WorldWideScience

Sample records for child welfare system

  1. Comprehensive Child Welfare Information System. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    This final rule replaces the Statewide and Tribal Automated Child Welfare Information Systems (S/TACWIS) rule with the Comprehensive Child Welfare Information System (CCWIS) rule. The rule also makes conforming amendments in rules in related requirements. This rule will assist title IV-E agencies in developing information management systems that leverage new innovations and technology in order to better serve children and families. More specifically, this final rule supports the use of cost-effective, innovative technologies to automate the collection of high-quality case management data and to promote its analysis, distribution, and use by workers, supervisors, administrators, researchers, and policy makers.

  2. Organizational Climate, Services, and Outcomes in Child Welfare Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glisson, Charles; Green, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study examines the association of organizational climate, casework services, and youth outcomes in child welfare systems. Building on preliminary findings linking organizational climate to youth outcomes over a 3-year follow-up period, the current study extends the follow-up period to 7 years and tests main, moderating and…

  3. Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children and State Child Welfare Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounds, Dawn; Julion, Wrenetha A; Delaney, Kathleen R

    2015-01-01

    In several states, commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) is now a reportable child abuse offense. Illinois has taken the lead in tackling the issue and the Illinois experience illuminates valuable lessons. This article delineates the protection, practice, and policy implications that evolve when CSEC falls under a state child welfare system. The specific aims are to (a) discuss CSEC, its victims, risks, harms, and challenges inherent in providing effective care; (b) use Illinois as an exemplar to explicate the consequences and implementation challenges of establishing a state reporting system that frames CSEC as a child welfare issue; (c) recommend strategies for developing effective state reporting models, and (d) demonstrate how nurses are well poised to advocate for victims of human trafficking on both state and national levels. Recommendations for improving the identification of CSEC victims and overcoming challenges to state implementation are offered. PMID:25908664

  4. Creating Trauma-Informed Child Welfare Systems Using a Community Assessment Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, Alison; Conradi, Lisa; Wilson, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a community assessment process designed to evaluate a specific child welfare jurisdiction based on the current definition of trauma-informed child welfare and its essential elements. This process has recently been developed and pilot tested within three diverse child welfare systems in the United States. The purpose of the…

  5. Practice parameter for the assessment and management of youth involved with the child welfare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Terry; Fouras, George; Brown, Rachel

    2015-06-01

    This Practice Parameter presents principles for the mental health assessment and management of youth involved with the child welfare system. Important definitions, background, history, epidemiology, mental health care use, and functional outcomes are described. Practical guidance regarding child welfare-related considerations for evaluation and management are discussed. PMID:26004666

  6. The Child Welfare Cartel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoesz, David

    2016-01-01

    The probity of the Children's Bureau's National Child Welfare Workforce Institute (NCWWI) is examined with respect to the status of child welfare as well as the performance of social work education. By requiring that funding go only to accredited schools of social work, which is not authorized by relevant provisions of the Social Security Act,…

  7. Pathways Triple P and the Child Welfare System: A Promising Fit

    OpenAIRE

    Petra, Megan; Kohl, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    Parents referred to the child welfare system following maltreatment allegations are often ill-prepared to constructively address child disruptive behaviors, despite the high prevalence of these behaviors among this population. Evidence-based parent-mediated interventions are effective in improving parenting skills; however, they are rarely offered within the child welfare system. The purpose of this pilot project was to evaluate the fit and acceptability of one parent-mediated training progra...

  8. Latino Caregiver Psychosocial Factors and Health Care Services for Children Involved in the Child Welfare System

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Caitlin; Brinkmann, Andrea; Schneiderman, Janet U.

    2015-01-01

    Children in the child welfare system have a high prevalence of health problems, making pediatric health service use critical. Latino children represent a growing proportion of the child welfare system, and are at increased risk for health problems. Many have argued that Latino caregivers can provide Latino children with the least disruptive out-of-home placement, but little is known about how caregiver factors might relate to health services utilization or child health status within this popu...

  9. Addressing substance abuse treatment needs of parents involved with the child welfare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveros, Arazais; Kaufman, Joan

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to synthesize available data to help guide policy and programmatic initiatives for families with substance abuse problems who are involved with the child welfare system, and identify gaps in the research base preventing further refinement of practices in this area. To date, Family Treatment Drug Court and newly developed home-based substance abuse treatment interventions appear the most effective at improving substance abuse treatment initiation and completion in child welfare populations. Research is needed to compare the efficacy of these two approaches, and examine cost and child well-being indicators in addition to substance abuse treatment and child welfare outcomes.

  10. Factors Associated with Service Use among Immigrants in the Child Welfare System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Khushmand; Chemtob, Claude M.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated child, caregiver, and caseworker factors associated with greater use of family support services by immigrant families in the U.S. child welfare system. Among child factors, higher levels of internalizing behavior problems (Odds Ratio (O.R.) = 3.60), externalizing behavior problems (O.R. = 2.62) and a history of neglect…

  11. Supervisory Neglect and Risk of Harm. Evidence from the Canadian Child Welfare System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Casares, Monica; Trocme, Nico; Fallon, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study explores prevalence and characteristics associated with supervisory neglect and physical harm in children in the child welfare system in Canada. Methods: The sample included all substantiated primary maltreatment investigations in the 2008 Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect excluding cases where…

  12. Initial Implementation Indicators From a Statewide Rollout of SafeCare Within a Child Welfare System

    OpenAIRE

    Whitaker, Daniel J; Ryan, Kerry A.; Wild, Robert C.; Self-Brown, Shannon; John R. Lutzker; Shanley, Jenelle R.; Edwards, Anna M.; McFry, Erin A.; Moseley, Colby N.; Hodges, Amanda E.

    2011-01-01

    There is a strong movement toward implementation of evidence-based practices (EBP) in child welfare systems. The SafeCare parenting model is one of few parent-training models that addresses child neglect, the most common form of maltreatment. Here, the authors describe initial findings from a statewide effort to implement the EBP, SafeCare®, into a state child welfare system. A total of 50 agencies participated in training, with 295 individuals entering training to implement SafeCare. Analyse...

  13. Creating a Child-Friendly Child Welfare System: Effective Early Intervention to Prevent Maltreatment and Protect Victimized Children

    OpenAIRE

    Bartholet, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that what we call the “child welfare” system has traditionally focused more on adult than on child welfare, placing greater emphasis on family preservation than warranted. It argues further that while the system purports to value research as a guide to policy, research is too often designed to serve predefined ideological goals, and to advance family preservation rather than examining what policies best serve child interests. It shows how these themes played out in two rec...

  14. Substance abuse interventions for parents involved in the child welfare system: evidence and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterling, Kathy Lemon; Austin, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    As child welfare systems across the country face the problem of parental substance abuse, there is an increasing need to understand the types of treatment approaches that are most effective for substance-abusing parents in the child welfare system-the majority of whom are mothers. This structured review of the literature focuses on evidence related to two areas: (1) individual-level interventions designed to assist mothers and women in addressing their substance abuse problems, and (2) system-level interventions designed to improve collaboration and coordination between the child welfare system and the alcohol and other drug system. Overall, research suggests the following program components may be effective with substance-abusing women with children: (1) Women-centered treatment that involves children, (2) Specialized health and mental health services, (3) Home visitation services, (4) Concrete assistance, (5) Short-term targeted interventions, and (6) Comprehensive programs that integrate many of these components. Research also suggests that promising collaborative models between the child welfare system (CWS) and the alcohol and other drug (AOD) system typically include the following core elements: (1) Out-stationing AOD workers in child welfare offices, (2) Joint case planning, (3) Using official committees to guide collaborative efforts, (4) Training and cross-training, (5) Using protocols for sharing confidential information, and (6) Using dependency drug courts. Although more rigorous research is needed on both individual-level and system-level substance abuse interventions for parents involved in the child welfare system, the integration of individual-level interventions and system-level approaches is a potentially useful practice approach with this vulnerable population.

  15. Fire Setting Behavior in a Child Welfare System: Prevalence, Characteristics and Co-Occurring Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, John S.; McClelland, Gary; Jordan, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Fire setting is one of the most challenging behaviors for the child welfare system. However, existing knowledge about its prevalence and correlates has been limited to research on single programs. The Illinois Department of Children and Family Services initiated a uniform assessment process at entry into state custody using a trauma-informed…

  16. Addressing Substance Abuse Treatment Needs of Parents Involved with the Child Welfare System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveros, Arazais; Kaufman, Joan

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to synthesize available data to help guide policy and programmatic initiatives for families with substance abuse problems who are involved with the child welfare system, and identify gaps in the research base preventing further refinement of practices in this area. To date, Family Treatment Drug Court and newly developed…

  17. Factors Contributing to Disproportionality in the Child Welfare System: Views from the Legal Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettlaff, Alan J.; Rycraft, Joan R.

    2010-01-01

    A critical shortcoming in the existing body of research addressing racial disproportionality in the child welfare system is the lack of inclusion of external stakeholders in attempts to understand and address this issue. This article reports the results of a study designed to develop a deeper understanding of disproportionality from the views of…

  18. Rebuild the Nation's Child Welfare System. Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annie E. Casey Foundation, 2009

    2009-01-01

    More than 800,000 American children spend some time in foster care each year, most because they have been victims of child abuse or neglect. The families of 3.5 million children are investigated or assessed for alleged maltreatment each year, and more than 900,000 children are determined to be victims--three-quarters of them neglected, and…

  19. The Child Welfare Cartel, "Redux"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoesz, David

    2016-01-01

    In response to "The Child Welfare Cartel," defenders of the National Child Welfare Workforce Institute (NCWWI) make three errors: First, restricting federal funds to schools of social work is "not" authorized by the statute cited in the creation of NCWWI. Second, social work is "not" the only discipline engaged in…

  20. Making It Work Without a Family Drug Court: Connecticut's Approach to Parental Substance Abuse in the Child Welfare System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungemack, Jane; Giovannucci, Marilou; Moy, Samuel; Ohrenberger, Karen; Dematteo, Thomas; Smith, Staceyann

    2015-01-01

    Parental substance abuse presents, complex challenges for the child welfare system and courts. This article describes the State of Connecticut's experience implementing the Recovery Specialist Voluntary Program (RSVP), a recovery support program designed to confront the problem of parental substance abuse within the child welfare system without, a family drug court. The state-level collaboration efforts, system changes, factors affecting development and implementation of RSVP, program participants, and preliminary outcomes are described.

  1. Adoption and Child Welfare Protection in France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumaret, Annick-Camille; Rosset, Dominique-Jeanne

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the French Child Protection system, which is managed by Child Welfare of the local authorities (Aide Sociale a l'Enfance) and by Judicial Juvenile Protection depending on the central government (Protection Judiciaire de la Jeunesse) Children's judges are involved in child protection. The majority of children in care live in…

  2. Child Welfare Outcomes Data Portal

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The most current Child Welfare Outcomes data is featured on this site. Through the site, you can view the data before the full report is published. The most...

  3. Social Media Use in Child Welfare Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Todd Edward Sage; Melanie Sage

    2016-01-01

    The scholarly child welfare literature offers little information about the use of social media by child welfare workers. We conducted a study of 171 child welfare workers across several states using an online survey. The resulting data offer insights from workers about current practices related to social media use in a child welfare work setting. Most respondents see social media as an acceptable tool for conducting child welfare assessments. Respondents describe strains and benefits of socia...

  4. "It's about Us": Marital Adjustment and Marital Adaptation in Couples Who Adopt Children from the Child Welfare System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooradian, John K.; Timm, Tina M.; Hock, Robert M.; Jackson, Rosemary

    2011-01-01

    This article examines, using grounded theory methodology, the marital relationships of couples who adopted children from the child welfare system. Twenty-two spouses in four focus groups reported initial marital adjustment that featured husbands' support of their wives' initiation of adoption and management of child needs. About one half of these…

  5. 45 CFR 1355.52 - Funding authority for statewide automated child welfare information systems (SACWIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... welfare information systems (SACWIS). 1355.52 Section 1355.52 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to... welfare information systems (SACWIS). (a) States may receive Federal reimbursement at the 75 percent match... information system, to the extent such system: (1) Provides for the State to collect and electronically...

  6. Differentiating between child protection and family support in the Canadian child welfare system's response to intimate partner violence, corporal punishment, and child neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trocmé, Nico; Fallon, Barbara; Sinha, Vandna; Van Wert, Melissa; Kozlowski, Anna; Maclaurin, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Rates of reported child maltreatment nearly doubled in Canada over the period 1998-2003, an increase that reflects growing awareness of the harmful effects of an expanding array of parental behaviors, including corporal punishment, lack of supervision, and exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV). Some of these situations may benefit from voluntary family support programs outside of the child welfare system. Analyzing a sample of 11,807 investigations, this paper compares cases where the sole concern is exposure to IPV, or hitting a child, or neglect, or other forms of investigated maltreatment. Situations where exposure to IPV or potentially abusive hitting were the sole reason for investigation presented with fewer risk factors and were less likely to lead to ongoing child welfare interventions compared to other maltreatment investigations. While situations involving alleged neglect presented a higher risk profile and elicited a more intensive child welfare response than did exposure to IPV or hitting, opportunities for alternative services were nevertheless identified. The study also found that visible minority families were overrepresented in cases involving hitting and that Aboriginal families were overrepresented in cases involving neglect. Overall the findings support the development of alternative response programs in Canada. PMID:23597012

  7. Implementation and evaluation of linked parenting models in a large urban child welfare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Patricia; Feldman, Sara Wolf; Wulczyn, Fred; Saldana, Lisa; Forgatch, Marion

    2016-03-01

    During the past decade, there have been increased efforts to implement evidence-based practices into child welfare systems to improve outcomes for children in foster care and their families. In this paper, the implementation and evaluation of a policy-driven large system-initiated reform is described. Over 250 caseworkers and supervisors were trained and supported to implement two evidence-based parent focused interventions in five private agencies serving over 2,000 children and families. At the request of child welfare system leaders, a third intervention was developed and implemented to train the social work workforce to use evidence-based principles in everyday interactions with caregivers (including foster, relative, adoptive, and biological parents). In this paper, we describe the policy context and the targeted outcomes of the reform. We discuss the theory of the interventions and the logistics of how they were linked to create consistency and synergy. Training and ongoing consultation strategies used are described as are some of the barriers and opportunities that arose during the implementation. The strategy for creating a path to sustainability is also discussed. The reform effort was evaluated using both qualitative and quantitative methods; the evaluation design, research questions and preliminary results are provided. PMID:26602831

  8. Testing a theory of organizational culture, climate and youth outcomes in child welfare systems: a United States national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Nathaniel J; Glisson, Charles

    2014-04-01

    Theories of organizational culture and climate (OCC) applied to child welfare systems hypothesize that strategic dimensions of organizational culture influence organizational climate and that OCC explains system variance in youth outcomes. This study provides the first structural test of the direct and indirect effects of culture and climate on youth outcomes in a national sample of child welfare systems and isolates specific culture and climate dimensions most associated with youth outcomes. The study applies multilevel path analysis (ML-PA) to a U.S. nationwide sample of 2,380 youth in 73 child welfare systems participating in the second National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being. Youths were selected in a national, two-stage, stratified random sample design. Youths' psychosocial functioning was assessed by caregivers' responses to the Child Behavior Checklist at intake and at 18-month follow-up. OCC was assessed by front-line caseworkers' (N=1,740) aggregated responses to the Organizational Social Context measure. Comparison of the a priori and subsequent trimmed models confirmed a reduced model that excluded rigid organizational culture and explained 70% of the system variance in youth outcomes. Controlling for youth- and system-level covariates, systems with more proficient and less resistant organizational cultures exhibited more functional, more engaged, and less stressful climates. Systems with more proficient cultures and more engaged, more functional, and more stressful climates exhibited superior youth outcomes. Findings suggest child welfare administrators can support service effectiveness with interventions that improve specific dimensions of culture and climate.

  9. Special needs and child welfare: healing the child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Cindy S

    2007-01-01

    Passage of the Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997 has placed the child at the center of the child welfare system. Courts bear the ultimate responsibility for the safety and well-being of these children, including those with disabilities. Findings from the Child and Family Service Reviews, however, indicate less-than-optimal conformity in a number of states regarding the physical and mental well-being of children. A multidisciplinary approach involving jurisprudence, science, and financing is required to bring about better compliance. Collaboration among legal, medical, dental, and child advocacy organizations is necessary for healing children in the welfare system to become a national imperative. PMID:17566535

  10. Findings from a national needs assessment of American Indian/Alaska native child welfare programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leake, Robin; Potter, Cathryn; Lucero, Nancy; Gardner, Jerry; Deserly, Kathy

    2012-01-01

    The National Child Welfare Resource Center for Tribes, a member of the Children's Bureau Child Welfare Training and Technical Assistance Network, conducted a national needs assessment of tribal child welfare. This assessment explored current practices in tribal child welfare to identify unique systemic strengths and challenges. A culturally based, multi-method design yielded findings in five areas: tribal child welfare practice, foster care and adoption, the Indian Child Welfare Act, legal and judicial, and program operations.

  11. Mental Health Services for Children and Youth in the Child Welfare System: A Focus on Caregivers as Gatekeepers

    OpenAIRE

    Villagrana, Margarita

    2010-01-01

    Caregivers serve as gatekeepers for children while in the child welfare system, but few studies have focused on the caregiver and the factors that influence the use of mental health services for the children under their care. The purpose of this study was to examine the child’s mental health need, the caregiver’s level of stress, depression, and social support, and the utilization of mental health services by children using the three most common types of caregivers in the child welfare system...

  12. Dissemination of a Multilevel Evidence-Based System of Parenting Interventions with Broad Application to Child Welfare Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinz, Ron

    2009-01-01

    Parenting interventions are relevant to many touch points of the child welfare system. This paper describes a multilevel system of parenting interventions called "Triple P" that matches intervention intensities to families, builds on a strong scientific base, provides multiple access points for parents, and offers a destigmatized, cost-efficient…

  13. Providing Individually Tailored Academic and Behavioral Support Services for Youth in the Juvenile Justice and Child Welfare Systems. Practice Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsoulin, S.; Darwin, M. J.; Read, N. W.

    2012-01-01

    Youth who are involved with the juvenile justice and child welfare systems face many challenges and barriers to academic and vocational success. Regardless of the reasons for their involvement, youth in these systems are "disproportionately children and youth of color who currently have, or have experienced, a host of risk factors that are…

  14. Intimate Relationship Challenges in Early Parenthood among Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual Couples Adopting via the Child Welfare System

    OpenAIRE

    Goldberg, Abbie E.; Kinkler, Lori A.; Moyer, April M.; Weber, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Little research has examined the transition to parenthood among couples who adopt through the child welfare system. The current qualitative study of 84 individuals within 42 couples (17 lesbian, 13 gay, and 12 heterosexual), who were placed with a child via foster care three months earlier, examined perceived changes in their intimate relationship. Findings indicated that, like heterosexual biological-parent couples, some adoptive parents perceived the loss of their partner’s undivided attent...

  15. Suicide Ideation, Depressive Symptoms, and Out-of-Home Placement among Youth in the U.S. Child Welfare System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Heather D.

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to describe the association between type of placement, depressive symptoms, and suicide ideation among a sample of youth (7 years and older) as they entered the child welfare system and to examine the longitudinal effect of prior out-of-home placements and prior depressive symptoms on subsequent suicide ideation…

  16. NDTAC Practice Guide: Quality Education Services Are Critical for Youth Involved with the Juvenile Justice and Child Welfare Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsoulin, Simon; Clark, Heather Griller; Rankin, Victoria E.

    2015-01-01

    This National Evaluation and Technical Assistance Center for the Education of Children and Youth Who are Neglected, Delinquent, or At-Risk (NDTAC) practice guide examines the principle that quality education services are critical for youth involved with the juvenile justice and child welfare systems. This principle asserts that, to address the…

  17. Conducting Culturally Competent Evaluations of Child Welfare Programs and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettlaff, Alan J.; Fong, Rowena

    2011-01-01

    As the population of the United States has changed over the last two decades, so has the population of children who come to the attention of the child welfare system, resulting in increasing calls for cultural competence in all aspects of child welfare programming and practice. Given the changing demographics among children involved in the child…

  18. Indian Child Welfare Act Proceedings. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-14

    This final rule adds a new subpart to the Department of the Interior's (Department) regulations implementing the Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA), to improve ICWA implementation. The final rule addresses requirements for State courts in ensuring implementation of ICWA in Indian child-welfare proceedings and requirements for States to maintain records under ICWA.

  19. The Climate of Child Welfare Employee Retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahalane, Helen; Sites, Edward W.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes differences in perceptions of the child welfare work environment among Title IV-E educated individuals who remain within public child welfare and those who sought employment elsewhere after fulfilling a legal work commitment. Job satisfaction, emotional exhaustion, and personal accomplishment were predictive of staying…

  20. Social Media Use in Child Welfare Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd Edward Sage

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The scholarly child welfare literature offers little information about the use of social media by child welfare workers. We conducted a study of 171 child welfare workers across several states using an online survey. The resulting data offer insights from workers about current practices related to social media use in a child welfare work setting. Most respondents see social media as an acceptable tool for conducting child welfare assessments. Respondents describe strains and benefits of social media use. It is recommended that agencies provide guidance on ethical decision-making for using social media as a work-related tool. Agencies should also provide policy clearly defining social media use and misuse.

  1. The what, when, and why of implementation frameworks for evidence-based practices in child welfare and child mental health service systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Rochelle F; Self-Brown, Shannon; Rostad, Whitney L; Jackson, Matthew C

    2016-03-01

    It is widely recognized that children in the child welfare system are particularly vulnerable to the adverse health and mental effects associated with exposure to abuse and neglect, making it imperative to have broad-based availability of evidence-based practices (EBPs) that can prevent child maltreatment and reduce the negative mental health outcomes for youth who are victims. A variety of EBPs exist for reducing child maltreatment risk and addressing the associated negative mental health outcomes, but the reach of these practices is limited. An emerging literature documents factors that can enhance or inhibit the success of EBP implementation in community service agencies, including how the selection of a theory-driven conceptual framework, or model, might facilitate implementation planning by providing guidance for best practices during implementation phases. However, limited research is available to guide decision makers in the selection of implementation frameworks that can boost implementation success for EBPs that focus on preventing child welfare recidivism and serving the mental health needs of maltreated youth. The aims of this conceptual paper are to (1) provide an overview of existing implementation frameworks, beginning with a discussion of definitional issues and the selection criteria for frameworks included in the review; and (2) offer recommendations for practice and policy as applicable for professionals and systems serving victims of child maltreatment and their families. PMID:26547360

  2. Intimate Relationship Challenges in Early Parenthood among Lesbian, Gay, and Heterosexual Couples Adopting via the Child Welfare System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Abbie E; Kinkler, Lori A; Moyer, April M; Weber, Elizabeth

    2014-08-01

    Little research has examined the transition to parenthood among couples who adopt through the child welfare system. The current qualitative study of 84 individuals within 42 couples (17 lesbian, 13 gay, and 12 heterosexual), who were placed with a child via foster care three months earlier, examined perceived changes in their intimate relationship. Findings indicated that, like heterosexual biological-parent couples, some adoptive parents perceived the loss of their partner's undivided attention as stressful to the relationship. Adoption-specific stressors were also identified, including the need to find state-approved child care to facilitate "couple time" and the legal insecurity of foster-to-adopt placements. Although our findings were similar for heterosexual, lesbian, and gay adoptive parents, same-sex couples cited some additional stressors related to their sexual minority status. Findings have implications for individual, couple, and family practitioners who work with lesbian, gay, and heterosexual adoptive parents, particularly during their transition to parenthood. PMID:25177080

  3. Family Poverty, Welfare Reform, and Child Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Greg J.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2000-01-01

    Examines consequences of family poverty for child development, noting evidence that deep or persistent poverty early in childhood adversely affects children's ability and achievement. Argues that although the 1996 welfare reforms spurred many welfare-to-work transitions, their time limits and sanctions are likely to deepen poverty among some…

  4. Teaching Note-CASA Volunteerism: Preparing MSW Students for Public Child Welfare Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrick, Jill Duerr; Durst, Wendy

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to reform public child welfare systems across the nation, Title IV-E child welfare training programs were established over 2 decades ago. Participating students typically engage in a customized educational experience as part of their MSW program that prepares them to work in the field of child welfare upon graduation. This article…

  5. Determinants of Substance Abuse in a Population of Children and Adolescents Involved with the Child Welfare System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Veeran-Anne S.; Thornton, Tiffany; Tonmyr, Lil

    2011-01-01

    Substance abuse is an important health issue facing children involved with child welfare, but little is known about the associated factors. The purpose of this study was to build on findings from the "Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect-2003" and use a national sample of 10-15 year old children to examine the factors…

  6. Sexualized behaviors in cohorts of children in the child welfare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, Laura M; Lee, Austin F; Schuler, Ann; Ryan, Julie L; Prentky, Robert A

    2016-02-01

    The current retrospective archival study investigated the patterns of normative sexualized behavior (NSB), problematic sexualized behavior (PSB), and sexual perpetration for three age cohorts of boys and girls in a high-risk child welfare sample. All children in the present sample had exhibited some form of PSB in the past. We hypothesized that the incidence rates (IR) of NSBs would increase linearly from the early childhood cohort (Ages 2/3-7) to the middle childhood cohort (Ages 8-11) to the preadolescence/adolescence cohort (Ages 12-17), for girls and boys. Although the base rate of sexual behaviors generally increases as children age, children tend to hide sexual behaviors starting at an early age. We therefore hypothesized that a concave quadratic trend would be evident for most PSBs. We further predicted that older children would have a greater incidence of PSB, as well as more victims, compared with younger children. We found the predicted upward linear trend for NSB for both girls and boys, with minimal IR differences between the early childhood and middle childhood cohorts. IRs were remarkably high and comparable across age groups for both boys and girls, with respect to the same three PSBs. For the two perpetration history variables, there was a concave effect, with girls and boys in the middle childhood cohort exhibiting the lowest IR. Results are explained in the context of previously established patterns of sexualized behavior, as well as the reporting of such behaviors. PMID:26774533

  7. Caseworkers' and Supervisors' Perceptions of Ohio's Statewide Automated Child Welfare Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochis, Shelia P.

    2013-01-01

    Children represent the future of mankind and their safety, well-being, and permanency are goals of the Department of Health and Human Services. The Department of Health and Human Services is the primary funding source for child welfare and protection in the United States; their requirements, rules, and laws must be upheld and understood by every…

  8. Self-Reported Disciplinary Practices among Women in the Child Welfare System: Association with Domestic Violence Victimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, Kelly J.; Hazen, Andrea L.; Coben, Jeffrey H.; Wang, Yun; McGeehan, Jennifer; Kohl, Patricia L.; Gardner, William P.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between physical domestic violence victimization (both recent and more than a year in past measured by self-report) and self-reported disciplinary practices among female parents/caregivers in a national sample of families referred to child welfare. Methods: Cross-sectional survey of more than 3,000 female…

  9. Work, Welfare, and Child Maltreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Christina Paxson; Jane Waldfogel

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines how child maltreatment is affected by the economic circumstances of parents. 'Child maltreatment' encompasses a wide range of behaviors that adversely affect children. It includes neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and other forms of abuse or neglect. Using state-level panel data on the numbers of reports and substantiated cases of maltreatment, we examine whether socioeconomic factors play different roles for these different types of maltreatment. A key finding is tha...

  10. Predictors of Substance Abuse Assessment and Treatment Completion for Parents Involved with Child Welfare: One State's Experience in Matching across Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traube, Dorian E; He, Amy S; Zhu, Limei; Scalise, Christine; Richardson, Tyrone

    2015-01-01

    To date, few studies have examined the effect of interagency collaboration on substance abuse assessment ity of Southern California and treatment completion for parents who are involved in child welfare. The purpose of this paper is to: (1) describe a statewide, interagency collaborative program aimed at providing targeted substance abuse assessment and treatment to parents engaged in the child welfare system; (2) document the specialized assessment and treatment outcomes for parents engaged through this collaborative program; and (3) determine factors related to successful treatment completion for parents involved in the child welfare system. This is a retrospective study of an open cohort of 13,829 individuals admitted to the New Jersey Child Protection Substance Abuse Initiative (CPSAI) program from October 1, 2009, through September 30, 2010. Data were drawn from two unique administrative data sources. Multivariate Cox regression models were used to explore factors related to successfil treatment completion for parents involved in the child welfare system. Trend analysis for the total sample in the CPSAI program revealed that, of the 10,909 individuals who received a CPSAI assessment, 59% were referred to treatment. Of those referred to treatment, 40% enrolled in a treatment program. Once enrolled in a treatment program, 55% completed or were in the process of completing substance abuse treatment. These findings suggest that when adequate screening and treatment is available through a streamlined process, many of the ethnic and gender disparities present among other populations of individuals seeking treatment are minimized. Utilizing inherent child welfare case factors appears to be an important motivating element that aids parents during the assessment and treatment process.

  11. Listening to the Voices of Children in Foster Care: Youths Speak out about Child Welfare Workforce Turnover and Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strolin-Goltzman, Jessica; Kollar, Sharon; Trinkle, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    Child welfare workforce turnover rates across private and public child welfare agencies are concerning. Although research about the causes of child welfare workforce turnover has been plentiful, empirical studies on the effects of turnover on child outcomes are sparse. Furthermore, the voices and experiences of youths within the system have been…

  12. Child Welfare Research and Training: A Response to David Stoesz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brenda D.; Vandiver, Vikki L.

    2016-01-01

    In this response to David Stoesz' critique, "The Child Welfare Cartel," the authors agree that child welfare research and training must be improved. The authors disagree, however, with Stoesz' critique of social work education, his assessment of the most-needed forms of child welfare research, and his depiction of the goals and…

  13. State Capacity: The Missing Piece in Child Welfare Privatization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barillas, Katherine Howard

    2011-01-01

    Privatization has been used to address the limited capacity of government to achieve positive results in child welfare systems. Privatized systems have not realized better outcomes than their public counterparts, however, and many states continue to struggle with implementation. In order to demonstrate that privatization is in fact an investment…

  14. The effect of Early Head Start on child welfare system involvement: A first look at longitudinal child maltreatment outcomes☆

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Beth L.; Ayoub, Catherine; Bartlett, Jessica Dym; Von Ende, Adam; Furrer, Carrie; Chazan-Cohen, Rachel; Vallotton, Claire; Klevens, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    The high societal and personal costs of child maltreatment make identification of effective early prevention programs a high research priority. Early Head Start (EHS), a dual generational program serving low-income families with children prenatally through age three years, is one of the largest federally funded programs for infants and toddlers in the United States. A national randomized trial found EHS to be effective in improving parent and child outcomes, but its effectiveness in reducing ...

  15. Child Welfare-Involved Youth with Intellectual Disabilities: Pathways into and Placements in Foster Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slayter, Elspeth; Springer, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    Existing literature suggests that youth with intellectual disabilities are at increased risk for child maltreatment. Little is known about youth with intellectual disabilities who are supervised by child welfare authorities or living in foster care. Reasons for child welfare system involvement and placement types are explored. In this…

  16. Mothers in Substance Abuse Treatment: Differences in Characteristics Based on Involvement with Child Welfare Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grella, Christine E.; Hser, Yih-Ing; Huang; Yu-Chuang

    2006-01-01

    Problem: Greater awareness of the role of parental substance abuse in child maltreatment makes it imperative that the substance abuse treatment and child welfare systems coordinate services for these parents. Yet little is known about the characteristics of child-welfare involved parents (primarily mothers) who enter into substance abuse…

  17. Children with FASD- Related Disabilities Receiving Services from Child Welfare Agencies in Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Don; Burnside, Linda; Marchenski, Sheila; Mudry, Andria

    2010-01-01

    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) is a serious social and health problem for the child welfare, health and education systems in North America and other parts of the world. This article describes the population of children in care of the child welfare system in Manitoba. Also this article will highlight the relevance of these research findings…

  18. Applying Legal Socialization to the Child Welfare System: Do Youths' Perceptions of Caseworkers Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolivoski, Karen M.; Shook, Jeffrey J.; Johnson, Heath C.; Goodkind, Sara; Fusco, Rachel; DeLisi, Matt; Vaughn, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Legal socialization is the process through which young people develop beliefs in the legitimacy of the law and legal system. Research has examined how perceptions of interactions with authority figures influence beliefs regarding the legitimacy of laws and legal system, thereby shaping compliance with the law (Fagan and Tyler in…

  19. Self-assessment of the quality of life of children and adolescents in the child welfare system of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damnjanović Maja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Children and adolescents who enter a child welfare system are at higher risk of suffering from mental disorders, physical health, and/or social and educational problems than the general population of the same age is. This study was organized with the aim to evaluate the general characteristics of quality of life (QOL in children and adolescents living in residential and foster care in Serbia. Methods. Two hundred and sixteen children and adolescents, aged 8-18 years, from residential and foster care and 238 children and adolescents from the general population participated in the study. QOL was assessed using the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL - Serbian version. Three groups were created: residential care group (RCG, foster care group (FCG, and control group (children and adolescents from biological families - CG. Descriptive data were calculated for all questionnaires’ scores, while t-test and ANOVA were used to compare them. Results. The mean value of the total PedsQL was lower in the RCG, 67.47 ± 17.75, than in the FCG and the CG, 88.33 ± 11.27 and 80.74 ± 11.23, respectively. Additionally, the RCG reported lower all PedsQL Scale scores, but the lowest value was for the psychosocial domain. These differences were statistically significant (F value ranged from 17.3 to 49.89, p < 0.000. However, only the scores of the RCG were statistically different from the FCG and the CG, while the differences between the FCG and the CG were statistically insignificant (p > 0.05. Conclusion. Children and adolescents living in residential care have significantly poorer QOL than those living in foster care or in biological families. On the other side, QOL in children and adolescents from foster care is similar to the one of those living in biological families.

  20. Fostering Solutions: Bringing Brief-Therapy Principles and Practices to the Child Welfare System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemons, Douglas; Liscio, Michele; Gordon, Arlene Brett; Hibel, James; Gutierrez-Hersh, Annette; Rebholz, Cynthia L.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a 15-month university-community collaboration that was designed to fast-track children out of foster care. The developers of the project initiated resource-oriented "systems facilitations," allowing wraparound professionals and families to come together in large meetings to solve problems and find solutions. Families also…

  1. The Use of Mapping in Child Welfare Investigations: A Strength-Based Hybrid Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lwin, Kristen; Versanov, Avi; Cheung, Connie; Goodman, Deborah; Andrews, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    To enhance strengths-based service, a large urban child welfare agency in Ontario, Canada implemented part of the Signs of Safety (SOS) model in 2010. SOS was created to engage families involved with the child welfare system, and is rooted in the beliefs of collaboration, strengths-based practice, and safety. The hybrid of the full SOS model…

  2. Caregivers' Endorsement of Barriers to Mental Health Services for Children and Youth in Child Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villagrana, Margarita; Palinkas, Lawrence A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the three most common types of caregivers in the child welfare system (birth parents, relative caregivers, and foster parents), an active child welfare case, caregivers' endorsement of barriers to mental health services and mental health service use by caregivers for the children under their care. The…

  3. Indian Child Welfare: A Status Report. Final Report of the Survey of Indian Child Welfare and Implementation of the Indian Child Welfare Act and Section 428 of the Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act of 1980.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plantz, Margaret C.; And Others

    This is a report on the first national examination of the effects of the Indian Child Welfare Act (Public Law 95-608), enacted in 1978. The study examines the prevalence of Native American children in substitute care and the implementation of the act and portions of the Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act of 1980 as they affect Indian…

  4. Validating the Psychological Climate Scale in Voluntary Child Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitlin, Wendy; Claiborne, Nancy; Lawrence, Catherine K.; Auerbach, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Organizational climate has emerged as an important factor in understanding and addressing the complexities of providing services in child welfare. This research examines the psychometric properties of each of the dimensions of Parker and colleagues' Psychological Climate Survey in a sample of voluntary child welfare workers. Methods:…

  5. Predicting Turnover: Validating the Intent to Leave Child Welfare Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, Charles; Schudrich, Wendy Zeitlin; Lawrence, Catherine K.; Claiborne, Nancy; McGowan, Brenda G.

    2014-01-01

    A number of proxies have been used in child welfare workforce research to represent actual turnover; however, there have been no psychometric studies to validate a scale specifically designed for this purpose. The Intent to Leave Child Welfare Scale is a proxy for actual turnover that measures workers' intention to leave. This scale was…

  6. An Outcome Evaluation of Competency Based Training for Child Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Elizabeth Vonk

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In response to the continuing need for competent child welfare professionals, a large mid-western university’s College of Social Work collaborated with a public child welfare agency to design and implement a one year,Title IV-E-funded training opportunity for second-year MSW students. Student outcomes, including knowledge acquisition, attitudes about child welfare, and field of post-graduation employment, were evaluated using a quasi-experimental pre-post comparison group design (n=28.Results indicated that there were statistically significant differences between the two groups concerning attitudes about child welfare practice. However, although trainees’ level of child welfare knowledge increased more than that of the comparison group, the difference did not reach statistical significance. Implications for practice and social work education are discussed.

  7. Child Welfare Training in Child Psychiatry Residency: A Program Director Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Terry G.; Cox, Julia R.; Walker, Sarah C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: This study surveys child psychiatry residency program directors in order to 1) characterize child welfare training experiences for child psychiatry residents; 2) evaluate factors associated with the likelihood of program directors' endorsing the adequacy of their child welfare training; and 3) assess program directors'…

  8. Welfare, Child Support, and Strategic Behavior: Do High Orders and Low Disregards Discourage Child Support Awards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roff, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Qualitative research has documented strategic behavior in response to child support policy. Parents of children on welfare have an incentive to avoid formal child support, since most states limit the amount of formal child support that women on welfare can receive (the "disregard") and have relatively high child support orders for low-income…

  9. Peer Mentoring in Child Welfare: A Motivational Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockhill, Anna; Furrer, Carrie J; Duong, Thuan M

    2015-01-01

    Peer mentoring interventions for parents with substance use disorders who are involved with the child welfare system are relatively new, complex, individualized interventions and thus need to be understood both in regard to program efficacy and the processes of how they work. This qualitative study of the experiences of parents involved in a parent mentoring program suggested that certain practices helped motivate parents to think and act in ways that supported their goals and child welfare case plans. The three key mentoring practices that emerged were building caring relationships, providing guidance, and putting parents in charge. These practices promoted parents'positive self-beliefs (e.g., worthy of connection, competence), which helped motivate them to participate in services, cope constructively with difficulties, and more effectively manage behaviors and emotions. Drawing on Self-Determination Theory and Basic Psychological Needs Theory (BPNT) in particular, we propose a motivational framework for understanding how peer mentoring facilitates, or undermines, parents'motivation and results in their making progress on various aspects of their child welfare case. Implications for using the motivational model in future program development and evaluation efforts are discussed. PMID:26827468

  10. Development and Implementation of a Child Welfare Workforce Strategy to Build a Trauma-Informed System of Support for Foster Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerns, Suzanne E U; Pullmann, Michael D; Negrete, Andrea; Uomoto, Jacqueline A; Berliner, Lucy; Shogren, Dae; Silverman, Ellen; Putnam, Barbara

    2016-05-01

    Effective strategies that increase the extent to which child welfare professionals engage in trauma-informed case planning are needed. This study evaluated two approaches to increase trauma symptom identification and use of screening results to inform case planning. The first study evaluated the impact of training on trauma-informed screening tools for 44 child welfare professionals who screen all children upon placement into foster care. The second study evaluated a two-stage approach to training child welfare workers on case planning for children's mental health. Participants included (a) 71 newly hired child welfare professionals who received a 3-hr training and (b) 55 child welfare professionals who participated in a full-day training. Results from the first study indicate that training effectively increased knowledge and skills in administering screening tools, though there was variability in comfort with screening. In the second study, participants self-reported significant gains in their competency in identifying mental health needs (including traumatic stress) and linking children with evidence-based services. These findings provide preliminary evidence for the viability of this approach to increase the extent to which child welfare professionals are trauma informed, aware of symptoms, and able to link children and youth with effective services designed to meet their specific needs. PMID:26928411

  11. Trauma-Informed Care for Children in the Child Welfare System: An Initial Evaluation of a Trauma-Informed Parenting Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Kelly M; Murray, Kathryn J; Ake, George S

    2016-05-01

    An essential but often overlooked component to promoting trauma-informed care within the child welfare system is educating and empowering foster, adoptive, and kinship caregivers (resource parents) with a trauma-informed perspective to use in their parenting as well as when advocating for services for their child. In this first evaluation of the National Child Traumatic Stress Network's trauma-informed parenting workshop (Caring for Children who Have Experienced Trauma, also known as the Resource Parent Curriculum), participant acceptance and satisfaction and changes in caregiver knowledge and beliefs related to trauma-informed parenting were examined. Data from 159 ethnically diverse resource parents were collected before and after they participated in the workshop. Results demonstrate that kinship and nonkinship caregivers showed significant increases in their knowledge of trauma-informed parenting and their perceived self-efficacy parenting a child who experienced trauma. Nonkinship caregivers increased on their willingness to tolerate difficult child behaviors, whereas kinship caregivers did not show a significant change. Participants also demonstrated high levels of satisfaction with the workshop. Although these preliminary results are important as the first empirical study supporting the workshop's effectiveness, the limitations of this study and the directions for future research are discussed. PMID:26603357

  12. Maltreatment, Child Welfare, and Recidivism in a Sample of Deep-End Crossover Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglivio, Michael T; Wolff, Kevin T; Piquero, Alex R; Bilchik, Shay; Jackowski, Katherine; Greenwald, Mark A; Epps, Nathan

    2016-04-01

    Although research has oft-documented a maltreatment-delinquency link, the effect of involvement in-and timing of-child welfare system involvement on offending has received less attention. We examine whether the timing of child welfare involvement has differential effects on recidivism of deep-end juvenile offenders (youth who have been adjudicated delinquent by the court and placed in juvenile justice residential programs). The current study uses a large, diverse sample of 12,955 youth completing juvenile justice residential programs between 1 January 2010 and 30 June 2013 in Florida (13 % female, 55 % Black, 11 % Hispanic). Additionally, we explore the direct effects of childhood traumatic events on delinquency, as well as their indirect effects through child welfare involvement using structural equation modeling. The findings indicate that adverse childhood experiences fail to exert a direct effect on recidivism, but do exhibit a significant indirect effect on recidivism through child welfare involvement, which is itself associated with recidivism. This means that while having exposures to more types of childhood traumatic events does not, in and of itself, increase the likelihood of re-offending, effects of such experiences operate through child welfare placement. Differences in the effects of maltreatment timing and of adverse childhood experiences are observed across sex and race/ethnicity subgroups. Across all racial subgroups, exposures to adverse childhood experiences have a significant effect on the likelihood of child welfare placement, yet child welfare placement exerts a significant effect on recidivism for White and Hispanic youth, but not for Black youth. Only Hispanic female and White male youth with overlapping child welfare and juvenile justice cases (open cases in both systems at the same time during the study period) were more likely to recidivate than their delinquent-only counterpart youth. Crossover status (child welfare and juvenile justice

  13. Title IV-B Child and Family Services Plans: An Evaluation of Specific Measures Taken by States To Comply with the Indian Child Welfare Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Eddie F.; Limb, Gordon E.; Munoz, Ric; Clifford, Chey A.

