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Sample records for childhood absence epilepsy

  1. Interhemispheric Functional Connectivity in Childhood Absence Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2011-01-01

    Using a blood oxygen level-dependent resting functional connectivity approach to analyze EEG-fMRI data, the properties of bihemispheric brain networks in 16 patients with childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) were investigated during the interictal period, in a study at Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT.

  2. Memory Functioning in Children with Epilepsy: Frontal Lobe Epilepsy, Childhood Absence Epilepsy, and Benign Epilepsy with Centrotemporal Spikes

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Filipa Lopes; José Paulo Monteiro; Maria José Fonseca; Conceição Robalo; Mário Rodrigues Simões

    2014-01-01

    Specific cognitive deficits have been identified in children with epilepsy irrespective of results on intelligence tests. Memory deficits are traditionally attributed to temporal lobe epilepsy, whereas the impact of frontal lobe epilepsy on memory functions has remained controversial. The aim of this study was the examination of memory abilities in other childhood common epilepsy syndromes (frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE), childhood absence epilepsy (CAE), and benign epilepsy with centrotemporal ...

  3. Childhood Absence Epilepsy Successfully Treated with the Paleolithic Ketogenic Diet

    OpenAIRE

    Clemens, Zsófia; Kelemen, Anna; Fogarasi, András; Tóth, Csaba

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Childhood absence epilepsy is an epilepsy syndrome responding relatively well to the ketogenic diet with one-third of patients becoming seizure-free. Less restrictive variants of the classical ketogenic diet, however, have been shown to confer similar benefits. Beneficial effects of high fat, low-carbohydrate diets are often explained in evolutionary terms. However, the paleolithic diet itself which advocates a return to the human evolutionary diet has not yet been studied in epi...

  4. Memory Functioning in Children with Epilepsy: Frontal Lobe Epilepsy, Childhood Absence Epilepsy, and Benign Epilepsy with Centrotemporal Spikes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Filipa Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Specific cognitive deficits have been identified in children with epilepsy irrespective of results on intelligence tests. Memory deficits are traditionally attributed to temporal lobe epilepsy, whereas the impact of frontal lobe epilepsy on memory functions has remained controversial. The aim of this study was the examination of memory abilities in other childhood common epilepsy syndromes (frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE, childhood absence epilepsy (CAE, and benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS and the influence of epilepsy-related variables. Memory was examined in 90 children with epilepsy (each epilepsy group consisted of 30 children, aged 6–15, and compared with 30 control children. Children with FLE showed significant deficits in verbal and visual memory. In addition, type of epilepsy, earlier age at epilepsy onset, and longer active duration of epilepsy were associated with memory problems. Seizure frequency and treatment, however, did not influence memory performance. This study indicates that children with FLE show greater risk of developing memory deficits than children with CAE or BECTS, thus highlighting the importance of assessing also memory functions in frontal lobe epilepsy.

  5. Childhood Absence Epilepsy: Poor Attention Is More Than Seizures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for treating CAE. e138 © 2013 American Academy of Neurology ª"NFSJDBO "DBEFNZ PG /FVSPMPHZ 6OBVUIPSJ[FE SFQSPEVDUJPO ... medication impact on attention in childhood absence epilepsy. Neurology 2013;81:1572 – 1580. 2. Glauser TA, Cnaan ...

  6. Linkage and association analysis of CACNG3 in childhood absence epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Everett, Kate V; Chioza, Barry; Aicardi, Jean;

    2007-01-01

    Childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) is an idiopathic generalised epilepsy characterised by absence seizures manifested by transitory loss of awareness with 2.5-4 Hz spike-wave complexes on ictal EEG. A genetic component to aetiology is established but the mechanism of inheritance and the genes...

  7. Linkage and association analysis of CACNG3 in childhood absence epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Everett, Kate V.; Chioza, Barry; Aicardi, Jean; Aschauer, Harald; Brouwer, Oebele; Callenbach, Petra; Covanis, Athanasios; Dulac, Olivier; Eeg-Olofsson, Orvar; Feucht, Martha; Friis, Mogens; Goutieres, Francoise; Guerrini, Renzo; Heils, Armin; Kjeldsen, Marianne; Lehesjoki, Anna-Elina; Makoff, Andrew; Nabbout, Rima; Olsson, Ingrid; Sander, Thomas; Siren, Auli; McKeigue, Paul; Robinson, Robert; Taske, Nichole; Rees, Michele; Gardiner, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) is an idiopathic generalised epilepsy characterised by absence seizures manifested by transitory loss of awareness with 2.5 - 4 Hz spike - wave complexes on ictal EEG. A genetic component to aetiology is established but the mechanism of inheritance and the genes invo

  8. Polyspike and Waves Do Not Predict Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizures in Childhood Absence Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Vierck, Esther; Cauley, Ryan; Kugler, Steven L.; Mandelbaum, David E; Pal, Deb K; Durner, Martina

    2010-01-01

    About 40% of children with childhood absence epilepsy develop generalized tonic-clonic seizures. It is commonly held that polyspike–wave pattern on the electroencephalogram (EEG) can predict this development of generalized tonic-clonic seizures. However, there is no firm evidence in support of this proposition. To test this assumption, we used survival analysis and compared the incidence of generalized tonic-clonic seizures in 115 patients with childhood absence epilepsy hav...

  9. The role of SCL2A1 in Early Onset and Childhood Absence Epilepsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brusgaard, Klaus

    Introduction: Early onset absence epilepsy (EOAE) constitutes an idiopathic generalized epilepsy syndrome with typical absences starting before the age of four years. Mutations in SLC2A1, encoding the glucose transporter of the blood-brain barrier (GLUT-1), account for approximately 10% of EOAE...... cases. The role of SLC2A1 mutations in absence epilepsies with a later onset has not been assessed so far. Therefore, we aimed to compare the role of SLC2A1 mutations in EOAE and Childhood and Juvenile Absence Epilepsy (CAE, JAE). Method: 26 cases with EOAE and 40 probands with CAE or JAE were screened...... for SCL2A1 mutations by sequence analysis. Extensive phenotyping was performed in patients and family members. Results: Mutations in SLC2A1 were detected in 2/26 EOAE patients and 0/40 patients with familial absence epilepsy. One EOAE patient with a mild phenotype had a variant in exon 8 (c.1008G...

  10. Automatic Detection of Childhood Absence Epilepsy Seizures: Toward a Monitoring Device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duun-Henriksen, Jonas; Madsen, Rasmus E.; Remvig, Line S.;

    2012-01-01

    Automatic detections of paroxysms in patients with childhood absence epilepsy have been neglected for several years. We acquire reliable detections using only a single-channel brainwave monitor, allowing for unobtrusive monitoring of antiepileptic drug effects. Ultimately we seek to obtain optimal...... long-term prognoses, balancing antiepileptic effects and side effects. The electroencephalographic appearance of paroxysms in childhood absence epilepsy is fairly homogeneous, making it feasible to develop patient-independent automatic detection. We implemented a state-of-the-art algorithm to...

  11. Hyperglycosylation and Reduced GABA Currents of Mutated GABRB3 Polypeptide in Remitting Childhood Absence Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Miyabi; Olsen, Richard W.; Medina, Marco T.; Schwartz, Emily; Alonso, Maria Elisa; Duron, Reyna M.; Castro-Ortega, Ramon; Martinez-Juarez, Iris E.; Pascual-Castroviejo, Ignacio; Machado-Salas, Jesus; Silva, Rene; Bailey, Julia N.; Bai, Dongsheng; Ochoa, Adriana; Jara-Prado, Aurelio

    2008-01-01

    Childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) accounts for 10% to 12% of epilepsy in children under 16 years of age. We screened for mutations in the GABAA receptor (GABAR) β3 subunit gene (GABRB3) in 48 probands and families with remitting CAE. We found that four out of 48 families (8%) had mutations in GABRB3. One heterozygous missense mutation (P11S) in exon 1a segregated with four CAE-affected persons in one multiplex, two-generation Mexican family. P11S was also found in a singleton from Mexico. Anot...

  12. The role of SLC2A1 in early onset and childhood absence epilepsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muhle, Hiltrud; Helbig, Ingo; Frøslev, Tobias Guldberg;

    2013-01-01

    Early Onset Absence Epilepsy constitutes an Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy with absences starting before the age of four years. Mutations in SLC2A1, encoding the glucose transporter, account for approximately 10% of EOAE cases. The role of SLC2A1 mutations in absence epilepsies with a later onse...... has not been assessed. We found two mutation carriers in 26 EOAE patients, while no mutations were found in 124 probands affected by CAE or JAE....

  13. Hyperglycosylation and reduced GABA currents of mutated GABRB3 polypeptide in remitting childhood absence epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Miyabi; Olsen, Richard W; Medina, Marco T; Schwartz, Emily; Alonso, Maria Elisa; Duron, Reyna M; Castro-Ortega, Ramon; Martinez-Juarez, Iris E; Pascual-Castroviejo, Ignacio; Machado-Salas, Jesus; Silva, Rene; Bailey, Julia N; Bai, Dongsheng; Ochoa, Adriana; Jara-Prado, Aurelio; Pineda, Gregorio; Macdonald, Robert L; Delgado-Escueta, Antonio V

    2008-06-01

    Childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) accounts for 10% to 12% of epilepsy in children under 16 years of age. We screened for mutations in the GABA(A) receptor (GABAR) beta 3 subunit gene (GABRB3) in 48 probands and families with remitting CAE. We found that four out of 48 families (8%) had mutations in GABRB3. One heterozygous missense mutation (P11S) in exon 1a segregated with four CAE-affected persons in one multiplex, two-generation Mexican family. P11S was also found in a singleton from Mexico. Another heterozygous missense mutation (S15F) was present in a singleton from Honduras. An exon 2 heterozygous missense mutation (G32R) was present in two CAE-affected persons and two persons affected with EEG-recorded spike and/or sharp wave in a two-generation Honduran family. All mutations were absent in 630 controls. We studied functions and possible pathogenicity by expressing mutations in HeLa cells with the use of Western blots and an in vitro translation and translocation system. Expression levels did not differ from those of controls, but all mutations showed hyperglycosylation in the in vitro translation and translocation system with canine microsomes. Functional analysis of human GABA(A) receptors (alpha 1 beta 3-v2 gamma 2S, alpha 1 beta 3-v2[P11S]gamma 2S, alpha 1 beta 3-v2[S15F]gamma 2S, and alpha 1 beta 3-v2[G32R]gamma 2S) transiently expressed in HEK293T cells with the use of rapid agonist application showed that each amino acid transversion in the beta 3-v2 subunit (P11S, S15F, and G32R) reduced GABA-evoked current density from whole cells. Mutated beta 3 subunit protein could thus cause absence seizures through a gain in glycosylation of mutated exon 1a and exon 2, affecting maturation and trafficking of GABAR from endoplasmic reticulum to cell surface and resulting in reduced GABA-evoked currents. PMID:18514161

  14. Differentiating Interictal and Ictal States in Childhood Absence Epilepsy through Permutation Rényi Entropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Mammone

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Permutation entropy (PE has been widely exploited to measure the complexity of the electroencephalogram (EEG, especially when complexity is linked to diagnostic information embedded in the EEG. Recently, the authors proposed a spatial-temporal analysis of the EEG recordings of absence epilepsy patients based on PE. The goal here is to improve the ability of PE in discriminating interictal states from ictal states in absence seizure EEG. For this purpose, a parametrical definition of permutation entropy is introduced here in the field of epileptic EEG analysis: the permutation Rényi entropy (PEr. PEr has been extensively tested against PE by tuning the involved parameters (order, delay time and alpha. The achieved results demonstrate that PEr outperforms PE, as there is a statistically-significant, wider gap between the PEr levels during the interictal states and PEr levels observed in the ictal states compared to PE. PEr also outperformed PE as the input to a classifier aimed at discriminating interictal from ictal states.

  15. Stress and childhood epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Campen, J.S. van

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic diseases in childhood, characterized by the enduring predisposition to generate epileptic seizures. Children with epilepsy and their parents often report seizures precipitated by stress. In order to increase our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the effects of stress on seizures in childhood epilepsy, we performed a variety of studies, which are described in this thesis. In part I we evaluate the extent of stress sensitivi...

  16. Automatic characterization of dynamics in Absence Epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Katrine N. H.; Nielsen, Trine N.; Kjær, Troels W.;

    2013-01-01

    Dynamics of the spike-wave paroxysms in Childhood Absence Epilepsy (CAE) are automatically characterized using novel approaches. Features are extracted from scalograms formed by Continuous Wavelet Transform (CWT). Detection algorithms are designed to identify an estimate of the temporal development...

  17. Absence Epilepsy and Moyamoya Disease

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-01-01

    The case of a 6-year-old girl with typical absence epilepsy associated with moyamoya disease (MMD) is reported from the Department of Neurosurgery, Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan.

  18. Predictors of intractable childhood epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the prognosis of seizures in epileptic children and identify early predictors of intractable childhood epilepsy. All children (aged 1 month to 16 years) with idiopathic or cryptogenic epilepsy who were treated and followed at the centre during the study period were included. The patients who had marked seizures even after two years of adequate treatment were labeled as intractable epileptics (cases). Children who had no seizure for more than one year at last follow-up visit were the controls. Adequate treatment was described as using at least three anti-epileptic agents either alone or in combination with proper compliance and dosage. Records of these patients were reviewed to identify the variables that may be associated with seizure intractability. Of 442 epileptic children, 325 (74%) intractable and 117 (26%) control epileptics were included in the study. Male gender (OR=3.92), seizures onset in infancy >10 seizures before starting treatment (OR=3.76), myoclonic seizures (OR=1.37), neonatal seizures (OR=3.69), abnormal EEG (OR=7.28) and cryptogenic epilepsy (OR=9.69) and head trauma (OR=4.07) were the factors associated with intractable epilepsy. Seizure onset between 5-7 years of age, idiopathic epilepsy, and absence seizures were associated with favourable prognosis in childhood epilepsy. Intractable childhood epilepsy is expected if certain risk factors such as type, age of onset, gender and cause of epilepsy are found. Early referral of such patients to the specialized centres is recommended for prompt and optimal management. (author)

  19. Ethosuximide vs Valproate Long-term Remission of Absence Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap; Millichap, John J.

    2014-01-01

    Investigators from the Epilepsy Center, Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago, and Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, examined the possible association between long-term seizure outcome of childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) and the initial treatment with ethosuximide (ESM) or valproic acid (VPA).

  20. Psychiatric Aspects of Childhood Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raman Deep PATTANAYAK

    2012-06-01

     model. Epilepsia 2007;48(9:1639-51.32. Ott D, Caplan R, Guthrie D, Siddarth P, Komo S, Shields WD, et al. Measures of psychopathology in children with complex partial seizures and primary generalized epilepsy with absence. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2001;40(8:907-14.33. Mathiak KA, Luba M, Mathiak, K, Karzel, K, Wolanczyk, Szczepanik E, et al. Quality of life in childhood epilepsy with lateralized epileptogenic foci. BMC Neurol 2010;10:69.34. Bulteau C, Jambaque I, Viguier D, Kieffer V, Dellatolas G, Dulac O. Epileptic syndromes, cognitive assessment and school placement: a study of 251 children. Dev Med Child Neurol 2000;42(5:319-27.35.Noeker M, Haverkamp F. Neuropsychological deficiencies as a mediator between CNS dysfunction and inattentive behaviour in childhood epilepsy. Dev Med Child Neurol 2003;45(10:717-8.36. Sillanpää M, Helen Cross J. The psychosocial impact of epilepsy in childhood. Epilepsy Behav 2009;15 Suppl 1:S5-10.37. Miller V, Palermo TM, Grewe SD. Quality of life in pediatric epilepsy: Demographic and disease-related predictors and comparison with healthy controls. Epilepsy Behav 2003,4(1:36-42.38. Kokkonen J, Kokkonen ER, Saukkonen AL, Pennanen P. Psychosocial outcome of young adults with epilepsy in childhood. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 1997;62(3:265-8.39. Pal DK, Chaudhury G, Sengupta S, Das T: Social integration of children with epilepsy in rural India. Soc Sci Med 2002;54(12:1867-74.40. Modi AC. The impact of a new pediatric epilepsy diagnosis on parents: parenting stress and activity patterns. Epilepsy Behav 2009;14(1:237-42.41. Shore C, Austin J, Musick B, Dunn D, McBride A, Creasy K. Psychosocial care needs of parents of children with new-onset seizures. J Neurosci Nurs 1998;30:169-74.42. Rodenburg R, Marie Meijer A, Dekovic´ M, Aldenkamp AP. Family predictors of psychopathology in children with epilepsy. Epilepsia 2006;47(3:601-14.43.Mims J. Self-esteem, behavior, and concerns surrounding epilepsy in siblings

  1. Psychiatric Aspects of Childhood Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Pattanayak, Raman Deep; Sagar, Rajesh

    2012-01-01

    How to Cite this Article: Pattanayak RD, Sagar R. Psychiatric Aspects of Childhood Epilepsy. Iran J Child Neurol 2012;6(2):9-18.Childhood epilepsy is a chronic, recurrent disorder of unprovoked seizures. Theonset of epilepsy in childhood has significant implications for brain growth anddevelopment. Seizures may impair the ongoing neurodevelopmental processes and compromise the child’s intellectual and cognitive functioning, leading totremendous cognitive, behavioral and psychosocial consequen...

  2. Refractory absence epilepsy associated with GLUT-1 deficiency syndrome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Byrne, Susan

    2011-05-01

    GLUT-1 deficiency syndrome (GLUT-1 DS) is a disorder of cerebral glucose transport associated with early infantile epilepsy and microcephaly. We report two boys who presented with refractory absence epilepsy associated with hypoglycorrhachia, both of whom have genetically confirmed GLUT-1 DS. We propose that these children serve to expand the phenotype of GLUT-1 DS and suggest that this condition should be considered as a cause of refractory absence seizures in childhood.

  3. Childhood epilepsy and sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Biltagi, Mohammed A

    2014-01-01

    Sleep and epilepsy are two well recognized conditions that interact with each other in a complex bi-directional way. Some types of epilepsies have increased activity during sleep disturbing it; while sleep deprivation aggravates epilepsy due to decreased seizure threshold. Epilepsy can deteriorate the sleep-related disorders and at the same time; the parasomnias can worsen the epilepsy. The secretion of sleep-related hormones can also be affected by the occurrence of seizures and supplementat...

  4. Case-control study and transmission/disequilibrium tests of the genes encoding GABRA5 and GABRB3 in a Chinese population affected by childhood absence epilepsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕建军; 张月华; 潘虹; 陈育才; 刘晓燕; 姜玉武; 包新华; 沈岩; 吴沪生; 许克铭; 吴希如

    2004-01-01

    Background Childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) is one of the most frequently recognized syndromes among the idiopathic generalized epilepsies (IGEs). CAE is considered to be a genetic disease, with a possible polygenic inheritance pattern. The genes responsible for CAE have not been identified yet. The object of this study was to investigate whether or not CAE is associated with the gene encoding the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type-A receptor subunits α5 (GABRA5) and β3 (GABRB3) in a Chinese population. Methods Five microsatellite DNA repeats, 69CA, 85CA, 155CA1, 155CA2, and A55CA1, adjoining chromosome 15q11-q13, were used as genetic markers. Both case-control study and transmission/disequilibrium tests (TDTs), as well as fluorescence-based semi-automated genotyping techniques, were used in 90 CAE patient-mother-father trios and 100 normal controls of Han ethnicity to conduct association analysis. Results The frequencies of allele 5 of 69CA, alleles 2 and 8 of 85CA, alleles 6 and 7 of 155CA1, allele 2 of 155CA2, and alleles 1 and 11 of A55CA1 were significantly higher in CAE patients than in normal controls. To prevent spurious associations arising from population admixture, we further conducted TDT tests in the 90 CAE trios. The results of TDT analysis further suggested that microsatellite DNA repeats 85CA, 155CA1, and 155CA2 were associated with CAE.Conclusions GABA type-A receptor subunit genes GABRA5 and GABRB3 may be either directly involved in the etiology of CAE in the Chinese population or in linkage disequilibrium with disease-predisposing sites.

  5. Animal models of absence epilepsies: What do they model and do sex and sex hormones matter?

    OpenAIRE

    van Luijtelaar, Gilles; Onat, Filiz Yilmaz; Gallagher, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    While epidemiological data suggest a female prevalence in human childhood- and adolescence-onset typical absence epilepsy syndromes, the sex difference is less clear in adult-onset syndromes. In addition, although there are more females than males diagnosed with typical absence epilepsy syndromes, there is a paucity of studies on sex differences in seizure frequency and semiology in patients diagnosed with any absence epilepsy syndrome. Moreover, it is unknown if there are sex ...

  6. Vigabatrin in childhood epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldall, P; Alving, J; Gram, L;

    1995-01-01

    In an retrospective uncontrolled long-term study in 30 children with intractable epilepsy, it was found that treatment with vigabatrin resulted in a seizure reduction of more than 50% at 1-year follow-up in 40% of the children. The responders were all children with partial seizures. Side effects...

  7. Vigabatrin in childhood epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uldall, P; Alving, J; Gram, L;

    1995-01-01

    In an retrospective uncontrolled long-term study in 30 children with intractable epilepsy, it was found that treatment with vigabatrin resulted in a seizure reduction of more than 50% at 1-year follow-up in 40% of the children. The responders were all children with partial seizures. Side effects ...

  8. Sensory modulation disorders in childhood epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Campen, Jolien S; Jansen, Floor E; Kleinrensink, Nienke J; Joëls, Marian; Braun, Kees Pj; Bruining, Hilgo

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Altered sensory sensitivity is generally linked to seizure-susceptibility in childhood epilepsy but may also be associated to the highly prevalent problems in behavioral adaptation. This association is further suggested by the frequent overlap of childhood epilepsy with autism spectrum d

  9. [Neuropsychology, plasticity and childhood epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassonde, Maryse; Sauerwein, Hannelore C

    2007-11-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most frequent childhood disorders. While most cases are well controlled, approximately 30-50% are resistant to medical treatment. In these cases, neurosurgery may be an option. Since 1979, our team at the Sainte-Justine Hospital in Montreal has studied the impact of epilepsy on the psycho-motor and cognitive development of the affected children. The aim of a first series of studies was to explore the extent and limits of cerebral plasticity by investigating the neuropsychological sequelae of early versus late callosotomy and hemispherectomy. In keeping with the plasticity hypothesis, the results revealed that the children who were operated before puberty showed fewer deficits than those operated during adolescence or adulthood. However, the compensatory mechanisms available to them appeared to be limited with respect to the nature and complexity of the information they can process. For instance, young children having undergone section of the corpus callosum resembled individuals born without a corpus callosum (callosal agenesis) in that there did not show the typical disconnection deficits seen in adult ''split-brain'' patients. However, they exhibited deficits on tasks requiring interhemispheric integration of motor and visuo-motor information. By the same token, hemispherectomy patients were still able to make visual judgements in their ''blind'' visual field but they were found to be impaired on a variety of visual and auditory tasks (localization of a sound sources in space) requiring the participation of both hemispheres. In a second series of studies, carried out in collaboration with a Parisian team, we intended to describe the neuropsychological profile of focal epilepsies, specifically frontal and temporal epilepsy. Contrary to the common belief that childhood epilepsy would result in diffuse impairments, we were able to demonstrate that children manifest the same localized deficits as adult patients. In studies presently underway in

  10. EEG features of absence seizures in idiopathic generalized epilepsy: Impact of syndrome, age, and state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadleir, L.G.; Scheffer, I.E.; Smith, S.;

    2009-01-01

    seizures were evaluated in 70 children with the following syndromes: childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) 37, CAE+ photoparoxysmal response (PPR) 10, juvenile absence epilepsy (JAE) 8, juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) 6, and unclassified 9. Polyspikes occurred in all syndromes but were more common in JME....... They were brought out by drowsiness and sleep in fragments of generalized spike and wave (GSW). Polyspikes were more likely to occur during photic stimulation, but were not influenced by age independently. GSW was more likely to be disorganized in JME than JAE, and in JAE than CAE. Increasing age and...

  11. Learning Disability in Childhood-Onset Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of learning disability (LD in adults with childhood-onset epilepsy and its impact on medical and social outcome were analyzed in a study at the University of Turku, Finland.

  12. [Quality of life in childhood epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herranz, J L; Casas, C

    1996-01-01

    We describe a Quality Life scale in childhood epilepsy (CAVE) composed by 8 items, behaviour, school compliance, learning, autonomy, social relation, frequency and intensity of seizures and the parents opinions. Each item may be answered as very bad (5), bad (2), medium (3), good (4), or very good (5), and we can obtain full scores before and after the beginning of epileptic treatment and we can compare them. Although other Quality Life questionnaires exist for adult epilepsy, CAVE is the first scale applied for chronic childhood epilepsy. PMID:8851997

  13. Genes and molecular mechanisms involved in the epileptogenesis of idiopathic absence epilepsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalçın, Ozlem

    2012-03-01

    Idiopathic absence epilepsies (IAE), that have high prevalence particularly among children and adolescents, are complex disorders mainly caused by genetic factors. Childhood absence epilepsy and juvenile absence epilepsy are among the most common subtypes of IAEs. While the role of ion channels has been the primary focus of epilepsy research, the analysis of mutation and association in both patients with absence epilepsies and animal models revealed the involvement of GABA receptors and calcium channels, but also of novel non-ion channel proteins in inducing spike wave discharges (SWD). Functional studies on a mutated variant of these proteins also support their role in the epileptogenesis of absence seizures. Studies in animal models point to both the thalamus and cortex as the origin of SWDs: the abnormalities in the components of these circuits leading to seizure activity. This review examines the current research on mutations and susceptibility alleles determined in the genes that code for the subunits of GABA receptors (GABRG2, GABRA1, GABRB3, GABRA5, GABA(B1) and GABA(B2)), calcium channels (CACNA1A, CACNA1G, CACNA1H, CACNA1I, CACNAB4, CACNAG2 and CACNG3), and novel non-ion channel proteins, taking into account the results of functional studies on these variants. PMID:22206818

  14. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in Childhood Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Colin J.

    2011-01-01

    ADHD and epilepsy common are both common childhood disorders and both can have significant negative consequences on a child's behavioural, learning, and social development. Both conditions can co-occur and population studies suggest that the prevalence of ADHD in childhood epilepsy is between 12 and 17%. The prevalence of epilepsy in ADHD is lower…

  15. MODIFIED ATKINS DIET FOR INTRACTABLE CHILDHOOD EPILEPSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad BARZEGAR

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveThe aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a modified Atkins diet for intractable childhood epilepsy.Materials & MethodsTwenty one children with medically intractable epilepsy were enrolled in the study. Inclusion criteria were at least four seizures per month and a trial of at least three anticonvulsants without becoming seizure-free. The subjects received the diet over a 6-month period.ResultsThree months after diet initiation, 15 patients (71.4% remained on the diet and 12 (57.1% had >50% seizure reduction. Eleven patients (52.4% completed the 6-month study and 8 (38.1% chose to remain on the diet afterward. At 6 months, 9 patients (42.8% had >50% seizure reduction. The diet was more effective in cryptogenic epilepsy (p=0.032. Most complications were transient and successfully managed by careful follow-up and conservative strategies.ConclusionThe modified Atkins diet is an effective and well- tolerated therapy for intractable childhood epilepsy.Keywords:Atkins diet, ketogenic diet,intractable epilepsy, children

  16. A balanced translocation disrupts SYNGAP1 in a patient with intellectual disability, speech impairment, and epilepsy with myoclonic absences (EMA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klitten, Laura L; Møller, Rikke S; Nikanorova, Marina;

    2011-01-01

    Epilepsy with myoclonic absences (EMA) is a rare form of generalized epilepsy occurring in childhood and is often difficult to treat. The underlying etiology of EMA is unknown in the majority of patients. Herein, we describe a patient with EMA and intellectual disability who carries a de novo...... region without known protein-coding genes. Mutations of SYNGAP1 are associated with nonsyndromal intellectual disability (NSID). Two-thirds of the patients described so far also have generalized epilepsy. This finding, together with our report, suggests that dysfunction of SYNGAP1 contributes to the...... development of generalized epilepsy, including EMA....

  17. MODIFIED ATKINS DIET FOR INTRACTABLE CHILDHOOD EPILEPSY

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad BARZEGAR; Poupak IRANDOUST; Ebrahimi Mameghani, Mehrangiz

    2010-01-01

    ObjectiveThe aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a modified Atkins diet for intractable childhood epilepsy.Materials & MethodsTwenty one children with medically intractable epilepsy were enrolled in the study. Inclusion criteria were at least four seizures per month and a trial of at least three anticonvulsants without becoming seizure-free. The subjects received the diet over a 6-month period.ResultsThree months after diet initiation, 15 patients (71.4%)...

  18. Physiological factors in childhood epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeWinn, E B

    1980-08-01

    The identification and correction of adverse physiological changes that lead to seizures in children can improve the effectiveness of current therapeutic practices in epilepsy. It is proposed that various circadian rhythms (respiration, hormones, water balance, electrolytes, intracranial pressure, blood pressure), meteorological phenomena (barometric presure, ambient environmental temperature, relative humidity), and developmental processes can profoundly influence the precipitation or prevention of seizures through their physiological effects. PMID:7190490

  19. MODIFIED ATKINS DIET FOR INTRACTABLE CHILDHOOD EPILEPSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad BARZEGAR

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveThe aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a modified Atkins diet for intractable childhood epilepsy.Materials & MethodsTwenty one children with medically intractable epilepsy were enrolled in the study. Inclusion criteria were at least four seizures per month and a trial of at least three anticonvulsants without becoming seizure-free. The subjects received the diet over a 6-month period.ResultsThree months after diet initiation, 15 patients (71.4% remained on the diet and 12 (57.1% had >50% seizure reduction. Eleven patients (52.4% completed the 6-month study and 8 (38.1% chose to remain on the diet afterward. At 6 months, 9 patients (42.8% had >50% seizure reduction. The diet was more effective in cryptogenic epilepsy (p=0.032. Most complications were transient and successfully managed by careful follow-up and conservative strategies.ConclusionThe modified Atkins diet is an effective and well- tolerated therapy for intractable childhood epilepsy

  20. Animal models of absence epilepsies: What do they model and do sex and sex hormones matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Luijtelaar, Gilles; Onat, Filiz Yilmaz; Gallagher, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    While epidemiological data suggest a female prevalence in human childhood- and adolescence-onset typical absence epilepsy syndromes, the sex difference is less clear in adult-onset syndromes. In addition, although there are more females than males diagnosed with typical absence epilepsy syndromes, there is a paucity of studies on sex differences in seizure frequency and semiology in patients diagnosed with any absence epilepsy syndrome. Moreover, it is unknown if there are sex differences in the prevalence or expression of atypical absence epilepsy syndromes. Surprisingly, most studies of animal models of absence epilepsy either did not investigate sex differences, or failed to find sex-dependent effects. However, various rodent models for atypical syndromes such as the AY9944 model (prepubertal females show a higher incidence than prepubertal males), BN model also with a higher prevalence in males and the Gabra1 deletion mouse in the C57BL/6J strain offer unique possibilities for the investigation of the mechanisms involved in sex differences. Although the mechanistic bases for the sex differences in humans or these three models are not yet known, studies of the effects of sex hormones on seizures have offered some possibilities. The sex hormones progesterone, estradiol and testosterone exert diametrically opposite effects in genetic absence epilepsy and pharmacologically-evoked convulsive types of epilepsy models. In addition, acute pharmacological effects of progesterone on absence seizures during proestrus are opposite to those seen during pregnancy. 17β-Estradiol has anti-absence seizure effects, but it is only active in atypical absence models. It is speculated that the pro-absence action of progesterone, and perhaps also the delayed pro-absence action of testosterone, are mediated through the neurosteroid allopregnanolone and its structural and functional homolog, androstanediol. These two steroids increase extrasynaptic thalamic tonic GABAergic inhibition

  1. Animal models of absence epilepsies: what do they model and do sex and sex hormones matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Luijtelaar, Gilles; Onat, Filiz Yilmaz; Gallagher, Martin J

    2014-12-01

    While epidemiological data suggest a female prevalence in human childhood- and adolescence-onset typical absence epilepsy syndromes, the sex difference is less clear in adult-onset syndromes. In addition, although there are more females than males diagnosed with typical absence epilepsy syndromes, there is a paucity of studies on sex differences in seizure frequency and semiology in patients diagnosed with any absence epilepsy syndrome. Moreover, it is unknown if there are sex differences in the prevalence or expression of atypical absence epilepsy syndromes. Surprisingly, most studies of animal models of absence epilepsy either did not investigate sex differences, or failed to find sex-dependent effects. However, various rodent models for atypical syndromes such as the AY9944 model (prepubertal females show a higher incidence than prepubertal males), BN model (also with a higher prevalence in males) and the Gabra1 deletion mouse in the C57BL/6J strain offer unique possibilities for the investigation of the mechanisms involved in sex differences. Although the mechanistic bases for the sex differences in humans or these three models are not yet known, studies of the effects of sex hormones on seizures have offered some possibilities. The sex hormones progesterone, estradiol and testosterone exert diametrically opposite effects in genetic absence epilepsy and pharmacologically-evoked convulsive types of epilepsy models. In addition, acute pharmacological effects of progesterone on absence seizures during proestrus are opposite to those seen during pregnancy. 17β-Estradiol has anti-absence seizure effects, but it is only active in atypical absence models. It is speculated that the pro-absence action of progesterone, and perhaps also the delayed pro-absence action of testosterone, are mediated through the neurosteroid allopregnanolone and its structural and functional homolog, androstanediol. These two steroids increase extrasynaptic thalamic tonic GABAergic

  2. Behavior and Social Competency in Idiopathic and Cryptogenic Childhood Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Anne T.; Vickrey, Barbara G.; Testa, Francine M.; Levy, Susan R.; Shinnar, Shlomo; DiMario, Francis

    2007-01-01

    Behavioral and related disorders are frequently reported in association with childhood epilepsy but the reasons for this are unclear. In a long-term prospective, community-based study of newly-diagnosed childhood epilepsy, behavioral assessments (Child Behavior Checklist) were performed in children 8 to 9 years after the initial diagnosis of…

  3. Predictive factors of seizure control in childhood onset epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Eli Shahar; Jacob Genizi

    2008-01-01

    Background: Prediction of the long-term outcomes of childhood-onset epilepsy remains crucial for the future well-being of the affected children and their families and for planning proper therapeutic and educational programs. Objective: To identify and analyze the early predictive factors of seizure control in childhood-onset epilepsies referred at the age of 1 month up to the age of 18 years to the Epilepsy Service at the Meyer Children Hospital, Rambam Medical Center, Haifa, Israel. Materia...

  4. Language and central temporal auditory processing in childhood epilepsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boscariol, Mirela; Casali, Raquel L; Amaral, M Isabel R; Lunardi, Luciane L; Matas, Carla G; Collela-Santos, M Francisca; Guerreiro, Marilisa M

    2015-12-01

    Because of the relationship between rolandic, temporoparietal, and centrotemporal areas and language and auditory processing, the aim of this study was to investigate language and central temporal auditory processing of children with epilepsy (rolandic epilepsy and temporal lobe epilepsy) and compare these with those of children without epilepsy. Thirty-five children aged between eight and 14 years old were studied. Two groups of children participated in this study: a group with childhood epilepsy (n=19), and a control group without epilepsy or linguistic changes (n=16). There was a significant difference between the two groups, with the worst performance in children with epilepsy for the gaps-in-noise test, right ear (preceptive vocabulary (PPVT) (p<0.001) and phonological working memory (nonwords repetition task) tasks (p=0.001). We conclude that the impairment of central temporal auditory processing and language skills may be comorbidities in children with rolandic epilepsy and temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:26580215

  5. Comparative proteomic approach in rat model of absence epilepsy.

    OpenAIRE

    Gürol, Gönül; Demiralp, Duygu Özel; Yılmaz, Ayça Kasapoğlu; Akman, Özlem; Ateş, Nurbay; Karson, Ayşe

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate cellular proteins in the pathogenesis of the genetic rat model of absence epilepsy. Protein spots were identified with peptide mass fingerprinting analysis using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry. Data were gathered from the frontoparietal cortex and thalamus of Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rij (WAG/Rij) and Wistar by using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE). Six proteins (Clathrin light chain-A protein, Tra...

  6. Impact of Childhood Epilepsy on the Family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerim Fazlıoglu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Whole family is affected when an illness appears in the family or when there is an uncertainty regarding the health of a member. Symptoms, therapy, course of the disorder, constraint of the daily activities and long term effects of childhood chronic diseases deeply impact health and structure of the families. Diagnosis of a chronic disease in children presents as a significant psychological and psychosocial risk factor to the parents and other family members. Despite these known facts, psychosocial problems of parents of epileptic children are often ignored and not even questioned. These parents frequently have to leave their jobs or ask for their elderly relatives to look after their children. This situation could lead to major financial and social problems, weakening in intrafamilial communication and disruption in family harmony. Childhood epilepsy brings a great strain on family’s resources as other chronic diseases do and alter the life of significant others. According to biopsychosocial model, schemas in family relations influence the psychological process of the family members while the biopsychosocial process of the sick individual affect the functionality of the family. In other words, epilepsy affects not only the sick individual but also the family union. The family has to face many problems after definite diagnosis of epilepsy. Majority of the studies conducted on this issue mainly focused on the quality of life and family relations of the sick child, whereas only a few studies searched for possible burden and resulting problems of family members caused by epilepsy. Physicians in charge should not only focus on physical and mental health of the sick children but also on the problems of other members in the family bearing in mind psychosocial influences of the disorder on them. Additionally, preventive methods should be administered to protect the family from developing mental health problems. A multidiscipline training program

  7. Comparative proteomic approach in rat model of absence epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürol, Gönül; Demiralp, Duygu Özel; Yılmaz, Ayça Kasapoğlu; Akman, Özlem; Ateş, Nurbay; Karson, Ayşe

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate cellular proteins in the pathogenesis of the genetic rat model of absence epilepsy. Protein spots were identified with peptide mass fingerprinting analysis using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry. Data were gathered from the frontoparietal cortex and thalamus of Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rij (WAG/Rij) and Wistar by using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE). Six proteins (Clathrin light chain-A protein, Transmembrane EMP24 Domain-Containing Protein, Stathmin-4, Myosin Light Chain4, Rheb, phosphoserine phosphatase) were found to be differentially expressed in the frontoparietal cortex of WAG/Rij and Wistar rats in both age groups. Another set of six proteins (Protein FAM89A and Oasl1, Gemin2, NuDEL1, Pur-beta, 3-alpha HSD) were found to be differentially expressed in the thalamus of WAG/Rij and Wistar rats. Findings from the frontoparietal cortex suggest the presence of altered serine metabolism and increased vesicular trafficking in the frontoparietal cortex of WAG/Rij rats compared with Wistar rats. These differences in the protein levels might reflect the crucial role of these proteins and related pathways in the generation of absence seizures. In the thalamic specimens, age-dependent changes in protein expression were remarkable, suggesting that this phenomenon may be a precursor or a consequence of absence seizures. Our findings further highlight the potential role of the mTOR signaling pathway in absence epilepsy. PMID:25323782

  8. Are Absence Epilepsy and Nocturnal Frontal Lobe Epilepsy System Epilepsies of the Sleep/Wake System?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Halász

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available System epilepsy is an emerging concept interpreting major nonlesional epilepsies as epileptic dysfunctions of physiological systems. I extend here the concept of reflex epilepsy to epilepsies linked to input dependent physiological systems. Experimental and clinical reseach data were collected to create a coherent explanation of underlying pathomechanism in AE and NFLE. We propose that AE should be interpreted as epilepsy linked to the corticothalamic burst-firing mode of NREM sleep, released by evoked vigilance level oscillations characterized by reactive slow wave response. In the genetic variation of NFLE the ascending cholinergic arousal system plays an essential role being in strong relationship with a gain mutation of the nicotinic acethylcholin receptors, rendering the arousal system hyperexcitable. I try to provide a more unitary interpretation for the variable seizure manifestation integrating them as different degree of pathological arosuals and alarm reactions. As a supporting hypothesis the similarity between arousal parasomnias and FNLE is shown, underpinned by overlaping pathomechanism and shared familiarity, but without epileptic features. Lastly we propose that both AE and NFLE are system epilepsies of the sleep-wake system representing epileptic disorders of the antagonistic sleep/arousal network. This interpretation may throw new light on the pathomechanism of AE and NFLE.

  9. Northern epilepsy syndrome: an inherited childhood onset epilepsy with associated mental deterioration.

    OpenAIRE

    Hirvasniemi, A; Lang, H; Lehesjoki, A E; Leisti, J

    1994-01-01

    A new autosomal recessively inherited disease of the central nervous system involving childhood epilepsy and mental deterioration is described. Twenty three patients (11 males and 12 females) belonging to 11 families from northern Finland have been identified. A common ancestor has been found for nine families. The mean age of onset of epilepsy was 6.7 years (range 5-10 years) and the epilepsy was characterised by generalised tonic-clonic seizures increasing in frequency up to puberty. One th...

  10. The role of exclusive breastfeeding in prevention of childhood epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Kurniadi; Elisabeth Siti Herini; Wahyu Damayanti

    2015-01-01

    Background Epilepsy affects 1% of children worldwide. The highest incidence is in the first year of life, and perinatal factors, such as hypoxic-ischemic injury, infection, and cortical malformation may play etiologic roles. Breast milk contains optimal nutrients for human brain in early life. Breastfeeding has been associated with lower risk of infections, better cognitive and psychomotor development. However, the role of breastfeeding in preventing childhood epilepsy remains unclear. Ob...

  11. The role of exclusive breastfeeding in prevention of childhood epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Alexander Kurniadi; Elisabeth Siti Herini; Wahyu Damayanti

    2015-01-01

    Background Epilepsy affects 1% of children worldwide. The highest incidence is in the first year of life, and perinatal factors, such as hypoxic-ischemic injury, infection, and cortical malformation may play etiologic roles. Breast milk contains optimal nutrients for human brain in early life. Breastfeeding has been associated with lower risk of infections, better cognitive and psychomotor development. However, the role of breastfeeding in preventing childhood epilepsy remains unclear. Object...

  12. Parental Infertility, Fertility Treatment, and Childhood Epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kettner, Laura O; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia H; Kesmodel, Ulrik S;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A few studies have indicated an increased risk of epilepsy in children conceived by fertility treatment possibly due to characteristics of the infertile couple rather than the treatment. We therefore aimed to investigate the association between parental infertility, fertility treatment......, and epilepsy in the offspring, including the subtypes of epilepsy; idiopathic generalised epilepsy and focal epilepsy. METHODS: This cohort included all pregnancies resulting in liveborn singletons from the Aarhus Birth Cohort, Denmark (1995-2013). Information on time to pregnancy and fertility...... treatment was obtained from pregnancy questionnaires in early pregnancy. Children developing epilepsy were identified from the Danish National Patient Register and the Danish National Prescription Registry until 2013. Data were analysed using Cox proportional hazards regression adjusted for potential...

  13. Is "Benign Childhood Epilepsy with Centrotemporal Spikes” Always Benign?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad SAEED

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Saeed M, Azam M, Shabbir N, Qamar ShA. Is "Benign Childhood Epilepsy with Centrotemporal Spikes" Always Benign? Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Summer;8(3: 39-45.AbstractObjectiveTo determine the prevalence of associated behavioral problems and prognosis with Benign Childhood Epilepsy with CentroTemporal Spikes (BCECTS.Descriptive, Cross Sectional study that was conducted from October 2009 to April 2013 in the Department of Pediatric Neurology, the Children’s Hospital Taif, KSA.Material & MethodsThis study was conducted after approval from the Ethics Committee of the Children’s Hospital Taif, Saudi Arabia. Thirty-two patients from the age of 3 to 10 years old were recruited from the pediatric neurology clinic over a period of 4 years. All the patients were selected based on history, EEGs, and neuropsychological and neurological examinations.EEGs were performed for all the patients while in awake and sleep states. Those who had centrotemporal discharges were included in the study. All the patients also underwent a brain MRI. Only two patients had mild cortical atrophy but developmentally they were normal.ResultsIn our study, prevalence of BRE is 32/430 (7.44%. Among the 32 cases, 24 were male and eight were female. Six cases out of 32 indicated a family history of BRE. Twenty-eight cases had unilateral right sided centrotemporal discharges and four had bilateral discharges.ConclusionIt is possible that for BECTS, a high number of seizures might play an important role in the development of mild cognitive impairment and/or behavior disturbances.ReferencesBradley WG, Daroff RB, Fenichel JM, Jahrovic J. Neurology of clinical practice. 5th Ed. 2009: pp. 1953-1990.Berg AT, Berkovic SF, Brodie MJ, Buchhalter J, Cross H, Van Emde Boas M, et al: Revised terminology and concepts for organization of seizures and epilepsies: Report of the ILAE Commission on Classification and Terminology, 2005–2009. Epilepsia. 2010

  14. Language in Benign Childhood Epilepsy with Centro-Temporal Spikes Abbreviated Form: Rolandic Epilepsy and Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monjauze, C.; Tuller, L.; Hommet, C.; Barthez, M.A.; Khomsi, A.

    2005-01-01

    Although Benign Childhood Epilepsy with Centrotemporal Spikes (BECTS) has a good prognosis, a few studies have suggested the existence of language disorders relating to the interictal dysfunction of perisylvian language areas. In this study, we focused on language assessment in 16 children aged 6-15 currently affected by BECTS or in remission. An…

  15. Spatiotemporal mapping of interictal epileptiform discharges in human absence epilepsy: A MEG study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozendaal, Y.J.W.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Ossenblok, P.P.W.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Although absence epilepsy is considered to be a prototypic type of generalized epilepsy, it is still under debate whether generalized 3 Hz spike-and-wave discharges (SWDs) might have a cortical focal origin. Here it is investigated whether focal interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs), wh

  16. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of the Thalamus in Patients with Typical Absence Epilepsy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fojtíková, D.; Brázdil, M.; Horký, Jaroslav; Mikl, M.; Kuba, R.; Krupa, P.; Rektor, I.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 7, 2/Suppl. B (2006), B30. ISSN 1335-9592. [International Danube Symposium for Neurological Sciences and Continuing Education /38./. 06.04.2006-08.04.2006, Brno] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : typical absence epilepsy * idiopathic generalized epilepsy * proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy * thalamus Subject RIV: FS - Medical Facilities ; Equipment

  17. Vitamin B6 Related Epilepsy during Childhood

    OpenAIRE

    Meng-Fai Kuo; Huei-Shyong Wang

    2007-01-01

    In some patients without vitamin B6 deficiency, epilepsy can not be controlled withoutan extra supplement of vitamin B6. The therapeutic role of pyridoxal phosphate (PLP), theactive form of vitamin B6, may not be replaced with other forms of vitamin B6 sometimes.Until now, four inborn errors of metabolism are known to affect vitamin B6 concentrationsin the brain. Three of them are hyperprolinemia type 2, antiquitin deficiency, and pyridoxinephosphate oxidase deficiency. The fourth disorder oc...

  18. Predictive factors of seizure control in childhood onset epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli Shahar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prediction of the long-term outcomes of childhood-onset epilepsy remains crucial for the future well-being of the affected children and their families and for planning proper therapeutic and educational programs. Objective: To identify and analyze the early predictive factors of seizure control in childhood-onset epilepsies referred at the age of 1 month up to the age of 18 years to the Epilepsy Service at the Meyer Children Hospital, Rambam Medical Center, Haifa, Israel. Materials and Methods: In this study, children who were newly diagnosed with epileptic disorders and treated with antiepileptic drug therapy - who became either completely controlled for at least twelve months or those remaining intractable - were included. Partially responding children were excluded from the analysis. The etiology was segregated into either symptomatic or nonsymptomatic epilepsy, referred to as idiopathic epilepsy. Results: Overall, 74 children (mean age: 4.27 ± 4 years at the first seizure were found eligible for analysis followed for a mean period of 4.5 years. Fifty-three (72% children became seizure-free for a mean period of 20 months on antiepileptic drug (AED therapy and 21 (28% remained uncontrolled. Sixty out of 74 children (81% had idiopathic epilepsy and 14 (19% had symptomatic epilepsy. In those with idiopathic epilepsy, 46 (77% children gained complete seizure control in comparison to 7 out of 14 (50% children in the symptomatic group ( P < 0.01. Thirty-nine out of 47 (83% children who had normal cognition became seizure-free, and 14 (52% out of 27 mentally retarded children also became seizure-free ( P < 0.01. The outcome of seizure control was not affected by age at onset and seizure type itself during the presentation. Conclusion: The present study reveals that the single most predictive factor of a favorable seizure control is preserved cognitive function in accordance with idiopathic epilepsy. However, a fairly high number of

  19. [Parental attitude and adjustment to childhood epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, S H; Chang, P F; Chen, Y J; Huang, C C; Tsai, J J

    1990-01-01

    Parental attitude and adjustment were examined in 20 epileptic children (ages 6.8-16.6 yrs), using semi-structured interview. The results indicated that parental understandings of epilepsy were generally poor and incorrect. Fifteen (75%) of 20 parents had their own interpretations of causality and 19 (95%) had unrealistic hope for early and complete cure. Parents tended to overprotect and overrestrict their children. Sixteen (80%) concealed the illness for fear of social prejudice, therefore the social support systems were generally poorly utilized. As in other chronic diseases, all parents went through feelings of shock, denial, anger, guilt, fear, anxiety and depression. Family relationships were not affected much, however, poor communications were commonly found between parents and children. Thirteen (65%) parents never talked to their children about epilepsy. We concluded that parents of epileptic children showed negative attitudes toward their children and had difficulties in their psychosocial adjustment probably related to social stigmata and misunderstanding of the illness. Therefore, communication between physician and parents in both medical and psychosocial aspects should be encouraged. PMID:2275364

  20. The involvement of limbic structures in typical and atypical absence epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onat, F.Y.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Nehlig, A.; Snead, O.C.

    2013-01-01

    Typical and atypical seizures of absence epilepsy are thought to be generated by a rhythmogenic interplay between the cortex and the thalamus. However, the question remains as to which other subcortical and extrathalamic structures are involved in the pathophysiology of typical and atypical absence

  1. Altered Intrathalamic GABAA Neurotransmission in a Mouse Model of a Human Genetic Absence Epilepsy Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Chengwen; Ding, Li; Deel, M. Elizabeth; Ferrick, Elizabeth A.; Emeson, Ronald B; Gallagher, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that heterozygous deletion of Gabra1, the mouse homolog of the human absence epilepsy gene that encodes the GABAA receptor (GABAAR) α1 subunit, causes absence seizures. We showed that cortex partially compensates for this deletion by increasing the cell surface expression of residual α1 subunit and by increasing α3 subunit expression. Absence seizures also involve two thalamic nuclei: the ventrobasal (VB) nucleus, which expresses only the α1 and α4 subtypes of GABAA...

