WorldWideScience

Sample records for child

  1. Child Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... puts a child at risk of harm. Child abuse can be physical, sexual or emotional. Neglect, or not providing for a child's needs, is also a form of abuse. Most abused children suffer greater emotional than physical ...

  2. Child Poverty and Child Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradshaw, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the evidence on the prevalence of child poverty in Britain including: (1) how child poverty has changed over the last 20 years; (2) how child poverty in Britain compares with that in other countries; (3) characteristics of poor children; (4) impact of poverty on child well-being; and (5) government attempts to abolish child poverty. (SD)

  3. Child Support

    OpenAIRE

    Bradshaw, J. (Jonathan)

    2006-01-01

    Child support is a private transfer, which for many people is mediated by the government, and which mainly benefits lone parents. Children in lone parent families represented 42 per cent of all poor children in 2003/4. Therefore child support might play an important part in reducing child poverty. Although this was not an aspiration of the 1991 Child Support Act it was certainly the main aspiration of the Child Support, Pensions and Social Security Act 2000. This paper is a review of the pote...

  4. Child Care and Child Nutrition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karolak, Eric

    2009-01-01

    The weak economy is challenging the child care program budget. Fluctuations in enrollment come up against rising costs making every penny count. So for many reasons a federal program that helps defray the costs of snacks and meals in child care programs is particularly important and timely. In this article, the author pushes for the…

  5. Disobedient Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of their parents' rules and of their own self-control. Sometimes, however, these conflicts are more than occasional ... a timeout until he calms down and regains self-control. When your child is obedient and respectful, compliment ...

  6. Prevent Child Abuse America

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... call the police . Crisis and support contacts For Child Abuse Reporting Numbers in your State please visit: Child ... suspected child abuse and neglect. Parent Resources Prevent Child Abuse America (800) CHILDREN A resource for tips, referrals, ...

  7. Child labor

    OpenAIRE

    Udry, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an astonishing proliferation of empirical work on child labor. An Econlit search of keywords "child lab*r" reveals a total of 6 peer reviewed journal articles between 1980 and 1990, 65 between 1990 and 2000, and 143 in the first five years of the present decade. The purpose of this essay is to provide a detailed overview of the state of the recent empirical literature on why and how children work as well as the consequences of that work. Section 1 defines terms...

  8. Child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Child abuse is common in most, if not all, Western nations; it probably occurs worldwide. It may be a major factor in the increase in violence throughout much of the world. Radiologists who treat children should think of the possibilitys of abuse whenever they diagnose a fracture, intracranial bleed, ar visceral injury, especially when the history is not compatible with their findings. Metaphyseal 'corner' fractures in infants usually are caused by abuse. Less than 20% of abused children, however, present injuries that can be recognized by radiologic techniques. Consequently normal roentgenograms, nuclear medicine scans, ultrasound studies, and computed tomograms do not exclude child abuse. (orig.)

  9. CHILD ALLOWANCE

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2001-01-01

    HR Division wishes to clarify to members of the personnel that the allowance for a dependent child continues to be paid during all training courses ('stages'), apprenticeships, 'contrats de qualification', sandwich courses or other courses of similar nature. Any payment received for these training courses, including apprenticeships, is however deducted from the amount reimbursable as school fees. HR Division would also like to draw the attention of members of the personnel to the fact that any contract of employment will lead to the suppression of the child allowance and of the right to reimbursement of school fees.

  10. Child CPR

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Child - CPR (1:11) QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms and Conditions All rights reserved. 2011 American National Red Cross.

  11. CHILD TRAFFICKING

    OpenAIRE

    Pallavi Chincholkar

    2016-01-01

    Human trafficking is the third biggest beneficial industry on the planet. Child trafficking unlike many other issues is found in both developed and developing nations. NGOs evaluate that 12,000 - 50,000 ladies and kids are trafficked into the nation every year from neighboring states for the sex exchange.

  12. Child pornography

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlović, Zoran S.; Petković, Nikola; Matijašević Obradović, Jelena

    2014-01-01

    The abuse of children for pornographic purposes is a serious sociological, criminological and victimological problem of today which, despite all preventive and restrictive activities on an international level, shows a tendency of global expansion. The fact that the Republic of Serbia has only recently actively joined the fight against child pornography on the Internet indicates the need for critical analysis of the existing national, penal, and legal solutions and their harmonization with the...

  13. My Child Is Stealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... might do so anyway because they lack enough self-control . Preteens and teens know they're not supposed ... About a Child Who Steals? Teaching Your Child Self-Control Disciplining Your Child Childhood Stress Nine Steps to ...

  14. FAQ: Child Sexual Exploitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Support FAQ: Child Sexual Exploitation What is child pornography? Federal law (18 U.S.C. §2256(8)) defines ... person under the age of 18. Is child pornography a crime? It is a federal crime to ...

  15. Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexual abuse is one form of child abuse. It includes a wide range of actions between a child ... to children or pressuring them for sex is sexual abuse. Using a child for pornography is also sexual ...

  16. Asthma - child - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000001.htm Asthma - child - discharge To use the sharing features on ... for your child. Take charge of your child's asthma at home Make sure you know the asthma ...

  17. Helping Your Child through Early Adolescence -- Helping Your Child Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CHILD'S ACADEMIC SUCCESS Helping Your Child Through Early Adolescence -- Helping Your Child Series PDF (1 MB) For ... Acknowledgements Tips to Help Your Child through Early Adolescence No Child Left Behind < Previous page | ^ Top ^ | Next ...

  18. Child Mortality, Child Labour, and Economic Development

    OpenAIRE

    Holger Strulik

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents a model where the interplay between fertility, child labour, and education can explain economic stagnation when parents live in an environment of high child mortality. If in contrast child mortality is low, the solution of the parental decision problem leads to perpetual economic growth. The two long-run states are connected by a path of demographic transition and economic take-off along which the incidence of child labour disappears. The paper also discusses alternative po...

  19. Child Care Subsidies and Child Development

    OpenAIRE

    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal

    2008-01-01

    Child care subsidies are an important part of federal and state efforts to move welfare recipients into employment. One of the criticisms of the current subsidy system, however, is that it overemphasizes work and does little to encourage parents to purchase high-quality child care. Consequently, there are reasons to be concerned about the implications of child care subsidies for child development. In this paper, we provide a systematic assessment of the impact of subsidy receipt on a wide ran...

  20. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abuse & Neglect Fatalities Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect National Child Abuse Prevention Month Overview Promoting Child & Family Well-Being Public ... Abuse & Neglect Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect Resources on child abuse prevention, protecting children from risk of abuse, and strengthening ...

  1. Toilet Training Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to be present when you go to the bathroom and make your child feel comfortable in the bathroom. Allow your child to see urine and bowel ... begin teaching your child to go to the bathroom. Keep your child in loose, easily removable pants. ...

  2. Child Abuse and Neglect

    OpenAIRE

    Yaşar Tıraşçı; Süleyman Gören

    2007-01-01

    Child abuse is the physical or psychological maltreatment of a child by an adult. In recent years, the affinity and aware of child abuse have been increased in Turkey. But, it is not enough. The purpose of this article was to defined child abuse and to attract attention of population and medical worker.

  3. Who Owns Child Abuse?

    OpenAIRE

    Gerald Cradock

    2014-01-01

    Expectations of contemporary child protection apparatuses are strongly influenced by beliefs inherited from the nineteenth century child rescue movement. In particular, the belief that child abuse determination is obvious. However, this assumption fails to make a distinction between nineteenth century’s emphasis on impoverished environments and the twentieth century introduction of the pathological child abuser. Moreover, the proliferation of kinds of child abuse, and the need to distinguis...

  4. Child Poverty and Changes in Child Poverty

    OpenAIRE

    CHEN, WEN-HAO; Corak, Miles

    2008-01-01

    This article offers a cross-country overview of child poverty, changes in child poverty, and the impact of public policy in North America and Europe. Levels and changes in child poverty rates in 12 Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries during the 1990s are documented using data from the Luxembourg Income Study project, and a decomposition analysis is used to uncover the relative role of demographic factors, labor markets, and income transfers from the state i...

  5. Child Abuse in India

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2011-01-01

    Child abuse is harm to, or neglect of, a child by another person, whether adult or child. Child abuse happens in all cultural, ethnic, and income groups. Child abuse can be physical, emotional - verbal, sexual or through neglect. Abuse may cause serious injury to the child and may even result in death. A problem that is only beginning to come into light in India rape, sexual abuse, and sexual harassment are worldwide issues of gender violence. There is very little research done in this area i...

  6. National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) Child File

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) Child File data set consists of child-specific data of all reports of maltreatment to State child...

  7. Your Child's Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or working on a craft. Reward and praise self-control . For example, allow your little girl to use ... Aid: Nosebleeds Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Teaching Your Child Self-Control Temper Tantrums How Can I Stop My Child ...

  8. FPG Child Development Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Development, Teaching, and Learning The Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute will partner with Zero to Three to ... Excellent June 7, 2016 More Frank Porter Graham Child Development Institute The University of North Carolina at Chapel ...

  9. Child abuse - physical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001552.htm Child abuse - physical To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Physical child abuse is a serious problem. Here are some facts: ...

  10. Cholesterol and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tropical Delight: Melon Smoothie Pregnant? Your Baby's Growth Cholesterol and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Cholesterol and ... child's risk of developing heart disease later. About Cholesterol Cholesterol is a waxy substance produced by the ...

  11. Who Owns Child Abuse?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Cradock

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Expectations of contemporary child protection apparatuses are strongly influenced by beliefs inherited from the nineteenth century child rescue movement. In particular, the belief that child abuse determination is obvious. However, this assumption fails to make a distinction between nineteenth century’s emphasis on impoverished environments and the twentieth century introduction of the pathological child abuser. Moreover, the proliferation of kinds of child abuse, and the need to distinguish child abusers from non-abusers, means knowledge is now spread across an array of disciplines and professions, which necessarily destabilizes the definition of child abuse. The increasing exposure of alternate care systems as potentially abusive has similarly destabilized the old common sense solution to neglected children—namely removal. Finally, as uncertainty increases, and definitions become more divergent, the question of what child abuse is, and what should be done about it, becomes increasingly politicized.

  12. Office of Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2014 OCC has a variety of resources and tools related to the law. Visit our Reauthorization site to find webinars, program instructions, and other guidance and information. > What is the Office of Child Care (OCC)? The Office of Child ...

  13. Child Dental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy teeth are important to your child's overall health. From the time your child is born, there are things you can do to promote healthy teeth and prevent cavities. For babies, you should clean ...

  14. Child Care Subsidies and Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal

    2010-01-01

    Child care subsidies are an important part of federal and state efforts to move welfare recipients into employment. One of the criticisms of the current subsidy system, however, is that it overemphasizes work and does little to encourage parents to purchase high-quality child care. Consequently, there are reasons to be concerned about the…

  15. Economics of child labour

    OpenAIRE

    Fatima, Ambreen

    2013-01-01

    The dissertation aims to explore the supply and demand side determinant of child labour at macro, meso and micro level. At macro level it explores the effect of globalization (defined as openness to trade and inflow of foreign direct investment) and credit market imperfections on child labour. At meso level it explores the effect of labour market conditions on child labour. As the above two levels of analysis are mainly concerned with the demand for child labour, the micro level analysis expl...

  16. Child Poverty in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Crossley; Lori Curtis

    2003-01-01

    A 1989 all-party motion of parliament called for the elimination of child poverty in Canada by the year 2000. Despite a series of policy initiatives, recent reports suggest that the child poverty rate may now be comparable to that in 1989. The apparent persistence of child poverty in Canada might reflect socioeconomic developments, or something about the way that child poverty is measured. Using micro data covering the period 1986 to 2000 we find little support for these explanations.

  17. Disciplining Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are ways to ease frustration and avoid unnecessary conflict with your child. Be Aware of What Your Child Can and ... moment, wait to cool down, apologize to your child, and explain how you will handle the situation in the future. Be sure to keep your ...

  18. Spleen removal - child - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for your child to return to school or daycare. This may be as soon as 2 to 3 weeks after surgery. Your child's activity restrictions will depend on: The type of surgery (open or laparoscopic) Your child's age The reason for ...

  19. Child Labor - Moral Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Lagasse, Caitlin

    2014-01-01

    In many instances, child labor is a way to exploit the cheap labor a child has to offer. Although in many situations, the exploitation of child labor is not normally the case, such as families living in a developing country. What individuals raised in Western cultures fail to realize is that in some nations and for some families, child labor is a necessary resource to survive, children act as an exceptional resource in these situations. Without the extra income a child could make working in t...

  20. Measuring child marriage

    OpenAIRE

    Minh Cong Nguyen; Quentin Wodon

    2012-01-01

    Child or early marriage is recognized as an important development and human rights issue that affects girls especially in many developing countries. The practice has been linked to psychological, health, and education risks. These negative impacts explain why in many countries child marriage has been prohibited by law but often with little effect. While child marriage has been recognized as a major issue, its measurement has remained unsophisticated. Existing studies tend to simply report the...

  1. Child Labor and Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Elias Dinopoulos; Laixun Zhao

    2006-01-01

    The paper embeds child labor in a standard two-sector general-equilibrium model of a small open economy facing perfectly competitive markets, efficiency wages, and free-trade. The modern sector produces a homogeneous good using skilled adult labor and capital, and offers effort-based efficiency wages. The agrarian (traditional) sector produces a homogeneous good using unskilled (child and adult) labor and skilled adult labor, and offers nutritional efficiency wages to child workers. Nutrition...

  2. Prevention of Child Maltreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Lane, Wendy Gwirtzman

    2014-01-01

    Pediatricians and other health care providers can play a number of important roles in the prevention of child maltreatment. As part of routine patient care, pediatricians can provide anticipatory guidance for effective discipline and parent-child communication, screen for maltreatment risk factors, and refer parents and families to effective community-based programs. This article will help pediatricians incorporate child abuse prevention into their practice. Resources for systematizing antici...

  3. Towards understanding child abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Clara Inés Carreño; Alicia Rey

    2010-01-01

    This research is a contribution to the understanding of childhood andthe child maltreatment within the framework of the state of the art of the knowledge produced in the experiences of research / intervention carried out under the Specialization Program on Child Maltreatment Prevention of Javeriana University, between 2002 to 2006. The article recreates the outstanding of this concern in Colombia, offers reinterpretations to the speech built and poses some bases to analyze the child maltreatm...

  4. International child health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Alexandra Y; Høgh, Birthe

    2007-01-01

    diseases and neonatal complications, over half associated with malnutrition. Conditions we could prevent and treat. One of UN's Millennium Development Goals is to reduce child mortality. However child health is more than mortality and morbidity indicators, it includes growth and development. Udgivelsesdato......International child health has improved. Better healthcare strategies, like IMCI, have contributed implementing basic interventions: vaccinations, nutrition supplement, oral rehydration and antibiotics. But 11 million children still die every year before they turn five, most from infectious...

  5. Child labor handbook

    OpenAIRE

    Cigno, Alessandro; Rosati, Furio C.; Tzannatos, Zafiris

    2002-01-01

    This paper surveys many aspects and issues of child labor, including its causes and effects as well as policies associated with it. Child labor has come to be considered an expression of poverty, both a cause and an effect of underdevelopment. Child labor cannot be viewed in isolation from educational, health, fertility, and technological issues; and is not necessarily an aberration but a rational household response to an adverse economic environment. With this in mind, the following proposit...

  6. Towards understanding child abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Inés Carreño

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This research is a contribution to the understanding of childhood andthe child maltreatment within the framework of the state of the art of the knowledge produced in the experiences of research / intervention carried out under the Specialization Program on Child Maltreatment Prevention of Javeriana University, between 2002 to 2006. The article recreates the outstanding of this concern in Colombia, offers reinterpretations to the speech built and poses some bases to analyze the child maltreatment from the perspective of the adult-child relationships.

  7. Child health in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niclasen, Birgit V L; Bjerregaard, Peter

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To review the knowledge on child health and child health problems in Greenland. METHOD: The review was based on theses, national statistics, national and international reports, and a search in Pub Med, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and WHOLIB databases from 1985 to 2005. The resulting articles...... importance to the health of children in Greenland. More accurate data on child health are necessary in the future to secure better prioritization. It is suggested to construct a set of reliable indicators of child health in Greenland to monitor the health of children on a national and regional basis....

  8. Is Child Labor Inefficient?

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Marie Baland; Robinson, James A.

    2000-01-01

    We build a model of child labor and study its implications for welfare. We assume that there is a trade-off between child labor and the accumulation of human capital. Even if parents are altruistic and child labor is socially inefficient, it may arise in equilibrium because parents fail to fully internalize its negative effects. This occurs when bequests are zero or when capital markets are imperfect. We also study the effects of a simple ban on child labor and derive conditions under which i...

  9. The Effect of Child Care Characteristics on Child Development

    OpenAIRE

    Blau, David M.

    1999-01-01

    The effect of group size, staff-child ratio, training, and other characteristics of child care on child development is estimated using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. In contrast to most previous research, the sample is large and nationally representative, the data contain good measures of the home environment, and there are repeated measures of child development. Child care characteristics have little association with child development on average. Associations are found ...

  10. Do market wages influence child labor and child schooling?

    OpenAIRE

    Wahba, Jackline

    2000-01-01

    Thispaper provides empirical evidence on the joint determinants of child labor, and child schooling, using individual level data from Egypt. The main findings are as follows: 1) A ten percent increase in the illiterate male market wage decreases the probability of child labor by 21.5 percent for boys, and 13.1 percent for girls. 2) Higher local regional income inequality increases the likelihood of child labor. 3) Parents who were child laborers themselves, are more likely to send their child...

  11. Child maintenance and child poverty: A comparative analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Hakovirta, Mia

    2010-01-01

    This article uses the Luxembourg Income Study datasets from circa 2004 to analyse the contribution child maintenance makes to the reduction of child poverty. The countries compared are Canada, UK, USA, Germany, Norway, Denmark, Sweden and Finland representing countries with different child maintenance schemes. Results show that the contribution that child maintenance makes in reducing overall child poverty is minimal but it can reduce child poverty among non-widowed lone mother families if ma...

  12. Child neglect and psychological abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or neglect, call 911. Call the Childhelp National Child Abuse Hotline (1-800-4-A-CHILD). Know that ... can/identifying/. Accessed November 21, 2014. Read More Child abuse - physical Update Date 11/20/2014 Updated by: ...

  13. The Economics of Child Trafficking

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvain Dessy; Stéphane Pallage

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we highlight the economic effects of the existence of child trafficking. We show that the risk of child trafficking on the labor market acts as a deterrent to supply child labor, unless household survival is at stake. An imperfectly enforceable legislation aiming at fighting child trafficking, by raising the expected gains parents derive from sending their children to work, will cause a rise in the number of child laborers. We show that it can even cause the incidence of child ...

  14. Child Poverty & Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafel, Judith A., Ed.

    This collection documents how far we still are in the United States from putting our knowledge about child well being and policy into practice. It provides an overview of the changing nature of child poverty in the United States through the contributions of authors who use a number of qualitative and quantitative approaches to look at children in…

  15. Your Child's Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Your Child's Vision KidsHealth > For Parents > Your Child's Vision Print A A A Text Size What's in ... La vista de su hijo Healthy eyes and vision are a critical part of kids' development. Their ...

  16. Media and child development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Piotrowski; H.G.M. Vossen; P.M. Valkenburg

    2015-01-01

    Decades of research have shown that the relationship between media and childhood is not unidirectional but reciprocal. In this article, both directions of the media-child development relationship are presented. We discuss how child development predisposes children's media use and preferences by revi

  17. Child Transportation Safety Tips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This document presents nine tips regarding safe infant and child transportation, each tip explained in one to two pages. The tips are as follows: (1) quick safety seat checkup; (2) where should your child ride? (3) how to protect your new baby in the car; (4) what safety seat to use for a big baby or toddler? (5) how should preschool and school…

  18. Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... example, by a friend, neighbor, child care person, teacher, or stranger. When sexual abuse has occurred, a child can develop many distressing ... t tell children to 'always do everything the teacher or baby-sitter tells you to ... of guilt about the abuse, and begin the process of overcoming the trauma. ...

  19. Choosing Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a parent, you want to ensure that your child is safe and happy in a childcare environment that is fun, educational, and nurturing. Here are ... person or program? Do you believe that your child will be happy and have the ... in this environment? If none of the caregivers or childcare centers ...

  20. Introduction: Understanding Child Labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miljeteig, Per

    1999-01-01

    Explores contributions from the Urban Childhood Conference for the purpose of developing the child-labor discourse further and indicating the implications of the new understandings for further research and policy development. Highlights the nine articles in this issue, which address child labor at the international level, children's viewpoints,…

  1. Child Care at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    CERN, Child Care Initiative

    2008-01-01

    This is a document summarizing a survey of child care needs of CERN staff and users which was performed in February 2008 by the CERN Child Care Initiative. The document presents the analysis of this data. Conclusions on the minimal facilities size are derived and possible funding source at the European Union are discussed.

  2. Weaning Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... baby and makes it possible to leave your child with a caregiver. It's important to remember that infants over 6 months should have solid foods as well as breast milk. After 1 year, breast milk alone does not provide all the nutrients a growing child needs; solid foods must become a regular part ...

  3. Ileostomy and your child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Now your child has an opening called a stoma in their belly. Waste will pass through the stoma into a pouch that collects it. You and ... child will need to take care of the stoma and empty the pouch many times a day. ...

  4. Healthy Weight, Healthy Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Reducing Childhood Obesity Healthy Weight, Healthy Child Past Issues / Spring - Summer 2010 Table of Contents ... Summer_flyer_508.pdf Read More "Reducing Childhood Obesity" Articles Healthy Weight, Healthy Child / Get Involved How Parents and Kids Can Get ...

  5. Child Wellness and Happiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettew, David C.

    2009-01-01

    Wellness and happiness should be considered in the clinical treatment of child and adolescent psychiatry, in addition with thinking about illness. Meanwhile, various studies on child and adolescent psychiatry,which includes an article from the "Journal of Happiness Studies," are discussed.

  6. Child Schooling and Child Work in India

    OpenAIRE

    Malathy Duraisamy

    2000-01-01

    In India, about 62 percent of the children in the age group of 5-14 are currently enrolled in schools, and 4 percent of children are reported to be working. The remaining 34 percent of children in this age group are neither enrolled in school nor reported as participating in work. The twin problems of child schooling and child work in India have not been adequately addressed in the literature. Another important dimension to this problem is the gender disparity in school enrollment. Available ...

  7. The battered child syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recognition of a battered child represents a challenge for all groups of adults dealing with children. Radiology plays a special role in this setting. By detection typical injuries, imaging is able to confirm the suspicion of a battered child. Recognition of those injuries on films, taken for other reasons, gives the caretaker an important hint, thus maybe preventing a fatal outcome for the child. One of the most important injury types is represented by the so called ''shakin baby syndrome''. The infant is held by the thorax and shaken. Thus causing a repetitive acceleration-deceleration trauma, which leads to the typical paravertebral rib fractures, intracranial bleeding and eye injuries. After shaking the child is thrown away, with subsequent injuries. The aim of this article is the presentation of an overview regarding the radiology of the battered child. Typical examples will be shown. (orig.)

  8. Child labor, schooling, and child ability

    OpenAIRE

    Akresh, Richard; Bagby, Emilie; de Walque, Damien; Kazianga, Harounan

    2012-01-01

    Using data collected in rural Burkina Faso, this paper examines how children's cognitive abilities influence households' decisions to invest in their education. To address the endogeneity of child ability measures, the analysis uses rainfall shocks experienced in utero or early childhood to instrument for ability. Negative shocks in utero lead to 0.24 standard deviations lower ability z-sc...

  9. Child Abuse in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse is harm to, or neglect of, a child by another person, whether adult or child. Child abuse happens in all cultural, ethnic, and income groups. Child abuse can be physical, emotional - verbal, sexual or through neglect. Abuse may cause serious injury to the child and may even result in death. A problem that is only beginning to come into light in India rape, sexual abuse, and sexual harassment are worldwide issues of gender violence. There is very little research done in this area in India and only a few books have been written, keeping the subject even further from the consciousness of the country. However, the problem persists with staggering incidence, and Indians unique profile adds to the complexity of an already difficult subject. Fortunately, the issue of child sexual abuse is slowly becoming a more recognized issue, and for this reason, this paper will focus much on sexual abuse against minor children: the laws, victims, and perpetrators. Finally, an analysis of the aspects of Indian culture that make this issue particularly difficult to understand and cope with will be presented.

  10. Child maltreatment in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singhi, Pratibha; Saini, Arushi Gahlot; Malhi, Prabhjot

    2013-11-01

    Child maltreatment is a global problem but is more difficult to assess and manage in developing countries such as India where one-fifth of the world's total child population resides. Certain forms of maltreatment such as feticide, infanticide, abandonment, child labour, street-begging, corporal punishment and battered babies are particularly prevalent in India. Most physicians still need to be sensitized in order to suspect child abuse on the basis of unexplained trauma, multiple fractures, parental conflict and other corroborative evidence. This article summarizes the various aspects of this major problem in resource-poor settings in the hope that it will assist in the planning of services addressing child physical and sexual abuse and neglect in India and in other developing countries. A culture of non-violence towards children needs to be built into communities in order to provide an environment conducive to the overall development of the child. Rehabilitation of abused children and their families requires a multi-disciplinary service including paediatricians, child psychologists and social workers, and the training of police forces in how to tackle the problem. PMID:24070123

  11. Father-Child Play Behaviors and Child Emotion Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Hagman, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    This study uses the father-child activation theory, which identifies the father-child relationship as a source for self-regulation learning. Father-child play behaviors during toddlerhood were examined for their contribution to self-regulation skills, specifically emotion regulation and aggression. This study examined father-child play behaviors of emotion amplification, intrusiveness, positive regard, and child emotion regulation seeking in the National Early Head Start (EHS) Evaluation. Fat...

  12. Child income poverty and child deprivation: an essay on measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Amelia Bastos; Graca Leao Fernandes,; Jose Passos

    2004-01-01

    This paper is a study on child poverty from two perspectives: child income poverty (derived from family income) and child deprivation (evaluated by non-monetary indicators). On the one hand, empirical evidence supports the thesis that income-based poverty measures and deprivation measures do not overlap. On the other hand, the relationship between poverty and the child's living conditions is not linear. Uses micro-econometric techniques to analyse child income poverty and present deprivation ...

  13. Your Child's Cough

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and when to go to the doctor. "Barky" Cough Barky coughs are usually caused by a swelling ... happens when the child inhales (breathes in). Whooping Cough Whooping cough is another name for pertussis, an ...

  14. Concussion - child - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... avoid activities that need concentration, such as reading, homework, and complex tasks. When you go home from the emergency room, it is okay for your child to sleep: For the first 12 hours, you may want ...

  15. Surviving Your Child's Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of your child that will never be answered. Depression Lack of energy, sleep problems, inability to concentrate, ... a zip code. Search Connect with us on Facebook Find Support Video Online Support Community Connect, share ...

  16. Child Behavior Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... misbehave some times. And some may have temporary behavior problems due to stress. For example, the birth ... family may cause a child to act out. Behavior disorders are more serious. They involve a pattern ...

  17. Child Dental Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a dentist or doctor suggests it. Provide healthy foods and limit sweet snacks and drinks Schedule regular dental check-ups Forming good habits at a young age can help your child have healthy teeth ...

  18. Iron and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Iron and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Iron and ... enough iron in their daily diets. How Much Iron Do Kids Need? Kids require different amounts of ...

  19. CDC Child Growth Charts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — CDC child growth charts consist of a series of percentile curves that illustrate the distribution of selected body measurements in U.S. children. Pediatric growth...

  20. Helping Your Overweight Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are high in calories, sugar, and salt like sugary drinks, chips, cookies, fries, and candy refined grains (white ... make smoothies. Buy fewer high-calorie foods like sugary drinks, chips, cookies, fries, and candy. Offer your child ...

  1. The Facially Disfigured Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncada, Georgia A.

    1987-01-01

    The article reviews diagnosis and treatments for facially disfigured children including craniofacial reconstruction and microsurgical techniques. Noted are associated disease processes that affect the social and intellectual outcomes of the afflicted child. (Author/DB)

  2. Understanding Child Traumatic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Public Awareness Sustainability Policy Issues Understanding Child Traumatic Stress Page Contents: Responding to Danger When Danger Turns ... malevolence, and human accountability. Back to Top Posttraumatic Stress Responses For reasons that are basic to survival, ...

