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Sample records for childbirth birth cohort

  1. Fear of childbirth and risk for birth complications in nulliparous women in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, M; Johansen, C; Hedegaard, M

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the associations between fear of childbirth and emergency caesarean section and between fear of childbirth and dystocia or protracted labour and fetal distress. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Danish National Birth Cohort. POPULATION: A total of 25 297 healthy...

  2. Swedish couples' attitudes towards birth, childbirth fear and birth preferences and relation to mode of birth - a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildingsson, Ingegerd

    2014-06-01

    Little is known if couples hold similar or different attitudes towards birth or what impact these have on the actual mode of birth. The aim of this study was to compare couples' personal and general attitudes towards birth. An additional aim was to study the relationship between attitudes, birth preferences, and fear of birth in relation to mode of birth. This study is part of a longitudinal cohort study of 1074 pregnant women and their partners recruited during one year in three hospitals in the middle-north part of Sweden. Data was collected by questionnaires. Chi-square test, t-tests and multinominal regression analysis were used in the analyses. Women held stronger attitudes about the importance of a safe and less stressful birth for the baby, while their partners were most concerned about the woman's health. Women who preferred a caesarean section and reported childbirth fear often prioritized a safe and stressful birth for themselves, wanted to avoid pain, plan the date, and decide about birth themselves and did not view birth as natural. Some of these attitudes were also found in partners who preferred a caesarean section. Birth preference and fear were strongly associated with mode of birth. Special attention should be directed towards parents with a caesarean section preference and parents with childbirth related fear as they have certain attitudes to birth and are more likely to have caesarean section for the birth of the baby. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Fear of childbirth: predictors and temporal changes among nulliparous women in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, M.; Hedegaard, M.; Johansen, C.

    2008-01-01

    pregnancy (mean, 32 weeks) and changes in fear of childbirth between 1997 and 2003. RESULTS: Low educational level, lack of a social network, young age and unemployment were associated with fear of childbirth, as were being a smoker and having low self-rated health. The odds ratio for fear of childbirth......OBJECTIVES: To describe the association between fear of childbirth and social, demographic and psychological factors in a cohort of 30 480 healthy nulliparous women with uncomplicated singleton pregnancies. DESIGN: Nationwide population-based study. SETTING: The Danish National Birth Cohort....... POPULATION: Healthy nulliparous women (n= 30 480) with singleton pregnancies. METHODS: Data from computer-assisted telephone interviews twice in pregnancy linked with national health registers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Characteristics of women with fear of childbirth in early (mean, 16 weeks) and late...

  4. Childbirth and symptoms of postpartum depression and anxiety: a prospective birth cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, A.F.; Carter, C. S.; Davis, J M; Golding, J.; Adejumo, O.; Pyra, M.; Connelly, J. J.; Rubin, L. H.

    2015-01-01

    We investigated associations between aspects of childbirth and elevated postpartum symptoms of depression and anxiety. We employed secondary analysis of perinatal data (N=4657?4946) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort. Multivariable logistic regression models (adjusted for covariates) examined predictors of elevated symptoms of postpartum depression and anxiety. Predictors included the following: type of delivery (normal physiological vs. interventiv...

  5. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder after childbirth and the influence of maternity team care during labour and birth: A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schepper, Sarah; Vercauteren, Tinne; Tersago, Jolein; Jacquemyn, Yves; Raes, Filip; Franck, Erik

    2016-01-01

    we examined the prevalence of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and the role of personal and obstetric risk factors, as well as the role of midwifery team care factors in a cohort of Flemish women. prospective cohort study. Data collection was performed at two times post partum: During the first week, socio-demographic and obstetric data as well as information related to midwifery team care factors were assessed using self-report measures. To asses PTSD symptomatology, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) and the Traumatic Event Scale (TES) were used. At six weeks post partum, PTSD symptoms were reassessed either by telephone interviews or e-mail. Results were calculated in frequencies, means and standard deviations. Differences between week one and six were analysed using parametrical and non-parametrical statistics. Multiple and logistic regression was performed to determine risk factors for PTSD symptomatology. P-value was set at 0.05. maternity wards in Flanders, Belgium. the first (week 1) and follow-up (week 6) sample of the data collection consisted of 340 and 229 women respectively. the prevalence of PTSD symptoms after childbirth ranged from 22% to 24% in the first week and from 13% to 20% at six weeks follow-up. Multiple regression analysis showed that Islamic belief, a traumatic childbirth experience, family income labour/birth with complications significantly predicted PTSD symptomatology at six weeks post-birth. Midwifery team care and the opportunity to ask questions, as well as experiencing a normal physiological birth were significantly associated with less postnatal PTSD symptoms. KEY CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTISE: the results of this study suggest that contextual factors such as religion, socio-economic status, and childbirth experience might be important factors to address by the midwifery team. Midwifery team care factors such as 'providing the opportunity to the mother to ask questions' and the 'perception of the midwife

  6. My Birth Story is Like a Dream: A Childbirth Educator's Childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbir, Gözde G

    2013-01-01

    Fear of childbirth is universal. Because of the stories of bad experiences passed down for years, many women fear childbirth. As a result, many women do not believe in the power of their own bodies and often hand over control of their bodies to health-care professionals, resulting in unhappy childbirth experiences because of unnecessary intervention during labor and birth. As a pregnancy trainer who prepares pregnant women for childbirth, the author wrote her personal childbirth story with an autoethnographic narrative method. Her aim is to help motivate pregnant women preparing for childbirth, health-care professionals preparing those pregnant women, and birthing staff.

  7. My Birth Story is Like a Dream: A Childbirth Educator’s Childbirth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbir, Gözde G.

    2013-01-01

    Fear of childbirth is universal. Because of the stories of bad experiences passed down for years, many women fear childbirth. As a result, many women do not believe in the power of their own bodies and often hand over control of their bodies to health-care professionals, resulting in unhappy childbirth experiences because of unnecessary intervention during labor and birth. As a pregnancy trainer who prepares pregnant women for childbirth, the author wrote her personal childbirth story with an autoethnographic narrative method. Her aim is to help motivate pregnant women preparing for childbirth, health-care professionals preparing those pregnant women, and birthing staff. PMID:24381475

  8. Vicarious Birth Experiences and Childbirth Fear: Does It Matter How Young Canadian Women Learn About Birth?

    OpenAIRE

    Stoll, Kathrin; Hall, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    In our secondary analysis of a cross-sectional survey, we explored predictors of childbirth fear for young women (n = 2,676). Young women whose attitudes toward pregnancy and birth were shaped by the media were 1.5 times more likely to report childbirth fear. Three factors that were associated with reduced fear of birth were women’s confidence in reproductive knowledge, witnessing a birth, and learning about pregnancy and birth through friends. Offering age-appropriate birth education during ...

  9. Childbirth fear in expectant fathers: findings from a regional Swedish cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildingsson, Ingegerd; Johansson, Margareta; Fenwick, Jennifer; Haines, Helen; Rubertsson, Christine

    2014-02-01

    to investigate the prevalence of childbirth related fear in Swedish fathers and associated factors. a regional cohort study. Data was collected by a questionnaire. three hospitals in the middle-north part of Sweden 1047 expectant fathers recruited in mid-pregnancy during one year (2007) who completed the Fear of Birth Scale (FOBS). prevalence of childbirth fear and associated factors. Crude and adjusted odds ratios were calculated between men who scored 50 and above (childbirth fear) and those that did not (no fear). Logistic regression analysis was used to assess which factors contributed most to childbirth fear in fathers. the prevalence of childbirth fear in men was 13.6%. Factors associated with childbirth related fear were as follows: Less positive feelings about the approaching birth (OR 3.4; 2.2-5.2), country of birth other than Sweden (OR 2.8; 1.3-6.1), a preference for a caesarean birth (OR 2.1; 1.7-4.1), childbirth thoughts in mid-pregnancy (OR 1.9; 1.1-2.0) and expecting the first baby (OR 1.8; 1.2-2.6). high levels of fear were associated with first time fathers and being a non-native to Sweden. Men with fear were more likely to experience pregnancy and the coming birth as a negative event. These men were also more likely to identify caesarean section as their preferred mode of birth. engaging expectant fathers in antenatal conversations about their experiences of pregnancy and feelings about birth provides health-care professionals with an opportunity to address childbirth fear, share relevant information and promote birth as a normal but significant life event. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Audit of Childbirth Emergency Referrals by Trained Traditional Birth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Further training and re‑training of the TBAs with more emphasis on recognition of obstetric danger signs and bad obstetric histories may help in screening high‑risk patients for prompt referral to hospitals before complications develop. Keywords: Childbirth emergencies, Delay, Outcomes, Referrals, Trained traditional birth ...

  11. Fear of childbirth and risk of cesarean delivery: a cohort study in six European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryding, Elsa Lena; Lukasse, Mirjam; Parys, An-Sophie Van; Wangel, Anne-Marie; Karro, Helle; Kristjansdottir, Hildur; Schroll, Anne-Mette; Schei, Berit

    2015-03-01

    Few studies have examined the mode of birth among women with fear of childbirth, and the results are conflicting. The objective of this study was to assess the association between fear of childbirth and cesarean delivery in North European women. A longitudinal cohort study was conducted among 6,422 pregnant women from Belgium, Iceland, Denmark, Estonia, Norway, and Sweden. Fear of childbirth was measured by the Wijma Delivery Expectancy Questionnaire during pregnancy and linked to obstetric information from hospital records. Among 3,189 primiparous women, those reporting severe fear of childbirth were more likely to give birth by elective cesarean, (OR, 1.66 [95% CI 1.05-2.61]). Among 3,233 multiparous women, severe fear of childbirth increased the risk of elective cesarean (OR 1.87 [95% CI 1.30-2.69]). Reporting lack of positive anticipation, one of six dimensions of fear of childbirth, was most strongly associated with elective cesarean (OR 2.02 [95% CI 1.52-2.68]). A dose-effect pattern was observed between level of fear and risk of emergency cesarean in both primiparous and multiparous women. Indications for cesarean were more likely to be reported as "nonmedical" among those with severe fear of childbirth; 16.7 versus 4.6 percent in primiparous women, and 31.7 versus 17.5 percent in multiparous women. Having severe fear of childbirth increases the risk of elective cesarean, especially among multiparous women. Lack of positive anticipation of the upcoming childbirth seems to be an important dimension of fear associated with cesarean delivery. Counseling for women who do not look forward to vaginal birth should be further evaluated. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Birth in Brazil survey: neonatal mortality, pregnancy and childbirth quality of care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansky, Sônia; Lima Friche, Amélia Augusta de; Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura da; Campos, Deise; Azevedo Bittencourt, Sonia Duarte de; Carvalho, Márcia Lazaro de; Frias, Paulo Germano de; Cavalcante, Rejane Silva; Cunha, Antonio José Ledo Alves da

    2014-08-01

    This study examined neonatal deaths in the live-births cohort in the Birth in Brazil survey, which interviewed and examined medical records of 23,940 mothers from February 2011 to October 2012. Potential risk factors were analyzed using hierarchical modeling. Neonatal mortality rate was 11.1/1,000, the highest rates occurring in the North and Northeast regions and in lower social classes. Low birth weight, risks during pregnancy and conditions of the newborn were the main factors associated with neonatal death. Inadequate prenatal and childbirth care point to unsatisfactory quality of health care. Difficulty in gaining hospital admission for delivery, and children with birth weightcare unit, indicate gaps in health system organization. Deaths from intra-partum asphyxia in term babies and late prematurity express preventable neonatal mortality. Better quality health care, especially hospital care during labor and birth, poses the main public policy challenge to progress in reducing mortality and inequalities in Brazil.

  13. Associations between Childbirth, Hospitalization and Disability Pension: A Cohort Study of Female Twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkenstam, Emma; Narusyte, Jurgita; Alexanderson, Kristina; Ropponen, Annina; Kjeldgård, Linnea; Svedberg, Pia

    2014-01-01

    Background As the literature on long-term effects of childbirth on risk of morbidity or permanent work incapacity (DP) is limited, we aimed to study associations of childbirth with hospitalization and DP, adjusting for familial factors. Methods This cohort study included female twins, i.e. women with twin sister, born 1959–1990 in Sweden (n = 5 118). At least one in the twin pair had their first childbirth 1994–2009. Women were followed regarding all-cause and cause-specific (mental or musculoskeletal diagnoses) DP during year 2–5 after first delivery or equivalent. Associations between childbirth, hospitalization and DP were calculated as hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Women who did not give birth had markedly higher number of DP days/year compared to those giving birth. Hospitalization after first childbirth was associated with a higher HR of DP. Those hospitalized at least once after their first childbirth had a three-fold DP risk (HR: 3.2; 95% CI 1.1–9.6), DP due to mental diagnoses (HR: 3.2; 1.2–8.8), and of DP due to musculoskeletal diagnoses (HR: 6.1; 1.6–22.9). Lower HRs in the discordant twin pair analyses indicated that familial factors may influence the studied associations. Conclusions Women who did not give birth had a much higher risk for DP than those who did. Among those who gave birth, the risk for DP was markedly higher among those with a previous hospitalization, and especially in women with repeated hospitalizations. The results indicate a health selection into giving birth as well as the importance of morbidity for DP. PMID:24999632

  14. New Delhi Birth Cohort

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. New Delhi Birth Cohort. In childhood Less than 1% were obese (IOTF 30 kg/m2). Mean BMI SD ranged from –0.4 to –1.0 (CDC). At 26-32 years 10% were obese (BMI >30 kg/m2). ~50% overweight (BMI > 25 kg/m2);. ~65% overweight (BMI > 23 kg/m2). 10% had IGT.

  15. Effect of Implementing a Birth Plan on Womens' Childbirth Experiences and Maternal & Neonatal Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahat, Amal Hussain; Mohamed, Hanan El Sayed; Elkader, Shadia Abd; El-Nemer, Amina

    2015-01-01

    Childbirth satisfaction represents a sense of feeling good about one's birth. It is thought to result from having a sense of control, having expectations met, feeling empowered, confident and supported. The aim of this study was to implement a birth plan and evaluate its effect on women's childbirth experiences and maternal, neonatal outcomes. A…

  16. [Influence of childbirth experience and postpartum depression on quality of life in women after birth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Jung Hee; Chun, Nami

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify influence of childbirth experience and postpartum depression on quality of life in women after birth. Two hundred and eleven postpartum women were asked to complete the questionnaires on their childbirth experience during their admission and on their postpartum depression and quality of life between one to three weeks after birth. Initial data were collected from February 1 to May 30, 2011 at two obstetric hospitals in Busan, Korea. Data were analyzed using t-test, ANOVA, Pearson correlation coefficients, and hierarchical multiple regression. The women's childbirth experience and postpartum depression were identified as factors influencing quality of life after birth. The model explained 50% of the variables. Results suggest that childbirth educators should include strategies to increase a positive childbirth experience and to decrease postpartum depression in their education programs in order to improve women's quality of life.

  17. Offering Women Childbirth Choices: A Case for Nurse-Midwives and Free-Standing Birth Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffron, Marsha S.

    2002-01-01

    Describes the use of Certified Nurse Midwives and birth centers, examining how they present a safe, alternative maternity care option for low-risk women and discussing safety issues to consider with alternative childbirth experiences, birth center licensure and accreditation, cost effectiveness of freestanding birth centers, and client…

  18. Lifetime sexual violence and childbirth expectations - A Norwegian population based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Lena; Schei, Berit; Lukasse, Mirjam

    2016-05-01

    this study aimed to explore the association between lifetime sexual violence and expectations about childbirth. Norwegian population-based cohort study. women presenting for routine ultrasound examinations were recruited to the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study between 1999 and 2008. 78,660 pregnant women. sexual violence and expectations about childbirth were self-reported during pregnancy using postal questionnaires. Risk estimations were performed using multivariable logistic regression analysis and stratified by parity. fear of childbirth, the thoughts about pain relief, worries about the infant's health and looking forward to the arrival of the infant. of 78,660 women, 18.4% reported a history of sexual violence and 0.9% were exposed to sexual violence within the last 12 months, including during the current pregnancy. We found that nulliparous women who reported previous or recent sexual violence had a decrease in the odds of looking forward to the arrival of the infant with an AOR of 0.8 (95% CI 0.7-0.9) and 0.4 (95% CI 0.3-0.6), respectively, compared to non-abused women. The same pattern was observed among multiparous women and they were more likely to report worries about the infant's health. Severe sexual violence (rape) was associated with concerns about childbirth, especially for nulliparous women that were more likely to express fear of birth, a hope for a pain-free birth, a desire for caesarean section and worries about the infant's health than non-exposed women. women with a lifetime exposure to sexual violence, both past experiences and within the last 12 months, were less likely to look forward to the arrival of the infant than non-exposed women, and they were more likely to worry about the infant's health. Women with experiences of severe sexual violence (rape) had more concerns about childbirth than women without this experience. This finding shows that exploring women's attitudes toward childbirth may work as an approach when examining

  19. The relationship between childbirth self-efficacy and aspects of well-being, birth interventions and birth outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Ing-Marie; Ziegert, Kristina; Nissen, Eva

    2015-10-01

    this study aimed to examine how women׳s childbirth self-efficacy beliefs relate to aspects of well-being during the third trimester of pregnancy and whether there was any association between childbirth self-efficacy and obstetric factors. a cross-sectional design was used. The data was obtained through the distribution of a composite questionnaire and antenatal and birth records. data were recruited from antenatal health-care clinics in Halland, Sweden. a consecutive sample of 406 pregnant women was recruited at the end of pregnancy at gestational weeks of 35-42. five different measures were used; the Swedish version of Childbirth Self-Efficacy Inventory, the Wijma Delivery Expectancy/Experience Questionnaire, the Sense of Coherence Questionnaire, the Maternity Social Support Scale and finally the Profile of Mood States. results showed that childbirth self-efficacy was correlated with positive dimensions as vigour, sense of coherence and maternal support and negatively correlated with previous mental illness, negative mood states and fear of childbirth. Women who reported high childbirth self-efficacy had less epidural analgesia during childbirth, compared to women with low self-efficacy. this study highlights that childbirth self-efficacy is a positive dimension that interplays with other aspects and contributes to well-being during pregnancy and thereby, acts as an asset in the context of childbirth. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The influence of general anxiety and childbirth-specific anxiety on birth outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reck, C; Zimmer, K; Dubber, S; Zipser, B; Schlehe, B; Gawlik, S

    2013-10-01

    In the present study, we examined a German sample to determine whether anxiety symptoms during pregnancy had an impact on the duration and method of childbirth. Data of N = 88 women recruited at the Heidelberg University Hospital were used in the analyses. Prepartum anxiety symptoms were assessed with the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI, general anxiety) and the Pregnancy Related Anxiety Questionnaire (PRAQ-R, pregnancy-specific anxiety). Obstetric outcome was taken from birth records and operationalized by two parameters: the total duration of birth (dilation and fetal expulsion) and the incidence of pregnancy or birth-related interventions (ventouse, planned, and unplanned Cesarean section). The data show that childbirth-specific anxiety assessed by the PRAQ-R is an important predictor of total birth duration. In contrast, general anxiety measured by the STAI had no effect. The incidence of birth intervention was explained by parity. Anxiety, however, had no predictive value. In addition to medical factors, childbirth-specific anxiety during pregnancy plays an important role in the process of childbirth. The findings of the present study point to the need of implementing psychological interventions to reduce childbirth-specific anxiety and thereby positively influencing birth outcome.

  1. Predictive value of self-rated health in pregnancy for childbirth complications, adverse birth outcomes, and maternal health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanikova, Irena; Kukla, Lubomir; Svancara, Jan

    2016-10-01

    To investigate whether self-rated health (SRH) in pregnancy can predict childbirth complications, adverse birth outcomes, and maternal health problems up to 3 years after delivery. A retrospective analysis was performed of data obtained in a prospective longitudinal population-based birth cohort study. Pregnant women resident in the Brno or Znojmo regions in the Czech Republic were included if they were expected to deliver between March 1991 and June 1992. SRH data were collected between 1991 and 1995 via pen-and-paper questionnaires administered in mid-pregnancy, and at 6 months, 18 months, and 3 years after delivery. Medical records were reviewed for pregnancy complications, childbirth complications, and birth outcomes. Multivariate regression analysis was performed. Overall, 4811 women were included. Better SRH in pregnancy predicted fewer childbirth complications (b=-0.03; P=0.036); lower odds of cesarean delivery (odds ratio 0.81; P=0.003); and fewer maternal health problems at 6 months (b=-0.32; Pcomplications and self-reported health problems in pregnancy. SRH in pregnancy has predictive value for subsequent health outcomes, and might be an additional tool for assessment of pregnant women's health. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  2. Private View, Public Birth: Making Feminist Sense of the New Visual Culture of Childbirth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imogen Tyler

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last three decades, there has been a dramatic increase in media representations of childbirth across a range of platforms: cinema, reality television and television drama, online video-sharing platforms, pornographic film, and in fine art practice. As yet, however, there is little feminist scholarship on the implications of this new and varied visual culture of childbirth and its relationship to earlier feminist debates about the cultural taboo against the representation of birth. This paper focuses on two contemporary sites: the growing phenomenon of 'childbirth reality TV' and the birthrites collection, a unique art collection in the UK dedicated to the subject of childbirth. We explore the meanings and implications of this new visual culture of birth, and the ways its reception is challenging earlier feminist conceptualisations of motherhood and the birthing body. In particular, we argue that these new popular and artistic representations of birth trouble accounts of the birthing body as abject, and what could be described as the 'abject aesthetics' that has dominated the visual representation of birth. In place of abjection, we conclude by arguing for a more thoroughly social and political account of the place of birth in contemporary culture, based on forms of 'natal thinking', which we suggest that the birthrites collection proposes.

  3. Association between childbirth attitudes and fear on birth preferences of a future generation of Australian parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Yvonne L; Stoll, Kathrin H; Hall, Wendy A; Downie, Jill

    2016-12-01

    The reality of childbirth fear is recognised for expectant parents but we lack knowledge about the childbirth attitudes of the next generation of Australian parents. Examination of adults' attitudes toward childbirth including influencing contributing factors, fear scores, birth preferences and reasons for this preference. A cross-sectional online study was conducted with 654 Western Australian students attending one tertiary institution. Students (male and female) were eligible to participate if they were less than 40 years of age and did not currently have children but confirmed their intention to become parents. To assess associations or comparison of means, bi-variable analyses (Chi square test, Fisher's Exact test, Independent Student's t-test or one way ANOVA) were used. Factors associated with childbirth fear and birth preferences were assessed with binary logistic regression analysis. Childbirth attitudes were shaped by family members' (82.0%) and friends' experiences (64.4%) plus media (TV, YouTube, and movies) (63.5%). Furthermore, 15.6% of adults indicated a preference for a caesarean birth, even without obstetric complications. Likewise, 26.1% reported elevated fear; students with elevated fear scores had 2.6 times greater odds of wanting a caesarean birth. Only 23.4% of students felt confident about their childbirth knowledge. Adults reported fear levels that warrant attention prior to a future pregnancy. Although the majority would choose a vaginal birth, they require awareness of benefits and risks for both vaginal and caesarean births to ensure their decisions reflect informed choice rather than influences of inadequate knowledge or fear. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. [THE CHAIR OF BIRTHS: A RESOURCE COMPANION OF VERTICALITY IN CHILDBIRTH].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosquera Pan, Lucía; Onandia Garate, Maialen; Luces Largo, Ana María; Bouza, Eva Tizón

    2015-06-01

    In primitive cultures, women chose to give birth in upright positions such as squatting or sitting, because these positions stimulate a physiological birth. In this way, in order to make easier the delivery support tools such as birthing chair (BC) are discovered. Later, with the medicalization of childbirth, the lithotomy position was introduced as standard practice, with the aim of promoting comfort to the birth attendant. Currently, this position is still prevalent in the hospital environment. The World Health Organization recommendations, stresses the importance of providing impartial information on birthing positions to women, so that she will decide how to give birth without professional influence as a limiting factor in maternal posture. The aim of this review is to make known the utility of the BC, the advantages and disadvantages associated with it, to make it an available resource in vertical childbirth. The BC is a low rise seat horseshoe shaped stable and sturdy structure, and sitting in the chair women acquire squatting position, considered the most natural. The BC is considered a useful tool for childbirth upright. Giving birth using the BC seems to be protective against episiotomies and Kristeller maneuver, provides comfort and empowerment of women and helps them to have a more positive birth experience.

  5. Mode of childbirth and neonatal outcome after external cephalic version: A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosman, A. N.; Vlemmix, F.; Ensing, S.; Opmeer, B. C.; te Hoven, S.; Velzel, J.; de Hundt, M.; van den Berg, S.; Rota, H.; van der Post, J. A. M.; Mol, B. W. J.; Kok, M.

    2016-01-01

    to assess the mode of childbirth and adverse neonatal outcomes in women with a breech presentation with or without an external cephalic version attempt, and to compare the mode of childbirth among women with successful ECV to women with a spontaneous cephalic presentation. prospective matched cohort

  6. Analysis of births attended by nurse midwives under the perspective of humanization of childbirth

    OpenAIRE

    Reis, Carlos Sérgio Corrêa dos; Souza, Danielle de Oliveira Miranda de; Nogueira, Maria de Fátima Hasek; Progianti,Jane Márcia; Vargens,Octavio Muniz da Costa

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Analyze births attended by nurse midwives relating their practice to the policy of humanization of childbirth. Methods: Descriptive, retrospective, quantitative study based on documentary analysis of 745 births attended by nurse midwives during the year of 2011 in a municipal maternity from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Results: The first-time mothers represent 44,16% of the women in labor. The recurrent interventions were the administration of oxytocin and the amniotomy. The dorsal hori...

  7. Social selection in cohort studies and later representation of childhood psychiatric diagnoses: The Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kathrine Bang; Hohwü, Lena; Zhu, Jin Liang

    2017-01-01

    AIM: This study aimed to estimate the relative representation of childhood psychiatric diagnoses and use of psychotropic medication in the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) compared to the general population. METHODS: The general population was identified as all childbirths in Denmark during 1998...

  8. The Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, J; Melbye, M; Olsen, S F

    2001-01-01

    ) was established. A large cohort of pregnant women with long-term follow-up of the offspring was the obvious choice because many of the exposures of interest cannot be reconstructed with sufficient validity back in time. The study needs to be large, and it is aimed to recruit 100,000 women early in pregnancy...... to the study. It is expected that a large number of gene-environmental hypotheses need to be based on case-control analyses within a cohort like this....... component causes that act early in life. Exposures in this period, which influence fetal growth, cell divisions, and organ functioning, may have long-lasting impact on health and disease susceptibility. METHODS: To investigate these issues the Danish National Birth Cohort (Better health for mother and child...

  9. The influence of women’s fear, attitudes and beliefs of childbirth on mode and experience of birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haines Helen M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Women’s fears and attitudes to childbirth may influence the maternity care they receive and the outcomes of birth. This study aimed to develop profiles of women according to their attitudes regarding birth and their levels of childbirth related fear. The association of these profiles with mode and outcomes of birth was explored. Methods Prospective longitudinal cohort design with self report questionnaires containing a set of attitudinal statements regarding birth (Birth Attitudes Profile Scale and a fear of birth scale (FOBS. Pregnant women responded at 18-20 weeks gestation and two months after birth from a regional area of Sweden (n = 386 and a regional area of Australia (n = 123. Cluster analysis was used to identify a set of profiles. Odds ratios (95% CI were calculated, comparing cluster membership for country of care, pregnancy characteristics, birth experience and outcomes. Results Three clusters were identified – ‘Self determiners’ (clear attitudes about birth including seeing it as a natural process and no childbirth fear, ‘Take it as it comes’ (no fear of birth and low levels of agreement with any of the attitude statements and ‘Fearful’ (afraid of birth, with concerns for the personal impact of birth including pain and control, safety concerns and low levels of agreement with attitudes relating to women’s freedom of choice or birth as a natural process. At 18 -20 weeks gestation, when compared to the ‘Self determiners’, women in the ‘Fearful’ cluster were more likely to: prefer a caesarean (OR = 3.3 CI: 1.6-6.8, hold less than positive feelings about being pregnant (OR = 3.6 CI: 1.4-9.0, report less than positive feelings about the approaching birth (OR = 7.2 CI: 4.4-12.0 and less than positive feelings about the first weeks with a newborn (OR = 2.0 CI 1.2-3.6. At two months post partum the ‘Fearful’ cluster had a greater likelihood of having had an

  10. The influence of the systematic birth preparation program on childbirth satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akca, Aysu; Corbacioglu Esmer, Aytul; Ozyurek, Eser Sefik; Aydin, Arife; Korkmaz, Nazli; Gorgen, Husnu; Akbayir, Ozgur

    2017-05-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to assess the influence of a systematic multidisciplinary birth preparation program on satisfaction with childbirth experience. A secondary aim was to detect factors that affect the childbirth satisfaction. In this prospective study, 77 pregnant women who completed the 4-month birth preparation program (Group 1) and 75 women in the control group (Group 2) were asked to fill out two questionnaires with face-to-face interviews within 48 h after labor. One of the questionnaires was the translated form of Salmon's Item List German (SIL-Ger), and SIL-Ger scores ≥70 was accepted as a satisfactory experience. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of sociocultural and intrapartum characteristics, and obstetric outcome parameters. The women who received antenatal education experienced significantly less pain (p = 0.01), had a better communication with midwife or obstetrician during delivery (p = 0.001), and participated more actively in decision-making before, during, and after childbirth (p childbirth experience by enabling women to communicate better with healthcare providers and to participate in decision-making during labor, as well as by decreasing the perception of labor pain.

  11. [Humanized childbirth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Su-Chen

    2005-06-01

    Childbirth is a major event in a family. The expectant parent's perception of the childbirth experience influences his or her development as a parent. Making childbirth a positive and satisfying experience for women is the responsibility of health care providers. Women want to have physical and emotional privacy during labor and delivery, and to experience both in a friendly, comfortable environment. For women expected to undergo normal deliveries, humanized childbirth is one accessible approach. This article explores the definition and evolution of humanized childbirth and the care practice that it involves. It also explores birth plans and birth experiences, and the improvements necessary to routine labor practices to enable women to participate in decision making about their childbirth experiences. The author emphasizes that when health-care providers recognize the value of humanized childbirth and make changes accordingly, the dignity of women's childbirth experiences will be enhanced.

  12. Speaking about birth: Visible and silenced narratives in online discussions of childbirth

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Ranjana

    2017-01-01

    In this article, I present an analysis of 1930 posts from 12 discussion threads from an online parenting forum, drawing upon a broader project on the mediation of childbirth. I present three themes in analysis –the multi-pronged functions of writing birth narratives, the discursive and perceived silencing of difficult stories and the overt individualisation and self-management evident in women’s accounts. I locate these as outcomes of the individualisation of maternity in conte...

  13. Birth room images: what they tell us about childbirth. A discourse analysis of birth rooms in developed countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Calida; Sheehan, Athena; Foureur, Maralyn

    2016-04-01

    this study examined images of birth rooms in developed countries to analyse the messages and visual discourse being communicated through images. a small qualitative study using Kress and van Leeuwen's (2006) social semiotic theoretical framework for image analysis, a form of discourse analysis. forty images of birth rooms were collected in 2013 from Google Images, Flickr, Wikimedia Commons and midwifery colleagues. The images were from obstetric units, alongside and freestanding midwifery units located in developed countries (Australia, Canada, Europe, New Zealand, United Kingdom and the United States of America). findings demonstrated three kinds of birth room images; the technological, the 'homelike', and the hybrid domesticated birth room. The most dominant was the technological birth room, with a focus on the labour bed and medical equipment. The visual messages from images of the technological birth room reinforce the notion that the bed is the most appropriate place to give birth and the use of medical equipment is intrinsically involved in the birth process. Childbirth is thus construed as risky/dangerous. as images on the Internet inform and persuade society about stereotypical behaviours, the trends of our time and sociocultural norms, it is important to recognise images of the technological birth room on the Internet may be influential in dictating women's attitudes, choices and behaviour, before they enter the birth room. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Mode of childbirth and neonatal outcome after external cephalic version: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosman, A N; Vlemmix, F; Ensing, S; Opmeer, B C; Te Hoven, S; Velzel, J; de Hundt, M; van den Berg, S; Rota, H; van der Post, J A M; Mol, B W J; Kok, M

    2016-08-01

    to assess the mode of childbirth and adverse neonatal outcomes in women with a breech presentation with or without an external cephalic version attempt, and to compare the mode of childbirth among women with successful ECV to women with a spontaneous cephalic presentation. prospective matched cohort study. 25 clusters (hospitals and its referring midwifery practices) in the Netherlands. Data of the Netherlands perinatal registry for the matched cohort. singleton pregnancies from January 2011 to August 2012 with a fetus in breech presentation and a childbirth from 36 weeks gestation onwards. Spontaneous cephalic presentations (selected from national registry 2009 and 2010) were matched in a 2:1 ratio to cephalic presentations after a successful version attempt. Matching criteria were maternal age, parity, gestational age at childbirth and fetal gender. Main outcomes were mode of childbirth and neonatal outcomes. of 1613 women eligible for external cephalic version, 1169 (72.5%) received an ECV attempt. The overall caesarean childbirth rate was significantly lower compared to women who did not receive a version attempt (57% versus 87%; RR 0.66 (0.62-0.70)). Women with a cephalic presentation after ECV compared to women with a spontaneous cephalic presentation had a decreased risk for instrumental vaginal childbirth (RR 0.52 (95% CI 0.29-0.94)) and an increased risk of overall caesarean childbirth (RR 1.7 (95%CI 1.2-2.5)). women who had a successful ECV are at increased risk for a caesarean childbirth but overall, ECV is an important tool to reduce the caesarean rate. ECV is an important tool to reduce the caesarean section rates. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. [Birth cohort studies in China: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L; Sun, L; He, X Y; Wang, Y X; Yu, W P

    2017-04-10

    With longer than 100-year experience of development, methods used on birth cohort study have been viewed as having important roles in exploring the probable effects of health and environment exposure both prior to and during the pregnancy in the life circle as infants, children, adolescents, adults, and the elderly. However in China, birth cohort studies started late but with rapid development. Recently, some well-known methods on birth cohort studies were established in mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan area. This paper presented an overall review on the progress about birth cohort studies and their prospects, in China.

  16. Giving birth on our own terms-Women's experience of childbirth at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouhki, Maija-Riitta; Suominen, Tarja; Åstedt-Kurki, Päivi

    2017-10-01

    home births are quite rare and are not supported as part of mainstream health care services in most European countries. Women who choose home as the place of birth often do so because maternity services in hospitals do not offer the options that they want. The aim of the present study is to describe women's experiences of giving birth at home and to produce a comprehensive structure of meaning regarding giving birth at home. a phenomenological study based on analysis of open-interview transcripts using Colaizzi's approach. women who gave birth at home FINDINGS: women who have given birth at home experience having control over their own body, the care they are given, and the practical arrangements surrounding the birth. However, they also experience negative attitudes from other people about their decision to give birth at home, and challenges because of worries about how they and their baby will cope. During the birth women feel a sense of connection to their own body, which they trust to tell them what to do. They experience great happiness on successfully giving birth and feel connected to nature and the circle of life. Being able to celebrate with family members and be pampered by them after the birth made the women feel 'like queens'. women's experience of childbirth at home is one of having control over the birthing process and its environment. The main challenge is exposure to negative attitudes from others, including health care professionals. Overall, the experience was full of happiness and good feelings. We conclude that more attention should be paid to the quality of birth experiences and women's individual needs and wishes within maternity care provision. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of birth ball exercise on pain and self-efficacy during childbirth: a randomised controlled trial in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gau, Meei-Ling; Chang, Ching-Yi; Tian, Shu-Hui; Lin, Kuan-Chia

    2011-12-01

    To examine the effectiveness of a birth ball exercise programme during childbirth by measuring childbirth self-efficacy and childbirth pain. In addition, it tested the mediating effects of childbirth self-efficacy on the relationship between the birth ball exercise programme and childbirth pain. Randomised controlled trial. The study was conducted from December 2008 to November 2009, at two birth units, one at a regional hospital and one at a medical centre, with 600 and 1022 annual births, respectively. One hundred and eighty-eight expectant mothers were recruited (recruitment rate: 47%) and were allocated by block randomisation into the two arms of the study, but only 48 intervention and 39 control group participants completing the trial. The birth ball exercise programme consisted of a 26-page booklet and a 19-minute videotape, with periodic follow-ups during prenatal checks. All members of the experimental group were asked to practise the exercises and positions at home for at least 20 minutes three times a week for a period of 6-8 weeks. Each woman in the experimental group was given a birth ball for use during labour and encouraged every hour to choose the most comfortable positions, movements, and exercises. Both the experimental and control groups received standard nursing and midwifery care from hospital staff nurses in all aspects of pregnancy and childbirth. When cervical dilations were four centimetres and eight centimetres, the women completed demographic and obstetrics information, the Childbirth Self-efficacy Inventory (CBSEI), and the short form of the McGill Pain Questionnaire (SF-MPQ). Our study revealed that birth ball exercises provided statistically significant improvements in childbirth self-efficacy and pain. Specifically, self-efficacy had a 30-40% mediating effect on relationships between birth ball exercises and childbirth pain. Mothers in the experimental group had shorter first-stage labour duration, less epidural analgesia, and fewer

  18. Birth weight and stuttering: Evidence from three birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Jan; Collier, Jacqueline

    2014-03-01

    Previous studies have produced conflicting results with regard to the association between birth weight and developmental stuttering. This study sought to determine whether birth weight was associated with childhood and/or adolescent stuttering in three British birth cohort samples. Logistic regression analyses were carried out on data from the Millenium Cohort Study (MCS), British Cohort Study (BCS70) and National Child Development Study (NCDS), whose initial cohorts comprised over 56,000 individuals. The outcome variables were parent-reported stuttering in childhood or in adolescence; the predictors, based on prior research, were birth weight, sex, multiple birth status, vocabulary score and mother's level of education. Birth weight was analysed both as a categorical variable (low birth weight, stuttering during childhood (age 3, 5 and 7 and MCS, BCS70 and NCDS, respectively) or at age 16, when developmental stuttering is likely to be persistent. None of the multivariate analyses revealed an association between birth weight and parent-reported stuttering. Sex was a significant predictor of stuttering in all the analyses, with males 1.6-3.6 times more likely than females to stutter. Our results suggest that birth weight is not a clinically useful predictor of childhood or persistent stuttering. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Barriers to utilization of childbirth services of a rural birthing center in Nepal: A qualitative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resham Bahadur Khatri

    Full Text Available Maternal mortality and morbidity are public health problems in Nepal. In rural communities, many women give birth at home without the support of a skilled birth attendant, despite the existence of rural birthing centers. The aim of this study was to explore the barriers and provide pragmatic recommendations for better service delivery and use of rural birthing centers.We conducted 26 in-depth interviews with service users and providers, and three focus group discussions with community key informants in a rural community of Rukum district. We used the Adithya Cattamanchi logic model as a guiding framework for data analysis.Irregular and poor quality services, inadequate human and capital resources, and poor governance were health system challenges which prevented service delivery. Contextual barriers including difficult geography, poor birth preparedness practices, harmful culture practices and traditions and low level of trust were also found to contribute to underutilization of the birthing center.The rural birthing center was not providing quality services when women were in need, which meant women did not use the available services properly because of systematic and contextual barriers. Approaches such as awareness-raising activities, local resource mobilization, ensuring access to skilled providers and equipment and other long-term infrastructure development works could improve the quality and utilization of childbirth services in the rural birthing center. This has resonance for other centers in Nepal and similar countries.

  20. Barriers to utilization of childbirth services of a rural birthing center in Nepal: A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Khadka Narayan; Homer, Caroline S. E.

    2017-01-01

    Background Maternal mortality and morbidity are public health problems in Nepal. In rural communities, many women give birth at home without the support of a skilled birth attendant, despite the existence of rural birthing centers. The aim of this study was to explore the barriers and provide pragmatic recommendations for better service delivery and use of rural birthing centers. Methods We conducted 26 in-depth interviews with service users and providers, and three focus group discussions with community key informants in a rural community of Rukum district. We used the Adithya Cattamanchi logic model as a guiding framework for data analysis. Results Irregular and poor quality services, inadequate human and capital resources, and poor governance were health system challenges which prevented service delivery. Contextual barriers including difficult geography, poor birth preparedness practices, harmful culture practices and traditions and low level of trust were also found to contribute to underutilization of the birthing center. Conclusion The rural birthing center was not providing quality services when women were in need, which meant women did not use the available services properly because of systematic and contextual barriers. Approaches such as awareness-raising activities, local resource mobilization, ensuring access to skilled providers and equipment and other long-term infrastructure development works could improve the quality and utilization of childbirth services in the rural birthing center. This has resonance for other centers in Nepal and similar countries. PMID:28493987

  1. Barriers to utilization of childbirth services of a rural birthing center in Nepal: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Resham Bahadur; Dangi, Tara Prasad; Gautam, Rupesh; Shrestha, Khadka Narayan; Homer, Caroline S E

    2017-01-01

    Maternal mortality and morbidity are public health problems in Nepal. In rural communities, many women give birth at home without the support of a skilled birth attendant, despite the existence of rural birthing centers. The aim of this study was to explore the barriers and provide pragmatic recommendations for better service delivery and use of rural birthing centers. We conducted 26 in-depth interviews with service users and providers, and three focus group discussions with community key informants in a rural community of Rukum district. We used the Adithya Cattamanchi logic model as a guiding framework for data analysis. Irregular and poor quality services, inadequate human and capital resources, and poor governance were health system challenges which prevented service delivery. Contextual barriers including difficult geography, poor birth preparedness practices, harmful culture practices and traditions and low level of trust were also found to contribute to underutilization of the birthing center. The rural birthing center was not providing quality services when women were in need, which meant women did not use the available services properly because of systematic and contextual barriers. Approaches such as awareness-raising activities, local resource mobilization, ensuring access to skilled providers and equipment and other long-term infrastructure development works could improve the quality and utilization of childbirth services in the rural birthing center. This has resonance for other centers in Nepal and similar countries.

  2. Women's attitudes towards the medicalization of childbirth and their associations with planned and actual modes of birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyamini, Yael; Molcho, Maya Lila; Dan, Uzi; Gozlan, Miri; Preis, Heidi

    2017-10-01

    Rates of medical interventions in childbirth have greatly increased in the Western world. Women's attitudes affect their birth choices. To assess women's attitudes towards the medicalization of childbirth and their associations with women's background as well as their fear of birth and planned and unplanned modes of birth. This longitudinal observational study included 836 parous woman recruited at women's health centres and natural birth communities in Israel. All women filled in questionnaires about attitudes towards the medicalization of childbirth, fear of birth, and planned birth choices. Women at <28 weeks gestation when filling in the questionnaire were asked to fill in a second one at ∼34 weeks. Phone follow-up was conducted ∼6 weeks postpartum to assess actual mode of birth. Attitudes towards medicalization were more positive among younger and less educated women, those who emigrated from the former Soviet Union, and those with a more complicated obstetric background. Baseline attitudes did not differ by parity yet became less positive throughout pregnancy only for primiparae. More positive attitudes were related to greater fear of birth. The attitudes were significantly associated with planned birth choices and predicted emergency caesareans and instrumental births. Women form attitudes towards the medicalization of childbirth which may still be open to change during the first pregnancy. More favourable attitudes are related to more medical modes of birth, planned and unplanned. Understanding women's views of childbirth medicalization may be key to understanding their choices and how they affect labour and birth. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Pregnancy and birth cohort resources in europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Pernille Stemann; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Adamson, Ashley

    2013-01-01

    During the past 25 years, many pregnancy and birth cohorts have been established. Each cohort provides unique opportunities for examining associations of early-life exposures with child development and health. However, to fully exploit the large amount of available resources and to facilitate cross......-cohort collaboration, it is necessary to have accessible information on each cohort and its individual characteristics. The aim of this work was to provide an overview of European pregnancy and birth cohorts registered in a freely accessible database located at http://www.birthcohorts.net....

  4. Prenatal exposure to maternal bereavement and childbirths in the offspring: a population-based cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleguer Plana-Ripoll

    Full Text Available The decline in birth rates is a concern in public health. Fertility is partly determined before birth by the intrauterine environment and prenatal exposure to maternal stress could, through hormonal disturbance, play a role. There has been such evidence from animal studies but not from humans. We aimed to examine the association between prenatal stress due to maternal bereavement following the death of a relative and childbirths in the offspring.This population-based cohort study included all subjects born in Denmark after 1968 and in Sweden after 1973 and follow-up started at the age of 12 years. Subjects were categorized as exposed if their mothers lost a close relative during pregnancy or the year before and unexposed otherwise. The main outcomes were age at first child and age-specific mean numbers of childbirths. Data was analyzed using Cox Proportional Hazards models stratified by gender and adjusted for several covariates. Subanalyses were performed considering the type of relative deceased and timing of bereavement.A total of 4,121,596 subjects were followed-up until up to 41 years of age. Of these subjects, 93,635 (2.3% were exposed and 981,989 (23.8% had at least one child during follow-up time. Compared to unexposed, the hazard ratio (HR [95% confidence interval] of having at least one child for exposed males and females were 0.98 [0.96-1.01] and 1.01 [0.98-1.03], respectively. We found a slightly reduced probability of having children in females born to mothers who lost a parent with HR = 0.97 [0.94-0.99] and increased probability in females born to mothers who lost another child (HR = 1.09 [1.04-1.14], the spouse (HR = 1.29 [1.12-1.48] or a sibling (HR = 1.13 [1.01-1.27].Our results suggested no overall association between prenatal exposure to maternal stress and having a child in early adulthood but a longer time of follow-up is necessary in order to reach a firmer conclusion.

  5. Timing of First Childbirth and Young Women's Postsecondary Education in an Inner-City Minority Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Suh-Ruu; Reynolds, Arthur J.

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationships between the timing of women's first childbirth and their postsecondary education using an inner-city minority cohort. The study sample (695 females) was drawn from the Chicago Longitudinal Study (CLS), an ongoing investigation of a panel of low-income minority children (94% African American) born in…

  6. Birth spacing and maternal risk of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer in a Swedish nationwide cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, Inkyung; Lambe, Mats; Liu, Qin; Chie, Lucy; Cnattingius, Sven; Mucci, Lorelei A.; Riman, Tomas; Ekbom, Anders; Adami, Hans-Olov; Hsieh, Chung-Cheng

    2011-01-01

    Objective Pregnancies reduce the risk of ovarian cancer and, among multiparous women, levels of circulating progesterone might be higher during pregnancies with wider birth spacing. We hypothesized that childbirth with wider birth spacing might reduce maternal risk of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer more than births with narrower spacing. Methods We conducted a case-control study nested in a nationwide cohort of Swedish women from 1961 to 2001. We selected five individually age-matched controls for each case of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer and analysis for the effect of birth spacing was performed for 5,341 cases and 29,047 controls. We applied unconditional logistic regression analyses adjusting for age, ages at childbirth, educational level, area of residence, and gender of offspring. Results Relative risk of invasive epithelial ovarian cancer associated with each one-year increase in average birth spacing is 1.00 (95% CI=0.98–1.01) among all women and 0.99 (0.98–1.01) among those born before 1935 and less likely to have used oral contraceptives. Further analyses on the biparous and triparous women did not find a consistent association between birth spacing and the risk of ovarian cancer. Conclusions Birth spacing is unlikely to be a major determinant underlying the protective effects of childbirth on ovarian cancer risk. PMID:18509730

  7. Maternal attitudes towards home birth and their effect on birth outcomes in Iceland: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfdansdottir, Berglind; Olafsdottir, Olof A; Hildingsson, Ingegerd; Smarason, Alexander Kr; Sveinsdottir, Herdis

    2016-03-01

    to examine the relationship between attitudes towards home birth and birth outcomes, and whether women's attitudes towards birth and intervention affected this relationship. a prospective cohort study. the study was set in Iceland, a sparsely populated island with harsh terrain, 325,000 inhabitants, high fertility and home birth rates, and less than 5000 births a year. a convenience sample of women who attended antenatal care in Icelandic health care centres, participated in the Childbirth and Health Study in 2009-2011, and expressed consistent attitudes towards home birth (n=809). of the participants, 164 (20.3%) expressed positive attitudes towards choosing home birth and 645 (79.7%) expressed negative attitudes. Women who had a positive attitude towards home birth had significantly more positive attitudes towards birth and more negative attitudes towards intervention than did women who had a negative attitude towards home birth. Of the 340 self-reported low-risk women that answered questionnaires on birth outcomes, 78 (22.9%) had a positive attitude towards home birth and 262 (77.1%) had a negative attitude. Oxytocin augmentation (19.2% (n=15) versus 39.1% (n=100)), epidural analgesia (19.2% (n=15) versus 33.6% (n=88)), and neonatal intensive care unit admission rates (0.0% (n=0) versus 5.0% (n=13)) were significantly lower among women who had a positive attitude towards home birth. Women's attitudes towards birth and intervention affected the relationship between attitudes towards home birth and oxytocin augmentation or epidural analgesia. the beneficial effect of planned home birth on maternal outcome in Iceland may depend to some extent on women's attitudes towards birth and intervention. Efforts to de-stigmatise out-of-hospital birth and de-medicalize women's attitudes towards birth might increase women׳s use of health-appropriate birth services. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Fear and experience of childbirth among women who conceived with donated oocytes: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sälevaara, Mari; Punamäki, Raija-Leena; Poikkeus, Piia; Flykt, Marjo; Tulppala, Maija; Tiitinen, Aila

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the level of fear of childbirth, pregnancy-related anxiety and experience of childbirth in women who conceived with donated oocytes (OD), with that in women with in vitro fertilization/intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) and spontaneous conception (SC). This is a prospective cohort study. We compared women who received donated oocytes (n = 26) to matched controls, IVF/ICSI (n = 52) or SC (n = 52). Matching was made according to mothers' age, parity, plurality and the number of returned questionnaires. The participants completed the questionnaires during their second trimester and at 2 months postpartum. The Fear of Delivery Questionnaire and the Pregnancy Anxiety Scale served to study fear of childbirth, and the Delivery Satisfaction Scale served to study experience of childbirth. The level of fear of childbirth was lower in the women who received donated oocytes than in the women who received IVF/ICSI (p = 0.028), but similar to those in the SC group. The level of pregnancy-related anxiety was lower in the OD group than in the IVF/ICSI (p = 0.006) and SC groups (p = 0.019). The experience of childbirth did not differ between the groups. The mode of delivery was associated with the mothers' satisfaction with the delivery only in the OD group. Those who had an acute operative delivery were the most dissatisfied. After receiving adequate support prior to OD treatment, the women require no more support with fear of childbirth than other pregnant women, but they may require support after acute operative deliveries. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  9. European birth cohorts for environmental health research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrijheid, Martine; Casas, Maribel; Bergström, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Many pregnancy and birth cohort studies investigate the health effects of early-life environmental contaminant exposure. An overview of existing studies and their data is needed to improve collaboration, harmonization, and future project planning.......Many pregnancy and birth cohort studies investigate the health effects of early-life environmental contaminant exposure. An overview of existing studies and their data is needed to improve collaboration, harmonization, and future project planning....

  10. Environmental exposure assessment in European birth cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gehring, Ulrike; Casas, Maribel; Brunekreef, Bert

    2013-01-01

    Environmental exposures during pregnancy and early life may have adverse health effects. Single birth cohort studies often lack statistical power to tease out such effects reliably. To improve the use of existing data and to facilitate collaboration among these studies, an inventory...... of the environmental exposure and health data in these studies was made as part of the ENRIECO (Environmental Health Risks in European Birth Cohorts) project. The focus with regard to exposure was on outdoor air pollution, water contamination, allergens and biological organisms, metals, pesticides, smoking and second...... hand tobacco smoke (SHS), persistent organic pollutants (POPs), noise, radiation, and occupational exposures. The review lists methods and data on environmental exposures in 37 European birth cohort studies. Most data is currently available for smoking and SHS (N=37 cohorts), occupational exposures (N...

  11. Pooling birth cohorts in allergy and asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousquet, Jean; Anto, Josep; Sunyer, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    in the world over the past 30 years. Since 2004, several research initiatives funded under the EU Framework Program for Research and Technological Development FP6-FP7 have attempted to identify, compare, and evaluate pooling data from existing European birth cohorts (GA(2)LEN: Global Allergy and European...... Network, FP6; ENRIECO: Environmental Health Risks in European Birth Cohorts, FP7; CHICOS: Developing a Child Cohort Research Strategy for Europe, FP7; MeDALL: Mechanisms of the Development of ALLergy, FP7). However, there is a general lack of knowledge about these initiatives and their potentials. The aim...... of this paper is to review current and past EU-funded projects in order to make a summary of their goals and achievements and to suggest future research needs of these European birth cohort networks....

  12. Conduct Disorder Symptoms and Subsequent Pregnancy, Child-Birth and Abortion: A Population-Based Longitudinal Study of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Willy; Mastekaasa, Arne

    2011-01-01

    Research on teenage pregnancy and abortion has primarily focused on socio-economic disadvantage. However, a few studies suggest that risk of unwanted pregnancy is related to conduct disorder symptoms. We examined the relationship between level of conduct disorder symptoms at age 15 and subsequent pregnancy, child-birth and abortion. A…

  13. Birthing Ethics: What Mothers, Families, Childbirth Educators, Nurses, and Physicians Should Know About the Ethics of Childbirth

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, Jennifer M; De Vries, Raymond G

    2009-01-01

    This article discusses current ethical issues associated with childbirth in the United States. It provides a review of moral problems and ethical choices made by parents and health-care professionals during the prenatal, intrapartum, and postpartum periods. Ethical issues are identified and framed through a “naturalized bioethics” approach, as recommended by Margaret Walker and her colleagues, Hilde Lindemann and Marian Verkerk. This approach critiques traditional bioethics and gives attentio...

  14. Dealing with Pain during Childbirth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ice, and Snow Safety Dealing With Pain During Childbirth KidsHealth > For Parents > Dealing With Pain During Childbirth ... of taking tranquilizers first with your doctor. Natural Childbirth Some women choose to give birth using no ...

  15. European birth cohorts for environmental health research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrijheid, M.; Casas, M.; Bergström, A.; Carmichael, A.; Cordier, S.; Eggesbø, M.; Eller, E.; Fantini, M.P.; Fernández, M.F.; Fernández-Somoano, A.; Gehring, U.; Grazuleviciene, R.; Hohmann, C.; Karvonen, A.M.; Keil, T.; Kogevinas, M.; Koppen, G.; Krämer, U.; Kuehni, C.E.; Magnus, P.; Majewska, R.; Andersen, A.-M.N.; Patelarou, E.; Petersen, M.S.; Pierik, F.H.; Polanska, K.; Porta, D.; Richiardi, L.; Santos, A.C.; Slama, R.; Sram, R.J.; Thijs, C.; Tischer, C.; Toft, G.; Trnovec, T.; Vandentorren, S.; Vrijkotte, T.G.M.; Wilhelm, M.; Wright, J.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Many pregnancy and birth cohort studies investigate the health effects of early-life environmental contaminant exposure. An overview of existing studies and their data is needed to improve collaboration, harmonization, and future project planning. Objectives: Our goal was to create a

  16. Birth plans-Impact on mode of delivery, obstetrical interventions, and birth experience satisfaction: A prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshar, Yalda; Mei, Jenny Y; Gregory, Kimberly D; Kilpatrick, Sarah J; Esakoff, Tania F

    2017-11-02

    To examine whether the presence of a birth plan was associated with mode of delivery, obstetrical interventions, and patient satisfaction. This was a prospective cohort study of singleton pregnancies greater than 34 weeks' gestation powered to evaluate a difference in mode of delivery. Maternal characteristics, antenatal factors, neonatal characteristics, and patient satisfaction measures were compared between groups. Differences between groups were analyzed using chi-squared for categorical variables, Fisher exact test for dichotomous variables, and Wilcoxon rank sum test for continuous or ordinal variables. Three hundred women were recruited: 143 (48%) had a birth plan. There was no significant difference in the risk of cesarean delivery for women with a birth plan compared with those without a birth plan (21% vs 16%, adjusted odds ratio [adjOR] 1.11 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.61-2.04]). Women with a birth plan were 28% less likely to receive oxytocin (P < .01), 29% less likely to undergo artificial rupture of membranes (P < .01), and 31% less likely to have an epidural (P < .01). There was no difference in the length of labor (P = .12). Women with a birth plan were less satisfied (P < .01) and felt less in control (P < .01) of their birth experience than those without a birth plan. Women with and without a birth plan had similar odds of cesarean delivery. Though they had fewer obstetrical interventions, they were less satisfied with their birth experience, compared with women without birth plans. Further research is needed to understand how to improve childbirth-related patient satisfaction. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Cohort profile: the Lothian Birth Cohorts of 1921 and 1936.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deary, Ian J; Gow, Alan J; Pattie, Alison; Starr, John M

    2012-12-01

    This cohort profile describes the origins, tracing, recruitment, testing and follow-up of the University of Edinburgh-based Lothian Birth Cohorts of 1921 (LBC1921; N = 550) and 1936 (LBC1936; N = 1091). The participants undertook a general intelligence test at age 11 years and were recruited for these cohorts at mean ages of 79 (LBC1921) and 70 (LBC1936). The LBC1921 have been examined at mean ages of 79, 83, 87 and 90 years. The LBC1936 have been examined at mean ages of 70 and 73 years, and are being seen at 76 years. Both samples have an emphasis on the ageing of cognitive functions as outcomes. As they have childhood intelligence test scores, the cohorts' data have been used to search for determinants of lifetime cognitive changes, and also cognitive change within old age. The cohorts' outcomes also include a range of physical and psycho-social aspects of well-being in old age. Both cohorts have a wide range of variables: genome-wide genotyping, demographics, psycho-social and lifestyle factors, cognitive functions, medical history and examination, and biomarkers (from blood and urine). The LBC1936 participants also have a detailed structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain scan. A range of scientific findings is described, to illustrate the possible uses of the cohorts.

  18. Evaluation of the effects of a birth plan on Taiwanese women's childbirth experiences, control and expectations fulfilment: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Su-Chen; Lin, Kuan-Chia; Hsu, Chi-Ho; Yang, Cherng-Chia; Chang, Min-Yu; Tsao, Chien-Ming; Lin, Lie-Chu

    2010-07-01

    In many western countries, pregnant women often prepare birth plans, outlining how they would like their childbirth experiences to proceed. However there have been no experimental studies to evaluate the effect of birth plans. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of birth plans on women's fulfilment of their childbirth expectations, their control over the birth process, and overall experiences. A randomised, single-blind controlled trial study design was used. This study involved seven hospitals and 10 obstetricians in Taiwan. Participants included primiparous women, each under the care of one of seven Taiwanese medical facilities, and who had been pregnant for at least 32 weeks. They were also at least 18 years old, and had no pregnancy complications. An exclusion criterion was elective caesarean as a mode of delivery. A total of 296 women in hospital clinics who met the study criteria were allocated by block randomisation to experimental (n=155) or control (n=141) groups. The women completed their basic personal information and a childbirth expectations questionnaire when they were recruited. One day after delivery, all the participants completed a questionnaire about the childbirth experience, control and fulfilment of their childbirth expectations. The experimental group had a statistically higher degree of positive childbirth experiences than that of the control group (t=2.48, p=0.01). The experimental group also showed a higher degree of childbirth control (t=9.60, pcontrol groups in prenatal birth expectations, but a significant difference (t=2.63, p=0.01) in the degree of fulfilment of their childbirth expectations after delivery. On a subscale measuring the fulfilment of childbirth expectations, there was a statistically higher degree of mastery and participation (t=3.74, pcontrol group. The results justify the clinical implementation of birth plans. Providing birth plans in medical facilities is an effective means of fulfilling

  19. Gender peer effects in school, a birth cohort approach

    OpenAIRE

    Ciccone, Antonio; Garcia-Fontes, Walter

    2014-01-01

    We propose estimating gender peer effects in school by exploiting within-school variation in gender composition across birth cohorts. Our approach differs from the existing literature, which exploits variation in gender composition at a given grade level in different years. We argue that the birth cohort approach is a useful alternative as the grade level approach generally yields spurious gender peer effects when there is grade retention. The birth cohort approach applied to p...

  20. 'Birth to Ten' - pilot studies to test the feasibility of a birth cohort study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Birth to Ten' is a birth cohort study currently being conducted in the Johannesburg-Soweto area. This paper describes the various pilot studies that were undertaken to investigate the feasibility of a cohort study in an urban area. These studies were designed to determine the monthly birth rate, the timing, frequency and ...

  1. Evaluation of the Impact of Childbirth Education Classes in Turkey on Adaptation to Pregnancy Process, Concerns About Birth, Rate of Vaginal Birth, and Adaptation to Maternity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinar, Gul; Avsar, Filiz; Aslantekin, Filiz

    2016-12-01

    This study aims to examine the impact of childbirth education in Turkey on the adaptation to pregnancy process, concerns about birth, rate of vaginal birth, and adaptation to maternity. This quasi-experimental study with control group was conducted from December 2013 to December 2014. The sample size was 132 primiparous pregnant women ( nexperimental = 66, ncontrol = 66). The average age of the pregnant women in the experimental and control groups was 24.41 ± 3.92 and 23.68 ± 4.19, respectively. The study showed that experimental group participants had lower concerns about birth, higher levels of knowledge, and faster adaptation to pregnancy and postpartum process; they could also give positive feedback about labor pain and action and could start breastfeeding at an earlier stage when compared with those in the control group ( p pregnancy, labor, and the postpartum process.

  2. Are freestanding midwifery units a safe alternative to obstetric units for low-risk, primiparous childbirth? An analysis of effect differences by parity in a matched cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Louise Fischer; Overgaard, Charlotte

    2017-01-09

    Intrapartum complications and the use of obstetric interventions are more common in primiparous childbirth than in multiparous childbirth, leading to concern about out of hospital birth for primiparous women. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the effect of birthplace on perinatal and maternal morbidity and the use of obstetric interventions differed by parity among low-risk women intending to give birth in a freestanding midwifery unit or in an obstetric unit in the North Denmark Region. The study is a secondary analysis of data from a matched cohort study including 839 low-risk women intending birth in a freestanding midwifery unit (primary participants) and 839 low-risk women intending birth in an obstetric unit (individually matched control group). Analysis was by intention-to-treat. Conditional logistic regression analysis was applied to compute odds ratios and effect ratios with 95% confidence intervals for matched pairs stratified by parity. On no outcome did the effect of birthplace differ significantly between primiparous and multiparous women. Compared with their counterparts intending birth in an obstetric unit, both primiparous and multiparous women intending birth in a freestanding midwifery unit were significantly more likely to have an uncomplicated, spontaneous birth with good outcomes for mother and infant and less likely to require caesarean section, instrumental delivery, augmented labour or epidural analgesia (although for caesarean section this trend did not attain statistical significance for multiparous women). Perinatal outcomes were comparable between the two birth settings irrespective of parity. Compared to multiparas, transfer rates were substantially higher for primiparas, but fell over time while rates for multiparas remained stable. Freestanding midwifery units appear to confer significant advantages over obstetric units to both primiparous and multiparous mothers, while their infants are equally safe in both settings

  3. European birth cohort studies on asthma and atopic diseases I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keil, T; Kulig, M; Simpson, A

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The reasons for the rise in asthma and allergies remain unclear. To identify risk or protective factors, it is essential to carry out longitudinal epidemiological studies, preferably birth cohort studies. In Europe, several birth cohort studies on asthma and atopic diseases have been...... initiated over the last two decades. AIM: One of the work packages within the Global Allergy and Asthma European Network (GA(2)LEN) project was designed to identify and compare European birth cohorts on asthma and atopic diseases. The present review (part I) describes their objectives, study settings......, recruitment process and follow-up rates. A subsequent review (part II) will compare outcome and exposure parameters. METHODS: For each birth cohort, we collected detailed information regarding recruitment process, study setting, baseline data (pregnancy, birth, parents/siblings) as well as follow-up rates...

  4. Adult outcomes of teen mothers across birth cohorts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Driscoll

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Teen and young adult mothers have lower socioeconomic status than older mothers. Objective: This study analyzes the socioeconomic status (SES of teen, young adult, and older adult mothers across four five-year birth cohorts from 1956 to 1975 who were teens from 1971 to 1994. Methods: Data were pooled from the 1995, 2002, and 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG. Mothers were categorized by age at first birth and by their birth cohorts. The SES (education, single motherhood, poverty, employment of teen, young adult, and older mothers was compared across cohorts and within cohorts. Results: Among teen mothers, the odds of fulltime employment improved across birth cohorts and the odds of educational attainment beyond high school did not vary. Their odds of single motherhood and living in poverty increased across cohorts. The odds of higher education and single motherhood increased across birth cohorts for young adult mothers as did the odds of living in poverty, even if working fulltime. Among older adult mothers, educational attainment and the odds of single motherhood rose for recent cohorts. Conclusions: Comparisons between teen mothers and both young adult and all adult mothers within cohorts suggest that gaps in single motherhood and poverty between teen and adult mothers have widened over time, to the detriment of teen mothers. Teen mothers have become more likely to be single and poor than in the past and compared to older mothers.

  5. Improving return-to-work after childbirth: design of the Mom@Work study, a randomised controlled trial and cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruinvels David J

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many women suffer from health problems after giving birth, which can lead to sick leave. About 30% of Dutch workers are on sick leave after maternity leave. Structural contact of supervisors with employees on maternity leave, supported by early medical advice of occupational physicians, may increase the chances of return-to-work after maternity leave. In addition, to understand the process of sick leave and return-to-work after childbirth it is important to gain insight into which factors hinder return-to-work after childbirth, as well, as which prognostic factors lead to the development of postpartum health complaints. In this paper, the design of the Mom@Work study is described. Methods The Mom@Work study is simultaneously a randomised controlled trial and a cohort study. Pregnant women working for at least 12 hours a week at one of the 15 participating companies are eligible to participate. The supervisors of these pregnant employees are randomised at 35 weeks pregnancy into the intervention group or control group. During maternity leave, supervisors in the intervention group contact their employee six weeks after delivery using a structured interview. When employees do not expect to return to their jobs at the end of their scheduled maternity leave due to health problems, the supervisor offers early support of the occupational physician. Supervisors in the control group have no structural contact with their employees during maternity leave. Measurements take place at 30 weeks pregnancy and at 6, 12, 24 and 52 weeks postpartum. In addition, cost data are collected. For the RCT, primary outcome measures are sick leave and return-to-work, and secondary outcome measures are costs, health, satisfaction with intervention and global feelings of recovery. Outcome measures for the cohort are pregnancy-related pelvic girdle pain, fatigue and depression. Finally, a number of prognostic factors for return-to-work and for the

  6. Natural Childbirth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cold, ice Cold, Ice, and Snow Safety Natural Childbirth KidsHealth > For Parents > Natural Childbirth Print A A ... the pain, extremely empowering and rewarding. About Natural Childbirth Natural childbirth is a "low-tech" way of ...

  7. Birth Cohort Consortium of Asia: Current and Future Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, Reiko; Zhang, Jun Jim; Ha, Eun-Hee; Chen, Pau-Chung; Tian, Ying; Xia, Yankai; Tsuchiya, Kenji J; Nakai, Kunihiko; Kim, Sungkyoon; Hong, Soo-Jong; Hong, Yun-Chul; Lee, Jeong-Rim; Jan Mohamed, Hamid Jan B; Parajuli, Rajendra Prasad; Adair, Linda S; Chong, Yap Seng; Guo, Yue Leon; Wang, Shu-Li; Nishijo, Muneko; Kido, Teruhiko; Tai, Pham The; Nandasena, Sumal

    2017-10-01

    The environmental health of children is one of the great global health concerns. Exposures in utero and throughout development can have major consequences on later health. However, environmental risks or disease burdens vary from region to region. Birth cohort studies are ideal for investigating different environmental risks. The principal investigators of three birth cohorts in Asia including the Taiwan Birth Panel Study (TBPS), the Mothers and Children's Environmental Health Study (MOCEH), and the Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children' Health (Hokkaido Study) coestablished the Birth Cohort Consortium of Asia (BiCCA) in 2011. Through a series of five PI meetings, the enrolment criteria, aim of the consortium, and a first-phase inventory were confirmed. To date, 23 birth cohorts have been established in 10 Asian countries, consisting of approximately 70,000 study subjects in the BiCCA. This article provides the study framework, environmental exposure and health outcome assessments, as well as maternal and infant characteristics of the participating cohorts. The BiCCA provides a unique and reliable source of birth cohort information in Asian countries. Further scientific cooperation is ongoing to identify specific regional environmental threats and improve the health of children in Asia.