  2. Childhood epilepsy: Management in resource-limited setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valvi Chhaya

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To optimize the use of phenobarbital and/or phenytoin as frontline drugs for treatment of childhood epilepsy. Design: Before-and -after study. Setting: Epilepsy clinic at paediatric OPD, Sassoon General Hospital, Pune. Materials and Methods: Epilepsy is a condition in which seizures are triggered recurrently from within the brain. For epidemiological classification purpose epilepsy is considered to be present when two or more unprovoked seizures occur at an interval greater than twenty four hours apart. Seizures were classified as generalized and partial seizures, with underlying etiology investigated with EEG, CT scan in majority of the patients. Follow - up rate, seizure - control and antiepileptic drugs used among 151 children enrolled as on 31 March 2005 were compared with 106 children with new onset epilepsy enrolled as on February 2006. Eight children with breakthrough convulsion after a seizure free period of five to eighteen months were followed up after injection vitamin D. Nineteen children with poor control of seizures receiving polytherapy with newer antiepileptic drugs were assessed with frontline antiepileptic medication of phenobarbital and/or phenytoin. Serum calcium, phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase were done in seventy two consecutive children with seizure disorder. Results: During post protocol period good seizure control was achieved in 84.8% as against 80.7% and use of phenobarbital and/or phenytoin increased to 65.11% from 22.87%. Of the 8 cases with breakthrough seizures seven remained seizure free after vitamin D administration and with no dose enhancement of AED medications of the nineteen. Children receiving polytherapy thirteen children could be successfully switched to phenobarbital and/or phenytoin. Forty four (61% children had hypocalcemia (less than 9 mg%, fifty seven (79% children had raised alkaline phosphatase levels (more than 270 IU. Comments: Phenobarbital and/or phenytoin have been found to be

  3. Pregabalin in childhood epilepsy: a clinical trial study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen MOLLAMOHAMMADI*

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Mollamohammadi M, Tonekaboni SH, Pirzadeh Z, Vahedian M . Pregabalin in Childhood Epilepsy: A Clinical TrialIran J Child Neurol. 2014 Autumn;8(4: 62-65.AbstractObjectiveThe prevalence of active epilepsy is about 0.5–1%, and approximately 70% of patients are cured with first anti-epileptic drugs and the remaining patients need multiple drugs. Pregabalin as an add-on therapy has a postive effect on refractory seizures in adults. To the best of our knowledge, there is no research with this drug in childhood epilepsy. We use pregabalin in children with refractory seizures as an add-on therapy. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of pregabalin in the reduction of seizures for refractory epilepsy.Material & MethodsForty patients with refractory seizures who were referred to Mofid Children’s Hospital and Hazrat Masoumeh Hospital were selected. A questionnaire based on patient record forms, demographic data (age, gender,…, type of seizure, clinical signs, EEG record, imaging report, drugs that had been used, drugs currently being used, and the number of seizures before and after Pregabalin treatment was completed. We checked the number of seizures after one and four months.ResultsAfter one month, 26.8% of patients had more than a 50% reduction in seizures and 14.6% of these patients were seizure-free; 12.2% had a 25–50% reduction; and approximately 61% had less than a 25% reduction or no change in seizures.After the fourth month, 34.1% of patients had more than a 50% reduction in seizures and 24.4% of these patients were seizure-free. Additionally, 65.9% of patients had less than 50% reduction in seizures (9.8% between 25–50% and 56.1% less than 25% or without improvement.ConclusionWe recommend Pregabalin as an add-on therapy for refractory seizures (except for myoclonic seizures for children.ReferencesKwan P., Brodie MJ. Early identification of refractory epilepsy. N Engl J Med 2000

  4. Cognitive impairment in childhood onset epilepsy: up-to-date information about its causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive impairment associated with childhood-onset epilepsy is an important consequence in the developing brain owing to its negative effects on neurodevelopmental and social outcomes. While the cause of cognitive impairment in epilepsy appears to be multifactorial, epilepsy-related factors such as type of epilepsy and underlying etiology, age at onset, frequency of seizures, duration of epilepsy, and its treatment are considered important. In recent studies, antecedent cognitive impairment before the first recognized seizure and microstructural and functional alteration of the brain at onset of epilepsy suggest the presence of a common neurobiological mechanism between epilepsy and cognitive comorbidity. However, the overall impact of cognitive comorbidity in children with epilepsy and the independent contribution of each of these factors to cognitive impairment have not been clearly delineated. This review article focuses on the significant contributors to cognitive impairment in children with epilepsy.

  5. Genetic animal models for Absence epilepsy: a review of the WAG/Rij strain of rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, A.M.L.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van

    2003-01-01

    Based on the reviewed literature and the data presented in this paper, conclusions can be drawn with respect to the validity of the WAG/Rij strain of rats as a model for absence epilepsy in humans. The view that the WAG/Rij model has "face validity" is supported by the simultaneous presence of clini

  6. Epilepsy with myoclonic absences - favourable response to add-on rufinamide treatment in 3 cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Häusler, M; Kluger, G; Nikanorova, M

    2011-01-01

    Epilepsy with myoclonic absences (EMA) is a rare epileptic syndrome with frequently poor response to antiepileptic treatment. Rufinamide (RUF) is a relatively new EMEA- and FDA-approved anticonvulsant licensed as an orphan drug for the adjunctive treatment of patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome....

  7. Long-Term Social Outcomes in Childhood Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Population-based longitudinal and cross-sectional studies of social outcomes of children with epilepsy in different countries are reviewed by researchers at Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.Epilepsy, Chronic Disease, Idiopathic Epilepsy.

  8. Not EEG abnormalities but epilepsy is associated with autistic regression and mental functioning in childhood autism

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrdlička, M.; Komárek, V.; Propper, L.; Kulísek, R.; Zumrová, A.; Faladová, L.; Havlovicová, M.; Sedláček, Z.; Blatný, Marek; Urbánek, Tomáš

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 4 (2004), s. 209-213. ISSN 1018-8827 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z7025918 Keywords : childhood autism * epilepsy * EEG Subject RIV: AN - Psychology Impact factor: 1.167, year: 2004

  9. Age-dependent decline in learning and memory performances of WAG/Rij rat model of absence epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Karson Ayşe; Utkan Tijen; Balcı Fuat; Arıcıoğlu Feyza; Ateş Nurbay

    2012-01-01

    RESEARCH Open Access Age-dependent decline in learning and memory performances of WAG/Rij rat model of absence epilepsy Ayşe Karson1*, Tijen Utkan2, Fuat Balcı3, Feyza Arıcıoğlu4 and Nurbay Ateş1 Abstract Recent clinical studies revealed emotional and cognitive impairments associated with absence epilepsy. Preclinical research with genetic models of absence epilepsy however have primarily focused on dysfunctional emotional processes and paid relatively less attention t...

  10. Use of a Cumulative Risk Scale to Predict Poor Intellectual and Academic Outcomes in Childhood Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanaugh, Brian C; Scarborough, Vanessa Ramos; Salorio, Cynthia F

    2016-06-01

    Discrete risk factors for poor outcomes in childhood epilepsy have been identified, but it is unclear whether the combined effect of several risk factors better predicts outcome. The Epilepsy Cumulative Risk Scale was developed to quantify cumulative risk for poor outcomes in childhood epilepsy. Participants included 156 clinic-referred children with epilepsy. The Epilepsy Cumulative Risk Scale was developed using variables previously associated with functional outcomes. Scale utility was examined through its association with intellectual and academic functioning. All Epilepsy Cumulative Risk Scale variables were significantly associated with functioning. The Total Score (ie, cumulative effect) was most strongly correlated with cognition and academic skills. A Total Score ≥ 5 had the best sensitivity and specificity for differentiating those at high risk for poor outcomes. The Epilepsy Cumulative Risk Scale shows promise as a practical, data-driven tool for quantification of cumulative risk for poor outcomes in childhood epilepsy and may be helpful in detecting those needing referral for additional services. PMID:26747083

  11. The role of SLC2A1 mutations in myoclonic astatic epilepsy and absence epilepsy, and the estimated frequency of GLUT1 deficiency syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan; Johannesen, Katrine Marie; Ek, Jakob;

    2015-01-01

    The first mutations identified in SLC2A1, encoding the glucose transporter type 1 (GLUT1) protein of the blood-brain barrier, were associated with severe epileptic encephalopathy. Recently, dominant SLC2A1 mutations were found in rare autosomal dominant families with various forms of epilepsy...... detected in 5 (10%) of 50 patients with absence epilepsy, and in one (2.7%) of 37 patient with unselected epilepsies, ID, and/or various movement disorders. None of the 120 MAE patients harbored SLC2A1 mutations. We estimated the frequency of SLC2A1 mutations in the Danish population to be approximately 1...

  12. Altered intrathalamic GABAA neurotransmission in a mouse model of a human genetic absence epilepsy syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chengwen; Ding, Li; Deel, M Elizabeth; Ferrick, Elizabeth A; Emeson, Ronald B; Gallagher, Martin J

    2015-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that heterozygous deletion of Gabra1, the mouse homolog of the human absence epilepsy gene that encodes the GABAA receptor (GABAAR) α1 subunit, causes absence seizures. We showed that cortex partially compensates for this deletion by increasing the cell surface expression of residual α1 subunit and by increasing α3 subunit expression. Absence seizures also involve two thalamic nuclei: the ventrobasal (VB) nucleus, which expresses only the α1 and α4 subtypes of GABAAR α subunits, and the reticular (nRT) nucleus, which expresses only the α3 subunit subtype. Here, we found that, unlike cortex, VB exhibited significantly reduced total and synaptic α1 subunit expression. In addition, heterozygous α1 subunit deletion substantially reduced miniature inhibitory postsynaptic current (mIPSC) peak amplitudes and frequency in VB. However, there was no change in the expression of the extrasynaptic α4 or δ subunits in VB and, unlike other models of absence epilepsy, no change in tonic GABAAR currents. Although heterozygous α1 subunit knockout increased α3 subunit expression in medial thalamic nuclei, it did not alter α3 subunit expression in nRT. However, it did enlarge the presynaptic vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter puncta and lengthen the time constant of mIPSC decay in nRT. We conclude that increased tonic GABAA currents are not necessary for absence seizures. In addition, heterozygous loss of α1 subunit disinhibits VB by substantially reducing phasic GABAergic currents and surprisingly, it also increases nRT inhibition by prolonging phasic currents. The increased inhibition in nRT likely represents a partial compensation that helps reduce absence seizures. PMID:25447232

  13. A role for the preoptic sleep-promoting system in absence epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Suntsova, N.; Kumar, S.; Guzman-Marin, R.; Alam, M. N.; Szymusiak, R.; McGinty, D.

    2009-01-01

    Absence epilepsy (AE) in humans and the genetic AE model in WAG/Rij rats are both associated with abnormalities in sleep architecture that suggest insufficiency of the sleep-promoting mechanisms. In this study we compared the functionality of sleep-active neuronal groups within two well-established sleep-promoting sites, the ventrolateral and median preoptic nuclei (VLPO and MnPN, respectively), in WAG/Rij and control rats. Neuronal activity was assessed using c-Fos immunoreactivity and chron...

  14. Epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As surgical treatments for adult and pediatric forms of epilepsy have become more refined, methods for noninvasive localization of epileptogenic foci have become increasingly important. Detection of focal brain metabolic or flow abnormalities is now well recognized as an essential step in the presurgical evaluation of many patients with epilepsy. Positron emission tomography (PET) scanning is most beneficial when used in the context of the total clinical evaluation of patients, including scalp EEG, invasive EEG, neuropsychologic testing, etc. Metabolic PET studies also give insight into pathophysiologic mechanisms of epilepsy. The dynamic nature of the interictal hypometabolism observed with 18[F]FDG in some patients suggests that excitatory or inhibitory neurotransmitters and their receptors may be involved. An exciting current application of PET scanning is the use of tracers for neurotransmitter receptors in the study of epilepsy patients. Mu and non-mu opiate receptors have been extensively studied and are beginning to give new insights into this disorder. Increased labeling of mu receptors in temporal neocortex using 11C-carfentanil has been demonstrated and, in some patients, supplements the clinical localization information from 18[F]FDG studies. Increased mu opiate receptor number or affinity is thought to play a role in anticonvulsant mechanisms. Specificity of increased mu receptors is supported by the absence of significant changes in non-mu opiate receptors. Other brain receptors are also of interest for future studies, particularly those for excitatory neurotransmitters. Combined studies of flow, metabolism, and neuroreceptors may elucidate the factors responsible for initiation and termination of seizures, thus improving patient treatment.95 references

  15. Prevalence of Psychopathology in Childhood Epilepsy: Categorical and Dimensional Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, David W.; Austin, Joan K.; Perkins, Susan M.

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have utilized both categorical and dimensional measures of psychopathology in children with epilepsy. We evaluated 173 children (88 males, 85 females; mean age 11.7y [SD 1.8]; range 9-14y) who had epilepsy (generalized 36%, partial 61%) for at least 6 months. The primary caregiver completed a dimensional measure, the Child Behavior…

  16. Mortality risk in children with epilepsy : The Dutch Study of Epilepsy in Childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Callenbach, PMC; Westendorp, RGJ; Geerts, AT; Arts, WFM; Peeters, EAJ; van Donselaar, VA; Stroink, H; Brouwer, OF

    2001-01-01

    Objective. Long-term follow-up studies of patients with epilepsy have revealed an increased mortality risk compared with the general population. Mortality of children who have epilepsy in modern times is as yet unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine mortality of children wh

  17. Quality of life and epilepsy surgery in childhood and adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Isabella C. Gagliardi; Catarina A. Guimarães; Elisabete A.P. Souza; Kátia M.R. Schmutzler; Marilisa M. Guerreiro

    2011-01-01

    Epilepsy can affect the quality of life (QOL) of patients. The temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is often refractory to medication, which has an adverse impact on QOL. The surgery can be a form to control the seizures and to improve the QOL of the patients. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to verify the QOL of children and adolescents with TLE who underwent surgery for epilepsy, comparing QOL before and after surgery and investigating which parameters showed improvement. METHOD: We used semi-s...

  18. The sleep-wakefulness cycle of Wistar rats with spontaneous absence-like epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edison Sanfelice André

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Possible interactions between the sleep-wakefulness cycle and a new kind of spontaneous epilepsy, expressed as absence-like seizures and spike-wave bursts in FMUSP rats, are evaluated. The electro-oscillograms of some cortical and subcortical regions of the brain were recorded, as well as head, rostrum/vibrissae and eye movements. Recordings were performed uninterruptedly during 24 hours. The seizures were mostly concentrated in the wakefulness state but they could occur in any other phase, including paradoxical sleep. After the seizure, the rats usually returned to the same phase that was interrupted, although they often returned to wakefulness. There was an intense fragmentation of the sleep-wakefulness cycle. The incidence of each cycle phase was significantly reduced, except SIII of synchronized sleep and paradoxical sleep, thus maintaining the overall duration and architecture of the sleep-wakefulness cycle. The fragmentation of the cycle seems to be due to an impairment of the very processes that generate sleep and wakefulness. Electrophysiological and behavioral profiles of the FMUSP rats recommend accurate and comprehensive study of the animal model owing to its resemblance to seizures in humans and also to discrepancies with existing genetic or experimental epilepsy models.

  19. Frequency, Prognosis and Surgical Treatment of Structural Abnormalities Seen with Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Childhood Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, Anne T.; Mathern, Gary W.; Bronen, Richard A.; Fulbright, Robert K.; DiMario, Francis; Testa, Francine M.; Levy, Susan R.

    2009-01-01

    The epidemiology of lesions identified by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), along with the use of pre-surgical evaluations and surgery in childhood-onset epilepsy patients has not previously been described. In a prospectively identified community-based cohort of children enrolled from 1993 to 1997, we examined (i) the frequency of lesions…

  20. The Social Cognition of Medical Knowledge: With Special Reference to Childhood Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Malcolm N.; Badger, Richard; O'Regan, John

    2009-01-01

    This article arose out of an engagement in medical communication courses at a Gulf university. It deploys a theoretical framework derived from a (critical) sociocognitive approach to discourse analysis in order to investigate three aspects of medical discourse relating to childhood epilepsy: the cognitive processes that are entailed in relating…

  1. Structural genomic variation in childhood epilepsies with complex phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helbig, Ingo; Swinkels, Marielle E M; Aten, Emmelien;

    2014-01-01

    A genetic contribution to a broad range of epilepsies has been postulated, and particularly copy number variations (CNVs) have emerged as significant genetic risk factors. However, the role of CNVs in patients with epilepsies with complex phenotypes is not known. Therefore, we investigated the role...... of CNVs in patients with unclassified epilepsies and complex phenotypes. A total of 222 patients from three European countries, including patients with structural lesions on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), dysmorphic features, and multiple congenital anomalies, were clinically evaluated and...... likely to carry a rare CNV. Genome-wide screening methods for rare CNVs may provide clues for the genetic etiology in patients with a broader range of epilepsies than previously anticipated, including in patients with various brain anomalies detectable by MRI. Performing genome-wide screens for rare CNVs...

  2. Effect and Safety of Shihogyejitang for Drug Resistant Childhood Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinsoo; Son, Kwanghyun; Hwang, Gwiseo; Kim, Moonju

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Herbal medicine has been widely used to treat drug resistant epilepsy. Shihogyejitang (SGT) has been commonly used to treat epilepsy. We investigated the effect and safety of SGT in children with drug resistant epilepsy. Design. We reviewed medical records of 54 patients with epilepsy, who failed to respond to at least two antiepileptic drugs and have been treated with SGT between April 2006 and June 2014 at the Department of Pediatric Neurology, I-Tomato Hospital, Korea. Effect was measured by the response rate, seizure-free rate, and retention rate at six months. We also checked adverse events, change in antiepileptic drugs use, and the variables related to the outcome. Results. Intent-to-treat analysis showed that, after six months, 44.4% showed a >50% seizure reduction, 24.1% including seizure-free, respectively, and 53.7% remained on SGT. Two adverse events were reported, mild skin rash and fever. Focal seizure type presented significantly more positive responses when compared with other seizure types at six months (p = 0.0284, Fisher's exact test). Conclusion. SGT is an effective treatment with excellent tolerability for drug resistant epilepsy patients. Our data provide evidence that SGT may be used as alternative treatment option when antiepileptic drug does not work in epilepsy children. PMID:27047568

  3. Effect and Safety of Shihogyejitang for Drug Resistant Childhood Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinsoo Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Herbal medicine has been widely used to treat drug resistant epilepsy. Shihogyejitang (SGT has been commonly used to treat epilepsy. We investigated the effect and safety of SGT in children with drug resistant epilepsy. Design. We reviewed medical records of 54 patients with epilepsy, who failed to respond to at least two antiepileptic drugs and have been treated with SGT between April 2006 and June 2014 at the Department of Pediatric Neurology, I-Tomato Hospital, Korea. Effect was measured by the response rate, seizure-free rate, and retention rate at six months. We also checked adverse events, change in antiepileptic drugs use, and the variables related to the outcome. Results. Intent-to-treat analysis showed that, after six months, 44.4% showed a >50% seizure reduction, 24.1% including seizure-free, respectively, and 53.7% remained on SGT. Two adverse events were reported, mild skin rash and fever. Focal seizure type presented significantly more positive responses when compared with other seizure types at six months (p=0.0284, Fisher’s exact test. Conclusion. SGT is an effective treatment with excellent tolerability for drug resistant epilepsy patients. Our data provide evidence that SGT may be used as alternative treatment option when antiepileptic drug does not work in epilepsy children.

  4. Age-dependent decline in learning and memory performances of WAG/Rij rat model of absence epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karson Ayşe

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Recent clinical studies revealed emotional and cognitive impairments associated with absence epilepsy. Preclinical research with genetic models of absence epilepsy however have primarily focused on dysfunctional emotional processes and paid relatively less attention to cognitive impairment. In order to bridge this gap, we investigated age-dependent changes in learning and memory performance, anxiety-like behavior, and locomotor activity of WAG/Rij rats (a valid model of generalized absence epilepsy using passive avoidance, Morris water maze, elevated plus maze, and locomotor activity cage. We tested 5 month-old and 13 month-old WAG/Rij rats and compared their performance to age-matched Wistar rats. Results revealed a decline in emotional and spatial memory of WAG/Rij rats compared to age-matched Wistar rats only at 13 months of age. Importantly, there were no significant differences between WAG/Rij and Wistar rats in terms of anxiety-like behavior and locomotor activity at either age. Results pointed at age-dependent learning and memory deficits in the WAG/Rij rat model of absence epilepsy.

  5. THE CASE OF FOCAL EPILEPSY OF CHILDHOOD WITH STRUCTURAL BRAIN CHANGES AND BENIGN EPILEPTIFORM DISCHARGES ON EEG (FECSBC-BEDC)

    OpenAIRE

    I. A. Sadekov; Petrenko, L. V.; I. V. Sadekova; O. I. Tishkovets

    2015-01-01

    The authors described a case of focal epilepsy of childhood with structural brain changes and benign epileptiform discharges on EEG (FECSBC-BEDC). Correct syndromological diagnostics helped to clarify the clinical dynamics, prognosis and improve the therapy.

  6. Mortality Risks in New-Onset Childhood Epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, Anne T.; Nickels, Katherine; Wirrell, Elaine C.; Geerts, Ada T.; Callenbach, Petra M. C.; Arts, Willem F.; Rios, Christina; Camfield, Peter R.; Camfield, Carol S.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Estimate the causes and risk of death, specifically seizure related, in children followed from onset of epilepsy and to contrast the risk of seizure-related death with other common causes of death in the population. METHODS: Mortality experiences from 4 pediatric cohorts of newly diagnos

  7. Mortality risks in new-onset childhood epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.T. Berg (Anne); K. Nickels (Katherine); E.C. Wirrell (Elaine); A.T. Geerts (Ada); P.M.C. Callenbach (Petra); W.F.M. Arts (Willem Frans); C. Rios (Christina); P. Camfield (Peter); C. Camfield (Carol)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVES: Estimate the causes and risk of death, specifically seizure related, in children followed from onset of epilepsy and to contrast the risk of seizure-related death with other common causes of death in the population. METHODS: Mortality experiences from 4 pediatric cohorts of n

  8. Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epilepsy is a brain disorder that causes people to have recurring seizures. The seizures happen when clusters ... may have violent muscle spasms or lose consciousness. Epilepsy has many possible causes, including illness, brain injury, ...

  9. Altered Functional Connectivity within and between Brain Modules in Absence Epilepsy: A Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui-Ping Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional connectivity has been correlated with a patient’s level of consciousness and has been found to be altered in several neuropsychiatric disorders. Absence epilepsy patients, who experience a loss of consciousness, are assumed to suffer from alterations in thalamocortical networks; however, previous studies have not explored the changes at a functional module level. We used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the alteration in functional connectivity that occurs in absence epilepsy patients. By parcellating the brain into 90 brain regions/nodes, we uncovered an altered functional connectivity within and between functional modules. Some brain regions had a greater number of altered connections and therefore behaved as key nodes in the changed network pattern; these regions included the superior frontal gyrus, the amygdala, and the putamen. In particular, the superior frontal gyrus demonstrated both an increased value of connections with other nodes of the frontal default mode network and a decreased value of connections with the limbic system. This divergence is positively correlated with epilepsy duration. These findings provide a new perspective and shed light on how functional connectivity and the balance of within/between module connections may contribute to both the state of consciousness and the development of absence epilepsy.

  10. Epilepsi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabers, Anne; Kjær, Troels W

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy affects around 33,000 people in Denmark. The classification of the epilepsies is currently under revision and the clinical course of the disease depends on the underlying aetiology. Diagnostic evaluation includes EEG and often long-term video-EEG monitoring to ensure the diagnosis and clas......-sification. More than two thirds of patients with epilepsy can obtain complete seizure control. The remainders, counting around 12.000 patients in Denmark, having medical refractory epilepsy should be considered for other treatment options; epilepsy surgery or other non-pharmacological treatment....

  11. Clinical Profile of Early Childhood Epilepsy: A Cross Sectional Study in a Tertiary Care Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, S; Alam, S T; Rahman, M M; Akhter, S

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic neurological disorder in children. Incidence is highest in children less than 3 years of age. This cross sectional study was conducted at outpatient department of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka from January 2010 to December 2010 to explore clinical profile of early childhood epilepsy. Total 50 Children with two or more unprovoked seizure after 28 days up to 36 months of age were included in this study. Majority cases were in the age group of 1 to 12 months (56%) with male predominance (78%). Onset of first seizures was found to be the highest at the age group 0-1 month (50%) with generalized seizures (66%) as the most common type of initial seizures. Highest 16(32%) patients presented with tonic clonic seizure followed by clonic seizure in 15(30%) and tonic in 11(22%) patients. Myoclonic seizure was found to be 4(8%). Only 4(8%) cases were presented with infantile spasm. Majority cases were associated with cerebral palsy (72%). Family history of epilepsy was present in 16%. EEG was done in all patients. Among them 62% were abnormal. Total 21 cases had done CT scan of brain. Among them 6(28.6%) were normal and 15(71.4%) were abnormal. The abnormal findings were cerebral atrophy 73.3%, ventricular dilatation 13.3%, encephalomalacia 6.7% and cerebral infractions were found in 26.7%. In this study majority of cases in 22(44%) were treated with Phenobarbitone (PHB) as a first line drug followed by Valproate (VPA) in 19(38%). Limited study has been conducted on early childhood epilepsy in Bangladesh. The result of this study might be helpful for further large scale study in the field of early childhood epilepsy. PMID:26931257

  12. Multimodal neuroimaging in presurgical evaluation of childhood epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Da Eun; Lee, Joon-Soo

    2010-01-01

    In pre-surgical evaluation of pediatric epilepsy, the combined use of multiple imaging modalities for precise localization of the epileptogenic focus is a worthwhile endeavor. Advanced neuroimaging by high field Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffusion tensor images, and MR spectroscopy have the potential to identify subtle lesions. 18F-FDG positron emission tomography and single photon emission tomography provide visualization of metabolic alterations of the brain in the ictal and interic...

  13. Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) in childhood epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The success of epilepsy surgery is determined strongly by the precise location of the epileptogenic focus. The information from clinical electrophysiological data needs to be strengthened by functional neuroimaging techniques. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) available locally has proved useful as a localising investigation. It evaluates the regional cerebral blood flow and the comparison between ictal and interictal blood flow on SPECT has proved to be a sensitive nuclear marker for the site of seizure onset. Many studies justify the utility of SPECT in localising lesions to possess greater precision than interictal scalp EEG or anatomic neuroimaging. SPECT is of definitive value in temporal lobe epilepsy. Its role in extratemporal lobe epilepsy is less clearly defined. It is useful in various other generalized and partial seizure disorders including epileptic syndromes and helps in differentiating pseudoseizures from true seizures. The need for newer radiopharmaceutical agents with specific neurochemical properties and longer shelf life are under investigation. Subtraction ictal SPECT co-registered to MRI is a promising new modality. (author)

  14. Seizure Clustering during Drug Treatment Affects Seizure Outcome and Mortality of Childhood-Onset Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillanpaa, Matti; Schmidt, Dieter

    2008-01-01

    To provide evidence of whether seizure clustering is associated with drug resistance and increased mortality in childhood-onset epilepsy, a prospective, long-term population-based study was performed. One hundred and twenty patients who had been followed since disease onset (average age 37.0 years, SD 7.1, median 40.0, range 11-42; incident cases)…

  15. The WAG/Rij strain: a genetic animal model of absence epilepsy with comorbidity of depression [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkisova, Karine; van Luijtelaar, Gilles

    2011-06-01

    A great number of clinical observations show a relationship between epilepsy and depression. Idiopathic generalized epilepsy, including absence epilepsy, has a genetic basis. The review provides evidence that WAG/Rij rats can be regarded as a valid genetic animal model of absence epilepsy with comorbidity of depression. WAG/Rij rats, originally developed as an animal model of human absence epilepsy, share many EEG and behavioral characteristics resembling absence epilepsy in humans, including the similarity of action of various antiepileptic drugs. Behavioral studies indicate that WAG/Rij rats exhibit depression-like symptoms: decreased investigative activity in the open field test, increased immobility in the forced swimming test, and decreased sucrose consumption and preference (anhedonia). In addition, WAG/Rij rats adopt passive strategies in stressful situations, express some cognitive disturbances (reduced long-term memory), helplessness, and submissiveness, inability to make choice and overcome obstacles, which are typical for depressed patients. Elevated anxiety is not a characteristic (specific) feature of WAG/Rij rats; it is a characteristic for only a sub-strain of WAG/Rij rats susceptible to audiogenic seizures. Interestingly, WAG/Rij rats display a hyper-response to amphetamine similar to anhedonic depressed patients. WAG/Rij rats are sensitive only to chronic, but not acute, antidepressant treatments, suggesting that WAG/Rij rats fulfill a criterion of predictive validity for a putative animal model of depression. However, more and different antidepressant drugs still await evaluation. Depression-like behavioral symptoms in WAG/Rij rats are evident at baseline conditions, not exclusively after stress. Experiments with foot-shock stress do not point towards higher stress sensitivity at both behavioral and hormonal levels. However, freezing behavior (coping deficits) and blunted response of 5HT in the frontal cortex to uncontrollable sound stress

  16. Relation between stress-precipitated seizures and the stress response in childhood epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Campen, Jolien S; Jansen, Floor E; Pet, Milou A; Otte, Willem M; Hillegers, Manon H J; Joels, Marian; Braun, Kees P J

    2015-08-01

    response were the number of anti-epileptic drugs (β = -0.27, P = 0.05) and sleep quality (β = 0.30, P = 0.03). In conclusion, we show that children with acute stress-sensitive seizures have a decreased cortisol response to stress. These results support our hypothesis that stress-sensitivity of seizures is associated with alterations of the stress response, thereby providing a first step in unravelling the mechanisms behind the seizure-precipitating effects of stress. Increased knowledge of the relation between stress and seizures in childhood epilepsy might benefit our understanding of the fundamental processes underlying epilepsy and ictogenesis in general, and provide valuable clues to direct the development of new therapeutic strategies for epilepsy. PMID:26049086

  17. Qualidade de vida na epilepsia infantil Quality of life in childhood epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELISABETE ABIB PEDROSO DE SOUZA

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available A epilepsia é desordem crônica que ocorre principalmente na infância e adolescência. Tradicionalmente, o tratamento da epilepsia enfatiza aspectos neurológicos mais do que fatores psicológicos. A atenção voltada simplesmente para o controle das crises no contexto clínico pode não ser suficiente para entender a grande amplitude de problemas que afetam a qualidade de vida das crianças com epilepsia. Muitas das dificuldades psicossociais dos adultos com epilepsia desenvolvem-se a partir de complicações associadas ao início da doença. Crianças com epilepsia têm alta prevalência de problemas de comportamento e aprendizagem. Avaliar a qualidade de vida em crianças com epilepsia é importante, especialmente porque elas passam por períodos críticos de desenvolvimento, durante os quais são desenvolvidas habilidades cognitivas e sociais. A fim de instrumentalizar o profissional que atende crianças epilépticas, este estudo apresenta um inventário simplificado de qualidade de vida, no qual são abordados aspectos culturais, pessoais, sociais e relacionamento familiar e social. Esta investigação possibilita maior conhecimento sobre a criança e um melhor direcionamento nas condutas terapêuticas.Epilepsy is a chronic disorder in which onset occurs primarily during childhood and adolescence. Traditionally, treatment of childhood epilepsy emphasizes neurologic aspects over psychological factors. The attention to the seizure control in the clinical setting will not address the full range of quality of life problems of childhood epilepsy. Many of the psychosocial difficulties that plague adults with epilepsy develop from the complications associated with this early onset. Children with epilepsy have a high prevalence of behavior problems and learning problems. Assessing quality of life in pediatric epilepsy is especially important because children are in critical periods of development during which many cognitive and social skills are

  18. Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... which can led to embarrassment and frustration or bullying, teasing, or avoidance in school and other social ... may enter trials of experimental drugs and surgical interventions. More about epilepsy research NIH Patient Recruitment for ...

  19. Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epilepsy is a brain disorder that causes people to have recurring seizures. The seizures happen when clusters of nerve cells, or neurons, in the brain send out the wrong signals. People may have strange sensations and emotions ...

  20. Epilepsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008481 Application of amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation to the temporal lobe epilepsy with bilateral hippocampal sclerosis: an fMRI study. ZHANG Zhiqiang(张志强), et al.Dept Med Imaging, Clin Sch, Med Coll, Nanjing Univ, Nanjing 210002.Natl Med J China 2008;88(23):1594-1598. Objective To study the changes of amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) of the resting-fMRI in the mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) with

  1. Epilepsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    2008115 Effect of commonly used antiepileptic drugs on cognitive functions of rats with pentylenetetrazol-induced epilepsy. WANG Xiaopeng(王晓鹏), et al. Dept Neurol, 2nd Hosp, Hebei Med Univ, Shijiazhuang 050000. Shanghai Med J 2007;30(12):920-923. Objective To observe the effect of antiepileptic drugs on the cognitive functions of rats with induced epilepsy. Methods Seventy male SD rats in their puberty were randomized into 7 groups,

  2. Epilepsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    2005267 Expression and their clinical significances of five multidrug resistance gene products in refractory epilepsy brain tissues. XIAO Zheng (肖争), et al. Dept Neurol,Lab, Affili Hosp, Chongqing Med Univ, Chongqing 400016, Chin J Neurol, 2004;37(6) 500-503. Objective: To investigate the expression and their clinical significances of five multidrug resistance gene products in human epileptogenic pathologies. Methods: 17 refractory epilepsy patients were divided into two groups: long course group (≥10 years) and short course group (<10 years). The expression

  3. Mutations in GABAA receptor subunits associated with genetic epilepsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Robert L; Kang, Jing-Qiong; Gallagher, Martin J

    2010-06-01

    Mutations in inhibitory GABAA receptor subunit genes (GABRA1, GABRB3, GABRG2 and GABRD) have been associated with genetic epilepsy syndromes including childhood absence epilepsy (CAE), juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME), pure febrile seizures (FS), generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+), and Dravet syndrome (DS)/severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy (SMEI). These mutations are found in both translated and untranslated gene regions and have been shown to affect the GABAA receptors by altering receptor function and/or by impairing receptor biogenesis by multiple mechanisms including reducing subunit mRNA transcription or stability, impairing subunit folding, stability, or oligomerization and by inhibiting receptor trafficking. PMID:20308251

  4. Absence and mixed forms of epilepsy in WAG/Rij rats : characteristics and brain aminergic modulations

    OpenAIRE

    Midzyanovskaya, Inna Stanislavovna

    2006-01-01

    The neuroanatomical substrates of absence seizures and convulsive seizures differ; absence seizures are generated in the cortico-thalamic loop, whereas the brain stem and limbic structures are involved in audiogenic convulsive seizures. In spite of this difference, the two seizure types share a major precipitating factor: emotional stress, although absence seizures are more likely to be provoked by stress than other types of epileptic seizures. This implies that mechanisms of stress vulnerabi...

  5. Absence of GABRA1 Ala322Asp mutation in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy families from India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A. Kapoor; J. Vijai; H. M. Ravishankar; P. Satishchandra; K. Radhakrishnan; A. Anand

    2003-04-01

    An Ala322Asp mutation in the GABRA1 gene was recently reported to be responsible for causing the autosomal dominant (AD) form of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) in a French-Canadian family. To study if JME families from India exhibiting the AD mode of inheritance carry the Ala322Asp mutation, we examined 35 unrelated JME-affected individuals from such families for the Ala322Asp mutation in GABRA1. Ala322Asp mutation was not observed in any of these JME-affected individuals, suggesting that this mutation is unlikely to be a predominant mutation involved in causation of epilepsy. To evaluate the possibility of other mutation(s) in and around GABRA1 that may predispose to JME, we compared the allele frequencies at two marker loci, D5S2118 and D5S422, flanking GABRA1, in probands and 100 matched population controls. One of the allele frequencies at D5S422 shows a significant difference between the cases and controls (2 = 11.44, d.f. = 1, $P = 0.0007$), suggesting genetic association between JME and genes located in the proximity of the DNA marker.

  6. Cognition in Chinese children with benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BCECTS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xinjie; Zhang, Xiaoli; Han, Qizheng; Guo, Jing; Wang, Chunting

    2012-01-17

    Most studies about cognitive functions in children with benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BCECTS) have been conducted with alphabetic writing background subjects, however deficits observed might therefore potentially differ in a Chinese language environment. This study was designed to evaluate the intelligence quotient (IQ) profiles, especially the language abilities, in Chinese children with BCECTS and to investigate whether there is a relationship between clinical factors and disorders of cognitive functions. There are selective cognitive deficits in Chinese children with BCECTS, although the Full Scale Intelligence Quotient is within the normal range. There was a correlation between spike wave index (SWI) and language deficits in children with BCECTS, but the deficits are not dependent on age of onset, disease course, seizure frequency, spike location or seizure type. It is important that children with typical BCECTS undergo regular clinical investigations about language performance in order to start necessary interventions as early as possible. PMID:22020258

  7. 特发性全面性癫痫的遗传学研究进展%Advance in genetic study for idiopathic generalized epilepsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜玉武; 谢涵

    2013-01-01

    Epilepsy is a kind of common neurological diseases in the world. Over 50% of epilepsies have genetic basis. We define "idiopathic epilepsy" as a kind of epilepsy or epilepsy syndrome only with genetic factors, and idiopathic generalized epilepsies (IGEs) is a major type of idiopathic epilepsies. Susceptibility genes of epilepsies are mainly ion channel genes. Both gene mutation and copy number variation lead to epilepsies. Childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) is a crucial part of IGEs. Due to the consistency of CAE' s phenotype and results of EEG, studies related to CAE susceptibility genes tend to be easier to conduct. Through these studies about IGEs /CAE susceptibility genes, we can determine pathogenic model of epilepsy genetics, and find the way to diagnose accurately in molecular genetics, to identify types of epilepsies, to detect targets of antiepileptic drugs, and provide a basis for gene therapy.

  8. The role of the nucleus basalis of Meynert and reticular thalamic nucleus in pathogenesis of genetically determined absence epilepsy in rats : A lesion study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berdiev, R. K.; Chepurnov, S. A.; Veening, J. G.; Chepurnova, N. E.; van Luiftelaar, G.

    2007-01-01

    The role of cholinergic nucleus basalis (of Meynert) and the reticular thalamic nucleus in mechanisms of the generation spontaneous spike-and-wave discharges (SWDs) was investigated in the WAG/Rij rat model of absence epilepsy. Selective lesions were affected by local unilateral intraparenchymal inf

  9. Clinical and electroencephalographic characteristics of a cohort of patients with epilepsy and absence seizures Características clínicas e eletrencefalográficas de uma coorte de pacientes com epilepsia com crises de ausência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soniza Vieira Alves-Leon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epileptic syndromes with absence seizures (AS possess unique clinical and electroencephalographic (EEG characteristics. In typical or atypical AS, ictal phenomenology may include various characteristics. Vídeo-EEG monitoring enables findings to be correlated with ictal phenomenology. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the different AS in a cohort of patients with drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE based on the International League against Epilepsy (ILAE's 2006 classification, to correlate with ictal phenomenology recorded and to apply the Panayiotopoulos criteria. METHOD: This study included patients with criteria of AS followed up at the Epilepsy Clinic. A dual, cross-sectional cohort study was carried out between 2005 and 2008. Patients receiving care in the Epilepsy Program of the HUCFF-UFRJ, who had been investigated by video-EEG and who presented clinical and EEG criteria for absence seizures, typical or atypical, according to the criteria defined by the ILAE, were included in the study, independent of age onset, the review of clinical history, age onset, family history, epilepsy onset and evolution, seizures phenomenology, antiepileptic drugs response and neuroimaging studies were used to classify the patients among the different epileptic syndrome associated to absence seizures. RESULTS: Typical absences were more frequent (71.4% than atypical absences. Cases of juvenile absence epilepsy were the most frequent (19% in this series, followed by childhood absence epilepsy (14.4% and juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (4.8%. In 14 patients (66.67%, diagnosis was modified from focal epilepsy to primary generalized epilepsy. Clinical and EEG diagnosis of absence epilepsy resulted in a dramatic improvement in the control of seizures following modification of diagnosis and indication of an appropriate antiepileptic drug. CONCLUSION: Our results show that typical AS are more frequent than atypical. AS was successfully defined in 10 patients following

  10. Health-related quality of life in childhood epilepsy: Moving beyond 'seizure control with minimal adverse effects'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosenbaum Peter

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Childhood epilepsy is one of the most important and prevalent neurological conditions in the developing years. Persons with childhood onset epilepsy are at a high risk for poor psychosocial outcomes, even without experiencing co-morbidities. The goal of management of children with epilepsy should be to enable the child and the family to lead a life as free as possible from the medical and psychosocial complications of epilepsy. This comprehensive care needs to go beyond simply trying to control seizures with minimal adverse drug reactions. Seizure frequency and severity is only one important outcome variable. Other factors such as social, psychological, behavioural, educational, and cultural dimensions of their lives affect children with epilepsy, their families and their close social networks. A number of epilepsy-specific health-related quality of life (HRQL scales for children have been developed with the aim to include and measure accurately the impact and burden of epilepsy. Their target populations, details of the origin of the items, and psychometric properties vary significantly. Their strengths and weaknesses will be identified more clearly through their continued use in the clinical setting and in research studies. Only a few studies to date have utilized these or generic HRQL measures to assess the HRQL of specific populations with epilepsy. Future research needs to develop theory driven models of HRQL and identify measurable factors that have important correlations with outcomes. Since biomedical variables like seizure frequency and severity have only moderate correlations with HRQL, other independent factors including the child's resilience, co-morbid conditions, parental well-being, family factors and societal/cultural variables may play a major role. We also need to learn what encompasses comprehensive patient care, define the goals of management and evaluate the impact of different interventions. Future studies need to

  11. Absence seizures associated with panic attacks initially misdiagnosed as temporal lobe epilepsy: the importance of prolonged EEG monitoring in diagnosis.

    OpenAIRE

    McNamara, M E

    1993-01-01

    While temporal lobe epilepsy is often considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with anxiety or panic disorders, other types of epilepsy can confound the presentation or treatment of adults with panic disorders. The cases of two patients are presented who were initially thought to have temporal lobe epilepsy producing panic attacks, but who were subsequently found to have primary generalized seizures. The clinical implications are discussed.

  12. Aspectos psicosociales de la epilepsia infantil Psychosocial aspects of childhood epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Sell Salazar

    2009-01-01

    is without a doubt one of the most ancient and enigmatic conditions in the history of medicine, as it was already described in remote times. From the ancestral obscure understanding of epilepsy to the present, there have been important scientific advances in the knowledge of its diagnosis and treatment. The management of a child with epilepsy requires following a protocol that includes a detailed clinical and laboratory evaluation. All chronic diseases, and also epilepsy, are felt as a double aggression: 1 Internal, related to the changes that the disease causes, and 2 external, related to the tests, medications, excessive protection, and all the rules and prohibitions that are applied. The doctor (pediatrician, pediatric neurologist or epileptologist, when initiating a relationship with the child with epilepsy, is going to propose "a new code", often hard to accept. He is going to intervene far away from the crisis, or soon after it happened, in an environment characterized by significant anguish for the family. There is no question that the disease is difficult for the child, as it is also for the parents, who become responsible for a different type of care, are preoccupied daily about their son taking the medication regularly, and suffer awaiting for another crisis to happen. Epilepsy, more than other conditions, creates a high level of restlessness because of the spectacular, dramatic nature of its presentation and for the ancestral myths still attributed to it. For all these reasons, the diagnosis of epilepsy is frequently accompanied by three relevant reactions in the family: anxiety, guilt and aggressiveness. The intervention of the doctor in the treatment of childhood epilepsy must be "global". With mystic devotion, the doctor must embrace the true Hippocratic concept of patient care.

  13. Time-frequency dynamics during sleep spindles on the EEG in rodents with a genetic predisposition to absence epilepsy (WAG/Rij rats)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hramov, Alexander E.; Sitnikova, Evgenija Y.; Pavlov, Alexey N.; Grubov, Vadim V.; Koronovskii, Alexey A.; Khramova, Marina V.

    2015-03-01

    Sleep spindles are known to appear spontaneously in the thalamocortical neuronal network of the brain during slow-wave sleep; pathological processes in the thalamocortical network may be the reason of the absence epilepsy. The aim of the present work is to study developed changes in the time-frequency structure of sleep spindles during the progressive development of the absence epilepsy in WAG/Rij rats. EEG recordings were made at age 7 and 9 months. Automatic recognition and subsequent analysis of sleep spindles on the EEG were performed using the continuous wavelet transform. The duration of epileptic discharges and the total duration of epileptic activity were found to increase with age, while the duration of sleep spindles, conversely, decreased. In terms of the mean frequency, sleep spindles could be divided into three classes: `slow' (mean frequency 9.3Hz), `medium' (11.4Hz), and `fast' (13.5Hz). Slow and medium (transitional) spindles in five-month-old animals showed increased frequency from the beginning to the end of the spindle. The more intense the epilepsy is, the shorter are the durations of spindles of all types. The mean frequencies of `medium' and `fast' spindles were higher in rats with more intense signs of epilepsy. Overall, high epileptic activity in WAG/Rij rats was linked with significant changes in spindles of the transitional type, with less marked changes in the two traditionally identified types of spindle, slow and fast.

  14. Cognitive Function in Childhood Epilepsy: Importance of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Kang, Sung-Han; Yum, Mi-sun; Kim, Eun-Hee; Kim, Hyo-won; Ko, Tae-Sung

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose To determine how cognitive function is related to epilepsy classification and comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with newly diagnosed epilepsy of genetic or unknown etiology. Methods The medical records of children aged 6-16 years with newly diagnosed epilepsy of genetic or unknown etiology were reviewed retrospectively. The Korean Education Development Institute-Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children and the Comprehensive Attention T...

  15. Guidelines for imaging infants and children with recent-onset epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) Subcommittee for Pediatric Neuroimaging examined the usefulness of, and indications for, neuroimaging in the evaluation of children with newly diagnosed epilepsy. The retrospective and prospective published series with n ≥ 30 utilizing computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (1.5 T) that evaluated children with new-onset seizure(s) were reviewed. Nearly 50% of individual imaging studies in children with localization-related new-onset seizure(s) were reported to be abnormal; 15-20% of imaging studies provided useful information on etiology or and seizure focus, and 2-4% provided information that potentially altered immediate medical management. A significant imaging abnormality in the absence of a history of a localization-related seizure, abnormal neurologic examination, or focal electro-encephalography (EEG) is rare. Imaging studies in childhood absence epilepsy, juvenile absence epilepsy, juvenile myoclonic epilepsy, and benign childhood epilepsy with centro-temporal spikes (BECTS) do not identify significant structural abnormalities. Imaging provides important contributions to establishing etiology, providing prognostic information, and directing treatment in children with recently diagnosed epilepsy. Imaging is recommended when localization-related epilepsy is known or suspected, when the epilepsy classification is in doubt, or when an epilepsy syndrome with remote symptomatic cause is suspected. When available, MRI is preferred to CT because of its superior resolution, versatility, and lack of radiation. (authors)

  16. Cryptogenic localization-related epilepsy with childhood onset: The problem of definition and prognosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijs, R.P.; Mil, S.G. van; Hall, M.H. van; Arends, J.B.; Weber, J.W.; Renier, W.O.; Aldenkamp, A.P.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Up to one-third of children with epilepsy are diagnosed with cryptogenic localization-related epilepsy (CLRE). CLRE is a large nonspecific category within the ILAE classification. For this population no unequivocal prognosis exists. METHODS: Twenty-five articles describing aspects of CLR

  17. Mutations in GRIN2A cause idiopathic focal epilepsy with rolandic spikes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemke, Johannes R; Lal, Dennis; Reinthaler, Eva M;

    2013-01-01

    Idiopathic focal epilepsy (IFE) with rolandic spikes is the most common childhood epilepsy, comprising a phenotypic spectrum from rolandic epilepsy (also benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes, BECTS) to atypical benign partial epilepsy (ABPE), Landau-Kleffner syndrome (LKS) and epileptic...

  18. Encephalopathy with status epilepticus during sleep (ESES) induced by oxcarbazepine in idiopathic focal epilepsy in childhood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlidis, Elena; Rubboli, Guido; Nikanorova, Marina;

    2015-01-01

    Encephalopathy with status epilepticus during sleep (ESES) is an age-related disorder characterized by neuropsychological regression, epilepsy and a typical EEG pattern of continuous epileptiform activity (> 85%) during NREM sleep. Cases of worsening or induction of ESES with phenytoin...

  19. Occipital intermittent rhythmic delta activity in absence epilepsy Atividade occipital delta rítmica intermitente em epilepsia ausência

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M.F.F. Guilhoto

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Occipital intermittent rhythmic delta activity (OIRDA is considered good prognostic factor in typical absences (TA. We report electroclinical evolution in 14 patients with TA and OIRDA, which performed video-EEG. Seven patients were female; 9 had childhood absence epilepsy and the others did not present electroclinical characteristics for syndromic classification according to ILAE's classification (1989. Pyknolepsy was referred to in 13; TA was the only seizure type in 13; one had generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS and three had myoclonic jerks during TA. VPA monotherapy controlled seizures in 11, diVPA and ESM, in one each. After seizure control EEG normalized in 10 while in three, spike-wave complexes (SWC persisted, accompanied by OIRDA in one. Finally in another, seizures were not controlled and SWC and OIRDA persisted. In conclusion, we observed in this series of TA and OIRDA with onset before 10 years, pyknolepsy as common finding and few GTCS. VPA controlled seizures in most cases and EEG normalized in 76.92%. We suggest that OIRDA could be considered good prognostic factor in TA associated with SWC and of epileptiform nature leading to appropriate investigation.Atividade occipital delta rítmica intermitente (AODRI é considerada fator de bom prognóstico em crises de ausência típica (AT. Neste estudo relatamos a evolução eletroclínica de 14 pacientes com AT e AODRI que realizaram vídeo-EEG. Sete pacientes eram do sexo feminino; nove tinham epilepsia ausência da infância e os outros não apresentavam características eletroclínicas para classificação sindrômica de acordo com a classificação da ILAE (1989. Picnolepsia foi relatada em 13; AT foi o único tipo de crise em 13; um tinha crises generalizadas TCG e três, abalos mioclônicos durante AT. Monoterapia com VPA controlou as crises em 11, diVPA e ESM, em um cada. Após o controle das crises, o EEG normalizou em 10; em três, complexos de espícula-onda (CEO

  20. Association between Vitamin D Receptor Gene Polymorphisms with Childhood Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Jiang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D (VD is implicated in multiple aspects of human physiology and vitamin D receptor (VDR polymorphisms are associated with a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders. Although VD deficiency is highly prevalent in epilepsy patients and converging evidence indicates a role for VD in the development of epilepsy, no data is available on the possible relationship between epilepsy and genetic variations of VDR. In this study, 150 controls and 82 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE were genotyped for five common VDR polymorphisms (Cdx-2, FokI, BsmI, ApaI and TaqI by the polymerase chain reaction-ligase detection reaction method. Our results revealed that the frequency of FokI AC genotype was significantly higher in the control group than in the patients (p = 0.003, OR = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.21–0.73, whereas the AA genotype of ApaI SNP was more frequent in patients than in controls (p = 0.018, OR = 2.92, 95% CI = 1.2–7.1. However, no statistically significant association was found between Cdx-2, BsmI and TaqI polymorphisms and epilepsy. Additionally, in haplotype analysis, we found the haplotype GAT (BsmI/ApaI/TaqI conferred significantly increased risk for developing TLE (p = 0.039, OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.02–2.56. As far as we know, these results firstly underline the importance of VDR polymorphisms for the genetic susceptibility to epilepsy.

  1. Sequential motor task (Luria's Fist-Edge-Palm Test in children with benign focal epilepsy of childhood with centrotemporal spikes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Silvia Molleis Galego Miziara

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the sequential motor manual actions in children with benign focal epilepsy of childhood with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS and compares the results with matched control group, through the application of Luria's fist-edge-palm test. The children with BECTS underwent interictal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT and School Performance Test (SPT. Significant difference occurred between the study and control groups for manual motor action through three equal and three different movements. Children with lower school performance had higher error rate in the imitation of hand gestures. Another factor significantly associated with the failure was the abnormality in SPECT. Children with BECTS showed abnormalities in the test that evaluated manual motor programming/planning. This study may suggest that the functional changes related to epileptiform activity in rolandic region interfere with the executive function in children with BECTS.