  3. Your Child's Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ll need an accurate height and weight measurement. Bathroom scales and tape measures aren't always precise. ... child's health, level of physical activity, and eating habits, as well as your family medical history. The ...

  4. Normal Child Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Action Medical Editor & Editorial Advisory Board Sponsors Sponsorship Opporunities Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a ... is "normal" depends upon the child's level of development, which can vary greatly among children of the ...

  5. Child with NF1

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can lead some ado- lescents to feelings of depression, anxiety and social isolation. Counseling and assisting the child in finding a social network can help significantly. In addition to promoting local ...

  6. Child Marriage in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Saalfeldt, Rie

    2014-01-01

    Child marriage is a major health and security concern that still prevails in Bangladesh. The paper attempts to investigate and tries to understand the societal and cultural context of the problem. By applying Mary Douglas’ Socio-Cultural Viability theory and her parsimonious model onto the issue of child marriage in Bangladesh the four major opposing cultural camps are pointed out (Plan Bangladesh, Bangladesh government, the garment factory owners, and the individual Bangladeshi citizen). The...

  7. Microfinance and child labour

    OpenAIRE

    Blume, Jonas; Breyer, Julika

    2011-01-01

    Aims to assess the role of microfinance as an instrument in combating child labour. Reviews the economic literature drawing on empirical evidence of the impact of microfinance on poverty, income stability, overall household wellbeing and the demand for child labour taking a comprehensive perspective on microfinance which includes loans for consumption, savings, insurance, financial services for improving the access to education, and awareness raising. Examines the direct experience of microfi...

  8. Child sex rings.

    OpenAIRE

    Wild, N J; Wynne, J M

    1986-01-01

    Details of 11 child sex rings identified in one working class community were obtained by interviewing investigating police officers and examining health and social services records. The rings contained 14 adult male perpetrators and 175 children aged 6-15 years. Most perpetrators used child ringleaders to recruit victims; others became a "family friend" or obtained a position of authority over children. Secrecy was encouraged and bribery, threats, and peer pressure used to induce participatio...

  9. ''Battered child'' syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synonyms for the 'battered child' syndrome (BCS) are terms describing the physical and body aspects of the process, such as 'child abuse', or 'non-accidental injury'. These are to be distinguished from the psychic aspects and abuse, emotional and bodily neglect, and sexual abuse. Most cases are one or another combination of these aspects. Radiology is the essential method for giving proof of such abuses, identifying the signs of maltreatment in a medical record, or for disproving suspected abuse. (orig./AJ)

  10. Music in child care

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Polikandrioti; Ioannis Koutelekos

    2007-01-01

    Music has been used therapeutically for many centuries, and numerous studies have researched the curative and preventative powers of music in several diseases. Music, as a therapy was shown to have positive effects in child care, such as in premature infants, children in emergency care, children receiving surgery, children in oncology departments and handicapped children. The aim of this review was to study the therapeutic effects of music in child care at hospital. The method οf this study i...

  11. Child nutrition: Peru

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malnutrition stunts physical growth and/or limits mental development in one child out of three in developing countries and is a factor in one-third of the 13 million child deaths which occur annually in developing countries. The Department of Technical Co-operation is sponsoring a programme, with technical support from the Human Health Division, to evaluate the effectiveness of a Government food supplement intervention to combat malnutrition in Peru. (IAEA)

  12. Music in child care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Polikandrioti

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Music has been used therapeutically for many centuries, and numerous studies have researched the curative and preventative powers of music in several diseases. Music, as a therapy was shown to have positive effects in child care, such as in premature infants, children in emergency care, children receiving surgery, children in oncology departments and handicapped children. The aim of this review was to study the therapeutic effects of music in child care at hospital. The method οf this study included bibliography research from both the review and the research internatio nal literature, which was referred to the therapeutic effects of music in Children's Hospital. Results: Most studies focus on the beneficial effects of music to child. The results of the study showed that music is widely used to enhance well‐being and appears to exert direct effects to child, which are mainly related to physiology and psychology, including changes in the vital signs, reductions in anxiety and pain, distraction of attention from unpleasant sensations and better communication with the environment at hospital. Furthermore, music exerts indirect effects to child since is able to cause positive modifications in nurses' behaviour and conduces to better performance in their duties. Conclusions: Music consists a low-cost "therapeutic instrument" for nurses to apply to child-patient and is found to be effective in producing positive outcomes. The nurses' knowledge of music therapy need to be improved and the therapeutic impact of music must be a result from systematic professional application.

  13. CPR - child (1 to 8 years old)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breathing and chest compressions - child; Resuscitation - cardiopulmonary - child; Cardiopulmonary resuscitation - child ... CPR is best done by someone trained in an accredited CPR course. The newest techniques emphasize compression ...

  14. Child life services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Child life programs are an important component of pediatric hospital-based care to address the psychosocial concerns that accompany hospitalization and other health care experiences. Child life specialists focus on the optimal development and well-being of infants, children, adolescents, and young adults while promoting coping skills and minimizing the adverse effects of hospitalization, health care, and/or other potentially stressful experiences. Using therapeutic play, expressive modalities, and psychological preparation as primary tools, in collaboration with the entire health care team and family, child life interventions facilitate coping and adjustment at times and under circumstances that might otherwise prove overwhelming for the child. Play and developmentally appropriate communication are used to: (1) promote optimal development; (2) educate children and families about health conditions; (3) prepare children and families for medical events or procedures; (4) plan and rehearse useful coping and pain management strategies; (5) help children work through feelings about past or impending experiences; and (6) establish therapeutic relationships with patients, siblings, and parents to support family involvement in each child's care. PMID:24777212

  15. Child Social Exclusion Risk and Child Health Outcomes in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohanty, Itismita; Edvardsson, Martin; Abello, Annie; Eldridge, Deanna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction This paper studies the relationship between the risk of child social exclusion, as measured by the Child Social Exclusion (CSE) index and its individual domains, and child health outcomes at the small area level in Australia. The CSE index is Australia’s only national small-area index of the risk of child social exclusion. It includes five domains that capture different components of social exclusion: socio-economic background, education, connectedness, housing and health service...

  16. [Managing an autistic child].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet-Brilhault, Frédérique

    2010-03-20

    General practitioners and pediatricians are on the front line to detect atypical developmental trajectories in children, They have to inform parents and to guide them toward specialized centers where further multidisciplinary evaluation will be conducted. It is admitted that early intervention is a factor of better prognosis in autism. To help starting early intervention, general practitioners may first indicate sensorymotor or language and communication evaluations. A specific project will then be defined for each child according to the results of the multidisciplinary evaluation. Each individualized project will be based on different behavioral and developpemental interventions, speech therapy, sensorymotor therapy, and psychotherapy. General practitioners and pediatricians will keep up following the child evolution as part of the child care team with parents and specialized centers. PMID:20402134

  17. Death of a Special Needs Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... iGive.com Purchase Through AmazonSmile Contact Us Donate Death of a Special Needs Child When a child ... Needs Child Dies The grief that follows the death of a special-needs child comes not only ...

  18. Marital Problems and the Exceptional Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araoz, Daniel

    1977-01-01

    The exceptional child, because he/she does not fulfill the parental expectations of a child's behavior, becomes a disturbing child and frequently is labeled as disturbed. The case of one such child is presented and conclusions are drawn. (Author)

  19. Anesthesia - what to ask your doctor - child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... my child is having? General anesthesia Spinal or epidural anesthesia Conscious sedation When does my child need to ... upset stomach? If my child had spinal or epidural anesthesia, will my child have a headache afterwards? What ...

  20. Mother-Child Agreement on the Child's Past Food Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongudomporn, Udom; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Geater, Alan F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess mother-child agreement on the child's past food exposure, and factors affecting response discrepancy. Methods: Twelve- to 14-year-old children and their mothers (n = 78) in an urban community, a rural community, and 2 orthodontic clinics completed a 69-item food questionnaire to determine mother-child level of agreement on the…

  1. Child Care Subsidy Use and Child Development: Potential Causal Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkinson, Laura E.

    2011-01-01

    Research using an experimental design is needed to provide firm causal evidence on the impacts of child care subsidy use on child development, and on underlying causal mechanisms since subsidies can affect child development only indirectly via changes they cause in children's early experiences. However, before costly experimental research is…

  2. Reporting Child Abuse: Rights and Responsibilities for Child Care Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Care Law Center, San Francisco, CA.

    This booklet provides answers to 12 questions about the rights and responsibilities of child care providers in California concerning the issue of child abuse. The questions are (1) Who is a "Child Care Custodian?" (2) How do I decide whether or not to report? (3) How do I recognize 'abuse' and 'neglect'? (4) How and when should I tell the parent…

  3. The Role of Child Care Providers in Child Abuse Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibel, Nancy L.; Gillespie, Linda G.; Temple, Tabitha

    2008-01-01

    Child care providers are likely to be the professionals who most frequently interact with families with young children. Thus, infant and toddler child care providers are uniquely positioned to recognize and respond to families' needs for information and support. This article describes knowledge, skills, and strategies that support child care…

  4. Kindergarten Child Care Experiences and Child Achievement and Socioemotional Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claessens, Amy

    2012-01-01

    Young children's experiences outside of both home and school are important for their development. As women have entered the labor force, child care has become an increasingly important context for child development. Child care experiences prior to school entry have been well-documented as important influences on children's academic and…

  5. Child Labor: A Forgotten Focus for Child Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otis, Jack; Pasztor, Eileen Mayers; McFadden, Emily Jean

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the worldwide problem of child labor and efforts to advocate for the welfare of these impoverished children. Considers factors that contribute to the continued use of child labor and the resistance of these labor practices to reform. Discusses child labor in the United States, and urges public advocacy for labor reform within child…

  6. Is child work necessary?

    OpenAIRE

    Bhalotra, Sonia

    2000-01-01

    This paper investigates whether the income from child wage work is necessary to the survival of rural households in Pakistan. It is by no means obvious that it is. For instance, children may work because the returns to work exceed the returns to school, or because parents are selfish or short-sighted. It is argued here that, if child work is necessary, then the income effect of a wage change will dominate the substitution effect and the labour supply curve will be "forward falling" or negativ...

  7. The visually impaired child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Lisa; Kaufman, Lawrence M

    2003-02-01

    This article discusses the causes of childhood blindness and how the primary care provider may begin the appropriate steps toward diagnosing and managing the visually impaired child. Community resources (see Box 3) and low-vision programs in schools should be used so that parents do not need to reinvent strategies to raise a blind child. Worldwide, childhood blindness, which places is a tremendous burden on families and communities of the third world, is mostly preventable with improved hygiene, diet, and immunization. PMID:12713115

  8. Child Abuse: The Hidden Bruises

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... AACAP Facts for Families Guide Skip breadcrumb navigation Child Abuse - The Hidden Bruises Quick Links Facts For Families ... 5; Updated November 2014 The statistics on physical child abuse are alarming. It is estimated hundreds of thousands ...

  9. When Your Child Has Tinnitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an ENT Doctor Near You When Your Child Has Tinnitus When Your Child Has Tinnitus Patient Health Information News media interested in ... be continuous or sporadic. This often debilitating condition has been linked to ear injuries, circulatory system problems, ...

  10. Teaching Your Child about Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Asthma Library ▸ Teaching your child about asthma Share | Teaching Your Child About Asthma This article has been ... understand? Keep It Simple for Young Children Use language that is appropriate for your child’s age to ...

  11. Child Labor in America's History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Harold

    1976-01-01

    A brief history of child labor and the fight for legislation to control it at both the state and federal level. The current legal status and the continued existence of child labor in modern times are also discussed. (MS)

  12. Does child abuse cause crime?

    OpenAIRE

    Currie, Janet; Tekin, Erdal

    2006-01-01

    Child maltreatment, which includes both child abuse and child neglect, is a major social problem. This paper focuses on measuring the effects of child maltreatment on crime using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). We focus on crime because it is one of the most socially costly potential outcomes of maltreatment, and because the proposed mechanisms linking maltreatment and crime are relatively well elucidated in the literature. Our work addresses many ...

  13. Skin manifestations of child abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Ermertcan Aylin; Ertan Pelin

    2010-01-01

    Child abuse is a major public health problem all over the world. There are four major types of abuse: physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse and neglect. The most common manifestations of child abuse are cutaneous and their recognition; and differential diagnosis is of great importance. Clinicians, especially dermatologists, should be alert about the skin lesions of child abuse. In the diagnosis and management of child abuse, a multidisciplinary approach with ethical and legal procedur...

  14. Death of an Adult Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... iGive.com Purchase Through AmazonSmile Contact Us Donate Death of an Adult Child The death of any child, regardless of cause or age, ... the situations that may have caused their child’s death. Judgmental statements from others indicating that the child ...

  15. Child Care as Welfare Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Working for Change, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Part of a series from the Child Care Law Center, this issue of "Working for Change" discusses the need for quality, affordable child care as a support for working parents trying to break out of welfare dependency. This report details the current realities of poor parents who struggle to find and pay for child care while they work and those who…

  16. The Economics of Child Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blau, David M., Ed.

    Economic issues are an important part of the debate over child care policy. This volume presents findings from economic analyses of research on child care issues surrounding recent policy decisions and scholarly debates. The book's introduction discusses four main issues; government involvement in child care policies, its effect on quality of…

  17. Social Structure and Child Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferriss, Abbott L.

    2006-01-01

    Child poverty, as a critical indicator of the QOL, is intricately related to the social structure of the community. This hypothesis is explored for the 159 counties of Georgia for the year 2000. The influence of demographic, economic, family and health factors upon child poverty are explored through models of total, black and white child poverty.…

  18. Child Care and the Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karolak, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Unemployment has topped 7% nationally and economists predict it will approach 10% by 2010. Child care programs experience a trickle-down effect: when businesses cut back hours or lay people off, parents cut back child care hours or pull children from programs. "We're seeing more and more families lose their child care assistance and have nowhere…

  19. Cash transfers and child labor

    OpenAIRE

    de Hoop, Jacobus; Rosati, Furio C.

    2014-01-01

    Cash transfer programs are widely used in settings where child labor is prevalent. Although many of these programs are explicitly implemented to improve children's welfare, in theory their impact on child labor is undetermined. This paper systematically reviews the empirical evidence on the impact of cash transfers, conditional and unconditional, on child labor. The authors find no evidenc...

  20. CURRICULUM GUIDE, CHILD CARE CENTERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    CALIFORNIA CHILD CARE CENTERS WERE ESTABLISHED IN 1943 TO SUPPLY SERVICES TO CHILDREN OF WORKING MOTHERS. THE CHILD CARE PROGRAM PROVIDES, WITHIN NURSERY AND SCHOOLAGE CENTERS, CARE AND EDUCATIONAL SUPERVISION FOR PRESCHOOL AND ELEMENTARY SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN. THE PHILOSOPHY OF THE CHILD CENTER PROGRAM IS BASED UPON THE BELIEF THAT EACH CHILD…

  1. Employment-Related Child Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galpern, Lois; Hills, Tynette W.

    The two major sections of this report discuss issues in employer-sponsored child care, specifically describing four child-care service alternatives. Issues emphasized in the discussion include the advantages of employment-related child care, financial considerations, and implications of various forms of sponsorship. Additional issues discussed are…

  2. Cash Transfers and Child Labor

    OpenAIRE

    de Hoop, Jacobus; Rosati, Furio C.

    2014-01-01

    Cash transfer programs are widely used in settings where child labor is prevalent. Although many of these programs are explicitly implemented to improve children's welfare, in theory their impact on child labor is undetermined. This paper systematically reviews the empirical evidence on the impact of cash transfers, conditional and unconditional, on child labor. The authors find no evidenc...

  3. Family Interactions and Child Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donenberg, Geri R.; Nelson, Dana

    Previous research has not correlated parent-child interaction patterns with different forms of child psychopathology. This study examined whether parent-child interaction corresponded with childhood depression/anxiety and childhood aggression. Forty-two clinically-referred children and adolescents, 8 to 16 years old, were classified into four…

  4. Poverty Alleviation and Child Labor

    OpenAIRE

    Eric V. Edmonds; Schady, Norbert

    2009-01-01

    Does child labor decrease as household income rises? This question has important implications for the design of policy on child labor. This paper focuses on a program of unconditional cash transfers in Ecuador. It argues that the effect of a small increase in household income on child labor should be concentrated among children most vulnerable to transitioning from schooling to work. The p...

  5. The Child Whisperer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Dane L.

    2012-01-01

    Unquestionably, Maria Montessori's insights into child development were both innate and learned, derived from her many years of working with children. Her work, practices, philosophy, and passion have staying power that, so far, spans a century and are a testament to her dedication and abilities. In this article, the author explains why he sees…

  6. Child Nutrition Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘志强

    2005-01-01

    The Child Nutrition Program invites all students to participate in the school breakfast and lunch program at school. Our goal is to improve the health and education of students by providing nutritious meals that promote food choices for a healthy diet. Failure to eat balanced meals increases the risk of illness including obesity ,

  7. Child Computer Interaction SIG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Read, Janet; Hourcade, Juan Pablo; Markopoulos, Panos;

    The discipline of Child Computer Interaction (CCI) has been steadily growing and it is now firmly established as a community in its own right, having the annual IDC (Interaction and Design for Children) conference and its own journal and also enjoying its role as a highly recognisable and vibrant...

  8. Child Care Aware

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a stream of our activity across multiple social networks by visiting the Child Care Aware® of America Social Dashboard. Visit Our Social Dashboard Follow and Engage Copyright 2015 CCAoA. All Rights Reserved. Careers Privacy Policy Site Terms Newsroom Contact Us Pin It on ...

  9. Internet and child pornography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda Çağlar

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, internet use and access is becoming increasingly common as a great entertainment, communication and educational resource for children as well as for adults. Internet is a perfect environment for children, for exploring the world, learning and having fun. However, access to illegal sites that contain violence and sexuality, and contact dangerous people are among the particular risks for children using the internet. It is a known fact that, internet and developing technology make the production and distribution of child pornography cheaper and easier. There has been consensus on the need of creating a plan and increasing the awareness in the community for the fight against child pornography. Because of the increasing internet use and the risk for children mentioned, nurses got new responsibilities. Nurses have to inform society, especially families and children, about safe internet use. In this review, legal regulations about the fight against child pornography on the internet, the reasons that lay the ground for child pornography and their negative effects on children has been addressed.

  10. Child Labor: Global Offensive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutcliffe, Peter; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Includes "An Evil Unbearable to the Human Heart" (Sutcliffe); "Fighting Indifference and Inaction" (Fromont); "Concerted International Action for Children"; "New Shelter for Street Kids of Ankara" (Fromont); "IPEC's International Program for Elimination of Child Labor Challenge to Brazilian Society" (de Barros, Milhomen); and "India: Hope for a…

  11. Death of a child.

    OpenAIRE

    Goertzen, J

    1993-01-01

    The death of a small child from a terminal illness is an uncommon but influential event in a family physician's career. Through dialogue with colleagues and friends, self-reflection, and acknowledgment of some of the difficulties, this experience can stimulate personal growth.

  12. Child Care Centres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Dept. of Labour and National Service, Melbourne. Women's Bureau.

    Based on a survey of legislation relating to full-day care for preschool children of working mothers and a study of records, this report: (1) covers the number of registered child care centers in Australia and the number of children being served, (2) sets the conditions applying to registration of centers, (3) indicates the extent and levels of…

  13. The Multiply Handicapped Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, James M., Ed.; Anderson, Robert M., Ed.

    Articles presented in the area of the medical and educational challenge of the multiply handicapped child are an overview of the problem, the increasing challenge, congenital malformations, children whose mothers had rubella, prematurity and deafness, the epidemiology of reproductive casualty, and new education for old problems. Discussions of…

  14. Preventing Child Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvy, Kerby T.

    1975-01-01

    Focuses on two major and general approaches to analyzing the problems of child abuse; briefly discusses the prevention implications; deals with the individual physical abuse of children, with particular emphasis on the relationship between theoretical formulations of the causes of individual physical abuse and preventative programs; and, finally,…

  15. Global Threats to Child Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mace, Sharon E

    2016-02-01

    Children have rights, as enumerated in the Declaration of the Rights of the Child, and need protection from violence, exploitation, and abuse. Global threats to child safety exist. These threats include lack of basic needs (food, clean water, sanitation), maltreatment, abandonment, child labor, child marriage, female genital mutilation, child trafficking, disasters, and armed conflicts/wars. Recent disasters and armed conflicts have led to a record number of displaced people especially children and their families. Strategies and specific programs can be developed and implemented for eliminating threats to the safety of children. PMID:26613687

  16. Family environment and child development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Kavčič

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an overview of research findings on influence of family environment, especially parental behaviour, on child's development. Contemporary authors question early socialization researchers' claims that family characteristics and parental behaviour have important influence on behaviour of their children. Later researchers examined the size and durability of possible effects of family environment on child development. In addition, they focused on establishing whether it is actually the parental behaviour that influences child's development or, on the contrary, parental behaviour represents mainly a reaction to child's characteristics. Behaviour genetic studies have provided evidence that many traditional measures of family environment, including measures of parental behaviour, show genetic influence, thus reflecting genetically influenced child characteristics. Behaviour geneticists also suggest that environmental influences on child (personality development include predominantly non-shared environment, i.e. individual child's specific experiences, his/her own perceptions and interpretations of objectively same events. Based on empirically determined significant genetic effects on most behavioural traits and inconclusive results of studies on effects of family environment on child development some authors believe that it is not the parents, but rather genetic factor and/or peers who have the key role in child development. With respect to findings of behaviour genetics numerous recent studies of relations between family environment and child development involve child specific measures of (extrafamilial environment and examine the interactions between characteristics of an individual and those of his/her environment.

  17. Immigrant Child Poverty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galloway, Taryn Ann; Gustafsson, Björn; Pedersen, Peder J.;

    2015-01-01

    Immigrant and native child poverty in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden 1993–2001 is studied using large sets of panel data. While native children face yearly poverty risks of less than 10 percent in all three countries and for all years studied the increasing proportion of immigrant children...... with an origin in middle- and low-income countries have poverty risks that vary from 38 up to as much as 58 percent. At the end of the observation period, one third of the poor children in Norway and as high as about a half in Denmark and in Sweden are of immigrant origin. The strong overrepresentation...... of immigrant children from low- and middle-income countries when measured in yearly data is also found when applying a longer accounting period for poverty measurement. We find that child poverty rates are generally high shortly after arrival to the new country and typically decrease with years since...

  18. CHILD LABOR DISGRACE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Shanxi Province child labor scandal has shocked China to its core. Over 1,000 children were forced into illegal labor by morally bankrupt brick kiln businesses, throwing a depressing shroud over China’s rapid development. Uncovering these tales of abduction, death and the physical and mental abuse endured by these children has been a proud moment for China’s press. Several hundred of the kiln slave children have now been reunited with their families. Kiln owners, contractors and accomplices are being brought to justice or hunted down, some even charged with murder.However, in all this gloom some good has surfaced.Public and government attention is now focused on erasing child labor once and for all and for better protecting workers’ rights, hopefully ridding China of such disgraces in the future.

  19. A Theory of Exploitative Child Labor

    OpenAIRE

    Carol Ann Rogers; Kenneth A. Swinnerton

    2005-01-01

    Child labor laws should aim to protect children who work, instead of trying to remove children from work. In this paper, we identify an instance when the risk of exploitation lowers the expected bene…t of child labor to the child,and therefore suppresses child labor force participation. Targeted legal intervention that lowers or removes the risk of exploitation raises child participation in the labor market, child welfare, and overall societal welfare. Targeting on child labor more broadly ma...

  20. Decomposing child poverty reduction.

    OpenAIRE

    Bradshaw, J.; M Huby

    2014-01-01

    European countries vary in the extent to which they succeed in reducing poverty using social transfers. However, we do not have good ways of understanding how these different outcomes are achieved. It is therefore very difficult to learn lessons from abroad. This paper uses micro data from the EU Statistics on Income and Living Condition (SILC), and attempts to decompose reductions in child poverty rates and gaps into the contribution made by children, old age, social exclusion, housing and w...

  1. Child Care Subsidy Programs

    OpenAIRE

    David Blau

    2000-01-01

    Child care and early education subsidies are an important part of government efforts to increase economic independence and improve development of children in low-income families in the United States. This chapter describes the main subsidy programs in the U.S., discusses economic issues that arise in designing such programs and evaluating their effects, and surveys evidence on the effects of the programs. An important theme of the chapter is the tradeoff between the policy goals of increasing...

  2. Cohabitation and Child Wellbeing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Wendy D

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, writes Wendy Manning, cohabitation has become a central part of the family landscape in the United States-so much so that by age 12, 40 percent of American children will have spent at least part of their lives in a cohabiting household. Although many children are born to cohabiting parents, and cohabiting families come in other forms as well, the most common cohabiting arrangement is a biological mother and a male partner. Cohabitation, Manning notes, is associated with several factors that have the potential to reduce children's wellbeing. Cohabiting families are more likely than married families to be poor, and poverty harms children in many ways. Cohabiting parents also tend to have less formal education-a key indicator of both economic and social resources-than married parents do. And cohabiting parent families don't have the same legal protections that married parent families have. Most importantly, cohabitation is often a marker of family instability, and family instability is strongly associated with poorer outcomes for children. Children born to cohabiting parents see their parents break up more often than do children born to married parents. In this way, being born into a cohabiting family sets the stage for later instability, and children who are born to cohabiting parents appear to experience enduring deficits of psychosocial wellbeing. On the other hand, stable cohabiting families with two biological parents seem to offer many of the same health, cognitive, and behavioral benefits that stable married biological parent families provide. Turning to stepfamilies, cohabitation's effects are tied to a child's age. Among young children, living in a cohabiting stepfamily rather than a married stepfamily is associated with more negative indicators of child wellbeing, but this is not so among adolescents. Thus the link between parental cohabitation and child wellbeing depends on both the type of cohabiting parent family and the age of the

  3. CHILD LABOUR IN INDIA

    OpenAIRE

    Devaraj Dutta

    2014-01-01

    The problem of child labour is a deep socio-economic problem faced by almost all countries of the world. It, however, is a serious problem mostly of the developing as well as under developing countries. Infact, children particularly from low-income countries are being exploited on the global market for monetary gains. This problem also is a big social problem in India as India still falls under the category of developing nations. Various studies have made it very clear that a ...

  4. Child abuse and neglect

    OpenAIRE

    Kiran, K

    2011-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect are important public health problems and recent estimates of their prevalence suggest that they are considerably more common than had hitherto been realized. Intervening to change parenting practices may, however, be important in their treatment. Despite their frequent occurrence among dental patients, neglect is the least known and identified type of abuse. The present case reports a 3-year-old girl suffering from abuse and neglect. The girl had dental neglect and als...

  5. [Child marriage in India].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, J

    1984-07-29

    Child marriages have been practiced in India for thousands of years. Even though its popularity has now decreased due to changes in law and society, it is still a major problem, causing a great deal of hardship. Even though laws prohibited child marriage as early as 1860, statistics show that, on the average, Indians marry very young (1972: females at age 17; males at age 22 years of age; 34 females and 13 males under age 15). The following are incentives to marry young and have large families: 1) religion teaches that only those with descendants go to heaven; 2) unmarried women are traditionally scorned; and 3) most importantly, economic reasons encourage people to have large families as soon as possible, e.g., male children are encouraged to marry to obtain the dowry as soon as possible and children are considered a source of income in India. Child marriage in India causes the following problems: 1) a high infant mortality rate, as much as 75% in rural areas; 2) an imbalance in the male to female ratio (1901: 970 females/1000 males; 1971: 930 females/1000 males) because women who marry young tend to lose their health earlier; 3) a population explosion: in 1971, the Indian population was found to be increasing at the rate of 225/1000. PMID:12159404

  6. CHILD IN INFORMAL SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabira S.D

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Child labour is conventionally defined to include all ‘economically active’ children in the age group 5-14 years. A person is treated as economically active or gainfully employed if she does work on a regular basis and receives remuneration for it. The ILO defied child labor as “work that deprives children of their childhood and their dignity, which hampers their access to education and the acquisition if skills, and which is performed under deplorable conditions harmful to their health and their development.” Child work, on the other hand, includes all paid and unpaid work for the household or for the market whether it is full time or part time. Participation in household activities on a regular basis and for several hours in a day to relieve adults for wage employment is also included in this definition. The ILO argues tat it sis not concerned with children helping in family farms or doing household chores.