  8. Pregnancy, Childbirth, and Anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Smoking and Anesthesia Outpatient Surgery Pregnancy, Childbirth and Anesthesia You’re having a baby! You’re likely ... a few days if left untreated. Who Provides Anesthesia During Labor? Before you give birth, talk to ...

  9. Development of atopic dermatitis in the DARC birth cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eller, Esben; Kjaer, Henrik Fomsgaard; Høst, Arne

    2009-01-01

    Eller E, Kjaer HF, Høst A, Andersen KE, Bindslev-Jensen C. Development of Atopic Dermatitis in the DARC birth cohort. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2009. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/SThe aim was to describe the relapsing pattern, sensitization and prognosis of atopic dermatitis (AD) in the first 6 yr...... in a population-based, prospective birth cohort. The DARC cohort includes 562 children with clinical examinations, specific-IgE and skin prick test at all follow-ups. All children were examined for the development of AD using Hanifin-Rajka criteria and for food hypersensitivity by oral challenges. Severity of AD...

  10. Diagnosing gestational diabetes mellitus in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Sjurdur F; Houshmand-Oeregaard, Azedeh; Granström, Charlotta

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) contains comprehensive information on diet, lifestyle, constitutional and other major characteristics of women during pregnancy. It provides a unique source for studies on health consequences of gestational diabetes mellitus. Our aim was to id......INTRODUCTION: The Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) contains comprehensive information on diet, lifestyle, constitutional and other major characteristics of women during pregnancy. It provides a unique source for studies on health consequences of gestational diabetes mellitus. Our aim...... was to identify and validate the gestational diabetes mellitus cases in the cohort. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We extracted clinical information from hospital records for 1609 pregnancies included in the Danish National Birth Cohort with a diagnosis of diabetes during or before pregnancy registered in the Danish...... National Patient Register and/or from a Danish National Birth Cohort interview during pregnancy. We further validated the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus in 2126 randomly selected pregnancies from the entire Danish National Birth Cohort. From the individual hospital records, an expert panel...

  11. Labor induction and cesarean delivery: A prospective cohort study of first births in Pennsylvania, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjerulff, Kristen H; Attanasio, Laura B; Edmonds, Joyce K; Kozhimannil, Katy B; Repke, John T

    2017-09-01

    Mode of delivery at first childbirth largely determines mode of delivery at subsequent births, so it is particularly important to understand risk factors for cesarean delivery at first childbirth. In this study, we investigated risk factors for cesarean delivery among nulliparous women, with focus on the association between labor induction and cesarean delivery. A prospective cohort study of 2851 nulliparous women with singleton pregnancies who attempted vaginal delivery at hospitals in Pennsylvania, 2009-2011, was conducted. We used nested logistic regression models and multiple mediational analyses to investigate the role of three groups of variables in explaining the association between labor induction and unplanned cesarean delivery-the confounders of maternal characteristics and indications for induction, and the mediating (intrapartum) factors-including cervical dilatation, labor augmentation, epidural analgesia, dysfunctional labor, dystocia, fetal intolerance of labor, and maternal request of cesarean during labor. More than a third of the women were induced (34.3%) and 24.8% underwent cesarean delivery. Induced women were more likely to deliver by cesarean (35.9%) than women in spontaneous labor (18.9%), unadjusted OR 2.35 (95% CI 1.97-2.79). The intrapartum factors significantly mediated the association between labor induction and cesarean delivery (explaining 76.7% of this association), particularly cervical dilatation induction only explained 6.2%. Increased risk of cesarean delivery after labor induction among nulliparous women is attributable mainly to lower cervical dilatation at hospital admission and higher rates of labor complications. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. [Early prenatal interview and antenatal education for childbirth and parenthood: Associated psychosocial and obstetric characteristics in women of the ELFE cohort].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barandon, S; Balès, M; Melchior, M; Glangeaud-Freudenthal, N; Pambrun, E; Bois, C; Verdoux, H; Sutter-Dallay, A-L

    2016-06-01

    Early prenatal interview (Entretien prénatal précoce [EPP]) is aimed at defining with couples their physical, psychological and social needs during perinatal period. Antenatal education for childbirth and parenthood (Préparation à la naissance et à la parentalité [PNP]) is aimed at promoting global perinatal health. The objective was to identify the psychological, demographic and obstetrical characteristics independently associated with participation in: (i) an EPP; (ii) a PNP. Multivariate analyses were applied to data collected during the maternity stay of mothers whose children were included in the French cohort French Longitudinal Study since the Childhood (ELFE), a nationally representative cohort of children followed-up from birth to adulthood. Among the 14,595 mothers of the sample, 33% had an EPP and 52% a PNP. Primiparous mothers, born in France, with high educational level, employed or unemployed, with psychological difficulties more often benefit from EPP and/or PNP. Women who were young, benefiting from free health insurance (Couverture Maladie Universelle [CMU]), with unplanned pregnancy, with less antenatal care and obstetrical complications less often benefit from PNP. The EPP and the PNP reach high sociodemographic level populations. They should be integrated into a wider system of prevention and care, in order to reach the most vulnerable populations and to contribute to the improvement of the psychological and social environment of all the women during the perinatal period. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of childbirth on the course of Crohn's disease; results from a retrospective cohort study in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albers Lisette

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnant women with Crohn's disease needs proper counselling about the effect of pregnancy and childbirth on their disease. However, Literature about the effect of childbirth on Crohn's disease is limited. This study examined the effect of childbirth on the course of Crohn's disease and especially perianal Crohn's disease. Methods This is a retrospective cohort study which was performed in a tertiary level referral hospital in the Netherlands. From the IBD database, female patients aged 18-80 years in 2004 were selected. Data analysis took place in the years 2005 and 2006. Eventually, 114 women with at least one pregnancy after the diagnosis of Crohn's disease were eligible for the study. Differences between groups were analyzed using Wilcoxon Mann Whitney tests and Chi-square analysis with 2 × 2 or 2 × 3 contingency tables. Two-tailed values were used and p values Results 21/114 women (18% had active luminal disease prior to pregnancy, with significantly more pregnancy related complications compared to women with inactive luminal disease (Odds ratio 2.8; 95% CI 1.0 - 7.4. Caesarean section rate was relatively high (37/114, 32%, especially in patients with perianal disease prior to pregnancy compared to women without perianal disease (Odds ratio 4.6; 95% CI 1.8 - 11.4. Disease progression after childbirth was more frequent in patients with active luminal disease prior to pregnancy compared to inactive luminal disease (Odds ratio 9.7; 95% CI 2.1 - 44.3. Progression of perianal disease seems less frequent after vaginal delivery compared with caesarean section, in both women with prior perianal disease (18% vs. 31%, NS and without prior perianal disease (5% vs 14%, NS. There were no more fistula-related complications after childbirth in women with an episiotomy or second degree tear. Conclusion A relatively high rate of caesarean sections was observed in women with Crohn's disease, especially in women with perianal disease

  14. Childbirths and risk of female predominant and other autoimmune diseases in a population-based Danish cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kristian Tore; Pedersen, Bo Vestergaard; Nielsen, Nete Munk

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the possible biological role of pregnancy on the risk of autoimmune diseases we assessed associations between reproductive history and subsequent risk of autoimmune diseases characterized by female predominance and other autoimmune diseases. Our study cohort comprised 4.6 million Danes...... born since 1935 for whom a complete record of childbirths was available. Cohort members were followed for hospital contacts for 31 autoimmune diseases from 1982 to 2008. Female predominant autoimmune diseases were those with a female:male sex ratio >2:1. Ratios of first hospitalization rates were...... were at a relative risk of 1.04 (1.02-1.06) for any autoimmune diseases, 1.11 (1.08-1.14) for female predominant and 0.97 (0.95-1.00) for other autoimmune diseases. Possibly biologically related associations with parity were found for Hashimoto thyroiditis (1.11; 1.00-1.24), Graves' disease (1.19; 1...

  15. Weight at birth and subsequent fecundability: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathrine Wildenschild

    Full Text Available To examine the association between a woman's birth weight and her subsequent fecundability.In this prospective cohort study, we included 2,773 Danish pregnancy planners enrolled in the internet-based cohort study "Snart-Gravid", conducted during 2007-2012. Participants were 18-40 years old at study entry, attempting to conceive, and were not receiving fertility treatment. Data on weight at birth were obtained from the Danish Medical Birth Registry and categorized as <2,500 grams, 2,500-2,999 grams, 3,000-3,999 grams, and ≥ 4,000 grams. In additional analyses, birth weight was categorized according to z-scores for each gestational week at birth. Time-to-pregnancy measured in cycles was used to compute fecundability ratios (FR and 95% confidence intervals (CI, using a proportional probabilities regression model.Relative to women with a birth weight of 3,000-3,999 grams, FRs adjusted for gestational age, year of birth, and maternal socio-demographic and medical factors were 0.99 (95% CI: 0.73;1.34, 0.99 (95% CI: 0.87;1.12, and 1.08 (95% CI: 0.94;1.24 for birth weight <2,500 grams, 2,500-2,999 grams, and ≥ 4,000 grams, respectively. Estimates remained unchanged after further adjustment for markers of the participant's mother's fecundability. We obtained similar results when we restricted to women who were born at term, and to women who had attempted to conceive for a maximum of 6 cycles before study entry. Results remained similar when we estimated FRs according to z-scores of birth weight.Our results indicate that birth weight appears not to be an important determinant of fecundability.

  16. Birth order and risk of childhood cancer in the Danish birth cohort of 1973-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schüz, Joachim; Luta, George; Erdmann, Friederike; Ferro, Gilles; Bautz, Andrea; Simony, Sofie Bay; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Lightfoot, Tracy; Winther, Jeanette Falck

    2015-11-01

    Many studies have investigated the possible association between birth order and risk of childhood cancer, although the evidence to date has been inconsistent. Birth order has been used as a marker for various in utero or childhood exposures and is relatively straightforward to assess. Data were obtained on all children born in Denmark between 1973 and 2010, involving almost 2.5 million births and about 5,700 newly diagnosed childhood cancers before the age of 20 years. Data were analyzed using Poisson regression models. We failed to observe associations between birth order and risk of any childhood cancer subtype, including acute lymphoblastic leukemia; all rate ratios were close to one. Further analyses stratified by birth cohort (those born between 1973 and 1990, and those born between 1991 and 2010) also failed to show any associations. Considering stillbirths and/or controlling for birth weight and parental age in the analyses had no effect on the results. Analyses by years of birth (those born between 1973 and 1990, and those born between 1991 and 2010) did not show any changes in the overall pattern of no association. In this large cohort of all children born in Denmark over an almost 40-year period, we did not observe an association between birth order and the risk of childhood cancer.

  17. Diagnosing gestational diabetes mellitus in the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Sjurdur F; Houshmand-Oeregaard, Azedeh; Granström, Charlotta; Langhoff-Roos, Jens; Damm, Peter; Bech, Bodil H; Vaag, Allan A; Zhang, Cuilin

    2017-05-01

    The Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) contains comprehensive information on diet, lifestyle, constitutional and other major characteristics of women during pregnancy. It provides a unique source for studies on health consequences of gestational diabetes mellitus. Our aim was to identify and validate the gestational diabetes mellitus cases in the cohort. We extracted clinical information from hospital records for 1609 pregnancies included in the Danish National Birth Cohort with a diagnosis of diabetes during or before pregnancy registered in the Danish National Patient Register and/or from a Danish National Birth Cohort interview during pregnancy. We further validated the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus in 2126 randomly selected pregnancies from the entire Danish National Birth Cohort. From the individual hospital records, an expert panel evaluated gestational diabetes mellitus status based on results from oral glucose tolerance tests, fasting blood glucose and Hb1c values, as well as diagnoses made by local obstetricians. The audit categorized 783 pregnancies as gestational diabetes mellitus, corresponding to 0.89% of the 87 792 pregnancies for which a pregnancy interview for self-reported diabetes in pregnancy was available. From the randomly selected group the combined information from register and interviews could correctly identify 96% (95% CI 80-99.9%) of all cases in the entire Danish National Birth Cohort population. Positive predictive value, however, was only 59% (56-61%). The combined use of data from register and interview provided a high sensitivity for gestational diabetes mellitus diagnosis. The low positive predictive value, however, suggests that systematic validation by hospital record review is essential not to underestimate the health consequences of gestational diabetes mellitus in future studies. © 2016 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  18. Etiology of atopy in infancy: The KOALA Birth Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kummeling, I.; Thijs, C.; Penders, J.; Snijders, B.E.P.; Stelma, F.; Reimerink, J.; Koopmans, M.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Huber, M.; Jansen, M.C.J.F.; Bie, R. de; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the KOALA Birth Cohort Study in the Netherlands is to identify factors that influence the clinical expression of atopic disease with a main focus on lifestyle (e.g., anthroposophy, vaccinations, antibiotics, dietary habits, breastfeeding and breast milk composition, intestinal microflora

  19. Parental mental illness and fatal birth defects in a national birth cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Webb, Roger; Pickles, A.R.; King-Hele, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few large studies describe links between maternal mental illness and risk of major birth defect in offspring. Evidence is sparser still for how effects vary between maternal diagnoses and no previous study has assessed risk with paternal illnesses.MethodA population-based birth cohort...... was created by linking Danish national registers. We identified all singleton live births during 1973-1998 (n=1.45 m), all parental psychiatric admissions from 1969 onwards, and all fatal birth defects until 1 January 1999. Linkage and case ascertainment were almost complete. Relative risks were estimated...... using Poisson regression. RESULTS: Risk of fatal birth defect was elevated in relation to history of any maternal admission and also with affective disorders specifically, although the strongest effect found was with maternal schizophrenia. The rate was more than doubled in this group compared...

  20. Deep phenotyping of the unselected COPSAC2010 birth cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Hans Flinker; Vissing, Nadja Hawwa; Carson, C. G.

    2013-01-01

    . Their children were followed at the clinic with deep phenotyping and collection of biological samples at nine regular visits until the age of 3 and at acute symptoms. Randomized controlled trials of high‐dose vitamin D and fish oil supplements were conducted during pregnancy, and a trial of azithromycin...... for acute lung symptoms was conducted in the children with recurrent wheeze. Seven hundred and thirty‐eight mothers were recruited from week 24 of gestation, and 700 of their children were included in the birth cohort. The cohort has an over‐representation of atopic parents. The participant satisfaction...... was high and the adherence equally high with 685 children (98%) attending the 1 year clinic visit and 667 children (95%) attending the 2 year clinic visit. The COPSAC2010 birth cohort study provides longitudinal clinical follow‐up with highly specific end‐points, exposure assessments, and biobanking...

  1. Sarah's birth. How the medicalisation of childbirth may be shaped in different settings: Vignette from a study of routine intervention in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scamell, Mandie; Altaweli, Roa; McCourt, Christine

    2017-02-01

    The expansion of the medicalisation of childbirth has been described in the literature as being a global phenomenon. The vignette described in this paper, selected from an ethnographic study of routine intervention in Saudi Arabian hospitals illustrates how the worldwide spread of the bio-medical model does not take place within a cultural vacuum. To illuminate the ways in which the medicalisation of birth may be understood and practised in different cultural settings, through a vignette of a specific birth, drawn as a typical case from an ethnographic study that investigated clinical decision-making in the second stage of labour in Saudi Arabia. Ethnographic data collection methods, including participant observation and interviews. The data presented in this paper are drawn from ethnographic field notes collected during field work in Saudi Arabia, and informed by analysis of a wider set of field notes and interviews with professionals working in this context. While the medicalisation of care is a universal phenomenon, the ways in which the care of women is managed using routine medical intervention are framed by the local cultural context in which these practices take place. The ethnographic data presented in this paper shows the medicalisation of birth thesis to be incomplete. The evidence presented in this paper illustrates how local belief systems are not so much subsumed by the expansion of the bio-medical model of childbirth, rather they may actively facilitate a process of localised reinterpretation of such universalised and standardised practices. In this case, aspects of the social and cultural context of Jeddah operates to intensify the biomedical model at the expense of respectful maternity care. In this article, field note data on the birth of one Saudi Arabian woman is used as an illustration of how the medicalisation of childbirth has been appropriated and reinterpreted in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Copyright © 2016 Australian College of Midwives

  2. Design and process of the EMA Cohort Study: the value of antenatal education in childbirth and breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de la Hera Amaia

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antenatal education (AE started more than 30 years ago with the purpose of decreasing pain during childbirth. Epidural anaesthesia has achieved this objective, and the value of AE is therefore currently questioned. This article describes the protocol and process of a study designed to assess AE results today. Methods/Design A prospective study was designed in which a cohort of 616 nulliparous pregnant women attending midwife offices of the Basque Health Service were followed for 13 months. Three exposure groups were considered based on the number of AE sessions attended: (a women attending no session, (b women attending 1 to 4, and (c women attending 5 or more sessions. Sociodemographic, personality, and outcome variables related to childbirth and breastfeeding were measured. It was expected 40% of pregnant women not to have participated in any AE session. However, 93% had attended at least one session. This low exposure variability decreased statistical power of the study as compared to the initially planned power. Despite this, there was a greater than 80% power for detecting as significant differences between exposure groups of, for instance, 10% in continuation of breastfeeding at one and a half months and in visits for false labour. Women attending more sessions were seen to have a mean higher age and educational level, and to belong to a higher socioeconomic group (p Discussion Adequate prior estimation of variability in the exposure under study is essential for designing cohort studies. Sociodemographic characteristics may play a confounding role in studies assessing AE and should be controlled in design and analyses. Quality control during the study process and continued collaboration from both public system midwives and eligible pregnant women resulted in a negligible loss rate.

  3. Obesity, gestational weight gain and preterm birth: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Vaeth, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the impact of obesity and gestational weight gain on the risk of subtypes of preterm birth, because little is known about these associations. The study included 62 167 women within the Danish National Birth Cohort for whom self-reported information about...... prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain was available. Information about spontaneous preterm birth with or without preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) and about induced preterm deliveries was obtained from national registers. Cox regression analyses were used to examine...... associations of prepregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain with subtypes of preterm birth. The crude risks of PPROM and of induced preterm deliveries were higher in obese women (BMI > or = 30) than in normal-weight women (18.5

  4. Socioeconomic inequality in preterm birth in four Brazilian birth cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadovsky, Ana Daniela Izoton de; Matijasevich, Alicia; Santos, Iná S; Barros, Fernando C; Miranda, Angelica Espinosa; Silveira, Mariangela Freitas

    To analyze economic inequality (absolute and relative) due to family income in relation to the occurrence of preterm births in Southern Brazil. Four birth cohort studies were conducted in the years 1982, 1993, 2004, and 2011. The main exposure was monthly family income and the primary outcome was preterm birth. The inequalities were calculated using the slope index of inequality and the relative index of inequality, adjusted for maternal skin color, education, age, and marital status. The prevalence of preterm births increased from 5.8% to approximately 14% (p-trend<0.001). Late preterm births comprised the highest proportion among the preterm births in all studies, although their rates decreased over the years. The analysis on the slope index of inequality demonstrated that income inequality arose in the 1993, 2004, and 2011 studies. After adjustment, only the 2004 study maintained the difference between the poorest and the richest subjects, which was 6.3 percentage points. The relative index of inequality showed that, in all studies, the poorest mothers were more likely to have preterm newborns than the richest. After adjustment for confounding factors, it was observed that the poorest mothers only had a greater chance of this outcome in 2004. In a final model, economic inequalities resulting from income were found in relation to preterm births only in 2004, although a higher prevalence of prematurity continued to be observed in the poorest population, in all the studies. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. [Pregnancy-related anxiety and subthreshold autism trait in preschool children based a birth cohort study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yanli; Shao, Ting; Yao, Yuyou; Tao, Huihui; Ni, Lingling; Yan, Shuangqin; Gu, Chunli; Cao, Hui; Huang, Kun; Tao, Fangbiao

    2016-02-01

    To analyze the associations between pregnancy-related anxiety and the prevalence of subthreshold autism trait (SAT) in preschool children. Baseline data came from the Ma'anshan Birth Cohort Study, a part of the China-Anhui Birth Cohort Study (C-ABCS). All the participants were enrolled among pregnant women who received prenatal health care in 4 municipal medical centers during Oct. 2008 to Oct. 2010. A total of 5 084 pregnant women were recruited at the beginning and 4 669 singleton live births were included until childbirth. The situation about pregnancy-specific anxiety during trimester and third trimester of women were evaluated by Pregnancy-specific Anxiety Questionnaire (PAQ). Between April 2014 and April 2015, the cohort was followed up again, and the Clancy Autism Behavior Scale (CABRS) filled out by parents was used for telling the SAT children from the healthy children among 3 663 preschool children. Univariate and binary regression model was used to estimate associations between the pregnancy-related anxiety during trimester and third trimester and the subthreshold autism trait in children. During the pregnancy, the detected rates of women with pregnancy-specific anxiety in trimester and the third trimester were 25.5%(935/3 663), 13.9%(501/3 592) respectively, and the detected rate of maternal pregnancy-specific anxiety in both periods was 7.7%(278/3 592). There were 290 positive children with SAT and the detection rate was 7.9%. After controlling possible confounding factors including children's genders, place of residence, supplement folic acid during pregnancy, preterm birth, exposure to second-hand smoke during pregnancy, the father (mother) cultural levels, the father (mother) nature of work and family income, the results of multinomial logistic regression analysis showed that maternal pregnancy-specific anxiety in trimester was the risk factor for SAT in preschool children (OR=1.51, 95% CI: 1.11-2.04), and there was no association between maternal

  6. Fear of childbirth in nulliparous and multiparous women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Räisänen, S; Lehto, S M; Nielsen, H S

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors for fear of childbirth (FOC) according to parity and socioeconomic status, and to evaluate associations between FOC and adverse perinatal outcomes. DESIGN: A cohort study. SETTING: The Finnish Medical Birth Register. POPULATION: All 788 317 singleton births...... during 1997-2010 in Finland. METHODS: Fear of childbirth was defined according to the International Classification of Diseases code O99.80, and its associations with several risk factors and perinatal outcomes were analysed by multivariable logistic regression. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence of, risk...... factors for and outcomes of FOC. RESULTS: Fear of childbirth was experienced by 2.5% of nulliparous women and 4.5% of multiparous women. The strongest risk factors for FOC in nulliparous women were depression [adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 6.35; 95% confidence interval (CI), 5.25-7.68], advanced maternal age...

  7. How are European birth-cohort studies engaging and consulting with young cohort members?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Patricia J; Allnock, Debra; Jessiman, Tricia

    2013-04-11

    Birth cohort studies, where parents consent for their child to be enrolled in a longitudinal study prior to or soon after birth, are a powerful study design in epidemiology and developmental research. Participation often continues into adulthood. Where participants are enrolled as infants, provision should be made for consent, consultation and involvement in study design as they age. This study aims to audit and describe the extent and types of consultation and engagement currently used in birth cohorts in Europe. Seventy study groups (representing 84 cohorts) were contacted to ask about their practice in engaging and involving study members. Information was gathered from study websites and publications, 15 cohorts provided additional information via email and 17 cohorts were interviewed over the phone. The cohorts identified confirm the growth of this study design, with more than half beginning since 1990, and 4 since 2011. Most studies maintain a website open to the general public, although many are written for the scientific community only. Five studies have web pages specifically for young cohort members and one study provides a dedicated page for fathers. Cohorts send newsletters, cards, and summaries of findings to participants to stay in touch. Six cohorts use Facebook for this purpose. Five cohorts provide feedback opportunities for participants after completing a round of data collection. We know of just 8 cohorts who have a mechanism for consulting with parents and 3 a mechanism for consulting with young people themselves, although these were 'one off' consultations for some groups. Barriers to further consultation with cohort members were: concerns about impact on quality of research, ethical constraints, resource limitations, lack of importance, and previous adverse experiences. Although the children in some of the cohorts are still young (born in the last 10 years) many are old enough to include some element of consultation. Barriers to greater

  8. The Hokkaido Birth Cohort Study on Environment and Children's Health: cohort profile-updated 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, Reiko; Araki, Atsuko; Minatoya, Machiko; Hanaoka, Tomoyuki; Miyashita, Chihiro; Itoh, Sachiko; Kobayashi, Sumitaka; Ait Bamai, Yu; Yamazaki, Keiko; Miura, Ryu; Tamura, Naomi; Ito, Kumiko; Goudarzi, Houman

    2017-05-18

    The Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health is an ongoing study consisting of two birth cohorts of different population sizes: the Sapporo cohort and the Hokkaido cohort. Our primary study goals are (1) to examine the effects of low-level environmental chemical exposures on birth outcomes, including birth defects and growth retardation; (2) to follow the development of allergies, infectious diseases, and neurobehavioral developmental disorders and perform a longitudinal observation of child development; (3) to identify high-risk groups based on genetic susceptibility to environmental chemicals; and (4) to identify the additive effects of various chemicals, including tobacco smoking. The purpose of this report is to update the progress of the Hokkaido Study, to summarize the recent results, and to suggest future directions. In particular, this report provides the basic characteristics of the cohort populations, discusses the population remaining in the cohorts and those who were lost to follow-up at birth, and introduces the newly added follow-up studies and case-cohort study design. In the Sapporo cohort of 514 enrolled pregnant women, various specimens, including maternal and cord blood, maternal hair, and breast milk, were collected for the assessment of exposures to dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, perfluoroalkyl substances, phthalates, bisphenol A, and methylmercury. As follow-ups, face-to-face neurobehavioral developmental tests were conducted at several different ages. In the Hokkaido cohort of 20,926 enrolled pregnant women, the prevalence of complicated pregnancies and birth outcomes, such as miscarriage, stillbirth, low birth weight, preterm birth, and small for gestational age were examined. The levels of exposure to environmental chemicals were relatively low in these study populations compared to those reported previously. We also studied environmental chemical exposure in association with health outcomes

  9. Methodological aspects of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victora, Cesar Gomes; Araújo, Cora Luiza Pavin; Menezes, Ana Maria Batista; Hallal, Pedro Curi; Vieira, Maria de Fátima; Neutzling, Marilda Borges; Gonçalves, Helen; Valle, Neiva Cristina; Lima, Rosangela Costa; Anselmi, Luciana; Behague, Dominique; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Barros, Fernando Celso

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the main methodological aspects of a cohort study, with emphasis on its recent phases, which may be relevant to investigators planning to carry out similar studies. In 1993, a population based study was launched in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. All 5,249 newborns delivered in the city’s hospitals were enrolled, and sub-samples were visited at the ages of one, three and six months and of one and four years. In 2004-5 it was possible to trace 87.5% of the cohort at the age of 10-12 years. Sub-studies are addressing issues related to oral health, psychological development and mental health, body composition, and ethnography. Birth cohort studies are essential for investigating the early determinants of adult disease and nutritional status, yet few such studies are available from low and middle-income countries where these determinants may differ from those documented in more developed settings. PMID:16410981

  10. [The positive psychological impact of rich childbirth experiences on child-rearing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takehara, Kenji; Noguchi, Makiko; Shimane, Takuya; Misago, Chizuru

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychological implications of emotionally enriching childbirth experiences for problems such as awareness of motherhood, postnatal depression, and parenting stress among women after childbirth. All women who gave birth at five study centers (four birthing homes and one maternity hospital) during May 2002 and August 2003 were asked to participate in the cohort study. All 2314 women were approached and 1004 eligible women agreed to take part. Analyses were conducted using a baseline survey and four follow-up surveys conducted at 4 months, 9 months, 2 and a half years, and 3 years after childbirth. The questionnaire included four scales to evaluate the subjects' childbirth experiences, awareness of motherhood, postnatal depression, and parenting stress and difficulties. Data were collected via structured interviews and transcription from medical records. Bivariate and multivariate analysis indicated that women who had good childbirth experiences had positive feelings concerning motherhood and parenting stress and anxiety were lower. Bivariate analysis also indicated that childbirth experience had an inverse relationship with postnatal depression. This study revealed that having good childbirth experiences inhibits negative awareness of motherhood and abusive behavior towards children. These results show that it is important for mothers to be provided with appropriate care during pregnancy and labor for preventing child abuse and parenting stress and anxiety. More research is needed to identify the determinants of childbirth

  11. Prenatal Phthalate, Perfluoroalkyl Acid, and Organochlorine Exposures and Term Birth Weight in Three Birth Cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenters, Virissa; Portengen, Lützen; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna

    2015-01-01

    biomarkers of environmental exposure and birth weight. METHODS: We evaluated a cohort of 1,250 term (≥ 37 weeks gestation) singleton infants, born to 513 mothers from Greenland, 180 from Poland, and 557 from Ukraine, who were recruited during antenatal care visits in 2002‒2004. Secondary metabolites...... of diethylhexyl and diisononyl phthalates (DEHP, DiNP), eight perfluoroalkyl acids, and organochlorines (PCB-153 and p,p´-DDE) were quantifiable in 72‒100% of maternal serum samples. We assessed associations between exposures and term birth weight, adjusting for co-exposures and covariates, including prepregnancy...... body mass index. To identify independent associations, we applied the elastic net penalty to linear regression models. RESULTS: Two phthalate metabolites (MEHHP, MOiNP), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and p,p´-DDE were most consistently predictive of term birth weight based on elastic net penalty...

  12. Identifying women who are afraid of giving birth: A comparison of the fear of birth scale with the WDEQ-A in a large Australian cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, H M; Pallant, J F; Fenwick, J; Gamble, J; Creedy, D K; Toohill, J; Hildingsson, I

    2015-12-01

    The WDEQ-A is the most widely used measure of childbirth fear in pregnant women; however there is increasing discussion in the literature that simpler, more culturally transferrable tools may offer a better solution to identifying fearful women in clinical practice. To compare the two item Fear of Birth Scale (FOBS) with the 33 item WDEQ-A in a large cohort of Australian pregnant women. Self-report questionnaires during second trimester including Wijma Delivery Expectancy Questionnaire (WDEQ-A) and Fear of Birth Scale (FOBS). Correlation of FOBS and WDEQ-A was tested using Spearman's correlation coefficients. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve assessed the sensitivity and specificity of possible cut-points on the FOBS against WDEQ-A cut-point of ≥85. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were determined. Fearful and non-fearful women as classified by both instruments were compared for differences in demographic, psycho-social and obstetric characteristics. 1410 women participated. The correlation between the instruments was strong (Spearman's Rho = 0.66, p index 0.68. Positive predictive value was 85% and negative predictive value 79%. Both instruments identified high fear as significantly associated with first time mothers, previous emergency caesarean and women with self-reported anxiety and/or depression. Additionally FOBS identified a significant association between fearful women and preference for caesarean. This study supports the use of the FOBS in clinical practice to identify childbirth fear in pregnant women. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances and birth outcomes in a Spanish birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzano-Salgado, Cyntia B; Casas, Maribel; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Ballester, Ferran; Iñiguez, Carmen; Martinez, David; Costa, Olga; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Pereda-Pereda, Eva; Schettgen, Thomas; Sunyer, Jordi; Vrijheid, Martine

    2017-11-01

    Prenatal perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) exposure has been associated with reduced birth weight but maternal glomerular filtration rate (GFR) may attenuate this association. Further, this association remains unclear for other perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorononanoate (PFNA). We estimated associations between prenatal PFAS exposure and birth outcomes, and the influence of GFR, in a Spanish birth cohort. We measured PFHxS, PFOS, PFOA, and PFNA in 1st-trimester maternal plasma (years: 2003-2008) in 1202 mother-child pairs. Continuous birth outcomes included standardized weight, length, head circumference, and gestational age. Binary outcomes included low birth weight (LBW), small-for-gestational-age, and preterm birth. We calculated maternal GFR from plasma-creatinine measurements in the 1st-trimester of pregnancy (n=765) using the Cockcroft-Gault formula. We used mixed-effects linear and logistic models with region of residence as random effect and adjustment for maternal age, parity, pre-pregnancy BMI, and fish intake during pregnancy. Newborns in this study weighted on average 3263g and had a median gestational age of 39.8weeks. The most abundant PFAS were PFOS and PFOA (median: 6.05 and 2.35ng/mL, respectively). Overall, PFAS concentrations were not significantly associated to birth outcomes. PFOA, PFHxS, and PFNA showed weak, non-statistically significant associations with reduced birth weights ranging from 8.6g to 10.3g per doubling of exposure. Higher PFOS exposure was associated with an OR of 1.90 (95% CI: 0.98, 3.68) for LBW (similar in births-at-term) in boys. Maternal GFR did not confound the associations. In this study, PFAS showed little association with birth outcomes. Higher PFHxS, PFOA, and PFNA concentrations were non-significantly associated with reduced birth weight. The association between PFOS and LBW seemed to be sex-specific. Finally, maternal GFR measured

  14. Paternal involvement and support and risk of preterm birth: findings from the Boston birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surkan, Pamela J; Dong, Liming; Ji, Yuelong; Hong, Xiumei; Ji, Hongkai; Kimmel, Mary; Tang, Wan-Yee; Wang, Xiaobin

    2017-11-16

    To investigate to what extent paternal involvement and support during pregnancy were associated with preterm (PTB) and small-for-gestational age (SGA) births. Using data from the Boston Birth Cohort (n = 7047), multiple logistic regression models were performed to estimate the log odds of either PTB or SGA birth, with paternal involvement, paternal social support, and family and friend social support variables as the primary independent variables. About 10% of participating mothers reported their husbands not being involved or supportive during their pregnancies. Lack of paternal involvement was associated with 21% higher risk of PTB (OR = 1.21, 95% CI: 1.01-1.45). Similarly, lack of paternal support was borderline associated with PTB (OR = 1.13, 95% CI: 0.94-1.35). Also marginally significant, lack of paternal involvement (OR = 1.18, 95% CI: 0.95-1.47) and father's support (OR = 1.19, 95% CI: 0.96-1.48) were associated with higher odds of SGA birth. No associations were found between familial and friend support during pregnancy and PTB or SGA. Among predominantly low-income African Americans, lack of paternal involvement and lack of paternal support during pregnancy were associated with an increased risk of PTB, and suggestive of SGA birth. These findings, if confirmed in future research, underscore the important role a father can play in reducing PTB and/or SGA.

  15. Prenatal Heavy Metal Exposure and Adverse Birth Outcomes in Myanmar: A Birth-Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyi Mar Wai

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic, cadmium and lead are well-known environmental contaminants, and their toxicity at low concentration is the target of scientific concern. In this study, we aimed to identify the potential effects of prenatal heavy metal exposure on the birth outcomes among the Myanmar population. This study is part of a birth-cohort study conducted with 419 pregnant women in the Ayeyarwady Division, Myanmar. Face-to-face interviews were performed using a questionnaire, and maternal spot urine samples were collected at the third trimester. Birth outcomes were evaluated at delivery during the follow up. The median values of adjusted urinary arsenic, cadmium, selenium and lead concentration were 74.2, 0.9, 22.6 and 1.8 μg/g creatinine, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression revealed that prenatal cadmium exposure (adjusted odds ratio (OR = 1.10; 95% confidence interval (CI: 1.01–1.21; p = 0.043, gestational age (adjusted OR = 0.83; 95% CI: 0.72–0.95; p = 0.009 and primigravida mothers (adjusted OR = 4.23; 95% CI: 1.31–13.65; p = 0.016 were the predictors of low birth weight. The present study identified that Myanmar mothers were highly exposed to cadmium. Prenatal maternal cadmium exposure was associated with an occurrence of low birth weight.

  16. pilot studies to test the feasibility of a birth cohort study investigating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-04-20

    Apr 20, 1991 ... Birth to Ten' is a birth cohort study currently being conducted in the Johannesburg-Soweto area. This paper describes the various pilot studies that were undertaken to investigate the feasibility of a cohort study in an urban area. These studies were designed to determine the monthly birth rate, the timing,.

  17. Infertility, infertility treatment and twinning: the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jin Liang; Basso, Olga; Obel, Carsten

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We have previously observed that an increasing time to pregnancy (TTP) is associated with a reduced frequency of twin deliveries in couples not receiving infertility treatment. By using updated information, we assessed the frequencies of dizygotic (DZ) and monozygotic (MZ) twin...... deliveries as a function of infertility (TTP > 12 months), as well as infertility treatment. METHODS: From the Danish National Birth Cohort (1997-2003), we identified 51 730 fertile couples with TTP 12 months and 5163 infertile couples who conceived after treatment. Information on zygosity, available...... for part of the cohort (1997-2000), was based on standardized questions on the similarities between the twins at the age of 3-5 years. RESULTS: Compared with fertile couples, the frequency of DZ twin deliveries was lower for infertile couples conceiving naturally (odds ratio 0.4, 95% confidence interval 0...

  18. Birth cohort effect on the obesity epidemic in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Lina W; Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Holst, Claus

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In Denmark, the obesity epidemic has developed in phases. To investigate if this has been a birth cohort phenomenon, we explored the secular trend in the prevalence of obesity among boys and young men. METHODS: We calculated body mass index (BMI; kg/m) over time for 163,835 Danish boys...... examined at ages 7-11 years and for 708,342 male draftees examined at age 19 years. Obesity was defined according to age-specific criteria for boys and as BMI >or=31 kg/m for men. We examined trends in the prevalence of obesity from 1930 through 1999, expressing time as the subjects' year of measurement...... and as year of birth. RESULTS: When expressed by year of measurement, 4 phases in the prevalence of obesity emerged for the boys and the young men, but they occurred at different times. However, when expressed by year of birth, the 2 stable periods and the 2 periods with sharp increases in obesity occurred...

  19. Memory of childbirth in the second year: the long-term effect of a negative birth experience and its modulation by the perceived intranatal relationship with caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadlmayr, W; Amsler, F; Lemola, S; Stein, S; Alt, M; Bürgin, D; Surbek, D; Bitzer, J

    2006-12-01

    To assess the memory of various subdimensions of the birth experience in the second year postpartum, and to identify women in the first weeks postpartum at risk of developing a long-term negative memory. DESIGN, METHOD, OUTCOME MEASURES: New mothers' birth experience (BE) was assessed 48-96 hours postpartum (T1) by means of the SIL-Ger and the BBCI (perception of intranatal relationships); early postnatal adjustment (week 3 pp: T1(bis)) was also assessed. Then, four subgroups of women were defined by means of a cluster-analysis, integrating the T1/T1(bis) variables. To evaluate the memory of the BE, the SIL-Ger was again applied in the second year after childbirth (T2). First, the ratings of the SIL-Ger dimensions of T1 were compared to those at T2 in the whole sample. Then, the four subgroups were compared with respect to their ratings of the birth experience at T2 (correlations, ANOVAs and t-tests). In general, fulfillment, emotional adaptation, physical discomfort, and anxiety improve spontaneously over the first year postpartum, whereas in negative emotional experience, control, and time-going-slowly no shift over time is observed. However, women with a negative overall birth experience and a low level of perceived intranatal relationship at T1 run a high risk of retaining a negative memory in all of the seven subdimensions of the birth experience. Women at risk of developing a negative long-term memory of the BE can be identified at the time of early postpartum, when the overall birth experience and the perceived intranatal relationship are taken into account.

  20. Bypassing health facilities for childbirth in the context of the JSY cash transfer program to promote institutional birth: A cross-sectional study from Madhya Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabde, Yogesh; Chaturvedi, Sarika; Randive, Bharat; Sidney, Kristi; Salazar, Mariano; De Costa, Ayesha; Diwan, Vishal

    2018-01-01

    Bypassing health facilities for childbirth can be costly both for women and health systems. There have been some reports on this from Sub-Saharan African and from Nepal but none from India. India has implemented the Janani Suraksha Yojana (JSY), a large national conditional cash transfer program which has successfully increased the number of institutional births in India. This paper aims to study the extent of bypassing the nearest health facility offering intrapartum care in three districts of Madhya Pradesh, India, and to identify individual and facility determinants of bypassing in the context of the JSY program. Our results provide information to support the optimal utilization of facilities at different levels of the healthcare system for childbirth. Data was collected from 96 facilities (74 public) and 720 rural mothers who delivered at these facilities were interviewed. Multilevel logistic regression was used to analyze the data. Facility obstetric care functionality was assessed by the number of emergency obstetric care (EmOC) signal functions performed in the last three months. Thirty eighth percent of the mothers bypassed the nearest public facility for their current delivery. Primiparity, higher education, arriving by hired transport and a longer distance from home to the nearest facility increased the odds of bypassing a public facility for childbirth. The variance partition coefficient showed that 37% of the variation in bypassing the nearest public facility can be attributed to difference between facilities. The number of basic emergency obstetric care signal functions (AOR = 0.59, 95% CI 0.37-0.93), and the availability of free transportation at the nearest facility (AOR = 0.11, 95% CI 0.03-0.31) were protective factors against bypassing. The variation between facilities (MOR = 3.85) was more important than an individual's characteristics to explain bypassing in MP. This multilevel study indicates that in this setting, a focus on increasing the level

  1. Cohort Trends in Premarital First Births: What Role for the Retreat From Marriage?

    OpenAIRE

    England, Paula; WU, LAWRENCE L.; Shafer, Emily Fitzgibbons

    2013-01-01

    We examine cohort trends in premarital first births for U.S. women born between 1920 and 1964. The rise in premarital first births is often argued to be a consequence of the retreat from marriage, with later ages at first marriage resulting in more years of exposure to the risk of a premarital first birth. However, cohort trends in premarital first births may also reflect trends in premarital sexual activity, premarital conceptions, and how premarital conceptions are resolved. We decompose ob...

  2. Developmental origins of physical fitness: the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna K Salonen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF is a major factor influencing health and disease outcomes including all-cause mortality and cardiovascular disease. Importantly CRF is also modifiable and could therefore have a major public health impact. Early life exposures play a major role in chronic disease development. Our aim was to explore the potential prenatal and childhood origins of CRF in later life. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This sub-study of the HBCS (Helsinki Birth Cohort Study includes 606 men and women who underwent a thorough clinical examination and participated in the UKK 2-km walk test, which has been validated against a maximal exercise stress test as a measure of CRF in population studies. Data on body size at birth and growth during infancy and childhood were obtained from hospital, child welfare and school health records. Body size at birth was not associated with adult CRF. A 1 cm increase in height at 2 and 7 years was associated with 0.21 ml/kg/min (95% CI 0.02 to 0.40 and 0.16 ml/kg/min (95% CI 0.03 to 0.28 higher VO2max, respectively. Adjustment for adult lean body mass strengthened these findings. Weight at 2 and 7 years and height at 11 years became positively associated with CRF after adult lean body mass adjustment. However, a 1 kg/m(2 higher BMI at 11 years was associated with -0.57 ml/kg/min (95% CI -0.91 to -0.24 lower adult VO2max, and remained so after adjustment for adult lean body mass. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: We did not observe any significant associations between body size at birth and CRF in later life. However, childhood growth was associated with CRF in adulthood. These findings suggest, importantly from a public point of view, that early growth may play a role in predicting adult CRF.

  3. The global epidemic of abuse and disrespect during childbirth: History, evidence, interventions, and FIGO's mother-baby friendly birthing facilities initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Suellen; Lalonde, Andre

    2015-10-01

    Recent evidence indicates that disrespectful/abusive/coercive service delivery by skilled providers in facilities, which results in actual or perceived poor quality of care, is directly and indirectly associated with adverse maternal and newborn outcomes. The present article reviews the evidence for disrespectful/abusive care during childbirth in facilities (DACF), describes examples of DACF, discusses organizations active in a rights-based respectful maternity care movement, and enumerates some strategies and interventions that have been identified to decrease DACF. It concludes with a discussion of one strategy, which has been recently implemented by FIGO with global partners-the International Pediatrics Association, International Confederation of Midwives, the White Ribbon Alliance, and WHO. This strategy, the Mother and Baby Friendly Birth Facility (MBFBF) Initiative, is a criterion-based audit process based on human rights' doctrines, and modeled on WHO/UNICEF's Baby Friendly Facility Initiative. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  4. Personality and fear of childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryding, Elsa Lena; Wirfelt, Eva; Wängborg, Ing-Britt; Sjögren, Berit; Edman, Gunnar

    2007-01-01

    Socioeconomic factors and previous experiences of delivery are known to influence pregnant women's fear of childbirth. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between stable personality traits, fear of childbirth during late pregnancy, and experience of the delivery. Self-report questionnaires were completed twice, during gestation week 34-37, and at 1-week postpartum. Comparisons were made between 85 women who had sought help from a fear-of-childbirth team, and a group (n=177) from routine antenatal care. Correlations between fear of childbirth, personality variables and experience of childbirth were calculated. The women who had sought help tended to be more anxiety-prone, more short-tempered, and lower in socialisation, although within the normal range. In spite of counselling, they reported more intense fear of delivery and fear of pain compared with the comparison group. Women with intense fear of childbirth, who were low in socialisation and high in psychasthenia, had a more negative experience of their current childbirth. Women with intense fear of childbirth differ from other pregnant women also in personality. Methods for treating fear of childbirth should be further developed in order to diminish the risk of a negative birth experience.

  5. Giving birth and returning to work: the impact of work-family conflict on women's health after childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grice, Mira M; Feda, Denise; McGovern, Patricia; Alexander, Bruce H; McCaffrey, David; Ukestad, Laurie

    2007-10-01

    Since 1970, women of childbearing age have increasingly participated in the workforce. However, literature on work-family conflict has not specifically addressed the health of postpartum women. This study examined the relationship between work-family conflict and mental and physical health of employed mothers 11 weeks after childbirth. Employed women, 18 years and older, were recruited while in the hospital for childbirth (N = 817; 71% response rate). Mental and physical health at 11 weeks postpartum was measured using SF-12 version 2. General linear models estimated the associations between the independent variables and health. A priori causal models and directed acyclic graphs guided selection of confounding variables. Analyses revealed that high levels of work interference with family were associated with significantly lower mental health scores. Medium and high levels of family interference with work revealed a dose-response relationship resulting in significantly worse mental health scores. Coworker support was strongly and positively associated with better physical health. Work-family conflict was negatively associated with mental health but not significantly associated with physical health. Availability of social support may relieve the burden women can experience when balancing work roles and family obligations.

  6. A birth cohort study in the Middle East: the Qatari birth cohort study (QBiC phase I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Sadoun

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The latest scientific reports raise concerns about the rapidly increasing burden of chronic diseases in the state of Qatar. Pregnant Qatari women often confront complications during pregnancy including gestational diabetes, hypertension, abortion and stillbirth. The investigation of early life environmental, genetic, nutritional and social factors that may affect lifelong health is of great importance. Birth cohort studies offer a great opportunity to address early life hazards and their possible long lasting effects on health. Methods/design The Qatari Birth Cohort study is the first mother-child cohort study in the Middle East Area that aims to assess the synergetic role of environmental exposure and genetic factors in the development of chronic disease and monitor woman and child health and/or obstetric characteristics with high prevalence. The present manuscript describes the recruitment phase of the study (duration: 2 years; expected number: 3000 families, where the pregnant Qatari women and their husbands are being contacted before the 15th week of gestation at the Primary Health Care Centers. The consented participants are interviewed to obtain information on several factors (sociodemographic characteristics, dietary habits, occupational/environmental exposure and maternal characteristics are assessed based on anthropometric measurements, spirometry, and blood pressure. Pregnant women are invited to provide biological samples (blood and urine in each trimester of their pregnancy, as well as cord blood at delivery. Fathers are also asked to provide biological samples. Discussion The present study provides invaluable insights into a wide range of early life factors affecting human health. With a geographical focus on the Middle East, it will be a resource for information to the wider scientific community and will allow the formulation of effective policies with a primary focus on public health interventions for maternal

  7. Late-preterm birth and lifetime socioeconomic attainments: the Helsinki birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinonen, Kati; Eriksson, Johan G; Kajantie, Eero; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Barker, David J; Osmond, Clive; Raikkonen, Katri

    2013-10-01

    We examined if those born late-preterm (at 34 to 36 weeks of gestation) differed from those born at term in their maximum attained lifetime socioeconomic position (SEP) across the adult years up to 56 to 66 years, and in intergenerational social mobility from childhood parental SEP to own attained SEP. Participants were 8993 Finnish men and women of the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study born between 1934 and 1944. Gestational age was extracted from hospital birth records and socioeconomic attainments from Finnish National Census. Compared with those born at term, those born late-preterm were more likely to be manual workers, have a basic or upper secondary level of education, belong to the lowest third based on their incomes, and less likely to belong to the highest third based on their incomes. Late-preterm individuals were also less likely to be upwardly mobile and more likely to be downwardly mobile; they were less likely to have higher occupations and more likely to have lower occupations than their fathers. They were also less likely to be upwardly mobile if incomes were used as the outcome of own attained SEP, and men were more likely to be downwardly mobile if education was used as the outcome of own attained SEP. This study demonstrates that there are considerable long-term socioeconomic disadvantages associated with late-preterm birth, which are not explained by the parent-of-origin SEP.

  8. Mental Disorder and Violent Victimization in a Total Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Eric; Arseneault, Louise; Langley, John; Caspi, Avshalom; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2005-01-01

    Objective. We examined the association between mental disorder and violent victimization in a general population sample. Methods. We performed a multivariate analysis of violent victimization in a 12-month period on a total birth cohort with follow-up data that assessed, during their 21st year, males and females born in Dunedin, New Zealand, in the early 1970s. Results. Compared with people with no mental disorder, (1) people with anxiety disorders experienced more sexual assaults, (2) people with schizophreniform disorders experienced more threatened and completed physical assaults, (3) people with alcohol dependence disorders experienced more completed physical assaults, and (4) people with marijuana dependence disorders experienced more attempted physical assaults. These results held after control for psychiatric comorbidity, demographic characteristics, and the study participants’ own violent behavior. Conclusion. Mentally disordered young adults tend to experience more violent victimization in the community than those without a mental disorder. PMID:16254233

  9. Birth cohort effects on mortality in Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Rune; Keiding, Niels; Lynge, Elsebeth

    the mothers of the babyboomers, and the women most heavily hit by the epidemic of sexually transmitted diseases in the mid 1940s. These generations of women furthermore entered the Danish labour market in massive numbers in the 1960s. In the present study we examine the mortality of Danish women and compare......Background Understanding and then reducing disparities in health and life expectancy within and between countries, has been described as an important issue on the public health agenda for the this century. In this context it is of interest that Danish women, had a lower increase in life expectancy...... during the last decades then other countries in the European Union and now has the lowest life expectancy in EU. The low life expectancy of Danish women is strongly influenced by a birth cohort effect for Danish women born between the two World Wars. The high risk generations of women were in part...

  10. Intellect and cognitive performance in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Stumm, Sophie; Deary, Ian J

    2013-09-01

    Investment personality traits are thought to positively affect cognitive performance in old age, even after controlling for prior cognitive ability. In the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 (N = 1,091), a cross-lagged model tested for reciprocal effects of the investment trait Intellect on verbal fluency, an indicator of crystallized intelligence, at age 70 and 73 years, while adjusting for general IQ at age 11 and 70 years. Intellect at age 70 was weakly associated with contemporaneous verbal fluency but had no significant effects on fluency at age 73. Conversely, verbal fluency at age 70 was significantly, positively related to Intellect at age 73. The results suggest that better verbal fluency precedes intellectual investment in old age rather than the other way around.

  11. Norovirus Gastroenteritis in a Birth Cohort in Southern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Vipin Kumar; George, Santosh; Sarkar, Rajiv; Giri, Sidhartha; Samuel, Prasanna; Vivek, Rosario; Saravanabavan, Anuradha; Liakath, Farzana Begum; Ramani, Sasirekha; Iturriza-Gomara, Miren; Gray, James J; Brown, David W; Estes, Mary K; Kang, Gagandeep

    2016-01-01

    Noroviruses are an important cause of gastroenteritis but little is known about disease and re-infection rates in community settings in Asia. Disease, re-infection rates, strain prevalence and genetic susceptibility to noroviruses were investigated in a birth cohort of 373 Indian children followed up for three years. Stool samples from 1856 diarrheal episodes and 147 vomiting only episodes were screened for norovirus by RT-PCR. Norovirus positivity was correlated with clinical data, secretor status and ABO blood group. Of 1856 diarrheal episodes, 207 (11.2%) were associated with norovirus, of which 49(2.6%) were norovirus GI, 150(8.1%) norovirus GII, and 8 (0.4%) were mixed infections with both norovirus GI and GII. Of the 147 vomiting only episodes, 30 (20.4%) were positive for norovirus in stool, of which 7 (4.8%) were norovirus GI and 23 (15.6%) GII. At least a third of the children developed norovirus associated diarrhea, with the first episode at a median age of 5 and 8 months for norovirus GI and GII, respectively. Norovirus GI.3 and GII.4 were the predominant genotypes (40.3% and 53.0%) with strain diversity and change in the predominant sub-cluster over time observed among GII viruses. A second episode of norovirus gastroenteritis was documented in 44/174 (25.3%) ever-infected children. Children with the G428A homozygous mutation for inactivation of the FUT2 enzyme (se428se428) were at a significantly lower risk (48/190) of infection with norovirus (p = 0.01). This is the first report of norovirus documenting disease, re-infection and genetic susceptibility in an Asian birth cohort. The high incidence and apparent lack of genogroupII specific immunity indicate the need for careful studies on further characterization of strains, asymptomatic infection and shedding and immune response to further our understanding of norovirus infection and disease.

  12. Fear of childbirth and elective caesarean section: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Størksen, Hege Therese; Garthus-Niegel, Susan; Adams, Samantha S; Vangen, Siri; Eberhard-Gran, Malin

    2015-09-17

    This population-based cohort study aimed to investigate the demographic and psychosocial characteristics associated with fear of childbirth and the relative importance of such fear as a predictor of elective caesarean section. A sample of 1789 women from the Akershus Birth Cohort in Norway provided data collected by three self-administered questionnaires at 17 and 32 weeks of pregnancy and 8 weeks postpartum. Information about the participants' childbirths was obtained from the hospital records. Eight percent of the women reported fear of delivery, defined as a score of ≥85 on the Wijma Delivery Expectancy Questionnaire. Using multivariable logistic regression models, a previous negative overall birth experience exerted the strongest impact on fear of childbirth, followed by impaired mental health and poor social support. Fear of childbirth was strongly associated with a preference for elective caesarean section (aOR 4.6, 95% CI 2.9-7.3) whereas the association of fear with performance of caesarean delivery was weaker (aOR 2.4, 95% CI 1.2-4.9). The vast majority (87%) of women with fear of childbirth did not, however, receive a caesarean section. By contrast, a previous negative overall birth experience was highly predictive of elective caesarean section (aOR 8.1, 95% CI 3.9-16.7) and few women without such experiences did request caesarean section. Results suggest that women with fear of childbirth may have identifiable vulnerability characteristics, such as poor mental health and poor social support. Results also emphasize the need to focus on the subjective experience of the birth to prevent fear of childbirth and elective caesarean sections on maternal request. Regarding the relationship with social support, causality has to be interpreted cautiously, as social support was measured at 8 weeks postpartum only.

  13. Birth weight ratio as an alternative to birth weight percentile to express infant weight in research and clinical practice: a nationwide cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voskamp, Bart Jan; Kazemier, Brenda M.; Schuit, Ewoud; Mol, Ben Willem J.; Buimer, Maarten; Pajkrt, Eva; Ganzevoort, Wessel

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To compare birth weight ratio and birth weight percentile to express infant weight when assessing pregnancy outcome. Study Design. We performed a national cohort study. Birth weight ratio was calculated as the observed birth weight divided by the median birth weight for gestational age.

  14. Influence of birth cohort on age of onset cluster analysis in bipolar I disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, M; Glenn, T; Alda, M

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Two common approaches to identify subgroups of patients with bipolar disorder are clustering methodology (mixture analysis) based on the age of onset, and a birth cohort analysis. This study investigates if a birth cohort effect will influence the results of clustering on the age of onse...

  15. Oral health in a life-course : birth-cohorts from 1929 to 2006 in Norway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holst, D; Schuller, A A

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the work was to study the influence of the oral health environment at age 10, of adolescent and adulthood dental behaviours and of social status on oral health of three birth-cohorts in 1983 and two of the three birth-cohorts in 2006 in Norway. METHODS: The material

  16. Breastfeeding and its impact on daily life in women with type 1 diabetes during the first six months after childbirth: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berg Marie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For mothers with diabetes, breastfeeding is a great challenge due to their struggle with potentially unstable blood glucose levels. This paper explores breastfeeding attitudes and impact of breastfeeding on the daily life of mothers with type 1 diabetes compared with non-diabetic mothers. Methods We performed a prospective cohort study of 108 mothers with type 1 diabetes and a reference group of 104 mothers in the west of Sweden. Data were collected through medical records and structured telephone interviews at 2 and 6 months after childbirth. Results Women in both the diabetes group and the reference group had high levels of confidence (84% and 93% respectively in their breastfeeding capacity before childbirth, and 90% assessed breastfeeding as a positive and an important experience during the six months of follow-up. About 80% assessed breastfeeding as influencing daily life ‘very much’ or ‘quite a lot’ at 2 months as did 60% at 6 months, with no difference between the groups. In mothers with diabetes, the impact of breastfeeding on the priority of other duties decreased over time, as did feelings of time pressure and negative effects on patterns of sleep. Compared to the reference group, mothers with diabetes at 6 months remained more affected by disruptions in daily life and they felt more worried about their health both at 2 and 6 months after childbirth. For the reference group mothers’ sensitivity to unexpected disruptions in daily routines decreased between 2 and 6 months after childbirth, and they expressed a greater need to organize their time than mothers with diabetes. Conclusion Mothers with diabetes type 1 express more worry for own health and are more sensitive to distruptions. To balance their everyday life and to reduce the risk of stress and illhealth they are therefor, compared to other mothers, likely to need additional professional and peer support.

  17. Home childbirth: progress or retrocession?

    OpenAIRE

    SANFELICE, Clara Fróes de Oliveira; SHIMO, Antonieta Keiko Kakuda

    2014-01-01

    Giving birth at home represents a rising modality of delivery care in the Brazilian society, although in unrepresentative proportion when compared to the number of hospital childbirths. In Brazil, the topic has been broadly discussed by different professional categories, highlighting the safety issue involved in the process. The aim of this theoretical and reflective study was to present a brief overview of the overall care related to home childbirth, also questioning the reality of the conte...

  18. Childbirth, hospitalisation and sickness absence: a study of female twins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkenstam, Emma; Alexanderson, Kristina; Narusyte, Jurgita; Kjeldgård, Linnea; Ropponen, Annina; Svedberg, Pia

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate associations of giving birth with morbidity in terms of hospitalisation and social consequences of morbidity in terms of sickness absence (SA), while taking familial (genetics and shared environmental) factors into account. Design Prospective register-based cohort study. Estimates of risk of hospitalisation and SA were calculated as HRs with 95% CIs. Setting All female twins, that is, women with a twin sister, born in Sweden. Participants 5118 Swedish female twins (women with a twin sister), born during 1959–1990, where at least one in the twin pair had their first childbirth (T0) during 1994–2009 and none gave birth before 1994. Main outcome measures Hospitalisation and SA during year 3–5 after first delivery or equivalent. Results Preceding the first childbirth, the mean annual number of SA days increased for mothers, and then decreased again. Hospitalisation after T0 was associated with higher HRs of short-term and long-term SA (HR for short-term SA 3.0; 95% CI 2.5 to 3.6 and for long-term SA 2.3; 95% CI 1.6 to 3.2). Hospitalisation both before and after first childbirth was associated with a higher risk of future SA (HR for long-term SA 4.2; 95% CI 2.7 to 6.4). Familial factors influenced the association between hospitalisation and long-term SA, regardless of childbirth status. Conclusions Women giving birth did not have a higher risk for SA than those not giving birth and results indicate a positive health selection into giving birth. Mothers hospitalised before and/or after giving birth had higher risks for future SA, that is, there was a strong association between morbidity and future SA. PMID:25573523

  19. Norovirus Gastroenteritis in a Birth Cohort in Southern India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipin Kumar Menon

    Full Text Available Noroviruses are an important cause of gastroenteritis but little is known about disease and re-infection rates in community settings in Asia.Disease, re-infection rates, strain prevalence and genetic susceptibility to noroviruses were investigated in a birth cohort of 373 Indian children followed up for three years. Stool samples from 1856 diarrheal episodes and 147 vomiting only episodes were screened for norovirus by RT-PCR. Norovirus positivity was correlated with clinical data, secretor status and ABO blood group.Of 1856 diarrheal episodes, 207 (11.2% were associated with norovirus, of which 49(2.6% were norovirus GI, 150(8.1% norovirus GII, and 8 (0.4% were mixed infections with both norovirus GI and GII. Of the 147 vomiting only episodes, 30 (20.4% were positive for norovirus in stool, of which 7 (4.8% were norovirus GI and 23 (15.6% GII. At least a third of the children developed norovirus associated diarrhea, with the first episode at a median age of 5 and 8 months for norovirus GI and GII, respectively. Norovirus GI.3 and GII.4 were the predominant genotypes (40.3% and 53.0% with strain diversity and change in the predominant sub-cluster over time observed among GII viruses. A second episode of norovirus gastroenteritis was documented in 44/174 (25.3% ever-infected children. Children with the G428A homozygous mutation for inactivation of the FUT2 enzyme (se428se428 were at a significantly lower risk (48/190 of infection with norovirus (p = 0.01.This is the first report of norovirus documenting disease, re-infection and genetic susceptibility in an Asian birth cohort. The high incidence and apparent lack of genogroupII specific immunity indicate the need for careful studies on further characterization of strains, asymptomatic infection and shedding and immune response to further our understanding of norovirus infection and disease.

  20. Measuring socioemotional functioning in a national birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreassen, Carol; West, Jerry

    2007-11-01

    An accumulating body of research suggests that the capacities children acquire that prepare them for learning in formal educational settings are multilevel and complex with multiple contributing factors that begin in infancy. A new U.S. longitudinal study, the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), is designed to enable researchers to examine how an array of children's capacities and skills function individually and jointly to promote or hinder the acquisition of school readiness. The ECLS-B follows a nationally representative sample of 10,688 children born in the U.S. in 2001. Baseline data on the children and their families were collected at 9 months of age with follow-up at ages 2, 4, and kindergarten entry. Information on study children's socioemotional development is derived from several sources: videotaped mother-child interactions, parent interviews, and field staff observations. Because attachment is such an important indicator of children's socioemotional development during the toddler period, the study devoted considerable resources to designing an attachment measure. The Toddler Attachment Sort-45 (TAS-45) was designed to meet the need for a simple yet valid measure that did not require extensive training for field staff to administer easily. The TAS-45 generates the classical attachment categories and security and dependency scores. Copyright © 2007 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  1. [Mother-friendly childbirth practices and breastfeeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ya-Wen; Tzeng, Ya-Ling; Yang, Ya-Ling

    2013-02-01

    Childbirth, connecting the stages of pregnancy and postpartum, deeply affects maternal motivation with regard to initiating and continuing postnatal breastfeeding and ultimate breastfeeding success. Although promoting breastfeeding is a strategy critical to achieving wellbeing in both mothers and infants, there remains a lack of professional attention and related research into the effect of childbirth on breastfeeding. Promoting successful breastfeeding is a central component of childbirth-friendly nursing care. Therefore, this paper introduces the origin and concepts of mother-and-infant-friendly childbirth, then analyzes the influences on breastfeeding of medicalized birth practices and suggests how to implement childbirth-friendly interventions. This paper was written to help nurses better understand how the childbirth process affects breastfeeding and provide a reference for creating conditions during childbirth that encourage successful breastfeeding practices.

  2. Hypnotherapy for childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granger, Sheila

    2012-09-01

    The birthing process, although often a joyful and proud moment, can also create an overwhelming sense of anxiety. As a result some women are now turning to hypnobirthing to help them to cope. This practice is used to relax women before and during their labour. It also helps encourage a stress free birth and reduce the need for drugs and interventions, such as caesarean section. In this article, Sheila Granger helps to dispel some of the myths surrounding the use of hypnotherapy and looks specifically at its application to childbirth. The role of midwives and the benefits to them are also discussed.

  3. Socioeconomic position and the risk of preterm birth--a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Bjørk, Christina; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low socioeconomic position is generally associated with increased risk of preterm birth, but it remains unclear whether the inequality depends on the socioeconomic measure used, if the associations differ according to the degree of prematurity, and how individual level risk factors...... mediate the association. METHODS: The hazard ratios (HR) of preterm birth associated with five different measures of socioeconomic position and three degrees of preterm birth were analysed in a dataset of 75 890 singleton pregnancies (1996-2002) from the Danish National Birth Cohort. This......, and the mediating role of selected individual level risk factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, binge drinking, pre-pregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain) were estimated, using Cox regression analyses. RESULTS: Mothers with preterm birth compared...

  4. Ambient air pollution and preterm birth: A prospective birth cohort study in Wuhan, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Zhengmin; Liang, Shengwen; Yang, Shaoping; Trevathan, Edwin; Huang, Zhen; Yang, Rong; Wang, Jing; Hu, Ke; Zhang, Yiming; Vaughn, Michael; Shen, Longjiao; Liu, Wenjin; Li, Pu; Ward, Patrick; Yang, Li; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Wei; Dong, Guanghui; Zheng, Tongzhang; Xu, Shunqing; Zhang, Bin

    2016-03-01

    Although studies in western countries suggest that ambient air pollution is positively associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, the upper levels of pollutant exposures have been relatively low, thus eroding confidence in the conclusions. Meanwhile, in Asia, where upper levels of exposure have been greater, there have been limited studies of the association between air pollution and adverse pregnancy outcomes. The primary objective was to evaluate whether high levels of pollution, including particulate matter pollution with a mass median aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) and 10 μm (PM10), sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), ozone (O3), and carbon monoxide (CO) are related to increased occurrence of preterm birth (PTB). We conducted a population-based study in Wuhan, China in a cohort of 95,911 live births during a two-year period from 2011 to 2013. The exposure was estimated based on daily mean concentrations of pollutants estimated using the pollutants' measurements from the nine closest monitors. Logistic regressions were performed to determine the relationships between exposure to each of the pollutants during different pregnancy periods and PTB while controlling for key covariates. We found 3% (OR=1.03; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.05), 2% (OR=1.02; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.03), 15% (OR=1.15; 95% CI: 1.11, 1.19), and 5% (OR=1.05; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.07) increases in risk of PTB with each 5-μg/m(3) increase in PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations, 100-μg/m(3) increase in CO concentrations, and 10-μg/m(3) increase in O3 concentrations, respectively. There was negligible evidence for associations for SO2 and NO2. The effects from two-pollutant models were similar to the estimated effects from single pollutant models. No critical exposure windows were identified consistently: the strongest effect for PTB was found in the second trimester for PM2.5, PM10, and CO, but for SO2 it was in the first trimester, second month, and third month. For NO2 it was in the first

  5. Trajectories of dental anxiety in a birth cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, W. M.; Broadbent, J. M.; Locker, D.; Poulton, R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine predictors of dental anxiety trajectories in a longitudinal study of New Zealanders. Methods Prospective study of a complete birth cohort born in 1972/73 in Dunedin, New Zealand, with dental anxiety scale (DAS) scores and dental utilization determined at ages 15, 18, 26 and 32 years. Personality traits were assessed at a superfactor and (more fine-grained) subscale level via the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire at age 18 years. Group-based trajectory analysis was used to identify dental anxiety trajectories. Results DAS scores from at least three assessments were available for 828 participants. Six dental anxiety trajectories were observed: stable nonanxious low (39.6%); stable nonanxious medium (37.9%); recovery (1.6%); adult-onset anxious (7.7%); stable anxious (7.2%) and adolescent-onset anxious (5.9%). Multivariate analysis showed that males and those with higher DMFS at age 15 years were more likely to be in the stable nonanxious low trajectory group. Membership of the stable nonanxious medium group was predicted by the dental caries experience at age 15 years. Participants who had lost one or more teeth between ages 26 and 32 years had almost twice the relative risk for membership of the adult-onset anxious group. Personality traits predicted group membership. Specifically, high scorers (via median split) on the ‘stress reaction’ subscale had over twice the risk of being in the stable anxious group; low scorers on the traditionalism subscale were more likely to be members of the recovery trajectory group; and high scorers on the ‘social closeness’ subscale had half the risk of being in the stable anxious group. Dental caries experience at age 5 years was also a predictor for the stable anxious group. Membership of the late-adolescent-onset anxious group was predicted by higher dental caries experience by age 15 years, but none of the other predictors was significant. Conclusion Six discrete trajectories of dental anxiety

  6. Identification of atopic dermatitis subgroups in children from two longitudinal birth cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paternoster, Lavinia; Savenije, Olga E M; Heron, Jon; Evans, David M; Vonk, Judith M; Brunekreef, Bert; Wijga, Alet H; Henderson, A John; Koppelman, Gerard H; Brown, Sara J

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a prevalent disease with variable natural history. Longitudinal birth cohort studies provide an opportunity to define subgroups based on disease trajectories, which may represent different genetic and environmental pathomechanisms. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the

  7. Heritability estimations for diseases, coat color, body weight and height in a birth cohort of Boxers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nielen, A.L.J.; Janss, L.L.G.; Knol, B.W.