  2. Community structure analysis of transcriptional networks reveals distinct molecular pathways for early- and late-onset temporal lobe epilepsy with childhood febrile seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-Filho, Carlos Alberto; Bando, Silvia Yumi; Bertonha, Fernanda Bernardi; Iamashita, Priscila; Silva, Filipi Nascimento; Costa, Luciano da Fontoura; Silva, Alexandre Valotta; Castro, Luiz Henrique Martins; Wen, Hung-Tzu

    2015-01-01

    Age at epilepsy onset has a broad impact on brain plasticity and epilepsy pathomechanisms. Prolonged febrile seizures in early childhood (FS) constitute an initial precipitating insult (IPI) commonly associated with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). FS-MTLE patients may have early disease onset, i.e. just after the IPI, in early childhood, or late-onset, ranging from mid-adolescence to early adult life. The mechanisms governing early (E) or late (L) disease onset are largely unknown. In order to unveil the molecular pathways underlying E and L subtypes of FS-MTLE we investigated global gene expression in hippocampal CA3 explants of FS-MTLE patients submitted to hippocampectomy. Gene coexpression networks (GCNs) were obtained for the E and L patient groups. A network-based approach for GCN analysis was employed allowing: i) the visualization and analysis of differentially expressed (DE) and complete (CO) - all valid GO annotated transcripts - GCNs for the E and L groups; ii) the study of interactions between all the system's constituents based on community detection and coarse-grained community structure methods. We found that the E-DE communities with strongest connection weights harbor highly connected genes mainly related to neural excitability and febrile seizures, whereas in L-DE communities these genes are not only involved in network excitability but also playing roles in other epilepsy-related processes. Inversely, in E-CO the strongly connected communities are related to compensatory pathways (seizure inhibition, neuronal survival and responses to stress conditions) while in L-CO these communities harbor several genes related to pro-epileptic effects, seizure-related mechanisms and vulnerability to epilepsy. These results fit the concept, based on fMRI and behavioral studies, that early onset epilepsies, although impacting more severely the hippocampus, are associated to compensatory mechanisms, while in late MTLE development the brain is less able to

  3. Community structure analysis of transcriptional networks reveals distinct molecular pathways for early- and late-onset temporal lobe epilepsy with childhood febrile seizures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Moreira-Filho

    Full Text Available Age at epilepsy onset has a broad impact on brain plasticity and epilepsy pathomechanisms. Prolonged febrile seizures in early childhood (FS constitute an initial precipitating insult (IPI commonly associated with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE. FS-MTLE patients may have early disease onset, i.e. just after the IPI, in early childhood, or late-onset, ranging from mid-adolescence to early adult life. The mechanisms governing early (E or late (L disease onset are largely unknown. In order to unveil the molecular pathways underlying E and L subtypes of FS-MTLE we investigated global gene expression in hippocampal CA3 explants of FS-MTLE patients submitted to hippocampectomy. Gene coexpression networks (GCNs were obtained for the E and L patient groups. A network-based approach for GCN analysis was employed allowing: i the visualization and analysis of differentially expressed (DE and complete (CO - all valid GO annotated transcripts - GCNs for the E and L groups; ii the study of interactions between all the system's constituents based on community detection and coarse-grained community structure methods. We found that the E-DE communities with strongest connection weights harbor highly connected genes mainly related to neural excitability and febrile seizures, whereas in L-DE communities these genes are not only involved in network excitability but also playing roles in other epilepsy-related processes. Inversely, in E-CO the strongly connected communities are related to compensatory pathways (seizure inhibition, neuronal survival and responses to stress conditions while in L-CO these communities harbor several genes related to pro-epileptic effects, seizure-related mechanisms and vulnerability to epilepsy. These results fit the concept, based on fMRI and behavioral studies, that early onset epilepsies, although impacting more severely the hippocampus, are associated to compensatory mechanisms, while in late MTLE development the brain is less

  4. Integrated care for childhood epilepsy: ongoing challenges and lessons for other long-term conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Bali, A; Cross, H.; Lakhanpaul, M.; Hargreaves, D.; Cowman, J; Power, M; Dunkley, C.

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy care has been identified as a major global issue – and there are many recognised concerns in the UK for children and young people with the condition. A proposed new model could help to increase multi-sector integration, facilitate better outcomes, and offer lessons for improving care of other long-term conditions.

  5. Relation between stress-precipitated seizures and the stress response in childhood epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Campen, Jolien S.; Jansen, Floor E.; Pet, Milou A.; Otte, Willem M.; Hillegers, Manon H J; Joels, Marian; Braun, Kees P J

    2015-01-01

    The majority of patients with epilepsy report that seizures are sometimes triggered or provoked. Stress is the most frequently self-reported seizure-precipitant. The mechanisms underlying stress-sensitivity of seizures are currently unresolved. We hypothesized that stress-sensitivity of seizures rel

  6. Risk of Cerebral Palsy and Childhood Epilepsy Related to Infections before or during Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Chunsen; Pedersen, Lars Henning; Miller, Jessica E;

    2013-01-01

    estimate adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Maternal infection of the genitourinary system during pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of cerebral palsy (aHR = 1.63, 95% CI: 1.34-1.98) and epilepsy (aHR = 1.27, 95% CI: 1.13-1.42) in the children, compared to...... children of women without infections during pregnancy. Among women without hospital-recorded infections during pregnancy, maternal infection before pregnancy was associated with an increased risk of epilepsy (aHR = 1.35, 95% CI: 1.21-1.50 for infections of the genitourinary system, and HR = 1.12, 95% CI: 1...

  7. Mutant GABA(A) receptor subunits in genetic (idiopathic) epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, Shinichi

    2014-01-01

    The γ-aminobutyric acid receptor type A (GABAA receptor) is a ligand-gated chloride channel that mediates major inhibitory functions in the central nervous system. GABAA receptors function mainly as pentamers containing α, β, and either γ or δ subunits. A number of antiepileptic drugs have agonistic effects on GABAA receptors. Hence, dysfunctions of GABAA receptors have been postulated to play important roles in the etiology of epilepsy. In fact, mutations or genetic variations of the genes encoding the α1, α6, β2, β3, γ2, or δ subunits (GABRA1, GABRA6, GABRB2, GABRB3, GABRG2, and GABRD, respectively) have been associated with human epilepsy, both with and without febrile seizures. Epilepsy resulting from mutations is commonly one of following, genetic (idiopathic) generalized epilepsy (e.g., juvenile myoclonic epilepsy), childhood absence epilepsy, genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures, or Dravet syndrome. Recently, mutations of GABRA1, GABRB2, and GABRB3 were associated with infantile spasms and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. These mutations compromise hyperpolarization through GABAA receptors, which is believed to cause seizures. Interestingly, most of the insufficiencies are not caused by receptor gating abnormalities, but by complex mechanisms, including endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation, nonsense-mediated mRNA decay, intracellular trafficking defects, and ER stress. Thus, GABAA receptor subunit mutations are now thought to participate in the pathomechanisms of epilepsy, and an improved understanding of these mutations should facilitate our understanding of epilepsy and the development of new therapies. PMID:25194483

  8. Application of statistical parametric mapping to SPET in the assessment of intractable childhood epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) quantification and analysis has been successfully applied to functional imaging studies of partial epilepsy syndromes in adults. The present study evaluated whether localisation of the epileptogenic zone (determined by SPM) improves upon visually examined single-photon emission tomography (SPET) imaging in presurgical assessment of children with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE). The patient sample consisted of 24 children (15 males) aged 2.1-17.8 years (9.8±4.3 years; mean±SD) with intractable TLE or FLE. SPET imaging was acquired routinely in presurgical evaluation. All patient images were transformed into the standard stereotactic space of the adult SPM SPET template prior to SPM statistical analysis. Individual patient images were contrasted with an adult control group of 22 healthy adult females. Resultant statistical parametric maps were rendered over the SPM canonical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Two corresponding sets of ictal and interictal SPM and SPET images were then generated for each patient. Experienced clinicians independently reviewed the image sets, blinded to clinical details. Concordance of the reports between SPM and SPET images, syndrome classification and MRI abnormality was studied. A fair level of inter-rater reliability (kappa=0.73) was evident for SPM localisation. SPM was concordant with SPET in 71% of all patients, the majority of the discordance being from the FLE group. SPM and SPET localisation were concordant with epilepsy syndrome in 80% of the TLE cases. Concordant localisation to syndrome was worse for both SPM (33%) and SPET (44%) in the FLE group. Data from a small sample of patients with varied focal structural pathologies suggested that SPM performed poorly relative to SPET in these cases. Concordance of SPM and SPET with syndrome was lower in patients younger than 6 years than in those aged 6 years and above. SPM is effective in localising the potential

  9. SPASTIC FORM OF CEREBRAL PALSY, EPILEPSY WITH BENIGN EPILEPTIFORM DISCHARGE OF CHILDHOOD ON ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAM, AND IATROGENIC STEVENS–JOHNSON SYNDROME (CASE DESCRIPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Kotov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the phenomenon of dual pathology – a combination of structural changes in the brain and benign epileptiform discharge of childhood on electroencephalogram. The uniqueness lies in the observation that the child, since birth suffering from spastic form of cerebral palsy and severe epilepsy, demonstrated the development of Stevens–Johnson syndrome due to intolerance of one of the antiepileptic drugs. Therapeutic approaches to overcome a whole range of violations are discussed in the article.

  10. Is Incident Drug-Resistance of Childhood-Onset Epilepsy Reversible? A Long-Term Follow-Up Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillanpaa, Matti; Schmidt, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    Given the grave morbidity and mortality of drug-resistant epilepsy, it is of great clinical interest to determine how often prior proven drug-resistant epilepsy is reversible without surgery and whether remission can be predicted by clinical features in children with incident drug-resistant epilepsy. We determined the likelihood of 1-, 2- and…

  11. Absence of the Autophagy Adaptor SQSTM1/p62 Causes Childhood-Onset Neurodegeneration with Ataxia, Dystonia, and Gaze Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Tobias B; Ignatius, Erika; Calvo-Garrido, Javier; Iuso, Arcangela; Isohanni, Pirjo; Maffezzini, Camilla; Lönnqvist, Tuula; Suomalainen, Anu; Gorza, Matteo; Kremer, Laura S; Graf, Elisabeth; Hartig, Monika; Berutti, Riccardo; Paucar, Martin; Svenningsson, Per; Stranneheim, Henrik; Brandberg, Göran; Wedell, Anna; Kurian, Manju A; Hayflick, Susan A; Venco, Paola; Tiranti, Valeria; Strom, Tim M; Dichgans, Martin; Horvath, Rita; Holinski-Feder, Elke; Freyer, Christoph; Meitinger, Thomas; Prokisch, Holger; Senderek, Jan; Wredenberg, Anna; Carroll, Christopher J; Klopstock, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    SQSTM1 (sequestosome 1; also known as p62) encodes a multidomain scaffolding protein involved in various key cellular processes, including the removal of damaged mitochondria by its function as a selective autophagy receptor. Heterozygous variants in SQSTM1 have been associated with Paget disease of the bone and might contribute to neurodegeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Using exome sequencing, we identified three different biallelic loss-of-function variants in SQSTM1 in nine affected individuals from four families with a childhood- or adolescence-onset neurodegenerative disorder characterized by gait abnormalities, ataxia, dysarthria, dystonia, vertical gaze palsy, and cognitive decline. We confirmed absence of the SQSTM1/p62 protein in affected individuals' fibroblasts and found evidence of a defect in the early response to mitochondrial depolarization and autophagosome formation. Our findings expand the SQSTM1-associated phenotypic spectrum and lend further support to the concept of disturbed selective autophagy pathways in neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27545679

  12. TYPICAL ABSENCES: RESULTS OF OWN INVESTIGATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yu. Mukhin

    2015-06-01

    seizures was observed in 15.7 % of the patients. No one case – without effect. The greatest success in relieving seizures was seen in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy; childhood absence epilepsy was intermediate; the lowest percentage of remission was noted in juvenile absence epilepsy. The most effective drugs were valproic acid and ethosuximide used both alone and in combination. Lamotrigine, topiramate, and levetiracetam were used as part of combination therapy. 

  13. Absence epilepsy and the CHD2 gene: an adolescent male with moderate intellectual disability, short-lasting psychoses, and an interstitial deletion in 15q26.1–q26.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, Willem MA; Egger, Jos IM; Knegt, Alida C; Zuydam, José; Kleefstra, Tjitske

    2016-01-01

    Deletions of the 15q26 region encompassing the chromodomain helicase DNA binding domain 2 (CHD2) gene have been associated with intellectual disability, behavioral problems, and several types of epilepsy. Including the cases mentioned in ECARUCA (European cytogeneticists association register of unbalanced chromosome aberrations) and DECIPHER (database of genomic variation and phenotype in humans using ensembl resources), so far, a total of 13 intellectually disabled patients with a genetically proven deletion of the CHD2 gene are described, of whom eleven had a history of severe forms of epilepsy starting from a young age. In this article, a moderately intellectually disabled 15-year-old male with a 15q26.1–q26.2 interstitial deletion is reported, who was referred for analysis of two recent short-lasting psychotic episodes that were nonresponsive to antipsychotic treatment and recurrent disinhibited behaviors since early infancy. Careful interdisciplinary assessment revealed that the psychotic phenomena originated from a previously unrecognized absence epilepsy. Treatment with valproic acid was started which resulted in full remission of psychotic symptoms, and consequently, substantial improvement of behavior. It was concluded that in case of (rare) developmental disorders with genetically proven etiology, a detailed inventory of anamnestic data and description of symptomatology over time may elucidate epilepsy-related psychopathology for which a specific treatment regimen is needed.

  14. Epilepsy in children with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jović Nebojša J.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE is a rare, progressive, fatal neurodegenerative disease of childhood and early adolescence caused by defective measles virus. The initial symptoms of SSPE usually involve regression in cognitive functioning and behavior or recurrent myoclonic jerks. Seizures revealing SSPE and epilepsy during the clinical course can occur. Objective. The aim of the study was to analyze clinical and EEG characteristics of both initially occurred seizures and epilepsy which developed in the course of the disease. Methods. Retrospective study was carried out on 19 children (14 boys, 5 girls with SSPE diagnosed and treated at our Clinic from 1995 to 2010. Seizures revealed SSPE in our patients aged from 6.5 to 11.5 years (mean 8.6 years. Results. SSPE onset ranged from 4.5 to 16.5 years (mean 10.05. Complete vaccination was performed in nine patients. Cognitive and behavioral decline was preceeded by 6-18 months in two children with intractable focal motor seizures with secondary generalization, one child with complex partial seizures and one with atypical absences. During the clinical course of the disease epilepsy developed in 10 (52.6% cases, including four patients with seizures as the initial SSPE sign. It occurred mainly in the first year, while in three cases seizures appeared between 1 and 5 years of the disease evolution. Myoclonus was present independently from seizures. No significant inter-group differences were found relating to the type of SSPE progression and history of epilepsy. The only child with fulminant SSPE presented with initial seizures. Favorable seizure control was achieved in 60.0% patients. Intractable epilepsy developed in four patients. Conclusion. Atypical SSPE presentation can include mainly focal intractable seizures. Epilepsy developed during clinical course in 52.6% cases. No significant influence was found of the history of epilepsy on the type of SSPE progression.

  15. Voxel-based morphometry in patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betting, Luiz Eduardo; Mory, Susana Barreto; Li, Li Min; Lopes-Cendes, Iscia; Guerreiro, Marilisa M; Guerreiro, Carlos A M; Cendes, Fernando

    2006-08-15

    Idiopathic generalized epilepsies (IGE) are a group of frequent age-related epilepsy syndromes. IGE are clinically characterized by generalized tonic-clonic, myoclonic and absence seizures. According to predominant seizure type and age of onset, IGE are divided in subsyndromes: childhood absence and juvenile absence epilepsy (AE), juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) and generalized tonic-clonic seizures on awakening (GTCS). The limits between these subsyndromes are not well defined, supporting the existence of only one major syndrome. Visual assessment of routine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with IGE is normal. MRI voxel-based morphometry (VBM) uses automatically segmented gray and white matter for comparisons, eliminating the investigator bias. We used VBM to study 120 individuals (47 controls, 44 with JME, 24 with AE and 15 with GTCS) to investigate the presence of subtle structural abnormalities in IGE subsyndromes. VBM was performed searching for abnormalities on gray matter concentration (GMC) between patients groups and controls. Compared to controls, JME presented increased GMC in frontobasal region and AE showed increased GMC in the superior mesiofrontal region. The GTCS group did not differ from controls. There were no areas of reduced GMC with the statistical level selected. Region of interest analysis showed increased GMC in the anterior portion of the thalamus in patients with absence seizures. Our results support subtle GMC abnormalities in patients with JME and AE when compared to controls. These findings suggest the existence of different patterns of cortical abnormalities in IGE subsyndromes. PMID:16702001

  16. Cerebral palsy and epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Knežević-Pogančev Marija

    2010-01-01

    Introduction. Cerebral palsy is the most common cause of physical disability in early childhood. Epilepsy is known to have a high association with cerebral palsy. All types of epileptic seizures can be seen in patients with cerebral palsy. Complex partial and secondary generalized ones are the most frequent seizure types. In persons with cerebral palsy and mental retardation, the diagnosis of epilepsy presents unique difficulties. Generally they are not able to describe the epileptic ev...

  17. Vascular anomalies associated with epilepsy - case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder in which the individual has recurrent seizures. These seizures occur when there is an imbalance in the electrical activity of the brain. The malfunction may be in a small area of the brain or spread to the entire brain. Epilepsy usually begins in childhood or adolescence. About 2.3 million people have seizures or epilepsy. (author)

  18. Impact of epilepsy surgery in childhood : motor function, health related quality of life and self perceived competence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Empelen, R. van

    2005-01-01

    In a prospective longitudinal design, we studied all children referred to the Dutch Collaborative Epilepsy Surgery Programme (DuCESP) between 1996 and 2001. Some 40 patients per year were referred all over the country. After careful screening, about 10-15 children per year can be operated. The Int

  19. Altered distribution and function of A2A adenosine receptors in the brain of WAG/Rij rats with genetic absence epilepsy, before and after appearance of the disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alimonte, Iolanda; D'Auro, Mariagrazia; Citraro, Rita; Biagioni, Francesca; Jiang, Shucui; Nargi, Eleonora; Buccella, Silvana; Di Iorio, Patrizia; Giuliani, Patricia; Ballerini, Patrizia; Caciagli, Francesco; Russo, Emilio; De Sarro, Giovambattista; Ciccarelli, Renata

    2009-09-01

    The involvement of excitatory adenosine A(2A) receptors (A(2A)Rs), which probably contribute to the pathophysiology of convulsive seizures, has never been investigated in absence epilepsy. Here, we examined the distribution and function of A(2A)Rs in the brain of Wistar Albino Glaxo/Rijswijk (WAG/Rij) rats, a model of human absence epilepsy in which disease onset occurs 2-3 months after birth. In the cerebral areas that are mostly involved in the generation of absence seizures (somatosensory cortex, reticular and ventrobasal thalamic nuclei), A(2A)R density was lower in presymptomatic WAG/Rij rats than in control rats, as evaluated by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. Accordingly, in cortical/thalamic slices prepared from the brain of these rats, A(2A)R stimulation with the agonist 2-[4-(-2-carboxyethyl)-phenylamino]-5'-N-ethylcarboxamido-adenosine failed to modulate either cAMP formation, mitogen-activated protein kinase system, or K(+)-evoked glutamate release. In contrast, A(2A)R expression, signalling and function were significantly enhanced in brain slices from epileptic WAG/Rij rats as compared with matched control animals. Additionally, the in vivo injection of the A(2A)R agonist CGS21680, or the antagonist 5-amino-7-(2-phenylethyl)-2-(2-fuyl)-pyrazolo-(4,3-c)1,2,4-triazolo(1,5-c)-pyrimidine, in the examined brain areas of epileptic rats, increased and decreased, respectively, the number/duration of recorded spontaneous spike-wave discharges in a dose-dependent manner during a 1-5 h post-treatment period. Our results support the hypothesis that alteration of excitatory A(2A)R is involved in the pathogenesis of absence seizures and might represent a new interesting target for the therapeutic management of this disease. PMID:19723291

  20. Mitochondrial disease and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Shamima

    2012-05-01

    Mitochondrial respiratory chain disorders are relatively common inborn errors of energy metabolism, with a combined prevalence of one in 5000. These disorders typically affect tissues with high energy requirements, and cerebral involvement occurs frequently in childhood, often manifesting in seizures. Mitochondrial diseases are genetically heterogeneous; to date, mutations have been reported in all 37 mitochondrially encoded genes and more than 80 nuclear genes. The major genetic causes of mitochondrial epilepsy are mitochondrial DNA mutations (including those typically associated with the mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes [MELAS] and myoclonic epilepsy with ragged red fibres [MERRF] syndromes); mutations in POLG (classically associated with Alpers syndrome but also presenting as the mitochondrial recessive ataxia syndrome [MIRAS], spinocerebellar ataxia with epilepsy [SCAE], and myoclonus, epilepsy, myopathy, sensory ataxia [MEMSA] syndromes in older individuals) and other disorders of mitochondrial DNA maintenance; complex I deficiency; disorders of coenzyme Q(10) biosynthesis; and disorders of mitochondrial translation such as RARS2 mutations. It is not clear why some genetic defects, but not others, are particularly associated with seizures. Epilepsy may be the presenting feature of mitochondrial disease but is often part of a multisystem clinical presentation. Mitochondrial epilepsy may be very difficult to manage, and is often a poor prognostic feature. At present there are no curative treatments for mitochondrial disease. Individuals with mitochondrial epilepsy are frequently prescribed multiple anticonvulsants, and the role of vitamins and other nutritional supplements and the ketogenic diet remain unproven. PMID:22283595

  1. Management of epilepsy in elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harsono Harsono

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Management of epilepsy in elderly requires understanding the unique biochemical and pharmacological characteristics of these patients. Management decisions must be based on accurate classification of seizures or epilepsy syndromes, a thorough neurological assessment to define etiology, and a comprehensive assessment of the patient’s health and living situation. Concomitant illnesses such as neurological, psychiatric, metabolic, or cardiac disorders will require individualization of plans and instructions. Specific problems of treatment of epilepsy in the elderly compared to childhood patients are as follows: distinctive range of causes of epilepsy, distinctive differential diagnosis, concurrent pathologies unrelated to epilepsy, pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic differences, and distinctive psychosocial effects. (Med J Indones 2003; 12: 40-7 Keywords:  epilepsy, elderly, management, concomitant illness, pharmacokinetic

  2. A study of idiopathic generalised epilepsy in an Irish population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mullins, G M

    2012-02-03

    Idiopathic generalised epilepsy (IGE) is subdivided into syndromes based on clinical and EEG features. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to characterise all cases of IGE with supportive EEG abnormalities in terms of gender differences, seizure types reported, IGE syndromes, family history of epilepsy and EEG findings. We also calculated the limited duration prevalence of IGE in our cohort. METHODS: Data on abnormal EEGs were collected retrospectively from two EEG databases at two tertiary referral centres for neurology. Clinical information was obtained from EEG request forms, standardised EEG questionnaires and medical notes of patients. RESULTS: two hundred twenty-three patients met our inclusion criteria, 89 (39.9%) male and 134 (60.1%) females. Tonic clonic seizures were the most common seizure type reported, 162 (72.65%) having a generalised tonic clonic seizure (GTCS) at some time. IGE with GTCS only (EGTCSA) was the most common syndrome in our cohort being present in 94 patients (34 male, 60 female), with 42 (15 male, 27 female) patients diagnosed with Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME), 23 (9 male, 14 female) with Juvenile absence epilepsy (JAE) and 20 (9 male, 11 female) with childhood absence epilepsy (CAE). EEG studies in all patients showed generalised epileptiform activity. CONCLUSIONS: More women than men were diagnosed with generalised epilepsy. Tonic clonic seizures were the most common seizure type reported. EGTCSA was the most frequent syndrome seen. Gender differences were evident for JAE and JME as previously reported and for EGTCSA, which was not reported to date, and reached statistical significance for EGTCA and JME.

  3. Protective role for type-1 metabotropic glutamate receptors against spike and wave discharges in the WAG/Rij rat model of absence epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngomba, R.T.; Santolini, I.; Biagioni, F.; Molinaro, G.; Simonyi, A.; Rijn, C.M. van; D'Amore, V.; Mastroiacovo, F.; Olivieri, G.; Gradini, R.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Nicoletti, F.

    2011-01-01

    Eight-month old WAG/Rij rats, which developed spontaneous occurring absence seizures, showed a reduced function of mGlu1 metabotropic glutamate receptors in the thalamus, as assessed by in vivo measurements of DHPG-stimulated polyphosphoinositide hydrolysis, in the presence of the mGlu5 antagonist M

  4. Epilepsy - overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epilepsy is a brain disorder in which a person has repeated seizures over time. Seizures are episodes ... Epilepsy occurs when permanent changes in the brain cause it to be too excitable or irritable. As ...

  5. Effect of Seizure Clustering on Epilepsy Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A prospective, long-term population-based study was performed to determine whether seizure clustering (3 or more afebrile seizures during a 24 hour period is associated with drug resistance and increased mortality in childhood-onset epilepsy, in a study at University of Turku, Finland, and the Epilepsy Research Group, Berlin, Germany.

  6. Dietary Therapies for Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Kossoff, Eric H.; Huei-Shyong Wang

    2013-01-01

    Since their introduction in 1921, high-fat, low-carbohydrate "ketogenic" diets have been used worldwide for refractory childhood epilepsy. Approximately half of the children have at least half their seizures reduced, including 15% who are seizure free. The mechanisms of action of dietary therapies are under active investigation and appear to involve mitochondria. Once perceived as a last resort, modifications to initiation and maintenance, as well as the widespread use of pre-made ketogenic f...

  7. Alterations in local cerebral metabolic rates for glucose (LCMRGlc) in childhood epilepsies as determined with FDG and PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors investigated LCMRGlc in Lennox-Gastant Syndrome (LGS) (n=15), infantile spasm (IS) (n=14) and Sturge-Weber Syndrome (SWS) (n=5). In children with LGS, 3 distinct metabolic patterns are seen interically: 1) unilateral focal hypometabolism in frontal or temporal lobes, 2) unilateral diffuse hypometabolism, and 3) bilateral diffuse hypometabolism. Therapeutic implications of this classification are: surgical resection in focal (i.e., as for partial epilepsy), corpus callosotomy in diffuse unilateral, and elimination of surgery for those with bilateral diffuse hypometabolism. Babies with idiopathic IS showed symmetrical hypometabolism of lenticular nuclei and midbrain/brain stem compared to cortex and is characterized by slightly better prognosis. In contrast, babies with symtomatic IS had additional CMRGlc disturbances such as bilateral assymetric and multi focal hypometabolism in infant with neurofibromatosis; right parieto-occipital hypometabolims in infant with tuberous sclerosis; intense hypermetabolism of hypothalamus (34.5 vs 3.18 μmoles/-min/100g in other regions) in another where x-ray CT showed only obstructive hydrocephalus. Findings support classical notion of subcortical involvement in this disorder. In SWS, PET showed marked hypometabolism in affected hemisphere in older children, while a 9 month old showed increased LCMRGlc unilaterally (40-50 vs 28-44 μ moles/min/100g contralateral) with cross cerebellar hypermetabolism (48-50 vs 27-31 μ moles/min/100g) with no behavioral or EEG evidence of seizure during study. PET studies of LCMRGlc appear sensitive and useful in classifying heterogeneous syndromes into subtypes regarding differential therapy and prognosis, and provide more comprehensive identification of sites of disturbance for investigating mechanisms of these disorders

  8. Early molecular and behavioral response to lipopolysaccharide in the WAG/Rij rat model of absence epilepsy and depressive-like behavior, involves interplay between AMPK, AKT/mTOR pathways and neuroinflammatory cytokine release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Emilio; Andreozzi, Francesco; Iuliano, Rodolfo; Dattilo, Vincenzo; Procopio, Teresa; Fiume, Giuseppe; Mimmi, Selena; Perrotti, Nicola; Citraro, Rita; Sesti, Giorgio; Constanti, Andrew; De Sarro, Giovambattista

    2014-11-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway has been recently indicated as a suitable drug target for the prevention of epileptogenesis. The mTOR pathway is known for its involvement in the control of the immune system. Since neuroinflammation is recognized as a major contributor to epileptogenesis, we wished to examine whether the neuroprotective effects of mTOR modulation could involve a suppression of the neuroinflammatory process in epileptic brain. We have investigated the early molecular mechanisms involved in the effects of intracerebral administration of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the WAG/Rij rat model of absence epilepsy, in relation to seizure generation and depressive-like behavior; we also tested whether the effects of LPS could be modulated by treatment with rapamycin (RAP), a specific mTOR inhibitor. We determined, in specific rat brain areas, levels of p-mTOR/p-p70S6K and also p-AKT/p-AMPK as downstream or upstream indicators of mTOR activity and tested the effects of LPS and RAP co-administration. Changes in the brain levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α and their relative mRNA expression levels were measured, and the involvement of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) was also examined in vitro. We confirmed that RAP inhibits the aggravation of absence seizures and depressive-like/sickness behavior induced by LPS in the WAG/Rij rats through the activation of mTOR and show that this effect is correlated with the ability of RAP to dampen and delay LPS increases in neuroinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α, most likely through inhibition of the activation of NF-κB. Our results suggest that such a mechanism could contribute to the antiseizure, antiepileptogenic and behavioral effects of RAP and further highlight the potential therapeutic usefulness of mTOR inhibition in the management of human epilepsy and other neurological disorders. Furthermore, we show that LPS-dependent neuroinflammatory effects are also mediated by a

  9. Study on localization diagnosis with SPECT rCBF image in childhood epilepsy: in comparison with EEG and MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic value of SPECT rCBF imaging in localization of childhood epileptic foci. Methods: rCBF imaging was performed in 74 epileptic patients not in seizure and 10 epileptic patients right in seizure. EEG was performed in 84, MRI in 67 of the subjects mentioned above. All the results of three modalities were compared with each other. Results: The highest positive rate (82.14%) was found in SPECT rCBF imaging, the positive rate in EEG or MRI was 71.43 or 47.76%. The epileptic foci localized by EEG (60 abnormalities) and by MRI (32 abnormalities) were 70.59% or 58.82% in concordance with those by SPECT, respectively. Conclusions: SPECT rCBF imaging is a sensitive and effective method for epileptic foci localization. It may have some advantages over EEG and MRI in detecting and localizing epileptic foci. However, abnormal SPECT areas may cover some abnormalities which do not belong to epileptic category. A combination of these three methods (SPECT, EEG and MRI) will improve the positive rate and accuracy for localizing

  10. Clinical features of the variants of benign childhood epilepsy with central temporal spikes: 12 cases report%儿童良性癫痫伴中央颞区棘波变异型12例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁泽淑; 杨理明; 江志; 陈波; 张洁

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the clinical features of the variants of benign childhood epilepsy with central temporal spikes (BECT).Methods The clinical data of 12 hospitalized pediatric patients with BECT from Jan 2007 to Jan 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Results There were 7 boys and 5 girls in 12 patients. The age of onset was from 3 to 9 years old. Two cases were dizygotic twins. The atypical symptoms included atypical absence of 10 cases, negative myoclonic seizure of 8 cases, speech expression disorders and oral-pharynx apraxia of 4 cases. The electroencephalography (EEG) of all 12 patients showed abundance of spike and waves (SW) in rolandic areas during wake-up and sleep. The SW index was 50%-85% during slow sleep in all patients.Conclusions The variants of BECT are often associated with EEG deterioration. Understanding the clinical featuress and EEG characteristics can help the diagnosis of BECT variants.%目的 探讨儿童良性癫痫伴中央颞区棘波(BECT)变异型的临床特征.方法 回顾性分析2007年1月至2014年1月收治的12例BECT变异型患儿的临床资料.结果 12例患儿中男7例、女5例,其中2例为双卵龙凤胎,起病年龄为3~9岁.病程中出现不典型失神10例,负性肌阵挛8例,言语障碍和口咽部失用4例.视频脑电图监测均显示清醒及睡眠期Rolandic区棘慢波大量发放,慢波睡眠期指数达50%~85%.结论 BECT变异型均伴有明显的脑电图恶化,认识其临床和脑电图变化的特点及规律,可提高对BECT变异型的诊断.

  11. Eplepsia benigna da infância com pontas centrotemporais: foco central alto ou baixo Benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes: high and low central focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos H. Coelho Duran

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram selecionadas 20 crianças com diagnóstico de epilepsia benigna da infância com pontas centrotemporais. Realizou-se anamnese, exame neurológico, aplicação da Escala de Maturidade Mental'' Columbia'' (1993 e eletrencefalograma digital. (EEG O EEG digital foi gravado com eletrodos de acordo com o sistema internacional 10-20, acrescido de um eletrodo suplementar entre o eletrodos C3 eT3 ou C4 e T4 no lado onde ocorreu o maior número de pontas. Foi realizada a promediação dessas descargas para análise do local de máxima negatividade. A ocorrência de crises envolvendo um membro superior foi proporcionalmente maior nos sujeitos com pontas de máxima negatividade em C3, C4 do que em C5, C6, T3 ou T4. A atividade epileptiforme não centrotemporal associada foi mais frequente nos sujeitos com descargas centrotemporais de máxima negatividade em C3 e C4. Esse estudo demonstra a existência de diferenças clínicas e eletrencefalográficas de acordo com a localização das descargas centrotemporais.Twenty children with benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes were studied. Anamnesis, neurological exam, ''Columbia'' Scale (1993 application and digital electroencephalogram were carried out. The digital electroencephalogram was recorded with electrodes according to 10-20 international system, and a supplementary electrode, between C3 and T3 or C4 and T4 - C5 or C6, respectively, at the side with a higher number of spikes. The averaging of the spikes was carried. Localization and the laterality of the spikes were analyzed. Seizures involving a superior limb occurred in a higher proportion of cases with spikes of maximum negativity in C3, C4. Independent epileptiform activity, different from centrotemporal, was more frequent in the cases were the maximum negativity of the spikes occurred in C3 or C4 regions. There are clinical and electroencephalographic differences according to the localization of the discharges

  12. Genome wide high density SNP-based linkage analysis of childhood absence epilepsy identifies a susceptibility locus on chromosome 3p23-p14

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chioza, Barry A; Aicardi, Jean; Aschauer, Harald;

    2009-01-01

    and the genes involved are yet to be fully established. A genome wide single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based high density linkage scan was carried out using 41 nuclear pedigrees with at least two affected members. Multipoint parametric and non-parametric linkage analyses were performed using...... MERLIN 1.1.1 and a susceptibility locus was identified on chromosome 3p23-p14 (Z(mean)=3.9, p<0.0001; HLOD=3.3, alpha=0.7). The linked region harbours the functional candidate genes TRAK1 and CACNA2D2. Fine-mapping using a tagSNP approach demonstrated disease association with variants in TRAK1....

  13. Is Interictal EEG Correlated with the Seizure Type in Idiopathic (Genetic Generalized Epilepsies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar ASADI-POOYA

    2012-06-01

    , Sharbrough FW. Long-term electroencephalographic monitoring for diagnosis and management of seizures. Mayo Clin Proc 1996 Oct;71(10:1000-6. Betting LE, Mory SB, Lopes-Cendes I, Li LM, Guerreiro MM, Guerreiro CA et al. EEG features in idiopathic generalized epilepsy: clues to diagnosis. Epilepsia 2006 Mar;47(3:523-8. Yenjun S, Harvey AS, Marini C, Newton MR, King MA, Berkovic SF. EEG in adult-onset idiopathic generalized epilepsy. Epilepsia 2003 Feb;44(2:252-6. Blume WT, Lüders HO, Mizrahi E, Tassinari C, van Emde Boas W, Engel J Jr. Glossary of descriptive terminology for ictal semiology: report of the ILAE task force on classification and terminology. Epilepsia 2001;42(9:1212-8. Engel J Jr. A proposed diagnostic scheme for people with epileptic seizures and epilepsy: report of the ILAE task force on classification and terminology. Epilepsia 2001 Jun;42(6:796-803. Engel J. Jr. Report of the ILAE Classification Core Group. Epilepsia 2006 Sep;47(9:1558-68. Asadi-Pooya AA, Emami M. Effects of antiepileptic drugs on electroencephalographic findings in patients with idiopathic generalized epilepsies. Iran J Child Neurol 2011;5(4:33-6. Asadi-Pooya AA, Emami M, Nikseresht A. Early-onset versus typical childhood absence epilepsy; clinical and electrographic characteristics. Seizure 2012;21:273-5. Nordi DR. Idiopathic generalized epilepsies recognized by the International League Against Epilepsy. Epilepsia 2005;46(Suppl. 9:48-56. Panayiotopoulos CP. Syndromes of idiopathic generalized epilepsies not recognized by the International League Against Epilepsy. Epilepsia 2005;46(Suppl. 9:57-66. Asadi-Pooya AA, Sperling MR. Choices of antiepileptic drugs based on specific epilepsy syndromes and seizure types. In: Asadi-Pooya AA, Sperling MR. Antiepileptic Drugs: A Clinician’s Manual. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press; 2009. p. 95-102.   

  14. Sleep and Epilepsy: Strange Bedfellows No More.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Louis, Erik K

    2011-09-01

    Ancient philosophers and theologians believed that altered consciousness freed the mind to prophesy the future, equating sleep with seizures. Only recently has the bidirectional influences of epilepsy and sleep upon one another received more substantive analysis. This article reviews the complex and increasingly recognized interrelationships between sleep and epilepsy. NREM sleep differentially activates interictal epileptiform discharges during slow wave (N3) sleep, while ictal seizure events occur more frequently during light NREM stages N1 and N2. The most commonly encountered types of sleep-related epilepsies (those with preferential occurrence during sleep or following arousal) include frontal and temporal lobe partial epilepsies in adults, and benign epilepsy of childhood with centrotemporal spikes (benign rolandic epilepsy) and juvenile myoclonic epilepsy in children and adolescents. Comorbid sleep disorders are frequent in patients with epilepsy, particularly obstructive sleep apnea in refractory epilepsy patients which may aggravate seizure burden, while treatment with nasal continuous positive airway pressure often improves seizure frequency. Distinguishing nocturnal events such as NREM parasomnias (confusional arousals, sleep walking, and night terrors), REM parasomnias including REM sleep behavior disorder, and nocturnal seizures if frequently difficult and benefits from careful history taking and video-EEG-polysomnography in selected cases. Differentiating nocturnal seizures from primary sleep disorders is essential for determining appropriate therapy, and recognizing co-existent sleep disorders in patients with epilepsy may improve their seizure burden and quality of life. PMID:23539488

  15. Musicogenic epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, John

    2015-01-01

    Musicogenic epilepsy, which is a form of reflex epilepsy, is characterized by the triggering of epileptic seizures by specific music experiences. Individuals with musicogenic epilepsy differ in the music trigger, but may have similar seizures. Typically, these seizures are focal dyscognitive and have a temporal-lobe origin with a limbic system distribution. As such, the music trigger is likely related to either an emotional or memory aspect of music perception. Investigations into musicogenic epilepsy may lead to a better understanding of seizure propagation within the brain and of neurologic aspects of the music experience. Successful treatment of medication-resistant musicogenic epilepsy has been achieved with anterior temporal-lobe resection. PMID:25726285

  16. Chronic temporal lobe epilepsy: a neurodevelopmental or progressively dementing disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmstaedter, C; Elger, C E

    2009-10-01

    dementing decline in chronic TLE patients. During childhood, and even more so during the decade following puberty, the critical phases for establishing episodic memory deficits appear. This increases the risk of premature 'dementia' later on, even in the absence of an accelerated decline. Material specific verbal memory impairment in left TLE is a characteristic of the mature brain and seems to disappear at an older age. The findings suggest that increased attention is to be paid to the time of epilepsy onset and thereafter. Early control of epilepsy is demanded to counteract developmental hindrance and damage at a younger age. PMID:19635728

  17. Common comorbidity of epilepsy: a review of new progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Xue

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A range of medical and neurologic disorders occurs more frequently in people with epilepsy than in the general population and constitutes somatic comorbidity. Common examples include migraine, depression, schizophrenia, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, sleep disorder, cognitive damage, developmental abnormality and so on. There are more interesting clinical features in some special types of patients with benign epilepsy of childhood with centrotemporal spikes (BECT, temporal epilepsy and mitochondrial encephalomyopathy. The association between epilepsy and other conditions can be due to a variety of interacting genetic, biologic structural, functional, pharmacological and environmental factors. Co-existence of other disorders in a person with epilepsy can complicate diagnosis, induce adverse prognostic implications and attenuate health?related quality of life. Therefore, recognition and management of comorbidity of epilepsy may facilitate the treatment of epilepsy. In this article, we review recent pathophysiologic and clinical studies to elucidate the etiology, mechanisms, clinical characteristics, differential diagnosis and treatment of common comorbidity of epilepsy.

  18. American Epilepsy Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Doctor | Donate main search Search American Epilepsy Society CLINICAL RESOURCES FAQs GUIDELINES IOM EPILEPSY MEDICAL MARIJUANA ... RENEW VOLUNTEER FAES: FELLOW OF THE AMERICAN EPILEPSY SOCIETY MAILING LIST PURCHASE FOR PATIENTS EPILEPSY BENEFIT INTERNATIONAL ...

  19. Galactosemia and phantom absence seizures

    OpenAIRE

    Zeynep Aydin-Özemir; Pinar Tektürk; Zehra Oya Uyguner; Betül Baykan

    2014-01-01

    Generalized and focal seizures can rarely be seen in galactosemia patients, but absence seizures were not reported previously. An 18-year-old male was diagnosed as galactosemia at the age of 8 months. No family history of epilepsy was present. His absence seizures realized at the age of 9 years. Generalized 3-4 Hz spike-wave discharges were identified in his electroencephalography. Homozygous mutation at exon 6 c. 563A > G was identified. The electroencephalogram of his sibling was unremarkab...

  20. Epilepsy Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gastaut Syndrome Infantile Spasms and Tuberous Sclerosis Complex Facebook Epilepsy Foundation of America Join David Taplinger, MD, ... helping to make Hidden Truths, The Mind Unraveled art show happen! For more information and tickets to ...

  1. 伴中央颞部棘波的良性儿童癫痫脑电图分析%Analysis of EEG and clinical of benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁彬; 牛仁山

    2009-01-01

    Objective To analyse the meaning of EEG in benign childhood epilepsy with of centrahemporal spikes diagnosis. Methods EEG and clinical data were retrospectively analyzed in 72 patients. Results Carry on an electroen-cephalogram record under the awake state, normal 54, abnormal 18 (including 8 cases of untypical focal discharge). Under sleep condition the epileptiform discharge all appears in the controtemporal area can be found in the EEG records of 54 ca-ses of normal EEG under the awake state. Conclusions The EEG can greatly increase the diagnosis rate in benign child-hood epilepsy with centrotemporal spike diagnosis. EEG is an important diagnostic basis for this disease. It may help the di-agnosis to know the EEG and clinical characteristics of BECT.%目的 分析脑电图(EEG)在伴中央颞部棘波的良性儿童癫痫(BECCT)的诊断意义.方法 对72例BECCT的EEG及临床资料进行回顾性分析.结果 清醒时,EEG正常54例,异常18例(含8例不典型局灶性放电),对清醒时EEG正常54例均进行睡眠EEG描记,则均于中央颞部出现棘、尖渡.结论 睡眠EEG大大提高了BECCT的诊断率,EEG为诊断BECCT的根本依据.认识BECCT的EEG及临床特点,有利于BECCT的诊断及预后评估.

  2. Dietary Therapies for Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric H Kossoff

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Since their introduction in 1921, high-fat, low-carbohydrate "ketogenic" diets have been used worldwide for refractory childhood epilepsy. Approximately half of the children have at least half their seizures reduced, including 15% who are seizure free. The mechanisms of action of dietary therapies are under active investigation and appear to involve mitochondria. Once perceived as a last resort, modifications to initiation and maintenance, as well as the widespread use of pre-made ketogenic formulas have allowed dietary treatment to be used earlier in the course of epilepsy. For infantile spasms (West syndrome specifically, the ketogenic diet is successful about 50% of the time as a first-line treatment. New "alternative" diets such as the modified Atkins diet were created in 2003 and can be started more easily and are less restrictive. They may have particular value for countries in Asia. Side effects include constipation, dyslipidemia, growth slowing, acidosis, and kidney stones. Additionally, neurologists are studying ketogenic diets for conditions other than epilepsy, including Alzheimer's disease, autism, and brain tumors.

  3. Late-onset childhood occipital epilepsy. An unusual case in adolescence and differential diagnosis with migraine Epilepsia occipital da infância de início tardio

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    Paulo Breno Noronha Liberalesso

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The new proposed classification of ILAE Task Force (2001 proposes that the occipital epilepsies should be split into two subtypes: an early-onset benign childhood occipital epilepsy (or Panayiotopoulos type and late-onset childhood occipital epilepsy (or Gastaut type. Migraine with visual aura must be considered as a differential diagnosis in childhood and adolescents with occipital epilepsy without motor phenomena. OBJECTIVE: The goal of our paper is to report the case a 16-year-old female, with normal psychomotor development, that during the lunch time presented an event characterized by the vision of multiple colored spots which were moving horizontally and vertically and also in circles through the visual field. Minutes after the visual event, the patient referred to a severe diffuse throbbing headache with frontal predominance. During the clinical investigation was submitted to a video-electroencephalogram exam for 12 hours with, reveling occipital sharp-waves discharges in occipital right region as well as in occipital left region. CONCLUSION: We reported of such classic type of epileptic syndrome in a patient in the unusual age of onset, the end of adolescence, considering the differential diagnosis with migraine with visual aura.INTRODUÇÃO: A nova proposta de classificação da ILAE (2001 propõe que as epilepsias occipitais sejam classificadas em dois subtipos: epilepsia occipital benigna da infância de início precoce (ou tipo Panayiotopoulos e epilepsia occipital benigna da infância de início tardio (ou tipo Gastaut. A migrânia com aura visual deve ser considerada como um diagnóstico diferencial nas crianças e nos adolescentes com epilepsia occiptal sem fenômenos motores associados. OBJETIVO: relatar o caso de uma paciente do sexo feminino de 16 anos, com desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor normal, que durante o almoço apresentou um evento caracterizado pela visão de múltiplas manchas coloridas que se

  4. Epilepsy in School-Aged Children: More than Just Seizures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Colin; Ballantine, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Epilepsy is the most common neurological disorder in childhood and can have a significant impact on a child's schooling. Children with epilepsy may have special educational needs due to having learning disability, specific learning difficulties, specific cognitive deficits or having symptoms associated with ASD, ADHD, depression or anxiety. These…

  5. A prospective study of the modified Atkins diet for adults with idiopathic generalized epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kverneland, Magnhild; Selmer, Kaja K; Nakken, Karl O; Iversen, Per O; Taubøll, Erik

    2015-12-01

    For children with pharmacoresistant epilepsy, the ketogenic diet is an established treatment option worldwide. However, for adults, this treatment is less frequently offered, and its efficacy less well-documented. The aim of this study was to examine efficacy and tolerability of such a diet as an adjuvant therapy to antiepileptic drugs for adult patients with pharmacoresistant generalized epilepsy. Thirteen patients (12 women) aged 16-57 years were included prospectively. They were treated with a modified Atkins diet for 12 weeks. Nine of the 13 participants had juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME), two had childhood absence epilepsy, one had Jeavons syndrome, and one had generalized epilepsy of unknown type. Six participants, all with JME, completed the 12-week study period. Among these six, four had >50% seizure reduction. Their seizure severity, using the revised Liverpool Seizure Severity Scale, was reduced by 1, 5, 57.5, and 70 points, respectively (scale: 1-100 points). In three of these four responders, quality of life, assessed by QOLIE-89, increased more than 20 points (scale: 0-100 points). Mean reduction of body weight after 12 weeks on diet was 6.5 (range: 4.3-8.1) kg. Lack of motivation, poor compliance, and seizure aggravation were the main reasons for premature termination of the diet. Apart from one patient who developed gallstones when ending the treatment after 10 months, no adverse effects were noted. In conclusion, using a modified Atkins diet for 12 weeks led to a clinically relevant reduction of seizure frequency in four of thirteen adult patients with pharmacoresistant generalized epilepsy. All responders were diagnosed with JME. In three of the four, the benefits of diet were so considerable that they chose to continue the treatment. PMID:26588588

  6. Idiopathic generalized epilepsy: Phenotypic and electroencephalographic observations in a large cohort from South India

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    Sanjib Sinha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We studied the phenotype and electroencephalographic (EEG features, and therapeutic aspects of idiopathic generalized epilepsies (IGEs in South Indian population. Patients and Methods: This prospective cross-sectional hospital-based study was carried out on non-consecutive 287 patients (age 22.2 ± 7.7 years; M:F = 139:148 with IGE syndrome. Their clinical and EEG observations were analyzed. Results: Majority of the patients had onset of seizures <20 years of age (n = 178; 62%. Thirty one patients (10.8% had family history of epilepsy. Nearly half of them (49.9% had <5 years of duration of seizures. The type of IGEs included Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME: 115 (40.1%; IGE with generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS only: 102 (39.02%; childhood absence epilepsy (CAE: 35 (12.2%; GTCS on awakening: 15 (5.2%; Juvenile absence epilepsy (JAE: 11 (3.8%; and unclassified seizures: 9 (3.1%. The triggering factors noted in 45% were sleep deprivation (20%, non-compliance and stress in 5% each. The EEG (n = 280 showed epileptiform discharges in about 50% of patients. Epileptiform discharges during activation was observed in 40/249 patients (16.1%: Hyperventilation in 32 (12.8% and photic stimulation in 19 (7.6%. The seizures were well controlled with anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs in 232 (80.8% patients and among them, 225 (78.4% patients were on monotherapy. Valproate (n = 131 was the most frequently prescribed as monotherapy. Conclusions: This is one of the largest cohort of patients with IGE. This study reiterates the importance of segregating IGE syndrome and such analysis will aid to the current understanding and management.

  7. Polymorphism of multidrug-resistance gene in childhood refractory epilepsy%儿童难治性癫(癎)MDR1基因多态性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高萱; 周水珍; 郭倩; 孙道开

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨儿童难治性癫(癎)的诊断问题及汉族儿童难治性癫(癎)MDR1基因单核苷酸多态性C3435T与癫(癎)耐药的相关性.方法 采用回顾性及前瞻性分析方法对400例癫(癎)儿童进行随访,自定儿童难治性癫(癎)(RE)诊断标准,分析其中难治性癫(癎)类型、用药种类、用药时间、药物调整时间及疗效;根据对抗癫(癎)药物的反应将儿童癫(癎)患者分为难治组、控制组,健康儿童作为正常对照组;提取132例患儿(难治组70例,控制组62例)及健康62例儿童外周血DNA,以PCR扩增,DNA直接测序法检测MDR基因C3435T的单核苷酸多态性;应用病例对照研究,分析基因多态性在癫(癎)患者中的分布特点及其与癫(癎)耐药的相关性.结果 400例癫(癎)患儿中难治性癫(癎)83例(20.8%),65例(78.3%)在6个月内完成至少2种药物调整,目前仍有42例(50.6%)同时使用3种及以上药物治疗,其中6例(7.2%)同时使用4种抗癫(癎)药物.83例难治性癫(癎)患者用药有效40例(48.2%),显效6例(7.2%);无效37例(44.6%),其中25例(67.6%)有不同程度的减轻.70例耐药组患儿与62例控制组患儿及62例健康对照相比较,各组CC基因型、CT基因型、TT基因型及等位基因频率差异均无统计学意义.多因素Logistic回归分析显示,MDR1C3435T各基因型与癫(癎)耐药无相关性.结论 儿童癫(癎)患儿正规治疗6个月后仍不能控制发作者认为其为难治性癫(癎)(平均至少1次/月,>2种药物无效),多种AEDs治疗仍有其必要性,未发现汉族儿童C3435T基因多态性与癫(癎)耐药的相关性.%Objective To discuss the diagnosis of refractory epilepsy (RE) in children, and to study the association of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of muhidrug-resistance gene (MDR1) C3435T with pharmaco- resistant epilepsy. Methods Four hundred children with epilepsy were retrospectively or prospectively identified from multiple sources in our hospital in

  8. A New Locus for Generalized Epilepsy with Febrile Seizures Plus Maps to Chromosome 2

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes-Cendes, I.; Scheffer, I E.; Berkovic, S F; Rousseau, M.; Andermann, E.; Rouleau, G. A.

    2000-01-01

    Generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+) is a recently recognized but relatively common form of inherited childhood-onset epilepsy with heterogeneous epilepsy phenotypes. We genotyped 41 family members, including 21 affected individuals, to localize the gene causing epilepsy in a large family segregating an autosomal dominant form of GEFS+. A genomewide search examining 197 markers identified linkage of GEFS+ to chromosome 2, on the basis of an initial positive LOD score for ma...