  7. Child passenger safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durbin, Dennis R

    2011-04-01

    Despite significant reductions in the number of children killed in motor vehicle crashes over the past decade, crashes continue to be the leading cause of death for children 4 years and older. Therefore, the American Academy of Pediatrics continues to recommend inclusion of child passenger safety anticipatory guidance at every health-supervision visit. This technical report provides a summary of the evidence in support of 5 recommendations for best practices to optimize safety in passenger vehicles for children from birth through adolescence that all pediatricians should know and promote in their routine practice. These recommendations are presented in the revised policy statement on child passenger safety in the form of an algorithm that is intended to facilitate their implementation by pediatricians with their patients and families. The algorithm is designed to cover the majority of situations that pediatricians will encounter in practice. In addition, a summary of evidence on a number of additional issues that affect the safety of children in motor vehicles, including the proper use and installation of child restraints, exposure to air bags, travel in pickup trucks, children left in or around vehicles, and the importance of restraint laws, is provided. Finally, this technical report provides pediatricians with a number of resources for additional information to use when providing anticipatory guidance to families. PMID:21422094

  8. Girl child and social change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, P

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the state of social change and the disparity between India's Constitutional aims and actual practice in addressing gender inequality and the special risks of female children in India. The second part of this article summarizes Constitutional articles and laws relating to protection of women and a girl child. Before birth, a female child is at risk of fetal death. A woman is at risk of poorly performed abortions and maternal mortality. After birth, a girl child is at risk of child care of younger siblings, housework, lack of education, wage work for the household, sexual abuse, vulnerability at work or school or on the street, murder by her parents, abuse, malnutrition, and desertion. The SAARC summit declared 1990 the Year of the Girl Child. UN conventions and a world summit focused on the Rights of the Child. A child has a right to freedom from exploitation, neglect and abuse, and access to food, health care, and education. Articles 14, 15, and 16 of India's Constitution guarantee protection from discrimination on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex, or place of birth and equality of opportunity in public employment. Article 23 prohibits trafficking in humans and forced labor. Article 24 prohibits child labor under the age of 14 years. Article 39 assures an adequate means of livelihood, equal pay, and protection from child abuse and economic pressure to work in jobs unsuitable to a child's age and strength. Article 45 provides for free and compulsory education up to 14 years of age. Article 51 prohibits derogatory practices against women. Article 325 and 326 prohibits sex discrimination. Other laws pertain to dowry, marriage age, prostitution, abortion, juvenile justice, kidnapping, obscenity, procurement of a minor, sexual offenses, divorce and child support, child care, maternity benefits, and cruelty by a husband or relatives. The girl child in India continues to live in perpetual threat, both physiological and psychological. PMID

  9. Child rights & child development in India: a regional analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, Chandan

    2011-01-01

    Being the signatory of UNCRC (1992), India globally recognized the significance of child rights. The Constitutions of India also guarantees certain child rights covering basic issues, like ‘health’, ‘education’ and protection from ‘hazardous employment’ and ‘exploitation’. However, despite the existence of many legal provisions, the vulnerability of Indian children in different dimensions cannot be undermined. This paper attempts to locate the status of child in development ladder of Indian e...

  10. How child labor and child schooling interact with adult labor

    OpenAIRE

    Ray, Ranjan

    1999-01-01

    Using data from Peruvian and Pakistani household surveys, the author tests the hypotheses of a positive association between child labor hours and poverty and a negative association between child schooling and poverty. Both hypotheses are confirmed using Pakistani data but not using Peruvian data. What explains these divergent results? The link between household poverty and child labor is much stronger in Pakistan than in Peru - perhaps partly because Pakistani schools are not as good as those...

  11. Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: Enhancing Parent-Child Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony J. Urquiza; Susan Timmer

    2012-01-01

    Disruptive child behavior problems are common problems for parents and can be associated with serious delinquent behaviors and aggressive/violent behaviors in adolescence and adulthood. Parenting interventions to address disruptive child behavior problems has gained widespread acceptance. One of these parenting interventions is Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT). PCIT is a 14- to 20-week, founded on social learning and attachment theories, designed for children between 2 and 7 years of a...

  12. The relation between child death and child maltreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Jenny, C; Isaac, R.

    2006-01-01

    The death of a child is a sentinel event in a community, and a defining marker of a society's policies of safety and health. Child death as a result of abuse and neglect is a tragic outcome that occurs in all nations of the world. The true incidence of fatal child abuse and neglect is unknown. The most accurate incidence data of such deaths have been obtained from countries where multi‐agency death review teams analyse the causes of child fatalities, as is done in the United States and Austra...

  13. Special needs and child welfare: healing the child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Cindy S

    2007-01-01

    Passage of the Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997 has placed the child at the center of the child welfare system. Courts bear the ultimate responsibility for the safety and well-being of these children, including those with disabilities. Findings from the Child and Family Service Reviews, however, indicate less-than-optimal conformity in a number of states regarding the physical and mental well-being of children. A multidisciplinary approach involving jurisprudence, science, and financing is required to bring about better compliance. Collaboration among legal, medical, dental, and child advocacy organizations is necessary for healing children in the welfare system to become a national imperative. PMID:17566535

  14. 38 CFR 3.57 - Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... person who is a legitimate child, a child legally adopted before the age of 18 years, a stepchild who... having custody of a child prior to the time the child attains age 18 shall be considered to retain... legal custody. This applies without regard to when a child reaches the age of majority under...

  15. Defining Quality Child Care: Multiple Stakeholder Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrist, Amanda W.; Thompson, Stacy D.; Norris, Deborah J.

    2007-01-01

    Multiple perspectives regarding the definition of quality child care, and how child care quality can be improved, were examined using a focus group methodology. Participants were representatives from stakeholder groups in the child care profession, including child care center owners and directors (3 groups), parents (3 groups), child caregivers (3…

  16. Diarrhea - what to ask your doctor - child

    Science.gov (United States)

    What to ask your doctor about diarrhea - child; Loose stools - what to ask your doctor - child ... FOODS What foods can make my child's diarrhea worse? How should I prepare the foods for my child? If my child is still breastfeeding or bottle feeding, do I need to ...

  17. Child-Visiting and Domestic Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Melanie

    1992-01-01

    Explains problems with child visiting in cases of domestic abuse. Data on domestic abuse, child care concerns, and child adjustment problems were collected from 25 mothers and 22 fathers at a child visiting program serving separated and abusive families. Psychological abuse of mothers correlated with child adjustment problems. (BB)

  18. Parental health and child schooling

    OpenAIRE

    Bratti, Massimiliano; Mendola, Mariapia

    2011-01-01

    Evidence on the role of parental health on child schooling is surprisingly thin. We explore this issue by estimating the short-run effects of parents\\' illness on child school enrollment. Our analysis is based on household panel data from Bosnia-Herzegovina, a country whose health and educational systems underwent extensive destruction during the 1992-1995 war. Using child fixed effects to correct for potential endogeneity bias, we find that — contrary to the common wisdom that shocks to the ...

  19. What Matter for Child Development?

    OpenAIRE

    Fali Huang

    2006-01-01

    This paper estimates production functions of child cognitive and social development using a panel data of nine-year old children each with over two hundred home and school inputs as well as family background variables. A tree regression method is used to conduct estimation under various specifications. A small subset of inputs is found consistently important in explaining variances of child development results, including the number of books a child has at various ages and how often a mother r...

  20. Family ties and child placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón, F

    1978-09-01

    The fundamental premise of this paper is the primacy of the child's experience of biological-familial continuity in establishing his sense of self and personal significance. This paper examines the effects of current child placement practices on the child's ties to his biological, foster, and adoptive families. It explores alternative practices that would take into account biological-familial continuity. Comment is invited. PMID:744218

  1. Clinical psychology and child protection

    OpenAIRE

    O'Brien, Elaine; Carey, Sean; Carr, Alan.

    2000-01-01

    In this 1998 postal survey of 140 clinical psychologists working in eight Health Boards and Voluntary agencies in the Republic of Ireland, it was found that clinical psychologists from child mental health, adult mental health and services for people with physical and intellectual disabilities were involved in child abuse and protection work. Clinical psychologists' child protection work spanned a number of domains including validation, general assessment, risk assessment, treatment of victims...

  2. Child Labor and Coordination Failures

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvain Dessy; Stephane Pallage

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we show how coordination failures may explain the prevalence of child labor in developing countries. We do so within a simple game-theoretic setup. Child labor arises in our environment because of the lack of a coordination mechanism between parental decisions to invest in the human capital of their children and firm's decisions to invest in skill-intensive technology. Governmental policies that help coordinate expectations lead to the disappearance of child labor.

  3. Nurses' perceptions about child abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Saifan; Intima A Alrimawi; Ibrahim Bashaireh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the efforts to protect children around the world, child abuse and neglect remain serious and global problems. In Palestine, child abuse is hidden under the community culture, does not appear in the Ministry of Health official reports, and little is known about nurses’ perceptions towards this phenomenon.Objectives: To identify nurses’ perceptions about child abuse definition, whether they faced such cases during their work, and how they managed them.Methods: Data were coll...

  4. The Supply of Child Labour

    OpenAIRE

    Cigno, Alessandro

    2004-01-01

    The paper develops a theoretical framework, and a diagrammatic apparatus, for explaining the supply of child labour. It examines the effect of credit, insurance, and poverty (defined as more than just low income). It also explains bonded child labour, a modern form of slavery closely associated with the worst forms of child exploitation. The analysis is positive, but provides some of the elements for a normative judgement.

  5. Child Labor, Gender, and Health

    OpenAIRE

    Leinberger-Jabari, Andrea; Parker, David L.; Oberg, Charles

    2005-01-01

    It is often forgotten that child labor is part of a multi-generational problem due in part to the failure to educate girls. Although the literacy rate for women has improved over the last two decades, in many countries it is less than half that of their male counterparts. This in turn leads to nutritional deficiencies, poverty, and poor health. While many researchers address the immediate health effects of child labor on the child laborers, this article addresses the issue of child labor from...

  6. Child sexual abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Child sexual abuse with significant impact on victim's physical, mental and social health has now been recognized as existing on an appreciable scale worldwide. Diversity of opinions exist about the concept, types, prevalence and repercussions along with a paucity of systematic and scientific work in the developing world including Pakistan. Objective: This paper aims at reviewing the literature for clarification of concept, update of estimates and correlates, and to identify lines for future research. Data sources: The literature was search through BMJ-Medline for international data, supplemented by local data through CPSP-MEDLIP service. The search term child sexual abuse with associated sub-heads were used. No constraint of time period, publication type or source applied except english Language version Comparative findings: Wide variations identified in conceptual boundaries with consequent impact on prevalence estimates. Agreement found for its existence as an international problem with rates ranging from 7% - 36% for women and 3% - 29% for men. Female abused 1.5-3 times more than male with exponential high rates in age group 3-6 years and 8-11 years. In 2/3 cases the perpetrator identified belonged to nuclear or extended family. Significant association exists with early onset of psychiatric ailments like substance abuse, eating disorders, personality disorders, dissociative disorders and depression. Conclusion and Suggestion: The need for extensive research studies in immense in developing countries like Pakistan where environmental circumstances suggest its presence at rates higher than the identified elsewhere. In addition to facilitate awareness and perhaps to clarify the concept as well as the prevalence of child sexual abuse researchers need to select methodologies and instruments with international comparison in mind. (author)

  7. Curbing child marriages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajan, S I

    Demographers are interested in marriage age because women who marry early are exposed to conceptions through the most fecund years of their lives. Women who marry young are exposed comparatively to a longer duration and tend to shorten the intergenerational years, consequently influencing the fertility to be higher. In India, despite the law, child marriages occur in many states, more prevalent among the backward conservative communities. According to India's Child Marriage Restraint Act, a woman must be 18 to marry (a man 21), but in fact in 1981 the marriage age of females was 15. This young marriage age is substantiated by available survey and report data. For example, in a mass marriage solemnized at Wardha village in Vidisha district in 1981, there was not 1 of the 110 couples of the prescribed marriage age. 55 of the brides were below age 10 and 48 were between 10-12 years. Only 8 brides were older than 14 years. A survey conducted by the Population Research Center, Lucknow University, revealed that more than half of the females surveyed were married before age 15. The census data for 1981 provide the following information: 1.19 million or 2.63% of the total 45.18 million boys aged 10-14 years and 2.67 million or 6.59% of the total 40.49 million girls were married. Christians had the highest mean age at marriage followed by Sikhs and Jains, but all religious groups had shown an improvement in their age at marriage. Several factors are responsible for child marriage. Consequently, a multidimensional approach to dealing with the problem is needed. The way to bring about this change is through creating more job and educational opportunities for women. PMID:12280896

  8. Environment, Family and Child

    OpenAIRE

    Kocakurt, Özben; Seval Güven, Hacettepe Üniversitesi, Ev Ekonomisi Yüksekokulu, Ev Ekonomisi Bölümü; Güven, Seval; Seval Güven, Hacettepe Üniversitesi, Ev Ekonomisi Yüksekokulu, Ev Ekonomisi Bölümü

    2005-01-01

    The environment, generally speaking, is a system comprising the natural world, and human culture and history continually in interaction and from which people benefit. As with elsewhere in the world, the day by day increase in environmental pollution makes itself felt in our country. The issue of the effect of pollution on child health has come to prominence in many areas of science. It is essential that today’s generation do not destroy the assurance of a future in their quest to create an en...

  9. Child Sexual Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    HROBAŘOVÁ, Petra

    2008-01-01

    My thesis deals with the problems of sexual abuse of children. It is divided into nine chapters, each of which has a subhead. In the first part, I focused on the term of child sexual abuse. In the second part, I focused on the problem of sexual abuse of children by family members. In the third part, I explained the term of commercial sexual violence committed against children. In the fourth part, I focused on the victims of sexual abuse and in the following part, I focused on the perpetrators...

  10. Child Rights in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Mohajan, Haradhan

    2014-01-01

    Bangladesh is a densely populated country with populations about 160 millions. About half of the populations of Bangladesh are under the age of 18 who are considered as children and more than 20 million of them are under the age of 5. About 73% of children live in the rural areas and 27% live in the urban areas. One-third of these children continue to live below the international poverty line. The violation of child rights is a common matter in Bangladesh. The children have basic rights to e...

  11. Aggregate Economic Shocks, Child Schooling, and Child Health

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco H.G. Ferreira; Schady, Norbert

    2009-01-01

    Do aggregate economic shocks, such as those caused by macroeconomic crises or droughts, reduce child human capital? The answer to this question has important implications for public policy. If shocks reduce investments in children, they may transmit poverty from one generation to the next. This paper uses a simple framework to analyze the effects of aggregate economic shocks on child schoo...

  12. Prevalence and Development of Child Delinquency. Child Delinquency Bulletin Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Howard N.; Espiritu, Rachele C.; Huizinga, David; Loeber, Rolf; Petechuk, David

    The number of child delinquents entering the juvenile justice system is increasing, as evidenced by rising arrest rates and court caseloads. Compared with adolescents who become involved in delinquency in their teens, child delinquents between the ages of 7 and 12 have a two- to threefold greater risk of becoming serious, violent, and chronic…

  13. Child Delinquency: Early Intervention and Prevention. Child Delinquency Bulletin Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeber, Rolf; Farrington, David P.; Petechuk, David

    Sparked by high-profile cases involving children who commit violent crimes, public concerns regarding child delinquents have escalated. Compared with juveniles who first become involved in delinquency in their teens, child delinquents (offenders younger than age 13) face a much greater risk of becoming serious, violent, and chronic juvenile…

  14. Child Labor, Schooling, and Child Ability (Working Paper)

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Akresh; Emilie Bagby; Daien de Walque; Harounan Kazianga

    2012-01-01

    Using data collected in rural Burkina Faso, this working paper examines how children's cognitive abilities influence households' decisions to invest in their education. The analysis uses variations in rainfall experienced in utero or early childhood to measure ability. It finds that rainfall shocks experienced in utero have direct negative impacts on a child's education and increase labor hours compared with the child's siblings.

  15. Mother-Child Disagreement in Reports of Child Anxiety: Effects of Child Age and Maternal Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Niditch, Laura A.; Varela, R. Enrique

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined effects of maternal anxiety, child age, and their interaction on mother-child anxiety reporting disagreement while taking into account the direction of each informant's report relative to the other. Participants were 41 dyads of mothers and clinically anxious children aged 7-13. A hierarchical regression revealed a significant interaction between maternal anxiety and child age (β = .30, p < .05). A graph of this interaction indicated that when maternal anxiety is hi...

  16. Helping Your Child Deal with Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Zika & Pregnancy Helping Your Child Deal With Death KidsHealth > For Parents > Helping Your Child Deal With ... important points to remember in all cases. Explaining Death in a Child's Terms Be honest with kids ...

  17. Interactive Tools to Track Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Past Emails CDC Features Interactive Tools to Track Child Development Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Watch for ... Do if I Suspect a Problem with My Child's Development? Talk with your child's doctor. If you or ...

  18. How to Talk to Your Child's Doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Know About Zika & Pregnancy Talking to Your Child's Doctor KidsHealth > For Parents > Talking to Your Child's Doctor ... an important role in your child's health? The Doctor-Patient Relationship Today, doctors are pressured to see ...

  19. Safety for Your Child: 10 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stages Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Safety for Your Child: 10 Years Page Content Article ... out if your child's friends carry guns. Sports Safety At this age your child may be playing ...

  20. Fever and Taking Your Child's Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Zika & Pregnancy Fever and Taking Your Child's Temperature KidsHealth > For Parents > Fever and Taking Your Child's ... a mercury thermometer.) previous continue Tips for Taking Temperatures As any parent knows, taking a squirming child's ...

  1. Health Consequences of Child Labour in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Salma Ahmed; Ranjan Ray

    2012-01-01

    Background: The paper examines the effect of child labour on child health outcomes in Bangladesh, advancing the methodologies and the results of papers published in different journals. Objective: We examine the effect of child labour on child health outcomes. Methods: We used Bangladesh National Child Labour Survey data for 2002-2003 for our analysis. Results: The main finding of the paper suggests that child labour is positively and significantly associated with the probability of b...

  2. Child Labor in the Global Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Eric V. Edmonds; Nina Pavcnik

    2005-01-01

    Few issues in developing countries draw as much popular attention as child labor. This paper begins by quantifying the extent and main characteristics of child labor. It then considers the evidence on a range of issues about child labor. Fundamentally, child labor is a symptom of poverty. Low income and poor institutions are driving forces behind the prevalence of child labor worldwide. This study concludes by assessing the policy options to reduce worldwide child labor.

  3. Mother-child communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demuth, Carolin

    2015-01-01

    Communication with children plays a crucial role not only for cognitive and social-emotional development but also in a more general sense for an understanding of self and self in relation to others. Research from linguistic anthropology and cultural developmental psychology have shown that there ......Communication with children plays a crucial role not only for cognitive and social-emotional development but also in a more general sense for an understanding of self and self in relation to others. Research from linguistic anthropology and cultural developmental psychology have shown...... that there exists a great variety of cultural genres of communicating with children that are in line with the relevant broader cultural ideologies of good child care. Culture, communication, and self- development are inextricably intertwined. Culturally distinct communicative practices in which children participate...... will therefore ultimately lead to different cultural developmental pathways. While traditional research in developmental psychology has focused on mother–child dyads and experimental designs there is an increasing recognition of the need for naturalistic studies of everyday communication with children including...

  4. Child Maltreatment and Adolescent Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trickett, Penelope K.; Negriff, Sonya; Ji, Juye; Peckins, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect, often collectively called child maltreatment, are huge social problems affecting millions of children and adolescents in America. Adolescents are affected both by maltreatment which occurred during childhood with lingering effects and by maltreatment that continues into or begins in adolescence. Several decades of research…

  5. Child Abuse and Mandated Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woika, Shirley; Bowersox, Carissa

    2013-01-01

    Teachers and teachers-in-training are mandated reporters; they are legally required to report any suspected child abuse or neglect. This article describes: (1) How to file a report; (2) How prevalent child abuse is; (3) What abuse is; (4) What it means to be a mandated reporter; (5) When the report should be made; and (6) What to do if abuse is…

  6. National Child Traumatic Stress Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Awareness Month Month of the Military Family / Child Child Abuse Prevention Month National Alcohol Awareness Month National Day of ... Suicide Prevention Month (September 2016) and World Suicide Prevention Day (September 10, 2016) Upcoming Events ... types Family-youth-provider partnerships TREATMENT & SERVICES ...

  7. Illinois: Child Care Collaboration Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012

    2012-01-01

    The Illinois Child Care Collaboration Program promotes collaboration between child care and other early care and education providers, including Early Head Start (EHS), by creating policies to ease blending of funds to extend the day or year of existing services. While no funding is provided through the initiative, participating programs may take…

  8. Identifying the Gifted Child Humorist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fern, Tami L.

    1991-01-01

    This study attempted to identify gifted child humorists among 1,204 children in grades 3-6. Final identification of 13 gifted child humorists was determined through application of such criteria as funniness, originality, and exemplary performance or product. The influence of intelligence, development, social factors, sex differences, family…

  9. Valuing Your Child Care Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsmeier, Dave; Richards, Dick; Routzong, Ed

    2003-01-01

    Offers guidelines for putting a monetary value on a child care business. Discusses reasons for valuing the business, types of valuations (book, liquidation, and fair market), fair market valuation formulas, the corporate valuation, valuing assets included in a sale, and using experts. Also offers several tips for selling a child care business. (EV)

  10. Family environment and child development

    OpenAIRE

    Tina Kavčič

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents an overview of research findings on influence of family environment, especially parental behaviour, on child's development. Contemporary authors question early socialization researchers' claims that family characteristics and parental behaviour have important influence on behaviour of their children. Later researchers examined the size and durability of possible effects of family environment on child development. In addition, they focused on establishing whether it ...

  11. Jamaican American Child Disciplinary Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Stephaney

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about child disciplinary practices in Jamaican American families. Literature on child discipline in Jamaica and other Caribbean nations has mainly focused on physical discipline, and no empirical studies have investigated the types of discipline used in the Jamaican American community. The purpose of this study was to describe…

  12. Child Labour Remains "Massive Problem."

    Science.gov (United States)

    World of Work, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Despite significant progress in efforts to abolish child labor, an alarming number of children are engaged in its worst forms. Although 106 million are engaged in acceptable labor (light work for those above the minimum age for employment), 246 million are involved in child labor that should be abolished (under minimum age, hazardous work). (JOW)

  13. If Your Child is Raped

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All About Food Allergies If Your Child Is Raped KidsHealth > For Parents > If Your Child Is Raped Print A A A Text Size What's in ... Si su hijo es víctima de una violación Rape — forced, unwanted sexual intercourse — can happen to males ...

  14. Child Labor and Aggregate Fluctuations

    OpenAIRE

    Stéphane Pallage; Alice Fabre

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we build a dynamic general equilibrium model with heterogeneous agents to measure the welfare effect of banning child labor in an economy with aggregate fluctuations and idiosyncratic shocks to employment. We then design an unemployment insurance system that generates the endogenous elimination of child labor.

  15. Postpartum Depression and Child Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Lynne, Ed.; Cooper, Peter J., Ed.

    Only recently has the research on postpartum depression dealt with the disorder's effects on child development. This book explores the impact of postpartum depression on mother-infant interaction and child development, its treatment, and postpartum psychosis. The chapters are: (1) "The Nature of Postpartum Depressive Disorders" (Michael O'Hara);…

  16. Child maltreatment: Abuse and neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengü Pala

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Each year, millions of children around the world are the victims and witnesses of physical, sexual and emotional violence. Child maltreatment is a major global problem with a serious impact on the victims’ physical and mental health, well-being and development throughout their lives and, by extension, on society in general. Family physicians who are involved in the care of children are likely to encounter child abuse and should be able to recognize its common presentations. There is sufficient evidence that child maltreatment can be prevented. The ultimate goal is to stop child maltreatment before it starts.In this paper, the characteristics of the perpetrators and victims of child maltreatment, maltreatment types, risk factors, differential diagnosis and discuss about strategies for preventing were summarized.

  17. Children in Different Activities: Child Schooling and Child Labour

    OpenAIRE

    Rana Ejaz Ali Khan

    2003-01-01

    Using primary data from two districts of Pakistan, this article analyses the supplyside determinants of child labour. The study finds that the birth-order of the child has a significant association with schooling and labour decision of child: first school enrolment of children is delayed; there exists gender disparity in favour of male children; the children from female-headed households are more likely to go to school; the education of the head of household has a positive impact on child’s s...

  18. Anesthetizing the obese child

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Anette; Lenz, Katja; Abildstrøm, Hanne;

    2011-01-01

    obese child has an increased risk of perioperative complications especially related to airway management and ventilation. There is a significantly increased risk of difficult mask ventilation and perioperative desaturation. Furthermore, obesity has an impact on the pharmacokinetics of most anesthetic......The prevalence of childhood obesity is increasing. The focus of this review is the special anesthetic considerations regarding the perioperative management of obese children. With obesity the risk of comorbidity such as asthma, obstructive sleep apnea, hypertension, and diabetes increases. The...... drugs. This has important implications on how to estimate the optimal drug dose. This article offers a review of the literature on definition, prevalence and the pathophysiology of childhood obesity and provides suggestions on preanesthetic evaluation, airway management and dosage of the anesthetic...

  19. Child neglect: injuries of omission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowen, P S

    1999-01-01

    Child neglect is the most common form of child maltreatment in the United States. Researchers have indicated that child neglect is strongly correlated with poverty, single-parent caretakers, unemployment, and multifaceted family problems. When neglect is present, it is usually pervasive in the lives of all family members, with both parents and children often perceiving themselves to be powerless and viewing attempts at goal achievement to be futile. Treatment for neglectful families requires multidisciplinary efforts to improve family functioning and promote a safe and supportive environment. Nurses have a variety of roles in the assessment of and primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention interventions for child neglect, with child safety and optimal family functioning as the desired outcomes. Early identification and intervention has the potential for reducing or preventing the developmental consequences associated with the deprivations of neglect. The nurse's role as child/family advocate is often the critical determinant of whether "at-risk" families are identified and receive the therapeutic interventions and tangible services they need. Additionally, nurses often have direct responsibilities for monitoring and remediating parenting patterns that have placed the child in hazardous conditions. PMID:12024360

  20. The Cognitive Dissonance between Child Rescue and Child Protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.E. Cheney (Kristen)

    2015-01-01

    textabstract‘Saving orphans’ has become an industry that irrevocably harms children and undermines the development of child welfare systems. We must replace the drive to rescue with the desire to protect.

  1. Child pornography and the internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temporini, Humberto

    2012-12-01

    The dramatic increase in child pornography offenses over the past 10 years is directly related to the availability of such material on the Internet. Child pornography can be found on the Web, in newsgroups, and on peer-to-peer networks (the most common source at present). Offenders are a heterogeneous group, with different motivations and levels of risk. The possibility of crossover to a contact sexual offense exists, depending on the presence of other risk factors. Possession of child pornography without a history of contact offenses does not appear to increase the risk of future contact reoffending. PMID:23107565

  2. Diagnostic imaging of child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book provides a description for all the known radiological alterations occurring in child abuse. This allows for precise interpretation of findings by radiologists. It also helps eliminate the confusion among both clinicians and non-medical personnel involved in the diagnosis, management, and legal issues related to child abuse. CONTENTS: Introduction; Skeletal trauma: general considerations; Extremity trauma; Bony thoracic trauma; Spinal trauma; Dating fractures; Visceral trauma; Head trauma; Miscellaneous forms of abuse and neglect; The postmortem examination; Differential diagnosis of child abuse; Legal considerations; Psychosocial considerations; Technical considerations and dosimetry

  3. Why is child labor illegal?

    OpenAIRE

    Dessy, Sylvain; Knowles, John

    2007-01-01

    We argue from an empirical analysis of Latin-American household surveys that per capita income in the country of residence has a negative effect on child labor supply, even after controlling for other household characteristics. We then develop a theory of the emergence of mandatory-education laws. If parents are unable to commit to educating their children, child-labor laws can increase the welfare of altruistic parents in an ex ante sense. The theory suggest that measures that reduce child w...

  4. PROTECTION OF CHILD AND CHILD RIGHTS IN INDIA.

    OpenAIRE

    Pujan Singh Ariya

    2015-01-01

    India is home to almost 19 percent of the world's children. More than one third of the country's population, around 440 million, is below 18 years. According to one assumption 40 percent of these children are in need of care and protection, which indicates the extet of the problem . Independent India has taken large strides in addressing issues like child education, health and development. However, child protection has remained largely unaddressed. There is now a realization...