    2001-01-01

    Objective - To obtain heritability estimates for diseases and characteristics in Boxers. Animals - Birth cohort of 2,929 purebred Boxers from 414 litters. Procedure - Heritability estimates were determined for cheiloschisis-palatoschisis, cryptorchidism, epilepsy, stifle disorders, cardiac

  8. Paternal factors to the offspring birth weight: the 829 birth cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Cuifang; Huang,Tingting; Cui, Fangfang; Gao, Mengting; Song, Lifang; Wang, Suqing

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the contributions of parental, especially paternal factors to the offspring birth weight. Methods: Eligible 829 live-born, singleton children living in Hubei, China were recruited. Birth weight were measured immediately after birth and information about the parents were collected by face-to-face interview using questionnaire. Association between parental factors and birth weight was evaluated using univariate linear regression and multinomial logistic regression mode...

  9. Disease activity in pregnant women with Crohn's disease and birth outcomes: a regional Danish cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgård, Bente; Hundborg, Heidi H; Jacobsen, Bent Ascanius

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: CD is associated with increased risk of adverse birth outcomes, but existing studies have not assessed the impact of disease activity during pregnancy. We examined the impact of disease activity on birth outcomes: LBW, preterm birth, LBW at term, and CAs. METHODS: All births by CD women...... of clinical details (including disease activity and drug therapy during pregnancy). The exposed cohort (N = 71) constituted pregnancies with low/moderate-high disease activity during pregnancy, and the unexposed cohort (N = 86) those with inactive disease. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate...... the adjusted relative risks (with 95% confidence intervals) for adverse birth outcomes associated with disease activity in CD pregnancies. In subanalysis, we examined the impact of moderate-high activity. RESULTS: In women with disease activity, the adjusted risks of LBW, LBW at term, preterm birth, and CAs...

  10. Cohort Trends in Premarital First Births: What Role for the Retreat From Marriage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lawrence L.; Shafer, Emily Fitzgibbons

    2015-01-01

    We examine cohort trends in premarital first births for U.S. women born between 1920 and 1964. The rise in premarital first births is often argued to be a consequence of the retreat from marriage, with later ages at first marriage resulting in more years of exposure to the risk of a premarital first birth. However, cohort trends in premarital first births may also reflect trends in premarital sexual activity, premarital conceptions, and how premarital conceptions are resolved. We decompose observed cohort trends in premarital first births into components reflecting cohort trends in (1) the age-specific risk of a premarital conception taken to term; (2) the age-specific risk of first marriages not preceded by such a conception, which will influence women’s years of exposure to the risk of a premarital conception; and (3) whether a premarital conception is resolved by entering a first marriage before the resulting first birth (a “shotgun marriage”). For women born between 1920–1924 and 1945–1949, increases in premarital first births were primarily attributable to increases in premarital conceptions. For women born between 1945–1949 and 1960–1964, increases in premarital first births were primarily attributable to declines in responding to premarital conceptions by marrying before the birth. Trends in premarital first births were affected only modestly by the retreat from marriages not preceded by conceptions—a finding that holds for both whites and blacks. These results cast doubt on hypotheses concerning “marriageable” men and instead suggest that increases in premarital first births resulted initially from increases in premarital sex and then later from decreases in responding to a conception by marrying before a first birth. PMID:24072609

  11. Cohort trends in premarital first births: what role for the retreat from marriage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Paula; Wu, Lawrence L; Shafer, Emily Fitzgibbons

    2013-12-01

    We examine cohort trends in premarital first births for U.S. women born between 1920 and 1964. The rise in premarital first births is often argued to be a consequence of the retreat from marriage, with later ages at first marriage resulting in more years of exposure to the risk of a premarital first birth. However, cohort trends in premarital first births may also reflect trends in premarital sexual activity, premarital conceptions, and how premarital conceptions are resolved. We decompose observed cohort trends in premarital first births into components reflecting cohort trends in (1) the age-specific risk of a premarital conception taken to term; (2) the age-specific risk of first marriages not preceded by such a conception, which will influence women's years of exposure to the risk of a premarital conception; and (3) whether a premarital conception is resolved by entering a first marriage before the resulting first birth (a "shotgun marriage"). For women born between 1920-1924 and 1945-1949, increases in premarital first births were primarily attributable to increases in premarital conceptions. For women born between 1945-1949 and 1960-1964, increases in premarital first births were primarily attributable to declines in responding to premarital conceptions by marrying before the birth. Trends in premarital first births were affected only modestly by the retreat from marriages not preceded by conceptions-a finding that holds for both whites and blacks. These results cast doubt on hypotheses concerning "marriageable" men and instead suggest that increases in premarital first births resulted initially from increases in premarital sex and then later from decreases in responding to a conception by marrying before a first birth.

  12. Socio-demographic characteristics of women sustaining injuries during pregnancy: a study from the Danish National Birth Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Virk, Jasveer; Hsu, Paul; Olsen, Jørn

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To describe adverse birth outcomes associated with hospital-treated injuries that took place among women in the Danish National Birth Cohort. Design Longitudinal cohort study. Setting Denmark. Participants 90 452 women and their offspring selected from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Primary and secondary outcome measures To determine if injured women were more likely to deliver an infant preterm, with low birth weight, stillborn or have a spontaneous abortion, the authors estima...

  13. Age, time period, and birth cohort differences in self-esteem: Reexamining a cohort-sequential longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twenge, Jean M; Carter, Nathan T; Campbell, W Keith

    2017-05-01

    Orth, Trzesniewski, and Robins (2010) concluded that the nationally representative Americans' Changing Lives (ACL) cohort-sequential study demonstrated moderate to large age differences in self-esteem, and no birth cohort (generational) differences in the age trajectory. In a reanalysis of these data using 2 different statistical techniques, we find significant increases in self-esteem that could be attributed to birth cohort or time period. First, hierarchical linear modeling analyses with birth cohort as a continuous variable (vs. the multiple group formulation used by Orth et al.) find that birth cohort has a measurable influence on self-esteem through its interaction with age. Participants born in later years (e.g., 1960) were higher in self-esteem and were more likely to increase in self-esteem as they aged than participants born in earlier years (e.g., 1920). However, the estimated age trajectory up to age 60 is similar in Orth et al.'s results and in the results from our analyses including cohort. Second, comparing ACL respondents of the same age in 1986 versus 2002 (a time-lag design) yields significant birth cohort differences in self-esteem, with 2002 participants of the same age higher in self-esteem than those in 1986. Combined with some previous studies finding significant increases in self-esteem and positive self-views over time, these results suggest that cultural change in the form of cohort and time period cannot be ignored as influences in cross-sectional and longitudinal studies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. The role of under-employment and unemployment in recent birth cohort effects in Australian suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Andrew; Milner, Allison; Morrell, Stephen; Taylor, Richard

    2013-09-01

    High suicide rates evident in Australian young adults during an epidemic period in the 1990s appear to have been sustained in older age-groups in the subsequent decade. This period also coincides with changes in employment patterns in Australia. This study investigates age, period, and birth cohort effects in Australian suicide over the 20th century, with particular reference to the period subsequent to the 1990s youth suicide epidemic in young males. Period- and cohort-specific trends in suicide were examined for 1907-2010 based on descriptive analysis of age-specific suicide rates and a series of age-period-cohort (APC) models using Poisson regression. Under-employment rates (those employed part-time seeking additional hours of work) and unemployment rates (those currently seeking employment) for the latter part of this time series (1978-2010) were also examined and compared with period- and cohort-specific trends in suicide. A significant increasing birth cohort effect in male suicide rates was evident in birth cohorts born after 1970-74, after adjusting for the effects age and period. An increasing birth cohort effect was also evident in female suicide rates, but was of a lesser magnitude. Increases in male cohort-specific suicide rates were significantly correlated with increases in cohort-specific under-employment and unemployment rates. Birth cohorts that experienced the peak of the suicide epidemic during the 1990s have continued to have higher suicide rates than cohorts born in earlier epochs. This increase coincides with changes to a labour force characterised by greater 'flexibility' and 'casualised' employment, especially in younger aged cohorts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Physical exercise during pregnancy and the risk of preterm birth: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Mette; Andersen, Per Kragh; Olsen, Jørn

    2008-01-01

    According to many national recommendations, women should be physically active during pregnancy, but empirical evidence to support this recommendation is sparse. The authors' aim in this study was to examine the relation between physical exercise during pregnancy and the risk of preterm birth. Self......-reported data on physical exercise during pregnancy were collected prospectively for 87,232 singleton pregnancies included in the Danish National Birth Cohort between 1996 and 2002. Hazard ratios for preterm birth according to hours of exercise per week, type of exercise, and metabolic equivalent-hours per week......, respectively, were calculated using Cox regression analysis. Results showed a reduced risk of preterm birth among the almost 40% of women who engaged in some kind of exercise during pregnancy in comparison with nonexercisers (hazard ratio = 0.82, 95% confidence interval: 0.76, 0.88), but no dose...

  16. The predictive role of support in the birth experience: A longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdardottir, Valgerdur Lisa; Gamble, Jennifer; Gudmundsdottir, Berglind; Kristjansdottir, Hildur; Sveinsdottir, Herdis; Gottfredsdottir, Helga

    2017-12-01

    Several risk factors for negative birth experience have been identified, but little is known regarding the influence of social and midwifery support on the birth experience over time. The aim of this study was to describe women's birth experience up to two years after birth and to detect the predictive role of satisfaction with social and midwifery support in the birth experience. A longitudinal cohort study was conducted with a convenience sample of pregnant women from 26 community health care centres. Data was gathered using questionnaires at 11-16 weeks of pregnancy (T1, n=1111), at five to six months (T2, n=765), and at 18-24 months after birth (T3, n=657). Data about sociodemographic factors, reproductive history, birth outcomes, social and midwifery support, depressive symptoms, and birth experience were collected. The predictive role of midwifery support in the birth experience was examined using binary logistic regression. The prevalence of negative birth experience was 5% at T2 and 5.7% at T3. Women who were not satisfied with midwifery support during pregnancy and birth were more likely to have negative birth experience at T2 than women who were satisfied with midwifery support. Operative birth, perception of prolonged birth and being a student predicted negative birth experience at both T2 and T3. Perception of negative birth experience was relatively consistent during the study period and the role of support from midwives during pregnancy and birth had a significant impact on women's perception of birth experience. Copyright © 2017 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Trends in Dementia Incidence in a Birth Cohort Analysis of the Einstein Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derby, Carol A; Katz, Mindy J; Lipton, Richard B; Hall, Charles B

    2017-11-01

    Trends in dementia incidence rates have important implications for planning and prevention. To better understand incidence trends over time requires separation of age and cohort effects, and few prior studies have used this approach. To examine trends in dementia incidence and concomitant trends in cardiovascular comorbidities among individuals aged 70 years or older who were enrolled in the Einstein Aging Study between 1993 and 2015. In this birth cohort analysis of all-cause dementia incidence in persons enrolled in the Einstein Aging Study from October 20, 1993, through November 17, 2015, a systematically recruited, population-based sample of 1348 participants from Bronx County, New York, who were 70 years or older without dementia at enrollment and at least one annual follow-up was studied. Poisson regression was used to model dementia incidence as a function of age, sex, educational level, race, and birth cohort, with profile likelihood used to identify the timing of significant increases or decreases in incidence. Birth year and age. Incident dementia defined by consensus case conference based on annual, standardized neuropsychological and neurologic examination findings, using criteria from the DSM-IV. Among 1348 individuals (mean [SD] baseline age, 78.5 [5.4] years; 830 [61.6%] female; 915 [67.9%] non-Hispanic white), 150 incident dementia cases developed during 5932 person-years (mean [SD] follow-up, 4.4 [3.4] years). Dementia incidence decreased in successive birth cohorts. Incidence per 100 person-years was 5.09 in birth cohorts before 1920, 3.11 in the 1920 through 1924 birth cohorts, 1.73 in the 1925 through 1929 birth cohorts, and 0.23 in cohorts born after 1929. Change point analyses identified a significant decrease in dementia incidence among those born after July 1929 (95% CI, June 1929 to January 1930). The relative rate for birth cohorts before July 1929 vs after was 0.13 (95% CI, 0.04-0.41). Prevalence of stroke and myocardial infarction

  18. Physical exercise and pelvic girdle pain in pregnancy: A nested case-control study within the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Linda Kahr; Backhausen, Mette; Hegaard, Hanne Kristine; Juhl, Mette

    2015-12-01

    Pelvic girdle pain is a frequent cause of sick leave among pregnant women in Denmark. Studies regarding prevention of pelvic girdle pain are sparse. The aim of this study was to examine the association between physical exercise and pelvic girdle pain in pregnancy. A nested case-control study within the Danish National Birth Cohort (n = 5304). This study used self-reported data on pelvic girdle pain obtained from an interview six months after childbirth. Information on physical exercise was obtained from the pregnancy interview around gestational week 16. The association was estimated using logistic regression analysis. Physical exercise in pregnancy was associated with decreased risk of overall pelvic girdle pain (OR = 0.87; 95% CI: 0.77-0.99, p = 0.028). Tests for trend indicated decreasing odds for pelvic girdle pain with increasing number of hours per week spent on exercise (p exercise, swimming was associated with a decreased risk of pelvic girdle pain (OR = 0.73; 95% CI: 0.58-0.91, p = 0.005). The findings suggest a possible protective effect of physical exercise on pelvic girdle pain during pregnancy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Analysis of pelvic floor musculature function during pregnancy and postpartum: a cohort study: (a prospective cohort study to assess the PFMS by perineometry and digital vaginal palpation during pregnancy and following vaginal or caesarean childbirth).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroci, Adriana de Souza; Riesco, Maria Luiza Gonzalez; Sousa, Wesllanny da Silva; Cotrim, Ana Carolina; Sena, Edinéia Maria; Rocha, Nelly Lima; Fontes, Cintia Najara Caroci

    2010-09-01

    To compare the measurements of women's pelvic floor musculature strength (PFMS) during pregnancy and postpartum period. Pregnancy and childbirth can have an influence on the muscles and pelvic floor and can cause morbidities of women's genito-urinary tract. A prospective cohort study. There were included 226 primigravidae women, attended by community health services in the city of Itapecerica da Serra, Sao Paulo, Brazil. The participants were followed in four stages: (1) within 12 weeks of pregnancy; (2) between 36-40 weeks of pregnancy; (3) within 48 hours after childbirth; (4) 42-60 days after childbirth. Data were collected from February 2007-August 2008. The pelvic floor musculature strength was evaluated by perineometry and digital vaginal palpation in stages 1, 2 and 4. The final sample included 110 women who completed all four stages of the study. The pelvic floor musculature strength of the women did not change significantly during pregnancy or after delivery (anova: p = 0·78). In all three examined stages, a low-intensity pelvic floor musculature strength was prevalent (in mmHg: stage 1 = 15·9; stage 2 = 15·2, stage 4 = 14·7), with scores from 0-3 on the Oxford scale. The pelvic floor musculature strength did not differ in relation to maternal age, skin colour, conjugal status, dyspareunia, stool characteristics, type of delivery, or conditions of the perineum. An interaction between maternal nutritional state and newborn's weight may affect the pelvic floor musculature strength (manova: p = 0·04). Pregnancy and childbirth did not reduce significantly pelvic floor musculature strength. The perineometry and digital vaginal palpation used to assess the pelvic floor musculature strength were well accepted by the women. In clinical practice, digital vaginal palpation is effective for supporting the diagnosis of urinary, intestinal and sexual dysfunctions. Perineometry use is particularly important together with the performance of perineal exercises with

  20. Incidence of Otitis Media in a Contemporary Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Todberg, Tanja; Koch, Anders; Andersson, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: In recent years welfare in Denmark has increased which might be expected to reduce otitis media (OM) incidence. We examined the age-specific incidence of OM in a nation-wide cohort of children aged 0-7 years born in 1996-2003 (Danish National Birth Cohort, DNBC). Only selection...

  1. Mode of Delivery and Asthma at School Age in 9 European Birth Cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rusconi, Franca; Zugna, Daniela; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella

    2017-01-01

    Evidence on the association between mode of delivery and asthma at school age is inconclusive. We assessed the associations between specific modes of delivery and asthma in children from 9 European birth cohorts that enrolled participants between 1996 and 2006. Cohort-specific crude and adjusted ...

  2. Genetic and environmental influences on adult human height across birth cohorts from 1886 to 1994

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jelenkovic, Aline; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Sund, Reijo

    2016-01-01

    Human height variation is determined by genetic and environmental factors, but it remains unclear whether their influences differ across birth-year cohorts. We conducted an individual-based pooled analysis of 40 twin cohorts including 143,390 complete twin pairs born 1886-1994. Although genetic v...

  3. Using music during childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, C A

    2000-12-01

    The application of music in pain management has become popular in the past two decades. This article describes the responses of primiparas to the use of music therapy during the births of their children. Eleven women who attended childbirth education classes in Brantford, Ontario, Canada, volunteered to participate in a music therapy exercise. During pregnancy each participant selected preferred music, listened to it daily, and received instruction about focused listening. Within 72 hours after birth they were interviewed about their use of music as a coping strategy during labor. Women selected the combination of music and labor support as a helpful coping strategy during labor. All women used the music during labor to help distract them from the pain or their current situation. The planned use of music by mothers and caregivers can be an aid to prenatal preparation and an important adjunct in pain and stress management during labor and birth.

  4. Fish intake during pregnancy, fetal growth, and gestational length in 19 European birth cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventakou, Vasiliki; Roumeliotaki, Theano; Martinez, David; Barros, Henrique; Brantsaeter, Anne-Lise; Casas, Maribel; Charles, Marie-Aline; Cordier, Sylvaine; Eggesbø, Merete; van Eijsden, Manon; Forastiere, Francesco; Gehring, Ulrike; Govarts, Eva; Halldórsson, Thorhallur I; Hanke, Wojciech; Haugen, Margaretha; Heppe, Denise H M; Heude, Barbara; Inskip, Hazel M; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Jansen, Maria; Kelleher, Cecily; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Merletti, Franco; Moltó-Puigmartí, Carolina; Mommers, Monique; Murcia, Mario; Oliveira, Andreia; Olsen, Sjúrður F; Pele, Fabienne; Polanska, Kinga; Porta, Daniela; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Robinson, Siân M; Stigum, Hein; Strøm, Marin; Sunyer, Jordi; Thijs, Carel; Viljoen, Karien; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; Wijga, Alet H; Kogevinas, Manolis; Vrijheid, Martine; Chatzi, Leda

    2014-03-01

    Fish is a rich source of essential nutrients for fetal development, but in contrast, it is also a well-known route of exposure to environmental pollutants. We assessed whether fish intake during pregnancy is associated with fetal growth and the length of gestation in a panel of European birth cohort studies. The study sample of 151,880 mother-child pairs was derived from 19 population-based European birth cohort studies. Individual data from cohorts were pooled and harmonized. Adjusted cohort-specific effect estimates were combined by using a random- and fixed-effects meta-analysis. Women who ate fish >1 time/wk during pregnancy had lower risk of preterm birth than did women who rarely ate fish (≤ 1 time/wk); the adjusted RR of fish intake >1 but fish during pregnancy gave birth to neonates with a higher birth weight by 8.9 g (95% CI: 3.3, 14.6 g) for >1 but fish intake during pregnancy is associated with lower risk of preterm birth and a small but significant increase in birth weight.

  5. Socioeconomic position and the risk of preterm birth--a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgen, Camilla Schmidt; Bjørk, Christina; Andersen, Per Kragh; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie

    2008-10-01

    Low socioeconomic position is generally associated with increased risk of preterm birth, but it remains unclear whether the inequality depends on the socioeconomic measure used, if the associations differ according to the degree of prematurity, and how individual level risk factors mediate the association. The hazard ratios (HR) of preterm birth associated with five different measures of socioeconomic position and three degrees of preterm birth were analysed in a dataset of 75 890 singleton pregnancies (1996-2002) from the Danish National Birth Cohort. This, and the mediating role of selected individual level risk factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, binge drinking, pre-pregnancy body mass index, gestational weight gain) were estimated, using Cox regression analyses. Mothers with preterm birth compared with mothers with >12 years of education and the association interacted with parity, while income and occupation affected the risk to a lesser degree. The adjusted HR for less educated nulliparous and parous women were 1.22 (95% CI 1.04-1.42) and 1.56 (95% CI 1.31-1.87), respectively, compared with women with >12 years of education. For parous women with preterm birth to 1.43 (95% CI 1.19-1.72). Maternal educational level was the strongest predictor of preterm birth among five socioeconomic measures and the gradient did not differ significantly according to the degree of preterm birth. For parous women smoking explained some of the educational gradient but in general the selected risk factors only reduced the relative educational gradient in preterm birth marginally.

  6. Infant Feeding and Risk of Type 1 Diabetes in Two Large Scandinavian Birth Cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Blix, Nicolai A.; Sander, Stine Dydensborg; Størdal, Ketil

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to study the relation between the duration of full and any breastfeeding and risk of type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We included two population-based cohorts of children followed from birth (1996–2009) to 2014 (Denmark) or 2015 (Norway). We analyzed data from...... a total of 155,392 children participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) and the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC). Parents reported infant dietary practices when their child was 6 and 18 months old. The outcome was clinical type 1 diabetes, ascertained from nationwide childhood...

  7. Separating the effects of age, period and birth cohort on seafood consumption in Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Trondsen, Torbjørn; Lund, Eiliv

    Effects of age, period and birth cohort on consumption of fat fish, lean fish and processed fish were estimated based on panel data from the Norwegian Women and Seafood Consumption Study (NOWAC). Cohorts selected for the present analysis were women born between 1951 and 1966. Survey questionnaires......, the relative size of the effects suggests that either (a) a positive effect of period is neutralized by a negative effect of birth cohort, resulting in a zero net effect for the period under investigation, or (b) that both effects are peripheral, caused by an underlying biological-ageing effect. Total...

  8. Impact of maternal, antenatal and birth-associated factors on iron stores at birth: data from a prospective maternal-infant birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, E K; Kenny, L C; Hourihane, J O'B; Irvine, A D; Murray, D M; Kiely, M E

    2017-06-01

    Low serum ferritin concentrations at birth, which reflect neonatal iron stores, track through to early childhood and have been associated with poorer neurodevelopmental outcomes. We aimed to identify maternal, antenatal and birth-associated factors that influence iron stores at birth in a prospective maternal-infant birth cohort. In a population-based, longitudinal, birth cohort in Ireland, 413 maternal-infant dyads with prospectively collected lifestyle and clinical data from 15 weeks' gestation had umbilical cord serum ferritin concentrations measured. Regression models were developed to identify independent factors associated with cord ferritin concentrations. Median (IQR) cord ferritin concentrations were 185.7 (131.7, 385.5) μg/l, and 8% (n=33) of infants had low iron stores (ferritin stores (ferritin stores at birth, with the important role of overall maternal health and lifestyle during pregnancy highlighted. Public health policies targeting women of child-bearing age to improve nutrition and health outcomes should be prioritised for the health of the next generation.

  9. A longitudinal study of women's memories of their childbirth experiences at five years postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takehara, Kenji; Noguchi, Makiko; Shimane, Takuya; Misago, Chizuru

    2014-07-05

    Few studies have investigated whether women can accurately recall their birthing experiences after a long period. We investigated the consistency of women's memories of their childbirth experiences between those at a few days postpartum and 5 years later. This prospective cohort study comprised 1,168 women who delivered at a maternity hospital and four maternity homes in Japan between May 2002 and August 2003. Data were collected using structured interviews and transcriptions from medical records. The childbirth experience was assessed using the Childbirth Experience Scale (CBE-Scale) at a few days postpartum and 5 years later. We obtained 584 (50.0%) valid responses from women who completed the survey at a few days postpartum and 5 years later. Significant differences were observed in 16 out of 18 items on the CBE-Scale when responses were compared at both time points. Women who answered "yes" to any item on the CBE-Scale at the baseline survey tended to demonstrate a more precise recollection for that item 5 years after childbirth than those who answered "no" for the corresponding item. We conclude that women remember their childbirth experience clearly at 5 years after the childbirth.

  10. A longitudinal study of women’s memories of their childbirth experiences at five years postpartum

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Few studies have investigated whether women can accurately recall their birthing experiences after a long period. We investigated the consistency of women’s memories of their childbirth experiences between those at a few days postpartum and 5 years later. Methods This prospective cohort study comprised 1,168 women who delivered at a maternity hospital and four maternity homes in Japan between May 2002 and August 2003. Data were collected using structured interviews and transcriptions from medical records. The childbirth experience was assessed using the Childbirth Experience Scale (CBE-Scale) at a few days postpartum and 5 years later. Results We obtained 584 (50.0%) valid responses from women who completed the survey at a few days postpartum and 5 years later. Significant differences were observed in 16 out of 18 items on the CBE-Scale when responses were compared at both time points. Women who answered "yes" to any item on the CBE-Scale at the baseline survey tended to demonstrate a more precise recollection for that item 5 years after childbirth than those who answered "no" for the corresponding item. Conclusions We conclude that women remember their childbirth experience clearly at 5 years after the childbirth. PMID:24996683

  11. Birth weight, early childhood growth and lung function in middle to early old age: 1946 British birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yutong; Shaheen, Seif O; Hardy, Rebecca; Kuh, Diana; Hansell, Anna L

    2016-10-01

    Findings from previous studies investigating the relationship between birth weight and adult lung function have been inconsistent, and data on birth weight and adult lung function decline are lacking. Few studies have investigated the relation between early childhood growth and adult lung function. FEV1 and FVC were measured at ages 43 years, 53 years and 60-64 years in the 1946 British birth cohort study. Multiple linear regression models were fitted to study associations with birth weight and weight gain at age 0-2 years. Multilevel models assessed how associations changed with age, with FEV1 and FVC as repeated outcomes. 3276 and 3249 participants were included in FEV1 and FVC analyses, respectively. In women, there was a decreasing association between birth weight and FVC with age. From the multilevel model, for every 1 kg higher birth weight, FVC was higher on average by 66.3 mL (95% CI 0.5 to 132) at 43 years, but significance was lost at 53 years and 60-64 years. Similar associations were seen with FEV1, but linear change (decline) from age 43 years lost statistical significance after full adjustment. In men, associations with birth weight were null in multilevel models. Higher early life weight gain was associated with higher FEV1 at age 43 years in men and women combined but not in each sex. Birth weight is positively associated with adult lung function in middle age, particularly in women, but the association diminishes with age, potentially due to accumulating environmental influences over the life course. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  12. Immediate and delayed effects of mammographic screening on breast cancer mortality and incidence in birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripping, T M; Verbeek, A L M; van der Waal, D; Otten, J D M; den Heeten, G J; Fracheboud, J; de Koning, H J; Broeders, M J M

    2013-10-29

    Trend studies investigating the impact of mammographic screening usually display age-specific mortality and incidence rates over time, resulting in an underestimate of the benefit of screening, that is, mortality reduction, and an overestimate of its major harmful effect, that is, overdiagnosis. This study proposes a more appropriate way of analysing trends. Breast cancer mortality (1950-2009) and incidence data (1975-2009) were obtained from Statistics Netherlands, 'Stg. Medische registratie' and the National Cancer Registry in the Netherlands for women aged 25-85 years. Data were visualised in age-birth cohort and age-period figures. Birth cohorts invited to participate in the mammographic screening programme showed a deflection in the breast cancer mortality rates within the first 5 years after invitation. Thereafter, the mortality rate increased, although less rapidly than in uninvited birth cohorts. Furthermore, invited birth cohorts showed a sharp increase in invasive breast cancer incidence rate during the first 5 years of invitation, followed by a moderate increase during the following screening years and a decline after passing the upper age limit. When applying a trend study to estimate the impact of mammographic screening, we recommend using a birth cohort approach.

  13. Birth cohort and the specialization gap between same-sex and different-sex couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giddings, Lisa; Nunley, John M; Schneebaum, Alyssa; Zietz, Joachim

    2014-04-01

    We examine differences in household specialization between same-sex and different-sex couples within and across three birth cohorts: Baby Boomers, Generation X, and Generation Y. Using three measures of household specialization, we find that same-sex couples are less likely than their different-sex counterparts to exhibit a high degree of specialization. However, the "specialization gap" between same-sex and different-sex couples narrows across birth cohorts. These findings are indicative of a cohort effect. Our results are largely robust to the inclusion of a control for the presence of children and for subsets of couples with and without children. We provide three potential explanations for why the specialization gap narrows across cohorts. First, different-sex couples from more recent birth cohorts may have become more like same-sex couples in terms of household specialization. Second, social and legal changes may have prompted a greater degree of specialization within same-sex couples relative to different-sex couples. Last, the advent of reproductive technologies, which made having children easier for same-sex couples from more recent birth cohorts, could result in more specialization in such couples relative to different-sex couples.

  14. Nurse attitudes toward childbirth: a concept clarification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Martha S; Lowe, Nancy K

    2014-01-01

    To clarify the concept of "nurse attitudes toward childbirth." It has been suggested that the international trend of escalating cesarean birth rates can be attributed to attitudes that perceive childbirth as an illness. Nurses' attitudes about childbirth direct their nursing care and may influence patient outcomes like cesarean birth. However, the concept "nurse attitudes toward childbirth" must be clarified to inform future research. An English-language literature review, from 1990 to present, was performed using CINAHL, PubMed, and Ovid. Norris's model of concept clarification was used. Although the nursing literature poorly defined "nurse attitudes" and rarely used a conceptual framework, the discipline of psychology has been refining this concept for over 40 years. Psychologists have established that attitude can predict behavior as demonstrated through testing of the theory of planned behavior. Various types of "nurse attitudes toward childbirth" were identified through our literature review, and five central beliefs were noted. This resulted in the development of a preliminary model using theory of planned behavior as a foundation. Finally, potential research hypotheses were generated. This paper clarifies "nurse attitudes toward childbirth" and supports its use for research. Nurse scholars have demonstrated that labor and delivery nurses do have individual attitudes toward childbirth, and the measurement of these attitudes may predict nursing care intentions and behavior. This concept is appropriate, important, and may be used as a means of exploring relationships between nursing care and the rising primary cesarean birth rate. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Effect of Modifiable Risk Factors on Preterm Birth: A Population Based-Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengyel, Candice S; Ehrlich, Shelley; Iams, Jay D; Muglia, Louis J; DeFranco, Emily A

    2017-04-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prevalence, impact, and interaction of short interpregnancy interval (IPI), pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) category, and pregnancy weight gain (PWG) on the rate of preterm birth. Methods This is a population-based retrospective cohort study using vital statistics birth records from 2006 to 2011 in OH, US, analyzing singleton live births to multiparous mothers with recorded IPI (n = 393,441). Preterm birth rate at preterm birth rate of 7.6 % for this group. Short IPIs of preterm birth rate to 12.9 and 10.4 %, respectively. Low PWG compared to IOM recommendations for pre-pregnancy BMI class was also associated with increased preterm birth rate of 13.2 % for all BMI classes combined. However, the highest rate of preterm birth of 25.2 % occurred in underweight women with short IPI and inadequate weight gain with adj OR 3.44 (95 % CI 2.80, 4.23). The fraction of preterm births observed in this cohort that can be attributed to short IPIs is 5.9 %, long IPIs is 8.3 %, inadequate PWG is 7.5 %, and low pre-pregnancy BMI is 2.2 %. Conclusions Our analysis indicates that a significant proportion of preterm births in Ohio are associated with potentially modifiable risk factors. These data suggest public health initiatives focused on preterm birth prevention could include counseling and interventions to optimize preconception health and prenatal nutrition.

  16. Consanguinity and Birth Defects in the Jerusalem Perinatal Study Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlap, S.; Kleinhaus, K.; Perrin, M.C.; Calderon-Margalit, R.; Paltiel, O.; Deutsch, L.; Manor, O.; Tiram, E.; Yanetz, R.; Friedlander, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Background While parental consanguinity is known to increase the risk of birth defects in offspring, it is hard to quantify this risk in populations where consanguinity is prevalent. Methods To support ongoing studies of cancer and of psychiatric disease, we studied relationships of consanguinity to 1,053 major birth defects in 29,815 offspring, born in 1964–1976. To adjust for confounding variables (geographic origin, social class and hospital), we constructed logistic regression models, using GEE to take into account correlations between sibs. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence limits were estimated in comparison to a reference group of offspring with grandfathers born in different countries. Results With 10.1% of offspring having consanguineous parents, the adjusted OR for major birth defect was 1.41 (1.12–1.74). Offspring of marriages between uncles-nieces, first cousins and more distant relatives showed adjusted ORs of 2.36 (0.98–5.68), 1.59 (1.22–2.07) and 1.20 (0.89–1.59) respectively. For descendents of grandfathers born in the same country, but not known to be related, the OR was 1.05 (0.91–1.21); these showed increased risk associated with ancestries in Western Asia (1.27, 1.04–1.55, p consanguinity with poverty and low education points to the need to avoid exposure to environmental hazards in these families. PMID:18493143

  17. Evaluation of the cumulative evidence for freedom from BSE in birth cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böhning, Dankmar; Greiner, Matthias

    2006-01-01

    for BSE-freedom for defined birth cohorts using continued surveillance data. The results suggest that currently (data included till September 2004) a birth cohort of Danish cattle born after March 1999 is free from BSE with probability (power) of 0.8746 or 0.8509, depending on the choice of a model...... for the diagnostic sensitivity. These results apply to an assumed design prevalence of 1 in 10,000 and account for prevalence heterogeneity. The age-dependent, diagnostic sensitivity for the detection of BSE has been identified as major determinant of the power. The incorporation of heterogeneity was deemed adequate...

  18. [Age, period and birth-cohort effects on marriage rates in Japanese women between 1985 and 2005, and comparison of trends of effects between marriage and birth rates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Hiroyuki; Odagiri, Youichi; Ohtake, Kazuo; Kobayashi, Jun

    2008-07-01

    An age-period-cohort (APC) analysis was performed to provide information about age-, period-, and cohort-specific effects on marriage trends in Japanese women. In addition, the relationships of the trends of age-, period-, and cohort-specific effects between marriage and birth were analyzed. We obtained data regarding marriages of Japanese women aged between 19 and 38 years for the period of 1985 to 2005 from the National Vital Statistics. Population data used were for an estimated population, obtained from the Population Estimates Annual Reports. Standard cohort tables comprising marriage and population data were analyzed using a Bayesian APC model to identify age-, period-, and cohort-specific effects on marriage rate trends. Previously obtained data for a similar APC-analysis of birth trends were used to compare the trends in the effects of age, period, and cohort on marriage and birth patterns. For this purpose, the estimated values for each effect were normalized. With regard to the marriage trends in Japanese women, the effect of age was the greatest, peaking at the age of 25 years. The period effect increased after 1997; however, its effect was relatively limited as compared to the other effects. The cohort effect, which was greater than the period effect and less than the age effect, on marriage trends showed a decreasing slope for birth cohorts born after 1966 and subsequent increase after 1982. Comparison of age, period and cohort effects between the trends in marriage and birth rates showed that the age effect distinctly peaked at 25 and 28 years for marriage and births, respectively. The period effect on marriage and birth showed a decreasing trend until 1991 and subsequent increased in 1992 and 1997 for births and marriage, respectively. With regard to the cohort effect on birth rates, a decreasing trend was observed for the birth cohorts after 1961, with increase after 1977. However, with regard to the cohort effect on marriage rates, the decreasing

  19. Educational Inequalities in Initiation, Cessation, and Prevalence of Smoking Among 3 Italian Birth Cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federico, Bruno; Costa, Giuseppe; Kunst, Anton E.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. We examined socioeconomic inequalities in initiation and cessation rates of smoking and the resultant inequality in smoking prevalence among 3 consecutive Italian birth cohorts. Methods. We used data from the 1999–2000 Italian National Health Interview Survey, which included 28958 men and 29769 women who were born between 1940 and 1969. The association between smoking variables and level of education was assessed with logistic regression and life table analyses. Results. Inequalities in the lifetime prevalence of smoking increased across the 3 birth cohorts in Italy. At age 40, lower-educated persons in the youngest cohort reported on average 1 to 5 years of additional exposure to regular smoking compared with higher-educated persons. Inequalities in smoking prevalence increased among both men and women because of widening inequalities in initiation rates. Among women, growing inequalities in cessation rates also played a role. Conclusions. The relative contribution of initiation and cessation to socioeconomic inequalities in smoking rates varied by both gender and birth cohort. For the youngest birth cohort, policies that address inequalities in smoking should focus on both initiation and cessation. PMID:16809593

  20. [European birth cohorts: Early life exposure to microorganisms and health impact].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchi, S; Reboux, G

    2017-06-01

    In recent years, many birth cohorts have been initiated in Europe, to assess the early life microbiological exposure of children in the indoor environment and better understanding the different effects (adverse/protectors) on health. The results of 12 European cohorts, with different methodologies for exposure and allergic risk assessment are summarized in this review. Four meta-analyzes of cohort are presented too. Microbiological researches in indoor environment seem to turn to a metrology of microbiological exposure, but few studies provide real quantitative data. Thus, the establishment of dose-effect relationship is not possible and can only be done by having a global view of the situation, provided by an identical metrological approach in the different studies, in a large-scale, in the context of large birth cohorts with children followed with strict criteria to establish the clinical diagnosis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  1. Smaller kidney size at birth in South Asians: findings from the Born in Bradford birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roderick, Paul J; Jeffrey, Robin F; Yuen, Ho M; Godfrey, Keith M; West, Jane; Wright, John

    2016-03-01

    Rates of advanced chronic kidney disease and renal replacement therapy are higher in South Asian than in white British populations. Low birth weight is also more frequent in South Asian populations and has been associated with increased risks of kidney disease, perhaps due to a reduced nephron endowment. Using ultrasound scans at 34 weeks of gestation, we measured fetal kidney dimensions (transverse and anteroposterior diameters, length and circumference) and derived volume in a random sample of 872 white British and 715 South Asian participants in the Born in Bradford cohort study. Kidney measurements were compared between ethnic groups. Birth weight for gestational age at 40 weeks was 200 g less in South Asian babies compared with white British babies. The mean kidney volume for gestational age was 16% lower in South Asian than in white British babies [8.79 versus 10.45 cm(3), difference 1.66 cm(3) (95% confidence interval 1.40-1.93, P pregnancy, parity, baby's gender and birth weight for gestational age [adjusted difference 1.38 cm(3) (0.97-1.84), P kidneys compared with white British babies, even after adjusting for potential confounders including birth weight. This finding may contribute to increased risks of adult kidney disease in South Asian populations. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  2. Using video in childbirth research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harte, J Davis; Homer, Caroline Se; Sheehan, Athena; Leap, Nicky; Foureur, Maralyn

    2017-03-01

    Conducting video-research in birth settings raises challenges for ethics review boards to view birthing women and research-midwives as capable, autonomous decision-makers. This study aimed to gain an understanding of how the ethical approval process was experienced and to chronicle the perceived risks and benefits. The Birth Unit Design project was a 2012 Australian ethnographic study that used video recording to investigate the physical design features in the hospital birthing space that might influence both verbal and non-verbal communication and the experiences of childbearing women, midwives and supporters. Participants and research context: Six women, 11 midwives and 11 childbirth supporters were filmed during the women's labours in hospital birth units and interviewed 6 weeks later. Ethical considerations: The study was approved by an Australian Health Research Ethics Committee after a protracted process of negotiation. The ethics committee was influenced by a traditional view of research as based on scientific experiments resulting in a poor understanding of video-ethnographic research, a paradigmatic view of the politics and practicalities of modern childbirth processes, a desire to protect institutions from litigation, and what we perceived as a paternalistic approach towards protecting participants, one that was at odds with our aim to facilitate situations in which women could make flexible, autonomous decisions about how they might engage with the research process. The perceived need for protection was overly burdensome and against the wishes of the participants themselves; ultimately, this limited the capacity of the study to improve care for women and babies. Recommendations are offered for those involved in ethical approval processes for qualitative research in childbirth settings. The complexity of issues within childbirth settings, as in most modern healthcare settings, should be analysed using a variety of research approaches, beyond efficacy

  3. Cell phone exposures and hearing loss in children in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sudan, Madhuri; Kheifets, Leeka; Arah, Onyebuchi A.; Olsen, Jorn

    2013-01-01

    Children today are exposed to cell phones early in life, and may be the most vulnerable if exposure is harmful to health. We investigated the association between cell phone use and hearing loss in children. The Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) enrolled pregnant women between 1996 and 2002.

  4. Phenotyping asthma, rhinitis and eczema in MeDALL population-based birth cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Aymerich, J; Benet, M; Saeys, Y

    2015-01-01

    at 4 years and 14 585 at 8 years from seven European population-based birth cohorts (MeDALL project). At each age period, children were grouped, using partitioning cluster analysis, according to the distribution of 23 variables covering symptoms 'ever' and 'in the last 12 months', doctor diagnosis, age...

  5. Helicobacter pylori and the birth cohort effect: Evidence for stabilized colonization rates in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. den Hoed (Caroline); A.J. Vila (Anne J.); I.L. Holster (Ingrid); G.I. Perez-Perez (Guillermo I.); M.J. Blaser (Martin J.); J.C. de Jongste (Johan); E.J. Kuipers (Ernst)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori has declined over recent decades in developed countries. The increasing prevalence with age is largely because of a birth cohort effect. We previously observed a decline in H. pylori prevalence in 6- to 8-year-old Dutch children from 19%

  6. Child Maltreatment and Adolescent Mental Health Problems in a Large Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Ryan; Scott, James; Alati, Rosa; O'Callaghan, Michael; Najman, Jake M.; Strathearn, Lane

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether notified child maltreatment is associated with adverse psychological outcomes in adolescence, and whether differing patterns of psychological outcome are seen depending on the type of maltreatment. Methods: The participants were 7,223 mother and child pairs enrolled in a population-based birth cohort study in…

  7. Birth Cohort Changes in Chinese College Students' Loneliness and Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Sufei; Xin, Ziqiang

    2016-01-01

    With the dramatic recent changes in Chinese society, Chinese college students' average levels of loneliness and social support might also have changed across their birth cohorts. The present cross-temporal meta-analysis of 56 studies (N = 21,541) found that Chinese college students' scores on the UCLA Loneliness Scale (Version 3) increased…

  8. Dairy intake, blood pressure and incident hypertension in a general British population: the 1946 birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heraclides, A.; Mishra, G.D.; Hardy, R.J.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Black, S.; Prynne, C.J.; Kuh, D.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We aimed to examine the association between intake of different subgroups of dairy products and blood pressure and incident hypertension 10 years later, adjusting for confounding factors. Methods: We studied 1,750 British men and women from the 1946 British birth cohort from 1989 to 1999

  9. Birth and parental characteristics and risk of neuroblastoma in a population-based Norwegian cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Bj?rge, T; Engeland, A; S. Tretli; Heuch, I.

    2008-01-01

    In this population-based Norwegian cohort study (2.1 million children), the impact of birth and parental characteristics on the risk of neuroblastoma (178 cases) was evaluated. In children below the age of 18 months, there was an increased neuroblastoma risk among those with congenital malformations and suggestion of increased risk when the mother had pre-eclampsia.

  10. Is fetal macrosomia related to blood pressure among adolescents? A birth cohort study in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.; Wu, J.; Yu, J.; Gao, E.; Meads, C.; Afnan, M.; Ren, J.; Rong, F.; Mignini, L.; von Dadelszen, P.; Magee, L.; Sawchuck, D.; Mol, B. W.; Oude Rengerink, K.; Zamora, J.; Fox, C.; Daniels, J.; Khan, K. S.; Thangaratinam, S.

    2013-01-01

    Birth weight (BW) has effects on blood pressure (BP). In order to explore the effects of macrosomia on BP in childhood and in adolescence, a longitudinal cohort study was conducted in Wuxi, China. Subjects with BW ≥4000 g, born in 1993-1995, were the exposed group; the unexposed comparisons were

  11. Age, period, or birth cohort: What determines demographic differences in seafood consumption?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Lund, Eiliv; Trondsen, Torbjørn

    , the relative size of the effects suggests that either (a) a positive effect of period is neutralized by a negative effect of birth cohort, resulting in a zero net effect for the period under investigation, or (b) that both effects are peripheral, caused by an underlying biological-ageing effect. Total...

  12. Partner Violence and Mental Health Outcomes in a New Zealand Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John; Ridder, Elizabeth M.

    2005-01-01

    This study examines the prevalence and extent of domestic violence and the consequences of domestic violence for mental health outcomes in a birth cohort of New Zealand young adults studied at age 25 years. A total of 828 young people (437 women and 391 men) were interviewed about the domestic violence victimization and violence perpetration in…

  13. Birth cohorts in asthma and allergic diseases: Report of a NIAID, NHLBI, MeDALL joint workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, J; Gern, JE; Martinez, FD; Anto, JM; Johnson, CC; Holt, PG; Lemanske, RF; Le Souef, PN; Tepper, R; von Mutius, ERM; Arshad, SH; Bacharier, LB; Becker, A; Belanger, K; Bergstrom, A; Bernstein, D; Cabana, MD; Carroll, KN; Castro, M; Cooper, PJ; Gillman, MW; Gold, DR; Henderson, J; Heinrich, J; S-J, Hong; Jackson, DJ; Keil, T; Kozyrskyj, AL; Lodrup-Carlsen, K; Miller, RL; Momas, I; Morgan, WJ; Noel, P; Ownby, DR; Pinart, M; Ryan, P; Schwaninger, JM; Sears, MR; Simpson, A; Smit, HA; Stern, D; Subbarao, P; Valenta, R; Wang, X; Weiss, ST; Wood, R; Wright, AL; Wright, RJ; Togias, A; Gergen, PJ

    2014-01-01

    Population-based birth cohorts on asthma and allergies increasingly provide new insights into the development and natural history of the diseases. Over 130 birth cohorts focusing on asthma and allergy have been initiated in the last 30 years. A NIAID (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases), NHLBI (National Heart Lung and Blood Institute), MeDALL (Mechanisms of the Development of Allergy, Framework Programme 7 of the European Commission) joint workshop was held in Bethesda, MD, USA September 11–12, 2012 with 3 objectives (1) documenting the knowledge that asthma/allergy birth cohorts have provided, (2) identifying the knowledge gaps and inconsistencies and (3) developing strategies for moving forward, including potential new study designs and the harmonization of existing asthma birth cohort data. The meeting was organized around the presentations of 5 distinct workgroups: (1) clinical phenotypes, (2) risk factors, (3) immune development of asthma and allergy, (4) pulmonary development and (5) harmonization of existing birth cohorts. This manuscript presents the workgroup reports and provides web links (AsthmaBirthCohorts.niaid.nih.gov or www.medall-fp7.eu) where the reader will find tables describing the characteristics of the birth cohorts included in this report, type of data collected at differing ages, and a selected bibliography provided by the participating birth cohorts. PMID:24636091

  14. Laboratory work and pregnancy outcomes: a study within the National BirthCohort in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jin Liang; Knudsen, L; Andersen, AM

    2006-01-01

    of preterm birth doubled for women working with these tasks every day or several times a week. When an exposure matrix was applied, an increased risk of "major" malformations for exposure to organic solvents was seen. CONCLUSIONS: The results did not indicate any high risk of reproductive failures...... in laboratory technicians in general. Exposure to radioisotopes may carry a high risk of preterm birth and congenital malformations. This finding deserves further investigation......AIMS: To examine pregnancy outcomes in women doing laboratory work. METHODS: Using data from the Danish National Birth Cohort (1997-2003), the authors conducted a prospective cohort study of 1025 female laboratory technicians and 8037 female teachers (as reference). The laboratory technicians were...

  15. Laboratory work and pregnancy outcomes: a study within the National Birth Cohort in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, J L; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2006-01-01

    of preterm birth doubled for women working with these tasks every day or several times a week. When an exposure matrix was applied, an increased risk of "major" malformations for exposure to organic solvents was seen. CONCLUSIONS: The results did not indicate any high risk of reproductive failures...... in laboratory technicians in general. Exposure to radioisotopes may carry a high risk of preterm birth and congenital malformations. This finding deserves further investigation.......AIMS: To examine pregnancy outcomes in women doing laboratory work. METHODS: Using data from the Danish National Birth Cohort (1997-2003), the authors conducted a prospective cohort study of 1025 female laboratory technicians and 8037 female teachers (as reference). The laboratory technicians were...

  16. Altered growth trajectory of head circumference during infancy and schizophrenia in a National Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Alan S; Gyllenberg, David; Hinkka-Yli-Salomäki, Susanna; Sourander, Andre; McKeague, Ian W

    2017-04-01

    Identification of abnormalities in the developmental trajectory during infancy of future schizophrenia cases offers the potential to reveal pathogenic mechanisms of this disorder. Previous studies of head circumference in pre-schizophrenia were limited to measures at birth. The use of growth acceleration of head circumference (defined as the rate of change in head circumference) provides a more informative representation of the maturational landscape of this measure compared to studies based on static head circumference measures. To date, however, no study has examined whether HC growth acceleration differs between pre-schizophrenia cases and controls. In the present study, we employed a nested case control design of a national birth cohort in Finland. Cases with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (N=375) and controls (N=375) drawn from the birth cohort were matched 1:1 on date of birth (within 1month), sex, and residence in Finland at case diagnosis. Longitudinal data were obtained on head circumference from birth through age 1. Data were analyzed using a new nonparametric Bayesian inversion method which allows for a detailed understanding of growth dynamics. Adjusting for growth velocity of height and weight, and gestational age, there was significantly accelerated growth of head circumference in females with schizophrenia from birth to 2months; the findings remained significant following Bonferroni correction (pschizophrenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Ten years of progress in the Hokkaido birth cohort study on environment and children's health: cohort profile--updated 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishi, Reiko; Kobayashi, Sachiko; Ikeno, Tamiko; Araki, Atsuko; Miyashita, Chihiro; Itoh, Sachiko; Sasaki, Seiko; Okada, Emiko; Kobayashi, Sumitaka; Kashino, Ikuko; Itoh, Kumiko; Nakajima, Sonomi

    2013-11-01

    The Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health is an ongoing cohort study that began in 2002. The study consists of two prospective birth cohorts, the Sapporo cohort (n = 514) and the Hokkaido large-scale cohort (n = 20,940). The primary goals of this study are to first examine the potential negative effects of perinatal environmental chemical exposures on birth outcomes, including congenital malformations and growth retardation; second, to evaluate the development of allergies, infectious diseases and neurodevelopmental disorders and perform longitudinal observations of the children's physical development to clarify the causal relationship between these outcomes and environmental chemicals; third, to identify individuals genetically susceptible to environmental chemicals; finally, to identify the additive effects of various environmental factors in our daily life, such as secondhand smoke exposure or low folate intake during early pregnancy. In this paper, we introduce our recent progress in the Hokkaido study with a cohort profile updated in 2013. For the last ten years, we followed pregnant women and their offspring, measuring various environmental chemicals, i.e., PCB, OH-PCB and dioxins, PFCs (Perfluorinated Compounds), Organochlorine pesticides, Phthalates, bisphenol A and mercury. We discovered that the concentration of toxic equivalents (TEQ) of dioxin and other specific congeners of PCDF or PCDD have effects on birth weight, infants' neurodevelopment and immune function. There were significant gender differences in these effects; our results suggest that male infants have more susceptibility to those chemical exposures than female infants. Interestingly, we found maternal genetic polymorphisms in AHR, CYP1A1 or GSTs that significantly modified the dioxin concentrations in maternal blood, suggesting different dioxin accumulations in the bodies of individuals with these genotypes, which would lead to different dioxin exposure levels. These genetic

  18. The Pelotas Birth Cohort Study, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 1982-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Given the growing recognition of the importance of the life course approach for the determination of chronic diseases, birth cohort studies are becoming increasingly important. This paper describes the methods used in the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study, one of the largest and longest studies of this type in developing countries. All 5,914 hospital births occurring in Pelotas in 1982 (over 99% of all deliveries) were studied prospectively. The main stages of the study took place in 1983, 1984, 1986, 1995, 1997, 2000, and 2001. More than two thousand variables are available for each subject who participated in all stages of the study. Recent phases of the study included the examination of 2,250 males when presenting for the army recruitment exam in 2000, the study of a 27% sample of men and women in 2001 through household visits, and the study of over 400 children born to the cohort women. Follow-up rates in the recent stages of the cohort were 78.9% for the army examination and 69.0% for the household visits. Ethnographic and oral health studies were conducted in sub-samples. Some recent results on blood pressure, adolescent pregnancy, and asthma are presented as examples of utilization of the data. Suggestions on lessons learned for other cohort studies are proposed. PMID:14666206

  19. Similar birth-cohort patterns in Crohn's disease and multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenberg, Amnon; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta

    2017-02-01

    The etiology of Crohn's disease and multiple sclerosis is unknown. Genetic susceptibility and environmental factors are believed to play a role in both diseases. To compare the long-term time trends of the two diseases and thus gain insight about their etiology. We analyzed mortality data of Crohn's disease and multiple sclerosis from Canada, England, Italy, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and the United States during the past 60 years. Age-period-cohort (APC) analyses based on logit models served to disentangle the separate influences of age, period, and cohort effects on the overall time trends. The long-term time trends of Crohn's disease and multiple sclerosis have been shaped by strikingly similar birth-cohort patterns. In both diseases alike, mortality increased in all generations born prior to 1910. It peaked among generations born between 1910 and 1930 and then declined in all subsequent generations. Similar birth-cohort patterns of Crohn's disease and multiple sclerosis were found in each country analyzed separately. The birth-cohort patterns indicate that the development of Crohn's disease and multiple sclerosis is influenced by exposure to environmental risk factors during an early period of life. These environmental risk factors may be similar or even identical in Crohn's disease and multiple sclerosis.

  20. Do baby boomers use more healthcare services than other generations? Longitudinal trajectories of physician service use across five birth cohorts

    OpenAIRE

    Canizares, Mayilee; Gignac, Monique; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Glazier, Richard H.; Badley, Elizabeth M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective In light of concerns for meeting the provision of healthcare services given the large numbers of ageing baby boomers, we compared the trajectories of primary care and specialist services use across the lifecourse of 5 birth cohorts and examined factors associated with birth cohort differences. Design Longitudinal panel. Setting Canadian National Population Health Survey (1994?2011). Population Sample of 10?186 individuals aged 20?69?years in 1994?1995 and who were from 5 birth cohor...

  1. Occupational lifting during pregnancy and child's birth size in a large cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Mette; Larsen, Pernille Stemann; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2014-01-01

    -for-gestational-age (SGA), abdominal circumference, head circumference, and placental weight. METHODS: We analyzed birth size from the Danish Medical Birth Registry of 66 693 live-born children in the Danish National Birth Cohort according to the mother's self-reported information on occupational lifting from telephone...... odds of SGA among children of women who lifted 501-1000 kilos per day [odds ratio (OR) 1.34, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.98-1.83] and >1000 kilos per day (OR 1.51, 95% CI 0.83-2.76) compared to no lifting. In jobs with no person-lifting, occupational lifting was not associated with SGA....... CONCLUSIONS: Overall, we observed no strong support for an association between maternal occupational lifting and impaired size at birth. Our data indicated a potential association between lifting and SGA among offspring of women in occupations that are likely to include person-lifting. These results should...

  2. An inventory of Canadian pregnancy and birth cohort studies: research in progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Marie-Pier; Boivin, Michel; Junker, Anne; Bocking, Alan; Kramer, Michael S; Atkinson, Stephanie A

    2012-10-29

    A web-based inventory was developed as a voluntary registry of Canadian pregnancy and birth cohort studies, with the objective to foster collaboration and sharing of research tools among cohort study groups as a means to enrich research in maternal and child health across Canada. Information on existing birth cohort studies conducted in Canada exclusively or as part of broader international initiatives was accessed by searching the literature in PubMed and PsychInfo databases. Additional studies were identified by enquiring about the research activities of researchers at Canadian universities or working in affiliated hospitals or research centres or institutes. Of the fifty-eight birth cohort studies initially identified, forty-six were incorporated into the inventory if they were of a retrospective and/or prospective longitudinal design and with a minimum of two phases of data collection, with the first period having occurred before, during, or shortly after pregnancy and had an initial study sample size of a minimum of 200 participants.Information collected from each study was organized into four main categories: basic information, data source and period of collection, exposures, and outcome measures and was coded and entered into an Excel spreadsheet. The information incorporated into the Excel spreadsheet was double checked, completed when necessary, and verified for completeness and accuracy by contacting the principal investigator or research coordinator. All data collected were then uploaded onto the website of the Institute of Human Development Child and Youth Health of the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. Subsequently, the database was updated and developed as an online searchable inventory on the website of the Maternal, Infant, Child and Youth Research Network. This inventory is unique, as it represents detailed information assembled for the first time on a large number of Canadian birth cohort studies. Such information provides a valuable

  3. Environmental exposure assessment in European birth cohorts: results from the ENRIECO project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehring Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Environmental exposures during pregnancy and early life may have adverse health effects. Single birth cohort studies often lack statistical power to tease out such effects reliably. To improve the use of existing data and to facilitate collaboration among these studies, an inventory of the environmental exposure and health data in these studies was made as part of the ENRIECO (Environmental Health Risks in European Birth Cohorts project. The focus with regard to exposure was on outdoor air pollution, water contamination, allergens and biological organisms, metals, pesticides, smoking and second hand tobacco smoke (SHS, persistent organic pollutants (POPs, noise, radiation, and occupational exposures. The review lists methods and data on environmental exposures in 37 European birth cohort studies. Most data is currently available for smoking and SHS (N=37 cohorts, occupational exposures (N=33, outdoor air pollution, and allergens and microbial agents (N=27. Exposure modeling is increasingly used for long-term air pollution exposure assessment; biomonitoring is used for assessment of exposure to metals, POPs and other chemicals; and environmental monitoring for house dust mite exposure assessment. Collaborative analyses with data from several birth cohorts have already been performed successfully for outdoor air pollution, water contamination, allergens, biological contaminants, molds, POPs and SHS. Key success factors for collaborative analyses are common definitions of main exposure and health variables. Our review emphasizes that such common definitions need ideally be arrived at in the study design phase. However, careful comparison of methods used in existing studies also offers excellent opportunities for collaborative analyses. Investigators can use this review to evaluate the potential for future collaborative analyses with respect to data availability and methods used in the different cohorts and to identify potential partners

  4. An inventory of Canadian pregnancy and birth cohort studies: research in progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joly Marie-Pier

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A web-based inventory was developed as a voluntary registry of Canadian pregnancy and birth cohort studies, with the objective to foster collaboration and sharing of research tools among cohort study groups as a means to enrich research in maternal and child health across Canada. Description Information on existing birth cohort studies conducted in Canada exclusively or as part of broader international initiatives was accessed by searching the literature in PubMed and PsychInfo databases. Additional studies were identified by enquiring about the research activities of researchers at Canadian universities or working in affiliated hospitals or research centres or institutes. Of the fifty-eight birth cohort studies initially identified, forty-six were incorporated into the inventory if they were of a retrospective and/or prospective longitudinal design and with a minimum of two phases of data collection, with the first period having occurred before, during, or shortly after pregnancy and had an initial study sample size of a minimum of 200 participants. Information collected from each study was organized into four main categories: basic information, data source and period of collection, exposures, and outcome measures and was coded and entered into an Excel spreadsheet. The information incorporated into the Excel spreadsheet was double checked, completed when necessary, and verified for completeness and accuracy by contacting the principal investigator or research coordinator. All data collected were then uploaded onto the website of the Institute of Human Development Child and Youth Health of the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. Subsequently, the database was updated and developed as an online searchable inventory on the website of the Maternal, Infant, Child and Youth Research Network. Conclusions This inventory is unique, as it represents detailed information assembled for the first time on a large number of Canadian

  5. Seasonality of birth outcomes in rural Sarlahi District, Nepal: a population-based prospective cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Michelle M; Katz, Joanne; Mullany, Luke C; Khatry, Subarna K; LeClerq, Steven C; Darmstadt, Gary L; Tielsch, James M

    2014-09-06

    While seasonality of birth outcomes has been documented in a variety of settings, data from rural South Asia are lacking. We report a descriptive study of the seasonality of prematurity, low birth weight, small for gestational age, neonatal deaths, and stillbirths in the plains of Nepal. Using data collected prospectively during a randomized controlled trial of neonatal skin and umbilical cord cleansing with chlorhexidine, we analyzed a cohort of 23,662 babies born between September 2002 and January 2006. Project workers collected data on birth outcomes at the infant's household. Supplemental data from other studies conducted at the same field site are presented to provide context. 95% confidence intervals were constructed around monthly estimates to examine statistical significance of findings. Month of birth was associated with higher risk for adverse outcomes (neonatal mortality, low birthweight, preterm, and small for gestational age), even when controlling for maternal characteristics. Infants had 87% (95% CI: 27 - 176%) increased risk of neonatal mortality when born in August, the high point, versus March, the low point. Seasonality of neonatal deaths, stillbirths, birth weight, gestational age, and small for gestational age were found in Nepal. Maternal factors, meteorological conditions, infectious diseases, and nutritional status may be associated with these adverse birth outcomes. Further research is needed to understand the causal mechanisms that explain the seasonality of adverse birth outcomes.

  6. [Size at birth and mental health problems at 11 years of age in a Brazilian birth cohort].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Erika Alejandra Giraldo; Anselmi, Luciana; Dumith, Samuel C; Scazufca, Marcia; Menezes, Ana M B; Hallal, Pedro C; Matijasevich, Alicia

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between size at birth and mental health problems at 11 years of age in the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study. Newborns were weighed and measured, and anthropometric indices were calculated. At 11 years of age, mental health problems were assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Prevalence of mental health problems was 32% (95%CI: 31-33). After adjusting for potential confounders, newborns with weight and body mass index (BMI) for age z-scores mental health problems at age 11 years than those born with normal scores. Newborns with BMI and head circumference for age z-scores > +2 SD were at 34% (95%CI: 6-71) and 19% (95%CI: 1-40) greater risk, respectively, of developing mental health problems than those with normal scores. The results suggest that early factors that are reflected as size measurements at birth can cause mental health problems later in life.

  7. Longitudinal Intergenerational Birth Cohort Designs: A Systematic Review of Australian and New Zealand Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Michelle L.; Riepsamen, Angelique; Georgiou, Christos; Flood, Victoria M.; Caputi, Peter; Wright, Ian M.; Davis, Warren S.; Jones, Alison; Larkin, Theresa A.; Williamson, Moira J.; Grenyer, Brin F. S.

    2016-01-01

    Background The longitudinal birth cohort design has yielded a substantial contribution to knowledge of child health and development. The last full review in New Zealand and Australia in 2004 identified 13 studies. Since then, birth cohort designs continue to be an important tool in understanding how intrauterine, infant and childhood development affect long-term health and well-being. This updated review in a defined geographical area was conducted to better understand the factors associated with successful quality and productivity, and greater scientific and policy contribution and scope. Methods We adopted the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) approach, searching PubMed, Scopus, Cinahl, Medline, Science Direct and ProQuest between 1963 and 2013. Experts were consulted regarding further studies. Five inclusion criteria were used: (1) have longitudinally tracked a birth cohort, (2) have collected data on the child and at least one parent or caregiver (3) be based in Australia or New Zealand, (4) be empirical in design, and (5) have been published in English. Results 10665 records were initially retrieved from which 23 birth cohort studies met the selection criteria. Together these studies recruited 91,196 participants, with 38,600 mothers, 14,206 fathers and 38,390 live births. Seventeen studies were located in Australia and six in New Zealand. Research questions initially focused on the perinatal period, but as studies matured, longer-term effects and outcomes were examined. Conclusions This review demonstrates the significant yield from this effort both in terms of scientific discovery and social policy impact. Further opportunities have been recognised with cross-study collaboration and pooling of data between established and newer studies and international studies to investigate global health determinants. PMID:26991330

  8. The effects of antenatal education on fear of childbirth, maternal self-efficacy and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms following childbirth: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gökçe İsbir, Gözde; İnci, Figen; Önal, Hatice; Yıldız, Pelin Dıkmen

    2016-11-01

    Fear of birth and low childbirth self-efficacy is predictive of post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms following childbirth. The efficacy of antenatal education classes on fear of birth and childbirth self-efficacy has been supported; however, the effectiveness of antenatal classes on post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms after childbirth has received relatively little research attention. This study examined the effects of antenatal education on fear of childbirth, maternal self-efficacy and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms following childbirth. Quasi-experimental study. The study was conducted in a city located in the Middle Anatolia region of Turkey and data were collected between December 2013 and May 2015. Two groups of women were compared-an antenatal education intervention group (n=44), and a routine prenatal care control group (n=46). The Wijma Delivery Expectancy/Experience Questionnaire, Version A and B, Childbirth Self-efficacy Inventory and Impact of Event Scale-Revised was used to assess fear of childbirth, maternal self-efficacy and PTSD symptoms following childbirth. Compared to the control group, women who attended antenatal education had greater childbirth self-efficacy, greater perceived support and control in birth, and less fear of birth and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms following childbirth (all comparisons, ppost-traumatic stress disorder symptoms after childbirth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The influence of birth order and number of siblings on adolescent body composition: evidence from a Brazilian birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Meller, Fernanda; Assunção, M C F; Schäfer, A A; de Mola, C L; Barros, A J D; Dahly, D L; Barros, F C

    2015-07-14

    The aim of this study was to estimate the association between birth order and number of siblings with body composition in adolescents. Data are from a birth cohort study conducted in Pelotas, Brazil. At the age of 18 years, 4563 adolescents were located, of whom 4106 were interviewed (follow-up rate 81.3 %). Of these, 3974 had complete data and were thus included in our analysis. The variables used in the analysis were measured during the perinatal period, or at 11, 15 and/or 18 years of age. Body composition at 18 years was collected by air displacement plethysmography (BOD POD®). Crude and adjusted analyses of the association between birth order and number of siblings with body composition were performed using linear regression. All analyses were stratified by the adolescent sex. The means of BMI, fat mass index and fat-free mass index among adolescents were 23.4 (sd 4.5) kg/m², 6.1 (sd 3.9) kg/m² and 17.3 (sd 2.5) kg/m², respectively. In adjusted models, the total siblings remained inversely associated with fat mass index (β = - 0.37 z-scores, 95 % CI - 0.52, - 0.23) and BMI in boys (β = - 0.39 z-scores, 95 % CI - 0.55, - 0.22). Fat-free mass index was related to the total siblings in girls (β = 0.06 z-scores, 95 % CI - 0.04, 0.17). This research has found that number of total siblings, and not birth order, is related to the fat mass index, fat-free mass index and BMI in adolescents. It suggests the need for early prevention of obesity or fat mass accumulation in only children.