  9. Musical and poetic creativity and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesdorffer, Dale C; Trimble, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Associations between epilepsy and musical or poetic composition have received little attention. We reviewed the literature on links between poetic and musical skills and epilepsy, limiting this to the Western canon. While several composers were said to have had epilepsy, John Hughes concluded that none of the major classical composers thought to have had epilepsy actually had it. The only composer with epilepsy that we could find was the contemporary composer, Hikari Oe, who has autism and developed epilepsy at age 15years. In his childhood years, his mother found that he had an ability to identify bird sound and keys of songs and began teaching him piano. Hikari is able to compose in his head when his seizures are not severe, but when his seizures worsen, his creativity is lost. Music critics have commented on the simplicity of his musical composition and its monotonous sound. Our failure to find evidence of musical composers with epilepsy finds parallels with poetry where there are virtually no established poets with epilepsy. Those with seizures include Lord George Byron in the setting of terminal illness, Algernon Swinburne who had alcohol-related seizures, Charles Lloyd who had seizures and psychosis, Edward Lear who had childhood onset seizures, and Vachel Lindsay. The possibility that Emily Dickinson had epilepsy is also discussed. It has not been possible to identify great talents with epilepsy who excel in poetic or musical composition. There are few published poets with epilepsy and no great composers. Why is this? Similarities between music and poetry include meter, tone, stress, rhythm, and form, and much poetry is sung with music. It is likely that great musical and poetic compositions demand a greater degree of concentration and memory than is possible in epilepsy, resulting in problems retaining a musical and mathematical structure over time. The lack of association between recognizable neuropsychiatric disorders and these skills is a gateway to

  10. Acupuncture for Refractory Epilepsy: Role of Thalamus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuping Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurostimulation procedures like vagus nerve stimulation (VNS and deep brain stimulation have been used to treat refractory epilepsy and other neurological disorders. While holding promise, they are invasive interventions with serious complications and adverse effects. Moreover, their efficacies are modest with less seizure free. Acupuncture is a simple, safe, and effective traditional healing modality for a wide range of diseases including pain and epilepsy. Thalamus takes critical role in sensory transmission and is highly involved in epilepsy genesis particularly the absence epilepsy. Considering thalamus serves as a convergent structure for both acupuncture and VNS and the thalamic neuronal activities can be modulated by acupuncture, we propose that acupuncture could be a promising therapy or at least a screening tool to select suitable candidates for those invasive modalities in the management of refractory epilepsy.

  11. Epilepsy in patients with Angelman syndrome

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    Fiumara Agata

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Angelman syndrome (AS is a neuro-behavioural, genetically determined condition, characterized by ataxic jerky movements, happy sociable disposition and unprovoked bouts of laughter in association with seizures, learning disabilities and language impairment. Most of the cases are hardly diagnosed during infancy as jerky movements, the cardinal sign, appear later in childhood. AS is caused by a variety of genetic mechanisms involving the 15q 11-13 chromosome. About 70% of cases are due to a "de novo" interstitial deletion in the long arm region, arising on the maternally inherited chromosome. The diagnosis is confirmed by methylation test or by mutation analysis of UBE3A gene. The deletion phenotype is generally linked to a more severe clinical picture in that 95% of patients manifest more severe seizures, severe mental and motor retardation, dysmorphic features and microcephaly. The pathogenesis of epilepsy in AS is still not fully understood. The presence in the commonly deleted region of a cluster of genes coding for 3 subunits of the GABAa receptor complex has lead to the hypothesis that GABA neurotransmission is involved. Epilepsy, often severe and hard to control, is present in 85% of patients within the first three years of life, although less than 25% develop seizures during the first year. It was observed that febrile seizures often precede the diagnosis. Most frequent types are atypical absences, generalized tonic-clonic, atonic or myoclonic seizures, with multiple seizure types occurring in 50% of deleted patients. There is still some doubt about the association with West syndrome. The EEG abnormalities are not themselves pathognomonic of AS and both background activity and epileptic discharges vary even in the same patient with time. Nevertheless, the existence of some suggestive patterns should facilitate the early diagnosis allowing the correct genetic counselling for the family. Some drugs seems to act better than others

  12. 伴有中央颞区棘波的儿童良性癫痫的睡眠结构研究%Sleep structure of benign epilepsy of childhood with centro-temporal spikes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘颖妍; 麦坚凝

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study interictal sleep structures of benign epilepsy of childhood with centro-temporal spikes(BECTS). Methods Whole night polysomnagraphy was performed in 23 BECTS children and 23 healthy children,and compared with the differences of their sleep structures. Results Total recording time, the percentage of S1 sleep,the percentage of S3 sleep of BECTS group were longer than those of control group. The percentage of S2 sleep, sleep efficiency of BECTS group were shorter than those of control group. Conclusion Sleep structures of BECTS children were disorder. Waking time and light sleeping time(S1)were prolonged, and sleep efficiency was shortened.%目的 初步探讨中央颞区棘波的儿章良性癫痫(benign childhood epilepsy with centro-tem-poral spikes,BECTS)患儿发作问期睡眠结构特点.方法 采用多导睡眠生理脑电记录仪对23名BECTS儿童及23名健康对照儿童进行全夜多导睡眠脑电记录仪检查,比较BECTS患儿与健康对照儿童睡眠结构的差异.结果 BECTS组患儿总记录时间(TRT)、非快速动眼S1期睡眠比例(S1%)、非快速动眼S3期睡眠比例(S3%)较正常对照组延长,而非快速动眼S2期睡眠比例(S2%)、睡眠效率(SE)较止常对照组缩短.结论 BECTS患儿睡眠结构存在着一定程度的损害,主要表现为觉醒时间延长,S1浅睡期延长和睡眠效率降低.

  13. Studies on homocarnosine in cerebrospinal fluid in infancy and childhood. Part II. Homocarnosine levels in cerebrospinal fluid from children with epilepsy, febrile convulsion or meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, H

    1981-01-01

    To clarify the pathophysiological role of homocarnosine in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in children, homocarnosine levels in CSF were determined in patients with epilepsy (32 cases), febrile convulsion (5 cases) and meningitis (42 cases) with a high speed amino acid autoanalyzer (Hitachi Co.). Mean homocarnosine levels in CSF of controlled epileptic children, uncontrolled epileptic children and febrile convulsion cases were 0.61 +/- 0.25 mumol/dl, 1.03 +/- 0.37 mumol/dl and 1.09 +/- 0.04 mumol/dl, respectively. High homocarnosine levels in CSF of children with uncontrolled epilepsy or febrile convulsion may indicate the reduced turnover rate from homocarnosine to GABA. In patients with meningitis, the unconscious states were accompanied by significantly lower homocarnosine levels in CSF (0.39 +/- 0.20 mumol/dl) than those in the patients with clear conscious states (0.9 +/- 0.31 mumol/dl, however, in patients with clear conscious states homocarnosine in CSF were almost the same as those of normal children (0.89 +/- 0.23 mumol/dl). These data suggest that homocarnosine in CSF might be related to the convulsive tendency and consciousness. PMID:7283086

  14. Seizures and Epilepsy in Sotos Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2012-01-01

    Clinicians from the Child Neurology Division, Sapienza University of Rome, and 7 other pediatric neurology centers in Italy report a series of 19 Sotos syndrome (SS) patients with febrile seizures (FS) and/or epilepsy during childhood and a long-term follow-up.

  15. Family communication in the context of pediatric epilepsy: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, S; Benson, A; Lambert, V; Gallagher, P; Shahwan, A; Austin, J K

    2015-10-01

    In childhood chronic illness, family communication can impact the child's and parents' psychosocial well-being. However, little is known about family communication in the context of epilepsy in childhood. The aim of this systematic review was to identify the existing evidence available on communication strategies adopted by families living with childhood epilepsy, including; the facilitators, barriers and challenges experienced by families when choosing to communicate, or not, about epilepsy; and the consequences of this communication. Papers published in the English language prior to March 2015 were identified following a search of six electronic databases: PubMed, MEDLINE, Web of Science, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and Scopus. Studies were included if they involved a sample of parents of children with epilepsy or children/young people with epilepsy (0-18years of age) and used qualitative, quantitative, or mixed methods. Following a comprehensive search and screening process, 26 studies were identified as eligible for inclusion in the review. No studies identified specific communication strategies adopted by families living with childhood epilepsy. Some studies found that talking about epilepsy with family members had positive consequences (e.g., communication as an effective coping strategy), with no negative consequences reported in any of the studies. The main barrier to communication for parents was an unwillingness to use the word "epilepsy" because of the perceived negative social connotations associated with the health condition. For children with epilepsy, barriers were as follows: parental desire to keep epilepsy a secret, parents' tendency to deny that the child had epilepsy, parental overprotection, and parents' tendency to impose greater restrictions on the child with epilepsy than on siblings without epilepsy. Future research investigating the communication strategies of families living with epilepsy is needed in order to create effective communication

  16. Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy: Under-diagnosed syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božić Ksenija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy is an idiopathic, hereditary form of epilepsy. Although juvenile myoclonic epilepsy is a well defined clinical syndrome, attempts at diagnosing it commonly fail. Etiopathogenesis. The exact cause of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy remains unknown. Clinical, morphological and metabolic data suggest a preferential role for frontal regions in this syndrome. Several major genes for juvenile myoclonic epilepsy have been identified, but these genes account for only a small proportions of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy cases, suggesting multifactorial or complex inheritance in most. Clinical Manifestations. Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy is characterized by the triad of myoclonic jerks on awakening (all patients, generalized tonic-clonic seizures (>90% of patients and typical absences (about one third of patients. Seizures have an age-related onset, circadian distribution and are frequently precipitated by sleep deprivation, fatigue and alcohol intake. Intelligence is normal. Diagnosis. Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy diagnosis is based upon clinical criteria and typical electroencephalographic findings (generalized pattern of spikes and/or polyspikes and waves. All other tests are normal. Treatment and Prognosis. Both medical treatment and counselling are important in the management of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. Mono-therapy with valproate is the preferred treatment. Some of the newer antiepileptic drugs have been suggested as possible alternatives. Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy has a good prognosis. Lifelong treatment is usually considered necessary in vast majority of patients due to the increased risk of relapse if treatment is discontinued. Conclusion. Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy is a common, although under-diagnosed epileptic syndrome. The clinician should study the occurrence of myoclonic jerks and should consider atypical presentations.

  17. The impact of bilingualism on working memory in pediatric epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veenstra, Amy L; Riley, Jeffrey D; Barrett, Lauren E; Muhonen, Michael G; Zupanc, Mary; Romain, Jonathan E; Lin, Jack J; Mucci, Grace

    2016-02-01

    Impairments in executive skills broadly span across multiple childhood epilepsy syndromes and can adversely affect quality of life. Bilingualism has been previously shown to correlate with enhanced executive functioning in healthy individuals. This study sought to determine whether the bilingual advantage in executive functioning exists in the context of pediatric epilepsy. We retrospectively analyzed neuropsychological data in 52 children with epilepsy and compared executive function scores in monolingual versus bilingual children with epilepsy while controlling for socioeconomic status and ethnicity. Bilingual children performed significantly better on the Working Memory Index than did monolingual children. There were no significant differences on the remaining executive function variables. The bilingual advantage appears to persist for working memory in children with epilepsy. These findings suggest that bilingualism is potentially a protective variable in the face of epilepsy-related working memory dysfunction. PMID:26720703

  18. A Common Susceptibility Factor of Both Autism and Epilepsy: Functional Deficiency of GABA[subscript A] Receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jing-Qiong; Barnes, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Autism and epilepsy are common childhood neurological disorders with a great heterogeneity of clinical phenotypes as well as risk factors. There is a high co-morbidity of autism and epilepsy. The neuropathology of autism and epilepsy has similar histology implicating the processes of neurogenesis, neural migration, programmed cell death, and…

  19. The MCT-ketogenic diet as a treatment option in refractory childhood epilepsy: A prospective study with 2-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrechts, Danielle A J E; de Kinderen, Reina J A; Vles, Hans S H; de Louw, Anton J; Aldenkamp, Albert P; Majoie, Marian J M

    2015-10-01

    The present study assessed the long-term (i.e., 24months) efficacy of the ketogenic diet (KD) as an add-on therapy in children with refractory epilepsy, with focus on seizure frequency, seizure severity, and tolerability. Most patients were treated with the MCT-diet. At one and two years, 33% and 23%, respectively, of the 48 included patients were still on the KD. After three months, one year, and two years of treatment, 16.7% of the patients were responders. The highest responder rate (i.e., 22.9%) was seen at six and nine months of treatment. Of the fifteen patients with seizure clusters during baseline, 60% were responders after three months when looking at cluster reduction and most of them were not responders for the total seizure frequency. From three months of treatment onwards, most of the patients had a relevant decrease in seizure severity which was mainly related to the most severe seizure type. Gastrointestinal dysfunction was often reported, especially in the first six weeks of treatment. Growth deceleration was present in 30% of the patients, and weight reduction in 15%. Improved arousal was mentioned in 30% of patients. No patients developed ECG abnormalities or kidney stones. Increase in lipid profile was rare. The KD is an effective therapy for children with therapy-resistant epilepsy. Effectiveness is reflected in the reduction of seizure frequency as well as in the reduction of seizure severity. After 6months of treatment, it is obvious which patients are responders and tolerate the treatment well. Most of these patients will continue to benefit from the KD for a longer time. Long-term use of the diet was well tolerated. PMID:26301622

  20. Do Glut1 (glucose transporter type 1) defects exist in epilepsy patients responding to a ketogenic diet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Felicitas; Schubert, Julian; Weckhuysen, Sarah; Suls, Arvid; Grüninger, Steffen; Korn-Merker, Elisabeth; Hofmann-Peters, Anne; Sperner, Jürgen; Cross, Helen; Hallmann, Kerstin; Elger, Christian E; Kunz, Wolfram S; Madeleyen, René; Lerche, Holger; Weber, Yvonne G

    2015-08-01

    In the recent years, several neurological syndromes related to defects of the glucose transporter type 1 (Glut1) have been descried. They include the glucose transporter deficiency syndrome (Glut1-DS) as the most severe form, the paroxysmal exertion-induced dyskinesia (PED), a form of spastic paraparesis (CSE) as well as the childhood (CAE) and the early-onset absence epilepsy (EOAE). Glut1, encoded by the gene SLC2A1, is the most relevant glucose transporter in the brain. All Glut1 syndromes respond well to a ketogenic diet (KD) and most of the patients show a rapid seizure control. Ketogenic Diet developed to an established treatment for other forms of pharmaco-resistant epilepsies. Since we were interested in the question if those patients might have an underlying Glut1 defect, we sequenced SLC2A1 in a cohort of 28 patients with different forms of pharmaco-resistant epilepsies responding well to a KD. Unfortunately, we could not detect any mutations in SLC2A1. The exact action mechanisms of KD in pharmaco-resistant epilepsy are not well understood, but bypassing the Glut1 transporter seems not to play an important role. PMID:26088884

  1. Computed tomography of late-onset epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epilepsy can be divided into idiopathic epilepsy and symptomatic epilepsy according to the existence of underlying organic brain disease. It has been said that the incidence of the symptomatic epilepsy caused by underlying organic brain disease is higher in late-onset epilepsy after the age of 20 than in childhood-onset epilepsy. CT is very sensitive and non-invasive method for detection of organic brain disease. 168 cases of late-onset epilepsy after the age of of 20 were studied by CT in recent 2 years were analyzed. The results were as follows: 1. The 3rd decade was the most frequent age group, and the ratio of male to female was 2.5 : 1. 2. Structural abnormality on brain CT was demonstrated in 51.8% of the patient. 3. The older onset of age was, the higher the ratio of abnormal CT findings, except 5th decade which showed less CT abnormality than 4th decade. 4. The most frequent history related to epilepsy was trauma. 63.1% of patients had no relevant history: and they showed CT findings of brain tumor, atrophy and infraction in decreasing order of frequency. 5. Abnormal CT findings was demonstrated in 49.2% of normal neurologic examination and in 46.4% of normal EEG study. 6. The most frequent lesion of abnormal CT scan in late-onset epilepsy was 30 cases (18.4%) of brain atrophy. The next frequent lesion was 18 cases (10.7%) of brain tumor. Infarction, parasites and calcification were other frequent lesions

  2. Hereditary epilepsy syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Callenbach, PMC; Brouwer, OF

    1997-01-01

    This paper reviews the present knowledge on the genetics of the epilepsies. Main clinical features, gene localization and pattern of inheritance of the idiopathic epilepsies, the progressive myoclonus epilepsies, and some other genetic disorders often associated with epilepsy, are described. (C) 199

  3. Ego functions in epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, A S; Hansen, H; Høgenhaven, H; Bolwig, T G

    1988-01-01

    Two groups of epilepsy patients (28 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and 15 patients with primary generalized epilepsy) entered a study of personality traits related to epilepsy, based on a modification of Bellak's semistructured interview for assessment of ego strength. Two groups of subjects...

  4. Prospective multicenter study on long-term ketogenic diet therapy for intractable childhood epilepsy%长期生酮饮食治疗儿童难治性癫(癎)的前瞻性多中心研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    中华医学会儿科学分会神经学组生酮饮食疗法协作组

    2013-01-01

    reduction,including five became seizure free.No significant variables were related to the efficacy.Most complications were mild and reversible by conservative treatment.Gastrointestinal disturbances were the main complications,which included vomiting,diarrhea,constipation,and abdominal cramp.Severe complications occurred in four cases,including severe metabolic disturbances and severe pneumonia.Conclusion The KD is a safe and effective alternative therapy for intractable childhood epilepsy.%目的 了解长期生酮饮食(ketogenic diet,KD)治疗儿童难治性癫(癎)的疗效和安全性.方法 采用前瞻性研究设计,对国内5家医院儿科癫(癎)中心2004年10月至2011年7月采用经典4∶1 KD[脂肪:(葡萄糖+蛋白)质量比为4∶1]治疗的299例难治性癫(癎)患儿,男189例,女110例,根据年龄(<1岁、~3岁、~6岁、~10岁、>10岁)、癫(癎)病因(隐源性、症状性、原发性)和类型(婴儿痉挛症、Lennox-Gastaut综合征、大田原综合征、结节性硬化症、Dravet综合征、全面性癫(癎)、部分性癫(癎))进行分组.KD启动后,家长须记录每日发作情况(包括发作形式、频率和严重程度等)、对KD的耐受性以及并发症,每周测量体重、身高,定期监测血β羟丁酸、血糖、尿酮体.每个月对患儿进行电话随访,第3、6、12个月到医院随访,复查身高、体重、血生化、泌尿系统超声、脑电图和骨骼发育情况等.用SPSS17.0软件统计分析各组的保留率(即继续接受治疗的比率)和发作改善情况.结果 KD治疗后3、6、12个月,分别有197例(65.9%)、134例(44.8%)和79例(26.4%)继续接受KD治疗,其中37例(12.4%)、28例(9.4%)和16例(5.4%)发作次数减少50% ~ 90%,75例(25.1%)、50例(16.7%)和45例(15.1%)发作减少>90%,包括65例(21.7%)、32例(10.7%)和33例(11.0%)无发作.有效率(发作减少>50%)分别为37.1%、26.1%和20.4%.不到3

  5. Neurological morbidity of severe epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janz, D

    1988-01-01

    The "severity" of a disease is a relative expression and its definition will vary depending on the perspective of the observer. The patient's subjective perception of the disease, the way it is regarded socially by the community, and the doctor's objective assessment rarely coincide. In fact, they are frequently diametrically opposed. As far as the patient's personal perception of epilepsy is concerned, there has apparently been no satisfactory attempt thus far at a systematic grading of the subjective handicap, despite the growth of interest in psychological matters and the self-help movement. Similarly, social ability or disability cannot be adequately assessed on the basis of medical criteria such as frequency and type of seizures. We present a grading system which will serve as an example of an appropriate method of assessing social abilities, and which will permit the patient's occupational potential to be estimated in relation to the risk of accidents resulting from seizures. From the medical point of view, the impairment of a patient's abilities due to epilepsy is a function of the patient's responsiveness to treatment. We present a critical review of the factors which have an effect on the therapeutic prognosis: the causes of epilepsy, underlying structural lesions, the incidence of convulsive status epilepticus, various types of attacks, and the different epileptic syndromes. Taking two examples--epilepsy presenting in the form of absence and epilepsy with complex focal seizures--we show that ultimately the "severity of epilepsy" can only be defined from the medical standpoint on the basis of several factors whose value is of a predictive nature. PMID:3292232

  6. Video game epilepsy.

    OpenAIRE

    Singh R; Bhalla A; Lehl S; Sachdev A

    2001-01-01

    Reflex epilepsy is the commonest form of epilepsy in which seizures are provoked by specific external stimulus. Photosensitive reflex epilepsy is provoked by environmental flicker stimuli. Video game epilepsy is considered to be its variant or a pattern sensitive epilepsy. The mean age of onset is around puberty and boys suffer more commonly as they are more inclined to play video games. Television set or computer screen is the commonest precipitants. The treatment remains the removal of the ...

  7. Regularities in the course of epilepsy during various age periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Kalinin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to optimize patient management tactics and disease prognosis, by detecting the regularities of the course of epilepsy during various age periods. Patients and methods. The results of following up 1632 patients with epilepsy in the Samara Region were given. Among them, there were 865 (53.0% men and 767 (47.0% women. The classification of epilepsy and epileptic syndromes (New Delhi, 1989 was used to establish the diagnosis. Each patient underwent neurological evaluation, electroencephalography (EEG and video-EEG monitoring, studies of long-latency visual evoked potentials, as well as neuroimaging examinations (brain computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Factor and principal component analysis and logistic regression were used to make a mathematical model to predict remission in epilepsy. Results. The specific features of the occurrence and course of epilepsy in various age periods were analyzed. According to the results of mathematical simulation, the age at the onset of late epilepsy can be considered to be 29 years. Remission of epilepsy was more frequently attained and absolute resistance was less frequently observed in the younger age group, except for infants with catastrophic epilepsy and epileptic syndromes. There were fewer remissions and much more patients with relative and absolute resistance and rare seizures in the older age group. Epilepsy in young patients is that of the immature brain and epilepsy of adulthood (late epilepsy of the involutional brain. Conclusion. Epilepsy runs a benign course in patients who fell ill in adolescence or adulthood and have minimal brain structural changes, as evidenced by MRI. Marked brain morphological changes most frequently determine the drug-resistant course of epilepsy, manifesting in early childhood and at an elderly age. 

  8. Genetics of complex neurological disease: Challenges and opportunities for modeling epilepsy in mice and rats

    OpenAIRE

    Frankel, Wayne N.

    2009-01-01

    Epilepsy is a complex neurological disease. Currently ~20 genetic variants are known to cause Mendelian forms of human epilepsy, leaving a vast heritability undefined with future hopes resting on candidate gene resequencing and/or large scale genome-wide association studies. Rodent models for genetically complex epilepsy have been studied for many years, but only recently have strong candidate genes emerged, including Cacna1g in the GAERS rat model of absence epilepsy and Kcnj10 in the low se...

  9. Epilepsy in Adults with TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for a listing of epilepsy centers go to www.naec-epilepsy.org or call 1-888-525- ... some individuals. Links Information for Women with Epilepsy: www.epilepsy.com/info/women Information for Men with ...

  10. [Eponyms and epilepsy (history of Eastern civilizations)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janković, S M; Sokić, D V; Lević, Z M; Susić, V; Drulović, J; Stojsavljević, N; Veskov, R; Ivanus, J

    1996-01-01

    The history of eponyms for epilepsy in the lands of the Eastern globe present the portrait of the attitudes of both the laymen and skilled people towards the disease and patient, as well as to the Nature itself. As opposed to the West which during the Middle ages changed its concepts of epilepsy as the organic brain disease for the sublime 'alchemic' position, the people of the East were more prone to consider from the beginning of their civilization till the XIX century that epilepsy is the consequence of the evanescent spiritual and extracorporal forces which by themselves were out of their reach. As compared to the western civilization, the historical resources are, often as a consequence of a linguistic barriers, more scarce-as consequently is the number of eponyms, but are nevertheless picturesque. The medical science from Babylonian period presumed that epileptic manifestations are the consequence of the demonic or ill spiritual actions. There existed an attitude that at the beginning of an epileptic attack the patient was possessed by a demon (the Akkadic, i.e., Babylonian verb "sibtu" denoting epilepsy, had the meaning "to seize" or "to be obsessed"); at the end of the clonic phase the demon departed from the body. Different demons were responsible for different forms of epilepsy such as nocturnal and children epilepsy, absence epilepsy and pure convulsions, simple and complex automatisms, and gelastic epilepsy. Thus, the doctors from the period of Babylon aside from making primordial classification of epilepsies, knew about their clinical picture (prodromal symptoms and aura, Jackson's epilepsy. Todd's paralysis), postictal phenomena and intericatl emotional instability; provocative factors were also known (sleep deprivation, emotions, as well as alcohol, albeit in a negative sense-as a cure for epilepsy). There is no doubt than in the period of Babylon the clinical picture of serial fits and its progress to status epilepticus were clearly recognized and

  11. Benign childhood epilepsy with Centro-Temporal spikes (BCECTSs), electrical status epilepticus in sleep (ESES), and academic decline--how aggressive should we be?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uliel-Sibony, Shimrit; Kramer, Uri

    2015-03-01

    Since many of the children with BCECTSs display electrical status epilepticus during sleep and many present with different comorbidities, mainly ADHD and behavioral disturbances, clinicians are often confronted with the dilemma of how aggressive they should be with their efforts of normalizing the EEG. We conducted a retrospective study by screening medical records of all consecutive patients with BCECTSs, spike-wave index (SWI) >30%, and ADHD/ADD that were evaluated in our pediatric epilepsy service and were followed up for at least two years. Patients with neurocognitive deterioration detected by formal testing were excluded. A total of 17 patients with mean age of 6.9years at BCECTS diagnosis were identified. The patients' mean SWI was 60% and that dense electrical activity lasted 1.5years on average (range: 1-4.5years). Six children were formally diagnosed with learning disabilities in addition to ADD/ADHD. All of them were treated with an average of three antiepileptic medications, mainly for the purpose of normalizing the EEG, but none of them was treated with steroids or high-dose diazepam. The mean duration of follow-up was 5.5years. A cognitive or behavioral deterioration was not detected in any of them. Our data suggest that when treating a child with BCECTSs, high SWI, and school difficulties, the most critical parameter that determines the necessity of using second-line antiepileptic agents such as steroids or high-dose diazepam is a formal psychological evaluation that proves cognitive (I.Q.) decline. Otherwise, these agents may be avoided. PMID:25678032

  12. Desempenho escolar em crianças com epilepsia benigna da infância com pontas centrotemporais School performance in children with benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lineu Corrêa Fonseca

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Aspectos psicossociais em crianças com epilepsia benigna da infância com pontas centrotemporais (EBICT são objeto de controvérsias. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi estudar o desempenho escolar em crianças com EBICT. Vinte crianças foram submetidas ao Teste de Desempenho Escolar (TDE e comparadas a crianças sadias pareadas por idade e escolaridade. Foram estudadas as relações entre o TDE e a lateralidade do foco e o número de descargas ao eletrencefalograma. As crianças com EBICT tiveram, de modo significativo, mais freqüentemente do que as sadias, desempenho inferior no subteste de leitura e no escore total. As crianças com desempenho inferior em leitura apresentaram maior número de descargas do que aquelas com desempenho médio e superior. Não houve diferenças no TDE segundo a lateralidade do foco. O número de descargas, ao interferir com a função cerebral, pode ser um fator a explicar o desempenho mais baixo na leitura.Neuropsychological implications of benign childhood epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes-rolandic spikes (BECTS have not been adequately investigated. The aim of this study was to compare the results in a school performance test of patients with BECTS and normal age-matched controls. A total of 20 children with BECTS and 20 normal controls were submitted to anamnesis, clinical evaluation, Raven test, school performance test (SPT, digital electroencephalogram and quantitative electroencephalogram analysis. Comparing with normal controls, children with BECTS showed significantly lower SPT results, especially in reading test. There was an association between the higher number of rolandic spikes and inferior performance in SPT reading test. These findings suggest that discharges may be a factor in the genesis of lower performance in reading test in children with BECTS.

  13. A study of brain MRI findings in children with epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance imaging in the brain was performed in 293 patients with childhood-onset (<15 y.o.) epilepsy who had been classified into 4 groups, idiopathic localization-related epilepsy (ILRE), 78 patients; idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE), 116 patients; symptomatic localization-related epilepsy (SLRE), 68 patients and symptomatic generalized epilepsy (SGE), 31 patients, with the Classification of Epilepsies and Epileptic Syndrome (1989 International League Against Epilepsy). The examination was performed with a 1.5 T magnet. One hundred twenty-five patients (42.7%) showed abnormal findings, and the incidence in each group was as follows: Idiopathic epilepsy: The rate of abnormal findings in the ILRE and IGE groups was 21.8% and 20.7%, respectively. Most of the abnormal findings were secondary changes, such as diffuse or localized brain atrophy. Of the congenital abnormalities, the main finding was arachnoid cyst. Symptomatic epilepsy: The rate of abnormality in the SLRE patients was 88.2%, and 85% of the findings were secondary changes, i.e., brain atrophy, or degeneration of the white matter. In the SGE group, the rate was 77.4%, with an almost equal percentage of congenital and secondary changes. Of 255 patients who were examined by electroencephalography (EEG) on the same day as MRI, about 50% showed a correlation between the EEG records and the MRI abnormalities. However, only 8 patients showed a correlation in localization between the EEG and MRI abnormalities. (author)

  14. Galactosemia and phantom absence seizures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynep Aydin-Özemir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Generalized and focal seizures can rarely be seen in galactosemia patients, but absence seizures were not reported previously. An 18-year-old male was diagnosed as galactosemia at the age of 8 months. No family history of epilepsy was present. His absence seizures realized at the age of 9 years. Generalized 3-4 Hz spike-wave discharges were identified in his electroencephalography. Homozygous mutation at exon 6 c. 563A > G was identified. The electroencephalogram of his sibling was unremarkable. Our aim was to present the long-term follow-up of a patient diagnosed with galactosemia, who had phantom absence seizures and typical 3-4 Hz spike-wave discharges in his electroencephalogram to draw attention to this rare association.

  15. Galactosemia and phantom absence seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin-Özemir, Zeynep; Tektürk, Pınar; Uyguner, Zehra Oya; Baykan, Betül

    2014-01-01

    Generalized and focal seizures can rarely be seen in galactosemia patients, but absence seizures were not reported previously. An 18-year-old male was diagnosed as galactosemia at the age of 8 months. No family history of epilepsy was present. His absence seizures realized at the age of 9 years. Generalized 3-4 Hz spike-wave discharges were identified in his electroencephalography. Homozygous mutation at exon 6 c. 563A > G was identified. The electroencephalogram of his sibling was unremarkable. Our aim was to present the long-term follow-up of a patient diagnosed with galactosemia, who had phantom absence seizures and typical 3-4 Hz spike-wave discharges in his electroencephalogram to draw attention to this rare association. PMID:25624930

  16. Exploring the school attendance of children with epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Karina Piccin Zanni; Thelma Simões Matsukura; Heber Souza Maia Filho

    2009-01-01

    The childhood epilepsy is a chronic disease that can have an impact in various spheres of life of the child, including academic performance and school attendance. This study aimed to describe and compare the school attendance of children with epilepsy who attend mainstream and special schools. Participants were 56 children aged between 7 and 14 years who attended regular or special schools located in two Brazilian cities of medium size. To collect the information we used two instruments: Data...

  17. Hippocampal Changes in Febrile Infection-Related Epilepsy Syndrome (FIRES)

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal, Amit; Sabat, Shyamsunder; Thamburaj, Krishnamurthy; Kanekar, Sangam

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Febrile seizures are the most common seizure disorder in childhood, associated with a significant rise in body temperature. However, post-infectious refractory afebrile form of seizures in previously healthy children is being increasingly recognized in around the world, which evolves into a chronic refractory form of epilepsy. The term ‘Febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome’ (FIRES) has been proposed for these conditions and represents a refractory severe post-infecti...

  18. Video game epilepsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh R

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Reflex epilepsy is the commonest form of epilepsy in which seizures are provoked by specific external stimulus. Photosensitive reflex epilepsy is provoked by environmental flicker stimuli. Video game epilepsy is considered to be its variant or a pattern sensitive epilepsy. The mean age of onset is around puberty and boys suffer more commonly as they are more inclined to play video games. Television set or computer screen is the commonest precipitants. The treatment remains the removal of the offending stimulus along with drug therapy. Long term prognosis in these patients is better as photosensitivity gradually declines with increasing age. We present two such case of epilepsy induced by video game.

  19. Mortality and causes of death in children referred to a tertiary epilepsy center

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønborg, Sabine; Uldall, Peter

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with epilepsy, including children, have an increased mortality rate when compared to the general population. Only few studies on causes of mortality in childhood epilepsy exist and pediatric SUDEP rate is under continuous discussion. AIM: To describe general mortality......, incidence of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP), causes of death and age distribution in a pediatric epilepsy patient population. METHODS: The study retrospectively examined the mortality and causes of death in 1974 patients with childhood-onset epilepsy at a tertiary epilepsy center in Denmark...... over a period of 9 years. Cases of death were identified through their unique civil registration number. Information from death certificates, autopsy reports and medical notes were collected. RESULTS: 2.2% (n = 43) of the patient cohort died during the study period. This includes 9 patients with SUDEP...

  20. The preferential mGlu2/3 receptor antagonist, LY341495, reduces the frequency of spike-wave discharges in the WAG/Rij rat model of absence epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ngomba, R.T.; Biagioni, F.; Casciato, S.; Willems-van Bree, P.C.M.; Battaglia, G.; Bruno, V.; Nicoletti, F.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van

    2005-01-01

    We examined the expression and function of group-II metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors in an animal model of absence seizures using genetically epileptic WAG/Rij rats, which develop spontaneous non-convulsive seizures after 2-3 months of age. Six-month-old WAG/Rij rats showed an increased expre

  1. Centrotemporal sharp wave EEG trait in rolandic epilepsy maps to Elongator Protein Complex 4 (ELP4)

    OpenAIRE

    Strug, Lisa J.; Clarke, Tara; Chiang, Theodore; Chien, Minchen; Baskurt, Zeynep; Li, Weili; Dorfman, Ruslan; Bali, Bhavna; Wirrell, Elaine; Kugler, Steven L.; Mandelbaum, David E.; Wolf, Steven M.; McGoldrick, Patricia; Hardison, Huntley; Novotny, Edward J.

    2009-01-01

    Rolandic epilepsy (RE) is the most common human epilepsy, affecting children between 3 and 12 years of age, boys more often than girls (3:2). Focal sharp waves in the centrotemporal area define the electroencephalographic (EEG) trait for the syndrome, are a feature of several related childhood epilepsies and are frequently observed in common developmental disorders (eg, speech dyspraxia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and developmental coordination disorder). Here we report the firs...

  2. Chromosome loci vary by juvenile myoclonic epilepsy subsyndromes: linkage and haplotype analysis applied to epilepsy and EEG 3.5-6.0 Hz polyspike waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wight, Jenny E; Nguyen, Viet-Huong; Medina, Marco T; Patterson, Christopher; Durón, Reyna M; Molina, Yolly; Lin, Yu-Chen; Martínez-Juárez, Iris E; Ochoa, Adriana; Jara-Prado, Aurelio; Tanaka, Miyabi; Bai, Dongsheng; Aftab, Sumaya; Bailey, Julia N; Delgado-Escueta, Antonio V

    2016-03-01

    Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME), the most common genetic epilepsy, remains enigmatic because it is considered one disease instead of several diseases. We ascertained three large multigenerational/multiplex JME pedigrees from Honduras with differing JME subsyndromes, including Childhood Absence Epilepsy evolving to JME (CAE/JME; pedigree 1), JME with adolescent onset pyknoleptic absence (JME/pA; pedigree 2), and classic JME (cJME; pedigree 3). All phenotypes were validated, including symptomatic persons with various epilepsies, asymptomatic persons with EEG 3.5-6.0 Hz polyspike waves, and asymptomatic persons with normal EEGs. Two-point parametric linkage analyses were performed with 5185 single-nucleotide polymorphisms on individual pedigrees and pooled pedigrees using four diagnostic models based on epilepsy/EEG diagnoses. Haplotype analyses of the entire genome were also performed for each individual. In pedigree 1, haplotyping identified a 34 cM region in 2q21.2-q31.1 cosegregating with all affected members, an area close to 2q14.3 identified by linkage (Z max = 1.77; pedigree 1). In pedigree 2, linkage and haplotyping identified a 44 cM cosegregating region in 13q13.3-q31.2 (Z max = 3.50 at 13q31.1; pooled pedigrees). In pedigree 3, haplotyping identified a 6 cM cosegregating region in 17q12. Possible cosegregation was also identified in 13q14.2 and 1q32 in pedigree 3, although this could not be definitively confirmed due to the presence of uninformative markers in key individuals. Differing chromosome regions identified in specific JME subsyndromes may contain separate JME disease-causing genes, favoring the concept of JME as several distinct diseases. Whole-exome sequencing will likely identify a CAE/JME gene in 2q21.2-2q31.1, a JME/pA gene in 13q13.3-q31.2, and a cJME gene in 17q12. PMID:27066514

  3. Idiopathic focal epilepsies: the "lost tribe".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Deb K; Ferrie, Colin; Addis, Laura; Akiyama, Tomoyuki; Capovilla, Giuseppe; Caraballo, Roberto; de Saint-Martin, Anne; Fejerman, Natalio; Guerrini, Renzo; Hamandi, Khalid; Helbig, Ingo; Ioannides, Andreas A; Kobayashi, Katsuhiro; Lal, Dennis; Lesca, Gaetan; Muhle, Hiltrud; Neubauer, Bernd A; Pisano, Tiziana; Rudolf, Gabrielle; Seegmuller, Caroline; Shibata, Takashi; Smith, Anna; Striano, Pasquale; Strug, Lisa J; Szepetowski, Pierre; Valeta, Thalia; Yoshinaga, Harumi; Koutroumanidis, Michalis

    2016-09-01

    The term idiopathic focal epilepsies of childhood (IFE) is not formally recognised by the ILAE in its 2010 revision (Berg et al., 2010), nor are its members and boundaries precisely delineated. The IFEs are amongst the most commonly encountered epilepsy syndromes affecting children. They are fascinating disorders that hold many "treats" for both clinicians and researchers. For example, the IFEs pose many of the most interesting questions central to epileptology: how are functional brain networks involved in the manifestation of epilepsy? What are the shared mechanisms of comorbidity between epilepsy and neurodevelopmental disorders? How do focal EEG discharges impact cognitive functioning? What explains the age-related expression of these syndromes? Why are EEG discharges and seizures so tightly locked to slow-wave sleep? In the last few decades, the clinical symptomatology and the respective courses of many IFEs have been described, although they are still not widely appreciated beyond the specialist community. Most neurologists would recognise the core syndromes of IFE to comprise: benign epilepsy of childhood with centro-temporal spikes or Rolandic epilepsy (BECTS/RE); Panayiotopoulos syndrome; and the idiopathic occipital epilepsies (Gastaut and photosensitive types). The Landau-Kleffner syndrome and the related (idiopathic) epilepsy with continuous spikes and waves in sleep (CSWS or ESES) are also often included, both as a consequence of the shared morphology of the interictal discharges and their potential evolution from core syndromes, for example, CSWS from BECTS. Atypical benign focal epilepsy of childhood also has shared electro-clinical features warranting inclusion. In addition, a number of less well-defined syndromes of IFE have been proposed, including benign childhood seizures with affective symptoms, benign childhood epilepsy with parietal spikes, benign childhood seizures with frontal or midline spikes, and benign focal seizures of adolescence. The

  4. Polymicrogyria-Associated Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Investigators from the Boston Children's Hospital, New York University, Brown University, and Birmingham School of Medicine, AL, studied the clinical epilepsy and imaging features of 87 patients with polymicrogyria (PMG and epilepsy, recruited through the Epilepsy Phenome/Genome Project.

  5. Neuroimaging in epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahina Bano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is the most common neurological disease worldwide and is second only to stroke in causing neurological morbidity. Neuroimaging plays a very important role in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with epilepsy. This review article highlights the specific role of various imaging modalities in patients with epilepsy, and their practical applications in the management of epileptic patients.

  6. Study the Association of Cognitive Impairment in Patients with Benign Epilepsy of Childhood with Centrotemporal Spikes and Electroencephalography%伴中央颞部棘波良性儿童癫痫患儿认知损害与脑电图关系的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽文

    2011-01-01

    伴中央颞部棘波良性儿童癫痫(BECTS)是最常见的原发性癫痫,也是小儿癫痫最常见的类型之一.传统观点认为BECTS患儿无认知功能的损害,但近年的研究表明患该病的儿童与健康同龄儿童相比存在更多的学习记忆等方面的问题.而脑电图是诊断该病的必不可少的辅助检查,如果从脑电图上能够发现其与认知损害之间的联系,对早用药或康复干预以提高患儿的生活质量及其回归社会有很大帮助.%Benign epilepsy of childhood with centrotemporal spikes( BECTS )is the most common idiopathic epilepsy and also the most common type of epilepsy in childhood. Traditionally, it is considered that children with BECTS have no cognitive impairment. However, some recent studies show BECTS patients have more difficulties in learning and memory compared to age-matched healthy children. Electroencephalography( EEG )is a required adjuvant diagnostic tool for BECTS. It is likely that the identification of cognitive impairment with EEG for the early intervention with medication or rehabilitation is helpful for the improvement of quality of life and reintegration to society in BECTS patients.

  7. Animal models of epilepsy: use and limitations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandratavicius L

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ludmyla Kandratavicius,1 Priscila Alves Balista,1 Cleiton Lopes-Aguiar,1 Rafael Naime Ruggiero,1 Eduardo Henrique Umeoka,2 Norberto Garcia-Cairasco,2 Lezio Soares Bueno-Junior,1 Joao Pereira Leite11Department of Neurosciences and Behavior, 2Department of Physiology, Ribeirao Preto School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto, BrazilAbstract: Epilepsy is a chronic neurological condition characterized by recurrent seizures that affects millions of people worldwide. Comprehension of the complex mechanisms underlying epileptogenesis and seizure generation in temporal lobe epilepsy and other forms of epilepsy cannot be fully acquired in clinical studies with humans. As a result, the use of appropriate animal models is essential. Some of these models replicate the natural history of symptomatic focal epilepsy with an initial epileptogenic insult, which is followed by an apparent latent period and by a subsequent period of chronic spontaneous seizures. Seizures are a combination of electrical and behavioral events that are able to induce chemical, molecular, and anatomic alterations. In this review, we summarize the most frequently used models of chronic epilepsy and models of acute seizures induced by chemoconvulsants, traumatic brain injury, and electrical or sound stimuli. Genetic models of absence seizures and models of seizures and status epilepticus in the immature brain were also examined. Major uses and limitations were highlighted, and neuropathological, behavioral, and neurophysiological similarities and differences between the model and the human equivalent were considered. The quest for seizure mechanisms can provide insights into overall brain functions and consciousness, and animal models of epilepsy will continue to promote the progress of both epilepsy and neurophysiology research.Keywords: epilepsy, animal model, pilocarpine, kindling, neurodevelopment

  8. Ego functions in epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, A S; Hansen, H; Høgenhaven, H;

    1988-01-01

    Two groups of epilepsy patients (28 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and 15 patients with primary generalized epilepsy) entered a study of personality traits related to epilepsy, based on a modification of Bellak's semistructured interview for assessment of ego strength. Two groups of subjects...... served as controls: 15 patients with a non-neurological but relapsing disorder, psoriasis, and 15 healthy volunteers. Compared with the group of healthy volunteers, a decreased adaptive level of ego functioning was found in the epilepsy groups, regardless of seizure types and EEG findings, and, to a...... than 15 years when the disease began. The number of anticonvulsants administered did not influence the results. No difference on adaptive level of ego functioning was found between the group with primary generalized epilepsy and the group with temporal lobe epilepsy. Similarly, the temporal lobe...

  9. 中国癫痫患儿门诊诊疗相关成本初步分析%Preliminary Study on Treatment- Related Cost for Childhood Epilepsy in Out- patient Clinic in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    相婷; 王丽; 姜玉武; 吴晔; 桑田; 朱赛楠; 臧莉莉; 高静云; 赵海娟; 黄琼辉; 王颖慧

    2011-01-01

    Objective To understand the current status of treatment and the related costs of children in a major pediatric epilepsy center, and to analysis related factors. It was hoped that the study can provide basis for health policy improvement. Methods Cases were collected in out - patient clinics Department of Pediatrics in Peking University First Hospital from Apr. 2010 to Jan. 2011, with duration of antiepileptic therapy for at least 1 year. Questionnaires were filled by the parents. The content of the questionnaire was as follows: the basic information of the children,disease - related information, treatment - related information, treatment - related costs. The seizure frequency and treatment - related costs involved in the questionnaire were retrospective survey for the past year. Then appropriate statistical methods were used to describe and analyse basic demographic characteristics,disease,treatment costs,cost structure ratio,and related factors. Results The median of direct cost was 6 680 yuan (400 -86 728 yuan) .indirect cost was 364 yuan (0-3 640 yuan) ,and total cost was 7 336 yuan (660 -88 808 yuan). The constituent ratio of the total cost varied among the 209 cases, with the median of direct cost 94. 59% (50. 85% -100.00% ) ,and indirect cost 5.41% (0-49. 15% ).The cost of anti -epileptic drugs( AEDs) .inspection fees and travel expenses were the major components of the direct costs. With or without seizures, with or without new AEDs, age, geographical distribution, and disease courses were related factors. Conclusions This is the first study on the cost for childhood epilepsy with relatively large sample size in China. The treatment of children with epilepsy causes a heavy burden on family and society, which accounted for 28.68% of gross national product per capita. There is an urgent need to develop policies to reduce the burden for patients' family.%目的 了解目前北京大型三级甲等医院小儿癫(痫)中心就诊的癫(痫)患者治疗相关成

  10. [Current management of epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizobuchi, Masahiro

    2013-09-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders. Global neurological knowledge is essential for differential diagnosis of epileptic syndromes due to the diversity of ictal semiology, causes and syndromes. Neurologists play an important role in planning the medical care for patients with epilepsy, as medication is the most fundamental therapeutic strategy. Some patients with early-onset epilepsy require joint care by pediatric neurologists, those with intractable epilepsy by neurosurgeons, and those with psychological comorbidity by psychiatrists, and neurologists should play a coordinating role. While there is a great need for neurologists to participate in epilepsy care, neurologists in Japan currently do not participate substantially in the epilepsy management system. It is necessary to train more neurologists who can provide epilepsy care and conduct basic and clinical research on epilepsy by providing continuous education on epilepsy for general neurologists as well as pre- and post-graduate medical students. Most of the patients who require long-term treatment experience many medical problems and social handicaps, such as adverse effects of medication, social stigma, educational disadvantages and difficulties in obtaining driver's license. To improve the quality of life of patients with epilepsy, it is desirable to build broad medical-social networks participated by patients, doctors, neurological nurses, psychologists, social workers, school teachers, managers of employment support facilities and care givers. PMID:24018740

  11. The mean age of petit mal epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syeda, Afsarunnesa; Karim, Md. Rezaul

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Petit mal epilepsy or absence seizures involve brief, sudden lapses of consciousness and most often occurs in people under age of 20 years. This study was done to find out the most likely significant age affected by petit mal epilepsy and whether they had higher rate of behavioral, educational, and social problems. Materials and Methods: We run tests on total 32 patients (male 16 and female 16) from newborns to 20 years of age. Results: The most affected ages were from 4 to 9 years and both genders were equally affected. They have higher rate of behavioral, educational, and social problems, and most likely recovering ages from the disease were from 15 to 20 years. Conclusion: These findings could contribute in diagnosis and treatment of Petit Mal Epilepsy, as it often misinterpreted as daydreaming or inattention.

  12. Epilepsy in Adults with TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an epilepsy surgery program. Dietary Therapy: The ketogenic diet is a diet that is high in fat content and low ... treating epilepsy in some individuals with epilepsy. This diet is more often used for children rather than ...

  13. Genetics Home Reference: Northern epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions Northern epilepsy Northern epilepsy Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Northern epilepsy is a genetic condition that causes recurrent seizures ( ...

  14. Epilepsy in Adults with TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are often distributed throughout the brain. Devices to treat epilepsy include vagus nerve stimulation and responsive neurostimulation. Who Treats Epilepsy? A general neurologist can treat uncomplicated epilepsy ...

  15. Christianity and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owczarek, K; Jędrzejczak, J

    2013-01-01

    Epileptic seizures have been known from time immemorial. Throughout the ages, however, ideas concerning the aetiology and treatment of epilepsy have changed considerably. Epilepsy is mentioned many times in the Pentateuch, where it is portrayed as a mysterious condition, whose symptoms, course and contingencies evade rational laws and explanations. In the Middle Ages, the accepted view which prevailed in social consciousness was that patients with epilepsy were possessed by Satan and other impure spirits. One common method of treatment of epileptic seizures was to submit the patient to cruel exorcisms. Patients were frequently injured in the process and some of them even died. Our understanding of epilepsy and its social consequences has improved considerably within the last century. The most significant progress as far as diagnosis and treatment of epilepsy is concerned took place in the last four decades of the twentieth century. Although we now know much more about epilepsy than we used to, this knowledge is still insufficiently popularized. PMID:23821425

  16. RBFOX1 and RBFOX3 mutations in rolandic epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lal, Dennis; Reinthaler, Eva M; Altmüller, Janine;

    2013-01-01

    Partial deletions of the gene encoding the neuronal splicing regulator RBFOX1 have been reported in a range of neurodevelopmental diseases, including idiopathic generalized epilepsy. The RBFOX1 protein and its homologues (RBFOX2 and RBFOX3) regulate alternative splicing of many neuronal transcripts...... involved in the homeostatic control of neuronal excitability. In this study, we explored if structural microdeletions and exonic sequence variations in RBFOX1, RBFOX2, RBFOX3 confer susceptibility to rolandic epilepsy (RE), a common idiopathic focal childhood epilepsy. By high-density SNP array screening...... that exon deletions and truncating mutations of RBFOX1 and RBFOX3 contribute to the genetic variance of partial and generalized idiopathic epilepsy syndromes....

  17. Epilepsy in Adults with TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... since the tubers are often distributed throughout the brain. Devices to treat epilepsy include vagus nerve stimulation and responsive neurostimulation. Who Treats Epilepsy? A general ...

  18. Approaches to refractory epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerome Engel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is one of the most common serious neurological conditions, and 30 to 40% of people with epilepsy have seizures that are not controlled by medication. Patients are considered to have refractory epilepsy if disabling seizures continue despite appropriate trials of two antiseizure drugs, either alone or in combination. At this point, patients should be referred to multidisciplinary epilepsy centers that perform specialized diagnostic testing to first determine whether they are, in fact, pharmacoresistant, and then, if so, offer alternative treatments. Apparent pharmacoresistance can result from a variety of situations, including noncompliance, seizures that are not epileptic, misdiagnosis of the seizure type or epilepsy syndrome, inappropriate use of medication, and lifestyle issues. For patients who are pharmacoresistant, surgical treatment offers the best opportunity for complete freedom from seizures. Surgically remediable epilepsy syndromes have been identified, but patients with more complicated epilepsy can also benefit from surgical treatment and require more specialized evaluation, including intracranial EEG monitoring. For patients who are not surgical candidates, or who are unwilling to consider surgery, a variety of other alternative treatments can be considered, including peripheral or central neurostimulation, ketogenic diet, and complementary and alternative approaches. When such alternative treatments are not appropriate or effective, quality of life can still be greatly improved by the psychological and social support services offered by multidisciplinary epilepsy centers. A major obstacle remains the fact that only a small proportion of patients with refractory epilepsy are referred for expert evaluation and treatment.

  19. Epilepsy: Indian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandanavana Subbareddy Santhosh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There are 50 million people living with epilepsy worldwide, and most of them reside in developing countries. About 10 million persons with epilepsy are there in India. Many people with active epilepsy do not receive appropriate treatment for their condition, leading to large treatment gap. The lack of knowledge of antiepileptic drugs, poverty, cultural beliefs, stigma, poor health infrastructure, and shortage of trained professionals contribute for the treatment gap. Infectious diseases play an important role in seizures and long-term burden causing both new-onset epilepsy and status epilepticus. Proper education and appropriate health care services can make tremendous change in a country like India. There have been many original researches in various aspects of epilepsy across India. Some of the geographically specific epilepsies occur only in certain regions of our country which have been highlighted by authors. Even the pre-surgical evaluation and epilepsy surgery in patients with drug-resistant epilepsy is available in many centers in our country. This article attempts to provide a complete preview of epilepsy in India.