  5. Child poverty and child benefits in the European Union

    OpenAIRE

    Immervoll, Herwig; Sutherland, Holly; Vos, Klaas de

    2000-01-01

    Using evidence from the European Community Household Panel we find that family benefits vary in their importance to household incomes and in the prevention of child poverty across Europe. In one group of countries family benefits appear to have a significant effect on the protection of children from financial poverty. The UK and the Netherlands are both members of this group, and we use the microsimulation model EUROMOD to examine the extent to which differences in child benefits explain the ...

  6. Child nutrition, child health, and school enrollment : a longitudinal analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Alderman, Harold; Behrman, Jere R.; Lavy, Victor; Menon, Rekha

    1997-01-01

    Better health and nutrition are thought to improve children's performance in school, and therefore their productivity after school. Most literature ignores the fact that child health and schooling reflect behavioral choices, so the estimated impact of health and nutrition on a child's schooling reflects biases in the studies. Using an explicit dynamic model for preferred estimates, the authors use longitudinal data to investigate how children's health and nutrition affect school enrollment in...

  7. Child Poverty and Child Well-Being in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Del Boca Daniela

    2010-01-01

    Child poverty matters directly as children constitute a large share of the population and indirectly for future individual and national well- being. Measures of child poverty are dominated by incomepoverty, although education and well-being are now often included. Data in the most recent international and EU reports indicate that Italy performs worse than most developed countries in this respect, in spite of the extremely low fertility rates. The purpose of this report is to examine several d...

  8. 28 CFR 551.24 - Child placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Birth Control, Pregnancy, Child Placement, and Abortion § 551.24 Child placement. (a) The Warden may not permit the inmate's new born child to return to the institution except in accordance with the Bureau of... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Child placement. 551.24 Section...

  9. The economics of child well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Conti, Gabriella; Heckman, James J.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter presents an integrated economic approach that organizes and interprets the evidence on child development. It also discusses the indicators of child well-being that are used in international comparisons. Recent evidence on child development is summarized, and policies to promote child well-being are discussed. The chapter concludes with some open questions and suggestions for future research.

  10. Workshop Two: Child Protection; Relative Values?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Anne Sinclair

    1996-01-01

    Presents salient features of workshop discussion examining child abuse. Topics discussed include cross-cultural definitions of abuse, prevalence rates, family-centered versus child-centered approaches, educational perspectives on child protection work, the need for international research, abuses of child protection systems, emotional demands on…

  11. Everyday Child Language Learning Early Intervention Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunst, Carl J.; Trivette, Carol M.; Raab, Melinda

    2014-01-01

    The language intervention model developed and evaluated at the Center on Everyday Child Language Learning (CECLL) is described. The model includes 4 components: interest-based child learning opportunities, the everyday family and community activities that are sources of interest-based child learning, the methods for increasing child participation…

  12. Child Labour: The View from the North.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKechnie, Jim; Hobbs, Sandy

    1999-01-01

    Reports British research findings that challenge the bias that child labor is a problem of only economically underdeveloped countries. Argues that child employment is evident within developed countries, but is largely invisible. Addresses positive and negative effects, and challenges to child labor/child work dichotomy. Debates underlying causes…

  13. Parent-Child Interaction Therapy: Enhancing Parent-Child Relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony J. Urquiza

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Disruptive child behavior problems are common problems for parents and can be associated with serious delinquent behaviors and aggressive/violent behaviors in adolescence and adulthood. Parenting interventions to address disruptive child behavior problems has gained widespread acceptance. One of these parenting interventions is Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT. PCIT is a 14- to 20-week, founded on social learning and attachment theories, designed for children between 2 and 7 years of age with disruptive, or externalizing, behavior problems. This article will provide a brief review of the history of PCIT, a description of the basic components of PCIT, and an overview of recent developments that highlight the promise of PCIT with maltreating parent-child relationships, traumatized children, and in developing resilience in young children. In addressing the three basic treatment objectives for PCIT (i.e., reduction in child behavior problems, improving parenting skills, enhancing the quality of parent-child relationships, there is an abundance of research demonstrating very strong treatment effects and therefore, its value to the field. Recent research has also demonstrated the value of PCIT in reducing trauma symptoms in young children.

  14. Children with Sickle-Cell Anemia: Parental Relations, Parent-Child Relations, and Child Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Robert C.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Investigated the influence of a child with sickle-cell anemia on parental affiliation, parent-child relationships, and parents' perception of their child's behavior. In the sickle-cell group, parents' interpersonal relationship suffered; parent-child relationship and child behavior correlated significantly; and single-parent families estimated…

  15. Does biological relatedness affect child survival?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: We studied child survival in Rakai, Uganda where many children are fostered out or orphaned. Methods: Biological relatedness is measured as the average of the Wright's coefficients between each household member and the child. Instrumental variables for fostering include proportion of adult males in household, age and gender of household head. Control variables include SES, religion, polygyny, household size, child age, child birth size, and child HIV status. Results: Presence of both parents in the household increased the odds of survival by 28%. After controlling for the endogeneity of child placement decisions in a multivariate model we found that lower biological relatedness of a child was associated with statistically significant reductions in child survival. The effects of biological relatedness on child survival tend to be stronger for both HIV- and HIV+ children of HIV+ mothers. Conclusions: Reductions in the numbers of close relatives caring for children of HIV+ mothers reduce child survival.

  16. Birth of a Second Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... many ways — some physically and others emotionally. Increased exhaustion and mild anxiety is a normal occurrence after ... Your first child may experience a range of emotions, from excitement to jealousy or even resentment. Younger ...

  17. Child health and parental relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loft, Lisbeth Trille Gylling

    2011-01-01

    Using longitudinal national-level representative data from Denmark, this study considers the link between child disability or chronic illness and parental relationship termination as measured by the point in time at which one parent, following the breakup of the relationship, no longer resides in...... the household. By means of event-history techniques, I examine whether a Danish family's experience of having a child diagnosed with a disability or chronic illness affects the chances of parental relationship termination. My findings suggest that families with a child with disabilities or chronic...... illness do have a higher risk of parental relationship termination, when compared to families where no diagnosis of child disability or chronic illness is reported....

  18. Conscious Choking: Adult and Child

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Conscious Choking—Adult and Child (2:25) QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store ...

  19. Child Welfare Outcomes Data Portal

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The most current Child Welfare Outcomes data is featured on this site. Through the site, you can view the data before the full report is published. The most...

  20. Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000164.htm Enteral nutrition - child - managing problems To use the sharing features ... trouble breathing, call 911. References Mcclave SA. Enteral nutrition. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil ...

  1. Conscious Choking: Adult and Child

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Refresher Center Home FIRST AID, CPR and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Conscious Choking—Adult and Child (2:25) QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our ...

  2. A Child Becomes a Reader

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... DC: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. Snow, C. E., Burns, M. S., & Griffin, P. (Eds.). (1998). Preventing Reading Difficulties in Young Children. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. ...

  3. Help Your Child Get Organized

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... above and show your child the kids' article Organize, Focus, Get It Done . Read it together and ... Helping Your Gradeschooler With Homework Getting Homework Help Organize, Focus, Get It Done Organize, Focus, Get It ...

  4. Vitamin D and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Vitamin D and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Vitamin D ... to get it. Who's at Risk for Vitamin D Deficiency? Things like a lack of direct sunlight ...

  5. Croup and Your Young Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Action Medical Editor & Editorial Advisory Board Sponsors Sponsorship Opporunities Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a ... Size Email Print Share Croup and Your Young Child Page Content Article Body Croup is a co​ ...

  6. Does Your Child Have Glaucoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Donate In This Section Does Your Child Have Glaucoma? email Send this article to a friend by ... a pediatric ophthalmologist. Signs and Symptoms of Childhood Glaucoma What to watch for in children under the ...

  7. When your child has diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000693.htm When your child has diarrhea To use the sharing features on this page, ... sports drinks is OK. Diet for Children With Diarrhea In many cases, you can continue feeding your ...

  8. Your child and the flu

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or a cough. Other symptoms you may notice: Chills, sore muscles, and headache Runny nose Acting tired ... extra clothes, even if your child has the chills. This may keep their fever from coming down, ...

  9. The Child Rights System in Romanian Legislation

    OpenAIRE

    OANA-CARMEN RĂVAŞ

    2008-01-01

    Child rights are a set of international conventions which define the conditions for the normal development of a child. In Romania, child rights are now the subject of a specific law, law nr. 272/2004 on the Protection and Promotion of the Rights of the Child, which is in accordance with the international conventions. All children have their own rights - whether at home with their natural parents, in foster families, child care institutions or at school. Parents and families, the professional ...

  10. Does biological relatedness affect child survival?

    OpenAIRE

    David Bishai; Heena Brahmbhatt; Ron Gray; Godfrey Kigozi; David Serwadda; Nelson Sewankambo; El Daw Suliman; Fred Wabwire-Mangen; Maria Wawer

    2003-01-01

    Objective: We studied child survival in Rakai, Uganda where many children are fostered out or orphaned. Methods: Biological relatedness is measured as the average of the Wright’s coefficients between each household member and the child. Instrumental variables for fostering include proportion of adult males in household, age and gender of household head. Control variables include SES, religion, polygyny, household size, child age, child birth size, and child HIV status. Results: Presence of ...

  11. Social Media Use in Child Welfare Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Todd Edward Sage; Melanie Sage

    2016-01-01

    The scholarly child welfare literature offers little information about the use of social media by child welfare workers. We conducted a study of 171 child welfare workers across several states using an online survey. The resulting data offer insights from workers about current practices related to social media use in a child welfare work setting. Most respondents see social media as an acceptable tool for conducting child welfare assessments. Respondents describe strains and benefits of socia...

  12. Child Labor, Fertility and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Moshe Hazan; Binyamin Berdugo

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the evolution of child labor, fertility, and human capital in the process of development. In early stages of development the economy is in a development trap where child labor is abundant, fertility is high and output per capita is low. Technological progress, however, increases gradually the wage differential between parental and child labor, thereby inducing parents to substitute child education for child labor and reduce fertility. The economy takes-off to a sustained g...

  13. Measuring and analyzing child labor: methodological issues

    OpenAIRE

    Grimsrud, Bjorne

    2002-01-01

    Current statistics on child labor are generally based on economically active children. This paper will argue that these figures are not a workable proxy for data on child labor, generating numbers of child laborers, and their gender composition that do not represent the group described by the international definition of child labor. This raises the question of reliable alternatives ways of measuring children's activities, with the aim of analyzing the incidence of child labor. The paper addre...

  14. Measuring and analyzing child labor : methodological issues

    OpenAIRE

    Grimsrud, Bjorne

    2001-01-01

    The paper argues that the current statistics on child labor (generally based on economically active children), are not a workable proxy for data on child labor, generating numbers of child laborers, and their gender composition, that do not represent the groups described by the international definition of child labor. This raises the question of reliable alternative ways of measuring children's activities, with the aim of analyzing the incidence of child labor. The paper addresses this, and p...

  15. Child Labor in Transition in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Edmonds, Eric; Turk, Carrie

    2002-01-01

    Vietnam experienced a dramatic decline in child labor during the 1990s. The authors explore this decline in detail and document the heterogeneity across households in both levels of child labor and in the incidence of this decline in child labor. The authors find a strong correlation between living standards improvements and child labor so that much of the variation in declines in child la...

  16. Play of a Preschool Child

    OpenAIRE

    VONDRÁČKOVÁ, Šárka

    2009-01-01

    Bachelor's thesis deals with the problems in the life of a pre -school child. The theoretical part is based on the general views and attitudes, supported by professional literature, which relate to the characteristics of the game, its importance and the diagnostic and educational opportunities. There is the part of the development characteristics of preschool age in terms of games and toys too. The research (practical) part finds out the perception of the game of pre- school child by a teache...

  17. Work, Welfare, and Child Maltreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Christina Paxson; Jane Waldfogel

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines how child maltreatment is affected by the economic circumstances of parents. 'Child maltreatment' encompasses a wide range of behaviors that adversely affect children. It includes neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and other forms of abuse or neglect. Using state-level panel data on the numbers of reports and substantiated cases of maltreatment, we examine whether socioeconomic factors play different roles for these different types of maltreatment. A key finding is tha...

  18. Improvements in child resistant containers.

    OpenAIRE

    Sibert, J R; Clarke, A J; Mitchell, M P

    1985-01-01

    The numbers of children under 5 years in South Glamorgan admitted to hospital because of accidental poisoning have been analysed for 1980-4. There has been no significant fall in those taking solid dose, prescribable medications since the voluntary agreement between the government and the pharmaceutical profession in 1981 on child resistant containers. Most children still take these poisons from containers of an ordinary, non-child resistant type. Aspirin poisoning has remained at the same lo...

  19. Child maltreatment: Abuse and neglect

    OpenAIRE

    Bengü Pala; Murat Ünalacak; İlhami Ünlüoğlu

    2011-01-01

    Each year, millions of children around the world are the victims and witnesses of physical, sexual and emotional violence. Child maltreatment is a major global problem with a serious impact on the victims’ physical and mental health, well-being and development throughout their lives and, by extension, on society in general. Family physicians who are involved in the care of children are likely to encounter child abuse and should be able to recognize its common presentations. There is sufficien...

  20. the Parent Child Purchase Relationship

    OpenAIRE

    Nash, Catriona, (Thesis)

    2009-01-01

    This is an interpretive inquiry into the ‘parent-child purchase relationship’. This study aims to understand the parent-child purchase relationship from the consumer perspective, rather than the much reported ‘vested interest’ perspective, in order to enhance and inform an understanding of the phenomenon. Commencing with an overview of current literature, specifically that of the pester power phenomenon, to contextualise the theoretical framework, the extant construct of pester power is exami...

  1. Globalization, consumerism and child labour

    OpenAIRE

    Dwibedi, Jayanta; Chaudhuri, Sarbajit

    2007-01-01

    This paper highlights the implication of consumerism on the incidence of child in a developing economy using a two-sector general equilibrium model. It finds that although consumerism raises incomes of the poor households and decreases the earning opportunities of the children, this is not sufficient to control the flow of children to workplace and is likely to worsen the child labour situation. The analysis provides a theoretical framework that can be used for explaining the positive linkage...

  2. Neighbourhood Child Poverty in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafsson, Björn; Österberg, Torun

    2010-01-01

    This paper takes a fresh look at child poverty at the neighbourhood level in the three metropolitan regions of Sweden using unique data for 1990, 1996 and 2002. We find that the number of neighbourhoods with high child poverty rates is much larger in 2002 than in 1990, but also that most poor children in the three regions live outside poor neighbourhoods. A disproportionally large fraction of children with backgrounds from low- and middle-income countries live in poor neighbourhoods. Regressi...

  3. Inequality, Productivity, and Child Labor

    OpenAIRE

    Carol Ann Rogers; Kenneth A Swinnerton

    1999-01-01

    We extend the “general model” in Basu and Van (1998) to allow for different types of hosueholds, and extend the model in Swinnerton and Rogers (1999) to allow for a more general utility function. Our new findings are (i) while in some contexts, a more equal income distribution can reduce or eliminate child labor, in others, a more equal distribution of income can exacerbate child labor. (ii) In these latter contexts, increases in total factor productivity are particularly effective in reducin...

  4. Child's right to special care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, A; Gupta, S

    1991-01-01

    In 1924, the League of Nations adopted the 1st international law recognizing that children have inalienable rights and are not the property of their father. The UN Declaration on the Rights of the Child emerged in 1959. 1979 was the International Year of the Child. In 1990 there was the World Summit on Children and the UN General Assembly adopted the Global Convention on the Rights of the Child. The convention included civil, economic, social, cultural, and political rights of children all of which covered survival, development, protection, and participation. At the end of 1990, 60 countries had ratified the convention, thus including it into their national legislation. Even though India had not yet endorsed the Convention by the end of 1991, it expressed its support during the 1st workshop on the Rights of the Child which focused on girls. India has a history of supporting children as evidenced by 250 central and state laws on their welfare such as child labor and child marriage laws. In 1974, India adopted the National Policy for Children followed by the establishment of the National Children's Board in 1975. The Board's activities resulted in the Integrated Child Development Services Program which continues to include nutrition, immunization, health care, preschool education, maternal education, family planning, and referral services. Despite these laws and actions, however, the Indian government has not been able to improve the status of children. For example, between 1947-88, infant mortality fell only from 100/1000 to 93/1000 live births and child mortality remained high at 33.3 in 1988 compared with 51.9 in 1971. Population growth poses the biggest problem to improving their welfare. Poverty also exacerbates their already low status. PMID:12317284

  5. Market imperfections and child labor

    OpenAIRE

    Dumas, Christelle

    2011-01-01

    There is some indirect evidence that child labor is affected by market imperfections. This paper provides a theoretical model to discuss the effect of improvements on the labor market, when households cannot rely on neither the land nor the credit markets. The predictions differ by land ownership: landless or large landowners should decrease child labor when labor market imperfections decrease. Households who had chosen not to supply any labor on the wage market (households with intermediate-...

  6. Combating Child Obesity in America

    OpenAIRE

    Canavan, Erin

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the child obesity epidemic that is gripping our nation, and explores various causes and treatments that may help to defeat child obesity. First there is a description of the obesity epidemic, its causal factors, and its consequences. Additionally there is a summary and critique of the FDA’s obesity report and recommendations. There is a description of drug treatments that are available for obese children and why more research is necessary to ensure the s...

  7. Child Poverty across Industrialized Nations

    OpenAIRE

    Markus Jantti; Bruce Bradbury

    1999-01-01

    While child poverty is everywhere seen as an important social problem, there is considerable variation in both anti-poverty policies and poverty outcomes across the industrialized nations. In this paper we present new estimates of patterns of child income poverty in 25 nations using data from the Luxembourg Income Study. These estimates are presented using a range of alternative income poverty definitions and describe the correlations of outcomes with different demographic patterns and labour...

  8. Child Social Exclusion Risk and Child Health Outcomes in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Itismita; Edvardsson, Martin; Abello, Annie; Eldridge, Deanna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction This paper studies the relationship between the risk of child social exclusion, as measured by the Child Social Exclusion (CSE) index and its individual domains, and child health outcomes at the small area level in Australia. The CSE index is Australia’s only national small-area index of the risk of child social exclusion. It includes five domains that capture different components of social exclusion: socio-economic background, education, connectedness, housing and health services. Methods The paper used data from the National Centre for Social and Economic Modelling (NATSEM), University of Canberra for the CSE Index and its domains and two key Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW) data sources for the health outcome measures: the National Hospital Morbidity Database and the National Mortality Database. Results The results show positive associations between rates of both of the negative health outcomes: potentially preventable hospitalisations (PPH) and avoidable deaths, and the overall risk of child social exclusion as well as with the index domains. This analysis at the small-area level can be used to identify and study areas with unexpectedly good or bad health outcomes relative to their estimated risk of child social exclusion. We show that children’s health outcomes are worse in remote parts of Australia than what would be expected solely based on the CSE index. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that developing composite indices of the risk of child social exclusion can provide valuable guidance for local interventions and programs aimed at improving children’s health outcomes. They also indicate the importance of taking a small-area approach when conducting geographic modelling of disadvantage. PMID:27152596

  9. [Child abuse in the family].

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Almeida, Helena Nunes; André, Isabel Margarida; De Almeida, Ana Nunes

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study is to carry out a current survey of the situation of child abuse in the family. It is based on a national survey conducted in 1996, which was addressed to childcare professionals (in the areas of health, education and social services). This survey was based, on the one hand, on a wide-ranging definition of child abuse, including within it not just active forms of physical and psychic violence against the child, but also forms of (both material and affective) privation, omission or negligence which affect the child's growth and development. On the other hand, this study also favoured a contextual approach to child abuse. 1,126 institutions in Portugal were contacted and 755 valid survey responses were received. This report outlines some of the results obtained, namely by providing a description of the sample of the 755 child abuse victims, the respective social and family contexts to which they and the aggressors belong, as well as the types of abuse which have been committed against them; and a typology of forms of abuse and negligence, describing not just the internal aspects that make up child abuse directly, but also its relationship to the child's social and family contexts of belonging. The typology was derived from the statistical handling of the data gathered (factorial analysis of multiple matches, followed by a hierarchical analysis into clusters). A number of key concepts are summarised in the conclusion. Children of all age groups and of both sexes, and from all types of families and social backgrounds, regardless of their place in the phratry, are subject to abuse in Portugal. But different types of abuse and negligence are associated with the contexts to which the children and their families belong. Healthcare professionals are irreplaceable when it comes to detecting the wide variety of types of child abuse, and are an essential look-out post for two types of abuse which often slip through the net of other professionals

  10. Predictors of mother–child interaction quality and child attachment security in at-risk families

    OpenAIRE

    SimonaDe Falco

    2014-01-01

    Child healthy development is largely influenced by parent–child interaction and a secure parent–child attachment is predictively associated with positive outcomes in numerous domains of child development. However, the parent–child relationship can be affected by several psychosocial and socio-demographic risk factors that undermine its quality and in turn play a negative role in short and long term child psychological health. Prevention and intervention programs that support parenting skills ...

  11. The hospital child protection teams in approaching issues of child abuse and neglect Review

    OpenAIRE

    Beyazova, Ufuk; Şahin, Figen

    2007-01-01

    Child abuse is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in infants and children A multidisciplinary approach like the “Child Protection Team” is strongly encouraged to ensure adequate evaluation treatment and follow up of a potentially abused child Recently the increasing interest in the community regarding child abuse and neglect and the construction of child protection services are nbsp; important improvements for our country Child abuse and neglect should be a part of graduate ...

  12. Policies to reduce child poverty: Child allowances vs. tax exemptions for children

    OpenAIRE

    Pressman, Steven

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the regressive nature of tax exemptions for children compared to child allowances and estimates the decline in child poverty in several developed countries due to child allowances. The paper then estimates the decline in child poverty in the US due to tax exemptions for children and simulates the impact of various possible child allowance programs on child poverty in the US. It finds that a $3000-$4000 child allowance would reduce child poverty in the US to the level of o...

  13. [Child raising without violence--a right for every child].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Marie; Lucas, Steven

    The view of children and child rearing has undergone a marked change in our country over the past 50 years. As the first country in the world, Sweden passed legislation 1979 on the prohibition of corporal punishment in the home. Many countries have followed suit, but at present, only 5,4% of the world's children have legal protection against violence and abuse. Children's rights are on the agenda, including work towards implementing the Convention on the Rights of the Child. Child abuse is nevertheless a major public health problem with serious implications in both childhood and adulthood, and is tied into both economic and social disadvantage. The childhood adversity we see is only the tip of the iceberg and continued efforts are necessary to identify and reduce the vulnerability of children and protect children's rights. Health care professionals have an important role to play. PMID:25405625

  14. The political economy of child labor

    OpenAIRE

    Maffei, Alessandro

    2005-01-01

    The phenomenon of child labor is widespread in developing countries and emotionally discussed in the media and public. At present there is a well-developed and fast growing economic literature on child labor which covers the various aspects of child labor. In the first part of the thesis we give a survey about the facts, the institutions and the economic literature dealing with child labor. The economic theory of child labor can be roughly subdivided into the economic theory of child labor i...

  15. Child labor: An integrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Técia Maria Santos Carneiro e Cordeiro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to identify the knowledge available in the SciELO database of regarding child labor. It is an integrative review in SciELO Brazil database with the following selection criteria: a articles published in national journals; b articles published between 2010 to June 2011; c articles indexed in Portuguese; d addressing the child labor. The documentary corpus consists of six papers. The results point to the scarcity of publications for health professionals and the state of Bahia, the largest proportion of exploitation of child labor in rural areas, in males and in low income families, interference with the growing and physical and psychological development of children, and strategic proposals to combat the exploitation of child labor, combat poverty and compliance of the laws. It is concluded that child labor need to be the subject of debates, lectures, seminars and scientific researches to address the importance of this issue in society, its consequences, constitute a problem that economic, social, collective and that involves public health

  16. Child Labour: Yesterday, Today & Tomorrow

    OpenAIRE

    P.K. Padhi

    2004-01-01

    “I am the child,All the world waits for my coming.All the earth watches with interest to see what I shall become.Civilization hangs in the balance.For what I am, the world of tomorrow will be.I am the child.You hold in your hand my destiny.You determine, largely, whether I shall succeed or fail,Give me, I pray you, these things that make for happiness.Train me, I beg you, that I may be a blessing to the worldâ€.-Mamie Gene ColeChild is the future father and mother, future worker and future ...

  17. Child labour and the violation of child rights : a case of child workers on tea and tobacco plantations in Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    Makwinja, Simon Matthias

    2010-01-01

    The study attempts to determine the extent to which child labour constitutes a violation of child rights. The international documents, especially the CRC, depart from the universal conception of childhood, making children all over the world the same and deserving similar treatment, more so claiming their rights. Using the case of child workers on tea and tobacco estates in Malawi, it examines the notion of childhood which forms the basis to any child rights claims. Employing the cultural poli...

  18. Recognizing child maltreatment in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, N Z; Lynch, M A

    1997-08-01

    Concern is increasing in Bangladesh over child abuse, neglect, and exploitation. Children from all walks of life are being treated at the Child Development Center (CDC) Dhaka Shishu Hospital for neurodevelopmental problems resulting from abuse and neglect. Efforts to protect children from sexual harassment result in girls being isolated at home or married at an early age. Some young brides are eventually abandoned and forced into prostitution. Early marriage reflects the lack of acknowledgement of a period of adolescence and the belief that puberty is a marker of adulthood. Many girls aged 8-16 are employed as live-in domestic servants, and many suffer sexual as well as emotional abuse. Garment factories, on the other hand, offer girls an escape from extreme poverty, domestic service, and early marriage but are threatened by forces that condemn child labor. Rather than ending such opportunities, employers should be encouraged to provide employees with educational and welfare facilities. The CDC seeks to explore the extent and depth of the problem of child abuse while recognizing the special circumstances at work in Bangladesh. It is also necessary to raise awareness of these issues and of the discrepancies between the law and cultural practices. For example, the legal marriage age of 18 years for a woman and 21 years for a man is often ignored. Additional forms of abuse receiving the attention of women's organizations and human rights groups include the trafficking of children. A network of concerned organizations should be created to work against the child abuse, neglect, and exploitation that Bangladesh has pledged to overcome by signing the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. PMID:9280385

  19. Education, Poverty and Child Labour

    OpenAIRE

    Fabre, Alice; Augeraud-Veron, Emmanuelle

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to investigate the effects of poverty and educational policies on school attendance, child labour and growth. We consider an OLG model, with parental educational choices. It is assumed there is a trade off between child labour and human capital accumulation. If parents don't choose for quality of education, it is shown that a poverty trap may occur in the presence of a consumption subsistence or when the quality of education is inadequate. A private education syste...

  20. Child Abuse - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Child Abuse URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Child Abuse - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  1. 12-15 Months: Your Child's Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Early Learning Child Care Early Literacy Early Math and Science Language and Communication Play School Readiness ... to talk and understand so much more. Choose books about things that interest your child and make ...

  2. Epilepsy - what to ask your doctor - child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000222.htm Epilepsy - what to ask your doctor - child To use ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Your child has epilepsy. Children with epilepsy have seizures. A seizure is ...

  3. Parental socioeconomic background and child behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quinto Romani, Annette

    2014-01-01

    and resource constraints, respectively. We address this issue using a unique longitudinal data set of almost 1,500 schoolchildren attending state schools between 2008 and 2010 in the Danish Municipality of Aalborg. One empirical strategy is to control for a rich set of child and parental characteristics......; another is to use child fixed effect to control for fixed unobserved child characteristics. By including the interaction between child behaviour and parental socioeconomic background, a more complete but more complex picture arises. Our findings challenge the predominant assumption that behaviour...... set of child and parental characteristics; another is to use child fixed effect to control for fixed unobserved child characteristics. By including the interaction between child behaviour and parental socioeconomic background, a more complete but more complex picture arises. Our findings challenge...

  4. System for controlling child safety seat environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabney, Richard W. (Inventor); Elrod, Susan V. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A system is provided to control the environment experienced by a child in a child safety seat. Each of a plurality of thermoelectric elements is individually controllable to be one of heated and cooled relative to an ambient temperature. A first portion of the thermoelectric elements are positioned on the child safety seat such that a child sitting therein is positioned thereover. A ventilator coupled to the child safety seat moves air past a second portion of the thermoelectric elements and filters the air moved therepast. One or more jets coupled to the ventilator receive the filtered air. Each jet is coupled to the child safety seat and can be positioned to direct the heated/cooled filtered air to the vicinity of the head of the child sitting in the child safety seat.