  10. Genetic and environmental influences on adult human height across birth cohorts from 1886 to 1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelenkovic, Aline; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Sund, Reijo; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Siribaddana, Sisira H; Hotopf, Matthew; Sumathipala, Athula; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Tan, Qihua; Zhang, Dongfeng; Pang, Zengchang; Aaltonen, Sari; Heikkilä, Kauko; Öncel, Sevgi Y; Aliev, Fazil; Rebato, Esther; Tarnoki, Adam D; Tarnoki, David L; Christensen, Kaare; Skytthe, Axel; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Silberg, Judy L; Eaves, Lindon J; Maes, Hermine H; Cutler, Tessa L; Hopper, John L; Ordoñana, Juan R; Sánchez-Romera, Juan F; Colodro-Conde, Lucia; Cozen, Wendy; Hwang, Amie E; Mack, Thomas M; Sung, Joohon; Song, Yun-Mi; Yang, Sarah; Lee, Kayoung; Franz, Carol E; Kremen, William S; Lyons, Michael J; Busjahn, Andreas; Nelson, Tracy L; Whitfield, Keith E; Kandler, Christian; Jang, Kerry L; Gatz, Margaret; Butler, David A; Stazi, Maria A; Fagnani, Corrado; D'Ippolito, Cristina; Duncan, Glen E; Buchwald, Dedra; Derom, Catherine A; Vlietinck, Robert F; Loos, Ruth Jf; Martin, Nicholas G; Medland, Sarah E; Montgomery, Grant W; Jeong, Hoe-Uk; Swan, Gary E; Krasnow, Ruth; Magnusson, Patrik Ke; Pedersen, Nancy L; Dahl-Aslan, Anna K; McAdams, Tom A; Eley, Thalia C; Gregory, Alice M; Tynelius, Per; Baker, Laura A; Tuvblad, Catherine; Bayasgalan, Gombojav; Narandalai, Danshiitsoodol; Lichtenstein, Paul; Spector, Timothy D; Mangino, Massimo; Lachance, Genevieve; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Toos Cem; Willemsen, Gonneke; Burt, S Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L; Harris, Jennifer R; Brandt, Ingunn; Nilsen, Thomas Sevenius; Krueger, Robert F; McGue, Matt; Pahlen, Shandell; Corley, Robin P; Hjelmborg, Jacob V B; Goldberg, Jack H; Iwatani, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Mikio; Honda, Chika; Inui, Fujio; Rasmussen, Finn; Huibregtse, Brooke M; Boomsma, Dorret I; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Kaprio, Jaakko; Silventoinen, Karri

    2016-12-14

    Human height variation is determined by genetic and environmental factors, but it remains unclear whether their influences differ across birth-year cohorts. We conducted an individual-based pooled analysis of 40 twin cohorts including 143,390 complete twin pairs born 1886-1994. Although genetic variance showed a generally increasing trend across the birth-year cohorts, heritability estimates (0.69-0.84 in men and 0.53-0.78 in women) did not present any clear pattern of secular changes. Comparing geographic-cultural regions (Europe, North America and Australia, and East Asia), total height variance was greatest in North America and Australia and lowest in East Asia, but no clear pattern in the heritability estimates across the birth-year cohorts emerged. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that heritability of height is lower in populations with low living standards than in affluent populations, nor that heritability of height will increase within a population as living standards improve.

  11. Genetic and environmental influences on adult human height across birth cohorts from 1886 to 1994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelenkovic, Aline; Hur, Yoon-Mi; Sund, Reijo; Yokoyama, Yoshie; Siribaddana, Sisira H; Hotopf, Matthew; Sumathipala, Athula; Rijsdijk, Fruhling; Tan, Qihua; Zhang, Dongfeng; Pang, Zengchang; Aaltonen, Sari; Heikkilä, Kauko; Öncel, Sevgi Y; Aliev, Fazil; Rebato, Esther; Tarnoki, Adam D; Tarnoki, David L; Christensen, Kaare; Skytthe, Axel; Kyvik, Kirsten O; Silberg, Judy L; Eaves, Lindon J; Maes, Hermine H; Cutler, Tessa L; Hopper, John L; Ordoñana, Juan R; Sánchez-Romera, Juan F; Colodro-Conde, Lucia; Cozen, Wendy; Hwang, Amie E; Mack, Thomas M; Sung, Joohon; Song, Yun-Mi; Yang, Sarah; Lee, Kayoung; Franz, Carol E; Kremen, William S; Lyons, Michael J; Busjahn, Andreas; Nelson, Tracy L; Whitfield, Keith E; Kandler, Christian; Jang, Kerry L; Gatz, Margaret; Butler, David A; Stazi, Maria A; Fagnani, Corrado; D'Ippolito, Cristina; Duncan, Glen E; Buchwald, Dedra; Derom, Catherine A; Vlietinck, Robert F; Loos, Ruth JF; Martin, Nicholas G; Medland, Sarah E; Montgomery, Grant W; Jeong, Hoe-Uk; Swan, Gary E; Krasnow, Ruth; Magnusson, Patrik KE; Pedersen, Nancy L; Dahl-Aslan, Anna K; McAdams, Tom A; Eley, Thalia C; Gregory, Alice M; Tynelius, Per; Baker, Laura A; Tuvblad, Catherine; Bayasgalan, Gombojav; Narandalai, Danshiitsoodol; Lichtenstein, Paul; Spector, Timothy D; Mangino, Massimo; Lachance, Genevieve; Bartels, Meike; van Beijsterveldt, Toos CEM; Willemsen, Gonneke; Burt, S Alexandra; Klump, Kelly L; Harris, Jennifer R; Brandt, Ingunn; Nilsen, Thomas Sevenius; Krueger, Robert F; McGue, Matt; Pahlen, Shandell; Corley, Robin P; Hjelmborg, Jacob v B; Goldberg, Jack H; Iwatani, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Mikio; Honda, Chika; Inui, Fujio; Rasmussen, Finn; Huibregtse, Brooke M; Boomsma, Dorret I; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Kaprio, Jaakko; Silventoinen, Karri

    2016-01-01

    Human height variation is determined by genetic and environmental factors, but it remains unclear whether their influences differ across birth-year cohorts. We conducted an individual-based pooled analysis of 40 twin cohorts including 143,390 complete twin pairs born 1886–1994. Although genetic variance showed a generally increasing trend across the birth-year cohorts, heritability estimates (0.69-0.84 in men and 0.53-0.78 in women) did not present any clear pattern of secular changes. Comparing geographic-cultural regions (Europe, North America and Australia, and East Asia), total height variance was greatest in North America and Australia and lowest in East Asia, but no clear pattern in the heritability estimates across the birth-year cohorts emerged. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that heritability of height is lower in populations with low living standards than in affluent populations, nor that heritability of height will increase within a population as living standards improve. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20320.001 PMID:27964777

  12. Quantifying the impact of deprivation on preterm births: a retrospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Taylor-Robinson

    Full Text Available Social deprivation is associated with higher rates of preterm birth and subsequent infant mortality. Our objective was to identify risk factors for preterm birth in the UK's largest maternity unit, with a particular focus on social deprivation, and related factors.Retrospective cohort study of 39,873 women in Liverpool, UK, from 2002-2008. Singleton pregnancies were stratified into uncomplicated low risk pregnancies and a high risk group complicated by medical problems. Multiple logistic regression, and generalized additive models were used to explore the effect of covariates including area deprivation, smoking status, BMI, parity and ethnicity on the risk of preterm birth (34⁺⁰ weeks. In the low risk group, preterm birth rates increased with deprivation, reaching 1.6% (CI₉₅ 1.4 to 1.8 in the most deprived quintile; the unadjusted odds ratio comparing an individual in the most deprived quintile, to one in the least deprived quintile was 1.5 (CI₉₅ 1.2 to 1.9. Being underweight and smoking were both independently associated with preterm birth in the low risk group, and adjusting for these factors explained the association between deprivation and preterm birth. Preterm birth was five times more likely in the high risk group (RR 4.8 CI₉₅ 4.3 to 5.4, and there was no significant relationship with deprivation.Deprivation has significant impact on preterm birth rates in low risk women. The relationship between low socio-economic status and preterm births appears to be related to low maternal weight and smoking in more deprived groups.

  13. Prevalence of atopic dermatitis in infants by domestic water hardness and season of birth: Cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engebretsen, Kristiane A; Bager, Peter; Wohlfahrt, Jan; Skov, Lone; Zachariae, Claus; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie; Melbye, Mads; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2017-05-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) appears to be more common in regions with hard domestic water and in children with a fall/winter birth. However, it is unknown whether a synergistic effect exists. We sought to evaluate the association between domestic water hardness and season of birth, respectively, with onset of AD within the first 18 months of life in a large Danish birth cohort. Of children from the Danish National Birth Cohort, 52,950 were included. History of physician-diagnosed AD and population characteristics were obtained from interviews. Birth data were obtained from the Civil Registration System, and domestic water hardness data were obtained from the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland. The relative prevalence (RP) of AD was calculated by using log-linear binomial regression. The prevalence of AD was 15.0% (7,942/52,950). The RP of AD was 5% (RP trend , 1.05; 95% CI, 1.03-1.07) higher for each 5° increase in domestic water hardness (range, 6.60-35.90 German degrees of hardness [118-641 mg/L]). Although the RP of AD was higher in children with a fall (RP, 1.24; 95% CI, 1.17-1.31) or winter (RP, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.11-1.25) birth, no significant interaction was observed with domestic water hardness. The population attributable risk of hard domestic water on AD was 2%. We observed that early exposure to hard domestic water and a fall/winter birth was associated with an increase in the relative prevalence of AD within the first 18 months of life. Although the 2 exposures did not interact synergistically, a dose-response relationship was observed between domestic water hardness and AD. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Severe obesity in young women and reproductive health: the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen A Nohr

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about reproductive health in severely obese women. In this study, we present associations between different levels of severe obesity and a wide range of health outcomes in the mother and child. METHODS: From the Danish National Birth Cohort, we obtained self-reported information about prepregnant body mass index (BMI for 2451 severely obese women and 2450 randomly selected women from the remaining cohort who served as a comparison group. Information about maternal and infant outcomes was also self-reported or came from registers. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between different levels of severe obesity and reproductive outcomes. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Subfecundity was more frequent in severely obese women, and during pregnancy, they had an excess risk of urinary tract infections, gestational diabetes, preeclampsia and other hypertensive disorders which increased with severity of obesity. They tended to have a higher risk of both pre- and post-term birth, and risk of cesarean and instrumental deliveries increased across obesity categories. After birth, severely obese women more often failed to initiate or sustain breastfeeding. Risk of weight retention 1.5 years after birth was similar to that of other women, but after adjustment for gestational weight gain, the risk was increased, especially in women in the lowest obesity category. In infants, increasing maternal obesity was associated with decreased risk of a low birth weight and increased risk of a high birth weight. Estimates for ponderal index showed the same pattern indicating an increasing risk of neonatal fatness with severity of obesity. Infant obesity measured one year after birth was also increased in children of severely obese mothers. CONCLUSION: Severe obesity is correlated with a substantial disease burden in reproductive health. Although the causal mechanisms remain elusive, these findings are useful for making predictions and

  15. Severe Obesity in Young Women and Reproductive Health: The Danish National Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohr, Ellen A.; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Andersen, Camilla S.; Davey Smith, George; Olsen, Jørn; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Little is known about reproductive health in severely obese women. In this study, we present associations between different levels of severe obesity and a wide range of health outcomes in the mother and child. Methods From the Danish National Birth Cohort, we obtained self-reported information about prepregnant body mass index (BMI) for 2451 severely obese women and 2450 randomly selected women from the remaining cohort who served as a comparison group. Information about maternal and infant outcomes was also self-reported or came from registers. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between different levels of severe obesity and reproductive outcomes. Principal Findings Subfecundity was more frequent in severely obese women, and during pregnancy, they had an excess risk of urinary tract infections, gestational diabetes, preeclampsia and other hypertensive disorders which increased with severity of obesity. They tended to have a higher risk of both pre- and post-term birth, and risk of cesarean and instrumental deliveries increased across obesity categories. After birth, severely obese women more often failed to initiate or sustain breastfeeding. Risk of weight retention 1.5 years after birth was similar to that of other women, but after adjustment for gestational weight gain, the risk was increased, especially in women in the lowest obesity category. In infants, increasing maternal obesity was associated with decreased risk of a low birth weight and increased risk of a high birth weight. Estimates for ponderal index showed the same pattern indicating an increasing risk of neonatal fatness with severity of obesity. Infant obesity measured one year after birth was also increased in children of severely obese mothers. Conclusion Severe obesity is correlated with a substantial disease burden in reproductive health. Although the causal mechanisms remain elusive, these findings are useful for making predictions and planning health care at

  16. Paternal age at childbirth and eating disorders in offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaras, K N; Rickert, M E; Thornton, L M; Peat, C M; Baker, J H; Birgegård, A; Norring, C; Landén, M; Almqvist, C; Larsson, H; Lichtenstein, P; Bulik, C M; D'Onofrio, B M

    2017-02-01

    Advanced paternal age at childbirth is associated with psychiatric disorders in offspring, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and autism. However, few studies have investigated paternal age's relationship with eating disorders in offspring. In a large, population-based cohort, we examined the association between paternal age and offspring eating disorders, and whether that association remains after adjustment for potential confounders (e.g. parental education level) that may be related to late/early selection into fatherhood and to eating disorder incidence. Data for 2 276 809 individuals born in Sweden 1979-2001 were extracted from Swedish population and healthcare registers. The authors used Cox proportional hazards models to examine the effect of paternal age on the first incidence of healthcare-recorded anorexia nervosa (AN) and all eating disorders (AED) occurring 1987-2009. Models were adjusted for sex, birth order, maternal age at childbirth, and maternal and paternal covariates including country of birth, highest education level, and lifetime psychiatric and criminal history. Even after adjustment for covariates including maternal age, advanced paternal age was associated with increased risk, and younger paternal age with decreased risk, of AN and AED. For example, the fully adjusted hazard ratio for the 45+ years (v. the 25-29 years) paternal age category was 1.32 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14-1.53] for AN and 1.26 (95% CI 1.13-1.40) for AED. In this large, population-based cohort, paternal age at childbirth was positively associated with eating disorders in offspring, even after adjustment for potential confounders. Future research should further explore potential explanations for the association, including de novo mutations in the paternal germline.

  17. Determinants of infant growth: Evidence from Hong Kong's "Children of 1997" birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, L L; Leung, Gabriel M; Cowling, Benjamin J; Lam, T H; Schooling, C Mary

    2010-11-01

    A high rate of infant growth may be associated with adult cardiovascular disease. We investigated factors associated with infant weight growth in a large sample from the recently transitioned population of Hong Kong. We used a nonlinear shape invariant model with random effects among 5949 term, singletons (77% follow-up) from a population-representative Hong Kong Chinese birth cohort "Children of 1997" to investigate factors associated with weight growth in the first year of life. Overall birth weight was lower but infant growth was more rapid than the 2006 WHO standards. Shorter gestation and lower birth order were associated with lower birth weight and faster infant growth. Female sex, maternal smoking in pregnancy, and a mother born in Hong Kong were associated with lower birth weight, but not with faster growth. Higher maternal education was associated with faster infant growth, grades 10-11 (1.03, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03-1.05), greater than or equal to grade12 (1.07, CI = 1.04-1.09) compared with less than or equal to grade 9. Infant growth may respond more rapidly to socio-economic development than birth weight. Whether mother's education is associated with rapid infant growth via current conditions or her own "constitution" is unclear, nevertheless we believe this study illustrates the importance of contextually specific research for understanding the determinants of population health. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Predictors of birth-related post-traumatic stress symptoms: secondary analysis of a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Marie; Sandall, Jane; Cooper, Derek; Bick, Debra

    2016-12-01

    This study aimed to identify factors associated with birth-related post-traumatic stress symptoms during the early postnatal period. Secondary analysis was conducted using data from a prospective cohort study of 1824 women who gave birth in one large hospital in England. Post-traumatic stress symptoms were measured by the Impact of Event Scale at 6 to 8 weeks postpartum. Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models were developed for analyses. Results showed that post-traumatic stress symptoms were more frequently observed in black women and in women who had a higher pre-pregnancy BMI compared to those with a lower BMI. Women who have a history of mental illness as well as those who gave birth before arriving at the hospital, underwent an emergency caesarean section or experienced severe maternal morbidity or neonatal complications also showed symptoms. Women's perceived control during labour and birth significantly reduced the effects of some risk factors. A higher level of perceived social support during the postnatal period also reduced the risk of post-traumatic stress symptoms. From the perspective of clinical practice, improving women's sense of control during labour and birth appears to be important, as does providing social support following the birth.

  19. Milk consumption during pregnancy is associated with increased infant size at birth: prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Sjurdur F; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Willett, Walter C

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cow milk contains many potentially growth-promoting factors. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine whether milk consumption during pregnancy is associated with greater infant size at birth. DESIGN: During 1996-2002, the Danish National Birth Cohort collected data on midpregnancy diet......'s socioeconomic status The analyses included data from 50,117 mother-infant pairs. RESULTS: Mean (+/-SD) consumption of milk was 3.1 +/- 2.0 glasses/d. Milk consumption was inversely associated with the risk of small-for gestational age (SGA) birth and directly with both large-for-gestational age (LGA) birth...... and mean birth weight (P for trend drinking >or=6 glasses/d with those drinking 0 glasses/d, the odds ratio for SGA was 0.51 (95% CI: 0.39, 0.65) and for LGA was 1.59 (1.16, 2.16); the increment in mean birth weight was 108 g (74, 143 g). We also found graded relations (P...

  20. Associations between social networks and life satisfaction among older Japanese: Does birth cohort make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Erika; Liang, Jersey; Sugawara, Ikuko; Fukaya, Taro; Shinkai, Shoji; Akiyama, Hiroko

    2015-12-01

    Japanese older people experienced drastic changes in family structure and values after World War II at different life stages by birth cohorts. We examined how linkages between different types of social ties and life satisfaction (LS) vary across cohorts, in conjunction with age and survey year differences. Data from face-to-face interviews conducted in 1987, 1999, and 2012 with a nationally representative sample of older Japanese (N = 4,917) were analyzed. The participants were members of 4 birth cohorts (C1: 1901-1912, C2: 1913-1924, C3: 1925-1936, C4: 1937-1949), categorized into 6 groups based on cohort and age at time of measurement (young-old [YO]: 63-74; old-old [OO]: 75-86): C1OO, C2YO, C2OO, C3YO, C3OO, and C4YO. Effects of social networks on LS among the 6 groups were compared simultaneously and separately by gender using the Amos software. There were significant cohort variations in the linkages between family network and LS. The positive association between being married and LS was stronger for later cohorts (C3, C4) among men, whereas that of co-residence with a child and LS was stronger for the earlier cohorts (C1, C2) among women. Moreover, the positive association between meeting with nonfamily members and LS increased from 1987 to 2012 among women, indicating a period effect over a cohort effect. The effects of being married and participation in community groups on LS also changed with age. Our results suggest that linkages between social relations and LS should be interpreted within the context of individual and social changes over time. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Body Mass Index and Risk of Infections Among Women in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harpsøe, Maria C; Nielsen, Nete M; Friis-Møller, Nina

    2016-01-01

    baseline BMI and later hospitalization for 1) any infectious disease and 2) infections of the respiratory tract, whereas a dose-response relationship was seen for skin infections. The most pronounced associations were seen for acute upper respiratory infections at multiple and unspecified sites......We investigated the possible association between body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) and hospitalization or treatment for acute infection in a prospective cohort study. We linked 75,001 women enrolled in the Danish National Birth Cohort from 1996 to 2002, who had information on BMI...... was observed among overweight (BMI 25-infections of the upper respiratory tract and skin....

  2. Birth cohort testing for hepatitis C virus: implications for clinical social workers in health care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Omar T; Whalen, Christopher C; Nackerud, Larry G; Bride, Brian E

    2013-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends one-time hepatitis C virus (HCV) testing for baby boomers born between 1945-1965 in the United States. This public health initiative is known as birth cohort (baby boomer) testing for HCV. The intent of birth cohort testing is to identify and mobilize undiagnosed HCV-infected persons into care and treatment. Subsequently, clinical social workers in health care settings can anticipate a substantial increase in the number of HCV-infected persons presenting for care and treatment. The purpose of this article is to inform clinical social workers in health care settings of HCV, the standard of care and treatment for HCV, and clinical dilemmas associated with HCV patient care. Epidemiology and natural history of HCV, the standard of care and treatment for HCV, and etiology and management of neuropsychiatric adverse effects associated with patient care are discussed.

  3. Size at birth and blood pressure in young adults: findings from a Brazilian birth cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Cunha Cardoso

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Describir la prevalencia de presión arterial limítrofe (PAL e hipertensión (HT entre adultos jóvenes y evaluar la asociación entre tamaño al nacer y PAL/HT. MÉTODOS: : Los datos fueron colectados en el primer estudio de cohorte de nacimientos brasileño en Ribeirao Preto (sureste de Brasil, iniciado en 1978/79. De 6.827 recién nacidos de parto único hospitalario, 2.060 fueron evaluados a los 23/25 años. Se realizaron colecta de sangre, evaluación antropométrica y obtenidas informaciones sobre ocupación, escolaridad, hábitos de vida y enfermedades crónicas. Presión arterial (PA fue clasificada en: 1 PAL: PA sistólica (PAS ≥ 130 y < 140 mm Hg y/o PA diastólica (PAD ≥ 85 y < 90 mm Hg; 2 HT: PAS ≥ 140 y/o PAD ≥ 90 mm Hg. Se aplicó modelo de regresión logística politómica. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia de PAL fue de 13,5% (hombres 23,2% y la de HT, 9,5% (hombres 17,7%. PAL fue independientemente asociada con sexo masculino (Riesgo Relativo - RR 8,84; 95%IC: 6,09;12,82, estatura al nacer ≥ 50 cm (RR 1,97; 1,04; 3,73, índice de masa corporal (IMC ≥ 30 kg/m2 (RR 3,23; 2,02; 5,15 y circunferencia de cintura alterada (RR 1,61; 1,13;2,29, mientras el HT se asoció con sexo masculino (RR 15,18; 8,92;25,81, IMC ≥ 30 kg/m2 (RR 3,68; 2,23;6,06, circunferencia de cintura alterada (RR 2,68; 1,77;4,05 y glicemia elevada (RR 2,55; 1,27;5,10, pero no con estatura al nacer. CONCLUSIONES: Las prevalencias de PAL y HT entre los adultos jóvenes de la cohorte fueron mayores en hombres que en mujeres. Mayor estatura al nacer fue asociado con PAL, pero no con HT, mientras que el peso al nacer no estuvo asociado con PAL o HT. Factores de riesgo de adulto explicaron la mayoría de los aumentos de PAL o HT.

  4. Preconception blood pressure and risk of preterm birth: a large cohort study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Li, Zhiwen; Ye, Rongwei; Zhu, Yibing; Li, Shun; Yang, Na; Zhang, Le; Li, Hongtian; Liu, Jianmeng; Ren, Aiguo

    2016-11-01

    To examine whether blood pressure (BP) in the preconceptional period was associated with preterm birth in Chinese women. The data are from a large population-based cohort study established to evaluate the effectiveness of the campaign to prevent neural tube defects in 21 Chinese counties. We included 44 494 singleton live births delivered at gestational ages of 20-42 weeks to women who were registered before pregnancy in seven counties in southern China. Blood pressure was measured during registration by trained healthcare workers. We used logistic regression to evaluate the associations between prepregnancy blood pressure and increased risk of preterm birth, adjusting for potential confounders. The study size had 93% power (α=0.05) to detect an increase of 38% over the unexposed rate of 5.32% for preterm birth. The prevalence of hypertension of study population in prepregnancy was 4.55% (2023/44 494). The incidence of preterm birth was 5.73% for hypertension group and 5.32% for nonhypertension group. Compared with nonhypertension group, hypertension group did not show significant increased risk for preterm birth overall [adjusted risk ratio (RR)=1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.91-1.34], iatrogenic subtype [adjusted RR=1.21, 95% CI 0.78-1.88], or noniatrogenic subtype [adjusted RR=1.08, 95% CI 0.88-1.34]. When the participants with normal blood pressure were used as the reference, the adjusted RRs of noniatrogenic preterm birth were 0.79 (0.70-0.89) for prehypertensive women. Our results do not support the association between hypertension or higher blood pressure prior to pregnancy and the increased risk of preterm birth.

  5. Subfecundity as a correlate of preeclampsia: A study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basso, Olga; Weinberg, Clarice R.; Baird, Donna D.

    2003-01-01

    A long interpregnancy interval is associated with preeclampsia. If some women experiencing a long interval between births had difficulty conceiving, subfecundity and preeclampsia may share a common etiology. Therefore, the authors examined the association between subfecundity and preeclampsia....... By using interview data collected during the second trimester of pregnancy (1998–2001) from women participating in the Danish National Birth Cohort, they identified 20,034 and 24,698 singleton livebirths to primiparous and multiparous women, respectively, for whom preeclampsia information was available...... from hospital birth records. Among women with no known hypertension, the authors estimated a higher risk of preeclampsia in those with longer times to pregnancy (TTPs), after adjustment for maternal age, prepregnancy body mass index, and smoking. Compared with primiparas who became pregnant right away...

  6. Pregnancy outcomes among female hairdressers who participated in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jin Liang; Vestergaard, Mogens; Hjøllund, Niels Henrik Ingvar

    2006-01-01

    the Danish National Birth Cohort between 1997 and 2003. Information on job characteristics was reported by the women in the first interview (around 17 weeks of gestation). Pregnancy outcomes were obtained by linkage to the national registers. Developmental milestones were reported by the mother at the fourth...... interview, when the child was approximately 19 months old. Cox regression was applied to analyze fetal loss and congenital malformation. Logistic regression was used to analyze other pregnancy outcomes and developmental milestones. RESULTS: We found no significant differences in fetal loss, multiple births......, gender ratio, preterm birth, small-for-gestational age, congenital malformations, or achievement of developmental milestones among the children of hairdressers and shop assistants. CONCLUSIONS: The results do not indicate that children of hairdressers in Denmark currently have a high risk of fetal...

  7. Birth cohort trends for breast cancer among women in Europe and North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert E Tarone

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The birth cohort pattern of risk for breast cancer among European women is remarkably similar to that observed among women in the United States and Canada.  A sharp decrease in risk for women born after World War II is particularly intriguing, and warrants further epidemiological investigation in order to identify etiologic factors potentially responsible for the unexpected and unexplained declining risk.

  8. [Education and work in the Pelotas birth cohort from 1982 to 2004-5, Southern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Fernando C; Gigante, Denise P; Horta, Bernardo L; Victora, Cesar G

    2008-12-01

    To analyze the influence of biological and socioeconomic factors throughout life on entry into the university and insertion in the work force of young adults from the 1982 birth cohort. Longitudinal study of 5,914 births that took place in the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil, in 1982. Data was collected by means of questionnaires applied on young adults when accompanying the 1982 cohort in 2004-5. Information was gathered concerning educational level and insertion in the labor market. Poisson Regression was utilized to study the effect of demographic and socioeconomic variables, as well as birth weight and maternal breastfeeding, on the outcomes. On the average, these young adults had 9.4 (+/- 3.1) years of schooling and 42% of them were attending school in 2004-5. One in five young adults had entered a university and approximately two thirds were working during the month prior to the interview. Entry in the university was determined by economic conditions. Furthermore, women's birth weight and breastfeeding among men influenced this outcome. Insertion in the labor market was more frequent among the poorer men, but this did not affect women's outcomes in this respect. The low inclusion in the university and the need to enter the labor market among the poor families maintains a vicious circle that reproduces the dominant social hierarchy.

  9. Cannabis use and traffic accidents in a birth cohort of young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fergusson, D M; Horwood, L J

    2001-11-01

    to examine linkages between cannabis use and traffic accident risks in a birth cohort of 907 young New Zealanders studied from 18 to 21 years. during the course of a 21-year longitudinal study of a birth cohort of 907 New Zealand born children information was gathered on (a) annual frequency of cannabis use over the period from 18 to 21 years; (b) annual rates of traffic accidents during the period 18-21 years; (c) measures of driver behaviours and characteristics. The association between cannabis use and traffic accident risk was examined among the 907 sample members who reported driving a motor vehicle between the ages of 18 and 21 years. there were statistically significant relationships between reported annual cannabis use and annual accident rates. This association was present only for 'active' accidents in which driver behaviours contributed to the accident; those using cannabis more than 50 times per year had estimated rates of active accidents that were 1.6 (95% CI 1.2-2.0) times higher than the rate for non-users. However, statistical control for driver behaviours and characteristics related to cannabis use (drink driving behaviour; risky/illegal driving behaviours; driver attitudes; gender) eliminated the association between cannabis use and traffic accident risks. although cannabis use was associated with increased risks of traffic accidents among members of this birth cohort, these increased risks appear to reflect the characteristics of the young people who used cannabis rather than the effects of cannabis use on driver performance.

  10. Internet-Based Birth-Cohort Studies: Is This the Future for Epidemiology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firestone, Ridvan; Cheng, Soo; Pearce, Neil; Douwes, Jeroen; Merletti, Franco; Pizzi, Costanza; Pivetta, Emanuele; Rusconi, Franca; Richiardi, Lorenzo

    2015-06-12

    International collaborative cohorts the NINFEA and the ELF studies are mother-child cohorts that use the internet for recruitment and follow-up of their members. The cohorts investigated the association of early life exposures and a wide range of non-communicable diseases. The objective is to report the research methodology, with emphasis on the advantages and limitations offered by an Internet-based design. These studies were conducted in Turin, Italy and Wellington, New Zealand. The cohorts utilized various online/offline methods to recruit participants. Pregnant women who became aware volunteered, completed an online questionnaire, thus obtaining baseline information. The NINFEA study has recruited 7003 pregnant women, while the ELF study has recruited 2197 women. The cohorts targeted the whole country, utilizing a range of support processes to reduce the attrition rate of the participants. For the NINFEA and ELF cohorts, online participants were predominantly older (35% and 28.9%, respectively), highly educated (55.6% and 84.9%, respectively), and were in their final trimester of pregnancy (48.5% and 53.6%, respectively). Internet-based cohort epidemiological studies are feasible, however, it is clear that participants are self-selective samples, as is the case for many birth cohorts. Internet-based cohort studies are potentially cost-effective and novel methodology for conducting long-term epidemiology research. However, from our experience, participants tend to be self-selective. In marked time, if the cohorts are to form part of a larger research program they require further use and exploration to address biases and overcome limitations.

  11. GWAS on prolonged gestation (post-term birth): analysis of successive Finnish birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierding, William; Antony, Jisha; Karhunen, Ville; Vääräsmäki, Marja; Franks, Steve; Elliott, Paul; Kajantie, Eero; Sebert, Sylvain; Blakemore, Alex; Horsfield, Julia A; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; O'Sullivan, Justin M; Cutfield, Wayne S

    2017-10-10

    Gestation is a crucial timepoint in human development. Deviation from a term gestational age correlates with both acute and long-term adverse health effects for the child. Both being born preterm and post-term, that is, having short and long gestational ages, are heritable and influenced by the prenatal and perinatal environment. Despite the obvious heritable component, specific genetic influences underlying differences in gestational age are poorly understood. We investigated the genetic architecture of gestational age in 9141 individuals, including 1167 born post-term, across two Northern Finland cohorts born in 1966 or 1986. Here we identify one globally significant intronic genetic variant within the ADAMTS13 gene that is associated with prolonged gestation (p=4.85×10(-8)). Additional variants that reached suggestive levels of significance were identified within introns at the ARGHAP42 and TKT genes, and in the upstream (5') intergenic regions of the B3GALT5 and SSBP2 genes. The variants near the ADAMTS13, B3GALT5, SSBP2 and TKT loci are linked to alterations in gene expression levels (cis-eQTLs). Luciferase assays confirmed the allele specific enhancer activity for the BGALT5 and TKT loci. Our findings provide the first evidence of a specific genetic influence associated with prolonged gestation. This study forms a foundation for a better understanding of the genetic and long-term health risks faced by induced and post-term individuals. The long-term risks for induced individuals who have a previously overlooked post-term potential may be a major issue for current health providers. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. [A gender perspective on medicalized childbirth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Su-Chen

    2015-02-01

    Gender mainstreaming is a worldwide issue. The United Nations and the World Health Organization have emphasized the importance of incorporating gender perspectives and gender equity into government policy decisions. Different cultures have different attitudes toward the management of childbirth and these attitudes influence the feelings and needs of women and their partners. These needs must be better understood and satisfied. The widely held technocratic values of obstetricians influence the birthing experience of women significantly. This article uses a gender perspective to describe the medicalization of childbirth, the pharmacological pain-relief oppression of women, the prevalence of blaming women for decisions to conduct Caesarean sections, and the exclusion of men from involvement in the childbirth process. This article may be used as reference to enhance gender equality childbirth care for women.

  13. Intent and Choice Regarding Maternal Employment Following Childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werbel, James

    1998-01-01

    A study of 70 pregnant working mothers before and six months after childbirth found that traditional gender-role values and perceived spousal preference influenced their employment intention before giving birth. Employment intention and spouse's income influenced return to employment after childbirth. (SK)

  14. Spouses' Perspective of their Participation and Role in Childbirth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Childbirth is a period characterized by severe pain, and most women desire to ameliorate their pain among other things by having their spouses present and involved in the birthing process. In developing countries like Nigeria, spousal involvement is still an emerging concept in childbirth. Aim: To investigate ...

  15. Assessment of Fetal Kidney Growth and Birth Weight in an Indigenous Australian Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J. Diehm

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Indigenous Australians experience higher rates of renal disease and hypertension than non-Indigenous Australians. Low birth weight is recognized as a contributing factor in chronic disease and has been shown to increase the risk of renal failure in adulthood. A smaller kidney volume with fewer nephrons places an individual at risk of hypertension and renal failure. Indigenous Australians have fewer nephrons than non-Indigenous Australians. In this study, intrauterine fetal and kidney growth were evaluated in 174 Indigenous Australian babies throughout gestation in order to record and evaluate fetal growth and kidney size, within a population that is at high risk for chronic illness.Methods: Pregnant women that identified as Indigenous, or non-Indigenous women that were pregnant with a partner who identified as an Indigenous Australian were eligible to participate. Maternal history, smoking status, blood and urine samples and fetal ultrasounds were collected throughout pregnancy. Fetal kidney measurements were collected using ultrasound. Statistical analysis was performed using the Stata 14.1 software package.Results: 15.2% of babies were born prematurely. 44% of the mothers reported smoking in pregnancy. The median birth weight of this cohort was 3,240 g. Male fetuses had higher kidney to body weight ratios than female fetuses (P = 0.02. The birth weights of term neonates whose mothers smoked during pregnancy were lower (327 g, P < 0.001 than the birth weights of term babies from non-smoking mothers. The kidney volumes of babies whose mothers smoked were also smaller (P = 0.02, but were in proportion to body weight.Conclusion: In this cohort of Indigenous women smoking was associated with both increased number of preterm births and with a reduction in birth weights, even of term infants. Since kidney volume is a surrogate measure of nephron number and nephrogenesis is complete at birth, babies whose mothers smoked during pregnancy

  16. Estimation of Newborn Risk for Child or Adolescent Obesity: Lessons from Longitudinal Birth Cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morandi, Anita; Meyre, David; Lobbens, Stéphane; Kleinman, Ken; Kaakinen, Marika; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Vatin, Vincent; Gaget, Stefan; Pouta, Anneli; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Laitinen, Jaana; Ruokonen, Aimo; Das, Shikta; Khan, Anokhi Ali; Elliott, Paul; Maffeis, Claudio; Gillman, Matthew W.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Prevention of obesity should start as early as possible after birth. We aimed to build clinically useful equations estimating the risk of later obesity in newborns, as a first step towards focused early prevention against the global obesity epidemic. Methods We analyzed the lifetime Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC1986) (N = 4,032) to draw predictive equations for childhood and adolescent obesity from traditional risk factors (parental BMI, birth weight, maternal gestational weight gain, behaviour and social indicators), and a genetic score built from 39 BMI/obesity-associated polymorphisms. We performed validation analyses in a retrospective cohort of 1,503 Italian children and in a prospective cohort of 1,032 U.S. children. Results In the NFBC1986, the cumulative accuracy of traditional risk factors predicting childhood obesity, adolescent obesity, and childhood obesity persistent into adolescence was good: AUROC = 0·78[0·74–0.82], 0·75[0·71–0·79] and 0·85[0·80–0·90] respectively (all pobesity remained acceptably accurate when applied to the Italian and the U.S. cohort (AUROC = 0·70[0·63–0·77] and 0·73[0·67–0·80] respectively) and the two additional equations for childhood obesity newly drawn from the Italian and the U.S. datasets showed good accuracy in respective cohorts (AUROC = 0·74[0·69–0·79] and 0·79[0·73–0·84]) (all pobesity were converted into simple Excel risk calculators for potential clinical use. Conclusion This study provides the first example of handy tools for predicting childhood obesity in newborns by means of easily recorded information, while it shows that currently known genetic variants have very little usefulness for such prediction. PMID:23209618

  17. Pelvic pain after childbirth: a longitudinal population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjelland, Elisabeth Krefting; Owe, Katrine Mari; Pingel, Ronnie; Kristiansson, Per; Vangen, Siri; Eberhard-Gran, Malin

    2016-03-01

    In this longitudinal population study, the aims were to study associations of mode of delivery with new onset of pelvic pain and changes in pelvic pain scores up to 7 to 18 months after childbirth. We included 20,248 participants enrolled in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (1999-2008) without preexisting pelvic pain in pregnancy. Data were obtained by 4 self-administered questionnaires and linked to the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. A total of 4.5% of the women reported new onset of pelvic pain 0 to 3 months postpartum. Compared to unassisted vaginal delivery, operative vaginal delivery was associated with increased odds of pelvic pain (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.30; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.06-1.59). Planned and emergency cesarean deliveries were associated with reduced odds of pelvic pain (adjusted OR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.31-0.74 and adjusted OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.49-0.87, respectively). Planned cesarean delivery, young maternal age, and low Symptom Checklist-8 scores were associated with low pelvic pain scores after childbirth. A history of pain was the only factor associated with increased pelvic pain scores over time (P = 0.047). We conclude that new onset of pelvic pain after childbirth was not commonly reported, particularly following cesarean delivery. Overall, pelvic pain scores were rather low at all time points and women with a history of pain reported increased pelvic pain scores over time. Hence, clinicians should follow up women with pelvic pain after a difficult childbirth experience, particularly if they have a history of pain.

  18. The Impact of Parental Personality on Birth Outcomes: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naho Morisaki

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of parental personality on birth outcomes.Prospective cohort study.727 pregnant women and 579 spouses receiving antenatal care at a single-center in rural Tokyo, Japan during 2010-2013.We measured the association between maternal effect of parental personality traits assessed by the Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory on birth outcomes, using multiple regression and adjusting for demographics.Maternal self-transcendence personality was inversely associated with gestational age [-0.26 (95% confidence interval (CI: -0.51 to -0.01 weeks per unit] and positively associated with preterm birth [odds ratio (OR 2.60 (95% CI: 1.00 to 6.75 per unit], while paternal self-transcendence personality was positively associated with gestational age [0.31 (95% CI: 0.07 to 0.55 weeks per unit]. Maternal reward dependence was positively associated with fetal growth [0.30 (95% CI: 0.02 to 0.59 per unit]. Other maternal and paternal personality traits associated with adverse maternal behavior, such as novelty seeking, harm avoidance and self-directedness, were not associated with birth outcomes.We found that specific parental personality traits can be associated with birth outcomes.

  19. Birth cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Madsen, Mia

    2009-01-01

    , and comprehending the underlying assumptions of these studies and drawing the inferences from them can be complex. This book provides the knowledge and skills required to design, analyse, and correctly interpret family-based studies. It explains what these studies can tell us about life course epidemiology...... on children and vice versa, or siblings provide information about each other. Examples of how family-based studies have been used in understanding the life course epidemiology of cardiovascular disease, mental health, and reproductive health illustrate the applicability of the research to these areas......Family-based studies, including intergenerational, sibling, and twin studies, are increasingly being used to explore life course epidemiology. However, there are issues relating to study design and the statistical analysis of family-based studies that are still not well understood...

  20. Birth cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Madsen, Mia

    2009-01-01

    on children and vice versa, or siblings provide information about each other. Examples of how family-based studies have been used in understanding the life course epidemiology of cardiovascular disease, mental health, and reproductive health illustrate the applicability of the research to these areas...... that illustrate the ways in which family-based studies can enhance our understanding of life course epidemiology. In addition, there is discussion of difficulties specific to setting up such studies in low- and middle-income countries, and issues relating to proxy informants, where parents provide information...

  1. Adult Health Outcomes of Childhood Bullying Victimization: Evidence From a Five-Decade Longitudinal British Birth Cohort

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Takizawa, Ryu; Maughan, Barbara; Arseneault, Louise

    2014-01-01

    .... ObjectiveThe authors examined midlife outcomes of childhood bullying victimization.MethodData were from the British National Child Development Study, a 50-year prospective cohort of births in 1 week in 1958...

  2. Neonatal sepsis and neurodevelopment in very low birth weight infants in Matanzas, Cuba 2006-2010: a prospective cohort study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robaina Castellanos, Gerardo Rogelio; Riesgo Rodríguez, Solangel de la Caridad

    2016-01-01

    .... A cohort study was carried out that enrolled 89 infants with birth weight less than 1500 g who were admitted during the period 2006-2010 to the Teaching Provincial Gynecological and Obstetrical Hospital of Matanzas...

  3. The prevalence of allergic diseases in an unselected group of 6-year-old children. The DARC birth cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Henrik Fomsgaard; Eller, Esben; Høst, Arne

    2008-01-01

    This study determines the prevalence of atopic dermatitis, asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis, food hypersensitivity and urticaria and the frequency of sensitization in children with and without clinical allergic disease. In an ongoing prospective non-interventional birth cohort study of 562 unselected ...

  4. Risk factors for deformational plagiocephaly at birth and at seven weeks of age - A prospective cohort study-

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vlimmeren, Leo A.; van der Graaf, Jolanda; Boere-Boonekamp, Magdalena M.; L'Hoir, Monique P.; Helders, Paul J.M.; Engelbert, Raoul H.H.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this work was to identify risk factors for deformational plagiocephaly within 48 hours of birth and at 7 weeks of age. PATIENTS AND METHODS. This was a prospective cohort study in which 380 healthy neonates born at term in Bernhoven Hospital in Veghel were followed at birth

  5. Risk factors for deformational plagiocephaly at birth and at 7 weeks of age: a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vlimmeren, Leo A.; van der Graaf, Yolanda; Boere-Boonekamp, Magda M.; L'Hoir, Monique P.; Helders, Paul J. M.; Engelbert, Raoul H. H.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to identify risk factors for deformational plagiocephaly within 48 hours of birth and at 7 weeks of age. This was a prospective cohort study in which 380 healthy neonates born at term in Bernhoven Hospital in Veghel were followed at birth and at 7 weeks of age. Data

  6. Paths to literacy and numeracy problems: evidence from two British birth cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, M; Power, C; Sacker, A

    2012-01-01

    Objective To test a life course model linking circumstances of origin to self-reported literacy and numeracy problems in midlife, and to investigate the effects in this model of changing social circumstances in two post-war cohorts. Methods Based on data from men and women in the British 1946 and 1958 birth cohorts, we used the relative index of inequality and logistical regression to test associations between father’s occupation, childhood cognition, educational attainment, own occupation in the 3rd decade, and a binary variable representing self-reported literacy and numeracy problems in the 4th decade. Results There was a lower frequency of literacy and numeracy problems in the 1958 cohort compared to the 1946 cohort. In both cohorts there were associations between father’s occupation and childhood cognition, educational attainment and own occupation, a pattern that was mirrored by the associations between childhood cognition, educational attainment and own occupation to adult literacy and numeracy problems. Positive associations between childhood cognition and educational attainment, and between educational attainment and own occupation, were stronger in the 1946 cohort than in the 1958 cohort. However, inverse associations between educational attainment and literacy and numeracy problems were stronger in the 1958 cohort, possibly reflecting the expansion of secondary education in the intervening years. Conclusions Literacy and numeracy problems have a robust structure of life course associations, although the changing pattern of these associations may reflect important social structural changes from the early post war years to the early 1960s in the UK. PMID:18718979

  7. Women’s Choice of Positions during Labour: Return to the Past or a Modern Way to Give Birth? A Cohort Study in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salvatore Gizzo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Childbirth medicalization has reduced the parturient’s opportunity to labour and deliver in a spontaneous position, constricting her to assume the recumbent one. The aim of the study was to compare recumbent and alternative positions in terms of labour process, type of delivery, neonatal wellbeing, and intrapartum fetal head rotation. Methods. We conducted an observational cohort study on women at pregnancy term. Primiparous women with physiological pregnancies and single cephalic fetuses were eligible for the study. We considered data about maternal-general characteristics, labour process, type of delivery, and neonatal wellbeing at birth. Patients were divided into two groups: Group-A if they spent more than 50% of labour in a recumbent position and Group-B when in alternative ones. Results. 225 women were recruited (69 in Group-A and 156 in Group-B. We found significant differences between the groups in terms of labour length, Numeric Rating Scale score and analgesia request rate, type of delivery, need of episiotomy, and fetal occiput rotation. No differences were found in terms of neonatal outcomes. Conclusion. Alternative maternal positioning may positively influence labour process reducing maternal pain, operative vaginal delivery, caesarean section, and episiotomy rate. Women should be encouraged to move and deliver in the most comfortable position.

  8. Early life origins cognitive decline: findings in elderly men in the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katri Raikkonen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To examine whether the adverse effects of slow prenatal and postnatal growth on cognitive function persist to old age and predict age related cognitive decline. DESIGN AND SETTING: A longitudinal birth cohort study of men born in Helsinki, Finland 1934-44. PARTICIPANTS: Nine-hundred-thirty-one men of the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, with detailed data on growth from birth to adulthood, aged 20.1 (SD = 1.4 at the first and 67.9 (SD = 2.5 years at the second cognitive testing. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The Finnish Defense Forces Basic Intellectual Ability Test assessed twice over nearly five decades apart. RESULTS: Lower weight, length and head circumference at birth were associated with lower cognitive ability at 67.9 years (1.04-1.55 points lower ability per each standard deviation [SD] unit decrease in body size, 95% Confidence Interval [95%CI]: 0.05 to 2.72 and with cognitive decline after 20.1 years (0.07-0.11 SD decline over time per each SD decrease in body size, 95%CI:0.00 to 0.19. Men who were born larger were more likely to perform better in the cognitive ability test over time (1.22-1.43 increase in odds to remain in the top relative to the lower two thirds in ability over time per each SD increase in body size, 95%CI:1.04 to 1.79 and were more resilient to cognitive decline after 20.1 years (0.69 to 0.76 decrease in odds to decline from than remain in the top third of ability over time per each SD increase in body size, 95%CI:0.49 to 0.99. Slower growth between birth and two years in weight, height and body mass index was associated with lower cognitive ability at 67.9 years, but not with cognitive decline. CONCLUSIONS: Poorer lifetime cognitive ability is predicted by slower growth before and after birth. In predicting resilience to age related cognitive decline, the period before birth seems to be more critical.

  9. Preconceptional Folate Supplementation and the Risk of Spontaneous Preterm Birth: A Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Radek; Malone, Fergal D.; Porter, Flint T.; Nyberg, David A.; Comstock, Christine H.; Hankins, Gary D. V.; Eddleman, Keith; Gross, Susan J.; Dugoff, Lorraine; Craigo, Sabrina D.; Timor-Tritsch, Ilan E.; Carr, Stephen R.; Wolfe, Honor M.; D'Alton, Mary E.

    2009-01-01

    Background Low plasma folate concentrations in pregnancy are associated with preterm birth. Here we show an association between preconceptional folate supplementation and the risk of spontaneous preterm birth. Methods and Findings In a cohort of 34,480 low-risk singleton pregnancies enrolled in a study of aneuploidy risk, preconceptional folate supplementation was prospectively recorded in the first trimester of pregnancy. Duration of pregnancy was estimated based on first trimester ultrasound examination. Natural length of pregnancy was defined as gestational age at delivery in pregnancies with no medical or obstetrical complications that may have constituted an indication for delivery. Spontaneous preterm birth was defined as duration of pregnancy between 20 and 37 wk without those complications. The association between preconceptional folate supplementation and the risk of spontaneous preterm birth was evaluated using survival analysis. Comparing to no supplementation, preconceptional folate supplementation for 1 y or longer was associated with a 70% decrease in the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery between 20 and 28 wk (41 [0.27%] versus 4 [0.04%] spontaneous preterm births, respectively; HR 0.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.08–0.61, p = 0.004) and a 50% decrease in the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery between 28 and 32 wk (58 [0.38%] versus 12 [0.18%] preterm birth, respectively; HR 0.45, 95% CI 0.24–0.83, p = 0.010). Adjustment for maternal characteristics age, race, body mass index, education, marital status, smoking, parity, and history of prior preterm birth did not have a material effect on the association between folate supplementation for 1 y or longer and spontaneous preterm birth between 20 and 28, and 28 to 32 wk (adjusted HR 0.31, 95% CI 0.11–0.90, p = 0.031 and 0.53, 0.28–0.99, p = 0.046, respectively). Preconceptional folate supplementation was not significantly associated with the risk of spontaneous preterm

  10. Preconceptional folate supplementation and the risk of spontaneous preterm birth: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukowski, Radek; Malone, Fergal D; Porter, Flint T; Nyberg, David A; Comstock, Christine H; Hankins, Gary D V; Eddleman, Keith; Gross, Susan J; Dugoff, Lorraine; Craigo, Sabrina D; Timor-Tritsch, Ilan E; Carr, Stephen R; Wolfe, Honor M; D'Alton, Mary E

    2009-05-05

    Low plasma folate concentrations in pregnancy are associated with preterm birth. Here we show an association between preconceptional folate supplementation and the risk of spontaneous preterm birth. In a cohort of 34,480 low-risk singleton pregnancies enrolled in a study of aneuploidy risk, preconceptional folate supplementation was prospectively recorded in the first trimester of pregnancy. Duration of pregnancy was estimated based on first trimester ultrasound examination. Natural length of pregnancy was defined as gestational age at delivery in pregnancies with no medical or obstetrical complications that may have constituted an indication for delivery. Spontaneous preterm birth was defined as duration of pregnancy between 20 and 37 wk without those complications. The association between preconceptional folate supplementation and the risk of spontaneous preterm birth was evaluated using survival analysis. Comparing to no supplementation, preconceptional folate supplementation for 1 y or longer was associated with a 70% decrease in the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery between 20 and 28 wk (41 [0.27%] versus 4 [0.04%] spontaneous preterm births, respectively; HR 0.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.08-0.61, p = 0.004) and a 50% decrease in the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery between 28 and 32 wk (58 [0.38%] versus 12 [0.18%] preterm birth, respectively; HR 0.45, 95% CI 0.24-0.83, p = 0.010). Adjustment for maternal characteristics age, race, body mass index, education, marital status, smoking, parity, and history of prior preterm birth did not have a material effect on the association between folate supplementation for 1 y or longer and spontaneous preterm birth between 20 and 28, and 28 to 32 wk (adjusted HR 0.31, 95% CI 0.11-0.90, p = 0.031 and 0.53, 0.28-0.99, p = 0.046, respectively). Preconceptional folate supplementation was not significantly associated with the risk of spontaneous preterm birth beyond 32 wk. The association between shorter duration

  11. Preconceptional folate supplementation and the risk of spontaneous preterm birth: a cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radek Bukowski

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Low plasma folate concentrations in pregnancy are associated with preterm birth. Here we show an association between preconceptional folate supplementation and the risk of spontaneous preterm birth.In a cohort of 34,480 low-risk singleton pregnancies enrolled in a study of aneuploidy risk, preconceptional folate supplementation was prospectively recorded in the first trimester of pregnancy. Duration of pregnancy was estimated based on first trimester ultrasound examination. Natural length of pregnancy was defined as gestational age at delivery in pregnancies with no medical or obstetrical complications that may have constituted an indication for delivery. Spontaneous preterm birth was defined as duration of pregnancy between 20 and 37 wk without those complications. The association between preconceptional folate supplementation and the risk of spontaneous preterm birth was evaluated using survival analysis. Comparing to no supplementation, preconceptional folate supplementation for 1 y or longer was associated with a 70% decrease in the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery between 20 and 28 wk (41 [0.27%] versus 4 [0.04%] spontaneous preterm births, respectively; HR 0.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.08-0.61, p = 0.004 and a 50% decrease in the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery between 28 and 32 wk (58 [0.38%] versus 12 [0.18%] preterm birth, respectively; HR 0.45, 95% CI 0.24-0.83, p = 0.010. Adjustment for maternal characteristics age, race, body mass index, education, marital status, smoking, parity, and history of prior preterm birth did not have a material effect on the association between folate supplementation for 1 y or longer and spontaneous preterm birth between 20 and 28, and 28 to 32 wk (adjusted HR 0.31, 95% CI 0.11-0.90, p = 0.031 and 0.53, 0.28-0.99, p = 0.046, respectively. Preconceptional folate supplementation was not significantly associated with the risk of spontaneous preterm birth beyond 32 wk. The association between

  12. Association between high risk for preterm birth and changes in gingiva parameters during pregnancy-a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Anne Brigitte; Kuerschner, Anja C; Kunze, Mirjam; Woelber, Johan P; Al-Ahmad, Ali; Wittmer, Annette; Vach, Kirstin; Ratka-Krueger, Petra

    2017-10-02

    The objective of this study was to investigate clinical and microbiological gingival changes during pregnancy in women without periodontal disease. Additionally, these parameters were to be compared in women with high risk for preterm birth and women with a normal course of pregnancy. Group I consisted of 40 subjects at high risk for preterm birth, while group II involved 49 subjects with a normal course of pregnancy. The control group (III) was made up of 50 non-pregnant women. Clinical parameters (plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depths, gingival swelling, bleeding on probing) and microbiological changes were monitored during pregnancy and 2-4 weeks after parturition. In the high-risk preterm group (I), 19 women could be included in data analysis. This group was compared to 41 women in the normal pregnancy group (II) and 50 non-pregnant women (III). Gingival inflammation was significantly higher in women with high risk for preterm birth (I) compared to non-risk pregnant women (II, p  105) were found to be significantly higher after childbirth compared to non-pregnant women (p high risk for preterm birth showed worse clinical values compared to non-risk pregnant and non-pregnant women and an increased detection of Fusobacterium nucleatum after delivery. High risk for preterm birth might be associated with the occurrence of increased gingival inflammation.

  13. Perinatal nutrition in maternal mental health and child development: Birth of a pregnancy cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Brenda M Y; Giesbrecht, Gerald F; Letourneau, Nicole; Field, Catherine J; Bell, Rhonda C; Dewey, Deborah

    2016-02-01

    Mental disorders are one of the leading contributors to the global burden of disease. The Alberta Pregnancy Outcomes and Nutrition (APrON) study was initiated in 2008 to better understand perinatal environmental impacts on maternal mental health and child development. This pregnancy cohort was established to investigate the relationship between the maternal environment (e.g. nutritional status), maternal mental health status, birth outcomes, and child development. The purpose of this paper is to describe the creation of this longitudinal cohort, the data collection tools and procedures, and the background characteristics of the participants. Participants were pregnant women age 16 or older, their infants and the biological fathers. For the women, data were collected during each trimester of pregnancy and at 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36months after the birth of their infant. Maternal measures included diet, stress, current mental and physical health, health history, and lifestyle. In addition, maternal biological samples (DNA, blood, urine, and spot breast milk samples) were banked. Paternal data included current mental and physical health, health history, lifestyle, and banked DNA samples. For infants, DNA and blood were collected as well as information on health, development and feeding behavior. At the end of recruitment in 2012, the APrON cohort included 2140 women, 2172 infants, and 1417 biological fathers. Descriptive statistics of the cohort, and comparison of women who stayed in the study and those who dropped out are discussed. Findings from the longitudinal cohort may have important implications for health policy and clinical practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. THE AUTISM BIRTH COHORT (ABC): A PARADIGM FOR GENE-ENVIRONMENT-TIMING RESEARCH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltenberg, Camilla; Schjølberg, Synnve; Bresnahan, Michaeline; Hornig, Mady; Hirtz, Deborah; Dahl, Cathrine; Lie, Kari Kveim; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Schreuder, Patricia; Alsaker, Elin; Øyen, Anne-Siri; Magnus, Per; Surén, Pål; Susser, Ezra; Lipkin, W. Ian

    2010-01-01

    The reported prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has increased 5–10× over the past 20 years. Whether ASD are truly more frequent is controversial; nonetheless, the burden is profound in human and economic terms. Although autism is among the most heritable of mental disorders, its pathogenesis remains obscure. Environmental factors are proposed; however, none is implicated. Furthermore, there are no biomarkers to screen for ASD or risk of ASD. The Autism Birth Cohort (ABC) was initiated to investigate gene × environment × timing interactions and enable early diagnosis. It employs a large, unselected birth cohort wherein cases are prospectively ascertained through population screening. Samples collected serially through pregnancy and childhood include parental blood, maternal urine, cord blood, milk teeth and rectal swabs. More than 107 000 children are continuously screened via questionnaires, referral and a national registry. Cases are compared with a control group from the same cohort in a “nested case-control” design. Early screening, diagnostic assessments and re-assessments are designed to provide a rich view of longitudinal trajectory. Genetic, proteomic, immunologic, metagenomic and microbiological tools will be used to exploit unique biological samples. The ABC is a paradigm for investigating the role of genetic and environmental factors in complex disorders. PMID:20571529

  15. Trends in food consumption over 30 years: evidence from a British birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pot, G K; Prynne, C J; Almoosawi, S; Kuh, D; Stephen, A M

    2015-07-01

    As populations are ageing, more emphasis is placed on healthy ageing. Over the past decades, food consumption patterns and food availability have also changed drastically, and therefore this study aimed to describe these changes in an ageing population. Food consumption of participants from the Medical Research Council National Survey on Health and Development, a British birth cohort study, was assessed using a 5-day estimated food records at 60-64 years (2006-11), 53 years (1999), 43 years (1989) and 36 years (1982). Only those who recorded ⩾3 days at all four time points were included in the analyses, n=989 (n=438 men and n=551 women); trends were tested using the Friedman test. Consumption of white bread, whole milk, fats and oils, meat and meat products, alcoholic drinks, coffee, sugar, preserves and confectionery decreased (Pfood consumption reflect a healthier diet, for example, replacement of white bread by granary and wholemeal bread, lower consumption of red and processed meats, somewhat higher consumption of fish, higher consumption of vegetables and lower consumption of coffee. This could partly be because of ageing of the cohort or compliance with dietary recommendations, facilitated by greater availability of healthier foods, such as semi-skimmed milk and wholegrain bread, in the UK. The changes in food consumption in this British birth cohort over the past three decades are encouraging and reflect a healthier diet in the later years.

  16. Helpful Resources for Childbirth Educators and Parents

    OpenAIRE

    Shilling, Teri

    2008-01-01

    In this column, reviewers offer perspectives and comments on a variety of books and CDs that address topics related to the politics of midwifery in the United States, preparing expectant parents for childbirth, babywearing techniques, breastfeeding guides, and a child's perspective of home birth.

  17. The social norms of birth cohorts and adolescent marijuana use in the United States, 1976-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keyes, Katherine M; Schulenberg, John E; O'Malley, Patrick M; Johnston, Lloyd D; Bachman, Jerald G; Li, Guohua; Hasin, Deborah

    2011-10-01

    Studies of the relationship between social norms and marijuana use have generally focused on individual attitudes, leaving the influence of larger societal-level attitudes unknown. The present study investigated societal-level disapproval of marijuana use defined by birth cohort or by time-period. Combined analysis of nationally representative annual surveys of secondary school students in the United States conducted from 1976 to 2007 as part of the Monitoring the Future study. In-school surveys completed by adolescents in the United States. A total of 986 003 adolescents in grades 8, 10 and 12. Main predictors included the percentage of students who disapproved of marijuana in each birth cohort and time-period. Multi-level models with individuals clustered in time-periods of observation and birth cohorts were modeled, with past-year marijuana use as the outcome. Results indicated a significant and strong effect of birth cohort disapproval of marijuana use in predicting individual risk of marijuana use, after controlling for individual-level disapproval, perceived norms towards marijuana and other characteristics. Compared to birth cohorts in which most (87-90.9%) adolescents disapproved of marijuana use, odds of marijuana use were 3.53 times higher in cohorts where fewer than half (42-46.9%) disapproved (99% confidence interval: 2.75, 4.53). Individuals in birth cohorts that are more disapproving of marijuana use are less likely to use, independent of their personal attitudes towards marijuana use. Social norms and attitudes regarding marijuana use cluster in birth cohorts, and this clustering has a direct effect on marijuana use even after controlling for individual attitudes and perceptions of norms. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. School-age outcomes in children who were extremely low birth weight from four international population-based cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saigal, S.; Ouden, L. den; Wolke, D.; Hoult, L.; Paneth, N.; Streiner, D.L.; Whitaker, A.; Pinto-Martin, J.

    2003-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to determine whether leaming and school problems in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) and reference children differ between cohorts in different countries. Methods. Participants were 4 international population-based cohorts of ELBW survivors who were 500 to 1000

  19. Early child care and obesity at 12 months of age in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neelon, S E B; Andersen, Camilla Schou; Morgen, C S

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives:Evidence suggests that the child care environment may be more obesogenic than the family home, and previous studies have found that child care use may be associated with obesity in children. Few studies, however, have focused on child care during infancy, which may...... be an especially vulnerable period. This study examined child care use in infancy and weight status at 12 months of age in a country where paid maternity leave is common and early child care is not as prevalent as in other developed countries.Subjects/Methods:We studied 27821 children born to mothers participating...... in the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC), a longitudinal study of pregnant women enrolled between 1997 and 2002, who were also included in the Childcare Database, a national record of child care use in Denmark. The exposure was days in child care from birth to 12 months. The outcomes were sex-specific body...

  20. Risk Factors of Early Otitis Media in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kørvel-Hanquist, Asbjørn; Koch, Anders; Niclasen, Janni

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess risk factors of otitis media (OM) in six-months-old children. METHOD: The sample consisted of 69,105 mothers and their children from the Danish National Birth Cohort. The women were interviewed twice during pregnancy and again 6 months after birth. The outcome "one or more...... associated with a risk of OM. When a Bonferroni correction was introduced, gender, prematurity, parity, maternal age, maternal self-estimated health, taking penicillin during pregnancy, and terminating breastfeeding before age six months, was associated with a risk of early OM. The adjusted ORs of OM...... less than 6 months, had an increased OR of 1.42 (95% CI 1.28-1.58) compared to children being breastfeed beyond 6 months. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that prenatal factors are of less importance regarding early OM before the age of six months. Postnatal risk factors seem to pose the main risk...

  1. Pregnancy periodontitis and low birth weight: A cohort study in rural Belgaum, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murthy S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low birth weight can cause devastating long term medical and economical impacts to the family as whole and much interest prevails in preventing LBW by controlling its potential risk factors. Pregnancy periodontitis, being reported as one of such risk factors, is amenable to prevention, control and cure. Confirmative evidence can bring drastic improvements in birth weight and also health of the mother. This cohort study was an attempt to find if such a relation exists since limited conclusive evidence is available. Objectives: To determine the relation between pregnancy periodontitis and low birth weight of newborn in primigravida women in rural Belgaum. To assess the oral health status of the same primigravida women in rural Belgaum. Materials & Methods: Study Design & Period: A cohort study for 18 months Study location: 3 rural field areas of JNMC (Handiganur, Kinaye and Vantamuri in Belgaum. Study Population: Primigravida women in the 3 villages in their first trimester in January/February 2011 during enrolment and expected to deliver in August/September 2011. Sample Size: 240 (120 in each cohort. Data Collection: After ethical review, a pilot study was conducted on 10% of study population in each village to essentially pre-test the interview schedule. Then screening visit to enrol women based on eligibility criteria was done. Subsequent screening periodontal examination was done by CPI to allocate the women into study (pregnant women with periodontitis and control (pregnant women without periodontitis cohort. Oral health status was also recorded using OHI-S and DMFT indices. Follow up visits consisted of trimester-wise visit to check on periodontal status and a post delivery visit to record term of delivery and LBW. Data was entered in Microsoft Excel 2007 and SPSS (β version 20 and analyzed in in proportions, percentages, Odds Ratio, Relative Risk, Chi-Square test and Logistic Regression Analysis.Results: The total incidence of

  2. Pregnancy periodontitis and low birth weight: A cohort study in rural Belgaum, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murthy S

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low birth weight can cause devastating long term medical and economical impacts to the family as whole and much interest prevails in preventing LBW by controlling its potential risk factors. Pregnancy periodontitis, being reported as one of such risk factors, is amenable to prevention, control and cure. Confirmative evidence can bring drastic improvements in birth weight and also health of the mother. This cohort study was an attempt to find if such a relation exists since limited conclusive evidence is available. Objectives: To determine the relation between pregnancy periodontitis and low birth weight of newborn in primigravida women in rural Belgaum. To assess the oral health status of the same primigravida women in rural Belgaum. Materials & Methods:Study Design & Period: A cohort study for 18 months Study location: 3 rural field areas of JNMC (Handiganur, Kinaye and Vantamuri in Belgaum. Study Population: Primigravida women in the 3 villages in their first trimester in January/February 2011 during enrolment and expected to deliver in August/September 2011. Sample Size: 240 (120 in each cohort. Data Collection: After ethical review, a pilot study was conducted on 10% of study population in each village to essentially pre-test the interview schedule. Then screening visit to enrol women based on eligibility criteria was done. Subsequent screening periodontal examination was done by CPI to allocate the women into study (pregnant women with periodontitis and control (pregnant women without periodontitis cohort. Oral health status was also recorded using OHI-S and DMFT indices. Follow up visits consisted of trimester-wise visit to check on periodontal status and a post delivery visit to record term of delivery and LBW. Data was entered in Microsoft Excel 2007 and SPSS (β version 20 and analyzed in in proportions, percentages, Odds Ratio, Relative Risk, Chi-Square test and Logistic Regression Analysis.Results: The total incidence of

  3. No Association between Mean Telomere Length and Life Stress Observed in a 30 Year Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodczyk, Sarah; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John; Pearson, John F.; Kennedy, Martin A.

    2014-01-01

    Telomeres are specialised structures that cap the ends of chromosomes. They shorten with each cell division and have been proposed as a marker of cellular aging. Previous studies suggest that early life stressors increase the rate of telomere shortening with potential impact on disease states and mortality later in life. This study examined the associations between telomere length and exposure to a number of stressors that arise during development from the antenatal/perinatal period through to young adulthood. Participants were from the Christchurch Health and Development Study (CHDS), a New Zealand longitudinal birth cohort which has followed participants from birth until age 30. Telomere length was obtained on DNA from peripheral blood samples collected from consenting participants (n = 677) at age 28–30, using a quantitative PCR assay. These data were assessed for associations with 26 measures of life course adversity or stress which occurred prior to 25 years of age. No associations were found between telomere length measured at age 28–30 years and life course adversity or stress for specific measures and for the summary risk scores for each developmental domain. The correlations were very small ranging from −0.06 to 0.06 with a median of 0.01, and none were statistically significant. Our results in this well-studied birth cohort do not support prior reports of such associations, and underscore the need for more extensive replication of proposed links between stress and telomere biology in larger cohorts with appropriate phenotypic data. PMID:24816913

  4. No association between mean telomere length and life stress observed in a 30 year birth cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Jodczyk

    Full Text Available Telomeres are specialised structures that cap the ends of chromosomes. They shorten with each cell division and have been proposed as a marker of cellular aging. Previous studies suggest that early life stressors increase the rate of telomere shortening with potential impact on disease states and mortality later in life. This study examined the associations between telomere length and exposure to a number of stressors that arise during development from the antenatal/perinatal period through to young adulthood. Participants were from the Christchurch Health and Development Study (CHDS, a New Zealand longitudinal birth cohort which has followed participants from birth until age 30. Telomere length was obtained on DNA from peripheral blood samples collected from consenting participants (n = 677 at age 28-30, using a quantitative PCR assay. These data were assessed for associations with 26 measures of life course adversity or stress which occurred prior to 25 years of age. No associations were found between telomere length measured at age 28-30 years and life course adversity or stress for specific measures and for the summary risk scores for each developmental domain. The correlations were very small ranging from -0.06 to 0.06 with a median of 0.01, and none were statistically significant. Our results in this well-studied birth cohort do not support prior reports of such associations, and underscore the need for more extensive replication of proposed links between stress and telomere biology in larger cohorts with appropriate phenotypic data.