  20. Plant-Derived and Endogenous Cannabinoids in Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrotti, Alberto; Castagnino, Miriam; Maccarrone, Mauro; Fezza, Filomena

    2016-05-01

    Cannabis is one of the oldest psychotropic drugs and its anticonvulsant properties have been known since the last century. The aim of this reveiw was to analyze the efficacy of cannabis in the treatment of epilepsy in adults and children. In addition, a description of the involvement of the endocannabinoid system in epilepsy is given in order to provide a biochemical background to the effects of endogenous cannabinoids in our body. General tolerability and adverse events associated with cannabis treatment are also investigated. Several anecdotal reports and clinical trials suggest that in the human population cannabis has anticonvulsant properties and could be effective in treating partial epilepsies and generalized tonic-clonic seizures, still known as "grand mal." They are based, among other factors, on the observation that in individuals who smoke marijuana to treat epilepsy, cessation of cannabis use precipitates the re-emergence of convulsive seizures, whereas resuming consumption of this psychotropic drug controls epilepsy in a reproducible manner. In conclusion, there is some anecdotal evidence for the potential efficacy of cannabis in treating epilepsy. Though there has been an increased effort by patients with epilepsy, their caregivers, growers, and legislators to legalize various forms of cannabis, there is still concern about its efficacy, relative potency, availability of medication-grade preparations, dosing, and potential short- and long-term side effects, including those on prenatal and childhood development. PMID:26892745

  1. Loss of function of the retinoid-related nuclear receptor (RORB) gene and epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolf, Gabrielle; Lesca, Gaetan; Mehrjouy, Mana M;

    2016-01-01

    deletion. Our data support the role of RORB gene variants/CNVs in neurodevelopmental disorders including epilepsy, and especially in generalized epilepsies with predominant absence seizures.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 29 June 2016; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2016.80.......Genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE), formerly known as idiopathic generalized epilepsy, is the most common form of epilepsy and is thought to have predominant genetic etiology. GGE are clinically characterized by absence, myoclonic, or generalized tonic-clonic seizures with electroencephalographic...... pattern of bilateral, synchronous, and symmetrical spike-and-wave discharges. Despite their strong heritability, the genetic basis of generalized epilepsies remains largely elusive. Nevertheless, recent advances in genetic technology have led to the identification of numerous genes and genomic defects in...

  2. Emerging Antiepileptic Drugs for Severe Pediatric Epilepsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudigoudar, Basanagoud; Weatherspoon, Sarah; Wheless, James W

    2016-05-01

    The medical management of the epilepsy syndromes of early childhood (eg, infantile spasms, Dravet syndrome, and Lennox-Gastaut syndrome) is challenging; and requires careful evaluation, classification, and treatment. Pharmacologic therapy continues to be the mainstay of management for these children, and as such it is important for the clinician to be familiar with the role of new antiepileptic drugs. This article reports the clinical trial data and personal experience in treating the severe epilepsies of childhood with the recently Food and Drug Administration-approved new antiepileptic drugs (vigabatrin, rufinamide, perampanel, and clobazam) and those in clinical trials (cannabidiol, stiripentol, and fenfluramine). Genetic research has also identified an increasing number of pediatric developmental and seizure disorders that are possibly treatable with targeted drug therapies, focused on correcting underlying neural dysfunction. We highlight recent genetic advances, and how they affect our treatment of some of the genetic epilepsies, and speculate on the use of targeted genetic treatment (precision medicine) in the future. PMID:27544474

  3. Epilepsi og orale manifestationer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Pernille Endrup; Haubek, Dorte; Østergaard, John Rosendahl

    2016-01-01

    Risiko for sygdom I mundhulen hos patienter med epilepsy Epilepsi er en kronisk neurologisk lidelse, der ofte vil kræve medicinsk behandling for at holde patienterne fri for anfald. Lidelsen kan have betydning for patientens psykosociale og kognitive udvikling, der indirekte kan have betydning for...

  4. Epilepsy and religion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khwaja Geeta

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This study has focused on the interplay between epilepsy and religion. A total of 100 patients in the age range of 15-84 years were included in the study. The duration of epilepsy in these patients ranged from 1-35 years. The majority (66% had generalized seizures and good to complete seizure control (77%. Regarding social/religious beliefs, 6% of the patients attributed their epilepsy to the curse of God and 14% saw their affliction as a form of punishment for bad deeds committed in the current or past life. Epilepsy was regarded as contagious by 13%. After the onset of epilepsy, 7% of the subjects became skeptics and less religious, while 29% became more religious. Only 2% reported mystic experiences. There was, however, no significant impact of the duration of epilepsy or seizure type on the pattern of religiosity. In 44 cases with symptomatic epilepsy, no definite correlation was observed between the lesion site and laterality and the religious temperament. Delay in seeking treatment and poor compliance due to false religious beliefs, ignorance, and superstition was observed in 33%. However, all religious beliefs were not maladaptive and overall, 80% cases felt that religion had helped them in coping with epilepsy.

  5. Epilepsy treatment and creativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubkov, Sarah; Friedman, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    Creativity can be defined as the ability to understand, develop, and express, in a systematic fashion, novel orderly relationships. It is sometimes difficult to separate cognitive skills requisite for the creative process from the drive that generates unique new ideas and associations. Epilepsy itself may affect the creative process. The treatment of epilepsy and its comorbidities, by altering or disrupting the same neural networks through antiseizure drugs (ASDs), treatment of epilepsy comorbidities, ablative surgery, or neurostimulation may also affect creativity. In this review, we discuss the potential mechanisms by which treatment can influence the creative process and review the literature on the consequences of therapy on different aspects of creativity in people with epilepsy. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Epilepsy, Art, and Creativity". PMID:26831642

  6. ADHD in idiopathic epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos H. C. Duran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to clarify the correlation of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD with epilepsy and behavior problems. This was a cross-sectional study. Sixty children with idiopathic epilepsy were interviewed using the MTA-SNAP IV Teacher and Parent Rating Scale, Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales and Conners’ Rating Scales. We used the chi-square test to analyze the correlation of epilepsy variables in patients with and without ADHD with a significance level of 0.05. Eight patients had ADHD symptoms (13%, seven had the inattentive ADHD subtype and only three had behavioral problems. When epileptic patients with and without ADHD symptoms were compared we found no significant difference in regard to epilepsy variables. All patients were controlled and 43% were either without AED or undergoing withdrawal. Our study revealed a low comorbidity of ADHD symptoms and epilepsy due to low interference of seizures and drug treatment on the comorbid condition.

  7. Epilepsy after stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, T S; Høgenhaven, H; Thage, O

    1987-01-01

    Development of epilepsy was studied prospectively in a group of 77 consecutive stroke patients. Included were stroke patients less than 75 years old admitted within the first 3 days after the stroke. Excluded were patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage, vertebrobasilar stroke, and patients with...... other severe diseases. Cerebral angiography, CT, and EEG were performed in all patients. The patients were followed clinically for 2 to 4 years. Seven patients (9%) developed epilepsy. Of 23 patients with lesions involving the cortex, 6 (26%) developed epilepsy. Of 54 patients in whom the cortex was not...... involved, only 1 (2%) developed epilepsy. Patients with persisting paresis and cortical involvement seem to be at particularly high risk of developing epilepsy, as 50% of such patients (6 of 12) developed the disease....

  8. Nuclear imaging in epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correct localization of epileptogenic zone is important for the successful epilepsy surgery. Both ictal perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and interictal F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) can provide useful information in the presurgical localization of intractable partial epilepsy. These imaging modalities have excellent diagnostic sensitivity in medial temporal lobe epilepsy and provide good presurgical information in neocortical epilepsy. Also provide functional information about cellular functions to better understand the neurobiology of epilepsy and to better define the ictal onset zone, symptomatogenic zone, propagation pathways, functional deficit zone and surround inhibition zones. Multimodality imaging and developments in analysis methods of ictal perfusion SPECT and new PET ligand other than FDG help to better define the localization

  9. The structure of neural psychological disorders in patients with symptomatic and idiopathic epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Azizova Rano Bakhodirovna

    2015-01-01

    Symptomatic and idiopathic forms of epilepsy have several differences in neural psychological values. The most expressed cognitive deficit in the form of cognitive disorders is characteristic for patients with symptomatic epilepsy. The absence of inter-hemisphere asymmetry of P300 wave amplitude was revealed in cases of idiopathic and symptomatic forms, indicating functional disorders.

  10. Genetic determinants of common epilepsies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Rikke Steensbjerre

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The epilepsies are a clinically heterogeneous group of neurological disorders. Despite strong evidence for heritability, genome-wide association studies have had little success in identification of risk loci associated with epilepsy, probably because of relatively small sample sizes and...... insufficient power. We aimed to identify risk loci through meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies for all epilepsy and the two largest clinical subtypes (genetic generalised epilepsy and focal epilepsy). METHODS: We combined genome-wide association data from 12 cohorts of individuals with epilepsy...... and controls from population-based datasets. Controls were ethnically matched with cases. We phenotyped individuals with epilepsy into categories of genetic generalised epilepsy, focal epilepsy, or unclassified epilepsy. After standardised filtering for quality control and imputation to account for...

  11. Epilepsy is Dancing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuft, Mia; Gjelsvik, Bergljot; Nakken, Karl O

    2015-10-01

    In "Epilepsy is Dancing", in Antony and the Johnsons' album "The Crying Light"(2009), the lyrics and accompanying music video depicts an epileptic seizure in which the person is transferred to another beautiful and magical world. This may be called "enchanted epilepsy"; i.e., the experience of epilepsy as deeply nourishing and (positively) transforming, is conveyed not only in the lyrics but also the visual and auditory qualities of the video. The seizure in the video gives associations to Shakespeare's "A Midsummer Night's dream". If epilepsy appears in music lyrics, the focus is mostly on negative aspects of the illness, such as horror, fear and repulsive sexuality associated with the fits [1,2]. Contradictory to these lyrics, Anthony and the Johnsons' song is an example of a positive portrayal of epilepsy. It is open to a multitude of meanings, emotional valence and appraisal of epilepsy. By widening the experiential range associated with epileptic seizures, these lyrics highlight the inherently construed nature of epileptic experience. The song stands out in several ways. First, it describes epilepsy in positive terms, prioritising the euphoric, ecstatic, potentially empowering and enhancing aspects of epileptic seizures. Second, the lyrics and accompanying video point to divine experiences associated with epileptic seizures. Through the lyrics and the music video we are, as an audience, able to sense a snicket of an epileptic seizure, but also the universal experience of loosing control. PMID:26398488

  12. Experimental models of epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojlović Olivera P.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction An epileptic seizure is a clinical event and epilepsy is rather a group of symptoms than a disease. The main features all epilepsies have in common include: spontaneous occurrence, repetitiveness, and ictal correlation within the EEG. Epilepsies are manifested with distinct EEG changes, requiring exact clinical definition and consequential treatment. Current data show that 1% of the world's population (approximately 50 million people suffers from epilepsy, with 25% of patients being refractory to therapy and requiring search for new substances in order to decrease EEG and behavioral manifestations of epilepsies. Material and methods In regard to discovery and testing of anticonvulsant substances the best results were achieved by implementation of experi- mental models. Animal models of epilepsy are useful in acquiring basic knowledge regarding pathogenesis, neurotransmitters (glutamate, receptors (NMDA/AMPA/kainate, propagation of epileptic seizures and preclinical assessment of antiepileptics (competitive and non-competitive NMDA antagonists. Results and conclusions In our lab, we have developed a pharmacologic model of a (metaphit, NMDA and remacemide-cilastatin generalized, reflex, and audiogenic epilepsy. The model is suitable for testing various anticonvulsant substances (e.g. APH, APV, CPP, Mk-801 and potential antiepileptics (e.g. DSIP, its tetra- and octaanalogues.

  13. [Bifocal atypical rolandic epilepsy with speech dyspraxia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlov, V A; Baiarrnaa Dondovyn; Gnezditskiĭ, V V

    2004-01-01

    Clinical and neurophysiological analysis of a case of a 7 year old patient with typical benign partial seizures with rolandic spikes and speech disorder, differing from those in Landau-Kleffner syndrome and in typical benign partial epilepsy of childhood presenting as speech dyspraxia. Two independent foci (in the premotor cortex of the left front lobe (dominant hemisphere) and in the temporal lobe of the right hemisphere were found. Significant clinical improvement and electrographical positive effect in EEG were achiered after prednisolone and sodium valproate treatment. PMID:15849864

  14. Mitochondrial diseases and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindoff, Laurence A; Engelsen, Bernt A

    2012-09-01

    The mitochondrial respiratory chain is the final common pathway for energy production. Defects affecting this pathway can give rise to disease that presents at any age and affects any tissue. However, irrespective of genetic defect, epilepsy is common and there is a significant risk of status epilepticus. This review summarizes our current understanding of the epilepsy that occurs in mitochondrial disease, focusing on three of the most common disorders: mitochondrial myopathy encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS), myoclonus epilepsy and ragged-red fibers (MERRF), and polymerase gamma (POLG) related disease. In addition, we review the pathogenesis and possible treatment of these disorders. PMID:22946726

  15. Models of experimental epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Ekici

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is the most common serious neurological conditionin the world, with an estimated prevalence of 1% ofthe population. A large number of experimental modelsof seizure and epilepsy have been developed. These experimentalmodels are elicited by chemical convulsants,electrical stimulation, genetic models, structural lesions,physical stimuli (cold, pressure, hyperthermia, electricalin animals. Well-characterized animal models may allowthe understanding of the basic mechanisms underlyingepileptogenesis (it refers to the alteration of a normalneuronal network into a hyperexcitable network in whichrecurrent, spontaneous seizures occur. Moreover, thesemodels might also prove useful in identifying novel therapeuticapproaches to treatment of epilepsy. J Clin ExpInvest 2011; 2(1: 118-123

  16. MRI volumetry shows increased anterior thalamic volumes in patients with absence seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betting, Luiz Eduardo; Mory, Susana Barreto; Lopes-Cendes, Iscia; Li, Li Min; Guerreiro, Marilisa M; Guerreiro, Carlos A M; Cendes, Fernando

    2006-05-01

    The interaction between thalamus and cortex appears to be critical to the pathophysiology of idiopathic generalized epilepsies (IGEs). The objective of this study was to investigate thalamic volumes of a group of patients with IGEs using high-resolution MRI. Thalamic segmentation was performed by the same rater, who was unaware of the diagnosis. Thalamic volumes were divided into anterior half and posterior half. One hundred forty-seven patients were scanned (71 with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy, 49 with generalized tonic-clonic seizures only, and 27 with absence epilepsy). Subgroup analyses with corrections for multiple comparisons showed that, when compared with those of controls, anterior thalamic volumes were increased in patients with absence epilepsy and juvenile myoclonic epilepsy with absence seizures, but not in patients with generalized tonic-clonic seizures only and juvenile myoclonic epilepsy without absence seizures. Our results demonstrated that the anterior thalamus is structurally different in patients with IGEs and absence seizures as compared with patients with IGEs without absence seizures. PMID:16530016

  17. Genetics Home Reference: juvenile myoclonic epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions juvenile myoclonic epilepsy juvenile myoclonic epilepsy Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... PDF Open All Close All Description Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy is a condition characterized by recurrent seizures (epilepsy). ...

  18. Certification of deaths attributable to epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Langan, Y.; Nashef, L; Sander, J

    2002-01-01

    Methods: All 1997 death entries mentioning epilepsy as a cause of death in those 16–50 years were examined and classified as sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP), other epilepsy related deaths, or non-epilepsy deaths.

  19. Emotion recognition and social cognition in temporal lobe epilepsy and the effect of epilepsy surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amlerova, Jana; Cavanna, Andrea E; Bradac, Ondrej; Javurkova, Alena; Raudenska, Jaroslava; Marusic, Petr

    2014-07-01

    The abilities to identify facial expression from another person's face and to attribute mental states to others refer to preserved function of the temporal lobes. In the present study, we set out to evaluate emotion recognition and social cognition in presurgical and postsurgical patients with unilateral refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of TLE surgery and to identify the main risk factors for impairment in these functions. We recruited 30 patients with TLE for longitudinal data analysis (14 with right-sided and 16 with left-sided TLE) and 74 patients for cross-sectional data analysis (37 with right-sided and 37 with left-sided TLE) plus 20 healthy controls. Besides standard neuropsychological assessment, we administered an analog of the Ekman and Friesen test and the Faux Pas Test to assess emotion recognition and social cognition, respectively. Both emotion recognition and social cognition were impaired in the group of patients with TLE, irrespective of the focus side, compared with healthy controls. The performance in both tests was strongly dependent on the intelligence level. Beyond intelligence level, earlier age at epilepsy onset, longer disease duration, and history of early childhood brain injury predicted social cognition problems in patients with TLE. Epilepsy surgery within the temporal lobe seems to have neutral effect on patients' performances in both domains. However, there are a few individual patients who appear to be at risk of postoperative decline, even when seizure freedom is achieved following epilepsy surgery. PMID:24892754

  20. Neuropsychological advocacy and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loring, David W; Hermann, Bruce P; Cohen, Morris J

    2010-04-01

    Neuropsychologists are in a unique position to be active advocates for patients with epilepsy given their unique understanding of the behavioral and cognitive effects associated the disease, its progression, and its treatment. Neuropsychologists communicate the cognitive and behavioral consequences of epilepsy and its long-term implications to patients, family, school, and employers. In this article we review factors influencing the neuropsychological profile of patients with epilepsy, and discuss common behavioral comorbidities, as well as special issues associated with school placement and long-term planning. We also include a seizure action plan, which is designed to be both an educational tool for individuals with limited epilepsy knowledge, and a way to minimize stigma associated with an event should a seizure occur during school or work. PMID:19214828

  1. Personality characteristics and epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, A S; Hansen, H; Andersen, R;

    1989-01-01

    Patients with a long history of temporal lobe epilepsy or primary generalized epilepsy entered a questionnaire study of personality characteristics, based on a modification of the Bear-Fedio inventory for temporal lobe behavioural syndrome. Psoriasis patients and healthy volunteers served as...... controls. Four clinical meaningful dimensions of included personality traits were identified: ixoide, ideational, obsessive-compulsive and affective features. Analyses based on the Rasch model approved of all dimensions except for affective features. The epilepsy group obtained the highest scores on all 3...... dimensions, healthy volunteers the lowest, while the psoriasis group repeatedly held an intermediate position in all sets of assessment (subjects, interviewers and relatives). A logistic regression analysis showed ixoide features being most important when the entire epilepsy group was compared with other...

  2. Viral Encephalitis and Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2008-01-01

    The role of viral meningitis in the cause of epilepsy is reviewed by researchers from Sanjay Gandhi Postgraduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Lucknow, India; and University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

  3. Managing epilepsy in pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Sanjeev V.

    2011-01-01

    There are close to one and half million women with epilepsy (WWE) in reproductive age group in India. WWE have several unique gender-specific problems in the biological and social domains. Women experience more social stigma from epilepsy and have more difficulty with education and employment. They have more difficulty to get married and sustain successful family life. Reproductive hormones like estrogen and progesterone have opposing effect on seizure threshold. WWE have increased risk of in...

  4. GEM THERAPY AND EPILEPSY

    OpenAIRE

    Murthy, S.R.N.; Shenoy, Raghuram

    1990-01-01

    The authors present in this paper the status of treatment and cause of epilepsy. They propose further research to be undertaken to document the data and a study of human magnetic aura followed by blood spectral studies. They have suggested that based upon these studies it should be possible to determine the cause of epilepsy and its treatment by the physical application of suitable precious and semi-previous stones followed by administration of Ayurvedic formulation.

  5. Neuroimaging in epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Roy Trishit; Pandit Alak

    2011-01-01

    Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder with diverse etiologies. Neuroimaging plays an important role in workup of patients with epilepsy. It helps to identify brain pathologies that require specific treatment; and also in formulating syndromic and etiological diagnoses so as to give patients and their relatives an accurate prognosis. Magnetic resonance imaging, specially the 3 tesla MRI is the imaging of choice because of its ability to detect small lesions like mesial temporal sclerosis,...

  6. Developmental dyscalculia in children and adolescents with idiopathic epilepsies in a Brazilian sample

    OpenAIRE

    Ursula Thomé; Sandra Regina da Paixão Alves; Sabrina Mendonça Guerreiro; Célia Regina Carvalho Machado da Costa; Fernanda de Souza Moreira; Andrea Bandeira Lima; Maria Rita Ferreira Tavares; Heber de Souza Maia Filho

    2014-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most prevalent chronic disorders of childhood which can threaten child development and mental health. Among cognitive disorders, dyscalculia is one of the most important. In this study, 39 children and adolescents with idiopathic epilepsy underwent clinical and neuropsychological assessment to determine the intellectual level, math skills, reading and writing performance and neuropsychological profile. It was observed that the mathematical ability was below schooling ex...

  7. [Epilepsy and Szondi test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, L

    1976-05-01

    After having briefly recalled the different studies of epilepsy done on the basis of the Szondi test, the author proposes to study the drive structure of three groups of epileptics (19 cases of primary generalized epilepsy, 18 cases of partial temporal lobe epilepsy, 31 cases of partial non-temporal epilepsy) with the purpose of finding possible differences in psychological drive among the three groups and, at the same time, evaluating the test's capacity for discrimination by using the statistical method. The three groups show the same type of profile generally characterized by an extreme need for acceptance and affection (h + !, C- + !) counteracted by a strong repression (hy - !, k -) resulting in agressiveness (s + !). However, statistical analysis (chi square test), the drive formula, the drive class and the EKP showed that, beyond this shared area, there are differences among the three groups. The author then attempts to sort out the meaning of these differences. Finally, based on certain passages from Szondi as well as the test results, the author puts forward an hypothesis linking the psychological drive problematic in primary generalized epilepsies to a very early disturbance in the history of the individual's psychic development, the origins of which would go back to a split in the unity between mother and child. On the other hand, drive disturbances in partial epilepsies would be considered secondary to the illness. PMID:788602

  8. Coeliac disease and epilepsy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cronin, C C

    2012-02-03

    Whether there is an association between coeliac disease and epilepsy is uncertain. Recently, a syndrome of coeliac disease, occipital lobe epilepsy and cerebral calcification has been described, mostly in Italy. We measured the prevalence of coeliac disease in patients attending a seizure clinic, and investigated whether cerebral calcification occurred in patients with both coeliac disease and epilepsy. Screening for coeliac disease was by IgA endomysial antibody, measured by indirect immunofluorescence using sections of human umbilical cord. Of 177 patients screened, four patients were positive. All had small-bowel histology typical of coeliac disease. The overall frequency of coeliac disease in this mixed patient sample was 1 in 44. In a control group of 488 pregnant patients, two serum samples were positive (1 in 244). Sixteen patients with both coeliac disease and epilepsy, who had previously attended this hospital, were identified. No patient had cerebral calcification on CT scanning. Coeliac disease appears to occur with increased frequency in patients with epilepsy, and a high index of suspicion should be maintained. Cerebral calcification is not a feature of our patients with epilepsy and coeliac disease, and may be an ethnically-or geographically-restricted finding.

  9. Epilepsy, cognition and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulati, Sheffali; Yoganathan, Sangeetha; Chakrabarty, Biswaroop

    2014-10-01

    Epilepsy is defined as two or more unprovoked seizures. Epileptic patients have intellectual disability and behavioral co-morbidities to the tune of up to 25 and 75% respectively. Various factors like underlying etiology, socioeconomic environment at home, age at onset, seizure semiology, seizure descriptors like duration, severity and frequency, therapy related adverse effects secondary to antiepileptic drugs and epilepsy surgery have been implicated for the causation of cognitive and behavioral impairment in epilepsy. Cognitive epilepsy has emerged as a specific entity. This may manifest as a transient behavioral or cognitive change, insidous onset subacute to chronic encephalopathy or more catastrophic in the form of nonconvulsive status epilepticus. Cognitive impairment seen in epileptic children include difficulties in learning, memory, problem solving as well as concept formation. Anxiety, depression and attention deficit hyperkinetic disorders are the most common psychiatric co-morbidities seen. Investigating a child with epilepsy for cognitive and behavioral impairment is difficult as these tests would require cooperation from the patient's side to a significant extent. A rational approach towards treatment would be judicious selection of antiepileptic drugs, treatment of underlying cause, appropriate management of behavioral co-morbidities including psychopharmacotherapy and a trial of immunotherapy (particularly in cognitive epilepsies), wherever appropriate. PMID:25073691

  10. National Epilepsy Surgery Support Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Radhakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While there are over one million people with drug-resistant epilepsy in India, today, there are only a handful of centers equipped to undertake presurgical evaluation and epilepsy surgery. The only solution to overcome this large surgical treatment gap is to establish comprehensive epilepsy care centers across the country that are capable of evaluating and selecting the patients for epilepsy surgery with the locally available technology and in a cost-effective manner. The National Epilepsy Surgery Support Activity (NESSA aims to provide proper guidance and support in establishing epilepsy surgery programs across India and in neighboring resource-poor countries, and in sustaining them.

  11. Role for serotonin2A (5-HT2A) and 2C (5-HT2C) receptors in experimental absence seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venzi, Marcello; David, François; Bellet, Joachim; Cavaccini, Anna; Bombardi, Cristiano; Crunelli, Vincenzo; Di Giovanni, Giuseppe

    2016-09-01

    Absence seizures (ASs) are the hallmark of childhood/juvenile absence epilepsy. Monotherapy with first-line anti-absence drugs only controls ASs in 50% of patients, indicating the need for novel therapeutic targets. Since serotonin family-2 receptors (5-HT2Rs) are known to modulate neuronal activity in the cortico-thalamo-cortical loop, the main network involved in AS generation, we investigated the effect of selective 5-HT2AR and 5-HT2CR ligands on ASs in the Genetic Absence Epilepsy Rats from Strasbourg (GAERS), a well established polygenic rat model of these non-convulsive seizures. GAERS rats were implanted with fronto-parietal EEG electrodes under general anesthesia, and their ASs were later recorded under freely moving conditions before and after intraperitoneal administration of various 5-HT2AR and 5-HT2CR ligands. The 5-HT2A agonist TCB-2 dose-dependently decreased the total time spent in ASs, an effect that was blocked by the selective 5-HT2A antagonist MDL11,939. Both MDL11,939 and another selective 5-HT2A antagonist (M100,907) increased the length of individual seizures when injected alone. The 5-HT2C agonists lorcaserin and CP-809,101 dose-dependently suppressed ASs, an effect blocked by the selective 5-HT2C antagonist SB 242984. In summary, 5-HT2ARs and 5-HT2CRs negatively control the expression of experimental ASs, indicating that selective agonists at these 5-HT2R subtypes might be potential novel anti-absence drugs. PMID:27085605

  12. Autosomal dominant rolandic epilepsy and speech dyspraxia: a new syndrome with anticipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffer, I E; Jones, L; Pozzebon, M; Howell, R A; Saling, M M; Berkovic, S F

    1995-10-01

    We describe a family of 9 affected individuals in three generations with nocturnal oro-facio-brachial partial seizures, secondarily generalized partial seizures, and centro-temporal epileptiform discharges, associated with oral and speech dyspraxia and cognitive impairment. The speech disorder was prominent, but differed from that of Landau-Kleffner syndrome and of epilepsy with continuous spike and wave during slow-wave sleep. The electroclinical features of this new syndrome of autosomal dominant rolandic epilepsy resemble those of benign rolandic epilepsy, a common inherited epilepsy of childhood. This family shows clinical anticipation of the seizure disorder, the oral and speech dyspraxia, and cognitive dysfunction, suggesting that the genetic mechanism could be expansion of an unstable triplet repeat. Molecular studies on this syndrome, where the inheritance pattern is clear, could also be relevant to identifying a gene for benign rolandic epilepsy where anticipation does not occur and the mode of inheritance is uncertain. PMID:7574460

  13. Using Relevance Feedback to Distinguish the Changes in EEG During Different Absence Seizure Phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Liu, Xianzeng; Ouyang, Gaoxiang

    2016-07-01

    We carried out a series of statistical experiments to explore the utility of using relevance feedback on electroencephalogram (EEG) data to distinguish between different activity states in human absence epilepsy. EEG recordings from 10 patients with absence epilepsy are sampled, filtered, selected, and dissected from seizure-free, preseizure, and seizure phases. A total of 112 two-second 19-channel EEG epochs from 10 patients were selected from each phase. For each epoch, multiscale permutation entropy of the EEG data was calculated. The feature dimensionality was reduced by linear discriminant analysis to obtain a more discriminative and compact representation. Finally, a relevance feedback technique, that is, direct biased discriminant analysis, was applied to 68 randomly selected queries over nine iterations. This study is a first attempt to apply the statistical analysis of relevance feedback to the distinction of different EEG activity states in absence epilepsy. The average precision in the top 10 returned results was 97.5%, and the standard deviation suggested that embedding relevance feedback can effectively distinguish different seizure phases in absence epilepsy. The experimental results indicate that relevance feedback may be an effective tool for the prediction of different activity states in human absence epilepsy. The simultaneous analysis of multichannel EEG signals provides a powerful tool for the exploration of abnormal electrical brain activity in patients with epilepsy. PMID:25245133

  14. Clinical usefulness of MRI and MRA in children with partial epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partial epilepsy is a very important problem of epileptology in childhood including clinical and therapeutic aspect especially surgery treatment. The aim of this study is to assess clinical value of neuroimagine techniques (structural MRI, MRI angiography) in partial epilepsy diagnostics in children. The relation between results of examinations with these methods and congenital and acquired risk factors related to partial epilepsy, age of its onset and clinical assessment of patients was analyzed. The study group consisted of 140 children with partial epilepsy hospitalized between 1998 and 2004 in Department of Pediatric Neurology, Collegium Medicum Jagiellonian University, Krakow. The group included 70 girls and 70 boys, the age ranged from 2 months to 17 years. In study group statistical analysis included different factors as which can be related with results of neuroimaging as age, load of pregnancy and birth period, familiar epilepsy, patient's risk factors for appearance of epilepsy, acquired risk factors of epilepsy, results of neurological examination, type of epilepsy, status epilepticus, and signs according epileptic attacks which can be related with neuroimaging results. The primary method of neuroimagine in all patients was structural MRI, in 16 cases Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA). The parametric tests (t-student), nonparametric Mann-Whitney's test were used in statistical analysis. The bilateral Fisher test was used to check rate in groups. There was assessed sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value; the 95% confidence interval was calculated for these parameters. Abnormalities in neurological examination in children with partial epilepsy were strongly correlated with MRI findings. The structural changes in MRI were found in younger children, whose course of epilepsy was longer than children without MRI changes. Changes in hippocampus ere the most common in children with partial epilepsy with abnormalities in

  15. Epilepsy in Adults with TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of time. Epilepsy and Seizures Epilepsy is any brain disorder that causes repeated, spontaneous seizures of any ... called "fits" or convulsions) are episodes of disturbed brain function that cause changes in attention or behavior. ...

  16. Epilepsy in Adults with TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... brain. Devices to treat epilepsy include vagus nerve stimulation and responsive neurostimulation. Who Treats Epilepsy? A general ... imaging (MRI) of the brain throughout adolescence and early adulthood (at least until the age of 21 ...

  17. Epilepsy in Adults with TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... centers in a large city and/or an academic center near you (for a listing of epilepsy ... Men with TSC Many men with epilepsy will experience changes in sexual drive and performance. For example, ...

  18. 77 FR 59197 - Epilepsy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration Epilepsy Program AGENCY: Health Resources... to the Epilepsy Foundation of America. SUMMARY: The Health Resources and Services Administration will be issuing noncompetitive supplemental funding under the Maternal and Child Health Bureau's...

  19. Epilepsy in Adults with TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... International TSC Research Conference Text Size Get Involved EPILEPSY IN ADULTS WITH TSC Download a PDF of ... age, including either new-onset seizures or ongoing epilepsy. Recent studies indicate that more than 80% of ...

  20. Epilepsy in Adults with TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... might benefit their individual situation. Epilepsy Surgery: Surgical approaches to treating epilepsy in individuals with TSC are ... Facebook Twitter YouTube How to Make a Donation Research Directed Donations Tributes Planned Giving/Endowments Partner Offers ...

  1. Epilepsy in Adults with TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... centers in a large city and/or an academic center near you (for a listing of epilepsy ... epilepsy will experience changes in sexual drive and performance. For example, many men report a decrease in ...

  2. Epilepsy in Adults with TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... SEGAs that are not candidates for curative surgery. Evaluation of New-Onset Seizures All individuals with new- ... diet that are more palatable for some individuals. Links Information for Women with Epilepsy: www.epilepsy.com/ ...

  3. Epilepsy in Adults with TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... delay. Children outgrow infantile spasms because they either go away or transition to other types of seizures. ... near you (for a listing of epilepsy centers go to www.naec-epilepsy.org or call 1- ...

  4. Epilepsy in Adults with TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... time. Epilepsy and Seizures Epilepsy is any brain disorder that causes repeated, spontaneous seizures of any type. ... Government Action Team TS Alliance Online Support Community Facebook Twitter YouTube How to Make a Donation Research ...

  5. Epilepsy in Adults with TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to experience a return of seizures after being well controlled for long periods of time. Epilepsy and ... general neurologist can treat uncomplicated epilepsy that is well controlled on one medication. However, most people with ...

  6. Clinical characteristics of adult epilepsy patients in the 1997 Hong Kong epilepsy registry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective To study the clinical characteristics of 2952 patients with epilepsy who had received drug treatment from the neurology outpatient clinics of eight major hospitals in Hong Kong. Methods Retrospective review of outpatient records. Results 1601 (54.3%) males and 1351 (45.7%) females with a median age of 35.8 years (range, 10-94.8) were studied. Seizure types included generalized tonic-clonic in 80.7% of patients, complex partial in 28.3%, simple partial in 14.4%, atypical absence in 2.6% and myoclonic in 1.4%, and 30.4% of patients had more than one seizure type. EEG, CT brain, MRI brain and neuropsychological evaluation were obtained in 81.2%, 61.7%, 17.0% and 2.2% of patients, respectively. The etiology of epilepsy was cryptogenic in 59.9%, symptomatic in 35.1% and idiopathic in 3.9%; the commonest were intracranial infection, cerebral vascular disease, cranial trauma and perinatal insult. Phenytoin, carbamazepine and valproate were the most frequently used drugs and 25.9% of patients were taking more than two drugs. 48.3% of patients had active seizures in the past six months and 26.4% were considered to have unsatisfactory control of their epilepsy. Medical refractoriness of epilepsy was associated with a history of perinatal insult, intracranial infection, congenital brain malformation, intracranial neoplasm, cerebral vascular disease, hippocampal sclerosis, mental retardation and a history of status epilepticus (P<0.05). Conclusion In this local cohort of adult patients with epilepsy under specialist care, there were a considerable number of patients falling into the category of cryptogenic epilepsy. Risk factors associated with medical refractoriness are similar to previous studies.

  7. Neuromodulation for epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranshu Bhargava

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a common disease. WHO data suggests that 1 in 20 people may have an epileptic seizure in their lifetime and at least 1 in 200 go on to develop epilepsy. Anticonvulsant drug therapy using one or more drugs works as an effective tool to suppress seizures in only 70% of the patients, the remaining 30% are either not responsive or suffer major side effects. Surgical resection then forms the next line of management in selected patients. However in some cases surgical resection may not be possible, hence arises the need for alternative therapies. Neuromodulation of the Central Nervous system is a novel technique under evaluation for Medically Intractable epilepsy. CNS stimulation for epilepsy has been a matter of extensive research. We review the Neurophysiological basis of Neuromodulation in Epilepsy and various modalities viz Vagal nerve stimulation (VNS, Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS and Direct cortical stimulation (DCS. Deep brain stimulation (Hippocampal, Anterior thalamic and STN and RNS are newer modalities and are also reviewed.

  8. Dilemmas in diagnostics and therapy of rolandic epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Škrijelj Fadil

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. It is considered that around 20%-30% of patients of all ages and in all continents have wrong epilepsy diagnoses. Diagnostic and consequential therapeutic errors appear, most often, when an adequate diagnostics is not applied. Benign focal epilepsy of childhoods with centrotemporal spikes-rolandic epilepsy, brings very often to diagnostic and therapeutic problems because of persistence of epilepticforms changes in an electroencephalography (EEG recording, several years after establishment of good control over seizures. Case report. We presented 8.5 years-old girl, with the first and the only epileptic seizure at the age of 5, during her sleep. With a clear correlation of EEG record, benign rolandic epilepsy was diagnosed, so the therapy with valproate was introduced. There were no seizures after three years of its implementation. Because of epileptic-forms changes that still persisted in EEG record during her sleep, it was suggested to further use valproate. However, after reconsidering all circumstances it was concluded that the AED should bee slowly reduced up to its exclusion. After a complete stoppage of the therapy, the patient did not have any epileptic seizure for nine months, although EEG still remained pathologically changed during her sleep. Conclusion. A changed EEG record in a patient with rolandic epilepsy must not be a predictor of continuation of antiepileptic drugs therapy, after 2-3 years of successful seizures remission.

  9. SPECT-PET in Epilepsy and Clinical Approach in Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergün, Eser Lay; Saygi, Serap; Yalnizoglu, Dilek; Oguz, Kader Karli; Erbas, Belkis

    2016-07-01

    In epilepsy, a detailed history, blood chemistry, routine electroencephalography, and brain MRI are important for the diagnosis of seizure type or epilepsy syndrome for the decision of appropriate drug treatment. Although antiepileptic drugs are mostly successful for controlling epileptic seizures, 20%-30% patients are resistant to medical treatment and continue to have seizures. In this intractable patient group, surgical resection is the primarily preferred treatment option. This particular group of patients should be referred to the epilepsy center for detailed investigation and further treatment. When the results of electroencephalography, MRI, and clinical status are discordant or there is no structural lesion on MRI, ictal-periictal SPECT, and interictal PET play key roles for lateralization or localization of epileptic region and guidance for the subsequent subdural electrode placement in intractable epilepsy. SPECT and PET show the functional status of the brain. SPECT and PET play important roles in the evaluation of epilepsy sydromes in childhood by showing abnormal brain regions. Most of the experience has been gained with (18)FDG-PET, in this respect. (11)C-flumazenil-PET usually deliniates the seizure focus more smaller than (18)FDG-PET and is sensitive in identifying medial temporal sclerosis. (11)C-alpha-methyl-l-tryptophan is helpful in the differentiation of epileptogenic and nonepileptogenic regions in children especially in tuberous sclerosis and multifocal cortical dysplasia for the evaluation of surgery. Finally, when there is concordance among these detailed investigations, resective surgery or palliative procedures can be discussed individually. PMID:27237440

  10. Value of prophylactic epilepsy surgery in contemporary neurosurgical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have examined the value of prophylactic epilepsy surgery in diseases leading to intractable epilepsy. We reviewed 11 glioneuronal tumors (GNT) including gangliogliomas and dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors, 11 cortical dysplasia (CD), and 33 cavernous angiomas (CA) diagnosed with MRI between the years 2000 and 2008 at the Department of Neurosurgery of Juntendo University in this study. We analyzed retrospectively the followings. Age of seizure onset and seizure severity. Region of each disease leading to intractable epilepsy. Seizure outcome after the surgery. Surgical morbidity. Ages of seizure onset of GNT, CD, and CA were 21.0±12.1, 1.3±7.5, 24.8±18.1 years, respectively. 81.8% of CD and GNT were intractable, however CA progresses to intractable epilepsy in 48.5%. The 66.7% of GNT with intractable seizures located in the mesial temporal lobe and 66.7% of CD had entra-temporal location. CA located in the mesial temporal lobe progressed to intractable epilepsy in 80%. Seizure free ratios of GNT, CD, and CA were 87.5%, 50.0%, 81.3%, respectively. In CDs where was impossible to carry out complete resection resulted in residual seizures. Neurological sequelae after surgery were observed in 3 cases. Morbidity ratios of motor weakness, speech difficulty, and memory disturbances are 4.6%, 4.6%, 2.3%, respectively. Majority of CD, GNT, and CA located in the mesial temporal lobe progress towards intractable epilepsy. Prophylactic epilepsy surgery by experienced surgeon with low complication rates can be an acceptable alternative for these pathological conditions. Seizure outcome of surgery for CD does not reach the success rates of those in GNT and CA. The cause of the unfavorable result in CD is the inapplicability to eloquent areas. Aggressive early surgery for CD may improve outcome considering neuronal plasticity of childhood. (author)

  11. The Effect of Lamotrigine on Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Ali Ebrahimi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background:Epilepsy is a common neurologic disorder affecting about 1% of the population (1. The prevalence of active epilepsy in Kerman is 7.87/1000 populations (2. In 23 countries of Asia the rate of epilepsy is the same as USA and Europe. Pharmacotherapy with antiepileptic drugs is the major treatment modality for epilepsy, this could occur as a result of decreased excitation concurrent with increased inhibition (3. Management of epilepsy differs from the treatment of other chronic diseases in which a single breakthrough event has a major negative effect on the quality of life.The past decade has brought many advances to the treatment of epilepsy, including many new pharmacological agents. Lamotrigine is one of the new antiepileptic drugs, which has been used more than two decades. Lamotrigine is effective in partial-onset and secondarily generalized tonic-clonic seizures, primary generalized seizures (i.e., absence seizures and primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures, atypical absence seizures, tonic / atonic seizures and Lennox-Gaustaut syndrome. It is sometimes effective for myoclonic seizures but it can worsen myoclonic seizures in some patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy or myoclonic epilepsy of infancy.One of the main advantages of lamotrigine is that it causes less cognitive impairment or overt sedation compared with other treatments (4. An anti-aging effect on animal model in a study has found that lamotrigine decreases mortality and increases lifespan.Lamotrigine has many side effects; the most important ones are allergic reactions, Introducing lamotrigine gradually is one of the keys to reduce the frequency and severity of allergic reactions. Although the incidence of cutaneous reactions to lamotrigine is high, the incidence of serious eruptions such as erythema multiform, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and toxic epidermal necrolysis is low (5. In this study we evaluated the effects of lamotrigine on epileptic patients

  12. Positron emission tomography in epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron emission tomography (PET) was performed with the 18F-fluoro-deoxy-glucose method on 29 patients with epilepsy (generalized epilepsy, 4; partial epilepsy, 24; undetermined type, 1). The subjects were restricted to patients with epilepsy without focal abnormality on X-CT. All the patients with generalized epilepsy showed a normal pattern on PET. Fourteen out of the 24 patients with partial epilepsy and the 1 with epilepsy of undermined type showed focal hypometabolism on PET. The hypometabolic zone was localized in areas including the temporal cortex in 11 patients, frontal in 2 and thalamus in 1. The location of hypometabolic zone and that of interictal paroxysmal activity on EEG were well correlated in most patients. The patients with poorly-controlled seizure showed a higher incidence of PET abnormality (12 out of 13) than those with well-controlled seizures (2 out of 11). The incidence of abnormality on PET and MRI and the location of both abnormality were not necessarily coincident. These results indicated that the PET examination in epilepsy provides valuable information about the location of epileptic focus, and that the findings on PET in patients with partial epilepsy may be one of the good indicators about the intractability of partial epilepsy, and that PET and MRI provide complementary information in the diagnosis of epilepsy. (author)

  13. Comorbidity of tics and epilepsy in children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Ermolenko

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tics are the most common forms of hyperkinesis among children and adolescents, the etiology of which is not fully clear. A study has shown a high comorbidity of tic disorders and epilepsy, as evidenced by video-EEG monitoring. In patients with tics even in the absence of epileptic seizures, epileptiform activity is an adverse predictor and a determinant of the potential risk of comorbid epilepsy especially during neuroleptic therapy. Antiepileptic drugs are the drugs of choice to treat this category of patients.

  14. Clinical aspects of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genton, Pierre; Thomas, Pierre; Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenité, Dorothee G A; Medina, Marco Tulio; Salas-Puig, Javier

    2013-07-01

    Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is a recognizable, frequent epileptic syndrome. The most typical ictal phenomenon is bilateral myoclonia without loss of consciousness (M), with most patients also presenting with generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCSs) and some with absence seizures (ASs). The most striking features of JME are its onset around the time of puberty and the fact that seizure episodes occur after awakening from a sleep period or in the evening relaxation period and are facilitated by sleep deprivation and sudden arousal. Photic sensitivity is common in the EEG laboratory but uncommon or unrecognized in daily life. The clinical features of JME make it easy to diagnose. In recent years, awareness of JME has increased, and patients are often accurately diagnosed clinically before confirmation by EEG. The typical circumstance at diagnosis is a first GTCS episode, and one learns during the interview that the patient has had M in the morning for some time before the GTCS episode. There are only few differential diagnoses: the adolescent-onset progressive myoclonus epilepsies, or other forms of idiopathic generalized epilepsies of adolescence. With JME being so common, we propose that a first GTCS episode in a teenager should be considered as revealing JME until proven otherwise. PMID:23756488

  15. Nonpharmacological treatment of epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    V S Saxena; Nadkarni, V. V.

    2011-01-01

    Nonpharmacological treatment of epilepsy includes surgery, vagal nerve stimulation, ketogenic diet, and other alternative/complementary therapies, e.g., yoga, Ayurveda, electroencephalography (EEG) biofeedback technique, aerobic exercise, music therapy, transcranial magnetic stimulation, acupuncture, and herbal remedies (traditional Chinese medicine). Alternative therapies, despite the term, should not be considered as an alternative to antiepileptic medication; they complement accepted drug ...

  16. 20.5.Epilepsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    920184 Clinical analysis of 25 cases ofchronic alcoholic intoxication with epilepsy.PANG Zhixing (庞治兴),et al.Dept Psychol,1stTeaching Hosp.Norman Bethune Med Univ,130021 Chin J Nerv & Ment Dis 1991; 17 (5):289-291.The clinical manifestations of 25 cases (male)

  17. Spect in epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Federal Republic of Germany it is assumed that about 80 000 patients suffer from a focal form of epilepsy which can not be sufficiently controlled with medication. As potential candidates for surgery, these patients undergo stepwise monitoring procedure in which the epileptic focus is located by means of increasingly invasive methods. In Erlangen the periictal SPECT is performed, whereby the perfusion tracer is injected after onset (ictal SPECT), immediately after cessation of the seizure (postictal scan) or between the seizures (interictal scan). To administer the tracer strongly in ictal or postictal state a close functional cooperation between the neurology and nuclear medicine department must be arranged. Injection inside the monitoring unit must be attuned to federal antiradiation precaution law. In temporal lobe epilepsy, different injection-times demonstrate a large area of hyperperfusion after ictal onset, which refines in the first two postictal minutes to the generating focus together with a decreased parietal blood flow pattern. Later, the entire temporal lobe epilepsy an early tracer injection within 40 seconds has to be achieved, otherwise an ictal propagation into distant brain areas, possibly contralateral, may occur. Extratemporal epilepsy is often linked to trauma or congenital malformations, and is difficult to categorize. In difficult cases with equivocal results, efforts can be undertaken by means of receptor scintigraphy with, for example, iomazenil, to localize the focus as a cold lesion caused by neuronal loss. (orig.)

  18. Mobile EEG in epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Askamp, Jessica; Putten, van M.J.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    The sensitivity of routine EEG recordings for interictal epileptiform discharges in epilepsy is limited. In some patients, inpatient video-EEG may be performed to increase the likelihood of finding abnormalities. Although many agree that home EEG recordings may provide a cost-effective alternative t

  19. Dreams and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reami, D O; Silva, D F; Albuquerque, M; Campos, C J

    1991-01-01

    The relationship between dreams and epilepsy is illustrated by two patients whose awake epileptic seizures and recurrent dreams during night sleep had similar content. In both of our cases the EEG showed right anterior temporal spike discharge, suggesting a role for the temporal lobe in the association between dreams and seizures. PMID:1985830

  20. Neuroimaging in epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Trishit

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder with diverse etiologies. Neuroimaging plays an important role in workup of patients with epilepsy. It helps to identify brain pathologies that require specific treatment; and also in formulating syndromic and etiological diagnoses so as to give patients and their relatives an accurate prognosis. Magnetic resonance imaging, specially the 3 tesla MRI is the imaging of choice because of its ability to detect small lesions like mesial temporal sclerosis, cortical dysplasias, small tumors, etc that are not detected by conventional MR or CT scan of brain. Identification of these lesions often helps in managing refractory epilepsies more effectively. However, cost and non-availability of MR in large part of the country necessitate the use of CT as an alternative. CT is often the initial investigation and also useful in acute situations. Functional imagings are used for pre-surgical work-up of refractory epilepsy cases with an aim to identify the epileptogenic focus and to delineate functional areas nearing the focus.

  1. Personality characteristics and epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, A S; Hansen, H; Andersen, R;

    1989-01-01

    dimensions, healthy volunteers the lowest, while the psoriasis group repeatedly held an intermediate position in all sets of assessment (subjects, interviewers and relatives). A logistic regression analysis showed ixoide features being most important when the entire epilepsy group was compared with other...

  2. Mitochondrial dysfunction in epilepsy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Folbergrová, Jaroslava; Kunz, W.S.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 1 (2012), s. 35-40. ISSN 1567-7249 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA309/05/2015; GA ČR GA309/08/0292 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : epilepsy * mitochondrial dysfunction * neurodegeneration Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 4.025, year: 2012

  3. 16p11.2 600 kb Duplications confer risk for typical and atypical Rolandic epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinthaler, Eva M; Lal, Dennis; Lebon, Sebastien;

    2014-01-01

    Rolandic epilepsy (RE) is the most common idiopathic focal childhood epilepsy. Its molecular basis is largely unknown and a complex genetic etiology is assumed in the majority of affected individuals. The present study tested whether six large recurrent copy number variants at 1q21, 15q11.2, 15q13...... atypical (ARE; n = 54) RE compared with the prevalence in 65,046 European population controls (5/393 cases versus 32/65,046 controls; Fisher's exact test P = 2.83 × 10(-6), odds ratio = 26.2, 95% confidence interval: 7.9-68.2). In contrast, the 16p11.2 duplication was not detected in 1738 European epilepsy...... patients with either temporal lobe epilepsy (n = 330) and genetic generalized epilepsies (n = 1408), suggesting a selective enrichment of the 16p11.2 duplication in idiopathic focal childhood epilepsies (Fisher's exact test P = 2.1 × 10(-4)). In a subsequent screen among children carrying the 16p11.2 600...

  4. Calcium ion channel and epilepsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yudan Lü; Weihong Lin; Dihui Ma

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the relationship between calcium ion channel and epilepsy for well investigating the pathogenesis of epilepsy and probing into the new therapeutic pathway of epilepsy.DATA SOURCES: A computer-based online research Calcium ion channel and epilepsy related articles published between January 1994 and December 2006 in the CKNI and Wanfang database with the key words of "calcium influxion, epilepsy, calcium-channel blocker". The language was limited to Chinese. At the same time,related articles published between January 1993 and December 2006 in Pubmed were searched for on online with the key words of "calcium influxion, epilepsy" in English.STUDY SELECTION: The materials were selected firstly. Inclusive criteria: ① Studies related to calcium ion channel and the pat1hogenesis of epilepsy. ② Studies on the application of calcium ion channel blocker in the treatment of epilepsy. Exclusive criteria: repetitive or irrelated studies.DATA EXTRACTION: According to the criteria, 123 articles were retrieved and 93 were excluded due to repetitive or irrelated studies. Altogether 30 articles met the inclusive criteria, 11 of them were about the structure and characters of calcium ion channel, 10 about calcium ion channel and the pathogenesis of epilepsy and 9 about calcium blocker and the treatment of epilepsy.DATA SYNTHESIS: Calcium ion channels mainly consist of voltage dependent calcium channel and receptor operated calcium channel. Depolarization caused by voltage gating channel-induced influxion is the pathological basis of epileptic attack, and it is found in many studies that many anti-epileptic drugs have potential and direct effect to rivalizing voltage-dependent calcium ion channel.CONCLUSION: Calcium influxion plays an important role in the seizure of epilepsy. Some calcium antagonists seen commonly are being tried in the clinical therapy of epilepsy that is being explored, not applied in clinical practice. If there are enough evidences to

  5. Memory in children with symptomatic temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina A. Guimarães

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In children with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE, memory deficit is not so well understood as it is in adults. The aim of this study was to identify and describe memory deficits in children with symptomatic TLE, and to verify the influence of epilepsy variables on memory. We evaluated 25 children with TLE diagnosed on clinical, EEG and MRI findings. Twenty-five normal children were compared with the patients. All children underwent a neuropsychological assessment to estimate intellectual level, attention, visual perception, handedness, and memory processes (verbal and visual: short-term memory, learning, and delayed recall. The results allowed us to conclude: besides memory deficits, other neuropsychological disturbances may be found in children with TLE such as attention, even in the absence of overall cognitive deficit; the earlier onset of epilepsy, the worse verbal stimuli storage; mesial lesions correlate with impairment in memory storage stage while neocortical temporal lesions correlate with retrieval deficits.

  6. Genetics Home Reference: Lafora progressive myoclonus epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Lafora progressive myoclonus epilepsy Lafora progressive myoclonus epilepsy Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... Open All Close All Description Lafora progressive myoclonus epilepsy is a brain disorder characterized by recurrent seizures ( ...