  5. When to Seek Help for Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... signs which may indicate that a child and adolescent psychiatric evaluation will be useful. Younger Children Marked fall in ... medical school in general (adult) and child and adolescent psychiatry. Facts ... or educational use without written permission, but cannot be included ...

  6. When Your Child Needs a Heart Transplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Zika & Pregnancy When Your Child Needs a Heart Transplant KidsHealth > For Parents > When Your Child Needs a ... and is prepared for the challenges ahead. About Heart Transplants A heart transplant is a surgery in which ...

  7. Caring for a Seriously Ill Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... With Serious Illness When Your Child's in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit Caring for Siblings of Seriously Ill Children Preparing Your Child for Surgery Managing Home Health Care Marriage Advice for Parents of Children ...

  8. The inconvenient truth about child brides

    OpenAIRE

    Ustek, Funda; Alyanak, Oguz

    2014-01-01

    It is easy for states to ratify all the necessary conventions and take all the necessary legal steps in outlawing child marriages. However, it is the very social system that produces child brides that should be put under investigation.

  9. ``Battered child`` syndrome; Das ``Battered-Child``-Syndrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsner, K.; Merk, J.; Sokiranski, R. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Abt. Diagnostische Radiologie

    1997-10-01

    Synonyms for the `battered child` syndrome (BCS) are terms describing the physical and body aspects of the process, such as `child abuse`, or `non-accidental injury`. These are to be distinguished from the psychic aspects and abuse, emotional and bodily neglect, and sexual abuse. Most cases are one or another combination of these aspects. Radiology is the essential method for giving proof of such abuses, identifying the signs of maltreatment in a medical record, or for disproving suspected abuse. (orig./AJ) [Deutsch] Als Synonym fuer das `Battered-Child`-Syndrom (BCS) stehen die Begriffe der koerperlichen-/physikalischen-Kindesmisshandlung, im angelsaechsischen Sprachraum die Begriffe `Child Abuse` und `Nonaccidental Injury`. Vom Syndrom abzugrenzen sind die seelische Misshandlung, die seelische und koerperliche Vernachlaessigung, und der sexuelle Missbrauch. Kombinationsformen sind nicht selten. Bei der Diagnostik des Syndroms spielt die Radiologie eine entscheidende Rolle. So hilft der Einsatz adaequater Untersuchungsmethoden, den Tatbestand der Misshandlung zu identifizieren und zu dokumentieren, aber auch einen Verdacht zu widerlegen. (orig./AJ)

  10. Undetected and detected child sexual abuse and child pornography offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neutze, Janina; Grundmann, Dorit; Scherner, Gerold; Beier, Klaus Michael

    2012-01-01

    Current knowledge about risk factors for child sexual abuse and child pornography offenses is based on samples of convicted offenders, i.e., detected offenders. Only few studies focus on offenders not detected by the criminal justice system. In this study, a sample of 345 self-referred pedophiles and hebephiles was recruited from the community. All participants met DSM-IV-TR criteria for pedophilia or hebephilia (paraphilia not otherwise specified), were assured of confidentiality, and self-reported lifetime sexual offending against prepubescent and/or pubescent children. Two sets of group comparisons were conducted on self-report data of risk factors for sexual reoffending. Measures of risk factors address the following dimensions identified in samples of convicted offenders: sexual preferences (i.e. co-occurring paraphilias), sexual self-regulation problems, offense-supportive cognitions, diverse socio-affective deficits, and indicators of social functioning (e.g., education, employment). Men who admitted current or previous investigation or conviction by legal authorities (detected offenders) were compared with those who denied any detection for their sexual offenses against children (undetected offenders). Group comparisons (detected vs. undetected) were further conducted for each offense type separately (child pornography only offenders, child sexual abuse only offenders, mixed offenders). Although there were more similarities between undetected and detected offenders, selected measures of sexual-self regulation problems, socio-affective deficits, and social functioning data demonstrated group differences. PMID:22420934

  11. Emergency Child Aid. Child Health and Safety Series (Module VI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iscoe, Louise; And Others

    This manual for child care personnel in day care homes and centers provides a step by step review of what to do in common emergency situations. It is emphasized that the manual is not a substitute for the complete first aid course which every careperson should have. Initial sections of the manual focus on preparing for emergency conditions,…

  12. Does Social Labelling Encourage Child Schooling and Discourage Child Labour in Nepal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Sayan; Grote, Ulrike; Luchters, Guido

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the determinants of child labour vis-a-vis child schooling. It further examines the influence of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) which are engaged in social labelling, on the incidence of child labour and schooling trade-off. The empirical results show that the probability of child schooling increases as well as child…

  13. Teaching HIV/AIDS through a Child-to-Child Approach: A Teacher's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwebi, Bosire Monari

    2012-01-01

    This paper draws from a larger study conducted in Kenya, which was a narrative inquiry into a teacher's experiences of teaching the HIV/AIDS curriculum using a child-to-child approach. The two major research questions of this study were: 1) What are the experiences of a teacher teaching the HIV/AIDS curriculum using a child-to-child curriculum…

  14. Grandparents as Child Care Providers : Factors to Consider When Designing Child Care Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Posadas, Josefina

    2012-01-01

    Formal child care services can expand women's economic opportunities and promote equity through early childhood development. However, academics and policy makers often overlook the role of relatives as child care providers. This note discusses how grandparent-provided child care can be factored into child care policies in the context of Organization for Economic Co-operation and Developmen...

  15. Child and Parent Characteristics, Parental Expectations, and Child Behaviours Related to Preschool Children's Interest in Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroody, Alison E.; Dobbs-Oates, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined the relations between children's literacy interest and parent and child characteristics (i.e. parents' education level and child's gender), parental expectations of their child's school attainment and achievement and the child's positive and problem behaviours. Participants were 61 preschoolers from predominately…

  16. Child Art Therapy and Parent Consultation: Facilitating Child Development and Parent Strengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Annette

    2000-01-01

    Explores outpatient art therapy methodology which integrates D. W. Winnicott's (1971) model of parent consultation, child art therapy theories, and contemporary theories of child and brief psychotherapy. Two case studies that illustrate effective symptom management and structural change with the child and the child-parent bond are presented.…

  17. Extended Child and Caregiver Benefits of Behavior-Based Child Contingency Learning Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunst, Carl J.; Raab, Melinda; Trivette, Carol M.; Wilson, Linda L.; Hamby, Deborah W.; Parkey, Cindy

    2010-01-01

    Findings from 2 studies of the relationship between response-contingent child behavior and child, caregiver-child, and caregiver behavior not directly associated with child contingency learning are described. The participants were 19 children with significant developmental delays and their mothers in 1 study and 22 children with significant…

  18. Child Welfare Training in Child Psychiatry Residency: A Program Director Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Terry G.; Cox, Julia R.; Walker, Sarah C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study surveys child psychiatry residency program directors in order to 1) characterize child welfare training experiences for child psychiatry residents; 2) evaluate factors associated with the likelihood of program directors' endorsing the adequacy of their child welfare training; and 3) assess program directors'…

  19. Burden of Child Maltreatment in China

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, Xiangming; Fry, Deborah; Ji, Kai; Finkelhor, David; Chen, Jingqi; Lannen, Patricia; Dunne, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To estimate the health and economic burdens of child maltreatment in China. Methods We did a systematic review for studies on child maltreatment in China using PubMed, Embase, PsycInfo, CINAHL-EBSCO, ERIC and the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases. We did meta-analyses of studies that met inclusion criteria to estimate the prevalence of child neglect and child physical, emotional and sexual abuse. We used data from the 2010 global burden of disease estimate...

  20. Disruption strategies for online child pornography networks

    OpenAIRE

    Joffres, Kilauea

    2012-01-01

    The advent of the Internet has allowed for the creation of online child pornography networks, in which websites link to one another and facilitate access to child pornographic materials. This project seeks to use social network analysis tools to identify effective disruption strategies against online child pornography networks. For this purpose, four networks of child exploitation material were extracted using a specially designed web-crawler. These networks were then submitted to three diffe...

  1. Reported child awareness of parental depression

    OpenAIRE

    Eyre, Olga; Jones, Rhys Bevan; Mars, Becky; Hammerton, Gemma; Sellers, Ruth; Potter, Robert; Thapar, Ajay; Rice, Frances; Collishaw, Stephan; Thapar, Anita

    2014-01-01

    Aims and method To determine rates of parent-reported child awareness of parental depression, examine characteristics of parents, children and families according to child awareness, and explore whether child awareness is associated with child psychopathology. Data were available from 271 families participating in the Early Prediction of Adolescent Depression (EPAD) study, a longitudinal study of offspring of parents with recurrent depression. Results Seventy-three per cent of participating ch...

  2. Consumer boycott, household heterogeneity and child labour

    OpenAIRE

    Michele DI MAIO; Fabbri, Giorgio

    2010-01-01

    Consumer boycott campaigns against goods produced using child labour are becoming increasingly popular. Notwithstanding, there is no consensus on which are the effects of such type of activism on child labour. If some agreement is to be found in the recent economic literature, it is that the boycott does not reduce child labour. We contribute to this debate presenting a simple model which shows, instead, that there are conditions under which a consumer product boycott does reduce child labour...

  3. Analysing Maternal Employment and Child Care Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Akgündüz, Yusuf

    2014-01-01

    The contributions in this thesis revolve around mothers' employment and child care quality. The first topic of interest is how mothers' employment is affected by modern child care services and parental leave entitlements. There is already an extensive literature on the effects of modern social policies such as child care services and parental leave entitlements. A related second topic is how child care quality is produced and influenced by policy measures. Positive findings from the UK and US...

  4. Child labour, human capital and life expectancy

    OpenAIRE

    Giam Pietro Cipriani

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies new mechanisms through which human capital and longevity interact with child labour and endogenous fertility. When children provide old age support in the form of care and companionship, the economy may display multiple development regimes: a development trap with low human capital and large use of child labour or a high steady state with high longevity and human capital and low child labour. A situation with indeterminacy of equilibrium outcomes may also occur if child mor...

  5. Child Support and Young Children's Development

    OpenAIRE

    Nepomnyaschy, Lenna; Magnuson, Katherine; Berger, Lawrence M.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the effects of nonresident fathers’ provision of formal and informal cash child support on children's cognitive skills and behavior at 5 years of age. Taking advantage of the panel structure of the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, we control for child outcomes at age 3 and a rich set of child and family sociodemographic and psychosocial characteristics. We find that fathers’ provision of informal cash support (but not formal support), particularly at or above th...

  6. Child physical abuse : Reports and interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Lindell, Charlotta

    2005-01-01

    This thesis was begun in 1998 at a time when increased numbers of police reports regarding child physical abuse was presented. The increase had been overshadowed by the research on the sexual abuse of children and showed that child physical abuse in Sweden had only been scarcely investigated since the institution of the Swedish anti spanking law in 1979. The aim of this thesis was to investigate child physical abuse from a judicial, social, child- and adolescent psychiatric and a user perspec...

  7. Family rationales behind child begging in Antananarivo

    OpenAIRE

    Jérôme Ballet; Augendra BHUKUTH; Felana Rakotonirinjanahary; Miantra Rakotonirinjanahary

    2010-01-01

    Child beggars form a specific category of child workers. They are generally associated with street-living children, as defined by UNICEF. Analysis of begging thus generally focuses on children?s survival strategies. Using data from an exploratory survey conducted in Antananarivo in autumn 2009, this research paper shows that in the Madagascan capital, the vast majority of child beggars are in fact exploited by their family and do not live on the streets. It proposes a typology of child beggar...

  8. The cultural significance of the child star

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, Jane Catherine

    2006-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. This study provides a sociological account of the child star as both a universal and culturally specific phenomenon. Arguing against dominant 'common-sense' definitions of child stars as precociously deviant, I relocate the child star as a product of wider social contradictions and constructions surrounding children and childhood more generally. Through an analysis of the way in which child s...

  9. Child Care Arrangements and Labor Supply

    OpenAIRE

    Del Boca, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses several approaches to examining the relationship between child care and mothers' labor supply. The focus is on child care for children aged 0-3, because this is a critical period for working mothers and their children and because most European and American households with children aged 3-5 already use child care centers. The paper provides data concerning availability of, government spending on, and quantity and quality standards for child care in different countries, the...

  10. The Macroeconomics of Child Labor Regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Doepke, Matthias; Zilibotti, Fabrizio

    2003-01-01

    We construct a dynamic general equilibrium model with endogenous policy choice to analyze the adoption of child labor laws. The key mechanism in our model is that parents’ decisions on family size interact with their preferences for child labor regulation. If policies are endogenous, multiple steady states with different child labor policies can exist. Consistent with empirical evidence, the model predicts a positive correlation between child labor, fertility, and inequality. In addition, the...

  11. Child Labor, Crop Shocks, and Credit Constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Kathleen Beegle; Rajeev Dehejia; Roberta Gatti

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between household income shocks and child labor. In particular, we investigate the extent to which transitory income shocks lead to increases in child labor and whether household access to credit mitigates the effects of these shocks. Using panel data from a survey in Tanzania, we find that both relationships are significant. Our results suggest that credit constraints play a role in explaining child labor and consequently that child labor is inefficient, ...

  12. CHILD ABUSE, FENOMENA DAN KEBIJAKAN DI INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Suci Wulansari

    2012-01-01

    Research about child abuse in Indonesia done by United Nations Children's Funds (UNICEF) results a concerned condition. The same opinion is also declared by Indonesian Commission on Children Protection. The increasing number of child abuse in Indonesia is highlighted in international society. Child abuse causes many negative effects for physical, mental, and or sexual of children, that effect for the growth and development of child thus leads to rise the lost generation. Medical officers hope...

  13. Child Malnutrition in Pakistan: Trends and Determinants

    OpenAIRE

    G. M. Arif; Saman Nazir; Maryam Naeem Satti; Shujaat Farooq

    2012-01-01

    The major objective of this paper to examine the determinants of child malnutrition, based on the Pakistan Panel Household Survey (PPHS-2010). The study has focused on individual (child), household and community variables to understand differentials in child malnutrition. Child illness, health status of their mothers and poverty status of households are the key factors utilized in this study to understand the malnutrition phenomenon. [PIDE Working paper]. URL:[http://www.pide.org.pk/pdf/Worki...

  14. The Social Context of Child Maltreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumrind, Diana

    1994-01-01

    Discusses family factors associated with child abuse from an ecological perspective. Identifies economic and cultural generative factors of child abuse. Explores special circumstances affecting occurrence of child maltreatment. Examines dimensions of responsiveness, demandingness, and parental authority patterns in their application to abusive…

  15. Reporting Child Abuse and Neglect: Legal Requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yell, Mitchell L.

    1996-01-01

    This article reviews federal and state legal mandates to report child abuse. It addresses the issue of immunity from civil suit and criminal prosecution for reporting suspected child abuse or neglect, along with the criminal prosecution that may result if suspected child abuse or neglect is not reported. (CR)

  16. What Is Child Abuse and Neglect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Each State provides its own definitions of child abuse and neglect based on minimum standards set by Federal law. This fact sheet provides the answers to the following questions: (1) How is child abuse and neglect defined in Federal law?; and (2) What are the major types of child abuse and neglect? Additional resources are listed. (Contains 2…

  17. Parent’s Addiction and Child Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Jazayeri

    2002-10-01

    The aim of this study is review the theorical approches of child abuse and its prevalency, ethiology, prevention, assessment and treatment. Also, we try to difine the relationship between child abuse and parents addiction and their side effects in different areas of childs life .

  18. Child Psychotherapy Dropout: An Empirical Research Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deakin, Elisabeth; Gastaud, Marina; Nunes, Maria Lucia Tiellet

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to discuss the most recent data about child psychotherapy dropout, especially child psychoanalytical psychotherapy. The authors also try to offer some possible alternatives to prevent such a phenomenon. The definition of "child psychotherapy dropout" is extensively discussed. The goal has been to attempt to create a standardised…

  19. Child Exploitation: Some Pieces of the Puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohlader, Dorothy

    The report addresses the status in North Carolina and in the nation of child exploitation. Legislative and judicial backgrounds of child pornography and child prostitution are reviewed, and difficulties in obtaining statistical data are noted. Law enforcement issues in pornography are cited, and suggestions for further legislation regarding child…

  20. 38 CFR 3.210 - Child's relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... be required to establish the legality of the marriage of the mother of the child to the veteran or to... birth as outlined in § 3.209, evidence of the marriage of the veteran to the natural parent of the child... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Child's relationship....

  1. Every Child. Volume 12, Number 2, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Alison, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    "Every Child" is Australia's premier early childhood publication, aimed at anyone involved in the care and education of children from birth to eight years--in particular child care professionals, teachers, child care students and the parents of young children. Published quarterly, it contains informative and entertaining articles on such issues as…

  2. Safety for Your Child: 8 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sleep Safety & Prevention Safety & Prevention Safety and Prevention Immunizations At Home At Play On The Go All ... Your Child: 8 Years Ages & Stages ... rules. But your child can learn safety rules with your help and reminders. Your child now goes out more without you ...

  3. 75 FR 81894 - Safeguarding Child Support Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ... the safety of an individual thought to be a victim of family violence or child abuse. The intention of... involving domestic violence or child abuse. Section 453A of the Act, 42 U.S.C. 653a, requires States to... disclosure of information if there is a reasonable evidence of domestic violence or child abuse and...

  4. The One Child Family in Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falbo, Toni

    The increase in one child families in the 1980's is analogous to the one child family rate during the Depression years. Although family size was limited for economic reasons during the Depression, current increases in the number of one child families are attributed to advances in contraceptive technology, increased employment of women, inhibiting…

  5. The Whole Child: An International Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzam, Amy M.

    2007-01-01

    In a recent report, "Child Poverty in Perspective: An Overview of Child Well-Being in Rich Countries," UNICEF's Innocenti Research Centre looks at the well-being of children and young people in 21 nations of the industrialized world. The report measures child well-being in six categories: (1) material well-being; (2) health and safety; (3)…

  6. Parents Who Have a Child with Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ways to distract or entertain your child Playing video games or watching movies can help your child to ... limits, learn about other activities such as music, games, or writing that may ... to get the academic support your child needs during treatment: Meet with ...

  7. Child Participation and Disaster Risk Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Yany; Hayden, Jacqueline; Cologon, Kathy; Hadley, Fay

    2012-01-01

    It has been shown that child participation can have positive results in the rescue, relief and rehabilitation phases of a disaster. Currently child participation is achieving increased attention as a component of disaster risk reduction (DRR). This paper examines the ongoing dialogues on child participation and reviews pertinent literature…

  8. Child Labour and Educational Success in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulart, Pedro; Bedi, Arjun S.

    2008-01-01

    The current debate on child labour focuses on developing countries. However, Portugal is an example of a relatively developed country where child labour is still a matter of concern as between 8% and 12% of Portuguese children may be classified as workers. This paper studies the patterns of child labour in Portugal and assesses the consequences of…

  9. Explaining Variation in Child Labor Statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Dillon, Andrew; Bardasi, Elena; Beegle, Kathleen; Serneels, Pieter

    2010-01-01

    Child labor statistics are critical for assessing the extent and nature of child labor activities in developing countries. In practice, widespread variation exists in how child labor is measured. Questionnaire modules vary across countries and within countries over time along several dimensions, including respondent type and the structure of the questionnaire. Little is known about the eff...

  10. Child Labor and School Attendance in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyi, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest incidence of child labor in the world and estimates show that it continues to grow. This paper examines the causes and magnitude of child labor in Kenya. Unlike previous studies that examined child labor as only an economic activity, this paper includes household chores. Including household chores is important…

  11. School Attendance and Child Labor in Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez-Acevedo, Gladys

    2002-01-01

    The author uses the Ecuador Living Standards and Measurement Surveys (LSMS 1998 and 1999) to analyze the characteristics and determinants of child labor and schooling. She shows how interventions at the level of adults affect child labor and school enrollment. For example, an employment policy encouraging employment in the formal modern sector reduces child labor and increases schooling. I...

  12. A Positive Stigma for Child Labor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrinos, Harry Anthony; Shafiq, M. Najeeb

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a simple empirical model that assumes a positive stigma (or norm) towards child labor that is common in some developing countries. We then illustrate our positive stigma model using data from Guatemala. Controlling for several child- and household-level characteristics, we use two instruments for measuring stigma: a child's indigenous…

  13. Adoption and Child Welfare Protection in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumaret, Annick-Camille; Rosset, Dominique-Jeanne

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the French Child Protection system, which is managed by Child Welfare of the local authorities (Aide Sociale a l'Enfance) and by Judicial Juvenile Protection depending on the central government (Protection Judiciaire de la Jeunesse) Children's judges are involved in child protection. The majority of children in care live in…

  14. Global Perspectives on Child Welfare. Preface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasztor, Eileen Mayers; McFadden, Emily Jean

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the effects of a global perspective on awareness of issues affecting child welfare worldwide, including warfare, land mines, AIDS, child labor, child sexual exploitation, and immigration. Considers programs and policies from other countries, including nongovernmental organizations, that can be replicated worldwide to better children's…

  15. Diagnosis of the Bleeding Child

    OpenAIRE

    Yıldız, İnci

    1995-01-01

    Hemostasis is the body response to bleeding with the interaction of the blood vessel the platelets and the coagulation factors This article reviews the normal physiologic mechanism of hemostasis together with the diagnostic approach to the bleeding child The commonly used tests of hemostasis are described Key words: Bleeding Diagnosis Tests

  16. Sonya Hartnett's "Thursday's Child": Readings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Judith; Rudd, David

    2004-01-01

    Sonya Hartnett's "Thursday's Child" was published in Australia by Penguin Books in 2000. Editions are available in the UK (Walker Books, 2002), the USA (Candlewick, 2002), as well as in Canada, Germany, Italy, Norway, and Denmark. In 2002, the book was awarded the "Guardian's" Children's Fiction Prize in the UK. Like Harper, the narrator of the…

  17. Encountering Child Abuse at Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durall, John K.

    1997-01-01

    Defines child abuse, including the three categories: physical, sexual, and psychological. Presents characteristics and behaviors of each type of abuse, and long-term effects. Discusses how to handle abuse that occurs at camp, and the effects on the camp. Sidebars present abuse statistics, 15 activities that promote psychological wellness, and 8…

  18. Child Abuse and Domestic Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Traumatic Stress Disorder Reporting Domestic Abuse Reporting Suspected Child Abuse or Neglect Traumatic Brain Injury Family & Relationships There’s more to a military family than moving and deployments — take us along through each phase of your military ... Care and Youth Programs Parenting Military Youth on ...

  19. Child Violence Can Be Stopped

    OpenAIRE

    Jennifer Knot

    2000-01-01

    Mehr Khan argues that education, love and support can stop child violence. He argues that the idea that some children are born ‘bad’ and destined to be violent is outdated. Children become violent because of the violence and depravation they experience. Development (2000) 43, 53–54. doi:10.1057/palgrave.development.1110117

  20. Child Nutrition Programs. Administrative Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City.

    Recognizing the importance of efficient and effective program administration for the success of Utah's Child Nutrition Programs, the State Office of Education developed a manual to assist local program administrators in using the U.S. Department of Agriculture's (USDA's) programs. This document contains Part 1 of the manual's four interrelated…

  1. When your child has diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hydrated. These products can be bought at the supermarket or pharmacy. Popsicles and Jell-O can be good sources of fluids, especially if your child is vomiting. You can slowly get large amounts of fluids into children with these products. ...

  2. Definition of a Dependent Child

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    The Department of Human Resources wishes to remind members of the personnel that, under the provisions of § 6 of Administrative Circular No. 5 “Dependent child”, in the case of a child over 18 years of age the status of dependent child comes to an end once a course of studies is completed. Consequently, the payment of the dependent child allowance and the child's membership of the CERN Health Insurance Scheme terminate with effect from the last day of the month in which the course of study concerned ends. In this connection, members of the personnel are reminded that children who are no longer dependent according to the Staff Rules and Regulations and who are less than 26 years of age can nevertheless opt for membership of the normal health insurance under the terms and conditions laid down in the CERN Health Insurance Rules. The Department of Human Resources also wishes to remind members of the personnel that, pursuant to Article R IV 1.17 of the Staff Regulations, a member of the personnel is requ...

  3. Quality in Child Care Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ERS Spectrum, 1998

    1998-01-01

    A significant correlation exists between quality child care and outcomes. Quality-related outcomes include cooperative play, sociability, creativity, ability to solve social conflicts, self-control, and language and cognitive development. Legislatures and agencies should strengthen standards; require initial and ongoing staff training; recruit,…

  4. Conscious Choking: Adult and Child

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and AED LIFEGUARDING Refresher Conscious Choking—Adult and Child (2:25) QUICK LINKS Home RedCross.org Purchase Course Materials Shop Our Store Contact Us Privacy Policy Terms and Conditions All rights reserved. 2011 American National Red Cross.

  5. Child Care in High Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, Janet

    1999-01-01

    Provides advice on how to set up child day-care services within a school to allow teen mothers to continue their education. Among the advice given are to provide a comprehensive program, be prepared for resistance, tap multiple funding sources, pay attention to staff training and necessary paperwork, have clear guidelines and rules, and be…

  6. Music Learning and Child's Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littleton, Danette

    1998-01-01

    Reviews various studies on childs play and its relation to young childrens development in music learning processes and explores the role that cognitive and social play categories have in studying childrens play with music. Provides strategies for initiating music-play opportunities in a preschool classroom. (CMK)

  7. Article Omission across Child Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guasti, Maria Teresa; Gavarro, Anna; de Lange, Joke; Caprin, Claudia

    2008-01-01

    Article omission is known to be a feature of early grammar, although it does not affect all child languages to the same extent. In this article we analyze the production of articles by 12 children, 4 speakers of Catalan, 4 speakers of Italian, and 4 speakers of Dutch. We consider the results in the light of (i) the adult input the children are…

  8. Understanding Child Rights in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grewal, Imandeep Kaur; Singh, Nandita Shukla

    2011-01-01

    Research Findings: This article traces the status of child rights in India, with special attention to traditional beliefs that have shaped and sustain gender discrimination. The article examines the possibilities and limitations of the newly implemented Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act of 2009 for operating as an equalizing…

  9. Creativity and the Young Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindham, Carole

    2005-01-01

    There is a Chinese proverb which tells that a child is like a piece of paper: everyone who touches it leaves a mark, so one should make sure those marks are positive. In this article, the author raises an issue which concerns providing for, recognizing and celebrating creativity in children's play. It involves challenging the set of ideas about…

  10. Adult Consequences of Child Psychopathology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Reef (Joni)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractChild and adolescent psychopathology is a great burden to individuals, their families, and to society at large. Children and adolescents with behavioral and emotional problems suffer from impairments in several domains of functioning, including difficulties with friendship, self-esteem a

  11. The Child-Fat Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberstadt, Mary

    2003-01-01

    Experts believe that child obesity is a serious medical problem that affects people in all socioeconomic groups. Suggests that there is a relationship between absentee parents, particularly mothers, and obese children, focusing on working/absentee mothers, television watching habits, the prophylactic effect of breastfeeding, and poor exercise…

  12. Child Labor Laws in Mississippi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Jerry H.

    Child labor laws have not attracted much attention in recent years. Much of the basic legislation and the case law dates from the early part of the 20th century. This paper discusses the Mississippi statutory law on the subject, compares that law with legislation in five other States, and discusses case law in Mississippi and in other States.…

  13. Child Labor : A Normative Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Satz, Debra

    2003-01-01

    Examining child labor through the lenses of weak agency, distributive inequality, and harm suggests that not all work performed by children is equally morally objectionable. Some work, especially work that does not interfere with or undermine their health or education, may allow children to develop skills they need to become well-functioning adults and broaden their future opportunities. O...

  14. Educators, Schools, and Child Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadhurst, Diane D.

    The booklet provides an overview on the school-related issues involved in child abuse and neglect. Definitions, causes, and effects of abuse and neglect are reviewed in the first chapter; guidelines for identifying physical and sexual abuse, neglect, and emotional maltreatment are offered in chapter 2. Aspects of reporting abuse are noted as are…

  15. Simultaneous Analysis of Child Labour and Child Schooling: Comparative Evidence from Nepal and Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjan Ray

    2001-01-01

    This study investigates the key determinants of child labour hours and child schooling experience paying special attention to the interaction between the two. A significant methodogical feature that distinguishes the present study from previous investigations is that this analysis recognises the joint endogeneity of child labour, child schooling and child poverty. The study is conducted on Nepalese and Pakistani data, and the results are compared. A key empirical finding, with significant pol...