    This study responds to the lack of research on Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 (ICWA) compliance by examining a nationwide sample of the ICWA section within state Title IV-B Child and Family Services Plans (CFSP) and Annual Progress and Services Reports (APSR). These plans and reports address the administration of state child welfare systems. The…

  14. Integrating Couple Teamwork Conversations into Child Welfare Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Dana; Antle, Becky; Johnson, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    This article summarizes the importance of and challenges to addressing couple teamwork issues in the child welfare population. Although there is substantial evidence to support the importance of healthy adult relationships for child well-being and the prevention of child maltreatment, there are a number of barriers to addressing these couple…

  15. Child Welfare and Juvenile Justice: Federal Agencies Could Play a Stronger Role in Helping States Reduce the Number of Children Placed Solely To Obtain Mental Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    Child welfare directors in 19 states and juvenile justice officials in 30 counties estimated that in fiscal year 2001 parents placed over 12,700 children into the child welfare or juvenile justice systems so that these children could receive mental health services. Neither the child welfare nor the juvenile justice system was designed to serve…

  16. Adapting an evidence based parenting program for child welfare involved teens and their caregivers

    OpenAIRE

    Barkan, Susan E.; Salazar, Amy M.; Estep, Kara; Mattos, Leah M.; Eichenlaub, Caroline; Haggerty, Kevin P.

    2014-01-01

    The scarcity of caregivers and the unique vulnerability of teens involved with the child welfare system necessitate effective strategies for ensuring that caregivers are prepared and supported in the important role they play with children and youth within the child welfare system. They are in a position, through the establishment of a strong, positive, supportive connection with the youth, to potentially minimize the impacts of recent trauma and interrupt a negative trajectory by preventing t...

  17. From placement to prison revisited: Do mental health services disrupt the delinquency pipeline among Latino, African American and Caucasian youth in the child welfare system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Antonio R; Greeson, Johanna K P; Kim, Minseop; Thompson, Allison; DeNard, Christina

    2015-12-01

    Racial and ethnic disparities in delinquency among child welfare-involved youth are well documented. However, less is known about the mechanisms through which these disparities occur. This study explores the extent to which sets of variables predict the occurrence of juvenile delinquency and whether race/ethnicity moderates the strength of the relationships between (1) social, emotional, and behavioral (SEB) problems and delinquency and (2) mental health service use and delinquency. We used a nationally representative sample of 727 African American, Caucasian, and Latino youth between the ages of 12-17 who were referred to the child welfare system. Controlling for age, gender, placement instability, maltreatment history, poverty, and urbanicity, linear regression analyses revealed that African American and Latino youth engaged in more delinquent acts than Caucasian youth did. However, service use decreased the likelihood of engaging in more delinquent acts for African Americans. Additional efforts are needed to illuminate and address the contextual and organizational barriers to delivering effective mental health services as a strategy to reduce racial disparities in delinquent behavior. PMID:26536399

  18. How Many Families in Child Welfare Services Are Affected by Parental Substance Use Disorders? A Common Question that Remains Unanswered

    OpenAIRE

    Seay, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    Associated with extensive negative outcomes for children, parental substance use disorders are a major concern within the child welfare system. Obtaining actual prevalence rate data has been difficult, however, and there are no recent published reports on this issue. Using a systematic search, this paper examines: (1) Prevalence estimates of parental substance use disorders in the child welfare population; (2) the types of child welfare involvement for reported prevalence estimates; and (3) h...

  19. Child welfare employee recruitment and retention: an organizational culture perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbényiga, DeBrenna LaFa

    2009-01-01

    Drawing data from an organizational culture study, this cross-sectional study investigates the effect of organizational culture on child welfare employee recruitment and retention (N=92). Findings from quantitative analyses of the organizational culture inventory suggest that constructive culture style in child welfare organizations, especially humanistic-encouraging and self-actualizing culture norms, highly predict recruitment through employees' perception of "fit" and satisfaction as a member of the organization. Limitations, future research, and relevant implications are discussed. PMID:20695293

  20. The Racial Disproportionality Movement in Child Welfare: False Facts and Dangerous Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Bartholet, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of Racial Disproportionality in child welfare - the disproportionate representation of black children in the foster care system as compared to their representation in the general population. This is now the hot issue in the child welfare world, with a powerful coalition of groups known as the Casey-CSSP Alliance claiming that Racial Disproportionality is the central problem that state and federal policy makers should address. This Alliance includes the foundat...

  1. Child Welfare Workers’ Connectivity to Resources and Youth’s Receipt of Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia C. Bunger

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Youth involved in the child welfare system are at high risk for mental illness, substance abuse, and other behavioral health issues, which child welfare workers are expected to address through referrals. Child welfare workers (N=27 who participated in Project IMPROVE (Intervention for Multisector Provider Enhancement reported on services they provided to youth (N=307 in their caseloads. Using survey and administrative data, this paper examines workers’ service actions on behalf of youth. Results were consistent with the Gateway Provider Model and showed that youths received help from a greater variety of service sectors when their workers were able to identify behavioral health problems, and were familiar with and connected to other providers in the community. Improving service delivery to youth in child welfare may be accomplished by training workers in the signs and symptoms of behavioral health problems and familiarizing them with providers in the community.

  2. 75 FR 43188 - Request for Public Comment Concerning the Redesign of Statewide Automated Child Welfare...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ... agency's child abuse and neglect data system and the systems used to support the title IV-A, IV-D, and..., and have had a significant impact on child welfare practice and the Information Technology (IT... HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families Request for Public Comment Concerning...

  3. Multiple Family Groups for Child Behavior Difficulties: Retention Among Child Welfare-Involved Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, Geetha; Fuss, Ashley; Wisdom, Jennifer P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The Multiple Family Group (MFG) service delivery model to reduce childhood disruptive behavior disorders has shown promise in engaging child welfare-involved families. This qualitative study examines caregivers' perceptions of factors that influence retention in MFGs among child welfare-involved families. Methods: Twenty-five…

  4. Strengths Moderate the Impact of Trauma on Risk Behaviors in Child Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Gene; Martinovich, Zoran; Gawron, Tim; Lyons, John S.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether traumatic experiences of children entering the child welfare system have an impact on their risk behaviors and whether these behaviors are moderated by children's strengths. Method: The Illinois Department of Children and Family Services administered the Child and Adolescent Needs and Strengths (CANS) measure to…

  5. Validating the Implementation Climate Scale (ICS) in child welfare organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhart, Mark G; Torres, Elisa M; Wright, Lisa A; Martinez, Sandra Y; Aarons, Gregory A

    2016-03-01

    There is increasing emphasis on the use of evidence-based practices (EBPs) in child welfare settings and growing recognition of the importance of the organizational environment, and the organization's climate in particular, for how employees perceive and support EBP implementation. Recently, Ehrhart, Aarons, and Farahnak (2014) reported on the development and validation of a measure of EBP implementation climate, the Implementation Climate Scale (ICS), in a sample of mental health clinicians. The ICS consists of 18 items and measures six critical dimensions of implementation climate: focus on EBP, educational support for EBP, recognition for EBP, rewards for EBP, selection or EBP, and selection for openness. The goal of the current study is to extend this work by providing evidence for the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the ICS in a sample of child welfare service providers. Survey data were collected from 215 child welfare providers across three states, 12 organizations, and 43 teams. Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated good fit to the six-factor model and the alpha reliabilities for the overall measure and its subscales was acceptable. In addition, there was general support for the invariance of the factor structure across the child welfare and mental health sectors. In conclusion, this study provides evidence for the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the ICS measure for use in child welfare service organizations. PMID:26563643

  6. Validating the Implementation Climate Scale (ICS) in child welfare organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhart, Mark G; Torres, Elisa M; Wright, Lisa A; Martinez, Sandra Y; Aarons, Gregory A

    2016-03-01

    There is increasing emphasis on the use of evidence-based practices (EBPs) in child welfare settings and growing recognition of the importance of the organizational environment, and the organization's climate in particular, for how employees perceive and support EBP implementation. Recently, Ehrhart, Aarons, and Farahnak (2014) reported on the development and validation of a measure of EBP implementation climate, the Implementation Climate Scale (ICS), in a sample of mental health clinicians. The ICS consists of 18 items and measures six critical dimensions of implementation climate: focus on EBP, educational support for EBP, recognition for EBP, rewards for EBP, selection or EBP, and selection for openness. The goal of the current study is to extend this work by providing evidence for the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the ICS in a sample of child welfare service providers. Survey data were collected from 215 child welfare providers across three states, 12 organizations, and 43 teams. Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated good fit to the six-factor model and the alpha reliabilities for the overall measure and its subscales was acceptable. In addition, there was general support for the invariance of the factor structure across the child welfare and mental health sectors. In conclusion, this study provides evidence for the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the ICS measure for use in child welfare service organizations.

  7. “A fine balance”—how child welfare workers manage organizational changes within the Norwegian Welfare State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudrun Brottveit

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2004, the Child Welfare Reform (CWR was introduced in Norway. One of the most important goals of the reform was to strengthen State level authority in public child welfare and establish equal child welfare services across the country. The aim of this article is to study how this new reform affected the work of municipal child welfare professionals and led to the development of a regional project called New Child Welfare (NCW. Based on qualitative interviews with central actors in NCW, regarding the interaction between state and local child welfare professionals, the article shows how professionals within local child welfare reacted on the CWR. The NCW was established as a consequence of the professionals’ reaction on state governance and represent a new type of network. Inspired by Michel Foucaults’ concepts of governmentality and self-work, the article focuses on the development of the NCW as a result of child welfare workers’ confrontation with state governance and their fight for innovative solutions, knowing that the reform had direct impact on vulnerable children, youths, and their families. The local and collective self-work in NCW is an expression of a new form of productive power based on equality and cooperation, as well as a particular form of dependency between municipal and state levels of governance. The article highlights the importance of studying how reforms introduced by the state actually influence local child welfare work, policy, and professionalism within municipal child welfare.

  8. Intergenerational Justice for Children: Restructuring Adoption, Reproduction & Child Welfare Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Bartholet, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    This article takes seriously the idea of intergenerational justice for children, and takes as starting premises that child interests count as equivalent to adult, and that we owe justice not just to existing children but also to the next generation. It argues that intergenerational justice demands a major restructuring of policies throughout the world governing adoption, reproduction, and child welfare. We now encourage the reproduction of more children than we can care for, provide limited...

  9. The Effects of Behavioral Parent Training on Placement Outcomes of Biological Families in a State Child Welfare System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Sabrina B.; Mata, Francesca C.; Wofford, Erin; Briggs, Adam M.; LeBlanc, Linda A.; Carr, James E.; Lazarte, Alejandro A.

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral parent training has proven effective in improving the skill performance of foster caregivers and biological parents of dependent children during role-play assessments. To date, however, no studies have examined the impact of behavioral parenting skills training on child placement outcomes. We conducted a quasi-experimental archival…

  10. Disaster Preparedness Resource Guide for Child Welfare Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berne, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    This guide offers best practices for disaster management at child welfare agencies. Its recommendations are firmly rooted in published disaster-related research and the advice of human service and preparedness experts. It is not a reinvention of disaster management--much quality work has been done in this field--but a synthesis of experts'…

  11. Psychological Empowerment and Child Welfare Worker Outcomes: A Path Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joohee; Weaver, Cynthia; Hrostowski, Susan

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how work environment and psychological empowerment related to worker outcomes in public child welfare. These relationships were examined by testing a conceptual model in which psychological empowerment mediated the relationships between work environment variables (quality of supervision and role…

  12. The Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978: Implications for Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Barbara Brooks

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 (ICWA), intended to stabilize Indian families by reducing the number of Indian children placed in non-Indian adoptive or foster homes. The act established minimum federal standards for removal of Indian children and outlined procedures that aid their placement in homes reflecting Indian culture.…

  13. The Indian Child Welfare Act in the Face of Extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips, Sloan

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the history, purposes, and provisions of the Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA); recent high-profile transracial adoption cases; the debate over whether ICWA purposes have been realized; the proposed Adoption Promotion and Stability Act, which would severely limit application of ICWA to adoption cases; and proposed compromise amendments to…

  14. Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978: Questions and Answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Administration for Native Americans (DHEW/OHDS), Washington, DC.

    The question and answer booklet highlights the provisions of the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 which was designed to protect the best interests of Indian children and to promote the stability and security of Indian tribes and families. The booklet attempts to answer 28 important questions concerning title I of the Act. Examples of questions…

  15. Toward Evidence-Informed Policy and Practice in Child Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littell, Julia H.; Shlonsky, Aron

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on the authors' experience in the international Campbell Collaboration, this essay presents a principled and pragmatic approach to evidence-informed decisions about child welfare. This approach takes into account the growing body of empirical evidence on the reliability and validity of various methods of research synthesis. It also…

  16. Let's Stop Playing Monopoly with the Child Welfare Workforce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Robin Ernest

    2016-01-01

    Although the National Child Welfare Workforce Institute (NCWWI) is a specific focus of Stoesz's article, a more expansive and thought-provoking critique is made of the NCWWI within the context of a purported overreliance and dependency on the Children's Bureau, concerns regarding the quality of social work education, and the development of a…

  17. The Child Welfare Response to Serious Nonaccidental Head Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaudes, Paula Kienberger; Bilaver, Lucy A.

    2004-01-01

    Serious nonaccidental head trauma (NHT) can leave permanent neurological damage in children who survive abuse. This study reports on child welfare's handling of NHT cases compared with cases of physical abuse and head trauma due to neglect with regard to placement in foster care, reunification with family, and safety issues. The results show that…

  18. Perceptions of parental substance use disorders in cross-system collaboration among child welfare, alcohol and other drugs, and dependency court organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Amy S; Traube, Dorian E; Young, Nancy K

    2014-05-01

    Cross-system collaboration among child welfare (CW), alcohol and other drugs (AOD), and court organizations shows promise in addressing the many needs of CW-involved families experiencing parental substance use disorders (SUDs). Research has suggested that differing perceptions of parents with SUDs among staff in these organizations may hinder the collaborative process. Using a sequential explanatory mixed-method approach, this study explored staff perceptions of parental SUDs among CW, AOD, and court organizations. Logistic regression analyses indicated that, compared to CW respondents, AOD respondents were: (a) less likely to believe that parents could provide effective parenting; (b) more likely to believe that abstinence should be a criterion for reunification; (c) more likely to agree that parents should receive jail time as a consequence for noncompliance with court orders; and (d) more likely to believe that parents could succeed in treatment. Thematic analyses of these focal areas identified two core themes (focus on the primary client and mandated time frames for permanency), as well as multiple subthemes, that provided a nuanced understanding of differing perceptions on these matters. Suggestions for the development of anticipatory cross-system training and practices and implications for policy evaluation are discussed.

  19. Behavior Modification of Aggressive Children in Child Welfare: Evaluation of a Combined Intervention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitkowski, Dennis; Petermann, Franz; Buttner, Peter; Krause-Leipoldt, Carsten; Petermann, Ulrike

    2009-01-01

    Children and adolescents with aggressive disorders are prevalent in child welfare settings. Therefore, the assumption is that child welfare services would benefit from a cognitive-behavioral intervention. This study investigates whether implementation of the training with aggressive children (TAC) could improve the outcome of child welfare. Twelve…

  20. Implementing a Modular Research-Supported Treatment in Child Welfare: Effects and Obstacles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Brittany R.; Lee, Bethany R.; Kolivoski, Karen M.; Attman, Nicole P.; Lindsey, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Increasing rates of mental health needs in child welfare clients highlight the importance of training child welfare workers in effective mental health interventions. This pilot study evaluates the effects of training public child welfare workers and interns in modularized research-supported treatments (RSTs). Methods: We compared…

  1. Integrating Substance Abuse Treatment and Child Welfare Services: Findings from the Illinois Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Waiver Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joseph P.; Marsh, Jeanne C.; Testa, Mark F.; Louderman, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Alcohol and other drug abuse is a major problem for children and families involved with public child welfare. Substance abuse compromises appropriate parenting practices and increases the risk of child maltreatment. A substantial proportion of substantiated child abuse and neglect reports involve parental substance abuse. Once in the system,…

  2. Emerging issues at the intersection of immigration and child welfare: results from a transnational research and policy forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettlaff, Alan J; Vidal de Haymes, Maria; Velazquez, Sonia; Mindell, Robert; Bruce, Lara

    2009-01-01

    In July 2006, the American Humane Association and the Loyola University Chicago School of Social Work facilitated a roundtable to address the emerging issue of immigration and its intersection with child welfare systems. More than 70 participants from 10 states and Mexico joined the roundtable, representing the fields of higher education, child welfare, international immigration, legal practice, and others. This roundtable created a transnational opportunity to discuss the emerging impact of migration on child welfare services in the United States and formed the basis of a continued multidisciplinary collaboration designed to inform and impact policy and practice at the local, state, and national levels. This paper presents the results of the roundtable discussion and summarizes the emerging issues that participants identified as requiring attention by child welfare systems to facilitat positive outcomes of child safety, permanency, and well-being. Suggestions for further research and implications for policy and practice are also presented. PMID:19777792

  3. Comparing Child Protective Investigation Performance between Law Enforcement Agencies and Child Welfare Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Neil; Yampolskaya, Svetlana; Gustafson, Mara; Armstrong, Mary; McNeish, Roxann; Vargo, Amy

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the comparative effectiveness of using law enforcement agencies for child protective investigation (CPI), in contrast with the traditional approach of CPI conducted by the public child welfare agency. The analysis uses 2006-2007 data from a natural experiment conducted in Florida to show modest differences in performance and…

  4. Mandates for Collaboration: Health Care and Child Welfare Policy and Practice Reforms Create the Platform for Improved Health for Children in Foster Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotnik, Sarah; Wilson, Leigh; Scribano, Philip; Wood, Joanne N; Noonan, Kathleen

    2015-10-01

    Improving the health of children in foster care requires close collaboration between pediatrics and the child welfare system. Propelled by recent health care and child welfare policy reforms, there is a strong foundation for more accountable, collaborative models of care. Over the last 2 decades health care reforms have driven greater accountability in outcomes, access to care, and integrated services for children in foster care. Concurrently, changes in child welfare legislation have expanded the responsibility of child welfare agencies in ensuring child health. Bolstered by federal legislation, numerous jurisdictions are developing innovative cross-system workforce and payment strategies to improve health care delivery and health care outcomes for children in foster care, including: (1) hiring child welfare medical directors, (2) embedding nurses in child welfare agencies, (3) establishing specialized health care clinics, and (4) developing tailored child welfare managed care organizations. As pediatricians engage in cross-system efforts, they should keep in mind the following common elements to enhance their impact: embed staff with health expertise within child welfare settings, identify long-term sustainable funding mechanisms, and implement models for effective information sharing. Now is an opportune time for pediatricians to help strengthen health care provision for children involved with child welfare. PMID:26403650

  5. Child Welfare, Juvenile Justice, Mental Health, and Education Providers' Conceptualizations of Trauma-Informed Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donisch, Katelyn; Bray, Chris; Gewirtz, Abigail

    2016-05-01

    This study systematically examined child-service providers' conceptualizations of trauma-informed practice (TIP) across service systems, including child welfare, juvenile justice, mental health, and education. Eleven focus groups and nine individual interviews were conducted, totaling 126 child-service providers. Conventional content analysis was used to analyze the qualitative data with interrater reliability analyses indicating near perfect agreement between coders. Qualitative analysis revealed that child-service providers identified traumatic stress as an important common theme among children and families served as well as the interest in TIP in their service systems. At the same time, child-service providers generally felt knowledgeable about what they define TIP to be, although they articulated wide variations in the degree to which they are taught skills and strategies to respond to their traumatized clients. The results of this study suggest a need for a common lexicon and metric with which to advance TIP within and across child-service systems.

  6. Addressing the Impact of Trauma before Diagnosing Mental Illness in Child Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Gene; McClelland, Gary; Holzberg, Mark; Stolbach, Bradley; Maj, Nicole; Kisiel, Cassandra

    2011-01-01

    Congress set requirements for child welfare agencies to respond to emotional trauma associated with child maltreatment and removal. In meeting these requirements, agencies should develop policies that address child trauma. To assist in policy development, this study analyzes more than 14,000 clinical assessments from child welfare in Illinois.…

  7. A Strengths-Based Approach to Supervised Visitation in Child Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Gabriel Tobin; Shapiro, Valerie B.; Sperry, Rachel Wagner; LeBuffe, Paul A.

    2014-01-01

    This article describes a strengths-based approach to supervised visitation within the child welfare system of the United States. Supervised visitation gives parents accused of abuse or neglect the opportunity to spend time with children temporarily removed from their care. Although supervised visitation has the potential to be a tool for promoting…

  8. African American Caregivers and Substance Abuse in Child Welfare: Identification of Multiple Risk Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Eusebius; Kohl, Patricia L

    2012-07-01

    Despite the strong correlation between caregiver substance abuse and child maltreatment, little information exists to understand the typology of African American caregivers with substance abuse problems in the child welfare system. Research shows African American caregivers contend with multiple problems stemming from substance abuse. Unfortunately, we do not yet know how to best tailor resources to be responsive to varying groups of African American caregivers. Using data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being (NSCAW), this investigation tested for distinct multivariate profiles among a subset of African American caregivers with substance abuse problems (n=258). Latent Class Analysis (LCA) was used to classify caregivers, and five classes were identified among this high risk sample - each with distinct risk profiles. Based on these findings, we discuss implications for tailored practices to enhance the safety and stability of children involved with child welfare. PMID:22962521

  9. 45 CFR 400.112 - Child welfare services for refugee children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Child welfare services for refugee children. 400.112 Section 400.112 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT, ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  10. Multiple Family Groups to reduce child disruptive behavior difficulties: moderating effects of child welfare status on child outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, Geetha; Small, Latoya; Fuss, Ashley; Bowman, Melissa; Jackson, Jerrold; Marcus, Sue; Chacko, Anil

    2015-08-01

    Children who remain at home with their permanent caregivers following a child welfare (CW) involvement (e.g., investigation, out-of-home placement) manifest high rates of behavioral difficulties, which is a risk factor for further maltreatment and out-of-home placement if not treated effectively. A recently tested Multiple Family Group (MFG) service delivery model to treat youth Disruptive Behavior Disorders (DBDs) has demonstrated effectiveness in improving child behavior difficulties among hard-to-engage, socioeconomically disadvantaged families by addressing parenting skills, parent-child relationships, family communication and organization, social support, and stress. This exploratory study examines whether child behavioral outcomes for MFG differ for families with self-reported lifetime involvement in CW services compared to other families, as families with CW involvement struggle with additional stressors that can diminish treatment success. Youth (aged 7-11) and their families were assigned to MFG or services as usual (SAU) using a block comparison design. Caregivers reported on child behavior, social skills, and functional impairment. Mixed effects regression modeled multilevel outcomes across 4 assessment points (i.e., baseline, mid-test, post-test, 6-month follow-up). Among CW-involved families, MFG participants reported significantly reduced child oppositional defiant disorder symptoms at 6-month follow-up compared with SAU participants. No other differences were found in the effect of MFG treatment between CW and non-CW involved families. Findings suggest that MFG may be as effective in reducing child behavior difficulties for both CW and non-CW involved families. As a short-term, engaging, and efficient intervention, MFG may be a particularly salient service offering for families involved in the CW system. PMID:26188424

  11. Parental Views of In-Home Services: What Predicts Satisfaction with Child Welfare Workers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Mimi V.; Gibbons, Claire B.; Barth, Richard P.; McCrae, Julie S.

    2003-01-01

    Analyzed data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being regarding predictors of client satisfaction with child welfare workers. Found that caregiver reports of having fewer than two child welfare workers, having more recent contact, and receiving timely, responsive services were associated with higher perceived quality of…

  12. Self-Efficacy in Newly-Hired Child Welfare Workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donna Cherry

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Child abuse and neglect in the United States resulted in 676,569 reports in 2011 (U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, 2012. Workers in this field struggle with low pay, high caseloads, inadequate training and supervision, and risk of violence, all of which contribute to worker burnout and poor worker retention rates. Worker self-efficacy is predictive of worker retention, job performance, and persistence in this difficult field. This paper reports the development of a new measure of self-efficacy from a sample of 395 child welfare workers. Factor analysis revealed two domains of self-efficacy, direct practice and indirect practice, which can be modestly predicted by worker characteristics upon hire and the training program the workers attend. Worker self-efficacy can be used to identify vulnerable workers who may be especially in need of strong supervisory support as well as understand who to target for recruitment. A review of the literature of self-efficacy in child welfare workers is included.

  13. Maternal Work Behavior under Welfare Reform: How Does the Transition from Welfare to Work Affect Child Development? JCPR Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunifon, Rachel; Kalil, Ariel; Danziger, Sandra K.

    Using data from a longitudinal sample of former and current welfare recipients in Michigan spanning 1997 through 1999, the Womens Employment Study, this analysis examined how transitions from welfare to work affect parenting behavior and child behavior problems. Researchers used a fixed-effects regression design to control for all time-invariant…

  14. The Relationship among Internal Resilience, Smoking, Alcohol Use, and Depression Symptoms in Emerging Adults Transitioning out of Child Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Abby L.; Faulkner, Breanne; Wekerle, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Objective: It is well established that child maltreatment reflects a context of risk for multiple negative outcomes. Identifying factors that protect against negative outcomes is important for the development of strengths-based approaches that emphasize resilience, particularly for youth transitioning out of the child welfare system. The current…

  15. Screening for Trauma Exposure, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Depression Symptoms among Mothers Receiving Child Welfare Preventive Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemtob, Claude M.; Griffing, Sascha; Tullberg, Erika; Roberts, Elizabeth; Ellis, Peggy

    2011-01-01

    The role of parental trauma exposure and related mental health symptoms as risk factors for child maltreatment for parents involved with the child welfare (CW) system has received limited attention. In particular, little is known about the extent to which mothers receiving CW services to prevent maltreatment have experienced trauma and suffered…

  16. "International Criminalisation and Child Welfare Protection": The Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Trevor

    2008-01-01

    The Optional Protocol to the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) on the Sale of Children, Child Prostitution and Child Pornography has two overall aims: (i) to strengthen international criminalisation and (ii) to provide welfare protection for child victims. This article reviews the context of the Protocol including the work of the Special…

  17. Sharing Data between Child Welfare and Education to Improve Outcomes for Children and Youth in the Foster Care System. Policy Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Center for the Future of Teaching and Learning, 2010

    2010-01-01

    When a child is placed in the state's foster care system because of a parent's abuse or neglect, the state--represented by teams of social workers, lawyers, judges, foster parents, and other caregivers or guardians--steps into many aspects of the parental role. Too often, though, the state's representatives are attempting to fulfill a parental…

  18. Development and Validation of a Measure of Organizational Culture in Public Child Welfare Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westbrook, Tonya M.; Ellett, Alberta J.; Deweaver, Kevin W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To develop and explore the validity characteristics of a new measure of organizational culture in public child welfare agencies. Method: Multiple validation methods were used, including expert judgment and criterion-related validity procedures using a statewide sample of 1,033 child welfare caseworkers, supervisors, and administrators.…

  19. 76 FR 54249 - Revision of Agency Information Collection for the Indian Child Welfare Assistance Report; Request...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... CFR part 23. The revision affects the form that tribal Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA) coordinators... seeking revision of the information collection conducted under the Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA) and..., which tribal ICWA program directors fill out. BIA uses the information to determine the extent...

  20. 76 FR 33340 - Revision of Agency Information Collection for the Indian Child Welfare Assistance Annual Report...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ... Child Welfare Act (ICWA) coordinators provide to BIA on a quarterly basis. The information collection is... the Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA) and implementing regulations, at 25 CFR part 23. BIA collects the information using a consolidated caseload form, which tribal ICWA program directors fill out. BIA uses...

  1. Walking the Tightrope: Using Power and Authority in Child Welfare Supervision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogo, Marion; Dill, Katharine

    2008-01-01

    Recognizing the importance of understanding the way in which supervisors in child welfare perceive their administrative responsibilities and use of power and authority, an exploratory study was conducted. Supervisors in child welfare agencies in urban and rural settings participated in focus groups and discussed the impact of macro and micro…

  2. Investing in the Child Welfare Workforce: A Response to David Stoesz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briar-Lawson, Katharine; Leake, Robin; Dickinson, Nancy; McCarthy, Mary; Anderson, Gary; Groza, Victor; Gilmore, Grover C.

    2016-01-01

    Responding to David Stoesz's invited article criticizing the Children's Bureau and the National Child Welfare Workforce Institute (NCWWI), the author's inaccurate assertions are challenged, and new information is provided about the significant work underway to support the child welfare workforce. The Children's Bureau has made historic investments…

  3. A Walking Contradiction, Partly Truth and Partly Fiction: A Critique of Stoesz' The Child Welfare Cartel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellett, Alberta J.

    2016-01-01

    This article is a critique of David Stoesz' descriptions of organizational issues in child welfare, and more specifically, the relationships between the U.S. Children's Bureau and the National Child Welfare Workforce Institute. The focus is on Stoesz perspectives and assessments of sub-entities (cartels) that are currently influencing funding and…

  4. Emotional and Behavioral Problems Reported in Child Welfare over 3 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrae, Julie S.

    2009-01-01

    Child welfare agencies are required to provide services that ensure that children receive adequate mental health care. This study provides a comprehensive view of the emotional and behavioral problems of children who are referred to child welfare services, using nationally representative data. Bivariate analyses compare rates by child…

  5. Planning and Evaluating Child Welfare Training Projects: Working toward a Comprehensive Conceptual Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Mary Elizabeth; Amodeo, Maryann; Clay, Cassandra

    2008-01-01

    Training is widely believed to be an important element in promoting good child welfare practice. Scholarly attention to training, however, has been limited. To facilitate further development of child welfare training, in this article, we discuss the importance of conceptualization in the design and evaluation of training projects, offer a…

  6. Animal Welfare in organic framing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoolder, H.A.M.

    2007-01-01

    The concept of farm animal welfare can, for practical purposes, be translated into the so-called Five Freedoms.[1] Organic farming aims to meet animal welfare needs and should therefore comply with these Freedoms. The first Freedom, from hunger and thirst, is met in any system properly managed to or

  7. Domestic Violence and Private Family Court Proceedings: Promoting Child Welfare or Promoting Contact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Gillian S

    2016-06-01

    Despite improved understanding regarding domestic violence, child welfare and child contact, and related policy developments, problems persist regarding how the family courts deal with fathers' violence in contested contact/residence cases. In the study reported here, analysis was undertaken of welfare reports prepared for the courts in such cases to investigate how and to what extent issues of domestic violence and children's perspectives on these issues were taken into account when making recommendations to the courts. Analysis found that despite evidence of domestic violence and child welfare concerns, contact with fathers was viewed as desirable and inevitable in the vast majority of cases. PMID:26567294

  8. Child Welfare and Juvenile Justice: Several Factors Influence the Placement of Children Solely To Obtain Mental Health Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    Recent reports have documented how some parents choose to place their children in the child welfare or juvenile justice systems in order to obtain the mental health services that their children need. Senators Susan Collins and Joseph Lieberman of the Senate Committee on Governmental Affairs asked the General Accounting Office (GAO) to testify on:…

  9. A collaborative and trauma-informed practice model for urban Indian child welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, Nancy M; Bussey, Marian

    2012-01-01

    Preventing the breakup of the American Indian family is the fundamental goal of the Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA). However, few models exist to provide CPS workers and other practitioners with effective and practical strategies to help achieve this goal. This article presents a collaborative and trauma-informed family preservation practice model for Indian Child Welfare services with urban-based American Indian families. The model encompasses both systemic and direct practice efforts that assist families facing multiple challenges in creating a nurturing and more stable family life. System-level interventions improve the cultural responsiveness of providers, encourage partnerships between CPS and community-based providers, and support ICWA compliance. Direct practice interventions, in the form of intensive case management and treatment services, help parents/caregivers become more capable of meeting their own and their children's needs by addressing challenges such as substance abuse, trauma and other mental health challenges, domestic violence, and housing instability. Evaluation of the practice model suggests that it shows promise in preventing out-of-home placement of Native children, while at the same time improving parental capacity, family safety, child well-being, and family environment.

  10. Indigenous Genocidal Tracings: Slavery, Transracial Adoption, and the Indian Child Welfare Act

    OpenAIRE

    de Bourbon, Soma Leo

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACTIndigenous Genocidal Tracings: Slavery, Transracial Adoption, and the Indian Child Welfare Actby Soma de BourbonIndigenous Genocidal Tracings: Slavery, Transracial Adoption, and the Indian Child Welfare Act is a feminist, interdisciplinary history that traces the genealogy of U.S. property interests in Indigenous people from enslavement to the continued transracial adoption of Native children. The interconnection of Native history with that of Black Americans is interrogated, paying c...

  11. Medicaid Disenrollment Patterns Among Children Coming into Contact with Child Welfare Agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Ramesh; Allaire, Benjamin T; Brown, Derek S; Ross, Raven E

    2016-06-01

    Objectives To examine retention of Medicaid coverage over time for children in the child welfare system. Methods We linked a national survey of children with histories of abuse and neglect to their Medicaid claims files from 36 states, and followed these children over a 4 year period. We estimated a Cox proportional hazards model on time to first disenrollment from Medicaid. Results Half of our sample (50 %) retained Medicaid coverage across 4 years of follow up. Most disenrollments occurred in year 4. Being 3-5 years of age and rural residence were associated with increased hazard of insurance loss. Fee-for-service Medicaid and other non-managed insurance arrangements were associated with a lower hazard of insurance loss. Conclusions for Practice A considerable number of children entering child environments seem to retain Medicaid coverage over multiple years. Finding ways to promote entry of child welfare-involved children into health insurance coverage will be critical to assure services for this highly vulnerable population. PMID:27017228

  12. "When You're Sitting on the Fence, Hope's the Hardest Part": Challenges and Experiences of Heterosexual and Same-Sex Couples Adopting Through the Child Welfare System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Abbie; Moyer, April M; Kinkler, Lori A; Richardson, Hannah B

    2012-01-01

    Foster-to-adopt families can be viewed as systems that are influenced by many other systems (e.g., the legal system, the social service agency, and the birth family). The current qualitative study of 84 foster-to-adopt parents (members of 42 lesbian, gay, and heterosexual couples) examined the types of challenges that parents faced as they navigated multiple systems during the initial post-placement period. Some participants described the legal insecurity associated with their role as foster-to-adopt parents as impacting their personal well-being and their attachment to their children. Lack of support services and disorganization within social service agencies, as well as strained relationships with birth parents, were also identified as stressors for foster-to-adopt parents. Importantly, lesbian and gay participants faced additional concerns regarding the security of their placement, due to the possibility for discrimination within the various systems involved with the foster-to-adopt process. Participants as a whole also identified positive aspects of their experiences within various systems; for example, they appreciated child care subsidies, state-provided health insurance, and supportive social workers. Our findings provide insights into foster-to-adopt parents' experiences during the initial post-placement period, and have implications for adoption services aimed to improve placement stability and enhance family functioning in foster-to-adopt families. PMID:23226935

  13. Housing Services for Child Welfare-Involved Families: An Initial Evaluation Using Observational Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Patrick J.; Taylor, Jeremy J.; Rufa, Anne K.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the impact of housing services among child welfare-involved families using observational data. Propensity score matching with data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being compared intact families (n = 183) who received housing services 12 months after initial investigation to nontreated families balanced on…

  14. Implications of the CAPTA Requirement for Referrals from Child Welfare to Part C. inForum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller-Allen, Chandra

    2007-01-01

    In June 2003, Congress passed the Keeping Children and Families Safe Act, which reauthorized the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA), which provides federal funding for state child welfare agencies. A new provision in the reauthorized CAPTA requires that states receiving CAPTA funds develop and implement "provisions and procedures for…

  15. The Indian Child Welfare Act: We Must Still Fight for Our Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Terry L.

    2014-01-01

    On November 8, 1978, the Indian Child Welfare Act, otherwise known as ICWA, became law. Congress enacted this groundbreaking legislation, the impact of which has been arguably more profound than any other piece of federal Indian law in the modern era. While recent national attention has highlighted the law's role in child custody and adoption…

  16. Before Substantiation: The Role for Child Welfare Agencies in Preventing Maltreatment. JCPR Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daro, Deborah

    Over the past 30 years, the political response to child maltreatment and its prevention has experienced periods of frantic activity, often followed by long periods of benign neglect. To an extent, this pattern reflects deep differences among child welfare advocates, researchers and practitioners on how best to proceed. While most everyone agrees…

  17. The Manifest and Latent Functions of Differential Response in Child Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Daniel; Sullivan, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Although previous research has explored the efficacy of differential response (DR) programs in child welfare, there have been no studies to date about coding decisions between designations by child protection service agencies. Research has explored client satisfaction with DR as well as rates of recidivism and removal/placement but with limited…

  18. Preliminary evaluation of a prototype welfare monitoring system for sows and piglets (Welfare Quality (R) project)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scott, K.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Edwards, S.A.; Gu, J.H.; Wijhe-Kiezebrink, van M.C.; Vermeer, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    The Welfare Quality(R) project aims to develop a European on-form welfare assessment standard for pigs, amongst other species. A prototype monitoring system was developed for sows and piglets using predominantly animal-based measures of behaviour, health and physiology to assess welfare. The prototy

  19. Effects of a Rural Family Drug Treatment Court Collaborative on Child Welfare Outcomes: Comparison Using Propensity Score Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, McLean D; Green, Sherri L

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies that have examined the impact of family drug treatment courts (FDTCs) on child welfare outcomes have produced mixed results. This study evaluates the impact of a rural, FDTC collaborative on child welfare outcomes using propensity score analysis. Findings from the study show that children in the treatment group had longer stays in child welfare custody but were substantially less likely to experience future incidents of maltreatment than those in families with parental substance use disorders without these services. PMID:26827480

  20. Private Nonprofit Organizations for Child Welfare Cases of South Korea and People’s Republic of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伦知

    2013-01-01

    Private organizations and public sector regarding child welfare services have been two main actors in improving the quality of children ’s lives. In this paper, the author examines two cases of children social service and the background of social policies regarding child welfare. Combined with a theory that explains the importance of childcare services, the author also goes in-depth to suggest the compatible and sound model of child welfare after assessing the current limitation.

  1. Child Welfare, Education, Inequality, and Social Policy in Comparative Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarelli, Lance D.

    2015-01-01

    Using international data on child well-being and educational attainment, this article compares child well-being in the United States to member countries in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Multiple measures of child well-being are analyzed, such as material well-being (including poverty, unemployment, and income…

  2. Public child welfare staff knowledge, attitudes, and referral behaviors for an evidence based parenting program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Whitaker

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about how the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of the public child welfare work force influence implementation of evidence-based practice (EBP as most research has focused on the private workforce. This paper reports on public child welfare staff knowledge, attitudes, and practices in a state implementing the EBP, SafeCare®. A survey of public child welfare staff (N = 222 was conducted to assess knowledge, familiarity, and referral barriers and practices. Knowledge of and familiarity with SafeCarewere low, especially among front line staff (case managers. Attitudes toward SafeCare were fairly positive, but somewhat less so than attitudes toward a standard, non-evidenced based parenting program. Case managers were significantly less likely to have made a referral (15% than other staff (46%. Job tenure had few effects on familiarity, knowledge, attitudes, or referrals. The strongest predictors of having made referrals were familiarity with SafeCare and job position.

  3. Constraints and Benefits of Child Welfare Contracts with Behavioral Health Providers: Conditions that Shape Service Access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunger, Alicia C; Cao, Yiwen; Girth, Amanda M; Hoffman, Jill; Robertson, Hillary A

    2016-09-01

    This qualitative study examines worker perceptions of how public child welfare agencies' purchase of service contracts with private behavioral health organizations can both facilitate and constrain referral making and children's access to services. Five, 90-min focus groups were conducted with workers (n = 50) from an urban public child welfare agency in the Midwest. Using a modified grounded theory approach, findings suggest that contracts may expedite service linkages, but contract benefits are conditioned upon design and implementation. Results also suggest the critical role of front line workers in carrying out contractual relationships. Implications for research and interventions for enhancing contracting are discussed. PMID:26427998

  4. Single parenthood in the government welfare system

    OpenAIRE

    EWA JURCZYK-ROMANOWSKA

    2011-01-01

    Reflections on the subject of government welfare system aimed at single parents are presented in the article. Changes of civilisation are a cause of an escalation of the phenomenon of single parenthood in Poland, with the number of divorces rising year by year and an increase in the number of people who decide to live in concubinates or become single parents of children born out of wedlock. The withdrawal of the government from numerous forms of support for that social group is...