  7. Epilepsy - what to ask your doctor - child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000222.htm Epilepsy - what to ask your doctor - child To use ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Your child has epilepsy. Children with epilepsy have seizures. A seizure is ...

  8. Epilepsy - what to ask your doctor - adult

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000221.htm Epilepsy - what to ask your doctor - adult To use ... on this page, please enable JavaScript. You have epilepsy. People with epilepsy have seizures. A seizure is ...

  9. Genetics Home Reference: pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Health Conditions pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... PDF Open All Close All Description Pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy is a condition that involves seizures beginning in ...

  10. Monitorização eletroencefalográfica ambulatorial na epilepsia de difícil controle da infância Eletroencephalographic monitoring in refractory epilepsies in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sueli Rizzutti

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar através da monitorização eletroencefalográfica ambulatorial contínua e prolongada a distribuição temporal de descargas paroxísticas em sono e em vigília de crianças e adolescentes com epilepsia de difícil controle medicamentoso. Foram selecionadas 21 pacientes na faixa etária de 4 a 17 anos de idade com epilepsia de difícil controle medicamentoso, sendo 52,3 % (n=11 do sexo masculino e 47,7 % (n=10 do feminino, provenientes da Disciplina de Neurologia da Universidade Federal de São Paulo. Os exames foram realizados com o equipamento Bioware EEG-2008 de monitorização eletroencefalográfica ambulatorial prolongada (Holter cerebral. Observamos maior frequência das descargas epilépticas isoladas e agrupadas no sono diurno e noturno em relação a vigília; o sono, diurno e noturno, levou a ativação de descargas epilépticas, tanto isoladas como agrupadas. O Holter cerebral foi mais eficaz em detectar descargas epileptiformes do que o EEG de rotina em 33,33% dos pacientes. O Holter cerebral se mostrou método útil e preciso na detecção de descargas epilépticas, auxiliando na avaliação das flutuações da frequência da atividade paroxística em crianças com epilepsia de difícil controle medicamentoso, tanto em relação as atividades da vida cotidiana, quanto em relação ao ciclo biológico de sono e vigília.The objective of our study was, by means of continuous prolonged ambulatory electroencephalographic monitoring, to analyze the temporal distribution of paroxysmal discharges during sleep and awake in children and adolescents with refractory epilepsies. Twenty-one patients in the 4-to-17 year age bracket with refractory epilepsies, with 52.3% (n=11 male and 47.6% (n=10 female from the Discipline of Neurology of the Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Federal University of São Paulo. Cerebral Holter was carried out with Bioware EEG-2008 of prolonged ambulatory

  11. Creating Inclusive School Environments: Recommendations for the Management of Neurobehavioural Comorbidities in Children with Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKinnon, Cheryl; Roberts, Jillian; Wylie, Jaimie

    2016-01-01

    The neurobehavioural comorbidities associated with childhood epilepsy present significant physical challenges (i.e., excessive fatigue, memory impairment, headaches, visual impairments), emotional challenges (i.e., depression, anxiety), behavioural challenges (i.e., inattentiveness, distractibility, aggression), and social challenges (i.e., peer…

  12. Epilepsy Among Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Population-Based Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokiranta, Elina; Sourander, Andre; Suominen, Auli; Timonen-Soivio, Laura; Brown, Alan S.; Sillanpää, Matti

    2014-01-01

    The present population-based study examines associations between epilepsy and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The cohort includes register data of 4,705 children born between 1987 and 2005 and diagnosed as cases of childhood autism, Asperger's syndrome or pervasive developmental disorders--not otherwise specified. Each case was matched to…

  13. CLPB Variants Associated with Autosomal-Recessive Mitochondrial Disorder with Cataract, Neutropenia, Epilepsy, and Methylglutaconic Aciduria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saunders, Carol; Smith, Laurie; Wibrand, Flemming;

    2015-01-01

    type IV 3-MGA-uria characterized by cataracts, severe psychomotor regression during febrile episodes, epilepsy, neutropenia with frequent infections, and death in early childhood. Four of the individuals were of Greenlandic descent, and one was North American, of Northern European and Asian descent...

  14. Diagnostic imaging in focal epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focal epilepsies account for 60% of all seizure disorders worldwide. In this review the classic and new classification system of epileptic seizures and syndromes as well as genetic forms are discussed. Magnetic resonance (MR) is the technique of choice for diagnostic imaging in focal epilepsy because of its sensitivity and high tissue contrast. The review is focused on the lack of consensus of imaging protocols and reported findings in refractory epilepsy. The most frequently encountered MRI findings in epilepsy are reported and their imaging characteristics are depicted. Diagnosis of hippocampal sclerosis and malformations of cortical development as two major causes of refractory focal epilepsy is described in details. Some promising new techniques as positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET/CT) and MR and PET/CT fusion are briefly discussed. Also the relevance of adequate imaging in focal epilepsy, some practical points in imaging interpretation and differential diagnosis are highlighted. (author)

  15. Confronting the stigma of epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev V Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Stigma and resultant psychosocial issues are major hurdles that people with epilepsy confront in their daily life. People with epilepsy, particularly women, living in economically weak countries are often ill equipped to handle the stigma that they experience at multiple levels. This paper offers a systematic review of the research on stigma from sociology and social psychology and details how stigma linked to epilepsy or similar conditions can result in stereotyping, prejudice and discrimination. We also briefly discuss the strategies that are most commonly utilized to mitigate stigma. Neurologists and other health care providers, social workers, support groups and policy makers working with epilepsy need to have a deep understanding of the social and cultural perceptions of epilepsy and the related stigma. It is necessary that societies establish unique determinants of stigma and set up appropriate strategies to mitigate stigma and facilitate the complete inclusion of people with epilepsy as well as mitigating any existing discrimination.

  16. Developmental stage affects cognition in children with recently-diagnosed symptomatic focal epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Linda M; Embuldeniya, Upeka S; Harvey, A Simon; Wrennall, Jacquie A; Testa, Renee; Anderson, Vicki A; Wood, Amanda G

    2014-10-01

    This study explored the impact of developmental stage on cognitive function in children with recently-diagnosed epilepsy. In keeping with a neurodevelopmental framework, skills in a critical developmental period were expected to be more vulnerable than those stable at the time of seizure onset. We studied children with early-onset (EO) symptomatic focal epilepsy (onset: 3-5 years; n=18) and compared their performance with that of the group with late-onset (LO) epilepsy (onset: 6-8 years performance of; n=8) on a range of cognitive tasks. Performance of both groups was compared with normative standards. 'Critical' and 'stable' classifications were based on developmental research. Nonparametric analyses revealed that skills in a critical developmental period for the group with EO epilepsy fell below normative standards (Phonological Processing: p=.007, Design Copying: p=.01, Visuomotor Precision:, p=.02) and fell below the performance of the group with LO epilepsy (Design Copying: p=.03, Visuomotor Precision: p=.03). There were no differences between the group with EO epilepsy and the group with LO epilepsy on measures of receptive vocabulary and memory, which were proposed to be in a stable developmental period across both groups. Auditory span, as measured by Word Order, was reduced for both the group with EO epilepsy (p=.02) and the group with LO epilepsy (p=.02) relative to normative standards, but the groups did not differ from each other. These results are consistent with a prolonged period of critical development for this skill. These findings support the notion that skills in a critical phase of development are particularly vulnerable following the onset of symptomatic focal epilepsy in childhood. PMID:25240120

  17. Graduated clinical manifestations according to mutation type in patients with severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brusgaard, Klaus; Møller, Rikke; Dahl, Hans Atli;

    Background Severe myoclonic epilepsy in infancy (SMEI) is a severe form of generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures (GEFS+). SMEI is a rare disorder characterized by generalized tonic, clonic, and tonic-clonic seizures that are initially induced by fever and begin during the first year of life...... syndrome, while GEFS+ is usually benign. An autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance is observed with GEFS+. SCN1A-related seizure disorders encompass a spectrum that ranges from simple febrile seizures (FS) and generalized epilepsy with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+) at the mild end to Dravet syndrome and...... intractable childhood epilepsy with generalized tonic-clonic seizures (ICE-GTC) at the severe end Patients and methods 87 infants representing GEFS+ were analyzed by bidirectional sequencing of all exons of the SCN1A, SCN2A, GABRG2 or SCN1B genes. Additionally, MLPA analysis of SCN1A was performed. Results In...

  18. The impact of epilepsy on preschool children and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanriverdi, Müberra; Mutluay, Fatma Karantay; Tarakçi, Devrim; Güler, Serhat; Iscan, Akin

    2016-09-01

    This study investigated the possible presence of sensory-motor developmental impairments in preschool children with epilepsy and explored epilepsy impact on their activities and quality of life and on the stress load of their family. Study participants were children aged 2-6years diagnosed with epilepsy without any other comorbidities (epi-only children). The instruments used for assessment included the Neurological, Sensory, Motor, Developmental Assessment (NSMDA) scale for sensory-motor development, the Impact of Childhood Neurologic Disability Scale (ICNDS), and the Impact of Pediatric Epilepsy Scale (IPES) for disease impact on disability and Quality of Life (QoL), as well as the Pediatric Outcomes Data Collection Instrument (PODCI) for functional health status, and the Parental Stress Scale (PSS) for the family stress load. Required data were obtained from direct testing or observation of children's activities and mother-supplied answers to questions. Eighty-two children were investigated. The NSMDA scores were in the normal development range 6-8. Significant moderate impact of the disease on disability and QoL was estimated with the ICNDS and IPES instruments. The PODCI scores were similar to healthy population levels except for the happiness dimension which was better for children with epilepsy. PSS were significantly above normal. The functional health and QoL of the children as well as their family stress were found to be positively correlated with increasing age. It is found that epilepsy does not degrade neuromotor development and functional health status of preschool epi-only children, though it has a significant impact on their neurological disability and QoL and the stress level of their families; this impact seems to decrease with age. PMID:27428870

  19. Neuroimaging of Epilepsy: Therapeutic Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzniecky, Ruben I.

    2005-01-01

    Summary: Neuroimaging has important applications in the diagnosis and treatment of patients with seizures and epilepsy. Having replaced computed tomography (CT) in many situations, MRI is the preferred imaging technique for patients with epilepsy. Advances in radionuclide-based techniques such as single-photon emission CT/positron emission tomography and electromagnetic source imaging with magnetoencephalography are providing new insights into the pathophysiology of epilepsy. In addition, tec...

  20. Temporal lobe epilepsy in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayanti Mani

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Temporal lobe epilepsy is a fairly homogenous syndrome in adults, with hippocampal sclerosis being the commonest etiology. In children, temporal lobe epilepsy is more commonly due to cortical dysplasia or tumors. The semiology and electrophysiology of temporal lobe seizures in children are distinct from adults and have age-dependent variations. The first-line treatment option in children includes antiepileptic drugs. Ketogenic diet and surgery are therapeutic options in refractory pediatric temporal lobe epilepsy.

  1. The role of cannabinoids and endocannabinoid system in the treatment of epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pędracka Monika

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The treatment of epilepsy is still a major challenge. Despite the introduction of many new antiepileptic drugs, approximately 30% of patients still remain drug resistant. In the absence of a satisfactory therapy outcome, which is sometimes associated with numerous side effects, there is a need for new and effective drugs with low toxicity. Cannabinoids have been shown in preliminary animal model studies and in studies of patients with epilepsy to have antiepileptic activity.

  2. CHD2 variants are a risk factor for photosensitivity in epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galizia, Elizabeth C.; Myers, Candace T.; Leu, Costin;

    2015-01-01

    -represented in cases overall (P = 2.17 × 10(-5)). Among epilepsy syndromes, there was over-representation of unique CHD2 variants (3/36 cases) in the archetypal photosensitive epilepsy syndrome, eyelid myoclonia with absences (P = 3.50 × 10(-4)). CHD2 variation was not over-represented in photoparoxysmal...... response without seizures. Zebrafish larvae with chd2 knockdown were tested for photosensitivity. Chd2 knockdown markedly enhanced mild innate zebrafish larval photosensitivity. CHD2 mutation is the first identified cause of the archetypal generalized photosensitive epilepsy syndrome, eyelid myoclonia with...

  3. Epilepsie u psů

    OpenAIRE

    Čechová, Aneta

    2013-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological disorders in dogs. It is manifested in the form of repeated seizures which arise by irritation of brain. Epilepsy can be caused by brain damage, but more often we meet with hereditary character of the disease with so-called idiopathic epilepsy. Idiopathic epilepsy can not be cured, only reduced. Therapy is for life, in the form of regular use of human anti – epileptics. In recent years the interest in this disease rises, because the...

  4. [Dietary therapy of epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imai, Katsumi; Ishihara, Eiko; Ikeda, Hiroko

    2014-05-01

    Reappraisal of ketogenic diets (KD) were delayed in Japan compared to USA and Korea. The reasons are unknown, but possible explanations are (1) Japanese food culture prefers rice and less fat and (2) ACTH therapy is preferred for West syndrome in Japan. Since Japanese child neurologists were surprised at dramatic effects on glucose transporter 1 deficiency syndrome (Glut-1DS) in 2003, KD have been slowly accepted for treatment of epilepsy in Japan. New generation KD including modified Atkins diet (mAD) are preferred to classical KD. KD can be causal therapy in Glut-1DS and some of mitochondrial disorders, though anti-epileptic drugs are symptomatic therapy. KD can alleviate intractable seizures in epilepsies with brain malformation in addition to West syndrome and Dravet syndrome, etc. KD may work for brain tumor, cancer, neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease. C7-8 triglycerides or fatty acid esters are under development as medicines replacing KD. PMID:24912289

  5. Rolandic epilepsy and dyslexia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ecila P. Oliveira

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective Although benign epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS is an idiopathic, age-related epilepsy syndrome with favorable outcome, recent studies have shown impairment in specific neuropsychological tests. The objective of this study was to analyze the comorbidity between dyslexia and BECTS. Method Thirty-one patients with clinical and electroencephalographic diagnosis of BECTS (group A and 31 paired children (group B underwent a language and neuropsychological assessment performed with several standardized protocols. Our findings were categorized as: a dyslexia; b other difficulties; c without difficulties. Our results were compared and statistically analyzed. Results Our data showed that dyslexia occurred in 19.4% and other difficulties in 74.2% of our patients. This was highly significant when compared with the control group (p<0.001. Phonological awareness, writing, reading, arithmetic, and memory tests showed a statistically significant difference when comparing both groups. Conclusion Our findings show significant evidence of the occurrence of dyslexia in patients with BECTS.

  6. Burns and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrocal, M

    1997-01-01

    This is a report of the first descriptive analytic study of a group of 183 burn patients, treated in the Burn Unit at the University Hospital of Cartagena, Colombia during the period since January 1985 until December 1990. There is presented experience with the selected group of 24 patients in whom the diagnosis of burn was associated with epilepsy. There is also analysed and described the gravity of the scars sequels, neurological disorders, the complication of the burn and an impact of this problem on the patient, his (her) family and the community. It is very important to report that there was found Neurocisticercosis in 66.6% of the group of burn patients with epilepsy, and it is probably the first risk factor of burn in this group. PMID:9212488

  7. Impaired Consciousness in Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Blumenfeld, Hal

    2012-01-01

    Consciousness is essential to normal human life. In epileptic seizures consciousness is often transiently lost making it impossible for the individual to experience or respond. This has huge consequences for safety, productivity, emotional health and quality of life. To prevent impaired consciousness in epilepsy it is necessary to understand the mechanisms leading to brain dysfunction during seizures. Normally the “consciousness system”—a specialized set of cortical-subcortical structures—mai...

  8. Neuroreceptor imaging in epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The neurochemical processes that mediate seizures in humans are not fully understood. PET has contributed to our understanding of the neurochemical abnormalities of epilepsy with studies of cerebral metabolism and, more recently, regional neuroreceptor binding. We have focused on inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors that may (1) be decreased, thus facilitating seizure initiation, or (2) increase in response to seizure activity. Opiate receptors are believed to mediate anticonvulsant effects of the endogenous opioids. Accordingly, [11 C]carfentanil, a ligand selective for the mu-opiate receptor, displays increased binding in temporal neocortex ipsilateral to seizure foci in complex partial epilepsy. This finding is consistent with activation of the endogenous opiate system in response to seizure activity. [11C]diprenorphine, a ligand that labels mu-, delta- and kappa-opiate receptors with equal affinity, shows little or no change in temporal cortex. Together, these findings suggest a decrease in delta- or kappa-receptors. The development of delta- and kappa-selective receptor ligands will help to elucidate the involvement of these opiate receptors in human epilepsy. The benzodiazepine-GABA receptor complex is the most prevalent in mediating inhibitory brain processes. Use of the benzodiazepine (BZD) receptor ligand [11C]RO 15-1788 has shown decreases in BZD receptors in human epilepsy in one study, but this has not been observed in a current study. Thus, the existence of reduced inhibitory processes that might enhance seizure initiation remains uncertain at present. Future studies of receptors for excitatory transmitters will provide additional insight into alternate factors potentially responsible for the initiation of seizures

  9. Citation classics in epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryann Wilson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The impact of a scientific article is proportional to the citations it has received. In this study, we set out to identify the most cited works in epileptology in order to evaluate research trends in this field. METHODS: According to the Web of Science database, articles with more than 400 citations qualify as "citation classics". We conducted a literature search on the ISI Web of Science bibliometric database for scientific articles relevant to epilepsy. RESULTS: We retrieved 67 highly cited articles (400 or more citations, which were published in 31 journals: 17 clinical studies, 42 laboratory studies, 5 reviews and 3 classification articles. Clinical studies consisted of epidemiological analyses (n=3, studies on the clinical phenomenology of epilepsy (n=5 – including behavioral and prognostic aspects – and articles focusing on pharmacological (n=6 and non-pharmacological (n=3 treatment. The laboratory studies dealt with genetics (n=6, animal models (n=27, and neurobiology (n=9 – including both neurophysiology and neuropathology studies. The majority (61% of citation classics on epilepsy were published after 1986, possibly reflecting the expansion of research interest in laboratory studies driven by the development of new methodologies, specifically in the fields of genetics and animal models. Consequently, clinical studies were highly cited both before and after the mid 80s, whilst laboratory researches became widely cited after 1990. CONCLUSIONS: Our study indicates that the main drivers of scientific impact in the field of epileptology have increasingly become genetic and neurobiological studies, along with research on animal models of epilepsy. These articles are able to gain the highest numbers of citations in the time span of a few years and suggest potential directions for future research.

  10. Neuroimaging in Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmoud Motamedi

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: The assessment of the problem of seizures requires knowledge of the clinical details and features of the seizures, the functional abnormality in the brain as shown on the EEG, and the structural assessment of the brain with an MRI study optimized for epilepsy. Usually MRI or computed tomographic (CT) scan should be performed in evaluating the cause of a newly diagnosed seizure disorder. MRI is preferred over CT because of its greater sensitivity and specificity for identifying s...

  11. Nonpharmacological treatment of epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V S Saxena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonpharmacological treatment of epilepsy includes surgery, vagal nerve stimulation, ketogenic diet, and other alternative/complementary therapies, e.g., yoga, Ayurveda, electroencephalography (EEG biofeedback technique, aerobic exercise, music therapy, transcranial magnetic stimulation, acupuncture, and herbal remedies (traditional Chinese medicine. Alternative therapies, despite the term, should not be considered as an alternative to antiepileptic medication; they complement accepted drug treatment. Alternative therapies like yoga, through techniques that relax the body and mind, reduce stress, improve seizure control, and also improve quality of life. Ketogenic diet is a safe and effective treatment for intractable epilepsies; it has been recommended since 1921. The diet induces ketosis, which may control seizures. The most successful treatment of epilepsy is with modern antiepileptic drugs, which can achieve control of seizures in 70-80% cases. Patients opt for alternative therapies because they may be dissatisfied with antiepileptic drugs due to their unpleasant side effects, the long duration of treatment, failure to achieve control of seizures, cultural beliefs and, in the case of women, because they wish to get pregnant Surgical treatment may lead to physical and psychological sequelae and is an option only for a minority of patients. This article presents supportive evidence from randomized controlled trials done to assess the benefit of non-pharmacological treatment.

  12. Epilepsy and radiological investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epilepsy is a heterogenous group of disorders with multiple causes. Clinical management of epilepsy patients requires knowledge of seizure syndromes, causes, and imaging features. The aim of radiological investigations is to recognize the underlying cause of epilepsy. The main indications for neuroimaging studies are partial and secondarily generalized seizures, patients with neurological signs and intractable seizures, and patients with focal signs on EEG. Partial seizures of any type are more likely to be associated with a focus that may be identified on neuroimaging. MRI is the method of choice for evaluating structural abnormalities of the brain. High resolution MRI and dedicated imaging technique are needed for detection of subtle pathological changes as cortical dysplasias and temporal medial sclerosis. Other lesions that may be detected include neoplasms, vascular malformations, destructive lesions following brain injury, stroke, infection, etc. CT continues to be the technique for the investigation of patients with seizures under certain conditions. New techniques such as functional MRI, MR spectroscopy, SPECT, receptor PET and magnetic source imaging are becoming clinical tools for improving diagnosis

  13. [Epilepsy and Canon Law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonduelle, M

    1987-01-01

    The Canon Law (Codex Iuris Canonici), promulgated in 1917, was a classification of laws and jurisprudence which ruled the early Church, governed the ecclesiastical condition of Roman Church until its reorganisation in 1983. It forbade to be ordained or to exercise orders already received to "those who are or were epileptics either not quite in their right mind or possessed by the Evil One". All the context and in particular the paragraph which treated of bodily lacks, indicated that between these three conditions, there was juxtaposition and no confusion. The texts specified the foundations of these dispositions, not in a malefic view of epilepsy inherited from Morbus Sacer of Antiquity, but in decency and on account of risk incured by Eucharist in case of fit. Some derogations could attenuate the severity of these dispositions--as jurisprudence had taken progresses of Epileptology and therapeutics into consideration. In the new Code of Canon Law (1983) physical disabilities were removed from the text and also possessed evil and epilepsy, the only impediment being "insanity or other psychic defect" appreciation of which is done by experts. Concerning poorly controlled epilepsies, we believe that experts will be allowed to express their opinion and a new jurisprudence will make up for the silence of the law. PMID:3310183

  14. Purinergic signaling in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassendren, François; Audinat, Etienne

    2016-09-01

    Until recently, analysis of the mechanisms underlying epilepsy was centered on neuron dysfunctions. Accordingly, most of the available pharmacological treatments aim at reducing neuronal excitation or at potentiating neuronal inhibition. These therapeutic options can lead to obvious secondary effects, and, moreover, seizures cannot be controlled by any known medication in one-third of the patients. A purely neurocentric view of brain functions and dysfunctions has been seriously questioned during the past 2 decades because of the accumulation of experimental data showing the functional importance of reciprocal interactions between glial cells and neurons. In the case of epilepsy, our current knowledge of the human disease and analysis of animal models clearly favor the involvement of astrocytes and microglial cells during the progression of the disease, including at very early stages, opening the way to the identification of new therapeutic targets. Purinergic signaling is a fundamental feature of neuron-glia interactions, and increasing evidence indicates that modifications of this pathway contribute to the functional remodeling of the epileptic brain. This Review discusses the recent experimental results indicating the roles of astrocytic and microglial P2X and P2Y receptors in epilepsy. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27302739

  15. Exploring the school attendance of children with epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Piccin Zanni

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The childhood epilepsy is a chronic disease that can have an impact in various spheres of life of the child, including academic performance and school attendance. This study aimed to describe and compare the school attendance of children with epilepsy who attend mainstream and special schools. Participants were 56 children aged between 7 and 14 years who attended regular or special schools located in two Brazilian cities of medium size. To collect the information we used two instruments: Data sheet of identification and characterization of the child and Data sheet to record the attendance school. The results showed that children in special schools had higher rates of absenteeism compared to students in regular schools. Additionally, we observed that these children use more drugs and have implications on health more severe than children in regular schools. Thus, it is the childhood epilepsy as a disease complex that brings substantial effects on various areas of children’s lives by reinforcing the need for studies that might expand the knowledge to and the experiences associated with the education of these children.

  16. Understanding of Epilepsy by Children and Young People with Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ann; Parsons, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    There is a striking dearth of studies focusing sensitively and in depth on the mainstream educational experiences of children with epilepsy, as viewed by those children themselves. The one-year project (2006-7) reported here addresses that gap. Children's perceptions about mainstream teachers' understanding of epilepsy and school-based needs are…

  17. Focal epilepsies in adult patients attending two epilepsy centers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilioli, Isabella; Vignoli, Aglaia; Visani, Elisa;

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: To classify the grade of antiepileptic drug (AED) resistance in a cohort of patients with focal epilepsies, to recognize the risk factors for AED resistance, and to estimate the helpfulness of "new-generation" AEDs. METHODS: We included 1,155 adults with focal epilepsies who were observed...... consecutively after 1990 and followed regularly at two epilepsy centers. We systematically collected the clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic data using a custom-written database. We classified the patients as seizure-free or AED resistant according to the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) criteria...... the 729 patients with symptomatic focal epilepsies and was positively associated with electroencephalography (EEG) abnormalities, seizure type, and the presence of mesial temporal sclerosis. Among 426 patients without detectable causes, the percentage of AED resistance was significantly lower (39...

  18. Papel de la monoterapia con nuevos fármacos antiepilépticos en el tratamiento de la epilepsia infantil Role of monotherapy with new antiepileptic drugs in the treatment of childhood epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Valencia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se revisa la información actual sobre el uso de los nuevos fármacos antiepilépticos (FAEs en monoterapia en niños, resaltando nuestra experiencia personal. Específicamente, se incluyen los siguientes FAEs: lamotrigina (Lamictal®, topiramato (Topamax®, zonisamida (Zonegran®, levetiracetam (Keppra®, y oxcarbacepina (Trileptal®. Todos estos FAEs tienen un amplio espectro de acción en el tratamiento de crisis epilépticas parciales y generalizadas, excepto la oxcarbacepina, que es eficaz exclusivamente en crisis parciales. No está claro si la monoterapia con estos FAEs, en comparación con los FAEs clásicos (fenobarbital, fenitoína, carbamacepina, valproato sódico, proporciona una mayor eficacia y/o causa menos efectos secundarios y, si por lo tanto, mejora significativamente la calidad de vida de los niños con epilepsia. Se necesitan más estudios para poder contestar estas preguntas.In this paper we review the current information regarding the use of new antiepileptic drugs (AEDs used as monotherapy in children. We specifically include the following AEDs: lamotrigine (Lamictal®, topiramate (Topamax®, zonisamide (Zonegran®, levetiracetam (Keppra®, and oxcarbazepine (Trileptal®. All of these AEDs have a broad spectrum of action in the treatment of partial and generalized seizures, except Oxcarbazepine, which is effective only in partial seizures. It is unclear whether or not monotherapy with the new AEDs offers higher efficacy and/or lower side effects compared to classic AEDs (phenobarbital, phenytoin, carbamazepine, or valproate thereby significantly improving the quality of life in children with epilepsy. More studies are needed to answer these questions.

  19. Neuroimaging in Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud Motamedi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The assessment of the problem of seizures requires knowledge of the clinical details and features of the seizures, the functional abnormality in the brain as shown on the EEG, and the structural assessment of the brain with an MRI study optimized for epilepsy. Usually MRI or computed tomographic (CT scan should be performed in evaluating the cause of a newly diagnosed seizure disorder. MRI is preferred over CT because of its greater sensitivity and specificity for identifying small lesions."nBecause there is an option of surgical excision of the "seizure focus," which may cure the patient, the detection of a focal abnormality of the brain is important for the formulation of the reason for the seizures and the options available for treatment. Knowledge of the brain abnormalities early in the course of treating the patient greatly helps the management of each individual. The challenge to epileptologists is that the problem of epilepsy is a special one, which requires optimized protocols dedicated to it."nMRI interpretation is different when used in a screening way and when viewed in the context of other investigations. This is particularly important when the patient has partial seizures and may be considered for surgical treatment."nMost centers that deal with epilepsy spend a great deal of time in ensuring the quality of their EEG and EEG interpretation. However, unless there is a radiologist with an interest in epilepsy or an epileptologist who spends time with radiologist colleagues, it can be difficult to establish good epilepsy-focused MRI with appropriate sequences, radiography, and interpretation. MRI acquisition and interpretation need to be focused on the problem of epilepsy."nIndication"nThe American academy of neurology has published practice parameters for neuroimaging (NI studies (MRI, CT of patients having a first seizure. Emergent NI (scan immediately should be performed when a health care provider suspects a serious

  20. Sequential motor task (Luria's Fist-Edge-Palm Test in children with benign focal epilepsy of childhood with centrotemporal spikes Tarefa motora sequencial (Teste de Lúria punho-lado-palma em crianças com epilepsia focal benigna da infância com descarga centrotemporal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Silvia Molleis Galego Miziara

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the sequential motor manual actions in children with benign focal epilepsy of childhood with centrotemporal spikes (BECTS and compares the results with matched control group, through the application of Luria's fist-edge-palm test. The children with BECTS underwent interictal single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT and School Performance Test (SPT. Significant difference occurred between the study and control groups for manual motor action through three equal and three different movements. Children with lower school performance had higher error rate in the imitation of hand gestures. Another factor significantly associated with the failure was the abnormality in SPECT. Children with BECTS showed abnormalities in the test that evaluated manual motor programming/planning. This study may suggest that the functional changes related to epileptiform activity in rolandic region interfere with the executive function in children with BECTS.Esse estudo avaliou ações motoras manuais sequenciais em crianças com epilepsia focal benigna da infância com descarga centrotemporal (EBICT e comparou os resultados com o grupo controle pareado, através do teste de Lúria (punho-lado-palma. As crianças com EBICT realizaram single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT interictal e Teste de Desempenho Escolar (TDE. Foram encontradas diferenças significativas entre os dois grupos nas atividades motoras de três movimentos iguais e três movimentos diferentes. As crianças com piores resultados no TDE e com SPECT alterado apresentaram mais erros no teste de imitação manual. Crianças com epilepsia fracassaram nos testes de avaliação motora que envolvem programação/planejamento. Esse estudo sugere que mudanças funcionais relacionadas à atividade epileptiforme na região rolândica interfere com as funções executivas de crianças com EBICT.

  1. Partial Epilepsy with Auditory Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The clinical characteristics of 53 sporadic (S cases of idiopathic partial epilepsy with auditory features (IPEAF were analyzed and compared to previously reported familial (F cases of autosomal dominant partial epilepsy with auditory features (ADPEAF in a study at the University of Bologna, Italy.

  2. Electroencephalography in dogs with epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berendt, Martin Ole; Høgenhaven, H; Flagstad, Annette Borgbjerg;

    1999-01-01

    To investigate the diagnostic value of electroencephalography (EEG) in dogs with epilepsy, applying human criteria for EEG abnormalities observed with this disorder.......To investigate the diagnostic value of electroencephalography (EEG) in dogs with epilepsy, applying human criteria for EEG abnormalities observed with this disorder....

  3. The Music Student with Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, Matthew C.; Morgan, Joseph A.; Laverghetta, Thomas S.

    2012-01-01

    The teacher-student relationship can afford the music educator an opportunity to be the first to identify behaviors associated with epilepsy. A case of a student with epilepsy, based on the authors' experience, is described in which the music educators were the first and only individuals to become aware of a change in the student's behavior, after…

  4. The Mozart Effect and Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2011-01-01

    Researchers at Kaohsiung Medical University and other centers in Taiwan studied the long-term effect of listening to Mozart K-448 (Sonata for Two Pianos in D major) on the frequency of epileptiform discharges in children with epilepsy, and analyzed the relationship between the number of epileptiform discharges and foci of origin, epilepsy etiology, age, IQ, and gender.

  5. Headache and school absence.

    OpenAIRE

    Collin, C; Hockaday, J M; Waters, W E

    1985-01-01

    The amount of time missed from school in two small town school populations was estimated by measuring absence from school and attendance at sickbay, and stated causes were analysed. School absence related to headache (expressed as percentage of pupil days missed out of possible pupil days, during two 12 week periods) in children aged 5 to 14 years, was 0.05%. This represented approximately 1% of all school absence, and was recorded (usually only once) in 3.7% of children. The duration of abse...

  6. Possible relationship between phenylthiocarbamide taste sensitivity and epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pal S

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available The study was based on the data of a sample of 400 epileptic patients (200 idiopathic and 200 symptomatic and 100 normal healthy individuals serving as controls. The PTC threshold distribution was bimodal. The number of non-tasters among idiopathic epileptics (35.5% and symptomatic epileptics (32.5% was significantly higher than controls (20%. The relative incidence of non-tasters in idiopathic and symptomatic epilepsies was 2.20 and 1.93 respectively. There is evidence that non-tasters tend to ingest a greater quantity of bitter tasting goitrogenic substances present naturally in edible plants which in turn exert greater thyroid stress in non-tasters or less sensitive tasters. Such a stress during intrauterine or early childhood growth and development might have affected neurological maturation which in turn made them more susceptible to epilepsy than tasters, who faced lesser stress.

  7. MOYAMOYA INDUCED ACUTE PARAPLEGIA IN A CHILD WITH EPILEPSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MM. Taghdiri

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveMoyamoya disease (MMD is a chronic, occlusive, cerebrovascular disorder of unknown  pathogenesis, characterized by progressive stenosis of the bilateral supraclinoid internal carotid arteries, with concomitant formation of tortuous arterial collateral vessels at the base of the brain, which reconstitute distal branches of the cerebral circulation. In Japanese, "Moyamoya" means "hazy puff of smoke" and refers to the angiographic appearance of the abnormal network of vessels that develop at the base of the brain and basal ganglia to supply a collateral route of blood flow. We report here the case of Moyamoya disease in a 5 year-old girl with normal mentality with a one year history of epilepsy, with Todd's paralysis. This condition is rare and most patients are diagnosed in childhood. With this report we aim to underscore the possibility that a usual neurological sign could be associated with unusual neurological disorders.Keywords:Moyamoya disease, Todd's paralysis, Epilepsy

  8. Epilepsias parciais familiares Familial partial epilepsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELIANE KOBAYASHI

    2000-09-01

    ência familiar é comum nas epilepsias parciais, tanto em adultos como em crianças. A maior parte dos casos estudados foi de pacientes com ELT e a expressão clínica não foi diferente da observada em casos esporádicos, predominando pacientes com bom controle de crises, apesar do caráter heterogêneo. A identificação dos genes envolvidos nos casos estudados poderá ser útil na classificação das síndromes epilépticas, na determinação do prognóstico e regime terapêutico mais indicado.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical and genetic characteristics of familial partial epilepsies. METHOD: Family history of seizures was questioned in all patients followed in our epilepsy clinics, from October 1997 to December 1998. Those with positive family history were further investigated and detailed pedigrees were obtained. All possibly affected individuals available underwent clinical evaluation. Seizures and epilepsy syndromes were classified according to the ILAE recommendations. Whenever possible, EEG and MRI were performed. RESULTS: Positive family history was identified in 32 unrelated patients. A total of 213 possibly affected individuals were identified, 161 of whom have been evaluated. The number of affected subjects per family ranged from two to 23. Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE was identified in 22 families (68%, frontal lobe epilepsy in one family (3%, partial epilepsy with centrotemporal spikes in five families (15%, and other benign partial epilepsies of childhood in four families (12%. Most of the affected individuals in the TLE families (69% had clinical and/or EEG characteristics of typical TLE. However, the severity of epilepsy was variable, with 76% of patients with spontaneous seizure remission or good control with medication and 24% with refractory seizures, including 7 patients that underwent surgical treatment. In the other 10 families, we identified 39 possibly affected subjects, 23 of whom were evaluated. All had good seizure control (with or without

  9. 38 CFR 4.122 - Psychomotor epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Psychomotor epilepsy. 4... Psychomotor epilepsy. The term psychomotor epilepsy refers to a condition that is characterized by seizures... psychomotor epilepsy vary from patient to patient and in the same patient from seizure to seizure. (b)...

  10. The social and economic consequences of epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Gyllenborg, Jesper; Kjellberg, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    Epilepsy causes a significant burden to patients and to society. We aimed to calculate the factual excess in direct and indirect costs associated with epilepsy.......Epilepsy causes a significant burden to patients and to society. We aimed to calculate the factual excess in direct and indirect costs associated with epilepsy....

  11. Families' experiences of living with pediatric epilepsy: A qualitative systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Jeni; Black, Rebecca; Chin, Richard F M

    2016-07-01

    Living with epilepsy in childhood has implications for the child and their family beyond the physical effects associated with epileptic seizures. Qualitative research has emerged, aiming to deliver a greater depth of understanding of the experiences of living with epilepsy from the perspectives of children with epilepsy, their parents, and their siblings. This review of qualitative research had three aims: first, to synthesize the demographic and epilepsy profiles of research participants in eligible studies in order to provide a clear picture of who are included and excluded when studying families' experiences; second, to present and discuss the methodological concerns and implications of research involving children with epilepsy; and third, to synthesize the findings arising from qualitative research with families in order to identify common themes across all relevant studies to date. Papers published in the English language prior to January 2016 were identified following a search of eight electronic databases: Embase, Psychinfo, Medline, CINAHL, Web of Knowledge, ASSIA, Web of Science, and SCOPUS. Studies were included if they involved a sample of children with epilepsy (up to 18years of age), parents, or siblings of children with epilepsy and used qualitative methods. Twenty-one studies were identified as eligible for inclusion in the review. Findings in relation to the three aims were the following: 1) Researchers were seeking an understanding of children's experiences directly from children rather than by parental proxy. However, children with learning disabilities were often excluded from research, meaning that their views are not being heard. Parental research was predominantly with mothers, and father experiences were not often accessed. There was very little research with siblings. 2) The rationale for and ethical implications of the choice of research methods adopted were not always clear, and not all studies gave adequate attention to the development of

  12. Childhood Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cells. It is the most common type of childhood cancer. Your blood cells form in your bone ... in the bones or joints Risk factors for childhood leukemia include having a brother or sister with ...

  13. Childhood Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Childhood Stress KidsHealth > For Parents > Childhood Stress Print A A ... and feel stress to some degree. Sources of Stress Stress is a function of the demands placed ...

  14. Photodynamic therapy for epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zusman, Edie; Sidhu, Manpreet; Coon, Valerie; Scott, Nicholas; Bisland, Stuart; Tsukamoto, Tara

    2006-02-01

    Epilepsy is surgically curable if the seizure focus can be localized and does not include areas of eloquent cortex. Because epileptic cells are indistinct from surrounding brain, resection typically includes normal tissue. Using the rat kindling model of epilepsy, we evaluated Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) as a super-selective lesioning technique. We present a series of pilot studies to evaluate: 1) Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence, 2) the efficacy of PDT to raise seizure thresholds, 3) the safety of PDT using behavioral studies, and 4) histologic results. Bipolar electrodes were chronically implanted into the cortex and animals received successive low-level stimulation generating seizures of increasing severity. Following 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) administration, fully kindled rats received electrical stimulation to induce a generalized seizure. Animals were irradiated with laser light focused onto a temporal craniectomy. Our results show: 1) an increase in PpIX fluorescence in the seizure group, 2) PDT treated animals failed to demonstrate seizure activity following repeat stimulation, 3) no statistically significant difference between treated and control animals were observed on behavioral tests, 4) histology showed pyknotic hippocampal pyramidal cells in the CA3 region without areas of obvious necrosis. In conclusion, this is the first report of heightened PpIX-mediated fluorescence in epileptic brain. The selective accumulation of PpIX with laser PDT may provide a less invasive and more precise technique for obliteration of epileptic foci. PDT warrants additional research to determine if this technique may augment or replace existing procedures for the surgical management of epilepsy.

  15. Epilepsie und psychiatrische Erkrankungen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baumgartner C

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatrische Erkrankungen treten bei Epilepsiepatienten signifikant häufiger auf als in der Allgemeinbevölkerung und als bei Patienten mit anderen chronischen Erkrankungen. Die Depression stellt die häufigste psychiatrische Begleiterkrankung bei Epilepsie dar. Die Häufigkeit von Depressionen korreliert mit der Anfallskontrolle: Sie liegt zwischen 3 und 9 % bei gut kontrollierter Epilepsie, jedoch zwischen 20 und 55 % bei Patienten mit therapieresistenten Epilepsien. Umgekehrt ist bei Patienten mit neu diagnostizierten Epilepsien anamnestisch signifikant häufiger eine Depression zu erheben als in einem Vergleichskollektiv. Diese bidirektionale Beziehung zwischen Epilepsie und Depression könnte durch gemeinsame Pathomechanismen beider Erkrankungen erklärt werden. Obwohl das Vorliegen und der Schweregrad einer Depression die wichtigsten Prädiktoren für die Lebensqualität bei Epilepsiepatienten darstellen, werden Depressionen bei Epilepsiepatienten unterdiagnostiziert und unterbehandelt. Eine psychopharmakologische Behandlung sollte bei Vorliegen einer Begleitdepression deshalb unverzüglich initiiert werden, das epileptogene Potential von Antidepressiva stellt dabei ein vernachlässigbares Risiko dar. Die Prävalenz psychotischer Störungen bei Epilepsiepatienten liegt zwischen 2 und 8 %, wobei sogenannte episodische Psychosen (iktale, postiktale und Alternativpsychosen, die in einem zeitlichen Bezug zum Anfallsgeschehen stehen, und chronische Psychosen (interiktale Psychosen ohne zeitlichen Bezug zu den Anfällen, unterschieden werden können. Die Prävalenz von Angststörungen bei Epilepsiepatienten liegt zwischen 15 und 25 %. Man kann zwischen präiktaler, iktaler, postiktaler und interiktaler Angst unterscheiden.

  16. PECULIARITIES OF TREATMENT OF EPILEPSY AT GIRLS AND WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Pylaeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The epilepsy treatment is to be based on existing general principles and standards of therapy with differential approach to each patient. Besides peculiarities of treatment of different types of seizures and forms of epilepsy there are also differential approaches to special groups of patients. To one of such groups are referred to women of reproductive age. These patients are referred to special group of risk due to the development of certain side effects of antiepileptic drugs (АED. This article focuses in details on peculiarities of treatment of women of reproductive age with epilepsy with accent made on tolerability and safety of the antiepileptic therapy. It is necessary to take into consideration, that at women neuroendocrinal disorders can be caused both by the disease itself – epilepsy (in such case disorders depend on the starting age, form of epilepsy, focal localization, duration of disorder and other factors, referred to the disease, as well as by the undertaken therapy. The articlehereunder considers only issues, referred to the treatment, i. e. AED side effects and its input in the decrease of life quality of women with epilepsy. As women’s reproductive function starts forming long ago before childbearing age, it is necessary for this category to comprise not only women and adolescents, but girls as well. Notwithstanding the fact that so called benign forms of epilepsy pass before the pubescence period (idiopathic focal epilepsies, several forms of idiopathic generalized epilepsy, in many cases the epilepsy, which has started in childhood, continues in the adult age as well. In the same time there can be possible remote negative consequences of the antiepileptic therapy, which can show at a woman of a reproductive age. The data, given in the article, witnesses the need of the right AED selection at women of reproductive age, suffering from epilepsy. The AED should be selected not only depending on the form of the

  17. Epilepsy Prevalence in the 0-17 Age Group in Trabzon, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Topbaş

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Epilepsy is a most common serious neurological disorder and is one of the world’s most prevalent non-communicable diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of epilepsy in 0–17 year old children in Trabzon, Turkey.Methods: A cross-sectional epidemiological investigation was performed in two phases, a screening phase and a confirmation of the diagnosis phase. The gold standard was a clinical investigation and neurological examination. The diagnosis of epilepsy followed clinical guidelines proposed by the International League against Epilepsy (ILAE. The chi-square test was used in analysis of the results and P-value <0.05 was calculated.Findings: The prevalence per 1000 participants of epilepsy was 8.6 (5.9–11.4; 95%CI. We detected 37 cases(18 males and 19 females of epilepsy. The male/female ratio was 0.95. This study showed an increased risk for epilepsy with low socioeconomic level, a history of postpartum seizure, meningitis, head trauma, febrile convulsion and family history of epilepsy. More than one seizure type was present in 15 (40.5% of epileptic children. Generalized tonic-clonic seizures were determined in 24 patients (64.9% and absence type in 9 (24.3%. It was found that 25.0% of children with epilepsy had never visited the school at the time the study was performed due to the disease and attendant seizures.Conclusion: The prevalence of epilepsy in Trabzon is low compared to other parts of Turkey and other developing countries.

  18. Epilepsy and anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marly de Albuquerque

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available We have analyzed 155 subjects with STAI (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory: 75 epileptic patients and 80 normal subjects used as a control group. A higher trait-anxiety score (chronic anxiety than that of controls was found for the epileptic group. For the epileptic group higher levels of the A-trait occurred in patients with EEG abnormalities with left temporal localization. We have also observed that the shorter the epilepsy lasts (less than two years, the higher the trait-anxiety levels. Convulsions and awareness loss during epileptic seizures do not modify state and trait-anxiety scores.

  19. Childhood Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, Justine; Howard, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Childhood obesity has important consequences for health and wellbeing both during childhood and also in later adult life. The rising prevalence of childhood obesity poses a major public health challenge in both developed and developing countries by increasing the burden of chronic non-communicable diseases. Despite the urgent need for effective preventative strategies, there remains disagreement over its definition due to a lack of evidence on the optimal cut-offs linking childhood BMI to dis...

  20. Childhood Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Childhood Cancer KidsHealth > For Parents > Childhood Cancer Print A A A Text Size What's ... in children, but can happen. The most common childhood cancers are leukemia , lymphoma , and brain cancer . As ...

  1. Video electroencephalogram telemetry in temporal lobe epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Jayanti Mani

    2014-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most commonly encountered medically refractory epilepsy. It is also the substrate of refractory epilepsy that gives the most gratifying results in any epilepsy surgery program, with a minimum use of resources. Correlation of clinical behavior and the ictal patterns during ictal behavior is mandatory for success at epilepsy surgery. Video electroencephalogram (EEG) telemetry achieves this goal and hence plays a pivotal role in pre-surgical assessment. The ro...

  2. Assessment of clinical risk factors for drug-resistant epilepsy in children and teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Kasprzyk

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Epilepsy is one of the most common neurological illnesses occurring in children. In approximately 20–30% of cases it is drug-resistant. Aim of the research: To assess the already-known risk factors, analyse the rarely described ones, and find new causes of epilepsy drug resistance in children, taking into account the level of impact of each factor. Material and methods : The study comprised 152 of all 383 children hospitalised in 2012 at the Neurology Department of the Polish Mother’s Memorial Hospital in Lodz due to epilepsy. Based on medical documentation, neurological examination, and our own questionnaire, we divided patients into two groups: drug-resistant epilepsy or drug-sensitive epilepsy. We compared the type, level of influence, and prevalence of different factors. For statistical analysis, the 2 test was used. Statistical significance was set at p < 0.05. Results: Drug-resistant epilepsy was found in 64 patients (42.1%, and drug-sensitive epilepsy was found in 88 patients (57.9%. Factors that were most probable to cause drug resistance included: high prevalence of seizures (Cramer’s V = 0.66, type of epileptic syndrome (V = 0.62, psychomotor developmental delay (V = 0.62, and occurrence of status epilepticus (V = 0.6. Factors such as infections of CNS in early childhood, repeated severe infections of airways in childhood, and mother’s infectious diseases with high fever during pregnancy were rare or non occurring (Cramer’s V = 0.41, 0.32, and 0.31, respectively. Conclusions : The study confirmed the previously known causes of drug resistance and indicated the significance of underestimated inflammatory and infectious factors involving pyrexia, in children and also in mothers during pregnancy.

  3. Genetic Causes of Generalized Epilepsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helbig, Ingo

    2015-06-01

    Generalized epilepsies, particularly the idiopathic or genetic generalized epilepsies (GGEs), represent some of the most common epilepsies. Clinical genetic data including family studies and twin studies provide compelling evidence for a prominent genetic impact. The first decade of the 21st century was marked by progress in understanding the basic biology of generalized epilepsies including generalized/genetic epilepsies with febrile seizures plus (GEFS+) and GGE through studies of large families, discovering causative mutations in SCN1A, SCN1B, GABRG2, and GABRA1. Subsequently, recurrent microdeletions at 15q13.3, 16p13.11, and 15q11.2 were found to be relevant risk factors for nonfamilial GGE. Genes for epileptic encephalopathies such as SLC2A1 were rediscovered in GGE, highlighting the biological continuum between different epilepsies. Genome-wide studies examining common genetic risk factors identified common variants in SCN1A, indicating a convergence of shared pathophysiological pathways in various types of epilepsies. In the era of next-generation sequencing, however, the GGEs appear more complex than expected, and small or moderately sized studies give only a limited genetic perspective. Thus, there is a strong impetus for large collaborative investigations on an international level. PMID:26060908

  4. Epilepsy care in general practice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Varley, J

    2009-06-01

    Epilepsy care in Ireland is shared between primary, secondary and tertiary care services with the General Practitioner (GP) managing the process. Barriers to effective epilepsy care in Irish general practice remain undocumented although sub-optimal and fragmented services are frequently anecdotally reported. This survey of Irish GPs reports on such barriers to epilepsy care and on the Information & Communication Technology (ICT) issues potentially relevant to the use of an epilepsy specific Electronic Patient Record (EPR). The response rate was 247\\/700 (35.3%). Respondents supported the concept of shared care for epilepsy 237 (96%) however they were very dissatisfied with existing neurology services, including pathways of referral 207 (84%) and access to specialist neurology advice and investigations 232 (94%). They reported that neurology services and investigations may be accessed more expeditiously by patients with private health insurance than those without 178 (72%). Consequently many patients are referred to the emergency department for assessment and treatment 180 (73%). A deficit in epilepsy care expertise among GPs was acknowledged 86 (35%). While computerisation of GP practices appears widespread 230 (93%), just over half the respondents utilise available electronic functionalities specific to chronic disease management. GP specific electronic systems infrequently link or communicate with external electronic sources 133 (54%). While the current pathways of care for epilepsy in Ireland appear fragmented and inadequate, further investigations to determine the quality and cost effectiveness of the current service are required.

  5. Managing epilepsy in pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjeev V Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There are close to one and half million women with epilepsy (WWE in reproductive age group in India. WWE have several unique gender-specific problems in the biological and social domains. Women experience more social stigma from epilepsy and have more difficulty with education and employment. They have more difficulty to get married and sustain successful family life. Reproductive hormones like estrogen and progesterone have opposing effect on seizure threshold. WWE have increased risk of infertility. About 10% of their babies may have major congenital malformations. Most of the adverse biological outcomes for WWE are related to adverse effects of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs. Traditional AEDs like phenobarbitone and sodium valproate are probably associated with increased risk of fetal malformations or other adverse fetal outcomes. Polytherapy and use of high dose of any AED is associated with higher risk fetal complications. It is very important that all WWE have a preconception evaluation done by a neurologist, when the need to continue AEDs or possibility of reducing AED load could be assessed. All WWE need to take folic acid 5 mg daily during preconception period and pregnancy. They should undergo a detailed screening for fetal malformations between 12 and 18 weeks of pregnancy. The neurologist, gynecologist, imageologist and pediatrician need to work as a team while managing pregnancy in WWE. It is important to reassure WWE and their relatives that pregnancy is safe in WWE and their children are healthy in more than 90% instances.