  16. Child labour in Bhutan : the challenges of implementing child rights in Bhutan

    OpenAIRE

    Chhetri, Kishore Kumar

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation attempts to contextualize the practice of child labour in Bhutan by examining various socio-economic and cultural aspects. By reviewing the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, this dissertation looks into the policies, Acts and strategies adopted by the Royal Government of Bhutan in reducing child labour. It describes various characteristics of child labour in Bhutan. It also provides an analysis of domestic child labour in the country. The study is mo...

  17. No Child Left Behind: Subsidized Child Care and Children's Long-Run Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Tarjei Havnes; Magne Mogstad

    2011-01-01

    Many developed countries are currently considering a move toward subsidized, widely accessible child care or preschool. However, studies on how large-scale provision of child care affects child development are scarce, and focused on short-run outcomes. We analyze a large-scale expansion of subsidized child care in Norway, addressing the impact on children's long-run outcomes. Our precise and robust difference-in-differences estimates show that subsidized child care had strong positive effects...

  18. [Child and family in China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, A

    1994-06-01

    In 1949, China's population numbered 540 million, which has doubled by 1994. Since the 1960s, the growth rate has been halved to 1.2% a year as a result of family planning and administrative measures. In 1981, the marriage law was released that abolished arranged marriage by the parents, and stressed the equality of the sexes, the legitimate rights of women and children, and monogamy. Family planning and the concept of the one-child family was also endorsed with strong controls on second births and the prohibition of third births. The means were late marriage (the combined age of the couple should reach 50 years), contractual birth allotments from the danwei, state quotas, and one-child certificates facilitating the acquisition of an apartment. Other measures were legal abortion and contraception (sterilization, oral contraceptives, and gossypol for men). In 1982, among the Chinese aged over 15, the majority were married with 0.59% divorced. An average of 20 million children are born in China annually. Children are cared for in day care centers or kindergartens as well as by grandparents. The former are located in factories, companies, and schools and are cost-free for employees. Other day care centers and kindergartens are run by committees in cities and villages supported by the state. The Confucian concept of raising children commands respect for the old and love of the children, who also fall under the attention of the danwei, a traditional community force. This principle subjects individualism to the group. The mother-child contact is reinforced by carrying the child on the back especially in rural areas. The one-child family promoted by the state has the drawbacks of overblown egotism and deficient socialization. In the cities 95% of first grade pupils are single children. PMID:8011469

  19. Child feeding and human rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent George

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human right to adequate food needs to be interpreted for the special case of young children because they are vulnerable, others make the choices for them, and their diets are not diverse. There are many public policy issues relating to child feeding. Discussion The core of the debate lies in differences in views on the merits of infant formula. In contexts in which there is strong evidence and a clear consensus that the use of formula would be seriously dangerous, it might be sensible to adopt rules limiting its use. However, until there is broad consensus on this point, the best universal rule would be to rely on informed choice by mothers, with their having a clearly recognized right to objective and consistent information on the risks of using different feeding methods in their particular local circumstances. Summary The obligation of the state to assure that mothers are well informed should be viewed as part of its broader obligation to establish social conditions that facilitate sound child feeding practices. This means that mothers should not be compelled to feed in particular ways by the state, but rather the state should assure that mothers are supported and enabled to make good feeding choices. Thus, children should be viewed as having the right to be breastfed, not in the sense that the mother is obligated to breastfeed the child, but in the sense that no one may interfere with the mother's right to breastfeed the child. Breastfeeding should be viewed as the right of the mother and child together.

  20. Some Unexplored Economics of Roaming Child Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Amit, Kundu; Anwesha, Das

    2010-01-01

    Within the net of child labour, there is a section of children who live their lives on the streets, without any kind of attachment with their family and maintain their livelihood through working as informal child workers. This study is based on these children who are termed here as ‘Roaming child workers’. It came out that apart from poverty of the parents there are other socio-economic reasons which force a child to come out from the family and work as child worker in the urban areas. It als...

  1. Child abuser stereotypes: consensus among clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krowchuk, H V

    1989-02-01

    This article reports the results of an investigation of nurses' stereotypes of child abusers. Ninety-four registered nurses completed a questionnaire that measured subjects' knowledge of child abuse; professional contact with perpetrators and victims of abuse; knowledge of the causes of child abuse; and child abuser stereotypes. Results reveal a consensus among the subjects as to the stereotypes associated with child abusers. This study supports the notion that nurses stereotype individuals on the basis of demographic characteristics. This study also raises questions regarding the bias that may result from the use of child abuser stereotypes. Clinical decision-making processes could become compromised if biased judgements are used in planning nursing care for clients diagnosed as child abusers. PMID:2930179

  2. Health consequences of child labour in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The paper examines the effect of child labour on child health outcomes in Bangladesh, advancing the methodologies and the results of papers published in different journals. Objective: We examine the effect of child labour on child health outcomes. Methods: We used Bangladesh National Child Labour Survey data for 2002-2003 for our analysis. Results: The main finding of the paper suggests that child labour is positively and significantly associated with the probability of being injured or becoming ill. Intensity of injury or illness is significantly higher in construction and manufacturing sectors than in other sectors. Health disadvantages for different age groups are not essentially parallel. Conclusions: The results obtained in this paper strengthen the need for stronger enforcement of laws that regulate child labour, especially given its adverse consequences on health. Although the paper focuses on Bangladesh, much of the evidence presented has implications that are relevant to policymakers in other developing countries.

  3. Parent-Child Speech and Child Custody Speech Restrictions

    OpenAIRE

    Volokh, Eugene

    2005-01-01

    The "best interests of the child" standard -- the standard rule applied in custody disputes between two parents -- leaves family court judges ample room to consider a parent's ideology. Parents have had their rights limited or denied partly based on their advocacy of racism, homosexuality, adultery, nonmarital sex, Communism, Nazism, pacifism and disrespect for the flag, fundamentalism, polygamy, or religions that make it hard for children to "fit in the western way of life in this society."...

  4. Diagnostic imaging in child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diagnostic imaging in child abuse plays an important role and includes the depiction of skeletal injuries, soft tissue lesions, visceral injuries in ''battered child syndrome'' and brain injuries in ''shaken baby syndrome''. The use of appropriate imaging modalities allows specific fractures to be detected, skeletal lesions to be dated and the underlying mechanism of the lesion to be described. The imaging results must be taken into account when assessing the clinical history, clinical findings and differential diagnoses. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations must be performed in order to detect lesions of the central nervous system (CNS) immediately. CT is necessary in the initial diagnosis to delineate oedema and haemorrhages. Early detection of brain injuries in children with severe neurological symptoms can prevent serious late sequelae. MRI is performed in follow-up investigations and is used to describe residual lesions, including parenchymal findings. (orig.)

  5. ELECTRONIC MEDIA AND CHILD BEHAVIOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Dave

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In today’s society, electronic media are thoroughly integrated into the fabric of life, with television, movies, videos, music, video games, and computers, central to both work and play. While these media outlets can provide education and entertainment to children, many researches are concerned with the negative impact electronic media is having on children. Media is used as a third parent or servant. Lot of aspects are important related to media exposure and child behavior. Media exposure affects the neurodevelopment, nutrition and health and academic achievements of the child. Parent education plays an important role in the behavior modification of the children. [National J of Med Res 2011; 1(2.000: 87-89

  6. Familial and Extrafamilial Correlates of Children's Child-Care Perceptions

    OpenAIRE

    Godfrey, Michael K.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the individual, familial, and child-care characteristics related to children's perceptions of their nonparental child-care environments. One-hundred seventy-five children, their families, and child-care providers participated in this study. Children attended one of three forms of child care: large center-based child-care settings, home-based child-care settings, and a preschool. Correlates of children's perceptions of their child-care experiences came...

  7. Child Deprivation, Multidimensional Poverty and Monetary Poverty in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Leonardo Menchini; Yekaterina Chzhen; Gill Main; Bruno Martorano; Chris De Neubourg; Jonathan Bradshaw

    2012-01-01

    The paper focuses on child deprivation in Europe and studies the degree to which it is experienced by children in 29 countries using a child specific deprivation scale. The paper discusses the construction of a child deprivation scale and estimates a European Child Deprivation Index for the 29 countries using 14 specific child related variables made available by the child module of the EU-SILC 2009 survey. The 29 countries are ranked according to the degree of child deprivation: the results s...

  8. Economic growth and child poverty reduction in Bangladesh and China

    OpenAIRE

    Begum, Syeda Shahanara; Quheng, Deng; Gustafsson, Björn

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes child poverty in Bangladesh and China during periods of rapid economic growth in both countries. It compares the extent as well as profile of child poverty in both countries. Comparisons on the extent of child poverty, over time and across countries, are made using a decomposition framework attributing child poverty differences to differences in the three components mean child income, demographic circumstances and the distribution of child income. Child poverty is found to...

  9. Parental overprotection and its relation to perceived child vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomasgard, M; Metz, W P

    1997-04-01

    A study of 280 parents with a child age 5-10 years examined the relation between and correlates of parental overprotection (less education, younger child age, being an only child) and parental perception of increased child vulnerability (history of life-threatening illness, child medical condition, first child). One-third of parents who considered their child vulnerable were also considered overprotective. PMID:9142367

  10. The girl child and law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, A

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the flaws in India's legislation dealing with female children and equality, marriage age, rape, adoption, child care, and inheritance. India's national policies treat children as commodities and not human beings with their own rights. The best interests of a child are not generally served in a manner that advances their welfare. Exploitation of children for labor and sexual abuse of children is widespread. Only some children have such basic needs met as education, nutrition, food, health, clothing, shelter. Children are defined by the UN as human beings below the age of 18 years. However, in India the Constitution protects only children younger than 14 in employment. The prostitution act protects children younger than 16. The juvenile justice protects girls under the age of 18 years and boys under the age of 16 years. Hindus recognize inheritance of family property only for sons. This custom contributes to the abortion of female fetuses. The practice of equal protection under the law has enough loopholes to safeguard the interests of masculine patriarchal values, norms, and structure. The Act of Marriage does not deal directly with the issue of validity and only recommends a suitable age of marriage. Women can seek divorce on the grounds she was too young to marry only if the marriage occurred before the age of 15 years. Sexual intercourse with a woman under 16 years old is rape, with or without her consent. However, in practice men receive a lesser punishment for rape if the woman is his own wife and not under 12 years of age. The rape must be reported within a year of its occurrence. India's laws penalize the adults involved in child marriages, but the Hindu Marriage Act punishes only the parties married, including the child. Marriage registration is not compulsory. India's protective laws distinguish between prostitutes and men who use prostitutes, husbands versus wives in fidelity disputes, married versus unmarried or "unchaste" women

  11. Girl child in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra, K

    1995-01-01

    This article discusses the status of the girl child in rural India. Rural children lack the advantages of modern amenities and facilities, such as transportation, electricity, media, hygiene, health care, and access to education. A young girl's status is related to her mother's status. Women are valued the most when a son is born. Girl children are considered an economic liability in child care costs, dowry costs, and marriage support. Since the 1970s, dowry demands have increased. Daughters must meet the demands of prospective in-law for education and dowry even after marriage. The attitudes of parents, families, and society encourage sex-selective abortion, infanticide, abuse in childhood, and domestic violence in adulthood. It was reported in 1994 that a woman is molested every 26 minutes and raped every 52 minutes. The government of India developed an action plan in 1992 for developing the girl child. Rural girl children spend their time cooking, cleaning, fetching wood and water, caring for children, and working in the fields sowing, transplanting, and weeding. Girl children contribute over 20% of total work at home. The only advantage a girl child has in rural areas is visibility. The greatest disadvantage is that her mother, who faced neglect herself, discriminates against her. Increasingly girl children contribute income to their household from Beedi making, gem polishing, embroidering, or paper bag making. Sometimes girls and boys work in hazardous occupations. Gender disparity is evident in school enrollment, drop out rates, literacy, and employment. In 1994, India passed a universal female education bill that offers parents incentives for access and punishment for keeping a girl out of school. Communities need to create a demand for rural girl children's education. PMID:12158006

  12. Child abuse: Sivas (Turkey) sample

    OpenAIRE

    Sezer Ayan; Faruk Kocacık

    2009-01-01

    Subject of this study is family violence among primary school students. The purpose is to determine to what level socio-cultural, economical, psychological and communicative characteristics of the family affect the experience of violent acts on the child.Method: Universe of the study consists of second phase (junior high) students of grades VI, VII, and VIII in 70 primary schools in the city center of Sivas. When creating the sample, schools were divided into three groups as low, middle and h...

  13. [Giant tonsillolith in a child].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guochen

    2015-01-01

    We describe a case of a 7-year-old child with Down syndrome who presented with loud snoring and cessation of breath during sleep and was found to have a large calculus (20 mm X 12 mm X 12 mm) in her left tonsil by CT scan for which tonsillectomy with adenoidectomy were done. This is one of the youngest reported cases in the literature. PMID:25989675

  14. LITERATURE CHILDREN - CHILD AS PROTAGONIST

    OpenAIRE

    Wellington Amancio do Silva

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to contribute to issues related to social representations of children through the lens of the adult world; we recommend that fosters the child's opportunity to be author and co-author (protagonist) in the production of children's literature and is known to be beyond their textual production considering that all production of children in school (painting, scribbling, drawings, sketches of letters and various signs) is recognized as children's literature. 

  15. A Theory of Child Targeting

    OpenAIRE

    Donni, Olivier; Bargain, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    There is a large empirical literature on policy measures targeted at children but surprisingly very little theoretical foundation to ground the debate on the optimality of the different instruments. In the present paper, we examine the merit of targeting children through two general policies, namely selective commodity taxation and cash transfer to family with children. We consider a household that comprises an adult and a child. The household behavior is described by the ma...

  16. Behavioral Genetics and Child Temperament

    OpenAIRE

    Saudino, Kimberly J.

    2005-01-01

    Most temperament theories presume a biological basis to those behavioral tendencies thought to be temperamental in origin. Behavioral genetic methods can be used to test this assumption. Twin and adoption studies suggest that individual differences in infant and child temperament are genetically influenced. However, behavioral genetics has much more to offer to the study of temperament than simple heritability estimates. The present paper describes some recent findings from behavioral genetic...

  17. Current Approach to Child Rights

    OpenAIRE

    Huseyin Dag; Murat Dogan; Soner Sazak; Alper Kacar; Bilal Yilmaz; Ahmet Dogan; Vefik Arica

    2015-01-01

    Rights of children, legally or morally all over the world that children are born with; education, health, life, shelter; physical, psychological or sexual exploitation protection of such rights is universal concept used to describethemall. Rights of children is an issue that should be addressed in the concept of human rights. Today, there are many parts of the world that human rights violations, child-size and grew broader, more difficult to intervene in a way that is situated. The idea that ...

  18. Early Detection of Child Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Shearman, J. K.

    1987-01-01

    Child abuse, neglect and deprivation are more common than was previously thought. Family physicians are in a unique position to help abusers and abused because of their knowledge of patients from the cradle to the grave. They should use this knowledge to observe clues about parenting potential and should make a thorough family history a routine part of history taking in potential parents. They should also observe patients carefully during pregnancy and early childhood to detect parenting prob...

  19. Attitudes towards child sexual abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Tennfjord, Oddfrid Skorpe

    2008-01-01

    The main purpose of the present thesis was to develop a measurement instrument aimed to reveal attitudes towards child sexual abuse, and to measure attitudes and associating personal, social and cultural factors among three different samples of Norwegian adults. Additional aims were to explore the relation between participants’ knowledge-seeking on the one hand, their experiences, attitudes and actual knowledge about abuse on the other hand.Three studies are presented based on the same data m...

  20. Household choices and child development

    OpenAIRE

    Del Boca, Daniela; Flinn, Christopher; Wiswall, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    The growth in labor market participation among women with young children has raised concerns about the potential negative impact of the mother's absence from home on child outcomes. Recent data show that mother's time spent with children has declined in the last decade, while the indicators of children’s cognitive and noncognitive outcomes have worsened. The objective of our research is to estimate a model of the cognitive development process of children nested within an otherwise standard mo...

  1. Child Neurology Services in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Wilmshurst, Jo M.; Badoe, Eben; Wammanda, Robinson D.; Mallewa, Macpherson; Kakooza-Mwesige, Angelina; Venter, Andre; Charles R. Newton

    2011-01-01

    The first African Child Neurology Association meeting identified key challenges that the continent faces to improve the health of children with neurology disorders. The capacity to diagnose common neurologic conditions and rare disorders is lacking. The burden of neurologic disease on the continent is not known, and this lack of knowledge limits the ability to lobby for better health care provision. Inability to practice in resource-limited settings has led to the migration of skilled profess...

  2. Child abuse in panic disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Bonevski Dimitar; Novotni Antoni

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Numerous authors associate child abuse with serious long-term consequences to the general and psychological well-being in particular. Clinical research to date reveals strong correlation between childhood abuse and neglect and anxiety disorders, especially panic disorder. Material and Methods This study was conducted in order to assess the level of emotional, physical and sexual childhood abuse as well as the physical and emotional childhood neglect in 40 adult patients suffering...

  3. Migration, Transfers and Child Labor

    OpenAIRE

    Dimova, Ralitza; Gil S. Epstein; Ira N. Gang

    2011-01-01

    We examine agricultural child labor in the context of emigration, transfers, and the ability to hire outside labor. We start by developing a theoretical background based on Basu and Van, (1998), Basu, (1999, 2000) and Epstein and Kahana (2008) and show how hiring labor from outside the household and transfers to the household might induce a reduction in children's working hours. Analysis using Living Standards Measurement Survey (LSMS) data on the Kagera region in Tanzania lend support to the...

  4. Optimisation of framed child restraints

    OpenAIRE

    Dorn, Mark Richard

    1994-01-01

    This thesis documents a study into the effects of various parameters on the performance of Framed Child Seats (FCS) for automobiles. The work investigated the effect of three different sets of parameters: FCS design parameters, vehicle design parameters and occupant biomechanical parameters. The work was conducted at Middlesex University using a combination of experimental crash testing and computerised crash simulations. The experimental crash tests were conducted using the Road Safety E...

  5. Philippine campaign boosts child immunizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel-santana, R

    1993-03-01

    In 1989, USAID awarded the Philippines a 5-year, US $50 million Child Survival Program targeting improvement in immunization coverage of children, prenatal care coverage for pregnant women, and contraceptive prevalence. Upon successful completion of performance benchmarks at the end of each year, USAID released monies to fund child survival activities for the following year. This program accomplished a major program goal, which was decentralization of health planning. The Philippine Department of Health soon incorporated provincial health planning. The Philippine Department of Health soon incorporated provincial health planning in its determination of allocation of resources. Social marketing activities contributed greatly to success in achieving the goal of boosting the immunization coverage rate for the 6 antigens listed under the Expanded Program for Immunization (51%-85% of infants, 1986-1991). In fact, rural health officers in Tarlac Province in Central Luzon went from household to household to talk to mothers about the benefits of immunizing a 1-year-old child, thereby contributing greatly to their achieving a 95% full immunization coverage rate by December 1991. Social marketing techniques included modern marketing strategies and multimedia channels. They first proved successful in metro Manila which, at the beginning of the campaign, had the lowest immunization rate of all 14 regions. Every Wednesday was designated immunization day and was when rural health centers vaccinated the children. Social marketing also successfully publicized oral rehydration therapy (ORT), breast feeding, and tuberculosis control. Another contributing factor to program success in child survival activities was private sector involvement. For example, the Philippine Pediatric Society helped to promote ORT as the preferred treatment for acute diarrhea. Further, the commercial sector distributed packets of oral rehydration salts and even advertised its own ORT product. At the end of 2

  6. Current Approach to Child Rights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Dag

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Rights of children, legally or morally all over the world that children are born with; education, health, life, shelter; physical, psychological or sexual exploitation protection of such rights is universal concept used to describethemall. Rights of children is an issue that should be addressed in the concept of human rights. Today, there are many parts of the world that human rights violations, child-size and grew broader, more difficult to intervene in a way that is situated. The idea that children than in adults of different physical, physiological, behavioral and psychological characteristics that continuous growth and improve dawareness that the establishment of thecare of children a society where the problem is and scientific approach everyone with this responsibility should be installed is shaped in Geneva Declaration of Childrens Rights. Today, the international document related to childrens rights is the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child adoptedand approved by 193 countries. Child policy in Turkey where 25 million children live is an issue that should be seriously considered. Thus, childrens rights, children working in coordination with the contract on the basis of a policy should be implemented fully. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(1.000: 1-5

  7. Child abuse, a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andri M.T. Lubis

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse is a pervasive social and medical problem that remains a major cause of disability and death among children. The annual incidence of abuse is estimated to be 15 to 42 cases per 1,000 children and appears to be increasing. Fractures are the second most common presentation of physical abuse after skin lesions, and approximately one third of abused children will eventually be seen by an orthopedic surgeon. We report a 7-month-old boy who was suspected to be abused. Our diagnosis was based on findings of multiple fractures, delay in seeking medical treatment and discrepancy between the history of illness and the clinical findings. He sustained multiple fractures in variety of healing, namely fractures on left supracondylar humeri, left radius and ulna, right radius and ulna, both femora, right tibia, and left tibia and fibula. Radiological examination was an important modality in revealing the possibility of abuse on this child. He had received medical treatment, protection, consultation team for the parents and an underway police investigation. (Med J Indones 2004; 13: 59-65 Keywords: child, abuse

  8. Cranial imaging in child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serious head injury in children less than 2 years old is often the result of child abuse. The role of the different neuroimaging modalities in child abuse is reviewed. Skull X-ray and cranial CT are mandatory. Repeat or serial imaging may be necessary and brain MR imaging may contribute to the diagnostic work-up, particularly in the absence of characteristic CT findings. The radiologist plays an important role in accurately identifying non-accidental cranial trauma. The clinical presentation can be non-specific or misleading. The possibility should be considered of a combined mechanism, i.e., an underlying condition with superimposed trauma. In this context, the radiologist is in the front line to suggest the possibility of child abuse. It is therefore important to know the spectrum of, sometimes subtle, imaging findings one may encounter. Opthalmological examination is of the greatest importance and is discussed here, because the combination of retinal hemorrhages and subdural hematoma is very suggestive of non-accidental cranial trauma. (orig.)

  9. Oral and dental aspects of child abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arlette Suzy Puspa Pertiwi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse is defined as those acts or omissions of care that deprive a child from the opportunity to fully develop his or her unique potentials as a person either physically, socially or emotionally. The overall incidence of child abuse is not really clear. Statistical data do not show the actual rate because of the unreported cases. Dentists are in a strategic position to recognize and report the children being abused because they often see the child and parents interacting during multiple visits and over a long period of time. The orofacial region is commonly traumatized during episodes of child abuse. The characteristics and diagnostic finding of child abuse, and the protocol of reporting such cases, should be familiar to the dentist so that appropriate notification, treatment and prevention of further injury can be instituted. Dentists with experience or expertise in child abuse and neglect will strengthen their ability to prevent and detect child abuse and neglect and enhance the ability to care for and protect children. This paper discusses the oral and dental aspects of child abuse and the dentist role in evaluating this situation including prevention of child abuse.

  10. Child marriages in Turkey with different aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maide Gök

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Child marriages are one of the most improtant reasons of gender inequality in the family in Turkey, as well as a widespread social problem we face is seen all over the world. This situation increases the need for child marriages to be viewed from a different dimension to the phenomenon and to reveal all aspects of this problem. The issue of child marriages are being addressed in the literature in recent years has been the subject of research in different disciplines, but most of the work is focused on a single dimension of child marriage or depending on the specific area it seems they are trying to identify child marriage. In current study, although carried to contribute to the debate on the concept of child marriage, legal issues, medical, economic, social and political dimensions are presented with an integrated approach. In present study, it has been found that child marriages are an important result of observed gender inequalities in social, political, and economic life and child marriages have been found to cause to continue the gender inequality on women’s lives. However, the cultural codes, values and inequalities, the deterioration of the family structure, social movements, and migration are seen to have an impact on child marriages. In this study, many suggestions are offered to solve the problem of child marriages such as ensuring gender equality in childhood, abandoning conditioning on gender roles, and increasing education level and the law enforcement.

  11. Latina mothers' influences on child appetite regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva Garcia, Karina; Power, Thomas G; Fisher, Jennifer Orlet; O'Connor, Teresia M; Hughes, Sheryl O

    2016-08-01

    Parents influence child weight through interactions that shape the development of child eating behaviors. In this study we examined the association between maternal autonomy promoting serving practices and child appetite regulation. We predicted that maternal autonomy promoting serving practices would be positively associated with child appetite regulation. Participants were low-income Latino children-a group at high risk for the development of childhood obesity. A total of 186 low-income Latina mothers and their 4-5 year old children came to a laboratory on two separate days. On the first day, mothers and children chose foods for a meal from a buffet and were audio/videotaped so that maternal autonomy promoting serving practices could be later coded. On the second day, children completed the Eating in the Absence of Hunger (EAH) task to measure child appetite regulation. Mothers also completed the Child Eating Behavior Questionnaire (CEBQ) to measure other aspects of child appetite regulation (food responsiveness, satiety responsiveness, and emotional overeating). Maternal autonomy promotion during serving was assessed using seven separate measures of child and maternal behavior. Principal components analyses of these serving measures yielded three components: allows child choice, child serves food, and mother does not restrict. Consistent with hypotheses, maternal autonomy promoting serving practices (i.e., allows child choice and does not restrict) were negatively associated with maternal reports of child food responsiveness and emotional overeating (CEBQ). The results for the EAH task were more complex-mothers who were autonomy promoting in their serving practices had children who ate the most in the absence of hunger, but this linear effect was moderated somewhat by a quadratic effect, with moderate levels of autonomy promotion during serving associated with the greatest child EAH. PMID:27083128

  12. Identifying the characteristics of child sexual abuse cases associated with the child or child's parents withdrawing the complaint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Larissa S; Sharman, Stefanie J; Powell, Martine B

    2016-07-01

    Most child sexual abuse cases do not result in a full trial or guilty plea; rather, case attrition occurs at earlier stages of the criminal justice system. One reason for the attrition of these cases is the withdrawal of complaints, by children or their caregivers. The aim of the current study was to determine the case characteristics associated with complaint withdrawal in child sexual abuse cases by the child or his or her parents once a report has been made to authorities. All child sexual abuse incidents reported to authorities in one jurisdiction of Australia in 2011 were analyzed (N=659). A multinomial logistic regression was used to predict the following case outcomes: (1) withdrawn by the child or his or her parents, (2) exited for other reasons (e.g., the alleged offender was not identified, the child refused to be interviewed), and (3) resulted in a charge. Five predictors significantly added to the prediction of case outcome: child age, suspect gender, suspect age, child-suspect relationship, and abuse frequency. These results should contribute to the design of interventions in order to reduce complaint withdrawals if these withdrawals are not in the child's best interests. PMID:27318035

  13. Carefree in child care ?: child wellbeing, caregiving quality, and intervention programs in center-based child care

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, Claudia Denise

    2014-01-01

    The use of center child care in Western countries has increased over the last three decades and is nowadays the most frequently used type of non-parental care for children aged zero to four (OECD, 2013). The aim of the current dissertation is to shed more light on indicators of child care quality in center child care and to answer the question whether narrow-focused caregiver interventions are effective in improving child care quality. The reported meta-analysis shows that narrow-focus interv...

  14. The context of child welfare performance measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnochan, Sarah; Samples, Mark; Lawson, Jennifer; Austin, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    A growing movement in the United States seeks to improve the outcomes achieved by public agencies through performance measurement strategies. In child welfare policy, a federally mandated performance measurement system has evolved since the 1980s, establishing the federal Child and Family Services Review which uses a series of performance indicators for evaluating the child welfare system. This article reviews the literature on performance measurement and performance management in the public sector in order to develop a conceptual framework for examining the federal child welfare performance measurement system. It briefly summarizes the evolution of federal policy related to performance measurement in child welfare. The framework is then used to guide an analysis of the debate surrounding the establishment of the current child welfare performance measurement system, concluding with recommendations for consideration in future reform efforts. PMID:23705647

  15. Overprotective parenting and child anxiety: the role of co-occurring child behavior problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gere, Martina K; Villabø, Marianne A; Torgersen, Svenn; Kendall, Philip C

    2012-08-01

    The relationship between overprotective parenting and child anxiety has been examined repeatedly because theories emphasize its role in the maintenance of child anxiety. No study has yet tested whether this relationship is unique to child anxiety, by controlling for commonly co-occurring behavior problems within the same children. The current study examined 190 children (age 7-13, 118 [corrected] boys) referred to mental health clinics and their parents. Results revealed that significant correlations between overprotective parenting and child anxiety symptoms disappear after controlling for co-occurring child behavior symptoms. It appears that overprotection is not uniquely related to child anxiety. Furthermore, overprotective parenting was significantly and uniquely related to child behavior symptoms. Researchers and practitioners need to consider co-occurring child behavior problems when working with the parents of anxious children. PMID:22659077

  16. 22 CFR 96.36 - Prohibition on child buying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... birth medical costs, the care of the child, the care of the birth mother while pregnant and immediately following birth of the child, or the provision of child welfare and child protection services generally... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prohibition on child buying. 96.36 Section...

