with common tumours (3 Ewing's sarcoma, 5 aneurysmal bone cyst, 6 osteoid osteoma and 2 epithelioma) and 5 patients with uncommon tumours (osteoma, simple bone cyst, haemangiopericytoma, capillary angiomatous tumour and benign ossifying fibroma or osteoblastoma). The X-ray diagnosis of the common tumours should have high concordance with histology, whereas that of uncommon tumours in much more difficult and uncertain. The characteristic features of Ewing's sarcoma are stressed as all our children with this tumour had a delayed diagnosis and a fatal outcome. Differential diagnosis with other short tubular bone lesions of the hand - specifically osteomyelitis - is discussed and the posibilities of microscopic diagnosis are stressed. (orig.)

  1. Severe Traumatic Brain Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... inflicted traumatic brain injury (ITBI), is a leading cause of child maltreatment deaths in the United States. Meeting the ... Awareness Additional Prevention Resources Childhood Injuries Concussion in Children and Teens Injuries from Violence Injuries from Motor Vehicle Crashes Teen Driver Safety ...

  2. HIT`91 (prospective, co-operative study for the treatment of malignant brain tumors in childhood): accuracy and acute toxicity of the irradiation of the craniospinal axis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortmann, R.D.; Timmermann, B.; Bamberg, M. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy; Kuehl, J. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Children`s Hospital; Willich, N. [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy; Flentje, M. [Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiotherapy; Meisner, C. [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Inst. for Medical Information Processing

    1999-04-01

    Background: It was the aim of the quality control program of the randomized trial HIT `91 (intensive chemotherapy before irradiation versus maintenance chemotherapy after irradiation) to assess prospectively the quality of neuroaxis irradiation with respect to the protocol guidelines and to evaluate acute toxicity with respect to treatment arm. Patients, Materials and Methods: Data of 134 patients undergoing irradiation of the craniospinal axis were available. Positioning aids, shielding techniques, treatment machines, choice of energy, total dose and fractionation were evaluated. A total of 651 simulation and verification films were analyzed to assess the coverage of the clinical target volume (whole brain, posterior fossa, sacral nerve roots) and deviations of field alignment between simulation and verification of first treatment. Field matching between whole brain and adjacent cranial spinal fields was analyzed with respect to site and width of junction. Acute maximal side effects were evaluated according to a modified WHO score for neurotoxicity, infections, skin, mucosa and myelotoxicity. Results: In 91.3% of patients contemporary positioning aids and individualized shielding techniques were used to assure a reproducible treatment. In 98 patients (73.1%) linear accelerators and in 36 patients (26.8%) {sup 60}Cobalt machines were used. Single and total dose were administered according to the protocol guidelines in more than 90% of patients. In 20.2% of patients the cribriform plate, in 1.4% the middle cranial fossa and in 21.1% the posterior fossa and in 4.5% the 2nd sacral segment were incompletely encompassed by the treatment portals. Ninety-five percent of deviations of field alignment were less than 13.0 mm (whole brain) and 12 mm (cranial spinal field) with a random error between 4.9 and 7.6 mm (whole brain) and 6.9 mm and 9.9 mm (spinal canal), respectively. In 77.5% of patients the junctions between whole brain and cranial spinal fields were placed

  3. The Neuropsychological Basis of Childhood Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Andrew S.

    2006-01-01

    A clear link exists between neurological dysfunction and psychopathology in children, as evidenced by research on the sequelae of developmental childhood brain impairment, the neuropsychological investigation of children with psychiatric disorders, and neuroimaging research. Understanding the neuropsychological basis of a disorder helps teachers,…

  4. Interhemispheric Functional Connectivity in Childhood Absence Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2011-01-01

    Using a blood oxygen level-dependent resting functional connectivity approach to analyze EEG-fMRI data, the properties of bihemispheric brain networks in 16 patients with childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) were investigated during the interictal period, in a study at Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT.

  5. Tumour targeting with systemically administered bacteria.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Morrissey, David

    2012-01-31

    Challenges for oncology practitioners and researchers include specific treatment and detection of tumours. The ideal anti-cancer therapy would selectively eradicate tumour cells, whilst minimising side effects to normal tissue. Bacteria have emerged as biological gene vectors with natural tumour specificity, capable of homing to tumours and replicating locally to high levels when systemically administered. This property enables targeting of both the primary tumour and secondary metastases. In the case of invasive pathogenic species, this targeting strategy can be used to deliver genes intracellularly for tumour cell expression, while non-invasive species transformed with plasmids suitable for bacterial expression of heterologous genes can secrete therapeutic proteins locally within the tumour environment (cell therapy approach). Many bacterial genera have been demonstrated to localise to and replicate to high levels within tumour tissue when intravenously (IV) administered in rodent models and reporter gene tagging of bacteria has permitted real-time visualisation of this phenomenon. Live imaging of tumour colonising bacteria also presents diagnostic potential for this approach. The nature of tumour selective bacterial colonisation appears to be tumour origin- and bacterial species- independent. While originally a correlation was drawn between anaerobic bacterial colonisation and the hypoxic nature of solid tumours, it is recently becoming apparent that other elements of the unique microenvironment within solid tumours, including aberrant neovasculature and local immune suppression, may be responsible. Here, we consider the pre-clinical data supporting the use of bacteria as a tumour-targeting tool, recent advances in the area, and future work required to develop it into a beneficial clinical tool.