  5. Possibilities and considerations when merging dietary data from the world's two largest pregnancy cohorts: the Danish National Birth Cohort and the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Sjurdur F; Birgisdottir, Bryndis Eva; Halldorsson, Thorhallur I; Brantsaeter, Anne Lise; Haugen, Margaretha; Torjusen, Hanne; Petersen, Sesilje B; Strøm, Marin; Meltzer, Helle Margrete

    2014-11-01

    To elucidate the research possibilities when merging data on maternal diet from the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) and the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa), through comparison of (i) the methodology used for dietary assessment and (ii) the estimated intake of selected food groups in the two cohorts. Qualitative and quantitative comparison of the two dietary databases. Two national prospective pregnancy cohorts. Denmark, Norway. Comparison of food intake using food frequency questionnaires (FFQs). The FFQs had overlapping time windows and a majority of the questions in the two FFQs were comparable. Calculation principles shared similar features, including the software used and use of global questions to calibrate intakes of different food groups. A total of 63 food groups were defined that could be compared across the two cohorts; these were further aggregated down to 31 broader groups. A comparison of food intakes (grams/d) showed 39, 74 and 141% lower daily intakes of fish, potatoes and rice, respectively, in DNBC vs. MoBa and 39, 54 and 65% higher daily intakes of milk, butter and potatoes in DNBC vs. MoBa. For most other food groups, differences in consumption data were below 20%. The two FFQs are to a large extent compatible and substantial differences in dietary habits were observed between the two cohorts. This may strengthen studies using pooled analysis to examine diet-disease relations. This is a conclusion of great importance given the colossal and costly task involved to establish each of these two cohorts. © 2014 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  6. The association between early sensitization patterns and subsequent allergic disease. The DARC birth cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Henrik Fomsgaard; Eller, Esben; Andersen, Klaus Ejner

    2009-01-01

    Kjaer HF, Eller E, Andersen KE, Høst A, Bindslev-Jensen C. The association between early sensitization patterns and subsequent allergic disease. The DARC birth cohort study. Pediatr Allergy Immunol 2009. (c) 2009 The Authors Journal compilation (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons A/SPrevention of allergic......, and sensitization at 6 yr, were sensitized to food allergens to a large extent (53%, 42%, and 47%, respectively) already at 6 months. Early inhalant sensitization (S-IgE) did not increase the risk of later allergic disease. Early atopic dermatitis (0-18 months) was also highly associated with subsequent allergic...

  7. Time to pregnancy among Danish laboratory technicians who were a part of the National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jin Liang; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The Danish National Birth Cohort was used to examine whether laboratory work was associated with reduced fecundity. METHODS: Self-reported data on laboratory work and waiting time to pregnancy (0-2, 3-5, 6-12 and > 12 months) were used for 829 female laboratory technicians interviewed...... mass index, and paternal job. RESULTS: No difference in time to pregnancy was found between the laboratory technicians and teachers or between the laboratory technicians with different exposures. The adjusted fecundability ratio for the laboratory technicians was 0.94 [95% confidence interval (95% CI...

  8. Psychiatric comorbidities in autism spectrum disorders: findings from a Danish Historic Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abdallah, Morsi; Greaves-Lord, Kirstin; Grove, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    Several psychiatric comorbidities are common among patients with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), which may worsen the clinical outcome and add to the substantial costs of care. The aim of this report is to estimate the psychiatric comorbidity rates within ASD utilizing a Danish Historic Birth...... Cohort (HBC). Overall, 72.5% of ASD cases had at least one other psychiatric comorbidity along with ASD which suggests a high prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities in individuals with ASD. Careful consideration and treatment of comorbidities may serve as a tool to understand and treat ASD better....

  9. Cohort birth order, parity progression ratio and parity distribution trends in developed countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Paul Sardon

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Major changes in childbearing patterns are continuously taking place in the majority of low-fertility populations with postponement being virtually universal. Almost everywhere the two-child family became dominant. Proportions of childless women and one-child families were increasing recently. Changes in childbearing patterns in Central and Eastern Europe have been profound justifying the label of an historic transformation. Young women are bearing considerably fewer children compared to older cohorts. Especially proportions of women having second births in most CEE countries were declining rapidly and these were lower than in western countries. Postponement of childbearing might be nearing cessation in some western countries.

  10. Physical exercise during pregnancy and fetal growth measures: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Mette; Olsen, Jørn; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to examine the association between physical exercise during pregnancy and fetal growth measures. STUDY DESIGN: Data on 79,692 liveborn singletons from the Danish National Birth Cohort were collected between 1996 and 2002. Mean differences in birthweight......, length, ponderal index, head and abdominal circumference, and placental weight and hazard ratios of small- and large-for-gestational-age babies were calculated. RESULTS: Our data indicated smaller babies in exercising women compared with nonexercisers, but the differences were small, and only a few were...

  11. Childbirth and criteria for traumatic events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boorman, Rhonda J; Devilly, Grant J; Gamble, Jenny; Creedy, Debra K; Fenwick, Jennifer

    2014-02-01

    for some women childbirth is physically and psychologically traumatic and meets Criterion A1 (threat) and A2 (intense emotional response) for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders Fourth Edition (DSM-IV).This study differentiates Criterion A1 and A2 to explore their individual relationship to prevalence rates for posttraumatic stress, each other, and associated factors for childbirth trauma. women were recruited at three hospitals from October 2008 to October 2009. Questionnaires were completed at recruitment and at 14 days post partum. women in the third trimester of pregnancy (n=890) were recruited by a research midwife while waiting for their antenatal clinic appointment. Participants were over 17 years of age, expected to give birth to a live infant, not undergoing psychological treatment, and able to complete questionnaires in English. this study found 14.3% of women met criteria for a traumatic childbirth. When the condition of A2 was removed, the prevalence rate doubled to 29.4%. Approximately half the women who perceived threat in childbirth did not have an intense negative emotional response. Predictors of finding childbirth traumatic were pre-existing psychiatric morbidity, being a first time mother and experiencing an emergency caesarean section. the fear response is an important diagnostic criterion for assessing psychologically traumatic childbirth. The identification of risk factors may inform maternity service delivery to prevent traumatic birth and postpartum approaches to care to address long-term negative consequences. prevention and treatment of traumatic childbirth are improved through knowledge of potential risk factors and understanding the woman's subjective experience. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Determinants of coitus after childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udry, J R; Deang, L

    1993-01-01

    Using a sample of 3080 women from Cebu, Philippines, interviewed immediately after childbirth and every 2 months thereafter for 2 years, the determinants of return to coitus are analysed. Eighty per cent of the women returned to coitus before the return of menses, and 90% did so before stopping breast-feeding. In hazards models, variables associated with traditional life styles retarded return to coitus. Situational variables (husband resident, crowding, children aged 6 and under), especially husband residence, and biological variables (mother's age, return to menses, and lactation) were significant predictors of return to coitus. The implications of the analysis for the construction of models of birth interval dynamics are discussed.

  13. Severe obesity in young women and reproductive health: the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøhr, Ellen Aagaard; Timpson, Nicholas J; Andersen, Camilla S

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about reproductive health in severely obese women. In this study, we present associations between different levels of severe obesity and a wide range of health outcomes in the mother and child. METHODS: From the Danish National Birth Cohort, we obtained self......-reported information about prepregnant body mass index (BMI) for 2451 severely obese women and 2450 randomly selected women from the remaining cohort who served as a comparison group. Information about maternal and infant outcomes was also self-reported or came from registers. Logistic regression was used to estimate...... the association between different levels of severe obesity and reproductive outcomes. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Subfecundity was more frequent in severely obese women, and during pregnancy, they had an excess risk of urinary tract infections, gestational diabetes, preeclampsia and other hypertensive disorders which...

  14. Infertility, infertility treatment and twinning: the Danish National BirthCohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jin Liang; Basso, Olga; Obel, Carsten

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND We have previously observed that an increasing time to pregnancy (TTP) is associated with a reduced frequency of twin deliveries in couples not receiving infertility treatment. By using updated information, we assessed the frequencies of dizygotic (DZ) and monozygotic (MZ) twin...... deliveries as a function of infertility (TTP>12 months), as well as infertility treatment. METHODS From the Danish National Birth Cohort (1997-2003), we identified 51 730 fertile couples with TTPwith TTP>12 months and 5163 infertile couples who conceived after treatment. Information on zygosity, available...... for part of the cohort (1997-2000), was based on standardized questions on the similarities between the twins at the age of 3-5 years. RESULTS Compared with fertile couples, the frequency of DZ twin deliveries was lower for infertile couples conceiving naturally (odds ratio 0.4, 95% confidence interval 0...

  15. Association of light-to-moderate alcohol drinking in pregnancy with preterm birth and birth weight: elucidating bias by pooling data from nine European cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Poulsen, Gry; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Chatzi, Leda; Cordier, Sylvaine; Dale, Maria Teresa Grønning; Fernandez, Marieta; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Jaddoe, Vincent Wv; Kogevinas, Manolis; Kruithof, Claudia J; Lindhard, Morten Søndergaard; Magnus, Per; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard; Richiardi, Lorenzo; Rodriguez-Bernal, Clara L; Rouget, Florence; Rusconi, Franca; Vrijheid, Martine; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2017-09-01

    Women who drink light-to-moderately during pregnancy have been observed to have lower risk of unfavourable pregnancy outcomes than abstainers. This has been suggested to be a result of bias. In a pooled sample, including 193 747 live-born singletons from nine European cohorts, we examined the associations between light-to-moderate drinking and preterm birth, birth weight, and small-for-gestational age in term born children (term SGA). To address potential sources of bias, we compared the associations from the total sample with a sub-sample restricted to first-time pregnant women who conceived within six months of trying, and examined whether the associations varied across calendar time. In the total sample, drinking up to around six drinks per week as compared to abstaining was associated with lower risk of preterm birth, whereas no significant associations were found for birth weight or term SGA. Drinking six or more drinks per week was associated with lower birth weight and higher risk of term SGA, but no increased risk of preterm birth. The analyses restricted to women without reproductive experience revealed similar results. Before 2000 approximately half of pregnant women drank alcohol. This decreased to 39% in 2000-2004, and 14% in 2005-2011. Before 2000, every additional drink was associated with reduced mean birth weight, whereas in 2005-2011, the mean birth weight increased with increasing intake. The period-specific associations between low-to-moderate drinking and birth weight, which also were observed for term SGA, are indicative of bias. It is impossible to distinguish if the bias is attributable to unmeasured confounding, which change over time or cohort heterogeneity.

  16. Prenatal determinants of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescence - Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikanmäki, Marjaana; Tammelin, Tuija; Vääräsmäki, Marja; Sipola-Leppänen, Marika; Miettola, Satu; Pouta, Anneli; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kajantie, Eero

    2017-04-20

    Lower levels of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are key risk factors of chronic adult diseases. Physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are predicted by birth weight, but the underlying parental and pregnancy-related factors remain largely unknown. We examined how prenatal determinants are associated with physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescence. Of the 16-year-old members of the population-based Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC 1986), 6682 singletons with no major physical disability reported their amount of physical activity outside school hours, and 4706 completed a submaximal cycle ergometer test assessing cardiorespiratory fitness. Physical activity was expressed as metabolic equivalent hours per week (METh/week) and cardiorespiratory fitness as peak oxygen uptake (ml·kg-1·min-1). Prenatal determinants included birth weight, length of gestation, mother's and father's body mass index (BMI), maternal gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and maternal hypertension and smoking during pregnancy. Data were analyzed by multiple linear regression. A higher birth weight and longer length of gestation predicted lower levels of physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness at 16 years, although the association between length of gestation and physical activity was inverse U-shaped. Mother's or father's overweight or obesity before pregnancy were associated with lower levels of their offspring's physical activity and fitness in adolescence. Adjusting for maternal pregnancy disorders and the adolescent's own BMI attenuated the associations with the mother's but not the father's overweight/obesity. Furthermore, maternal GDM predicted lower cardiorespiratory fitness. A high birth weight and parental overweight/obesity are associated with lower levels of both physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescence, while maternal GDM and longer length of gestation are associated with lower cardiorespiratory

  17. Maternal systemic or cord blood inflammation is associated with birth anthropometry in a Tanzanian prospective cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, A L; Pedersen, S H; Urassa, M; Michael, D; Andreasen, A; Todd, J; Kinung'hi, S M; Changalucha, J; McDermid, J M

    2017-01-01

    HIV infection is associated with chronic systemic inflammation, with or without antiretroviral therapy. Consequences for foetal growth are not understood, particularly in settings where multiple maternal infections and malnutrition are common. The study was designed to examine maternal systemic circulating and umbilical cord blood cytokine concentrations in relation to birth anthropometry in a Tanzanian prospective cohort. A 9-plex panel of maternal plasma cytokines in HIV-positive (n = 44) and HIV-negative (n = 70) mothers and the same cytokines in umbilical cord blood collected at delivery was assayed. Linear regression modelled associations between maternal or cord blood cytokines and birth anthropometry. Health indicators (haemoglobin, mid-upper-arm circumference, body mass index) in HIV-positive mothers without considerable immunosuppression did not differ from HIV-negative women. Despite this, HIV-exposed infants had lower birthweight and length. Subgroup analyses indicated that HIV management using HAART was associated with lower plasma TNF-α, as were longer durations of any antiretroviral therapy (≥2 months). Greater maternal plasma TNF-α was associated with earlier delivery (-1.7 weeks, P = 0.039) and lower birthweights (-287 g; P = 0.020), while greater umbilical cord TNF-α (-1.43 cm; P = 0.036) and IL-12p70 (-2.4 cm; P = 0.008) were associated with shorter birth length. Birthweight was inversely associated with cord IL-12p70 (-723 g; P = 0.001) and IFN-γ (-482 g, P = 0.007). Maternal cytokines during pregnancy did not correlate with umbilical cord cytokines at delivery. Systemic inflammation identified in maternal plasma or umbilical cord blood was associated with poorer birth anthropometrics in HIV-exposed and HIV-unexposed infants. Controlling maternal and/or foetal systemic inflammation may improve birth anthropometry. © 2016 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Estimation of newborn risk for child or adolescent obesity: lessons from longitudinal birth cohorts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Morandi

    Full Text Available Prevention of obesity should start as early as possible after birth. We aimed to build clinically useful equations estimating the risk of later obesity in newborns, as a first step towards focused early prevention against the global obesity epidemic.We analyzed the lifetime Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 (NFBC1986 (N = 4,032 to draw predictive equations for childhood and adolescent obesity from traditional risk factors (parental BMI, birth weight, maternal gestational weight gain, behaviour and social indicators, and a genetic score built from 39 BMI/obesity-associated polymorphisms. We performed validation analyses in a retrospective cohort of 1,503 Italian children and in a prospective cohort of 1,032 U.S. children.In the NFBC1986, the cumulative accuracy of traditional risk factors predicting childhood obesity, adolescent obesity, and childhood obesity persistent into adolescence was good: AUROC = 0·78[0·74-0.82], 0·75[0·71-0·79] and 0·85[0·80-0·90] respectively (all p<0·001. Adding the genetic score produced discrimination improvements ≤1%. The NFBC1986 equation for childhood obesity remained acceptably accurate when applied to the Italian and the U.S. cohort (AUROC = 0·70[0·63-0·77] and 0·73[0·67-0·80] respectively and the two additional equations for childhood obesity newly drawn from the Italian and the U.S. datasets showed good accuracy in respective cohorts (AUROC = 0·74[0·69-0·79] and 0·79[0·73-0·84] (all p<0·001. The three equations for childhood obesity were converted into simple Excel risk calculators for potential clinical use.This study provides the first example of handy tools for predicting childhood obesity in newborns by means of easily recorded information, while it shows that currently known genetic variants have very little usefulness for such prediction.

  19. Early Childhood Development and Schooling Attainment: Longitudinal Evidence from British, Finnish and Philippine Birth Cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peet, Evan D; McCoy, Dana C; Danaei, Goodarz; Ezzati, Majid; Fawzi, Wafaie; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Pillas, Demetris; Fink, Günther

    2015-01-01

    While recent literature has highlighted the importance of early childhood development for later life outcomes, comparatively little is known regarding the relative importance of early physical and cognitive development in predicting educational attainment cross-culturally. We used prospective data from three birth cohorts: the Northern Finland Birth Cohort of 1986 (NFBC1986), the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS1970), and the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey of 1983 (CLHNS) to assess the association of height-for-age z-score (HAZ) and cognitive development measured prior to age 8 with schooling attainment. Multivariate linear regression models were used to estimate baseline and adjusted associations. Both physical and cognitive development were highly predictive of adult educational attainment conditional on parental characteristics. The largest positive associations between physical development and schooling were found in the CLHNS (β = 0.53, 95%-CI: [0.32, 0.74]) with substantially smaller associations in the BCS1970 (β = 0.10, 95% CI [0.04, 0.16]) and the NFBC1986 (β = 0.06, 95% CI [-0.05, 0.16]). Strong associations between cognitive development and educational attainment were found for all three cohorts (NFBC1986: β = 0.22, 95%-CI: [0.12, 0.31], BCS1970: β = 0.58, 95%-CI: [0.52, 0.64], CLHNS: β = 1.08, 95%-CI: [0.88, 1.27]). Models jointly estimating educational associations of physical and cognitive development demonstrated weaker associations for physical development and minimal changes for cognitive development. The results indicate that although physical and cognitive early development are both important predictors of educational attainment, cognitive development appears to play a particularly important role. The large degree of heterogeneity in the observed effect sizes suggest that the importance of early life physical growth and cognitive development is highly dependent on socioeconomic and institutional contexts.

  20. Does the impact of a plant-based diet during pregnancy on birth weight differ by ethnicity? A dietary pattern analysis from a prospective Canadian birth cohort alliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulyniak, Michael A; de Souza, Russell J; Shaikh, Mateen; Desai, Dipika; Lefebvre, Diana L; Gupta, Milan; Wilson, Julie; Wahi, Gita; Subbarao, Padmaja; Becker, Allan B; Mandhane, Piush; Turvey, Stuart E; Beyene, Joseph; Atkinson, Stephanie; Morrison, Katherine M; McDonald, Sarah; Teo, Koon K; Sears, Malcolm R; Anand, Sonia S

    2017-11-14

    Birth weight is an indicator of newborn health and a strong predictor of health outcomes in later life. Significant variation in diet during pregnancy between ethnic groups in high-income countries provides an ideal opportunity to investigate the influence of maternal diet on birth weight. Four multiethnic birth cohorts based in Canada (the NutriGen Alliance). 3997 full-term mother-infant pairs of diverse ethnic groups who had principal component analysis-derived diet pattern scores-plant-based, Western and health-conscious-and birth weight data. No associations were identified between the Western and health-conscious diet patterns and birth weight; however, the plant-based dietary pattern was inversely associated with birth weight (β=-67.6 g per 1-unit increase; Pplant-based diet associated with lower birth weight (β=-65.9 g per 1-unit increase; Pplant-based diet associated with a higher birth weight (β=+40.5 g per 1-unit increase; P=0.01), partially explained by cooked vegetable consumption. Maternal consumption of a plant-based diet during pregnancy is associated with birth weight. Among white Europeans, a plant-based diet is associated with lower birth weight, reduced odds of an infant born LGA and increased odds of SGA, whereas among South Asians living in Canada, a plant-based diet is associated with increased birth weight. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  1. Trends in tobacco consumption in three different birth cohorts of elderly of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Gabriela Arantes; Rocha, Francisco Marcelo Monteiro da; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia; Duarte, Yeda Aparecida de Oliveira; Zanetta, Dirce Maria Trevisan

    2015-02-01

    The effects of birth cohorts reflect the historical differences in physical and social environments. The objectives of the present study were to describe the tobacco consumption and to evaluate the behavioral trends with respect to smoking in three different birth cohorts of a population-based sample of elderly individuals. A series of three cross-sectional studies conducted with elderly individuals of 60-64 years of age interviewed in 2000 (birth cohort 1936-1940; n=427), 2006 (birth cohort 1942-1946; n=298) and 2011 (birth cohort 1947-1951; n=355) in a population-based sample from the city of São Paulo, Brazil. The interviewees were participating in a prospective cohort study entitled Health, Well-Being and Aging (Saúde, Bem-Estar e Envelhecimento [SABE]). Data on tobacco consumption were self-reported and interviewees were then classified as never smokers, former smokers or current smokers. Linear model for categorical data was used to test differences on tobacco consumption between three birth elderly cohorts. Men were more likely than women to be smokers. Being evangelical and having more schooling constituted protective factors against smoking. Regarding trends, the tobacco consumption of the men did not change in any of the three cohorts studied (p=0.7454), whereas there was an increase in the number of women smokers, principally former smokers, over the periods evaluated (p=0.0189). These results suggest that the anti-smoking policies implemented in Brazil were effective in women of this age group; however, different prevention strategies are required to target elderly men. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Genetic causes of intellectual disability in a birth cohort: A population‐based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riegel, Mariluce; Segal, Sandra L.; Félix, Têmis M.; Barros, Aluísio J. D.; Santos, Iná S.; Matijasevich, Alicia; Giugliani, Roberto; Black, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    Intellectual disability affects approximately 1–3% of the population and can be caused by genetic and environmental factors. Although many studies have investigated the etiology of intellectual disability in different populations, few studies have been performed in middle‐income countries. The present study estimated the prevalence of genetic causes related to intellectual disability in a cohort of children from a city in south Brazil who were followed from birth. Children who showed poor performance in development and intelligence tests at the ages of 2 and 4 were included. Out of 4,231 liveborns enrolled in the cohort, 214 children fulfilled the inclusion criteria. A diagnosis was established in approximately 90% of the children evaluated. Genetic causes were determined in 31 of the children and 19 cases remained unexplained even after extensive investigation. The overall prevalence of intellectual disability in this cohort due to genetic causes was 0.82%. Because this study was nested in a cohort, there were a large number of variables related to early childhood and the likelihood of information bias was minimized by collecting information with a short recall time. This study was not influenced by selection bias, allowing identification of intellectual disability and estimation of the prevalence of genetic causes in this population, thereby increasing the possibility of providing appropriate management and/or genetic counseling. © 2015 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25728503

  3. Socioeconomic position and overweight among adolescents: data from birth cohort studies in Brazil and the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matijasevich, Alicia; Victora, Cesar G; Golding, Jean; Barros, Fernando C; Menezes, Ana Maria; Araujo, Cora L; Smith, George Davey

    2009-01-01

    Background Developed and developing countries are facing rapid increases in overweight and obesity among children and adolescents. The patterns of overweight/obesity differ by age, sex, rural or urban residence and socioeconomic position (SEP) and vary between and within countries. Methods We investigated patterns of SEP – overweight status association among adolescents from the UK (ALSPAC) and Brazil (the 1982 and 1993 Pelotas birth cohort studies). All analyses were performed separately for males and females. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationships between overweight status and two SEP indicators – family income and maternal education. Results A strong positive association was observed in 11-year-old boys from the 1993 Pelotas cohort, with higher prevalence of overweight among the least poor and among those whose mothers had more years of schooling (x2 for linear trend p cohort study there was a positive association (higher prevalence of overweight in the higher socioeconomic and educational strata, x2 for linear trend p cohort study, overweight at 18 years of age showed a positive association with both SEP indicators while among females, the reverse association was found. Conclusion The results of this study demonstrate that the social patterning of overweight varies between and within populations over time. Specific approaches should be developed within populations in order to contain the obesity epidemic and reduce disparities. PMID:19368733

  4. Genetic causes of intellectual disability in a birth cohort: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Simone M; Riegel, Mariluce; Segal, Sandra L; Félix, Têmis M; Barros, Aluísio J D; Santos, Iná S; Matijasevich, Alicia; Giugliani, Roberto; Black, Maureen

    2015-06-01

    Intellectual disability affects approximately 1-3% of the population and can be caused by genetic and environmental factors. Although many studies have investigated the etiology of intellectual disability in different populations, few studies have been performed in middle-income countries. The present study estimated the prevalence of genetic causes related to intellectual disability in a cohort of children from a city in south Brazil who were followed from birth. Children who showed poor performance in development and intelligence tests at the ages of 2 and 4 were included. Out of 4,231 liveborns enrolled in the cohort, 214 children fulfilled the inclusion criteria. A diagnosis was established in approximately 90% of the children evaluated. Genetic causes were determined in 31 of the children and 19 cases remained unexplained even after extensive investigation. The overall prevalence of intellectual disability in this cohort due to genetic causes was 0.82%. Because this study was nested in a cohort, there were a large number of variables related to early childhood and the likelihood of information bias was minimized by collecting information with a short recall time. This study was not influenced by selection bias, allowing identification of intellectual disability and estimation of the prevalence of genetic causes in this population, thereby increasing the possibility of providing appropriate management and/or genetic counseling. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Focus and coverage of Bolsa Família Program in the Pelotas 2004 birth cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelen H Schmidt

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe the focalization and coverage of Bolsa Família Program among the families of children who are part of the 2004 Pelotas birth cohort (2004 cohort. METHODS The data used derives from the integration of information from the 2004 cohort and the Cadastro Único para Programas Sociais do Governo Federal (CadÚnico – Register for Social Programs of the Federal Government, in the 2004-2010 period. We estimated the program coverage (percentage of eligible people who receive the benefit and its focus (proportion of eligible people among the beneficiaries. We used two criteria to define eligibility: the per capita household income reported in the cohort follow-ups and belonging to the 20% poorest families according to the National Economic Indicator (IEN, an asset index. RESULTS Between 2004 and 2010, the proportion of families in the cohort that received the benefit increased from 11% to 34%. We observed an increase in all wealth quintiles. In 2010, by income and wealth quintiles (IEN, 62%-72% of the families were beneficiaries among the 20% poorest people, 2%-5% among the 20% richest people, and about 30% of families of the intermediate quintile. According to household income (minus the benefit 29% of families were eligible in 2004 and 16% in 2010. By the same criteria, the coverage of the program increased from 43% in 2004 to 71% in 2010. In the same period, by the wealth criterion (IEN, coverage increased from 29% to 63%. The focalization of the program decreased from 78% in 2004 to 32% in 2010 according to income, and remained constant (37% according to the IEN. CONCLUSIONS Among the families of the 2004 cohort, there was a significant increase in the program coverage, from its inception until 2010, when it was near 70%. The focus of the program was below 40% in 2010, indicating that more than half of the beneficiaries did not belong to the target population.

  6. How Do Women with an Intellectual Disability Experience the Support of a Doula during Their Pregnancy, Childbirth and after the Birth of Their Child?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGarry, Alison; Stenfert Kroese, Biza; Cox, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Background: With increasing numbers of people with an intellectual disability choosing to become parents, the right support is imperative for effective parenting (Macintyre & Stewart2011]). The aim of this study was to gain insight into the experiences of parents who received support from Doulas during pregnancy, birth and following the birth…

  7. Fear of Childbirth and Preference for Cesarean Delivery Among Young American Women Before Childbirth: A Survey Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, Kathrin; Edmonds, Joyce Katherine; Hall, Wendy A

    2015-09-01

    Fear of birth and mode of delivery preferences are similar among pregnant and nonpregnant women, suggesting that attitudes toward birth are formed in young adulthood or earlier. Understanding why some young women fear birth and prefer obstetric interventions can inform public health initiatives aimed at reducing fear and promoting birth as a normal life event. We conducted an online survey with 752 American nulliparous young women to assess their preferences and attitudes toward childbirth. We identified explanatory variables associated with reported fear of childbirth and cesarean delivery (CD) preferences. A preference for CD was reported by 14 percent of young women and 27 percent had scores indicating elevated fear of birth. Fear of birth increased the likelihood of cesarean preference (adjusted relative risk (ARR) 3.84 [95% CI 2.49-5.95]) as did a family history of CD (ARR 1.65 [95% CI 1.13-2.42]). The likelihood of reporting elevated childbirth fear was increased among young women who reported concerns about the physical changes pregnancy and birth have on women's bodies (ARR 2.04 [95% CI 1.50-2.78]). Young women who reported a high degree of confidence in their knowledge about childbirth were significantly less likely to report childbirth fear (ARR 0.61 [95% CI 0.42-0.87]). Access to childbirth information was also associated with a decreased likelihood of fear of birth (ARR 0.75 [95% CI 0.59-0.95]). Young women reporting high levels of childbirth fear are nearly four times more likely to prefer a CD. Specific fears, such as worries over the influence of pregnancy and birth on the female body, need to be addressed before pregnancy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Impact of maternal intrapartum antibiotics, method of birth and breastfeeding on gut microbiota during the first year of life: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, M B; Konya, T; Persaud, R R; Guttman, D S; Chari, R S; Field, C J; Sears, M R; Mandhane, P J; Turvey, S E; Subbarao, P; Becker, A B; Scott, J A; Kozyrskyj, A L

    2016-05-01

    Dysbiosis of the infant gut microbiota may have long-term health consequences. This study aimed to determine the impact of maternal intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) on infant gut microbiota, and to explore whether breastfeeding modifies these effects. Prospective pregnancy cohort of Canadian infants born in 2010-2012: the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) Study. General community. Representative sub-sample of 198 healthy term infants from the CHILD Study. Maternal IAP exposures and birth method were documented from hospital records and breastfeeding was reported by mothers. Infant gut microbiota was characterised by Illumina 16S rRNA sequencing of faecal samples at 3 and 12 months. Infant gut microbiota profiles. In this cohort, 21% of mothers received IAP for Group B Streptococcus prophylaxis or pre-labour rupture of membranes; another 23% received IAP for elective or emergency caesarean section (CS). Infant gut microbiota community structures at 3 months differed significantly with all IAP exposures, and differences persisted to 12 months for infants delivered by emergency CS. Taxon-specific composition also differed, with the genera Bacteroides and Parabacteroides under-represented, and Enterococcus and Clostridium over-represented at 3 months following maternal IAP. Microbiota differences were especially evident following IAP with emergency CS, with some changes (increased Clostridiales and decreased Bacteroidaceae) persisting to 12 months, particularly among non-breastfed infants. Intrapartum antibiotics in caesarean and vaginal delivery are associated with infant gut microbiota dysbiosis, and breastfeeding modifies some of these effects. Further research is warranted to explore the health consequences of these associations. Maternal #antibiotics during childbirth alter the infant gut #microbiome. © 2015 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  9. Childbearing in adolescence: intergenerational dejà-vu? Evidence from a Brazilian birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Alexandre Archanjo; Cardoso, Viviane Cunha; Barbosa, Aline Pires; Da Silva, Antônio Augusto Moura; Faria, Carlos Augusto; De Ribeiro, Valdinar Souza; Bettiol, Heloisa; Barbieri, Marco Antonio

    2013-07-15

    Pregnancy in adolescence tends to repeat over generations. This event has been little studied in middle and low-income societies undergoing a rapid epidemiological transition. To assess this association it is important to adjust for socioeconomic conditions at different points in lifetime. Therefore, the aim of this study is to analyze the independent effect of adolescent childbearing in a generation on its recurrence in the subsequent generation, after adjusting for socioeconomic status at different points in life. The study was conducted on a prospective cohort of singleton liveborn females from the city of Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, evaluated in 1978/79, and their daughters assessed in 2002/04. A total of 1059 mother-daughter pairs were evaluated. The women who had their first childbirth before 20 years of age were considered to be adolescent mothers. The risk of childbearing in adolescence for the daughter was modeled as a function of the occurrence of teenage childbearing in her mother, after adjustment for socio-demographic variables in a Poisson regression model. The rate of childbearing during adolescence was 31.4% in 1978/79 and 17.1% in 2002/04. Among the daughters of the 1st generation adolescent mothers, this rate was 26.7%, as opposed to 12.7% among the daughters of non adolescent mothers. After adjustments the risk of adolescent childbearing for the 2nd generation was 35% higher for women whose mothers had been pregnant during adolescence - RR = 1.35 (95% CI 1.04-1.74). Adolescent childbearing in the 1st generation was a predictor of adolescent childbearing in the 2nd, regardless of socioeconomic factors determined at different points in lifetime.

  10. Association of a Genetic Risk Score With Body Mass Index Across Different Birth Cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Stefan; Mejía-Guevara, Iván; Estrada, Karol; Liu, Sze Y; Glymour, M Maria

    2016-07-05

    Many genetic variants are associated with body mass index (BMI). Associations may have changed with the 20th century obesity epidemic and may differ for black vs white individuals. Using birth cohort as an indicator for exposure to obesogenic environment, to evaluate whether genetic predisposition to higher BMI has a larger magnitude of association among adults from more recent birth cohorts, who were exposed to the obesity epidemic at younger ages. Observational study of 8788 adults in the US national Health and Retirement Study who were aged 50 years and older, born between 1900 and 1958, with as many as 12 BMI assessments from 1992 to 2014. A multilocus genetic risk score for BMI (GRS-BMI), calculated as the weighted sum of alleles of 29 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with BMI, with weights equal to the published per-allele effects. The GRS-BMI represents how much each person's BMI is expected to differ, based on genetic background (with respect to these 29 loci), from the BMI of a sample member with median genetic risk. The median-centered GRS-BMI ranged from -1.68 to 2.01. BMI based on self-reported height and weight. GRS-BMI was significantly associated with BMI among white participants (n = 7482; mean age at first assessment, 59 years; 3373 [45%] were men; P obesogenic environments.

  11. Timing of First Respiratory Virus Detections in Infants: A Community-Based Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarna, Mohinder; Ware, Robert S; Lambert, Stephen B; Sloots, Theo P; Nissen, Michael D; Grimwood, Keith

    2018-01-17

    Determining timing of first virus detection episodes (fVDEs) for different respiratory viruses in infants identifies risk periods and informs preventive interventions, including vaccination. We describe the ages and nature of fVDEs in an infant birth cohort and explore factors associated with increased odds of symptomatic fVDEs. The Observational Research in Childhood Infectious Diseases (ORChID) study is a community-based birth cohort describing acute respiratory infections in infants until their second birthday. Parents recorded daily symptoms and collected nose swabs weekly, which were batch-tested using polymerase chain reaction assays for 17 respiratory viruses. One hundred fifty-eight infants participated in ORChID. The median age for fVDEs was 2.9 months for human rhinovirus (HRV) but was ≥13.9 months for other respiratory viruses. Overall, 52% of HRV fVDEs were symptomatic, compared with 57%-83% of other fVDEs. Respiratory syncytial virus and human metapneumovirus fVDEs were more severe than HRV fVDEs. Older age and the winter season were associated with symptomatic episodes. Infants do not always experience respiratory symptoms with their fVDE. Predominance of early HRV detections highlights the need for timing any intervention early in life. fVDEs from other respiratory viruses most commonly occur when maternal vaccines may no longer provide protection.

  12. Direct medical costs of constipation in children over 15 years: a population-based birth cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choung, Rok Seon; Shah, Nilay D.; Chitkara, Denesh; Branda, Megan E.; Van Tilburg, Miranda A.; Whitehead, William E.; Katusic, Slavica K.; Locke, G. Richard; Talley, Nicholas J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Although direct medical costs for constipation-related medical visits are thought to be high, to date there have been no studies examining if longitudinal resource utilization is persistently elevated in children with constipation. Our aim was to estimate the incremental direct medical costs and types of health care utilization associated with constipation from childhood to early adulthood. Methods A nested case-control study was conducted to evaluate the incremental costs associated with constipation. The original sample consisted of 5,718 children in a population-based birth cohort who were born during 1976–1982 in Rochester, MN. The cases included individuals who presented to medical facilities with constipation. The controls were matched and randomly selected among all non-cases in the sample. Direct medical costs for cases and controls were collected from the time subjects were between 5–18 years of age or until the subject emigrated from the community. Results We identified 250 cases with a diagnosis of constipation in the birth cohort. While the mean inpatient costs for cases were $9994 (95% CI=2538, 37201) compared to $2391 (95% CI=923, 7452) for controls (p=0.22) over the time period, the mean outpatient costs for cases were $13927 (95% CI=11325, 16525) compared to $3448 (95% CI=3771, 4621) for controls (pconstipation have higher medical care utilization. Outpatient costs and ER utilization were significantly greater for individuals with constipation from childhood to early adulthood. PMID:20890220

  13. [Management of wheezing disorders in infants participating in the PARIS birth cohort].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, M; Nikasinovic, L; Foucault, C; Le Marec, A M; Giordanella, J P; Just, J; Momas, I

    2012-01-01

    While wheezing disorders are common in preschool children, their management is not well defined. The aim of this study was to assess the use of medical health care resources due to wheezing disorders in infants aged 18 months followed up in the Pollution and Asthma Risk: an Infant Study (PARIS) birth cohort. Data on wheezing disorders, medical visits and medication on account of respiratory disorders during the previous 12 months were collected with a standardized questionnaire, administered by a paediatrician, during the health check offered to every child aged 18 months included in the PARIS birth cohort. The prevalence of wheezing disorders during the past 12 months amounted to 560/1974 (28.4%). Among wheezers, 493 (89.3%) required a medical visit because of difficult breathing; 61 (11.0%) went to the emergency room, 35 (6.4%) were admitted to the hospital and 375 (67.2%) received an inhaled anti-asthmatic medication. Recourse to chest physiotherapy was reported in 472 of them (85.1%). This study confirms the high use of healthcare resources because of wheezing disorders in infants and suggests a higher use of anti-asthmatic medications in France compared to other European countries. Copyright © 2011 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Rationale and design of South Asian Birth Cohort (START: a Canada-India collaborative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Sonia S

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People who originate from the Indian subcontinent (South Asians suffer among the highest rates of type 2 diabetes in the world. Prior evidence suggests that metabolic risk factors develop early in life and are influenced by maternal and paternal behaviors, the intrauterine environment, and genetic factors. The South Asian Birth Cohort Study (START will investigate the environmental and genetic basis of adiposity among 750 South Asian offspring recruited from highly divergent environments, namely, rural and urban India and urban Canada. Methods Detailed information on health behaviors including diet and physical activity, and blood samples for metabolic parameters and DNA are collected from pregnant women of South Asian ancestry who are free of significant chronic disease. They also undergo a provocative test to diagnose impaired glucose tolerance and gestational diabetes. At delivery, cord blood and newborn anthropometric indices (i.e. birth weight, length, head circumference and skin fold thickness are collected. The mother and growing offspring are followed prospectively and information on the growth trajectory, adiposity and health behaviors will be collected annually up to age 3 years. Our aim is to recruit a minimum of 750 mother-infant pairs equally divided between three divergent environments: rural India, urban India, and Canada. Summary The START cohort will increase our understanding of the environmental and genetic determinants of adiposity and related metabolic abnormalities among South Asians living in India and Canada.

  15. Typical intellectual engagement and cognition in the ninth decade of life: The Lothian Birth Cohort 1921.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Stumm, Sophie; Deary, Ian J

    2012-09-01

    Investment traits--the tendency to seek out and engage in cognitive activity--might affect intellectual growth across the life span, specifically the development from fluid to crystallized intelligence. Here we explore how childhood IQ at age 11 years, IQ at age 79, and the investment trait Typical Intellectual Engagement (TIE) at age 81 affect the mean level and change in verbal fluency scores, used as an indicator of crystallized intelligence, across the ages 79, 83, and 87 in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1921 (maximum N = 569; Deary, Whiteman, Starr, Whalley, & Fox, 2004). A first latent growth model showed significant variance in the mean level of verbal fluency and significant decline in verbal fluency from age 79 to age 87. The rate of change was invariant across study participants in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1921. A second model found that IQ at age 11 significantly predicted IQ at age 79 (β = .66; p crystallized intelligence in old age. Because there was no significant between-subjects variance in verbal fluency trajectories in the current study, neither TIE nor IQ were associated with individual differences in cognitive decline.

  16. Harmonization of Food-Frequency Questionnaires and Dietary Pattern Analysis in 4 Ethnically Diverse Birth Cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Russell J; Zulyniak, Michael A; Desai, Dipika; Shaikh, Mateen R; Campbell, Natalie C; Lefebvre, Diana L; Gupta, Milan; Wilson, Julie; Wahi, Gita; Atkinson, Stephanie A; Teo, Koon K; Subbarao, Padmaja; Becker, Allan B; Mandhane, Piushkumar J; Turvey, Stuart E; Sears, Malcolm R; Anand, Sonia S

    2016-11-01

    Canada is an ethnically diverse nation, which introduces challenges for health care providers tasked with providing evidence-based dietary advice. We aimed to harmonize food-frequency questionnaires (FFQs) across 4 birth cohorts of ethnically diverse pregnant women to derive robust dietary patterns to investigate maternal and newborn outcomes. The NutriGen Alliance comprises 4 prospective birth cohorts and includes 4880 Canadian mother-infant pairs of predominantly white European [CHILD (Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development) and FAMILY (Family Atherosclerosis Monitoring In earLY life)], South Asian [START (SouTh Asian birth cohoRT)-Canada], or Aboriginal [ABC (Aboriginal Birth Cohort)] origins. CHILD used a multiethnic FFQ based on a previously validated instrument designed by the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, whereas FAMILY, START, and ABC used questionnaires specifically designed for use in white European, South Asian, and Aboriginal people, respectively. The serving sizes and consumption frequencies of individual food items within the 4 FFQs were harmonized and aggregated into 36 common food groups. Principal components analysis was used to identify dietary patterns that were internally validated against self-reported vegetarian status and externally validated against a modified Alternative Healthy Eating Index (mAHEI). Three maternal dietary patterns were identified-"plant-based," "Western," and "health-conscious"-which collectively explained 29% of the total variability in eating habits observed in the NutriGen Alliance. These patterns were strongly associated with self-reported vegetarian status (OR: 3.85; 95% CI: 3.47, 4.29; r2 = 0.30, P < 0.001; for a plant-based diet), and average adherence to the plant-based diet was higher in participants in the fourth quartile of the mAHEI than in the first quartile (mean difference: 46.1%; r2 = 0.81, P < 0.001). Dietary data collected by using FFQs from ethnically diverse pregnant women can be

  17. Testing the sexually abused-sexual abuser hypothesis: A prospective longitudinal birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Chelsea; Stewart, Anna; Smallbone, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    The sexually abused-sexual abuser hypothesis posits that persons, especially males, who are sexually abused as children are at particular risk of sexually abusing others later in life. We tested this hypothesis by prospectively examining associations between maltreatment and offending in a birth cohort of 38,282 males with a maltreatment history and/or at least one finalized offense. We examined these associations within the context of the wider birth population. Proportionally few boys were the subject of official notifications for sexual abuse (14.8% of maltreated boys, and 1.4% of the birth population); proportionally very few of these sexually abused boys (3%) went on to become sexual offenders; and, contrary to findings typically reported in retrospective clinical studies, proportionally few sexual offenders (4%) had a confirmed history of sexual abuse. Poly-victimization (exposure to multiple types of maltreatment) was significantly associated with sexual offending, violent offending, and general (nonsexual, nonviolent) offending. We found no specific association between sexual abuse and sexual offending, and nor did we find any association between sexual abuse and sexual offending specifically within the poly-victimized group. The total number of sexual abuse notifications did make a small unique contribution to the variance in sexual offending compared to other offending. Implications concerning maltreated boys and male sexual offenders are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Prenatal health, educational attainment, and intergenerational inequality: the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härkönen, Juho; Kaymakçalan, Hande; Mäki, Pirjo; Taanila, Anja

    2012-05-01

    In this article, we study the effects of prenatal health on educational attainment and on the reproduction of family background inequalities in education. Using Finnish birth cohort data, we analyze several maternal and fetal health variables, many of which have not been featured in the literature on long-term socioeconomic effects of health despite the effects of these variables on birth and short-term health outcomes. We find strong negative effects of mother's prenatal smoking on educational attainment, which are stronger if the mother smoked heavily but are not significant if she quit during the first trimester. Anemia during pregnancy is also associated with lower levels of attained education. Other indicators of prenatal health (pre-pregnancy obesity, mother's antenatal depressed mood, hypertension and preeclampsia, early prenatal care visits, premature birth, and small size for gestational age) do not predict educational attainment. Our measures explain little of the educational inequalities by parents' class or education. However, smoking explains 12%-and all health variables together, 19%-of the lower educational attainment of children born to unmarried mothers. Our findings point to the usefulness of proximate health measures in addition to general ones. They also point to the potentially important role played by early health in intergenerational processes.

  19. Increased traffic exposure and negative birth outcomes: a prospective cohort in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Lee-Ann

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pregnant women exposed to traffic pollution have an increased risk of negative birth outcomes. We aimed to investigate the size of this risk using a prospective cohort of 970 mothers and newborns in Logan, Queensland. Methods We examined two measures of traffic: distance to nearest road and number of roads around the home. To examine the effect of distance we used the number of roads around the home in radii from 50 to 500 metres. We examined three road types: freeways, highways and main roads. Results There were no associations with distance to road. A greater number of freeways and main roads around the home were associated with a shorter gestation time. There were no negative impacts on birth weight, birth length or head circumference after adjusting for gestation. The negative effects on gestation were largely due to main roads within 400 metres of the home. For every 10 extra main roads within 400 metres of the home, gestation time was reduced by 1.1% (95% CI: -1.7, -0.5; p-value = 0.001. Conclusions Our results add weight to the association between exposure to traffic and reduced gestation time. This effect may be due to the chemical toxins in traffic pollutants, or because of disturbed sleep due to traffic noise.

  20. Cesarean section and risk of obesity in childhood, adolescence, and early adulthood: evidence from 3 Brazilian birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Fernando C; Matijasevich, Alicia; Hallal, Pedro C; Horta, Bernardo L; Barros, Aluísio J; Menezes, Ana B; Santos, Iná S; Gigante, Denise P; Victora, Cesar G

    2012-02-01

    The number of cesarean sections (CSs) is increasing in many countries, and there are concerns about their short- and long-term effects. A recent Brazilian study showed a 58% higher prevalence of obesity in young adults born by CS than in young adults born vaginally. Because CS-born individuals do not make contact at birth with maternal vaginal and intestinal bacteria, the authors proposed that this could lead to long-term changes in the gut microbiota that could contribute to obesity. We assessed whether CS births lead to increased obesity during childhood, adolescence, and early adulthood in 3 birth cohorts. We analyzed data from 3 birth-cohort studies started in 1982, 1993, and 2004 in Southern Brazil. Subjects were assessed at different ages until 23 y of age. Poisson regression was used to estimate prevalence ratios with adjustment for ≤15 socioeconomic, demographic, maternal, anthropometric, and behavioral covariates. In the crude analyses, subjects born by CS had ∼50% higher prevalence of obesity at 4, 11, and 15 y of age but not at 23 y of age. After adjustment for covariates, prevalence ratios were markedly reduced and no longer significant for men or women. The only exception was an association for 4-y-old boys in the 1993 cohort, which was not observed in the other 2 cohorts or for girls. In these 3 birth cohorts, CSs do not seem to lead to an important increased risk of obesity during childhood, adolescence, or early adulthood.

  1. Is fetal macrosomia related to blood pressure among adolescents? A birth cohort study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y; Wu, J; Yu, J; Gao, E; Meads, C; Afnan, M; Ren, J; Rong, F

    2013-11-01

    Birth weight (BW) has effects on blood pressure (BP). In order to explore the effects of macrosomia on BP in childhood and in adolescence, a longitudinal cohort study was conducted in Wuxi, China. Subjects with BW ≥4000 g, born in 1993-1995, were the exposed group; the unexposed comparisons were matched by year of birth and sex of infant, with BW of 2500-4000 g. Follow-ups in 2005-6 and 2011-12 were conducted, and height, weight and BP were measured by trained doctors. Multi-mixed models in SAS were used to control for repeated measures to explore the effects of fetal macrosomia on BP. At the inception of the cohort, 1595 pairs of participants were recruited. At the end, 1112 in the exposed group and 1126 in the unexposed group finished both follow-ups. Among adolescents, mean (s.d.) of systolic BP (SBP) was 110.83 (9.43)  mm  Hg, which was statistically significantly higher than that in the unexposed group (mean ± s.d.: 109.33 ± 9.26)  mm  Hg (P=0.0002). After adjusting the repeated measures and birth year, sex, mother's occupation and delivery age, adding weight during pregnancy, hypertension during delivery, gestational age and parity, being a picky eater in childhood, the macrosomia group had higher SBP than the normal BW group; the parameter estimate value was 1.03 (s.e.=0.30). When BMI in childhood and BMI in adolescence were added in the multi-model, the estimated β was 0.71 (s.e.=0.29). No statistically significant effect of macrosomia was found on diastolic BP among adolescents in the multianalysis.

  2. Pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and macrosomia in a Canadian birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinturache, Angela E; Chaput, Kathleen H; Tough, Suzanne C

    2017-01-01

    To compare demographic characteristics and maternal, fetal, neonatal, and pregnancy outcomes of term macrosomic infants of obese and non-obese mothers. A sample of 1996 singleton, term deliveries was drawn from the All Our Babies Cohort, a prospective, community-based pregnancy cohort. Maternal self-reported socio-demographic and anthropometric information was linked to the clinical data on pregnancy and birth events abstracted from electronic health records. Demographic, obstetrical characteristics and maternal, fetal, neonatal, and pregnancy outcomes of macrosomic infants in obese, overweight, and normal weight women were compared. Multinomial regression analysis assessed the risk factors of macrosomia in primiparous and multiparous women stratified by maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, controlling for confounding variables. Macrosomia affected 10% of pregnancies in the study. Mothers whose infants were macrosomic were more likely to be Caucasian, obese, have had previous deliveries, undergo induction of labour and delivery by emergency C-section, particularly for labour abnormalities. Macrosomic infants were more likely to be delivered postdates, have meconium stained liquor and require resuscitation at birth. There were no significant differences in birth and neonatal outcomes of macrosomic pregnancies between obese, overweight and normal weight women. Pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational age at delivery were risk factors for macrosomia in all women. Ethnicity and history of delivery of a macrosomic infant were additional independent risk factors in multiparas. Obesity in pregnancy increases the risk of delivery of a macrosomic infant in both primiparous and multiparous women. The maternal, fetal and neonatal outcomes of macrosomic pregnancies are similar in obese and normal weight women.

  3. Bhaktapur, Nepal: the MAL-ED birth cohort study in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Prakash Sunder; Shrestha, Sanjaya Kumar; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Strand, Tor; Shrestha, Binob; Shrestha, Rita; Chandyo, Ram Krishna; Ulak, Manjeswori; Mason, Carl J

    2014-11-01

    The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort study site in Nepal is located in the Bhaktapur municipality, 15 km east of Kathmandu, the capital city of Nepal. Bhaktapur, an ancient city famous for its traditional temples and buildings, is included on UNESCO's World Heritage List and is a major tourist attraction in Nepal. Nepal is a land-locked country located in South Asia between China and India with an area of 147 181 km(2), ranging from sea-level plains to Mount Everest, the world's highest peak. The total population as of the 2011 census was 26.6 million, with an average annual population growth rate of 1.4. Nepal is one of the world's least developed countries and is ranked 157 of 186 in the 2013 Human Development Report; one-third of the Nepali population lives below the poverty line. The current under-5 mortality rate is 54 per 1000 live births, the infant mortality rate is 46 per 1000 live births, and the neonatal mortality rate is 33 per 1000 live births. Vaccine coverage for all Expanded Program on Immunization vaccines is >80%. Among children, the most common diseases contributing to significant morbidity and mortality are acute respiratory infection and dehydration from severe diarrhea. In this article, we report on the geographic, demographic, and socioeconomic features of the Bhaktapur MAL-ED site and describe the data that informed our cohort recruitment strategy. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Adverse birth outcomes among native-born and foreign-born mothers in Taiwan: A population-based birth cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiao Laura

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of children born to foreign-born mothers in Taiwan has significantly increased since the 1990s. These foreign-born mothers are mainly from China and Southeast Asia. Children born to foreign-born mothers, according to media reports, are subject to inferior health. This study sought to determine whether socioeconomic disparities in birth outcomes exist between native and foreign-born mothers in Taiwan. Methods Analysis data were obtained from the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study of 20,090 nationally representative 6-month-old babies, born in 2005. The data on the babies were divided into two groups, those of foreign-born mothers and those of Taiwanese mothers. The health outcome variables that were examined included two adverse birth outcomes: low birth weight and preterm birth. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine the association between income and foreign-born status, as well as birth outcomes among both groups. Results Children of native Taiwanese mothers had a higher prevalence of low birth weight (6.9% than did children of China-born (4.7% and Southeast Asia-born mothers (5.2%. The prevalence of preterm birth was also higher among children of native Taiwanese mothers (8.4% than among children of Southeast Asia-born (7.2% and China-born mothers (6.3%. Foreign-born status was associated with lower odds of low birth weight among families with a monthly family income p p p p p Conclusion Foreign-born mothers from China and Southeast Asia did not experience worse birth outcomes than native Taiwanese mothers did, regardless of the disadvantaged socioeconomic position of their families.

  5. A comparative study of expectant parents ' childbirth expectations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Bi-Chin; Gau, Meei-Ling; Wu, Shian-Feng; Kuo, Bih-Jaw; Lee, Tsorng-Yeh

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand childbirth expectations and differences in childbirth expectations among expectant parents. For convenience sampling, 200 couples willing to participate in this study were chosen from two hospitals in central Taiwan. Inclusion criteria were at least 36 weeks of gestation, aged 18 and above, no prenatal complications, and willing to consent to participate in this study. Instruments used to collect data included basic demographic data and the Childbirth Expectations Questionnaire. Findings of the study revealed that (1) five factors were identified by expectant parents regarding childbirth expectations including the caregiving environment, expectation of labor pain, spousal support, control and participation, and medical and nursing support; (2) no general differences were identified in the childbirth expectations between expectant fathers and expectant mothers; and (3) expectant fathers with a higher socioeconomic status and who had received prenatal (childbirth) education had higher childbirth expectations, whereas mothers displayed no differences in demographic characteristics. The study results may help clinical healthcare providers better understand differences in expectations during labor and birth and childbirth expectations by expectant parents in order to improve the medical and nursing system and promote positive childbirth experiences and satisfaction for expectant parents.

  6. Husband Gatekeeping in Childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Carolyn R.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Interviews with new mothers document the husband's role as gatekeeper in his wife's preparing for and coping with childbirth. Social class, race, family stage, and the husband-wife relationship explain about 40 percent of the variance in whether husbands choose to prepare for childbirth. (Author)

  7. Does allergic rhinitis exist in infancy? Findings from the PARIS birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, M; Clarisse, B; Nikasinovic, L; Foucault, C; Le Marec, A-M; Giordanella, J-P; Just, J; Momas, I

    2011-02-01

      Early onset of allergic rhinitis (AR) is poorly described, and rhinitis symptoms are often attributed to infections. This study analyses the relations between AR-like symptoms and atopy in infancy in the PARIS (Pollution and Asthma Risk: an Infant Study) birth cohort.   Data on AR-like symptoms (runny nose, blocked nose, sneezing apart from a cold) were collected using a standardized questionnaire administered during the health examination at age 18 months included in the follow-up of the PARIS birth cohort. Parental history of allergy and children's atopy blood markers (blood eosinophilia ≥470 eosinophils/mm(3) , total immunoglobulin E ≥45 U/ml and presence of allergen-specific IgE) were assessed. Associations were studied using multivariate logistic regression models adjusted for potential confounders.   Prevalence of AR-like symptoms in the past year was 9.1% of the 1850 toddlers of the study cohort. AR-like symptoms and dry cough apart from a cold were frequent comorbid conditions. Parental history of AR in both parents increased the risk of suffering from AR-like symptoms with an OR 2.09 (P=0.036). Significant associations were found with the presence of concurrent biological markers of atopy, especially blood eosinophilia and sensitization to house dust mite (OR 1.54, P=0.046 and OR 2.91, P=0.042) whereas there was no relation with sensitization to food.   These results support the hypothesis that AR could begin as early as 18 months of life. Suspicion of AR should be reinforced in infants with parental history of AR or biological evidence of atopy, particularly blood eosinophilia and sensitization to inhalant allergens. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Predictors of obesity in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood in a birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rooney, Brenda L; Mathiason, Michelle A; Schauberger, Charles W

    2011-11-01

    To determine how characteristics of pregnancy, birth, and early infancy are related to offspring obesity at three critical developmental periods. Mothers were followed through pregnancy and 10-15 years after. Offspring data were obtained through medical record review. Maternal and offspring characteristics were examined to predict obesity in childhood (ages 4-5 years), adolescence (ages 9-14 years), and early adulthood (ages 19-20 years). The original cohort included 802 children born to 795 women. Children who were twins, who had died, or whose mothers had died were excluded (n=25). Medical records of 68.5% of the remaining 777 children documented a height and weight at childhood, adolescence, or early adulthood. Relative risks (RRs) to predict obesity at early adulthood were 12.3 for childhood and 45.1 at adolescence. RRs were also significant to predict obesity at early adulthood between the mother's obesity at prepregnancy (RR=6.4), 4-5 years postpregnancy (RR=6.3), and 10-15 years postpregnancy (RR=6.2). Excluding these variables from the multivariate models and adjusting by gender, birth insurance, and mother's marital status at delivery, the best model to predict obesity at childhood included birth weight, weight gain in infancy, and delivery type. At adolescence, it included maternal pregnancy smoking status, gestational weight gain, and weight gain in infancy, and in early adulthood, included maternal pregnancy smoking status, gestational weight gain, and birth weight. Maternal pregnancy smoking status, gestational weight gain, and weight gain in infancy have long-term effects on offspring. Maternal obesity is the strongest predictor of obesity at all times studied.

  9. Early environment and child-to-adult growth trajectories in the 1958 British birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Leah; Manor, Orly; Power, Chris

    2004-07-01

    Genetics and environmental conditions early in life are known to influence height. However, evidence is restricted to studies conducted at a specific age, and thus the effect on the entire growth trajectory has been neglected. The objective was to determine when parental height and factors early in offspring life start to affect offspring height, when these variables have the strongest effect, and whether these variables persist to adulthood. Longitudinal data from the 1958 British birth cohort (all of whom were born during 1 wk in March 1958), including height measurements at 7, 11, 16, and 33 y of age, were analyzed by using multivariate multilevel response models. Parental height, birth weight, maternal smoking during pregnancy, breastfeeding, parental divorce, and socioeconomic factors were all significantly associated with childhood height, but their effects differed thereafter. Parental height and birth weight were most strongly associated with offspring height, and their effects persisted (adjusted increase in adult height: 2 cm for 1 SD of maternal or paternal height, or 1 kg of birth weight). Socioeconomic disadvantage (manual social class, large family size, and overcrowded households) was associated with substantial deficits of 2-3 cm (adjusted estimates) in height at 7 y. Catch-up growth was apparent but was insufficient to overcome the initial insult on growth; the adjusted deficit was as high as 1 cm in adulthood. Children from disadvantaged backgrounds have a delayed pattern of growth before the pubertal spurt, which is followed by catch-up growth. The health consequences of this pattern of growth need to be examined in future studies.

  10. Polymorphisms in FTO and MAF Genes and Birth Weight, BMI, Ponderal Index, Weight Gain in a Large Cohort of Infants with a Birth Weight below 1500 Grams.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Haller

    Full Text Available The FTO gene, located on chromosome 16q12.2, and the MAF gene, located on chromosome 16q22-23, were identified as genes harboring common variants with an impact on obesity predisposition. We studied the association of common variants with birth weight, gain of body weight, body mass index (BMI, Ponderal index and relevant neonatal outcomes in a large German cohort of infants with a birth weight below 1500 grams.The single nucleotide polymorphisms rs9939609 (FTO gene and rs1424233 (MAF gene were genotyped using allelic discrimination assays in a prospective multicenter cohort study conducted in 15 neonatal intensive care units in Germany from September 2003 until January 2008. DNA samples were extracted from buccal swabs according to standard protocols.1946 infants were successfully genotyped at FTO and 2149 infants at MAF. Allele frequencies were not significantly different from other European cohorts. The polymorphisms were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The polymorphisms did not show associations with birth weight, BMI and Ponderal Index at discharge, and weight gain, neither testing for a dominant, additive nor for a recessive model.Since an association of the polymorphisms with weight gain has been demonstrated in multiple populations, the lack of association in a population of preterm infants with regular tube feeding after birth and highly controlled feeding volumes provides evidence for the hypothesis that these polymorphisms affect food intake behavior and hunger rather than metabolism and energy consumption.

  11. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood overweight and fat distribution: the KOALA Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmermans, S H; Mommers, M; Gubbels, J S; Kremers, S P J; Stafleu, A; Stehouwer, C D A; Prins, M H; Penders, J; Thijs, C

    2014-02-01

    What is already known about this subject There is an association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and higher body mass index (BMI) and overweight in childhood. What this study adds The association between maternal smoking during pregnancy and childhood overweight develops with age, starting with a lower birth weight, followed by weight catch-up in the first year after birth, finally leading to overweight at school age. Children of mothers who had smoked during pregnancy had a higher risk of exceeding the 85th percentile of BMI, waist circumference and total skinfold thickness at school age. Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated with childhood overweight, but the association with fat distribution is not clear. To explore the longitudinal association between smoking during pregnancy and childhood overweight and fat distribution. In the KOALA Birth Cohort Study, repeated questionnaires were administered to 2698 mother-child pairs, including questions on smoking at 14 and 34 weeks of pregnancy. Main outcomes were birth weight, weight gain in the first year, body mass index (BMI) z-scores and overweight (BMI ≥85th percentile) at 1, 2, 4-5 and 6-7 years (n = 1730) and waist circumference and four skinfold thicknesses measured at home visits at age 6-7 years in a subgroup (n = 418). We used multivariable linear and logistic regression, with generalized estimating equations (GEE) for repeated measurements. Maternal smoking was associated with lower birth weight, higher weight gain in the first year and increasing overweight after infancy (change with age P = 0.02 in the GEE). Maternal smoking vs. non-smoking during pregnancy was associated with a higher risk of the child exceeding the 85th percentile of BMI (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 3.72; 95% CI 1.33-10.4), waist circumference (aOR 2.65; 95% CI 1.06-6.59) and sum of skinfold thicknesses (aOR 4.45; 95% CI 1.63-12.2) at the age of 6-7 years. Maternal smoking during pregnancy is associated

  12. Sex-specific associations between birth weight and adult primary liver cancer in a large cohort of Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann, Esther; Berentzen, Tina L.; Gamborg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Whether the prenatal period is critical for the development of adult primary liver cancer (PLC) is sparsely investigated. Recently, attention has been drawn to potential sex-differences in the early origins of adult disease. We investigated the association between birth weight and adult PLC...... separately in men and women, using a large cohort of 217,227 children (51% boys), born from 1936 to 1980, from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register, and followed them until 2010 in national registers. Hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of PLC (30 years or older) were estimated by Cox...... regression models stratified by birth cohort. During 5.1 million person-years of follow-up, 185 men and 65 women developed PLC. Sex modified the association between birth weight and adult PLC (p-value for interaction=0.0005). Compared with a sex-specific reference group of birth weights between 3.25-3.75 kg...

  13. Vitamin D in fetal development: findings from a birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Prue H; Lucas, Robyn M; Walsh, John P; Zosky, Graeme R; Whitehouse, Andrew J O; Zhu, Kun; Allen, Karina L; Kusel, Merci M; Anderson, Denise; Mountain, Jenny A

    2015-01-01

    Birth cohort studies provide an invaluable resource for studies of the influence of the fetal environment on health in later life. It is uncertain to what extent maternal vitamin D status influences fetal development. Using an unselected community-based cohort of 901 mother-offspring pairs (the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort [Raine] Study), we examined the relationship between maternal vitamin D deficiency at 18 weeks' pregnancy and long-term health outcomes of offspring who were born in Perth, Western Australia (32° South), in 1989-1991. Vitamin D deficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] development in 6-year-old offspring, neurocognitive difficulties at age 10, increased risk of eating disorders in adolescence, and lower peak bone mass at 20 years. In summary, vitamin D may have an important, multifaceted role in the development of fetal lungs, brain, and bone. Experimental animal studies support an active contribution of vitamin D to organ development. Randomized controlled trials of vitamin D supplementation in pregnant women with long-term follow-up of offspring are urgently required to examine whether the correction of vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women is beneficial for their offspring and to determine the optimal level of maternal serum 25(OH)D for fetal development. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. Prevalence of Temporomandibular Disorders in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jussila, Päivi; Kiviahde, Heikki; Näpänkangas, Ritva; Päkkilä, Jari; Pesonen, Paula; Sipilä, Kirsi; Pirttiniemi, Pertti; Raustia, Aune

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in the 46-year-old cohort subjects from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 (NFBC 1966). Altogether, 1,962 subjects (1,050 women, 912 men) participated in a clinical medical and dental examination and responded to questionnaires in 2012 to 2013. The stomatognathic examination was performed according to a modified protocol of the Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (DC/TMD). Pearson's chi-square test and Fisher's exact test were used to analyze the signs of TMD between genders, and logistic regression models were used to analyze the relationship between self-reported pain associated with TMD and modified DC/TMD protocol (P TMJ) (26.2%) and palpation pain in the masticatory muscles (11.2%). Women had signs of TMD more often than men (P TMJ and the most common TMD diagnosis was disc displacement with reduction. The prevalence of TMD signs among the examined cohort subjects was 34.2%. TMD was diagnosed in women more often than in men. The results are comparable with other corresponding population-based studies in adults.

  15. Lifetime overweight and obesity and body composition in adulthood: the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callo, Gabriela; Gigante, Denise Pretucci; Barros, Fernando C; Horta, Bernardo Lessa

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the association between overweight/obesity at different moments in the life cycle and body composition in early adulthood. Data were used from the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study, which has followed live born children of families residing in the urban area of Pelotas at different ages. At 30 years of age, 3,701 cohort members were interviewed and body composition was assessed using Bod Pod, 2,219 cohort members had at least one weight and height measurement taken in the three periods (childhood, adolescence, and adulthood), 24% never presented overweight, and 68.6% were never classified as obese. Elevated body mass index (BMI) and percent body fat at 30 years of age were associated with individuals classified as overweight in all three periods or in adolescence and adulthood, while those with overweight/obesity only in childhood or adolescence showed mean BMI and percent body fat similar to those who had never presented overweight/obesity. The results indicate the benefit of early interruption of overweight/obesity.

  16. The effect of exercise and childbirth classes on fear of childbirth and locus of labor pain control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guszkowska, Monika

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to track changes in intensity of fear of childbirth and locus of labor pain control in women attending an exercise program for pregnant women or traditional childbirth classes and to identify the predictors of these changes. The study was longitudinal/non-experimental in nature and run on 109 healthy primigravidae aged from 22 to 37, including 62 women participating in an exercise program for pregnant women and 47 women attending traditional childbirth classes. The following assessment tools were used: two scales developed by the present authors - the Fear of Childbirth Scale and the Control of Birth Pain Scale, three standardized psychological inventories for the big five personality traits (NEO Five Factors Inventory), trait anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) and dispositional optimism (Life Oriented Test-Revised) and a questionnaire concerning socioeconomic status, health status, activities during pregnancy, relations with partners and expectations about childbirth. Fear of childbirth significantly decreased in women participating in the exercise program for pregnant women but not in women attending traditional childbirth classes. Several significant predictors of post-intervention fear of childbirth emerged: dispositional optimism and self-rated health (negative) and strength of the belief that childbirth pain depends on chance (positive).

  17. From developmental origins of adult disease to life course research on adult disease and aging: insights from birth cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Chris; Kuh, Diana; Morton, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Maturation of long-running birth cohort studies has fostered a life course approach to adult health, function, and disease and related to conceptual frameworks. Using broad concepts of human development including physical, cognitive, and emotional function, birth cohorts provide insights into the processes across the life course and between generations that link to adult outcomes. We discuss findings on the determinants and health consequences of lifetime trajectories of body size, cognitive and emotional function, and socioeconomic position. Findings from the studies suggest that, for some adult health outcomes, explanations will be incomplete unless exposures and processes from across the life course are taken into account. New birth cohort studies are poised to delineate further the nature and timing of life course relationships in contemporary generations of children.

  18. Examining the influence of gender, education, social class and birth cohort on MMSE tracking over time: a population-based prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Fiona; Marioni, Riccardo; Brayne, Carol

    2012-08-13

    Whilst many studies have analysed predictors of longitudinal cognitive decline, few have described their impact on population distributions of cognition by age cohort. The aim of this paper was to examine whether gender, education, social class and birth cohort affect how mean population cognition changes with age. The Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Study (MRC CFAS) is a multi-centre population based longitudinal study of 13,004 individuals in England and Wales. Using ten years of follow-up data, mean Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE) scores were modelled by age and birth cohort adjusting for non-random drop-out. The model included terms to estimate cohort effects. Results are presented for five year age bands between 65-95 years. At a population level, women show greater change in MMSE scores with age than men. Populations with lower education level and manual work also show similar effects. More recent birth cohorts have slightly higher scores. Longitudinal data can allow examination of population patterns by gender, educational level, social class and cohort. Each of these major socio-demographic factors shows some effect on whole population change in MMSE with age.

  19. Prenatal Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) and Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and Birth Weight: A Meta-analysis within 12 European Birth Cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Govarts, Eva; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Schoeters, Greet

    2012-01-01

    Exposure to high concentrations of persistent organochlorines may cause fetal toxicity, but the evidence at low exposure levels is limited. Large studies with substantial exposure contrasts and appropriate exposure assessment are warranted. Within the framework of the EU (European Union) ENRIECO ...... (ENvironmental Health RIsks in European Birth Cohorts) and EU OBELIX (OBesogenic Endocrine disrupting chemicals: LInking prenatal eXposure to the development of obesity later in life) projects, we examined the hypothesis that the combination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs......) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) adversely affects birth weight....