  17. 20 CFR 410.213 - Duration of entitlement; child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... first occurs: (1) The child dies; (2) The child marries; (3) The child attains age 18 and, (i) Is not... the month in which he attains age 18; (4) If the child's entitlement is based on his status as a... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Duration of entitlement; child....

  18. Caregiver Commitment to Foster Children: The Role of Child Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindhiem, Oliver; Dozier, Mary

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to examine the association between child behavior problems and caregiver commitment to their child in a group of young foster children. Method: The sample consisted of 102 caregiver-child dyads from the greater Baltimore area. Child behavior was assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist [CBCL; Achenbach, T. M. (1991).…

  19. American Child Care: Lessons from the First 100 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Susan D.

    Child care has been part of American culture for nearly a century. This paper takes a backward glance at the history of child care in the United States. During the industrial revolution, child care was disguised as child labor. As child labor laws were enacted, schooling became the focus of ideas about caring for groups of children. The idea of a…

  20. A dental perspective on child maltreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Kvist, Therese

    2016-01-01

    Children who are exposed to child maltreatment are at risk of developing physical and mental ill-health and of expressing risk-taking behaviors. International studies describe associations of child maltreatment with caries, head and neck injuries and intra- oral injuries. Similar studies in a Swedish context are scarce, and little is known. The present thesis analyzed associations of oral health and oral health behaviors among children exposed to child maltreatment, as well as among children ...

  1. A BIG SHAME OF MANKIND: CHILD ABUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat TOPBAS

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse has for a long time been recorded in literature of science in many parts of the world. In recent years, the affinity and aware of child abuse have been increased in Turkey. But, it is not enough. The purpose of this article was to defined child abuse and to attract attention of population and medical worker. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2004; 3(4.000: 76-80

  2. Economic growth: a panacea for child labour?

    OpenAIRE

    Uma S. Kambhampati; Rajan, Raji

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we test whether economic growth decreases child labour by bringing together data from the National Sample Survey of India and state-level macro data to estimate a bivariate probit model of schooling and labour. Our results lead us to conclude that contrary to popular wisdom, growth actually increases rather than decreases child labour because it increases the demand for child workers. The level of state NDP, village wages and household incomes are seen as the conduits through w...

  3. Child maltreatment, parents & the emergency department

    OpenAIRE

    Hoytema van Konijnenburg, E.M.M.

    2015-01-01

    The research described in this thesis focuses on the evaluation of several methods of screening for child maltreatment at the emergency department, with an emphasis on screening based on parental risk factors (‘child check’). The use of a screening checklist (mandatory in all Dutch emergency departments), a complete physical examination and the child check are discussed. Furthermore, the wellbeing of a family is assessed when a parent visits the emergency department due to intimate partner vi...

  4. A BIG SHAME OF MANKIND: CHILD ABUSE

    OpenAIRE

    Topbas, Murat

    2004-01-01

    Child abuse has for a long time been recorded in literature of science in many parts of the world. In recent years, the affinity and aware of child abuse have been increased in Turkey. But, it is not enough. The purpose of this article was to defined child abuse and to attract attention of population and medical worker. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2004; 3(4.000): 76-80

  5. The Function of Child Image in Advertising

    OpenAIRE

    YÜCEL, Yrd. Doç. Dr. Halime; Kara, Barış

    2007-01-01

    In this paper 200 commercials with child image that has been broadcasted between 2005 and 2007 on Turkish TV have been semiotically analyzed. The paper aims to point out relationships between child images' functions and consumer values. Accordingly in the first part we will define the child image functions in the advertisement composition. In the second part we will analyze the relationship between these images and the practical, critical, existential and ludic consummation values. In those a...

  6. CHILD LABOUR LEGISLATION: A NATIONAL TREND

    OpenAIRE

    Binayak Patnaik

    2015-01-01

    The paper makes an analysis of the situation of child labour in India-focuses on the causes of child labour and also outlines the remedial measures so far taken-exhaustively discusses the trend report of different laws enacted in the country-finally briefly concludes that immediate implementation of anti-poverty programmes in the country is highly necessary to eradicate child labour.

  7. CHILD LABOUR IN INDIA: AN OVERVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Ranba Narahari Alte; Pravin Nandkishorji Totala

    2014-01-01

    Children are the greatest gift to humanity and Childhood is an important and impressionable stage of human development as it holds the potential to the future development of any society. The problem of child labour continues to pose a challenge before the nation. The main cause of child labour is poverty, unemployment, illiteracy of the parents and excess population. Among these, poverty is the primary reason for the existence of child labour and other factors are inter-re...

  8. Concept Paper on Child Labour in India

    OpenAIRE

    Child Rights and You CRY

    2009-01-01

    This concept papers aims at demystifying some of these social, economic and political myths, and stimulate discussion, debate and deliberation on various aspects of child labour. This paper, further, has two functions, one, it provides a background to the national child labour research; and two, as a prelude to the policy paper on child labour, this will be a working paper for facilitating a framework on the contending aspects of the issue, and the implementation of good practices.

  9. Separation of a child when entering kindergarten

    OpenAIRE

    SOMMEROVÁ, Lucie

    2014-01-01

    The work deals with the separation of a child when entering kindergarten and aims to describe the symptoms of a child who is separated from his parents. First, we define the concept of preschool age, and then it is characterized in terms of developmental psychology, which is investigated further by the socialization of the child. Other chapters describe pre-school education and kindergarten as an institution and of course the very notion of separation. The subchapters deal with the connection...

  10. Parent’s Addiction and Child Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Jazayeri

    2002-01-01

    Child abuse is a terrible misfortune for millions of childeren and famillies, for communities and for society.Many specialists as social problems, notice child abuse. Psychologists, pychiatrist, social workers, consoulers, family therapists, general practitioners, lawers and other specialists try to plan strategies for solving and preventing this problem . Many research have been done in this area , especially many of them are interested to explre the relationship between child abuse and pa...

  11. Child Labor: Theory, Evidence, and Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Drusilla K. Brown; Deardorff, Alan V.; Stern, Robert M.

    2001-01-01

    There is a growing theoretical and empirical literature concerning the causes and consequences of child labor. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the policy initiatives targeted on child labor in light of the newly emerging theoretical argumentation and empirical evidence. We focus in particular on programs to address child-labor practices, and we attempt to evaluate these programs, given the empirical evidence concerning the primary determinants of when and why children work. Through...

  12. Female labor supply and child care

    OpenAIRE

    P. CHONE; D. LE BLANC; I. ROBERT-BOBEE

    2002-01-01

    We use household income tax data to estimate a structural model of female labor supply and utilization of paid child care outside the home. We find that child care costs have little impact on the participation decision of mothers of young children. However, they influence hours of work, as well as the decision to utilize paid child care. We use our results to simulate various policy reforms. Suppressing the APE (Parental Education Aid) would cause the participation rate in our sample to rise ...

  13. Poverty experience, race, and child health.

    OpenAIRE

    Malat, Jennifer; Oh, Hyun Joo; Hamilton, Mary Ann

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Studies that examine children's poverty and health at one point in time do not account for some children experiencing poverty briefly and others living in poverty for much of their lives. The objective of this study was to determine how duration of poverty and child race are related to child health. METHODS: To assess these relationships, we analyzed data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and its Child Development Supplement. Ordinary least squares regression was used to est...

  14. Child Labor and Resistance to Change

    OpenAIRE

    Bellettini, Giorgio; Berti Ceroni, Carlotta

    2003-01-01

    We study the interactions between technological innovation, investment in human capital and child labor. In our setting new technologies require new skills and new skills can be developed only through schooling. In a two-stage game, first firms decide on innovation, then households decide on education. In equilibrium the presence of inefficient child labor depends on parameters related to technology, parents’ altruism and the diffusion of firm property. When child labor exists, it is due to e...

  15. Child Labor, Idiosyncratic Shocks, and Social Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Fabre, Alice; Pallage, Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we provide a dynamic model with heterogeneous agents to study child labor in an economy with idiosyncratic shocks to employment. Households facing adverse shocks may use child labor as a buffer to smooth consumption. We show that the introduction of an unemployment insurance program and/or a universal basic income system help eliminate child labor endogenously in this context. A calibration to South Africa in the 1990s is provided.

  16. Child Labor and Resistance to Change.

    OpenAIRE

    Bellettini, Giorgio; Ceroni, Carlotta Berti; Ottaviano, Gianmarco I. P.

    2003-01-01

    We study the interactions between technological innovation, investment in human capital and child labor. In our setting new technologies require new skills and new skills can be developed only through schooling. In a two-stage game, first firms decide on innovation, then households decide on education. In equilibrium the presence of inefficient child labor depends on parameters related to technology, parents' altruism and the diffusion of firm property. When child labor exists, it is due to e...

  17. Battered Child Syndrome; a Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Arastoo Pezeshki; Farzad Rahmani; Hanieh Ebrahimi Bakhtavar; Sanaz Fekri

    2015-01-01

    One of the important and usual missed causes of pediatric traumas is child abuse. This ominous phenomenon, which can be presented physically, psychologically, sexually, and emotionally has grown significantly in recent years. Many children are not diagnosed in the early stages of evaluation. Battered Child Syndrome is used to describe the clinical condition of the child serious physical abuse by parents or caregivers. Medical staff should always keep the syndrome in their mind for those broug...

  18. A Theory of Exploitative Child Labor

    OpenAIRE

    Carol Rogers & Kenneth A. Swinnerton

    2002-01-01

    We develop a model of exploitative child labor with two key features: first, parents have imperfect information about whether employment opportunities available to their children are exploitative or not. Second, firms choose whether or not to exploit their child workers. In our model, a ban on exploitative child labor is desirable, because it resolves the problem of imperfect information faced by parents, and therefore leads to Pareto efficiency. We also find that a ban leads to an increase i...

  19. Does International Migration Increase Child Labor

    OpenAIRE

    Anna De Paoli; Mariapia Mendola

    2013-01-01

    Global international migration may influence child labor through a labor market effect. We empirically investigate this issue by using an original cross-country survey dataset, which combines information on international emigration flows with detailed individual-level data on child labor at age 5-15 in a wide range of developing countries. By using variation in the emigration supply shocks across labor market units defined on the basis of both geography and skill, we estimate a set of child l...

  20. The Effect of FDI on Child Labor

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, Ronald B.; Annie Voy

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines the extent to which foreign direct investment (FDI) affects child labor. Using 1995 data for 145 countries, we find that, contrary to common fears, FDI is negatively correlated with child labor. This effect, however, disappears when controlling for per capita income. After doing so, we find no robust effect of either FDI or international trade on child labor. This result is robust to corrections for the endogeneity of FDI, trade, and income. Furthermore, this result is con...

  1. Child Labour and Child Schooling in South Asia: A Cross Country Study of their Determinants

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjan Ray

    2001-01-01

    This study uses Nepalese data to estimate the impact of individual, household and cluster/community level variables on child labour and child schooling. The principal estimates are, then, compared with those from Bangladesh and Pakistan. The exercise is designed to identify effective policy instruments that could influence child labour and child schooling in South Asia. The results show that the impact of a variable on a child’s education/employment is, often, highly sensitive to the specific...

  2. Evaluating the risk of child abuse: the Child Abuse Risk Assessment Scale (CARAS)

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, KL

    2011-01-01

    The present study developed the Child Abuse Risk Assessment Scale (CARAS), an actuarial instrument for the assessment of the risk of physical child abuse. Data of 2,363 Chinese parents (47.7% male) living in Hong Kong were used in the analyses. Participants were individually interviewed with a questionnaire assessing their perpetration of child abuse and some theoretically or empirically tested factors associated with child abuse. Using the split-half validation procedure, the 5-factor, 64-it...

  3. Child Involvement in Interparental Conflict and Child Adjustment Problems: A Longitudinal Study of Violent Families

    OpenAIRE

    Jouriles, Ernest N.; Rosenfield, David; McDonald, Renee; Mueller, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    This study examined whether child involvement in interparental conflict predicts child externalizing and internalizing problems in violent families. Participants were 119 families (mothers and children) recruited from domestic violence shelters. One child between the ages of 7 and 10 years in each family (50 female, 69 male) completed measures of involvement in their parents’ conflicts, externalizing problems, and internalizing problems. Mothers completed measures of child externalizing and i...

  4. No Child Left Behind: Universal Child Care and Children’s Long-Run Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Havnes, Tarjei; Mogstad, Magne

    2009-01-01

    There is a heated debate in the US and Canada, as well as in many European countries, about a move towards subsidized, universally accessible child care. At the same time, studies on universal child care and child development are scarce, limited to short-run outcomes, and the findings are mixed. We analyze the introduction of subsidized, universally accessible child care in Norway, addressing the impact on the long-run outcomes of children. Our precise difference-in-difference estimates show ...

  5. Child labour: trends, challenges and policy responses. Joining forces against child labour

    OpenAIRE

    UCW

    2010-01-01

    Much has evolved in terms of our knowledge surrounding the child labour problem and effective strategies for addressing it since the last major conferences on child labour which were held in Amsterdam and Oslo in 1997. This report makes use of advances in research achieved through UCW and other efforts to take stock of the global child labour situation, assess key remaining obstacles to the elimination of child labour and identify strategies for addressing them.The report presents evidence of...

  6. Maintaining Work: The Influence of Child Care Subsidies on Child Care-Related Work Disruptions

    OpenAIRE

    Forry, Nicole D.; Hofferth, Sandra L.

    2011-01-01

    With the passage of welfare reform, support for low-income parents to not only obtain, but maintain work has become imperative. The role of child care subsidies in supporting parents’ job tenure has received little attention in the literature. This article examines the association between receiving a child care subsidy and experiencing a child care-related work disruption using two samples and both cross-sectional and longitudinal regression models. Child care-related work disruptions are fou...

  7. Labor supply and child care choices in a rationed child care market

    OpenAIRE

    Wrohlich, Katharina

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, I suggest an empirical framework for the analysis of mothers' labor supply and child care choices, explicitly taking into account access restrictions to subsidized child care. This is particularly important for countries such as Germany, where subsidized child care is rationed and private child care is only available at considerably higher cost. I use a discrete choice panel data model controlling for unobserved heterogeneity to simultaneously estimate labor supply and the dema...

  8. Agent-Based Modeling and Simulation of Child Maltreatment and Child Maltreatment Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaolin Hu; Nicholas Keller

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an agent-based model that simulates the dynamics of child maltreatment and child maltreatment prevention. The developed model follows the principles of complex systems science and explicitly models a community and its families with multi-level factors across the social ecology. Each agent includes behavioral/cognitive modeling to account for the behavioral/cognitive process of child maltreatment. Simulation of child maltreatment prevention is also supported to evaluate the...

  9. Child Protection Centers and Forensic Medicine Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Kafadar

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available According to the World Health Organization (WHO anyone under the age of 18 is determined as %u201Cchild%u201D. Child abuse is described by Henry Kempe in 1962. Nowadays, neglect definition and prevention for children are most important.Child maltreatment is defined as harmful behaviors on physical, emotional, mental, or sexual health of child. There are two ways of maltreatment; abuse and neglect according to the forensic medicine approach. The aim of this study is to discuss Child Protection Center, the center service delivery and forensic medicine approach.

  10. Treatment and management of child pornography use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Michael C; Ahmed, A G

    2014-06-01

    Advances in Internet and other digital technologies have created ready and affordable access to pornography involving real children or computer-generated images of children. To better understand and manage child pornography users, clinicians must acquaint themselves with the characteristics and behaviors of these offenders. This article distinguishes motivations to use child pornography and different types of child pornography offenders and provides a brief overview of the assessment, diagnosis, and management options available. The authors conclude with recommendations on future directions in the assessment, diagnosis, and management of child pornography offenders. PMID:24877707

  11. CHILD BRIDE’ PROBLEM IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    MALATYALI, Meryem KAYNAK

    2014-01-01

    Child Brides’ are described as girls who are forced to get married before they are 18 year old. The issue of child brides is a concern for undeveloped and developing countries as well as Turkey. This work aims to explore the prevalence, problems and causes related to the problem of ‘child brides’ as well as offering solutions for this problem. The literature shows that ‘child bride’ is quite widespread practice in Turkey. Moreover, forced marriage at an early age is problematic in many ways....

  12. The Discursive Construction Of Child Sexual Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Worrell, Marcia Lorraine

    2001-01-01

    Currently in the English speaking world adult/child sex and knowledge about it has become firmly located within a taken-for-granted 'child sexual abuse' discourse. My argument in this thesis is that despite being commonly portrayed as a singularity, the discursive arena of adult/child sex is a site of controversy and conflict, invested with meanings that differ over time and place. Child sexual abuse cannot thus be thought of as something that exists outside of the situated knowledge through ...

  13. CHILD BRIDE’ PROBLEM IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Meryem Kaynak Malatyali

    2015-01-01

    Child Brides’ are described as girls who are forced to get married before they are 18 year old. The issue of child brides is a concern for undeveloped and developing countries as well as Turkey. This work aims to explore the prevalence, problems and causes related to the problem of ‘child brides’ as well as offering solutions for this problem. The literature shows that ‘child bride’ is quite widespread practice in Turkey. Moreover, forced marriage at an early age is problematic in many ways....

  14. Massive pericardial effusion in a hypothyroid child.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, L H; Jayatunga, R.; Scott, O

    1984-01-01

    A child with Down's syndrome and long standing severe hypothyroidism had a massive pericardial effusion without cardiac tamponade. The effusion completely resolved with medical treatment without pericardiocentesis.

  15. Caregiver-fabricated illness in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koetting, Cathy

    2015-01-01

    In October 2004, a case of caregiver-fabricated illness in a child was identified in a children's hospital in the Midwest. This case report begins with a discussion and explanation of the various nomenclatures that have been used by the healthcare community such as Munchausen syndrome by proxy, factitious disorder by proxy, medical child abuse, and caregiver-fabricated illness in a child. A discussion of case facts is then presented, which includes key concepts that nurses should know regarding a diagnosis of caregiver-fabricated illness in a child and the interventions that should be taken. PMID:25900681

  16. Child Protection Centers and Forensic Medicine Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Huseyin Kafadar

    2014-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization (WHO) anyone under the age of 18 is determined as %u201Cchild%u201D. Child abuse is described by Henry Kempe in 1962. Nowadays, neglect definition and prevention for children are most important.Child maltreatment is defined as harmful behaviors on physical, emotional, mental, or sexual health of child. There are two ways of maltreatment; abuse and neglect according to the forensic medicine approach. The aim of this study is to discuss Child Protect...

  17. Gender Bias and Child Labor in LDCs

    OpenAIRE

    Alok Kumar; Emma Underhill

    2014-01-01

    Empirical evidence suggests that girls work more than boys as child labor. In this paper, we develop a model to analyze the causes and consequences of the gender differentials in child labor. In particular, we analyze the effects of gender bias on child labor. We find that when parents can give strictly positive bequests to both boys and girls, son preference on its own does not lead to gender differential in child labor. Only when parents cannot give bequests, girls work more than boys as ch...

  18. Battered Child Syndrome; a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arastoo Pezeshki

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the important and usual missed causes of pediatric traumas is child abuse. This ominous phenomenon, which can be presented physically, psychologically, sexually, and emotionally has grown significantly in recent years. Many children are not diagnosed in the early stages of evaluation. Battered Child Syndrome is used to describe the clinical condition of the child serious physical abuse by parents or caregivers. Medical staff should always keep the syndrome in their mind for those brought to the emergency department with trauma. In this report, we described a patient complained of dysphagia following a falling from a height and multiple epidural hematomas and final diagnosis of battered child syndrome.

  19. For Your Child's Sake...Establish Paternity [and] Collect Child Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Administration for Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS), Washington, DC.

    These brochures explain briefly the importance of establishing paternity for unwed mothers. By establishing paternity and enforcing child support orders, fathers can be required to help raise their child legally and financially. The brochures consist of two separate sheets. "For Your Child's Sake...Establish Paternity" presents several questions…

  20. Authoritarian Child Rearing, Parental Locus of Control, and the Child's Behavior Style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Jan M. A. M.

    1994-01-01

    Examined relationships among childrearing, parental locus of control about childrearing, and child's behavior style. Found that parents who perceived their child's behavior as either externalizing or internalizing had a weak internal locus of control and were more authoritarian. Perceived externalizing child behavior was positively related to…

  1. L'inserimento del bambino al nido (Welcoming the Child into Child Care): Perspectives from Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bove, Chiara

    1999-01-01

    Describes various approaches taken by Italian child-care programs to facilitate the young child's transition into a child care setting. Discusses the role of teachers as researchers, the role of parents as partners, and the benefits to young children. (KB)

  2. What Everyone Can Do To Prevent Child Abuse: Child Abuse Prevention Community Resource Packet, 2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Administration on Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS/ACF), Washington, DC. Children's Bureau.

    Child abuse is a national tragedy, taking the lives of three children every day and affecting millions of children and families every year. To mark the 20th anniversary of the first presidential proclamation of Child Abuse Prevention Month, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Children's Bureau, Office on Child Abuse and Neglect,…

  3. Child Nutrition Programs: Child and Adult Care Food Program. Family Day Care Home Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    This handbook details requirements for family day care homes in Oklahoma for providing child nutrition through the Child and Adult Care Food Program. The handbook includes contact information for state consultants. The basic responsibilities for sponsors of family day care home child nutrition programs are outlined, and the sponsoring organization…

  4. Characteristics of the First Child Predict the Parents' Probability of Having Another Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokela, Markus

    2010-01-01

    In a sample of 7,695 families in the prospective, nationally representative British Millennium Cohort Study, this study examined whether characteristics of the 1st-born child predicted parents' timing and probability of having another child within 5 years after the 1st child's birth. Infant temperament was assessed with the Carey Infant…

  5. Child physical activity and parent-child attitude congruence of athletic competence and activity type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our purpose was to evaluate parental influence on child physical activity (PA) through parental beliefs on child competence and importance of specific types of PA. Utilizing Eccles' expectancy-value model of task choice, the study examined parent-child attitude congruence and whether task value bel...

  6. The 2009 Foundation for Child Development Child and Youth Well-Being Index (CWI) Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foundation for Child Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Foundation for Child Development Child and Youth Well-Being Index Project at Duke University issues an annual comprehensive measure of how children are faring in the United States. The Child Well-Being Index (CWI) is based on a composite of 28 "Key Indicators" of wellbeing that are grouped into seven "Quality-of-Life/Well-Being Domains,"…

  7. Societal Factors Impacting Child Welfare: Validating the Perceptions of Child Welfare Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Charles; Zeitlin, Wendy; Augsberger, Astraea; McGowan, Brenda G.; Claiborne, Nancy; Lawrence, Catherine K.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This research examines the psychometric properties of the Perceptions of Child Welfare Scale (PCWS). This instrument is designed to assess child welfare workers' understanding of how society views their role and their work. Methods: Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was utilized to analyze data on 538 child welfare workers. Results:…

  8. Caregiver-Child Relationships as a Context for Continuity in Child Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recchia, Susan L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on one aspect of continuity--the caregiver-child relationship--within a larger global study of continuity in child care based at a university-affiliated child care center. Case studies are presented of two toddler boys, followed as they transitioned from their infant classroom to the preschool classroom at the age of…

  9. Detection of child abuse by Dutch preventive child-healthcare doctors and nurses : Has it changed?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijneveld, S.A.; de Meer, G.; Wiefferink, C.H.; Crone, M.R.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Objective Child maltreatment (i.e., abuse and neglect) is a major cause of child morbidity and death. It is a principal topic in community child-healthcare services yet little is known about the actual detection of suspected cases. We examined trends in this detection, as well as the charac

  10. Linking child maltreatment history with child abuse potential: Relative roles of maltreatment types

    OpenAIRE

    Mitkovic-Voncina Marija; Lecic-Tosevski Dusica; Pejovic-Milovancevic Milica; Popovic-Deusic Smiljka

    2014-01-01

    The independent roles of each childhood maltreatment type on child abuse potential in adults have been insufficiently explored and are inconsistent, with dissociation as one of the possible suggested mediators of intergenerational child abuse. We investigated these effects among 164 non-clinical adult parents, who filled in general questionnaires: Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAPI) and Dissociative Experience Scale ...

  11. 77 FR 31549 - Child Labor Regulations, Orders and Statements of Interpretation; Child Labor Violations-Civil...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-29

    ... Rulemaking (NPRM), 76 FR 54836, that proposed amendments to child labor regulations issued pursuant to the... Hour Division 29 CFR Parts 570 and 579 RIN 1235-AA06 Child Labor Regulations, Orders and Statements of Interpretation; Child Labor Violations--Civil Money Penalties AGENCY: Wage and Hour Division, Labor....

  12. 76 FR 61289 - Public Hearing on Child Labor Regulations, Orders and Statements of Interpretation; Child Labor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-04

    ... Hour Division 29 CFR Parts 570 and 579 RIN 1235-AA06 Public Hearing on Child Labor Regulations, Orders and Statements of Interpretation; Child Labor Violations--Civil Money Penalties AGENCY: Wage and Hour... public hearing on its Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM), Child Labor Regulations, Orders...

  13. Child Labor and Health: Quantifying the Global Health Impacts of Child Labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graitcer, Philip L.; Lerer, Leonard B.

    Child labor remains one of the most controversial challenges at the end of the 20th century. Approximately 250 million children in developing countries work either full- or part-time. Child labor is not confined to less-developed countries, as economic transitions bring shifts in the prevalence and nature of child labor. Throughout the world,…

  14. "My Teacher Helps Me": Assessing Teacher-Child Relationships from the Child's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Kelley Mayer

    2016-01-01

    The current study is one of the first to investigate children's perceptions of quality in teacher-child relationships using a narrative measure. It is also one of the first studies to investigate how the child's report is associated with the teacher's report and with an observer's report of quality in teacher-child interactions. Participants…

  15. Do Child Care Regulations Affect the Child Care and Labor Markets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blau, David M.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of child care regulations on outcomes in the child care market and the labor market for mothers of young children is examined. The analysis uses a time series of cross sections and examines the robustness of previous cross-section findings to controls for state-level heterogeneity. Child care regulations as a group have statistically…

  16. Child pornography: a hidden dimension of child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, R L

    1984-01-01

    In the decade of the 70s, much was learned about abused and neglected children and their families. Public outcry demanded action at the state, regional and national level hoping that the effort would generate more effective methods of identification, intervention and treatment. Consequently, researchers and theoreticians initiated efforts that were aimed at providing a better understanding of why some parents abuse or neglect their children while others do not. In spite of all the energy and time, one form of child abuse continues to flourish relatively unnoticed--child pornography, or as it is more commonly known in the trade, "kiddie" or "chicken" porn. Because of the dearth of information about the subject, this paper addresses five key issues: Who are the children who become the young stars of pornographic films? How many children are estimated to be involved in this activity? What are the presumed effects of such involvement on children? Legal issues related to the control of the pornographic industry; and What is the challenge to social work and other helping professionals? PMID:6542820

  17. Child Poverty: Definition and Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Kathleen S

    2016-04-01

    This article provides a discussion of what we mean when we refer to 'child poverty.' Many images come to mind when we discuss child poverty, but when we try to measure and quantify the extent of child poverty, we often use a very narrow concept. In this article a variety of poverty measures that are used in the United States are described and some of the differences between those measures are illustrated. In this article 3 measures are explored in detail: a relative measure of poverty that is used more often in an international context, the official US poverty measure, and a new supplemental poverty measure (SPM). The new measure differs from the other 2 because it takes into account noncash benefits that are provided to poor families. These include nutrition assistance such as food stamps, subsidized housing, and home energy assistance. The SPM also takes account of necessary expenses that families face, such as taxes and expenses related to work and health care. Comparing estimates for 2012, the SPM showed lower poverty rates for children than the other 2 measures. Because noncash benefits help those in extreme poverty, there were also lower percentages of children in extreme poverty with resources below half the SPM threshold. These results suggest that 2 important measures of poverty, the relative measure used in international comparisons, and the official poverty measure, are not able to gauge the effect of government programs on the alleviation of poverty, and the SPM illustrates that noncash benefits do help families meet their basic needs. PMID:27044701

  18. Diagnostic imaging of child abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oguma, Eiji; Aihara, Toshinori [Saitama Children' s Medical Center, Iwatsuki (Japan)

    2002-04-01

    The major role of imaging in cases of suspected child abuse is to identify the physical injuries and to confirm the occurrence of abuse. In severely abused infants, the imaging findings may be the only evidence for a diagnosis of inflicted injury. Imaging may be the first clue to abuse in children seen with apparent other conditions and lead to appropriate measures to protect them from the risk of more serious injury. The radiologist must be familiar with imaging findings of inflicted injuries to fulfill these roles. (author)

  19. Parental unemployment and child health

    OpenAIRE

    Mörk, Eva; Sjögren, Anna; Svaleryd, Helena

    2014-01-01

    We analyze to what extent health outcomes of Swedish children are worse among children whose parents become unemployed. To this end we combine Swedish hospitalization data for 1992-2007 for children 3-18 years of age with register data on parental unemployment. We find that children with unemployed parents are 17 percent more likely to be hospitalized than other children, but that most of the difference is driven by selection. A child fixed-effects approach suggests a small effect of parental...