  6. Progressive Myoclonus Epilepsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kälviäinen, Reetta

    2015-06-01

    The progressive myoclonus epilepsies (PMEs) comprise a group of rare and heterogeneous disorders defined by the combination of action myoclonus, epileptic seizures, and progressive neurologic deterioration. Neurologic deterioration may include progressive cognitive decline, ataxia, neuropathy, and myopathy. The gene defects for the most common forms of PME (Unverricht-Lundborg disease, Lafora disease, several forms of neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses, myoclonus epilepsy with ragged-red fibers [MERRF], and type 1 and 2 sialidoses) have been identified. The prognosis of a PME depends on the specific disease. Lafora disease, the neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses, and the neuronopathic form of Gaucher disease have an invariably fatal course. In contrast, Unverricht-Lundborg disease has a much slower progression, and with adequate care many patients have a normal life span. The specific diseases that cause PME are diagnosed by recognition of their age of onset, the associated clinical symptoms, the clinical course, the pattern of inheritance, and by special investigations such as enzyme measurement, skin/muscle biopsy, or gene testing. PMID:26060909

  7. Progressive myoclonic epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satishchandra, P; Sinha, S

    2010-01-01

    Progressive myoclonic epilepsy (PME) is a disease complex and is characterized by the development of relentlessly progressive myoclonus, cognitive impairment, ataxia, and other neurologic deficits. It encompasses different diagnostic entities and the common causes include Lafora body disease, neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses, Unverricht-Lundborg disease, myoclonic epilepsy with ragged-red fiber (MERRF) syndrome, sialidoses, dentato-rubro-pallidal atrophy, storage diseases, and some of the inborn errors of metabolism, among others. Recent advances in this area have clarified molecular genetic basis, biological basis, and natural history, and also provided a rational approach to the diagnosis. Most of the large studies related to PME are from south India from a single center, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurological Sciences (NIMHANS), Bangalore. However, there are a few case reports and small series about Lafora body disease, neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses and MERRF from India. We review the clinical and research experience of a cohort of PME patients evaluated at NIMHANS over the last two decades, especially the phenotypic, electrophysiologic, pathologic, and genetic aspects. PMID:20739785

  8. Progressive myoclonic epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satishchandra P

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Progressive myoclonic epilepsy (PME is a disease complex and is characterized by the development of relentlessly progressive myoclonus, cognitive impairment, ataxia, and other neurologic deficits. It encompasses different diagnostic entities and the common causes include Lafora body disease, neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses, Unverricht-Lundborg disease, myoclonic epilepsy with ragged-red fiber (MERRF syndrome, sialidoses, dentato-rubro-pallidal atrophy, storage diseases, and some of the inborn errors of metabolism, among others. Recent advances in this area have clarified molecular genetic basis, biological basis, and natural history, and also provided a rational approach to the diagnosis. Most of the large studies related to PME are from south India from a single center, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurological Sciences (NIMHANS, Bangalore. However, there are a few case reports and small series about Lafora body disease, neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses and MERRF from India. We review the clinical and research experience of a cohort of PME patients evaluated at NIMHANS over the last two decades, especially the phenotypic, electrophysiologic, pathologic, and genetic aspects.

  9. SPECT in Focal Epilepsies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderick Duncan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain perfusion changes during seizures were first observed in the 1930s. Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT was developed in the 1970s, and tracers suitable for the imaging of regional cerebral perfusion (rCP became available in the 1980s. The method was first used to study rCP in the interictal phase, and this showed areas of low perfusion in a proportion of cases, mainly in patients with temporal lobe epilepsies. However, the trapping paradigm of tracers such as hexamethyl propyleneamine oxime (HMPAO provided a practicable method of studying changes in rCP during seizures, and a literature was established in the late 1980s and early 1990s showing a typical sequence of changes during and after seizures of mesial temporal lobe origin; the ictal phase was associated with large increases in perfusion throughout the temporal lobe, with first the lateral, then the mesial temporal lobe becoming hypoperfused in the postictal phase. Activation and inhibition of other structures, such as the basal ganglia and frontal cortex, were also seen. Studies of seizures originating elsewhere in the brain have shown a variety of patterns of change, according to the structures involved. These changes have been used practically to aid the process of localisation of the epileptogenic zone so that epilepsy surgery can be planned.

  10. Epilepsy and sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Linschoten, R; Backx, F J; Mulder, O G; Meinardi, H

    1990-07-01

    Millions of healthy people participate in sport on a regular basis. Moreover, in the last decade patients with chronic disorders have been encouraged to take part in sporting activities as a part of their rehabilitation. Can epileptic patients freely participate in sport or whether they are restricted to a certain extent by their disorder? An important factor is freedom from seizures. If seizures have been controlled for over 2 years the risk of relapse is the same as the risk of a first seizure. The risk of patients drowning or falling, or their epilepsy worsening because they are engaged in sport is thought to be low. Clinical data suggest that the incidence of seizures during sports and exercise is reduced. In the cooling down period, however, seizures tend to occur more frequently. Physicians should encourage epileptic patients to participate in sporting activities to enhance their physical fitness, self-esteem, and social integration. Before giving advice about the most suitable type of sport, the physician should known the patient's medical history, have a good insight into the different types of sport and be able to judge the role and function of sport to the particular patient. With certain precautions virtually all sports are suitable for most epileptic patients and should therefore be encouraged. However, a small minority of hospitalised patients with severe epilepsy need the supervision of qualified trainers, coaches and volunteers. PMID:2197701

  11. Radiological diagnosis in epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results: Hippocampal sclerosis, the most frequent cause of focal epilepsy, can be detected with 90-98% sensitivity by visual analysis and quantitative signal and volume measurement of the hippocampi in high-resolution coronal T2-weighted MR images. Benign tumors, such as gangliogliomas and dysembryoplastic neuoepithelial tumors (DNT), as well as cortical dysplasias are frequently composed of cystic and solid parts, which may show calcification, but never edema. Bloodbrain-barrier disruption as seen in approximately 40% of the benign tumors are the only feature that allows to differentiate them from non-neoplastic dysplasias. In rare cases of totally calcified lesions, CT may be the only diagnostic imaging modality. Proton-density-weighted or FLAIR imaging is essential for the detection of small solid cortical lesion components, because they provide sufficient contrast with adjacent CSF. T1-weighted inversion recovery images are most sensitive for the detection of migration and gyration abnormalities. The depiction of calcified lesions and hemosiderin deposits after trauma is most efficient with T2* weighted gradient echo sequences. Conclusions: With further rapid improvent of high resolution MRI techniques, the near future will probably show that nearly 100% of focal epilepsies are caused by structural brain abnormalities. With refined imaging techniques applied, the sensitivity of neuroradiological evaluation is 90% at present. Therefore presurgical MRI plays a key role in epilespy surgery. (orig.)

  12. Natural approaches to epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaby, Alan R

    2007-03-01

    This article reviews research on the use of diet, nutritional supplements, and hormones in the treatment of epilepsy. Potentially beneficial dietary interventions include identifying and treating blood glucose dysregulation, identifying and avoiding allergenic foods, and avoiding suspected triggering agents such as alcohol, aspartame, and monosodium glutamate. The ketogenic diet may be considered for severe, treatment-resistant cases. The Atkins diet (very low in carbohydrates) is a less restrictive type of ketogenic diet that may be effective in some cases. Nutrients that may reduce seizure frequency include vitamin B6, magnesium, vitamin E, manganese, taurine, dimethylglycine, and omega-3 fatty acids. Administration of thiamine may improve cognitive function in patients with epilepsy. Supplementation with folic acid, vitamin B6, biotin, vitamin D, and L-carnitine may be needed to prevent or treat deficiencies resulting from the use of anticonvulsant drugs. Vitamin K1 has been recommended near the end of pregnancy for women taking anticonvulsants. Melatonin may reduce seizure frequency in some cases, and progesterone may be useful for women with cyclic exacerbations of seizures. In most cases, nutritional therapy is not a substitute for anticonvulsant medications. However, in selected cases, depending on the effectiveness of the interventions, dosage reductions or discontinuation of medications may be possible. PMID:17397265

  13. [Contemporary opinions on classification, pathogenesis and treatment of drug-resistant epilepsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jóźwiak, Sergiusz

    2007-01-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most frequent neurological disorders, both in children and adult persons. About 0.5-1% of general population suffer from epilepsy, which means that about 50 million people in the world are affected. First years of life and very late adulthood are periods in human's life particularly predisposing to epilepsy. Repetitive epileptic seizures may cause many life-threatening situations and significantly lower patient's quality of life. To the most serious complications belong status epilepticus and sudden unexpected deaths due to epilepsy (SUDEP). Absences from work or school caused by seizures, difficulties in social life, frequent injuries and necessity of polytherapy are also important for patients. All these factors result in low self-esteem and poor quality of life. The main aim of the treatment was control of epileptic seizures. However, despite of new antiepileptic drugs developed almost every year, in one third of all patients with epilepsy seizures remain out of control. Those patients are regarded to have "drug-resistant epilepsy". Despite of significant scale of the problem, there is no one definition of the phenomenon. In the presented review the authors outline current definitions, recent opinions on pathogenesis and risk factors, and provide practical rules of pharmacotherapy of epilepsy, which should help to restrict drug-resistancy. PMID:17966891

  14. Submikroskopiske kromosomforandringer disponerer til epilepsi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Rikke; Hjalgrim, Helle

    2011-01-01

    Idiopathic generalised epilepsies (IGEs) affect up to 0.3% of the general population. Genetic factors play a predominant role in the aetiology of IGEs. Molecular genetic studies have mainly identified causative gene mutations in rare monogenic forms of idiopathic epilepsies. However, the genetic...... variants predisposing to common IGE syndromes remain elusive. Identification of recurrent microdeletions at 1q21.1, 15q11.2, 15q13.3, 16p11.2, 16p13.11 and 22q11.2 as rare but significant risk factors for IGE has provided new insights into the complex genetic predisposition of common epilepsies....

  15. Modern management of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodie, Martin J

    2016-06-01

    Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is a common genetic epilepsy syndrome usually presenting in adolescence and characterized by myoclonic jerks, predominately in the arms, associated with tonic-clonic seizures and less often generalized absences. Although the evidence base for treating JME is weak, most experts regard sodium valproate as drug of first choice. The recent diktat from the European regulatory agency - recommending that sodium valproate should not be prescribed to female children, adolescents or women of childbearing potential unless other treatments were ineffective or not tolerated - has substantially changed the way JME is being managed in this population. This paper reviews the literature underpinning the pharmacological treatment of JME. Data reporting associated symptoms of frontal lobe dysfunction in some patients with JME are discussed, as is the importance of counselling on lifestyle issues as an essential component of management. Long-term studies examining pharmacological and quality-of-life outcomes are reviewed, indicating a range of different phenotypes and likely genotypes underpinning this fascinating disorder. Lastly, a practical approach to managing JME in young men and women is summarized. PMID:27082040

  16. Talking about epilepsy: Challenges parents face when communicating with their child about epilepsy and epilepsy-related issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Stephanie; Lambert, Veronica; Gallagher, Pamela; Shahwan, Amre; Austin, Joan K

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this qualitative study was to explore the challenges that parents of children with epilepsy experienced when engaging in dialog with their child about epilepsy and epilepsy-related issues. Using a qualitative exploratory approach, interviews were conducted with 34 parents of children with epilepsy (aged 6-16years), consisting of 27 mothers and 7 fathers. Data were transcribed verbatim and thematically analyzed. Findings revealed five main themes: normalizing epilepsy, the invisibility of epilepsy, information concealment, fear of misinforming the child, and difficulty in discussing particular epilepsy-related issues. Many of the communicative challenges experienced by parents impacted on their ability to engage openly in parent-child dialog about epilepsy in the home. Parents face specific challenges when choosing to communicate with their child about epilepsy, relating to creating a sense of normality, reducing fear of causing their child worry, and having a lack of epilepsy-related knowledge. Healthcare professionals who work closely with families living with epilepsy should remain mindful of the importance of discussing family communication surrounding epilepsy and the challenges parents of children with epilepsy face when talking about epilepsy within the home. PMID:26900774

  17. PET imaging in temporal lobe epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semah, F. [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, DSV-CEA, 91 Orsay (France)

    2006-07-01

    structural abnormalities outside of the mesial formations were detected in 65% of the cases. Neither the severity of HS nor temporal atrophy appeared related to the topography of hypo-metabolism. However, temporal hypo-metabolism was more extended when temporo-polar signal changes were detected. Among operated patients (n=43), a seizure-free outcome was obtained in 82%. A positive surgical outcome appeared more favorable in the mesial group, however the difference between the 4 groups was not significant. Our results suggest that hypo-metabolism in MTLE may be related to ictal discharge generation and spread pathways, even though structural changes and epilepsy duration may also play a role. The role of the basal ganglia in the control of seizures is suggested by studies in animal models and epileptic patients. It is suggested that circuits of the basal ganglia may control epileptic seizures and that striatal dopaminergic transmission plays a key role in seizure interruption. We first studied patients with ring chromosome 20 (r(20) ) epilepsy which is a very homogenous type of epilepsy and that is clinically characterized by long-lasting seizures suggesting a dysfunction in the seizure control system. The hypothesis that these long-lasting seizures are associated with a reduction of striatal dopamine was addressed in our study. We used [{sup 18}F]fluoro-L-DOPA PET in 14 patients with r(20) epilepsy. We found that [ {sup 18}F]fluoro-L-DOPA uptake was significantly decreased bilaterally in the putamen and in the caudate nucleus of patients. This reduction was equal for both nuclei and was not correlated with the percentage of cells with r(20) (Biraben, 2004). This study suggested that dysfunction of this neurotransmission may impair the mechanisms which interrupt seizures. This study was followed by a pilot study in patients with MTLE and in patients with the absence of medically refractory seizures to investigate if this abnormality could be related with the ring chromosome

  18. PET imaging in temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    structural abnormalities outside of the mesial formations were detected in 65% of the cases. Neither the severity of HS nor temporal atrophy appeared related to the topography of hypo-metabolism. However, temporal hypo-metabolism was more extended when temporo-polar signal changes were detected. Among operated patients (n=43), a seizure-free outcome was obtained in 82%. A positive surgical outcome appeared more favorable in the mesial group, however the difference between the 4 groups was not significant. Our results suggest that hypo-metabolism in MTLE may be related to ictal discharge generation and spread pathways, even though structural changes and epilepsy duration may also play a role. The role of the basal ganglia in the control of seizures is suggested by studies in animal models and epileptic patients. It is suggested that circuits of the basal ganglia may control epileptic seizures and that striatal dopaminergic transmission plays a key role in seizure interruption. We first studied patients with ring chromosome 20 (r(20) ) epilepsy which is a very homogenous type of epilepsy and that is clinically characterized by long-lasting seizures suggesting a dysfunction in the seizure control system. The hypothesis that these long-lasting seizures are associated with a reduction of striatal dopamine was addressed in our study. We used [18F]fluoro-L-DOPA PET in 14 patients with r(20) epilepsy. We found that [ 18F]fluoro-L-DOPA uptake was significantly decreased bilaterally in the putamen and in the caudate nucleus of patients. This reduction was equal for both nuclei and was not correlated with the percentage of cells with r(20) (Biraben, 2004). This study suggested that dysfunction of this neurotransmission may impair the mechanisms which interrupt seizures. This study was followed by a pilot study in patients with MTLE and in patients with the absence of medically refractory seizures to investigate if this abnormality could be related with the ring chromosome 20 epilepsy

  19. Congenital Absence of Tibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudesh Sharma, Saleem Mir, Vikrant Sharma, Irshad Dar, Rafee

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Congenital absence of tibia is a rare anomaly. We repol1 a case who presented at the age of 3 years withabsence of tibia right side with associated anomolies and was managed by reconstruction of the kneeand ankle joints b transfer of fibula

  20. Coping and sickness absence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rhenen, W. van; Schaufeli, W.B.; Dijk, F.J.H. van; Blonk, R.W.B.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study is to examine the role of coping styles in sickness absence. In line with findings that contrast the reactive-passive focused strategies, problem-solving strategies are generally associated with positive results in terms of well-being and overall health outcomes; ou

  1. Absence of seizures in Rasmussen encephalitis with active inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, Debopam; Gokden, Murat; Albert, Gregory W

    2016-06-01

    Severe focal motor epilepsy is considered a clinical hallmark of Rasmussen encephalitis (RE). The authors report a 6-year-old girl with progressive right sided hemiparesis, loss of language skills, left sided hemispheric atrophy, and brain pathologic features characteristic for RE. The patient did not experience seizures over a 2year period after symptom onset and for several months during follow-up. This report expands the clinical spectrum of RE and suggests that seizures are not a universal symptom of RE. Our patient's quite remarkable neurologic deficits along with active inflammation in the absence of epilepsy supports that, at least in some individuals, unilateral hemispheric progressive inflammation can occur without active seizure activity. PMID:26775150

  2. Epilepsy in Adults with TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... epilepsy to discuss these medication issues with her health care providers. Additionally, some anticonvulsant medications can interact with ... hormones, seizures, and medications. Issues of Importance for Health Care Providers An important point for adults with TSC ...

  3. Epilepsy in Adults with TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Brochures, Books, & Booklets Information Sheets Perspective Magazine Archives Life Stages Guides & Personal Journals TSC Research Article Summaries ... will have epilepsy at some point in their life. The majority of individuals with TSC will face ...

  4. Epilepsy in Adults with TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... either new-onset seizures or ongoing epilepsy. Recent studies indicate that more than 80% of individuals with ... trials and see a list of current trials/studies related to TSC. Enroll now in the Rare ...

  5. Epilepsy in Adults with TSC

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    Full Text Available ... best quality of life possible, so they should work with the caregivers to reach a balance between ... the treatment of epilepsy in adults with TSC. Working with a knowledgeable neurologist, you should identify the ...

  6. Epilepsy in Adults with TSC

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    Full Text Available ... look depends on which part of the brain has the “lightning storm”. There are many underlying causes ... is critical for a woman with TSC who has epilepsy to discuss these medication issues with her ...

  7. Epilepsy in Adults with TSC

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    Full Text Available ... and Seizures Epilepsy is any brain disorder that causes repeated, spontaneous seizures of any type. Seizures (sometimes ... convulsions) are episodes of disturbed brain function that cause changes in attention or behavior. They are caused ...

  8. Epilepsy in Adults with TSC

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    Full Text Available ... vagus nerve stimulator, responsive neurostimulation, surgery and dietary therapies. Anti-Epileptic Medications: There are numerous choices of ... should consult with an epilepsy surgery program. Dietary Therapy: The ketogenic diet is a diet that is ...

  9. Epilepsy in Adults with TSC

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    Full Text Available ... effect of one medication. Hormones play an important role in sexual function, and some men with epilepsy ... Brochures & Booklets Information Sheets Life Stages Guides & Personal Journals Perspective Magazine Archives TSC Clinics Physician Referral TSC ...

  10. Epilepsy in Adults with TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... History Database Tissue Donation Audio & Video Archives Brochures, Books, & Booklets Information Sheets Perspective Magazine Archives Life Stages ... Scientific Advisory Board 2015 International TSC Research Conference Text Size Get Involved EPILEPSY IN ADULTS WITH TSC ...

  11. Epilepsy in Adults with TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... everolimus) was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in October 2010 for treatment of TSC- ... epilepsy to discuss these medication issues with her health care providers. Additionally, some anticonvulsant medications can interact ...

  12. Epilepsy in Adults with TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... be appropriate for women using epilepsy drugs that affect the rate at which the liver metabolizes estrogen. ... GreatNonprofits Member of the National Organization for Rare Disease Rare Disease Report America's Charities/Combined Federal Campaign # ...

  13. Epilepsy in Adults with TSC

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    Full Text Available ... 525-4526). If you are transitioning from a pediatric neurologist to an adult neurologist then ask that ... epilepsy to discuss these medication issues with her health care providers. Additionally, some anticonvulsant medications can interact ...

  14. Epilepsy in Adults with TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... effect of one medication. Hormones play an important role in sexual function, and some men with epilepsy ... Tools Government Relations Overview Outreach Toolkit Government Action Team TS Alliance Online Support Community Facebook Twitter YouTube ...

  15. Epilepsy in Adults with TSC

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    Full Text Available ... Epilepsy is any brain disorder that causes repeated, spontaneous seizures of any type. Seizures (sometimes called "fits" ... Rated Nonprofit by GreatNonprofits Member of the National Organization for Rare Disease Rare Disease Report America's Charities/ ...

  16. Epilepsy in Adults with TSC

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    Full Text Available ... complex (TSC) face many medical issues as they age, including either new-onset seizures or ongoing epilepsy. ... will face the onset of seizures before the age of 3. However, it is not uncommon for ...

  17. Epilepsy in Adults with TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Afinitor® (everolimus) was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in October 2010 for treatment of ... pill might be appropriate for women using epilepsy drugs that affect the rate at which the liver ...

  18. Epilepsy in Adults with TSC

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    Full Text Available ... centers in a large city and/or an academic center near you (for a listing of epilepsy ... onset seizures. Occasionally, the onset of seizures will result from a buildup of pressure in the brain ...

  19. Epilepsy in Adults with TSC

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    Full Text Available ... should discuss with their doctors various treatment options. These might include increasing the dose of an anti- ... adults with epilepsy, so look for one of these centers in a large city and/or an ...

  20. Epilepsy in Adults with TSC

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    Full Text Available ... of life. If individuals with TSC experience an increase in frequency or severity of their seizures or ... advised for women with LAM, so it is critical for a woman with TSC who has epilepsy ...

  1. Epilepsy in Adults with TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... epilepsy to discuss these medication issues with her health care providers. Additionally, some anticonvulsant medications can interact ... hormones, seizures, and medications. Issues of Importance for Health Care Providers An important point for adults with ...

  2. Epilepsy in Adults with TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ED is a side effect of one medication. Hormones play an important role in sexual function, and some men with epilepsy have alterations in normal hormone levels. Both seizures and anti-epileptic medications can ...

  3. Epilepsy and Fine Motor Function

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap; Millichap, John J.

    2014-01-01

    Investigators at Kocaeli University, Pediatric Neurology OP Clinic, Turkey, studied the relationship between fine motor skills and seizure and treatment parameters in 44 children with rolandic epilepsy (RE) and compared to 44 healthy controls.

  4. Epilepsy in Adults with TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... many medical issues as they age, including either new-onset seizures or ongoing epilepsy. Recent studies indicate ... not uncommon for adults with TSC to develop new seizures or to experience a return of seizures ...

  5. Epilepsy in Adults with TSC

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    Full Text Available ... seizures with 1-3 minute episodes of altered thinking, consciousness, or behaviors. Complex partial seizure is a ... advised for women with LAM, so it is critical for a woman with TSC who has epilepsy ...

  6. Epilepsy in Adults with TSC

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    Full Text Available ... SEGAs that are not candidates for curative surgery. Evaluation of New-Onset Seizures All individuals with new- ... epilepsy will experience changes in sexual drive and performance. For example, many men report a decrease in ...

  7. Epilepsy in Adults with TSC

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    Full Text Available ... have epilepsy is to achieve the best seizure control possible while maintaining the best quality of life. ... and ED. In fact, when seizures are under control, people seem to have improved sexual desire and ...

  8. Epilepsy in Adults with TSC

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    Full Text Available ... epilepsy will experience changes in sexual drive and performance. For example, many men report a decrease in ... people seem to have improved sexual desire and performance. Men experiencing ED should visit a urologist to ...

  9. Epilepsy in Adults with TSC

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    Full Text Available ... fits" or convulsions) are episodes of disturbed brain function that cause changes in attention or behavior. They ... medication. Hormones play an important role in sexual function, and some men with epilepsy have alterations in ...

  10. Acute hemiplegia in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuno, Takehiko; Takao, Tatsuo; Itoh, Masatoshi; Konishi, Yukuo; Nakano, Shozo (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1983-04-01

    The results of CT in 100 patients with acute hemiplegia in childhood are reported here. The etiology was various: 2 patients had infratentorial brain tumors, 56 had cerebral vascular diseases, 3 had head injuries, 16 had intracranial infectious diseases, one had postinfectious encephalomyelitis, one had multiple sclerosis, 2 had epilepsy, and the diagnosis of 19 were unknown. Eleven patients had a normal CT and a good prognosis. As for the type of onset, there were patients of type 1 with fever and 42 with convulsions and unconsciousness; those of type 2 with convulsions and unconsciousness were 12, and those of type 3 without fever and convulsions were 46. This classification is assumed to be useful, as the type of onset is characteristic of the etiology. Six patients were diagnosed correctly by repeated examinations, although the first CT did not reveal any remarkable findings. Capsular infarction, occlusion of the posterior cerebral artery in acute hemiplegia in childhood, abnormal findings of the internal capsule, thalamus, and midbrain in a patient with postinfectious encephalomyelitis, and a diffuse low density in the CT of the unilateral hemisphere in the patients with acute encephalopathy and acute hemiplegia of an obscure origin have been found after the introduction of computerized tomography.

  11. Epilepsy in Dante's poetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mula, Marco

    2016-04-01

    Dante Alighieri is the greatest Italian poet and one of the most important writers in Western literature. He is best known for the epic poem "Commedia", later named "La Divina Commedia" that has profoundly influenced not only poetic imagination but also all subsequent allegorical creations of imaginary worlds in literature. This paper examines the poetic description of some episodes of loss of consciousness in Dante's poetry discussing how and why typical elements of epileptic seizures have been used. On the 750th anniversary of Dante's birth, his poetry still remains to be an inspiring source of debate and reflection. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Epilepsy, Art, and Creativity". PMID:26907926

  12. Presurgical evaluation of epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manas Panigrahi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the multimodality presurgical evaluation in patients with refractory epilepsy is to establish sufficient concordance among the various investigations. There should be maximum overlap in the epileptogenic zone, the irritative zone, the ictal onset zone, the functional deficit zone and the symptomatogenic zone. The ictal and interictal electroencephalogram measures the localization of epileptiform discharges, which should be concordant with structural abnormalities noted on MRI brain and functional abnormalities in the form of a zone of hypometabolism on fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography, interictal single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT or hyperperfusion of the epileptogenic zone on ictal SPECT for a good surgical outcome. There should be no conflicting data from any of these studies, neuropsychological evaluation or seizure semiology.

  13. Imaging of intractable paediatric epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay Prabhu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 20% of paediatric patients with epilepsy are refractory to medical therapies. In this subgroup of patients, neuroimaging plays an important role in identifying an epileptogenic focus. Successful identification of a structural lesion results in a better outcome following epilepsy surgery. Advances in imaging technologies, methods of epileptogenic region localisation and refinement of clinical evaluation of this group of patients in epilepsy centres have helped to widen the spectrum of children who could potentially benefit from surgical treatment. In this review, we discuss ways to optimise imaging techniques, list typical imaging features of common pathologies that can cause epilepsy, and potential pitfalls to be aware of whilst reviewing imaging studies in this challenging group of patients. The importance of multidisciplinary meetings to analyse and synthesise all the non-invasive data is emphasised. Our objectives are: to describe the four phases of evaluation of children with drug-resistant localisation-related epilepsy; to describe optimal imaging techniques that can help maximise detection of epileptogenic foci; to describe a systematic approach to reviewing magnetic resonance imaging of children with intractable epilepsy; to describe the features of common epileptogenic substrates; to list potential pitfalls whilst reviewing imaging studies in these patients; and to highlight the value of multimodality and interdisciplinary approaches to the management of this group of children.

  14. NEW ASPECTS OF THE PATHOGENESIS OF EPILEPSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rano Bahodirovna Azizova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We studied 52 patients with epilepsy with the average age of 36.2±14.7 years old. Of them, 38 patients had idiopathic epilepsy, 14 patients had symptomatic epilepsy. Our study has shown that epilepsy is accompanied with increased levels of autoantibodies to NF-200, GFAP, S100, MBP, DNA, GABA and dopamine receptors, testifying to the important role of autoimmune disturbances in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. More severe attacks are accompanied by worsening of neuroimmune dysregulation. The degree and duration of autoimmune process can serve additional diagnostic and prognostic criteria for epilepsies.

  15. Epilepsy in Adults with TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of individuals with TSC will be diagnosed during childhood, most often following the onset of seizures. For ... more easily treated with anti-epileptic medications than childhood-onset seizures. Occasionally, the onset of seizures will ...

  16. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C. Bouw; N. Dors; H. van Ommen; N.L. Ramakers-van Woerden

    2009-01-01

    Thrombotic thrombocytopenic puripura (TTP) is a rare disease, especially in childhood, and has a high mortality rate in the absence of appropriate treatment. it is characterised by microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia and consumptive thrombocytopenia. TTP may be difficult to distinguish from haemolyt

  17. Spectrum of epilepsy – prevalence, impact, and treatment gap: an epidemiological study from Al-Quseir, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tallawy, Hamdy N; Farghaly, Wafaa M; Rageh, Tarek A; Shehata, Ghaydaa A; Metwally, Nabil A; Badry, Reda; Sayed, Mohammed A; Abdelwarith, Ahmed M; Kandil, Mahmoud R; Hamed, Mohamed A; Mohamed, Khaled O; Tohamy, Amal M

    2016-01-01

    Background Epidemiology continues to be an important research tool in the study of epilepsy and related disorders, providing a better understanding of the frequency, causes, and natural history of the disorder. Objective To estimate the prevalence of epilepsy in Al-Quseir, Red Sea Governorate, Egypt, and its magnitude of treatment gap. Methods The study was part of a door-to-door study, including every door, to screen all inhabitants in Al-Quseir (33,818 inhabitants) by three specialists of neurology and 15 female social workers (for demographic data collection) using a standardized screening questionnaire. All suspected cases were subjected to detailed history, clinical examination, and electroencephalogram. Neuroimaging studies and estimation of serum drug level were done in select cases if needed. Results The study revealed that the lifetime prevalence rate of epilepsy in Al-Quseir is 5.5/1,000, with the highest peak during early childhood, while that of active epilepsy is 3.3/1,000 population. The annual incidence rate is 48/100,000, and the age-specific incidence rate has a U-shaped pattern with two peaks of incidence in early infancy and elderly life. Localization-related epilepsy is the most frequently encountered type (58.8%). The treatment gap of epilepsy in Al-Quseir is 83.8%. Conclusion The lifetime prevalence of epilepsy in Al-Quseir city, Red Sea Governorate, was 5.5/1000.

  18. Past absence as a predictor of present absence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke Møller, Ann-Kristina Løkke

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates whether past absence behaviour is a predictor of present absence duration in a large Danish municipality with 17,499 individuals observed from 1996 to 2004. Past absence behaviour is measured in both absence days and absence spells. The article also investigates a number...... of confounders such as gender, age, seniority, wage, contracted number of work hours and season. The results of the empirical study show that there is a significant positive relationship between employees' absence duration and past absence spells and past absence days, respectively. The study thus...... confirms that past days and past spells have an equal potential of predicting present absent. Past absence behaviour can thus be used as an early warning for managers. The study also confirms that personal characteristics such as age and seniority also influence absence duration. Moreover, job...

  19. Epilepsy Surgery for Individuals with TSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of epilepsy surgery in patients with tuberous sclerosis. Neurology 62(3):479-81 Kagawa K, Chugani DC, ... for epilepsy surgery in patients with tuberous sclerosis. Neurology 64(9):1651-4 Moshel YA, Elliott R, ...

  20. Vagus Nerve Stimulation for Treating Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may help treat epilepsy. The American Academy of Neurology (AAN) is the world’s largest association of neurologists ... in people with epilepsy. ©2013 American Academy of Neurology www.aan.com CAN VNS BE ADJUSTED TO ...

  1. De novo mutations of KIAA2022 in females cause intellectual disability and intractable epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Lange, Iris M; Helbig, Katherine L; Weckhuysen, Sarah;

    2016-01-01

    , microcephaly, growth retardation, facial dysmorphisms and, less frequently, epilepsy. One female patient showed completely skewed X-inactivation, complete absence of RNA expression in blood and a phenotype similar to male patients. In the six other tested patients, X-inactivation was random, confirmed by a non...

  2. An epidemiologic study of 389 children with epilepsy in southern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soroor INALOO

    2011-12-01

    , electroencephalographic, and magnetic resonance imaging study of 300 consecutive patients. The Lancet 1998; 352: 1007-1011.Sridharan S. Epidemiology of epilepsy. Current Science 2002;82:664-70Martin JB, Jacqueline AF. Management of epilepsy in adolescents and adults. Lanset 2000; 356: 323-29.Chang BS, Lowenstein DH. Epilepsy. N Engl J Med 2003; 349: 1257-66.Guerrini R. Epilepsy in children. Lancet 2006; 367:499- 524.Mohammadi MR, Ghanizadeh A, Davidian H, Mohammadi M, Norouzian M. Prevalence of epilepsy and comorbidity of psychiatric disorders in Iran. Seizure 2006;15(7:476-82.Luengo A, Parra J, Colas J, Ramos F, Carreras T, Fernández-Pozos MJ. Prevalence of Epilepsy in Northeast Madrid. J Neurol 2001; 248: 762-767.Sridharan R. Epidemiology of epilepsy.Curr Sci 2002; 82(6:664-70.Najib Kh, Fallahzadeh E, Fallahzadeh MH. Disease spectrum and mortality in hospitalized children of southern Iran. Iran J Pediatr 2007; 17(3:359-363.Commission on Classification and Terminology of the International League against Epilepsy. Proposal for revised clinical and electrographic classification of epileptic seizures. Epilepsia 1981; 22: 489–501.Commission on Classification and Terminology of the International League Against Epilepsy. Proposal for revised classification of epilepsies and epileptic syndromes. Epilepsia 1989;30: 389–99.Kramer U, Nevo Y, Neufeld MY, Fatal A, Leitner Y, Harel S. Epidemiology of epilepsy in childhood: A cohort of 440 consecutive patients. Pediat Neurol 1998; 18 :46-5.Olafsson E, Ludvigsson P, Gudmundsson G, Hesdorffer D, Kjartansson O, Hauser WA. Incidence of unprovoked seizures and epilepsy in Iceland and assessment of the epilepsy syndrome classification: a prospective study. Lancet Neurol 2005;4:627-34.Hauser, W. A. The Prevalence and Incidence of Convulsive Disorders in Children. Epilepsia 1994; 35: S1-S6.Kochen S, Melcon MO. Prognosis of epilepsy in a community based study: 8 years of follow up in an Argentine community. Acta Neurologica Scandinavica 2005; 112: 370

  3. A study of epilepsy-related psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Roy A; Rajesh S; Iby N; Jose J; Sarma G

    2003-01-01

    The association of epilepsy and psychosis is studied. Among the 500 patients of epilepsy evaluated, there were 12 patients, 8 males and 4 females with epilepsy-related psychosis. Their average age was 38 years. The interval between the age of onset of epilepsy and psychotic features was 9 years. Complex partial seizures were present in 7 patients and primary generalized tonic-clonic seizure was present in 1 patient. Four patients had post-ictal psychosis, 7 had acute interictal psychosis and ...

  4. Novel Animal Models of Pediatric Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Auvin, Stéphane; Pineda, Eduardo; Shin, Don; Gressens, Pierre; Mazarati, Andrey

    2012-01-01

    When mimicking epileptic processes in a laboratory setting, it is important to understand the differences between experimental models of seizures and epilepsy. Because human epilepsy is defined by the appearance of multiple spontaneous recurrent seizures, the induction of a single acute seizure without recurrence does not constitute an adequate epilepsy model. Animal models of epilepsy might be useful for various tasks. They allow for the investigation of pathophysiological mechanisms of the ...

  5. History of Neuropsychology Through Epilepsy Eyes

    OpenAIRE

    Loring, David W.

    2010-01-01

    In the 19th century, Hughlings Jackson relied on clinical history, seizure semiology, and the neurologic examination as methods for seizure localization to inform the first epilepsy surgeries. In the 20th century, psychological and neuropsychological tests were first employed as both diagnostic and prognostic measures. The contemporary practice of epilepsy evaluation and management includes neuropsychology as a critical component of epilepsy care and research, and epilepsy and neuropsychology...

  6. Epilepsy in children with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    J Akhundian

    2013-01-01

    Epilepsy occurs in 15-60% of children with cerebral palsy (CP). However, its clinical course is not well defined. This retrospective study reviews the prevalence, nature and prognosis of epilepsy in cerebral palsy. 53 of 133 children with cerebral palsy seen in the neuropediatric clinic in Mashhad emam Reza hospital between 1999 and 2001 had epilepsy. A control group of 70 epileptic children with normal neurodevelopment status was seen during the same period. Epilepsy most commonly affected p...

  7. Epilepsy in children with cerebral palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Bruck Isac; Antoniuk Sérgio Antônio; Spessatto Adriane; Bem Ricardo Schmitt de; Hausberger Romeu; Pacheco Carlos Gustavo

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence and characteristics of epilepsy in patients with cerebral palsy in a tertiary center. METHODS: a total of 100 consecutive patients with cerebral palsy were retrospectively studied. Criteria for inclusion were follow-up period for at least 2 years. Types and incidence of epilepsy were correlated with the different forms of cerebral palsy. Other factors associated with epilepsy such as age of first seizure, neonatal seizures and family history of epilepsy w...

  8. Injuries in epilepsy: a review of its prevalence, risk factors, type of injuries and prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Tellez-Zenteno

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is intense clinical research into various aspects of the medical risks relating to epilepsy, including total and cause-specific mortality, accidents and injuries in patients with epilepsy and mortality related with seizures. Seizures occurring in precarious situations and resulting in injuries are still an important concern for patients with epilepsy, their employers and their caregivers. Submersion injuries, motor vehicle accidents, burns, and head injuries are among the most feared epilepsy-related injuries. These concerns seem valid because the hallmark of epilepsy, episodic impairment of consciousness and motor control, may occur during interictal EEG epileptiform discharges, even in the absence of a clinical seizure. In addition, psychomotor comorbidity and side effects of antiepileptic drugs may contribute to the risk of injuries in patients with epilepsy. Published risk factors for injuries include the number of antiepileptic drugs, history of generalized seizures, and seizure frequency. In general, epidemiological information about incidence of injuries has been conflicting and sparse. In general, studies focusing on populations with more severe forms of epilepsy tend to report substantially higher risks of injuries than those involving less selected populations. On the other hand, studies based on non-selected populations of people with epilepsy have not shown an increased frequency of injuries in people with epilepsy compared with the general population. Some studies have shown that patients with epilepsy are more frequently admitted to the hospital following an injury. Possible explanations include: more cautious attitude of clinicians toward injuries occurring in the setting of seizures; hospitalization required because of seizures and not to the injuries themselves; and hospitalization driven by other issues, such as comorbidities, which are highly prevalent in patients with epilepsy. Potentially the high rate of

  9. Childhood Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Aydın, Ahmet; Koca, Fahrettin; Fıçıcıoğlu, Can; Çam, Halit; Mıkla, Şerare

    1995-01-01

    Management of childhood obesity and its early and late complications are among the most difficult problems confronted by pediatricians and practitioners The purpose of this review is to provide information for the evaluation and treatment of childhood obesity Key nbsp;words: nbsp;Child Obesity Etiology Management Complications

  10. Epilepsy in prisons: a diagnostic survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, J; Fenton, G

    1969-11-01

    A previous study has suggested that epilepsy is commoner in prisons than in the general population. We devised a standard definition of "epilepsy" and then interviewed a representative sample of the "epileptics" in prisons. The results confirmed the initial conclusion, and showed the point prevalence of epilepsy in prison and Borstals to be at least 7.1/1,000 men. PMID:5386266

  11. AN AYURVEDIC INSIGHT TOWARDS EPILEPSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Karam

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In Ayurveda, Mental disorders and psychological temperaments have been broadly described [e.g. vata vyadhi (nervous disorders, unmada (insanity, murccha, moha (loss of consciousness, vismriti (amnesia, apasmara (epilepsy etc.]. In Ayurveda, Apasmara (or epilepsy has been described among the maharoga (a group of eight diseases well-known for causing serious morbidity. In the Ayurvedic texts, Apasmara (Epilepsy is defined as sudden abhorrent bodily activities (vibhatsa-cheshta accompanied by momentary blackouts or loss of consciousness (tama-pravesha owing to disturbance in mental faculties of dhi (intelligence, dhriti (retention and smriti (memory. Epilepsy is a major public health problem all over world. The estimated proportion of the general population with active epilepsy (i.e. continuing seizures or the need for treatment at a given time ranges from 4-10 per 1,000 people. Herbal remedies have been recommended in various medical treatises for the cure of different diseases. In this regard, there is great prospective for identifying excellent Ayurvedic components or its active principles, particularly in consideration of the fact that such substances may provide maximum advantage with cost effectiveness, least side effects, and improvement of patient compliance.

  12. Epilepsy surgery: Recommendations for India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra P

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The following article recommends guidelines for epilepsy surgery for India. This article reviews the indications, the various surgical options available and the outcome of surgery for drug resistant epilepsy based on current evidence. Epilepsy surgery is a well-established option for patients who have been diagnosed to have drug resistant epilepsy (DRE (on at least two appropriate, adequate anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs (either in monotherapy or in combination with continuing seizures, where the presurgical work-up has shown concordance of structural imaging (magnetic resonance imaging and electrical mapping data (electroencephalography (EEG, video EEG. There may be a requirement of functional imaging techniques in a certain number of DRE like positron emission tomography (PET, single photon emission tomography, (SPECT. Invasive monitoring should be restricted to a few when all noninvasive investigations are inconclusive, there is a dual pathology or there is a discordance of noninvasive data. The types of surgery could be curative (resective surgeries: amygdalo hippocampectomy, lesionectomy and multilobar resections; functional surgeries: hemispherotomy and palliative (multiple subpial transaction, corpus callosotomy, vagal nerve stimulation. Epilepsy surgery in indicated cases has a success range from 50 to 86% in achieving seizure freedom as compared with < 5% success rate with AEDs only in persons with DRE. Centers performing surgery should be categorized into Level I and Level II.

  13. The genetics of the epilepsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Achkar, Christelle M; Olson, Heather E; Poduri, Annapurna; Pearl, Phillip L

    2015-07-01

    While genetic causes of epilepsy have been hypothesized from the time of Hippocrates, the advent of new genetic technologies has played a tremendous role in elucidating a growing number of specific genetic causes for the epilepsies. This progress has contributed vastly to our recognition of the epilepsies as a diverse group of disorders, the genetic mechanisms of which are heterogeneous. Genotype-phenotype correlation, however, is not always clear. Nonetheless, the developments in genetic diagnosis raise the promise of a future of personalized medicine. Multiple genetic tests are now available, but there is no one test for all possible genetic mutations, and the balance between cost and benefit must be weighed. A genetic diagnosis, however, can provide valuable information regarding comorbidities, prognosis, and even treatment, as well as allow for genetic counseling. In this review, we will discuss the genetic mechanisms of the epilepsies as well as the specifics of particular genetic epilepsy syndromes. We will include an overview of the available genetic testing methods, the application of clinical knowledge into the selection of genetic testing, genotype-phenotype correlations of epileptic disorders, and therapeutic advances as well as a discussion of the importance of genetic counseling. PMID:26008807

  14. Disease: H00808 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Es) are the most common types of epilepsy in childhood and adolescence. Based on ...the main seizure type and age at onset, four classic subsyndromes exist: childhood absence epilepsy (CAE), j

  15. Spinal Muscular Atrophy Associated with Progressive Myoclonic Epilepsy Is Caused by Mutations in ASAH1

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Jie; Tawk, Marcel; Tiziano, Francesco Danilo; Veillet, Julien; Bayes, Monica; Nolent, Flora; Garcia, Virginie; Servidei, Serenella; Bertini, Enrico; Castro-Giner, Francesc; Renda, Yavuz; Carpentier, Stéphane; Andrieu-Abadie, Nathalie; Gut, Ivo; Levade, Thierry

    2012-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous disease characterized by the degeneration of lower motor neurons. The most frequent form is linked to mutations in SMN1. Childhood SMA associated with progressive myoclonic epilepsy (SMA-PME) has been reported as a rare autosomal-recessive condition unlinked to mutations in SMN1. Through linkage analysis, homozygosity mapping, and exome sequencing in three unrelated SMA-PME-affected families, we identified a homozygou...

  16. Evidence of Absence software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalthorp, Daniel; Huso, Manuela M. P.; Dail, David; Kenyon, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    Evidence of Absence software (EoA) is a user-friendly application used for estimating bird and bat fatalities at wind farms and designing search protocols. The software is particularly useful in addressing whether the number of fatalities has exceeded a given threshold and what search parameters are needed to give assurance that thresholds were not exceeded. The software is applicable even when zero carcasses have been found in searches. Depending on the effectiveness of the searches, such an absence of evidence of mortality may or may not be strong evidence that few fatalities occurred. Under a search protocol in which carcasses are detected with nearly 100 percent certainty, finding zero carcasses would be convincing evidence that overall mortality rate was near zero. By contrast, with a less effective search protocol with low probability of detecting a carcass, finding zero carcasses does not rule out the possibility that large numbers of animals were killed but not detected in the searches. EoA uses information about the search process and scavenging rates to estimate detection probabilities to determine a maximum credible number of fatalities, even when zero or few carcasses are observed.

  17. Epilepsy and driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moetamedi M

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is a disease with high prevalence, which interferes driving and may lead to car accident; This case-control study has been done on 100 epileptic patients and 100 persons as control group, who had history of driving. We gathered our patients with face to face interview and registering their information in special forms which were prepared for this study. There were three times more accidents among epileptic cases comparing with control group and this difference was more considerable in men and in patients under 35 years old. The cause of accident were not seizure attack in more than 60% of the patients and these ordinary accidents were also more in case group. Epileptic patients with history of car accidents during driving had poor drug compliance comparing with the epileptics without history of an accident so drug compliance may be valuable in predicting accident in these patients. We have also found poor drug compliance in whom seizure attacks caused accident for them. 58% of the epileptics had not consulted their physician about driving. 43.3% of seizures during driving were of generalized type and none of the patients had inform police about their disease during getting driving license.

  18. Photosensitivity and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrotti, Alberto; Trotta, Daniela; Salladini, Carmela; di Corcia, Giovanna; Chiarelli, Francesco

    2004-08-01

    Photosensitive epilepsy is a well-known condition characterized by seizures in patients who show photoparoxysmal responses on electroencephalography (EEG) elicited by intermittent photic stimulation. Photoparoxysmal responses can be defined as epileptiform EEG responses to intermittent photic stimulation or to other visual stimuli of everyday life and are frequently found in nonepileptic children. The modern technologic environment has led to a dramatic increase in exposure to potential trigger stimuli; nowadays, television and video games are among the most common triggers in daily life. There is ample evidence for genetic transmission of photoparoxysmal responses; systematic family studies have provided data for an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance with age-dependent penetrance for photosensitivity. The age of maximum penetrance is between 5 and 15 years. The prognosis for control of seizures induced by visual stimulation is generally very good. The large majority of patients do not need anticonvulsant therapy, but, when needed, the drug of choice is valproate. Stimulus avoidance and stimulus modification can be an effective treatment in some patients and can sometimes be combined with antiepileptic drug treatment. PMID:15605465

  19. Generic Single-Channel Detection of Absence Seizures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Eline B.; Duun-Henriksen, Jonas; Mazzaretto, Andrea; Kjær, Troels W.; Thomsen, Carsten E.; Sørensen, Helge Bjarup Dissing

    2011-01-01

    A long-term EEG-monitoring system, which automatically marks seizure events, is useful for diagnosing and treating epilepsy. A generic method utilizing the low interand intra-patient variabilities in EEG-characteristics during absence seizures is proposed. This paper investigates if the spike...... obtained for the derivation F7-FP1. Using this channel a sensitivity of 99.1 %, positive predictive value of 94.8 %, mean detection latency of 3.7 s, and false detection rate value of 0.5/h was obtained. The topographical visualization of the results clearly shows that the frontal, midline, and parietal...

  20. Challenges in the pharmacological management of epilepsy and its causes in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlazzo, Edoardo; Sueri, Chiara; Gasparini, Sara; Aguglia, Umberto

    2016-04-01

    Epilepsy represents the third most common neurological disorders in the elderly after cerebrovascular disorders and dementias. The incidence of new-onset epilepsy peaks in this age group. The most peculiar aetiologies of late-onset epilepsy are stroke, dementia, and brain tumours. However, aetiology remains unknown in about half of the patients. Diagnosis of epilepsy may be challenging due to the frequent absence of ocular witnesses and the high prevalence of seizure-mimics (i.e. transient ischemic attacks, syncope, transient global amnesia or vertigo) in the elderly. The diagnostic difficulties are even greater when patients have cognitive impairment or cardiac diseases. The management of late-onset epilepsy deserves special considerations. The elderly can reach seizure control with low antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) doses, and seizure-freedom is possible in the vast majority of patients. Pharmacological management should take into account pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of AEDs and the frequent occurrence of comorbidities and polytherapy in this age group. Evidences from double-blind and open-label studies indicate lamotrigine, levetiracetam and controlled-release carbamazepine as first line treatment in late-onset epilepsy. PMID:26896787

  1. Alzheimer’s disease and epilepsy: insight from animal models

    OpenAIRE

    Scharfman, Helen E.

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and epilepsy are separated in the medical community, but seizures occur in some patients with AD, and AD is a risk factor for epilepsy. Furthermore, memory impairment is common in patients with epilepsy. The relationship between AD and epilepsy remains an important question because ideas for therapeutic approaches could be shared between AD and epilepsy research laboratories if AD and epilepsy were related. Here we focus on one of the many types of epilepsy, temporal ...