  6. Explorative laparotomy of solid tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We can state that the diagnostical advantages of exploratory laparotomy must be compared to the risk of surgery. It requires a critical determination of indications and should not be primarily planned in a clinical-exploratory form but always also as therapeutic laparotomy. In addition, the general state of the patient must be so good that the anaesthesia and operative trauma can be tolerated. The patient must be prepared bearing in mind that the possible tumour resection or at least tumour reduction or other surgical palliative measures can be carried out. The wide spectrum of precise pre-examinations which are possible nowadays has caused the exploratory laparotomy to lose some of its importance. (orig.)

  7. Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour of maxilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshingkar S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumour (IMT is a biologically controversial entity that was originally described as non-neoplastic lesion in the lungs and designated initially as inflammatory pseudotumour. The lesion has recently been recognized to occur at various sites but rarely affects head and neck region. Controversies still exist regarding its reactive versus neoplastic nature. The lesion has a potential for recurrence, persistent local growth, progression to frank sarcoma and metastasis. Hence IMT can best be regarded as a low-grade sarcoma. A case of a 30-year-old female with swelling in the right maxilla and associated ophthalmic manifestations is discussed here. Contribution of immunohistochemistry for diagnosis of IMT is emphasized. Additional cytogenetic studies of this highly enigmatic and minimally studied tumour are warranted.

  8. Tumour risk associated with use of cellular telephones or cordless desktop telephones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Söderqvist Fredrik

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of cellular and cordless telephones has increased dramatically during the last decade. There is concern of health problems such as malignant diseases due to microwave exposure during the use of these devices. The brain is the main target organ. Methods Since the second part of the 1990's we have performed six case-control studies on this topic encompassing use of both cellular and cordless phones as well as other exposures. Three of the studies concerned brain tumours, one salivary gland tumours, one non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL and one testicular cancer. Exposure was assessed by self-administered questionnaires. Results Regarding acoustic neuroma analogue cellular phones yielded odds ratio (OR = 2.9, 95 % confidence interval (CI = 2.0–4.3, digital cellular phones OR = 1.5, 95 % CI = 1.1–2.1 and cordless phones OR = 1.5, 95 % CI = 1.04–2.0. The corresponding results were for astrocytoma grade III-IV OR = 1.7, 95 % CI = 1.3–2.3; OR = 1.5, 95 % CI = 1.2–1.9 and OR = 1.5, 95 % CI = 1.1–1.9, respectively. The ORs increased with latency period with highest estimates using > 10 years time period from first use of these phone types. Lower ORs were calculated for astrocytoma grade I-II. No association was found with salivary gland tumours, NHL or testicular cancer although an association with NHL of T-cell type could not be ruled out. Conclusion We found for all studied phone types an increased risk for brain tumours, mainly acoustic neuroma and malignant brain tumours. OR increased with latency period, especially for astrocytoma grade III-IV. No consistent pattern of an increased risk was found for salivary gland tumours, NHL, or testicular cancer.

  9. Fibrous tumours in children: imaging features of a heterogeneous group of disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background. Fibrous tumours are predominantly soft tissue lesions which are relatively frequent in childhood but are little known. Imaging is often used in the evaluation of these tumours but their characteristics, particularly on US or MRI, have not been studied systematically. Objectives. To provide an overview of the clinical and imaging features of the different disorders, and to correlate them with the currently used classification schemes. Material and methods. Twenty-five patients with fibrous tumours were evaluated retrospectively. Clinical histories were studied for the histopathological diagnosis, age, signs and symptoms at presentation, mode of therapy and follow-up where available. Imaging findings were analysed for the following variables: number, location, size, margin and architecture of soft tissue and/or visceral lesions and the presence and pattern of osseous involvement. Comparison with the available literature was performed. Results. The following tumour types were encountered: desmoid fibromatosis (n = 9), myofibromatosis (n = 7), fibromatosis colli (n = 2), congenital-infantile fibrosarcoma (n = 2), adult-type fibrosarcoma (n = 2), fibrous hamartoma of infancy (n = 1), angiofibroma (n = 1) and hyaline fibromatosis (n = 1). Conclusions. While some tumours were non-specific in their clinical and radiological manifestation, others such as myofibromatosis, fibromatosis colli, fibrous hamartoma of infancy and angiofibroma exhibited a characteristic pattern which allowed a diagnosis to be made even without histology. (orig.)