  5. Implementing Transfer of Learning in Training and Professional Development in a US Public Child Welfare Agency: What Works?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strand, Virginia; Bosco-Ruggiero, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    In-service training in public child welfare agencies in the United States has long been viewed as an important vehicle for the improvement of job satisfaction and organizational commitment, and therefore as important to retention in child welfare. This article examines the critical role of transfer of learning strategies in such training and…

  6. Current Debates on Variability in Child Welfare Decision-Making: A Selected Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Keddell

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This article considers selected drivers of decision variability in child welfare decision-making and explores current debates in relation to these drivers. Covering the related influences of national orientation, risk and responsibility, inequality and poverty, evidence-based practice, constructions of abuse and its causes, domestic violence and cognitive processes, it discusses the literature in regards to how each of these influences decision variability. It situates these debates in relation to the ethical issue of variability and the equity issues that variability raises. I propose that despite the ecological complexity that drives decision variability, that improving internal (within-country decision consistency is still a valid goal. It may be that the use of annotated case examples, kind learning systems, and continued commitments to the social justice issues of inequality and individualisation can contribute to this goal.

  7. From Security to Uncertainty: The impact of economic change on child welfare in central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Jane Falkingham

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses the possible pathways between macroeconomic change and child welfare and develops a typology of the risks that children may face at different stages of the lifecycle. Adopting a multi-dimensional view of child well-being, trends in both economic measures of poverty, based on incomes and expenditures, and in selected capability-based indicators are then examined. The indicators selected reflect the health and survival, education and personal development of children and the...

  8. Substance abuse in pregnant women. Experiences from a special child welfare clinic in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Rosvold Elin; Lindbæk Morten; Hjerkinn Bjørg

    2007-01-01

    Background Substance abuse during pregnancy may harm the foetus and can cause neonatal abstinence syndrome. Exposure to alcohol and other substances can influence the child for the rest of its life. A special child welfare clinic was set up in 1994 in Kristiansand, Norway, targeting pregnant women with substance abuse problems in the county of Vest-Agder. Pregnancy is not an indication for opioid replacement therapy in Norway, and one of the clinic's aims was to support the...

  9. Citizen Participation in the Context of Rural Local Welfare Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kattilakoski, Mari; Rantamäki, Niina

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we focus on citizen participation in the field of welfare services. More specifically, we concentrate on the role of citizens and civic organisations as part of the local welfare systems in Finnish rural areas.

  10. Mental Health and Behavioral Outcomes of Sexual and Nonsexual Child Maltreatment Among Child Welfare-Involved Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Jennifer E; White, Kevin; Wu, Qi; Killian-Farrell, Candace

    2016-07-01

    Our research team used the nationally representative National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being II to explore the differences in mental health and behavioral outcomes between children who enter the child welfare system with substantiated sexual abuse and those who enter with exclusively nonsexual maltreatment. The sample included 380 children between the ages of 8 to 17.5 who were substantiated for maltreatment (sexual and nonsexual) and had the same caregivers at both wave 1 and 2 (n = 380). Results show that the average age of children in the sample was 11 years old, and the results corroborate literature that has indicated children and youth with histories of childhood sexual abuse experience significantly more post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms than children with histories of nonsexual maltreatment. This finding held after controlling for baseline trauma symptoms and all covariates, including race, age, placement type, and caregiver characteristics. Childhood sexual abuse was not significantly related to an increase in behavioral symptoms after controlling for covariates. Implications for research and practice are offered. PMID:27294412

  11. The Linkages among Childhood Maltreatment, Adolescent Mental Health, and Self-Compassion in Child Welfare Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Masako; Wekerle, Christine; Schmuck, Mary Lou; Paglia-Boak, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Childhood maltreatment is a robust risk factor for poor physical and mental health. Child welfare youths represent a high-risk group, given the greater likelihood of severe or multiple types of maltreatment. This study examined the relationship between childhood maltreatment and self-compassion--a concept of positive acceptance of…

  12. A Cost-Savings Analysis of a Statewide Parenting Education Program in Child Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Erin J.; Corwin, Tyler W.; Hodnett, Rhenda; Faulk, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This article presents a cost-savings analysis of the statewide implementation of an evidence-informed parenting education program. Methods: Between the years 2005 and 2008, the state of Louisiana used the Nurturing Parenting Program (NPP) to impart parenting skills to child welfare-involved families. Following these families' outcomes…

  13. Dusting the Archives of Childhood: Child Welfare Records as Historical Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vehkalahti, Kaisa

    2016-01-01

    Using administrative sources in the history of education and childhood involves a range of methodological and ethical considerations. This article discusses these problems, as well as the role of archives and archival policies in preserving history and shaping our understanding of past childhoods. Using Finnish child welfare archives from the…

  14. Factors in the Decision to Leave: Retaining Social Workers with MSWs in Public Child Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samantrai, Krishna

    1992-01-01

    Surveyed 7 social workers with master's in social work (MSW) degrees who had left public child welfare and 20 who decided to stay. Found two factors that distinguished groups: inflexibility in job assignment and poor relationship with immediate supervisor. Academic preparation for this type of practice was not decisive factor. (Author/NB)

  15. Bridge over Troubled Water: Using Implementation Science to Facilitate Effective Services in Child Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mildon, Robyn; Shlonsky, Aron

    2011-01-01

    To maximize benefits to children and their families, effective practices need to be used competently in child welfare settings. Since the 1990s, researchers and policy makers have focused attention on empirically supported interventions (ESIs). Much less attention has been paid to what is needed to implement these in a range of real-world…

  16. Cross-Validation of the Implementation Leadership Scale (ILS) in Child Welfare Service Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Natalie K; Torres, Elisa M; Ehrhart, Mark G; Roesch, Scott C; Aarons, Gregory A

    2016-08-01

    The Implementation Leadership Scale (ILS) is a brief, pragmatic, and efficient measure that can be used for research or organizational development to assess leader behaviors and actions that actively support effective implementation of evidence-based practices (EBPs). The ILS was originally validated with mental health clinicians. This study validates the ILS factor structure with providers in community-based organizations (CBOs) providing child welfare services. Participants were 214 service providers working in 12 CBOs that provide child welfare services. All participants completed the ILS, reporting on their immediate supervisor. Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to examine the factor structure of the ILS. Internal consistency reliability and measurement invariance were also examined. Confirmatory factor analyses showed acceptable fit to the hypothesized first- and second-order factor structure. Internal consistency reliability was strong and there was partial measurement invariance for the first-order factor structure when comparing child welfare and mental health samples. The results support the use of the ILS to assess leadership for implementation of EBPs in child welfare organizations.

  17. Child Welfare Design Teams: An Intervention to Improve Workforce Retention and Facilitate Organizational Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caringi, James C.; Lawson, Hal A.; Strolin-Goltzman, Jessica; McCarthy, Mary; Briar-Lawson, Katharine; Claiborne, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    Workforce turnover in public child welfare is a national problem. Individual, supervisory, and organizational factors, individually and in combination, account for some of the turnover. Complex, comprehensive interventions are needed to address these several factors and their interactions. A research and development team is field testing one such…

  18. Relationships between Stressors and Parenting Attitudes in a Child Welfare Parenting Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estefan, Lianne Fuino; Coulter, Martha L.; VandeWeerd, Carla L.; Armstrong, Mary; Gorski, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Families involved with child welfare services often experience a range of stressors in addition to maltreatment, including intimate partner violence, substance abuse, and mental health problems. Children in these families are at risk for developing a myriad of problems. Although parenting education programs are among the most routine interventions…

  19. Inconvenient Truths: A Response to the Article by David Stoesz, "The Child Welfare Cartel"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, James J.; Yegidis, Bonnie L.

    2016-01-01

    David Stoesz offers a sweeping critique of the Children's Bureau and social work education by claiming the existence of a "child welfare cartel." He also attacks the quality of social work education and research, which he claims has poorly invested government funding and helped create the unmitigated failures of the American child…

  20. Cross-Validation of the Implementation Leadership Scale (ILS) in Child Welfare Service Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Natalie K; Torres, Elisa M; Ehrhart, Mark G; Roesch, Scott C; Aarons, Gregory A

    2016-08-01

    The Implementation Leadership Scale (ILS) is a brief, pragmatic, and efficient measure that can be used for research or organizational development to assess leader behaviors and actions that actively support effective implementation of evidence-based practices (EBPs). The ILS was originally validated with mental health clinicians. This study validates the ILS factor structure with providers in community-based organizations (CBOs) providing child welfare services. Participants were 214 service providers working in 12 CBOs that provide child welfare services. All participants completed the ILS, reporting on their immediate supervisor. Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to examine the factor structure of the ILS. Internal consistency reliability and measurement invariance were also examined. Confirmatory factor analyses showed acceptable fit to the hypothesized first- and second-order factor structure. Internal consistency reliability was strong and there was partial measurement invariance for the first-order factor structure when comparing child welfare and mental health samples. The results support the use of the ILS to assess leadership for implementation of EBPs in child welfare organizations. PMID:27002137

  1. Should I Stay or Should I Go? A Comparison Study of Intention to Leave among Public Child Welfare Systems with High and Low Turnover Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strolin-Goltzman, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    This comparison study analyzes the commonalties, similarities, and differences on supervisory and organizational factors between a group of high turnover systems and a group of low turnover systems. Significant differences on organizational factors, but not on supervisory factors, emerged from the statistical analysis. Additionally, this study…

  2. The Indian Child Welfare Act: Unto the Seventh Generation. Conference Proceedings (Los Angeles, California, January 15-17, 1992). National Conference Proceedings Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Troy R., Ed.

    This proceedings contains edited transcripts of speeches and workshops given at a conference on the Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA), held at UCLA in January 1992. Workshop titles were: fetal alcohol syndrome; responding to the family in Indian child welfare; joint in-service training for management of Indian Child Welfare Act cases; domestic…

  3. Implementation of Parent Child Interaction Therapy Within Foster Care: An Attempt to Translate an Evidence-Based Program Within a Local Child Welfare Agency

    OpenAIRE

    Topitzes, James; Mersky, Joshua P.; McNeil, Cheryl B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an innovative adaptation of an evidence-based intervention – Parent Child Interaction Therapy or PCIT – to foster parent training services. The authors faced multiple problems that commonly plague translational child welfare research as they developed, implemented and tested their model. The paper discusses how the authors addressed these problems when: 1) specifying the child welfare context in which the intervention model was implemented and tested, choosing an interven...

  4. Multidimensional profiles of welfare and work dynamics: development, validation, and associations with child cognitive and mental health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, H; Seidman, E

    2001-12-01

    This prospective longitudinal study addresses the research gap in the literature regarding multidimensional variation in welfare use and employment patterns, and relationships of such variation with parent earnings and child development outcomes. This study also aims to address the limitations of welfare dynamics studies that do not examine how multiple dimensions of welfare receipt and employment co-occur Cluster analysis was utilized, using monthly welfare and employment data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, to examine variation within the welfare population in their welfare and work patterns across the first 5 years of children's lives. Six cluster profiles of welfare and work dynamics were found: Short-Term, Short-Term Work Exit, Working Cyclers, Nonworking Cyclers, Cycle to Long-Term Exit, and Long-Term. The clusters were validated using mother's 6th-year earnings as the criterion. The clusters' associations with child development outcomes in the cognitive and mental health domains (at ages 6 and 7) were then explored. Work following short-term welfare use was associated with higher child reading scores than that following long-term use (a moderate-size effect). Cycling on and off welfare in the context of high levels of employment was associated with higher child internalizing symptoms than cycling accompanied by low levels of employment (a moderate-size effect). Implications for evaluation of TANF welfare-to-work policies are discussed. PMID:11800512

  5. Multidimensional profiles of welfare and work dynamics: development, validation, and associations with child cognitive and mental health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, H; Seidman, E

    2001-12-01

    This prospective longitudinal study addresses the research gap in the literature regarding multidimensional variation in welfare use and employment patterns, and relationships of such variation with parent earnings and child development outcomes. This study also aims to address the limitations of welfare dynamics studies that do not examine how multiple dimensions of welfare receipt and employment co-occur Cluster analysis was utilized, using monthly welfare and employment data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth, to examine variation within the welfare population in their welfare and work patterns across the first 5 years of children's lives. Six cluster profiles of welfare and work dynamics were found: Short-Term, Short-Term Work Exit, Working Cyclers, Nonworking Cyclers, Cycle to Long-Term Exit, and Long-Term. The clusters were validated using mother's 6th-year earnings as the criterion. The clusters' associations with child development outcomes in the cognitive and mental health domains (at ages 6 and 7) were then explored. Work following short-term welfare use was associated with higher child reading scores than that following long-term use (a moderate-size effect). Cycling on and off welfare in the context of high levels of employment was associated with higher child internalizing symptoms than cycling accompanied by low levels of employment (a moderate-size effect). Implications for evaluation of TANF welfare-to-work policies are discussed.

  6. The Idea and Practice of Child Welfare Services in Regional Poverty Areas:Take the Demonstration Child Welfare Project as Example%区域性贫困地区儿童福利服务的思路与实践——以中国儿童福利示范区项目为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晓燕; 许文青

    2012-01-01

      This article explore how to build child welfare services delivery system in regional poverty areas through the demonstration child welfare project. It explains the background of the project, the whole understanding of child welfare, the concept of project design as well as the content of child welfare services system. It shows a clear description of child welfare services delivery system from the perspec-tives of post settings, personnel training, hardware supports and man-agement system.%  本文通过中国儿童福利示范区项目探讨了在区域性贫困地区如何建立儿童福利服务的递送体系。文章从项目背景、对于儿童福利的理解、项目设计理念以及儿童福利服务体系的内容设计安排几个方面,以实际的项目运行为依托,清晰地描述了区域性贫困地区儿童福利服务递送体系在岗位设置、人员培训、硬件配套和管理制度方面的思路。

  7. Self-Efficacy in Newly-Hired Child Welfare Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Donna Cherry; Bruce Dalton; Angela Dugan

    2014-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect in the United States resulted in 676,569 reports in 2011 (U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services, 2012). Workers in this field struggle with low pay, high caseloads, inadequate training and supervision, and risk of violence, all of which contribute to worker burnout and poor worker retention rates. Worker self-efficacy is predictive of worker retention, job performance, and persistence in this difficult field. This paper reports the development of a new measure of sel...

  8. Father involvement in child welfare: Associations with changes in externalizing behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, Scott C; Jhe Bai, Grace; Fuller, Anne K

    2016-05-01

    Nonresident fathers can have a significant impact on children's behavioral outcomes. Unfortunately, the impact of nonresident father involvement on the behavioral outcomes of children with child welfare involvement has received scant attention in the literature, a limitation the current study sought to address. A sample of 333 children in state custody in Illinois between the ages of six and 13 participated and were assessed using the externalizing behavior scale of the Child and Adolescent Needs and Strengths (CANS) at regular intervals throughout their time in care. Father involvement was measured through a review of case files and interviews with child welfare workers. Growth trajectories were fit to children's externalizing behavior across time and were predicted using Time 1 characteristics. Father involvement, total non-father relative involvement, and gender (girls) was associated with lower baseline externalizing behavior and the African American children in the sample experienced higher baseline externalizing behavior. However, only Time 1 father involvement predicted slope trajectories after controlling for Time 1 externalizing behavior; more father involvement was associated with lower externalizing behavior trajectories. These results suggest that even in the unique and stressful context of child welfare, father involvement can be protective regarding children's externalizing behaviors. PMID:27110849

  9. Practice-Informed Approaches to Addressing Substance Abuse and Trauma Exposure in Urban Native Families Involved with Child Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucero, Nancy M; Bussey, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Similar to families from other groups, urban-based American Indian and Alaska Native ("Native") family members involved with the child welfare system due to substance abuse issues are also often challenged by untreated trauma exposure. The link between these conditions and the history of genocidal policies aimed at destroying Native family ties, as well as experiences of ongoing discrimination, bring added dimensions for consideration when pro- viding services to these families. Practice-based evidence indicates that the trauma-informed and culturally responsive model developed by the Denver Indian Family Resource Center (DIFRC) shows promise in reducing out-of-home placements and re-referrals in urban Native families with substance abuse and child welfare concerns, while also increasing caregiver capabilities, family safety, and child well-being. This article provides strategies from the DIFRC approach that non-Native caseworkers and supervisors can utilize to create an environment in their own agencies that supports culturally based practice with Native families while incorporating a trauma-informed understanding of service needs of these families. Casework consistent with this approach demonstrates actions that meet the Active Efforts requirement of the Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA) as well as sound clinical practice. Intensive and proactive case management designed specifically for families with high levels of service needs is a key strategy when combined with utilizing a caseworker brief screening tool for trauma exposure; training caseworkers to recognize trauma symptoms, making timely referrals to trauma treatment by behavioral health specialists experienced in working with Native clients, and providing a consistent service environment that focuses on client safety and worker trustworthiness. Finally, suggestions are put forth for agencies seeking to enhance their cultural responsiveness and include increasing workers' understanding of cultural values

  10. Identifying the substance abuse treatment needs of caregivers involved with child welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Emmeline; Wells, Rebecca; Bellettiere, John; Cross, Theodore P

    2013-07-01

    Parental substance use significantly increases risk of child maltreatment, but is often under-identified by child protective services. This study examined how agency use of standardized substance use assessments and child welfare investigative caseworker education, experience, and caseload affected caseworkers' identification of parental substance abuse treatment needs. Data are from a national probability sample of permanent, primary caregivers involved with child protective services whose children initially remained at home and whose confidential responses on two validated instruments indicated harmful substance use or dependence. Investigative caseworkers reported use of a formal assessment in over two thirds of cases in which substance use was accurately identified. However, weighted logistic regression indicated that agency provision of standardized assessment instruments was not associated with caseworker identification of caregiver needs. Caseworkers were also less likely to identify substance abuse when their caseloads were high and when caregivers were fathers. Implications for agency practice are discussed.

  11. Meta-Theoretical Paradigms Underpinning Risk in Child Welfare: Towards a Position of Methodological Pragmatism

    OpenAIRE

    Houston, Stan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the ‘natural attitude’ underpinning risk practices in child welfare. This refers to various taken-for-granted approaches to risk that social workers and other human service professionals draw upon in their everyday practice. The approach proceeds by identifying and critically examining three key, meta-theoretical paradigms on risk which typically shape the natural attitude. They are labelled ‘objectivist’, ‘subjectivist’ and ‘critical’. The ontological, epi...

  12. The Gentrification of Public Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattalo, Patrick

    1992-01-01

    Notes that public welfare agencies are serving middle-class Americans. Examines six factors that may contribute to gentrification of public welfare agencies: growing demands for services from nontraditional clients; restructuring of public welfare's service delivery system; declining resources; increasing emphasis on child protective services;…

  13. Why Do They Stay? Building a Conceptual Model to Understand Worker Retention and Turnover in Public Child Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Benton, Amy Denise

    2010-01-01

    Retention of public child welfare workers has been a recognized problem and a topic of interest among child welfare researchers for many years. However, findings in the literature are conflicting and the research is largely atheoretical. While many variables relevant to retention and turnover have been identified, the literature lacks explanation of how the variables are related. The goals of this study were, thus, twofold. The first objective was to build a conceptual model using qualitative...

  14. An Impossible Task? Implementing the Recommendations of Child Abuse Inquiry Reports in a Context of High Workloads in Child Protection and Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Kenneth Burns; Joe MacCarthy

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the issue of social workers’ caseloads in child protection and welfare in the Republic of Ireland. High caseloads impact on the type and quality of service provided to children and families, and on worker retention and job satisfaction. This exploratory paper examines the limited available evidence on social workers’ caseloads in the Republic of Ireland and presents data on child protection and welfare social workers’ perspectives on their caseloads drawn from a qualitativ...

  15. History of Child Welfare and Protection Social Work in Northern Ireland: Finding Continuity amongst Discontinuity in Case Files from 1950 to 1968

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skehill, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on research carried out on 189 child welfare files from the largest welfare authority in Northern Ireland from 1950 to 1968. The literature review provides a commentary on some of the major debates surrounding child welfare and protection social work from the perspective of its historical development. The report of the…

  16. Expanding the welfare system : a proposal for reform

    OpenAIRE

    Orszag, Jonathan Michael; Snower, Dennis J.

    1998-01-01

    The proposal involves the establishment of ?welfare accounts? for every person in a country. There are to be four accounts: a retirement account (covering pensions), an unemployment account (covering unemployment support), a human capital account (covering education and training), and a health account (covering insurance against sickness and disability). Instead of the current welfare state systems - where welfare services are financed predominantly out of general taxes - people would make on...

  17. Child Welfare in Chile: Learning from International Experiences to Improve Family Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Muñoz-Guzmán

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Poor outcomes and several complaints to the judicial system against residential services for children have triggered a deep review of the Chilean child welfare services, particularly in relation to family reunification. This paper offers strategic guidelines to improve alternative care for children younger than six years of age, who are under protective measures. To define such guidelines, a case study was developed based on current models of residential services and foster home programs, which included local (Chile and international evidence; also this research includes original empirical data collected through focus groups and interviews with key stakeholders of these programs in Chile and in two countries with advanced social services for children (Sweden and Italy. Findings refer to a structural need for reforming social services for Chilean children. Such reform should involve appropriate legislation to guarantee the rights of children and families; a substantial budgetary review leading to an increase in spending; and boosting professional specialization; and raising the capacity for offering integrated services.

  18. Indian Child Welfare Act. Hearing on Oversight Hearings on the Indian Child Welfare Act, before the Select Committee on Indian Affairs. United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, First Session (November 10, 1987).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Select Committee on Indian Affairs.

    This Senate hearing produced testimony on how the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978 (ICWA) has been administered by government agencies and the courts. Three members of the Select Committee on Indian Affairs presented background information on the act's intent to confirm the tribe as the primary authority in matters involving an Indian child's…

  19. Urgent Protection versus Chronic Need: Clarifying the Dual Mandate of Child Welfare Services across Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Trocmé

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed data from the 1998, 2003 and 2008 Canadian Incidence Study of reported child abuse and neglect (CIS and compared the profile of children who were reported for an urgent protection investigation versus any other investigation or assessment. As a proportion of all investigations, urgent protection cases have dropped from 28% of all investigations in 1998, to 19% in 2003, to 15% in 2008. Results from the CIS-2008 analysis revealed that 7% of cases involved neglect of a child under four, 4% of cases involved sexual abuse, 2% of cases involved physical abuse of a child under four and 1% of cases involved children who had sustained severe enough physical harm that medical treatment was required. The other 85% of cases of investigated maltreatment involved situations where concerns appear to focus less on immediate safety and more on the long-term effects of a range of family related problems. These findings underscore the importance of considering the dual mandate of child welfare mandates across Canada: intervening to assure the urgent protection and safety of the child versus intervening to promote the development and well-being of the child.

  20. The Drafting and Submission of an HIV/AIDS Policy Draft for a Native American Child Welfare Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzemer, Daniel Pete

    An Indian child welfare agency realized the need for an HIV/AIDS policy when a diabetic child possibly exposed to the HIV virus was placed in one of the agency's licensed foster homes. A focus-group interview process was selected for policy development because this method appeared to parallel the Native American cultural approach toward consensus…

  1. Mental Health Need and Access to Mental Health Services by Youths Involved with Child Welfare: A National Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Barbara J.; Phillips, Susan D.; Wagner, H. Ryan; Barth, Richard P.; Kolko, David J.; Campbell, Yvonne; Landsverk, John

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed the relationship between the need for and use of mental health services among a nationally representative sample of children who were investigated by child welfare agencies after reported maltreatment. Method: Data were collected at study entry into the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being and were…

  2. National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) Child File

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS) Child File data set consists of child-specific data of all reports of maltreatment to State child...

  3. [Impressions of the 1977 National Conference on Maternal and Child Welfare and Family Planning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, M

    1977-09-01

    The 1977 National Conference on Maternal and Child Welfare and Family Planning was held on July 19th and 20th, with a theme on "A worth-while life for mothers, who have dreams for their children", in Tokushima, Japan. 3 basic maternal and child welfare policies were concluded in the first day's discussion: 1) a prevention from the occurrence of the mental and physical disorder in children; 2) a protection of the motherhood; and 3) a promotion of maternal and child health care in cities, townships and villages. An active participation of men is also expected. In professor Baba's lecture, the perinatal medical care was explained under the theme of "The progress of new-born medicine and the prevention from the occurrence of mental and physical disorder in children". The second day's discussion was held byT. Kobayashi, with a theme of "The women's life and health". A necessity of premarital sex education, the women's life circles, health guidance for working women, a mother's group in farmers, were the main topics. PMID:21979

  4. Mother abuse: a matter of youth justice, child welfare or domestic violence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Caroline; Nixon, Judy; Parr, Sadie

    2010-01-01

    International evidence suggests that in advanced welfare states the abuse of parents, most particularly mothers, by their (most frequently male) adolescent children is increasingly prevalent. In the United Kingdom, however, child-to-mother abuse remains one of the most under-acknowledged and under-researched forms of family violence. Although it is an issue shrouded in silence, stigma, and shame, the authors' work in the youth justice sphere, focusing on interventions to deal with anti-social behaviour, suggests that adolescent violence toward mothers is a topical and prevalent issue. We identify different ways of conceptualizing it in the policy realms of youth justice, child welfare, and domestic violence. The behaviour of both child/young person and mother is constructed in ways which inform the assignment of blame and responsibility. The paper highlights the silence that surrounds the issue in both the policy and wider academic spheres, hiding the failure of service providers to respond to this very destructive form of intimate interpersonal violence. PMID:20726145

  5. An Impossible Task? Implementing the Recommendations of Child Abuse Inquiry Reports in a Context of High Workloads in Child Protection and Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Burns

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the issue of social workers’ caseloads in child protection and welfare in the Republic of Ireland. High caseloads impact on the type and quality of service provided to children and families, and on worker retention and job satisfaction. This exploratory paper examines the limited available evidence on social workers’ caseloads in the Republic of Ireland and presents data on child protection and welfare social workers’ perspectives on their caseloads drawn from a qualitative study. These analyses are set in the context of the Irish State’s commitments since the publication of the Ryan report. A central argument of this article is that the recommendations of successive child abuse inquiries in Ireland have given rise to expectations and demands on child protection and welfare teams that are not possible to meet given the increasing level of referrals and the high numbers of children for whom social workers are responsible.

  6. Accessing substance abuse treatment: issues for parents involved with child welfare services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockhill, Anna; Green, Beth L; Newton-Curtis, Linda

    2008-01-01

    The complex issues associated with barriers to treatment entry for parents who are involved with child welfare has not been well explored. Accessing timely treatment is now critical for these parents since the introduction of the Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997, limiting the time until a permanency decision is made. Using a longitudinal, qualitative approach, substance-abusing parents from 15 families, their relevant family members, and service providers were interviewed approximately every 3 months over an 18-month period. The experiences of these parents add to our knowledge of the unique barriers this population faces, and expands our understanding of the mechanisms by which certain barriers may delay treatment.

  7. Evaluation of Boys Town In-Home Family Services with Families Referred by Child Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, Gilbert R; Ross, Jordan R; Ringle, Jay L; Samson, Natalie R; Thompson, Ronald W

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the Boys Town In-Home Family Services model with families referred by child welfare for issues related to maltreatment. Participants were 135 parents (mean age = 32.15 years, SD = 9.13) who completed intake and discharge assessments. The target child ranged in age from one month to 17 years (M = 4.54, SD = 4.38). We had a high-risk sample (e.g., 57% and 41% of parents reported being victims of physical and sexual abuse, respectively; 24% of parents reported attempting suicide in their lifetimes). The intervention was implemented with a degree of fidelity consistent with model standards. Reduced levels of perceived stressors were found for several domains of functioning with the largest effects observed for family safety, parental capabilities, and environmental factors. Results serve as an important step in building the evidence base of a widely disseminated intervention. PMID:26954360

  8. Factors associated with group bullying and psychopathology in elementary school students using child-welfare facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim JW

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Jun Won Kim,1,2 KounSeok Lee,3 Young Sik Lee,4 Doug Hyun Han,4 Kyung Joon Min,4 Sung Hwan Song,5 Ga Na Park,6 Ju Young Lee,1 Jae Ock Kim5 1Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of Neuropsychiatry, College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea; 2Department of Psychiatry, Graduate School, Chung-Ang University, Seoul, South Korea; 3Department of Psychiatry, Samsung Medical Center, Seoul, South Korea; 4Department of Psychiatry, Chung-Ang University, College of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea; 5Department of Psychiatry, Gongju National Hospital, Gongju, South Korea; 6Department of Special Education, Graduate School, Dankook University, Jukjeon, South Korea Purpose: Low socioeconomic status is an important risk factor for child psychiatric problems. Low socioeconomic status is also associated with psychiatric problems later in life. We investigated the effects of group bullying on clinical characteristics and psychopathology in elementary school students using child-welfare facilities.Methods: Three hundred and fifty-eight elementary school students using child-welfare facilities were recruited. The School Bullying Self Rating Questionnaire was used to assess group bullying. To evaluate related psychopathology, the Children’s Problem-Behavior Screening Questionnaire, the Children’s Depression Inventory, the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire, Young’s Internet Addiction Scale, and Conners–Wells’ Adolescent Self-Report Scale were applied. Samples were classified according to school grade (lower or upper, and each group’s characteristics were compared as they related to bullying victims versus non-victims.Results: The prevalence rate of group bullying was 22% in the lower-grade group and 12% in the higher-grade group. Bullying victims in lower grades reported high somatization, depressive symptoms, Internet addiction, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder tendencies, whereas

  9. Welfare monitroing system : assessment protocol for horses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Livestock Research,

    2012-01-01

    This document describes the protocol for horses in more detail. For the development of the protocol the Welfare Quality® framework was used. For each measure there is a description how to assess the measure including the method of classification.

  10. Do physical abuse, depression, and parental substance use influence patterns of substance use among child welfare involved youth? Substance use misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Susan M; Smith, Rachel E

    2015-01-01

    To date studies have not explored patterns of substance use exclusively among youth in the child welfare system. Consequently, little is known about polysubstance use among child welfare-involved youth. This study aimed to explore whether physical abuse, parental substance use, depression, and demographic characteristics predict distinct patterns of substance use among child welfare-involved youth using latent class analysis (LCA). The sample included 822 11-17 year olds who participated in the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being (NSCAW II) study between March 2008 and September 2009. We found the following three classes: (1) polysubstance use, (2) alcohol and marijuana use, and (3) low use. Older youth and youth who experienced physical abuse were at greater risk of being in the polysubstance use class, while living with a biological parent reduced the likelihood of polysubstance use class membership. Youth in the alcohol and marijuana use class were more likely to be older and depressed. Results from this study illuminate important targets for interventions.

  11. Are Parental Welfare Work Requirements Good for Disadvantaged Children? Evidence from Age-of-Youngest-Child Exemptions

    OpenAIRE

    Chris M. Herbst

    2014-01-01

    This paper assesses the short-run impact of first-year maternal employment on low-income children's cognitive development. The identification strategy exploits an important feature of the U.S.'s welfare work requirement rules – namely, age-of-youngest-child exemptions – as a source of quasi-experimental variation in maternal employment. The 1996 welfare reform law empowered states to exempt adult recipients from the work requirements until the youngest child reaches a certain age. This led to...

  12. Promoting cross-sector partnerships in child welfare: qualitative results from a five-state strategic planning process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins-Camargo, Crystal; Armstrong, Mary I; McBeath, Bowen; Chuang, Emmeline

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about effective strategic planning for public and private child welfare agencies working together to serve families. During a professionally facilitated, strategic planning event, public and private child welfare administrators from five states explored partnership challenges and strengths with a goal of improving collaborative interactions in order to improve outcomes for children and families. Summarizing thematic results of session notes from the planning event, this article describes effective strategies for facilitation of such processes as well as factors that challenge or promote group processes. Implications for conducting strategic planning in jurisdictions seeking to improve public/private partnerships are discussed.

  13. Substance abuse in pregnant women. Experiences from a special child welfare clinic in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosvold Elin

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substance abuse during pregnancy may harm the foetus and can cause neonatal abstinence syndrome. Exposure to alcohol and other substances can influence the child for the rest of its life. A special child welfare clinic was set up in 1994 in Kristiansand, Norway, targeting pregnant women with substance abuse problems in the county of Vest-Agder. Pregnancy is not an indication for opioid replacement therapy in Norway, and one of the clinic's aims was to support the drug dependent women through their pregnancy without any replacements. The object of this paper is to describe concurrent health and social problems, as well as the predictors for stopping drug abuse, in the clinic's user group. Methods Retrospective cohort study. Data was gathered from the medical records of all 102 women seen in the clinic in the period between 1992 and 2002. The study includes 59 out of 60 women that were followed until their children were two years old or placed in alternative care, and a comparison group of twice the size. Both groups were presented with a questionnaire concerning both the pregnancy and health and socio-economic issues. Results Four (4.5 percent of the women that completed their pregnancies did not manage to reduce their substance abuse. All the others reduced their substance abuse considerably. The odds ratio for stopping substance abuse within the first trimester was significantly associated with stopping smoking (O.R. 9.7 or being victims of rape (O.R. 5.3. Conclusion A low cost and low threshold initiative organised as a child welfare clinic may support women with substance abuse problems in their efforts to stop or reduce their substance abuse during pregnancy.

  14. Indian Child Welfare Act: Existing Information on Implementation Issues Could Be Used to Target Guidance and Assistance to States. GAO-05-290

    Science.gov (United States)

    US Government Accountability Office, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA ) created important protections to prevent state child welfare agencies and courts from inappropriately separating American Indian children from their families. This report describes (1) the factors that influence placement decisions for children subject to ICWA; (2) the extent to which, if any, placements for…

  15. Reshaping Child Welfare's Response to Trauma: Assessment, Evidence-Based Intervention, and New Research Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Amy L.; Jackson Foster, Lovie J.; Pecora, Peter J.; Delaney, Nancy; Rodriguez, Wenceslao

    2013-01-01

    Growing evidence has linked early trauma with severe psychiatric consequences. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a potentially debilitating mental health condition found among some youth in foster care and foster care alumni. However, the current child welfare practice response has not met the demands in both assessment and intervention.…

  16. Decision making in child protection : An international comparative study on maltreatment substantiation, risk assessment and interventions recommendations, and the role of professionals’ child welfare attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benbenishty, Rami; Davidson-Arad, Bilha; López, Mónica; Devaney, John; Spratt, Trevor; Koopmans, Carien; Knorth, Erik J.; Witteman, Cilia L.M.; Del Valle, Jorge F.; Hayes, David

    2015-01-01

    Background Child welfare professionals regularly make crucial decisions that have a significant impact on children and their families. The present study utilizes the Judgments and Decision Processes in Context model (JUDPIC) to examine the relationships between three independent factors: case charac

  17. Decision making in child protection: An international comparative study on maltreatment substantiation, risk assessment and interventions recommendations, and the role of professionals' child welfare attitudes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benbenishty, R.; Davidson-Arad, B.; López, M.; Devaney, J.; Spratt, T.; Koopmans, C.; Knorth, E.J.; Witteman, C.L.M.; Del Valle, J.F.; Hayes, D.

    2015-01-01

    Child welfare professionals regularly make crucial decisions that have a significant impact on children and their families. The present study presents the Judgments and Decision Processes in Context model (JUDPIC) and uses it to examine the relationships between three independent domains: case chara

  18. UK Welfare Reform 1996 to 2008 and beyond: A personalised and responsive welfare system?

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Gregg

    2008-01-01

    The UK welfare system has undergone three very profound periods of reform of the post-war model laid down by Beveridge. The first was a move in the direction of (but never fully converged with) the Bismarkian model of a contributory social insurance model with time limited earnings related benefits with a low value means tested social assistance safety net. This occurred slowly through the 1960s and up to the mid-1970s. The second phase started in 1979 and involved a dramatic move to curtail ...

  19. Three worlds of educational welfare states? A comparative study of higher education systems across welfare states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Willemse; P. de Beer

    2012-01-01

    Although education is generally considered to be an important part of the welfare state, it is largely absent in the comparative welfare state literature. This article tries to fill this void by applying the central concepts of welfare state analysis of decommodification and stratification, as propo

  20. Cost-efficiency of animal welfare in broiler production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gocsik, Éva; Brooshooft, Suzanne D.; Jong, de Ingrid C.; Saatkamp, Helmut W.

    2016-01-01

    Broiler producers operate in a highly competitive and cost-price driven environment. In addition, in recent years the societal pressure to improve animal welfare (AW) in broiler production systems is increasing. Hence, from an economic and decision making point of view, the cost-efficiency of imp

  1. [The health and welfare system for elderly in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvaget, C; Ogawa, K; Tsuji, I; Hisamichi, S

    1998-07-01

    Dichotomy is the main characteristic of the Health and Welfare system in France. This system lies on two distinct fields, the medical field which is managed by the National Government, and the social field managed by the Local Government. The French home care policy for the elderly has developed a large number of services to assist in activities of daily living, to provide nursing and medical care at home, to improve living conditions, to maintain social relationships, and to postpone institutionalization and hospitalization, respectively. The main home care service is represented by "home helpers" who provide maid Notiniralics services. The second widely used service is the "home care service" performed by a team of nurses, assistant-nurses, psychologists, physiotherapists. This team provides nursing care and assistance in activities of daily living. As for institutions for the elderly, they are divided into welfare and medical institutions. The welfare institutions include social establishments like shelter homes and nursing homes. The medical institutions are mostly represented by long-term care hospitals. One of the main goals of the aging policy is to create medical wards in welfare institutions in response to the increased dependency of the institutionalized elderly. Recent experimental and innovative concepts have been established, such as "shelter homes for dependent elderly" for physically or cognitively impaired elderly.

  2. Disrupting the Continuities Among Residential Schools, the Sixties Scoop, and Child Welfare: An Analysis of Colonial and Neocolonial Discourses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly A. McKenzie

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In Canada, it is estimated that 3 times as many Indigenous children are currently in the care of the state compared to when the residential schools’ populations were at their peak. It is imperative that action be taken. This article explores the continuities among residential schools, the Sixties Scoop, and child welfare in Canada today. In particular, we examine how colonial and neocolonial discourses operate through and justify these policies and practices. We propose nine policy recommendations, which aim to transform child welfare and support Indigenous families to care for their children. Although transformative policy change is unlikely within this neocolonial and neoliberal climate, the recent change in federal leadership has made it more possible to move these policy recommendations forward.

  3. Children at the Front: A Different View of the War on Alcohol and Drugs. The CWLA North American Commission on Chemical Dependency and Child Welfare. Final Report and Recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Welfare League of America, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This report explores the impact of alcohol and drug problems on the children and families served by the child welfare system and outlines a comprehensive strategy to better respond to their needs. It contains more than 100 policy and action recommendations to enhance services to children and families affected by alcohol and other drugs (AOD), to…

  4. The Physical, Developmental, and Mental Health Needs of Young Children in Child Welfare by Initial Placement Type

    OpenAIRE

    Leslie, Laurel K; GORDON, JEANNE N.; MENEKEN, LEE; Premji, Kamila; MICHELMORE, KATHERINE L.; GANGER, WILLIAM

    2005-01-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends comprehensive assessments for children entering foster care. These children may be placed with biological parents, kin, or in nonrelative foster care. It is not known whether health-related needs differ by placement. Chart abstractions were conducted of child welfare and medical records of 1542 children, ages 3 months to 5 years 11 months, admitted to San Diego’s sole emergency shelter/receiving facility from April 1, 1998, through June 30, 1999, ...

  5. Permanency Outcomes for Toddlers in Child Welfare Two Years After a Randomized Trial of a Parenting Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Spieker, Susan J.; Oxford, Monica L.; Fleming, Charles B.

    2014-01-01

    This study reports on child welfare outcomes of a community based, randomized control trial of Promoting First Relationships® (PFR; Kelly, Sandoval, Zuckerman, & Buehlman, 2008), a 10-week relationship-based home visiting program, on stability of children’s placements and permanency status two years after enrollment into the study. Toddlers 10 – 24 months (N = 210) with a recent placement disruption were randomized, along with their birth or foster/kin parents, to PFR (n = 105) or a compariso...

  6. Information Systems for Social Welfare: Educational Imperatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Claire M.