  2. Aetiology and long-term outcome of juvenile epilepsy in 136 dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrol, L; Penderis, J; Garosi, L; Cripps, P; Gutierrez-Quintana, R; Gonçalves, R

    2012-03-01

    The aetiology and outcome of dogs with juvenile-onset seizures were investigated. One hundred and thirty-six dogs whose first seizure occurred before the age of one year were investigated. One hundred and two dogs were diagnosed with idiopathic epilepsy (IE), 23 with symptomatic epilepsy (SE), nine with reactive seizures (RS) and two with probable symptomatic epilepsy (pSE). The outcome was known in 114 dogs; 37 per cent died or were euthanased as a consequence of seizures. The mean survival time of this population of dogs was 7.1 years. Factors that were significantly associated with survival outcome included the diagnosis of SE and the number of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) used before investigation. The use of one AED before investigation and a diagnosis of SE were associated with a negative outcome, whereas receiving no AED medications before referral was associated with a longer survival. For dogs with IE, survival time was shortened if the dog was a border collie or with a history of status epilepticus;receiving no AEDs before referral in the IE group was associated with a positive outcome. Seizure-free status was achieved in 22 per cent of dogs diagnosed with IE. While the survival times were longer than previously reported in canine epilepsy, similar remission rates to those reported in childhood epilepsy, where a 70 per cent remission rate is documented, were not seen in the canine juvenile population. PMID:22266685

  3. Significant variables associated with epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the characteristics of the epileptics and the risk factors contributing to the development of epilepsy. Results: Majority of the subjects were single (77.84%), 1st born among their siblings (25.95%), belonged to low social class (50.63%), and unemployed(25.31%). The major risk factors were family history of illness (23.52%) and positive medical problem around birth (12.66%). The presence of family history of illness, positive medical problem around birth and advanced maternal age at birth were associated with early onset of epilepsy. Vulnerability for the epilepsy also increases among hospital deliveries. Conclusion: Although the present study has identified various risk factors, yet the results need to be further confirmed through case-control studies. (author)

  4. Current Topics in Epilepsy Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Naotaka

    2016-05-15

    This article reviews the current topics in the field of epilepsy surgery. Each type of epilepsy is associated with a different set of questions and goals. In mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) with hippocampal sclerosis (HS), postoperative seizure outcome is satisfactory. A recent meta-analysis revealed superior seizure outcome after anterior temporal lobectomy compared with selective amygdalohippocampectomy; in terms of cognitive outcome; however, amygdalohippocampectomy may be beneficial. In temporal lobe epilepsy with normal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), postoperative seizure outcome is not as favorable as it is in MTLE with HS; further improvement of seizure outcome in these cases is necessary. Focal cortical dysplasia is the most common substrate in intractable neocortical epilepsy, especially in children, as well as in MRI-invisible neocortical epilepsy. Postoperative seizure-free outcome is approximately 60-70%; further diagnostic and therapeutic improvement is required. Regarding diagnostic methodology, an important topic currently under discussion is wideband electroencephalogram (EEG) analysis. Although high-frequency oscillations and ictal direct current shifts are considered important markers of epileptogenic zones, the clinical significance of these findings should be clarified further. Regarding alternatives to surgery, neuromodulation therapy can be an option for patients who are not amenable to resective surgery. In addition to vagus nerve stimulation, intracranial stimulation such as responsive neurostimulation or anterior thalamic stimulation is reported to have a modest seizure suppression effect. Postoperative management such as rehabilitation and antiepileptic drug (AED) management is important. It has been reported that postoperative rehabilitation improves postoperative employment status. Pre- and post-operative comprehensive care is mandatory for postoperative improvement of quality of life. PMID:26984452

  5. Zonisamide Efficacy as Adjunctive Therapy in Children With Refractory Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvaneh KARIMZADEH

    2013-06-01

    children with refractory epilepsies. References1. Michal V. Johnston. Seizure in childhood. In: Robert M. Kliegman, Richad E. Behrman. Nelson Text book of pediatrics.18th edition; Philadelphia:Saunders,2010,p 2457-70.2. Icardi J.Epilepsy in children .3th Ed. Lippincott Williams &Wilkins .edition .2004:38.3. Barbara Olson.Treatment of refractory epilepsy.Adv stumed 2005:Vol 5;470-473.4. Berto P. Quality of life in patients with epilepsy and impactof treatments. Pharmacoeconomics 2002;20:1039-59.5. Lepikk IE. Zonisamide: chemistry, mechanism of action,and pharmacokinetics. Seizure 2004;13S: S5-9.6. Sobieszek G, Borowicz KK, Kimber-Trojnar Z, Małek R, Piskorska B, Czuczwar SJ. Zonisamide: a new antiepileptic drug. Pol J Pharmacol 2003 Sep- Oct; 55(5: 683-9.7. Ohtahara, S. Zonisamide in the management of epilepsyJapanese experience. Epilepsy Res 2006;68 (Suppl. 2:25-33.8. Baulac M. Introduction to zonisamide. Epilepsy Res 2006;68(Suppl. 2:S3-S9.9. Hwang H, Kim KJ. New antiepileptic drugs in pediatric epilepsy. Brain Dev 2008;30(9:549-55.10. Kyoung Heo, Byung In Lee, Sang Do Yi, Yong Won Cho, Dong Jin Shin, Hong Ki Song, et al. Shortterm efficacy and safety of zonisamide as adjunctive treatment for refractory partial seizures: A multicenter open-label single-arm trial in Korean patients. Seizure 2012;21:188-193.11. Schulze-Bonhage A. Zonisamide in the treatment of epilepsy. Expert Opin Pharmacother 2010;11(1:115-26.12. Lee YJ, Kang HC, Seo JH, Lee JS, Kim HD. Efficacy and tolerability of adjunctive therapy with zonisamide in childhood intractable epilepsy. Brain Dev 2010;32(3:208-12.13. Marmaroua A, Pellockb JM. Zonisamide: Physician and patient experiences. Epilepsy Res 2005 Mar-Apr;64(1-2:63-9.14. Fallah R, Divesalar S, Babaei A. The efficacy and safety of zonisamide as an add-on drug in the treatment of lennox–gastaut syndrome. Iran J Child Neurol 2010 Nov;l4(3:45-50.15. Shah J, Shellenberger K, Canafax DM. Zonisamide: chemistry, biotransformation, and pharmacokinetics

  6. Novel medications for epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattore, Cinzia; Perucca, Emilio

    2011-11-12

    Despite the introduction of many second-generation antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in the last 2 decades, the proportion of individuals with pharmacoresistant epilepsy has not been reduced substantially compared with the late 1960s. All currently available AEDs also have limitations in terms of adverse effects and susceptibility to be involved in clinically important drug-drug interactions. Therefore, the search for potentially more effective and better tolerated agents is continuing. This article reviews the pharmacological and clinical profile of the latest compounds to receive marketing authorization. Since the beginning of 2008, three novel AEDs, lacosamide, eslicarbazepine acetate and retigabine (also known as ezogabine), have become commercially available in Europe, with lacosamide and retigabine also being licensed in the US. All three agents are indicated for the adjunctive treatment of focal seizures in adults. Eslicarbazepine acetate is a produg for eslicarbazepine, which acts by blocking voltage-dependent sodium channels. Lacosamide enhances the slow inactivation phase of voltage-dependent sodium channels, and retigabine potentiates neuronal M-currents by opening Kv 7.2-7.5 potassium channels. All three agents, which are well absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, exhibit linear pharmacokinetics. Lacosamide is also available as an intravenous formulation intended as replacement therapy for patients temporarily unable to take oral medications. All three drugs are eliminated partly unchanged in urine and partly by biotransformation through glucuronide conjugation (eslicarbazepine, retigabine), N-acetylation (retigabine) and oxidative demethylation (lacosamide). The half-life is in the order of 8-20 hours for eslicarbazepine, 12-16 hours for lacosamide and 6-10 hours for retigabine. Based on the limited information available to date, the ability of these agents to cause pharmacokinetic drug interactions appears to be relatively modest, although

  7. Epilepsy, cognition, and neuropsychiatry (Epilepsy, Brain, and Mind, part 2)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Korczyn, A.D.; Schachter, S.C.; Brodie, M.J.; Dalal, S.S.; Engel Jr., J.; Guekht, A.; Hecimovic, H.; Jerbi, K.; Kanner, A.M.; Landmark, C.J.; Mareš, Pavel; Marusič, P.; Meletti, S.; Mula, M.; Patsalos, P. N.; Reuber, M.; Ryvlin, P.; Štillová, K.; Tuchman, R.; Rektor, I.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 2 (2013), s. 283-302. ISSN 1525-5050 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA ČR(CZ) GAP304/10/1274 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : epilepsy * psychiatry * clinical studies * experimental models Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 2.061, year: 2013

  8. Childhood Leukemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leukemia is cancer of the white blood cells. It is the most common type of childhood cancer. ... blood cells help your body fight infection. In leukemia, the bone marrow produces abnormal white blood cells. ...

  9. Childhood leukaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The debate on whether there is any link between leukaemia clusters and nuclear installations has been raging since the early eighties. A Government Inquiry found no link between childhood leukaemia and residence near Seascale, an area near British Nuclear Fuels Sellafield plant. Research in the 1980s linked childhood leukaemia to fathers' occupations prior to conception in the Seascale plant but also to workers in the iron, steel, farming and chemical industries. This article reviews research findings to date. (UK)

  10. Quantifying interictal metabolic activity in human temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The majority of patients with complex partial seizures of unilateral temporal lobe origin have interictal temporal hypometabolism on [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) studies. Often, this hypometabolism extends to ipsilateral extratemporal sites. The use of accurately quantified metabolic data has been limited by the absence of an equally reliable method of anatomical analysis of PET images. We developed a standardized method for visual placement of anatomically configured regions of interest on FDG PET studies, which is particularly adapted to the widespread, asymmetric, and often severe interictal metabolic alterations of temporal lobe epilepsy. This method was applied by a single investigator, who was blind to the identity of subjects, to 10 normal control and 25 interictal temporal lobe epilepsy studies. All subjects had normal brain anatomical volumes on structural neuroimaging studies. The results demonstrate ipsilateral thalamic and temporal lobe involvement in the interictal hypometabolism of unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy. Ipsilateral frontal, parietal, and basal ganglial metabolism is also reduced, although not as markedly as is temporal and thalamic metabolism

  11. ECG changes in epilepsy patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tigaran, S; Rasmussen, V; Dam, M;

    1997-01-01

    To investigate the frequency of ECG abnormalities suggestive of myocardial ischaemia in patients with severe drug resistant epilepsy and without any indication of previous cardiac disease, assuming that these changes may be of significance for the group of epileptic patients with sudden unexpected...

  12. Epilepsy in Adults with TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... see if it is a treatment that might benefit their individual situation. Epilepsy Surgery: Surgical approaches to ... to the individual’s quality of life, such as physical or language ... program. Dietary Therapy: The ketogenic diet is a diet that is ...

  13. Epilepsy in Adults with TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... have epilepsy is to achieve the best seizure control possible while maintaining the best quality of life. If individuals with TSC experience an ... be the advocate to achieve the best seizure control possible while also optimizing the ... quality of life. Health care providers should remember that ...

  14. Positron emission tomography in epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epilepsy is characterized by paroxysmal alterations in behavior and psychological functions, associated with increased neural discharge that is detectable by EEG. In between these paroxysmal events patients may appear superficially normal, but may have neurological signs and neurpsychological deficits. The neurological signs are sometimes correlated with radiologically detectable lesions, but there is little correlation between the CT abnormalities and the EEG focus, and CT abnormalities are rarely found in ''primary'' or ''idiopathic'' forms of epilepsy. Thus, seizure foci documented by ictal EEG can occur in regions that appear normal on CT. Since brain abnormalities implicated in epilepsy are more clearly reflected in measures of neural activity than in measures of anatomy, PET has particular potential for the study of epileptic pathophysiology. It provides the ability to measure local alterations in brain blood flow and metabolism, which are highly coupled with neural activity, and this makes possible the characterization of metabolic changes associated with epilepsy. Thus PET has the potential for contributing to the localization of epileptic activity as well as to the understanding of its pathophysiology

  15. Epilepsy in Adults with TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for women using epilepsy drugs that affect the rate at which the liver metabolizes estrogen. The dosage for emergency contraception (morning after pill) will also depend on the type of anticonvulsant medication a woman takes. The use of barrier methods such as a diaphragm, sponges, ...

  16. Neuropsychological Aspects of Epilepsy Surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alpherts, W.C.J. (Willem Cornelis Johan)

    2003-01-01

    Only a small number of patients with epilepsy undergo a neurosurgical operation in which the area from which epileptic neurons generate seizures is removed. From a neuropsychological perspective several different assessments and outcomes are being looked at. Chapter 2 deals with research on the Wada

  17. Epilepsy in Adults with TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... centers in a large city and/or an academic center near you (for a listing of epilepsy ... due to the presence of a subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA), a ... MN 55416 Phone: 888-525-6232 952-525-4526 Minneapolis, MN ...

  18. Epilepsy in Adults with TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and almost one-third of men with epilepsy report difficulty achieving and maintaining an erection, known as erectile dysfunction (ED). In many cases, ED may result as a seizure medication side effect but other medical issues may cause ED. However, this reaction to ...

  19. Sleep Disorders, Epilepsy, and Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malow, Beth A.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this review article is to describe the clinical data linking autism with sleep and epilepsy and to discuss the impact of treating sleep disorders in children with autism either with or without coexisting epileptic seizures. Studies are presented to support the view that sleep is abnormal in individuals with autistic spectrum…

  20. Epilepsy in Adults with TSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are under control, people seem to have improved sexual desire and performance. Men experiencing ED should visit a urologist to get help determining a cause and getting treatment. In addition, men ... role in sexual function, and some men with epilepsy have alterations ...

  1. Epilepsy in Adults with TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are under control, people seem to have improved sexual desire and performance. Men experiencing ED should visit a urologist to get help determining a cause and getting treatment. In addition, men ... role in sexual function, and some men with epilepsy have alterations ...

  2. Epilepsy in Adults with TSC

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a lowered rate of efficacy, leading to unintended pregnancy. A higher dosage estrogen pill might be appropriate for women using epilepsy drugs that affect the rate at which the liver metabolizes estrogen. The dosage for emergency contraception (morning after pill) will also depend on ...

  3. Cognitive Disorders in Benign Childhood Epilepsy with Centrotemporal Spikes (BECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Intelligence and language functions were examined in 24 children (mean age 9 yrs; range 7-12 yrs with BECTS and compared with a group of 16 controls matched for age and schooling, in a study at the Instituto Nazionale Neurologico, Milan, Italy.

  4. Recurrent diarrhea as a manifestation of temporal lobe epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiko Murai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A woman with temporal lobe epilepsy manifesting with repeated episodes of sudden diarrhea and loss of consciousness is reported. A 63-year-old, right-handed female presented with chief complaints of sudden diarrhea and loss of consciousness for almost three decades. The first attack occurred in her 30s, and similar attacks repeated several times in a year. Her attacks comprised abrupt abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, sudden emergence of old memories relating to when she had played with her brother in her childhood, and loss of consciousness during defecation. She had no convulsion or automatism and fully recovered in a few minutes. Every time she was transferred to emergency hospital by ambulance, she had examinations such as blood test, head computed tomography, electrocardiogram, abdominal ultrasound, and electroencephalography (EEG, but no specific diagnosis was made. On admission to our hospital, vital signs, neurological examination, and blood tests did not show abnormal findings. During long-term video-EEG monitoring for 40 h, she had no habitual event. Interictal EEG showed intermittent irregular delta waves and sharp regional transients in the left anterio-midtemporal area. Sharp transients were not as outstanding from background activities as to be defined as epileptiform discharges, but they were reproducible in morphology and distribution and appeared not only in sleep but also in wakefulness. Brain magnetic resonance imaging was unremarkable. Single-photon emission computed tomography showed a decrease of blood flow in the left frontal and temporal lobes. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale—III showed a decline of verbal comprehension. We concluded that the patient was suffering from partial epilepsy originating from the left temporal lobe. Carbamazepine markedly improved her seizures. Temporal lobe epilepsy can manifest with diverse autonomic symptoms and signs. Abdominal sensations often herald the onset of epileptic seizures

  5. Sexual problems in people with refractory epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Oliver J; Nakken, Karl O; Træen, Bente; Mowinckel, Petter; Lossius, Morten

    2016-08-01

    Sexual dysfunction is an important but often neglected aspect of epilepsy. The objective of this study was to explore the prevalence and types of sexual problems in patients with epilepsy and compare the results with similar data obtained from a representative sample of the general population. At the National Centre for Epilepsy in Norway, 171 of 227 consecutive adult inpatients and outpatients with epilepsy (response rate: 75.3%) and their neurologists participated in a questionnaire study about epilepsy and sexuality. The results were compared with data available from 594 adult Norwegians who had completed the same questionnaire. Patients with epilepsy had a significantly higher prevalence of sexual problems (women: 75.3% vs. 12.0%; men: 63.3% vs. 9.6%). The most commonly reported problems (>30%) were reduced sexual desire, orgasm problems, erection problems, and vaginal dryness. The patients reported considerable dissatisfaction regarding sexual functioning. Significantly more sexual problems were found in patients of both sexes with reduced quality of life and in women with symptoms of depression. We found no significant association between sexual problems and age of epilepsy onset, type of epilepsy, or use of enzyme-inducing antiepileptic drugs. Whereas age at sexual debut did not differ between the patients with epilepsy and the general population, men with epilepsy had a lower number of partners during the last 12months, and the proportion of women with a low frequency of intercourse was higher in the group with epilepsy. In conclusion, sexual problems are significantly greater in Norwegian patients with epilepsy than in the general adult population. As no single epilepsy type or treatment could be identified as a specific predisposing factor, it seems likely that there are multiple causes underlying our results, including both organic and psychosocial factors. PMID:27371882

  6. Current management and surgical outcomes of medically intractable epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Wyatt L; Martirosyan, Nikolay L; Lieu, Corinne M; Hasham, Hasnain A; Lemole, G Michael; Weinand, Martin E

    2013-12-01

    Epilepsy is one of the most common neurologic disorders in the world. While anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) are the mainstay of treatment in most cases, as many as one-third of patients will have a refractory form of disease indicating the need for a neurosurgical evaluation. Ever since the first half of the twentieth century, surgery has been a major treatment option for epilepsy, but the last 10-15 years in particular has seen several major advances. As shown in relatively recent studies, resection is more effective for medically intractable epilepsy (MIE) than AED treatment alone, which is why most clinicians now endorse a neurosurgical consultation after approximately two failed regimens of AEDs, ultimately leading to decreased healthcare costs and increased quality of life. Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common form of MIE and comprises about 80% of epilepsy surgeries with the majority of patients gaining complete seizure-freedom. As the number of procedures and different approaches continues to grow, temporal lobectomy remains consistently focused on resection of mesial structures such as the amygdala, hippocampus, and parahippocampal gyrus while preserving as much of the neocortex as possible resulting in optimum seizure control with minimal neurological deficits. MIE originating outside the temporal lobe is also effectively treated with resection. Though not as successful as TLE surgery because of their frequent proximity to eloquent brain structures and more diffuse pathology, epileptogenic foci located extratemporally also benefit from resection. Favorable seizure outcome in each of these procedures has heavily relied on pre-operative imaging, especially since the massive surge in MRI technology just over 20 years ago. However, in the absence of visible lesions on MRI, recent improvements in secondary imaging modalities such as fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission computed tomography (FDG-PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT

  7. Brain SPECT in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modalities and the indications of perfusion and neurotransmission SPECT in childhood are presented. The perfusion as well as neurotransmission tracers have not yet authorization for use in children; they have to be used by prescription of magistral preparation or in research protocols. The radioprotection rules have to be strictly respected. The most frequent indication of perfusion SPECT is pharmacologically resistant epilepsy; the ictal SPECT before surgery allows the localization of the epileptogenic focus. Other indications are relevant in the prognosis of neonatal anoxia and encephalitis. In psychiatric disorders, especially in autism, the interest is the physiopathological approach of the brain dysfunctions. The neurotransmission SPECT is emerging as a consequence of the development of new radiotracer, as the dopaminergic system ligands. The decrease of the dopamine D2 receptors in the striatum can be imaged and quantified in the neonate. The lesions of dopamine system seem to be a consequence of the neonatal hypoxia-ischemia and it is predictive of motor sequelae. Brain SPECT should become a routine examination in child neurologic and psychiatric disorders. (authors)

  8. Genetics Home Reference: pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5'-phosphate-dependent epilepsy pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent epilepsy Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... All Close All Description Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent epilepsy is a condition that involves seizures beginning soon ...

  9. Genetics Home Reference: spinal muscular atrophy with progressive myoclonic epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... myoclonic epilepsy spinal muscular atrophy with progressive myoclonic epilepsy Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... All Description Spinal muscular atrophy with progressive myoclonic epilepsy (SMA-PME) is a neurological condition that causes ...

  10. International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force consensus report on epilepsy definition, classification and terminology in companion animals

    OpenAIRE

    Berendt, Mette; Farquhar, Robyn G; Mandigers, Paul J J; Pakozdy, Akos; Bhatti, Sofie F M; De Risio, Luisa; Fischer, Andrea; Long, Sam; Matiasek, Kaspar; Muñana, Karen; Patterson, Edward E.; Penderis, Jacques; Platt, Simon; Podell, Michael; Potschka, Heidrun

    2015-01-01

    Dogs with epilepsy are among the commonest neurological patients in veterinary practice and therefore have historically attracted much attention with regard to definitions, clinical approach and management. A number of classification proposals for canine epilepsy have been published during the years reflecting always in parts the current proposals coming from the human epilepsy organisation the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE). It has however not been possible to gain agreed conse...

  11. International veterinary epilepsy task force consensus report on epilepsy definition, classification and terminology in companion animals

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Dogs with epilepsy are among the commonest neurological patients in veterinary practice and therefore have historically attracted much attention with regard to definitions, clinical approach and management. A number of classification proposals for canine epilepsy have been published during the years reflecting always in parts the current proposals coming from the human epilepsy organisation the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE). It has however not been possible to gain agreed conse...

  12. The comorbidity of the epilepsies and the impact of mortality in people with epilepsy.

    OpenAIRE

    Gaitatzis, A.

    2005-01-01

    The thesis describes the epidemiology of selected somatic and psychiatric conditions in epilepsy and the health care demands of people with epilepsy, and presents broad estimates of life expectancy in people with epilepsy in the community in comparison to people without epilepsy. A cross-sectional study was conducted extracting data from the General Practice Research Database for the period 1995-1998. Psychiatric disorders occurred twice as often and the risk of groups of most somatic disorde...

  13. Focal epilepsy in the Belgian shepherd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berendt, Mette; Gulløv, Christina Hedal; Fredholm, Merete

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To establish the mode of inheritance and describe the clinical features of epilepsy in the Belgian shepherd, taking the outset in an extended Danish dog family (199 individuals) of Groenendael and Tervueren with accumulated epilepsy. METHODS: Epilepsy positive individuals (living and...... deceased) were ascertained through a telephone interview using a standardised questionnaire regarding seizure history and phenomenology. Living dogs were invited to a detailed clinical evaluation. Litters more than five years of age, or where epilepsy was present in all offspring before the age of five...... seizures. In seven dogs, seizures could not be classified. The mode of inheritance of epilepsy was simple Mendelian. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: This study identified that the Belgian shepherd suffers from genetically transmitted focal epilepsy. The seizure phenomenology expressed by family members have a...

  14. Voxel-based morphometry and epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Clarissa Lin; Betting, Luiz Eduardo; Cendes, Fernando

    2010-06-01

    Voxel-based morphometry is an automated technique for MRI analyses, developed to study differences in brain morphology and frequently used to study patients with diverse disorders. In epilepsy, it has been used to investigate areas with reduction or increase of gray and white matter, in different syndromes (i.e., temporal lobe epilepsy, focal cortical dysplasia and generalized epilepsies). In temporal lobe epilepsy, voxel-based morphometry showed gray/white matter atrophy extending beyond the atrophic hippocampus. These widespread abnormalities have been associated with seizure frequency, epilepsy duration, incidence of precipitating factors, cognitive dysfunction and surgical outcome. In generalized epilepsies, gray matter abnormalities were identified mainly in the thalamus and frontal cortex, reinforcing the role of the thalamocortical network in the mechanisms of generalized seizures. PMID:20518612

  15. Lamotriginbehandling af 92 patienter med intraktabel epilepsi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsborg, M; Gram, L; Dam, M

    1996-01-01

    The efficacy of treatment with lamotrigine (LTG) was evaluated in 92 patients with refractory epileptic seizures (46 women and 46 men aged 14-80 years, median 32 years). Seventy-one patients had partial epilepsy and 21 had primary generalized epilepsy. Patients were treated from zero to four (most...... frequently two) other antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Maintenance dose of LTG was 50-800 mg daily (median 300 mg). Fifteen percent of the patients became seizure-free (13% of patients with partial epilepsy, 24% with primary generalized epilepsy). Thirty-eight percent of patients experienced at least 50...... patients, either because of adverse events or lack of effect. We conclude, that LTG is effective in reducing seizure frequency in patients with therapyresistant primary generalized epilepsy or partial epilepsy. Toxicity appears to be limited....

  16. Complex single gene disorders and epilepsy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Merwick, Aine

    2012-09-01

    Epilepsy is a heterogeneous group of disorders, often associated with significant comorbidity, such as intellectual disability and skin disorder. The genetic underpinnings of many epilepsies are still being elucidated, and we expect further advances over the coming 5 years, as genetic technology improves and prices fall for whole exome and whole genome sequencing. At present, there are several well-characterized complex epilepsies associated with single gene disorders; we review some of these here. They include well-recognized syndromes such as tuberous sclerosis complex, epilepsy associated with Rett syndrome, some of the progressive myoclonic epilepsies, and novel disorders such as epilepsy associated with mutations in the PCDH 19 gene. These disorders are important in informing genetic testing to confirm a diagnosis and to permit better understanding of the variability in phenotype-genotype correlation.

  17. [Epilepsy And Driving Ability: The New Guideline].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurthen, Martin

    2015-10-28

    The Swiss Guideline concerning epilepsy and driving has recently been revised. Recommendations have changed significantly in several respects. Some modifications arise indirectly from a change in the overall concept of epilepsy. As a consequence of the application of the new ILAE definition and diagnostic criteria for epilepsy, there are now cases in which the diagnosis of epilepsy is established even after one single seizure. Furthermore, a concept of imminent epilepsy was introduced to identify patients without seizures, but with a high risk of a first seizure within twelve months. On the other hand, the concept of a "resolved epilepsy" was established to loosen driving regulations for longterm seizure-free patients. In addition, the new guideline provides differential recommendations for provoked vs. unprovoked seizures in several clinical constellations. PMID:26953368

  18. Psychotic illness in patients with epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Kanemoto, Kousuke; Tadokoro, Yukari; Oshima, Tomohiro

    2012-01-01

    Apart from the rather rare ictal psychotic events, such as non-convulsive status epilepticus, modern epileptic psychoses have been categorized into three main types; chronic and acute interictal psychoses (IIPs) and postictal psychosis (PIP). Together, they comprise 95% of psychoses in patients with epilepsy (PWE). Four major questions, that is, “Is psychosis in PWE a direct consequence of epilepsy or schizophrenia induced by epilepsy?”, “Is psychosis in PWE homogeneous or heterogeneous?”, “D...

  19. International Veterinary Epilepsy Task Force consensus proposal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhatti, Sofie F M; De Risio, Luisa; Muñana, Karen;

    2015-01-01

    initial drug is unsatisfactory, and 4) when treatment changes should be considered. In this consensus proposal, an overview is given on the aim of AED treatment, when to start long-term treatment in canine epilepsy and which veterinary AEDs are currently in use for dogs. The consensus proposal for drug...... management of canine idiopathic epilepsy. Furthermore, for the management of structural epilepsy AEDs are inevitable in addition to treating the underlying cause, if possible....

  20. Epilepsy Genes : Excitement Traced to Ion Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Kaneko, Sunao; Wada, Kazumaru; Okada, Motohiro; Kawata, Yuko

    1999-01-01

    Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by recurring seizures. It is physiologicallycharacterized by abnormal, excessive and self-terminating discharges from neurons. Epilepsy affects morethan 0.5 % of the world's population and has a large genetic component. The most common human geneticepilepsies display a complex pattern of inheritance and the identity of the susceptibility genes is largelyunknown. This article reviews recent progress made in molecular genetics of epilepsy, inclu...

  1. Epilepsy Genetics—Past, Present, and Future

    OpenAIRE

    Poduri, Annapurna; Lowenstein, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Human epilepsy is a common and heterogeneous condition in which genetics play an important etiological role. We begin by reviewing the past history of epilepsy genetics, a field that has traditionally included studies of pedigrees with epilepsy caused by defects in ion channels and neurotransmitters. We highlight important recent discoveries that have expanded the field beyond the realm of channels and neurotransmitters and that have challenged the notion that single genes produce single diso...

  2. Immunoglobulin treatment in human and experimental epilepsy.

    OpenAIRE

    van Engelen, B. G. M.; Renier, W O; Weemaes, C.M.R.

    1994-01-01

    The relationship between human immunoglobulin administration, and human and experimental epilepsy was investigated by reviewing the literature as well as the authors' clinical and experimental studies. The focus was: 1) the possible efficacy of IVIg; 2) the possibility that IVIg significantly increases CSF IgG and could reach the brain, and 3) the interaction between the IVIg preparation and epilepsy. There is still no formal proof of efficacy of IVIg treatment in epilepsy. However, the clini...

  3. Endocrine abnormalities in human temporal lobe epilepsy.

    OpenAIRE

    Gallagher, B. B.

    1987-01-01

    Patients with temporal lobe epilepsy secrete ACTH at higher rates and in greater amounts than normal subjects. Temporal lobectomy restores ACTH secretion to normal amounts and rates. The ACTH secretion in temporal lobe epilepsy is independent of anticonvulsant drug effect and seizure frequency. Electrical stimulation of medial temporal lobe structures in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy affected ACTH secretion in a manner consistent with the hypothesis that ACTH secretion is regulated by ...

  4. Brain SPECT imaging in temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temporal lobe epilepsy is diagnosed by clinical symptoms and signs and by localization of an epileptogenic focus. A brain SPECT study of two patients with temporal lobe epilepsy, using 99mTc-HMPAO, was used to demonstrate a perfusion abnormality in the temporal lobe, while brain CT and MRI were non-contributory. The electroencephalogram, though abnormal, did not localize the diseased area. The potential role of the SPECT study in diagnosis and localization of temporal lobe epilepsy is discussed. (orig.)

  5. CONIPLENIENTARY AND ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE (CANI) IN EPILEPSY

    OpenAIRE

    Aulina, Susi

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is a difficult illness to control up to 35% of patients with Epilepsy do not respond fully to science based medical treatment which ln the developed countries include at least 20 drugs. Surgery is highly effective and save for selected patients but it still underused, even in high-income countries. Many people with epilepsy may not be candidates for surgery because a single site of origin of their seizures cannot be localized or exists within eloquent regions of the corte...

  6. PET i prekirurgisk evaluering av epilepsi

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    PET in presurgical evaluation of epilepsy. Background: Today, at Rikshospitalet PET medical center, FDG is used as a tracer in the PET investigations during the presurgical evaluation of patients with epilepsy. The purpose of this paper is to see if FGD-PET gives additional information compared with EEG and MR. Another purpose was to find out whether there is a need for new ligands, and which ones. Material and methods: All epilepsy order forms to FDG-PET at Rikshopitalet, during 2007...

  7. Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Pediatric Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    R. Barikbin; A. Hekmatnia; R Basiratnia; M. Farghadani; M. Mottaghi

    2008-01-01

    Epilepsy is a common neurological affliction of children. It carries an estimated annual incidence of up to one per 1,000, and a prevalence of up to 5 per 1,000 children. Children suffering from epilepsy have a significantly increased mortality rate. The major causes of death are the underlying cause of the epilepsy itself, associated neurological compromise, injuries, and status epilepticus."nNeuroimaging techniques have advanced the diagnosis, management, and understanding the pathophy...

  8. Symptomatic Epilepsies due to Cerebrovascular Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Dakaj, Nazim; Shatri, Nexhat; Isaku, Enver; Zeqiraj, Kamber

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Cerebro-vascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of symptomatic epilepsies. This study aims to investigate: a) Frequency of epilepsy in patients with CVD; b) Correlation of epilepsy with the type of CVD (ischemic and hemorrhage) and with age. Methodology: It is analyzed medical documentation of 816 hospitalized patients with CVD in the clinic of Neurology in University Clinical Center (UCC) during the period January - December 2010. The study included data on patients prese...

  9. Correlates of parental stress and psychopathology in pediatric epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rania Shatla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic conditions like epilepsy in a child can affect his/her entire family. The failure of the family members to adapt adequately to the unique demands of this childhood chronic illness can be considered as an important risk factor for development of psychopathology. Objectives: The objectives of this study were to study the profile of parenting stress in parents of children with epilepsy and its correlates; and, to examine the correlates of psychopathology in these children. Material and Methods: Twenty three epileptic children and their families were subjected to Parenting Stress Index (PSI, Scores for indices such as The Children′s Depression Inventory (CDI, Benton Visual Retention test, Spence anxiety scale for children, The Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children were calculated. Results: Mean verbal and performance IQ score was 94, while the mean total IQ score was 95. Mean scores for all Wechsler IQ Scores as well as Benton Visual retention test were within the average range. Means for total internalizing CBCL t scores (M, Mean=70; Standard Deviation, SD=4.4, total externalizing CBCL t scores (M=60, SD=9.6, and total behavior problems CBCL t scores (M=67, SD=5.2 were above the standard cut off levels of 65 for clinical behavioral problems. Mean score on CDI was 42 ± 2. Scores of the PSI equal to or higher than 85 th percentile were considered pathologically high. Conclusion: The results of our study indicated that pediatric patients with epilepsy, specifically with intractable cases, are correlated with high levels of parental stress.

  10. Diagnostic, treatment, and surgical imaging in epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagae, Lidia Mayumi; Lall, Neil; Dahmoush, Hisham; Nyberg, Eric; Mirsky, David; Drees, Cornelia; Honce, Justin M

    2016-01-01

    Dedicated epilepsy centers are growing in hospitals throughout the USA and abroad, with a continuously increasing role of imaging in multidisciplinary meetings. Imaging is paramount in diagnosis, treatment, and surgical decision-making in lesional and nonlesional epileptic disease. Besides being up-to-date with technical developments in imaging that may make an impact in patient care, familiarity with clinical and surgical aspects of epilepsy is fundamental to better understanding of patient management. The present article intends to revisit diagnostic, therapeutic, and surgical imaging in epilepsy. Finally, with the increase in frequency of epilepsy management-related procedures and their hardware, MRI safety issues are discussed. PMID:27317207

  11. Structural magnetic resonance imaging in epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deblaere, Karel [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Ghent (Belgium); Ghent University Hospital, MR Department - 1K12, Ghent (Belgium); Achten, Eric [Ghent University Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Ghent (Belgium)

    2008-01-15

    Because of its sensitivity and high tissue contrast, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the technique of choice for structural imaging in epilepsy. In this review the effect of using optimised scanning protocols and the use of high field MR systems on detection sensitivity is discussed. Also, the clinical relevance of adequate imaging in patients with focal epilepsy is highlighted. The most frequently encountered MRI findings in epilepsy are reported and their imaging characteristics depicted. Imaging focus will be on the diagnosis of hippocampal sclerosis and malformations of cortical development, two major causes of medically intractable focal epilepsy. (orig.)

  12. MR imaging findings in patients with epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We retrospectively examined the MR imaging (MRI) findings in 144 patients with epilepsy (31 with temporal lobe epilepsy and 113 with other epilepsies). 110 cases (76.4%) showed abnormal findings such as spotty lesions in white matter, hippocampal atrophy and/or signal change, ventricular dilatation and/or deformity, developmental lesions, brain tumors and so on. Hippocampal atrophy and/or signal change was shown in 74.1% of temporal lobe epilepsy, a remarkably high percentage (p<0.01) compared with the other types of epilepsies (18.1%). This finding means that hippocampal lesions may play a large part in the cause of temporal lobe epilepsy. Investigation of the relationship between clinical term and abnormal findings revealed that the longer the clinical term, the large the number of hippocampal lesions, regardless of whether it is temporal lobe epilepsy or not. Thus hippocampal lesions may occur as a result of hypoxia accompanied with seizure. Therefore we recommend horizontal and/or vertical sections of hippocampus in MR imaging of all patients with epilepsy. Even though MR finding may reflect some secondary lesions, MRI will shed some light on the proper understanding of epilepsy. (author)

  13. Structural magnetic resonance imaging in epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of its sensitivity and high tissue contrast, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the technique of choice for structural imaging in epilepsy. In this review the effect of using optimised scanning protocols and the use of high field MR systems on detection sensitivity is discussed. Also, the clinical relevance of adequate imaging in patients with focal epilepsy is highlighted. The most frequently encountered MRI findings in epilepsy are reported and their imaging characteristics depicted. Imaging focus will be on the diagnosis of hippocampal sclerosis and malformations of cortical development, two major causes of medically intractable focal epilepsy. (orig.)

  14. Childhood obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heitmann, Berit L; Koplan, Jeffrey; Lissner, Lauren

    2009-01-01

    Despite progress toward assuring the health of today's young population, the 21(st) century began with an epidemic of childhood obesity. There is general agreement that the situation must be addressed by means of primary prevention, but relatively little is known about how to intervene effectively....... The evidence behind the assumption that childhood obesity can be prevented was discussed critically in this roundtable symposium. Overall, there was general agreement that action is needed and that the worldwide epidemic itself is sufficient evidence for action. As the poet, writer, and scholar...

  15. Temporal Lobe Epilepsy in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine C. Nickels

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The temporal lobe is a common focus for epilepsy. Temporal lobe epilepsy in infants and children differs from the relatively homogeneous syndrome seen in adults in several important clinical and pathological ways. Seizure semiology varies by age, and the ictal EEG pattern may be less clear cut than what is seen in adults. Additionally, the occurrence of intractable seizures in the developing brain may impact neurocognitive function remote from the temporal area. While many children will respond favorably to medical therapy, those with focal imaging abnormalities including cortical dysplasia, hippocampal sclerosis, or low-grade tumors are likely to be intractable. Expedient workup and surgical intervention in these medically intractable cases are needed to maximize long-term developmental outcome.

  16. [Primary reading epilepsy. 11 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercelletto, P; Cler, J M; Friol, M

    1985-01-01

    Eleven cases of primary reading epilepsy are reported. They confirm Bickford's description. These patients were otherwise normal. A family history of seizures was present in 6 cases. The first seizure occurred between 12 and 25 years. After a variable period of reading all patients developed a tightness and jerking in throat and jaw muscles. In 4 cases, occasionally, speaking could cause jaw or throat jerks. Whilst reading out loud or silently (exclusively in reading aloud in 1 patient) bilateral discharges were recorded in EEG, sometimes on the left hemisphere. The mechanisms are discussed. Seizures in primary reading epilepsy are facilitated by saccadic eye movements, impulse language muscles and mental concentration. The role of higher integrating systems of language is emphasized. Therapy is discussed. PMID:4048729

  17. Epilepsy, hormones, and antiepileptic drugs

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    LIST OF PAPERS 1) Svalheim S, Taubøll E, Bjørnenak T, Røste LS, Mørland T, Sætre ER, Gjerstad L. Do women with epilepsy have increased frequency of menstrual disturbances? Seizure 2003; 12:529-533. doi:10.1016/S1059-1311(03)00195-X 2) Svalheim S, Taubøll E, Bjørnenak T, Røste LS, Mørland T, Sætre ER, Gjerstad L. Onset of epilepsy and menarche--is there any relationship? Seizure 2006; 15:571-575. doi:10.1016/j.seizure.2006.07.003 3) Svalheim S, Taubøll E, Surdova K, Ormel L, Dahl...

  18. Surgical strategies for pediatric epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Jian; Karsy, Michael; Ducis, Katrina

    2016-01-01

    Pediatric epilepsy is a debilitating condition that impacts millions of patients throughout the world. Approximately 20–30% of children with recurrent seizures have drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE). For these patients, surgery offers the possibility of not just seizure freedom but significantly improved neurocognitive and behavioral outcomes. The spectrum of surgical options is vast, ranging from outpatient procedures such as vagus nerve stimulation to radical interventions including hemispherectomy. The thread connecting all of these interventions is a common goal—seizure freedom, an outcome that can be achieved safely and durably in a large proportion of patients. In this review, we discuss many of the most commonly performed surgical interventions and describe the indications, complications, and outcomes specific to each.

  19. MOYAMOYA INDUCED ACUTE PARAPLEGIA IN A CHILD WITH EPILEPSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MM. Taghdiri

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveMoyamoya disease (MMD is a chronic, occlusive, cerebrovascular disorder of unknown pathogenesis, characterized by progressive stenosis of the bilateral supraclinoid internal carotid arteries, with concomitant formation of tortuous arterial collateral vessels at the base of the brain, which reconstitute distal branches of the cerebral circulation. In Japanese, "Moyamoya" means "hazy puff of smoke" and refers to the angiographic appearance of the abnormal network of vessels that develop at the base of the brain and basal ganglia to supply a collateral route of blood flow. We report here the case of Moyamoya disease in a 5 year-old girl with normal mentality with a one year history of epilepsy, with Todd's paralysis. This condition is rare and most patients are diagnosed in childhood. With this report we aim to underscore the possibility that a usual neurological sign could be associated with unusual neurological disorders.

  20. Clinical Genetic Testing in Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    Mefford, Heather C.

    2015-01-01

    New technologies for mutation detection in the human genome have greatly increased our understanding of epilepsy genetics. Application of genomic technologies in the clinical setting allows for more efficient genetic diagnosis in some patients; therefore, it is important to understand the types of tests available and the types of mutations that can be detected. Making a genetic diagnosis improves overall patient care by enhancing prognosis and recurrence risk counseling and informing treatmen...

  1. PSEUDOSEIZURES AND EPILEPSY IN NEUROCYSTICERCOSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Ibañez-Valdés L de F.; Foyaca-Sibat H

    2003-01-01

    We studied 32 rural patients from the poorest regions in South Africa, diagnosed as epilepsy due to neurocysticercosis presenting pseudoseizures. We found that the common clinical characteristics of this series and its psychological profile such as: duration of events, history of sexual abuse in females, absent of focal neurological signs, vocalization in the middle of the seizures, and lack of post-ictal symptoms were very useful for its differential diagnosis, and the possible difference be...

  2. Seizures and epilepsy in cats

    OpenAIRE

    Moore SA

    2014-01-01

    Sarah A Moore Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA Abstract: Seizures are a common presenting complaint in cats, although causes and options for the treatment of seizures in this species have been historically poorly described in the veterinary literature. Seizure manifestation in cats may be different than what is typically seen in dogs, but the underlying causes of seizure activity are the same. These include primary epilepsies, structura...

  3. Idiopathic epilepsy and school achievement.

    OpenAIRE

    Sturniolo, M G; Galletti, F

    1994-01-01

    Forty one children (20 boys, 21 girls) aged 6-10.8 years (mean age 8.6 years) who were affected with idiopathic epilepsy underwent neuropsychological (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Bender test) and behavioural assessment (Personality Inventory for Children; this was also used in a matched control group). Further information was obtained by teachers' reports. School underachievement occurred in 25 children (61%). Statistical analysis showed no influence of sex, social background, a...

  4. Idiopathic epilepsy and school achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturniolo, M G; Galletti, F

    1994-05-01

    Forty one children (20 boys, 21 girls) aged 6-10.8 years (mean age 8.6 years) who were affected with idiopathic epilepsy underwent neuropsychological (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Bender test) and behavioural assessment (Personality Inventory for Children; this was also used in a matched control group). Further information was obtained by teachers' reports. School underachievement occurred in 25 children (61%). Statistical analysis showed no influence of sex, social background, age of onset, seizure type, duration of illness, features seen on electroencephalography, and treatment. School failure was due to poor performance in almost all academic fields, and was associated with higher visuomotor impairment; children showing good school performance had a higher mean IQ and less visuomotor impairment. The behaviour of children with epilepsy who had a good academic performance did not differ from that of their healthy peers. Emotional maladjustment (social skill impairment, depression, poor motivation, and low self esteem) was associated with poor school performance. Such problems, that may complicate the course of idiopathic epilepsy and require an appropriate educational programme, should be carefully considered by the clinician. PMID:8017966

  5. Temporal lobe epilepsy surgery in children versus adults: from etiologies to outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Jin Lee

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE is the most common type of medically intractable epilepsy in adults and children, and mesial temporal sclerosis is the most common underlying cause of TLE. Unlike in the case of adults, TLE in infants and young children often has etiologies other than mesial temporal sclerosis, such as tumors, cortical dysplasia, trauma, and vascular malformations. Differences in seizure semiology have also been reported. Motor manifestations are prominent in infants and young children, but they become less obvious with increasing age. Further, automatisms tend to become increasingly complex with age. However, in childhood and especially in adolescence, the clinical manifestations are similar to those of the adult population. Selective amygdalohippocampectomy can lead to excellent postoperative seizure outcome in adults, but favorable results have been seen in children as well. Anterior temporal lobectomy may prove to be a more successful surgery than amygdalohippocampectomy in children with intractable TLE. The presence of a focal brain lesion on magnetic resonance imaging is one of the most reliable independent predictors of a good postoperative seizure outcome. Seizure-free status is the most important predictor of improved psychosocial outcome with advanced quality of life and a lower proportion of disability among adults and children. Since the brain is more plastic during infancy and early childhood, recovery is promoted. In contrast, long epilepsy duration is an important risk factor for surgically refractory seizures. Therefore, patients with medically intractable TLE should undergo surgery as early as possible.

  6. Long-Term Effects of Childhood Maltreatment History on Gender-Related Personality Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Leora N.; Martin, Lee

    1998-01-01

    A survey of 1,060 male and 305 female soldiers examined associations of gender-related personality attributes with a history of child maltreatment. Childhood abuse was associated with the presence of negative gender-related attributes; childhood neglect was associated with absence of positive gender-related attributes; childhood sexual abuse was…

  7. Epilepsia infantil en Navarra Epilepsy in children in Navarre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Durá

    2007-08-01

    the annual incidence rate of epilepsy, as well as the relative distribution of the different epilepsies and epileptic syndromes in children. Material and methods. All incident cases of children living in Navarre below 15 years of age with a newly diagnosed epilepsy (years 2003 through 2005 have been registered in a prospective study. Epidemiological and clinical data and complementary studies were collected. ILAE guidelines for epidemiological studies were applied. Results. One hundred and forty two patients were diagnosed with child epilepsy (18 infants, 47 early children, 39 school children and 38 adolescents. The annual incidence rate was 62.1 cases per 100.000 (95% CI: 61.6-62.6, with a highest incidence rate during the first year of life (103.9 per 100.000. Fifty seven percent of the patients presented focal epilepsies, 41.5% generalized and 1.4% undetermined. In infants, West syndrome (44.4%, epilepsies associated to specific syndromes (27.7% and focal symptomatic (11.1% were the most prevalent epileptic syndromes. In early childhood, the main syndromes were focal symptomatic (21.3% or cryptogenic epilepsies (25.5%. In schoolchildren, focal idiopathic (25.6% and cryptogenic epilepsies (20.5%. And, in adolescents, focal cryptogenic (21.1% and idiopathic epilepsies (18.4%. Conclusions. The annual incidence rate of child epilepsy in Navarre shows a similar rate as described for other western countries, with the highest incidence rate during the first year of life, diminishing gradually until adolescence. Published data concerning relative frequency of epilepsy and epileptic syndromes are quite discordant. The difficulties in establishing a syndromic diagnosis require the application of uniform criteria in order to obtain valid and comparable epidemiological information.

  8. Pharmacoresistant epilepsy: unmet needs in solving the puzzle(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Donald F; Pohlmann-Eden, Bernd

    2013-05-01

    Pharmacoresistant epilepsy is a significant medical problem. The 2nd Halifax International Epilepsy Conference & Retreat identified crucial needs, which if successfully addressed, will aid in paving the way to improved lives for people with pharmacoresistant epilepsy. These are needs: (1) for an evidence-based and dynamic definition of pharmacoresistant epilepsy; (2) for a comprehensive description of the natural history of pharmacoresistant epilepsy; (3) for a comprehensive description of the complications and comorbidities of pharmacoresistant epilepsy; (4) for a rigorous delineation of the epidemiology and socioeconomic impact of pharmacoresistant epilepsy; (5) for clinically meaningful diagnostic and prognostic physiologically based electroencephalography (EEG) biomarkers; (6) for clinically meaningful diagnostic and prognostic anatomically based (MRI Imaging) biomarkers; (7) for biomolecular/biochemical mechanistic understanding of etiopathogenesis for pharmacoresistant epilepsy; (8) for representative animal models of pharmacoresistant epilepsy; (9) for new and effective drugs or other novel treatments for pharmacoresistant epilepsy; and (10) to promote continuing research and research funding targeting pharmacoresistant epilepsy. PMID:23646978

  9. The dynamics of absence behaviour: Interrelations between absence from class and absence in class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonasson, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    absence is best prevented. Sample: Fieldwork was conducted at a vocational school containing 850 students. In this particular study, 24 student interviews were used in combination with interviews from four teachers and three school managers. Design and methods: The study is an ethnographic case study of a...... single school conducted over a continuous six-month period. It used participant observation followed by semi-structured interviews and school documents. Results: Findings suggest that student absence consists of interrelated forms of absence behaviour that have specific consequences for student...... the social practice of students, teachers and school managers. Evaluations of both absence from class and absence in class are important for understanding how absence behaviour can be identified and prevented....

  10. Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuca, Sevil Ari, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    This book aims to provide readers with a general as well as an advanced overview of the key trends in childhood obesity. Obesity is an illness that occurs due to a combination of genetic, environmental, psychosocial, metabolic and hormonal factors. The prevalence of obesity has shown a great rise both in adults and children in the last 30 years.…

  11. Childhood Obesity

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-06

    In this podcast, Dr. Tom Frieden, CDC Director, discusses the decrease in childhood obesity rates and what strategies have been proven to work to help our children grow up and thrive.  Created: 8/6/2013 by National Center for Injury Prevention and Control.   Date Released: 3/6/2014.

  12. Melatonin’s Effect in Febrile Seizures and Epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl MAHYAR

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE FA How to Cite This Article: Mahyar A, Ayazi P, Dalirani R, Gholami N, Daneshi-Kohan MM, Mohammadi N, Ahmadi MM, Sahmani AA. Melatonin’s Effect in Febrile Seizures and Epilepsy Iran J Child Neurol. 2014 Summer;8(3: 24-29. AbstractObjectiveRecognition of risk factors for febrile seizures (FS and epilepsy is essential. Studies regarding the role of melatonin in these convulsive disorders are limited.This study determines the relationship between serum melatonin levels and FS and epilepsy in children.Materials & MethodsA population of 111 children with simple FS, complex FS, and epilepsy (37 children per group, respectively were included as case groups. In addition, 37 febrile children without seizures comprised the control group. Serum melatonin levels were measured and compared between all groups.ResultsThe serum melatonin levels in the simple, complex FSs, and epilepsy groups were 2, 2.4, and 2 pg/ml, respectively. The serum melatonin level in the control group was 2.1pg/ml.Moreover, there were no significant differences observed while comparing the case groups.ConclusionThe present study reveals that there is no association between serum melatonin level and simple or complex FS and epilepsy. It appears that melatonin plays no significant role in these convulsive disorders. ReferencesBanerjee TK, Hazra A, Biswas A, Ray Jet al. Neurological disorders in children and adolescents. Indian J Pediatr2009; 76:139-46.Salehi Omran MR, Khalilian E, Mehdipour E, Ghabeli JA. Febrile seizures in North Iranian children: Epidemiology and clinical feature, Journal of Pediatric Neurology2008, 6: 39-43.Shinnar S, O’Dell C. Febrile Seizures, Pediatr Ann 2004, 33: 394-402.Millar JS. The child with febrile seizure, Pediatrics for parents 2006.24:12-14.Fetvei A. Assessment of febrile seizures in children, Eur J Pediatr2008, 167:17-27.Mikati MA. Seizures in Childhood In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, Schor NF, St

  13. Individual classification of children with epilepsy using support vector machine with multiple indices of diffusion tensor imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Ishmael Amarreh; Meyerand, Mary E.; Carl Stafstrom; Hermann, Bruce P.; Birn, Rasmus M.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Support vector machines (SVM) have recently been demonstrated to be useful for voxel-based MR image classification. In the present study we sought to evaluate whether this method is feasible in the classification of childhood epilepsy intractability based on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), with adequate accuracy. We applied SVM in conjunction DTI indices of fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), radial diffusivity (RD) and axial diffusivity (AD). DTI studies have rep...

  14. Sleep and Epilepsy: Strange Bedfellows No More

    OpenAIRE

    St. Louis, Erik K

    2011-01-01

    Ancient philosophers and theologians believed that altered consciousness freed the mind to prophesy the future, equating sleep with seizures. Only recently has the bidirectional influences of epilepsy and sleep upon one another received more substantive analysis. This article reviews the complex and increasingly recognized interrelationships between sleep and epilepsy. NREM sleep differentially activates interictal epileptiform discharges during slow wave (N3) sleep, while i...

  15. Pragmatic Communication Deficits in Children with Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeders, Mark; Geurts, Hilde; Jennekens-Schinkel, Aag

    2010-01-01

    Background: Various psychiatric and neurological disorders including epilepsy have been associated with language deficits. Pragmatic language deficits, however, have seldom been the focus of earlier studies in children with epilepsy. Moreover, it is unknown whether these pragmatic deficits are related to general intellectual functioning. Both…

  16. Living with Epilepsy--Not around It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Laura

    2008-01-01

    This article presents an interview on Kevin Eggers, a 19-year-old college student from Seattle, Washington, who was diagnosed with epilepsy but had not let it prevent him from accomplishing his goals. As an Epilepsy Advocate, Kevin helps other teens and young adults realize that having a disability does not mean not living a normal and fulfilling…

  17. Epilepsy and Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguni, Hirokazu

    2013-01-01

    The co-occurrence of epilepsy in people with intellectual disabilities (ID) and other developmental disabilities (DD) has received attention because it has a significant negative impact on health, well-being, and quality of life. The current research investigating the frequency and form of epilepsy in children with ID and DD is reviewed, with…

  18. Anxiety in adolescent epilepsy. A clinimetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrozzino, Danilo; Marchetti, Daniela; Laino, Daniela; Minna, Maria; Verrocchio, Maria Cristina; Fulcheri, Mario; Verrotti, Alberto; Bech, Per

    2016-08-01

    Background Anxiety and depression have been considered to be neglected disorders in epilepsy. Because panic disorder is one of the most important anxiety disorders, it has been problematic to use very comprehensive anxiety questionnaires in epilepsy patients, as panic attacks and epileptic seizures, although two distinct clinical entities from a diagnostic point of view, show a significant overlap of symptoms. Aims We have focused on single items for anxiety and depression as screening candidates in adolescent epilepsy. Methods The individual panic attack item in the Screen for Children Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders Scale (SCARED) and the single depression item in the Kellner Symptom Questionnaire were tested. Our samples consisted of adolescent patients with epilepsy and a matched control group with healthy participants, as well as two numerical groups acting as controls. Results The single panic attack item identified panic anxiety in 24.1% in the group of patients with epilepsy and 0.0% in the matched control group (p = 0.01). The single depression item identified 52.2% with depression in the epilepsy group and 6.2% in the matched control group (p = 0.001). Conclusion As screening instruments, single items of panic attack and depression are sufficient to screen for these affective states in adolescent epilepsy. The clinical implications are that it is important to be quite specific when screening for depression and panic attacks in adolescent patients with epilepsy. PMID:26906494

  19. Relation of Cognitive Proficiency to Epilepsy Focus

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    2012-01-01

    Investigators at Children’s Memorial Hospital/Northwestern University School of Medicine Epilepsy Center, Chicago, and Kangbuk Samsung Hospital, Seoul, Korea examined the relationship of cognitive proficiency (CP) to general intellectual ability (GA) and seizure focus by retrospective chart review of 90 children (aged 6-18 years) with epilepsy, video-EEG recording, MRI, and neuropsychological testing (WISC-IV).

  20. Profiling cytokines in temporal lobe epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kan, A.A.

    2012-01-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is one of the most common types of partial epilepsy. Because about 30% of the TLE patients poorly respond to medication, identification of new drug targets to treat TLE is imperative. This requires detailed knowledge of the pathophysiology of TLE . The aim of this thesis