  10. Allograft in bone tumour surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last twenty years, there has been a vast improvement in the prognosis of primary malignant tumours of bone. This is due to many factors including early detection, staging and classification of tumours as a result of better staining and imaging techniques, better surgical technology, e.g. endoprosthesis and most importantly adjuvant treatment with cytotoxic drugs. As a result of long term survival, amputation of limb has more or less been replaced by limb salvage surgery. This procedure consists of two parts. Primary objective is of course complete removal of the tumour by adequate soft tissue cover and secondarily by reconstruction of the locomotor system, If possible with retention of the function of the limb. These procedures include endo-prosthetic replacement or arthroplasty and arthrodesis using autologus grafts, allograft or combination. With the development of bone banks and assured safety of preserved bones, reconstructive limb salvage surgery using massive allograft is gradually replacing prosthetic implants. The advantages include replacement of articular surfaces, incorporation of the graft to the host bone, attachment of bone tissue and increased probably permanent survival. Allograft can be used for intercalary replacement, osteo-articular arthroplasty arthrodesis or filling large cavities. Inherent complication of massive allograft are disease transmission, infection, delayed and non-union, pathological fractures, mechanical failure and joint destruction. Several limb salvage procedures using allografts have been carried out in our institution with one failure due to infection. Paucity of available allograft has restricted more such procedures to be carried out

  11. Hypoxia-mediated tumour targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binley, K; Askham, Z; Martin, L; Spearman, H; Day, D; Kingsman, S; Naylor, S

    2003-04-01

    Hypoxia is a common physiological feature of tumours. It activates a signalling cascade that culminates in the stabilization of the HIF-1 transcription factor and activation of genes that possess a hypoxia response element (HRE). We have used an optimized hypoxia responsive promoter (OBHRE) to investigate hypoxia-targeted gene expression in vivo in the context of an adenovirus vector. The OBHRE promoter showed limited activity in the liver or spleen such that expression was 1000-fold lower than that driven by the strong CMV/IE promoter. However, in the context of the tumour microenvironment, the OBHRE promoter achieved expression levels comparable to that of the CMV/IE promoter. Next, we showed that an adenovirus expressing the human cytochrome P450 (CYP2B6) regulated by the OBHRE promoter delays tumour growth in response to the prodrug cyclophosphamide (CPA). Finally, we exploited the hepatotropism of adenovirus to investigate whether the OBHRE promoter could mitigate the hepatotoxicity of a recombinant adenovirus expressing thymidine kinase (TK) in the context of the prodrug ganciclovir (GCV). High-dose Ad.CMVTK/GCV treatment caused significant liver necrosis whereas the same dose of Ad.HRETK was well tolerated. These in vivo data demonstrate that hypoxia-targeted gene expression via the OBHRE promoter can be used to increase the therapeutic window of cytotoxic cancer gene therapy. PMID:12646859

  12. Ultrasound computed tomography and magnetic resonance of a neonatal ganglioglioma of the brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganglioglioma is an uncommon nervescell tumour (0,4% of all brain tumours). In 800 brain tumours in children, Garrido et al. (Toronto) found 14 gangliogliomas (1.7%). To our knowledge, ganglioglioma has not been reported in children under 2 1/2 years of age. We have incidentally discovered a ganglioglioma in a 3-day-old-girl. Appearence on US, CT and MR are described and discussed. (orig.)

  13. Childhood Craniopharyngioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cause less damage to healthy tissue in the brain and other parts of the body. Proton radiation is different from x-ray radiation. Surgery with cyst drainage Surgery may be done to drain tumors that are mostly fluid-filled cysts. This ...

  14. ON THE PRINCIPLES UNDERLYING THE DIAGNOSIS OF BRAIN-TUMORS A SURVEY ARTICLE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GO, KG; KAMMAN, RL; PRUIM, J; HEW, JM; VAALBURG, W; PAANS, AMJ; MOOYAART, EL; HEESTERS, MAAM; DASILVA, FHL

    1995-01-01

    A survey is given of the principles underlying the diagnosis of brain tumours. Traditionally diagnosis and localization of brain tumours have been based upon morphological criteria. Currently unsurpassed levels in imaging of anatomical details and topographical relations by the techniques of compute