  20. The child, language and literature

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Elin (Elin Elizabeth)

    1992-01-01

    This thesis aims not only to set Proust's treatment of childhood in the context of his work as a whole, but also to set that work in the context of contemporary writing about childhood. Chapter 1 reveals the existence of a fashion in Proust's time for literature devoted to childhood. This genre has a tendency towards technical innovation, despite repetition of the same subject matter, or 'myths'. One particularly important myth, that of the 'child-artist', is seen to be inf...

  1. The "child size medicines" concept

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nsabagasani, Xavier; Okeng, Jasper Ogwal; Mbonye, Anthony;

    2015-01-01

    causes of morbidity and mortality among children in Uganda- diseases that were also emphasized in the MMCS campaign. Asthma and epilepsy were included as conditions that require long term care. Schistomiasis was included as a neglected tropical disease. Content analysis was used to assess evidence...... of policy provisions for the MMCS recommendations. Results For most medicines for the selected diseases, appropriate strength for children’s age and weight was addressed especially in the EMHSLU 2012. However, policy documents neither referred to ‘child size medicines’ concept nor provided for flexible oral...

  2. Diagnostic imaging of child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major role of imaging in cases of suspected child abuse is to identify the physical injuries and to confirm the occurrence of abuse. In severely abused infants, the imaging findings may be the only evidence for a diagnosis of inflicted injury. Imaging may be the first clue to abuse in children seen with apparent other conditions and lead to appropriate measures to protect them from the risk of more serious injury. The radiologist must be familiar with imaging findings of inflicted injuries to fulfill these roles. (author)

  3. Child abuse: Sivas (Turkey sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezer Ayan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Subject of this study is family violence among primary school students. The purpose is to determine to what level socio-cultural, economical, psychological and communicative characteristics of the family affect the experience of violent acts on the child.Method: Universe of the study consists of second phase (junior high students of grades VI, VII, and VIII in 70 primary schools in the city center of Sivas. When creating the sample, schools were divided into three groups as low, middle and high according to the socio-economical and cultural levels of the neighborhoods they were located in, and total fifteen schools were selected, three from each area, with characteristics suitable to represent the respective areas. Number of students included in the sample from these schools is 655. Study data were collected using a questionnaire consisting of items directed at determining the socio-demographic characteristics of the students, structures of families, quality of family relationships and presence or absence family violence against the child and relations and factors that might create the potential for violence.Findings: Proportion of children within the sample that were found treated with violence by their mothers was found as 54%, and proportion of children within the sample that were found treated with violence by their fathers was found as 46%. According to results of the regression analysis performed separately for mothers and fathers with the purpose of finding the variables with the greatest effect on being treated with violence of children by their parents and the level of effect of these variables, it was found that the variables influencing with statistically significant levels students’ experiences of violence from their mothers were educational status of the mother, presence of violence between mother and father and mode of treatment of the mother against the child, respectively.According to the results of the logistic regression

  4. The Impact of Child, Family, and Child Protective Services Factors on Reports of Child Sexual Abuse Recurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinanan, Allison N.

    2011-01-01

    This study identified selected child factors (e.g., age, gender, race/ethnicity, disabilities, prior victimization, and relationship to perpetrator of abuse), family risk factors (e.g., substance abuse, domestic violence, inadequate housing, and financial problems), and services provided by child protective services that likely increased reports…

  5. Carefree in child care ? : child wellbeing, caregiving quality, and intervention programs in center-based child care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werner, Claudia Denise

    2014-01-01

    The use of center child care in Western countries has increased over the last three decades and is nowadays the most frequently used type of non-parental care for children aged zero to four (OECD, 2013). The aim of the current dissertation is to shed more light on indicators of child care quality in

  6. Child Abuse and Neglect Fatalities: Statistics and Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abuse & Neglect Fatalities Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect National Child Abuse Prevention Month Overview Promoting Child & Family Well-Being Public ... Supervision Systemwide National Initiatives National Adoption ... Month National Foster Care Month Publications Publications Series ...

  7. Acts of Omission: An Overview of Child Neglect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abuse & Neglect Fatalities Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect National Child Abuse Prevention Month Overview Promoting Child & Family Well-Being Public ... Supervision Systemwide National Initiatives National Adoption ... Month National Foster Care Month Publications Publications Series ...

  8. Statistical Analysis of Factors Affecting Child Mortality in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Zoya; Kamal, Asifa; Kamal, Asma

    2016-06-01

    Child mortality is a composite indicator reflecting economic, social, environmental, healthcare services, and their delivery situation in a country. Globally, Pakistan has the third highest burden of fetal, maternal, and child mortality. Factors affecting child mortality in Pakistan are investigated by using Binary Logistic Regression Analysis. Region, education of mother, birth order, preceding birth interval (the period between the previous child birth and the index child birth), size of child at birth, and breastfeeding and family size were found to be significantly important with child mortality in Pakistan. Child mortality decreased as level of mother's education, preceding birth interval, size of child at birth, and family size increased. Child mortality was found to be significantly higher in Balochistan as compared to other regions. Child mortality was low for low birth orders. Child survival was significantly higher for children who were breastfed as compared to those who were not. PMID:27354000

  9. Analyzing Child Stories in Cyprus Newspaper Regarding the Child Image in Cyprus Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Eda Kargi

    2013-01-01

    Child is one of the most sensitive issues of societies and states in all around the world. Also, “childhood” is such a stage of life that arouses the interest of every segment of society. News about child in the press arouses more interest compared to other topics of news. The “newsworthiness” of news about child sometimes brings about the phenomenon of child abuse in media. What is more, the content and quality of news about child in the press give important clues regarding the value and sta...

  10. Factors That Pave the Way For Becoming A Child Bride

    OpenAIRE

    KAPTANOĞLU, İlknur YÜKSEL -; ERGÖÇMEN, Banu Akadlı

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to contribute to eliminate child marriages through revealing the factors that pave the way for becoming a child bride in Turkey. In order to reflect the actual characteristics of child brides, religious marriages are considered besides the civil marriages. The risk factors for child marriages are analyzed using logistic regression based on the "2008 Turkey Demographic and Health Survey". The results indicate that 3 out of 10 women are child brides and those child marriages var...

  11. DETERMINANTS OF CHILD LABOR IN MALAWI AND TANZANIA

    OpenAIRE

    Courage C. MUDZONGO; Christopher M. WHITSEL

    2013-01-01

    Using the Malawi Integrated Household Survey of 2009 and the Tanzania National Panel Survey of 2010, this study seeks to understand the factors that increase a child`s likelihood of labor participation. A greater percentage of children in the Tanzania sample than those from the Malawi sample participate in child labor. Logistic regression analyses showed that, as hypothesized, the greatest influence on child labor observed at the individual level is the child`s school enrollment status. Enrol...

  12. Some Surprising Effects of Better Law Enforcement Against Child Trafficking

    OpenAIRE

    Dessy, Sylvain E.; Ste´phane Pallage

    2006-01-01

    In this note, we highlight some economic effects of the existence of child trafficking. We show that the risk of child trafficking on the labor market acts as a deterrent to supply child labor, unless household survival is at stake. Better law enforcement against child trafficking, by raising the expected gains parents derive from sending their children to work, might have the undesirable effect of causing a rise in the number of child laborers and possibly in the incidence of child trafficki...

  13. [Child's subjectivity in postmodern times].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejarraga, Horacio

    2012-08-01

    From mid ´50s onwards, we witness a change of paradigm in the Western world: the expression of a historical shift from modernity to postmodernity. This new era includes a strong influence of the media on the population, a change from a lineal sense of time to a virtual, punctual one, and a flooding of overwhelming amount of information, mostly irrelevant, broadcasted in a de-contextualized, synchronic, fragmented and senseless fashion. This new age is characterized, above all, by the destitution of the State, the meta- institution source of legitimacy of all modern institutions: citizenship, factory, and mainly, School, an essential determinant this last one in the construction process of child subjectivity. Having lost its modeling power, the School loses its modern meaning, becoming thus a mere physical space in which pupils meet, but where general, transcendent rules, norms and values cannot be built, as in fact happened in modern times. According to Corea and Lewkowicz, school becomes an empty shed in which rules have to be built all the time, and become valid only for a particular occasion. These changes necessarily influence child subjectivity, the way they feel, they behave, and they "live" in contemporary society. Pediatricians have to be aware and try to understand these changes, so that we can help children, and, in doing so, to build a better world for them. PMID:22859325

  14. Rural neighborhoods and child aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Natasha K; Wretman, Christopher J

    2014-12-01

    Structural equation modeling with latent variables was used to evaluate the direct and mediated effects of a neighborhood risk factor (negative teen behaviors) on the parent-report aggressive behavior of 213 students in grades 3 through 5 attending a school in a low-income, rural community. Contagion and social control hypotheses were examined as well as hypotheses about whether the neighborhood served as a microsystem or exosystem for rural pre-adolescents. Analyses took into account the clustering of students and ordinal nature of the data. Findings suggest that rural neighborhoods may operate as both a microsystem and exosystem for children, with direct contagion effects on their aggressive behaviors as well as indirect social control effects through parenting practices. Direct effects on aggression were also found for parenting practices and child reports of friends' negative behaviors. Pre-adolescence may be a transitional stage, when influences of the neighborhood on child behavior begin to compete with influences of caregivers. Findings can inform the timing and targets of violence prevention in rural communities. PMID:25205545

  15. Child's understanding of television programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Peštaj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, we have witnessed an unimaginable progress of the electronic media. The television takes the first place by its availability, importance and popularity, both with adults and with children. It has become the focal point of family interaction and is progressively taking on a key role in the process of children's socialization. Various research has proven that children begin watching television as babies and that toddlers are already accustomed and constant viewers. During their development, they become increasingly competent to understand and to use the television media, while the differences in the perception of television contents are mainly conditioned by the period of early childhood. The process of preschool child's understanding of media information goes from concrete to abstract and on two levels at the same time: understanding of formal features and understanding of content. Both levels have important role in child's understanding of the world, what could be observed in forming of gender stereotypes, where, as researches show, the television has a special influence.

  16. Evolutionary Perspective in Child Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze’ev Hochberg

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary, environmental, and stochastic factors determine a child’s growth in his unique environment, but their relative contribution to the phenotypic outcome and the extent of stochastic programming that is required to alter human phenotypes is not known because few data are available. This is an attempt to use evolutionary life-history theory in understanding child growth in a broad evolutionary perspective, using the data and theory of evolutionary predictive adaptive growth-related strategies. Transitions from one life-history phase to the next have inherent adaptive plasticity in their timing. Humans evolved to withstand energy crises by decreasing their body size, and evolutionary short-term adaptations to energy crises utilize a plasticity that modifies the timing of transition from infancy into childhood, culminating in short stature in times of energy crisis. Transition to juvenility is part of a strategy of conversion from a period of total dependence on the family and tribe for provision and security to self-supply, and a degree of adaptive plasticity is provided and determines body composition. Transition to adolescence entails plasticity in adapting to energy resources, other environmental cues, and the social needs of the maturing adolescent to determine life-span and the period of fecundity and fertility. Fundamental questions are raised by a life-history approach to the unique growth pattern of each child in his given genetic background and current environment.

  17. Child Labor and Trade Liberalization in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kis-Katos, Krisztina; Sparrow, Robert

    2011-01-01

    We examine the effects of trade liberalization on child work in Indonesia, identifying geographical differences in the effects of trade policy through district level exposure to reduction in import tariff barriers, from 1993 to 2002. The results suggest that increased exposure to trade liberalization is associated with a decrease in child work…

  18. Teaching Your Child Self-Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Teaching Your Child Self-Control KidsHealth > For Parents > Teaching Your Child Self-Control ... for success later in life. Helping Kids Learn Self-Control By learning self-control, kids can make appropriate ...

  19. Analysing Maternal Employment and Child Care Quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akgündüz, Yusuf

    2014-01-01

    The contributions in this thesis revolve around mothers' employment and child care quality. The first topic of interest is how mothers' employment is affected by modern child care services and parental leave entitlements. There is already an extensive literature on the effects of modern social polic

  20. Teenage Paternity, Child Support, and Crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirog-Good, Maureen A.

    1988-01-01

    Examines the relationship between teenage premarital paternity, child support enforcement, and delinquency. The non-random data were gathered from the Marian County, Indiana District Attorney's Office and Juvenile Court. Suggests that the early establishment of paternity should be pursued and that child support enforcement strategies should…

  1. Child Sexual Abuse: Prevention or Promotion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolen, Rebecca M.

    2003-01-01

    Current child sexual abuse prevention programs assume that, by targeting potential victims, they can reduce the prevalence of child sexual abuse. This article presents findings that suggest this assumption is flawed. Suggests instead that potential offenders are more appropriate targets of prevention programs. (Contains 39 references.)

  2. Child Abuse and Neglect. Data Snapshot

    Science.gov (United States)

    DC Action for Children, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The number of substantiated cases of child abuse and neglect in the District rose by 27 percent in FY 2009. This dramatic spike came after two consecutive years of decline in the number of substantiated cases reported the D.C. Child and Family Services Agency (CFSA). In FY 2010, the number of closed, substantiated cases dropped back down to 1,691,…

  3. Child maltreatment, parents & the emergency department

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M.M. Hoytema van Konijnenburg

    2015-01-01

    The research described in this thesis focuses on the evaluation of several methods of screening for child maltreatment at the emergency department, with an emphasis on screening based on parental risk factors (‘child check’). The use of a screening checklist (mandatory in all Dutch emergency departm

  4. The Social Definition of Child Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzberger, Sharon D.; Tennen, Howard A.

    The lack of uniform definition of child abuse has caused researchers and practitioners to center debate on whether abuse should be defined according to the characteristics of the parental act or its consequences to the child. To examine how the situational context and the characteristics of the individual applying the label of abuse affect…

  5. Validation of the Child Sport Cohesion Questionnaire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Luc J.; Carron, Albert V.; Eys, Mark A.; Loughead, Todd

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to test the validity evidence of the Child Sport Cohesion Questionnaire (CSCQ). To accomplish this task, convergent, discriminant, and known-group difference validity were examined, along with factorial validity via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Child athletes (N = 290, M[subscript age] = 10.73 plus or…

  6. Child Poverty: The United Kingdom Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Jane G; Curran, Megan A

    2016-04-01

    The United States has long struggled with high levels of child poverty. In 2014, 2 of 5 (42.9%) of all American children lived in economically insecure households and just over 1 in 5 children lived below the official absolute poverty line. These rates are high, but not intractable. Evidence from the US Census Bureau's Supplemental Poverty Measure, among other sources, shows the effect that public investments in cash and noncash transfers can have in reducing child poverty and improving child well-being. However, with significant disparities in services and supports for children across states and the projected decline of current federal spending on children, the United States is an international outlier in terms of public investments in children, particularly compared with other high-income nations. One such country, the United Kingdom (UK), faced similar child poverty challenges in recent decades. At the end of the 20th century, the British Prime Minister pledged to halve child poverty in a decade and eradicate it 'within a generation.' The Labour Government then set targets and dedicated resources in the form of income supplements, employment, child care, and education support. Child poverty levels nearly halved against an absolute measure by the end of the first decade. Subsequent changes in government and the economy slowed progress and have resulted in a very different approach. However, the UK child poverty target experience, 15 years in and spanning multiple changes in government, still offers a useful comparative example for US social policy moving forward. PMID:27044706

  7. The Effect of Marriage on Child Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rector, Robert; Johnson, Kirk A.; Fagan, Patrick F.

    This report examines what share of the current level of child poverty in the United States can be attributed to the growth of single parenthood since the 1960s, focusing on what the child poverty rate would be today if single parent families had remained at the levels that existed before the beginning of the war on poverty. Researchers simulated…

  8. Choosing Child Care: Birth to Three

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Care, Inc., 2012

    2012-01-01

    Like all difficult decisions, choosing child care can seem overwhelming, and this is particularly true when choosing care for children under three. The better you understand what your child's and your own personal needs are, and what is available and affordable to you, the more confident you will become in your decision-making process. This…

  9. Trauma-Informed Forensic Child Maltreatment Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, Donna M.

    2011-01-01

    Trauma-informed child welfare systems (CWSs) are the focus of several recent national and state initiatives. Since 2005 social work publications have focused on systemic and practice changes within CW which seek to identify and reduce trauma to children and families experiencing child maltreatment or other distressing events, as well as to the…

  10. Medical Consequences of Child Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Carol D.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the research on medical sequelae of child sexual abuse; identifies unanswered questions; and suggests areas of research, including prospective studies of child sexual abuse, follow-up of victims, studies of nonclinic populations, studies of male victims, examination of additional variables (such as regional variation and age), diseases…

  11. Child and adolescent psychiatry and family status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjørn, Barbara Hoff; Levin, Eline; Høyer, Mette;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Much attention has been given to parental separation as a possible risk factor for adverse child development; however, little information is available regarding the family status of children referred to psychiatric facilities. AIMS: To assess the association between psychiatric illness...... children are at increased risk of not living with both biological parents independent of age of the child....

  12. JING Qicheng wins award for child development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Together with two US psychologists, Prof. JING Qicheng from the CAS Institute of Psychology (IP) has been honored with the Award for Distinguished Scientific Contributions to Child Development in 2007 by the US-based Society for Research in Child Development(SRCD).

  13. Child Abuse Reporting: Teachers' Perceived Deterrents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenny, Maureen C.

    2001-01-01

    A survey of 197 teachers found 73 percent had never made a report of child abuse. Eleven percent reported instances in which they believed abuse may have occurred but failed to report due to such reasons as fear of making an inaccurate report, feeling that child protective services do not help families, and lacking physical signs of abuse.…

  14. Concealment of Child Sexual Abuse in Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartill, Mike

    2013-01-01

    When the sexual abuse of children is revealed, it is often found that other nonabusing adults were aware of the abuse but failed to act. During the past twenty years or so, the concealment of child sexual abuse (CSA) within organizations has emerged as a key challenge for child protection work. Recent events at Pennsylvania State University (PSU)…

  15. Divorce, Single Parenting, and Child Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossman, Sharyn M.; Adams, Gerald R.

    1980-01-01

    Investigated whether a preschool intervention program for children from single-parent households could be effective in establishing the conditions appropriate for allowing the child to recover from the harmful consequences of divorce and limited adult-child interaction. (Author/DB)

  16. Reasons for Having an Only Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falbo, Toni

    1978-01-01

    Reports the situational and psychological reasons why parents have just one child. The situational reasons include biological factors and marital stability. Psychological reasons concern factors in the decision-making process that lead individuals to have an only child. (Author/MA)

  17. 78 FR 62309 - Child Health Day, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-16

    ...' health insurance until age 26, and no child can be denied coverage based on a pre-existing condition.... (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013-24500 Filed 10-15-13; 8:45 am] Billing code 3295-F4 ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 9036 of October 4, 2013 Child Health Day, 2013 By the President of the...

  18. The Child's Status in the Democratic State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrag, Francis

    1975-01-01

    Examines and questions the child and universal adult suffrage, justifying the child's exclusion, establishing criteria for voter competence, evaluating the competence of children, and chronological age as a criterion. Journal available from Sage Publications, Inc., 275 South Beverly Drive, Beverly Hills, California 90212. (ND)

  19. Developing Your Child's Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Developing Your Child's Self-Esteem KidsHealth > For Parents > Developing Your Child's Self-Esteem ... response might be "I can't." What Is Self-Esteem? Self-esteem is similar to self-worth (how ...

  20. 77 FR 11625 - Child Restraint Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... association, business, labor union, etc.). You may review DOT's complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal... NHTSA's responses to the child restraint provisions of Anton's Law. See 70 FR at 51721. Later...- year-old child. 70 FR 51720, August 31, 2005, Docket No. NHTSA-2005- 21245 (RIN 2127-AJ44)....

  1. Perceived Benefit from Child Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillen, Curtis; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Studies adult perceptions of benefit from child sexual abuse in 154 low-income women who were sexually abused as children. Almost half reported some perceived benefit. Benefits fell into four main categories: protecting children from abuse, self-protection, increased knowledge of child sexual abuse, and having a stronger personality. Degree of…

  2. The Child Nutrition Labeling Program: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Cheryl; And Others

    This manual establishes policies and procedures for the Child Nutrition (CN) Labeling Program, a voluntary federal program run by the United States Department of Agriculture. The program is responsible for reviewing a product formulation to determine the contribution a single serving of that product makes toward the child nutrition meal pattern…

  3. Child Sexual Abuse in Tanzania and Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalor, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Most research on child abuse in Tanzania and Kenya is unpublished in the international literature. The purpose of this paper is to examine the various commentaries and reports extant, toward an overview of the nature and frequency of child sexual abuse in Tanzania and Kenya. Methods: Contacts were made with academics, government…

  4. Child Psychiatry Curricula in Undergraduate Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Michael Gifford; Giesen, Femke; Walter, Garry

    2008-01-01

    A study to review the amount of time devoted to child psychiatry in undergraduate medical education is conducted. Results conclude that relatively low priority is given to child psychiatry in medical education with suggestions for international teaching standards on the subject.

  5. Rights of the Child in Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, Fernando

    This report to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child contains observations of the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) concerning the application of the Convention on the Rights of the Child by Algeria. The report's introduction asserts that although OMCT welcomes legislative and institutional efforts made by Algeria since…

  6. The Climate of Child Welfare Employee Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahalane, Helen; Sites, Edward W.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes differences in perceptions of the child welfare work environment among Title IV-E educated individuals who remain within public child welfare and those who sought employment elsewhere after fulfilling a legal work commitment. Job satisfaction, emotional exhaustion, and personal accomplishment were predictive of staying…

  7. How to Understand Your Child's Temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... own usual type. The ease with which a child adjusts to his environment is strongly influenced by his temperament - adaptability and ... experiences and interactions with other people, with his environment and by his health. By the time a child has reached the school years, his temperament is ...

  8. Child Labor in Africa: A Comparative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canagarajah, Sudharshan; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    2001-01-01

    of poverty as a determinant of child labor, however other determinants are of similar importance. Among school costs, transportation costs have the greatest effect on child labor and school attendance, whereas the hypothesis of imperfect capital markets and that of household composition generally...

  9. Child Labor in Africa: A Comparative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Canagarajah, Sudharshan

    1999-01-01

    of poverty as a determinant of child labor, however other determinants are of similar importance. Among school costs, transportation costs have the greatest effect on child labor and school attendance, whereas the hypothesis of imperfect capital markets and that of household composition generally...

  10. Parent Support Groups to Prevent Child Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downing, C. Jerry

    1982-01-01

    Describes the organization and training of a parent support group to prevent child abuse. Initial training assisted group members to become aware of their attitudes toward child abusers. Training also focused on developing listening skills, procedures for making referrals, and the handling of confidential information. (RC)

  11. Rights of the Child in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, Anne-Laurence; Mejia, Fernando

    This report to the United Nations Committee on the Rights of the Child contains observations of the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) concerning the application of the U.N. Convention on the Rights of the Child by the Republic of Senegal. Part 1 of the report, "Preliminary Observations," discusses Senegal's ratification of the Convention…

  12. Medical Advances in Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Randell A.

    2011-01-01

    This volume is the first of a two-part special issue detailing state of the art practice in medical issues around child sexual abuse. The six articles in this issue explore methods for medical history evaluation, the rationale for when sexual examinations should take place, specific hymenal findings that suggest a child has been sexually abused,…

  13. When your child's treatment stops working

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may have had enough for now. If your child is young, consider using toys or art to talk about death. You may talk about what happens if a doll gets sick, or talk about a book about an animal ... that give your child a chance to talk. "What do you think ...

  14. Child Poverty in Portugal: Dimensions and Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Amelia; Nunes, Francisco

    2009-01-01

    This article analyses the extent and persistence of child poverty in Portugal between 1995 and 2001. Data from the Portuguese component of the European Community Household Panel Survey (ECHP) are used to estimate child poverty rates and children's flows in and out of poverty. The article focuses upon an analysis based on family income and on a set…

  15. Reproductive technologies: the owned child and commodification

    OpenAIRE

    Lesnik-Oberstein, Karin

    2005-01-01

    This article analyses some complexities in and around the idea that the child, in several recent discussions on reproductive technologies, is constantly brought in relation to the market and commodity, and yet is not simply equated with commodity. When and how is the child a commodity and not a commodity?

  16. Child Maltreatment and the School Psychologist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viezel, Kathleen D.; Davis, Andrew S.

    2015-01-01

    Child maltreatment remains a relevant issue for school psychologists. This special issue was designed to provide school psychology practitioners, researchers, and other school personnel with current, empirically sound information about child maltreatment. This introduction provides context for the articles in this volume, including definitions of…

  17. CHILD ABUSE, FENOMENA DAN KEBIJAKAN DI INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suci Wulansari

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Research about child abuse in Indonesia done by United Nations Children's Funds (UNICEF results a concerned condition. The same opinion is also declared by Indonesian Commission on Children Protection. The increasing number of child abuse in Indonesia is highlighted in international society. Child abuse causes many negative effects for physical, mental, and or sexual of children, that effect for the growth and development of child thus leads to rise the lost generation. Medical officers hope to be able to do an early diagnose, prevention, and right therapy to minimize the negative impacts that can happen. Raising competencies of health care providers and building more hospitals that can be an integrated crisis centre in child abuse is a must. The government has built some policies to prevent children from child abuse, that has to be socialized, implemented an evaluated. It is hoped that Health Department has to make a continued and integrated systems and make a standard procedures for all of health care providers to prevent and provide the right therapy for the victim of child abuse. Key words: Child Abuse, growth and development, policies

  18. Social Media Use in Child Welfare Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Edward Sage

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The scholarly child welfare literature offers little information about the use of social media by child welfare workers. We conducted a study of 171 child welfare workers across several states using an online survey. The resulting data offer insights from workers about current practices related to social media use in a child welfare work setting. Most respondents see social media as an acceptable tool for conducting child welfare assessments. Respondents describe strains and benefits of social media use. It is recommended that agencies provide guidance on ethical decision-making for using social media as a work-related tool. Agencies should also provide policy clearly defining social media use and misuse.

  19. CHILD BRIDE’ PROBLEM IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meryem Kaynak Malatyali

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ‘Child Brides’ are described as girls who are forced to get married before they are 18 year old. The issue of child brides is a concern for undeveloped and developing countries as well as Turkey. This work aims to explore the prevalence, problems and causes related to the problem of ‘child brides’ as well as offering solutions for this problem. The literature shows that ‘child bride’ is quite widespread practice in Turkey. Moreover, forced marriage at an early age is problematic in many ways. In addition, there are some factors which contribute the problem including legal gaps, education level of the family and the daughter, economical conditions, stereotypes, traditional practices and sexism level. Finally, it is suggested that the reasons for the problem of ‘child brides’ are multi-dimensional and therefore it requires a similar approach.

  20. [Sexual child abuse: definition, prevalence and sequelae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moggi, F

    1991-01-01

    This review focuses on two aspects of research on sexual child abuse during the last ten years, namely prevalence and long-term effects. Differing results for prevalence (6-62% for female subjects) have been found depending on the concept of sexual child abuse (incest vs. extra-familial child sexual abuse, child sexual abuse with or without physical contact, child sexual abuse with or without violence and sexual actions between adults and children) and depending on the method, and features of the subject. Long-term effects are complex (affective, somatic, eating and sleeping disorders, dissociations, disorders in interpersonal relationships, problems in sexuality and social functioning). The main syndrome seems to be a pattern of affective disorders. PMID:1799078