    1975-01-01

    Describes a successful research seminar offered for five years to second-year students in a master's program at the Jane Addams School of Social Work. Included are rationale, objectives, content, and teaching and learning experiences covering the function and design of information systems for accountability, planning, management, supervision,…

  7. Characteristics of Sexually Abused Children and Their Nonoffending Mothers Followed by Child Welfare Services: The Role of a Maternal History of Child Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baril, Karine; Tourigny, Marc; Paillé, Pierre; Pauzé, Robert

    2016-07-01

    Considering the importance of mother's support in the adaptation of a sexually abused child, it is relevant to determine if the mothers and children involved in an intergenerational cycle of child sexual victimization differ from dyads in which only the child has been abused. The purpose of this study was to compare mother-child dyads with sexually abused children according to whether the mother had herself been victim of child sexual abuse. The sample included 87 dyads with sexually abused children aged 3-18 years old and their mothers (44 reporting maternal and child abuse), followed by social welfare services of the province of Quebec (Canada). The two groups of mothers were compared on their past family abuse experiences and past family relations, their mental health history, their current psychological distress, their parenting behaviors, and their current levels of family functioning. Children were compared on their adaptation. Multivariate analyses indicated that mothers reporting child sexual abuse were more likely to report more other maltreatments in their childhood and greater prevalence of lifetime history of alcohol abuse disorders, dysthymia, and panic disorder compared with mothers who had not experienced CSA. Compared to children whose mothers had not experienced CSA, those whose mothers had experienced CSA showed higher rates of problems behaviors and were more likely to report having been sexually abused by a trusted person. These results highlight the specific clinical needs for the assessment and treatment for sexually abused children whose mothers experienced child sexual abuse. PMID:27472507

  8. Child Benefits and Welfare for Current and Future Generations: Simulation Analyses in an Overlapping-Generations Model with Endogenous Fertility(in Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    Oguro, Kazumasa; SHIMASAWA Manabu; TAKAHATA Junichiro

    2010-01-01

    We constructed an overlapping-generations model with endogenous fertility to analyze the effect of child benefits and pensions on welfare for current and future generations. The following results were obtained. First, when financial sustainability is not taken into account, the best policy to improve the welfare of future generations is to increase child benefits, financed by issuing government debt. On the other hand, when financial sustainability is taken into account, the best policy is to...

  9. [The Relationship Between Burnout Symptoms and Work Satisfaction Among Child Welfare Workers in Residential Care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinlin, Célia; Dölitzsch, Claudia; Fischer, Sophia; Schmeck, Klaus; Fegert, Jörg M; Schmid, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Working in residential care is associated with high demands and high stress. As a result, employees may develop symptoms of burnout. These symptoms lead to absence from work and have a negative effect on the continuity and quality of the residential care. Until now, little is known about burnout risks in child welfare workers, although children and adolescents are especially dependent on continuous relationships and healthy caregivers. A better understanding of the relationship between burnout symptoms and work satisfaction may help to identify starting points for prevention and intervention. The present study assessed symptoms of burnout in a sample of 319 social education workers in residential care in Switzerland using the burnout-screening-scales (BOSS). Work satisfaction was assessed with a newly developed questionnaire based on concepts of trauma-sensitive care. The questionnaire was tested for reliability and factorial validity in the present study. In order to estimate the relationship between burnout symptoms and work satisfaction, correlations and relative risks were calculated. Almost one fifth (18 %) of the sample showed a risk of burnout. The principal component analysis of the questionnaire on work satisfaction revealed four factors: support by superiors, participation and transparency; communication and support within the team; gratification in the work; and institutional structures and resources. All four factors as well as the total score showed significant correlations with burnout symptoms. Among employees with a comparably lower work satisfaction, the risk of burnout was 5.4 times higher than among employees with a comparably higher work satisfaction. It is discussed how work satisfaction could be promoted and how, as a result, the quality and continuity of care for the children and adolescents could be improved.

  10. A Scenario Analysis on the Implementation of a Farm Animal Welfare Assessment System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Blokhuis, H.J.; Butterworth, A.; Keeling, L.J.

    2011-01-01

    There have been important developments in the measurement of farm animal welfare in recent years. Measuring animal welfare is one thing, implementing a farm animal welfare assessment system another. The implementation of such a system occurs in an environment that is influenced by economic, politica

  11. Procedural justice in welfare complaints systems: A comparative study of Norway and Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Crosby, Berit

    2013-01-01

    The thesis investigates to what extent Norwegian and German complaints systems secure procedural justice for welfare claimants. Complaints systems are important mechanisms for protection of citizen's welfare rights. The large number of welfare claimants affected by decisions made in the welfare administration and the significance of these decisions to the individual are important motivations for this thesis. Moreover, the presence of procedural justice, or lack thereof, may have broader conse...

  12. THE PRACTISE OF CHILD PROTECTION SYSTEMS IN FOREIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sychrová Adriana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In most European countries and the U.S.A. the process of transformation of the child protection system has started. It can be characterized by deinstitutionalisation, restructuring of residential care, the strengthening of preventive measures and alternative care. The most typical is the effective programmes to strenghtes and expand foster care. In most countries strong child protection systems exist. On the one hand there is family support model and on the other hand there is the child protection model. Both of them are based on children rights but they use different strategies. Welfare services and family support must be at the core of prevention strategies for vulnerable children and children in care. This article dealswith some of the fundamental issues concerning social intervention and care of vulnerable children in foreign countries. The purpose is to describe the actual problems of systems, changing of minds and using contemporary practises of residential care and family type care as foster care is.

  13. On-Farm Welfare Assessment Protocol for Adult Dairy Goats in Intensive Production Systems

    OpenAIRE

    M. Battini; G Stilwell; Vieira, A; Barbieri, S.; E. Canali; Mattiello, S.

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary The Animal Welfare Indicators (AWIN) project developed a practical welfare assessment protocol for lactating dairy goats in intensive husbandry systems, using animal-based indicators that cover the whole multidimensional concept of animal welfare. The strict collaboration between scientists and stakeholders resulted in an easy-to-use protocol that provides farmers or veterinarians with comprehensive but clear feedback on the welfare status of the herd in less than three hours. ...

  14. Welfare of Farmed Fish in Present and Future Production Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vis, van de J.W.; Kiessling, A.; Flik, G.; Mackenzie, S.

    2013-01-01

    The book, entitled “Welfare of farmed fish in present and future production systems”, summarises the view of more than 80 experts in the field of fish welfare, collected over a period of more than five years in an international network entitled “Welfare of Fish in European Aquaculture” (Cost action

  15. Family and Gender in the Spanish Welfare System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mari-Klose, Pau

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This document is an attempt to understand how family and gender policies have developed within the general process of consolidation of the Spanish welfare system. The study examines different factors that account for an “atypical trajectory of change”: institutional predispositions, the timing of key political and social developments, the role of external pressures, societal changes, the activity of political actors and the enactment of broader policy reforms. The paper poses as research question the extent to which and the ways in which the Spanish welfare system has responded to new social risks, setting up new arrangements to meet emerging needs and demands related to care and the reconciliation of work and family life. The work that is presented here is the result of a systematic review of research conducted by Spanish scholars in the last two decades and my own work in the field, which includes both quantitative analyses of the main existing survey data about these issues as well as in-depth interviews with key actors in these policy domains.

  16. “When You’re Sitting on the Fence, Hope’s the Hardest Part”: Challenges and Experiences of Heterosexual and Same-Sex Couples Adopting Through the Child Welfare System

    OpenAIRE

    Goldberg, Abbie; Moyer, April M.; Kinkler, Lori A.; Richardson, Hannah B.

    2012-01-01

    Foster-to-adopt families can be viewed as systems that are influenced by many other systems (e.g., the legal system, the social service agency, and the birth family). The current qualitative study of 84 foster-to-adopt parents (members of 42 lesbian, gay, and heterosexual couples) examined the types of challenges that parents faced as they navigated multiple systems during the initial post-placement period. Some participants described the legal insecurity associated with their role as foster-...

  17. Evaluating the likelihood of the adoption of the Welfare Quality assessment system for farm livestock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aramyan, L.H.; Smet, de A.; Ingenbleek, P.T.M.; Tranter, R.

    2010-01-01

    The Welfare Quality assessment system aims to accommodate societal concerns and market demands to improve animal welfare by developing reliable on-farm monitoring systems, product information systems and practical species-specific strategies. Currently this system has been developed and is ready to

  18. Teens, Jobs, and Welfare: Implications for Social Policy. Child Trends Research Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Brett

    The upcoming reauthorization of the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) block grant is prompting closer scrutiny of how families affected by the law are faring. This research brief examines teen employment in the context of welfare reform, drawing on data from the National Survey of America's Families (NSAF) to describe employment…

  19. Social work and families in child welfare in Malawi: Social workers considerations when placing a child outside the home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Memory Jayne Tembo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses professional discretion in relation to placing a child outside the family, as understood by Malawian social workers. The article is a product of an exploratory study covering different aspects of social work practice with children and families in Malawi. It is based on focus group discussions with practicing social workers that were conducted using a vignette. This article describes how social workers handle child protection cases, in which a child has to be placed outside the home or family. The article points out different solutions and the reasoning behind certain decisions on placing children outside their home. The study explores issues of patriarchy, intervention methods into families and the cooperation between social workers, community members and other professionals when helping families. The study found that a number of different factors affect the decision of placing a child outside the home. Social workers in this study put an emphasis on the importance of helping children within the immediate- and extended family to help cope with the lack of financial resources that would provide alternative options.

  20. Urgent Protection versus Chronic Need: Clarifying the Dual Mandate of Child Welfare Services across Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Nico Trocmé; Alicia Kyte; Vandna Sinha; Barbara Fallon

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzed data from the 1998, 2003 and 2008 Canadian Incidence Study of reported child abuse and neglect (CIS) and compared the profile of children who were reported for an urgent protection investigation versus any other investigation or assessment. As a proportion of all investigations, urgent protection cases have dropped from 28% of all investigations in 1998, to 19% in 2003, to 15% in 2008. Results from the CIS-2008 analysis revealed that 7% of cases involved neglect of a child...

  1. An Empirical Examination of the Indian Child Welfare Act and Its Impact on Cultural and Familial Preservation for American Indian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limb, G.E.; Chance, T.; Brown, E.F.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Cultural and familial ties are crucial for the overall well-being of children. Extant research and permanency planning practices support the reunification of children with their families when possible. In 1978, the Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA) was enacted to promote cultural and familial preservation for Indian children, but sparse…

  2. Amending the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978, and for Other Purposes. Senate Report To Accompany S. 569. 105th Congress, 1st Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Indian Affairs.

    In this report, the Senate Committee on Indian Affairs reports favorably on Senate Bill 569 to amend the Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA) of 1978 and recommends its passage with an amendment. In enacting ICWA, Congress sought to: (1) protect the relationship between Indian children and their parents; (2) affirm the tribal right to participate…

  3. Rights and the Role of Family Engagement in Child Welfare: An International Treaties Perspective on Families' Rights, Parents' Rights, and Children's Rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenzer, Gertrud; Gran, Brian

    2011-01-01

    According to international human rights treaties, what rights do family members, parents, and children have in family engagement in child welfare decision-making? A sociolegal analytical approach produces a typology of rights, then applies the typology to eight countries' approaches to family engagement to show that strong bundles of rights are…

  4. Collaboration, Competition, and Co-opetition: Interorganizational Dynamics Between Private Child Welfare Agencies and Child Serving Sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Bunger, Alicia C; Collins-Camargo, Crystal; McBeath, Bowen; Chuang, Emmeline; Perez-Jolles, Monica; Wells, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Human service agencies are encouraged to collaborate with other public and private agencies in providing services to children and families. However, they also often compete with these same partners for funding, qualified staff, and clientele. Although little is known about complex interagency dynamics of competition and collaboration in the child-serving sector, evidence suggests that competition can undermine collaboration unless managed strategically. This study explores the interrelationsh...

  5. System for controlling child safety seat environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabney, Richard W. (Inventor); Elrod, Susan V. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A system is provided to control the environment experienced by a child in a child safety seat. Each of a plurality of thermoelectric elements is individually controllable to be one of heated and cooled relative to an ambient temperature. A first portion of the thermoelectric elements are positioned on the child safety seat such that a child sitting therein is positioned thereover. A ventilator coupled to the child safety seat moves air past a second portion of the thermoelectric elements and filters the air moved therepast. One or more jets coupled to the ventilator receive the filtered air. Each jet is coupled to the child safety seat and can be positioned to direct the heated/cooled filtered air to the vicinity of the head of the child sitting in the child safety seat.

  6. Regulation of child abuse through criminal law and the construction of child welfare%虐童的刑法规制及儿童福利体系的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李本灿

    2013-01-01

    基于虐童现象的普遍性以及后果的严重性,虐童行为的规制成为必要,但方式应该是通过立法,而非司法。对于实践中以司法方式实现虐童入罪的做法,应当摒弃,并肃清其背后的理念、逻辑。虐童入罪固然必要,但是问题的解决更应该走向刑法之外,通过儿童保护及福利体系的建立,从根本上减少虐童现象的发生。%Based on the universality and severe consequences of child abuse behavior, the criminal must be punished by criminal law, but the path should be legislation not judiciary. The practice that putting child abuse behavior into sin by judicial way should be abandoned and we should aware of its concept and logic behind. Putting child abuse behavior into sin is indispensable, but the final settlement of this problem is far beyond criminal law, only through establishing children protection and welfare system can we radically reduce its occurrence.

  7. Professional Conversations with Children in Divorce-Related Child Welfare Inquiries

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nijnatten, Carolus; Jongen, Esli

    2011-01-01

    Over the last few decades, the role of children in conversations about post-divorce arrangements has become more prominent. Children are approached as active participants in the (post-)divorce process rather than just victims of matrimonial and post-matrimonial discord. In accordance with the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, children have…

  8. Contemporary Hurdles in the Application of the Indian Child Welfare Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszak, Susan

    2010-01-01

    In 1978 Congress passed an astonishing piece of legislation that gave Native American tribes a considerable amount of jurisdiction over matters of child custody and the adoption of their children. In 1976, the Association of American Indian Affairs gathered statistics relevant to the adoption of Indian children that Congress found "shocking [and…

  9. Using Cumulative Risk to Screen for Mental Health Problems in Child Welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrae, Julie S.; Barth, Richard P.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study tests the hypothesis that information typically collected during a maltreatment investigation can be used to screen children for mental health problems. Method: Data are from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being. Cumulative risk scores were created for 3,022 children and compared to reports of clinical-level…

  10. Development and initial psychometric examination of the Home Safety and Beautification Assessment in mothers referred to treatment by child welfare agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, Brad; Pitts, Michelle; Chow, Graig M; Benning, Stephen D; Soto-Nevarez, Arturo; Plant, Christopher P; Allen, Daniel N

    2016-05-01

    Unintentional injury is the leading cause of death among children, with approximately 45% of injuries occurring in and around the home. Rates of home injury are particularly high in the homes of caregivers who are referred for intervention services by child welfare agents. However, there are few validated methods of home safety assessment available. The Home Safety and Beautification Assessment (HSBA) was developed to assist intervention planning specific to home safety and appearance in a sample of 77 mothers who were referred to treatment by Child Welfare Services. Exploratory factor analysis of HSBA items indicated that safety and appearance factors emerged across rooms in the home, and internal consistencies were good. For each room, the sums of assessors' safety and appearance intervention priority item scores were correlated with the assessors' global safety and appearance ratings of the entire home, respectively. The participants' overall room attractiveness scores were correlated with the assessors' overall room appearance intervention priority scores, whereas the participants' ratings of overall room safety were not correlated with the assessors' overall room safety intervention priority scores. Participants' scores on the Abuse subscale of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory, personal income, and education level were not associated with the assessors' home safety and appearance intervention priority ratings, suggesting the HSBA is assessing constructs that are distinct from child abuse potential and socioeconomic status. The results support the HSBA in a sample referred to treatment by child welfare agents. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26322799

  11. Mental health and substance abuse services to parents of children involved with child welfare: a study of racial and ethnic differences for American Indian parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libby, Anne M; Orton, Heather D; Barth, Richard P; Webb, Mary Bruce; Burns, Barbara J; Wood, Patricia A; Spicer, Paul

    2007-03-01

    American Indian (AI) parents of children involved with child welfare were compared to White, Black and Hispanic parents on mental health and substance abuse problems and access to treatment. Data came from the National Study of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, a longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of children aged 0-14 years involved with child welfare. Weighted statistics provided population estimates, and multivariate logistic regression was used to predict the likelihood of caregivers receiving mental health or substance abuse services. There were significant disparities in the likelihood of receiving mental health, but not substance abuse, services. Unmet need for mental health and substance abuse treatment characterized all parents in this study. AI parents fared the worst in obtaining mental health treatment. Parents of children at home and of older children were less likely to access mental health or substance abuse treatment.

  12. "Field Methods of Non-Governmental Organizations : [9] Child Welfare, Part Two"

    OpenAIRE

    友松,篤信; 菊入,千賀子; 志村,英理; 佐藤, 麻衣子; 菅原,佳苗

    2005-01-01

    "Thai NGO, The Center for the Protection of Children's Rights, protects abused, sexually exploited, or trafficked children in collaboration with the Thai government, other civil organizations, Thai police, and international organizations. The action of the Center consists of information gathering on abused children, protection, rehabilitation, and reintegration into society. A Bangladeshi NGO, Aparajeyo, manages a street school with the help of ex-street children called child motivators where...

  13. Child soldiers: Reasons for variation in their rate of recruitment and standards of welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Andvig, Jens Christopher

    2006-01-01

    Why do some children voluntarily join while other children are forced to join military organization in situations of conflict, and why do the organizations recruit them? How is the actual number of children determined? These are the questions raised in this paper. To address them the author draws on results and ideas from three independent lines of research; One dealing with child labour in general, another with the study of conflicts and the third with children’s decision-maki...

  14. Effects of approach and services under differential response on long term child safety and welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loman, L Anthony; Siegel, Gary L

    2015-01-01

    An outcome analysis was conducted based on an extended follow-up of the implementation of differential response program reforms in Child Protective Services offices in 10 counties in a Midwestern U.S. State. Random assignment was conducted of families that were first determined to be appropriate for family assessments. Experimental families (n=2,382) were each assigned to a non-forensic family assessment, and control families (n=2,247) each received a forensic investigation. Families were assigned continuously over a 15-month period and then tracked from 45 to 60 months from the date of assignment. Detailed information on services provided and family responses was obtained via two subsamples of experimental and control families. Measures of family engagement and service reception and utilization were utilized to determine instrumental outcomes introduced through family assessments. Improved family engagement and increased and broadened services were found to have occurred, and it was theorized that these changes mediated extended outcomes. Extended outcomes included reductions of rates of subsequent screened-in reports of child maltreatment, proportions of families that experienced child removals, and instances of new safety threats and problems in parenting. Differences in outcomes were found among the participating counties with 4 counties accounting for most outcome differences. The relationships between instrumental and extended outcomes were discussed with suggestions for further research. PMID:24957562

  15. Age-appropriate feeding practices and nutritional status of infants attending child welfare clinic at a Teaching Hospital in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umar M Lawan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Appropriate infant feeding is the key to optimum infant and child development and survival. This study investigates age-appropriate infant feeding practices and nutritional status of infants attending the immunization and child welfare clinic at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital. Materials and Methods: Using a cross-sectional descriptive design, a sample of 300 sets of infants (age ≤12 months and caregivers was systematically selected and studied. The data were analyzed using the MINITAB ® 12.21 (USA statistical software. Results: All the infants studied were still on breast milk. Most of the mothers demonstrated correct body positioning (89.9 and attachment (78.7% during breastfeeding, and effective suckling was demonstrated in 77.0%. Interestingly, none of the infants was either exclusively breastfed for 6 months or currently on exclusive breastfeeding. Furthermore, only 64 (58.2% of the 110 infants that were more than 6 months of age had appropriately been started on complementary feeding from 6 months of age. Overall, most caregivers (88.7% had "fair" to "good" infant feeding practices. The practices were significantly associated with their level of education, and their relationship with the infants. Up to 40.0% and 73.7% of the infants had varying degrees of wasting and stunting respectively. Infant feeding practices and the age of the infants emerged as the only factors significantly associated with stunting, while both the caregivers′ practices and age of the infants emerged as significant predictors of wasting in the infants. Conclusion and Recommendations: Barely 3 years to the 2015 target of the millennium development goals (MDGs, infant feeding and nutritional status still poses a serious threat to the dream of realizing the MDG-4. The Ministry of Health and relevant developing partners in this region should as a matter of urgency, formulate and implement a strong community-based public health intervention program to

  16. [The national-international nexus in public health: Uruguay and the circulation of child health and welfare policies, 1890-1940].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birn, Anne-Emanuelle

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the emergence of child health policy as a global concern from the perspective of Uruguay's interaction with the international public health community in the early 20th century and its role in the circulation of child health ideas and practices. It considers two facets of national-international interplay: a) Uruguay's exploration of an interrelationship with the international panorama of policies, research and lessons on the improvement of child health; and b) the translation of Uruguay's domestic debates into the influential Instituto Internacional Americano de Protección a la Infancia - IIPI and the purveying of Uruguay's policies, research, and lessons on child health improvement to other countries and to international health and welfare agencies.

  17. Towards the creation of a welfare assessment system in intensive beef cattle farms

    OpenAIRE

    Igino Andrighetto; Giulio Cozzi; Barbara Contiero; Marta Brscic; Flaviana Gottardo

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to develop an assessment scheme for the evaluation at farm level of beef cattle welfare in the intensive rearing system that is capable of both identifying weak points in animal welfare and grading farms to such extent. The basic principle of the method was the avoidance of animal handling and the prolonged observation of cattle using animal-based and resource provision measures grouped in four classes of parameters: 1) Housing systems and facilities; 2) Health and cleanlines...

  18. Citizens’ View on Veal Calves’ Fattening System in Italy and Animal Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Marta Brscic; Flaviana Gottardo; Giulio Cozzi

    2013-01-01

    Aims of this study were to assess citizens’ view on the current veal calves’ fattening system in Italy and on animal welfare, and to find relationships with veal meat consumption. Socio-demographic characteristics, veal meat consumption habits, knowledge of veal calves rearing system and animal welfare attitudes of 100 citizens were investigated through a questionnaire submitted on a voluntary base in supermarkets/butcher shops. Results showed that 61 respondents were veal meat consumers and ...

  19. Child Care Subsidies and Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbst, Chris M.; Tekin, Erdal

    2010-01-01

    Child care subsidies are an important part of federal and state efforts to move welfare recipients into employment. One of the criticisms of the current subsidy system, however, is that it overemphasizes work and does little to encourage parents to purchase high-quality child care. Consequently, there are reasons to be concerned about the…

  20. Neuropsychological screening of children of substance-abusing women attending a Special Child Welfare Clinic in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skogmo Idar

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to alcohol and illicit substances during pregnancy can have an impact on the child for the rest of his/her life. A Special Child Welfare Clinic (SCWC in Norway provides care for pregnant women with substance abuse problems. Treatment and support are provided without replacement therapy. Methods We performed a neuropsychological screening of 40 children aged four to 11 years whose mothers had attended the SCWC during pregnancy, and of a comparison group of 80 children of women without substance abuse problems. The children were presented with tests chosen from Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, third version (WISC-III, Nepsy, Halstead-Reitan and Raven's Progressive Matrices, Coloured Version. The tests were grouped into five main domains; (1 learning and memory, (2 visual scanning, planning and attention, (3 executive function, (4 visuo-motor speed and dexterity and (5 general intellectual ability Results No children in the study had test results in the clinical range in any domain. Bivariate analyses revealed that children of short-term substance-abusing mothers (who stopped substance abuse within the first trimester had significantly lower test scores than the comparison group in three out of five domains (domain 2,3,4. Children of long-term substance abusers (who maintained moderate substance abuse throughout pregnancy had significantly lower test results than the comparison group in one domain of the test results (domain 1. All but one child in the long-term group were or had been in foster homes. Most children in the short-term group stayed with their mothers. Multivariate regression analyses revealed that foster care minimum 50% of life time was associated with better scores on domains (1 learning and memory, (2 visual scanning, planning and attention, and (3 executive functions, while no significant associations with test scores was found for substance abuse and birth before 38 weeks of gestation

  1. Sovereignty: The Heart of the Matter. Critical Considerations on the Interface between the Indian Child Welfare Act and Adoption and Safe Families Act. A Summary of Proceedings of the Conference (Minneapolis, Minnesota, May 17, 2000).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattenberg, Esther, Ed.

    The Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA) recognizes tribes' rights to exercise authority over the welfare of Native American children. Although the ICWA was passed more than 20 years ago, its implementation in Minnesota has been uneven. A conference was held to rectify that situation, and these proceedings provide, among other things, information on…

  2. Citizens’ View on Veal Calves’ Fattening System in Italy and Animal Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Brscic

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims of this study were to assess citizens’ view on the current veal calves’ fattening system in Italy and on animal welfare, and to find relationships with veal meat consumption. Socio-demographic characteristics, veal meat consumption habits, knowledge of veal calves rearing system and animal welfare attitudes of 100 citizens were investigated through a questionnaire submitted on a voluntary base in supermarkets/butcher shops. Results showed that 61 respondents were veal meat consumers and the remaining 39 were non-consumers. A large proportion of respondents were aware of the modern veal calves rearing system but their knowledge as such did not affect veal meat consumption. Non-consumers declared they didn’t like veal meat organoleptic characteristics, opposed the production system or considered it too expensive. Most citizens sustained animal welfare but no correlations were found between concerns for animal welfare and veal meat consumption/purchase (rs 0.05. Citizens conceptualized animal welfare through the aspects of care animals received by the farmer and veterinarian and of healthy feed for animals. It could be concluded that consumers don’t really think of animal welfare while buying or having meat, and they still have idealised notions of naturality, traditional farming, free-range and small scale production linked to farm animal production.

  3. Correlates of optimal behavior among child welfare-involved children: Perceived school peer connectedness, activity participation, social skills, and peer affiliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merritt, Darcey H; Snyder, Susan M

    2015-09-01

    Understanding the association between children's behaviors and their perceptions regarding the quality of school friendships is useful for intervention strategies focusing on the interpersonal networks of children involved with the child welfare system. Rarely are measures of the strength of peer relationships assessed as a protective factor for maltreated children in the context of understanding their behaviors. This research investigates the link between these youth's expressed relational experiences and nonproblematic behavior. Analyses were conducted on 1,054 children (ages 11-17) from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being II (NSCAW II) dataset. Utilizing a factored measure of perceived school friend connectedness, children's behaviors were predicted using Generalized Ordered Logistic regression analyses. Results demonstrated stronger school friend connectedness is a protective factor in that, children who perceive strong peer connections at school are more likely to classify below the problem behavior threshold than those with weaker peer connections. Further, children with increased social skills; fewer deviant peer affiliations; and those who take responsibility in part-time jobs and chores are more likely to display normative behaviors. Compared with all other types of maltreatment, physically abused children are significantly less likely to display behaviors below the problem range. Moreover, physical abuse has a negative impact on the protective nature of strong peer connections. Attention should be given to supporting children's perceived positive friendships, developing social skills, and encouraging participation in part-time jobs (e.g., babysitting, paper routes) as protective factors associated with nonproblematic behaviors, rather than problematic behaviors. Implications for service delivery are discussed. PMID:26460707

  4. The Cognitive Dissonance between Child Rescue and Child Protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.E. Cheney (Kristen)

    2015-01-01

    textabstract‘Saving orphans’ has become an industry that irrevocably harms children and undermines the development of child welfare systems. We must replace the drive to rescue with the desire to protect.

  5. State Welfarism and Social Welfare in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr Indra P TIWARI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper has analyzed and discussed the social welfare policies of the Asian countries—the responsibilities of international activist institutions and the State towards individuals in terms of state welfarism and social and economic protection, and the conventional family system, which was and still is the core responsible institution for the well-being of its members. The paper has presented economic and poverty indicators (19, demographic, social and economic indicators associated social welfarism (16, satisfaction related indicators (7, and funding related indicators that have association with social welfarism (9. This has also analyzed and discussed the gap between the international propaganda on social welfare, social policies of the Government and its actual delivery and the situation of vacuum being created due to the moribund family system of slothful state welfarism, in the new living context created by the notion of right-prone individualism. The study has identified along with their history of starting social security provisions the present state major workfare and welfare and welfare protection in the Asian countries, thereby explored countries falling into five levels of social welfare system by taking a combined state of poverty, vulnerable employment, and government expenditure on education, health and social protection, namely (i early stage of welfare system; (ii transition to take-off stage of welfare system; (iii take-off stage of welfare system; (iv transition to drive to maturity stage of welfare system; and (v the drive to maturity stage of welfare system. Finally, the paper has presented the critical areas for dialogue where the synergy of the propagandist international activism, state slothfulness, moribund family dynamics, and right-prone individualism interface for a reliable and sustainable social welfare with affection, protection, nurturance, and protection thereby live in peace and harmony with dignity.

  6. 加拿大的动物福利制度%The Animal Welfare System of Canada

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田琳

    2005-01-01

    This paper makes an analysis on the animal wefare system and takes emphasis on the anmal welfare system of Canda and the resaon Canda takes this system Also.the paper evaluates the resaonableness of this system and wants to give the examples of the tegislation of animal welfare system in our country.

  7. The community-based rural welfare system in the People's Republic of China: 1949-1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, J

    1982-01-01

    The development of China's rural welfare system is traced from its beginning in the early 1950s to 1979. Traditionally, peasants relied on families for welfare support. After the Communist Party's (CCP) assumption of power in 1949, an estimated 3-5% of the rural population was old, infirm, orphaned, invalid, or without means of support. The concept of mutual aid was encouraged in which neighbors assisted each other in times of need. With the redistribution of land and the collectivization movement came the creation of the rural welfare system. Public welfare funds were secured from a percentage of the annual incomes of the agricultural producers' cooperatives and ranged from 1-5%. By March 1957, 97.3% of the peasant households had been organized into advanced cooperatives and the 5 guarantees system was introduced. Although varying considerably between cooperatives, the 5 guarantees included food, clothing, burial expenses, and either fuel and children's education or medical care and housing. The welfare system was based on 1/2 free supply and 1/2 cash relief. With the development of the rural communes in 1958, 2 significant changes occurred: welfare responsibility shifted to the commune, away from the family; and support shifted from a categorical approach to a universal approach. Communal services included: public mess halls, homes for the aged, nurseries and kindergartens, sewing, shoemaking and laundry teams. Income support was available at the discretion of the commune CCP committee. The failure of the Great Leap Forward brought another series of adjustments to the welfare system. The family was reemphasized, categorical assistance reemerged, communal services and facilities disappeared and welfare administration was decentralized and became the responsibility of production teams. 5 categories of families were assisted: those of servicemen, "Revolutionary Martyrs," cadres, model workers, and households with difficulties. Rural welfare reform in the wake of the

  8. Data Surveillance in Child Protection Systems Development: An Indonesian Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothby, Neil; Stark, Lindsay

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Successful implementation of child protection program interventions and child and family welfare services is contingent upon the availability and use of good quality information, as emphasized by the recent Convention on the Rights of the Child's General Comment 13. Yet, the role of information within child protection is not well…

  9. Child Welfare Outcomes Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — These annual reports to Congress are available on line at the Children's Bureau's website. They contain data from the Adoption and Foster Care Analysis and...

  10. Reproductive Issues in Welfare-Friendly Housing Systems in Pig Husbandry: A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemp, B.; Soede, N.M.

    2012-01-01

    In Europe, housing conditions of sows are currently changing, related with a larger emphasis on pig welfare. As a result, sows are and will be less kept in crates, but more so in loose housing systems (farrowing, lactation) and group housing systems (pregnancy, lactation, weaning-to-oestrus interval

  11. “Diversity” of Care Givers and Aggressive Abused Children with Reactive or Proactive aggression in Child welfare Facilities through Examining Residential Map, the New Assessment Method for Estimating Relationships among Children and Care Givers.

    OpenAIRE

    Fujioka, Takashi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to consider on the assessment through one of measures, Residential Map for aggressive abused children in child welfare institutes. There are three types are reactive and proactive aggression and Non-emotional aggression.When a child does not succeed in control of his or her own anger or control of irritation, it will be happened aggressive situation among children.About children in child nursing home, the author explained Residential Map for 6 staffs for grasping ...

  12. Legislation’s Influence on Judiciarization: Examining the Effects of Statutory Structure and Language on Rates of Court Use in Child Welfare Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Campbell

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the extent to which legislation influences decisions of child welfare workers regarding the referral of cases to court. It studies three Canadian jurisdictions: Quebec, Ontario, and Alberta, each of which takes a different legislative approach to the issue of court involvement in child protection. A critical examination of child welfare statutes in these provinces led to the prediction that rates of court use – or ‘judiciarization’ – would be highest in Quebec, followed by Ontario, and then Alberta. These predictions were then compared with data reflecting actual judiciarization rates in these three provinces for the year 2006. This data contradicted our initial predictions, in that Ontario’s rate of court use for child welfare cases was the highest of the three provinces, followed by Alberta, and then Quebec. Our research results thus suggest that legislation alone does not drive judiciarization in the child welfare context. As such, this paper illuminates the need for further study of the way in which child protection workers understand legislation as influencing their professional responsibilities and choices. Moreover, it indicates that further consideration is needed into how the use of judicial versus extra-judicial institutions might affect child welfare outcomes. Cet article examine la mesure dans laquelle la législation influence les décisions des travailleurs et travailleuses du bien-être de l’enfance quant à soumettre des cas aux tribunaux. On étudie trois territoires canadiens : le Québec, l’Ontario et l’Alberta, dont chacun prend une approche législative différente à la question de la participation des tribunaux dans la protection de l’enfance. Un examen critique des lois sur la protection de l’enfance dans ces provinces a amené à prédire que le taux d’utilisation des tribunaux – ou la «judiciarisation» - serait le plus élevé au Québec, suivi de l’Ontario puis de l

  13. Performance and welfare of rabbit does in various caging systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikó, A; Matics, Zs; Gerencsér, Zs; Odermatt, M; Radnai, I; Nagy, I; Szendrő, K; Szendrő, Zs

    2014-07-01

    The objective of the study was to compare production and welfare of rabbit does and their kits housed in various types of cages. Female rabbits were randomly allocated to four groups with the following cage types: CN: common wire-mesh flat-deck cage, without footrest; CF: cage similar to the CN but with plastic footrest; ECWP: enlarged cage with wire-mesh platform; and ECPP: extra enlarged cage with plastic-mesh platform. All does were inseminated on the same day, 11 days after kindlings. Reproductive performance was evaluated during the first five consecutive kindlings. Severity of sore hocks was scored at each insemination. Location preference of the does and the platform usage of their kits were evaluated. Kindling rate, litter size (total born, born alive, alive at 21 and 35 days) and kit mortality were not significantly influenced by the cage types. The litter weight at 21 days was higher in ECWP and ECPP cages than in the CF group (3516, 3576 and 3291 g, respectively; P2.5 cm) and 3 to 4 (3=callus opened, cracks present; 4=wounds) were 58%, 60%, 78% and 48%, and 0%, 5%, 0% and 48% in groups ECPP, ECWP, CF and CN, respectively. Higher number of daily nest visits was observed for CF does than for ECWP does (12.5 v. 5.9; P2/day) was higher in the CF group than in the ECWP group (12.1 v. 3.2%; Pplastic footrests and plastic-mesh platforms in conventional and/or large cages reduced sore hocks' problems, plastic-mesh platforms were more used by both does and kits compared with the wire-mesh platforms. PMID:26263030

  14. Towards the creation of a welfare assessment system in intensive beef cattle farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igino Andrighetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to develop an assessment scheme for the evaluation at farm level of beef cattle welfare in the intensive rearing system that is capable of both identifying weak points in animal welfare and grading farms to such extent. The basic principle of the method was the avoidance of animal handling and the prolonged observation of cattle using animal-based and resource provision measures grouped in four classes of parameters: 1 Housing systems and facilities; 2 Health and cleanliness; 3 Animal behaviour and reactivity; 4 Quality of management and stockmanship. Each parameter was graded giving the highest scores to the best option for animal welfare, and the threshold value for distinguishing good from poor welfare conditions was set primarily on the results of scientific reports and investigations. An overall Welfare Index was calculated summing the scores of the 4 classes of parameters to formulate a general judgement of the farm and to allow comparison among them. The protocol was applied to 102 Italian intensive beef cattle farms rearing more than 300 young bulls/year. Regarding housing and facilities, the study showed that space allowance and space at the manger were the most frequent critical points. Within the “poor welfare” farms, more than 80% provided less than 3.5 m2/head to bulls weighing more than 500 kg, and none adopted a feeding frontage of at least 60 cm/head. Negatively judged farms compared to those ranked in the good welfare area for health and cleanliness showed a higher incidence of emergency slaughter (score 1.7: >1% vs score 3: 0.5-1%, P<0.05 and lameness (score 1.9: 1.5-3% vs score 3.3: <1.5%, P<0.05. Animal behaviour and reactivity parameters showed that in the “poor welfare” farms, bulls had a quicker flight reaction to the presence of both farmer and observer (P<0.01 likely due to a negative human-animal interaction. The quality of stockmanship was the category in which the highest number of farms

  15. Child Welfare and Successful Reunification through the Socio-Educative Process: Training Needs among Biological Families in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Angeles Balsells

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In Spain, an average of 480 children per 100,000 is receiving some type of temporary care, and the reunification process is typically lengthy. Providing the biological family with specific training as part of the reunification process is key to solving this problem. Although previous research and social policy have emphasized the importance of such training to reunification, the training has not been fully implemented in Spain. This study investigates the specific training needs during the transition phase of the reunification process in which the child prepares to return home. The data were obtained from focus groups and through semi-structured interviews with 135 participants: 63 professionals from the Child Protection System and 42 parents and 30 children who have undergone or are currently undergoing reunification. A qualitative methodology and Atlas.ti software were used to analyze the interview content. The results indicate three specific training needs: (a understanding the reasons for reunification and the reunification phases; (b empowerment strategies; and (c social support. These findings suggest the best practices for formulating specific support programs for this population during the reunification transition period.

  16. National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data System Glossary Listen Child Abuse and Neglect Data System Glossary Published: March 31, ... This document is the glossary for the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (NCANDS), including terms from ...

  17. Management Systems for Organic EggProduction - Aiming to Improve AnimalHealth and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegelund, Lene

    one production period. In the second part of the project a generic HACCP system was developed, using an expert panel analysis. The two management tools have very different approaches to improving animal health and welfare, and subsequently different methods, cost and advantages. This makes them...

  18. Sports policy systems in regulated Rhineland welfare states : Differences in financial structures of sports clubs?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, Steven; Wicker, Pamela; Breuer, Christoph; Scheerder, Jeroen

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the resource dependencies of voluntary sports club in two Rhineland welfare states with differences in their organizational arrangements of sports (e.g. the centralization of the Sport for All policy). On the basis of the VOCASPORT typology of sports policy systems and the res

  19. Report on the comprehensive investigational research (at-home welfare apparatus system); Sogo chosa kenkyu (zaitaku fukushi kiki system) hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    An investigational study was conducted on the research and development of an at-home welfare apparatus system. In this study, a stay experiment was carried out on whether aged or handicapped people can easily live in welfare houses into which at-home welfare apparatus was integrated, using high-tech at-home nursing apparatus systems (welfare techno house: WTH) which were installed at seven places in Japan based on `the development of a system supporting independent excretion.` In addition, the following were conducted: experiments on at-home welfare apparatus in terms of the evaluation of performance/operability/safety, physical physiology reactions, nursing burden/estimate of independence, two-way communication, examination of housing environments, etc. In WTH Chofu, a test on evaluating welfare apparatus was conducted by people with limbs paralysis and healthy case workers. In WTH Sapporo, by a working group studying biological information, examinations were made on the situation of standing up of healthy adults, old people and people with paralysis of one side of the body from various types of chairs, beds, wheel chairs, portable toilets and sitting down on them. An examination was also made on harmony with psychological function and physically adaptable function by a working group studying at-home nursing apparatus. 75 figs., 15 tabs.

  20. Prevention and the Child Protection System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldfogel, Jane

    2009-01-01

    The nation's child protection system (CPS) has historically focused on preventing maltreatment in high-risk families, whose children have already been maltreated. But, as Jane Waldfogel explains, it has also begun developing prevention procedures for children at lower risk--those who are referred to CPS but whose cases do not meet the criteria for…

  1. Economic shocks and child welfare: the effect of past economic shocks on child nutritional achievements, schooling and work in rural and urban Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldehanna, T.

    2009-01-01

    Using data from the Young Lives younger cohort, we examine the effect of economic shocks on nutritional achievement, schooling and child work of index children (at age 5), controlling for various individual and household characteristics. Shocks that occurred both before and after the child was born

  2. Reproductive issues in welfare-friendly housing systems in pig husbandry: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, B; Soede, N M

    2012-08-01

    In Europe, housing conditions of sows are currently changing, related with a larger emphasis on pig welfare. As a result, sows are and will be less kept in crates, but more so in loose housing systems (farrowing, lactation) and group housing systems (pregnancy, lactation, weaning-to-oestrus interval). These changes in housing conditions may affect reproductive functioning of the sows. Group housing of sows may decrease farrowing rate and litter size when stress levels rise or when feed intake in early pregnancy is not fully secured. Loose housing during farrowing results in an improved farrowing process, but may increase piglet mortality by crushing during early lactation. Further, group housing during lactation may increase the risk of lactational oestrus. Thus, new - welfare friendly - housing systems require increased attention to management to ensure optimal reproductive performance. PMID:22913560

  3. Caregiver Substance Abuse and Children’s Exposure to Violence in a Nationally Representative Child Welfare Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Seay, Kristen D.; Kohl, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being II (NSCAW II), this article examines the impact of caregiver substance abuse on children’s exposure to violence in the home in a nationally representative sample of families involved with child protective services (CPS). Logistic regression analyses indicate an increased risk of witnessing mild and severe violence in the home for children whose primary caregiver was abusing alcohol or drugs. However, analyses did not find ...