  15. Childhood Maltreatment and Headache Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietjen, Gretchen E

    2016-04-01

    Childhood maltreatment is substantiated in 12 % of children, but nearly 50 % adults recall having been neglected or abused as children. Maltreatment, especially emotional abuse, is associated with migraine. Dysregulation of the HPA axis, autonomic, immune, and metabolic systems appears to be a consequence of maltreatment, and is also reported in migraine. Areas of the brain structurally and functionally affected by childhood abuse and by migraine are also similar, and include the limbic system structures, which connect to pain regions in the brainstem. Putative mechanisms by which early life stress increases the likelihood of developing migraine include gene x environment interactions, in addition to epigenetic modifications via DNA methylation. These modifications are stable and may be transferred across generations, but they may also be reversed by some medications commonly used in migraine, including valproic acid and topiramate. PMID:26936357

  16. YOLK SAC TUMOUR IN A PREMENARCHAL GIRL : A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourav

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Yolk sac tumour, otherwise known as endodermal sinus tumour, is a rare and highly malignant germ cell tumour accounting for approximately 10% of malignant germ cell tumours. The tumour usually presents as a rapidly growing mass in young women. Here we present a case of a young premenarchal girl with a huge ovarian tumour which proved to be a yolk sac tumour and was successfully managed.

  17. Incidence of childhood cancer in Preston and South Ribble

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gatrell, A.C.; Whitelegg, J.

    1993-09-01

    Using data from the Manchester Childrens Tumour Register, extending back to 1954, the authors have examined the evidence for clustering of various childhood cancers in Preston and South Ribble, and conclude that incidence in the Penwortham district of Preston is not detectably higher than in other parts of the study areas. Neoplasms studied were leukaemias, lymphomas and those affecting the central and sympathetic nervous system, kidneys, liver and bone and soft tissues. (Author).

  18. Bronchial mucoepidermoid tumour in a child presenting with organomegaly due to secondary amyloidosis: case report and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childhood bronchial mucoepidermoid tumours (BMET) are rare. A 12-year-old boy with hepatosplenomegaly underwent liver biopsy which diagnosed amyloidosis. Chest radiograph and CT, performed for recurrent respiratory symptoms, identified a left lower lobe tumour, which was subsequently excised. Histology showed a BMET. A literature review reveals 51 reported cases of BMET in children. Common presenting symptoms include fever, cough and recurrent pneumonia. Diagnosis is often delayed and patients with recurrent respiratory symptoms should undergo CT or bronchoscopy. The association between amyloidosis and BMET in this case is unique and has not been previously described, but may be coincidental. (orig.)

  19. Bronchial mucoepidermoid tumour in a child presenting with organomegaly due to secondary amyloidosis: case report and review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andronikou, S.; Kader, E. [Univ. of Cape Town, Dept. of Paediatric Radiology, Rondebusch, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2001-05-01

    Childhood bronchial mucoepidermoid tumours (BMET) are rare. A 12-year-old boy with hepatosplenomegaly underwent liver biopsy which diagnosed amyloidosis. Chest radiograph and CT, performed for recurrent respiratory symptoms, identified a left lower lobe tumour, which was subsequently excised. Histology showed a BMET. A literature review reveals 51 reported cases of BMET in children. Common presenting symptoms include fever, cough and recurrent pneumonia. Diagnosis is often delayed and patients with recurrent respiratory symptoms should undergo CT or bronchoscopy. The association between amyloidosis and BMET in this case is unique and has not been previously described, but may be coincidental. (orig.)

  20. Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia: Insights from Neuroimaging Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogtay, Nitin; Rapoport, Judith L.

    2008-01-01

    The use of longitudinal neuroimaging to study the developmental perspectives of brain pathology in children with childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS) is described. Structural neuroimaging is capable of providing evidence of neurobiological specificity of COS to distinguish it from other brain abnormalities seen in neuropsychiatric illnesses like…

  1. N-nitroso compounds and human intracranial tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preston-Martin, S.; Henderson, B.E.

    1984-01-01

    Experimentalists have shown that various N-nitroso compounds are potent nervous system carcinogens, particularly when animals are exposed transplacentally. Information has been obtained concerning exposure to N-nitroso compounds and their precursors in three case-control studies of intracranial tumour patients in Los Angeles County, California. A study of women (185 pairs) found that level of consumption of nitrite-cured meats was related to meningioma development (p = 0.01). In a similar study of meningiomas in men (105 pairs), the association with cured meats was not clear. The most striking results were obtained in a study of young brain tumour patients (209 matched pairs). Increased risk was associated with maternal contact, during pregnancy, with N-nitrosamine-containing substances, such as burning incense, sidestream cigarette smoke and face make-up. Increased risk was also associated with maternal use of diuretics and antihistamines and with the level of maternal consumption of cured meats. Additional epidemiological studies of nervous system tumours in young people would appear to offer considerable promise for testing the hypothesis that N-nitroso compounds are etiologically related to human neurogenic neoplasms.