  20. Risk factors for hospital admission with RSV bronchiolitis in England: a population-based birth cohort study.

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, J.; Bottle, A.; Sharland, M; Modi, N; Aylin, P; Majeed, A; Saxena, S.; Medicines for Neonates Investigator Group,

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the timing and duration of RSV bronchiolitis hospital admission among term and preterm infants in England and to identify risk factors for bronchiolitis admission.\\ud \\ud DESIGN: A population-based birth cohort with follow-up to age 1 year, using the Hospital Episode Statistics database. SETTING: 71 hospitals across England.\\ud \\ud PARTICIPANTS: We identified 296618 individual birth records from 2007/08 and linked to subsequent hospital admission records during the first...

  1. Risk Factors for Hospital Admission with RSV Bronchiolitis in England: A Population-Based Birth Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Murray; Alex Bottle; Mike Sharland; Neena Modi; Paul Aylin; Azeem Majeed; Sonia Saxena

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the timing and duration of RSV bronchiolitis hospital admission among term and preterm infants in England and to identify risk factors for bronchiolitis admission. DESIGN: A population-based birth cohort with follow-up to age 1 year, using the Hospital Episode Statistics database. SETTING: 71 hospitals across England. PARTICIPANTS: We identified 296618 individual birth records from 2007/08 and linked to subsequent hospital admission records during the first year of life....

  2. Effectiveness of a Mindfulness-Based Childbirth Education pilot study on maternal self-efficacy and fear of childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Jean; Hauck, Yvonne; Fisher, Colleen; Bayes, Sara; Schutze, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This pilot study tested the feasibility and effectiveness of using Mindfulness-Based Childbirth Education (MBCE), a novel integration of mindfulness meditation and skills-based childbirth education, for mental health promotion with pregnant women. The MBCE protocol aimed to reduce fear of birth, anxiety, and stress and improve maternal self-efficacy. This pilot study also aimed to determine the acceptability and feasibility of the MBCE protocol. A single-arm pilot study of the MBCE intervention using a repeated-measures design was used to analyze data before and after the MBCE intervention to determine change trends with key outcome variables: mindfulness; depression, anxiety, and stress; childbirth self-efficacy; and fear of childbirth. Pregnant women (18-28 weeks' gestation) and their support companions attended weekly MBCE group sessions over 8 weeks in an Australian community setting. Of the 18 women who began and completed the intervention, missing data allowed for complete data from 12 participants to be analyzed. Statistically significant improvements and large effect sizes were observed for childbirth self-efficacy and fear of childbirth. Improvements in depression, mindfulness, and birth outcome expectations were underpowered. At postnatal follow-up significant improvements were found in anxiety, whereas improvements in mindfulness, stress, and fear of birth were significant at a less conservative alpha level. This pilot study demonstrated that a blended mindfulness and skills-based childbirth education intervention was acceptable to women and was associated with improvements in women's sense of control and confidence in giving birth. Previous findings that low self-efficacy and high childbirth fear are linked to greater labor pain, stress reactivity, and trauma suggest the observed improvements in these variables have important implications for improving maternal mental health and associated child health outcomes. Ways in which these outcomes can be

  3. Childbirth and parenting preparation in antenatal classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barimani, M; Forslund Frykedal, K; Rosander, M; Berlin, A

    2018-02-01

    to describe topics (1) presented by midwives' during antenatal classes and the amount of time spent on these topics and (2) raised and discussed by first-time parents and the amount of time spent on these topics. qualitative; data were gathered using video or tape recordings and analysed using a three-pronged content analysis approach, i.e., conventional, summative, and directed analyses. 3 antenatal courses in 2 antenatal units in a large Swedish city; 3 midwives; and 34 course participants. class content focused on childbirth preparation (67% of the entire antenatal course) and on parenting preparation (33%). Childbirth preparation facilitated parents' understanding of the childbirth process, birthing milieu, the partner's role, what could go wrong during delivery, and pain relief advantages and disadvantages. Parenting preparation enabled parents to (i) plan for those first moments with the newborn; (ii) care for/physically handle the infant; (iii) manage breastfeeding; (iv) manage the period at home immediately after childbirth; and (v) maintain their relationship. During the classes, parents expressed concerns about what could happened to newborns. Parents' questions to midwives and discussion topics among parents were evenly distributed between childbirth preparation (52%) and parenting preparation (48%). childbirth preparation and pain relief consumed 67% of course time. Parents particularly reflected on child issues, relationship, sex, and anxiety. Female and male participants actively listened to the midwives, appeared receptive to complex issues, and needed more time to ask questions. Parents appreciated the classes yet needed to more information for managing various post-childbirth situations. while midwifery services vary among hospitals, regions, and countries, midwives might equalise content focus, offer classes in the second trimester, provide more time for parents to talk to each other, allow time in the course plan for parents to bring up new

  4. Clinical disorders in a post war British cohort reaching retirement: evidence from the First National Birth Cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary B Pierce

    Full Text Available The medical needs of older people are growing because the proportion of the older population is increasing and disease boundaries are widening. This study describes the distribution and clustering of 15 common clinical disorders requiring medical treatment or supervision in a representative British cohort approaching retirement, and how health tracked across adulthood.The data come from a cohort of 2661 men and women, 84% of the target sample, followed since birth in England, Scotland and Wales in 1946, and assessed at 60-64 years for: cardio and cerebro-vascular disease, hypertension, raised cholesterol, renal impairment, diabetes, obesity, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, anaemia, respiratory disease, liver disease, psychiatric problems, cancers, atrial fibrillation on ECG and osteoporosis. We calculated the proportions disorder-free, with one or more disorders, and the level of undiagnosed disorders; and how these disorders cluster into latent classes and relate to health assessed at 36 years. Participants had, on average, two disorders (range 0-9; only 15% were disorder-free. The commonest disorders were hypertension (54.3%, 95% CI 51.8%-56.7%, obesity (31.1%, 28.8%-33.5%, raised cholesterol (25.6%, 23.1-28.26%, and diabetes or impaired fasting glucose (25.0%, 22.6-27.5%. A cluster of one in five individuals had a high probability of cardio-metabolic disorders and were twice as likely than others to have been in the poorest health at 36 years. The main limitations are that the native born sample is entirely white, and a combination of clinical assessments and self reports were used.Most British people reaching retirement already have clinical disorders requiring medical supervision. Widening disease definitions and the move from a disease-based to a risk-based medical model will increase pressure on health services. The promotion of healthy ageing should start earlier in life and consider the individual's ability to adapt to and self manage

  5. Comparison of current US risk strategy to screen for hepatitis C virus with a hypothetical targeted birth cohort strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewski, Kenneth J; Deniz, Baris; Tomanovich, Peter; Graham, Camilla S

    2012-11-01

    We compared the theoretical performance of a 1-time, birth cohort strategy with the currently recommended risk strategy for screening for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, which is undetected in an estimated 75% of 4 million affected people in the United States. We applied current American Association for the Study of Liver Disease risk screening guidelines and a targeted birth cohort strategy to National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data from 2003 to 2006 to estimate their performance in identifying HCV cases. Risk guidelines would recommend testing 25% of the US population aged 20 years or older and, if fully implemented, identify 82% of the projected HCV-exposed population. A targeted birth cohort (1946-1964) strategy would test 45% of the same population and identify 76% of the projected HCV population. In this ideal-world simulation, birth year and risk screening had similar theoretical performances for predicting HCV infection. However, actual implementation of risk screening has not achieved its theoretical performance, and birth cohort screening might increase HCV testing rates.

  6. A study of the birth weight-obesity relation using a longitudinal cohort and sibling and twin pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The, Natalie S; Adair, Linda S; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2010-09-01

    Sibling and twin study designs provide control for confounding factors that are typically unmeasured in traditional cohort studies. Using nationally representative data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health collected at 3 visits during 1994-2002, the authors evaluated the longitudinal association between birth weight and later obesity in a traditional cohort study (n = 13,763; ages 11-21 years at baseline), controlling for sex, age, race/ethnicity, and parental education. Among persons with a nonobese mother, high birth weight (>4 kg) participants were more likely than normal birth weight (>/=2.5-the authors examined longitudinal within-pair differences. Birth weight difference was positively associated with body mass index difference later in life for female monozygotic pairs only (beta = 2.67, 95% confidence interval: 0.99, 4.35). Given the null associations observed in the sibling sample, the commonly observed positive association between birth weight and later obesity from cohort analyses may be attributed to confounding by maternal characteristics. Further research is needed to identify specific factors that contribute to the birth weight-obesity relation.

  7. Childhood socioeconomic position and adult mental wellbeing: Evidence from four British birth cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Natasha; Bann, David; Hardy, Rebecca; Gale, Catharine; Goodman, Alissa; Crawford, Claire; Stafford, Mai

    2017-01-01

    There is much evidence showing that childhood socioeconomic position is associated with physical health in adulthood; however existing evidence on how early life disadvantage is associated with adult mental wellbeing is inconsistent. This paper investigated whether childhood socioeconomic position (SEP) is associated with adult mental wellbeing and to what extent any association is explained by adult SEP using harmonised data from four British birth cohort studies. The sample comprised 20,717 participants with mental wellbeing data in the Hertfordshire Cohort Study (HCS), the MRC National Survey of Health and Development (NSHD), the National Child Development Study (NCDS), and the British Cohort Study (BCS70). Warwick Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale (WEMWBS) scores at age 73 (HCS), 60-64 (NSHD), 50 (NCDS), or 42 (BCS70) were used. Harmonised socioeconomic position (Registrar General's Social Classification) was ascertained in childhood (age 10/11) and adulthood (age 42/43). Associations between childhood SEP, adult SEP, and wellbeing were tested using linear regression and multi-group structural equation models. More advantaged father's social class was associated with better adult mental wellbeing in the BCS70 and the NCDS. This association was independent of adult SEP in the BCS70 but fully mediated by adult SEP in the NCDS. There was no evidence of an association between father's social class and adult mental wellbeing in the HCS or the NSHD. Socioeconomic conditions in childhood are directly and indirectly, through adult socioeconomic pathways, associated with adult mental wellbeing, but findings from these harmonised data suggest this association may depend on cohort or age.

  8. The Kingston Allergy Birth Cohort: Exploring parentally reported respiratory outcomes through the lens of the exposome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    North, Michelle L; Brook, Jeffrey R; Lee, Elizabeth Y; Omana, Vanessa; Daniel, Nadia M; Steacy, Lisa M; Evans, Greg J; Diamond, Miriam L; Ellis, Anne K

    2017-04-01

    The Kingston Allergy Birth Cohort (KABC) is a prenatally recruited cohort initiated to study the developmental origins of allergic disease. Kingston General Hospital was chosen for recruitment because it serves a population with notable diversity in environmental exposures relevant to the emerging concept of the exposome. To establish a profile of the KABC using the exposome framework and examine parentally reported respiratory symptoms to 2 years of age. Data on phase 1 of the cohort (n = 560 deliveries) were compiled, and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to determine associations with respiratory symptoms. The KABC exhibits diversity within the 3 exposome domains of general external (socioeconomic status, rural or urban residence), specific external (cigarette smoke, breastfeeding, mold or dampness), and internal (respiratory health, gestational age), as well as significant associations between exposures from different domains. Significant associations emerged between parental reports of wheeze or cough without a cold and prenatal cigarette smoke exposure, mold or dampness in the home, and the use of air fresheners in the early-life home environment. Breastfeeding, older siblings, and increased gestational age were associated with decreased respiratory symptoms. The KABC is a unique cohort with diversity that can be leveraged for exposomics-based studies. This study found that all 3 domains of the exposome had effects on the respiratory health of KABC children. Ongoing studies using phase 1 of the KABC continue to explore the internal exposome through allergy skin testing and epigenetic analyses and the specific external domain through in-home environmental analyses, air pollution modeling, and ultimately potential convergences within and among domains. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Infant Growth and Risk of Childhood-Onset Type 1 Diabetes in Children From 2 Scandinavian Birth Cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnus, Maria C; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Granström, Charlotta

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: Type 1 diabetes mellitus is one of the most common chronic diseases with onset in childhood, but environmental risk factors have not been convincingly established. OBJECTIVE: To test whether increased growth during the first year of life is associated with higher risk of childhood......-onset type 1 diabetes. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This is a cohort study using information from 2 population-based cohort studies in Norway and Denmark, the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) and the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC), of children born between February 1998 and July 2009....... The current study was conducted between November 2014 and June 2015. EXPOSURES: Change in weight and length from birth to age 12 months. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Unadjusted and adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of type 1 diabetes, classified based on nationwide childhood diabetes registers, obtained using Cox...

  10. Reliability of variables on the North Carolina birth certificate: a comparison with directly queried values from a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinikoor, Lisa C; Messer, Lynne C; Laraia, Barbara A; Kaufman, Jay S

    2010-01-01

    Birth records are an important source of data for examining population-level birth outcomes, but questions about the reliability of these vital records exist. We sought to assess the reliability of birth certificate data by comparing them with data from a large prospective cohort. Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition cohort study participants were matched with their birth certificates to assess agreement for maternal demographics, health behaviours, previous pregnancies and major pregnancy events. Agreement among categorical variables was assessed using percentage agreement and kappa statistics; for continuous variables, Spearman's correlations and concordance correlation coefficients were used. The majority of variables had high agreement between the two data sources, especially for maternal demographic and birth outcome variables. Variables measuring anaemia, gestational diabetes and alcohol consumption showed the lowest correlations. Number of cigarettes smoked and number of previous pregnancies differed by education categories. For most variables, birth records appear to be a good source of reliable information. With the exception of a few variables that differed by education, most variables did not differ by stratum of race or education. Our research further supports the use of birth certificates as a reliable source of population-level data.

  11. Data collected on maternal dietary exposures in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Sjúrdur Fródi; Mikkelsen, Tina Broby; Knudsen, Vibeke Kildegaard

    2007-01-01

    Recent research suggests that the diet consumed in, or shortly before, pregnancy can potentially lead to maldevelopment and diseases in the offspring, which may become apparent at any time from the embryonic stage until old age. For example, maternal diet may affect the chance of twinning (and....... At present, the Danish National Birth Cohort is likely to be the largest epidemiological database containing extensive information on maternal dietary exposures. By October 2002, 100 000 women had been recruited in early pregnancy, for long-term follow-up of themselves and their offspring. The present paper...... details the information available in the database on early nutritional exposures with emphasis on maternal dietary intake. We also present distributions of selected nutritional exposures. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Jan...

  12. Parental divorce and adult psychological distress: evidence from a national birth cohort: a research note.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, B; Power, C; Hope, S

    1997-10-01

    An association was found between childhood parental divorce and adult psychological distress in a British national birth cohort at ages 23 and 33. No moderating effects were found for gender, age at separation, or remarriage of the custodial parent. Participants who were young adults when their parents divorced also showed increased levels of symptomatology, whereas those who experienced parental death in childhood showed no increased risk. An interaction between parental divorce and own divorce in women, giving particularly high symptom levels, arose from a selection process in those from divorced families of origin only, with high 23-year scores predicting subsequent divorce. Own divorce was associated with an increase in distress between age 23 and 33, but this was irrespective of family of origin.

  13. Time to pregnancy among Danish laboratory technicians who were a part of the National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jin Liang; Knudsen, Lisbeth E; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The Danish National Birth Cohort was used to examine whether laboratory work was associated with reduced fecundity. METHODS: Self-reported data on laboratory work and waiting time to pregnancy (0-2, 3-5, 6-12 and > 12 months) were used for 829 female laboratory technicians interviewed...... in 1997-2003. Altogether 6250 female teachers formed the reference group. A discrete-time survival analysis with a complementary log-log link was applied to estimate the fecundability ratio between the exposed and unexposed women, with adjustment for maternal age, gravidity, smoking, prepregnancy body...... mass index, and paternal job. RESULTS: No difference in time to pregnancy was found between the laboratory technicians and teachers or between the laboratory technicians with different exposures. The adjusted fecundability ratio for the laboratory technicians was 0.94 [95% confidence interval (95% CI...

  14. Self-esteem, risky sexual behavior, and pregnancy in a New Zealand birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, Joseph M; Horwood, L John

    2006-10-01

    This study examined the relationship between self-esteem in adolescence and later risky sexual behavior and pregnancy in late adolescence and early adulthood. The investigation analyzed data from a birth cohort of over 1,000 New Zealand young adults studied to the age of 25. Lower levels of self-esteem at age 15 were associated with greater risks of engaging in unprotected sex (sexual intercourse with either an opposite- or same-sex partner without using a condom), a greater number of sexual partners, and a greater risk of pregnancy at ages 15-25. Adjustment for potentially confounding factors, including family socioeconomic background, family functioning, child abuse, and individual characteristics and behavior, reduced the strength of these associations to statistically non-significant levels. It was concluded that the effects of self-esteem during adolescence on later risky sexual behavior and pregnancy were weak and largely explained by the psychosocial context within which self-esteem develops.

  15. The case for launch of an international DNA based birth cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Rudan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The global health agenda beyond 2015 will inevitably need to broaden its focus from mortality reduction to the social determinants of deaths, growing inequities among children and mothers, and ensuring the sustainability of the progress made against the infectious diseases. New research tools, including technologies that enable high-throughput genetic and ‘-omics’ research, could be deployed for better understanding of the aetiology of maternal and child health problems. The research needed to address those challenges will require conceptually different studies than those used in the past. It should be guided by stringent ethical frameworks related to the emerging collections of biological specimens and other health related information. We will aim to establish an international birth cohort which should assist low- and middle-income countries to use emerging genomic research technologies to address the main problems in maternal and child health, which are still major contributors to the burden of disease globally.

  16. Daytime sleep duration and the development of childhood overweight: the KOALA Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolijn, R; Gubbels, J S; Sleddens, E F C; Kremers, S P J; Thijs, C

    2016-10-01

    Reduced nighttime sleep is a risk factor for childhood overweight, but the association between daytime sleep and overweight is unknown. The aim of this study is to evaluate daytime sleep duration as an independent risk factor for childhood overweight. Data from the KOALA Birth Cohort Study on daytime and nighttime sleep at 2 years (N = 2322), and body mass index (BMI) around 2, 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9 years were used. Multivariable general estimating equation regression analyses were performed to examine the associations of sleep duration with BMI (linear) and overweight (logistic). No associations between daytime sleep and BMI or overweight were found, whereas longer nighttime sleep was associated with lower BMI and lower risk of overweight persisting up to age 9. Daytime sleep duration is probably less relevant for prevention of childhood overweight. © 2015 World Obesity.

  17. Do baby boomers use more healthcare services than other generations? Longitudinal trajectories of physician service use across five birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canizares, Mayilee; Gignac, Monique; Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Glazier, Richard H; Badley, Elizabeth M

    2016-09-29

    In light of concerns for meeting the provision of healthcare services given the large numbers of ageing baby boomers, we compared the trajectories of primary care and specialist services use across the lifecourse of 5 birth cohorts and examined factors associated with birth cohort differences. Longitudinal panel. Canadian National Population Health Survey (1994-2011). Sample of 10 186 individuals aged 20-69 years in 1994-1995 and who were from 5 birth cohorts: Generation X (Gen X; born: 1965-1974), Younger Baby Boomers (born: 1955-1964), Older Baby Boomers (born: 1945-1954), World War II (born: 1935-1944) and pre-World War II (born: 1925-1934). Use of primary care and specialist services. Although the overall pattern suggested less use of physician services by each successive recent cohort, this blinded differences in primary and specialist care use by cohort. Multilevel analyses comparing cohorts showed that Gen Xers and younger boomers, particularly those with multimorbidity, were less likely to use primary care than earlier cohorts. In contrast, specialist use was higher in recent cohorts, with Gen Xers having the highest specialist use. These increases were explained by the increasing levels of multimorbidity. Education, income, having a regular source of care, sedentary lifestyle and obesity were significantly associated with physician services use, but only partially contributed to cohort differences. The findings suggest a shift from primary care to specialist care among recent cohorts, particularly for those with multimorbidity. This is of concern given policies to promote primary care services to prevent and manage chronic conditions. There is a need for policies to address important generational differences in healthcare preferences and the balance between primary and specialty care to ensure integration and coordination of healthcare delivery. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a

  18. Fetal Growth, Obesity, and Atopic Disorders in Adolescence: a Retrospective Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Meng-Hung; Hsieh, Chia-Jung; Caffrey, James L; Lin, Yu-Sheng; Wang, I-Jen; Ho, Wen-Chao; Chen, Pau-Chung; Wu, Trong-Neng; Lin, Ruey-Shiung

    2015-09-01

    Developmental status at birth and subsequent obesity have been implicated in the development of childhood atopic dermatitis (AD) and allergic rhinitis (AR). The current study analysed the cohort data of 74 688 junior high school students from a national retrospective birth cohort study in Taiwan. A random 10% sample was selected from singleton livebirths with complete data on the analytical variables of interest. Atopic disorders, including AD and AR, were assessed by questionnaires (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood). Logistic regression analyses were applied with adjustments for related risk factors. Among subjects mainly 13-15 years of age, the estimated prevalence was 7.6% for AD and 22.4% for AR. While the role of fetal growth in allergic disorders was less evident, the risk of developing AD and AR were both influenced by a combination of fetal growth status and adolescent body mass index (BMI). Compared with those with normal fetal growth and school-aged BMI, the risk of developing AD increased 64% among adolescents with both restricted fetal growth and high BMI (odds ratio 1.64, 95% confidence interval 1.37, 1.97). The risk for this combination was higher than that for either restricted fetal growth or high BMI alone. Nevertheless, the overall interaction between BMI and fetal growth status on atopic disorders did not reach statistical significance. Excessive weight gain could be an important risk factor related to developing atopic dermatitis and allergic rhinitis during adolescence, especially among infants born small for gestational age. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Pre-birth cohort study of atopic dermatitis and severe bronchiolitis during infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balekian, Diana S; Linnemann, Rachel W; Castro, Victor M; Perlis, Roy; Thadhani, Ravi; Camargo, Carlos A

    2016-06-01

    Infants hospitalized for bronchiolitis (i.e. severe bronchiolitis) are at increased risk of childhood asthma. There are many known risk factors for severe bronchiolitis, including cardiac and pulmonary diseases. Less is known about the association between atopic diseases and risk of severe bronchiolitis. We sought to further examine risk factors for severe bronchiolitis, focusing on atopic dermatitis (AD). We conducted a nested cohort study within the Massachusetts General Hospital Obstetric Maternal Study (MOMS), a prospective cohort of pregnant women enrolled during 1998-2006. Children of mothers enrolled in MOMS were included in the analysis if they received care within our health system (n = 5407). Potential risk factors for bronchiolitis and hospitalization data were extracted from the children's electronic health records; we also examined pregnancy and perinatal risk factors collected from the underlying MOMS data. During the first year of life, 125 infants (2.3%) had severe bronchiolitis. Eighteen of these patients had AD; 11 (61%) were diagnosed with AD prior to bronchiolitis hospitalization. In unadjusted analyses, AD was associated with severe bronchiolitis (χ(2) 14.6; p bronchiolitis, including demographics, birth season, disposition at birth, cardiac disease, maternal parity, and delivery mode, AD was associated with increased odds of severe bronchiolitis (odds ratio 2.72, 95% confidence interval 1.60-4.63). Atopic dermatitis is significantly associated with severe bronchiolitis in infancy. The mechanism of the AD-bronchiolitis association is unclear and merits further study; this research may shed light on the pathogenesis of asthma. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Early Motor Developmental Milestones and Schizotypy in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort Study 1966.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filatova, Svetlana; Koivumaa-Honkanen, Heli; Khandaker, Golam M; Lowry, Estelle; Nordström, Tanja; Hurtig, Tuula; Moilanen, Kristiina; Miettunen, Jouko

    2017-12-09

    Delayed motor developmental milestones have been reported to be associated with schizophrenia in previous studies, but no study has examined the relationship between early motor developmental milestones and schizotypy. We have examined this relationship in a prospective birth cohort.In the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966, data on 9 early motor developmental milestones were collected prospectively from visits to child welfare centers, and data on adult schizotypy were collected through a questionnaire (N = 4557-4674). Positive schizotypy was measured by the Perceptual Aberration Scale (PAS), negative schizotypy was measured by Physical Anhedonia Scale (PhAS) and Social Anhedonia Scale (SAS). Three related scales were included: Schizoidia Scale (SCHD), Hypomanic Personality Scale (HPS), and Bipolar II Scale (BIP2). We examined the milestone-schizotypy associations before and after excluding cases of schizophrenia from this population-based sample. Hierarchical regression analyses adjusted for covariates and separately for both genders were performed. In men, each extra month of delay in achievement of touching thumb with index finger, sitting unsupported, standing up, walking with support, or walking unsupported was associated with an increase in PAS, PhAS, or SCHD scores, or decrease in BIP2 score (P developmental milestones in early-life, but there is some heterogeneity with regards to types of milestones and gender. These findings suggest delayed motor development confers risk across the continuum of schizophrenia syndrome. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Characterisation of asthma that develops during adolescence; findings from the Isle of Wight Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurukulaaratchy, Ramesh J; Raza, Abid; Scott, Martha; Williams, Paula; Ewart, Susan; Matthews, Sharon; Roberts, Graham; Arshad, S Hasan

    2012-01-01

    Background Understanding of adolescent-onset asthma remains limited. We sought to characterise this state and identify associated factors within a longitudinal birth cohort study. Methods The Isle of Wight Whole Population Birth Cohort was recruited in 1989 (N=1456) and characterised at 1, 2, 4, 10 and 18-years. “Adolescent-onset asthma” was defined as asthma at age 18 without prior history of asthma, “persistent-adolescent asthma” as asthma at both 10 and 18 and “never-asthma” as those without asthma at any assessment. Results Adolescent-onset asthma accounted for 28.3% of asthma at 18-years and was of similar severity to persistent-adolescent asthma. Adolescent-onset asthmatics showed elevated bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR) and atopy at 10 and 18-years. BHR in this group at 10 was intermediate to that of never-asthmatics and persistent-adolescent asthma. By 18 their BHR, bronchodilator reversibility and sputum eosinophilia was greater than never-asthmatics and comparable to persistent-adolescent asthma. At 10, males who later developed adolescent-onset asthma had reduced FEV1 and FEF25–75, while females had normal lung function but then developed impaired FEV1 and FEF25–75 in parallel with adolescent asthma. Factors independently associated with adolescent-onset asthma included atopy at 10 (OR = 2.35; 95% CI = 1.08–5.09), BHR at 10 (3.42; 1.55–7.59), rhinitis at 10 (2.35; 1.11–5.01) and paracetamol use at 18-years (1.10; 1.01–1.19). Conclusions Adolescent-onset asthma is associated with significant morbidity. Predisposing factors are atopy, rhinitis and BHR at age 10 while adolescent paracetamol use is also associated with this state. Awareness of potentially modifiable influences may offer avenues for mitigating this disease state. PMID:22212639

  2. Childhood conduct disorder trajectories, prior risk factors and cannabis use at age 16: birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Jon; Barker, Edward D; Joinson, Carol; Lewis, Glyn; Hickman, Matthew; Munafò, Marcus; Macleod, John

    2013-12-01

    To investigate the prevalence of cannabis use and problem use in boys and girls at age 16 years, and to investigate the role of adversity in early life and of conduct disorder between the ages of 4 and 13 years as risk factors for these outcomes. Birth cohort study. England. A total of 4159 (2393 girls) participants in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) birth cohort providing information on cannabis use at age 16. Cannabis use and problem cannabis use at age 16 were assessed by postal questionnaire. Material adversity, maternal substance use, maternal mental health and child conduct disorder were all assessed by maternal report. Cannabis use was more common among girls than boys (21.4% versus 18.3%, P = 0.005). Problem cannabis use was more common in boys than girls (3.6% versus 2.8%, P = 0.007). Early-onset persistent conduct problems were associated strongly with problem cannabis use [odds ratio (OR) = 6.46, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 4.06-10.28]. Residence in subsidized housing (OR = 3.10, 95% CI = 1.95, 4.92); maternal cannabis use (OR 8.84, 95% CI 5.64-13.9) and any maternal smoking in the postnatal period (OR = 2.69, 95% CI = 1.90-3.81) all predicted problem cannabis use. Attributable risks for adolescent problem cannabis use associated with the above factors were 25, 13, 17 and 24%, respectively. Maternal smoking and cannabis use, early material disadvantage and early-onset persistent conduct problems are important risk factors for adolescent problem cannabis use. This may have implications for prevention. © 2013 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  3. Childhood stunting and the metabolic syndrome components in young adults from a Brazilian birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillo, L P; Gigante, D P; Horta, B L; de Barros, F C F

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between stunting in the second year of life and metabolic syndrome components in early adulthood among subjects who have been prospectively followed-up since birth, in a city in Southern Brazil. In 1984, we attempted to follow-up the entire cohort; the subjects were examined and their mothers interviewed. Stunting was defined by a length-for-age Z-score 2 s.d. or more below the mean, in accordance with the World Health Organization reference. Between 2004 and 2005, we again tried to follow the entire cohort; during this period the subjects were evaluated for the following metabolic syndrome components: high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, random blood glucose, waist circumference and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Family income at the time of the baby's birth, asset index, mother's education, mother's smoking during pregnancy and duration of breastfeeding were considered possible confounders. Linear regression was used in the unadjusted and adjusted analyses. Among men, stunting was inversely associated with triglycerides (β=-11.90, confidence interval (CI)=-22.33 to -1.48) and waist circumference (β=-4.29, CI=-5.62 to -2.97), whereas for women stunting was negatively related to HDL-cholesterol (β=-4.50, CI=-6.47 to -2.52), triglycerides (β=-9.61, CI=-17.66 to -1.56) and waist circumference (β=-1.14, CI=-4.22 to -1.02). However, after controlling for confounding variables, these associations vanished. The findings suggest that stunting in childhood is not associated with metabolic syndrome components in young adults.

  4. Parental smoking during pregnancy and ADHD in children: the Danish national birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jin Liang; Olsen, Jørn; Liew, Zeyan; Li, Jiong; Niclasen, Janni; Obel, Carsten

    2014-08-01

    Prenatal maternal smoking has been associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, but the causal nature of this association is still under scrutiny. We examined the association with maternal smoking and nicotine replacement use during pregnancy, using association with paternal smoking as a marker of potential genetic or social confounding. We included 84 803 singletons who participated in the Danish National Birth Cohort. Information on parental smoking was reported by the mothers during pregnancy. Children with ADHD were identified from the Danish Psychiatric Central Register, the Danish National Patient Register, and the Register of Medicinal Product Statistics by the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision diagnosis or medication. We also used hyperactivity/inattention score of the parent-reported Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, included in the 7-year follow-up of the National Birth Cohort. Maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy were associated with an elevated risk of ADHD defined by hospital diagnosis, medication, and hyperactivity/inattention score, but the association was stronger for maternal smoking than for paternal smoking. Compared with children born to nonsmoking mothers and smoking fathers, children born of smoking mothers and nonsmoking fathers had a higher risk of ADHD (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.03 to 1.53). We also saw a higher risk of ADHD in children of mothers who used nicotine replacement during pregnancy. Our findings indicate that the association between prenatal maternal smoking and ADHD may overestimate a causal link, but nicotine exposure or related factors may still play a causal role. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. Human enterovirus and rhinovirus infections are associated with otitis media in a prospective birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppälä, Elina; Sillanpää, Saara; Nurminen, Noora; Huhtala, Heini; Toppari, Jorma; Ilonen, Jorma; Veijola, Riitta; Knip, Mikael; Sipilä, Markku; Laranne, Jussi; Oikarinen, Sami; Hyöty, Heikki

    2016-12-01

    Human enteroviruses (HEVs) and rhinoviruses (HRVs) have been linked to acute otitis media (AOM). The present study evaluates the aforementioned association in a birth cohort setting. The cohort included 286 healthy infants (191 boys) followed from birth up to the age of 2 years in the Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention study in Finland. Stool samples were collected monthly and analyzed for the presence of HRV and HEV RNA using RT-PCR. Clinical symptoms were recorded by a questionnaire every 3-6 months. Altogether 610 AOM episodes were reported during the follow-up. 9.8% of the stool samples were positive for HRV and 6.8% for HEV. HRV positivity peaked at the age of 3-6 months declining gradually after this age, whereas HEV positivity peaked later, at the age of 12-24 months. The risk of AOM was increased in children who were HEV positive at least once at the age of 6-12 months (OR 2.2 [95%CI 1.1-4.2], P=0.023) or who were HRV positive at least once at the age of 18-24 months (OR 2.3 [95%CI 1.0-5.2], P=0.042). Having an older sibling, short breast-feeding and maternal smoking during pregnancy were also significantly associated with AOM. HRV and HEV infections are frequent during the first months of life. The observed trend for increased risk of AOM in HRV and HEV positive children is in line with the results from hospital series suggesting that these viruses may play an independent role in the pathogenesis of AOM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. "Telling" and assent: Parents' attitudes towards children's participation in a birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ri, Izen; Suda, Eiko; Yamagata, Zentaro; Nitta, Hiroshi; Muto, Kaori

    2018-02-01

    One of the ethical issues surrounding birth cohort studies is how to obtain informed assent from children as they grow up. What and how parents tell their children affects children's future choices about the study, yet few studies have focused on parents' influence on children. This study examines parents' attitudes towards telling their children about their participation in a specific birth cohort study. We conducted surveys and in-depth interviews with the parents of children who participated in the "Japan Environment and Children's Study" (JECS), which follows children from the foetal stage to age 13. Forty-four mothers and 23 fathers answered the survey, and 11 mothers and 3 fathers participated in in-depth interviews. Parents' attitudes towards "telling" were categorized into 3 communication styles depending on their perception of the risk/benefits for their children. Most parents predicted that the study would benefit their children and preferred "directive telling," which we divided into "empowered telling" (provides children with a positive identity as participants) and "persuasive telling" (attempts to persuade children even if they express reluctance as they grow). A few parents, weighing the study's potential risk, preferred "non-directive telling," which respects children's choices even if that means withdrawing from the study. While "directive telling" may lead children to have positive associations with the study, children should also be told about the risks. Investigators can provide materials that support parents and give children age-appropriate information about their participation, as well as ensure opportunities for children to express their feelings. © 2017 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Maternal Morbidity during Childbirth Hospitalization in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyndon, Audrey; Lee, Henry C.; Gilbert, William M.; Gould, Jeffrey B.; Lee, Kathryn A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine the incidence and risk factors for maternal morbidity during childbirth hospitalization. Methods Maternal morbidities were determined using ICD9-CM and vital records codes from linked hospital discharge and vital records data for 1,572,909 singleton births in California, 2005-2007. Sociodemographic, obstetric, and hospital volume risk factors were estimated using mixed effects logistic regression models. Results The maternal morbidity rate was 241/1000 births. The most common morbidities were episiotomy, pelvic trauma, maternal infection, postpartum hemorrhage, and severe laceration. Preeclampsia (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR] 2.96; 95% CI 2.8,3.13), maternal age over 35 years, (AOR 1.92; 1.79,2.06), vaginal birth after cesarean, (AOR 1.81; 1.47,2.23), and repeat cesarean birth (AOR 1.99; 1.87,2.12) conferred the highest odds of severe morbidity. Non-white women were more likely to suffer morbidity. Conclusions Nearly one in four California women experienced complications during childbirth hospitalization. Significant health disparities in maternal childbirth outcomes persist in the United States. PMID:22779781

  8. Intellectual Disability in a Birth Cohort: Prevalence, Etiology, and Determinants at the Age of 4 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karam, Simone M; Barros, Aluísio J D; Matijasevich, Alícia; Dos Santos, Iná S; Anselmi, Luciana; Barros, Fernando; Leistner-Segal, Sandra; Félix, Têmis M; Riegel, Mariluce; Maluf, Sharbel W; Giugliani, Roberto; Black, Maureen M

    2016-01-01

    Intellectual disability (ID), characterized by impairments in intellectual function and adaptive behavior, affects 1-3% of the population. Many studies investigated its etiology, but few are cohort studies in middle-income countries. To estimate prevalence, etiology, and factors related to ID among children prospectively followed since birth in a Southern Brazilian city (Pelotas). In 2004, maternity hospitals were visited daily and births were identified. Live-born infants (n = 4,231) whose family lived in the urban area have been followed for several years. At the age of 2 and 4 years, performances in development and intelligence tests were evaluated using the Battelle Developmental Inventory and Wechsler Intelligence Scale, respectively. Children considered as having developmental delay were invited to attend a genetic evaluation. At 4 years of age, the prevalence of ID was 4.5%, and the etiology was classified into 5 groups: environmental (44.4%), genetic (20.5%), idiopathic (12.6%), neonatal sequelae (13.2%), other diseases (9.3%). Most children presented impairment in two or more areas of adaptive behavior. There was no difference in prenatal care attendance or maternal schooling among the groups. For about 40% of children, ID was attributed to nonbiological factors, suggesting that the rate may be reduced with appropriate interventions early in life. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Weight loss in pregnancy and cardiometabolic profile in childhood: findings from a longitudinal birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grooten, I J; Painter, R C; Pontesilli, M; van der Post, J A M; Mol, B W J; van Eijsden, M; Vrijkotte, T G M; Roseboom, T J

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the consequences of weight loss in pregnancy on pregnancy outcomes and cardiometabolic profile in childhood. Prospective birth cohort (ABCD study). Between 2003 and 2004, all pregnant women in Amsterdam were approached for study participation. 7818 pregnant women were included, of which 3165 consented to having their children examined at 5-6 years of age. In 1956 children fasting capillary blood samples were also taken. At antenatal booking, women answered questions about their pregnancy and whether they suffered from severe weight loss (SWL; >5 kg). Pregnancy details and outcomes were available through the obstetric caregiver. At birth main outcome measures were prematurity (age (adjusted difference 0.2 kg/m(2) , 95%CI 0.0, 0.5) were similar in children born to mothers with SWL and without SWL, but blood pressure was increased. For diastolic blood pressure this association was independent of confounders (adjusted difference 1.4 mmHg, 95%CI 0.4, 2.4). Lipid and glucose levels were not significantly different between these groups. Early pregnancy weight loss, usually occurring as a manifestation of hyperemesis gravidarum, could have long-term consequences for offspring health. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  10. Association between maternal comorbidity and preterm birth by severity and clinical subtype: retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Thi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preterm birth (PTB is a major cause of infant morbidity and mortality, but the relationship between comorbidity and PTB by clinical subtype and severity of gestational age remains poorly understood. We evaluated associations between maternal comorbidities and PTB by clinical subtype and gestational age. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 1,329,737 singleton births delivered in hospitals in the province of Québec, Canada, 1989-2006. PTB was classified by clinical subtype (medically indicated, preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM, spontaneous preterm labour and gestational age ( Results PTB rates were higher among mothers with comorbidity (10.9% compared to those without comorbidity (4.7%. Several comorbidities were associated with greater odds of medically indicated PTB compared with no comorbidity, but only comorbidities localized to the reproductive system were associated with spontaneous PTB. Drug dependence and mental disorders were strongly associated with PPROM and spontaneous PTBs across all gestational ages (OR > 2.0. At the population level, several major comorbidities (placental abruption, chorioamnionitis, oliogohydramnios, structural abnormality, cervical incompetence were key contributors to all clinical subtypes of PTB, especially at Conclusions The relationship between comorbidity and clinical subtypes of PTB depends on gestational age. Prevention of PPROM and spontaneous PTB may benefit from greater attention to preeclampsia, anemia and comorbidities localized to the reproductive system.

  11. Postnatal Risk of Acquiring Kawasaki Disease: A Nationwide Birth Cohort Database Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Mei-Hwan; Lin, Min-Tai; Chen, Hui-Chi; Kao, Feng-Yu; Huang, San-Kuei

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the postnatal risk of Kawasaki disease and coronary complications from a nationwide birth cohort in Taiwan, a country with the third-highest incidence of Kawasaki disease worldwide. We enrolled children born between 2000 and 2009 with complete postnatal medical care records for 2000-2014 in the Taiwan national database. Out of a total of 2 150 590 live births, we identified 6690 (62.6% boys) patients with Kawasaki disease. The onset was mostly (93.9%) within the first 5 years of life (median, 16 months; 38% during infancy), but was rare within the first 3 months of life. The overall cumulative incidence of Kawasaki disease by age 5 years was 2.78‰ (3.33‰ for boys and 2.17‰ for girls; P Kawasaki disease recurred more often in younger patients (cumulative incidence, 2.3% in infants vs 1.7% in children aged 1-4 years). Coronary complications occurred in 16.2% of the patients, including 4 cases of acute myocardial infarction (3 occuring during the acute stage and 1 occurring 5 years later). The probability of a major cardiac event (infarction, undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass grafting, or death) by adolescence was 1.9%. The postnatal risk of Kawasaki disease was 3‰-4‰ and increased with every birth year. Patients with Kawasaki disease are at substantial risk for a major cardiac events during childhood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Factors Influencing Early Feeding of Foods and Drinks Containing Free Sugars—A Birth Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diep H. Ha

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Early feeding of free sugars to young children can increase the preference for sweetness and the risk of consuming a cariogenic diet high in free sugars later in life. This study aimed to investigate early life factors influencing early introduction of foods/drinks containing free sugars. Data from an ongoing population-based birth cohort study in Australia were used. Mothers of newborn children completed questionnaires at birth and subsequently at ages 3, 6, 12, and 24 months. The outcome was reported feeding (Yes/No at age 6–9 months of common foods/drinks sources of free sugars (hereafter referred as foods/drinks with free sugars. Household income quartiles, mother’s sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB consumption, and other maternal factors were exposure variables. Analysis was conducted progressively from bivariate to multivariable log-binomial regression with robust standard error estimation to calculate prevalence ratios (PR of being fed foods/drinks with free sugars at an early age (by 6–9 months. Models for both complete cases and with multiple imputations (MI for missing data were generated. Of 1479 mother/child dyads, 21% of children had been fed foods/drinks with free sugars. There was a strong income gradient and a significant positive association with maternal SSB consumption. In the complete-case model, income Q1 and Q2 had PRs of 1.9 (1.2–3.1 and 1.8 (1.2–2.6 against Q4, respectively. The PR for mothers ingesting SSB everyday was 1.6 (1.2–2.3. The PR for children who had been breastfed to at least three months was 0.6 (0.5–0.8. Similar findings were observed in the MI model. Household income at birth and maternal behaviours were significant determinants of early feeding of foods/drinks with free sugars.

  13. Risk factors for preterm birth in an international prospective cohort of nulliparous women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustaaf Albert Dekker

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To identify risk factors for spontaneous preterm birth (birth <37 weeks gestation with intact membranes (SPTB-IM and SPTB after prelabour rupture of the membranes (SPTB-PPROM for nulliparous pregnant women. DESIGN: Prospective international multicentre cohort. PARTICIPANTS: 3234 healthy nulliparous women with a singleton pregnancy, follow up was complete in 3184 of participants (98.5%. RESULTS: Of the 3184 women, 156 (4.9% had their pregnancy complicated by SPTB; 96 (3.0% and 60 (1.9% in the SPTB-IM and SPTB-PPROM categories, respectively. Independent risk factors for SPTB-IM were shorter cervical length, abnormal uterine Doppler flow, use of marijuana pre-pregnancy, lack of overall feeling of well being, being of Caucasian ethnicity, having a mother with diabetes and/or a history of preeclampsia, and a family history of low birth weight babies. Independent risk factors for SPTB-PPROM were shorter cervical length, short stature, participant's not being the first born in the family, longer time to conceive, not waking up at night, hormonal fertility treatment (excluding clomiphene, mild hypertension, family history of recurrent gestational diabetes, and maternal family history of any miscarriage (risk reduction. Low BMI (<20 nearly doubled the risk for SPTB-PPROM (odds ratio 2.64; 95% CI 1.07-6.51. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC, after internal validation, was 0.69 for SPTB-IM and 0.79 for SPTB-PPROM. CONCLUSION: The ability to predict PTB in healthy nulliparous women using clinical characteristics is modest. The dissimilarity of risk factors for SPTB-IM compared with SPTB-PPROM indicates different pathophysiological pathways underlie these distinct phenotypes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ACTR.org.au ACTRN12607000551493.

  14. Early life growth, socioeconomic status, and mammographic breast density in an urban US birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyemiju, Tomi F; Tehranifar, Parisa; Flom, Julie D; Liao, Yuyan; Wei, Ying; Terry, Mary Beth

    2016-08-01

    Rapid infant and childhood growth has been associated with chronic disease later in life, including breast cancer. Early life socioeconomic status (SES) influences childhood growth, but few studies have prospective measures from birth to consider the effects of early life growth and SES on breast cancer risk. We used prospectively measured early life SES and growth (percentile weight change in height and weight between each pair of consecutive time points at birth, 4 months, 1 and 7 years). We performed linear regression models to obtain standardized estimates of the association between 1 standard deviation increase in early life SES and growth and adult mammographic density (MD), a strong risk factor for breast cancer, in a diverse birth cohort (n = 151; 37% white, 38% black, 25% Puerto Rican; average age at mammogram = 42.4). In models adjusted for race/ethnicity, prenatal factors, birthweight, infant and childhood growth, and adult body mass index, percentile weight change from 1 year to 7 years was inversely associated with percent MD (standardized coefficient (Stdβ) = -0.28, 95% CI: -0.55 to -0.01), and higher early life SES was positively associated with percent MD (Stdβ = 0.24, 95% CI: 0.04-0.43). Similar associations were observed for dense area, but those estimates were not statistically significant. These results suggest opposite and independent effects of early life SES and growth on MD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Gene-Vitamin D Interactions on Food Sensitization: A prospective birth cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Wang, Guoying; Hong, Xiumei; Wang, Deli; Tsai, Hui-Ju; Zhang, Shanchun; Arguelles, Lester; Kumar, Rajesh; Wang, Hongjian; Liu, Rong; Zhou, Ying; Pearson, Colleen; Ortiz, Kathryn; Schleimer, Robert; Holt, Patrick; Pongracic, Jacqueline; Price, Heather E; Langman, Craig; Wang, Xiaobin

    2011-01-01

    Background It has been hypothesized that vitamin D deficiency (VDD) contributes to the development of food sensitization (FS) and then food allergy. However, the epidemiological evidence is conflicting. We aim to examine if cord blood VDD is associated with FS and if such association can be modified by genetic variants in a prospective birth cohort. Methods This study included 649 children who were enrolled at birth and followed from birth onward at the Boston Medical Center. We defined VDD as cord blood 25(OH)D < 11ng/ml, and FS as specific IgE ≥ 0.35kUA/L to any of eight common food allergens in early childhood. We genotyped potentially functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 11 genes known to be involved in regulating IgE and 25(OH)D concentrations. Logistic regressions were used to test the effects of VDD on FS individually and jointly with SNPs. Results Among the 649 children, 44% had VDD and 37% had FS. When examined alone, VDD was not associated with FS. When examined jointly with SNPs, a significant interaction between IL4 gene polymorphism (rs2243250) and VDD (pinteraction=0.003, pFDR=0.10) was found: VDD increased the risk of FS among children carrying CC/CT genotypes (OR=1.79, 95%CI: 1.15–2.77). Similar but weaker interactions were observed for SNPs in MS4A2 (rs512555), FCER1G (rs2070901), and CYP24A1 (rs2762934). When all four SNPs were simultaneously considered, a strong gene-VDD interaction was evident (pinteraction=9×10−6). Conclusions Our data demonstrate that VDD may increase the risk of FS among individuals with certain genotypes, providing evidence of gene-vitamin D interaction on FS. PMID:21819409

  16. Early diagnoses of autism spectrum disorders in Massachusetts birth cohorts, 2001-2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Susan E; Davin, Carol A; Barfield, Wanda D; Kotelchuck, Milton; Clements, Karen; Diop, Hafsatou; Osbahr, Tracy; Smith, Lauren A

    2011-06-01

    We examined trends in autism spectrum disorder diagnoses by age 36 months (early diagnoses) and identified characteristics associated with early diagnoses. Massachusetts birth certificate and early-intervention program data were linked to identify infants born between 2001 and 2005 who were enrolled in early intervention and receiving autism-related services before age 36 months (through December 31, 2008). Trends in early autism spectrum disorders were examined using Cochran-Armitage trend tests. χ² Statistics were used to compare distributions of selected characteristics for children with and without autism spectrum disorders. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify independent predictors of early diagnoses. A total of 3013 children (77.5 per 10,000 study population births) were enrolled in early intervention for autism spectrum disorder by age 36 months. Autism spectrum disorder incidence increased from 56 per 10,000 infants among the 2001 birth cohort to 93 per 10,000 infants in 2005. Infants of mothers younger than 24 years of age, whose primary language was not English or who were foreign-born had lower odds of an early autism spectrum disorder diagnosis. Maternal age older than 30 years was associated with increased odds of an early autism spectrum disorder diagnosis. Odds of early autism spectrum disorders were 4.5 (95% confidence interval: 4.1-5.0) times higher for boys than girls. Early autism spectrum disorder diagnoses are increasing in Massachusetts, reflecting the national trend observed among older children. Linkage of early-intervention program data with population-based vital statistics is valuable for monitoring autism spectrum disorder trends and planning developmental and educational service needs.

  17. Comparison of associations of maternal peri-pregnancy and paternal anthropometrics with child anthropometrics from birth through age 7 y assessed in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.; Ajslev, Teresa Adeltoft; Angquist, Lars

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Maternal prepregnancy adiposity may influence child adiposity beyond the transmitted genetic effects, which, if true, may accelerate the obesity epidemic, but the evidence for this mechanism is inconsistent. Objective: The aim was to assess whether the associations of maternal...... body mass index (BMI) with child anthropometric measurements from birth through infancy and at 7 y of age exceed those of paternal associations. Design: In the Danish National Birth Cohort, information on parental and child anthropometric measures is available for 30,655 trio families from maternal...... interviews during pregnancy and the postpartum period and from a 7-y follow-up. By using multiple linear and logistic regression models of child SD (z) scores of weight and BMI at birth, 5 mo, 12 mo, and 7 y of age, and of child overweight at age 7 y, we compared associations with maternal prepregnancy...

  18. Comparison of associations of maternal peri-pregnancy and paternal anthropometrics with child anthropometrics from birth through age 7 y assessed in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thorkild Ia; Ajslev, Teresa Adeltoft; Ängquist, Lars

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Maternal prepregnancy adiposity may influence child adiposity beyond the transmitted genetic effects, which, if true, may accelerate the obesity epidemic, but the evidence for this mechanism is inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to assess whether the associations of maternal body mass...... index (BMI) with child anthropometric measurements from birth through infancy and at 7 y of age exceed those of paternal associations. DESIGN: In the Danish National Birth Cohort, information on parental and child anthropometric measures is available for 30,655 trio families from maternal interviews...... during pregnancy and the postpartum period and from a 7-y follow-up. By using multiple linear and logistic regression models of child SD (z) scores of weight and BMI at birth, 5 mo, 12 mo, and 7 y of age, and of child overweight at age 7 y, we compared associations with maternal prepregnancy...

  19. The joint influence of marital status, interpregnancy interval, and neighborhood on small for gestational age birth: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Yuquan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interpregnancy interval (IPI, marital status, and neighborhood are independently associated with birth outcomes. The joint contribution of these exposures has not been evaluated. We tested for effect modification between IPI and marriage, controlling for neighborhood. Methods We analyzed a cohort of 98,330 live births in Montréal, Canada from 1997–2001 to assess IPI and marital status in relation to small for gestational age (SGA birth. Births were categorized as subsequent-born with short (intermediate (12–35 months, or long (36+ months IPI, or as firstborn. The data had a 2-level hierarchical structure, with births nested in 49 neighborhoods. We used multilevel logistic regression to obtain adjusted effect estimates. Results Marital status modified the association between IPI and SGA birth. Being unmarried relative to married was associated with SGA birth for all IPI categories, particularly for subsequent births with short (odds ratio [OR] 1.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.31–1.95 and intermediate (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.26–1.74 IPIs. Subsequent births had a lower likelihood of SGA birth than firstborns. Intermediate IPIs were more protective for married (OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.47–0.54 than unmarried mothers (OR 0.65, 95% CI 0.56–0.76. Conclusion Being unmarried increases the likelihood of SGA birth as the IPI shortens, and the protective effect of intermediate IPIs is reduced in unmarried mothers. Marital status should be considered in recommending particular IPIs as an intervention to improve birth outcomes.

  20. All Our Babies Cohort Study: recruitment of a cohort to predict women at risk of preterm birth through the examination of gene expression profiles and the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracie, Sara K; Lyon, Andrew W; Kehler, Heather L; Pennell, Craig E; Dolan, Siobhan M; McNeil, Deborah A; Siever, Jodi E; McDonald, Sheila W; Bocking, Alan D; Lye, Stephen J; Hegadoren, Kathy M; Olson, David M; Tough, Suzanne C

    2010-12-30

    Preterm birth is the leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Risk factors for preterm birth include a personal or familial history of preterm delivery, ethnicity and low socioeconomic status yet the ability to predict preterm delivery before the onset of preterm labour evades clinical practice. Evidence suggests that genetics may play a role in the multi-factorial pathophysiology of preterm birth. The All Our Babies Study is an on-going community based longitudinal cohort study that was designed to establish a cohort of women to investigate how a women's genetics and environment contribute to the pathophysiology of preterm birth. Specifically this study will examine the predictive potential of maternal leukocytes for predicting preterm birth in non-labouring women through the examination of gene expression profiles and gene-environment interactions. Collaborations have been established between clinical lab services, the provincial health service provider and researchers to create an interdisciplinary study design for the All Our Babies Study. A birth cohort of 2000 women has been established to address this research question. Women provide informed consent for blood sample collection, linkage to medical records and complete questionnaires related to prenatal health, service utilization, social support, emotional and physical health, demographics, and breast and infant feeding. Maternal blood samples are collected in PAXgene™ RNA tubes between 18-22 and 28-32 weeks gestation for transcriptomic analyses. The All Our Babies Study is an example of how investment in clinical-academic-community partnerships can improve research efficiency and accelerate the recruitment and data collection phases of a study. Establishing these partnerships during the study design phase and maintaining these relationships through the duration of the study provides the unique opportunity to investigate the multi-causal factors of preterm birth. The overall All Our Babies Study

  1. All Our Babies Cohort Study: recruitment of a cohort to predict women at risk of preterm birth through the examination of gene expression profiles and the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McDonald Sheila W

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Preterm birth is the leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Risk factors for preterm birth include a personal or familial history of preterm delivery, ethnicity and low socioeconomic status yet the ability to predict preterm delivery before the onset of preterm labour evades clinical practice. Evidence suggests that genetics may play a role in the multi-factorial pathophysiology of preterm birth. The All Our Babies Study is an on-going community based longitudinal cohort study that was designed to establish a cohort of women to investigate how a women's genetics and environment contribute to the pathophysiology of preterm birth. Specifically this study will examine the predictive potential of maternal leukocytes for predicting preterm birth in non-labouring women through the examination of gene expression profiles and gene-environment interactions. Methods/Design Collaborations have been established between clinical lab services, the provincial health service provider and researchers to create an interdisciplinary study design for the All Our Babies Study. A birth cohort of 2000 women has been established to address this research question. Women provide informed consent for blood sample collection, linkage to medical records and complete questionnaires related to prenatal health, service utilization, social support, emotional and physical health, demographics, and breast and infant feeding. Maternal blood samples are collected in PAXgene™ RNA tubes between 18-22 and 28-32 weeks gestation for transcriptomic analyses. Discussion The All Our Babies Study is an example of how investment in clinical-academic-community partnerships can improve research efficiency and accelerate the recruitment and data collection phases of a study. Establishing these partnerships during the study design phase and maintaining these relationships through the duration of the study provides the unique opportunity to investigate the multi

  2. The impact of subjective birth experiences on post-traumatic stress symptoms: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garthus-Niegel, Susan; von Soest, Tilmann; Vollrath, Margarete E; Eberhard-Gran, Malin

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to examine the etiology of post-traumatic stress symptoms following childbirth within a transactional framework of stress. Participants were women (N = 1,499) from the Akershus Birth Cohort. These women were followed from pregnancy to 8 weeks postpartum. We modeled predisposing factors (e.g., fear of childbirth) and precipitating factors (subjective and objective birth experiences) as predictors of post-traumatic stress symptoms. Post-traumatic stress symptoms were measured by means of the Impact of Event Scale, objective birth experiences by means of birth journals, and subjective birth experiences by means of three questions. A structural equation model showed that subjective birth experiences had the highest association with post-traumatic stress symptoms. Moreover, they mediated the effect of predisposing factors and objective birth experiences. The results suggest that women's subjective birth experiences are the most important factor in the development of post-traumatic stress symptoms following childbirth.

  3. Is underage abortion associated with adverse outcomes in early adulthood? A longitudinal birth cohort study up to 25 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppälahti, Suvi; Heikinheimo, Oskari; Kalliala, Ilkka; Santalahti, Päivi; Gissler, Mika

    2016-09-01

    Is underage abortion associated with adverse socioeconomic and health outcomes in early adulthood when compared with underage delivery? Underage abortion was not found to be associated with mental health problems in early adulthood, and socioeconomic outcomes were better among those who experienced abortion compared with those who gave birth. Teenage motherhood has been linked with numerous adverse outcomes in later life, including low educational levels and poor physical and mental health. Whether abortion at a young age predisposes to similar consequences is not clear. This nationwide, retrospective cohort study from Finland, included all women born in 1987 (n = 29 041) and followed until 2012. We analysed socioeconomic, psychiatric and risk-taking-related health outcomes up to 25 years of age after underage (pregnancies up to 20 years of age (n = 25 312, 88.0%) served as an external reference group. We found no significant differences between the underage abortion and the childbirth group regarding risks of psychiatric disorders (adjusted odds ratio 0.96 [0.67-1.40]) or suffering from intentional or unintentional poisoning by medications or drugs (1.06 [0.57-1.98]). Compared with those who gave birth, girls who underwent abortion were less likely to achieve only a low educational level (0.41 [95% confidence interval 0.31-0.54]) or to be welfare-dependent (0.31 [0.22-0.45]), but more likely to suffer from injuries (1.51 [1.09-2.10]). Compared with the external control group, both pregnancy groups were disadvantaged already prior to the pregnancy. Psychiatric disorders and risk-taking-related health outcomes, including injury, were increased in the abortion group and in the childbirth group similarly on both sides of the pregnancy. The retrospective nature of the study remains a limitation. The identification of study subjects in order to collect additional data was not allowed for ethical reasons. Therefore further confounding factors, such as the intentionality

  4. Longitudinal trends in self-reported anxiety. Effects of age and birth cohort during 25 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calling, Susanna; Midlöv, Patrik; Johansson, Sven-Erik; Sundquist, Kristina; Sundquist, Jan

    2017-04-26

    Anxiety has been suggested to increase among young individuals, but previous studies on longitudinal trends are inconclusive. The aim of this study was to analyze longitudinally, the changes over time of prevalence of self-reported anxiety in the Swedish population between 1980/1981 and 2004/2005, in different birth cohorts and age groups. A random sample of non-institutionalized persons aged 16-71 years was interviewed every eighth year. Self-reported anxiety was assessed using the question" Do you suffer from nervousness, uneasiness, or anxiety?" (no; yes, mild; yes, severe). Mixed models with random intercepts were used to estimate changes in rates of anxiety (mild or severe) within different age groups and birth cohorts and in males and females separately. In addition to three time-related variables - year of interview, age at the time of the interview, and year of birth -the following explanatory variables were included: education, urbanization, marital status, smoking, leisure time physical activity and body mass index. Overall prevalence of self-reported anxiety increased from 8.0 to 12.4% in males and from 17.8% to 23.6% in females, during the 25-year follow-up period. The increasing trend was found in all age groups except in the oldest age groups, and the highest increase was found in young adults 16-23 years, with more than a three-fold increase in females, and a 2.5-fold increase in males, after adjustments for covariates. Between 1980/81 and 2004/05, there was an increasing prevalence of self-reported anxiety in all age groups except in the oldest, which indicates increased suffering for a large part of the population, and probably an increased burden on the health care system. Clinical efforts should focus particularly on young females (16-23 years), where the increase was particularly large; almost one third experienced anxiety at the end of the 25-year follow-up.

  5. Clinical documentation variations and NLP system portability: a case study in asthma birth cohorts across institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Sunghwan; Wang, Yanshan; Wi, Chung-Il; Krusemark, Elizabeth A; Ryu, Euijung; Ali, Mir H; Juhn, Young J; Liu, Hongfang

    2017-11-30

    To assess clinical documentation variations across health care institutions using different electronic medical record systems and investigate how they affect natural language processing (NLP) system portability. Birth cohorts from Mayo Clinic and Sanford Children's Hospital (SCH) were used in this study (n = 298 for each). Documentation variations regarding asthma between the 2 cohorts were examined in various aspects: (1) overall corpus at the word level (ie, lexical variation), (2) topics and asthma-related concepts (ie, semantic variation), and (3) clinical note types (ie, process variation). We compared those statistics and explored NLP system portability for asthma ascertainment in 2 stages: prototype and refinement. There exist notable lexical variations (word-level similarity = 0.669) and process variations (differences in major note types containing asthma-related concepts). However, semantic-level corpora were relatively homogeneous (topic similarity = 0.944, asthma-related concept similarity = 0.971). The NLP system for asthma ascertainment had an F-score of 0.937 at Mayo, and produced 0.813 (prototype) and 0.908 (refinement) when applied at SCH. The criteria for asthma ascertainment are largely dependent on asthma-related concepts. Therefore, we believe that semantic similarity is important to estimate NLP system portability. As the Mayo Clinic and SCH corpora were relatively homogeneous at a semantic level, the NLP system, developed at Mayo Clinic, was imported to SCH successfully with proper adjustments to deal with the intrinsic corpus heterogeneity.

  6. Smoking behavior of Mexicans: patterns by birth-cohort, gender, and education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopoulou, Rebekka; Lillard, Dean R; Balmori de la Miyar, Josè R

    2013-06-01

    Little is known about historical smoking patterns in Mexico. Policy makers must rely on imprecise predictions of human or fiscal burdens from smoking-related diseases. In this paper we document intergenerational patterns of smoking, project them for future cohorts, and discuss those patterns in the context of Mexico's impressive economic growth. We use retrospectively collected information to generate life-course smoking prevalence rates of five birth-cohorts, by gender and education. With dynamic panel data methods, we regress smoking rates on indicators of economic development. Smoking is most prevalent among men and the highly educated. Smoking rates peaked in the 1980s and have since decreased, slowly on average, and fastest among the highly educated. Development significantly contributed to this decline; a 1 % increase in development is associated with an average decline in smoking prevalence of 0.02 and 0.07 percentage points for women and men, respectively. Mexico's development may have triggered forces that decrease smoking, such as the spread of health information. Although smoking rates are falling, projections suggest that they will be persistently high for several future generations.

  7. Early development in Rett syndrome – the benefits and difficulties of a birth cohort approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschik, Peter B.; Lemcke, Sanne; Einspieler, Christa; Zhang, Dajie; Bölte, Sven; Townend, Gillian S.; Lauritsen, Marlene B.

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purposes: Typically, early (pre-diagnostic) development in individuals later diagnosed with Rett syndrome (RTT) has been investigated retrospectively using parent reports, medical records and analysis of home videos. In recent years, prospective research designs have been increasingly applied to the investigation of early development in individuals with late phenotypical onset disorders, for example, autism spectrum disorder. Methods: In this study, data collected by the Danish National Birth Cohort lent itself to prospective exploration of the early development of RTT, in particular early motor-, speech-language, and socio-communicative behaviors, mood, and sleep. Results and Conclusions: Despite limitations, this quasi prospective methodology proved promising. In order to add substantially to the body of knowledge, however, specific questions relating to peculiarites in early development could usefully be added to future cohort studies. As this involves considerable work, it may be more realistic to consider a set of indicators which point to a number of developmental disorders rather than to one. PMID:28534656

  8. Risk of inflammatory bowel disease according to self-rated health, pregnancy course, and pregnancy complications: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria C Harpsøe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Poor self-rated health (SRH has been connected to immunological changes, and pregnancy complications have been suggested in the etiology of autoimmune diseases including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. We evaluated the impact of self-rated pre-pregnancy health and pregnancy course, hyperemesis, gestational hypertension, and preeclampsia on risk of IBD. METHODS: Information was collected by questionnaires from The Danish National Birth Cohort (enrolment 1996-2002 at 16(th and 30(th week of pregnancy and 6 months postpartum. A total of 55,699 women were followed from childbirth until development of IBD (using validated National Hospital Discharge Register diagnoses, emigration, death, or end of follow-up, 31(st of October, 2011. Hazard ratios (HR with 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for age and evaluating pre-pregnancy BMI, parity, alcohol and tobacco consumption, and socio-occupational status as potential confounders. RESULTS: Risk of IBD increased with decreasing level of self-rated pre-pregnancy health (p = 0.002 and was elevated in women with poor self-rated pregnancy course (HR, 1.61, 95% CI 1.22-2.12. Associations persisted for more than 5 years postpartum. Hyperemesis and preeclampsia were not significantly associated with risk of IBD. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first prospective observational study to suggest that poor self-rated health--in general and in relation to pregnancy--is associated with increased risk of IBD even in the long term though results needs further confirmation. Symptoms of specific pregnancy complications were, on the other hand, not significantly associated with risk of IBD.

  9. Risk of inflammatory bowel disease according to self-rated health, pregnancy course, and pregnancy complications: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpsøe, Maria C; Jørgensen, Kristian Tore; Frisch, Morten; Jess, Tine

    2013-01-01

    Poor self-rated health (SRH) has been connected to immunological changes, and pregnancy complications have been suggested in the etiology of autoimmune diseases including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We evaluated the impact of self-rated pre-pregnancy health and pregnancy course, hyperemesis, gestational hypertension, and preeclampsia on risk of IBD. Information was collected by questionnaires from The Danish National Birth Cohort (enrolment 1996-2002) at 16(th) and 30(th) week of pregnancy and 6 months postpartum. A total of 55,699 women were followed from childbirth until development of IBD (using validated National Hospital Discharge Register diagnoses), emigration, death, or end of follow-up, 31(st) of October, 2011. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for age and evaluating pre-pregnancy BMI, parity, alcohol and tobacco consumption, and socio-occupational status as potential confounders. Risk of IBD increased with decreasing level of self-rated pre-pregnancy health (p = 0.002) and was elevated in women with poor self-rated pregnancy course (HR, 1.61, 95% CI 1.22-2.12). Associations persisted for more than 5 years postpartum. Hyperemesis and preeclampsia were not significantly associated with risk of IBD. This is the first prospective observational study to suggest that poor self-rated health--in general and in relation to pregnancy--is associated with increased risk of IBD even in the long term though results needs further confirmation. Symptoms of specific pregnancy complications were, on the other hand, not significantly associated with risk of IBD.