  4. Report on achievements in fiscal 1999 on research and development of the Welfare Techno-system (Shizuoka); 1999 nendo Welfare Techno system kenkyu kaihatsu (Shizuoka) seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Research and development has been performed at the Shizuoka Welfare Techno-house to assist entry into the welfare industry field of the local industries in the prefecture, such as for wood products, furniture and music instruments, and to provide products which take into consideration the society with more elderly people and less children. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 1999. In developing barrier-free kitchens capable of handling change in bodily functions, a prototype kitchen was used to evaluate work load variation as a result of existence of a foot space under the kitchen table. In addition, a human simulation software was used to evaluate compatibility of humans with products. By utilizing these technical data, a system was arranged by which barrier-free kitchens can be commercialized by changing the specifications according to individual requirements. In developing a bed unit to prevent bedsore by using the multi-point pressure and fluctuation mechanism, the unit weight was reduced, and addition was made to such functions as controlling finger-pressing cycle and positions by electronic control. Development was made on a music instrument for rehabilitation by which anyone can play music by repetitively giving stimulation to human eyes and ears. (NEDO)

  5. Samotne rodzicielstwo w systemie pomocowym państwa/ Single parenthood in the government welfare system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EWA JURCZYK-ROMANOWSKA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Reflections on the subject of government welfare system aimed at single parents are presented in the article. Changes of civilisation are a cause of an escalation of the phenomenon of single parenthood in Poland, with the number of divorces rising year by year and an increase in the number of people who decide to live in concubinates or become single parents of children born out of wedlock. The withdrawal of the government from numerous forms of support for that social group is observed simultaneously with the aforementioned changes. A choice of labour law, social security and family law regulations is analysed at length in the article dedicated to single parenthood in the government welfare system.

  6. The 'Dutch Miracle': Employment Growth in a Retrenched but Still Generous Welfare System

    OpenAIRE

    Uwe Becker

    1999-01-01

    The Netherlands, until the mid-1980s a country with high unemployment, has seen rising employment for some years. Currently its unemployment rate is below five per cent. Employment growth is mostly due to the expansion of part-time jobs, particularly for women. Because there are many people in disability and early retirement schemes, unemployment is, however, still high. A special feature is that the Dutch have managed to bring down unemployment in a context of a welfare system which is still...

  7. Book Review of “At Risk: Social Justice in Child Welfare and Other Human Services” by Karen J. Swift and Marilyn Callahan, 2009, Toronto: University of Toronto Press

    OpenAIRE

    Janzen, Caitlin

    2010-01-01

    The newest book by Canadian social work scholars Karen Swift and Marilyn Callahan is exemplary of how other disciplines can invigorate social work theory. “At Risk” uses child welfare practice as an entry point for exploring the continuing movement away from addressing needs and towards the management of risk in the human services.

  8. Book Review of “At Risk: Social Justice in Child Welfare and Other Human Services” by Karen J. Swift and Marilyn Callahan, 2009, Toronto: University of Toronto Press

    OpenAIRE

    Janzen, Caitlin

    2009-01-01

    The newest book by Canadian social work scholars Karen Swift and Marilyn Callahan is exemplary of how other disciplines can invigorate social work theory. “At Risk” uses child welfare practice as an entry point for exploring the continuing movement away from addressing needs and towards the management of risk in the human services.

  9. Putting Youth Relationship Education on the Child Welfare Agenda: Findings from a Research and Evaluation Review. Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Mindy E.; Moore, Kristin Anderson; Hawkins, Alan J.; Malm, Karin; Beltz, Martha

    2012-01-01

    Child Trends reviewed existing evidence on a somewhat neglected topic: relationship education for youth in foster care. The goals of this research review were to identify the needs of disadvantaged young people around intimate partner relationships, to identify evaluated relationship education programs, to highlight and synthesize common themes…

  10. Child Poverty and the Health Care System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Andrew D

    2016-04-01

    The persistence of child poverty in the United States and the pervasive health consequences it engenders present unique challenges to the health care system. Human capital theory and empirical observation suggest that the increased disease burden experienced by poor children originates from social conditions that provide suboptimal educational, nutritional, environmental, and parental inputs to good health. Faced with the resultant excess rates of pediatric morbidity, the US health care system has developed a variety of compensatory strategies. In the first instance, Medicaid, the federal-state governmental finance system designed to assure health insurance coverage for poor children, has increased its eligibility thresholds and expanded its benefits to allow greater access to health services for this vulnerable population. A second arm of response involves a gradual reengineering of health care delivery at the practice level, including the dissemination of patient-centered medical homes, the use of team-based approaches to care, and the expansion of care management beyond the practice to reach deep into the community. Third is a series of recent experiments involving the federal government and state Medicaid programs that includes payment reforms of various kinds, enhanced reporting, concentration on high-risk populations, and intensive case management. Fourth, pediatric practices have begun to make use of specific tools that permit the identification and referral of children facing social stresses arising from poverty. Finally, constituencies within the health care system participate in enhanced advocacy efforts to raise awareness of poverty as a distinct threat to child health and to press for public policy responses such as minimum wage increases, expansion of tax credits, paid family leave, universal preschool education, and other priorities focused on child poverty. PMID:27044708

  11. The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child as Policy and Strategy for Social Work Action in Child Welfare in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherrer, James L.

    2012-01-01

    The United States and Somalia are the only two countries in the world that have not ratified the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC). Opposition in the United States stems from the CRC's demand for a cultural change in how a society cares for children and a political hesitancy to become involved in binding international…

  12. The welfare evaluation of laying hens reared with alternative housing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bertuzzi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Hens housed in battery cages are more concentrated per surface unit (450 cm2/bird. Associated to this breeding system are economic, hygienic and healthy advantages. However, the battery cage housing of laying hens is strongly criticised for the poor bird’s “quality of life”. For this reason EU regulations will exclude the use of battery cages in the near future. Several papers have emphasised that in any particular system there are certain specific aspects, which are critical to the welfare of birds housed in it (Appleby and Hughes, 1991....

  13. Examining social work with children and youth in welfare service organizations observed as hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montes de Oca, Lis Klovning Hansen

    2014-01-01

    This paper seeks to explore social work as it can be observed in the welfare service organizations of Danish municipalities, specifically within the context of social work concerned with the protection of the child at risk. The paper uses the systems theory of Niklas Luh-mann to elaborate...... and explore how social work within the specific frame of child protection care becomes an actual hybrid (Philippopoulos-Mihalopoulos, 2012). The paper recognizes social work as a social system, the system for help in society (Baecker, 1994) (Nissen, 2010). The paper sets out to explore how structural coupling...... within the welfare system of child protection can be said to emerge into a different form than (maybe) other welfare services. The explorative curiosity rises from recognition of the economic systems expansion and dominant semantics within social services, specifically child protection and how social...

  14. [Placement of children and adolescents following seclusion and restraint actions–a study on family-court approvals of minors in youth welfare, child and adolescent psychiatry and jail according to Para. 1631 German Civil Code].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kölch, Michael; Vogel, Harald

    2016-01-01

    According to German law (Para. 1631b German Civil Code), the placement of children and adolescents following seclusion and restraint actions must be approved by a family court. We analyzed the family court data of a court district in Berlin (Tempelhof-Kreuzberg) concerning cases of “placement of minors” between 2008 and 2011. A total of 474 such procedures were discovered. After data clearing and correction of cases (e. g., because of emergency interventions of the youth welfare system taking children into custody according to Para. 42, German Civil Code VIII), 376 cases remained. Of these 376 procedures in the years 2008 to 2011, 127 cases concerned children and adolescents according to Para. 1631b German Civil Code, and 249 procedures were settled either by dismissal, withdrawal or by repealing the initial decision to place the child with restrain or seclusion by means of an interim order or by filing an appeal against the final decision. Of the 127 procedures, 68 concerned girls, who were on average slightly younger than boys (14.5 years vs. 15.1 years). In two thirds of the procedures, the children and adolescents were German citizens. The majority of youths involved were living at home at the time of the procedure, but in 15 % of the case the youths were homeless. Most of the adolescents were treated with restraint in child and adolescent psychiatry. The most frequently quoted reasons for seclusion were substance abuse, suicide risk and running away from home/being homeless.

  15. Trauma-Informed Forensic Child Maltreatment Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pence, Donna M.

    2011-01-01

    Trauma-informed child welfare systems (CWSs) are the focus of several recent national and state initiatives. Since 2005 social work publications have focused on systemic and practice changes within CW which seek to identify and reduce trauma to children and families experiencing child maltreatment or other distressing events, as well as to the…

  16. Impact of Seed Voucher System on Rice Farmers’ Welfare in Nigeria: A Randomized Control Trial Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Awotide, Bola Amoke; Awoyemi, Taiwo Timothy; Diagne, Aliou; Ojehomon, Vivian E.T.

    2012-01-01

    This study adopted Randomized Control Trial to examine the impact of seed voucher system on farming households’ welfare in Nigeria using cross-sectional data of 600 rice farmers randomly selected from the three major rice ecologies of Nigeria. The WALD estimate reveals that the use of seed voucher increased household Per Capita Expenditure (PCE) by N14705.91. While the result of the Local Average Treatment Effect (LATE), shows a positive and significant impact of N7928.15 on PCE. Therefore, t...

  17. The Virtual fencing system Nofence - Trials 2013.Learning ability and sheep welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Brunberg, Emma; Soerheim, Kristin Marie; Bergslid, Ildrid Kristine

    2013-01-01

    NoFence is a GPS-based virtual fencing system to be used for grazing animals. Each animal wears a collar and if crossing a predefined border, the animal will get a sound warning followed by an electric shock. The aims with the two experiments reported in this report were to: 1. To test Nofence on sheep with young lambs focusing on animal welfare and learning. 2. To develop and test a learning protocol for Nofence. 3. To compare the function of Nofence when using it with and without...

  18. Precision livestock farming technologies for welfare management in intensive livestock systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berckmans, D

    2014-04-01

    The worldwide demand for meat and animal products is expected to increase by at least 40% in the next 15 years. The first question is how to achieve high-quality, sustainable and safe meat production that can meet this demand. At the same time, livestock production is currently facing serious problems. Concerns about animal health in relation to food safety and human health are increasing. The European Union wants improved animal welfare and has made a significant investment in it. At the same time, the environmental impact of the livestock sector is a major issue. Finally, it is necessary to ask how the farmer, who is the central figure in this process, will make a living from more sustainable livestock production systems. One tool that might provide real opportunities is precision livestock farming (PLF). In contrast to previous approaches, PLF systems aim to offer a real-time monitoring and management system that focuses on improving the life of the animals by warning when problems arise so that the farmer may take immediate action. Continuous, fully automatic monitoring and improvement of animal health and welfare, product yields and environmental impacts should become possible. This paper presents examples of systems that have already been developed in order to demonstrate the potential benefits of this technology.

  19. Child Protection and Justice Systems Processing of Serious Child Abuse and Neglect Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlak, Andrea J.; Schultz, Dana; Wells, Susan J.; Lyons, Peter; Doueck, Howard J.; Gragg, Frances

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the trajectory of cases through four systems: child protection, law enforcement, the dependency courts, and the criminal courts. Method: This study focused on a county selected from a 41-county telephone survey conducted for the National Incidence Study of Child Abuse and Neglect (NIS-3). For this…

  20. Alternative farrowing accommodation: welfare and economic aspects of existing farrowing and lactation systems for pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, E M; Lawrence, A B; Edwards, S A

    2012-01-01

    There is growing societal pressure, expressed through government legislation and consumers' purchasing choices, to abolish livestock systems considered detrimental to farm animal welfare. Such systems include farrowing crates, which are behaviourally and physically restrictive for sows. Therefore, identifying less restrictive farrowing systems for commercial implementation has become an important focus of pig research. Despite numerous attempts to develop indoor alternatives to crates, there is as yet no universal acceptance of such systems at the commercial level. The primary concern is piglet survival, because often favourable figures are reported at the experimental level, but not replicated in commercial evaluation. Alternative farrowing systems should equal or surpass survival levels in conventional systems and perform consistently across a range of farm circumstances for widespread commercial implementation. In addition, it is important that alternatives consider ease of management, operator safety and economic sustainability. Utilising a large database of literature, 12 existing alternative indoor systems were identified and compared against each other, conventional crates and outdoor systems. An assessment of how well alternative systems satisfy the design criteria for meeting animals' biological needs was carried out by developing a welfare design index (WDI). The physical and financial performance of these systems was also evaluated and summarised. The derived WDI yielded values of 0.95 for conventional crates, with higher scores for commercial outdoor systems of 1.10 and indoor group farrowing or multi-suckling systems (e.g. Thorstensson = 2.20). However, the high total piglet mortality (23.7% ± s.e. 2.26) in indoor group systems compared with conventional crates (18.3% ± s.e. 0.63) and outdoor systems (17.0% ± s.e. 2.05), together with the added capital cost (92% more than conventional crates, 249% more than commercial outdoor huts), mainly as a

  1. Corporate welfare: the third stage of welfare in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoesz, D

    1986-01-01

    Corporate involvement in social welfare represents a third stage in the evolution of welfare institutions in the United States, following the voluntary sector and the welfare state. An examination of the largest health and welfare corporations reveals rapid growth and consolidation in all markets--nursing homes, hospital management, health maintenance organizations, child care, and home care. The author considers the implications of continued expansion of corporate welfare for social workers and their clients. PMID:10277801

  2. Air Quality in Alternative Housing Systems May Have an Impact on Laying Hen Welfare. Part II—Ammonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Bruce; Mejdell, Cecilie; Michel, Virginie; Lund, Vonne; Oppermann Moe, Randi

    2015-01-01

    The EU ban on conventional barren cages for laying hens from 2012 has improved many aspects of laying hen welfare. The new housing systems allow for the expression of highly-motivated behaviors. However, the systems available for intensive large-scale egg production (e.g., aviaries, floor housing systems, furnished cages) may cause other welfare challenges. We have reviewed the literature regarding the health, behavior, production characteristics, and welfare of laying hens when exposed to ammonia in their housing environment. Concentrations of ammonia gas are commonly high in aviaries and floor housing systems in which manure is not regularly removed, whereas they are usually lower in furnished cages. High levels are found during the cold season when ventilation flow is often reduced. Ammonia is a pungent gas, and behavioral studies indicate chickens are averse to the gas. High concentrations of gaseous ammonia can have adverse health effects and, when very high, even influence production performance. The most profound effects seen are the occurrence of lesions in the respiratory tract and keratoconjunctivitis. There is also evidence that high ammonia concentrations predispose poultry to respiratory disease and secondary infections. We conclude that there are animal welfare challenges related to high ammonia levels, and that immediate actions are needed. Development of improved systems and management routines for manure removal and ventilation will be important for the reduction of ammonia levels and hence will contribute to safeguarding hen welfare. PMID:26479391

  3. On-farm welfare assessment systems: what are the recording costs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jan Tind; Nielsen, Tine Rousing; Møller, Steen Henrik;

    2007-01-01

    To illustrate that different approaches lead to different costs a cost calculation on four different welfare assessment systems for four different animal species has been carried out; an integrated pig herd (450 sows), a dairy cattle herd with automatic milking (90 cows), an organic egg production...... system (3000 layers) and a mink farm (1000 mink). We calculated the cost to be: E 375 per annum for the mink farm and E 2205, E 2430 and E 2435 for the egg production system, the AMS dairy herd and the integrated pig farm, respectively. The costs can be reduced by: reducing the number of indicators and....../or the recording frequency, reducing sample sizes, more intensive use of existing data and by exchanging external for internal recordings....

  4. Child restraint system for children in cars - CREST results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrooten, M.; Cassan, F.; Trosseille, X.

    2001-01-01

    Child restraint systems (CRS) for cars are intended to protect children in the case of a car accident. Unfortunately their effectiveness is still too low: in the range 30-50% when it would be expected to be much higher. The low effectiveness of child restraint systems can partly be explained for the

  5. Welfare assessment of laying hens in furnished cages and non-cage systems: an on-farm comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, T.B.; Tuyttens, F.; Reu, de K.; Herman, L.; Zoons, J.; Sonck, B.

    2008-01-01

    From 2012 onwards, all laying hens in Europe will need to be housed either in furnished cages or non-cage systems (aviaries or floor-housing systems). In terms of animal welfare, furnished cages and non-cage systems both have advantages and disadvantages. Data on direct comparisons between the two,

  6. Welfare assessment in pet rabbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, F.; Koene, P.; Beerda, B.

    2009-01-01

    One million pet rabbits are kept in The Netherlands, but there are no data available on their behaviour and welfare. This study seeks to assess the welfare of pet rabbits in Dutch households and is a first step in the development of a welfare assessment system. In an internet survey, housing systems

  7. Finnish families' need for special support as evaluated by public health nurses working in maternity and child welfare clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häggman-Laitila, Arja; Euramaa, Katri-Ina

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe public health nurses' views of the everyday problems of families and their needs for special support. Seventy-four nurses filled in a tripartite questionnaire. The needs varied by region and were seen in 4% to 23% of all families expecting a baby or with a child younger than 3 age in the nurses' clientele. Approximately one-third of the families were considered to have a pressing need for support. More than half of families (54%) had difficulties coping with parenthood and family structure, almost one-third (30%) with raising their children and with childcare, and nearly one-third (27%) with their social network. In 20% of the families, the parents experienced problems relating to their relationship as a couple; 20% of the families had problems connected to the children's development, growth, and health; and in 19% of the families, the parents had health problems. Special needs were also caused by the parents' use of alcohol (15%) and by disputes over the children's custody and visiting rights (7%). The information provided by the study can be used in developing clinical services and the family work supporting them. PMID:12823793

  8. 77 FR 11625 - Child Restraint Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... restraint. \\1\\ 44 FR 72131, December 13, 1979. \\2\\ 60 FR 35126, July 6, 1995. \\3\\ 68 FR 37620, June 24, 2003... NHTSA's responses to the child restraint provisions of Anton's Law. See 70 FR at 51721. Later...- year-old child. 70 FR 51720, August 31, 2005, Docket No. NHTSA-2005- 21245 (RIN 2127-AJ44)....

  9. Implementation of AF-CBT by community practitioners serving child welfare and mental health: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolko, David J; Baumann, Barbara L; Herschell, Amy D; Hart, Jonathan A; Holden, Elizabeth A; Wisniewski, Stephen R

    2012-02-01

    The Partnerships for Families project is a randomized clinical trial designed to evaluate the implementation of Alternatives for Families: A Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (AF-CBT), an evidence-based treatment for family conflict, coercion, and aggression, including child physical abuse. To evaluate the effectiveness of a training program in this model, 182 community practitioners from 10 agencies were randomized to receive AF-CBT training (n = 90) using a learning community model (workshops, consultation visits) or Training as Usual (TAU; n = 92) which provided trainings per agency routine. Practitioners completed self-report measures at four time points (0, 6, 12, and 18 months following baseline). Of those assigned to AF-CBT, 89% participated in at least one training activity and 68% met a "training completion" definition. A total of 80 (44%) practitioners were still active clinicians in the study by 18-month assessment in that they had not met our staff turnover or study withdrawal criteria. Using an intent-to-train design, hierarchical linear modeling analyses revealed significantly greater initial improvements for those in the AF-CBT training condition (vs. TAU condition) in CBT-related knowledge and use of AF-CBT teaching processes, abuse-specific skills, and general psychological skills. In addition, practitioners in both groups reported significantly more negative perceptions of organizational climate through the intervention phase. These significant, albeit modest, findings are discussed in the context of treatment training, research, and work force issues as they relate to the diverse backgrounds, settings, and populations served by community practitioners.

  10. Welfare assessment of dairy cows housed in a tie-stall system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Vučemilo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Welfare assessment methods and techniques developed as a result of great interest of scientific and consumer populations regarding the welfare of animals housed in farms. In view of the fact that welfare by definition includes both physical and mental health, the welfare quality assessment includes an extensive number of measures. Welfare assessment was performed in two stables in which cows are kept in tie-stall by using the specific method described in the Welfare Quality® Assessment Protocol for Cattle. The measures included body condition score, qualitative behaviour assessment and body hygiene. The welfare assessment confirmed the importance of quality housing for ensuring better performance from animals, thus also affecting their health and productivity. It also pointed out the necessity of freeing animals by providing them with the possibility of free movement, whereat they can exhibit their physiological behaviour. It is definitely important to continue research, expand the number of researched measures in order to confirm the most useful indicators for welfare assessment and to identify the factors that within the animals’ physical and social environment affect the increase of their welfare.

  11. Implementing an Inpatient Social Early Warning System for Child Maltreatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atabaki, Armita; Heddaeus, Daniela; Metzner, Franka; Schulz, Holger; Siefert, Sonke; Pawils, Silke

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The current article describes the process evaluation of a social early warning system (SEWS) for the prevention of child maltreatment in the federal state of Hamburg. This prevention initiative targets expectant mothers and their partners including an initial screening of risk factors for child maltreatment, a subsequent structured…

  12. Construction Costs Assessment of Structural Systems for Low-Rise and Social Welfare Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrillo Julián

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A comparative analysis of the costs related to the construction of low-rise, low-cost and social welfare housing was carried out. The study included three of the most commonly used structural systems for low-rise housing in Latin America, such as the traditional system of confined masonry walls, concrete walls conventionally reinforced with welded-wire meshes and concrete walls reinforced with steel fiber. The cost comparison was carried out by budgets analysis, which were performed based on construction quantities, unit prices and particular items for each structural system. It was found in the study that, from an economic point of view, the systems of concrete walls reinforced with welded-wire meshes or steel fibers are more advantageous than confined masonry systems. In addition, the integral comparison of the three structural systems demonstrates that the industrialized system of steel fiber reinforced concrete walls allows obtaining greater advantages of cleaning and sustainability, faster construction, lower cost and a more attractive scenario for builders investing in such projects.

  13. Welfare assessment of laying hens in furnished cages and non-cage systems: assimilating expert opinion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodenburg, T.B.; Tuyttens, F.; Reu, de K.; Herman, L.; Zoons, J.; Sonck, B.

    2008-01-01

    It is extremely difficult to carry out an assessment of welfare in an entirely objective manner. The choice of welfare indicators, as well as the assignment of relative weightings to these indicators, both involve a certain degree of subjectivity. The aim of this study was to create a possible metho

  14. Smart technologies for detecting animal welfare status and delivering health remedies for rangeland systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, S M

    2014-04-01

    Although the emerging field of precision livestock farming (PLF) is predominantly associated with intensive animal production, there is increasing interest in applying smart technologies in extensive rangeland systems. Precision livestock farming technologies bring the possibility of closely monitoring the behaviour, liveweight and other parameters of individual animals in free-ranging systems. 'Virtual fencing', ideally based on positive reinforcement, i.e. rewarding animals for moving in a specified direction, has the potential to gently guide foraging livestock towards areas of vegetation identified by remote sensing. As well as reducing hunger, this could be integrated with weather forecasting to help ensure that animals are automatically directed to areas with appropriate shelter when adverse weather is forecast. The system could also direct animals towards handling facilities when required, reducing the fear and distress associated with being mustered. The integration of the various data collected by such a 'virtual shepherd' system should be able to rapidly detect disease and injury, and sick animals could then be automatically shepherded to an enclosure for treatment. In general, rangeland livestock already have the freedom to express normal behaviour, but PLF technologies could facilitate this. By bringing levels of monitoring and control normally associated with intensive production to rangeland systems, PLF has the potential, with appropriate adoption, to enhance the capacity of rangeland livestock production systems to meet key areas of welfare concern highlighted by the Five Freedoms.

  15. Invited review: The impact of automatic milking systems on dairy cow management, behavior, health, and welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, J A; Siegford, J M

    2012-05-01

    Over the last 100 yr, the dairy industry has incorporated technology to maximize yield and profit. Pressure to maximize efficiency and lower inputs has resulted in novel approaches to managing and milking dairy herds, including implementation of automatic milking systems (AMS) to reduce labor associated with milking. Although AMS have been used for almost 20 yr in Europe, they have only recently become more popular in North America. Automatic milking systems have the potential to increase milk production by up to 12%, decrease labor by as much as 18%, and simultaneously improve dairy cow welfare by allowing cows to choose when to be milked. However, producers using AMS may not fully realize these anticipated benefits for a variety of reasons. For example, producers may not see a reduction in labor because some cows do not milk voluntarily or because they have not fully or efficiently incorporated the AMS into their management routines. Following the introduction of AMS on the market in the 1990s, research has been conducted examining AMS systems versus conventional parlors focusing primarily on cow health, milk yield, and milk quality, as well as on some of the economic and social factors related to AMS adoption. Additionally, because AMS rely on cows milking themselves voluntarily, research has also been conducted on the behavior of cows in AMS facilities, with particular attention paid to cow traffic around AMS, cow use of AMS, and cows' motivation to enter the milking stall. However, the sometimes contradictory findings resulting from different studies on the same aspect of AMS suggest that differences in management and farm-level variables may be more important to AMS efficiency and milk production than features of the milking system itself. Furthermore, some of the recommendations that have been made regarding AMS facility design and management should be scientifically tested to demonstrate their validity, as not all may work as intended. As updated AMS

  16. Experiences of working from a freestanding position as a case manager when supporting clients in the Swedish welfare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klockmo, Carolina; Marnetoft, Sven-Uno

    2016-06-01

    The Swedish state uses a case management function known as Personligt Ombud (PO). The role as PO differs from the traditional professional roles. It has a freestanding position in the welfare system. The aim of this study was to investigate POs' experiences of working from a freestanding position when supporting clients. Telephone interviews were conducted with 22 POs across Sweden. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed by latent qualitative content analysis. The findings were reflected in three categories - freedom-promoted flexibility, surfing through a complex welfare system, and working for legitimacy. POs developed a holistic view to both the client as well as to the welfare system. POs experienced solely representing the client, which is a positive feature because part of the POs' role is advocating for the clients rights. The PO service differs from the PO service from other existing case management models and may need to develop strategies for decision-making and support in their own role. For example, they may use group supervision teams or 'reflective teams'. The freestanding position may also entail problems in terms of lack of legitimacy. It is important for POs to develop good platforms with the surrounding actors among others things to improve the co-ordination process. It could be interesting if the PO model would be tested in other countries that have a fragmented welfare system. The PO model may also be useful to other 'target groups' who are in need of co-ordinated rehabilitation services. PMID:27042767

  17. Experiences of working from a freestanding position as a case manager when supporting clients in the Swedish welfare system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klockmo, Carolina; Marnetoft, Sven-Uno

    2016-06-01

    The Swedish state uses a case management function known as Personligt Ombud (PO). The role as PO differs from the traditional professional roles. It has a freestanding position in the welfare system. The aim of this study was to investigate POs' experiences of working from a freestanding position when supporting clients. Telephone interviews were conducted with 22 POs across Sweden. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed by latent qualitative content analysis. The findings were reflected in three categories - freedom-promoted flexibility, surfing through a complex welfare system, and working for legitimacy. POs developed a holistic view to both the client as well as to the welfare system. POs experienced solely representing the client, which is a positive feature because part of the POs' role is advocating for the clients rights. The PO service differs from the PO service from other existing case management models and may need to develop strategies for decision-making and support in their own role. For example, they may use group supervision teams or 'reflective teams'. The freestanding position may also entail problems in terms of lack of legitimacy. It is important for POs to develop good platforms with the surrounding actors among others things to improve the co-ordination process. It could be interesting if the PO model would be tested in other countries that have a fragmented welfare system. The PO model may also be useful to other 'target groups' who are in need of co-ordinated rehabilitation services.

  18. Time Limits and Welfare Use

    OpenAIRE

    Jeff Grogger

    2000-01-01

    Time limits are a central component of recent welfare reforms and represent a substantial departure from previous policy. However, several recent studies suggest that they have had no effect on welfare use. In this paper I attempt to reconcile those findings with results from Grogger and Michalopoulos, who find time limits to have substantial effects that vary by the age of the youngest child in the family. Using data from the Current Population Survey, I obtain results similar to those of pr...

  19. Air Quality in Alternative Housing Systems May Have an Impact on Laying Hen Welfare. Part I-Dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Bruce; Moe, Randi Oppermann; Michel, Virginie; Lund, Vonne; Mejdell, Cecilie

    2015-01-01

    The new legislation for laying hens in the European Union put a ban on conventional cages. Production systems must now provide the hens with access to a nest, a perch, and material for dust bathing. These requirements will improve the behavioral aspects of animal welfare. However, when hens are kept with access to litter, it is a concern that polluted air may become an increased threat to health and therefore also a welfare problem. This article reviews the literature regarding the health and welfare effects birds experience when exposed to barn dust. Dust is composed of inorganic and organic compounds, from the birds themselves as well as from feed, litter, and building materials. Dust may be a vector for microorganisms and toxins. In general, studies indicate that housing systems where laying hens have access to litter as aviaries and floor systems consistently have higher concentrations of suspended dust than caged hens with little (furnished cages) or no access to litter (conventional cages). The higher dust levels in aviaries and floor housing are also caused by increased bird activity in the non-cage systems. There are gaps in both the basic and applied knowledge of how birds react to dust and aerosol contaminants, i.e., what levels they find aversive and/or impair health. Nevertheless, high dust levels may compromise the health and welfare of both birds and their caretakers and the poor air quality often found in new poultry housing systems needs to be addressed. It is necessary to develop prophylactic measures and to refine the production systems in order to achieve the full welfare benefits of the cage ban. PMID:26479370

  20. Air Quality in Alternative Housing Systems May Have an Impact on Laying Hen Welfare. Part I—Dust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce David

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The new legislation for laying hens in the European Union put a ban on conventional cages. Production systems must now provide the hens with access to a nest, a perch, and material for dust bathing. These requirements will improve the behavioral aspects of animal welfare. However, when hens are kept with access to litter, it is a concern that polluted air may become an increased threat to health and therefore also a welfare problem. This article reviews the literature regarding the health and welfare effects birds experience when exposed to barn dust. Dust is composed of inorganic and organic compounds, from the birds themselves as well as from feed, litter, and building materials. Dust may be a vector for microorganisms and toxins. In general, studies indicate that housing systems where laying hens have access to litter as aviaries and floor systems consistently have higher concentrations of suspended dust than caged hens with little (furnished cages or no access to litter (conventional cages. The higher dust levels in aviaries and floor housing are also caused by increased bird activity in the non-cage systems. There are gaps in both the basic and applied knowledge of how birds react to dust and aerosol contaminants, i.e., what levels they find aversive and/or impair health. Nevertheless, high dust levels may compromise the health and welfare of both birds and their caretakers and the poor air quality often found in new poultry housing systems needs to be addressed. It is necessary to develop prophylactic measures and to refine the production systems in order to achieve the full welfare benefits of the cage ban.

  1. THE TRIUMPH OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT: CONTESTING CORPORATE MOTHERHOOD AND THE CORPORATE WELFARE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikki Mandell

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Turn-of-the-century advocates of corporate welfare work promoted a familial model of labor relations which opened the doors of labor management to women. Scientific management experts argued instead for personnel management based on a consumer marketplace model. Scientific managers gained the upper hand during World War I. Their success depended, in part, on defining women as unfit for executive positions in labor relations, thereby closing the doors of labor management to women. This regendering masked an equally significant abandonment of the welfare system’s contention that companies bore an inherent responsibility for the general welfare of their workers.

  2. The Future of Pork Production in the World: Towards Sustainable, Welfare-Positive Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGlone, John J

    2013-01-01

    Among land animals, more pork is eaten in the world than any other meat. The earth holds about one billion pigs who deliver over 100 mmt of pork to people for consumption. Systems of pork production changed from a forest-based to pasture-based to dirt lots and finally into specially-designed buildings. The world pork industry is variable and complex not just in production methods but in economics and cultural value. A systematic analysis of pork industry sustainability was performed. Sustainable production methods are considered at three levels using three examples in this paper: production system, penning system and for a production practice. A sustainability matrix was provided for each example. In a comparison of indoor vs. outdoor systems, the food safety/zoonoses concerns make current outdoor systems unsustainable. The choice of keeping pregnant sows in group pens or individual crates is complex in that the outcome of a sustainability assessment leads to the conclusion that group penning is more sustainable in the EU and certain USA states, but the individual crate is currently more sustainable in other USA states, Asia and Latin America. A comparison of conventional physical castration with immunological castration shows that the less-common immunological castration method is more sustainable (for a number of reasons). This paper provides a method to assess the sustainability of production systems and practices that take into account the best available science, human perception and culture, animal welfare, the environment, food safety, worker health and safety, and economics (including the cost of production and solving world hunger). This tool can be used in countries and regions where the table values of a sustainability matrix change based on local conditions. The sustainability matrix can be used to assess current systems and predict improved systems of the future. PMID:26487410

  3. The Future of Pork Production in the World: Towards Sustainable, Welfare-Positive Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. McGlone

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Among land animals, more pork is eaten in the world than any other meat. The earth holds about one billion pigs who deliver over 100 mmt of pork to people for consumption. Systems of pork production changed from a forest-based to pasture-based to dirt lots and finally into specially-designed buildings. The world pork industry is variable and complex not just in production methods but in economics and cultural value. A systematic analysis of pork industry sustainability was performed. Sustainable production methods are considered at three levels using three examples in this paper: production system, penning system and for a production practice. A sustainability matrix was provided for each example. In a comparison of indoor vs. outdoor systems, the food safety/zoonoses concerns make current outdoor systems unsustainable. The choice of keeping pregnant sows in group pens or individual crates is complex in that the outcome of a sustainability assessment leads to the conclusion that group penning is more sustainable in the EU and certain USA states, but the individual crate is currently more sustainable in other USA states, Asia and Latin America. A comparison of conventional physical castration with immunological castration shows that the less-common immunological castration method is more sustainable (for a number of reasons. This paper provides a method to assess the sustainability of production systems and practices that take into account the best available science, human perception and culture, animal welfare, the environment, food safety, worker health and safety, and economics (including the cost of production and solving world hunger. This tool can be used in countries and regions where the table values of a sustainability matrix change based on local conditions. The sustainability matrix can be used to assess current systems and predict improved systems of the future.

  4. Does the seal licensing system in Scotland have a negative impact on seal welfare?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetitia Nunny

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the licensing system that permits seal shooting in Scotland, which was established under Part 6 Conservation of Seals of the Marine (Scotland Act 2010. Four approaches were used: data were collated and analyzed from both the Scottish Government and Scottish Marine Animal Stranding Scheme; a survey was sent to current license holders and informal interviews were conducted with key stakeholder types. Between February 2011 and the end of October 2015, 1229 gray seals and 275 common seals were reported shot under license to the Scottish Government. The numbers of seals reported as shot has reduced year-on-year since the licensing system was put in place. While some license holders, notably fish farms, were using some non-lethal forms of deterrent to reduce seal-related damage, these were often used alongside seal shooting. Of the seals reported as shot to the Scottish Government, only a small percentage were also reported to the Scottish Marine Animal Stranding Scheme, despite this being a licensing requirement. Only 2.3% of the shot gray seals and 4.5% of the shot common seals were necropsied. There is evidence from these necropsies that some seals had not died instantly or had not been shot in the manner recommended by the Scottish Seal Management Code of Practice. These preliminary results show that more carcasses need to be recovered and necropsied if the welfare implications of current seal shooting practice are to be properly assessed. The current legislation does not specify closed seasons to protect breeding seals and thirty-five per cent of necropsied seals were pregnant gray seals. Seals have also been shot during their lactation periods when pups are dependent on their mothers. This raises significant welfare concerns. The re-introduction of closed seasons specific to each species of seal is recommended along with greater effort to deploy non-lethal methods. Independent assessment of the number of seals being killed

  5. Welfare economics

    OpenAIRE

    Baujard, Antoinette

    2013-01-01

    This major three-volume work contains key papers which reflect the innovation and imagination that has characterised the field of welfare economics during the last 50 years. The selections range from literary treatments to the most advanced mathematical presentation. However, all readers, regardless of their mathematical sophistication or methodological predilections, will find a large number of the papers interesting and worthwhile in giving an overview of the present state of welfare econom...

  6. Waldorf Schools: A Child-Centered System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogletree, Earl J.

    This paper presents an overview of the philosophy, psychology of learning, teaching methods, and curriculum of the Waldorf Schools. Most Waldorf teachers are influenced by the esoteric form of critical idealism propounded by Rudolf Steiner. The child is considered by Steiner to be a spiritual being who has reincarnated on to earth in a physical…

  7. The Policy Context and Infant and Toddler Care in the Welfare Reform Era

    OpenAIRE

    Witte, Ann Dryden; Queralt, Magaly; Witt, Robert; Griesinger, Harriet

    2001-01-01

    We provide descriptive evidence from Miami-Dade County (MDC) in FL and from five representative areas in Massachusetts (MA) that government policies governing welfare reform, the child-care subsidy system, and minimum-standards regulations have had considerable influence on the availability, price, and quality of infant and toddler care as welfare reform progressed from 1996 to 2000. We suspect that the markedly different proportion of the population that is native born and differences in inc...

  8. The European Welfare Model. Is Romania a Welfare State?!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pop-Radu, I.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the various interpretations of the social model and welfare regime concepts. In order to observe Romania’s position within the European welfare regimes, the paper presents a short analysis of the main characteristics of the welfare regimes identified in Europe – i.e. the corporatist welfare regime, the liberal welfare regime and the social democratic/Scandinavian welfare system. We analyze the dynamics of several indicators relevant for establishing the performance of the Romanian welfare regime. Using the results of this study, the current research might offer a new approach on proving that Romania’s case is a particular one among the CEE countries and its sustainability could become a model for other countries.

  9. The impact of different housing systems on health and welfare of grower and finisher pigs in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagienard, A; Regula, G; Danuser, J

    2005-04-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the impact of housing systems on the health and welfare of grower and finisher pigs. Forty-seven "animal friendly" farms meeting Swiss criteria and participating in a Swiss subsidy program and 37 farms using traditional housing with slatted floors were evaluated in an epidemiological field study. Group-health evaluations and individual clinical examinations were performed during four visits to each farm. Evaluation of pig behaviours associated with health and welfare were assessed through indicators including presence of lesions on the snout, ears, shoulders, legs and tail. General group-health evaluations included lameness, respiratory disease, diarrhoea, ear biting, skin abnormalities, injuries, abscesses, sunburn, recumbency, ill-thrift and behavioural abnormalities such as dog sitting and tail biting. Data on management practices, medical treatment, mortality and results of slaughter inspections were also collected, and the type of housing described. Pooled faecal samples were collected and examined for intestinal parasites. Statistical analyses included descriptive statistics of indicators of health and welfare and logistic-regression analysis accounting for group effect using generalised estimation equation (GEE). Findings indicated a high health status of pigs in Swiss finishing farms. Data from the individual clinical examination were more sensitive compared to the group-health evaluations. Both the individual clinical examination and group-health evaluation indicated that "animal friendly" housing had positive effects on health and welfare of fattening pigs. PMID:15795015

  10. Implementing an Inpatient Social Early Warning System for Child Maltreatment

    OpenAIRE

    Atabaki, Armita; Heddaeus, Daniela; Metzner, Franka; Schulz, Holger; Siefert, Sönke; Pawils, Silke

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The current article describes the process evaluation of a social early warning system (SEWS) for the prevention of child maltreatment in the federal state of Hamburg. This prevention initiative targets expectant mothers and their partners including an initial screening of risk factors for child maltreatment, a subsequent structured clearing interview further exploring risks and identifying protective factors and an optional referral to the regional health and social care ...

  11. Social Policy Construction of the Families Which Lose Their Only One Child Under Welfare-multiplex Perspective%福利多元主义视角下失独家庭社会政策建构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵罗英

    2014-01-01

    失独家庭作为特殊弱势群体,遭遇养老保障、医疗服务、精神慰藉、社会交往等困境。福利多元主义作为一种新兴的政策理论范式,它主张社会福利来源的多元化,福利是全社会的产物,应由国家、市场、社区和民间社会共同合作提供。本文运用福利多元主义视角,尝试建构了失独家庭保障政策。我们认为应将国家作为主导责任主体,市场作为有效的补充,重视家庭和社区的福利供给功能、发挥社会组织的独特优势。%The families which lose their only one child,as a special vulnerable groups,they encounter difficulties of old-age security,medical service,spiritual comfort and social communication. As a new paradigm,welfare pluralism holds that the sources of welfare should be of diversity,welfare is the fruit of the whole society,the state, market, community and civil society should work together to provide welfare.Under the welfare-multiplex perspective,this paper argues that the country can be the leading responsibility main body,the market can be the effective supplement.

  12. Fiscal 1998 survey report. Welfare equipment (Development of human friendly care support intelligent equipment / Development of home welfare equipment system); 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Fukushi kiki (human friendly kaigo shien chino kiki kaihatsu / zaitaku fukushi kiki system kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Since disabled persons increase with a progress of an aging society, while a care power decreases with a decrease in birth rate, development and practical use of the welfare equipment contributing to self-support of aged and handicapped persons, reduction of doctors' or therapists' burdens, and as a result, reduction of medical care costs are desirable. Among them, R and D and practical use are expected of the advanced welfare equipment and system based on human engineering technology contributing to improvement of lives of aged and handicapped persons, and support of nurses and cares of disabled persons. In fiscal 1998, on both human friendly care support intelligent equipment and home welfare equipment system, this project clarified essential technical issues based on the future view, selected some themes to be newly developed in the future, and surveyed and evaluated the details of their R and D concretely. For the former, 'heart disease diagnosis and treatment total support system,' and for the latter, 'body function rehabilitation support system' were surveyed. (NEDO)

  13. Developing a Child Friendly Text-to-Speech System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnes Jacob

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the implementation details of a child friendly, good quality, English text-to-speech (TTS system that is phoneme-based, concatenative, easy to set up and use with little memory. Direct waveform concatenation and linear prediction coding (LPC are used. Most existing TTS systems are unit-selection based, which use standard speech databases available in neutral adult voices. Here reduced memory is achieved by the concatenation of phonemes and by replacing phonetic wave files with their LPC coefficients. Linguistic analysis was used to reduce the algorithmic complexity instead of signal processing techniques. Sufficient degree of customization and generalization catering to the needs of the child user had been included through the provision for vocabulary and voice selection to suit the requisites of the child. Prosody had also been incorporated. This inexpensive TTS system was implemented in MATLAB, with the synthesis presented by means of a graphical user interface (GUI, thus making it child friendly. This can be used not only as an interesting language learning aid for the normal child but it also serves as a speech aid to the vocally disabled child. The quality of the synthesized speech was evaluated using the mean opinion score (MOS.