  2. Imaging of solid kidney tumours in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eighteen children aged 6 months to 12 years with 20 solid renal tumours; 13 Wilms' tumours (WT), 2 clear cell sarcomas of the kidney, 1 malignant rhabdoid tumour of the kidney and 2 cases of bilateral nephroblastomatosis with Wilms' tumour underwent evaluation with US, CT and MR imaging. Contrast-enhanced CT and non-enhanced MR were equally accurate in determining the size and origin of the tumour but were unreliable in separation of stages I, II and III. US could only accurately assess the size of the tumours. MR characteristics varied somewhat between WTs and non-WTs but contrast-enhanced MR imaging might be useful for separation of WTs from nephroblastomatosis. (orig.)

  3. Clinical relevance of intermittent tumour blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the goals of translational cancer research is to understand basic 'phenomena' so that tumour response to therapy can be improved. One such phenomenon is intermittent tumour blood flow. The impact of the transient hypoxia that results from decreased tumour blood flow is now beginning to be appreciated in preclinical systems, and also receiving some attention in clinical practise. Thus in this article we review the nature and frequency of microregional blood flow changes in preclinical and clinical tumours and examine the impact of those changes on response to both radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Additionally, the implications of non-constant blood flow for both the growth of the unperturbed tumour and the regrowth of surviving tumour clonogens during and after therapy are examined

  4. Recurrence and Progression in Meningiomas: The Clonal Cytogenetic Evolution of a Benign Human Tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketter R

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Meningiomas are mostly benign tumours that originate from the coverings of brain and spinal cord. Only a minority of cases show progression to an anaplastic tumour (WHO grades II and III. Multiple and familial cases are rare and mostly associated with (hereditary neurofibromatosis 2 (NF2. Meningiomas show an unexpectedly high recurrence rate. Also, completely removed low-grade tumours can recur. On a cytogenetic level, meningiomas are the best-studied tumours in humans. The majority of high-grade but only a minority of low-grade meningiomas show loss of merlin, a cytoskeleton-cytoplasm-linker protein. Merlin is the product of the NF2 gene located on chromosome 22. A second tumour suppressor gene on chromosome 22 on 22q12.3 is the gene for the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 3 (TIMP3, which appears to be involved in meningioma progression and a high-grade meningioma phenotype. In contrast to other solid tumours, progression of meningiomas is correlated with increasing hypodiploidy, showing characteristic clonal evolutions that mostly include chromosomes 14, 18, and 19 and, more rarely, 6 and 10. Structural aberrations are rare, except for the loss of the short arm of one chromosome 1, which appears to be the decisive step for anaplastic growth. A biostatistical approach has been proposed, using an oncogenetic tree model that estimates the most likely cytogenetic pathways of meningioma patients in terms of accumulation of chromosome changes in tumour cells. The genetic progression score (GPS estimates the genetic status of a tumour as progression in the corresponding tumour cells along this model. High GPS values are highly correlated with early recurrence of meningiomas (p 10–4. This correlation holds true even when patients are stratified by WHO grade. Tumour location also has an impact on genetic progression. Clinical relevance of the GPS is demonstrated with respect to origin, WHO grade, and recurrence of the tumour. As a quantitative

  5. How Are Childhood Cancers Found?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topic How are childhood cancers treated? How are childhood cancers found? Screening for childhood cancers Screening is testing for a disease such ... in people who don’t have any symptoms. Childhood cancers are rare, and there are no widely ...

  6. Bilateral ovarian tumour in a young girl

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Bilateral ovarian tumour in a girl presents the dilemma of conservative versus aggressive approach towards these tumours. When faced with suspicious tumour and complete replacement of the ovaries bilaterally, bilateral oophorectomy is a viable option, though the certain possibility of infertility and lifelong hormonal supplementation is unavoidable. We report a case of bilateral ovarian masses in a young girl, which on histopathological examination showed mature teratoma with aggregates of pr...

  7. Placental Tumour: What could it be?

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Riyami, Nihal; Al-Hadabi, Rahma; Al-Dughaishi, Tamima; Al-Riyami, Marwa

    2013-01-01

    Placental tumours include placental chorioangiomas, teratomas, haemangiomas, and haematomas. Placental chorioangiomas are benign vascular tumours and are the most common placental tumours, with a prevalence of 1%. Large placental chorioangiomas are rare and may lead to pregnancy complications and poor perinatal outcomes. These complications include fetal anaemia, hydrops fetalis, fetal growth restriction, polyhydramnios, and preterm delivery. We report a case of a large placental chorioangiom...