  10. Risk of Inflammatory Bowel Disease According to Self-Rated Health, Pregnancy Course, and Pregnancy Complications: A Study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpsøe, Maria C.; Jørgensen, Kristian Tore; Frisch, Morten; Jess, Tine

    2013-01-01

    Background Poor self-rated health (SRH) has been connected to immunological changes, and pregnancy complications have been suggested in the etiology of autoimmune diseases including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We evaluated the impact of self-rated pre-pregnancy health and pregnancy course, hyperemesis, gestational hypertension, and preeclampsia on risk of IBD. Methods Information was collected by questionnaires from The Danish National Birth Cohort (enrolment 1996–2002) at 16th and 30th week of pregnancy and 6 months postpartum. A total of 55,699 women were followed from childbirth until development of IBD (using validated National Hospital Discharge Register diagnoses), emigration, death, or end of follow-up, 31st of October, 2011. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models adjusting for age and evaluating pre-pregnancy BMI, parity, alcohol and tobacco consumption, and socio-occupational status as potential confounders. Results Risk of IBD increased with decreasing level of self-rated pre-pregnancy health (p = 0.002) and was elevated in women with poor self-rated pregnancy course (HR, 1.61, 95% CI 1.22–2.12). Associations persisted for more than 5 years postpartum. Hyperemesis and preeclampsia were not significantly associated with risk of IBD. Conclusions This is the first prospective observational study to suggest that poor self-rated health – in general and in relation to pregnancy – is associated with increased risk of IBD even in the long term though results needs further confirmation. Symptoms of specific pregnancy complications were, on the other hand, not significantly associated with risk of IBD. PMID:23527254

  11. Multiple atopy phenotypes and their associations with asthma: similar findings from two birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazic, N; Roberts, G; Custovic, A; Belgrave, D; Bishop, C M; Winn, J; Curtin, J A; Hasan Arshad, S; Simpson, A

    2013-06-01

    Although atopic sensitization is one of the strongest risk factors for asthma, its relationship with asthma is poorly understood. We hypothesize that 'atopy' encompasses multiple sub-phenotypes that relate to asthma in different ways. In two population-based birth cohorts (Manchester and Isle of Wight - IoW), we used a machine learning approach to independently cluster children into different classes of atopic sensitization in an unsupervised manner, based on skin prick and sIgE tests taken throughout childhood and adolescence. We examined the qualitative cluster properties and their relationship to asthma and lung function. A five-class solution best described the data in both cohorts, with striking similarity between the classes across the two populations. Compared with nonsensitized class, children in the class with sensitivity to a wide variety of allergens (~1/3 of children atopic by conventional definition) were much more likely to have asthma (aOR [95% CI0; 20.1 [10.9-40.2] in Manchester and 11.9 [7.3-19.4] in IoW). The relationship between asthma and conventional atopy was much weaker (5.5 [3.4-8.8] in Manchester and 5.8 [4.1-8.3] in IoW). In both cohorts, children in this class had significantly poorer lung function (FEV1 /FVC lower by 4.4% in Manchester and 2.6% in IoW; P asthma (P atopy phenotypes. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. The impact of adolescent stuttering on educational and employment outcomes: evidence from a birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Jan; Collier, Jacqueline; Shepstone, Lee

    2012-06-01

    In interview and survey studies, people who stutter report the belief that stuttering has had a negative impact on their own education and employment. This population study sought objective evidence of such disadvantage for people who stutter as a group, compared with people who do not stutter. A secondary analysis of a British birth cohort dataset was used in the study. At age 16, there were 217 cohort members who were reported by their parents to stutter, and 15,694 cohort members with no known history of stuttering or other speech problems. Data were analysed concerning factors associated with report of stuttering at 16, school leaving age, highest qualification, unemployment early in working life, pay at age 23 and 50, and social class of job at age 23 and 50. Those who stuttered at 16 were statistically more likely than those who did not stutter to be male, to have poorer cognitive test scores, and to have been bullied. There were no significant effects of stuttering on educational outcomes. For employment outcomes, the only significant association with stuttering concerned socioeconomic status of occupation at 50, with those who had been reported to stutter having lower-status jobs. These findings fail to support the belief that stuttering has a negative impact on education and employment. The higher likelihood of those who stutter working in lower-status positions may reflect their preference for avoiding occupations perceived to require good spoken communication abilities. Therapeutic implications are discussed. The reader will be able to describe (a) prior work on the impact of stuttering on education and employment, (b) some characteristics of the National Child Development Study (NCDS), (c) the effect of stuttering on school leaving age and highest educational qualification in NCDS, (d) the effect of stuttering on employment outcomes in NCDS: unemployment by age 23, pay at 23 and 50, and socioeconomic status of occupation at 23 and 50. Copyright © 2012

  13. Premorbid Anomalies and Risk of Schizophrenia and Depressive Disorders in a Birth Cohort Exposed to Prenatal Rubella

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penner, Justin D.; Brown, Alan S.

    2007-01-01

    In a birth cohort prenatally exposed to rubella, we assessed whether prospectively documented premorbid neuromotor dysfunction, mannerisms, deviant behaviors, and temperament during childhood and adolescence were impaired in cases who developed depressive disorder (DD) relative to rubella-exposed controls and cases who developed schizophrenia…

  14. Associations of maternal o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE levels with birth outcomes in a Bolivian cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arrebola, Juan P.; Cuellar, Miriam; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the potential association of maternal serum levels of o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE with gestation time and with anthropometric measurements and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels of newborns in a Bolivian birth cohort. Two hundred mothers were consecutively recruited between Ja...

  15. Hyperemesis gravidarum and cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescents: a follow-up of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koot, M. H.; Grooten, I. J.; Sebert, S.; Koiranen, M.; Järvelin, M. R.; Kajantie, E.; Painter, R. C.; Roseboom, T. J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate the long-term consequences of prenatal exposure to maternal hyperemesis gravidarum upon offspring cardiometabolic risk factors. Design This study is part of the prospective follow-up of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986. Setting Between 1 July 1985 and 30 June 1986 all

  16. Dietary Habits and Supplement Use in Relation to National Pregnancy Recommendations: Data from the EuroPrevall Birth Cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliver, E. M.; Grimshaw, K. E. C.; Schoemaker, A. A.; Keil, T.; McBride, D.; Sprikkelman, A. B.; Ragnarsdottir, H. S.; Trendelenburg, V.; Emmanouil, E.; Reche, M.; Fiocchi, A.; Fiandor, A.; Stanczyk-Przyluska, A.; Wilczynski, J.; Busacca, M.; Sigurdardottir, S. T.; Dubakiene, R.; Rudzeviciene, O.; Vlaxos, G. D.; Beyer, K.; Roberts, G.

    2014-01-01

    Assessing maternal dietary habits across Europe during pregnancy in relation to their national pregnancy recommendations. A collaborative, multi-centre, birth cohort study in nine European countries was conducted as part of European Union funded EuroPrevall project. Standardised baseline

  17. Early Signs of Autism in Toddlers: A Follow-Up Study in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemcke, Sanne; Juul, Svend; Parner, Erik T.; Lauritsen, Marlene B.; Thorsen, Poul

    2013-01-01

    To identify possible early signs of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) within the Danish National Birth Cohort, we studied prospectively collected interviews from 76,441 mothers about their children's development and behaviour at 6 and 18 months. In Danish national registries, 720 children with ASD and 231 children with intellectual disability (ID)…

  18. Ambulance Transfer in Case of Postpartum Hemorrhage after Birth in Primary Midwifery Care in The Netherlands: A Prospective Cohort Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stolp, Ineke; Smit, Marrit; Luxemburg, Sanne; van den Akker, Thomas; de Waard, Jan; van Roosmalen, Jos; de Vos, Rien

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this prospective cohort study was to assess whether the 45-minute prehospital limit for ambulance transfer is met in case of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) after midwifery-supervised home birth in The Netherlands and evaluate the process of ambulance transfer, maternal condition during

  19. Using text messaging to obtain weekly data on infant feeding in a Danish birth cohort resulted in high participation rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Signe; Wedderkopp, Niels; Mølgaard, Christian

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Our aim was to use text message questions to obtain prospective, real-time data on exclusive and partial breastfeeding and introduction to complementary foods in a Danish birth cohort. We also wanted to identify factors influencing breastfeeding initiation and cessation. METHODS: This study ...

  20. Perinatal mortality and morbidity in a nationwide cohort of 529,688 low-risk planned home and hospital births

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de jonge, A.; van der Goes, B. Y.; Ravelli, A. C. J.; Amelink-Verburg, M. P.; Mol, B. W.; Nijhuis, J. G.; Bennebroek Gravenhorst, J.; Buitendijk, S. E.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare perinatal mortality and severe perinatal morbidity between planned home and planned hospital births, among low-risk women who started their labour in primary care. DESIGN: A nationwide cohort study. SETTING: The entire Netherlands. POPULATION: A total of 529,688 low-risk women

  1. Prospective validation of a prognostic model for respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis in late preterm infants: a multicenter birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanken, M.O.; Koffijberg, H.; Nibbelke, E.E.; Rovers, M.M.; Bont, L.; Liem, K.D.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to update and validate a prediction rule for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) hospitalization in preterm infants 33-35 weeks gestational age (WGA). STUDY DESIGN: The RISK study consisted of 2 multicenter prospective birth cohorts in 41 hospitals. Risk factors were

  2. Autism-Risk Screening in the First 3 Years of Life in Taiwan Birth Cohort Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, For-Wey; Chiang, Tung-Liang; Lin, Shio-Jean; Shu, Bih-Ching

    2011-01-01

    To increase public awareness and sensitivity, a two-stage screening with a community-based approach is proposed, with the use of the broadband Taiwan Birth Cohort Study (TBCS) developmental instrument in the first stage and the narrowband Modified Checklist of Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) in the second stage. Thus, the purpose of this study was to…

  3. Asthma diagnosis in a child and cessation of smoking in the child's home : the PIAMA birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijga, Alet H; Schipper, Maarten; Brunekreef, Bert; Koppelman, Gerard H; Gehring, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Second hand smoke (SHS) exposure is associated with increased incidence and severity of childhood asthma. We investigated whether, in turn, asthma diagnosis in a child is associated with cessation of smoking exposure in the child's home. In the PIAMA birth cohort (n=3963), parents reported on

  4. Asthma diagnosis in a child and cessation of smoking in the child's home : the PIAMA birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijga, Alet H.; Schipper, Maarten; Brunekreef, Bert; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Gehring, Ulrike

    2017-01-01

    Second hand smoke (SHS) exposure is associated with increased incidence and severity of childhood asthma. We investigated whether, in turn, asthma diagnosis in a child is associated with cessation of smoking exposure in the child's home. In the PIAMA birth cohort (n = 3963), parents reported on

  5. Asthma diagnosis in a child and cessation of smoking in the child's home : the PIAMA birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijga, Alet H; Schipper, Maarten; Brunekreef, Bert; Koppelman, Gerard H; Gehring, Ulrike

    Second hand smoke (SHS) exposure is associated with increased incidence and severity of childhood asthma. We investigated whether, in turn, asthma diagnosis in a child is associated with cessation of smoking exposure in the child's home. In the PIAMA birth cohort (n=3963), parents reported on

  6. The Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort study : Design and first results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunekreef, B; Smit, J; de Jongste, J; Neijens, H; Gerritsen, J; Postma, D; Aalberse, R; Koopman, L; Kerkhof, M; Wijga, A; van Strien, R

    2002-01-01

    The Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort study was initiated in 1996. Children born to allergic mothers were enrolled in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial for evaluating the use of mite-impermeable mattress and pillow covers. Children born to allergic and

  7. Determinants of Weight Gain during the First Two Years of Life-The GECKO Drenthe Birth Cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kupers, Leanne K.; L'Abee, Carianne; Bocca, Gianni; Stolk, Ronald P.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Corpeleijn, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explain weight gain patterns in the first two years of life, we compared the predictive values of potential risk factors individually and within four different domains: prenatal, nutrition, lifestyle and socioeconomic factors. Methods In a Dutch population-based birth cohort, length

  8. Increasing trends in childlessness in recent birth cohorts - a registry-based study of the total Danish male population born from 1945 to 1980

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Priskorn, Lærke; Holmboe, Stine; Jacobsen, R

    2012-01-01

    . The proportion of childless men at age 45 increased from 14.8% to 21.9% in the same birth cohorts. Assisted reproductive technology (ART) seemed to compensate partly for the lower fertility and to reduce the proportion of childless men. In contrast, recent reports on corresponding birth cohorts of Danish women...

  9. It’s all a Matter of “Choice”. Understanding society’s expectations of older adult ICT use from a birth cohort perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Birkland, Johanna L.H.; Kaarst-Brown, Michelle L.

    2012-01-01

    Little research exists that examines older adults and their Information and Communication Technology (ICT) use or society’s expectations of their use. Using an intensive interpretive interactionism case study methodology, this paper examines how older adults ages 65-75 (from the Lucky Few birth cohort) view their own use and how other birth cohorts view the Lucky Few's ICT use.

  10. The development of the MeDALL Core Questionnaires for a harmonized follow-up assessment of eleven European birth cohorts on asthma and allergies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hohmann, Cynthia; Pinart, Mariona; Tischer, Christina

    2014-01-01

    of the harmonized MeDALL-Core Questionnaire (MeDALL-CQ) used prospectively in 11 European birth cohorts. METHODS: The harmonization of questions was accomplished in 4 steps: (i) collection of variables from 14 birth cohorts, (ii) consensus on questionnaire items, (iii) translation and back...... plan, conduct and support future common asthma and allergy research initiatives in Europe....

  11. Fear of childbirth in expectant fathers, subsequent childbirth experience and impact of antenatal education: subanalysis of results from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergström, Malin; Rudman, Ann; Waldenström, Ulla; Kieler, Helle

    2013-08-01

    To explore if antenatal fear of childbirth in men affects their experience of the birth event and if this experience is associated with type of childbirth preparation. Data from a randomized controlled multicenter trial on antenatal education. 15 antenatal clinics in Sweden between January 2006 and May 2007. 762 men, of whom 83 (10.9%) suffered from fear of childbirth. Of these 83 men, 39 were randomized to psychoprophylaxis childbirth preparation where men were trained to coach their partners during labor and 44 to standard care antenatal preparation for childbirth and parenthood without such training. Experience of childbirth was compared between men with and without fear of childbirth regardless of randomization, and between fearful men in the randomized groups. Analyses by logistic regression adjusted for sociodemographic variables. Self-reported data on experience of childbirth including an adapted version of the Wijma Delivery Experience Questionnaire (W-DEQ B). Men with antenatal fear of childbirth more often experienced childbirth as frightening than men without fear: adjusted odds ratio 4.68, 95% confidence interval 2.67-8.20. Men with antenatal fear in the psychoprophylaxis group rated childbirth as frightening less often than those in standard care: adjusted odds ratio 0.30, 95% confidence interval 0.10-0.95. Men who suffer from antenatal fear of childbirth are at higher risk of experiencing childbirth as frightening. Childbirth preparation including training as a coach may help fearful men to a more positive childbirth experience. Additional studies are needed to support this conclusion. © 2013 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  12. Cohort Fertility: A Comparison of the Results of the Official Birth Statistics and of the Microcensus Survey 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Pötzsch

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Data are available for the first time for the year under report 2008 on the biological number of children of women from the comprehensive Microcensus sample. Previously, only the ongoing birth statistics provided information on cohort fertility as a total fertility rate of the synthetic female cohorts. Since both benchmarks bear different types of insecurity, a comparison is to provide important information on the quality of these indicators. This article shows that the average number of children per woman in the dataset of the Microcensus 2008 and the cohort fertility rate in the birth statistics show a highly similar course of cohort fertility. Whilst the agreement for the female cohorts in the new Länder (former GDR without Berlin East and in Germany as a whole is almost complete, the values in the old Länder (Western Germany without Berlin West are further apart. A major cause of this evidently lies in the high proportion of female immigrants in the old Länder. Some of the women who immigrated into the former territory of Federal Republic already gave birth to their children before entering Germany. These births could not be taken into account in the ongoing birth statistics, whilst the Microcensus provided information on all children born, regardless of where they were born. These survey-related deviations can be largely reduced if the comparison with the cohort fertility rate of the birth statistics is based not on the average number of children of all women, but only on the number of children of women who were born in Germany or who immigrated below the age of 26. The share of female migrants was low in the new Länder and did not impact cohort fertility. All in all, the comparison showed that both sets of statistics provide data with a good degree of concurrence on the fertility of the birth years from 1933 to 1992 for Germany as a whole, as well as for the old and the new Länder. This makes it possible to carry out detailed analyses

  13. Clinical Disorders in a Post War British Cohort Reaching Retirement: Evidence from the First National Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, Mary B.; Silverwood, Richard J.; Nitsch, Dorothea; Adams, Judith E.; Stephen, Alison M.; Nip, Wing; Macfarlane, Peter; Wong, Andrew; Richards, Marcus; Hardy, Rebecca; Kuh, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Background The medical needs of older people are growing because the proportion of the older population is increasing and disease boundaries are widening. This study describes the distribution and clustering of 15 common clinical disorders requiring medical treatment or supervision in a representative British cohort approaching retirement, and how health tracked across adulthood. Methods and Findings The data come from a cohort of 2661 men and women, 84% of the target sample, followed since birth in England, Scotland and Wales in 1946, and assessed at 60–64 years for: cardio and cerebro-vascular disease, hypertension, raised cholesterol, renal impairment, diabetes, obesity, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, anaemia, respiratory disease, liver disease, psychiatric problems, cancers, atrial fibrillation on ECG and osteoporosis. We calculated the proportions disorder-free, with one or more disorders, and the level of undiagnosed disorders; and how these disorders cluster into latent classes and relate to health assessed at 36 years. Participants had, on average, two disorders (range 0–9); only 15% were disorder-free. The commonest disorders were hypertension (54.3%, 95% CI 51.8%–56.7%), obesity (31.1%, 28.8%–33.5%), raised cholesterol (25.6%, 23.1–28.26%), and diabetes or impaired fasting glucose (25.0%, 22.6–27.5%). A cluster of one in five individuals had a high probability of cardio-metabolic disorders and were twice as likely than others to have been in the poorest health at 36 years. The main limitations are that the native born sample is entirely white, and a combination of clinical assessments and self reports were used. Conclusions Most British people reaching retirement already have clinical disorders requiring medical supervision. Widening disease definitions and the move from a disease-based to a risk-based medical model will increase pressure on health services. The promotion of healthy ageing should start earlier in life and consider the

  14. Associations of Birth Order with Early Adolescent Growth, Pubertal Onset, Blood Pressure and Size: Evidence from Hong Kong's "Children of 1997" Birth Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Ki Kwok

    Full Text Available Birth order has been proposed as a cardiovascular risk factor, because the lower birth weight and greater infant weight gain typical of firstborns could programme metabolism detrimentally.We examined the associations of birth order (firstborn or laterborn with birth weight-for-gestational age, length/height and body mass index (BMI z-scores during infancy, childhood, and puberty using generalized estimating equations, with age at pubertal onset using interval-censored regression and with age-, sex- and height-standardized blood pressure, height and BMI z-scores at 13 years using linear regression in a population-representative Chinese birth cohort: "Children of 1997" (n = 8,327.Compared with laterborns, firstborns had lower birth weight-for-gestational age (mean difference = -0.18 z-score, 95% confidence interval (CI -0.23, -0.14, lower infant BMI (-0.09 z-score, 95% CI -0.14, -0.04, greater childhood height (0.10 z-score, 95% CI 0.05, 0.14 and BMI (0.08 z-score, 95% CI 0.03, 0.14, but not greater pubertal BMI (0.05 z-score, 95% CI -0.02, 0.11, adjusted for sex, parental age, birthplace, education and income. Firstborns had earlier onset of pubic hair (time ratio = 0.988, 95% CI 0.980, 0.996, but not breast or genitalia, development. Firstborns had greater BMI (0.07 z-score, 95% CI 0.002, 0.15, but not height (0.05 z-score, 95% CI -0.01, 0.11, at 13 years, but similar blood pressure.Differences by birth order continue into early adolescence with firstborns being heavier with earlier pubic hair development, which could indicate long-term cardiovascular risk.

  15. Associations of Birth Order with Early Adolescent Growth, Pubertal Onset, Blood Pressure and Size: Evidence from Hong Kong's "Children of 1997" Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Man Ki; Leung, Gabriel M; Schooling, C Mary

    2016-01-01

    Birth order has been proposed as a cardiovascular risk factor, because the lower birth weight and greater infant weight gain typical of firstborns could programme metabolism detrimentally. We examined the associations of birth order (firstborn or laterborn) with birth weight-for-gestational age, length/height and body mass index (BMI) z-scores during infancy, childhood, and puberty using generalized estimating equations, with age at pubertal onset using interval-censored regression and with age-, sex- and height-standardized blood pressure, height and BMI z-scores at 13 years using linear regression in a population-representative Chinese birth cohort: "Children of 1997" (n = 8,327). Compared with laterborns, firstborns had lower birth weight-for-gestational age (mean difference = -0.18 z-score, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.23, -0.14), lower infant BMI (-0.09 z-score, 95% CI -0.14, -0.04), greater childhood height (0.10 z-score, 95% CI 0.05, 0.14) and BMI (0.08 z-score, 95% CI 0.03, 0.14), but not greater pubertal BMI (0.05 z-score, 95% CI -0.02, 0.11), adjusted for sex, parental age, birthplace, education and income. Firstborns had earlier onset of pubic hair (time ratio = 0.988, 95% CI 0.980, 0.996), but not breast or genitalia, development. Firstborns had greater BMI (0.07 z-score, 95% CI 0.002, 0.15), but not height (0.05 z-score, 95% CI -0.01, 0.11), at 13 years, but similar blood pressure. Differences by birth order continue into early adolescence with firstborns being heavier with earlier pubic hair development, which could indicate long-term cardiovascular risk.

  16. Maternal residential exposure to agricultural pesticides and birth defects in a 2003 to 2005 North Carolina birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappazzo, Kristen M; Warren, Joshua L; Meyer, Robert E; Herring, Amy H; Sanders, Alison P; Brownstein, Naomi C; Luben, Thomas J

    2016-04-01

    Birth defects are responsible for a large proportion of disability and infant mortality. Exposure to a variety of pesticides have been linked to increased risk of birth defects. We conducted a case-control study to estimate the associations between a residence-based metric of agricultural pesticide exposure and birth defects. We linked singleton live birth records for 2003 to 2005 from the North Carolina (NC) State Center for Health Statistics to data from the NC Birth Defects Monitoring Program. Included women had residence at delivery inside NC and infants with gestational ages from 20 to 44 weeks (n = 304,906). Pesticide exposure was assigned using a previously constructed metric, estimating total chemical exposure (pounds of active ingredient) based on crops within 500 meters of maternal residence, specific dates of pregnancy, and chemical application dates based on the planting/harvesting dates of each crop. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals for four categories of exposure (90(th) percentiles) compared with unexposed. Models were adjusted for maternal race, age at delivery, education, marital status, and smoking status. We observed elevated ORs for congenital heart defects and certain structural defects affecting the gastrointestinal, genitourinary and musculoskeletal systems (e.g., OR [95% confidence interval] [highest exposure vs. unexposed] for tracheal esophageal fistula/esophageal atresia = 1.98 [0.69, 5.66], and OR for atrial septal defects: 1.70 [1.34, 2.14]). Our results provide some evidence of associations between residential exposure to agricultural pesticides and several birth defects phenotypes. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 106:240-249, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Attitudes to participating in a birth cohort study, views from a multiethnic population: a qualitative study using focus groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Neeru; Round, Thomas P; Daker-White, Gavin; Bower, Peter; Griffiths, Chris J

    2017-02-01

    Recruitment to birth cohort studies is a challenge. Few studies have addressed the attitudes of women about taking part in birth cohort studies particularly those from ethnic minority groups. To seek the views of people from diverse ethnic backgrounds about participation in a proposed birth cohort examining the impact of infections. Eight focus groups of pregnant women and mothers of young children took place in GP surgeries and community centres in an ethnically diverse area of east London. Purposeful sampling and language support ensured representation of people from ethnic minority groups. Audio recordings were taken and transcripts were analysed using the Framework approach. The views of participants about taking part in the proposed birth cohort study, in particular concerning incentives to taking part, disincentives and attitudes to consenting children. There was more convergence of opinion than divergence across groups. Altruism, perceived health gains of participating and financial rewards were motivating factors for most women. Worries about causing harm to their child, inconvenience, time pressure and blood sample taking as well as a perceived lack of health gains were disincentives to most. Mistrust of researchers did not appear to be a significant barrier. The study indicates that ethnicity and other demographic factors influence attitudes to participation. To recruit better, birth cohort studies should incorporate financial and health gains as rewards for participation, promote the altruistic goals of research, give assurances regarding the safety of the participating children and sensitive data, avoid discomfort and maximize convenience. Ethnicity influences attitudes to participation in many ways, and researchers should explore these factors in their target population. © 2016 The Authors. Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Age At Marriage, Gauna (Effective Marriage And First Child Birth In Rural Women- Changing Pattern In Various Marriage Cohorts By Decades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sethi Neeraj K

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available Fertility patterns of a community depend upon several factors. Strict enforcement of legislation is amongst its important determinants. The Government proposes to enact a deterrent law, which will replace the loophole â€" ridden Child Marriage Restraint Act of 1978. In India, there exists a long established custom to enter into effective marriage several years after marriage. This is called ‘gauna’. Studying the various marriage cohorts by decades, the present communication comments on the age at marriage, age at gauna and age at first childbirth amongst 843 rural women in Delhi. The study shows that over the last six decades, there has been a gradual rise of age at marriage from 10.5 years to 16.5 years. However, this slope is less steep with age at gauna and almost non- existent for age at first childbirth. This in turn has narrowed the gap between age at gauna and age at first childbirth. Age at first childbirth has remained more or less constant at 19-20 years. This fining, if corroborated elsewhere also, may be of great significance and raise questions on the validity of the current strategy of increasing marriage age to 18 years in order to reduce fertility.

  19. Birth cohort effects on abdominal obesity in the United States: the Silent Generation, Baby Boomers and Generation X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, W R; Utz, R L; Keyes, K M; Martin, C L; Yang, Y

    2013-08-01

    Abdominal obesity predicts a wide range of adverse health outcomes. Over the past several decades, prevalence of abdominal obesity has increased markedly in industrialized countries like the United States No previous analyses, however, have evaluated whether there are birth cohort effects for abdominal obesity. Estimating cohort effects is necessary to forecast future health trends and understand the past population-level trends. This analysis evaluated whether there were birth cohort effects for abdominal obesity for the Silent Generation (born 1925-1945), children of the Great Depression; Baby Boomers (born 1946-1964); or Generation X (born 1965-1980). Cohort effects for prevalence of abdominal obesity were estimated using the median polish method with data collected from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) between 1988 and 2008. Respondents were aged 20-74 years. After taking into account age effects and ubiquitous secular changes, the Silent Generation and Generation X had higher cohort-specific prevalence of abdominal obesity than the Baby Boomers. Effects were more pronounced in women than men. This work presents a novel finding: evidence that the birth cohorts of the post-World War II Baby Boom appeared to have uniquely low cohort effects on abdominal obesity. The growing prosperity of the post-World War II US may have exposed the baby-boom generation to lower levels of psychosocial and socioeconomic stress than the previous or subsequent generations. By identifying factors associated with the Baby Boomers' low cohort-specific sensitivity to the obesogenic environment, the obesity prevention community can identify early-life factors that can protect future generations from excess weight gain.

  20. Increasing incidence of early onset type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus: a study of Danish male birth cohorts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, A; Andersen, P K; Svendsen, Anders Jørgen

    1992-01-01

    To provide information of the incidence trends of Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus we performed a cohort study of a series of Danish male birth cohorts. All male livebirths in Denmark between 1 January 1949 and 31 December 1964, were investigated regarding the development of Type 1...... of 1705 diabetic subjects were identified of whom 23 were not representative of idiopathic Type 1 diabetes. The cumulative rate of Type 1 diabetes development during the first 20 years of life increased from 2.37 to 2.90 per 1000 for the first eight and last eight birth cohorts, respectively. A log...... diabetes during the first 20 years of life using the files of the Danish Conscript Board, supplemented by a search in the Danish National Registry of Deaths. Diagnosis was verified and clinical information obtained from medical records. The material is estimated to be more than 95% complete. A total...

  1. Maternal factors and the risk of birth defects after IVF and ICSI: a whole of population cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, M J; Rumbold, A R; Marino, J L; Willson, K; Giles, L C; Whitrow, M J; Scheil, W; Moran, L J; Thompson, J G; Lane, M; Moore, V M

    2017-09-01

    To assess the contribution of maternal factors to major birth defects after in vitro fertilisation (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and natural conception. Retrospective cohort study in South Australia for the period January 1986 to December 2002. A whole of population study. A census of all IVF and ICSI linked to registries for births, pregnancy terminations, and birth defects (diagnosed before a child's fifth birthday). Odds ratios (ORs) for birth defects were calculated among IVF, ICSI, and natural conceptions for maternal age, parity, pre-pregnancy BMI, smoking, pre-existing diseases, and conditions in pregnancy, with adjustment for confounding factors. Birth defects classified by International Classification of Diseases (ninth revision) and British Paediatric Association (ICD9-BPA) codes. There were 2211 IVF, 1399 ICSI, and 301 060 naturally conceived births. The unadjusted prevalence of any birth defect was 7.1, 9.9, and 5.7% in the IVF, ICSI, and natural conception groups, respectively. As expected, the risk of birth defects increased with maternal age among the natural conceptions. In contrast, for IVF and ICSI combined, relative to natural conceptions, births to women aged ≤29 years had a higher risk (adjusted odds ratio, aOR 1.42; 95% confidence interval, 95% CI 1.04-1.94), births to women aged 35-39 years had no difference in risk (aOR 1.01; 95% CI 0.74-1.37), and births to women aged ≥40 years had a lower risk of defects (aOR 0.45; 95% CI 0.22-0.92). Defects were also elevated for nulliparity, anaemia, and urinary tract infection in births after ICSI, but not after IVF. The usual age-birth defect relationship is reversed in births after IVF and ICSI, and the associations for other maternal factors and defects vary between IVF and ICSI. Risk of birth defects in women over 40 years is lower after infertility treatment than for natural conceptions. © 2016 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  2. The maternal childbirth experience more than a decade after delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossano, Carla M; Townsend, Kelly M; Walton, Alexandra C; Blomquist, Joan L; Handa, Victoria L

    2017-09-01

    Maternal satisfaction with the birth experience is multidimensional and influenced by many factors, including mode of delivery. To date, few studies have investigated maternal satisfaction outside of the immediate postpartum period. This study investigated whether differences in satisfaction based on mode of delivery are observed more than a decade after delivery. This was a planned, supplementary analysis of data collected for the Mothers' Outcomes after Delivery study, a longitudinal cohort study of pelvic floor disorders in parous women and their association with mode of delivery. Obstetric and demographic data were obtained through patient surveys and obstetrical chart review. Maternal satisfaction with childbirth experience was assessed via the Salmon questionnaire, administered to Mothers' Outcomes after Delivery study participants >10 years from their first delivery. This validated questionnaire yields 3 scores: fulfillment, distress, and difficulty. These 3 scores were compared by mode of delivery (cesarean prior to labor, cesarean during labor, spontaneous vaginal delivery, and operative vaginal delivery). In addition, the impact of race, age, education level, parity, episiotomy, labor induction, and duration of second stage of labor on maternal satisfaction were examined. Among 576 women, 10.1-17.5 years from delivery, significant differences in satisfaction scores were noted by delivery mode. Salmon scale scores differed between women delivering by cesarean and those delivering vaginally: women delivering vaginally reported greater fulfillment (0.40 [-0.37 to 0.92] vs 0.15 [-0.88 to 0.66], P childbirth is influenced by mode of delivery. The birth experience leaves an impression on women more than a decade after delivery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The effects of counseling on fear of childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Birgitta; Karlström, Annika; Rubertsson, Christine; Hildingsson, Ingegerd

    2015-06-01

    To investigate women's experiences of attending existing counseling programs for childbirth-related fear and the effect of this counseling over time. A longitudinal survey. Three hospitals in the central north of Sweden. A selected sample of 936 women. Of these, 70 received counseling due to fear of childbirth (study-group). Data were collected with questionnaires 2 months and 1 year after giving birth with background data collected during midpregnancy. Comparisons were made between women with or without counseling. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) were calculated. Self-reported childbirth fear, experience of counseling, birth experience and preferred mode of birth. Women in the counseling group reported higher childbirth fear 1 year after giving birth (OR 5.0, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 2.6-9.3), they had a more negative birth experience that did not change over time (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.2-3.9) and they preferred cesarean section to a greater extent (OR 12.0, 95% CI 5.1-28.1) in the case of another birth. Also, they were more often delivered by planned cesarean section (OR 4.7, 95% CI 2.4-9.1). However, 80% were satisfied with the given support. Although women were satisfied with the treatment, this study shows that counseling had a minor effect on fear of childbirth, birth experiences or cesarean section rates. To help women with their fear of childbirth, more effective methods of treatment are needed. © 2015 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  4. Early life origins of all-cause and cause-specific disability pension: findings from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Bondorff, Mikaela B; Törmäkangas, Timo; Salonen, Minna; von Bonsdorff, Monika E; Osmond, Clive; Kajantie, Eero; Eriksson, Johan G

    2015-01-01

    There is some evidence linking sub-optimal prenatal development to an increased risk of disability pension (DP). Our aim was to investigate whether body size at birth was associated with transitioning into all-cause and cause-specific DP during the adult work career. 10 682 people born in 1934-44 belonging to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study had data on birth weight extracted from birth records, and on time, type and reason of retirement between 1971 and 2011 extracted from the Finnish Centre for Pensions. Altogether 21.3% transitioned into DP during the 40-year follow-up, mainly due to mental disorders, musculoskeletal disorders and cardiovascular disease. Average age of transitioning into DP was 51.3 (SD 8.4) for men and 52.2 (SD 7.6) for women. Cohort members who did not transition into DP retired 10 years later on average. Among men, higher birth weight was associated with a lower hazard of transitioning into DP, adjusted hazard ratio (HR) being 0.94 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.88-0.99 for 1 SD increase in birth weight). For DP due to mental disorders the adjusted HR was 0.90, 95% CI 0.81, 0.99. A similar but non-significant trend was found for DP due to cardiovascular disease. Among women there were no associations between body size at birth and all-cause DP (p for interaction gender*birth weight on DP p = 0.007). Among men disability pension, particularly due to mental disorders, may have its origins in prenatal development. Given that those who retire due to mental health problems are relatively young, the loss to the workforce is substantial.

  5. Farming environment and prevalence of atopy at age 31: prospective birth cohort study in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampi, J; Canoy, D; Jarvis, D; Hartikainen, A-L; Keski-Nisula, L; Järvelin, M-R; Pekkanen, J

    2011-07-01

    Cross-sectional studies have shown an association between the farming environment and a decreased risk of atopic sensitization, mainly related to contact with farm animals in the childhood. Investigate the association of a farming environment, especially farm animal contact, during infancy, with atopic sensitization and allergic diseases at the age of 31. In a prospective birth cohort study, 5509 subjects born in northern Finland in 1966 were followed up at the age of 31. Prenatal exposure to the farming environment was documented before or at birth. At age 31, information on health status and childhood exposure to pets was collected by a questionnaire and skin prick tests were performed. Being born to a family having farm animals decreased the risk of atopic sensitization [odds ratio (OR) 0.67; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.56-0.80], atopic eczema ever (OR 0.77; 95% CI 0.66-0.91), doctor-diagnosed asthma ever (OR 0.74; 95% CI 0.55-1.00), allergic rhinitis at age 31 (OR 0.87; 95% CI 0.73-1.03) and allergic conjunctivitis (OR 0.86; 95% CI 0.72-1.02) at age 31. There was a suggestion that the reduced risk of allergic sensitization was particularly evident among the subjects whose mothers worked with farm animals during pregnancy, and that the reduced risk of the above diseases by farm animal exposure was largely explained by the reduced risk of atopy. Having cats and dogs in childhood revealed similar associations as farm animals with atopic sensitization. Contact with farm animals in early childhood reduces the risk of atopic sensitization, doctor-diagnosed asthma and allergic diseases at age 31. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. The effects of early and late paracetamol exposure on asthma and atopy: a birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickens, K; Beasley, R; Town, I; Epton, M; Pattemore, P; Ingham, T; Crane, J

    2011-03-01

    Despite reports of positive associations between paracetamol and asthma, the nature of these associations is unclear. We aimed to investigate the associations between infant and childhood paracetamol use and atopy and allergic disease at 5-6 years. In a birth cohort study, we collected reported paracetamol exposure between birth and 15 months in Christchurch (n=505) and between 5 and 6 years for all participants (Christchurch and Wellington) (n=914). Outcome data for reported current asthma, reported wheeze and atopy (measured using skin prick tests) were collected at 6 years for all participants. Logistic regression models were adjusted for potential confounders, including the number of chest infections and antibiotic use. Paracetamol exposure before the age of 15 months was associated with atopy at 6 years [adjusted odds ratio (OR)=3.61, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.33-9.77]. Paracetamol exposure between 5 and 6 years showed dose-dependent associations with reported wheeze and current asthma but there was no association with atopy. Compared with use 0-2 times, the adjusted OR (95% CI) were wheeze 1.83 (1.04-3.23) for use 3-10 times, and 2.30 (1.28-4.16) for use >10 times: current asthma 1.63 (0.92-2.89) for use 3-10 times and 2.16 (1.19-3.92) for use >10 times: atopy 0.96 (0.59-1.56) for use 3-10 times, and 1.05 (0.62-1.77) for use >10 times. Our findings suggest that paracetamol has a role in the development of atopy, and the maintenance of asthma symptoms. Before recommendations for clinical practice can be made, randomized-controlled trials are needed to determine whether these associations are causal. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Breastfeeding and the development of asthma and atopy during childhood: a birth cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Semic-Jusufagic

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Within the context of a population based-birth cohort, we investigated the association between breastfeeding and development of asthma and atopy in childhood. Methods. Children (n=1072 were followed from birth and reviewed at age one, three, five and eight years. Based on the onset and resolution of symptoms, we assigned children into the wheeze phenotypes (never, transient, intermittent, lateonset and persistent. Atopy was determined by skin testing and specific IgE measurement. According to the duration of breastfeeding, participants were assigned as not breastfed, breastfed ≤ four months and breastfed > four months. Results. In a multinomial regression model adjusted for gender, we found that breastfeeding > four months was protective of transient early wheeze (aOR: 0.61, 95% CI 0.41-0.90, p=0.01, with no significant association between breastfeeding and other wheeze phenotypes. In a multivariate model, we found a significant protective effect of breastfeeding >four months on doctor-diagnosed asthma by age eight (aOR 0.59, 95% CI 0.39-0.88, p=0.01. However, we observed a strong trend which failed to reach statistical significance for breastfeeding >four months to increase the risk of atopy at age one year (aOR 2.41, 95% CI 0.94-6.14, p=0.07. There was no significant association between breastfeeding and atopy at any other time point. Conclusion. Breastfeeding may prevent viral-infection induced wheezing illnesses in early childhood (transient early wheezing.

  8. Alcoholism and timing of separation in parents: findings in a midwestern birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Mary; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Lynskey, Michael T; Madden, Pamela A F; Heath, Andrew C

    2013-03-01

    We examined history of alcoholism and occurrence and timing of separation in parents of a female twin cohort. Parental separation (never-together; never-married cohabitants who separated; married who separated) was predicted from maternal and paternal alcoholism in 326 African ancestry (AA) and 1,849 European/ other ancestry (EA) families. Broad (single-informant, reported in abstract) and narrow (self-report or two-informant) measures of alcoholism were compared. Parental separation was more common in families with parental alcoholism: By the time twins were 18 years of age, parents had separated in only 24% of EA families in which neither parent was alcoholic, contrasted with 58% of families in which only the father was (father-only), 61% of families in which only the mother was (mother-only), and 75% in which both parents were alcoholic (two-parent); corresponding AA percentages were 59%, 71%, 82%, and 86%, respectively. Maternal alcoholism was more common in EA nevertogether couples (mother-only: odds ratio [OR] = 5.95; two parent: OR = 3.69). In ever-together couples, alcoholism in either parent predicted elevated risk of separation, with half of EA relationships ending in separation within 12 years of twins' birth for father-only families, 9 years for mother-only families, and 4 years for both parents alcoholic; corresponding median survival times for AA couples were 9, 4, and 2 years, respectively. EA maternal alcoholism was especially strongly associated with separation in the early postnatal years (mother-only: birth-5 years, hazard ratio [HR] = 4.43; 6 years on, HR = 2.52; two-parent: HRs = 5.76, 3.68, respectively). Parental separation is a childhood environmental exposure that is more common in children of alcoholics, with timing of separation highly dependent on alcoholic parent gender.

  9. Infant motor development predicts sports participation at age 14 years: northern Finland birth cohort of 1966.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte L Ridgway

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Motor proficiency is positively associated with physical activity levels. The aim of this study is to investigate associations between the timing of infant motor development and subsequent sports participation during adolescence.Prospective observational study. The study population consisted of 9,009 individuals from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966. Motor development was assessed by parental report at age 1 year, using age at walking with support and age at standing unaided. At follow up aged 14 years, data were collected on the school grade awarded for physical education (PE. Self report was used to collect information on the frequency of sports participation and number of different sports reported.Earlier infant motor development was associated with improved school PE grade, for age at walking supported (p<0.001 and standing unaided (p = <0.001. Earlier infant motor development, in terms of age at walking supported, was positively associated with the number of different sports reported (p = 0.003 and with a greater frequency of sports participation (p = 0.043. These associations were independent of gestational age and birth weight, as well as father's social class and body mass index at age 14 years.Earlier infant motor development may predict higher levels of physical activity as indicated by higher school PE grade, participation in a greater number of different types of sports and increased frequency of sports participation. Identification of young children with slower motor development may allow early targeted interventions to improve motor skills and thereby increase physical activity in later life.

  10. Infancy and childhood growth and physical activity in adolescence: prospective birth cohort study from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hallal Pedro C

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease hypothesis suggests that intrauterine, infancy and early childhood variables play a key role at programming later health. However, little is known on the programming of behavioral variables, because most studies so far focused on chronic disease-related and human capital outcomes. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of prenatal, infancy and childhood weight and length/height gains on objectively-measured physical activity (PA in adolescence. Methods This is a prospective birth cohort study in Pelotas, Brazil, including 457 adolescents (mean age: 13.3 years with weight and length/height data at birth, one, three and six months, one and four years of age. PA was measured using a GT1M Actigraph accelerometer, and expressed as (a minutes per day spent on sedentary, light, moderate, vigorous and very-vigorous activities; (b total counts per day. Results 61.3% of the adolescents accumulated 60+ minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA per day. Weight and length/height trajectories in infancy and childhood were similar between those classified as active or inactive at 13.3 years. However, those classified as inactive were heavier and taller at all ages; differences were statistically significant only in terms of length at three, six and 12 months. Conclusions Weight gain in infancy and childhood did not predict variability in adolescent PA, but those active in adolescence showed somewhat smaller average gains in length in infancy. These findings suggest that PA may partially be sensitive to early hormonal programming, or that genetic factors may affect both early growth and later metabolism or predisposition for PA.

  11. Food insecurity and children's mental health: a prospective birth cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Melchior

    Full Text Available Food insecurity (which can be defined as inadequate access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food that meets individuals' dietary needs is concurrently associated with children's psychological difficulties. However, the predictive role of food insecurity with regard to specific types of children's mental health symptoms has not previously been studied. We used data from the Longitudinal Study of Child Development in Québec, LSCDQ, a representative birth cohort study of children born in the Québec region, in Canada, in 1997-1998 (n = 2120. Family food insecurity was ascertained when children were 1½ and 4½ years old. Children's mental health symptoms were assessed longitudinally using validated measures of behaviour at ages 4½, 5, 6 and 8 years. Symptom trajectory groups were estimated to identify children with persistently high levels of depression/anxiety (21.0%, aggression (26.2%, and hyperactivity/inattention (6.0%. The prevalence of food insecurity in the study was 5.9%. In sex-adjusted analyses, children from food-insecure families were disproportionately likely to experience persistent symptoms of depression/anxiety (OR: 1.79, 95% CI 1.15-2.79 and hyperactivity/inattention (OR: 3.06, 95% CI 1.68-5.55. After controlling for immigrant status, family structure, maternal age at child's birth, family income, maternal and paternal education, prenatal tobacco exposure, maternal and paternal depression and negative parenting, only persistent hyperactivity/inattention remained associated with food insecurity (fully adjusted OR: 2.65, 95% CI 1.16-6.06. Family food insecurity predicts high levels of children's mental health symptoms, particularly hyperactivity/inattention. Addressing food insecurity and associated problems in families could help reduce the burden of mental health problems in children and reduce social inequalities in development.

  12. Age at puberty and adult blood pressure and body size in a British birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Rebecca; Kuh, Diana; Whincup, Peter H; Wadsworth, Michael Ej

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the association between age at puberty and blood pressure at age 53 years. A prospective birth cohort study with regular contacts through childhood and adulthood until the age of 53 years. A total of 1193 men and 1204 women, from a sample of 5362 born in Britain in March 1946. Blood pressure at age 53 years. Regression models indicated that men who had reached puberty latest had a lower mean systolic blood pressure (SBP; P = 0.03) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP; P = 0.01) at 53 years than others. The mean SBP (95% confidence interval) was 6.4 mmHg (1.8, 10.9) greater in the earliest puberty group compared with the latest; for DBP the difference was 4.6 mmHg (1.9, 7.4). The associations were not accounted for by current body size, even though later puberty was associated with a decreasing body mass index (BMI) at 53 years. Neither were they accounted for by prepubertal body size, birth weight, or childhood and adult social class. Although women who reached puberty early had a higher BMI and shorter stature at 53 years compared with other women, they did not have higher blood pressure. Better health behaviours in men reaching puberty late may explain the association between age at puberty and blood pressure. Alternatively, age at puberty may be a marker of the whole growth trajectory, distinguishing characteristics important in the later development of high blood pressure. The association of early puberty with high adult BMI in both sexes highlights the importance of controlling obesity in those who mature early.

  13. Impact of Prolonged Breastfeeding on Dental Caries: A Population-Based Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Karen Glazer; Nascimento, Gustavo G; Peres, Marco Aurelio; Mittinty, Murthy N; Demarco, Flavio Fernando; Santos, Ina Silva; Matijasevich, Alicia; Barros, Aluisio J D

    2017-07-01

    Few studies have assessed the effect of breastfeeding, bottle feeding, and sugar consumption on children's dental caries. We investigated whether the duration of breastfeeding is a risk factor for dental caries in the primary dentition, independently of sugar consumption. An oral health study ( n = 1303) nested in a birth cohort study was carried out in southern Brazil. The average number of decayed, missing, and filled primary tooth surfaces (dmfs) and severe early childhood caries (S-ECC: dmfs ≥6) were investigated at age 5 years. Breastfeeding was the main exposure collected at birth and at 3, 12, and 24 months of age. Data on sugar consumption were collected at 24, 48, and 60 months of age. Marginal structural modeling was used to estimate the controlled direct effect of breastfeeding (0-12, 13-23, and ≥24 months) on dmfs and on S-ECC. The prevalence of S-ECC was 23.9%. The mean number of dmfs was 4.05. Children who were breastfed for ≥24 months had a higher number of dmfs (mean ratio: 1.9; 95% confidence interval: 1.5-2.4) and a 2.4 times higher risk of having S-ECC (risk ratio: 2.4; 95% confidence interval: 1.7-3.3) than those who were breastfed up to 12 months of age. Breastfeeding between 13 and 23 months had no effect on dental caries. Prolonged breastfeeding increases the risk of having dental caries. Preventive interventions for dental caries should be established as early as possible because breastfeeding is beneficial for children's health. Mechanisms underlying this process should be investigated more deeply. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  14. Asthma incidence in children growing up close to traffic: a registry-based birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Anna; Stroh, Emilie; Björk, Jonas; Jakobsson, Kristina

    2013-10-26

    Recent reviews conclude an association between traffic-related pollution and incidence of asthma in children, but not all studies agree. Studies have almost exclusively relied on parental-reported symptoms or parental-reported diagnoses of asthma and wheeze. Our aim was to investigate if traffic exposure is associated with higher incidence of early onset asthma, using registry-based outcome data. We investigated a birth cohort in southern Sweden, consisting of N = 26,128 children with outcome and exposure data (born July 2005-2010). Of these children, N = 7898 had additional covariate information. The cohort was followed to the end of 2011.Traffic intensity, and dispersion-modeled concentrations of NOX (100×100 m grid), at residential addresses, were linked with registry data on dispensed asthma medication (the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register), and hospital and primary health care diagnoses of bronchiolitis, obstructive bronchitis and asthma (The Scania Health Care Register).Covariate information was obtained from questionnaires distributed to parents at Child Health Care-centre visits, eight months after birth. Cox proportional hazards regression was used for the statistical analyses. Living in close proximity to a road with ≥8640 cars/day (compared to 0-8640 cars/day), was not associated with higher incidence of first purchase of inhaled β2-agonist (adjusted hazard ratio (adj.HR) = 0.9, 95% CI: 0.8-1.0); third year purchase of inhaled β2-agonist (adj.HR = 0.7, 95% CI: 0.6-0.9); bronchiolitis (adj.HR = 0.7, 95% CI: 0.6-0.9), obstructive bronchitis (adj.HR = 1.0, 95% CI: 0.9-1.2), or asthma (adj.HR = 0.7, 95% CI: 0.6- 0.9). Similar results were found for inhaled corticosteroids, and in relation to NOX. Traffic-related exposure was not associated with higher incidence of asthma medication, or diagnoses of asthma, bronchiolitis, or obstructive bronchitis, in children 0-6 years in southern Sweden. This may depend on the low levels of traffic pollution in the

  15. Estimating direct effects of parental occupation on Spaniards’ health by birth cohort

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    Jaime Pinilla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Social health inequalities in adult population are partly due to socioeconomic circumstances in childhood. A better understanding of how those circumstances affect health during adulthood may improve the opportunities for reducing health disparities. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of parental socioeconomic status, which is proxied by occupation, on adult Spaniards’ health by birth cohort. The analysis will allow checking not only the direct impact of parental occupation on their offspring’s health, but also whether inherited inequality has been reduced over time. Methods We use data from the Bank of Spain’s Survey of Household Finances on Spanish households from 2002 to 2008. Sequential models were used to estimate the influence of the father’s and mother’s occupation on their offspring’s health, trying to disentangle direct from indirect effects. With a sample of 26,832 persons we consider effects for four different cohorts by birth periods ranging from 1916 to 1981. Results The results show that parental occupation has a significant direct impact on individuals’ health (p < 0.01. The effect of father’s occupation exceeds that of mother’s. For those born before 1936, the probability of reporting a good health status ranges from 0.31 (95% confidence interval (CI 0.14–0.48, when fathers were classified as unskilled elementary workers, to 0.98 (95% CI 0.98–0.99 when they were managers or mid-level professionals. For those born during the period 1959–1975, those probabilities are 0.49 (95% CI 0.39–0.59 and 0.97 (95% CI 0.96–0.98, respectively. Therefore, health inequalities linked to parental socioeconomic status have been noticeably reduced, although discrimination against unskilled workers persists over time. Conclusions Great progress has been made in the health area during the twentieth century, so that the impact of parental socioeconomic status on individuals

  16. Clinical and social outcomes of adolescent self harm: population based birth cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Jon; Crane, Catherine; Hawton, Keith; Lewis, Glyn; Macleod, John; Tilling, Kate; Gunnell, David

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the mental health, substance use, educational, and occupational outcomes of adolescents who self harm in a general population sample, and to examine whether these outcomes differ according to self reported suicidal intent. Design Population based birth cohort study. Setting Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), a UK birth cohort of children born in 1991-92. Participants Data on lifetime history of self harm with and without suicidal intent were available for 4799 respondents who completed a detailed self harm questionnaire at age 16 years. Multiple imputation was used to account for missing data. Main outcome measures Mental health problems (depression and anxiety disorder), assessed using the clinical interview schedule-revised at age 18 years, self reported substance use (alcohol, cannabis, cigarette smoking, and illicit drugs) at age 18 years, educational attainment at age 16 and 19 years, occupational outcomes at age 19 years, and self harm at age 21 years. Results Participants who self harmed with and without suicidal intent at age 16 years were at increased risk of developing mental health problems, future self harm, and problem substance misuse, with stronger associations for suicidal self harm than for non-suicidal self harm. For example, in models adjusted for confounders the odds ratio for depression at age 18 years was 2.21 (95% confidence interval 1.55 to 3.15) in participants who had self harmed without suicidal intent at age 16 years and 3.94 (2.67 to 5.83) in those who had self harmed with suicidal intent. Suicidal self harm, but not self harm without suicidal intent, was also associated with poorer educational and employment outcomes. Conclusions Adolescents who self harm seem to be vulnerable to a range of adverse outcomes in early adulthood. Risks were generally stronger in those who had self harmed with suicidal intent, but outcomes were also poor among those who had self harmed without suicidal

  17. Treatment and disease progression in a birth cohort of vertically HIV-1 infected children in Ukraine

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    Pilipenko Tatyana

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ukraine has the highest HIV prevalence (1.6% and is facing the fastest growing epidemic in Europe. Our objective was to describe the clinical, immunological and virological characteristics, treatment and response in vertically HIV-infected children living in Ukraine and followed from birth. Methods The European Collaborative Study (ECS is an ongoing cohort study, in which HIV-1 infected pregnant women are enrolled and followed in pregnancy, and their children prospectively followed from birth. ECS enrolment in Ukraine started in 2000 initially with three sites, increasing to seven sites by 2009. Results A total of 245 infected children were included in the cohort by April 2009, with a median age of 23 months at most recent follow-up; 33% (n = 77 had injecting drug using mothers and 85% (n = 209 were infected despite some use of antiretroviral prophylaxis for prevention of mother-to-child transmission. Fifty-five (22% children had developed AIDS, at a median age of 10 months (IQR = 6-19. The most prevalent AIDS indicator disease was Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP. Twenty-seven (11% children had died (median age, 6.2 months. Overall, 108 (44% children had started highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART, at a median 18 months of age; median HAART duration was 6.6 months to date. No child discontinued HAART and 92% (100/108 remained on their first-line HAART regimen to date. Among children with moderate/severe immunosuppression, 36% had not yet started HAART. Among children on HAART, 71% (69/97 had no evidence of immunosuppression at their most recent visit; the median reduction in HIV RNA was 4.69 log10 copies/mL over a median of 10 months treatment. From survival analysis, an estimated 94%, 84% and 81% of children will be alive and AIDS-free at 6, 12 and 18 months of age, respectively. However, survival increased significantly over time: estimated survival rates to 12 months of age were 87% for children born in 2000

  18. Incidence and risk factors for food hypersensitivity in UK infants: results from a birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimshaw, Kate E C; Bryant, Trevor; Oliver, Erin M; Martin, Jane; Maskell, Joe; Kemp, Terri; Clare Mills, E N; Foote, Keith D; Margetts, Barrie M; Beyer, Kirsten; Roberts, Graham

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of food hypersensitivity in the UK is still largely open to debate. Additionally its pathogenesis is also unclear although it is known that there are differing phenotypes. Determining its prevalence, along with identifying those factors associated with its development will help to assess its clinical importance within the national setting and also add to the debate on appropriate prevention strategies. A population based birth cohort study conducted in Hampshire, UK as part of the EuroPrevall birth cohort study. 1140 infants were recruited with 823 being followed up until 2 years of age. Infants with suspected food reactions were assessed including specific IgE measurement and skin prick testing. Diagnosis of food hypersensitivity was by positive double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge (DBPCFC) where symptoms up to 48 h after the end of the food challenge were considered indicative of a food hypersensitivity. Factors associated with food hypersensitivity and its two phenotypes of IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated disease were modelled in a multivariable logistic regression analysis. Cumulative incidence of food hypersensitivity by 2 years of age was 5.0 %. The cumulative incidence for individual food allergens were hens' egg 2.7 % (1.6-3.8); cows' milk 2.4 % (1.4-3.5); peanut 0.7 % (0.1-1.3); soy 0.4 % (0.0-0.8); wheat 0.2 % (0.0-0.5) and 0.1 % (0.0-0.32) for fish. The cumulative incidence of IgE-mediated food allergy was 2.6 % with 2.1 % reacting to hens' egg. For non-IgE-mediated food allergy the cumulative incidence was 2.4 % (cows' milk 1.7 %). Predictors for any food hypersensitivity were wheeze, maternal atopy, increasing gestational age, age at first solid food introduction and mean healthy dietary pattern score. Predictors for IgE mediated allergy were eczema, rhinitis and healthy dietary pattern score whereas for non-IgE-mediated food allergy the predictors were dog in the home, healthy dietary pattern score, maternal

  19. Brighter children? The association between seasonality of birth and child IQ in a population-based birth cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.H. Grootendorst-Van Mil; R.P.M. Steegers-Theunissen (Régine); A. Hofman (Albert); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); F.C. Verhulst (Frank); H.W. Tiemeier (Henning)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractObjective: Season of birth has repeatedly been found to be a risk indicator for adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. Several explanations for this finding have been put forward but no conclusion has been reached. In the current study, we explored the role of sociodemographic and

  20. Parental mental health, education, age at childbirth and child development from six to 18 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, For-Wey; Shu, Bih-Ching; Chiang, Tung-Liang; Lin, Shio-Jean

    2009-05-01

    To investigate the effect six-month parental mental health has on children's six and 18-month development. Parental covariates of age and education were also analysed. Through a national random selection, 21 648 babies were selected. Parental self perceived overall mental health was measured using 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) and children's development using the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study (TBCS) instrument which measures gross motor, fine motor, language and social dimensions of children's development. Both multiple linear regression and structural equation modeling showed that when the covariates of parental education and age at childbirth were added, the effect parental mental health has on children's development decreases. Additionally, maternal mental health had a more persistent and pervasive effect than paternal mental health. Father's mental health at six months had a delayed effect, in that its influence was seen only with children's development at 18 months. Of the three factors of parental mental health, education and age at childbirth, parental education had the most pervasive and persistent effect on children's development. Although parental mental health has an effect on children's development, parental education and age at childbirth are vital confounding factors, which should be considered in future studies. Clinical health care providers should provide childcare resources and instructions to younger, less educated and parents with mental symptoms.

  1. The effects of parent-child relationships on later life mental health status in two national birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Z; Brugha, T; Fryers, T; Stewart-Brown, S

    2012-11-01

    Abusive and neglectful parenting is an established determinant of adult mental illness, but longitudinal studies of the impact of less severe problems with parenting have yielded inconsistent findings. In the face of growing interest in mental health promotion, it is important to establish the impact of this potentially remediable risk factor. 8,405 participants in the 1958 UK birth cohort study, and 5,058 in the 1970 birth cohort study questionnaires relating to the quality of relationships with parents completed at age 16 years. 12-item General Health Questionnaire and the Malaise Inventory collected at age 42 years (1958 cohort) and 30 years (1970 cohort). Statistical methodology: logistic regression analyses adjusting for sex, social class and teenage mental health problems. 1958 cohort: relationships with both mother and father predicted mental health problems in adulthood; increasingly poor relationships were associated with increasing mental health problems at age 42 years. 1970 cohort: positive items derived from the Parental Bonding Instrument predicted reduced risk of mental health problems; negative aspects predicted increased risk at age 30 years. Odds of mental health problems were increased between 20 and 80% in fully adjusted models. Results support the hypothesis that problems with parent-child relationships that fall short of abuse and neglect play a part in determining adult mental health and suggest that interventions to support parenting now being implemented in many parts of the Western world may reduce the prevalence of mental illness in adulthood.

  2. Adherence with early infant feeding and complementary feeding guidelines in the Cork BASELINE Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donovan, Sinéad M; Murray, Deirdre M; Hourihane, Jonathan O'B; Kenny, Louise C; Irvine, Alan D; Kiely, Mairead

    2015-10-01

    To describe adherence with infant feeding and complementary feeding guidelines. Prospective study of infant feeding and complementary feeding practices were collected as part of the Cork BASELINE Birth Cohort Study. Cork, Ireland. Data are described for the 823 infants for whom a diary was completed. Breast-feeding was initiated in 81 % of infants, and 34 %, 14 % and 1 % of infants were exclusively breast-fed at hospital discharge, 2 and 6 months, respectively. Stage one infant formula decreased from 71 % at 2 months to 13 % at 12 months. The majority of infants (79 %) were introduced to solids between 17 and 26 weeks and 18 % were given solid foods before 17 weeks. Mothers of infants who commenced complementary feeding prior to 17 weeks were younger (29·8 v. 31·5 years; Pfood was usually baby rice (69 %), infant breakfast cereals (14 %) or fruit/vegetables (14 %). Meals were generally home-made (49 %), cereal-based (35 %), manufactured (10 %), dairy (3 %) and dessert-based (3 %). The median gap between the first-second, second-third, third-fourth and fourth-fifth new foods was 4, 2, 2 and 2 d, respectively. We present the largest prospective cohort study to date on early infant feeding in Ireland. The rate of breast-feeding is low by international norms. Most mothers introduce complementary foods between 4 and 6 months with lengthy gaps between each new food/food product. There is a high prevalence of exposure to infant breakfast cereals, which are composite foods, among the first foods introduced.

  3. Etiology of Acute Respiratory Infections in Infants: A Prospective Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prawin; Medigeshi, Guruprasad R; Mishra, Vishnu S; Islam, Mojahidul; Randev, Shivani; Mukherjee, Aparna; Chaudhry, Rama; Kapil, Arti; Ram Jat, Kana; Lodha, Rakesh; Kabra, Sushil K

    2017-01-01

    There is paucity of studies on etiology of acute respiratory infections (ARI) in infants. The objective of this study is to document incidence and etiology of ARI in infants, their seasonal variability and association of clinical profile with etiology. A birth cohort was followed for the first year of life; for each episode of ARI, nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected to identify the causative respiratory virus(es) using multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. For lower respiratory tract infections blood culture, serum procalcitonin, serum antibodies to Mycoplasma and Chlamydia and urinary Streptococcus pneumoniae antigen were also assayed. A total of 503 ARI episodes were documented in 310 infants for an incidence rate of 1.8 episodes per infant per year. Of these, samples were processed in 395 episodes (upper respiratory tract infection: 377; lower respiratory tract infection: 18). One or more viruses were detected in 250 (63.3%) episodes and viral coinfections in 72 (18.2%) episodes. Rhinovirus was the most common virus [105 (42%)] followed by respiratory syncytial virus [50 (20%)], parainfluenza virus [42 (16.8%)] and coronavirus [44 (17.6%)]. In lower respiratory tract infections, viral infections were detected in 12 (66.7%) episodes, bacterial infections in 17 (94.4%) episodes and mixed bacterial-viral infections in 8 (44.4%) episodes. Peak incidence of viruses was observed during February-March and September-November. There was no significant difference in symptom duration with virus types. In this cohort of infants, ARI incidence was 1.8 episodes per year per infant; 95% were upper respiratory tract infections. Viruses were identified in 63.3% episodes, and the most common viruses detected were rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza virus.

  4. Timing of food introduction and development of food sensitization in a prospective birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Maxwell M; Lefebvre, Diana L; Dai, David; Dharma, Christoffer; Subbarao, Padmaja; Lou, Wendy; Azad, Meghan B; Becker, Allan B; Mandhane, Piush J; Turvey, Stuart E; Sears, Malcolm R

    2017-08-01

    The effect of infant feeding practices on the development of food allergy remains controversial. We examined the relationship between timing and patterns of food introduction and sensitization to foods at age 1 year in the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) birth cohort study. Nutrition questionnaire data prospectively collected at age 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months were used to determine timing of introduction of cow's milk products, egg, and peanut. At age 1 year, infants underwent skin prick testing to cow's milk, egg white, and peanut. Logistic regression models were fitted to assess the impact of timing of food exposures on sensitization outcomes, and latent class analysis was used to study patterns of food introduction within the cohort. Among 2124 children with sufficient data, delaying introduction of cow's milk products, egg, and peanut beyond the first year of life significantly increased the odds of sensitization to that food (cow's milk adjOR 3.69, 95% CI 1.37-9.08; egg adjOR 1.89, 95% CI 1.25-2.80; peanut adjOR 1.76, 95% CI 1.07-3.01). Latent class analysis produced a three-class model: early, usual, and delayed introduction. A pattern of delayed introduction, characterized by avoidance of egg and peanut during the first year of life, increased the odds of sensitization to any of the three tested foods (adjOR 1.78, 95% CI 1.26-2.49). Avoidance of potentially allergenic foods during the first year of life significantly increased the odds of sensitization to the corresponding foods. © 2017 The Authors. Pediatric Allergy and Immunology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. [Factors associated to leisure-time sedentary lifestyle in adults of 1982 birth cohort, Pelotas, Southern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Mario R; Horta, Bernardo L; Gigante, Denise P; Victora, Cesar G; Barros, Fernando C

    2008-12-01

    To assess factors associated to leisure-time physical activity and sedentary lifestyle. Prospective cohort study of people born in 1982 in the city of Pelotas, southern Brazil. Data were collected at birth and during in a visit in 2004-5 when 77.4% of the cohort were evaluated, making a total of 4,297 people studied. Information about leisure-time physical activity was collected using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Sedentary people were defined as those with weekly physical activity below 150 minutes. The following independent variables were studied: gender, skin color, birth weight, family income at birth and income change between birth and 23 years of age. Poisson's regression with robust adjustment of variance was used for the assessment of risk factors of sedentary lifestyle. Men reported 334 min of weekly leisure-time physical activity compared to 112 min among women. The prevalence of sedentary lifestyle was 80.6% in women and 49.2% in men. Scores of physical activity increased as income at birth increased. Those who were currently poor or who became poor during adult life were more sedentary. Leisure-time sedentary lifestyle in young adults was high especially among women. Physical activity during leisure time is determined by current socioeconomic conditions.

  6. Tears in the vagina, perineum, sphincter ani, and rectum and first sexual intercourse after childbirth: a nationwide follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rådestad, Ingela; Olsson, Ann; Nissen, Eva; Rubertsson, Christine

    2008-06-01

    The first sexual intercourse after childbirth may be challenging for women, especially if the birth resulted in injuries in the genital area. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether or not tears in the vagina, perineum, sphincter ani, or rectum hindered sexual intercourse during the year after childbirth. We obtained information from 2,490 women in a population-based cohort identified at antenatal care. Information about first sexual intercourse was collected by means of a questionnaire sent 1 year after birth to the women and about women's tears reported in the population-based Swedish Medical Birth Register. Adjusted relative risks with 95 percent confidence intervals for not having had sexual intercourse within 3 and 6 months, respectively, after childbirth were 1.5 (95% CI 1.2-1.8) and 1.6 (95% CI 1.2-2.3) for tears in the vagina, 1.4 (95% CI 1.1-1.6) and 1.5 (95% CI 1.1-2.1) for tears in the perineum, and 2.1 (95% CI 1.4-3.1) and 2.2 (95% CI 1.1-4.6) for tears in the sphincter ani and rectum. No statistically significant differences were found at 1-year follow-up. No associations between episiotomy and delay in resuming intercourse were found after adjusting the relative risks. Tears in the vagina, perineum, sphincter ani, or rectum are associated with a delay in women's resumption of sexual intercourse 6 months after childbirth in Sweden.

  7. Effects of particulate matter exposure during pregnancy on birth weight: A retrospective cohort study in Suzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yingying; Ji, Yinwen; Kang, Suya; Dong, Tianyu; Zhou, Zhu; Zhang, Yuqing; Chen, Minjian; Wu, Wei; Tang, Qiuqin; Chen, Ting; Wang, Yun; Xia, Yankai

    2018-02-15

    Recent studies have identified that exposure to particulate matter during pregnancy could result in adverse birth outcomes, but the effects of exposure at trimester-specific intervals are inconsistent. Our primary goal was to investigate whether particulate matter exposure during pregnancy could affect birth weight and gestational age of neonates. A retrospective cohort study was conducted to examine the relationship between maternal particulate matter exposure and neonatal birth weight. We collected 14,455 births records linked to hospital admission records (delivery and antenatal) from January 2013 to December 2015 in Suzhou Municipal Hospital. Air monitoring data in the same timeframe were also collected from Suzhou Environmental Protection Agency. The risk of low birth weight due to the exposure to PM2.5 (with median aerodynamic diameter≤2.5μm) and PM10 (with median aerodynamic diameter≤10μm) at each trimester and throughout the entire pregnancy were assessed. Linear regression models were applied and potential confounding factors were adjusted for data analysis. Gestational age, which was another important birth outcome, and its association with maternal particulate matter exposure were also studied. The final analysis included 10,915 singleton live births. Using multiple linear regression models, we found that gestational exposure to PM2.5 and PM10 at 10μg/m3 increments in the second trimester led to decreases in birth weight of 4.94g (95% confidence interval: -9.828, -0.046) and 5.65g (95% confidence interval: -10.110, -1.188), respectively. However, gestational age was not significantly associated with maternal particulate matter exposure in term neonates. These findings indicate that pregnant women might be more susceptible to particulate matter during the second trimester which may lead to decreased neonatal birth weight. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Cell Phone Exposures and Hearing Loss in Children in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudan, Madhuri; Kheifets, Leeka; Arah, Onyebuchi A.; Olsen, Jorn

    2013-01-01

    Background Children today are exposed to cell phones early in life, and may be the most vulnerable if exposure is harmful to health. We investigated the association between cell phone use and hearing loss in children. Methods The Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) enrolled pregnant women between 1996 and 2002. Detailed interviews were conducted during gestation, and when the children were 6 months, 18 months, and 7 years of age. We used multivariable-adjusted logistic regression, marginal structural models (MSM) with inverse-probability weighting, and doubly-robust estimation (DRE) to relate hearing loss at age 18 months to cell phone use at age seven years, and to investigate cell phone use reported at age seven in relation to hearing loss at age seven. Results Our analyses included data from 52,680 children. We observed weak associations between cell phone use and hearing loss at age seven, with odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals from the traditional logistic regression, MSM, and DRE models being 1.21 [0.99–1.46], 1.23 [1.01–1.49], and 1.22 [1.00–1.49], respectively. Conclusions Our findings could have been affected by various biases and are not sufficient to conclude that cell phone exposures have an effect on hearing. This is the first large-scale epidemiologic study to investigate this potentially important association among children, and replication of these findings is needed. PMID:23574412

  9. The Pregnancy Exposome: Multiple Environmental Exposures in the INMA-Sabadell Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Oliver; Basagaña, Xavier; Agier, Lydiane; de Castro, Montserrat; Hernandez-Ferrer, Carles; Gonzalez, Juan R; Grimalt, Joan O; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark; Sunyer, Jordi; Slama, Rémy; Vrijheid, Martine

    2015-09-01

    The "exposome" is defined as "the totality of human environmental exposures from conception onward, complementing the genome" and its holistic approach may advance understanding of disease etiology. We aimed to describe the correlation structure of the exposome during pregnancy to better understand the relationships between and within families of exposure and to develop analytical tools appropriate to exposome data. Estimates on 81 environmental exposures of current health concern were obtained for 728 women enrolled in The INMA (INfancia y Medio Ambiente) birth cohort, in Sabadell, Spain, using biomonitoring, geospatial modeling, remote sensors, and questionnaires. Pair-wise Pearson's and polychoric correlations were calculated and principal components were derived. The median absolute correlation across all exposures was 0.06 (5th-95th centiles, 0.01-0.54). There were strong levels of correlation within families of exposure (median = 0.45, 5th-95th centiles, 0.07-0.85). Nine exposures (11%) had a correlation higher than 0.5 with at least one exposure outside their exposure family. Effectively all the variance in the data set (99.5%) was explained by 40 principal components. Future exposome studies should interpret exposure effects in light of their correlations to other exposures. The weak to moderate correlation observed between exposure families will permit adjustment for confounding in future exposome studies.