  14. What if welfare had no work requirements? the age of youngest child exemption and the rise in employment of single mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan F. Pingle

    2003-01-01

    The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 required states to increase welfare recipient employment and participation in welfare-to-work programs. These work requirements are sometimes credited for bringing about large employment increases among single mothers. However, this paper finds that employment among single mothers who were exempted from work requirements because they had young children rose as much as that of other single mothers. The results imply th...

  15. Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Foster Parents: Strengths and Challenges for the Child Welfare System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, A. Chris; James, Steven E.

    2006-01-01

    Historically, a shortage of skilled and dedicated foster parents has existed in America. Lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LBG) foster parents have received little attention in the published literature. This article documents the challenges and successes of a group of 60 LGB foster parents. All participants provided foster parenting for public (state or…

  16. Effects of Welfare Participation on Marriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitler, Julien O.; Reichman, Nancy E.; Nepomnyaschy, Lenna; Garfinkel, Irwin

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the widely held premise that welfare participation causes women to refrain from marriage. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N = 3,219), we employed an event history approach to study transitions to marriage among mothers who have had a nonmarital birth. We found that welfare participation reduces the…

  17. The effects of welfare-enhancing system changes on the environmental impacts of broiler and egg production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leinonen, I; Williams, A G; Kyriazakis, I

    2014-02-01

    The environmental impacts of 2 alternative UK broiler production systems that aim to improve bird welfare (a lower stocking density indoor system and the same system combined with heat exchangers for ventilation air) were compared with the baseline standard indoor system of broiler production. Furthermore, the environmental impacts of egg production in the conventional battery cage system (banned in the European Union in 2012) and its replacement, the enriched colony cage system, were compared. All comparisons were based on data obtained from the UK poultry industry, and the life cycle assessment method from cradle to farm gate was applied in the analyses. The results show that the lower density system slightly increased the global warming potential (GWP) of broiler production (by 2%), compared with the standard indoor system, due to increased heating requirements. However, when combined with the heat exchanger, the GWP was actually reduced by 3% when compared with the standard system. Both alternative systems for broilers resulted in a reduction in the eutrophication potential (by up to 8%) and acidification potential (by up to 10%). The results also showed that the colony cage system had 8% lower primary energy use and 3% lower GWP than the baseline cage system, due to better energy use efficiency and slightly improved productivity. There were only minor differences in the eutrophication and acidification potentials between different egg production systems. The results suggest that welfare-friendly changes in chicken systems can be achieved without a compromise in their environmental impacts.

  18. Studies to assess the effect of pet training aids specifically remote static pulse systems on the welfare of domestic dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Jonathan; Wright, Hannah; Mills, Daniel; Casey, Rachel; Blackwell, Emily; Van Driel, Katja; Lines, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    This project assessed the welfare of dogs trained with pet training aids, specifically remote static pulse collar systems (e-collars). Previous work has focused on a very limited number of devices in a very limited range of contexts and the evidence of the impact of such devices on dog's overall quality of life is inconclusive. Project AW1402 aimed to assess the physical characteristics of the e-collars and the physiological, behavioural and psychological consequences of their use in dog trai...

  19. Origin and Development of the Quasi-Market System in Japan: From healthcare to welfare, and to education (Japanese)

    OpenAIRE

    USHIRO Fusao

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare and welfare systems can be classified into three broad types: a public model in which services are provided and financed by the government through taxes; a social insurance model in which services are provided by multiple players including private-sector entities with the cost of services financed primarily by insurance premiums; and a free-choice model in which private-sector insurance firms and private-sector service providers fulfill the roles. Under the social insurance model, ...

  20. The challenge of reforming child protection in Eastern Europe: The cases of Hungaryand Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Roxana Anghel; Maria Herczog; Gabriela Dima

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the challenges of reforming the child welfare and protection systems in Hungary and Romania -two countries in transition from socialism to capitalism- and the impact on children, youngpeople, families, and professionals. Brief overviews of the social, political, and economic characteristics of the two countries and of the evolution of their child welfare systems set the context of discussion. The focus is on the efforts made to deinstitutionalise children from large insti...

  1. Time Limits and Welfare Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogger, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    Time limits represent a substantial departure from previous welfare policy. Theory suggests that their effects should vary according to the age of the youngest child of the family. I test this prediction using data from the Current Population Survey and find that time limits indeed have larger effects on families with younger children. I further…

  2. Jobs for JOBS: Toward a Work-Based Welfare System. Occasional Paper 1993-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitan, Sar A.; Gallo, Frank

    The Job Opportunities and Basic Skills (JOBS) program, a component of the 1988 Family Support Act, emphasizes education and occupational training for welfare recipients, but it has not provided sufficient corrective measures to promote work among recipients of Aid for Families with Dependent Children (AFDC). The most serious deficiency of JOBS is…

  3. On-FarmWelfare Assessment Protocol for Adult Dairy Goats in Intensive Production Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Battini

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Within the European AWIN project, a protocol for assessing dairy goats’ welfareon the farm was developed. Starting from a literature review, a prototype includinganimal-based indicators covering four welfare principles and 12 welfare criteria was set up.The prototype was tested in 60 farms for validity, reliability, and feasibility. After testing theprototype, a two-level assessment protocol was proposed in order to increase acceptabilityamong stakeholders. The first level offers a more general overview of the welfare status,based on group assessment of a few indicators (e.g., hair coat condition, latency to thefirst contact test, severe lameness, Qualitative Behavior Assessment, with no or minimalhandling of goats and short assessment time required. The second level starts if welfareAnimals 2015, 5 935problems are encountered in the first level and adds a comprehensive and detailed individualevaluation (e.g., Body Condition Score, udder asymmetry, overgrown claws, supported byan effective sampling strategy. The assessment can be carried out using the AWIN Goatapp. The app results in a clear visual output, which provides positive feedback on welfareconditions in comparison with a benchmark of a reference population. The protocol maybe a valuable tool for both veterinarians and technicians and a self-assessment instrumentfor farmers.

  4. On-FarmWelfare Assessment Protocol for Adult Dairy Goats in Intensive Production Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battini, Monica; Stilwell, George; Vieira, Ana; Barbieri, Sara; Canali, Elisabetta; Mattiello, Silvana

    2015-01-01

    Within the European AWIN project, a protocol for assessing dairy goats' welfareon the farm was developed. Starting from a literature review, a prototype includinganimal-based indicators covering four welfare principles and 12 welfare criteria was set up.The prototype was tested in 60 farms for validity, reliability, and feasibility. After testing theprototype, a two-level assessment protocol was proposed in order to increase acceptabilityamong stakeholders. The first level offers a more general overview of the welfare status,based on group assessment of a few indicators (e.g., hair coat condition, latency to thefirst contact test, severe lameness, Qualitative Behavior Assessment), with no or minimalhandling of goats and short assessment time required. The second level starts if welfareAnimals 2015, 5 935problems are encountered in the first level and adds a comprehensive and detailed individualevaluation (e.g., Body Condition Score, udder asymmetry, overgrown claws), supported byan effective sampling strategy. The assessment can be carried out using the AWIN Goatapp. The app results in a clear visual output, which provides positive feedback on welfareconditions in comparison with a benchmark of a reference population. The protocol maybe a valuable tool for both veterinarians and technicians and a self-assessment instrumentfor farmers. PMID:26479477

  5. Early Intervention and Maltreated Children: A Current Look at the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act and Part C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moxley, Kathleen M.; Squires, Jane; Lindstrom, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    Current literature regarding the prevalence of child abuse and neglect, resulting developmental impacts on children, and early intervention services for children and families involved in the child welfare system is summarized. While early intervention eligibility referrals are mandated for this population under the Child Abuse Prevention and…

  6. Reconciling Horse Welfare, Worker Safety, and Public Expectations: Horse Event Incident Management Systems in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Julie M.; McGreevy, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Although often highly rewarding, human-horse interactions can also be dangerous. Using examples from equine and other contexts, this article acknowledges the growing public awareness of animal welfare, work underway towards safer equestrian workplaces, and the potential for adapting large animal rescue skills for the purposes of horse event incident management. Additionally, we identity the need for further research into communication strategies that address animal welfare and safety issues that arise when humans and horses interact in the workplace. Abstract Human-horse interactions have a rich tradition and can be highly rewarding, particularly within sport and recreation pursuits, but they can also be dangerous or even life-threatening. In parallel, sport and recreation pursuits involving animals, including horses, are facing an increased level of public scrutiny in relation to the use of animals for these purposes. However, the challenge lies with event organisers to reconcile the expectations of the public, the need to meet legal requirements to reduce or eliminate risks to paid and volunteer workers, and address horse welfare. In this article we explore incident management at horse events as an example of a situation where volunteers and horses can be placed at risk during a rescue. We introduce large animal rescue skills as a solution to improving worker safety and improving horse welfare outcomes. Whilst there are government and horse industry initiatives to improve safety and address animal welfare, there remains a pressing need to invest in a strong communication plan which will improve the safety of workplaces in which humans and horses interact. PMID:26927189

  7. METHODS FOR CALF WELFARE EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.T. CZISZTER

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the welfare assessment with reference to calves. Assessment methods were divided into individual level and farm (system level. At the farm level the ANI 35L is discussed and the ANSVSA, Romanian evaluation from is presented. Also, the EFSA opinion on poor welfare in intensive calf farming systems is presented.

  8. Welfare. Opposing Viewpoints Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozic, Charles P., Ed.; Winters, Paul A., Ed.

    Books in the Opposing Viewpoints Series present debates about current issues that can be used to teach critical reading and thinking skills. The opinions expressed in the selections in each series title examine many different aspects of a single issue. Detractors of the welfare system have long argued that the system promotes dependency. They…

  9. Performance analysis of draught animal-implement system to improve productivity and welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Bobobee, Emmanuel Y. H.

    2007-01-01

    Draught animal technology is a reliable and popular farm power resource in most developing countries. However, despite its growing popularity, animal traction farmers face several constraints such as rapid ploughshare wear, high draught forces and poor design of harnesses and other implements. Also, farmers and researchers have placed little emphasis on the importance of draught animal welfare issues. The main objective of the thesis was to study the performance of draught animal-implement sy...

  10. Invisible Abuse: Utah's Response to Emotional Child Abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Sirrine, Janae

    2010-01-01

    The very nature of emotional child abuse makes it difficult to detect and report. Nevertheless, scholars and professionals in the field of child welfare have identified emotional abuse as being equally detrimental to children as physical abuse and neglect. Many states, including Utah, have unclear definitions of emotional child abuse. The purpose of this study is to interpret how Utah has used its statute on emotional abuse in the court system and whether the current definition of emotional c...

  11. Strengthening Child Protection Systems for Unaccompanied Migrant Children in Mozambique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdasco Martinez, Andrea

    This research sets out to understand the why, how and with whom of rural-urban internal migration of children to Ressano Garcia, a border town between Mozambique and South Africa. It addresses the overarching research question of how to strengthen child protection systems for unaccompanied migrant...... children. By identifying children’s reasons for migrating, it identifies the main risks they encounter once they start living and working in Ressano Garcia. These include: lack of access to educational opportunities, exposure to child labour exploitation, trafficking and smuggling. This paper argues...

  12. Reconciling Horse Welfare, Worker Safety, and Public Expectations: Horse Event Incident Management Systems in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Julie M; McGreevy, Paul D

    2016-01-01

    Human-horse interactions have a rich tradition and can be highly rewarding, particularly within sport and recreation pursuits, but they can also be dangerous or even life-threatening. In parallel, sport and recreation pursuits involving animals, including horses, are facing an increased level of public scrutiny in relation to the use of animals for these purposes. However, the challenge lies with event organisers to reconcile the expectations of the public, the need to meet legal requirements to reduce or eliminate risks to paid and volunteer workers, and address horse welfare. In this article we explore incident management at horse events as an example of a situation where volunteers and horses can be placed at risk during a rescue. We introduce large animal rescue skills as a solution to improving worker safety and improving horse welfare outcomes. Whilst there are government and horse industry initiatives to improve safety and address animal welfare, there remains a pressing need to invest in a strong communication plan which will improve the safety of workplaces in which humans and horses interact. PMID:26927189

  13. Effects of Long-Term Exposure to an Electronic Containment System on the Behaviour and Welfare of Domestic Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasbaoui, Naïma; Cooper, Jonathan; Mills, Daniel S; Burman, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Free-roaming cats are exposed to a variety of risks, including involvement in road traffic accidents. One way of mitigating these risks is to contain cats, for example using an electronic boundary fence system that delivers an electric 'correction' via a collar if a cat ignores a warning cue and attempts to cross the boundary. However, concerns have been expressed over the welfare impact of such systems. Our aim was to determine if long-term exposure to an electronic containment system was associated with reduced cat welfare. We compared 46 owned domestic cats: 23 cats that had been contained by an electronic containment system for more than 12 months (AF group); and 23 cats with no containment system that were able to roam more widely (C group). We assessed the cats' behavioural responses and welfare via four behavioural tests (unfamiliar person test; novel object test; sudden noise test; cognitive bias test) and an owner questionnaire. In the unfamiliar person test, C group lip-licked more than the AF group, whilst the AF group looked at, explored and interacted more with the unfamiliar person than C group. In the novel object test, the AF group looked at and explored the object more than C group. No significant differences were found between AF and C groups for the sudden noise or cognitive bias tests. Regarding the questionnaire, C group owners thought their cats showed more irritable behaviour and AF owners thought that their cats toileted inappropriately more often than C owners. Overall, AF cats were less neophobic than C cats and there was no evidence of significant differences between the populations in general affective state. These findings indicate that an electronic boundary fence with clear pre-warning cues does not impair the long term quality of life of cats. PMID:27602572

  14. Vermont STep Ahead Recognition System: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Vermont's STep Ahead Recognition System (STARS) prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for All Child Care Programs;…

  15. Tennessee Star-Quality Child Care Program: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Tennessee's Star-Quality Child Care Program prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4)…

  16. Multi-omic data integration and analysis using systems genomics approaches: methods and applications in animal production, health and welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suravajhala, Prashanth; Kogelman, Lisette J A; Kadarmideen, Haja N

    2016-01-01

    In the past years, there has been a remarkable development of high-throughput omics (HTO) technologies such as genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics across all facets of biology. This has spearheaded the progress of the systems biology era, including applications on animal production and health traits. However, notwithstanding these new HTO technologies, there remains an emerging challenge in data analysis. On the one hand, different HTO technologies judged on their own merit are appropriate for the identification of disease-causing genes, biomarkers for prevention and drug targets for the treatment of diseases and for individualized genomic predictions of performance or disease risks. On the other hand, integration of multi-omic data and joint modelling and analyses are very powerful and accurate to understand the systems biology of healthy and sustainable production of animals. We present an overview of current and emerging HTO technologies each with a focus on their applications in animal and veterinary sciences before introducing an integrative systems genomics framework for analysing and integrating multi-omic data towards improved animal production, health and welfare. We conclude that there are big challenges in multi-omic data integration, modelling and systems-level analyses, particularly with the fast emerging HTO technologies. We highlight existing and emerging systems genomics approaches and discuss how they contribute to our understanding of the biology of complex traits or diseases and holistic improvement of production performance, disease resistance and welfare. PMID:27130220

  17. Child Abuse Reporting Barriers: Iranian Nurses’ Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Borimnejad, Leili; Khoshnavay Fomani, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Although in many countries child abuse reporting is mandated, Iranian nurses report abused cases voluntary. Some of the cases are reported to the police and others are referred to welfare organizations or other non-governmental organizations. Absence of a uniform reporting system along with a lack of legal support in the specific cultural context of Iran has resulted challenges for the reporters of child abuse. Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the Iranian nurses’ e...

  18. Welfare Lobby Groups responding to Globalisation: A Comparison of the Australian Council of Social Service (ACOSS and the UK Child Poverty Action Group (CPAG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The past decade has witnessed a period of intense economic globalisation. The growing significance of international trade, investment, production and financial flows appears to be curtailing the autonomy of individual nation states. In particular, globalisation appears to be encouraging, if not demanding, a decline in social spending and standards. However, many authors believe that this thesis ignores the continued impact of national political and ideological pressures and lobby groups on policy outcomes. In particular, it has been argued that national welfare consumer and provider groups remain influential defenders of the welfare state. For example, US aged care groups are considered to be particularly effective defenders of social security pensions. According to this argument, governments engaged in welfare retrenchment may experience considerable electoral backlash (Pierson 1996; Mishra 1999. Yet, it is also noted that governments can take action to reduce the impact of such groups by reducing their funding, and their access to policy-making and consultation processes. These actions are then justified on the basis of removing potential obstacles to economic competitiveness (Pierson 1994; Melville 1999.

  19. Advertising and Consumer Welfare: Scaling versus Translating

    OpenAIRE

    Alston, Julian M.; Chalfant, James A.; Piggott, Nicholas E.

    1997-01-01

    Controversy has surrounded the welfare effects of advertising, mainly concerning the consumer welfare effects. Unfortunately, the measures of consumer welfare effects in most studies have been ad hoc and incorrect. The consumer welfare consequences of advertising can be measured consistently when consumer demand equations are derived from an expenditure function. This is illustrated using the Almost Ideal demand system, which is popular in econometric estimation of food demand systems. An emp...

  20. 49 CFR 571.213 - Standard No. 213; Child restraint systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Motor Vehicle Safety Standards § 571.213 Standard No. 213; Child restraint systems. S1. Scope. This... vehicle crashes and in aircraft. S3. Application. This standard applies to passenger cars, multipurpose.... S4. Definitions. Add-on child restraint system means any portable child restraint system....

  1. A concept of welfare based on reward evaluating mechanisms in the brain: anticipatory behaviour as an indicator for the state of reward systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruijt, B M.; van den Bos, R; Pijlman, F T.A.

    2001-04-26

    In this review we attempt to link the efficiency by which animals behave (economy of animal behaviour) to a neuronal substrate and subjective states to arrive at a definition of animal welfare which broadens the scope of its study. Welfare is defined as the balance between positive (reward, satisfaction) and negative (stress) experiences or affective states. The state of this balance may range from positive (good welfare) to negative (poor welfare). These affective states are momentary or transient states which occur against the background of and are integrated with the state of this balancing system. As will be argued the efficiency in behaviour requires that, for instance, satisfaction is like a moving target: reward provides the necessary feedback to guide behaviour; it is a not steady-state which can be maintained for long. This balancing system is reflected in the brain by the concerted action of opioid and mesolimbic dopaminergic systems. The state of this system reflects the coping capacity of the animal and is determined by previous events. In other words, this integrative approach of behavioural biology and neurobiology aims at understanding how the coping capacity of animals may be affected and measured. We argue that this balancing system underlies the economy of behaviour. Furthermore we argue that among other techniques anticipation in Pavlovian conditioning is an easy and useful tool to assess the state of this balancing system: for estimating the state of an animal in terms of welfare we focus on the conditions when an animal is facing a challenge.

  2. Animal health and welfare in production systems for organic fattening pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgren, Kristina; Bochicchio, Davide; Hegelund, Lene;

    2014-01-01

    respiratory problems, skin lesions (including abscesses and hernias) and tail wounds compared to conventional pigs. On the other hand, remarks because of joint lesions and white spot livers were more common among organic pigs. The risk of parasitic infections in organic fattening pigs has been confirmed...... and conventional production. Conventional Danish herds consumed three times as much antibiotics (anthelmintics not included) as the organic herds, whilst there was no difference in mortality rate nor more pigs in need of treatment in the organic herds. Slaughter data indicated that organic pigs had fewer...... and aggression. Minimizing negative environmental impact may conflict with animal welfare, i.e. raising the pigs indoors may not only reduce plant nutrient losses but also reduce the pigs’ activity options. With an increasing number of specialized organic units, implementation of age-segregated production...

  3. Has the Nordic Welfare Model Been Transformed?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Bent; Kvist, Jon

    2011-01-01

    The Nordic welfare model is undergoing a fundamental transformation. Using Denmark we show how a universal welfare state model is gradually being transformed into an emergent multi-tiered welfare state. Whereas the Danish pension system's having become multi-tiered in the 1990s, with private...

  4. How States Developed Plans to Meet a Federal Mandate: Addressing the Challenges of the Child and Family Services Reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Ledford, M. Gail

    2007-01-01

    Much of the child welfare literature addresses risk factors, incidence, and consequences of abuse and neglect, and innovative programs, services, and interventions designed to serve at-risk and maltreated children, youth, and their families. Less attention has been given to how state and local governments oversee the public child welfare system and respond to federal mandates, especially in achieving positive outcomes for this vulnerable population. In 1997, the Congress enacted the Adop...

  5. Egg production and welfare of laying hens kept in different housing systems (conventional, enriched cage, and free range).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz Dikmen, B; İpek, A; Şahan, Ü; Petek, M; Sözcü, A

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare egg production performance and welfare traits of laying hens kept in conventional cage (CC), enriched cage (EC), and free range (FR). Lohmann Brown laying hens (n = 480 with 160 per housing type) were studied across a production cycle from placement at 17 wk until depopulation at 66 wk. The hens were randomly allocated into cages or pens of housing system groups; within each system there were four replicates with 40 hens in each pen or cage. The hen day egg production (P = 0.037), feed intake (FI) (P hens were higher in the FR system but similar in the CC and EC systems. The highest mortality ratio was found in EC system hens (P = 0.020). The best feather score was found in FR system hens (P hens (P = 0.038). On the other hand, the worse bumble foot and footpad lesions were found in FR system hens (P hens compared with in CC and EC system hens (P hens (P = 0.006) but the blood phosphorus ( P: ) level was higher in FR system hens (P = 0.013). The tonic immobility, blood glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, and Ca values of hens were found to be similar in all systems (P > 0.05). The hens in the FR system had additional space for optimum comfort and better feather and bone traits, but the dirty egg ratio, feed consumption, and foot lesions were higher than in CC and EC systems. PMID:26994200

  6. Externalizing Behavior among Adopted Boys with Preadoptive Histories of Child Sexual Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalavany, Blace Arthur; Ryan, Scott D.; Hinterlong, Jim

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the severity of externalizing symptomology among adopted boys with preadoptive histories of child sexual abuse, physical abuse, neglect/abandonment, or no abuse. The study was based on data collected across a three-year period from parents who adopted children from Florida's child welfare system. The sample consisted of 1,136…

  7. Organizational Factors and the Implementation of Family to Family: Contextual Elements of Systems Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crea, Thomas M.; Crampton, David S.; Knight, Nelson; Paine-Wells, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    In efforts to reform the child welfare system, agency leaders must involve staff at all levels; yet, little research has been done to determine which organizational factors encourage or inhibit staff engagement. Employees from an urban child welfare agency were invited to complete a survey regarding organizational effectiveness and its influence…

  8. Animal welfare assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Vučinić Marijana; Lazić Ivana

    2008-01-01

    The paper deals with animal welfare definitions and animal welfare assessment. Animal welfare is a prolonged mental state, resulting from how the animal experiences its environment over time. There are different methods for animal welfare assessment. The four basic criteria for animal welfare assessment are feeding, housing, health and appropriate behavior. Therefore, criteria used to assess animal welfare are not direct measures of the mental state but only parameters that need to be interpr...

  9. [Educational guidance for families with mentally ill parents: a bridge between youth welfare services and psychiatric care system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrappe, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    In the last fifteen years a lot of services were established to assist children and their mentally ill parents. To improve the preventive and therapeutic interventions in favour of these families, the cooperation between all the institutions involved has to be enhanced. Family counselling centers can play an important role as a link between the psychiatric care system and the youth welfare services. By transferring the psychiatric terminology to the families' everyday language, the counsellors help the parents and the children to share their experiences with the parental illness. To implement a consultation-hour in a psychiatric clinic is an example of how educational guidance can close the gap between the two systems and strengthen the cooperation. PMID:23596903

  10. Main critical factors affecting the welfare of beef cattle and veal calves raised under intensive rearing systems in Italy: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviana Gottardo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This review describes the principal causes of poor welfare in beef cattle and veal calves raised in intensive husbandry systems in Italy. Nowadays there are no specific regulations in force for beef cattle welfare. However, a document produced in 2001 by the Scientific Committee on Animal Health and Animal Welfare of the European Commission on Health and Consumer Protection identified the main causes of inadequate welfare levels in the different cattle rearing systems in Europe. In Italy and in the Po Valley in particular, the beef cattle farms are mainly finishing units characterised by animals kept at high density in multiple pens and fed high starch diets. Under these rearing conditions the limited space allowance is one of the most important issues impairing animal welfare. Other risk factors for poor welfare related to the housing structures are type of floor, space at the manger, number of water dispensers and lack of specific moving and handling facilities. Microclimatic conditions can be critical especially during the summer season when cattle can experience heat stress. The feeding plan adopted in the Italian beef farms may be another factor negatively affecting the welfare of these animals due to the low content of long fibre roughage which increases the risk of metabolic acidosis. In the veal calf rearing systems there has been a mandatory introduction of the new system of production according to the European Council Directives 91/629/EEC and 97/2/EC. Farms had to adopt group housing and to provide calves with an increasing amount of fibrous feed in addition to the all-liquid diet. Despite this specific legislation, several risk factors for calves’ welfare can still be identified. Some of them are related to the housing system (type of floor, air quality, feed and water supply equipment and lack of loading facilities and some others to the feeding plan (type and amount of roughage, quality of milk replacers. Recent studies have

  11. 老年福利制度的立法借鉴与思考%Legislation Reference and Thought of Elderly Welfare System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨志超

    2012-01-01

    我国的老年福利制度的立法体系还存在许多不足之处,老年福利立法任重道远。面对日趋严重的老龄化问题,我国可以借鉴日本、韩国等周边国家和台湾地区的立法经验,完善我国的老年福利法律制度。%China's elderly welfare system legislation system also has many deficiencies, elderly welfare legislation shoulder heavy responsibilities to go. Faced with the increasingly serious aging problem, our country can draw lessons from Japan, Taiwan, Korea and other neighboring countries and regions of the legislation, perfecting the legal system of the elderly welfare.

  12. Family Policy Options for the Welfare of China's Children in the Future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChengHaijun,; ZhuShida; DavidKelly

    2004-01-01

    China's current child welfare policies principally stress the importance of family care. The state will not intervene unless there is harm to the child. Owing to economic and human resource limitations, govemment child welfare work is mainly remedial: rendering assistance to orphaned,

  13. Pediatric radiological diagnostics in suspected child abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced and specialized radiological diagnostics are essential in the case of clinical suspicion of pediatric injuries to the head, thorax, abdomen, and extremities when there is no case history or when ''battered child syndrome'' is assumed on the basis of inadequate trauma. In particular, the aim of this sophisticated diagnostic procedure is the detection of lesions of the central nervous system (CNS) in order to initiate prompt medical treatment. If diagnostic imaging shows typical findings of child abuse, accurate documented evidence of the diagnostic results is required to prevent further endangerment of the child's welfare. (orig.)

  14. Sistema fuzzy para estimativa do bem-estar de matrizes pesadas System fuzzy for estimate of welfare of broiler breeders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo F. Pereira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Entender o comportamento e suas pequenas variações decorrentes das mudanças do ambiente térmico e desenvolver modelos que simulem o bem-estar a partir de respostas das aves ao ambiente constituem o primeiro passo para a criação de um sistema de monitoramento digital de aves em galpões de produção. Neste trabalho, foi desenvolvido um sistema de suporte à decisão com base na teoria dos conjuntos fuzzy para a estimativa do bem-estar de matrizes pesadas em função de frequências e duração dos comportamentos expressos pelas aves. O desenvolvimento do sistema passou por cinco etapas distintas: 1 organização dos dados experimentais; 2 apresentação dos vídeos em entrevista com "especialista"; 3 criação das funções de pertinência com base nas entrevistas e na revisão da literatura; 4 simulação de frequências de ocorrências e tempos médios de expressão dos comportamentos classificados como indicadores de bem-estar utilizando equações de regressão obtidas na literatura, e 5 construção das regras, simulação e validação do sistema. O sistema fuzzy desenvolvido estimou satisfatoriamente o bem-estar de matrizes pesadas, tendo na sua última versão, com maior número de regras, acertado 77,8% dos dados experimentais, comparados com as respostas esperadas por um especialista. O sistema pode ser utilizado como instrumento matemático-computacional para apoiar decisões em galpões de produção de matrizes pesadas.To understand the behavior and its small variations originated from changes of the thermal environment and to develop models that simulate the welfare from broiler breeders' answer to the environment constitute the first step for the creation of a system for digital monitoring of broiler breeders housing. In this paper it was developed a system of decision support based on the fuzzy conjuncts' theory to estimate the welfare of broiler breeders in function of frequencies and times of occurrences of behaviors. The

  15. Welfare Reform and Children's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltagi, Badi H; Yen, Yin-Fang

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates the effect of the Temporary Aid to Needy Families (TANF) program on children's health outcomes using data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation over the period 1994 to 2005. The TANF policies have been credited with increased employment for single mothers and a dramatic drop in welfare caseload. Our results show that these policies also had a significant effect on various measures of children's medical utilization among low-income families. These health measures include a rating of the child's health status reported by the parents, the number of times that parents consulted a doctor, and the number of nights that the child stayed in a hospital. We compare the overall changes of health status and medical utilization for children with working and nonworking mothers. We find that the child's health status as reported by the parents is affected by the maternal employment status. PMID:25533889

  16. The welfare of dairy buffalo

    OpenAIRE

    Christoph Winckler; Fabio Napolitano; Corrado Pacelli; Fernando Grasso; Giuseppe De Rosa

    2010-01-01

    The present paper addresses the issue of buffalo welfare. Firstly, the biological characteristics and behavioural needs of buffalo are considered. Subsequently, the effects of intensive farming and some animalrelated indicators, to be used for a monitoring scheme of buffalo welfare at farm level, are described. The attention was focused on the following indicators: excessive thinning or fattening assessed with Body Condition Score (BCS) systems; cleanliness (the presence of mud may be conside...

  17. Highlighting ethical decisions underlying the scoring of animal welfare in the Welfare Quality® scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veissier, I.; Jensen, Karsten Klint; Botreau, R.;

    2011-01-01

    for bad scores on others. In the opinion of most people, welfare scores do not compensate each other. This was taken into account in the Welfare Quality® scoring system by using a specific operator instead of mere weighted sums. Finally, a scoring system may either reflect societal demands for high levels...... of welfare or be based on what can be achieved in practice – in other words, an absolute assessment or a relative one may be proposed. Welfare Quality® adopted an intermediate strategy: absolute limits between welfare categories (Not classified, Acceptable, Enhanced, or Excellent level of welfare) were set......, but the rules governing the assignment of an animal unit to a category take into account what had been observed on European farms. The scientists behind Welfare Quality® are keen to make the value-based choices underlying assessments of animal welfare transparent. This is essential to allow stakeholder groups...

  18. The utilization of the Welfare Quality® assessment for determining laying hen condition across three housing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatchford, R A; Fulton, R M; Mench, J A

    2016-01-01

    The Welfare Quality(®) Assessment protocol for poultry ( WQA: ) provides animal-based measures allowing welfare comparisons across farms and housing systems. It was used to compare Lohmann LSL Classic White hens housed in an enriched colony ( EC: ), aviary ( AV: ), and conventional cage system ( CC: ) on a commercial farm over 2 flock cycles. Hens (n = 100/system) were scored on a variety of measures. A baseline measurement was made at placement at 19 wk of age for 1 flock, since AV hens had been reared in an aviary pullet facility ( AVP: while EC and CC hens were reared in a conventional pullet facility ( CCP: ). Hens in all systems were then assessed at 52 and 72 wk of age. Necropsies were performed on all mortalities 1 wk before and after the WQA sampling. WQAs were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis tests for prevalence and Fisher's exact tests for severity. There was an effect of rearing, with AVP having shorter claws (P = 0.01), dirtier feathers (P = 0.03), and more keel abnormalities (P hens, there were several significant housing system effects across flocks and age periods (all P ≤ 0.05). AV and EC hens had more keel abnormalities than CC hens. They also had fewer foot abnormalities than CC hens, although those in AV hens were more severe. AV hens had consistently dirtier feathers than EC and CC hens. While AV hens had the best overall feather cover, feather loss patterns suggested that loss was due to head pecking for AV, whereas in EC and CC it was due to cage abrasion. The necropsy findings and the WQA results were similar, except that the WQA failed to find enteritis at 19 wk, although it was detected in the necropsies during this sampling period. These results show that the WQA is a useful tool for detecting hen condition differences across housing systems. PMID:26240396

  19. Welfare Reform. At Issue, An Opposing Viewpoints Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozic, Charles P., Ed.

    Efforts to reform the welfare system in the United States have been gaining momentum since the late 1980s. Critics have been arguing that states should receive federal waivers to create their own programs to encourage welfare recipients to find work. The thrust of the 1996 welfare reform act transfers control over welfare spending to the states.…

  20. Comparing the effects of high vs. low nitrate on the health, performance, and welfare of juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss within water recirculating aquaculture systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous research indicates that rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) begin to exhibit health and welfare problems when cultured within water recirculating aquaculture systems (WRAS) operated at low exchange (6.7 days hydraulic retention time) and a mean feed loading rate of 4.1 kg feed/m3 daily make...

  1. Consumer Preference for Eggs from Enhanced Animal Welfare Production System: A Stated Choice Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Yiqing; John CRANFIELD; Widowski, Tina

    2013-01-01

    The first choice experiment investigated consumer preferences for different housing systems, while the second investigated consumer preferences for attributes of a housing system. Each choice experiment had two information treatments. In both treatments, a description of each housing system was provided, while in the second treatment, there was additional information regarding the consequences (in terms of effect on birds) of each housing systems based on scientific research. The results indi...

  2. Scandinavian Model of Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Within the so-called welfare modeling business Scandinavia stands out as a space with a particular welfare regime. It is a peculiar combination of market, state, and civil societal interventions into people's social life, that define this welfare regime. The particular welfare mix emphasizes univ...... of conditions with respect to political culture and ethnic homogeneity. The East Asian welfare regime resembles that of Southern Europe, characterized as it is by a high degree of informality regarding care for children, fragile elderly and the handicapped.......Within the so-called welfare modeling business Scandinavia stands out as a space with a particular welfare regime. It is a peculiar combination of market, state, and civil societal interventions into people's social life, that define this welfare regime. The particular welfare mix emphasizes...

  3. Evaluation of Preventive Service to Families with a Prior History in Child Protective Services: A Comparison of Treatment as Usual to Trauma Systems Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coombes, Margaret Lillian

    2011-01-01

    Children who are abused or maltreated may experience negative consequences or trauma symptoms that are not immediately apparent or may emerge over time. Child welfare interventions are intended to prevent future incidents of child abuse and decrease the negative outcomes that result from such traumatic events (English, et al., 2005; Herrenkohl &…

  4. Child Maltreatment and Delinquency Onset Among African American Adolescent Males

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, James Herbert; Van Dorn, Richard A.; Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Nebbitt, Von E.

    2009-01-01

    Child welfare and criminology research have increasingly sought to better understand factors that increase the likelihood that abused and neglected children will become involved in the juvenile justice system. However, few studies have addressed this relationship among African American male adolescents. The current study examines the relationship between child maltreatment (i.e., neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and other/mixed abuse) and the likelihood of a delinquency petition using a...

  5. The Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect: a partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonmyr, L

    2015-01-01

    In the mid-1990s, Health Canada's Family Violence Prevention Unit commissioned a study to assess the possibility of collecting child maltreatment data from child welfare agencies across Canada. A Health Canada group responsible for maternal and child health surveillance built on the results of this study. This group consulted widely with provincial and territorial partners to build a surveillance system, resulting in a truly collaborative effort that led to the implementation of the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (CIS). This was a remarkable accomplishment considering the challenge of working with multiple partners, different legislative frameworks and the stigma that often accompanies the experience of child maltreatment. PMID:26605558

  6. North Carolina Star Rated License System: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of North Carolina's Star Rated License System prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4)…

  7. Referring cruise ship patients to specialists in Norway--a welfare state with a national health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Eilif

    2015-01-01

    Northern Europe is a popular cruise destination, but many non-Scandinavian cruise ship's doctors who are used to enthusiastic service from specialists ashore, get frustrated when referring passengers or crew to out-patient medical evaluation. Norway's national health care system is described and used as an example of medical conditions in a welfare state with a relatively well-functioning national health care system: Emergency cases are usually promptly admitted. Out-patient specialist consultations are available in public polyclinics, but waiting time can be considerable, also for patients from ships. Private specialists are fully booked weeks in advance and do not work from Friday to Monday and during holidays. Public and private medical service capacity is significantly reduced during the summer months. Hence, most specialists ashore are not eager to see demanding ship patients. Ship's doctors should limit referral to conditions that require specific procedures that are not available on the vessel but are necessary for the patient to be able to continue cruising or working aboard. Crewmembers who are unfit for work aboard, should instead be signed off and repatriated for diagnostic work-up and follow-up at home. In cases of hospitalisation or necessary referral ashore, the ship's doctor should always confer in advance with the company's ship's port agents and make necessary shore-side arrangements through them. PMID:26119674

  8. Poverty and Child Placement: A New/Old Idea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustavsson, Nora S.; MacEachron, Ann E.

    1997-01-01

    Examines historical precedents for removing poor children from their families, reviews relevant experiences of Native Americans, and analyzes child placement through the lens of poverty. The role of the federal government in child protection is examined by comparing the Indian Child Welfare Act and the Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act.…

  9. Child Maltreatment and Delinquency Onset among African American Adolescent Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, James Herbert; Van Dorn, Richard A.; Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Nebbitt, Von E.

    2010-01-01

    Child welfare and criminology research have increasingly sought to better understand factors that increase the likelihood that abused and neglected children will become involved in the juvenile justice system. However, few studies have addressed this relationship among African American male adolescents. The current study examines the relationship…

  10. Unacceptable Risk Factors in Child Maltreatment: Formulations from Caseworkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRoma, Virginia; Bingley, Christy; Kessler, Maria Lynn; Merino, Cesar

    2005-01-01

    Approximately one million children are victims of maltreatment are assessed and placed in the child welfare system. The purpose of the current study was to identify caseworker perceptions of (a) reasons for youth removal from a home environment and (b) the parameters of intolerable problem categories that prompt such decisions. Four categories of…

  11. Marketization of welfare services in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ole Helby; Hjelmar, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    Scandinavian welfare states are undergoing a gradual transformation towards a more market-based mode of public service delivery. The results of these marketization reforms are, however, insufficiently documented in terms of their consequences for the price and quality of welfare services....... This article presents the findings of a systematic review of Danish and Swedish experiences with private provision of welfare services within three areas: home care for the elderly, provision of child care, and the operation of nursing homes. The research shows that there is no general evidence in support...... of improved cost effectiveness or enhanced service quality within these three welfare areas. A part of the reason for this is that many studies are characterized by lack of data and insufficient methodological designs. The article concludes that more and better studies are needed in order to broaden...

  12. Application of Knowledge Based Systems for Child Performance Analysis in an Online Montessori Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Hajar Khairuddin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the application of knowledge based systems for child performance analysis in an online Montessori module. Using knowledge based techniques, the system generates an automatic analysis based on the teacher's answers to a variety of questions about a child's performance of a specific Montessori activity. The questions were created through a study of the criteria used to assess the level of a child's performance and achievement. This prototype is designed as a proof-of-concept, to show how the knowledge base technique could be applied. To design the prototype, we conducted literature reviews on the delivery of Montessori methods and the knowledge base technique, and compared rule -based and case -based reasoning.  We selected rule-based reasoning for the concept prototype since it is suitable for Montessori activities which are well defined and easy to acquire.

  13. Effect of grazing on the cow welfare of dairy herds evaluated by a multidimensional welfare index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burow, E.; Rousing, T.; Thomsen, P. T.;

    2013-01-01

    studied under different conditions. However, the effect of grazing on welfare, conceptualised as the multidimensional physical and mental state of the animal, has not yet been studied in contemporary cubicle loose-housing systems. The aim of our study was to investigate, based on a Welfare Quality (R......) inspired multidimensional dairy cow welfare assessment protocol, the within-herd effect of summer grazing compared with winter barn housing in Danish dairy herds with cubicle free-stall systems for the lactating cows. Our hypothesis was that cow welfare in dairy herds was better during summer grazing than....... A panel of 20 experts on cattle welfare and husbandry evaluated the relative weight of the 17 welfare measures in a multidimensional assessment scheme. They estimated exact weights for a priori constituted severe compared with moderate scores of welfare impairment concerning each measure, as well...

  14. FARM ANIMAL WELFARE ECONOMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.T. CZISZTER

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the literature regarding the economics of the farm animal welfare. The following issues are addressed: productions costs and savings of the animal welfare regulations, benefits of improved animal welfare, and consumers’ willingness to pay for animal-friendly products.

  15. Effects of housing system on welfare and milk yield and quality of Girgentana goats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Leto

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In the past years, in Sicily, goats of the Girgentana breed have decreased so drastically in number that they risked extinction. Among the causes, particular blame can be laid at the traditional housing system, in which the goats, after coming back from pasture, were tethered in individual wooden stalls. Such a system is still considered necessary by breeders in order to avoid aggressive and harmful behaviour on the part of the animals, due to the presence of their long horns (Giaccone et al., 1994. This belief negatively interferes with the action recently initiated for the recovery and regeneration of the breed (Portolano et al., 2002; in fact, the tie stalls housing, increasing manpower, limits the increase in size in herds of Girgentana goats...