  8. Computer aided diagnosis of bone tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four radiologists, three of whom having no special expertise in bone tumour radiology, analysed 177 bone tumours. One of the radiologists, using a computer aided bone tumour program, performed significantly better than the other two at a comparable level of training and was able to compete successfully with the fourth radiologist experienced in bone diagnosis. The results validate the assumption that computer aided diagnostic programs may improve the diagnostic accuracy of radiologists having limited experience with the problem at hand. (Auth.)

  9. Surgical management of epithelial parotid tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To describe the clinicopathological presentation and treatment options in epithelial parotid tumours with emphasis on surgery. Subjects and Methods: Epithelial parotid tumours diagnosed and operated by an ENT surgeon and a general surgeon in 10 years during their posting in different teaching hospitals were included in the study. Clinical presentation, preoperative investigations, operative procedure, histopathology report, postoperative complications and further management were recorded. The data was collected and reviewed from the records of all the patients maintained by the authors. Results: Fifty-two patients presented with parotid tumour. Average age was 38 years. Commonest presentation was painless lump over the parotid region (85%), pain (15%), facial palsy, and enlarged neck nodes. Majority of tumours were benign, only two were recurrent. Parotid pleomorphic Adenoma (PPA) was the commonest benign tumour, others being Warthin's tumour and monomorphic adenoma. Adenoid cystic carcinoma was the commonest malignant tumour 29% followed by mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Others were carcinoma in PPA squamous cell carcinoma, malignant mixed tumour, malignant Iymphoepithelioma and undifferentiated carcinoma. Superficial parotidectomy (SP) was the commonest operation performed in 69%. Other procedures were total conservative parotidectomy in 11%, total radical surgery in 9% and enucleation in only one patient earliest in the series. Neck node dissection was done in 2 patients. Except for one child, rest of the 13 patients received postoperative radiotherapy and one patient of Iymphoepithelioma received chemotherapy in addition. Commonest postoperative complication was temporary facial weakness in 35% (18/52). Permanent facial palsy occurred in 08 patients. Of these 07 had a malignant process and only one patient had excision biopsy. Conclusion: Benign and malignant epithelial parotid tumours can be diagnosed by there clinical presentation . supplemented with

  10. An unusual presentation of a glomus tumour.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nugent, N

    2011-02-01

    Glomus tumours are benign, soft tissue tumours, usually of fingertips. Classically they present with severe pain, temperature sensitivity and localised tenderness. The diagnosis is often delayed due to sometimes non-specific symptoms and rarity of the disorder. While usually a clinical diagnosis, imaging may be necessary for diagnosis and localisation. We present a case of glomus tumour of the fingertip with an unusual history.

  11. Genes that mediate breast cancer metastasis to the brain

    OpenAIRE

    Bos, Paula D.; Zhang, Xiang H.-F.; Nadal, Cristina; Shu, Weiping; Gomis, Roger R; Nguyen, Don X.; Minn, Andy J.; Vijver, Marc; Gerald, William; Foekens, John A.; Massagué, Joan

    2009-01-01

    The molecular basis for breast cancer metastasis to the brain is largely unknown1,2. Brain relapse typically occurs years after the removal of a breast tumour2–4, suggesting that disseminated cancer cells must acquire specialized functions to overtake this organ. Here we show that breast cancer metastasis to the brain involves mediators of extravasation through non-fenestrated capillaries, complemented by specific enhancers of blood–brain barrier crossing and brain colonization. We isolated c...

  12. Bilateral ovarian tumour in a young girl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Kumar Govindarajan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bilateral ovarian tumour in a girl presents the dilemma of conservative versus aggressive approach towards these tumours. When faced with suspicious tumour and complete replacement of the ovaries bilaterally, bilateral oophorectomy is a viable option, though the certain possibility of infertility and lifelong hormonal supplementation is unavoidable. We report a case of bilateral ovarian masses in a young girl, which on histopathological examination showed mature teratoma with aggregates of proliferating capillary and cavernous sized vessels in the tumour wall. Such associations are rare and must be differentiated from a vascular neoplasm.

  13. Tumour angiogenesis-Origin of blood vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna Priya, S; Nagare, R P; Sneha, V S; Sidhanth, C; Bindhya, S; Manasa, P; Ganesan, T S

    2016-08-15

    The conventional view of tumour vascularization is that tumours acquire their blood supply from neighbouring normal stroma. Additional methods of tumour vascularization such as intussusceptive angiogenesis, vasculogenic mimicry, vessel co-option and vasculogenesis have been demonstrated to occur. However, the origin of the endothelial cells and pericytes in the tumour vasculature is not fully understood. Their origin from malignant cells has been shown indirectly in lymphoma and neuroblastoma by immuno-FISH experiments. It is now evident that tumours arise from a small population of cells called cancer stem cells (CSCs) or tumour initiating cells. Recent data suggest that a proportion of tumour endothelial cells arise from cancer stem cells in glioblastoma. This was demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo. The analysis of chromosomal abnormalities in endothelial cells showed identical genetic changes to those identified in tumour cells. However, another report contradicted these results from the earlier studies in glioblastoma and had shown that CSCs give rise to pericytes and not endothelial cells. The main thrust of this review is the critical analysis of the conflicting data from different studies and the remaining questions in this field of research. The mechanism by which this phenomenon occurs is also discussed in detail. The transdifferentiation of CSCs to endothelial cells/pericytes has many implications in the progression and metastasis of the tumours and hence it would be a novel target for antiangiogenic therapy. PMID:26934471