  10. Predicting Depression with Psychopathology and Temperament Traits: The Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jouko Miettunen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the concurrent, predictive, and discriminate validity of psychopathology scales (e.g., schizotypal and depressive and temperament traits for hospitalisations due to major depression. Temperament, perceptual aberration, physical and social anhedonia, Depression Subscale of Symptom Checklist (SCL-D, Hypomanic Personality Scale, Schizoidia Scale, and Bipolar II Scale were completed as part of the 31-year follow-up survey of the prospective Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort (n=4941; 2214 males. Several of the scales were related to depression. Concurrent depression was especially related to higher perceptual aberration (effect size when compared to controls, d=1.29, subsequent depression to high scores in SCL-D (d=0.48. Physical anhedonia was lower in subjects with subsequent depression than those with other psychiatric disorders (d=−0.33, nonsignificant. Participants with concurrent (d=0.70 and subsequent (d=0.54 depression had high harm avoidance compared to controls, while differences compared to other psychiatric patients were small. Subjects with depression differed from healthy controls in most of the scales. Many of the scales were useful predictors for future hospital treatments, but were not diagnosis-specific. High harm avoidance is a potential indicator for subsequent depression.

  11. The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) birth cohort study: assessment of environmental exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaro, Tim K; Scott, James A; Allen, Ryan W; Anand, Sonia S; Becker, Allan B; Befus, A Dean; Brauer, Michael; Duncan, Joanne; Lefebvre, Diana L; Lou, Wendy; Mandhane, Piush J; McLean, Kathleen E; Miller, Gregory; Sbihi, Hind; Shu, Huan; Subbarao, Padmaja; Turvey, Stuart E; Wheeler, Amanda J; Zeng, Leilei; Sears, Malcolm R; Brook, Jeffrey R

    2015-01-01

    The Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development birth cohort was designed to elucidate interactions between environment and genetics underlying development of asthma and allergy. Over 3600 pregnant mothers were recruited from the general population in four provinces with diverse environments. The child is followed to age 5 years, with prospective characterization of diverse exposures during this critical period. Key exposure domains include indoor and outdoor air pollutants, inhalation, ingestion and dermal uptake of chemicals, mold, dampness, biological allergens, pets and pests, housing structure, and living behavior, together with infections, nutrition, psychosocial environment, and medications. Assessments of early life exposures are focused on those linked to inflammatory responses driven by the acquired and innate immune systems. Mothers complete extensive environmental questionnaires including time-activity behavior at recruitment and when the child is 3, 6, 12, 24, 30, 36, 48, and 60 months old. House dust collected during a thorough home assessment at 3-4 months, and biological specimens obtained for multiple exposure-related measurements, are archived for analyses. Geo-locations of homes and daycares and land-use regression for estimating traffic-related air pollution complement time-activity-behavior data to provide comprehensive individual exposure profiles. Several analytical frameworks are proposed to address the many interacting exposure variables and potential issues of co-linearity in this complex data set.

  12. Prediction of BMI at age 11 in a longitudinal sample of the Ulm Birth Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Viola; Wabitsch, Martin; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Brenner, Hermann; Schimmelmann, Benno G.

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is one of the greatest public health challenges in the world with childhood prevalence rates between 20–26% and numerous associated health risks. The aim of the current study was to analyze the 11-year follow-up data of the Ulm Birth Cohort Study (UBCS), to identify whether abnormal eating behavior patterns, especially restrained eating, predict body mass index (BMI) at 11 years of age and to explore other factors known to be longitudinally associated with it. Of the original UBCS, n = 422 children (~ 40% of the original sample) and their parents participated in the 11-year follow-up. BMI at age 8 and 11 as well as information on restrained eating, psychological problems, depressive symptoms, lifestyle, and IQ at age 8 were assessed. Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) was used to predict children’s BMI scores at age 11. PLS-SEM explained 68% of the variance of BMI at age 11, with BMI at age 8 being the most important predictor. Restrained eating, via BMI at age 8 as well as parental BMI, had further weak associations with BMI at age 11; no other predictor was statistically significant. Since established overweight at age 8 already predicts BMI scores at age 11 longitudinally, obesity interventions should be implemented in early childhood. PMID:28832593

  13. [Maternity and paternity in the Pelotas birth cohort from 1982 to 2004-5, Southern Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigante, Denise P; Barros, Fernando C; Veleda, Rosângela; Gonçalves, Helen; Horta, Bernardo L; Victora, Cesar G

    2008-12-01

    To describe the prevalence of maternity and paternity among subjects and its association with perinatal, socioeconomic and demographic variables. The participants were youth, aged 23, on the average, accompanied in a cohort study since they were born, in 1982, in Pelotas (Southern Brazil) and interviewed in 2004-5. Those who were considered eligible referred having had one or more children, whether these were liveborns or stillborns. Data was collected on reproductive health as well as socioeconomic and demographic information, by means of two different instruments. The independent variables were sex and skin color, family income in 1982 and in 2004-5, changes in income, birth weight and educational level when aged 23 years old. Crude and adjusted analysis were conducted by means of Poisson regression so as to investigate the effects of the independent variables on maternity/paternity during adolescence. Among the 4,297 youth interviewed, 1,373 (32%) were parents and 842 (19.6%) of these had experienced maternity/paternity during their adolescence. Planned pregnancy of the first child was directly related to the youth's age. Socioeconomic variables were inversely related to the occurrence of maternity/paternity during adolescence. The probability of being an adolescent mother was higher among black and mixed skin colored women, but skin color was not associated to adolescent paternity. There was a strong relation between adolescent maternity/paternity and socioeconomic conditions, which should be taken into consideration when delineating preventive actions in the field of public health.

  14. Social Patterning in Adiposity in Adolescence: Prospective Observations from the Chinese Birth Cohort ''Children of 1997''.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L L Hui

    Full Text Available Low early life socio-economic position is more strongly associated with adiposity among women than men. We examined whether the sex difference of social patterning in general and central adiposity exists before adulthood.In Hong Kong's "Children of 1997" birth cohort, we used multivariable regression to examine the association of parental education, a marker of early life socio-economic position, with body mass index (BMI (n = 7252, 88% follow-up and waist-height ratio (n = 5636, 68% follow-up, at 14 years.Parental education of Grade 9 or below, compared to Grade 12 or above, was associated with higher waist-height ratio z-score particularly in girls (0.30, 95% confidence interval (CI 0.19, 0.41 compared to boys (0.12, 95% CI 0.02, 0.22 (p for sex interaction = 0.02. Lower parental education was associated with greater BMI z-score in adolescents of locally born mothers, but not adolescents of migrant mothers, with no difference by sex.Different social patterning in different markers of adiposity may imply different sociological and biological mediating pathways. A stronger association between low early life socio-economic position and waist-height ratio in adolescent girls may indicate sex-specific influences of SEP related early life exposures on central adiposity.

  15. Transfer of perfluoroalkyl substances from mother to fetus in a Spanish birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzano-Salgado, Cyntia B; Casas, Maribel; Lopez-Espinosa, Maria-Jose; Ballester, Ferran; Basterrechea, Mikel; Grimalt, Joan O; Jiménez, Ana-María; Kraus, Thomas; Schettgen, Thomas; Sunyer, Jordi; Vrijheid, Martine

    2015-10-01

    Prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) might affect child health; thus estimating PFAS fetal burden is relevant. PFAS fetal burden is best estimated in cord samples; previous studies have used either maternal plasma or serum during pregnancy as proxy, but their validity is not clear. We aimed to evaluate PFAS transfer between mother and fetus and determine its predictors in a Spanish birth cohort. We measured perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and perfluorononanoate (PFNA) in maternal blood and cord serum from 66 mother-child pairs. We used Spearman's rank coefficients to correlate PFAS concentrations in first trimester maternal plasma and serum, with cord serum samples. We assessed PFAS placental transfer by calculating maternal to cord ratios and examined their association with maternal socio-demographic characteristics and child sex using linear regression models. Median concentrations of PFAS (ng/mL) of PFHxS, PFOS, PFOA, and PFNA in maternal plasma (0.79, 6.18, 2.85 and 0.84, respectively) and serum (0.84, 6.99, 2.97 and 0.85) were higher than in cord serum (0.40, 1.86, 1.90 and 0.32). PFBS was not detected. Positive Spearman's correlations (p-valuesPFAS fetal body burden can be assessed using as proxy maternal plasma or serum collected early in pregnancy. Maternal age might influence PFAS placental transfer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Childhood diet and asthma and atopy at 8 years of age: the PIAMA birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willers, S M; Wijga, A H; Brunekreef, B; Scholtens, S; Postma, D S; Kerkhof, M; de Jongste, J C; Smit, H A

    2011-05-01

    Diet may affect the development of asthma. We investigated whether asthma or atopy outcomes at 8 yrs of age were associated with long-term dietary exposure, and whether associations were different for consumption at early or later age. The Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort enrolled 4,146 participants at baseline, who were followed up to 8 yrs of age. Dietary intakes of interest were fruit, vegetables, brown/wholemeal bread, fish, milk, butter and margarine. Associations between food intake at early (2-3 yrs) and later (7-8 yrs) age, and long-term intake, asthma and atopy at 8 yrs of age were calculated by logistic regression. Complete longitudinal dietary data for at least one of the food groups were available for 2,870 children. Fruit consumption at early age was associated with reduced asthma symptoms (OR per 1 consumption day per week increase 0.93, 95% CI 0.85-1.00). Long-term fruit intake was inversely associated with asthma symptoms (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.82-0.99) and sensitisation to inhaled allergens (OR 0.90, 95% CI 0.82-0.99). We found no consistent associations between diet and outcomes for other foods. This study indicates no consistent effects of increased early or late consumption, or long-term intake of certain foods on asthma and atopy in 8-yr-olds, with a possible exception for fruit.

  17. Influence of atopy and asthma on exhaled nitric oxide in an unselected birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Martha; Raza, Abid; Karmaus, Wilfried; Mitchell, Frances; Grundy, Jane; Kurukulaaratchy, Ramesh J; Arshad, S Hasan; Roberts, Graham

    2010-03-01

    Asthma is considered to be associated with elevated levels of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO). The nature of this relationship and how it is influenced by atopy are still not resolved. The Isle of Wight birth cohort (N=1456) was reassessed at 18 years of age. Participants able to attend the research centre were assessed by questionnaires, skin prick testing and FeNO in order to explore the interrelationship between asthma, atopy and FeNO. Atopy was significantly associated with higher levels of FeNO. However, the level of FeNO for non-atopic asthmatic participants was no different to the non-atopic no-asthma group. The highest levels of FeNO were seen in subjects with both atopy and asthma. In addition, FeNO was positively associated with increasing atopic burden as evidenced by increasing FeNO with increasing skin prick testing positivity, and with increasing severity of atopic asthma as evidenced by the number of attacks of wheezing. FeNO and current inhaled corticosteroid use were not significantly associated. FeNO behaves as a biomarker of atopy and the "allergic asthma" phenotype rather than asthma itself. This may explain why FeNO-guided asthma treatment outcomes have proved to be of limited success where atopic status has not been considered and accounted for.

  18. Genome-wide prediction of childhood asthma and related phenotypes in a longitudinal birth cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spycher, Ben D.; Henderson, John; Granell, Raquel; Evans, David M.; Smith, George Davey; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Sterne, Jonathan A. C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Childhood wheezing and asthma vary greatly in clinical presentation and time course. The extent to which phenotypic variation reflects heterogeneity in disease pathways is unclear. Objective To assess the extent to which single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with childhood asthma in a genome-wide association study are predictive of asthma-related phenotypes. Methods In 8365 children from a population based birth cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, allelic scores were derived based on between 10 and 215,443 SNPs ranked according to inverse of the p-value for their association with physician diagnosed asthma in an independent genome-wide association study (6176 cases and 7111 controls). We assessed the predictive value of allelic scores for asthma-related outcomes at age 7-9 years (physician’s diagnosis, longitudinal wheezing phenotypes, and measurements of pulmonary function, bronchial responsiveness and atopy). Results Scores based on the 46 highest-ranked SNPs were associated with the symptom-based phenotypes persistent (Pasthma (Patopy (Pasthma phenotypes. Conclusion The genetic origins of asthma are diverse and: some pathways are specific to wheezing syndromes while others are shared with atopy and bronchial hyper-responsiveness. Out study also provides evidence of aetiological differences among wheezing syndromes. PMID:22846752

  19. Neurocognition as a predictor of outcome in schizophrenia in the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Juola

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to study neurocognitive performance as a predictor of outcomes in midlife schizophrenia. There is a lack of studies with unselected samples and a long follow-up. The study is based on the prospective, unselected population-based Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966. The study includes 43 individuals with schizophrenia and 73 controls, whose neurocognitive performance was assessed twice, at 34 and 43 years. At both time points we used identical neurocognitive tests to assess verbal and visual memory and executive functions. Our main aim was to analyse neurocognitive performance at 34 years as a predictor of clinical, vocational and global outcomes at 43 years. Additionally, the analysis addressed cross-sectional associations between cognitive performance and clinical, vocational and global measures at 43 years. The assessment of outcomes was performed in the schizophrenia group only. In the longitudinal analysis poorer visual memory predicted poorer vocational outcome and poorer long-term verbal memory predicted poorer global outcome. In the cross-sectional analysis poorer visual memory and lower composite score of neurocognition were associated with poorer global outcome. No individual neurocognitive test or the composite score of these predicted remission. These data indicate that neurocognition, especially memory function, is an important determinant of long-term functional outcome in midlife schizophrenia.

  20. Head Start and Urban Children’s School Readiness: A Birth Cohort Study in 18 Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Fuhua; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Waldfogel, Jane

    2011-01-01

    We used longitudinal data from a birth cohort study, the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, to investigate the links between Head Start and school readiness in a large and diverse sample of urban children at age 5 (N = 2,803; 18 cities). We found that Head Start attendance was associated with enhanced cognitive ability and social competence and reduced attention problems but not reduced internalizing or externalizing behavior problems. These findings were robust to model specifications (including models with city-fixed effects and propensity-scoring matching). Furthermore, the effects of Head Start varied by the reference group. Head Start was associated with improved cognitive development when compared with parental care or other nonparental care, as well as improved social competence (compared with parental care) and reduced attention problems (compared with other nonparental care). In contrast, compared with attendance at pre-kindergarten or other center-based care, Head Start attendance was not associated with cognitive gains but with improved social competence and reduced attention and externalizing behavior problems (compared with attendance at other center-based care). These associations were not moderated by child gender or race/ethnicity. PMID:21244155

  1. Prediction of BMI at age 11 in a longitudinal sample of the Ulm Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Hanna; Brandt, Stephanie; Walter, Viola; Wabitsch, Martin; Rothenbacher, Dietrich; Brenner, Hermann; Schimmelmann, Benno G; Hirsch, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is one of the greatest public health challenges in the world with childhood prevalence rates between 20-26% and numerous associated health risks. The aim of the current study was to analyze the 11-year follow-up data of the Ulm Birth Cohort Study (UBCS), to identify whether abnormal eating behavior patterns, especially restrained eating, predict body mass index (BMI) at 11 years of age and to explore other factors known to be longitudinally associated with it. Of the original UBCS, n = 422 children (~ 40% of the original sample) and their parents participated in the 11-year follow-up. BMI at age 8 and 11 as well as information on restrained eating, psychological problems, depressive symptoms, lifestyle, and IQ at age 8 were assessed. Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) was used to predict children's BMI scores at age 11. PLS-SEM explained 68% of the variance of BMI at age 11, with BMI at age 8 being the most important predictor. Restrained eating, via BMI at age 8 as well as parental BMI, had further weak associations with BMI at age 11; no other predictor was statistically significant. Since established overweight at age 8 already predicts BMI scores at age 11 longitudinally, obesity interventions should be implemented in early childhood.

  2. Overweight and school performance among primary school children: the PIAMA birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldwijk, Jorien; Fries, Marieke C E; Bemelmans, Wanda J E; Haveman-Nies, Annemien; Smit, Henriëtte A; Koppelman, Gerard H; Wijga, Alet H

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between overweight and school performance among primary school children prospectively and including a broad range of potential confounding factors. In addition it was investigated what factors mediate this association. For this purpose, data of 2,159 12-year-old children who participated in the Prevention and Incidence of Asthma and Mite Allergy (PIAMA) birth cohort study were used. Two indicators of school performance were parental reported when children were 12 years of age and included (i): the score on a standardized achievement test that Dutch children have to complete at the end of their primary education (Cito)-test and (ii): the teacher's advice regarding a child's potential performance level in secondary education. Children's height and weight were measured by a trained research assistant at the age of 8 and by their parents at the age of 12. Overweight was defined using age and gender specific cut-off points. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to assess the association between overweight and school performance. Besides, both confounder and mediation analyses were conducted. Results showed lower Cito-test scores and lower teacher's school-level advice among overweight children. These associations were no longer significant when adjusting for parental educational level, skipping breakfast, and screen time. This study found no independent association between overweight and school performance among primary school children. Results showed strong confounding by parental educational level.

  3. Head start participation and school readiness: evidence from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, RaeHyuck; Zhai, Fuhua; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Han, Wen-Jui; Waldfogel, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (n ≈ 6,950), a nationally representative sample of children born in 2001, we examined school readiness (academic skills and socioemotional well-being) at kindergarten entry for children who attended Head Start compared with those who experienced other types of child care (prekindergarten, other center-based care, other nonparental care, or parental care). Using propensity score matching methods and ordinary least squares regressions with rich controls, we found that Head Start participants had higher early reading and math scores than children in other nonparental care or parental care but also higher levels of conduct problems than those in parental care. Head Start participants had lower early reading scores compared with children in prekindergarten and had no differences in any outcomes compared with children in other center-based care. Head Start benefits were more pronounced for children who had low initial cognitive ability or parents with low levels of education or who attended Head Start for more than 20 hr per week. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  4. Childhood behaviour problems predict crime and violence in late adolescence: Brazilian and British birth cohort studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Joseph; Menezes, Ana M B; Hickman, Matthew; Maughan, Barbara; Gallo, Erika Alejandra Giraldo; Matijasevich, Alicia; Gonçalves, Helen; Anselmi, Luciana; Assunção, Maria Cecília F; Barros, Fernando C; Victora, Cesar G

    2015-04-01

    Most children live in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), many of which have high levels of violence. Research in high-income countries (HICs) shows that childhood behaviour problems are important precursors of crime and violence. Evidence is lacking on whether this is also true in LMICs. This study examines prevalence rates and associations between conduct problems and hyperactivity and crime and violence in Brazil and Britain. A comparison was made of birth cohorts in Brazil and Britain, including measures of behaviour problems based on parental report at age 11, and self-reports of crime at age 18 (N = 3,618 Brazil; N = 4,103 Britain). Confounders were measured in the perinatal period and at age 11 in questionnaires completed by the mother and, in Brazil, searches of police records regarding parental crime. Conduct problems, hyperactivity and violent crime were more prevalent in Brazil than in Britain, but nonviolent crime was more prevalent in Britain. Sex differences in prevalence rates were larger where behaviours were less common: larger for conduct problems, hyperactivity, and violent crime in Britain, and larger for nonviolent crime in Brazil. Conduct problems and hyperactivity predicted nonviolent and violent crime similarly in both countries; the effects were partly explained by perinatal health factors and childhood family environments. Conduct problems and hyperactivity are similar precursors of crime and violence across different social settings. Early crime and violence prevention programmes could target these behavioural difficulties and associated risks in LMICs as well as in HICs.

  5. Timing of solid food introduction and obesity: Hong Kong's "children of 1997" birth cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shi Lin; Leung, Gabriel M; Lam, Tai Hing; Schooling, C Mary

    2013-05-01

    Some observational studies in Western settings show that early introduction of solid food is associated with subsequent obesity. However, introduction of solid food and obesity share social patterning. We examined the association of the timing of the introduction of solid food with BMI and overweight (including obesity) into adolescence in a developed non-Western setting, in which childhood obesity is less clearly socially patterned. We used generalized estimating equation models to estimate the adjusted associations of the timing of the introduction of solid food (8 months) with BMI z score and overweight (including obesity) at different growth phases (infancy, childhood, and puberty) in 7809 children (88% follow-up) from a Chinese birth cohort, "Children of 1997." We assessed if the associations varied with gender or breastfeeding. We used multiple imputation for missing exposure and confounders. The introduction of solid food at obesity) in infancy [mean difference in BMI z score: 0.01; 95% confidence interval (CI): -0.14 to 0.17], childhood (0.14; 95% CI: -0.11 to 0.40), or at puberty (0.22; 95% CI: -0.07 to 0.52), adjusted for SEP and infant and maternal characteristics. In a non-Western developed setting, there was no clear association of the early introduction of solid food with childhood obesity. Together with the inconsistent evidence from studies in Western settings, this finding suggests that any observed associations might simply be residual confounding by SEP.

  6. Prevalence of childbirth fear in an Australian sample of pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toohill, Jocelyn; Fenwick, Jennifer; Gamble, Jenny; Creedy, Debra K

    2014-08-14

    Childbirth fear is reported to affect around 20% of women. However reporting on levels of symptom severity vary. Unlike Scandinavian countries, there has been limited focus on childbirth fear in Australia. The aim of this paper is to determine the prevalence of low, moderate, high and severe levels of childbirth fear in a large representative sample of pregnant women drawn from a large randomised controlled trial and identify demographic and obstetric characteristics associated with childbirth fear. Using a descriptive cross-sectional design, 1,410 women in their second trimester were recruited from one of three public hospitals in south-east Queensland. Participants were screened for childbirth fear using the Wijma Delivery Expectancy/Experience Questionnaire Version A (WDEQ-A). Associations of demographic and obstetric factors and levels of childbirth fear between nulliparous and multiparous women were investigated. Prevalence of childbirth fear was 24% overall, with 31.5% of nulliparous women reporting high levels of fear (score ≥ 66 on the WDEQ-A) compared to 18% of multiparous women. Childbirth fear was associated with paid employment, parity, and mode of last birth, with higher levels of fear in first time mothers (p childbirth fear in Australian women was comparable to international rates. Significant factors associated with childbirth fear were being in paid employment, and obstetric characteristics such as parity and birth mode in the previous pregnancy. First time mothers had higher levels of fear than women who had birthed before. A previous operative birth was fear provoking. Experiencing a previous normal birth was protective of childbirth fear.

  7. Male and female alcohol consumption and live birth after assisted reproductive technology treatment: a nationwide register-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vittrup, Ida; Petersen, Gitte Lindved; Kamper-Jørgensen, Mads; Pinborg, Anja; Schmidt, Lone

    2017-08-01

    The objective was to assess the potential association between female and male alcohol consumption and probability of achieving a live birth after assisted reproductive treatment. From a nationwide Danish register-based cohort information on alcohol consumption at assisted reproductive treatment initiation was linked to information on births and abortions. From 1 January 2006 to 30 September 2010, 12,981 women and their partners went through 29,834 treatment cycles. Of these, 22.4% and 20.4% led to a live birth for female abstainers and heavy consumers (>7 drinks/week), respectively. Concerning men, 22.6% and 20.2% of cycles resulted in a live birth for abstainers and heavy consumers (>14 drinks/week), respectively. No statistically significant associations between alcohol consumption and live birth were observed. Adjusted odds ratios from trend analyses were 1.00 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.99-1.01) and 0.99 (95% CI 0.97-1.01) for every one-unit increase in female and male weekly alcohol consumption at assisted reproductive treatment initiation, respectively. In conclusion, this study did not show significant associations between male or female alcohol consumption and odds of live birth after assisted reproductive treatment. Copyright © 2017 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Infant mortality in a very low birth weight cohort from a public hospital in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Coeli Azeredo Cardoso

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to evaluate infant mortality in very low birth weight newborns from a public hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (2002-2006. METHODS: a retrospective cohort study was performed using the probabilistic linkage method to identify infant mortality. Mortality proportions were calculated according to birth weight intervals and period of death. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate overall cumulative survival probability. The association between maternal schooling and survival of very low birth weight infants was evaluated by means of Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for: prenatal care, birth weight, and gestational age. RESULTS: the study included 782 very low birth weight newborns. Of these, (28.6% died before one year of age. Neonatal mortality was 19.5%, and earlyneonatal mortality was 14.9%. Mortality was highest in the lowest weight group (71.6%. Newborns whose mothers had less than four years of schooling had 2.5 times higher risk of death than those whose mothers had eight years of schooling or more, even after adjusting for intermediate factors. CONCLUSIONS: the results showed higher mortality among very low birth weight infants. Low schooling was an independent predictor of infant death in this low-income population sample.

  9. Seasonal variations of neuromotor development by 14 months of age: Hamamatsu Birth Cohort for mothers and children (HBC Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji J Tsuchiya

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at investigating whether neuromotor development, from birth to 14 months of age, shows seasonal, cyclic patterns in association with months of birth. Study participants were 742 infants enrolled in the Hamamatsu Birth Cohort (HBC Study and followed-up from birth to the 14th month of age. Gross motor skills were assessed at the ages of 6, 10, and 14 months, using Mullen Scales of Early Learning. The score at each assessment was regressed onto a trigonometric function of months of birth, with an adjustment for potential confounders. Gross motor scores at the 6th and 10th months showed significant 1-year-cycle variations, peaking among March- and April-born infants, and among February-born infants, respectively. Changes in gross motor scores between the 10th and 14th months also showed a cyclic variation, peaking among July- and August-born infants. Due to this complementary effect, gross motor scores at the 14th month did not show seasonality. Neuromotor development showed cyclic seasonality during the first year of life. The effects brought about by month of birth disappeared around 1 year of age, and warmer months seemed to accelerate the neuromotor development.

  10. Maternal Continuing Folic Acid Supplementation after the First Trimester of Pregnancy Increased the Risk of Large-for-Gestational-Age Birth: A Population-Based Birth Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sufang Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Supplementation with folic acid (FA was proven to prevent neural tube defects (NTDs and was recommended worldwide before and during early pregnancy. However, much less is known regarding the role of FA after the 12th gestational week (GW. This study aimed to investigate the related effects of continued FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy on fetal growth. The study subjects came from the Ma’anshan-Anhui Birth Cohort Study (MABC that recruited 3474 pregnant women from the city of Ma’anshan in Anhui Province in China during the period of May 2013 to September 2014. The information on use of vitamin and mineral supplements was recorded in different periods (the first/second/third trimester of pregnancy. Small-for-gestational-age (SGA births were live-born infants that were <10th percentile of birth weight, and large-for-gestational-age (LGA births were live-born infants that were ≥90th percentile of birth weight according to nomograms based on gender and gestational age from the latest standards. We used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate the effects of FA supplement consumption in the second/third trimester of pregnancy on the risk of LGA and SGA. In addition, propensity score analysis was also performed to examine the effects. In this prospective birth cohort study conducted in Chinese women who had taken FA in the first trimester of pregnancy, we found that continued FA supplementation with 400 micrograms/day in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy significantly increased the risk of LGA (RR = 1.98 (1.29, 3.04. This relation was strong or monotonic after adjusting for maternal age, newborn’s gender, maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, maternal education level, smoking, alcohol consumption and calcium supplementation. We did not observe that continuing FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy remarkably decreased the risk of SGA. The propensity score analysis showed similar results. To

  11. Maternal Continuing Folic Acid Supplementation after the First Trimester of Pregnancy Increased the Risk of Large-for-Gestational-Age Birth: A Population-Based Birth Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sufang; Ge, Xing; Zhu, Beibei; Xuan, Yujie; Huang, Kun; Rutayisire, Erigene; Mao, Leijing; Huang, Sanhuan; Yan, Shuangqin; Tao, Fangbiao

    2016-08-15

    Supplementation with folic acid (FA) was proven to prevent neural tube defects (NTDs) and was recommended worldwide before and during early pregnancy. However, much less is known regarding the role of FA after the 12th gestational week (GW). This study aimed to investigate the related effects of continued FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy on fetal growth. The study subjects came from the Ma'anshan-Anhui Birth Cohort Study (MABC) that recruited 3474 pregnant women from the city of Ma'anshan in Anhui Province in China during the period of May 2013 to September 2014. The information on use of vitamin and mineral supplements was recorded in different periods (the first/second/third trimester of pregnancy). Small-for-gestational-age (SGA) births were live-born infants that were birth weight, and large-for-gestational-age (LGA) births were live-born infants that were ≥90th percentile of birth weight according to nomograms based on gender and gestational age from the latest standards. We used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate the effects of FA supplement consumption in the second/third trimester of pregnancy on the risk of LGA and SGA. In addition, propensity score analysis was also performed to examine the effects. In this prospective birth cohort study conducted in Chinese women who had taken FA in the first trimester of pregnancy, we found that continued FA supplementation with 400 micrograms/day in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy significantly increased the risk of LGA (RR = 1.98 (1.29, 3.04)). This relation was strong or monotonic after adjusting for maternal age, newborn's gender, maternal pre-pregnancy BMI, maternal education level, smoking, alcohol consumption and calcium supplementation. We did not observe that continuing FA supplementation after the first trimester of pregnancy remarkably decreased the risk of SGA. The propensity score analysis showed similar results. To confirm these findings, additional

  12. The influence of early feeding practices on fruit and vegetable intake among preschool children in 4 European birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Jones, Louise; Oliveira, Andreia; Moschonis, George; Betoko, Aisha; Lopes, Carla; Moreira, Pedro; Manios, Yannis; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G; Emmett, Pauline; Charles, Marie Aline

    2013-09-01

    Fruit and vegetable intake in children remains below recommendations in many countries. The long-term effects of early parental feeding practices on fruit and vegetable intake are not clearly established. The purpose of the current study was to examine whether early feeding practices influence later fruit and vegetable intake in preschool children. The study used data from 4 European cohorts: the British Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), the French Etude des Déterminants pre et postnatals de la santé et du développement de l'Enfant study, the Portuguese Generation XXI Birth Cohort, and the Greek EuroPrevall study. Fruit and vegetable intake was assessed in each cohort by food-frequency questionnaire. Associations between early feeding practices, such as breastfeeding and timing of complementary feeding, and fruit and/or vegetable intake in 2-4-y-old children were tested by using logistic regressions, separately in each cohort, after adjustment for infant's age and sex and maternal age, educational level, smoking during pregnancy, and maternal fruit and vegetable intake. Large differences in early feeding practices were highlighted across the 4 European cohorts with longer breastfeeding duration in the Generation XXI Birth Cohort and earlier introduction to complementary foods in ALSPAC. Longer breastfeeding duration was consistently related to higher fruit and vegetable intake in young children, whereas the associations with age of introduction to fruit and vegetable intake were weaker and less consistent across the cohorts. Mothers' fruit and vegetable intake (available in 3 of the cohorts) did not substantially attenuate the relation with breastfeeding duration. The concordant positive association between breastfeeding duration and fruit and vegetable intake in different cultural contexts favors an independent specific effect.

  13. Childbirth after surgery for familial adenomatous polyposis in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hirotoshi; Ishida, Hideyuki; Ueno, Hideki; Hinoi, Takao; Inoue, Yasuhiro; Ishida, Fumio; Kanemitsu, Yukihide; Konishi, Tsuyoshi; Yamaguchi, Tatsuro; Tomita, Naohiro; Matsubara, Nagahide; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Sugihara, Kenichi

    2017-02-01

    Familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) is a genetic disorder. Some female patients with FAP can become pregnant. However, the current state of childbirth after surgery for FAP is unclear in Japan. The study investigated 303 patients (147 female) who had undergone surgery for FAP at the 23 institutions between 2000 and 2012. Eighty female patients had information available on childbirth after surgery for FAP. Eight patients (10 %) gave birth after surgery. The mean age at surgery for FAP was 27 (range 20-41) years and 37 years in patients with and without childbirth after surgery, respectively (P = 0.044). The rate of childbirth after surgery was 17 % in women ≤30 years of age and 13 % in those ≤40 years of age. Although only one patient with invasive cancer (2.9 %) gave childbirth after surgery, seven patients without cancer (15.6 %) gave birth (P = 0.045). This study clarified the current state of childbirth after surgery for FAP in Japan. It is important to use these data to determine the best therapeutic approach for female FAP patients.

  14. First-time fathers' experiences of normal childbirth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledenfors, Anna; Berterö, Carina

    2016-09-01

    To identify and describe first-time fathers' experiences of normal childbirth. A qualitative interview study using a thematic analysis for analysing the transcripts. purposeful sampling was used. Eight men were interviewed two to six months after experiencing childbirth. Participants were men who had become fathers for the first time. A county located in the middle of Sweden covering both urban and rural areas. The analysis resulted in one major theme - a transformative experience - with four sub-themes: preparing for childbirth, feeling vulnerable in a new situation, being confirmed as part of a unit, and meeting their child for the first time. The findings indicate that the needs of prospective fathers should be given more recognition during childbirth. The findings also show that the midwife is an important person for prospective fathers, both before and during the birth. The findings of the study show what affects first-time fathers' experiences of childbirth. By listening to fathers and recognising them as part of a unit with the woman giving birth, midwifes can support them and increase their participation. Thereby, they can find their role in an unfamiliar situation and thus have a positive experience of childbirth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Top-selling childbirth advice books: a discourse analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Holly Powell; Nardini, Katrina; McLeod-Waldo, Rebecca; Ennis, Linda

    2009-12-01

    Recent evidence suggests that one-third of women receive information about pregnancy and childbirth through books. Messages about what characteristics are normal (or expected) in childbirth are disseminated in a variety of ways, including popular childbirth education books, but little study of them has been conducted. The purpose of this investigation is to address that gap by examining the discussions about childbirth in the 10 top-selling books in the United States. Discourse analysis (relating to the public, personal, and political discussions about a specific phenomenon) was used to study 10 best-selling United States childbirth advice books marketed to childbearing women during the first week of November 2007. Book styles ranged from clinical descriptions of pregnancy and birth primarily offering reassurance, self-help information, and danger signs to more folksy and humorous commentaries. Presentation of scientific evidence to support recommendations was uneven and at times inaccurate. Five focal areas of discourse included body image, labor and birth, pain, power and control, and life preparation for motherhood. Top-selling books shine an interesting light on the current state of United States maternity practices. Women and health professionals should assess them carefully and engage with each other about their recommendations and implications for childbirth.

  16. Customs and Desirable after Childbirth, in Islam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Khademi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Children are a precious gift from God, and the blessing of a child is a special time in a person's life. All cultures and religious traditions have certain ways of welcoming a newborn child into the community; also, each culture and religion has its own customs and traditions for the birth of a child. During and after the birth of a Muslim child, there are certain rituals the mother and father must perform. Some of these traditions are culturally inspired, and others are performed according to passages in the Nobel Quran that detail the appropriate actions after childbirth. We explain some of these customs which include: Birth customs (the Adhan, Male circumcision, Aqiqah, Shaving the hair, Congratulate and Walīmah; Muslim baby names and Breastfeeding. There are a number of birth customs common to Muslims, an appreciation of which provides unique insights into the lives of Muslims.

  17. Increase in Weight in Low Birth Weight and Very Low Birth Weight Infants Fed Fortified Breast Milk versus Formula Milk: A Retrospective Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kris Yuet Wan Lok

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available There has been a dramatic rise in preterm births in developed countries owing to changes in clinical practices and greater use of assisted reproductive techniques. However, few studies have examined the growth and outcomes of preterm infants according to the type of feeding (with fortified breast milk or formula. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of breast milk feedings and formula on the growth and short-term outcomes of preterm infants in Hong Kong. In a single-center retrospective cohort study, we included 642 preterm infants at gestational age <37 weeks with birth weights <2200 g. According to World Health Organization criteria, 466 were classified as low birth weight (LBW infants (≥1500 g and <2200 g and 176 were classified as very low birth weight (VLBW infants (<1500 g. The mothers of approximately 80% of VLBW infants and 60% LBW infants initiated breast milk feeding. When compared with no breast milk intake, LBW infants that received breast milk were significantly more likely to have growth z-scores closer to the median of the reference population on admission and experienced slower weight gain from birth to discharge. When breast milk was categorized by percent of total enteral intake, significant differences were seen among LBW infants, with lower percentages of small-for-gestational-age (SGA status at discharge with increased proportions of breast milk intake. Our results suggest that LBW infants fed breast milk had better growth z-scores and lower SGA status at discharge compared with those predominately fed preterm formula.

  18. Study protocol for reducing childbirth fear: a midwife-led psycho-education intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenwick, Jennifer; Gamble, Jenny; Creedy, Debra K; Buist, Anne; Turkstra, Erika; Sneddon, Anne; Scuffham, Paul A; Ryding, Elsa L; Jarrett, Vivian; Toohill, Jocelyn

    2013-10-20

    Childbirth fear has received considerable attention in Scandinavian countries, and the United Kingdom, but not in Australia. For first-time mothers, fear is often linked to a perceived lack of control and disbelief in the body's ability to give birth safely, whereas multiparous women may be fearful as a result of previous negative and/or traumatic birth experiences. There have been few well-designed intervention studies that test interventions to address women's childbirth fear, support normal birth, and diminish the possibility of a negative birth experience. Pregnant women in their second trimester of pregnancy will be recruited and screened from antenatal clinics in Queensland, Australia. Women reporting high childbirth fear will be randomly allocated to the intervention or control group. The psycho-educational intervention is offered by midwives over the telephone at 24 and 34 weeks of pregnancy. The intervention aims to review birth expectations, work through distressing elements of childbirth, discuss strategies to develop support networks, affirm that negative childbirth events can be managed and develop a birth plan. Women in the control group will receive standard care offered by the public funded maternity services in Australia. All women will receive an information booklet on childbirth choices. Data will be collected at recruitment during the second trimester, 36 weeks of pregnancy, and 4-6 weeks after birth. This study aims to test the efficacy of a brief, midwife-led psycho-education counselling (known as BELIEF: Birth Emotions - Looking to Improve Expectant Fear) to reduce women's childbirth fear. 1) Relative to controls, women receiving BELIEF will report lower levels of childbirth fear at term; 2) less decisional conflict; 3) less depressive symptoms; 4) better childbirth self-efficacy; and 5) improved health and obstetric outcomes. Australian New Zealand Controlled Trials Registry ACTRN12612000526875.

  19. Improving activities of daily living in danish centenarians--but only in women: A comparative study of two birth cohorts born in 1895 and 1905

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Henriette; Christensen, Kaare; Andersen-Ranberg, Karen

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The number of centenarians has increased rapidly since the 1950s. In Denmark, 42% more of the 1905 birth cohort made it to 100 years of age compared to the 1895 cohort. We tested whether this increased survival proportion has resulted in an increased disability level in the more recent......) and Physical Activities of Daily Living (PADLs) were assessed in both cohorts. RESULTS: The 1905 cohort displayed better self-reported ADLs than the 1895 cohort did. Stratified by gender, this apparent cohort advantage was due to women in the 1905 cohort performing significantly better than their female...

  20. The association between parity, infant gender, higher level of paternal education and preterm birth in Pakistan: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Kiran; Premji, Shahirose S; Rose, Marianne S; Kazi, Ambreen; Khowaja, Shaneela; Tough, Suzanne

    2011-11-02

    High rates of antenatal depression and preterm birth have been reported in Pakistan. Self reported maternal stress and depression have been associated with preterm birth; however findings are inconsistent. Cortisol is a biological marker of stress and depression, and its measurement may assist in understanding the influence of self reported maternal stress and depression on preterm birth. In a prospective cohort study pregnant women between 28 to 30 weeks of gestation from the Aga Khan Hospital for Women and Children completed the A-Z Stress Scale and the Centre for Epidemiology Studies Depression Scale to assess stress and depression respectively, and had a blood cortisol level drawn. Women were followed up after delivery to determine birth outcomes. Correlation coefficients and Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to assess relationship between preterm birth, stress, depression and cortisol. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the key factors predictive of preterm birth. 132 pregnant women participated of whom 125 pregnant women had both questionnaire and cortisol level data and an additional seven had questionnaire data only. Almost 20% of pregnant women (19·7%, 95% CI 13·3-27·5) experienced a high level of stress and nearly twice as many (40·9%, 95% CI 32·4-49·8%) experienced depressive symptoms. The median of cortisol level was 27·40 ug/dl (IQR 22·5-34·2). The preterm birth rate was 11·4% (95% CI 6·5-18). There was no relationship between cortisol values and stress scale or depression. There was a significant positive relationship between maternal depression and stress. Preterm birth was associated with higher parity, past delivery of a male infant, and higher levels of paternal education. Insufficient numbers of preterm births were available to warrant the development of a multivariable logistic regression model. Preterm birth was associated with higher parity, past delivery of a male infant, and higher levels of paternal education. There

  1. Health related quality of life after extremely preterm birth: a matched controlled cohort study

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    Eide Geir E

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of infants born before the last trimester now grow up. However, knowledge on subsequent health related quality of life (HRQoL is scarce. We therefore aimed to compare HRQoL in children born extremely preterm with control children born at term. Furthermore, we assessed HRQoL in relation to perinatal and neonatal morbidity and to current clinical and sociodemographic characteristics. Method The Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ-PF50 and a general questionnaire were applied in a population based cohort of 10 year old children born at gestational age ≤ 28 weeks or with birth weight ≤ 1000 grams in Western Norway in 1991-92 and in term-born controls, individually matched for gender and time of birth. The McNemar test and paired t-tests were used to explore group differences between preterms and matched controls. Paired regression models and analyses of interaction (SPSS mixed linear model were used to explore potential effects of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics on HRQoL in the two groups. Results All 35 eligible preterm children participated. None had major impairments. Learning and/or attention problems were present in 71% of preterms and 20% of controls (odds ratio (OR: 7.0; 95% confidence interval (CI: 2.2 to 27.6. Insufficient professional support was described by 36% of preterm vs. 3% of control parents (OR: infinite; CI: 2.7 to infinite. Preterms scored lower on eight CHQ-PF50 sub-scales and the two summary scores, boys accounting for most of the deficits in areas of behavior, psychosocial functioning and parental burden. HRQoL was associated with learning and/or attention problems in both preterm and control children, significantly more so in preterms in areas related to health and parental burden. Within the preterm group, HRQoL was mostly unrelated to perinatal and neonatal morbidity. Conclusions HRQoL for children born extremely preterm, and particularly for boys, was described by parents to

  2. Health related quality of life after extremely preterm birth: a matched controlled cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vederhus, Bente J; Markestad, Trond; Eide, Geir E; Graue, Marit; Halvorsen, Thomas

    2010-05-23

    The majority of infants born before the last trimester now grow up. However, knowledge on subsequent health related quality of life (HRQoL) is scarce. We therefore aimed to compare HRQoL in children born extremely preterm with control children born at term. Furthermore, we assessed HRQoL in relation to perinatal and neonatal morbidity and to current clinical and sociodemographic characteristics. The Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ-PF50) and a general questionnaire were applied in a population based cohort of 10 year old children born at gestational age < or = 28 weeks or with birth weight < or = 1000 grams in Western Norway in 1991-92 and in term-born controls, individually matched for gender and time of birth. The McNemar test and paired t-tests were used to explore group differences between preterms and matched controls. Paired regression models and analyses of interaction (SPSS mixed linear model) were used to explore potential effects of sociodemographic and clinical characteristics on HRQoL in the two groups. All 35 eligible preterm children participated. None had major impairments. Learning and/or attention problems were present in 71% of preterms and 20% of controls (odds ratio (OR): 7.0; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.2 to 27.6). Insufficient professional support was described by 36% of preterm vs. 3% of control parents (OR: infinite; CI: 2.7 to infinite). Preterms scored lower on eight CHQ-PF50 sub-scales and the two summary scores, boys accounting for most of the deficits in areas of behavior, psychosocial functioning and parental burden. HRQoL was associated with learning and/or attention problems in both preterm and control children, significantly more so in preterms in areas related to health and parental burden. Within the preterm group, HRQoL was mostly unrelated to perinatal and neonatal morbidity. HRQoL for children born extremely preterm, and particularly for boys, was described by parents to be inferior to that of children born at term, and

  3. Adolescent cannabis and tobacco use and educational outcomes at age 16: birth cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiby, Alexander I; Hickman, Matthew; Munafò, Marcus R; Heron, Jon; Yip, Vikki L; Macleod, John

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the relationship between cannabis and tobacco use by age 15 and subsequent educational outcomes. Birth cohort study. England. The sample was drawn from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children; a core sample of 1155 individuals had complete information on all the variables. The main exposures were cannabis and tobacco use at age 15 assessed in clinic by computer-assisted questionnaire and serum cotinine. The main outcomes were performance in standardized assessments at 16 [Key Stage 4, General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE)] in English and mathematics (mean scores), completion of five or more assessments at grade C level or higher and leaving school having achieved no qualifications. Analyses were sequentially adjusted for multiple covariates using a hierarchical approach. Covariates considered were: maternal substance use (ever tobacco or cannabis use, alcohol use above recommended limits); life course socio-economic position (family occupational class, maternal education, family income); child sex; month and year of birth; child educational attainment prior to age 11 (Key Stage 2); child substance use (tobacco, alcohol and cannabis) prior to age 15 and child conduct disorder. In fully adjusted models both cannabis and tobacco use at age 15 were associated with subsequent adverse educational outcomes. In general, the dose-response effect seen was consistent across all educational outcomes assessed. Weekly cannabis use was associated negatively with English GCSE results [grade point difference (GPD), -5.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) = -8.34, -3.53] and with mathematics GCSE results (GPD, -6.91, 95% CI = -9.92, -3.89). Daily tobacco smoking was associated negatively with English GCSE (GPD, -11.90, 95% CI = -13.47, -10.33) and with mathematics GCSE (GPD, -16.72, 95% CI = -18.57, -14.86). The greatest attenuation of these effects was seen on adjustment for other substance use and conduct disorder. Following

  4. Improving return-to-work after childbirth: design of the Mom@Work study, a randomised controlled trial and cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stomp-van den Berg, Suzanne G. M.; van Poppel, Mireille N. M.; Hendriksen, Ingrid J. M.; Bruinvels, David J.; Uegaki, Kimi; de Bruijne, Martine C.; van Mechelen, Willem

    2007-01-01

    Many women suffer from health problems after giving birth, which can lead to sick leave. About 30% of Dutch workers are on sick leave after maternity leave. Structural contact of supervisors with employees on maternity leave, supported by early medical advice of occupational physicians, may increase

  5. Improving return-to-work after childbirth: Design of the Mom@Work study, a randomised controlled trial and cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stomp-Berg, S.G.M. van den; Poppel, M.N.M. van; Hendriksen, I.J.M.; Bruinvels, D.J.; Uegaki, K.; Bruijne, M.C. de; Mechelen, W. van

    2007-01-01

    Background. Many women suffer from health problems after giving birth, which can lead to sick leave. About 30% of Dutch workers are on sick leave after maternity leave. Structural contact of supervisors with employees on maternity leave, supported by early medical advice of occupational physicians,

  6. Prenatal and Postnatal Exposure to Persistent Organic Pollutants and Infant Growth:A Pooled Analysis of Seven European Birth Cohorts

    OpenAIRE

    Iszatt, Nina; Stigum, Hein; Verner, Marc-André; White, Richard; Govarts, Eva; Murinova, Lubica Palkovicova; Schoeters, Greet; Trnovec, Tomáš; Legler, Juliette; Pele, Fabienne; Botton, Jérémie; Chevrier, Cécile; Wittsiepe, Jürgen; Ranft, Ulrich; Vandentorren, Stéphanie

    2015-01-01

    Background Infant exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) may contribute to obesity. However, many studies so far have been small, focused on transplacental exposure, used an inappropriate measure to assess postnatal exposure through breastfeeding if any, or did not discern between prenatal and postnatal effects. Objectives We investigated prenatal and postnatal exposure to POPs and infant growth (a predictor of obesity). Methods We pooled data from seven European birth cohorts with ...

  7. Family Pet Ownership during Childhood: Findings from a UK Birth Cohort and Implications for Public Health Research

    OpenAIRE

    Jon Heron; NESS, ANDY R.; Peter Bundred; Gaskell, Rosalind M.; Coyne, Karen P.; German, Alexander J.; Sandra McCune; Susan Dawson; Carri Westgarth

    2010-01-01

    In developed nations, approximately half of household environments contain pets. Studies of Human-Animal Interaction (HAI) have proposed that there are health benefits and risks associated with pet ownership. However, accurately demonstrating and understanding these relationships first requires a better knowledge of factors associated with ownership of different pet types. A UK birth cohort, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC), were used to collect pet ownership data ...

  8. Malaria burden in a birth cohort of HIV-exposed uninfected Ugandan infants living in a high malaria transmission setting

    OpenAIRE

    Abel Kakuru; Paul Natureeba; Muhindo, Mary K.; Clark, Tamara D.; Havlir, Diane V.; Deborah Cohan; Grant Dorsey; Kamya, Moses R; Theodore Ruel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background HIV-exposed, uninfected (HEU) infants suffer high morbidity and mortality in the first year of life compared to HIV-unexposed, uninfected (HUU) infants, but accurate data on the contribution of malaria are limited. Methods The incidence of febrile illnesses and malaria were evaluated in a birth cohort of HEU infants. Infants were prescribed daily trimethoprim–sulfamethoxazole (TS) prophylaxis from 6 weeks of age until exclusion of HIV-infection after cessation of breastfee...

  9. Mother and child characteristics at birth and early age leukemia: a case-cohort population-based study,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejane de Souza Reis

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The population-based cancer registries (PBCR and the Information System on Live Births in Brazil (Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos [SINASC] have information that enables the test for risk factors associated with leukemia at an early age. The aim of this study was to identify maternal and birth characteristics associated with early-age acute leukemia (EAL in Brazil. Methods: A case-cohort study was performed using secondary dataset information of PBCR and SINASC. The risk association variables were grouped into (i characteristics of the child at birth and (ii characteristics of maternal exposure during pregnancy. The case-control ratio was 1:4. Linkage was performed using R software; odds ratio (OR and 95% confidence interval (CI were calculated by logistic regression models. Results: EAL was associated with maternal occupational exposure to chemicals (agricultural, chemical, and petrochemical industry; adjOR: 2.18, 95% CI: 1.16-4.10 and with birth defects (adjOR: 3.62, 95% CI: 1.19-11.00. Conclusions: The results of this study, with the identification of EAL risk factors in population-based case-cohort study, strengthen the knowledge and improve databases, contributing to investigations on risk factors associated with childhood leukemia worldwide.

  10. Mother and child characteristics at birth and early age leukemia: a case-cohort population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Rejane de Souza; Silva, Neimar de Paula; Santos, Marceli de Oliveira; Oliveira, Julio Fernando Pinto; Thuler, Luiz Claudio Santos; de Camargo, Beatriz; Pombo-de-Oliveira, Maria S

    The population-based cancer registries (PBCR) and the Information System on Live Births in Brazil (Sistema de Informações sobre Nascidos Vivos [SINASC]) have information that enables the test for risk factors associated with leukemia at an early age. The aim of this study was to identify maternal and birth characteristics associated with early-age acute leukemia (EAL) in Brazil. A case-cohort study was performed using secondary dataset information of PBCR and SINASC. The risk association variables were grouped into (i) characteristics of the child at birth and (ii) characteristics of maternal exposure during pregnancy. The case-control ratio was 1:4. Linkage was performed using R software; odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated by logistic regression models. EAL was associated with maternal occupational exposure to chemicals (agricultural, chemical, and petrochemical industry; adjOR: 2.18, 95% CI: 1.16-4.10) and with birth defects (adjOR: 3.62, 95% CI: 1.19-11.00). The results of this study, with the identification of EAL risk factors in population-based case-cohort study, strengthen the knowledge and improve databases, contributing to investigations on risk factors associated with childhood leukemia worldwide. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Perinatal mortality and morbidity up to 28 days after birth among 743 070 low-risk planned home and hospital births: a cohort study based on three merged national perinatal databases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, A.; Geerts, C.C.; van der Goes, B.Y.; Mol, B.W.; Buitendijk, S.E.; Nijhuis, J.G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare rates of adverse perinatal outcomes between planned home births versus planned hospital births. Design A nationwide cohort study. Setting The Netherlands. Population Low-risk women in midwife-led care at the onset of labour. Methods Analysis of national registration data. Main

  12. Dissemination of periodic mammography and patterns of use, by birth cohort, in Catalonia (Spain)

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    Rue, Montserrat; Carles, Misericordia; Vilaprinyo, Ester; Martinez-Alonso, Montserrat; Espinas, Josep-Alfons; Pla, Roger; Brugulat, Pilar

    2008-01-01

    Background In Catalonia (Spain) breast cancer mortality has declined since the beginning of the 1990s. The dissemination of early detection by mammography and the introduction of adjuvant treatments are among the possible causes of this decrease, and both were almost coincident in time. Thus, understanding how these procedures were incorporated into use in the general population and in women diagnosed with breast cancer is very important for assessing their contribution to the reduction in breast cancer mortality. In this work we have modeled the dissemination of periodic mammography and described repeat mammography behavior in Catalonia from 1975 to 2006. Methods Cross-sectional data from three Catalan Health Surveys for the calendar years 1994, 2002 and 2006 was used. The dissemination of mammography by birth cohort was modeled using a mixed effects model and repeat mammography behavior was described by age and survey year. Results For women born from 1938 to 1952, mammography clearly had a period effect, meaning that they started to have periodic mammograms at the same calendar years but at different ages. The age at which approximately 50% of the women were receiving periodic mammograms went from 57.8 years of age for women born in 1938–1942 to 37.3 years of age for women born in 1963–1967. Women in all age groups experienced an increase in periodic mammography use over time, although women in the 50–69 age group have experienced the highest increase. Currently, the target population of the Catalan Breast Cancer Screening Program, 50–69 years of age, is the group that self-reports the highest utilization of periodic mammograms, followed by the 40–49 age group. A higher proportion of women of all age groups have annual mammograms rather than biennial or irregular ones. Conclusion Mammography in Catalonia became more widely implemented during the 1990s. We estimated when cohorts initiated periodic mammograms and how frequently women are receiving them

  13. Traffic-related air pollution and childhood obesity in an Italian birth cohort.

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    Fioravanti, Sara; Cesaroni, Giulia; Badaloni, Chiara; Michelozzi, Paola; Forastiere, Francesco; Porta, Daniela

    2018-01-01

    Air pollution is associated with several adverse health outcomes in children, such as respiratory illnesses and cognitive development impairment. There are suggestions of an effect of traffic-related air pollution on the occurrence of childhood obesity, but the results are not consistent. The aim of the study is to analyse whether air pollution and vehicular traffic exposure, during the first four years of life, influence obesity- related measures among 4 and 8-year-old children from a prospective birth cohort in Rome. A cohort of newborns, enrolled in 2003-2004 within the GASPII project, was followed at 4 and 8 years of age with parental interviews and clinical examinations. Air pollution was assessed at residential address using Land Use Regression models (for NO2, NOx, PM10, PM2.5, PMcoarse, PM2.5 absorbance and one traffic variable (Total traffic load of all roads in a 100m buffer)). The outcomes under study were body mass index (BMI Z-scores according to WHO recommendations, considered both categorical and continuous) measured at 4 and 8 years, and, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, total and HDL cholesterol measured at 8 years. The associations were evaluated through both cross-sectional and longitudinal approaches, using logistic regression models, Generalized Estimating Equation models (GEE) and linear regression models, as appropriate. Moreover, Inverse Probability Weighting (IPW) methodology was used to account for selection bias at enrolment and at follow-up. A total of 719 infants were enrolled and 581 (80.8%) and 499 (69.4%) were followed at 4 and 8 years, respectively. The prevalence of overweight/obesity was 9.3% and 36.9% at 4 and 8 years. No evidence of an association was found between vehicular traffic and being overweight/obese. Similarly, there was no evidence of an association between exposure to air pollutants and all other ponderal excess parameters. The study shows no association between exposure to vehicular traffic and exposure to

  14. The Autism Birth Cohort (ABC:a study of autism spectrum disorders in MoBa

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    Pål Surén

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs are characterized by persistent deficits in social communication and interaction and restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests or activities. In most cases, the cause of ASD is likely to be a combination of genetic predisposition and environmental exposures occurring in fetal life or early infancy. Consequently, a prospective pregnancy cohort like MoBa represents an ideal platform for studies of ASDs in children.Methods: The Autism Birth Cohort (ABC Study has identified potential ASD cases in MoBa through questionnaire- based screening, parental and professional referrals, and linkages to the Norwegian Patient Register. ASD diagnoses have been ascertained through in-person clinical assessments and medical record reviews.Current results: By the end of 2012, the ABC Study had identified 518 ASD cases in MoBa. The ASD prevalence in school-age children is 0.7-0.8%, which is in line with nationwide estimates for Norway. The most important source of ASD case identification was registry linkages, while only a minority was detected through early screening. Published findings show that screening at 18 months misses the majority of ASD cases. Analyses of risk factors for ASDs have shown that maternal use of folic acid supplements in early pregnancy may lower the child’s risk of developing ASDs and that paternal obesity appears to increase the child’s risk of ASDs.Future plans: ASD case identification will continue through annual registry linkages and subsequent reviews of medical records. Analyses of plasma samples and RNA samples will be conducted to investigate prenatal and perinatal microbial exposures, innate immune and inflammatory responses, biomarkers of autism risk, and exposures to xenobiotics. Analyses of deciduous teeth will also investigate the effect of medications and environmental toxins. Exome sequencing of DNA from ASD cases and their parents is ongoing, and will elucidate the

  15. Do positive children become positive adults? Evidence from a longitudinal birth cohort study.

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    Richards, Marcus; Huppert, Felicia A

    2011-02-10

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the long-term consequences of positive wellbeing in childhood in the general population. We used the MRC National Survey of Health and Development (the British 1946 birth cohort) to test associations between adolescent positive wellbeing and social functioning in midlife. METHOD: Temperament and behaviour at ages 13 and 15 years were rated by school teachers on a range of criteria. These mostly referred to absence or presence of conduct and emotional problems, but four items allowed positive ratings: 'very popular with other children', 'unusually happy and contented', 'makes friends extremely easily' and 'extremely energetic, never tired'. In addition, at age 16 years survey members self-completed the Maudsley Personality Inventory, from which a summary measure of extraversion was derived, as this was previously found to be associated with midlife positive wellbeing in this cohort. RESULTS: Being a happy child, defined as receiving at least two of the above teacher ratings, was positively associated with midlife functioning and wellbeing, specifically a low probability of lifetime emotional problems, a high frequency of contact with friends or relatives, engagement in social activities, and to a lesser extent feeling satisfied with accomplishments in working life. These associations were independent of father's social class, childhood cognition, educational attainment, and midlife occupational social class. There were no independent associations between being a happy child and educational or occupational attainment, being married, engagement in prosocial activities, taking leadership in community activities, and with life satisfaction in general or with family life. Extraversion was associated with a low probability of lifetime emotional problems, high engagement in social activities, being married, general midlife life satisfaction, and satisfaction with family life, but not with social contact, prosocial activity, leadership

  16. Negative impressions of childbirth in a North-West England student population.

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    Thomson, Gill; Stoll, Kathrin; Downe, Soo; Hall, Wendy A

    2017-03-01

    Sociocultural childbirth representations can influence the perceptions of childbirth negatively. In this paper we report on a survey study to explore the factors associated with negative impressions of childbirth in a North-West England University student sample. We also explored whether different sources and perceptions of childbirth information were linked to fear of childbirth. All students received a survey link via an online messaging board and/or direct e-mail. Female students who were 18-40 years of age and childless (but planned to have children in the future) were invited to participate. Demographics, birth preferences, a fear of birth and general anxiety measures were included as well as questions about what sources of information shaped students' attitudes toward pregnancy and birth (i.e. visual/written media, experiences of friends/family members, school-based education and other) and impressions of birth from these sources (i.e. positive, negative, both positive and negative and not applicable). Eligible students (n = 276) completed the online questionnaire. The majority were Caucasian (87%) with a mean age of 22.6 years. Ninety-two students (33.3%) reported negative childbirth impressions through direct or vicarious sources. Students with negative birth impressions were significantly more likely to report higher fear of birth scores. Negatively perceived birth stories of friends/family members, and mixed perceptions of visual media representations of birth were associated with higher fear of birth scores. Having witnessed a birth first-hand and describing the experience as amazing was linked to lower fear scores. First-hand observations of birth, especially positive experiences, had implications for salutary outcomes. Negative or conflicting perceptions of vicarious experiences were associated with increased levels of childbirth fear. While further research is needed, these insights suggest a need for positive birth stories and messages to be

  17. Phthalate metabolites and bisphenol A in urines from German school-aged children: results of the Duisburg birth cohort and Bochum cohort studies.

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    Kasper-Sonnenberg, Monika; Koch, Holger M; Wittsiepe, Jürgen; Brüning, Thomas; Wilhelm, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Some phthalates and also bisphenol A (BPA) interfere with the human endocrine system and are labelled as reproductive toxicants. Children's exposure to these contaminants is suspected to be associated with developmental disorders and other health impairments. We provide biomonitoring data on 21 urinary phthalate metabolite and BPA levels in first morning urine of 8-10 year old children. Participants were children born between 1999 and 2002 of the Duisburg birth cohort (8-9 years, N=113) and of the Bochum cohort study (8-10 years, N=352). Additionally, for the Duisburg birth cohort we compare current data of children from Duisburg (8-9 years) with data from 2 years earlier when the children were 6-7 years old. We analyzed influences of important covariates on exposure levels by multiple regression analysis and those from two sampling time points by generalized equation estimation models adjusted for important covariates. Compared to recently published studies the phthalate metabolite and BPA concentrations were within the range of background levels. There were no significant differences between children from Bochum and Duisburg. Comparison between the two Duisburg birth cohort data sets (2007-2008 and 2009-2010) showed significant correlations for most of the phthalate metabolites (r Spearman between 0.25 and 0.51; p ≤ 0.05) but not for BPA (r Spearman=0.162; p=0.143). Most of the phthalate metabolites in the groups of the 6-7 and 8-9 years old Duisburg children were negatively associated with higher age, except for BPA concentrations with nearly constant levels. Exposure levels may be influenced by changes in child specific exposure patterns with age but also by the rapidly changing phthalate market. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Exploration of preterm birth rates associated with different models of antenatal midwifery care in Scotland: Unmatched retrospective cohort analysis.

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    Symon, Andrew; Winter, Clare; Cochrane, Lynda

    2015-06-01

    preterm birth represents a significant personal, clinical, organisational and financial burden. Strategies to reduce the preterm birth rate have had limited success. Limited evidence indicates that certain antenatal care models may offer some protection, although the causal mechanism is not understood. We sought to compare preterm birth rates for mixed-risk pregnant women accessing antenatal care organised at a freestanding midwifery unit (FMU) and mixed-risk pregnant women attending an obstetric unit (OU) with related community-based antenatal care. unmatched retrospective 4-year Scottish cohort analysis (2008-2011) of mixed-risk pregnant women accessing (i) FMU antenatal care (n=1107); (ii) combined community-based and OU antenatal care (n=7567). Data were accessed via the Information and Statistics Division of the NHS in Scotland. Aggregates analysis and binary logistic regression were used to compare the cohorts׳ rates of preterm birth; and of spontaneous labour onset, use of pharmacological analgesia, unassisted vertex birth, and low birth weight. Odds ratios were adjusted for age, parity, deprivation score and smoking status in pregnancy. after adjustment the 'mixed risk' FMU cohort had a statistically significantly reduced risk of preterm birth (5.1% [n=57] versus 7.7% [n=583]; AOR 0.73 [95% CI 0.55-0.98]; p=0.034). Differences in these secondary outcome measures were also statistically significant: spontaneous labour onset (FMU 83.9% versus OU 74.6%; AOR 1.74 [95% CI 1.46-2.08]; p<0.001); minimal intrapartum analgesia (FMU 53.7% versus OU 34.4%; AOR 2.17 [95% CI 1.90-2.49]; p<0.001); spontaneous vertex delivery (FMU 71.9% versus OU 63.5%; AOR 1.46 [95% CI 1.32-1.78]; p<0.001). Incidence of low birth weight was not statistically significant after adjustment for other variables. There was no significant difference in the rate of perinatal or neonatal death. given this study׳s methodological limitations, we can only claim associations between the care model

  19. Prospective validation of a prognostic model for respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis in late preterm infants: a multicenter birth cohort study.

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    Maarten O Blanken

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to update and validate a prediction rule for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV hospitalization in preterm infants 33-35 weeks gestational age (WGA. STUDY DESIGN: The RISK study consisted of 2 multicenter prospective birth cohorts in 41 hospitals. Risk factors were assessed at birth among healthy preterm infants 33-35 WGA. All hospitalizations for respiratory tract infection were screened for proven RSV infection by immunofluorescence or polymerase chain reaction. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to update an existing prediction model in the derivation cohort (n = 1,227. In the validation cohort (n = 1,194, predicted versus actual RSV hospitalization rates were compared to determine validity of the model. RESULTS: RSV hospitalization risk in both cohorts was comparable (5.7% versus 4.9%. In the derivation cohort, a prediction rule to determine probability of RSV hospitalization was developed using 4 predictors: family atopy (OR 1.9; 95%CI, 1.1-3.2, birth period (OR 2.6; 1.6-4.2, breastfeeding (OR 1.7; 1.0-2.7 and siblings or daycare attendance (OR 4.7; 1.7-13.1. The model showed good discrimination (c-statistic 0.703; 0.64-0.76, 0.702 after bootstrapping. External validation showed good discrimination and calibration (c-statistic 0.678; 0.61-0.74. CONCLUSIONS: Our prospectively validated prediction rule identifies infants at increased RSV hospitalization risk, who may benefit from targeted preventive interventions. This prediction rule can facilitate country-specific, cost-effective use of RSV prophylaxis in late preterm infants.

  20. Period, birth cohort and prevalence of dementia in mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan: a meta-analysis.

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    Wu, Yu-Tzu; Lee, Hsin-Yi; Norton, Samuel; Prina, A Matthew; Fleming, Jane; Matthews, Fiona E; Brayne, Carol

    2014-12-01

    There have been dramatic societal changes in East Asia over the last hundred years. Several of the established risk factors could have important period and cohort effects. This study explores temporal variation of dementia prevalence in mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan taking study methods into account. Seventy prevalence studies of dementia in mainland China, Hong Kong and Taiwan were identified from 1980 to 2012. Five period groups (before 1990, 1990 ~ 1994, 1995 ~ 1999, 2000 ~ 2004 and 2005 ~ 2012) and five birth cohort groups (1895 ~ 1909, 1910 ~ 1919, 1920 ~ 1929, 1930 ~ 1939 and 1940 ~ 1950) were categorised using the year of investigation and 5-year age groups. Pooled prevalence by age, period and birth cohort groups was estimated through meta-regression model and meta-analysis taking diagnostic criteria and age structure into account. After adjusting for diagnostic criteria, the study age range and age structure, the prevalence of dementia in the older population aged 60 years and over fluctuated across periods but not reaching significance and were estimated as 1.8%, 2.5%, 2.1%, 2.4% and 3.1% for the five periods from pre-1990 to 2005 ~ 2012. A potential increasing pattern from less to more recent birth cohort