  16. Development of the System on the Internet for Pre-Assessment of Child Abuse Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honma, Satoru; Wakamatsu, Hidetoshi; Ueda, Reiko

    Some assessments have been applied to find possible factors that might lead to child abuse. PACAP is a new method proposed by Ueda and others as a pre-assessment of the concerning child abuse, which reduces its false-positive misclassification. The Internet PACAP is developed to reduce the laborious work of nurses and health care workers for the necessary processing and classifying the scores of the pre-assessment. The present system is expected to prevent the child abuse more effectively.

  17. NATIONAL CHILD ABUSE AND NEGLECT DATA SYSTEM (NCANDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCANDS collects data on child maltreatment from the States. It was developed in response to the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (Public Law 93-247), as amended, which called for the creation of a coordinated national data collection and analysis program, both universal a...

  18. The Living Predicament of the Elderly Parent Who Lost Their Only Child and the Corresponding Measures of Social Welfare Policy%失独老人的生活困境与社会福利政策的应对

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚兆余; 王诗露

    2014-01-01

    The implementation of family planning policy since the 1970s plays a certain positive role in the population control and social development to acertain degree, however, this policy increases the living risk of some families and the number of the elderly parents who lost their only child is increasing. This paper studies the living situation of the elderly parents who lost their only child based on the survey, finds that the majority of the elderly parents are in the predicament such as deteriorating economic conditions, general depression in mind, declining healthy conditions and closed interpersonal communication, as a result, there is ubiquitously urgent demand in the perspective of living aid, social security, medical care and spiritual comfort etc. Currently, Chinese Government’ s aiding policies relatively lag behind and have many problems such as low aiding standard, narrow support-ive covering area, simple aiding forms and so on. In order to meet the basic living demand of the elderly parents, social welfare policies must be designed and perfected from the perspective of economic support, living care, spiritual conform and so on.%20世纪70年代开始推行的计划生育政策,对我国控制人口、促进社会发展起到了一定的积极作用。但该政策增大了一些家庭的生活风险,因独生子女死亡而产生的失独老人数量正在不断增加。本研究对失独老人群体的生活状况进行了深入调查,发现大多数失独老人存在经济状况恶化、精神普遍抑郁、健康状况下降、人际交往敏感封闭等困境,在生活救助、养老保障、医疗保障以及精神慰藉等方面存在着强烈的需求。目前,国家的扶助政策较为滞后,存在扶助标准低、覆盖面窄、扶助形式单一等诸多问题。为了满足失独老人的基本生活需求,必须从经济支持、生活照料、精神慰藉等方面来设计和完善社会福利政策。

  19. The Scandinavian Welfare States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte

    1987-01-01

    that the Scandinavian welfare states are the most advanced in relation to women and dicusses both the potentialities and the dangers in the Scandinavian welfare states in relation to women. The paper points to the need to integrate gender relations in the theoretical model for an analysis of the welfare state...... the welfare states, and especially the Scandinavian welfare states, where motherhood and care work has to day bef´come part of social citizenship The auther argues that even though women have in important ways been empowered in the Scandinavian woefare states as mothers, workers and citizens, they have......The paper studies the debate about the Scandinavian welfare states from a feminist persepctive, forcusing on the differences between a feminist perspective and the dominant liberal and critical marxist understanding of the welfare state. In particular it focuses on the argument...

  20. 49 CFR 571.225 - Standard No. 225; Child restraint anchorage systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) and (b) of S7 apply to the test procedures in S8. (a) Vehicle seats are adjusted to their full... systems. S1. Purpose and scope. This standard establishes requirements for child restraint anchorage... buses, and funeral coaches. S3. Definitions. Child restraint anchorage means any vehicle...

  1. The Therapy Process Observational Coding System for Child Psychotherapy Strategies Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Bryce D.; Weisz, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Most everyday child and adolescent psychotherapy does not follow manuals that document the procedures. Consequently, usual clinical care has remained poorly understood and rarely studied. The Therapy Process Observational Coding System for Child Psychotherapy-Strategies scale (TPOCS-S) is an observational measure of youth psychotherapy procedures…

  2. Navigating the Child Support System: Lessons from the Fathers at Work Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyckoff, Laura; McVay, Mary; Wallace, Dee

    2009-01-01

    Research shows that nearly half of all children born in the US today will be eligible for child support before they reach the age of 18. Many low-income, noncustodial fathers--who often struggle to make these payments--will seek services from workforce development organizations. Yet, understanding the child support enforcement system can be…

  3. 75 FR 42453 - Office of Child Support Enforcement; Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-21

    ...) of exchanging information to support electronic income withholding orders (also referred to as e-IWO... HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families Office of Child Support Enforcement; Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records AGENCY: Office of Child Support Enforcement, ACF, HHS. ACTION: Notice...

  4. Construction of an integrated welfare assessment system (MacWel) for Macaques (Macaca spp.) in human husbandry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirchner, Marlene; Bakker, Jaco

    2015-01-01

    The paper describes the construction procedure of an assessment protocol for Macaques (Macaca spp.). The authors have chosen an integrative approach, currently frequently used for the construction of such protocols with a clear preference for animal-based parameters to assess the welfare states o...

  5. Improving animal welfare and economic sustainability in bull-fattening systems in France: A comparison of three different feeding programmes

    OpenAIRE

    Mialon, Marie Madeleine; Lherm, Michel; Micol, Didier; Doreau, Michel; Martin, Cécile

    2013-01-01

    Feeding late maturing young bulls on high concentrate diets needs adjustment of both animal feeding behaviour and rumen adaptation which can be done by feeding maize silage according to researchers at the National Institute of Agronomic Research, Saint-Genès Champanelle, France who state good economic results are achievable alongside animal welfare.

  6. General versus program-specific welfare chauvinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Albrekt

    2016-01-01

    care, whereas permanent exclusion is favoured for other programs, e.g. child allowances given to children in country of origin. These findings support the thesis of program-specific welfare chauvinism and point to a political space for pragmatic adjustments of current EU rules. The article also finds...... similarity across programs. The Danish welfare chauvinist attitudes are in general fuelled by lack of shared identity with migrants and sociotropic concerns about the economic burden of migration. The article finds little evidence of narrow self-interest effects; with a notable exception of disability...

  7. Blending systems thinking approaches for organisational analysis: reviewing child protection in England

    OpenAIRE

    Lane, David; Munro, Eileen; Husemann, Elke

    2016-01-01

    This paper concerns the innovative use of a blend of systems thinking ideas in the ‘Munro Review of Child Protection’, a high-profile examination of child protection activities in England, conducted for the Department for Education. We go ‘behind the scenes’ to describe the OR methodologies and processes employed. The circumstances that led to the Review are outlined. Three specific contributions that systems thinking made to the Review are then described. First, the systems-based analysis an...

  8. Testing if Social Services Prevent Fatal Child Maltreatment Among a Sample of Children Previously Known to Child Protective Services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Emily M

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this article was to examine the potential impact of child welfare services on the risk for fatal child maltreatment. This was conducted using a subsample of children who were identified as "prior victims" in the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System from 2008 to 2012. At the multivariate level, the analyses show that case management services act to protect children from death as do family support services, family preservation services, and foster care, but that the results vary by type of maltreatment experienced. The author recommends that before strong conclusions are drawn, additional research in this area is warranted. PMID:27412527

  9. Welfare Enhancing Capital Imports

    OpenAIRE

    Masao Oda; Koji Shimomura; Ryuhei Wakasugi

    2007-01-01

    This paper provides a model to consider the conditions under which an acceptance of foreign capital is welfare enhancing in a multi-commodity multi-factor framework. Contrary to the pessimistic conventional wisdom of capital imports and welfare, we provide a justification for the acceptance of foreign capital and the diversification of industrial structure in developing countries. A sufficient condition for the acceptance of foreign capital to be welfare enhancing is that all domestic factors...

  10. Immigration and native welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel J. Felbermayr; Kohler, Wilhelm

    2004-01-01

    We unify two approaches towards identifying native welfare effects of immigration, one emphasizing the immigration surplus (Borjas, 1995,1999), the other identifying a welfare loss due to terms-of-trade effects (Davis & Weinstein, 2002). We decompose the native welfare effect of immigration into the standard complementarity effect, augmented by a Stolper-Samuelson effect, and a terms-of-trade effect. Using a structural model with three skill-classes we derive propositions on the wage and nati...

  11. Shanghai Welfare Lottery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LINGLING

    2005-01-01

    THE Shanghai Welfare Lottery was set up in July 1987. Annual ticket sales have shot up from a few million yuan in the first year to billions. Its total and per capita sales were the highest of all China welfare lotteries for five consecutive years.During the past 17 years, a welfare fund of 1.5 million has been gathered from the total 5 billion yuan proceeds and used to help the elderly, disabled,orphans and poor.

  12. Welfare in horse breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, M L H; Sandøe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes hel...

  13. Assessment of welfare in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Antonella Volpelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the definition given by Appleby (1996, animal welfare represents the state of well-being brought about by meeting the physical, environmental, nutritional, behavioural and social needs of the animal or groups of animals under the care, supervision or influence of people. Suitable husbandry techniques and disease control (in which man is directly involved may satisfy an animal’s physical, environmental and nutritive needs. However, it cannot be stated that people’s supervision or influence always guarantee the satisfaction of behavioural and social needs. Thus, special attention must be paid to these factors in intensive husbandry. This paper calls attention to the main factors characterizing pig welfare on the basis of productive, physiological, pathological and behavioural indicators; to the behavioural needs, which are characterised by several peculiar traits (it is noteworthy that, since the beginning, all categories of reared pigs have been involved in welfare legislation; to all categories of pigs that often show the effects of negative stimuli on their behaviour (limitations, variations; to the main critical points on the farm likely to cause welfare impairment or stress including buildings, inner facilities, space allowance, microclimate, lighting systems, environmental stressors, feeding management, mutilations, weaning, social factors, and stockmanship; and to environmental stressors including dust, odours (especially ammonia and noises. This paper takes into account sources, effects and possible solutions for noises; the positive effect of fibrous feeding; environmental enrichment and other possible techniques for improving social status and for preventing/reducing stereotypic behaviour and abnormal reactions (e.g. tail biting. The scientific/objective evaluation of welfare for intensively reared pigs may be carried out by means of direct observation of the animals themselves (animal-based or encompassing performance

  14. Welfare in horse breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, M.L.H.; Sandøe, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Welfare problems related to the way horses are bred, whether by coitus or by the application of artificial reproduction techniques (ARTs), have been given no discrete consideration within the academic literature. This paper reviews the existing knowledge base about welfare issues in horse breeding...... and identifies areas in which data is lacking. We suggest that all methods of horse breeding are associated with potential welfare problems, but also that the judicious use of ARTs can sometimes help to address those problems. We discuss how negative welfare effects could be identified and limited and how...

  15. Mobilizing social capital to deal with child labour in cocoa production: The case of community child labour monitoring system in Ghana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Owusu-Amankwah, R.; Ruivenkamp, G.T.P.; Frempong, G.; Essegbey, G.

    2014-01-01

    The Government of Ghana is leading the implementation of Community Child Labour Monitoring (CCLM) System as remediation and monitoring tool to free cocoa production from the worst forms of child labour and trafficking. Through a mixed-method approach which combines exploratory qualitative and quanti

  16. Privatized Child Welfare Services: Foster Parents' Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Larry D.

    2001-01-01

    Foster parents were surveyed concerning their attitudes toward the privatization of family foster care services in Kansas. Respondents reported their current level of satisfaction, opinions about privatization, and their experiences with new community-based treatment teams. Responses indicated that satisfaction remained high, but also variances in…

  17. Model to evaluate welfare in dairy cow farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Calamari

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of herd welfare is a scientific discipline that is rapidly developing. The scientific community plays an important role in delivering appropriate, repeatable, valid and feasible models for this assessment. Unfortunately, there are different feelings regarding the welfare of animals and it is imperative for its assessment that certain agreement on the meaning of animal welfare is accepted. Then it is necessary to look at the goals of the models of welfare assessment because different goals require a different combination of welfare indicators. The different models for welfare assessment can be categorized broadly into research, legislative requirements, certification systems, and advisory/management tools. These models may have various goals: quantification of welfare, provision of welfare assurance or welfare management. However, it is widely accepted that welfare is best assessed with multiple different measures; therefore, a welfare assessment model for a livestock herd can include two types of measure: a description of the housing system and management (indirect indicators and data recording on how the animals react to the system (direct indicators. The first type provides information on risk factors for welfare problems. Direct measures on the animals provide information on their response to the environment and are more direct measures of welfare than their counterparts, but direct welfare indicators alone do not point out the causes of impaired welfare. Because welfare is a complex construct, different approaches for the aggregation of the different aspects of welfare have been proposed, although the aggregation in an overall welfare value is not sufficient. The thresholds between acceptable and unacceptable welfare levels have to be included in the model of welfare assessment but it seems useful to set certain minimum standards for each single welfare aspect. Afterward, judging the validity of a common welfare assessment

  18. Developing a HACCP-like system for improving animal health and welfare in organic egg production - based on an expert panel analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegelund, Lene; Sørensen, Jan Tind

    2007-01-01

    In the process of developing a generic Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP)-like system for securing animal health and welfare in organic egg production, an expert panel analysis was used to perform the initial hazard analysis. Eighteen advisers and researchers in organic egg...... specific systems. An expert panel analysis based on questionnaires was a useful tool during the first steps of developing a HACCP plan, conducting a hazard analysis and suggesting control points. However, care should be taken regarding the panel's size and fields of expertise in order to assure...

  19. Urban-rural disparities in child nutrition-related health outcomes in China: The role of hukou policy

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Hong; John A. Rizzo; Fang, Hai

    2015-01-01

    Background Hukou is the household registration system in China that determines eligibility for various welfare benefits, such as health care, education, housing, and employment. The hukou system may lead to nutritional and health disparities in China. We aim at examining the role of the hukou system in affecting urban-rural disparities in child nutrition, and disentangling the institutional effect of hukou from the effect of urban/rural residence on child nutrition-related health outcomes. Me...

  20. Market Access and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    2015-01-01

    Well known tariff reform rules that are guaranteed to increase welfare will not necessarily increase market access, while rules that are guaranteed to increase market access will not necessarily increase welfare. The present paper proposes a new set of tariff reforms that can achieve both...

  1. The Danish welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jørgen Elm; Bengtsson, Tea Torbenfeldt; Frederiksen, Morten

    The Danish Welfare State analyzes a broad range of areas, such as globalization, labor marked, family life, health and social exclusion, the book demonstrates that life in a modern welfare state is changing rapidly, creating both challenges and possibilities for future management....

  2. Wellbeing or welfare benefits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Handlos, Line Neerup; Kristiansen, Maria; Nørredam, Marie Louise

    2016-01-01

    This debate article debunks the myth that migrants are driven primarily by the size of the welfare benefits in the host country, when they decide where to migrate to. We show that instead of welfare benefits, migrants are driven by a desire for safety, wellbeing, social networks and opportunities...

  3. A Systems Approach to Child Abuse: Management and Treatment Issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asen, Karl; And Others

    1989-01-01

    An approach to the treatment of child abuse used in a British clinic involves interventions that block or change destructive family interaction patterns. Real life stress situations are recreated in a multifamily group so that families can find new, nonviolent solutions to everyday problems. (MSE)

  4. The East Asian welfare regime: reality or fiction

    OpenAIRE

    Sarah Kuypers

    2014-01-01

    Recently the debate on the existence of a homogeneous East Asian welfare regime gained prominence because the region is experiencing changes in the fundamentals of its welfare system. Although the majority of the literature builds upon the assumption that there is indeed a fourth welfare type in the region, few empirically investigate whether these countries could formally be regarded as actual ‘Confucian’, ‘productivist’ or ‘developmental’ welfare states. In a detailed, but yet encompassing,...

  5. Impact of Child Maltreatment on Attachment and Social Rank Systems: Introducing an Integrated Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloman, Leon; Taylor, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Child maltreatment is a prevalent societal problem that has been linked to a wide range of social, psychological, and emotional difficulties. Maltreatment impacts on two putative evolved psychobiological systems in particular, the attachment system and the social rank system. The maltreatment may disrupt the child's ability to form trusting and reassuring relationships and also creates a power imbalance where the child may feel powerless and ashamed. The aim of the current article is to outline an evolutionary theory for understanding the impact of child maltreatment, focusing on the interaction between the attachment and the social rank system. We provide a narrative review of the relevant literature relating to child maltreatment and these two theories. This research highlights how, in instances of maltreatment, these ordinarily adaptive systems may become maladaptive and contribute to psychopathology. We identify a number of novel hypotheses that can be drawn from this theory, providing a guide for future research. We finally explore how this theory provides a guide for the treatment of victims of child maltreatment. In conclusion, the integrated theory provides a framework for understanding and predicting the consequences of maltreatment, but further research is required to test several hypotheses made by this theory.

  6. Impact of Child Maltreatment on Attachment and Social Rank Systems: Introducing an Integrated Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloman, Leon; Taylor, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Child maltreatment is a prevalent societal problem that has been linked to a wide range of social, psychological, and emotional difficulties. Maltreatment impacts on two putative evolved psychobiological systems in particular, the attachment system and the social rank system. The maltreatment may disrupt the child's ability to form trusting and reassuring relationships and also creates a power imbalance where the child may feel powerless and ashamed. The aim of the current article is to outline an evolutionary theory for understanding the impact of child maltreatment, focusing on the interaction between the attachment and the social rank system. We provide a narrative review of the relevant literature relating to child maltreatment and these two theories. This research highlights how, in instances of maltreatment, these ordinarily adaptive systems may become maladaptive and contribute to psychopathology. We identify a number of novel hypotheses that can be drawn from this theory, providing a guide for future research. We finally explore how this theory provides a guide for the treatment of victims of child maltreatment. In conclusion, the integrated theory provides a framework for understanding and predicting the consequences of maltreatment, but further research is required to test several hypotheses made by this theory. PMID:25948552

  7. Child Abuse Prevention Act, 1973. Hearings Before the Subcommittee on Children and Youth of the Committee on Labor and Public Welfare, United States Senate, Ninety-third Congress, First Session on S.1191.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Public Welfare.

    A record of the Senate hearings on The Child Abuse Prevention Act of 1973 is presented. A copy of Senator Mondale's bill to establish a national center on child abuse is included. The objectives of the hearings were to investigate the magnitude of the child abuse problem in the United States and to clarify a definition of the problem. Different…

  8. Air quality and human welfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundseth, K.; Pacyna, J. M.; Pacyna, E. G.

    2009-02-01

    Human welfare is generally referring to allocation of resources to fit the well being of humans. If high standard of well-being is to be maintained, the concerns for a healthy environment must be balanced against requirements of economic growth. In a natural capital system, human welfare is best served by improving the quality and flow of desired services delivered rather than merely increasing the total money flow. An ecosystem based management of living and natural resource use will steer this progress to the best of human welfare while the efficiency of ecosystem based management depends strongly on the availability of integrated assessment tools that will combine environmental models and monitoring data with ecological economic valuation methods. In applied welfare economics, the methodological approach to assess resource allocations towards societal optimality and thereby establish criteria for government intervention is often linked to tools as Cost-ffectiveness Analysis (CEA), Cost-Benefit Assessment (CBA) or Multi-criteria Analysis (MCA). By illustrating an assessment on costs and benefits of the implementation of Hg emission reduction measures in the coal sector, it becomes obvious that for a full analysis of societal costs and benefits, several aspects of Hg pollution, sources, impacts and co-benefits need to be considered.

  9. Air quality and human welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sundseth K.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Human welfare is generally referring to allocation of resources to fit the well being of humans. If high standard of well-being is to be maintained, the concerns for a healthy environment must be balanced against requirements of economic growth. In a natural capital system, human welfare is best served by improving the quality and flow of desired services delivered rather than merely increasing the total money flow. An ecosystem based management of living and natural resource use will steer this progress to the best of human welfare while the efficiency of ecosystem based management depends strongly on the availability of integrated assessment tools that will combine environmental models and monitoring data with ecological economic valuation methods. In applied welfare economics, the methodological approach to assess resource allocations towards societal optimality and thereby establish criteria for government intervention is often linked to tools as Cost-ffectiveness Analysis (CEA, Cost-Benefit Assessment (CBA or Multi-criteria Analysis (MCA. By illustrating an assessment on costs and benefits of the implementation of Hg emission reduction measures in the coal sector, it becomes obvious that for a full analysis of societal costs and benefits, several aspects of Hg pollution, sources, impacts and co-benefits need to be considered.

  10. Forensic, Cultural, and Systems Issues in Child Sexual Abuse Cases--Part 2: Research and Practitioner Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tishelman, Amy C.; Geffner, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces the second issue of the special double issue focusing on forensic, cultural, and systems issues in child sexual abuse cases. We briefly review the articles, which include a discussion of child sexual abuse myths, an empirical analysis of extended child sexual abuse evaluations, an article on the role of the medical provider…

  11. 45 CFR 98.20 - A child's eligibility for child care services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false A child's eligibility for child care services. 98... CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Eligibility for Services § 98.20 A child's eligibility for child care... of age; or, (ii) At the option of the Lead Agency, be under age 19 and physically or...

  12. A Framework for Addressing the Global Obesity Epidemic Locally: The Child Health Ecological Surveillance System (CHESS)

    OpenAIRE

    Ronald C. Plotnikoff, PhD; Penny Lightfoot, MHSA; Linda Barrett, MSc; Carla Spinola, MA; Gerry Predy, MD, FRCPC

    2008-01-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in the developed world. Recent research and commentary suggest that an ecological approach is required to address childhood obesity, given the multidimensional nature of the problem. We propose a Canadian prototype, the Child Health Ecological Surveillance System, for a regional health authority to address the growing obesity epidemic. This prototype could potentially be used in other jurisdictions to address other child health issues. We present ...

  13. Patterns of Welfare Attitudes in the Australian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Timothy P.; Butterworth, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The study of community attitudes toward welfare and welfare recipients is an area of increasing interest. This is not only because negative attitudes can lead to stigmatization and discrimination, but because of the relevance of social attitudes to policy decisions. We quantify the attitudes toward welfare in the Australian population using attitude data from a nationally representative survey (N = 3243). Although there was broad support for the social welfare system, negative attitudes are held toward those who receive welfare benefits. Using canonical correlation analysis we identify multivariate associations between welfare attitudes and respondent demographic characteristics. A primary attitudinal dimension of welfare positivity was found amongst those with higher levels of education, life instability, and personal exposure to the welfare system. Other patterns of negative welfare attitudes appeared to be motivated by beliefs that the respondent’s personal circumstances indicate their deservingness. Moreover, a previously unidentified and unconsidered subset of respondents was identified. This group had positive attitudes toward receiving government benefits despite having no recent experience of welfare. They did, however, possess many of the characteristics that frequently lead to welfare receipt. These results provide insights into not only how attitudinal patterns segment across the population, but are of relevance to policy makers considering how to align welfare reform with community attitudes. PMID:26554361

  14. Market Access and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    According to the literature, well known tariff reform rules that are guaranteed to increase welfare will not necessarily increase market access, while rules that are guaranteed to increase market access will not necessarily increase welfare. Such conflict between welfare and market access...... objectives of trade policy is problematic and calls for finding alternative tariff reform rules that can achieve both objectives at the same time. The present paper contributes to this aim by using a new set of tariff reforms that are based on local optimality. Using such reforms it is shown that market...

  15. Animal welfare and eggs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Laura Mørch

    This paper identifies revealed willingness to pay for animal welfare using a panel mixed logit model allowing for correlation between willingness to pay for different types of production. We utilize a unique household level panel, combining real purchases with survey data on perceived public...... and private good attributes of different types of eggs. We find that the estimated correlations are consistent with the levels of animal welfare, and that consumers perceiving a stronger connection between animal welfare and the organic label have higher willingness to pay for organic eggs, even when we...

  16. The Effect of Increasing Welfare Mothers' Education on Their Young Children's Academic Problems and School Readiness. JCPR Working Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnuson, Katherine A.; McGroder, Sharon M.

    This study investigated the effect of welfare mothers' educational attainment on their young children's academic outcomes and school readiness. Data came from the National Evaluation of Welfare to Work Strategies Child Outcomes Study. Welfare recipients with young children residing in three cities were randomly assigned to participate in either an…

  17. The continuing role of material factors in child maltreatment and placement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelton, Leroy H

    2015-03-01

    This article constitutes a 20-year update to a previous publication (Pelton, 1994), which showed that there is overwhelming evidence that poverty and low income are strongly related to child abuse and neglect. Subsequent evidence shows that the relationship continues to be strong. In addition, there is further evidence since the 1994 publication that this relation is not substantially due to class bias. Yet it is suggested that class bias does exist within the system. There is also further evidence that decreases in child maltreatment follow increases in material supports, and that job loss bears a complex relationship to child maltreatment. Findings pertaining to racial bias within the child welfare system continue to be mixed, but leave no doubt that racial disproportionalities within the system are overwhelmingly related to racial disproportionalities in the poverty population. There is continuing evidence that children placed in foster care are predominantly from impoverished families, and that changes in the level of material supports are related to risk of placement. It is suggested that the fact that there are nearly one million children in out-of-home placement (foster care and child-welfare involved adoption, combined) is indicative of the continuing dysfunction of the child welfare system, and that the differential response paradigm has not altered this dysfunction. A proposal for a fundamental restructuring of the child welfare system is recommended and restated here. Prospects for such change are briefly discussed. Also, to reduce poverty, a previously proposed universal social dividend and taxation system is briefly discussed and recommended. PMID:25169149

  18. 75 FR 71648 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards, Child Restraint Systems; Hybrid III 10-Year-Old Child...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ...-Year-Old Child Test Dummy AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), Department of... Hybrid III 10-year-old child test dummy that the agency seeks to use in the compliance test procedures of... response to Anton's Law, NHTSA proposed to adopt the 10-year-old child test dummy into FMVSS No. 213...

  19. Effect of grazing on the cow welfare of dairy herds evaluated by a multidimensional welfare index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burow, E; Rousing, T; Thomsen, P T; Otten, N D; Sørensen, J T

    2013-05-01

    Structural development in the prime sector has led to increasing herd sizes and new barn systems, followed by less summer grazing for dairy cows in Denmark. Effects of grazing on single welfare measures in dairy cows - for example, the presence of integument alterations or mortality - have been studied under different conditions. However, the effect of grazing on welfare, conceptualised as the multidimensional physical and mental state of the animal, has not yet been studied in contemporary cubicle loose-housing systems. The aim of our study was to investigate, based on a Welfare Quality® inspired multidimensional dairy cow welfare assessment protocol, the within-herd effect of summer grazing compared with winter barn housing in Danish dairy herds with cubicle free-stall systems for the lactating cows. Our hypothesis was that cow welfare in dairy herds was better during summer grazing than during full-time winter housing. Furthermore, we expected improved welfare with an increase in daily summer grazing hours. In total, 41 herds have been visited once in the winter and once in the summer of 2010 to assess their welfare status with 17 different animal- and resource-based welfare measures. A panel of 20 experts on cattle welfare and husbandry evaluated the relative weight of the 17 welfare measures in a multidimensional assessment scheme. They estimated exact weights for a priori constituted severe compared with moderate scores of welfare impairment concerning each measure, as well as relevance of the measures in relation to each other. A welfare index (WI; possible range 0 to 5400) was calculated for each herd and season with a higher index indicating poorer welfare. The within-herd comparison of summer grazing v. winter housing considered all the 17 measures. The mean WI in summer was significantly lower (better) than in winter (mean 2926 v. 3330; paired t-test P = 0.0001) based on a better state of the integument, claw conformation and better access to water and

  20. The Danish Welfare Commission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerding, Allan Næs

    2006-01-01

    ) competitiveness in the global economy, (4) behavioural regulation of the use of public bene-fits and services, and (5) management within tight budgets of an increasing demand on health and care. Finally, the concluding section sums up the discussion and elaborates on the debate on the Welfare Commission’s work......The paper deals with the main report of the Danish Welfare Commission and the one-hundred-and-nine proposals on the structure of the future Danish welfare state that the com-mission has put forward. Following upon a brief review of the discussion on the work of the Danish Welfare Commission...... on public services, and install economic incentives for the behaviour of private households. The paper then digs into the proposals of the commission that are broadly grouped into five policy target areas con-cerning (1) the ageing of the population, (2) the incentives for labour market participation, (3...

  1. Zoo Animal Welfare Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koene, P.

    2012-01-01

    Species with specific environmental adaptations may show specific behavioral adaptations, difficulty in adapting to a new environment, and hence suboptimal functioning and fitness. Discrepancy between natural behavioral adaptations and behavioral possibilities in captivity may cause welfare problems

  2. Drivers for Welfare Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    that are not necessarily perceived, performed, and changed in phases. A pragmatic and situated perspective on welfare innovation suggests a conception of welfare innovation which is not translated from firm innovation, but derived directly from welfare contexts.......Innovation has become a key goal towards which teaching and workplace learning needs to be directed. Now perceived as germane and even necessary in almost all kinds of welfare work, the innovation potential in everyday practices and ways of allowing for employer creativity have become a highly...... relevant objects of study. Innovation strategy and research traditionally regards innovation as a set of phases. The purpose of this paper is to enhance ‘phase’ models by adding to them a ‘driver’ model which may provide an appropriate strategy for studying and supporting the innovation potential...

  3. Welfare State Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obinger, Herbert; Starke, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes welfare state transformation in OECD countries since the 1970s against the background of the post-war settlement. Relying on quantitative macro-data and qualitative information from the literature, we show that welfare states have con-verged, especially regarding various...... by generous welfare states and disagree with the view that a supply-side orientation equals ‘lean government’ in terms of social expenditure. But convergence implies that the space to maneuver has shrunk for policy-makers. The consequences of the 2008 financial crisis for welfare states are difficult...... to predict; short-term counter-cyclical measures in reac-tion to the crisis highlight the importance of protective buffers in highly integrated economies. Still, some countries have experienced harsh austerity measures since then, and thus the 2008 financial crisis may mark the end of the convergence period...

  4. Nationalism, Gender and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte; Stoltz, Pauline

    is associated with ‘social democratic’ perceptions of welfare and gender equality. Brochmann and Hagelund (2010) have pointed towards a specific form of Scandinavian welfare nationalism which is challenged by globalization and increased migration. We add that gender equality is a key aspect of the Scandinavian...... and Norway have linked national belongings with support for the welfare state and gender equality politics. These observations in turn raise theoretical, normative and analytical questions about understandings and conceptualizations of the nationalism, welfare and gender.The article aims to explore what......Feminist scholars have pointed out that constructions of gender and gender equality are embedded in national narratives and politics of belonging (Yuval-Davis 2011; Siim & Mokre 2013). This paper aims to explore gendered approaches to nationalism and to discuss how nationalism in Scandinavia...

  5. Welfare Undominated Groves Mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Apt, Krzysztof R; Guo, Mingyu; Markakis, Evangelos

    2008-01-01

    A common objective in mechanism design is to choose the outcome (for example, allocation of resources) that maximizes the sum of the agents' valuations, without introducing incentives for agents to misreport their preferences. The class of Groves mechanisms achieves this; however, these mechanisms require the agents to make payments, thereby reducing the agents' total welfare. In this paper we introduce a measure for comparing two mechanisms with respect to the final welfare they generate. This measure induces a partial order on mechanisms and we study the question of finding minimal elements with respect to this partial order. In particular, we say a non-deficit Groves mechanism is welfare undominated if there exists no other non-deficit Groves mechanism that always has a smaller or equal sum of payments. We focus on two domains: (i) auctions with multiple identical units and unit-demand bidders, and (ii) mechanisms for public project problems. In the first domain we analytically characterize all welfare und...

  6. Welfare in farmed fish

    OpenAIRE

    Damsgård, Børge; Juell, Jon-Erik; Braastad, Bjarne Olai

    2006-01-01

    The interest of fish welfare is increasing, both in Norway and internationally, leading to an increasing need for scientific knowledge about basic and applied questions related to how farmed fish are produced. The strategic institute programme (SIP) ”Welfare in farmed fish” was financed by the Research Council of Norway, for the five years period from 1 January 2001 to 31 December 2005. The core partners in the SIP were the Norwegian Institute of Fisheries and Aquaculture Research (Fiskerifor...

  7. Trade, Environment & Animal Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Peter; Nielsen, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Regulation of animal welfare and the environment under the WTO GATT and GATS Agreements - including introduction of the innovative idea of limiting consumption abroad (mode 2) for e.g. bull fights.......Regulation of animal welfare and the environment under the WTO GATT and GATS Agreements - including introduction of the innovative idea of limiting consumption abroad (mode 2) for e.g. bull fights....

  8. Evaluation of a welfare indicator protocol for assessing animal welfare in AMS herds: researcher, production advisor and veterinary practitioner opinion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rousing, Tine; Jakobsen, Iben Alber; Hindhede, Jens;

    2007-01-01

    of the welfare indicator protocol as basis for on-farm welfare assessment have been carried out; one study focused on the opinion of 21 AMS researchers; the other on that of 14 AMS production advisors and 15 veterinary practitioners. The researchers were asked to score the individual welfare relevance of the 38...... important welfare indicators. In summary, researchers as well as production advisors and veterinarians supported the suggested measures for inclusion in a welfare assessment system. This has demonstrated that integration of different information is considered decisive for operational welfare assessment......A welfare indicator protocol integrating a total of 38 measures from 4 information sources: housing system, management, animal behaviour and clinical health has been developed for decision support in Automatic Milking System (AMS) herds. Two expert opinion studies focusing on the relevance...

  9. Child Abuse Images and Cleanfeeds: Assessing Internet Blocking Systems

    OpenAIRE

    McIntyre, T. J.

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important trends in internet governance in recent years has been the growth of internet blocking as a policy tool, to the point where it is increasingly becoming a global norm. This is most obvious in states such as China where blocking is used to suppress political speech; however, in the last decade blocking has also become more common in democracies, usually as part of attempts to limit the availability of child abuse images. Numerous governments have therefore settled on b...

  10. Southern european model welfare state and economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mpoutsiou S.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The current economic crisis has affected the exercise of social policy and has shrunk welfare states in southern Europe. The welfare state, a structure that is a pillar and constant goal of Greek ideology and culture seems to accept strong tremors that threaten the social cohesion of Greek society. This literature review presents the characteristics of the applied social policy and the different models of welfare states, focusing on South model welfare state. Additionally presented benefits of the welfare state such as pension and insurance system and the degree of their contribution to the economic crisis in Greece in recent years.

  11. Nationalism and social welfare in the post-Soviet context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    This paper offers hypotheses on the role that state social welfare measures can play in reflecting nationalism and in aggravating interethnic tensions. Social welfare is often overlooked in theoretical literature on nationalism, because of the widespread assumption that the welfare state promotes social cohesion. However, social welfare systems may face contradictions between the goal of promoting universal access to all citizens on the one hand, and social pressures to recognize particular groups in distinct ways on the other. Examples from the post-Soviet context (particularly Russia) are offered to illustrate the ways in which social welfare issues may be perceived as having ethnic connotations.

  12. Nationalism and social welfare in the post-Soviet context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    This paper offers hypotheses on the role that state social welfare measures can play in reflecting nationalism and in aggravating interethnic tensions. Social welfare is often overlooked in theoretical literature on nationalism, because of the widespread assumption that the welfare state promotes social cohesion. However, social welfare systems may face contradictions between the goal of promoting universal access to all citizens on the one hand, and social pressures to recognize particular groups in distinct ways on the other. Examples from the post-Soviet context (particularly Russia) are offered to illustrate the ways in which social welfare issues may be perceived as having ethnic connotations. PMID:21485454

  13. 欧洲主权债务危机对我国福利制度建设的启示%Enlightenment of Sovereign Debt Crisis in Europe on China's Welfare System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文涛

    2012-01-01

    Europe is the area of origin of modern welfare system, and it is also a typical areas of high welfare. However, the outbreak of the sovereign debt crisis in Europe makes people reconsider its welfare system. Based on reviewing the process of European sovereign debt crisis and its impact, this paper analyzes the source of the debt crisis in Europe and absorbs the lessons of European countries in the construction of welfare. Therefore, this paper puts forward enlightmenments China can obtain from European sovereign debt crisis, such as state welfare system can not be separated from the financial basis of the economy, regulating effect in the initial distribution of the national income should be adopted and it is necessary to guide civil power to participate in welfare system so as to creat the new forms of welfare.%欧洲是现代福利制度的起源地,也是典型的高福利地区,欧债危机的爆发让人们重新思考欧洲福利制度的利弊问题。回顾了欧洲主权债务危机的爆发过程及其影响,从分析欧债危机爆发的根源人手,借鉴欧洲国家在福利建设中的经验教训,提出了欧洲主权债务危机对我国福利制度建设的启示:国家福利不能脱离国民经济的财力基础;发挥国民收入初次分配的调节作用;引导民间力量参与福利体制;开创福利新形式。

  14. The role of collaborations in sustaining an evidence-based intervention to reduce child neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Amy E; Trott, Elise; Willging, Cathleen E; Finn, Natalie K; Ehrhart, Mark G; Aarons, Gregory A

    2016-03-01

    Child neglect is the most prevalent form of child maltreatment and represents 79.5% of open child-welfare cases. A recent study found the evidence-based intervention (EBI) SafeCare(®) (SC) to significantly reduce child neglect recidivism rates. To fully capitalize on the effectiveness of such EBIs, service systems must engage in successful implementation and sustainment; however, little is known regarding what factors influence EBI sustainment. Collaborations among stakeholders are suggested as a means for facilitating EBI implementation and sustainment. This study combines descriptive quantitative survey data with qualitative interview and focus group findings to examine the role of collaboration within the context of public-private partnerships in 11 child welfare systems implementing SC. Participants included administrators of government child welfare systems and community-based organizations, as well as supervisors, coaches, and home visitors of the SC program. Sites were classified as fully-, partially-, and non-sustaining based on implementation fidelity. One-way analysis of variance was used to examine differences in stakeholder reported Effective Collaboration scores across fully-sustaining, partially-sustaining, and non-sustaining sites. Qualitative transcripts were analyzed via open and focused coding to identify the commonality, diversity, and complexity of collaborations involved in implementing and sustaining SC. Fully-sustaining sites reported significantly greater levels of effective collaboration than non-sustaining sites. Key themes described by SC stakeholders included shared vision, building on existing relationships, academic support, problem solving and resource sharing, and maintaining collaborations over time. Both quantitative and qualitative results converge in highlighting the importance of effective collaboration in EBI sustainment in child welfare service systems.

  15. Design of child's safety management system based on ontology using context information of home network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hye-Kyoung Jeon; Jung-Hyun Lee; Kee-Wook Rim; Yang-Jae Park

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a system to alert of dangerous a child situation of a child by applying context information collected from a home network to ontology that is capable of inference. Radio frequency Identification (RFID) and sensors were used for the configuration of a home network, to obtain the raw data to convert into context information. To express the ontology, web ontology language (OWL) was used to provide the inference of context information. Then, simple object access protocol (SOAP) messages were used to notify of the dangerous situations that a child may be involved in via mobile devices. The proposed system consists of Context Manager, Service Manager, and Notification Manager. The child's safety management system can proactively detect the context data of a child on the basis of context awareness. In the experiment, the Jena 2.0 by ontology reasoner and the OSGi(Open Service Gateway initiative) Gateway developed using open source software Knopflerfish 1.3.3 were used to implement the service frame work.

  16. Development of pig welfare assessment protocol integrating animal-, environment-, and management-based measures

    OpenAIRE

    Renggaman, Anriansyah; Choi, Hong L.; Sudiarto, Sartika IA; Alasaarela, Laura; Nam, Ok S

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Due to increased interest in animal welfare, there is now a need for a comprehensive assessment protocol to be used in intensive pig farming systems. There are two current welfare assessment protocols for pigs: Welfare Quality® Assessment Protocols (applicable in the Europe Union), that mostly focuses on animal-based measures, and the Swine Welfare Assura...

  17. Gender and East Asian Welfare States: from Confucianism to Gender Equality

    OpenAIRE

    Pascall, Gillian; Sung, Sirin

    2007-01-01

    How can we understand the gender logic underpinning the welfare states/systems of East Asia? Does the comparative literature, which has largely been concerned with western Welfare states, whether in The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism (Esping-Andersen 1990), or in gender-based analysis of the male breadwinner model (Lewis 1992, 2001, 2006), have anything to offer in understanding the gender assumptions underpinning East Asian welfare states? Are the welfare systems of East Asian coun...

  18. Child cancer follow-up ontology and information system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Subaihi, J.A.; Anton, François; Mioc, Darka;

    2013-01-01

    brings the methodology for child cancer treatment plan that produces an ontology to create a conceptual model and a database model. To construct the ontology, the "methontology" method is used as a structured approach for the ontology process. The method guides the ontology developer from scratch...... to building a complete model. The ontology is developed in two phases. In the first phase, research from other countries and process models are reviewed and the generic model is built from this research. The generic model is adapted to the ontology for the Danish hospitals including the NOPHO-ALL 2008...... protocol. To develop the ontology, a data dictionary is first proposed. Then, the relationships between concepts are identified and verified: the oriented graph, where nodes are concepts and oriented edges are dependence relationships, where the definition of the concept at the origin of the edge depends...