  14. Elevated tumour marker: an indication for imaging?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McMahon, Colm J

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of imaging examinations in patients with elevated tumour markers when (a) the tumour marker is not validated for as a primary diagnostic test; (b) the patient had no personal history of cancer and (c) the patient had no other imaging indication. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients without known cancer who had abnormal carcinoembryonic antigen, CA19-9, CA125 and\\/or CA15-3 serology over a one-year period were included. A retrospective medical record review was performed to assess the number of these cases who underwent imaging because of \\'elevated tumour marker\\' in the absence of a clinical indication for imaging. The number and result of these imaging studies were evaluated. RESULTS: Eight hundred and nineteen patients were included. Of those, 25 patients (mean age: 67.8 [range 41-91] y), were imaged to evaluate: \\'elevated tumour marker\\'. They underwent 29 imaging studies (mean [+\\/-standard deviation (SD)] per patient = 1.2 [+\\/-0.4]), and had 42 elevated tumour marker serology tests (mean [+\\/-SD] per patient = 1.7 [+\\/-0.7]). Four patients had >1 imaging test. No patient had an imaging study which diagnosed a malignancy or explained the elevated tumour marker. CONCLUSION: The non-judicious use of tumour markers can prompt further unnecessary investigations including imaging. In this study, there was no positive diagnostic yield for imaging performed for investigation of \\'elevated tumour marker\\'. \\'Elevated tumour marker\\

  15. Computed tomography in malignant primary bone tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of computed tomography is examined in malignant primary bone tumours using a strongly defined examination group of 13 Patients (six Ewing's-sarcomas, five osteosarcomas, one chondrosarcoma and one spindle-shaped cell sarcoma). Computed tomography is judged superior compared to plain radiographs in recognition of bone marrow infiltration and presentation of parosteal tumour parts as well as in analysis of tissue components of tumours, CT is especially suitable for therapy planning and evaluating response to therapy. CT does not provide sufficient diagnostic information to determine dignity and exact diagnosis of bone tumours. (orig.)

  16. Steroid hormones affect binding of the sigma ligand {sup 11}C-SA4503 in tumour cells and tumour-bearing rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rybczynska, Anna A.; Elsinga, Philip H.; Sijbesma, Jurgen W.; Jong, Johan R. de; Vries, Erik F. de; Dierckx, Rudi A.; Waarde, Aren van [University of Groningen, Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, University of Groningen Medical Center, Groningen (Netherlands); Ishiwata, Kiichi [Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Positron Medical Center, Tokyo (Japan)

    2009-07-15

    Sigma receptors are implicated in memory and cognitive functions, drug addiction, depression and schizophrenia. In addition, sigma receptors are strongly overexpressed in many tumours. Although the natural ligands are still unknown, steroid hormones are potential candidates. Here, we examined changes in binding of the sigma-1 agonist {sup 11}C-SA4503 in C6 glioma cells and in living rats after modification of endogenous steroid levels. {sup 11}C-SA4503 binding was assessed in C6 monolayers by gamma counting and in anaesthetized rats by microPET scanning. C6 cells were either repeatedly washed and incubated in steroid-free medium or exposed to five kinds of exogenous steroids (1 h or 5 min before tracer addition, respectively). Tumour-bearing male rats were repeatedly treated with pentobarbital (a condition known to result in reduction of endogenous steroid levels) or injected with progesterone. Binding of {sup 11}C-SA4503 to C6 cells was increased ({proportional_to}50%) upon removal and decreased ({proportional_to}60%) upon addition of steroid hormones (rank order of potency: progesterone > allopregnanolone = testosterone = androstanolone > dehydroepiandrosterone-3-sulphate, IC{sub 50} progesterone 33 nM). Intraperitoneally administered progesterone reduced tumour uptake and tumour-to-muscle contrast (36%). Repeated treatment of animals with pentobarbital increased the PET standardized uptake value of {sup 11}C-SA4503 in tumour (16%) and brain (27%), whereas the kinetics of blood pool radioactivity was unaffected. The binding of {sup 11}C-SA4503 is sensitive to steroid competition. Since not only increases but also decreases of steroid levels affect ligand binding, a considerable fraction of the sigma-1 receptor population in cultured tumour cells or tumour-bearing animals is normally occupied by endogenous steroids. (orig.)

  17. Steroid hormones affect binding of the sigma ligand 11C-SA4503 in tumour cells and tumour-bearing rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sigma receptors are implicated in memory and cognitive functions, drug addiction, depression and schizophrenia. In addition, sigma receptors are strongly overexpressed in many tumours. Although the natural ligands are still unknown, steroid hormones are potential candidates. Here, we examined changes in binding of the sigma-1 agonist 11C-SA4503 in C6 glioma cells and in living rats after modification of endogenous steroid levels. 11C-SA4503 binding was assessed in C6 monolayers by gamma counting and in anaesthetized rats by microPET scanning. C6 cells were either repeatedly washed and incubated in steroid-free medium or exposed to five kinds of exogenous steroids (1 h or 5 min before tracer addition, respectively). Tumour-bearing male rats were repeatedly treated with pentobarbital (a condition known to result in reduction of endogenous steroid levels) or injected with progesterone. Binding of 11C-SA4503 to C6 cells was increased (∝50%) upon removal and decreased (∝60%) upon addition of steroid hormones (rank order of potency: progesterone > allopregnanolone = testosterone = androstanolone > dehydroepiandrosterone-3-sulphate, IC50 progesterone 33 nM). Intraperitoneally administered progesterone reduced tumour uptake and tumour-to-muscle contrast (36%). Repeated treatment of animals with pentobarbital increased the PET standardized uptake value of 11C-SA4503 in tumour (16%) and brain (27%), whereas the kinetics of blood pool radioactivity was unaffected. The binding of 11C-SA4503 is sensitive to steroid competition. Since not only increases but also decreases of steroid levels affect ligand binding, a considerable fraction of the sigma-1 receptor population in cultured tumour cells or tumour-bearing animals is normally occupied by endogenous steroids. (orig.)

  18. Diagnostic value of somatostatin receptor scintigraphy in patients with intracranial tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study was to detect the SR binding sites in intracranial tumours and to evaluate the benefit of SRS in pre- and postoperative diagnostics. 86 patients with 94 intracranial tumours (39 meningiomas, 18 pituitary adenomas, 11 gliomas grade 3 or 4, 8 gliomas grade 2, 5 neurinomas, 5 intracranial metastases, 4 tumours of the orbit, 2 neurofibromas, 1 brain abscess and 1 cystic lesion) were examined. 111In-octreotide was injected i.v. as 10 μg or 20 μg bolus, corresponding to 110 or 220 MBq (3 or 6 mCi). Gamma-camera images and SPECT were obtained 3-6 h and 24 h post injection. The scintigraphic evaluation was performed without knowledge of CT and MRI results. The histological classification corresponded to the WHO grading system. Somatostatin binding sites were detected in vito using somatostatin-gold conjugates. All patients with meningiomas showed a high focal tracer uptake corresponding to SR binding sites in vitro, whereas only in 50% of the pituitary adenomas SRS was positive. Neurinomas did not show any tracer uptake. In patients with gliomas with disturbed blood-brain-barrier positive tracer uptake was detected, while none of the gliomas with intact blood-brain-barrier could be visualized by SRS but showed somatostatin binding sites in vitro. In intracranial metastases a local tracer uptake was detected in vivo. In vitro 3 of 4 cases showed somatostatin binding sites. In 2 cases extracranial tracer uptake showed the primary tumour and metastases of the lymphnodes. Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy can help to detect or to exclude meningiomas especially in the cerebellopontine angle or in the orbit. In intracranial metastases SRS may point to the primary tumour or other metastases. In all other intracranial tumours receptor scintigraphy provides no clinical relevant information. (orig./MG)

  19. Tumour Therapy with Particle Beams

    OpenAIRE

    Grupen, C.

    2000-01-01

    Photons are exponentially attenuated in matter producing high doses close to the surface. Therefore they are not well suited for the treatment of deep seated tumours. Charged particles, in contrast, exhibit a sharp increase of ionisation density close to the end of their range, the so-called Bragg-peak. The depth of the Bragg-peak can be adjusted by varying the particle's energy. In parallel with the large energy deposit the increase in biological effectiveness for cell killing at the end of ...

  20. Granular cell tumour of the neurohypophysis: a rare sellar tumour with specific radiological and operative features.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Aquilina, K

    2012-02-03

    Symptomatic granular cell tumours of the neurohypophysis are rare sellar lesions. Preoperative prediction of the diagnosis on the basis of radiological appearance is useful as these tumours carry specific surgical difficulties. This is possible when the tumour arises from the pituitary stalk, rostral to a normal pituitary gland. This has not been emphasized previously.