  19. The welfare of dairy buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Winckler

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper addresses the issue of buffalo welfare. Firstly, the biological characteristics and behavioural needs of buffalo are considered. Subsequently, the effects of intensive farming and some animalrelated indicators, to be used for a monitoring scheme of buffalo welfare at farm level, are described. The attention was focused on the following indicators: excessive thinning or fattening assessed with Body Condition Score (BCS systems; cleanliness (the presence of mud may be considered positively, whereas a thick and compact layer of dung may be regarded negatively; health status (lameness, hoof overgrowth, injuries, etc.; social, aggressive, oral abnormal behaviours; animal-human relationship (avoidance distance at manger; positive indicators (qualitative assessment of behaviour, etc.; housing factors. The indicators are discussed on the basis of their validity (meaningful with respect to animal welfare, reliability (reflecting the tendency to give the same results on repeated measurements and feasibility (concerning time and money consumed. For some aspects, the differences between buffalo and dairy cattle are also highlighted.

  20. The Nordic Welfare Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Thrane, Claus

    have proven remarkably resilient and that social context matters. The results of the analysis shows that there is a schism between welfare models that facilitate employment and those that facilitate   entrepreneurship and that in order to overcome the obstacles female entrepreneurs 'babystrap'....... The aim of this paper is to elucidate the impact of welfare policies on women's entrepreneurship because the benefits of these policies do not reflect in the numbers of female entrepreneurs. These are consistently similar to those in other countries that do not have a similar welfare model. Hence...... this article seeks to investigate the reasons underlying this apparent anomaly so that future policies in Scandinavia nd Europe may be tailored to suit the needs of female entrepreneurs. We are addressing this through the analytical lens of a gender regime model which shows that hierarchical gender patterns...

  1. The Nordic Welfare Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Thrane, Claus

    2011-01-01

    The welfare states of Scandinavia have been regarded as pioneers of gender equality, but structural barriers to women’s participation in the labour market may inadvertently discriminate against women and create opportunity costs delimiting women’s career choices. Family policies are defined...... entrepreneurs. The implications for policy makers are that if they are serious about increasing the number of female entrepreneurs, and achieving equality in the labour market, then future Welfare Models should be tailored to the needs of this group of individuals. So far it has been taken for granted...... that the initiation of public childcare would facilitate increased entrepreneurship among women. Our study shows that this is not necessarily so, that women utilize ‘babystrapping’ strategies, and that there is a schism between welfare models that facilitate employment and those that facilitate entrepreneurship....

  2. Welfare, the Earned Income Tax Credit, and the Labor Supply of Single Mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce D. Meyer; Dan T. Rosenbaum

    1999-01-01

    During 1984-96, welfare and tax policy changed dramatically. The Earned Income Tax Credit was expanded, welfare benefits were cut, welfare time limits were added and cases were terminated, Medicaid for the working poor was expanded, training programs were redirected, and subsidized or free child care was expanded. Many of the program changes were intended to encourage low income women to work. During this same time period there were unprecedented increases in the employment and hours of singl...

  3. PSYCHOLOGICAL MODEL OF THE SYSTEM "SPECIAL CHILD – LIVING ENVIRONMENT" AS A BASIS FOR SUPPORT OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalashnikova Svetlana Anatolyevna

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This work is aimed to determine the content characteristic of interaction of a child with disabilities and his living environment, psychological analysis of the options for the child development in different types of this interaction. It is based on the principles of system analysis. Child development is presented as a process and the result of interaction between the system components "child with disabilities – living environment". Interaction is considered in terms of compliance, non-compliance of system components. The article identifies the types of system interactions "special child – living environment" (adaptive, developing, maladaptive, deforming and gives their content characteristics. Integrative potential is considered as a condition, the result and complete description of the system "special child – living environment". It includes the personal potential possibilities of a child with disabilities and the resources of living environment according to the child’s needs. The presented model is applicable to the analysis of family or education environment of disabled child to create and carry out the individual program of child development and creation of optimal conditions for the socialization and integration.

  4. PSYCHOLOGICAL MODEL OF THE SYSTEM "SPECIAL CHILD – LIVING ENVIRONMENT" AS A BASIS FOR SUPPORT OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Светлана Анатольевна Калашникова

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This work is aimed to determine the content characteristic of interaction of a child with disabilities and his living environment, psychological analysis of the options for the child development in different types of this interaction. It is based on the principles of system analysis. Child development is presented as a process and the result of interaction between the system components "child with disabilities – living environment". Interaction is considered in terms of compliance, non-compliance of system components.The article identifies the types of system interactions "special child – living environment" (adaptive, developing, maladaptive, deforming and gives their content characteristics. Integrative potential is considered as a condition, the result and complete description of the system "special child – living environment". It includes the personal potential possibilities of a child with disabilities and the resources of living environment according to the child’s needs.  The presented model is applicable to the analysis of family or  education environment  of disabled child to create and carry out the individual program of child development and creation of optimal conditions for the socialization and integration.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2013-3-13

  5. From Vikings to Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gert Tinggaard, Svendsen; Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase

    The Scandinavian welfare states hold the highest social trust scores in the world. Why? Based on the stationary bandit model by Olson (1993), we first demonstrate that early state building during Viking Age facilitated public good provision and extensive trade. Social trust were probably not dest......The Scandinavian welfare states hold the highest social trust scores in the world. Why? Based on the stationary bandit model by Olson (1993), we first demonstrate that early state building during Viking Age facilitated public good provision and extensive trade. Social trust were probably...

  6. Patterns of Single Mothers' Work and Welfare Use: What Matters for Children's Well-Being?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neblett, Nicole Gardner

    2007-01-01

    Few studies have captured the variation in single mothers' work and welfare experiences and the implications for children. Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and the Child Development Study, this study examines patterns of wages, work hours, and time spent on welfare in relation to children's well-being (N = 820). Six patterns…

  7. Effect of slaughtering age in different commercial chicken genotypes reared according to the organic system: 1. Welfare, carcass and meat traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Dal Bosco

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The carcass and meat quality of three different commercial chicken genotypes reared according to the organic system and slaughtered at two different ages (70 and 81 days were compared. The used genotypes were Naked Neck (CN1, Kabir (KR4 and Ross 308 (R. All animals were raised in the facilities of a big Italian company, in production units of 3000 birds. Before slaughtering, plumage conditions, foot pad dermatitis as well as qualitative traits of carcasses, such as skin damage and the presence of breast blisters, were registered (n=50. Naked Neck birds showed the best plumage conditions at both ages; the other genotypes had similar body conditions showing a dramatically worsening at the end of rearing cycle (81 days, mainly at breast level. The carcass conformation showed differences mainly for the CN1 genotype, which was more slender with higher proportions of head, neck and legs; thus, ready-to-cook-carcass yield was lower. The meat of CN1 chickens showed lower levels of lipids, pH and brightness values, but higher index of redness. Ross 308 genotype showed a bad welfare status even at 70 days, confirming that the rearing of this strain should not be permitted in organic systems. In conclusion, this study indicates that genotype deeply affects performance, welfare and qualitative characteristics of meat. Regarding the slaughtering age, although the inconsistency of European Commission rules which authorise the reduction of slaughtering age in less mature strains, at 70 days chickens show higher feed efficiency and thinness of carcass and meat.

  8. A Framework for Addressing the Global Obesity Epidemic Locally: The Child Health Ecological Surveillance System (CHESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald C. Plotnikoff, PhD

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity has reached epidemic levels in the developed world. Recent research and commentary suggest that an ecological approach is required to address childhood obesity, given the multidimensional nature of the problem. We propose a Canadian prototype, the Child Health Ecological Surveillance System, for a regional health authority to address the growing obesity epidemic. This prototype could potentially be used in other jurisdictions to address other child health issues. We present 8 guiding principles for the development and implementation of a regional framework for action.

  9. The Value Of Justice In Child Criminal Justice System A Review Of Indonesian Criminal Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Sofyan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The value of justice in Act No. 11 of 2012 concerns the Child Criminal Justice System Act No. SPPA confirms the Restorative Justice Approach as a method of disputes resolution. The method of research used was normative-legal research with philosophical approach. The results showed that the value of restorative justice through diversion contained in Act SPPA but the diversion limit for certain types of criminal acts and threats of punishment under seven 7 years and not a repetition criminal recidivists. This indicates that Act SPPA still contained a retributive justice not promote the interests of protection for child.

  10. Maintaining the Mother-Child Relationship within the Irish Prison System: The Practitioner Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Sinead; Devaney, Carmel

    2016-01-01

    There is a dearth of research on the experience of motherhood within the Irish prison system. This paper considers the specific issue of facilitating contact between incarcerated mothers and their children. It is based on a study which explores the views of practitioners working directly with mothers in prison on how the mother-child relationship…

  11. Child Abuse and Autonomic Nervous System Hyporesponsivity among Psychiatrically Impaired Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Julian D.; Fraleigh, Lisa A.; Albert, David B.; Connor, Daniel F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Sexually or physically abused children are at risk for neurobiological dysregulation as well as for internalizing and disruptive behavior disorders. Stress-related autonomic nervous system (ANS) down-regulation has been proposed as a sequela of abuse and was investigated in the present study. Methods: Child Protective Services…

  12. Virginia Star Quality Initiative: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Virginia's Star Quality Initiative prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators…

  13. Delaware Stars for Early Success. QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Delaware's Stars for Early Success prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators…

  14. Kentucky STARS for KIDS NOW: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Kentucky's STARS for KIDS NOW prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators for…

  15. Pennsylvania Keystone STARS: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Pennsylvania's Keystone STARS prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators for…

  16. 14 CFR 91.107 - Use of safety belts, shoulder harnesses, and child restraint systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of safety belts, shoulder harnesses, and child restraint systems. 91.107 Section 91.107 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... was approved by the FAA through Type Certificate or Supplemental Type Certificate. (iv) That the...

  17. Impact of Child Sexual Abuse Medical Examinations on the Dependency and Criminal Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Jong, Allan R.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews previous research on the sociolegal impact of medical evaluations for child sexual abuse; offers a recommended menu of research questions, concerning process and outcomes of these evaluations, interviewing techniques, the use of medical evidence in prosecution, and knowledge level of professionals in the criminal and dependency systems.…

  18. Child Maltreatment Fatalities in Children under 5: Findings from the National Violence Death Reporting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klevens, Joanne; Leeb, Rebecca T.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To describe the distribution of child maltreatment fatalities of children under 5 by age, sex, race/ethnicity, type of maltreatment, and relationship to alleged perpetrator using data from the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS). Study design: Two independent coders reviewed information from death certificates, medical…

  19. 76 FR 16472 - Consumer Information; Program for Child Restraint Systems; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ... determine reasonable conditions for participation in a new consumer information program, as part of the New... published in the Federal Register of February 25, 2011 (76 FR 10637), a request for comments notice describing the new consumer information program that will help caregivers find a child restraint system...

  20. MRI changes in the central nervous system in a child with lupus erythematosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gieron, M.A. [Dept. of Pediatrics, Univ. of South Florida, Coll. of Medicine, Tampa, FL (United States); Khoromi, S. [Dept. of Neurology, Univ. of South Florida, Coll. of Medicine, Tampa, FL (United States); Campos, A. [Dept. of Pediatrics, Univ. of South Florida, Coll. of Medicine, Tampa, FL (United States)

    1995-05-01

    We report on a 10-year-old girl with systemic lupus erythematosus who presented in status epilepticus as the only manifestation of central nervous system involvement. MRI of the brain showed diffuse gray and white matter lesions which almost completely resolved after treatment with methylprednisolone. MRI findings in this child are similar to those in adults with diffuse clinical manifestations. The study is essential in the initial evaluation of patients suspected of central nervous system lupus. (orig.)

  1. Mothers' Strategies for Protecting Children from Batterers: The Perspectives of Battered Women Involved in Child Protective Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haight, Wendy L.; Shim, Woochan S.; Linn, Linda M.; Swinford, Laura

    2007-01-01

    During in-depth, individual interviews, seventeen battered women involved in the public child welfare system discussed the effects of domestic violence on their children, and their strategies for protecting and supporting them. Most mothers articulated the detrimental effects of domestic violence on their children and coherent strategies to…

  2. A concept of welfare based on reward evaluating mechanisms in the brain : anticipatory behaviour as an indicator for the state of reward systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruijt, Berry M.; van den Bos, Ruud; Pijlman, Femke T.A.

    2001-01-01

    In this review we attempt to link the efficiency by which animals behave (economy of animal behaviour) to a neuronal substrate and subjective states to arrive at a definition of animal welfare which broadens the scope of its study. Welfare is defined as the balance between positive (reward, satisfac

  3. Farm animal welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandøe, Peter; Christiansen, Stine Billeschou; Appleby, M. C.

    2003-01-01

    An experimental survey was undertaken to explore the links between the characteristics of a moral issue, the degree of moral intensity/moral imperative associated with the issue (Jones, 1991), and people’s stated willingness to pay (wtp) for policy to address the issue. Two farm animal welfare...

  4. On Worlds of Welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Wildeboer Schut; J.C. Vrooman; P.T. de Beer

    2001-01-01

    This book analyses the insitutions and effects of eleven modern welfare states (USA, UK, Canada, Australia, Germany, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Sweden, Denmark and Norway). Using quantitative data the authors first show that the institutional variety among these countries can be reduced to th

  5. Welfare and Customs Unions

    OpenAIRE

    Carsten Kowalczyk

    1990-01-01

    This paper proposes that Viner's celebrated trade diversion and trade creation terminology for the customs union problem be abandoned. As the alternative is offered a welfare calculus based upon the terms-of-trade and volume-of-trade taxonomy from the theory of tariffs. The paper discusses, by application of this calculus, the two outstanding controversies in the theory of customs unions.

  6. Improved animal welfare, the right technology and increased business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Støier, S; Larsen, H D; Aaslyng, M D; Lykke, L

    2016-10-01

    Animal welfare is receiving increasing attention from the authorities, the public and NGOs. For this reason, the improvement of animal welfare and animal handling systems is of the utmost importance for the meat industry. Technological developments have led to more animal friendly systems that handle animals on the day of slaughter, and these developments will be even more important as consideration for animal welfare and sustainability is no longer just a trend but a licence to operate. Improvement of animal welfare also leads to a higher value of the carcasses due to higher product quality, less cut-off caused by fewer injuries, and reduced working load, which leads to increased business opportunities. Therefore, good animal welfare is good business, and the development and implementation of new technology is the way to obtain improved animal welfare. These subjects will be addressed using examples and cases from the pork and broiler production industry. PMID:27118597

  7. Ordinal Welfare Comparisons with Multiple Discrete Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Distante, Roberta; Hussain, M. Azhar;

    We develop an ordinal method for making welfare comparisons between populations with multidimensional discrete well-being indicators observed at the micro level. The approach assumes that, for each well-being indicator, the levels can be ranked from worse to better; however, no assumptions are ma...... another on the basis of available binary indicators by drawing upon linear programming theory. These approaches are applied to household survey data from Vietnam and Mozambique with a focus on child poverty comparisons over time and between regions....

  8. “80后”福利意识形态指标体系测度%The Measurement on the Index System of the Welfare Ideology of the Generation Born in the 1980s'

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛君

    2012-01-01

    “80后”新生代的社会福利意识在个人主义与集体主义方面区分并不明显,有学者把它归纳为混合式福利意识,即认同政府在福利供给中的主体角色,也认同个人的责任。反映出对普惠制福利制度与剩余式福利制度偏好的矛盾现象,“80后”新生代虽然认同个人责任,但在普惠制福利事务里,又希望国家应发挥更大的作用。保障公民权利。“80后”新生代福利意识形态既沿袭我国集体主义中对国家和政府的依赖,又具有西方个人主义中独立、自主的一面。%The distinguish in individualism and collectivism of the social welfare consciousness of the generation born in the 1980s' is not obvious. Some scholars put it into hybrid welfare consciousness, which agree with the subject role of the government in welfare provision and the individual responsibility, which reflects the paradox on the GSP benefits system and residual welfare system preference. The generation born in the 1980s' recognize the personal responsibility, but in the GSP welfare issues, they hope the country can play a greater role to safeguard the rights of citizens. The welfare ideology of the generation born in the 1980s' has followed Chinese collectivism, the dependence on the state and government and the Western individualism, the independence.

  9. Population-Based Prevention of Child Maltreatment: The U.S. Triple P System Population Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Prinz, Ronald J.; Sanders, Matthew R; Shapiro, Cheri J.; Whitaker, Daniel J.; Lutzker, John R

    2009-01-01

    The prevention of child maltreatment necessitates a public health approach. In the U.S. Triple P System Population Trial, 18 counties were randomly assigned to either dissemination of the Triple P—Positive Parenting Program system or to the services-as-usual control condition. Dissemination involved Triple P professional training for the existing workforce (over 600 service providers), as well as universal media and communication strategies. Large effect sizes were found for three independent...

  10. 中国社会福利体系适度性研究——国际比较与实证分析%A Study on Appropriate Social Welfare System of China: International Comparison and Empirical Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛捷

    2012-01-01

    Social welfare system is essential for a country's economic sustainable development and social stability. Although the government plays a leading role in social welfare system, there is an issue of appropriate public expenditures in social welfare plans. In other words, the development of economy and society will be hurt if social welfare is oversupplied or undersupplied by the government. This paper compares the social welfare system of China with that of OECD countries, and then empirically analyzes whether China~ s public expenditures in social welfare plans are appropriate or not, based on the data of seven OECD countries and China from the year 1980 to 2007. Main findings are as follows. 1) with regard to seven OECD countries experiences, China ' s total social welfare, public pensions and public health care are undersupplied. 2) China's income maintenance plans (or Subsistence Security System) are oversupplied. 3) no conclusive findings are found for unemployment welfare expenditures and further studies are needed.%社会福利体系是影响经济可持续发展和社会安定的重要因素。政府在社会福利体系中起主导作用,但存在福利支出的适度性问题,福利过度或不足均不利于经济社会发展。本文对中国与OECD的社会福利体系做了比较,并选取美国等OECD七国和中国1980—2007年的数据作为样本开展实证分析。研允发现:(1)结合发达国家的经验,现阶段我国的社会福利总支出、养老保险支出和健康福利支出偏低;(2)但收入维持支出(即最低生活保障支出)却超前于经济发展水平和政府财力;(3)失业福利支出是否适度,不同分析方法得出了不同结论,有待进一步分析。

  11. Migration and the Welfare State: Dynamic Political-Economy Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Razîn, Assaf; Sadka, Efraim; Suwankiri, Benjarong

    2010-01-01

    We develop a dynamic politico-economic theory of welfare state, featuring three groups of voters: skilled workers, unskilled workers, and old retirees. The welfare-state is modeled by a proportional tax on labor income to finance a demogrant in a balanced-budget manner to capture the essence of inter- and intra-generational redistribution of a typical welfare system. Migrants arrive when young and their birth rate exceeds the native-born birth rate. We characterize political-economic equilibr...

  12. To what extent have relaxed eligibility requirements and increased generosity of disability benefits acted as disincentives for employment? A systematic review of evidence from countries with well-developed welfare systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barr, Ben; Clayton, Stephen; Whitehead, Margaret;

    2010-01-01

    Reductions in the eligibility requirements and generosity of disability benefits have been introduced in several Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries in recent years, on the assumption that this will increase work incentives for people with chronic illness...... and disabilities. This paper systematically reviews the evidence for this assumption in the context of well-developed welfare systems....

  13. Farmers on Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Ann-Christina

    In 2007 the farm subsidies of the European Union's common agricultural policy took over 40 percent of the entire EU budget. How did a sesctor of diminishing social and economic importance manage to maintain such political prominence? The conventional answer focuses on the negotiations among...... the member states of the European Community from 1958 onward. That story holds that the political priority given to the CAP, as well as its long-term stability, resides in a basic devil's bargain between French agriculture and German industry. In Farmers on Welfare, a landmark new account of the making...... of cooperation. By tracing how the farm welfare objective was gradually implemented in other common policies, Knudsen offers an alternative account of European integration history. "This remarkable and rich book sheds much light on the origins and evolution of European agricultural policy. The combination...

  14. The welfare of fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwama, George K

    2007-05-01

    Our interactions with fish cover a wide range of activities including enjoying them as pets to consuming them as food. I propose that we confine the consideration of the welfare of fish to their physiology, and not join the discussion on whether fish can feel pain and suffering, as humans. A significant proportion of the papers on animal welfare center on whether non-human animals can feel pain, and suffer as humans. This is a question that never can be answered unequivocally. The premise of the present paper is that we have an ethical responsibility to respect the life and wellbeing of all organisms. Thus, we should concentrate on the behavioural, physiological, and cellular indicators of their well-being and attempt to minimize a state of stress in the animals that we have in our care or influence. PMID:17578254

  15. Stereotypes and Welfare Attitudes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Troels Fage

    2014-01-01

    recipients lacking both the financial incentives and the will to work. According to theories of the impact of media on welfare attitudes, this had the potential to undermine public support. A two-wave panel survey, however, showed only a small drop in public support for spending on social assistance......What is the impact of a predominantly negative debate about social assistance on public and individual support for the social benefit? Over the course of a year the public debate about social assistance flared up twice in Denmark. The debates drew on classic stereotypes of the social assistance...... with their values and self-interest. The article thus shows that people when faced with public debates on welfare policies will seek to confirm their personal biases and this limits the possibility for overall changes in public support....

  16. Technologcal Literacy in welfare professions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch-Jensen, Peter; Kondrup, Sissel

    This paper present some reflections on an on-going research project, entitled “Welfare technology, Innovation, Care and Learning”. The project has a dual ambition. Firstly to develop a theoretical framework that enable educators of future welfare professionals in Denmark to examine what it means...... to be ‘welfare technological literate’ – both generally as well as within specific welfare professions. Secondly to support the development of a helpful educational framework that enables students to develop welfare technological literacy. This paper discusses some difficulties and preliminary findings...

  17. Animal welfare in different human cultures, traditions and religious faiths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szűcs, E; Geers, R; Jezierski, T; Sossidou, E N; Broom, D M

    2012-11-01

    Animal welfare has become a growing concern affecting acceptability of agricultural systems in many countries around the world. An earlier Judeo-Christian interpretation of the Bible (1982) that dominion over animals meant that any degree of exploitation was acceptable has changed for most people to mean that each person has responsibility for animal welfare. This view was evident in some ancient Greek writings and has parallels in Islamic teaching. A minority view of Christians, which is a widespread view of Jains, Buddhists and many Hindus, is that animals should not be used by humans as food or for other purposes. The commonest philosophical positions now, concerning how animals should be treated, are a blend of deontological and utilitarian approaches. Most people think that extremes of poor welfare in animals are unacceptable and that those who keep animals should strive for good welfare. Hence animal welfare science, which allows the evaluation of welfare, has developed rapidly.

  18. Welfare-State Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Lindbeck, Assar

    1996-01-01

    The goal in the present paper is twofold, to shed some light on endogenous dynamic of the welfare states, and to provide a procedure to select among several equilibria. To this end, a dynamic model is presented, in which private agents are assumed to be "locked" to current decisions for a while. If "frictions" are large enough, the economy might exhibit more than one stable Paretorankable stationary state. Equilibrium paths would then be determined by history. The economy might become "stuck"...

  19. Has Child Restraint System Use Increased among Parents of Children in Shantou, China?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiqian Lei

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to examine parents’ use of child restraint systems (CRS, and determine if parents’ knowledge of, attitude toward, and use behavior of child restraint systems have improved following enactment of child restraint use laws in other cities. Design: Observations and a cross-sectional survey of drivers transporting children 17 years and under were conducted at the gate of the schools and parking lots of hospitals in Shantou. Observers recorded the seating location of child passengers, the type of restraint, and appropriate use of CRS and safety belts based on the observation. Knowledge of and attitudes towards use of CRS were reported by the driver following observation. Results: Approximately 6.6% of passengers aged 0–12 were in CRS; rate of forward-facing CRS in children aged 3–5 (9.9% was higher than rear-facing CRS for children aged 0–2 (1.1% and booster seat use among children aged 6–12 (0.1%. Children younger than four years old (OR = 3.395, 95% CI = 2.125–5.424, drivers having a college or higher lever education (OR = 2.908, 95% CI = 1.878–4.500 and drivers wearing seatbelt (OR = 3.194, 95% CI = 1.605–6.356 had greater odds of CRS use. Over half (56.6% of parents might or would use CRS if they could rent CRSs with fees. Conclusions: The rate of CRS is still low in Shantou. Comprehensive public education programs supported by legislation might be an effective way to improve child passenger safety. Renting CRSs to parents could be a new approach to encourage use.

  20. Validity of the Child Facial Coding System for the Assessment of Acute Pain in Children With Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadden, Kellie L; LeFort, Sandra; O'Brien, Michelle; Coyte, Peter C; Guerriere, Denise N

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the concurrent and discriminant validity of the Child Facial Coding System for children with cerebral palsy. Eighty-five children (mean = 8.35 years, SD = 4.72 years) were videotaped during a passive joint stretch with their physiotherapist and during 3 time segments: baseline, passive joint stretch, and recovery. Children's pain responses were rated from videotape using the Numerical Rating Scale and Child Facial Coding System. Results indicated that Child Facial Coding System scores during the passive joint stretch significantly correlated with Numerical Rating Scale scores (r = .72, P valid method of identifying pain in children with cerebral palsy.

  1. Child sex abuse and the Irish criminal justice system

    OpenAIRE

    Connon, Graham; Crooks, Allian; CARR, ALAN; Dooley, Barbara A.; et al.

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to develop scales to assess experiences of sexually abused children in the Irish criminal justice system (CJS); identify aspects of the CJS which children experience as negative; compare the perceptions of children, parents and professionals of sexually abused children's experiences of the CJS; and determine correlations between perceptions of children's CJS experiences and current psychological adjustment. Forty-three children, 101 parents, 32 mental health profes...

  2. The government responsibility of social security system in socialist welfare society%构建社会主义福利社会中的政府责任

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟洪亮

    2012-01-01

      This paper discusses the government responsibility of Socialist welfare society. The author advocates to take social security as the factors of productions. We need define accurately the relation of state and market, fairness and efficiency, in the system design. The moderate social security system causes no loss of efficiency, improves the quality of labor force and economic efficiency, promotes the development of productive forces. What’s more, the efforts made will increase social cohesion and national competitiveness.%  在构建社会主义福利社会的构建中,政府作为社会保障制度的主导者,无疑承担着重大责任。政府承担重大责任既是社会保障作为公共物品的内在要求,也是政府合法性的重要基础;但这并不等于政府包办社会保障和排斥市场、集体、个人的介入,而要从中国社会保障发展战略出发,明确社会保障的政府责任边界,完善公共财政制度化保障机制,强化社会保障功能社会政策化技术路线。

  3. Multiple Family Groups for Child Behavior Difficulties Retention Among Child Welfare–Involved Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopalan, Geetha; Fuss, Ashley; Wisdom, Jennifer P.

    2013-01-01

    Among children who remain at home with their permanent caregivers following a child welfare investigation, few who manifest emotional and behavioral difficulties actually engage in mental health treatment. The Multiple Family Group service delivery model to reduce childhood disruptive behavior disorders (MFG) has shown promise in engaging child welfare-involved families. This qualitative study examines caregiver perceptions of factors that influence retention in MFGs among child welfare-involved families. Methods Twenty-five predominantly Black and Hispanic adult (ages 26–57) female caregivers with child welfare services involvement participated in individual, in-depth interviews about their experience with MFGs. Transcribed interview data were thematically coded guided by grounded theory methodology. Emergent themes were subsequently organized into a conceptual framework. Results Within the overarching influence of child welfare services involvement, specific components of MFGs influencing retention included the quality of interaction among group members, group facilitators’ attentive approach with caregivers, supports designed to overcome logistical barriers (i.e., child care, transportation expenses, meals), and perceptions of MFG content and activities as fun and helpful. Caregiver factors, including their mental health and personal characteristics, as well as children’s behavior, (i.e., observed changes in behavioral difficulties) were also associated with retention. Conclusions High acceptability suggest utility for implementing MFGs within settings serving child welfare involved families, with additional modifications to tailor to setting and client features. PMID:26527856

  4. The welfare of farmed mink should be easy to assess in a correct way and lead to animal welfare improvements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Britt

    2015-01-01

    A three year PhD-study in assessment of mink welfare has contributed with methods and knowledge on how to get the welfare assessments as efficient and correct as possible and how to use the assessments in order to increase the welfare of the animals. The study found, that it might be possible...... to reduce the number of measurements needed in the welfare assessment system WelFur-Mink in the different production periods without compromising the validity of the assessment. There seems to be an effect of date of the assessment in the nursing period, which can be handled elegantly if the other two...

  5. Caregivers' experiences of the South African judicial system after the reporting of child sexual abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Paulsen, Nicole; Wilson, Lizane

    2013-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is found to occur in alarming proportions worldwide. In South Africa, children represent almost half of the victims of known sexual abuse, and this is becoming a great concern even being described as silent epidemic. This research study serves as a qualitative exploration of caregivers' experiences of the South African judicial system after CSA has been reported. For the purpose of this study, the researcher used a descriptive qualitative research design so as to thor...

  6. The Value Of Justice In Child Criminal Justice System A Review Of Indonesian Criminal Law

    OpenAIRE

    Andi Sofyan

    2015-01-01

    The value of justice in Act No. 11 of 2012 concerns the Child Criminal Justice System Act No. SPPA confirms the Restorative Justice Approach as a method of disputes resolution. The method of research used was normative-legal research with philosophical approach. The results showed that the value of restorative justice through diversion contained in Act SPPA but the diversion limit for certain types of criminal acts and threats of punishment under seven 7 years and not a repetition criminal re...

  7. [Nursing care of a school-age child with asthma: an ecological system theory approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Yu-Fen; Gau, Bih-Shya

    2012-02-01

    This research applied the Ecological System Theory of Dr. Bronfenbrenner (1979) to evaluate and analyze the impact of a school-age asthmatic child's ecological environment on the child's development. This project ran from March 16th to April 16th, 2010. A full range of data was collected during clinical care, outpatient follow-up services, telephone interviews, home visits, and school visits and then identified and analyzed. Results indicated that the family, household environment, campus, teachers, classmates, physical education program, and medical staffs comprised the most immediate microsystem and that parents, school nurses, teachers, and classmates formed the child's mesosystem. Researchers found a lack of understanding and appreciation in the mesosystem regarding asthmatic patient care needs. Hidden factors in the environment induced asthma, which eventually caused the child to be unable to obtain necessary medical care assistance. The exosystem reflected adequacy of the family social economy. The father's flexible working hours allowed him to allocate more time to childcare responsibilities. The government Asthma Medical Payment program also facilitated effective care. The macrosystem demonstrated parental cognition related to asthma treatment and caring to be deeply influenced by local customs. Thus, rather than using advanced medical treatments, parents preferred to follow traditional Chinese medicinal practices. Evaluation using the Ecological of Human Development Theory showed the subject's ecology environment relationships as based upon a foundation of family and school. Therefore, active family and school support for an asthma management plan appropriate to the subject's needs was critical. Asthma symptoms were better controlled after the child and his parents invested greater effort in mastering asthma management protocols. PMID:22314656

  8. [Nursing care of a school-age child with asthma: an ecological system theory approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Yu-Fen; Gau, Bih-Shya

    2012-02-01

    This research applied the Ecological System Theory of Dr. Bronfenbrenner (1979) to evaluate and analyze the impact of a school-age asthmatic child's ecological environment on the child's development. This project ran from March 16th to April 16th, 2010. A full range of data was collected during clinical care, outpatient follow-up services, telephone interviews, home visits, and school visits and then identified and analyzed. Results indicated that the family, household environment, campus, teachers, classmates, physical education program, and medical staffs comprised the most immediate microsystem and that parents, school nurses, teachers, and classmates formed the child's mesosystem. Researchers found a lack of understanding and appreciation in the mesosystem regarding asthmatic patient care needs. Hidden factors in the environment induced asthma, which eventually caused the child to be unable to obtain necessary medical care assistance. The exosystem reflected adequacy of the family social economy. The father's flexible working hours allowed him to allocate more time to childcare responsibilities. The government Asthma Medical Payment program also facilitated effective care. The macrosystem demonstrated parental cognition related to asthma treatment and caring to be deeply influenced by local customs. Thus, rather than using advanced medical treatments, parents preferred to follow traditional Chinese medicinal practices. Evaluation using the Ecological of Human Development Theory showed the subject's ecology environment relationships as based upon a foundation of family and school. Therefore, active family and school support for an asthma management plan appropriate to the subject's needs was critical. Asthma symptoms were better controlled after the child and his parents invested greater effort in mastering asthma management protocols.

  9. Reproductive activity and welfare of rabbit does

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Castellini

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the relationships between reproductive performance and welfare of the rabbit does. In the last 10 years the profitability of rabbit farms has increased mainly due to improvements in management and genetic selection but several problems mainly related to animal welfare have also occurred. The mortality and rates of female replacement per year are very high and the replaced females often show poor body condition and low performance. The effect of kindling order, litter size, genetic strain, weaning age and reproduction rhythm on the reproductive performance and welfare of females and some mechanisms implicated in these effects are discussed. Modern rabbit does produce a lot of milk which have a high energetic value which leads to a mobilization of body fat which results in an energy deficit. In the current reproductive rhythms, there is an extensive overlap between lactation and gestation. The resulting energetic and hormonal antagonism reduces the fertility rate and lifespan of the doe. Strategies to improve the fertility, lifespan and welfare of does are discussed. An approach which combines various strategies seems to be required to meet these objectives. Since the factors involved in this productive system are fixed (genetic strain, environment the most powerful way to improve doe welfare is to choose a reproductive rhythm that is adapted to the physiology of the does.

  10. Objective Measures of Family Welfare for Individual Targeting : Results from Pilot Project on Community Based Monitoring System in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Suryadarma; Akhmadi; Hastuti; Nina Toyamah

    2005-01-01

    This report documents the results of a pilot project on a new poverty monitoring system that improves the current system in three areas. First, it involves the locals in monitoring poverty in their own area. Second, the poverty indicators are sensitive to local conditions, accurate, and cannot be easily tampered. Third, the results are expeditious, with only five months needed between the start of data collection to final publication. Given Indonesia's geographical size and the decentralizati...

  11. Complex Trauma and Mental Health in Children and Adolescents Placed in Foster Care: Findings from the National Child Traumatic Stress Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeson, Johanna K. P.; Briggs, Ernestine C.; Kisiel, Cassandra L.; Layne, Christopher M.; Ake, George S., III; Ko, Susan J.; Gerrity, Ellen T.; Steinberg, Alan M.; Howard, Michael L.; Pynoos, Robert S.; Fairbank, John A.

    2011-01-01

    Many children in the child welfare system (CWS) have histories of recurrent interpersonal trauma perpetrated by caregivers early in life often referred to as "complex trauma". Children in the CWS also experience a diverse range of reactions across multiple areas of functioning that are associated with such exposure. Nevertheless, few CWSs…

  12. The Welfare of Cattle kept for Beef Production

    OpenAIRE

    Scientific Committee on Animal Health and Animal Welfare,

    2001-01-01

    Content: 1) Introduction 2) State of the Industry 3) Hosing Systems 4) Behaviour of Cattle 5)Effect of Housing on the Welfare of the Animals 6) the effects of Management on Cattle Welfare 7)Futere Research Needed 8) Conclusions 9) Recommodations 10) References 11) Acknowledgements

  13. Television Programming, Monopolistic Competition and Welfare. Technical Report No. 159.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Michael; Owen, Bruce

    An economic analysis of television programing was conducted focusing on the public welfare implications of alternative market structures and policies in the broadcasting industry. Welfare was measured by the sum of producer's and consumer's surplus. It was demonstrated that any of the private market systems considered contain biases against…

  14. Review of wallowing in pigs: implications for animal welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.; Spoolder, H.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Most modern production systems, especially in temperate climates, do not offer wallowing facilities to pigs and, to date, this has neither generated much concern in welfare science nor public debate on pig welfare. Nevertheless, wallowing is a natural behaviour of pigs which may be important to them

  15. Noma management in a child with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irna Sufiawati

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Noma, also known as cancrum oris, is an orofacial gangrene, which during its fulminating stage causes progressive and mutilating destruction of the infected tissues. The disease occurs mainly in children with malnutrition, poor oral hygiene and debilitating concurrent illness. Purpose: The aim of this paper was to report a unique case of noma associated with systemic lupus erythematosus in an 8-year-old boy. Case: An 8-year-old boy referred to Oral Medicine Department complaining about an ulcer at the left corner of his mouth for 1 month, painful and difficulty in opening the mouth. The patient was diagnosed systemic lupus erythematosus since 14 months before and had been given immunosuppressive therapy. The patient was also diagnosed severe malnutrition. Haematologic investigations revealed anemia. Case management: Panoramic radiography was performed to check for dental or periodontal foci of infection, but no abnormalities were present. The microbiology examination revelaed Fusobacterium necrophorum, Staphylococcus aureus, and Klabsiella. The patient has been treated with oral irrigation using hydrogen peroxide, saline and 0.2% chlorhexidine, thus helped to slough the necrotic tissue. Oral antibiotics and analgesics were prescribed. The patient was admitted to hospital under the care of a pediatrician, allergy and immunology specialist, and a nutritionist. The result of the comprehensive disease management showed that the lesion healed completely, but leaving a scar on his corner of the mouth. Its physical effects are permanent and may require reconstructive surgery to be repaired by oral surgeon. Conclusion: Noma is not a primary disease, there are various predisposing factors usually precede its occurrence. The management of noma requires a multidisciplinary approach.Latar Belakang: Noma, dikenal sebagai cancrum oris, adalah gangren pada daerah orofasial, yang menyebabkan kerusakan progresif dari jaringan yang terinfeksi

  16. Qualitative stakeholder analysis for the development of sustainable monitoringssystem for farm animal welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bracke, M.B.M.; Greef, de K.H.; Hopster, H.

    2005-01-01

    Continued concern for animal welfare may be alleviated when welfare would be monitored on farms. Monitoring can be characterized as an information system where various stakeholders periodically exchange relevant information. Stakeholders include producers, consumers, retailers, the government, scien

  17. School absence and treatment in school children with respiratory symptoms in the Netherlands: Data from the Child Health Monitoring System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spee-van Der Wekke, J.; Meulmeester, J.F.; Radder, J.J.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.

    1998-01-01

    Study objective - To assess the prevalence of respiratory problems, and the relation of these problems with school attendance, medicine use, and medical treatment. Design - The Child Health Monitoring System. Setting - Nineteen public health services across the Netherlands. Participants - 5186 schoo

  18. Welfare assessment based on metabolic and endocrine aspects in primiparous cows milked in a parlor or with an automatic milking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeni, F; Calamari, L; Calza, F; Speroni, M; Bertoni, G; Pirlo, G

    2005-10-01

    An automatic milking system (AMS) was compared with a traditional milking parlor (MP) to evaluate metabolic and psycho-physiological aspects of animal welfare. Twenty Italian Friesian heifers were allocated to 2 groups of 10 cows each after calving and maintained in the same free-stall barn. The first group was milked twice daily in a MP; the second group was milked in a single box AMS. Feed and diet characteristics were analyzed. Health status and body condition score (BCS) were evaluated in each cow. Blood samples were obtained from -14 to 154 d in milk (DIM) to determine metabolic profile and basal concentrations of cortisol in plasma. Data collected from 10 cows per group were processed. No significant difference was detected in milk yield, BCS, and energy-related metabolites (glucose, nonesterified fatty acids, beta-hydroxybutyrate, and triglycerides) from cows in MP or in AMS during the first 22 wk of lactation. These results, jointly with the absence of significant differences in plasma metabolites related to protein metabolism, mineral metabolism, and liver function during the first 22 wk of lactation, indicates that cows in AMS did not suffer metabolically. Greater basal concentrations of plasma cortisol in AMS cows, even if absolute values were considered to be in an acceptable range, might indicate chronic stress in these primiparous cows. Further research is necessary to confirm this hypothesis.

  19. A measure of welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, P

    1979-10-01

    The Overseas Development Council has been seeking to perfect a new kind of measure for assessment of development strategies, for it has long been recognized that the Gross National Product is an inadequate measurement tool. The Physical Quality of Life Index, developed by the ODC over the past 3 years, scores nations on a scale of 0-100. It is calculated by averaging the countries' scores in 3 important fields of welfare -- adult literacy, infant mortality, and life expectancy at age 1. Although the PQLI data are averages also they do seem to be sensitive to the distribution of benefits. Results have been calculated for every country in the world, and they refute the arguments of conservative economists and political leaders who claim that basic human needs can only be met through rapid economic growth. Poor countries can achieve high levels of welfare for their population without waiting for growth in material wealth, and relatively high levels of national income can fail to guarantee that the mass of the population will have their basic needs met. In that their advance tends to slow down as countries approach the upper levels of the PQLI, the Overseas Development Council introduced a new concept -- the disparity reduction ratio -- for measuring changes in welfare. This is the annual rate at which each nation is closing the gap between its current score and the best expected score anywhere for the year 2000. The disparity reduction rate may permit exact targets to be established for progress in meeting basic needs. A worthwhile objective over the next 20 years might be for each country to halve the gap separating them from the best attainable. PMID:12261487

  20. Peace, welfare, culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gad, Ulrik Pram

    2011-01-01

    and multiculturalism – pitted in opposition. By analytically focusing on “security narratives”, the article details how initial narratives of Muslims as threats to culture, welfare and societal peace merged and morphed to award surprising new roles to the state and multiculturalism. The re-evaluation of cultural......This article analyzes how Muslims are implied to constitute threats in the official Danish discourse of the centre-right government since 2001. It does so to provide a more nuanced picture of Danish debates on integration than the usual presentation of two discourses – culturalism...